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Sample records for kapok fiber manufactured

  1. Development Manufacturing Method of Highly Functional Kapok Fiber Absorbent Using Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Byung Yeoup; Kim, Jae Sung; Nho, Young Chang; Kang, Phil Hyun; Baek, Myung Hwa

    2006-01-15

    The hydrophobic characteristic of kapok fibers was changed to hydrophilic property after NaClO2, treatments which is able to break all phenolic units especially lignin. After NaClO2 treatment, NaIO4, applied to kapok fibers for opening hexagonal polysaccharide structure, this step led to produce carbonyl groups(>C=O) on kapok fibers. In the final step, NaClO2, treatments were performed again to provide carboxyl groups(-COOH) on kapok fibers. In addition, kapok fibers after all chemical treatments were retained hollow structure which was observed by scanning electron microscopy(SEM). Kapok fibers which were obtained after chemical treatments would be a good heavy metal absorbent when these fibers applied less than in 10 mg/L standard solution. Moreover, these fibers were not detached heavy metals even added physical forces and used kapok fibers are able to reuse after detached heavy metals under pH 2-3. The degree of grafting increased as the irradiation dose increased, and are in the range 32% to 250% when the concentration of glycidyl methacrylate monomer was 50 vol. %. Based on this result, various functional groups are possible to be attached on kapok fibers used by radiation grafting technique.

  2. INVESTIGATION ON SOUND ABSORPTION PROPERTIES OF KAPOK FIBERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-fan Xiang; Dong Wang; Hui-chao Liu; Ning Zhao; Jian Xu

    2013-01-01

    Sound absorption properties of natural kapok fibers have been investigated.Kapok fibrous assemblies with different bulk density,thickness,fiber length and orientation were manufactured,and their acoustical performances were evaluated by using an impedance tube instrument.Results show that the kapok fiber has excellent acoustical damping performance due to its natural hollow structure,and the sound absorption coefficients of kapok fibrous assemblies are significantly affected by the bulk density,thickness and arrangement of kapok fibers but less dependent on the fiber length.Compared with assemblies of commercial glass wool and degreasing cotton fibers,the kapok fiber assemblies with the same thickness but much smaller bulk density may have the similar sound absorption coefficients.Theoretical modelling of the acoustical damping performance of kapok fibers shows a good agreement with the experimental data.All the results demonstrate that kapok fiber is a promising light and environment-friendly sound absorption material.

  3. KAPOK I: CHARACTERISTCS OF KAPOK FIBER AS A POTENTIAL PULP SOURCE FOR PAPERMAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somporn Chaiarrekij,

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The potential use of kapok fiber for pulping and papermaking has been investigated. The kapok fibers were cooked using the optimal dosage of sodium hydroxide determined from the experiments. Then, the pulp was refined with two passes using a disc refiner and mixed with commercial hardwood pulp and/or softwood pulp at different blend ratios to make papers. It was found that addition of the kapok pulp to the mixed pulps improved the tensile and burst strengths of the sheets but decreased the tear resistance and elongation. Water repellency of the sheets prepared from the kapok pulp mixed with the commercial pulps was also improved. These results indicate that kapok fiber can be a quality pulp source for papermaking, especially for packaging paper requiring strength and water repellency.

  4. Research and application of kapok fiber as an absorbing material: A mini review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yian Zheng; Jintao Wang; Yongfeng Zhu; Aiqin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Kapok fiber corresponds to the seed hairs of the kapok tree (Ceiba pentandra),and is a typical cellulosic fiber with the features of thin cell wall,large lumen,low density and hydrophobicoleophilic properties.As a type of renewable natural plant fiber,kapok fiber is abundant,biocompatible and biodegradable,and its full exploration and potential application have received increasing attention in both academic and industrial fields.Based on the structure and properties of kapok fiber,this review provides a summary of recent research on kapok fiber including chemical and physical treatments,kapok fiber-based composite materials,and the application of kapok fiber as an absorbent material for oils,metal ions,dyes,and sound,with special attention to its use as an oil-absorbing material,one predominant application of kapok fiber in the coming future.

  5. Adsorption and adhesiveness of kapok fiber to different oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ting; Xu, Guangbiao; Wang, Fumei

    2015-10-15

    Adsorption and adhesiveness of single kapok to various oils, such as diesel, vegetable oil, used motor oil and motor oil were quantitatively evaluated by size and adhesive energy distribution of adsorbed oil droplets on fiber via drop-on-fiber micro-sorption experiments based on Carroll's theory of droplet morphology. Meanwhile, another micro polyester fiber was investigated as comparison. It was found that kapok fibers exihibited low surface energy of 40.64 mN/m with highly hydrophobicity and oil wettability. It had high water contact angle up to 151°, adsorbing four oils with average droplet size varying from emulsified state(0.1-25 μm) to dispersed state (25-100 μm). The average adhesive energies of kapok to four oils were 3.78×10(-11)-9.40×10(-11) J, with the highest for vegetable oil. Compared with kapok, polyester fiber adsorbed a large number of smaller oil droplets with their average size within emulsified state for its large specific surface area contributed by micro-fine of the fiber, but showed bad adhesiveness to retain the adsorbed oils with average droplet adhesive energy among 1.49×10(-11)-2.27×10(-11)J due to its relative higher surface energy of 59.15 mN/m. It is more suitable to be used as filter for secondary fine filtration under low inflow rate.

  6. Adsorption and adhesiveness of kapok fiber to different oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ting; Xu, Guangbiao; Wang, Fumei

    2015-10-15

    Adsorption and adhesiveness of single kapok to various oils, such as diesel, vegetable oil, used motor oil and motor oil were quantitatively evaluated by size and adhesive energy distribution of adsorbed oil droplets on fiber via drop-on-fiber micro-sorption experiments based on Carroll's theory of droplet morphology. Meanwhile, another micro polyester fiber was investigated as comparison. It was found that kapok fibers exihibited low surface energy of 40.64 mN/m with highly hydrophobicity and oil wettability. It had high water contact angle up to 151°, adsorbing four oils with average droplet size varying from emulsified state(0.1-25 μm) to dispersed state (25-100 μm). The average adhesive energies of kapok to four oils were 3.78×10(-11)-9.40×10(-11) J, with the highest for vegetable oil. Compared with kapok, polyester fiber adsorbed a large number of smaller oil droplets with their average size within emulsified state for its large specific surface area contributed by micro-fine of the fiber, but showed bad adhesiveness to retain the adsorbed oils with average droplet adhesive energy among 1.49×10(-11)-2.27×10(-11)J due to its relative higher surface energy of 59.15 mN/m. It is more suitable to be used as filter for secondary fine filtration under low inflow rate. PMID:25913676

  7. Effect of jute and kapok fibers on properties of thermoplastic cassava starch composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► TPCS matrix was reinforced by the low (jute) and high (kapok) absorbency cellulosic fibers. ► Water absorption of the TPCS/jute and TPCS/kapok fiber composites decreases. ► Stress and Young’s modulus of the TPCS/jute and TPCS/kapok fiber composites increase. ► Thermal degradation temperature of the TPCS/kapok fiber composite decreases. - Abstract: Since mechanical properties and water uptake of biodegradable thermoplastic cassava starch (TPCS) was still the main disadvantages for many applications. The TPCS matrix was, therefore, reinforced by two types of cellulosic fibers, i.e. jute or kapok fibers; classified as the low and high oil absorbency characteristics, respectively. The TPCS, plasticized by glycerol, was compounded by internal mixer and shaped by compression molding machine. It was found that water absorption of the TPCS/jute fiber and TPCS/kapok fiber composites was clearly reduced by the addition of the cellulosic fibers. Moreover, stress at maximum load and Young’s modulus of the composites increased significantly by the incorporation of both jute and kapok fibers. Thermal degradation temperature, determined from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), of the TPCS matrix increased by the addition of jute fibers; however, thermal degradation temperature decreased by the addition of kapok fibers. Functional group analysis and morphology of the TPCS/jute fiber and TPCS/kapok fiber composites were also examined using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques

  8. Crosslinking of Kapok Cellulose Fiber via Azide Alkyne Click Chemistry as a New Material for Filtering System: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Syazwani Abd Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new class of green material has been elaborated by grafting the modified kapok fiber, by the means of azidated kapok fiber followed by “click-chemistry” reaction with the terminal alkyne crosslinker. The modified and synthesized product was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The study also was undertaken to investigate the effect on the absorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution onto the click fiber prepared. The findings showed that the click kapok absorbed more compared to the untreated kapok. Based on the result, the reaction of click chemistry influenced the properties of the filter made from kapok fiber.

  9. 木棉纤维的性能及其在纺织上的应用%Performance of Kapok Fiber and Its Application in Textile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓婷

    2016-01-01

    The morphological structure , chemical composition and basic physical and chemical properties of kapok fiber were introduced and its latest application in the textile field was described .With excellent antibacte-rial and warmth retention properties , kapok fiber had become the best warming and filling materials for clothing and household textiles which had a promising application prospect .%介绍了木棉纤维的形态结构、化学组成以及基本的物理和化学性能,并阐述了其在纺织领域中的最新应用现状. 木棉纤维具有优良的抗菌性和保暖性,已成为服装好家用纺织品中首选的保暖填充材料,有较好的应用前景.

  10. 生物酶对木棉纤维性质及染色性能的影响%Effects of Enzymes on the Nature and Dyeing Performance of Kapok Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑小静; 梅帆; 易长海

    2015-01-01

    生物酶——纤维素酶和漆酶对木棉纤维进行预处理,研究生物酶的温度和时间对木棉纤维的微观结构、结晶度、热重等性质及染色性能的影响。结果表明:生物酶处理后,纤维的微观结构变化较小,结晶度基本没有变化,热降解温度降低了10℃左右。漆酶处理后木棉的吸湿率由10.08%增加到12.50%左右,较小浓度的纤维素酶处理木棉纤维后,木棉的吸湿率也增加到13%左右,浓度较大后,木棉纤维的吸湿率为11%。未处理的木棉靛蓝染色,K/S值在4.5左右;酶处理后木棉纤维的K/S值均在6以上,因此生物酶处理后木棉纤维的上染率均增大。漆酶处理后木棉纤维上染率明显增加,说明木质素阻碍染液进入纤维。%Using enzymes-cellulase and laccase treating kapok fiber pretreatment, studied the effect of temperature and time of the enzymes on microstructure, crystallinity, thermal and other properties and dyeing properties of kapok fiber. The results were as follows: after treated, the microstructure of the kapok fibers changed very little, and the crystallinity did not change substantially, the thermal degradation temperature reducing about 10 degrees. After the laccase treated, the absorbent rate rised from 10.08% to 12.50%; after small concentration of cellulase treated, the absorption rate also increased to about 13%, but when greater concentration, absorption rate was just 11%. The untreated kapok fiber’s K/S values was about 4.5; the kapok fiber’s K/S values after the enzyme treated was six or more, so the enzyme treated kapok fiber’s dyeing rate increased. The dye-uptake of kapok fiber increasing significantly after enzyme treatment indicated that lignin hindered the dye liquor into the fiber.

  11. Characterization of Local Insulators: Sawdust and Wool of Kapok

    OpenAIRE

    M.L. Voumbo

    2010-01-01

    The insulation has an important role in the thermal and acoustic applications in particular in theproduction of cold. Also within the framework of this study, we studied the sawdust and wool of kapok in orderto determine insulator best adapted to the manufacture of the cold rooms or the isothermal vats. The syntheticinsulators (polyurethane, polystyrene, glass wool or rock) are very effective, but their use especially burdensthe price with the systems carried out until now in the countries of...

  12. Preparation of Polyacrylonitrile-Kapok Hollow Microtubes Decorated with Cu Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agcaoili Apollo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel copper (Cu nanoparticle carrier was fabricated using kapok natural microtubes as a substrate. Cu nanoparticles were grown on a thin polymer film on the surface of the kapok fibers. The polymer film was deposited on the surface of the microtube using a surfactant-assisted polymerization of acrylonitrile monomers. Cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB was used surfactant. The contact angle decreased from 120.5 to 0 after polyacrylonitrile coating (PAN, which suggests improved hydrophilicity of the kapok fibers. Addition of 1.5 mL acrylonitrile and 0.020 – 0.035 g CTAB yielded evenly coated kapok fibers. Cu nanoparticles, with diameters of 82-186 nm, were formed on the surface of the composite by reducing 0.16 M copper sulphate (CuSO4 with hydrazine (N2H4 at 70°C. EDX reveals that more Cu nanoparticles formed on the surface of PAN-kapok composites with 0.035g CTAB due to thicker PAN coating.

  13. Novel manufacturing method of optical fiber coupler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Based on the coupling mode theory that the coupling ratio of fiber coupler changes periodically with canter distance of two optical fibers, a novel manufacturing method of optical fiber couplers was developed with fused biconical taper experimental system. Its fabrication process is that the fiber is fused but not stretched when light begins to split, and the reduction of diameter of fiber is dependent on the rheological characteristic of the fused fiberglass. The performance of the coupler was tested. The results show that the performance of the novel optical fiber coupler meets the performance expectations, and its diameter of coupling region (about 30 μm) is twice as long as that of classical fused biconical taper coupler (about 16 μm), so the default, that is, the device is easy to fracture, is restrained and the reliability is greatly improved.

  14. Femtosecond fiber laser additive manufacturing of tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shuang; Liu, Jian; Yang, Pei; Zhai, Meiyu; Huang, Huan; Yang, Lih-Mei

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is promising to produce complex shaped components, including metals and alloys, to meet requirements from different industries such as aerospace, defense and biomedicines. Current laser AM uses CW lasers and very few publications have been reported for using pulsed lasers (esp. ultrafast lasers). In this paper, additive manufacturing of Tungsten materials is investigated by using femtosecond (fs) fiber lasers. Various processing conditions are studied, which leads to desired characteristics in terms of morphology, porosity, hardness, microstructural and mechanical properties of the processed components. Fully dense Tungsten part with refined grain and increased hardness was obtained and compared with parts made with different pulse widths and CW laser. The results are evidenced that the fs laser based AM provides more dimensions to modify mechanical properties with controlled heating, rapid melting and cooling rates compared with a CW or long pulsed laser. This can greatly benefit to the make of complicated structures and materials that could not be achieved before.

  15. High Power Fiber Lasers and Applications to Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Martin; McComb, Timothy; Sudesh, Vikas

    2008-09-01

    We summarize recent developments in high power fiber laser technologies and discuss future trends, particularly in their current and future use in manufacturing technologies. We will also describe our current research programs in fiber laser development, ultra-fast and new lasers, and will mention the expectations in these areas for the new Townes Laser Institute. It will focus on new core laser technologies and their applications in medical technologies, advanced manufacturing technologies and defense applications. We will describe a program on large mode area fiber development that includes results with the new gain-guiding approach, as well as high power infra-red fiber lasers. We will review the opportunities for high power fiber lasers in various manufacturing technologies and illustrate this with applications we are pursuing in the areas of femtosecond laser applications, advanced lithographies, and mid-IR technologies.

  16. Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center. 2015 Research Highlights -- Carbon Fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Sujit [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-03-01

    CEMAC has conducted four major studies on the manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Three of these focused on the end product: solar photovoltaic modules, wind turbines, and automotive lithium-ion batteries. The fourth area focused on a key material for manufacturing clean energy technologies, carbon fiber.

  17. New Manufacturing Method for Paper filler and Fiber Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doelle, Klaus

    2011-11-22

    The study compares commercial available filler products with a new developed “Hybrid Fiber Filler Composite Material” and how main structural, optical and strength properties are affected by increasing the filler content of at least 5% over commercial values. The study consists of: (i) an overview of paper filler materials used in the paper production process, (ii) discusses the manufacturing technology of lime based filler materials for paper applications, (iii) gives an overview of new emerging paper filler technologies, (iv) discusses a filler evaluation of commercial available digital printing paper products, (v) reports from a detailed handsheet study and 12” pilot plant paper machine trial runs with the new Hybrid Fiber Filler Composite Material, and (vi) evaluates and compares commercial filler products and the new Hybrid Fiber Filler Composite Material with a life cycle analyses that explains manufacturing, economic and environmental benefits as they are applied to uncoated digital printing papers.

  18. Fiber-reinforced composites materials, manufacturing, and design

    CERN Document Server

    Mallick, P K

    2007-01-01

    The newly expanded and revised edition of Fiber-Reinforced Composites: Materials, Manufacturing, and Design presents the most up-to-date resource available on state-of-the-art composite materials. This book is unique in that it not only offers a current analysis of mechanics and properties, but also examines the latest advances in test methods, applications, manufacturing processes, and design aspects involving composites. This third edition presents thorough coverage of newly developed materials including nanocomposites. It also adds more emphasis on underlying theories, practical methods, and problem-solving skills employed in real-world applications of composite materials. Each chapter contains new examples drawn from diverse applications and additional problems to reinforce the practical relevance of key concepts. New in The Third Edition: Contains new sections on material substitution, cost analysis, nano- and natural fibers, fiber architecture, and carbon-carbon composites Provides a new chapter on poly...

  19. PEMBUATAN PUPUK KALIUM-FOSFAT DARI ABU KULIT KAPOK DAN TEPUNG FOSFAT SECARA GRANULASI

    OpenAIRE

    Aprilina Purbasari; Faleh Setia Budi

    2012-01-01

    Kapok-husk ash containing + 28% potassium can be used as raw material of potassium-phosphatefertilizer. In this research, kapok-husk ash is mixed with phosphate powder by granulation process toproduce potassium-phosphate fertilizer. Operation variables are granulation time (4, 7, 10 minutes),kapok-husk content (3, 5, 7, 9 %-w/w), and adhesive liquid type (phosphoric acid solution andaquadest). The result shows that the increasing granulation time is proportional to fertilizer yield;the increa...

  20. Optimization of a thermal manufacturing process: drawing of optical fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Cheng; Jaluria, Y. [State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

    2005-08-01

    The optimization of thermal systems and processes has received much less attention than their simulation and often lags behind optimization in other engineering areas. This paper considers the optimization of the important thermal manufacturing process involved in the drawing of optical fibers. Despite the importance of optical fibers and the need to enhance product quality and reduce costs, very little work has been done on the optimization of the process. The main aspects that arise in the optimization of such thermal processes are considered in detail in order to formulate an appropriate objective function and to determine the existence of optimal conditions. Using validated numerical models to simulate the thermal transport processes that govern the characteristics of the fiber and the production rate, the study investigates the relevant parametric space and obtains the domain in which the process is physically feasible. This is followed by an attempt to narrow the feasible region and focus on the domain that could lead to optimization. Employing standard optimization techniques, optimal conditions are determined for typical operating parameters. The study thus provides a basis for choosing optimal design conditions and for more detailed investigations on the feasibility and optimization of this complicated and important process. (author)

  1. PEMBUATAN PUPUK KALIUM-FOSFAT DARI ABU KULIT KAPOK DAN TEPUNG FOSFAT SECARA GRANULASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprilina Purbasari

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Kapok-husk ash containing + 28% potassium can be used as raw material of potassium-phosphatefertilizer. In this research, kapok-husk ash is mixed with phosphate powder by granulation process toproduce potassium-phosphate fertilizer. Operation variables are granulation time (4, 7, 10 minutes,kapok-husk content (3, 5, 7, 9 %-w/w, and adhesive liquid type (phosphoric acid solution andaquadest. The result shows that the increasing granulation time is proportional to fertilizer yield;the increasing kapok-husk ash content is proportional to potassium content, but inverselyproportional to phosphate content in fertilizer; and phosphoric acid solution is better than aquadestas adhesive liquid referred to fertilizer yield.

  2. Carbon Nanotube Chopped Fiber for Enhanced Properties in Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menchhofer, Paul A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Johnson, Joseph E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Lindahl, John M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division

    2016-06-06

    Nanocomp Technologies, Inc. is working with Oak Ridge National Laboratory to develop carbon nanotube (CNT) composite materials and evaluate their use in additive manufacturing (3D printing). The first phase demonstrated feasibility and improvements for carbon nanotube (CNT)- acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) composite filaments use in additive manufacturing, with potential future work centering on further improvements. By focusing the initial phase on standard processing methods (developed mainly for the incorporation of carbon fibers in ABS) and characterization techniques, a basis of knowledge for the incorporation of CNTs in ABS was learned. The ability to understand the various processing variables is critical to the successful development of these composites. From the degradation effects on ABS (caused by excessive temperatures), to the length of time the ABS is in the melt state, to the order of addition of constituents, and also to the many possible mixing approaches, a workable flow sequence that addresses each processing step is critical to the final material properties. Although this initial phase could not deal with each of these variables in-depth, a future study is recommended that will build on the lessons learned for this effort.

  3. CARBON NANOTUBE CHOPPED FIBER FOR ENHANCIED PROPERTIES IN ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menchhofer, Paul A [ORNL; Lindahl, John M [ORNL; JohnsonPh.D., DR Joseph E. [Nanocomp Technologies, Inc.

    2016-08-01

    Nanocomp Technologies, Inc. is working with Oak Ridge National Laboratory to develop carbon nanotube (CNT) composite materials and evaluate their use in additive manufacturing (3D printing). The first phase demonstrated feasibility and improvements for carbon nanotube (CNT)-acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) composite filaments use in additive manufacturing, with potential future work centering on further improvements. By focusing the initial phase on standard processing methods (developed mainly for the incorporation of carbon fibers in ABS) and characterization techniques, a basis of knowledge for the incorporation of CNTs in ABS was learned. The ability to understand the various processing variables is critical to the successful development of these composites. From the degradation effects on ABS (caused by excessive temperatures), to the length of time the ABS is in the melt state, to the order of addition of constituents, and also to the many possible mixing approaches, a workable flow sequence that addresses each processing step is critical to the final material properties. Although this initial phase could not deal with each of these variables in-depth, a future study is recommended that will build on the lessons learned for this effort.

  4. 16 CFR 303.33 - Country where textile fiber products are processed or manufactured.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Country where textile fiber products are... UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.33 Country where textile fiber products are processed or manufactured. (a) In addition...

  5. Manufacturing Of Robust Natural Fiber Preforms Utilizing Bacterial Cellulose as Binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Koon-Yang; Shamsuddin, Siti Rosminah; Fortea-Verdejo, Marta; Bismarck, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    A novel method of manufacturing rigid and robust natural fiber preforms is presented here. This method is based on a papermaking process, whereby loose and short sisal fibers are dispersed into a water suspension containing bacterial cellulose. The fiber and nanocellulose suspension is then filtered (using vacuum or gravity) and the wet filter cake pressed to squeeze out any excess water, followed by a drying step. This will result in the hornification of the bacterial cellulose network, holding the loose natural fibers together. Our method is specially suited for the manufacturing of rigid and robust preforms of hydrophilic fibers. The porous and hydrophilic nature of such fibers results in significant water uptake, drawing in the bacterial cellulose dispersed in the suspension. The bacterial cellulose will then be filtered against the surface of these fibers, forming a bacterial cellulose coating. When the loose fiber-bacterial cellulose suspension is filtered and dried, the adjacent bacterial cellulose forms a network and hornified to hold the otherwise loose fibers together. The introduction of bacterial cellulose into the preform resulted in a significant increase of the mechanical properties of the fiber preforms. This can be attributed to the high stiffness and strength of the bacterial cellulose network. With this preform, renewable high performance hierarchical composites can also be manufactured by using conventional composite production methods, such as resin film infusion (RFI) or resin transfer molding (RTM). Here, we also describe the manufacturing of renewable hierarchical composites using double bag vacuum assisted resin infusion. PMID:24893649

  6. New Manufacturing Method for Paper Filler and Fiber Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doelle, Klaus [SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry

    2013-08-25

    The use of fillers in printing and writing papers has become a prerequisite for competing in a global market to reduce the cost of materials. Use of calcium carbonates (ranging from 18% to 30%) as filler is a common practice in the paper industry but the choices of fillers for each type of papers vary widely according to its use. The market for uncoated digital printing paper is one that continues to introduce exciting growth projections. and it is important to understand the effect that new manufacturing methods of calcium carbonates have on the energy efficiency and paper production. Research conducted under this award showed that the new fiber filler composite material has the potential to increase the paper filler content by up to 5% without losing mechanical properties. Benefits of the technology can be summarized as follows for a 1% filler increase per metric ton of paper produced: (i) production cost savings over $12, (ii) Energy savings of 100,900 btu, (iii) CO{sub 2} emission savings of 33 lbs, and additional savings for wood preparation, pulping, recovery of 203593 btu with a 46lbs of CO{sub 2} emission savings per 1% filler increase. In addition the technology has the potential to save: (i) additional $3 per ton of bleached pulp produced, (ii) bleaching energy savings of 170,000 btu, (iii) bleaching CO{sub 2} emission savings of 39 lbs, and (iv) additional savings for replacing conventional bleaching chemicals with a sustainable bleaching chemical is estimated to be 900,000 btu with a 205 lbs of CO{sub 2} emission savings per ton of bleached pulp produced. All the above translates to a estimated annual savings for a 12% filler increase of 296 trillion buts or 51 million barrel of oil equivalent (BOE) or 13.7% of the industries energy demand. This can lead to a increase of renewable energy usage from 56% to close to 70% for the industry sector. CO{sub 2} emission of the industry at a 12% filler increase could be lowered by over 39 million tons annually

  7. Mechanical Properties of Random Discontinuous Fiber Composites Manufactured from Wetlay Process

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Yunkai

    2002-01-01

    The random discontinuous fiber composite has uniform properties in all directions. The wetlay process is an efficient method to manufacture random discontinuous thermoplastic preform sheets that can be molded into random composite plaques in the hot-press. Investigations were done on the molding parameters that included the set-point mold pressure, set-point mold temperature and cooling methods. The fibers used in the study included glass and carbon fiber. Polypropylene (PP) and Polyethylene ...

  8. Manufacturing Of Robust Natural Fiber Preforms Utilizing Bacterial Cellulose as Binder

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, K-Y; Shamsuddin, S. R.; Fortea-Verdejo, M.; Bismarck, A.

    2014-01-01

    A novel method of manufacturing rigid and robust natural fiber preforms is presented here. This method is based on a papermaking process, whereby loose and short sisal fibers are dispersed into a water suspension containing bacterial cellulose. The fiber and nanocellulose suspension is then filtered (using vacuum or gravity) and the wet filter cake pressed to squeeze out any excess water, followed by a drying step. This will result in the hornification of the bacterial cellulose network, hold...

  9. A New Fiber Preform with Nanocarbon Binder for Manufacturing Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composite by Liquid Molding Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Dong Gi; Ha, Jong Rok; Lee, Jea Uk; Lee, Wonoh; Kim, Byung Sun

    2015-11-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced composite has been a good candidate of lightweight structural component in the automotive industry. As fast production speed is essential to apply the composite materials for the mass production area such as automotive components, the high speed liquid composite molding processes have been developed. Fast resin injection through the fiber preform by high pressure is required to improve the production speed, but it often results in undesirable deformations of the fiber preform which causes defectives in size and properties of the final composite products. In order to prevent the undesirable deformation and improve the stability of preform shape, polymer type binder materials are used. More stable fiber preform can be obtained by increasing the amount of binder material, but it disturbs the resin impregnation through the fiber preform. In this study, carbon nanomaterials such as graphene oxide were embedded on the surface of carbon fiber by electrophoretic deposition method in order to improve the shape stability of fiber preform and interfacial bonding between polymer and the reinforcing fiber. Effects of the modified reinforcing fiber were investigated in two respects. One is to increase the binding energy between fiber tows, and the other is to increase the interfacial bonding between polymer matrix and fiber surface. The effects were analyzed by measuring the binding force of fiber preform and interlaminar shear strength of the composite. This study also investigated the high speed liquid molding process of the composite materials composed of polymer matrix and the carbon fiber preforms embedded by carbon nanomaterials. Process parameter such as permeability of fiber preform was measured to investigate the effect of nanoscale surface modification on the macroscale processing condition for composite manufacturing. PMID:26726642

  10. A New Fiber Preform with Nanocarbon Binder for Manufacturing Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composite by Liquid Molding Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Dong Gi; Ha, Jong Rok; Lee, Jea Uk; Lee, Wonoh; Kim, Byung Sun

    2015-11-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced composite has been a good candidate of lightweight structural component in the automotive industry. As fast production speed is essential to apply the composite materials for the mass production area such as automotive components, the high speed liquid composite molding processes have been developed. Fast resin injection through the fiber preform by high pressure is required to improve the production speed, but it often results in undesirable deformations of the fiber preform which causes defectives in size and properties of the final composite products. In order to prevent the undesirable deformation and improve the stability of preform shape, polymer type binder materials are used. More stable fiber preform can be obtained by increasing the amount of binder material, but it disturbs the resin impregnation through the fiber preform. In this study, carbon nanomaterials such as graphene oxide were embedded on the surface of carbon fiber by electrophoretic deposition method in order to improve the shape stability of fiber preform and interfacial bonding between polymer and the reinforcing fiber. Effects of the modified reinforcing fiber were investigated in two respects. One is to increase the binding energy between fiber tows, and the other is to increase the interfacial bonding between polymer matrix and fiber surface. The effects were analyzed by measuring the binding force of fiber preform and interlaminar shear strength of the composite. This study also investigated the high speed liquid molding process of the composite materials composed of polymer matrix and the carbon fiber preforms embedded by carbon nanomaterials. Process parameter such as permeability of fiber preform was measured to investigate the effect of nanoscale surface modification on the macroscale processing condition for composite manufacturing.

  11. Cryogenic Fiber Optic Assemblies for Spaceflight Environments: Design, Manufacturing, Testing, and Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomes, W. Joe; Ott, Melanie N.; Chuska, Richard; Switzer, Robert; Onuma, Eleanya; Blair, Diana; Frese, Erich; Matyseck, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Fiber optic assemblies have been used on spaceflight missions for many years as an enabling technology for routing, transmitting, and detecting optical signals. Due to the overwhelming success of NASA in implementing fiber optic assemblies on spaceflight science-based instruments, system scientists increasingly request fibers that perform in extreme environments while still maintaining very high optical transmission, stability, and reliability. Many new applications require fiber optic assemblies that will operate down to cryogenic temperatures as low as 20 Kelvin. In order for the fiber assemblies to operate with little loss in optical throughput at these extreme temperatures requires a system level approach all the way from how the fiber assembly is manufactured to how it is held, routed, and integrated. The NASA Goddard Code 562 Photonics Group has been designing, manufacturing, testing, and integrating fiber optics for spaceflight and other high reliability applications for nearly 20 years. Design techniques and lessons learned over the years are consistently applied to developing new fiber optic assemblies that meet these demanding environments. System level trades, fiber assembly design methods, manufacturing, testing, and integration will be discussed. Specific recent examples of ground support equipment for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST); the Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2); and others will be included.

  12. Fiber reinforced composite material and method of manufacturing the same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mother material resin is impregnated to a base material comprising an assembly of continuous fibers, and then the mother material resin is cured. The mother material resin contains a main agent comprising diglycidylether of bisphenol A alone or together with tetrafunctional-type epoxy resin. The mother resin further contains a curing agent comprising diaminodiphenylmethane alone or a mixture thereof with methaphenylene diamine, and a reactive diluent for an epoxy resin. The continuous fibers are preferably comprise glass fibers, carbon fibers or aromatic polyamidetype fibers. As the tetrafunctional-type epoxy resin, tetraglycidylamino-diphenyl methane is preferable. As the reactive diluent for epoxy resin, a styrene oxide, glycidylmethacrylate or the like is preferable. Thus, a composite material capable of keeping high strength at a circumstance to be exposed to radiation rays can be obtained. (I.N.)

  13. Manufacture of a 2D optical fiber array coupler with micrometer precision for laser radar applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents the manufacture of a 2D-fiber array coupler using UV-LIGA technology for the precise positioning of a two-dimensional (2D) optical fiber array. The precision of the alignment of the eight-by-eight fiber array was demonstrated to be less than 2 μm. The average concentricity error of the fibers to the positioning holes of the array coupler had a minimum and maximum error of 1.7 µm and 6.5 μm, respectively. The 2D fiber array coupler can fulfill the coupling and transmission requirements of 2D light spots for laser radar applications. The method developed here can easily be extended to the manufacture of larger arrays. (paper)

  14. Mechanical Properties of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Aluminum Manufactured by High-Pressure Die Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachold, Franziska; Singer, Robert

    2016-03-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced aluminum was produced by a specially adapted high-pressure die casting process. The MMC has a fiber volume fraction of 27%. Complete infiltration was achieved by preheating the bidirectional, PAN-based carbon fiber body with IR-emitters to temperatures of around 750 °C. The degradation of the fibers, due to attack of atmospheric oxygen at temperatures above 600 °C, was limited by heating them in argon-rich atmosphere. Additionally, the optimization of heating time and temperature prevented fiber degradation. Only the strength of the outer fibers is reduced by 40% at the most. The fibers in core of fiber body are nearly undamaged. In spite of successful manufacturing, the tensile strength of the MMC is below strength of the matrix material. Also unidirectional MMCs with a fiber volume fraction of 8% produced under the same conditions, lack of the reinforcing effect. Two main reasons for the unsatisfactory mechanical properties were identified: First, the fiber-free matrix, which covers the reinforced core, prevents effective load transfer from the matrix to the fibers. And second, the residual stresses in the fiber-free zones are as high as 100 MPa. This causes premature failure in the matrix. From this, it follows that the local reinforcement of an actual part is limited. The stress distribution caused by residual stresses and by loading needs to be known. In this way, the reinforcing phase can be placed and aligned accordingly. Otherwise delamination and premature failure might occur.

  15. Basalt fiber manufacturing technology and the possibility of its use in dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavaeva, E.; Rogozhnikov, A.; Nikitin, V.; Cherepennikov, Yu; Lysakov, A.

    2015-11-01

    The article touches upon the technology of basalt fiber manufacturing and prospects of its use in dental practice. Two kinds of construction using basalt fiber have been proposed. The first one is a splinting construction for mobile teeth and the second one is the reinforced base for removable plate-denture. The work presents the results of the investigation of physical and mechanical properties of the constructions based on basalt fiber. It also describes the aspects of biomechanical modeling of such constructions in the ANSYS software package. The results of the investigation have proved that applying constructions using basalt fiber is highly promising for prosthetic dentistry practice.

  16. Fiber Volume Fraction Influence on Fiber Compaction in Tapered Resin Injection Pultrusion Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuram, N. B.; Roux, J. A.; Jeswani, A. L.

    2016-06-01

    Liquid resin is injected into the tapered injection chamber through the injection slots to completely wetout the fiber reinforcements in a resin injection pultrusion process. As the resin penetrates through the fibers, the resin also pushes the fibers away from the wall towards the centerline causing compaction of the fiber reinforcements. The fibers are squeezed together due to compaction, making resin penetration more difficult; thus higher resin injection pressures are required to effectively penetrate through the fibers and achieve complete wetout. Fiber volume fraction in the final pultruded composite is a key to decide the mechanical and/or chemical properties of the composite. If the fiber volume fraction is too high, more fibers are squeezed together creating a fiber lean region near the wall and fiber rich region away from the wall. Also, the design of the injection chamber significantly affects the minimum injection pressure required to completely wet the fibers. A tapered injection chamber is considered such that wetout occurs at lower injection pressures due to the taper angle of the injection chamber. In this study, the effect of fiber volume fraction on the fiber reinforcement compaction and complete fiber wetout for a tapered injection chamber is investigated.

  17. Automated fiber placement composite manufacturing: The mission at MSFC's Productivity Enhancement Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, John H.; Pelham, Larry I.

    1993-01-01

    Automated fiber placement is a manufacturing process used for producing complex composite structures. It is a notable leap to the state-of-the-art in technology for automated composite manufacturing. The fiber placement capability was established at the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Productivity Enhancement Complex in 1992 in collaboration with Thiokol Corporation to provide materials and processes research and development, and to fabricate components for many of the Center's Programs. The Fiber Placement System (FPX) was developed as a distinct solution to problems inherent to other automated composite manufacturing systems. This equipment provides unique capabilities to build composite parts in complex 3-D shapes with concave and other asymmetrical configurations. Components with complex geometries and localized reinforcements usually require labor intensive efforts resulting in expensive, less reproducible components; the fiber placement system has the features necessary to overcome these conditions. The mechanical systems of the equipment have the motion characteristics of a filament winder and the fiber lay-up attributes of a tape laying machine, with the additional capabilities of differential tow payout speeds, compaction and cut-restart to selectively place the correct number of fibers where the design dictates. This capability will produce a repeatable process resulting in lower cost and improved quality and reliability.

  18. Size Classification of Chopped Carbon Fibers in the Composite Materials Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.S. Dovbysh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Information synthesis of the learning decision support system for automation of the chopped carbon fibers size control used for the matrix filling within the manufacturing of composite materials based on polytetrafluoroethylene is considered. To improve the reliability of recognition learning algorithm with the optimization of the precision control is proposed.

  19. Size Classification of Chopped Carbon Fibers in the Composite Materials Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    А.S. Dovbysh; А.F. Budnik; N.І. Andriienko

    2010-01-01

    Information synthesis of the learning decision support system for automation of the chopped carbon fibers size control used for the matrix filling within the manufacturing of composite materials based on polytetrafluoroethylene is considered. To improve the reliability of recognition learning algorithm with the optimization of the precision control is proposed.

  20. Design and Manufacturing of Tow-Steered Composite Shells Using Fiber Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, K. Chauncey; Tatting, Brian F.; Smith, Brett H.; Stevens, Randy S.; Occhipiniti, Gina P.; Swift, Jonathan B.; Achary, David C.; Thornburgh, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    Advanced composite shells that may offer the potential to improve the structural performance of future aircraft fuselage structures were developed under this joint NASA-industry collaborative effort. Two cylindrical shells with tailored, tow-steered layups and continuously varying fiber angle orientations were designed and built at the National Center for Advanced Manufacturing - Louisiana Partnership. The shells were fabricated from unidirectional IM7/8552 graphite-epoxy pre-preg slit tape material fiber-placed on a constant-diameter mandrel. Each shell had the same nominal 8-ply [plus or minus 45/plus or minus Theta]s layup, where the nominal fiber angle in the tow-steered plies varied continuously from 10 degrees along the crown to 45 degrees on each side, then back to 10 degrees on the keel. One shell was fabricated with all 24 tows placed during each pass of the fiber placement machine, resulting in many tow overlaps on the shell surface. The fiber placement machine's individual tow cut/restart capability was also used to manufacture a second shell with tow drops and a more uniform laminate thickness. This paper presents an overview of the detailed design and manufacturing processes for these shells, and discusses issues encountered during their fabrication and post-cure evaluation. Future plans for structural testing and analyses of the shells are also discussed.

  1. Microwave-assisted methyl esters synthesis of Kapok (Ceiba pentandra seed oil: parametric and optimization study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awais Bokhari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The depleting fossil fuel reserves and increasing environmental concerns have continued to stimulate research into biodiesel as a green fuel alternative produced from renewable resources. In this study, Kapok (Ceiba pentandra oil methyl ester was produced by using microwave-assisted technique. The optimum operating conditions for the microwave-assisted transesterification of Kapok seed oil including temperature, catalyst loading, methanol to oil molar ratio, and irradiation time were investigated by using Response Surface Methodology (RSM based on Central Composite Design (CCD. A maximum conversion of 98.9 % was obtained under optimum conditions of 57.09 °C reaction temperature, 2.15 wt% catalyst (KOH loading, oil to methanol molar ratio of 1:9.85, and reaction time of 3.29 min. Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FT-IR spectroscopy was performed to verify the conversion of the fatty acid into methyl esters. The properties of Kapok oil methyl ester produced under the optimum conditions were characterized and found in agreement with the international ASTM D 6751 and EN 14214 standards.

  2. A low-cost, manufacturable method for fabricating capillary and optical fiber interconnects for microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Daniel M; Nevill, J Tanner; Pettigrew, Kenneth I; Votaw, Gregory; Kung, Pang-Jen; Crenshaw, Hugh C

    2008-04-01

    Microfluidic chips require connections to larger macroscopic components, such as light sources, light detectors, and reagent reservoirs. In this article, we present novel methods for integrating capillaries, optical fibers, and wires with the channels of microfluidic chips. The method consists of forming planar interconnect channels in microfluidic chips and inserting capillaries, optical fibers, or wires into these channels. UV light is manually directed onto the ends of the interconnects using a microscope. UV-curable glue is then allowed to wick to the end of the capillaries, fibers, or wires, where it is cured to form rigid, liquid-tight connections. In a variant of this technique, used with light-guiding capillaries and optical fibers, the UV light is directed into the capillaries or fibers, and the UV-glue is cured by the cone of light emerging from the end of each capillary or fiber. This technique is fully self-aligned, greatly improves both the quality and the manufacturability of the interconnects, and has the potential to enable the fabrication of interconnects in a fully automated fashion. Using these methods, including a semi-automated implementation of the second technique, over 10,000 interconnects have been formed in almost 2000 microfluidic chips made of a variety of rigid materials. The resulting interconnects withstand pressures up to at least 800psi, have unswept volumes estimated to be less than 10 femtoliters, and have dead volumes defined only by the length of the capillary. PMID:18369517

  3. Numerical investigation of the influence of technological parameters of manufacturing on the elastic properties of short-fiber composite materials

    OpenAIRE

    Альтенбах, Х.; Науменко, К.; Львов, Г. И.; Пилипенко, С. Н.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents a model which allows to estimate the elastic properties of thin-walled structures manufactured by means of injection molding. The starting point is the numerical prediction of the microstructure of the short fiber reinforced composite induced during the filling stage of the manufacturing process. For this purpose the commercial program Moldflow Plastic Insight® is used. The result of the filling simulation characterizing the fiber microstructure is the second rank orientati...

  4. A Pilot-Scale System for Carbon Molecular Sieve Hollow Fiber Membrane Manufacturing

    KAUST Repository

    Karvan, O.

    2012-12-21

    Carbon molecular sieve (CMS) membranes offer advantages over traditional polymeric membrane materials, but scale-up of manufacturing systems has not received much attention. In the recent decade, there has been a dramatic increase in fundamental research on these materials with a variety of applications being studied. The results from a pilot-scale CMS production system are presented. This system was designed based on extensive laboratory research, and hollow fiber membranes produced in this system show similar performance compared to membranes produced using a smaller bench-scale system. After optimizing the system design, a 93% recovery of the precursor fibers for use in membrane module preparation were obtained. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Studies on radiation resistance of fiber reinforced plastic composites featured by easiness of manufacturing, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanical properties of glass fiber-reinforced plastics (GFRP) irradiated at room temperature with electron beams were studied in order to characterize the radiation resistance. Mechanical properties were tested by flexural strength and interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) at room and low temperature, and flexural fatigue strength at room temperature. The GFRP used in the present study were manufactured trial with three kinds of epoxy matrices having excellent radiation resistance at room temperature and easiness of manufacturing. These composites prepared in selected curing condition were equipped with high flexural strength at low temperature, about two times at room temperature. GFRP composed of 4,4'-tetraglycidyl diamino diphenyl methane cured with 4,4'-diamino diphenyl methane showed the highest radiation resistance: the strength after irradiation up to 90 MGy were kept the initial value, that is, flexural strength of 1000 MPa at 77 K and ILSS of 70 MPa at 123 K. It was also confirmed that the flexural strength measured at 4.2 K were well agreed with the values tested at 77 K. On the effects of fiber-matrix bonding materials by using different kinds and/or amount of silane coupling agents, the pronounced difference were found in the degradation behavior but did not affect to the flexural strength of the GFRP. Flexural fatigue behavior showed rather well radiation degradation comparing with three point bending strength at room temperature. (author)

  6. Design and Manufacturing of a Composite Lattice Structure Reinforced by Continuous Carbon Fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hualin; YANG Wei; WANG Bin; YAN Yong; FU Qiang; FANG Daining; ZHUANG Zhuo

    2006-01-01

    New techniques have been developed to make materials with a periodic three-dimensional lattice structure. The high stiffness per unit weight and multifunction of such lattice structures make them attractive for use in aeronautic and astronautic structures. In this paper, epoxy-soaked continuous carbon fibres were first introduced to make lattice composite structures, which maximize the specific load carrying capacity. A micromechanical analysis of several designs, each corresponding to a different manufacturing route, was carried out, in order to find the optimized lattice structure with maximum specific stiffness. An intertwining method was chosen and developed as the best route to make lattice composite materials reinforced by carbon fibers. A sandwich-weaved sample with a three-dimensional intertwined lattice structure core was found to be best. The manufacturing of such a composite lattice material was outlined. In addition to a high shear strength of the core and the integral manufacturing method, the lattice sandwich structure is expected to possess better mechanical capability.

  7. Evolution of Surface Texture and Cracks During Injection Molding of Fiber-Reinforced, Additively-Manufactured, Injection Molding Inserts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofstätter, Thomas; Mischkot, Michael; Pedersen, David Bue;

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the lifetime and surfacedeterioration of additively-manufactured, injection-moulding inserts. The inserts were produced using digital light processing and were reinforcedwith oriented short carbon fibers. Theinserts were used during injection molding oflow......-density polyethylene until their failure. The molded products were used to analyse the development of the surface roughness and wear. By enhancing the lifetime of injection-molding inserts,this work contributes to the establishment of additively manufactured inserts in pilot production....

  8. Design optimization, manufacture and response measurements for fast-neutron radiography converters made of scintillator and wavelength-shifting fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to improve the image quality of fast neutron radiography, a converter made of scintillator and wavelength-shifting fibers has been developed. The appropriate parameters of the converter such as fibers arrangement, distance between fibers are optimized theoretically, and manufacture of the converter are also optimized. Fast neutron radiography experiments by 14 MeV neutrons are used to test this converter and kinds of traditional converters. The experiments’ results matched the calculations. The novel converter's resolution is better than 1 mm and the light output is high

  9. Advanced treatment of acrylic fiber manufacturing wastewater with a combined microbubble-ozonation/ultraviolet irradiation process

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Tianlong

    2015-01-01

    This work investigated the effectiveness of a combination of microbubble-ozonation and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation for the treatment of secondary wastewater effluent of a wet-spun acrylic fiber manufacturing plant. Under reactor condition (ozone dosage of 48 mg L-1, UV fluence rate of 90 mW cm-2, initial pH of 8.0, and reaction time of 120 min), the biodegradability (represented as BOD5/CODcr) of the wastewater improved from 0.18 to 0.47. This improvement in biodegradability is related to the degradation of alkanes, aromatic compounds, and other bio-refractory organic compounds. The combination of microbubble-ozonation and UV irradiation synergistically improved treatment efficiencies by 228%, 29%, and 142% for CODcr, UV254 removal and BOD5/CODcr respectively after 120 min reaction time, as compared with the sum efficiency of microbubble-ozonation alone and UV irradiation alone. Hydroxyl radical production in the microbubble-ozonation/UV process was about 1.8 times higher than the sum production in microbubble-ozonation alone and UV irradiation alone. The ozone decomposition rate in the combined process was about 4.1 times higher than that in microbubble-ozonation alone. The microbubble-ozonation/UV process could be a promising technique for the treatment of bio-refractory organics in the acrylic fiber manufacturing industry. © 2015 Royal Society of Chemistry.

  10. Premixed Combustion of Kapok (ceiba pentandra seed oil on Perforated Burner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.K.G. Wirawan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Availability of fossil fuels in the world decrease gradually due to excessive fuel exploitation. This situations push researcher to look for alternative fuels as a source of renewable energy, one of them is kapok (ceiba pentandra seed oil. The aim this study was to know the behavior of laminar burning velocity, secondary Bunsen flame with open tip, cellular and triple flame. Premixed combustion of kapok seed oil was studied experimentally on perforated burner with equivalence ratio (φ varied from 0.30 until 1.07. The results showed that combustion of glycerol requires a large amount of air so that laminar burning velocity (SL is the highest at very lean mixture (φ =0.36 in the form of individual Bunsen flame on each of the perforated plate hole.  Perforated and secondary Bunsen flame both reached maximum SL similar with that of ethanol and higher than that of hexadecane. Slight increase of φ decreases drastically SL of perforated and secondary Bunsen flame. When the mixture was enriched, secondary Bunsen and perforated flame disappears, and then the flame becomes Bunsen flame with open tip and triple flame (φ = 0.62 to 1.07. Flame was getting stable until the mixture above the stoichiometry. Being isolated from ambient air, the SL of perforated flame, as well as secondary Bunsen flame, becomes equal with non-isolated flame. This shows the decreasing trend of laminar burning velocity while φ is increasing. When the mixture was enriched island (φ = 0.44 to 0.48 and petal (φ = 0.53 to 0.62 cellular flame take place. Flame becomes more unstable when the mixture was changed toward stoichiometry.

  11. Microbubble enhanced ozonation process for advanced treatment of wastewater produced in acrylic fiber manufacturing industry

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Tianlong

    2015-02-02

    This work investigated microbubble-ozonation for the treatment of a refractory wet-spun acrylic fiber wastewater in comparison to macrobubble-ozonation. CODcr, NH3-N, and UV254 of the wastewater were removed by 42%, 21%, and 42%, respectively in the microbubble-ozonation, being 25%, 9%, and 35% higher than the removal rates achieved by macrobubble-ozonation at the same ozone dose. The microbubbles (with average diameter of 45μm) had a high concentration of 3.9×105 counts/mL at a gas flow rate of 0.5L/min. The gas holdup, total ozone mass-transfer coefficient, and average ozone utilization efficiency in the microbubble-ozonation were 6.6, 2.2, and 1.5 times higher than those of the macrobubble-ozonation. Greater generation of hydroxyl radicals and a higher zeta potential of the bubbles were also observed in the microbubble ozonation process. The biodegradability of the wastewater was also significantly improved by microbubble-ozonation, which was ascribed to the enhanced degradation of alkanes, aromatic compounds, and the many other bio-refractory organic compounds in the wastewater. Microbubble-ozonation can thus be a more effective treatment process than traditional macrobubble-ozonation for refractory wastewater produced by the acrylic fiber manufacturing industry.

  12. Characterization of embedded fiber optic strain sensors into metallic structures via ultrasonic additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomer, John J.; Hehr, Adam J.; Dapino, Marcelo J.

    2016-04-01

    Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors measure deviation in a reflected wavelength of light to detect in-situ strain. These sensors are immune to electromagnetic interference, and the inclusion of multiple FBGs on the same fiber allows for a seamlessly integrated sensing network. FBGs are attractive for embedded sensing in aerospace applications due to their small noninvasive size and prospect of constant, real-time nondestructive evaluation. In this study, FBG sensors are embedded in aluminum 6061 via ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM), a rapid prototyping process that uses high power ultrasonic vibrations to weld similar and dissimilar metal foils together. UAM was chosen due to the desire to embed FBG sensors at low temperatures, a requirement that excludes other additive processes such as selective laser sintering or fusion deposition modeling. In this paper, the embedded FBGs are characterized in terms of birefringence losses, post embedding strain shifts, consolidation quality, and strain sensing performance. Sensors embedded into an ASTM test piece are compared against an exterior surface mounted foil strain gage at both room and elevated temperatures using cyclic tensile tests.

  13. Preparation and Utilization of Kapok Hull Carbon for the Removal of Rhodamine-B from Aqueous Solution

    OpenAIRE

    P. S. Syed Shabudeen; R. Venckatesh; S. Pattabhi

    2006-01-01

    A carbonaceous sorbent prepared from the indegeneous agricultural waste (which is facing solid waste disposal problem) Kapok Hull, by acid treatment was tested for its efficiency in removing basic dyes. Batch kinetic and isotherm experiments were conducted to determine the sorption and desorption of the Rhodamine-B from aqueous solution with activated carbon. The factors affecting the rate processes involved in the removal of dye for initial dye concentration, agitation time, and carbon dose ...

  14. INVISTA Kicks off Expansion of Airbag Fiber Facility in Shanghai Global- fiber manufacturer grows to meet increasing demand in Asia automotive market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On Sept 22, 2011, INVISTA, one of the world's largest integrated fibers and polymers businesses, kicked off the expansion of its airbag and industrial nylon manufacturing plant in the Qingpu district of Shanghai, China. The expansion is expected to approximately double the existing plant's capacity by 2013 when construction is complete, making it the largest plant of its kind in Asia.

  15. Biological sulfate removal from acrylic fiber manufacturing wastewater using a two-stage UASB reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Li; Jun Wang; Zhaokun Luan; Zhongguang Ji; Lian Yu

    2012-01-01

    A two-stage UASB reactor was employed to remove sulfate from acrylic fiber manufacturing wastewater.Mesophilic operation (35±0.5℃) was performed with hydraulic retention time (HRT) varied between 28 and 40 hr.Mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS)in the reactor was maintained about 8000 mg/L.The results indicated that sulfate removal was enhanced with increasing the ratio of COD/SO42-.At low COD/SO42-,the growth of the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) was carbon-limited.The optimal sulfate removal efficiencies were 75% when the HRT was no less than 38 hr.Sulfidogenesis mainly happened in the sulfate-reducing stage,while methanogenesis in the methane-producing stage.Microbes in sulfate-reducing stage performed granulation better than that in methaneproducing stage.Higher extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) content in sulfate-reducing stage helped to adhere and connect the flocculent sludge particles together.SRB accounted for about 31% both in sulfate-reducing stage and methane-producing stage at COD/SO42- ratio of 0.5,while it dropped dramatically from 34% in sulfate-reducing stage to 10% in methane-producing stage corresponding to the COD/SO42- ratio of 4.7.SRB and MPA were predominant in sulfate-reducing stage and methane-producing stage respectively.

  16. Evolution of Surface Texture and Cracks During Injection Molding of Fiber-Reinforced, Additively-Manufactured, Injection Molding Inserts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofstätter, Thomas; Mischkot, Michael; Pedersen, David Bue;

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the lifetime and surfacedeterioration of additively-manufactured, injection-moulding inserts. The inserts were produced using digital light processing and were reinforcedwith oriented short carbon fibers. Theinserts were used during injection molding oflow-density polyethy......-density polyethylene until their failure. The molded products were used to analyse the development of the surface roughness and wear. By enhancing the lifetime of injection-molding inserts,this work contributes to the establishment of additively manufactured inserts in pilot production....

  17. Dry Process for Manufacturing Hybridized Boron Fiber/Carbon Fiber Thermoplastic Composite Materials from a Solution Coated Precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belvin, Harry L. (Inventor); Cano, Roberto J. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An apparatus for producing a hybrid boron reinforced polymer matrix composite from precursor tape and a linear array of boron fibers. The boron fibers are applied onto the precursor tapes and the precursor tape processed within a processing component having an impregnation bar assembly. After passing through variable-dimension forming nip-rollers, the precursor tape with the boron fibers becomes a hybrid boron reinforced polymer matrix composite. A driving mechanism is used to pulled the precursor tape through the method and a take-up spool is used to collect the formed hybrid boron reinforced polymer matrix composite.

  18. Lyocell Fiber-Reinforced Cellulose Ester Composites-Manufacturing Considerations and Properties.

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Indrajit

    1999-01-01

    Biodegradable thermoplastic composites were prepared using high modulus lyocell fibers and cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB). Two reinforcement fiber types: fabric and continuous fiber tow were used. Fabric had advantages of uniform alignment and easier processing, but lacked the use as a unidirectional reinforcement and a continuous method of matrix application. Three different matrix application methods were screened for both fiber types. Matrix application by suspension of particles in wate...

  19. Manufacture of and environmental effects on carbon fiber-reinforced phenylethynyl-terminated poly(etherimide)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullions, Todd Aaron

    The initial objective of this research project was to determine the feasibility of manufacturing carbon fiber-reinforced (CFR) composites with a matrix consisting of a phenylethynyl-terminated version of a thermoplastic poly(etherimide) termed PETU. Successful composite manufacture with 3,000 g/mol (3k) PETU led to a survey of CFR 3kPETU mechanical properties for comparison with other high-performance composites. Encouraging results led to a study of moisture sorption effects on CFR 3kPETU properties. The success of these initial studies spawned the large scale production of 2,500 g/mol (2.5k) PETU. Thermal characterization of neat and CFR 2.5kPETU via differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis, and parallel plate rheometry resulted in an understanding of the influence of cure time and temperature on reaction progress via both reaction kinetics and monitoring of the glass transition temperature. From the rheological characterization, a two-stage, dual-Arrhenius model was developed to successfully model isothermal complex viscosity over the range of processing temperatures. Neat 2.5kPETU and CFR 2.5kPETU specimens were exposed separately to elevated temperature environments of different moisture and different oxygen concentrations to evaluate the effects of moisture absorption, moisture desorption, and thermal oxidation on material properties. Moisture absorption took place in a 90°C/85% relative humidity environment followed by moisture desorption in a 90°C/10% relative humidity environment. Thermal-oxidative aging for up to 5000 hours took place at 204°C in environments of four different oxygen partial pressures: 0.0 kPa, 2.84 kPa, 20.2 kPa, and 40.4 kPa. Following exposure to the different aging environments, the specimens were tested for retention of mechanical properties. In addition, moisture sorption properties were measured. Results from the moisture sorption studies on CFR 3kPETU and CFR 2.5kPETU suggest that fully cured

  20. UTILIZATION OF MICRO SISAL FIBERS AS REINFORCEMENT AGENT AND POLYPROPYLENE OR POLYLACTIC ACID AS POLYMER MATRICES IN BIOCOMPOSITES MANUFACTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subyakto Subyakto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sisal (Agave sisalana as a perennial tropical plant grows abundantly in Indonesia. Its fibers can be used as the reinforcement agent of biocomposite products. Utilization of sisal as natural fiber has some notable benefits compared to synthetic fibers, such as renewable, light in weight, and low in cost. Manufacture of biocomposite requires the use of matrix such as thermoplastic polymer, e.g. polypropylene (PP and polylactic acid (PLA to bond together with the reinforcement agent (e.g. sisal fibers. In relevant, experiment was conducted on biocomposites manufacture that comprised sisal fibers and PP as well as PLA. Sisal fibers were converted into pulp, then refined to micro-size fibrillated fibers such that their diameter reduced to about 10 μm, and dried in an oven. The dry microfibrillated sisal pulp fibers cellulose (MSFC were thoroughly mixed with either PP or PLA with varying ratios of MSFC/PP as well as MSFC/PLA, and then shaped into the mat (i.e. MSFC-PP and MSFC-PLA biocomposites. Two kinds of shaping was employed, i.e. hot-press molding and injection molding. In the hot-press molding, the ratio of  MSFC/PP as well as MSFC/PLA ranged about 30/70-50/50. Meanwhile in the injection (employed only on assembling the MSFC-PLA biocomposite, the ratio of MSFC/PLA varied about 10/90-30/70. The resulting shaped MSFC-PP and MSFC-PLA biocomposites were then tested of its physical and mechanical properties. With the hot-press molding device, the physical and mechanical (strength properties of MSFC-PLA biocomposite were higher than those of  MSFC-PP biocomposite. The optimum ratio of  MSFC/PP as well as MSFC/PLA reached concurrently at 40/60. The strengths of MSFC-PP as well as MSFC-PLA biocomposites were greater than those of individual polymer (PP and PLA. With the injection molding device, only the MSFC-PLA  biocomposite  was formed  and its strengths  reached  maximum  at 30/70  ratio.  The particular strengths (MOR and MOE of MSFC

  1. Cryogenic fiber optic temperature sensor and method of manufacturing the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochergin, Vladimir (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    This invention teaches the fiber optic sensors temperature sensors for cryogenic temperature range with improved sensitivity and resolution, and method of making said sensors. In more detail, the present invention is related to enhancement of temperature sensitivity of fiber optic temperature sensors at cryogenic temperatures by utilizing nanomaterials with a thermal expansion coefficient that is smaller than the thermal expansion coefficient of the optical fiber but larger in absolute value than the thermal expansion coefficient of the optical fiber at least over a range of temperatures.

  2. Manufacture and characterization of an extrinsic elementary fiber-optical sensor for temperature measurement; Herstellung und Charakterisierung eines extrinsischen faseroptischen Elementarsensors zur Temperaturmessung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trautner, Ralph [Fachhochschule Regensburg (Germany); Schmauss, Bernhard [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Hochfrequenztechnik; Shamonin, Mikhail [Fachhochschule Regensburg (Germany). Sensorik, Messtechnik und elektromagnetische Metamaterialien

    2008-07-01

    Manufacture and characterization of an elementary fiber-optical sensor for temperature measurement is presented. The prism-shaped head of the sensor consisting of indium phosphide uses the temperature dependency of the absorption edge. The dimensions of the prism require a manufacturing method bridging fine mechanics and microsystems technology. (orig.)

  3. Ultrafast Laser Fabrication of Novel Fiber Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Sensors and Its Cost-Effective Alternative Manufacturing Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Sumei; Jiang Lan; Li Benye; Zhao Longjiang; Yang Jinpeng; Wang Mengmeng; Xiao Hai; Lu Yongfeng; Hai-Lung Tasi

    2011-01-01

    The recent progresses of fiber sensor fabrication in our group are reviewed. Novel inline fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) sensors with various structures are proposed and manufactured by femtosecond laser fabrication and fusion splicing for high-quality sensing of refractivity-sensitive parameters such as temperature, concentration, humidity, pressure, stress and strain., a) for an MZI sensor with a trench on a single-mode fiber, the refractive index (RI) sensitivity of acetone vapor is about 10 nm/RIU (refractive index unit) and the temperature sensitivity is 51.5 pm/℃ from 200 to 875℃ ; b) For an MZI consisting of two micro-air-cavities, the sensitivity is501.5 nm/RIU and the detection limit is 1. 994 × 10 RIU at the refractive index of 1.4; c) to reduce the fabrication cost, a new fusion-splicing based method is proposed to fabricate MZI sensors; the sensitivity is 664.57 nm/RIU witha detection limit of 1.5 x 10 RIU and its cost is tens of times cheaper than those of commercialized long period fiber Gratings; Also, 5×10 acetone vapors are successfully detected by the MZI sensors coated with zeolite thin films.

  4. Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - fiber; Roughage; Bulk ... Dietary fiber adds bulk to your diet. Because it makes you feel full faster, it can help with ... Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 213. National Research Council. ... Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids ( ...

  5. Characterization of Potential Exposures to Nanoparticles and Fibers during Manufacturing and Recycling of Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Polypropylene Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonruksa, Pongsit; Bello, Dhimiter; Zhang, Jinde; Isaacs, Jacqueline A; Mead, Joey L; Woskie, Susan R

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) polymer composites are widely used as raw materials in multiple industries because of their excellent properties. This expansion, however, is accompanied by realistic concerns over potential release of CNTs and associated nanoparticles during the manufacturing, recycling, use, and disposal of CNT composite products. Such data continue to be limited, especially with regards to post-processing of CNT-enabled products, recycling and handling of nanowaste, and end-of-life disposal. This study investigated for the first time airborne nanoparticle and fibers exposures during injection molding and recycling of CNT polypropylene composites (CNT-PP) relative to that of PP. Exposure characterization focused on source emissions during loading, melting, molding, grinding, and recycling of scrap material over 20 cycles and included real-time characterization of total particle number concentration and size distribution, nanoparticle and fiber morphology, and fiber concentrations near the operator. Total airborne nanoparticle concentration emitted during loading, melting, molding, and grinding of CNT-PP had geometric mean ranging from 1.2 × 10(3) to 4.3 × 10(5) particles cm(-3), with the highest exposures being up to 2.9 and 300.7 times above the background for injection molding and grinding, respectively. Most of these emissions were similar to PP synthesis. Melting and molding of CNT-PP and PP produced exclusively nanoparticles. Grinding of CNT-PP but not PP generated larger particles with encapsulated CNTs, particles with CNT extrusions, and respirable fiber (up to 0.2 fibers cm(-3)). No free CNTs were found in any of the processes. The number of recycling runs had no significant impact on exposures. Further research into the chemical composition of the emitted nanoparticles is warranted. In the meanwhile, exposure controls should be instituted during processing and recycling of CNT-PP.

  6. Characterization of Potential Exposures to Nanoparticles and Fibers during Manufacturing and Recycling of Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Polypropylene Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonruksa, Pongsit; Bello, Dhimiter; Zhang, Jinde; Isaacs, Jacqueline A; Mead, Joey L; Woskie, Susan R

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) polymer composites are widely used as raw materials in multiple industries because of their excellent properties. This expansion, however, is accompanied by realistic concerns over potential release of CNTs and associated nanoparticles during the manufacturing, recycling, use, and disposal of CNT composite products. Such data continue to be limited, especially with regards to post-processing of CNT-enabled products, recycling and handling of nanowaste, and end-of-life disposal. This study investigated for the first time airborne nanoparticle and fibers exposures during injection molding and recycling of CNT polypropylene composites (CNT-PP) relative to that of PP. Exposure characterization focused on source emissions during loading, melting, molding, grinding, and recycling of scrap material over 20 cycles and included real-time characterization of total particle number concentration and size distribution, nanoparticle and fiber morphology, and fiber concentrations near the operator. Total airborne nanoparticle concentration emitted during loading, melting, molding, and grinding of CNT-PP had geometric mean ranging from 1.2 × 10(3) to 4.3 × 10(5) particles cm(-3), with the highest exposures being up to 2.9 and 300.7 times above the background for injection molding and grinding, respectively. Most of these emissions were similar to PP synthesis. Melting and molding of CNT-PP and PP produced exclusively nanoparticles. Grinding of CNT-PP but not PP generated larger particles with encapsulated CNTs, particles with CNT extrusions, and respirable fiber (up to 0.2 fibers cm(-3)). No free CNTs were found in any of the processes. The number of recycling runs had no significant impact on exposures. Further research into the chemical composition of the emitted nanoparticles is warranted. In the meanwhile, exposure controls should be instituted during processing and recycling of CNT-PP. PMID:26447230

  7. Large-Scale Manufacturing of Bulk Metallic Glass Sheets and Fiber Metal Laminates Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Liquidmetal Technologies (LMT) and the University of Southern California (USC)'s M.C. Gill Composites Center team up to develop manufacturing processes for...

  8. Crystalline behaviors and phase transition during the manufacture of fine denier PA6 fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ChengFeng; LIU YuHai; LIU ShaoXuan; LI HuiZhen; HUANG Kun; PAN QingHua; HUA XiaoHui; HAO ChaoWei; MA QingFang; LV ChangYou; LI WeiHong; YANG ZhanLan; ZHAO Ying; WANG DuJin; LAI GuoQiao; JIANG JianXiong; XU YiZhuang; WU JinGuang

    2009-01-01

    Recently we have successfully produced fine denier PA6 fibers by using additives containing lanthanide compounds.Meanwhile,crystallization and phase transition of PA6 fibers during spinning and drawing processes were investigated.During the spinning process,β phase crystal could be obtained In as-spun PA6 fibers which were produced with relatively high melt draw ratio,while γ phase crystal predominated when the melt draw ratio was relatively low.β phase crystal,whose behaviors ere similar with those of γ phase by FT-IR and XRD characterization,could be transformed to α form easily when PA6 fibers are immersed in boiling water.However,γ phase crystal of PA6 remains unchanged in boiling water.Thus,β and γ phase crystals of PA6 can be differentiated by the crystalline behaviors of PA6 fibers after treatment in boiling water.Further experiments demonstrate that the β phase can also be produced during a drawing process where a phase transformation from γ to α occurs.In other words,βphase may act as an intermediate state during the phase transformation.

  9. Relationship between rheological manufacturing process and optical performance of optical fiber coupler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHUAI Ci-jun; DUAN Ji-an; ZHONG Jue

    2006-01-01

    Through theoretical analysis and experiments, the viscoelastic mechanical model of optical fiber coupler in theprocess of fused biconical taper was established, and the numerical analysis in non-uniform temperature field was made. The results show that the rheological parameters, such as drawing speed and fused temperature, have a tremendous influence on stress distribution and performance of optical fiber coupler, especially the influence of fused temperature. The change of fused temperature by 5 ℃ can lead to the change of the maximum stress by 30% and stress difference by 20% in the same cross section. The change of temperature gradient by 3% can result in the change of stress difference by 90%. In the present condition of rheological technology, rheological defects such as crystallizations and microcracks are easy to generate in the optical fiber coupler.

  10. Recycling of glass fibers from fiberglass polyester waste composite for manufacture glass-ceramic materials

    OpenAIRE

    López Gómez, Félix Antonio; Martín, M. Isabel; García Díaz, Irene; Rodríguez, O.; Alguacil, Francisco José; Romero, M.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the feasibility of reusing a glass fiber resulting from the thermolysis and gasification of waste composites to obtain glass-ceramic tiles. Polyester fiberglass (PFG) waste was treated at 550˚C for 3 h in a 9.6 dm3 thermolytic reactor. This process yielded an oil (≈24 wt%), a gas (≈8 wt%) and a solid residue (≈68 wt%). After the polymer has been removed, the solid residue is heated in air to oxidize residual char and remove surface contamination. The cleaning fibers were co...

  11. Seamless metal-clad fiber-reinforced organic matrix composite structures and process for their manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluck, Raymond M. (Inventor); Bush, Harold G. (Inventor); Johnson, Robert R. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A metallic outer sleeve is provided which is capable of enveloping a hollow metallic inner member having continuous reinforcing fibers attached to the distal end thereof. The inner member is then introduced into outer sleeve until inner member is completely enveloped by outer sleeve. A liquid matrix member is then injected into space between inner member and outer sleeve. A pressurized heat transfer medium is flowed through the inside of inner member, thereby forming a fiber reinforced matrix composite material. The wall thicknesses of both inner member and outer sleeve are then reduced to the appropriate size by chemical etching, to adjust the thermal expansion coefficient of the metal-clad composite structure to the desired value. thereby forming a fiber reinforced matrix composite material. The wall thicknesses of both inner member and outer sleeve are then reduced to the appropriate size by chemical etching, to adjust the thermal expansion coefficient of the metal-clad composite structure to the desired value. The novelty of this invention resides in the development of a efficient method of producing seamless metal clad fiber reinforced organic matrix composite structures.

  12. The Next-Generation Dow XLATM Fiber Brings Fashion and Choice to Denim Designers and Manufacturers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Shanghai, China. August 29, 2008-Cutting edge fashion and design, advanced textile technology and innovative industry partnerships were brought together in Shanghai at the launch of XLA? Denim Fashion Show to introduce the next-generation XLATM stretch fiber for denim application.

  13. Study of the Equivalent Electrical Capacity of a Thermal Insulating Kapok-plaster Material in Frequency Dynamic Regime Established

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoulaye Korka Diallo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The study of heat transfer in frequency dynamic regime established helped define the thermal impedance of the material. The material is a plane wall composed of kapok-plaster with thickness of 0.01 m and a thermal conductivity 0.1 W/mK. The thermal behavior of the studied material is highlighted by showing the influences of heat transfer coefficients and external excitation pulse. L'evolution de la capacity equivalent intérêt Donnée en fonction de la pulsation excitatrice Extérieure. The evolution of the equivalent capacitance is given as a function of the external excitation pulse; the influences of the depth of the material, his diffusivity and heat exchange coefficients are shown.

  14. Carcass Characteristics of Kacang Goats Fed Ration Containing MH-1 Variety of Kapok Seed Meal (Ceiba pentandra, GAERTN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hidjaz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to study the carcass characteristics of Kacang goats fed ration containing kapok seed meal (KSM as a component of the concentrate. The experiment was conducted in two stages. The first stage was to find out the best variety of kapok that will be used in the second experiment; the second stage was to determine the benefits of KSM on carcass characteristics. Twenty-five, 8 months old Kacang goats with initial body weight of 11.71±1.08 kg, were used in this experiment. The animals were housed individually based on completely randomized design (CRD with 5 treatments and 5 replications. The rations were based on forage:concentrate ratio of 50:50 dry matter basis. The ration contained concentrates, with increasing levels of KSM, i.e.: R0 (napier grass + concentrate: rice bran, coconut cake, corn, urea + 0% KSM; R5 (R0 + KSM 5%; R10 (R0 + KSM 10%; R15 (R0 + KSM 15%; and R20 (R0 + KSM 20%. Drinking water was provided ad libitum. The result of first stage showed that KSM variety of MH-1 would be used as a component of the concentrate on the second experiment. The increasing level of KSM in the rations had significant effect (P<0.05 on physical characteristics of the carcass, such as dressing percentage (44.35%, carcass length (54.006 cm, fleshing index (130.59 g/cm, plumpness of leg (87.48%, loin eye area (5.06 cm2, and percentage of carcass meat (64.69%. It is concluded that MH-1 variety of KSM can be used as a feed component up to 20 % in the goat ration.

  15. Panels Manufactured from Vegetable Fibers: An Alternative Approach for Controlling Noises in Indoor Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldo Pacheco Bastos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise control devices such as panels and barriers, when of high efficiency, generally are of difficult acquisition due to high costs turning in many cases their use impracticable, mainly for limited budget small-sized companies. There is a huge requirement for new acoustic materials that have satisfactory performance, not only under acoustic aspect but also other relevant ones and are of low cost. Vegetable fibers are an alternative solution when used as panels since they promise satisfactory acoustic absorption, according to previous researches, exist in abundance, and derive from renewable sources. This paper, therefore, reports on the development of panels made from vegetable fibers (coconut, palm, sisal, and açaí, assesses their applicability by various experimental (flammability, odor, fungal growth, and ageing tests, and characterize them acoustically in terms of their sound absorption coefficients on a scale model reverberant chamber. Acoustic results point out that the aforementioned fiber panels play pretty well the role of a noise control device since they have compatible, and in some cases, higher performance when compared to commercially available conventional materials.

  16. Study of Heat Transfer in a Kapok Material from the Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient and the Excitation Pulse of Solicitations External Climatic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dieng

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to characterize thermal insulating local material, kapok, from a study in 3 dimensions in Cartesian coordinate and in dynamic frequency regime. From a study a 3 dimensional the heat transfer through a material made of wool kapok (thermal conductivity: &lambda = 0,035 W/m/K; density: &rho = 12, 35 kg/m3; thermal diffusivity: &alpha = 17, 1.10-7 m2 /s is presented. The evolution curves of temperature versus convective heat transfer coefficient have helped highlight the importance of pulse excitation and the depth in the material. The thermal impedance is studied from representations of Nyquist and Bode diagrams allowing characterizing the thermal behavior from thermistors. The evolution of the thermal impedance with the thermal capacity of the material is presented.

  17. Process for the manufacture of seamless metal-clad fiber-reinforced organic matrix composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluck, Raymond M. (Inventor); Bush, Harold G. (Inventor); Johnson, Robert R. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A process for producing seamless metal-clad composite structures includes providing a hollow, metallic inner member and an outer sleeve to surround the inner member and define an inner space therebetween. A plurality of continuous reinforcing fibers is attached to the distal end of the outside diameter of the inner member, and the inner member is then introduced, distal end first, into one end of the outer sleeve. The inner member is then moved, distal end first, into the outer sleeve until the inner member is completely enveloped by the outer sleeve. A liquid matrix material is then injected into the space containing the reinforcing fibers between the inner member and the outer sleeve. Next a pressurized heat transfer medium is passed through the inner member to cure the liquid matrix material. Finally, the wall thickness of both the inner member and the outer sleeve are reduced to desired dimensions by chemical etching, which adjusts the thermal expansion coefficient of the metal-clad composite structure to a desired value.

  18. ANAEROBICALLY DIGESTED BOVINE BIOFIBER AS A SOURCE OF FIBER FOR PARTICLEBOARD MANUFACTURING: AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Spelter

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the physical and economic potential to substitute anaerobically digested bovine biofiber (ADBF for wood in the making of particleboard. Laboratory tests indicated that replacement of one-half the wood in particleboard with ADBF produced panels that compared favorably to the requirements for commercial particleboard performance (specified by ANSI Standard A208.1–1999. The economic question hinges on the opportunity costs of alternative uses for ADBF. The current use is primarily animal bedding, and prices appear to be greater than those paid by particleboard plants for sawdust and planer shavings but less than for chips. ADBF is most similar in size to, thus most likely to be substitutable for, sawdust and shavings. At current bedding values, use for particleboard appears a less favorable alternative. However, this could be overcome by large-volume, long-term contractual arrangements that provide a secure long-term outlet for excess ADBF fiber that may otherwise not have value. For a particleboard operation, the opportunity for fiber diversification and the incorporation of post-industrial waste in the process offer strategic advantages.

  19. Production and application of chemical fibers with special properties for manufacturing composite materials and goods of different usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levit, R.

    1993-01-01

    The development of modern technologies demands the creation of new nonmetallic, fibrous materials with specific properties. The fibers and materials developed by NII 'Chimvolokno', St. Petersburg, can be divided into two groups. The first group includes heat-resistant fibers, fire-resistant fibers, thermotropic fibers, fibers for medical application, and textile structures. The second group contains refractory fibers, chemoresistant and antifriction fibers, fibers on the basis of polyvinyl alcohol, microfiltering films, and paperlike and nonwoven materials. In cooperation with NPO 'Chimvolokno' MYTITSHI, we developed and started producing heat-resistant high-strength fibers on the base of polyhetarearilin and aromatic polyimides (SVM and terlon); heat-resistant fibers on the base of polyemede (aramid); fire-retardant fibers (togilen); chemoresistant and antifriction fibers on the basis of homo and copolymers of polytetrafluoroethylene (polyfen and ftorin); and water soluble, acetylated, and high-modulus fibers from polyvinyl alcohol (vylen). Separate reports will deal with textile structures and thermotropic fibers, as well as with medical fibers. One of the groups of refractory fibers carbon fibers (CF) and the corresponding paperlike nonwoven materials are discussed in detail. Also, composite materials (CM) and their base, which is the subject of the author's research since 1968, is discussed.

  20. Sustainable Energy Solutions Task 4.1 Intelligent Manufacturing of Hybrid Carbon-Glass Fiber-Reinforced Composite Wind Turbine Blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janet M Twomey, PhD

    2010-04-30

    EXECUTIVE SUMARY In this subtask, the manufacturability of hybrid carbon-glass fiber-reinforced composite wind turbine blades using Vacuum-Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) was investigated. The objective of this investigation was to study the VARTM process and its parameters to manufacture cost-effective wind turbine blades with no defects (mainly eliminate dry spots and reduce manufacturing time). A 2.5-dimensional model and a 3-dimensional model were developed to simulate mold filling and part curing under different conditions. These conditions included isothermal and non-isothermal filling, curing of the part during and after filling, and placement of injection gates at different locations. Results from this investigation reveal that the process can be simulated and also that manufacturing parameters can be optimized to eliminate dry spot formation and reduce the manufacturing time. Using computer-based models is a cost-effective way to simulate manufacturing of wind turbine blades. The approach taken herein allows the design of the wind blade manufacturing processes without physically running trial-and-error experiments that are expensive and time-consuming; especially for larger blades needed for more demanding environmental conditions. This will benefit the wind energy industry by reducing initial design and manufacturing costs which can later be passed down to consumers and consequently make the wind energy industry more competitive.

  1. Manufacture of Green-Composite Sandwich Structures with Basalt Fiber and Bioepoxy Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Torres

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is a growing interest for the use and development of materials synthesized from renewable sources in the polymer composites manufacturing industry; this applies for both matrix and reinforcement components. In the present research, a novel basalt fibre reinforced (BFR bioepoxy green composite is proposed as an environmentally friendly alternative to traditional petroleum-derived composites. In addition, this material system was combined with cork as core material for the fabrication of fibre composite sandwich structures. Mechanical properties of both skin and core materials were assessed through flexural and tensile tests. Finite element (FEM simulations for the mechanical stress analysis of the sandwich material were carried out, and a maximum allowable shear stress for material failure under bending loads was established. Permeability measurements of the basalt fabrics were carried out in order to perform numerical simulations of liquid composite moulding (LCM processes on the PAM-RTM software. The proposed green-composite sandwich material was used for the fabrication of a longboard as a case study for a sports equipment application. Numerical simulations of the mould filling stage allowed the determination of an optimal mould filling strategy. Finally, the load-bearing capacity of the board was studied by means of FEM simulations, and the presented design proved to be acceptable for service.

  2. Biodiesel Production from Kapok (Ceiba pentandra Seed Oil using Naturally Alkaline Catalyst as an Effort of Green Energy and Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Handayani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, energy that used to serve all the needs of community, mainly generated from fossil (conventional energy. Terrace in energy consumption is not balanced with adequate fossil fuel reserves and will be totally depleted in the near future. Indonesian Government through a Presidential Decree No. 5 year 2006 mandates an increased capacity in renewable energy production from 5 percent to 15 percent in 2025. C. pentandra seed oil has feasibility as a sustainable biodiesel feedstock in Indonesia. The aim of this paper was to investigate biodiesel production from ceiba petandra seed oil using naturally potassium hydroxide catalyst. Research designs are based on factorial design with 2 levels and 3 independent variables (temperature, reaction time and molar ratio of methanol to oil. According to data calculation, the most influential single variable is molar ratio of methanol to oil. Characterization of biodiesel products meet all the qualifications standardized by SNI 04-7182-2006. Keywords: biodiesel, kapok seed oil, c. pentandra, green technology

  3. ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS LIGNIN DERIVED FROM CORN STOVER AS AN INTRINSTIC BINDER FOR BIO-COMPOSITES MANUFACTURE: EFFECT OF FIBER MOISTURE CONTENT AND PRESSING TEMPERATURE ON BOARDS’ PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanben Du

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Binderless fiberboards from enzymatic hydrolysis lignin (EHL and cotton stalk fibers were prepared under various manufacturing conditions, and their physico-mechanical properties were evaluated. Full factorial experimental design was used to assess the effect of fiber moisture content and pressing temperature on boards’ properties. In addition, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC was used to obtain the glass transition temperature (Tg of EHL. We found that both fiber moisture content and pressing temperature had significant effects on binderless fiberboards’ properties. High fiber moisture content and pressing temperature are suggested to contribute to the self-bonding improvement among fibers with lignin-rich surface mainly by thermal softening enzymatic hydrolysis lignin. In this experiment, the optimized pressing temperature applied in binderless fiberboard production should be as high as 190°C in accordance with the EHL Tg value of 189.4°C, and the fiber moisture content should be limited to less than 20% with a higher board density of 950 kg/m3 to avoid the delamination of boards during hot pressing.

  4. 碳纤维制造产业的专利分析%Analysis of patents on carbon fiber manufacturing technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冀小强; 易方方

    2012-01-01

    对碳纤维制造技术专利文献进行了检索统计,分别从年度发展趋势、专利申请国分布、申请人状况和中美日欧四局共同申请的重点专利布局等方面对碳纤维制造产业的国内外技术专利进行了分析,揭示了国内外碳纤维专利申请的现状,分析了主要专利申请人专利的国际专利分类领域和技术重点,为我国科研院所和企业提出了专利申请布局的相关建议.提出了我国应利用已公开的专利技术,研发特种碳纤维的制造技术,强化碳纤维的应用技术,促进碳纤维的产业化和工程化.%The relevant patents of carbon fiber manufacturing technologies were retrieved. The China and international patents on carbon fiber manufacturing technologies were analyzed from the aspects of annual trend and geographical spread of patent applications, statistics of patent applicants, distribution of key patents filed in US, Japan, Europe and China patent offices. The status of carbon fiber patent application was explored is China and abroad. The international classification and focal points of patent technology were analyzed according to the dominant patent applicants. Some suggestion on the patent application strategy was put forward for China science research institutes and enterprises. It was pointed out that China should develop the manufacturing technology of special carbon fiber, strengthen the application technology and stimulate the industrialization and engineering technology of carbon fiber using the published patent technologies.

  5. Development of Denim Composed of Embedding Spun Kapok/CottonYarn%嵌入纺木棉/棉牛仔面料的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田磊; 刘柳; 刘涛; 李竹君; 易长海

    2013-01-01

    介绍了嵌入纺木棉/棉牛仔面料织造工艺及后整理工艺过程,并对坯布和成品的指标进行测试分析;同时对不同洗水工艺后的织物性能进行了分析。%The weavingand finishing process of kapok/cotton denim were introduced in this paper. Propertyof the greyfabric and finished product was also tested and analyzed, including analysis on fabric performance after washing.

  6. Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a fiber-rich sandwich with whole-grain bread, peanut butter, and bananas. Use whole-grain spaghetti and other ... cookies and muffins. Top whole-wheat crackers with peanut butter or low-fat cheese. Go easy on the ...

  7. Development of manufacturing process for large-diameter composite monofilaments by pyrolysis of resin-impregnated carbon-fiber bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, W. G.; Pinoli, P. C.; Vidoz, A. E.

    1972-01-01

    Large diameter, carbon-carbon composite, monofilaments were produced from the pyrolysis of organic precursor resins reinforced with high-strenght carbon fibers. The mechanical properties were measured before and after pyrolysis and the results were correlated with the properties of the constituents. The composite resulting from the combination of Thornel 75 and GW-173 resin precursor produced the highest tensile strength. The importance of matching strain-to-failure of fibers and matrix to obtain all the potential reinforcement of fibers is discussed. Methods are described to reduce, within the carbonaceous matrix, pyrolysis flaws which tend to reduce the composite strength. Preliminary studies are described which demonstrated the feasibility of fiber-matrix copyrolysis to alleviate matrix cracking and provide an improved matrix-fiber interfacial bonding.

  8. Good manufacturing practice-compliant animal-free expansion of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stroma cells in a closed hollow-fiber-based bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nold, Philipp; Brendel, Cornelia; Neubauer, Andreas; Bein, Gregor; Hackstein, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stroma cells (MSC) are increasingly recognized for various applications of cell-based therapies such as regenerative medicine or immunomodulatory treatment strategies. Standardized large-scale expansions of MSC under good manufacturing practice (GMP)-compliant conditions avoiding animal derived components are mandatory for further evaluation of these novel therapeutic approaches in clinical trials. We applied a novel automated hollow fiber cell expansion system (CES) for in vitro expansion of human bone marrow derived MSC employing a GMP-compliant culture medium with human platelet lysate (HPL). Between 8 and 32 ml primary bone marrow aspirate were loaded into the hollow fiber CES and cultured for 15-27 days. 2-58 million MSC were harvested after primary culture. Further GMP-compliant cultivation of second passage MSC for 13 days led to further 10-20-fold enrichment. Viability, surface antigen expression, differentiation capacity and immunosuppressive function of MSC cultured in the hollow fiber CES were in line with standard criteria for MSC definition. We conclude that MSC can be enriched from primary bone marrow aspirate in a GMP-conform manner within a closed hollow fiber bioreactor and maintain their T lymphocyte inhibitory capacity. Standardized and reliable conditions for large scale MSC expansion pave the way for safe applications in humans in different therapeutic approaches.

  9. STUDY ON USING WASTE ORGANIC SILK TO MANUFACTURE ACTIVATED CARBON FIBER%废旧有机丝制备活性炭纤维的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建利; 杜美利; 黄婕; 王健

    2012-01-01

    活性炭纤维是以高聚物为原料,经高温炭化和活化而制成的一种纤维状高效吸附分离材料.利用废旧有机丝为原料,探索在不同工艺条件下制取活性炭纤维的可行性.经扫描电镜、X射线衍射、红外分光光度计及亚甲基蓝吸附实验分析得出优化的工艺条件为:炭化温度,650℃;用CO2活化,活化温度为950℃,活化时间为60 min,制得吸附性能优良的活性炭纤维.%The activated carbon fiber is a kind of highly effective separation and adsorption material, which takes polymer as raw material while carbonization and activation in high temperature. In this study, we use waste organic silk as raw material, seek feasibility to manufacture activated carbon fiber in different condition. In the end, through the SEM, XRD, IR and adsorption of methylene blue trihydrate, we has preparated excellent performance activated carbon fiber and concluded optimal conditions: carbonization temperature is 650 ℃ , activation is in CO2 atmosphere, activation temperature is 950 ℃, activation time is 60 min.

  10. [Survey of carbon fiber reinforced plastic orthoses and occupational and medical problems based on a questionnaire administered to companies involved in the manufacture of prosthetics and orthotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneshiro, Yuko; Furuta, Nami; Makino, Kenichiro; Wada, Futoshi; Hachisuka, Kenji

    2011-09-01

    We surveyed carbon fiber reinforced plastic orthoses (carbon orthoses) and their associated occupational and medical problems based on a questionnaire sent to 310 companies which were members of the Japan Orthotics and Prosthetics Association. Of all the companies, 232 responded: 77 of the 232 companies dealt with ready-made carbon orthoses, 52 dealt with fabricated custom-made orthoses, and 155 did not dealt with carbon orthoses. Although the total number of custom-made carbon ortheses in Japan was 829/ 5 years, there was a difference by region, and one company fabricated only 12 (per 5 years) custom-made carbon orthoses on average. The advantages of the carbon orthosis were the fact that it was "light weight", "well-fitted", had a "good appearance", and "excellent durability", while the disadvantages were that it was "expensive", "high cost of production", of "black color", and required a "longer time for completion", and "higher fabrication techniques". From the standpoint of industrial medicine, "scattering of fine fragments of carbon fibers", "itching on the skin" and "health hazards" were indicated in companies that manufacture the orthosis. In order to make the carbon orthosis more popular, it is necessary to develop a new carbon material that is easier to fabricate at a lower cost, to improve the fabrication technique, and to resolve the occupational and medical problems.

  11. Three-dimensional architecture of lithium-anodes made from graphite fibers coated with thin-films of silicon oxycarbide: Design, performance and manufacturability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Ibrahim; Raj, Rishi

    2016-04-01

    Silicon oxycarbide (SiCO) is an amorphous molecular network of Sisbnd Csbnd O tetrahedra anchored to graphene-like carbon. The graphene forms a three dimensional cellular network with a domain size of ∼5 nm. Therefore nanometer thick films of SiCO grown on graphite may be expected to have unusual behavior. We grow these films on a bed of commercially available graphite fibers that serve the dual function of a current collector. The electrochemical behavior of the composite is measured as a function of the thickness of the SiCO films. Thick films approach the typical behavior of bulk SiCO (which has three times the capacity of graphite, but suffers from poor first cycle efficiency). However, films, approximately 100 nm thick, show high first cycle efficiency as well as high capacity. The composite performs better than the prediction from the rule-of-mixtures, which further substantiates the unusual behavior of the thin-film architecture. The Raman spectra of these thin films also differ from bulk SiCO. The development of thin graphite fibers, with a high surface to volume ratio that have the same capacity as the current graphite-powder technology, coupled with manufacturing of these thin-films by a liquid-polymer precursor based process, can propel these results toward commercialization.

  12. Fiber Singular Optics

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Volyar

    2002-01-01

    The present review is devoted to the optical vortex behavior both in free space and optical fibers. The processes of the vortex transformations in perturbed optical fibers are analyzed on the base of the operator of the spin – orbit interaction in order to forecast the possible ways of manufacturing the vortex preserving fibers and their applications in supersensitive optical devices.

  13. The Fiber Optic Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Susan

    2003-01-01

    Describes the fiber optics programs at the Career and Technical Center in Berlin, Pennsylvania and the Charles S. Monroe Technology Center in Loudoun County, Virginia. Discusses the involvement of the Fiber Optic Association with education, research and development, manufacturing, sales, distribution, installation, and maintenance of fiber optic…

  14. Fiber Lasers V

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim P.; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin; Broeng, Jes;

    2008-01-01

    High-power fiber lasers and amplifiers have gained tremendous momentum in the last five years, and many of the traditional manufactures of gas and solid-state lasers are pursuing the attractive fiber-based systems, which are now displacing the old technology in many areas. High-power fiber laser ...

  15. Photonic crystal fibers -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Libori, Stig E. Barkou

    2002-01-01

    . Such micro-structured fibers are the ones most often trated in literature concerning micro-structured fibers. These micro-structured fibers offer a whole range of novel wave guiding characteristics, including the possibility of fibers that guide only one mode irrespective of the frequency of light....... The thesis focuses on understanding the basic mechanisms controlling the modal properties of micro-structured fibers. One important sub-class of micro-structured fibers are fibers that guide light by index effects similar to those index effects that ensure guidance of light in standard optical fibers...... complicated to manufacture, compared to micro-structured fibers that guide light by simple index effects, because of stringent requirements concerning the periodicity of the cladding structure of the fibers. The theoretical investigation of these fibers is also more complex, than the investigation of micro...

  16. INCLUSION OF KAPOK SEED OIL IN THE DIET FOR GROWING OF THIN-TAILED SHEEP TO REDUCE CHOLESTEROL AND TO IMPROVE OMEGA-SIX FATTY ACID CONTENTS OF LAMB

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Bachrudin; Surahmanto; H. Hartadi; Soejono, M; Widiyanto

    2012-01-01

    This research was conducted to study the influence of protected kapok seed oil (PKSO) supplementation in its combination with concentrate, in this case was rice bran (RB) on lipid content of thin tailed sheep received field grass as basal feed. A number of 24 heads of male thin-tailed sheep were used as experimental material. These sheep were divided into 8 treatment groups. There were two treatment factors, i.e. : PKSO supplementation (S) as factor I and RB supplementation (K) as factor II. ...

  17. Fiber optic hardware for transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, John A.

    1994-10-01

    Aircraft manufacturers are developing fiber optic technology to exploit the benefits in system performance and manufacturing cost reduction. The fiber optic systems have high bandwidths and exceptional Electromagnetic Interference immunity that exceeds all new aircraft design requirements. Additionally, aircraft manufacturers have shown production readiness of fiber optic systems and design feasibility.

  18. Additively Manufactured Propulsion System

    OpenAIRE

    Dushku, Matthew; Mueller, Paul

    2012-01-01

    New high-performance, carbon-fiber reinforced polymer material allows additive manufacturing to produce pressure vessels capable of high pressures (thousands of pounds per square inch). This advancement in turn allows integral hybrid propulsion which is revolutionary for both CubeSats and additively-manufactured spacecraft. Hybrid propulsion offers simplicity as compared to bipropellant liquid propulsion, significantly better safety compared to solid or monopropellant hydrazine propulsion, an...

  19. Lipophilic Fiber Material Properties and Applications%亲油性纤维材料性能及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘高

    2013-01-01

    The cellulosic fibers are widely distributed in nature, such as cones Fatong fibers, Kapok fibers, Yanghwa fibers, Dandelion fibers are cellulose fibers, fibers with oil fast, large oil, water repellent performance characteristics fibers for textile production and processing is not easy, but can be used as a sea absorbing material, and processing method is simple, absorbing effect.%  纤维素纤维是自然界广泛分布的天然纤维,像法桐球果纤维、木棉纤维、杨花纤维、蒲公英绒纤维,都是纤维素纤维,纤维具有吸油快、吸油量大、拒水的性能特点,纤维不易进行纺织生产加工,但可以作为海面吸油材料使用,并且加工方法简单,吸油效果好。

  20. The measurement of sucrose concentration by two-tapered all-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer employing different coupling structures and manufacture processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu-Sheng; Wang, Hsin-Wen; Hsu, Yi-Cheng

    2016-08-01

    The sucrose concentration measurement and characteristics of light coupling taper structure on sensitivity with various fabrication processes of taper structure for all-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (AFMZI) are presented. Using fusion splicer with electrical discharge, the standard single-mode fiber is employed to be fabricated as conical coupling/decoupling taper structure. The basic two fabrication processes are designed as single fusion-stretching (SFS), multiple fusions without stretching (MF). The third advanced process is composed of SFS and multiple fusions without stretching processes, and called multiple fusions with single stretching (MFSS). Various types of coupling/decoupling taper structures were fabricated based on the three kinds of fabrication processes. The effects of geometry shape including taper waist, taper angle, and sensing length on sensing sensitivity of AFMZIs are estimated. The modifications of fiber core and cladding induced by thermal effect affect the refractive index distributions and shapes of taper structure. The effects of refractive index changes of fiber core and cladding on sensing sensitivity are also discussed. The AFMZI was tested by measuring aqueous sucrose solution of refractive index unit (RIU) from 1.333 to 1.420 RIU. The optical spectrums are measured by a spectrometer. The spectrum dip shifts and sensing sensitivity was measured and calculated, respectively. As shown in results, sensing sensitivities of AFMZIs of taper structure fabricated by MFSS and multiple fusions without stretching processing are generally higher than SFS. The reasons could be aimed on materials modification through thermal effect on blurring fiber core-cladding interface and proper taper angle of taper structure. The more homogeneous refractive index distribution on fiber core-cladding interface, the more detecting light power decoupled through core-cladding interface to interact with exterior environment and enhance the sensing sensitivity

  1. An Engineering Manufacturing and Application of PAN-based Carbon Fibers%高性能聚丙烯腈基碳纤维工程化研制及应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李崇俊; 刘建军; 刘勇琼; 邓红兵; 王世英

    2011-01-01

    概述了西安康本材料公司高性能聚丙烯腈(PAN)基碳纤维工程化研制及应用进展情况。结果表明:在碳纤维方面,该公司在国产碳纤维原丝制造技术及碳纤维韧性提高方面都具有专有技术和独到之处;碳纤维主要性能指标达到了T300级水平,实现了1k和3k军工用小丝束碳纤维的连续稳定化生产和批量供货。在碳纤维复合材料应用方面,采用该公司碳纤维研制的碳/碳复合材料喉衬和碳纤维/酚醛树脂基扩张段,已成功地通过了固体火箭发动机(SRM)热试车试验考核,奠定了耐烧蚀材料方面的军工应用基础。目前3k碳纤维抗拉强度已达到4 500 MPa以上,实现了T400级的技术突破,正在以SRM壳体结构复合材料应用为目标,进行T700级高性能6k和12k碳纤维的攻关研制及应用试验。%It's briefly introduced that an engineering manufacturing and its application of PAN based carbon fibers made by Xi'an Carbon Materials Co., Ltd. (XCM). XCM has proprietary technologies and know-how in high performance precursor fibers and an enhanced toughness of carbon fibers. The carbon fibers properties have predomi- nately achieved T300 grade, and the engineering lines of lk and 3k fibers are now running continuously and stably as well as serve the customers in batch production. The components employed XCM carbon fibers, including carbon/carbon composites throat insert and carbon fiber reinforced phenolic resin exit cone, have been successfully evaluated in solid rocket motors firing test, laying the foundation of military industry application as ablation materials. The advanced grade carbon fiber has a tensile strength of over 4 500 MPa, indicating a technology breakthrough of T400 grade. XCM is now endeavoring in the T700 grade carbon fiber of 6k and 12k with the target of structural composites application in solid rocket motor cases.

  2. Study on the manufacturing technique of cement composite panel made from regenerated fiber%再生木纤维水泥复合板工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙照斌; 韩淑伟; 周宇

    2012-01-01

    The technique of fiber-cement composite panel made from regenerated fiber and fast-setting cement was carried out. The results indicated that density had significant affection on physical and mechanical performance of fiber-cement composite panel, the values of experimental panel .performance including MOR, soaking 24 h MOR,MOE and 24 h TS were 11.57 Mpa. 9.34 Mpa, 3172.90 Mpa and 0.95% respectively, could reach the national standard requirement of "Cement Particleboard" JC/T 411 - 2007.when the experimental factors including density.fiber/cement ratio,water/cement ratio,CaCl2 and unit pressure took such respectively values as 1.2 g/cm3,0.3,0.4,3% (weight of cement) and 2.5 Mpa.%对利用再生木质纤维和快凝水泥制备水泥纤维板的工艺进行了研究.结果表明,密度对水泥纤维板的物理力学性能影响显著,当密度为1.2 g/cm3、木灰比为0.3、水灰比为0.4、氯化钙为水泥用量的3%、压力为2.5 MPa时,所制备水泥纤维板的MOR为11.57 MPa,浸水24h MOR为9.34 MPa,MOE为3172.90 MPa,24 h吸水厚度膨胀率为0.95%,均符合JC/T 411-2007《水泥木屑板》标准要求.

  3. When Polypropylene Fiber Can Be Dyed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    By Tom Xue

    2008-01-01

    @@ What if polypropylene fiber can be dyed someday? That means fiber offers immense production possibilities,means manufacturers will benefit from increasing their operational effectiveness,reducing the inventory of colored yarns,means streamline production process,means……

  4. Airclad fiber laser technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim P.; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin; Broeng, Jes;

    2011-01-01

    High-power fiber lasers and amplifiers have gained tremendous momentum in the last 5 years. Many of the traditional manufacturers of gas and solid-state lasers are now pursuing the fiber-based systems, which are displacing the conventional technology in many areas. High-power fiber laser systems...... laser system. We present the latest advancements within airclad fiber technology including a new 100 m single-mode polarization-maintaining rod-type fiber capable of amplifying to megawatt power levels. Furthermore, we describe the novel airclad-based pump combiners and their use in a completely...... monolithic 350 W cw fiber laser system with an M2 of less than 1.1. © 2011 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)....

  5. Airclad fiber laser technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim P.; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin; Broeng, Jes;

    2008-01-01

    High-power fiber lasers and amplifiers have gained tremendous momentum in the last five years, and many of the traditional manufactures of gas and solid-state lasers are pursuing the attractive fiber-based systems, which are now displacing the old technology in many areas. High-power fiber laser...... laser system. We present the latest advancements within airclad fiber technology including a new 70 μm single-mode polarization-maintaining rod-type fiber capable of amplifying to MW power levels. Furthermore we describe the novel airclad based pump combiners and their use in a completely monolithic 350...... W CW fiber laser system with an M2 of less than 1.1. Finally, we briefly touch upon the subject of photo darkening and its origin....

  6. Computational manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a general framework for computational manufacturing. The methodology of computational manufacturing aims at integrating computational geometry, machining principle, sensor information fusion, optimization, computational intelligence and virtual prototyping to solve problems of the modeling, reasoning, control, planning and scheduling of manufacturing processes and systems. There are three typical problems in computational manufacturing, i.e., scheduling (time-domain), geometric reasoning (space-domain) and decision- making (interaction between time-domain and space-domain). Some theoretical fundamentals of computational manufacturing are also discussed.

  7. Using a Fiber Loop and Fiber Bragg Grating as a Fiber Optic Sensor to Simultaneously Measure Temperature and Displacement

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu-Chih Cheng; Yue-Shiun Wu; Chih-Ta Yen; Yao-Tang Chang

    2013-01-01

    This study integrated a fiber loop manufactured by using commercial fiber (SMF-28, Corning) and a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) to form a fiber optic sensor that could simultaneously measure displacement and temperature. The fiber loop was placed in a thermoelectric cooling module with FBG affixed to the module, and, consequently, the center wavelength displacement of FBG was limited by only the effects of temperature change. Displacement and temperature were determined by measuring changes in th...

  8. 薄竹面竹纤维增强酚醛泡沫夹芯复合板制备研究*%Manufacturing of Sliced Bamboo Veneer Faced Bamboo Fiber Reinforced Phenolic Foam Sandwich Panels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄晓伟; 张伟; 王春鹏; 李守海; 储富祥

    2013-01-01

      利用竹纤维、薄竹单板等短生长周期的可再生生物质资源制备了薄竹面竹纤维增强酚醛泡沫夹芯复合板材。研究环氧AB胶、白胶、万能胶和塑料胶4种市场上常见粘合剂对复合板材的胶合强度和耐高温性能的影响,确定最佳粘合剂为环氧AB胶。对无纺布、玻璃纤维布、不锈钢丝网、天然麻纤维网格布、抗裂的确良等5种不同网格材料增强薄竹面竹纤维增强酚醛泡沫夹芯复合板材的力学性能和尺寸稳定性进行了对比研究。结果表明,天然麻纤维网格布是最佳增强材料,与未用网格材料增强的薄竹面竹纤维增强酚醛泡沫夹芯复合板材相比,其压缩强度提高5.55%,纵向弯曲强度提高26.28%,横向弯曲强度提高28.33%,冲击强度提高68.47%。且天然麻纤维网格布增强薄竹面竹纤维增强酚醛泡沫夹芯复合板材性能基本达到JC/T 1051–2007“铝箔面硬质酚醛泡沫夹芯板”行业标准要求。%Fire-retardant phenolic foam sandwich panels were manufactured by using renewable bamboo fiber and sliced bamboo veneer. Effects of four types of adhesive,including epoxy adhesive,PVAC,decorating-adhesive and polystyrene adhesive on heat resistance and bonding strength of sandwich panels were studied. The results show that four types of adhesives can meet the demand of bonding strength of sandwich panels and the epoxy adhesive demonstrates best properties. Then five types grid fabrics such as non-woven fabrics,fiberglass fabrics,stainless steel wire mesh,natural hemp’s fiber mesh fabrics and terylene were used to improve the mechanical properties and the dimensional stability of bamboo fiber reinforced phenolic foamed sandwich panels. It is found that the natural hemp’s fibers mesh fabrics shows best results in five types fabrics. Compared the unreinforced composite plates,the compression strength of the sandwich panels reinforced by natural hemp’s fibers

  9. Precision manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Dornfeld, David

    2008-01-01

    Today there is a high demand for high-precision products. The manufacturing processes are now highly sophisticated and derive from a specialized genre called precision engineering. Precision Manufacturing provides an introduction to precision engineering and manufacturing with an emphasis on the design and performance of precision machines and machine tools, metrology, tooling elements, machine structures, sources of error, precision machining processes and precision process planning. As well as discussing the critical role precision machine design for manufacturing has had in technological developments over the last few hundred years. In addition, the influence of sustainable manufacturing requirements in precision processes is introduced. Drawing upon years of practical experience and using numerous examples and illustrative applications, David Dornfeld and Dae-Eun Lee cover precision manufacturing as it applies to: The importance of measurement and metrology in the context of Precision Manufacturing. Th...

  10. Study of a three-stage fluidized bed process treating acrylic synthetic-fiber manufacturing wastewater containing high-strength nitrogenous compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, S S; Chen, Y N; Wu, K L; Chuang, H P; Chen, S D

    2004-01-01

    Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) is one of the major synthetic fibers commonly used in the mass production of clothing. The chemical synthesis of PAN is carried out by polymerization of the acrylonitrile (AN) monomers with co-monomers such as vinyl acetate, methyl acrylate and cyclohexyl acrylate. Using water quality analysis of the PAN wastewater, high concentration of organic nitrogen was found and the TKN/COD ratios achieved were 0.15-0.26, indicating the complicated biodegradation characteristics for the PAN wastewater. In order to enhance biodegradation of nitrogenous compounds in PAN wastewater, a combined three-stage process of thermophilic anaerobic/anoxic denitrification/aerobic nitrification fluidized bed reactors was employed. The results indicated that the concentration of effluent in the three-stage process of OD and organic nitrogen was 175 mg/L and 13 mg/L, respectively. Furthermore, molecular biotechnology was applied to study the microbial population in the thermophilic anaerobic fluidized bed reactor. From the results of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, the diversity of PAN-degrading bacteria would change in different volumetric loading. Furthermore, the bacteria communities in the thermophilic anaerobic fluidized bed reactor were also studied by fluorescence in situ hybridization and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Alpha and delta-Proteobacteria were dominant in the bacteria population, and some high G+C content bacteria and Clostridium could be characterized in this system. PMID:15137414

  11. 植被恢复用植生卷材制造技术及其应用%Manufacture Technology of Vegetative Blanket of Natural Fiber for Revegetation and Its Use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭文静; 赵平; 王正; 范留芬

    2011-01-01

    综述以植物纤维为主要原料的复合植生卷材在边坡绿化中的应用优势,介绍复合植生卷材的特点以及以无纺布或纸、农作物秸秆、木纤维为主要原料的不同复合植生卷材的制造技术及其特点,概述复合植生卷材的国内外技术发展应用状况,并提出复合植生卷材在植被恢复和边坡绿化等领域的应用前景及其在我国生态环境综合治理中低碳加工、循环利用的新思路。%The application advantages of vegetative blanket made from natural fiber in slope vegetation were summarized. Both the characteristics of compounded vegetative blanket as well as the manufacture technology and characteristics of different types of compounded vegetative blanket made from paper or nonwoven fabrics, crop stalks and wood fiber respectively were described. The technology development and application of compounded vegetative blanket at home and abroad were also reviewed. Finally, the paper prospected the application of compounded vegetative blanket in revegetation and slope vegetation, and proposed the new thought that corapounded vegetative blanket can be used in China's eological environment improvement to achieve low-carbon and recycling use.

  12. Piezoelectric ceramic fibers for active fiber composites: a comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornmann, Xavier; Huber, Christian; Elsener, Hans-Rudolf

    2003-08-01

    The morphology and the free strain performances of three different piezoelectric ceramic fibers used for the manufacture of active fiber composites (AFCs) have been investigated. The morphology of the fibers has a direct influence on the manufacture of the AFCs. Fibers with non-uniform diameters are more difficult to contact with the interdigitated electrodes and can be the cause of irreparable damages in AFCs. An indirect method requiring the use of a simple analytical model is proposed to evaluate the free strain of active fiber composites. This indirect method presents a relatively good agreement with direct free strain measurements performed with strain gages glued on both sides of an AFC. The results show a systematic difference of ca. 20 % between the indirect and the direct methods. However, the indirect method did not permit to see differences of piezoelectric performance between the types of fibers.

  13. 麻秆芯纤维发泡缓冲包装材料的制备工艺%Manufacturing Technology of Foaming Buffer Packaging Material Prepared from Cannabis sativa Core Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何蕊; 陈太安; 戈应仓

    2011-01-01

    利用大麻秆芯纤维为植物纤维原料制备缓冲包装材料,探讨麻秆芯纤维添加量、胶黏剂、发泡剂和填料4个工艺因素对发泡体性能的影响,并利用外观特征、密度和回弹率3个性能指标对发泡体进行综合评价,筛选出的优化工艺条件为:麻秆芯纤维添加量为30.0%,胶黏剂用量为20.0%,发泡剂用量为1.5%,填料用量为10.0%.优化工艺条件下制备的发泡材料外观量化评分为9,密度为0.151//cm3,回弹率为3.22%,初步达到缓冲包装材料的要求.%The foaming buffer packaging material was experimented to be made of the Cannabis sativa stem core fiber. The influence of the proportion of four major raw material components i. e. , the amount of C. sativa stem core fiber, glue dosage, dosage of foaming agent and the additive dosage applied, upon the properties of foaming material was studied, and the properties of the foaming material were comprehensively evaluated with appearance, bulk density and shape recovery rate indexes. The results showed that the optimized raw material proportionfor the processing was 30. 0% of fiber, 20. 0% of glue, 1. 5% of foaming agent and 10. 0% of additive. The foaming buffer packaging material manufactured by the optimized processing technology was assessed that the appearance was scored as 9 points, the bulk density was 0. 151 g/cm3 and the shape recovery rate was 3. 22% , indicating that the foaming material could be used as buffer packaging material.

  14. Cable manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, P.

    1972-01-01

    A survey is presented of flat electrical cable manufacturing, with particular reference to patented processes. The economics of manufacture based on an analysis of material and operating costs is considered for the various methods. Attention is given to the competitive advantages of the several processes and their resulting products. The historical area of flat cable manufacture is presented to give a frame of reference for the survey.

  15. Green insulation: hemp fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2011-09-15

    Indian hemp (Cannabis indica) is known for its psychotropic values and it is banned in most countries. However, industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa) is known for its tough fibers. Several manufactures in Europe including, small niche players, have been marketing hemp insulation products for several years. Hemp is a low environmental impact material. Neither herbicide nor pesticide is used during the growth of hemp. The fibers are extracted in a waste-free and chemical-free mechanical process. Hemp can consume CO2 during its growth. In addition, hemp fiber can be disposed of harmlessly by composting or incineration at the end of its life. Hemp fibers are processed and treated only minimally to resist rot and fungal activity. There is little health risk when producing and installing the insulation, thanks to the absence of toxic additive. Its thermal resistance is comparable to mineral wool. But the development and marketing of hemp fibers may be restricted in North America.

  16. The design of recycled waste fiber nonwovens manufacturing honeycomb sandwich structure%再生废旧纤维非织造布制造蜂窝夹层结构的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许兰涛; 王山英; 粘伟诚; 田雨胜; 吴晓青

    2013-01-01

    Basing various plain press damage way of the material , via reduction of plain press damage formula the structure design of the recycled waste fiber nonwovens manufacturing honeycomb sandwich structure material was studied.By the property parameter of the nonwovens , through calculation and design the ratio of wall thickness/honeycomb length ts c =0.03, the theory plain press strength of the material would be the highest, in this condition, the nonwovens with honeycomb sandwich structure was designed .%  根据材料不同的平压破坏形式,通过对平压破坏方程的推导,对用再生废旧纤维制造的非织造布蜂窝夹层结构材料的结构设计进行了研究。依据非织造布的性能参数,通过计算得出了蜂壁厚度ts/蜂窝边长c为0.03时蜂窝夹层结构材料的理论平压强度最大,设计时非织造布蜂窝边长c与蜂壁厚度ts按满足ts c =0.03条件取值均可。

  17. Thermoplastic prepreg manufacture by solution impregnation

    OpenAIRE

    Goodman, Kendall E.

    1990-01-01

    Advanced thermoplastic composites are commonly manufactured from "'prepreg" materials, where the reinforcing fibers are preimpregnated with resin. The objectives of this investigation were to identify the critical parameters in impregnation of the fiber tow by a thermoplastic solution, and to produce high quality thermoplastic prepreg. Continuous carbon fibers (AS4 and AU4) were impregnated with a thermoplastic resin solution using a research scale, single tow, drum winding...

  18. Agave Americana Leaf Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Hulle

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing environmental problems, the problem of waste disposal and the depletion of non-renewable resources have stimulated the use of green materials compatible with the environment to reduce environmental impacts. Therefore, there is a need to design products by using natural resources. Natural fibers seem to be a good alternative since they are abundantly available and there are a number of possibilities to use all the components of a fiber-yielding crop; one such fiber-yielding plant is Agave Americana. The leaves of this plant yield fibers and all the parts of this plant can be utilized in many applications. The “zero-waste” utilization of the plant would enable its production and processing to be translated into a viable and sustainable industry. Agave Americana fibers are characterized by low density, high tenacity and high moisture absorbency in comparison with other leaf fibers. These fibers are long and biodegradable. Therefore, we can look this fiber as a sustainable resource for manufacturing and technical applications. Detailed discussion is carried out on extraction, characterization and applications of Agave Americana fiber in this paper.

  19. Manufacturing technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Manufacturing Technologies Center is an integral part of Sandia National Laboratories, a multiprogram engineering and science laboratory, operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) with major facilities at Albuquerque, New Mexico, and Livermore, California. Our Center is at the core of Sandia`s Advanced Manufacturing effort which spans the entire product realization process.

  20. Manufacturing Interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houten, van F.J.A.M.

    1992-01-01

    The paper identifies the changing needs and requirements with respect to the interfacing of manufacturing functions. It considers the manufacturing system, its components and their relationships from the technological and logistic point of view, against the background of concurrent engineering. Desi

  1. Papyrus Manufacture

    OpenAIRE

    Leach, Bridget

    2009-01-01

    The papyrus plant that grew along the River Nile was used to manufacture writing material in ancient Egypt. It was employed throughout the Classical Period and beyond until superseded by paper in about 800 CE.

  2. Micro Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2003-01-01

    Manufacturing deals with systems that include products, processes, materials and production systems. These systems have functional requirements, constraints, design parameters and process variables. They must be decomposed in a systematic manner to achieve the best possible system performance....... If a micro manufacturing system isn’t designed rationally and correctly, it will be high-cost, unreliable, and not robust. For micro products and systems it is a continuously increasing challenge to create the operational basis for an industrial production. As the products through product development...... processes are made applicable to a large number of customers, the pressure in regard to developing production technologies that make it possible to produce the products at a reasonable price and in large numbers is growing. The micro/nano manufacturing programme at the Department of Manufacturing...

  3. Smart Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jim; Edgar, Thomas; Graybill, Robert; Korambath, Prakashan; Schott, Brian; Swink, Denise; Wang, Jianwu; Wetzel, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Historic manufacturing enterprises based on vertically optimized companies, practices, market share, and competitiveness are giving way to enterprises that are responsive across an entire value chain to demand dynamic markets and customized product value adds; increased expectations for environmental sustainability, reduced energy usage, and zero incidents; and faster technology and product adoption. Agile innovation and manufacturing combined with radically increased productivity become engines for competitiveness and reinvestment, not simply for decreased cost. A focus on agility, productivity, energy, and environmental sustainability produces opportunities that are far beyond reducing market volatility. Agility directly impacts innovation, time-to-market, and faster, broader exploration of the trade space. These changes, the forces driving them, and new network-based information technologies offering unprecedented insights and analysis are motivating the advent of smart manufacturing and new information technology infrastructure for manufacturing.

  4. Sustainable Development in Chemical Fiber Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Flora Zhao

    2012-01-01

    The 18th China International Man-Made Fiber Conference (Xiaoshan 2012), themed on "How does Chemical Fiber Industry to Realize Sustainable Development against the Background of High-cost Era?", kicked off in Hangzhou on September 6th, 2012. More than 600 representatives from nearly 20 major chemical fiber manufacturing countries and regions all over the world were gathered together to discuss the sustainable development strategies of international chemical fiber industry in the context of the current compficated environment from different perspectives.

  5. 76 FR 1599 - Foreign-Trade Zone 203-Moses Lake, Washington; Application for Manufacturing Authority, SGL...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 203--Moses Lake, Washington; Application for Manufacturing Authority, SGL Automotive Carbon Fibers, LLC, (Carbon Fiber Manufacturing), Moses Lake, WA An application... Carbon Fibers, LLC (SGL Automotive), located in Moses Lake, Washington. The application was...

  6. Dietary Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiber is a substance in plants. Dietary fiber is the kind you eat. It's a type of carbohydrate. You may also see it listed on a food label as soluble fiber or insoluble fiber. Both types have important health benefits. Good sources of dietary fiber include Whole grains Nuts ...

  7. Preliminary characterization of glass fiber sizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Helga Nørgaard; Kusano, Yukihiro; Brøndsted, Povl;

    2013-01-01

    Glass fiber surfaces are treated with sizing during manufacturing. Sizing consists of several components, including a film former and a silane coupling agent that is important for adhesion between glass fibers and a matrix. Although the sizing highly affects the composite interface and thus...... the strength of the composites, little is known about the structure and chemistry of the sizing. A part of sizing was extracted by soxhlet extraction. The fibers were subsequently burned and some fibers were merely burned for analysis of glass fiber and sizing. The results showed that the analyzed fibers had...

  8. Measurement comparison of cotton fiber micronaire and its components by portable near infrared spectroscopy instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micronaire is a key cotton fiber classing and quality assessment property, and changes in fiber micronaire can impact downstream fiber processing and dye consistency in the textile manufacturing industry. Micronaire is a function of two fiber components—fiber maturity and fineness. Historically, m...

  9. Manufacturing technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, J.A.; Floyd, H.L.; Goetsch, B.; Doran, L. [eds.

    1993-08-01

    This bulletin depicts current research on manufacturing technology at Sandia laboratories. An automated, adaptive process removes grit overspray from jet engine turbine blades. Advanced electronic ceramics are chemically prepared from solution for use in high- voltage varistors. Selective laser sintering automates wax casting pattern fabrication. Numerical modeling improves performance of photoresist stripper (simulation on Cray supercomputer reveals path to uniform plasma). And mathematical models help make dream of low- cost ceramic composites come true.

  10. Green Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patten, John

    2013-12-31

    Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

  11. Chrysotile asbestos exposure in the manufacturing of thermal insulating boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagia, L J; Vyas, J B; Shaikh, M I; Dodia, S L

    2010-08-01

    Exposure to asbestos fibers has been extensively studied in milling, mining of asbestos fibers, and in industries manufacturing asbestos-cement sheets, pipes, etc. However, very few studies have been reported in asbestos textiles, brake lining workers, and insulation products. In the present investigation, chrysotile exposure monitoring was carried out in a small thermal insulating boards manufacturing facility. Twenty-eight samples were analyzed from various locations like feeding of raw materials, weighing, pressing, machine grinding, and hand finishing of final products. Twenty-five percent of the samples were found to be above ACGIH TLV of 0.1 fibers per milliliter. However, mean fiber concentrations were found to be lower than 0.1 fibers per milliliter, except for the process of feeding of raw materials where the mean fiber concentration was 0.1087+/-0.0631 fibers per milliliter. PMID:19626449

  12. Fiber coupler end face wavefront surface metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compertore, David C.; Ignatovich, Filipp V.; Marcus, Michael A.

    2015-09-01

    Despite significant technological advances in the field of fiber optic communications, one area remains surprisingly `low-tech': fiber termination. In many instances it involves manual labor and subjective visual inspection. At the same time, high quality fiber connections are one of the most critical parameters in constructing an efficient communication link. The shape and finish of the fiber end faces determines the efficiency of a connection comprised of coupled fiber end faces. The importance of fiber end face quality becomes even more critical for fiber connection arrays and for in the field applications. In this article we propose and demonstrate a quantitative inspection method for the fiber connectors using reflected wavefront technology. The manufactured and polished fiber tip is illuminated by a collimated light from a microscope objective. The reflected light is collected by the objective and is directed to a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. A set of lenses is used to create the image of the fiber tip on the surface of the sensor. The wavefront is analyzed by the sensor, and the measured parameters are used to obtain surface properties of the fiber tip, and estimate connection loss. For example, defocus components in the reflected light indicate the presence of bow in the fiber end face. This inspection method provides a contact-free approach for quantitative inspection of fiber end faces and for estimating the connection loss, and can potentially be integrated into a feedback system for automated inspection and polishing of fiber tips and fiber tip arrays.

  13. Small Business Innovations (Fiber Optics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Foster-Miller, Inc. Waltham, MA developed the In-Situ Fiber Optic Polymer Reaction Monitor which could lead to higher yields and lower costs in complex composite manufacturing. The monitor, developed under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract with Langley Research Center, uses an infrared, fiber optic sensor to track the molecular vibrational characteristics of a composite part while it is being cured. It is the first analytical system capable of directly measuring the chemistry of advanced composite materials.

  14. Using a Fiber Loop and Fiber Bragg Grating as a Fiber Optic Sensor to Simultaneously Measure Temperature and Displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yao-Tang; Yen, Chih-Ta; Wu, Yue-Shiun; Cheng, Hsu-Chih

    2013-01-01

    This study integrated a fiber loop manufactured by using commercial fiber (SMF-28, Corning) and a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) to form a fiber optic sensor that could simultaneously measure displacement and temperature. The fiber loop was placed in a thermoelectric cooling module with FBG affixed to the module, and, consequently, the center wavelength displacement of FBG was limited by only the effects of temperature change. Displacement and temperature were determined by measuring changes in the transmission of optical power and shifts in Bragg wavelength. This study provides a simple and economical method to measure displacement and temperature simultaneously. PMID:23681094

  15. Using a Fiber Loop and Fiber Bragg Grating as a Fiber Optic Sensor to Simultaneously Measure Temperature and Displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu-Chih Cheng

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study integrated a fiber loop manufactured by using commercial fiber (SMF-28, Corning and a fiber Bragg grating (FBG to form a fiber optic sensor that could simultaneously measure displacement and temperature. The fiber loop was placed in a thermoelectric cooling module with FBG affixed to the module, and, consequently, the center wavelength displacement of FBG was limited by only the effects of temperature change. Displacement and temperature were determined by measuring changes in the transmission of optical power and shifts in Bragg wavelength. This study provides a simple and economical method to measure displacement and temperature simultaneously.

  16. Great prospects for fiber optics sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, T. E.

    1983-10-01

    Fiber optic sensors provide noise immunity and galvanic insulation at the measurement point. Interest in such sensors is increasing for these reasons. In the United States sales are expected to increase from 12 million dollars in 1981 to 180 million in 1991. Interferometric sensors based on single modus fibers deliver extremely high sensitivity, while sensors based on multi-modus fibers are more easily manufactured. The fiber optic sensors which are available today are based on point measurements. Development of fiber optic sensors in Norway is being carried out at the Central institute and has resulted in the development of medical manometers which are now undergoing clinical testing.

  17. 78 FR 16247 - Approval for Export-Only Manufacturing Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 203, SGL Automotive Carbon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... public comment has been given in the Federal Register (76 FR 1599, 1/11/2011) and the application has... Automotive Carbon Fibers, LLC, (Carbon Fiber Manufacturing), Moses Lake, Washington Pursuant to its authority... requested export-only manufacturing authority on behalf of SGL Automotive Carbon Fibers, LLC, within FTZ...

  18. Enhanced nonlinear effects in photonic crystal fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yan-feng; HU Ming-lie; CHAI Lu; WANG Ching-yue

    2006-01-01

    Photonic crystal fibers are a new class of single-material optical fibers with wavelength-scale air holes running down the entire fiber length.Photonic crystal fibers were first developed in 1996 and have subsequently been the focus of increasing scientific and technological interest in the field of fiber optics.The manufacturing,principles,basic properties,and some applications of photonic crystal fibers are briefly described in this paper.A review of our recent work on the nonlinear effects in photonic crystal fibers is presented,and special emphasis is placed on such effects as supercontinuum generation,frequency conversion, and solitons observed when femtosecond light pulses propagate in these fibers.

  19. Optimized manufacturable porous materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Erik; Andreasen, Casper Schousboe; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard;

    to include manufacturing constraints in the optimization. This work focuses on incorporating the manufacturability into the optimization procedure, allowing the resulting material structure to be manufactured directly using rapid manufacturing techniques, such as selective laser melting/sintering (SLM...

  20. Porous-core honeycomb bandgap THz fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Jepsen, Peter Uhd;

    2011-01-01

    In this Letter we propose a novel (to our knowledge) porous-core honeycomb bandgap design. The holes of the porous core are the same size as the holes in the surrounding cladding, thereby giving the proposed fiber important manufacturing benefits. The fiber is shown to have a 0:35-THz......-wide fundamental bandgap centered at 1:05 THz. The calculated minimum loss of the fiber is 0:25 dB=cm....

  1. Mechanical Properties of Heat-treated Carbon Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effinger, Michael R.; Patel, Bhavesh; Koenig, John; Cuneo, Jaques; Neveux, Michael G.; Demos, Chrystoph G.

    2004-01-01

    Carbon fibers are selected for ceramic matrix composites (CMC) are based on their as-fabricated properties or on "that is what we have always done" technical culture while citing cost and availability when there are others with similar cost and availability. However, the information is not available for proper selection of carbon fibers since heat-treated properties are not known for the fibers on the market currently. Heat-treating changes the fiber's properties. Therefore, an effort was undertaken to establish fiber properties on 19 different types of fibers from six different manufactures for both PAN and pitch fibers. Heat-treating has been done at three different temperatures.

  2. 围绕市场发展国产碳纤维制备及其应用技术%Based on the market to develop manufacture and application technologies of the native carbon fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯闻; 徐梁华

    2013-01-01

    结合国产碳纤维目前的研发和生产状态,对比了国产与进口碳纤维的性能差距;介绍了国内几家主要碳纤维生产厂家的生产流程,并结合其产品情况比较了各自生产流程的优劣;根据碳纤维的市场情况,提出了扩大国产碳纤维市场表现需要关注的几个方面.最后指出,现阶段应以提高原丝纺丝和预氧化工艺效率为重点,通过提升效率,降低PAN碳纤维的制备成本;同时应拓宽碳纤维的产品种类,持续缩小国产与进口碳纤维的差距,拓展在市场中的深度和广度.%In this articles,we compared the difference between the native and the imported carbon fiber with the native carbon fiber,combined with the native carbon fiber's state of the research and production,Introduce several factories of native carbon fiber and their producing flow,compare the advantage and disadvantage with their production.We present several factors to improve the market shares according to current market situation.Finally point that:we can reduce the cost of the native carbon fiber through improving the efficiency of spinning and the pre-oxidation,we also need to broaden the categories of the native carbon fiber,narrow the gap between the native and imported carbon fiber,develop their market deep and broadly.

  3. Hybrid fiber and nanopowder reinforced composites for wind turbine blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoloz M. Chikhradze

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of an investigation into the production of wind turbine blades manufactured using polymer composites reinforced by hybrid (carbon, basalt, glass fibers and strengthened by various nanopowders (oxides, carbides, borides are presented. The hybrid fiber-reinforced composites (HFRC were manufactured with prepreg technology by molding pre-saturated epoxy-strengthened matrix-reinforced fabric. Performance of the manufactured composites was estimated with values of the coefficient of operating condition (COC at a moderate and elevated temperature.

  4. The Economics of Big Area Addtiive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, Brian [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Lloyd, Peter D [ORNL; Lindahl, John [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Lind, Randall F [ORNL; Love, Lonnie J [ORNL; Kunc, Vlastimil [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Case studies on the economics of Additive Manufacturing (AM) suggest that processing time is the dominant cost in manufacturing. Most additive processes have similar performance metrics: small part sizes, low production rates and expensive feedstocks. Big Area Additive Manufacturing is based on transitioning polymer extrusion technology from a wire to a pellet feedstock. Utilizing pellets significantly increases deposition speed and lowers material cost by utilizing low cost injection molding feedstock. The use of carbon fiber reinforced polymers eliminates the need for a heated chamber, significantly reducing machine power requirements and size constraints. We hypothesize that the increase in productivity coupled with decrease in feedstock and energy costs will enable AM to become more competitive with conventional manufacturing processes for many applications. As a test case, we compare the cost of using traditional fused deposition modeling (FDM) with BAAM for additively manufacturing composite tooling.

  5. Water Fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Douvidzon, Mark L; Martin, Leopoldo L; Carmon, Tal

    2016-01-01

    Fibers constitute the backbone of modern communication and are used in laser surgeries; fibers also genarate coherent X-ray, guided-sound and supercontinuum. In contrast, fibers for capillary oscillations, which are unique to liquids, were rarely considered in optofluidics. Here we fabricate fibers by water bridging an optical tapered-coupler to a microlensed coupler. Our water fibers are held in air and their length can be longer than a millimeter. These hybrid fibers co-confine two important oscillations in nature: capillary- and electromagnetic-. We optically record vibrations in the water fiber, including an audio-rate fundamental and its 3 overtones in a harmonic series, that one can hear in soundtracks attached. Transforming Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems [MEMS] to Micro-Electro-Capillary-Systems [MECS], boosts the device softness by a million to accordingly improve its response to minute forces. Furthermore, MECS are compatible with water, which is a most important liquid in our world.

  6. V1.6 Development of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies for Low Cost Hydrogen Storage Vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leavitt, Mark; Lam, Patrick; Nelson, Karl M.; johnson, Brice A.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Alvine, Kyle J.; Ruiz, Antonio; Adams, Jesse

    2012-10-01

    The goal of this project is to develop an innovative manufacturing process for Type IV high-pressure hydrogen storage vessels, with the intent to significantly lower manufacturing costs. Part of the development is to integrate the features of high precision AFP and commercial FW. Evaluation of an alternative fiber to replace a portion of the baseline fiber will help to reduce costs further.

  7. Tapering of Polymer Optical Fibers for Compound Parabolic Concentrator Fiber Tip Fabrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassan, Hafeez Ul; Fasano, Andrea; Nielsen, Kristian;

    2015-01-01

    We propose a process for Polymer Optical Fiber (POF) Compound Parabolic Compound (CPC) tip manufacturing using a heat and pull fiber tapering technique. The POF, locally heated above its glass transition temperature, is parabolically tapered down in diameter, after which it is cut to the desired...

  8. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikes, John

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) is developing and maturing innovative and advanced manufacturing technologies that will enable more capable and lower-cost spacecraft, launch vehicles and infrastructure to enable exploration missions. The technologies will utilize cutting edge materials and emerging capabilities including metallic processes, additive manufacturing, composites, and digital manufacturing. The AMT project supports the National Manufacturing Initiative involving collaboration with other government agencies.

  9. Nickel coated graphite fiber conductive composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, R.E.; Hall, D.E.; Luxon, B.A.

    1986-07-01

    Nickel coated graphite (NCG) fiber, consisting of a thin continuous plating of high purity nickel over an aerospace-grade graphite core, offers performance added features by combining the lightweight and high structural reinforcement of graphite fiber with the thermal and electrical conductivity of nickel. These NCG filaments, which are composite constructions in their own right, can be processed and impregnated with thermosetting or thermoplastic resins in the same manner that graphite fiber tows are processed and impregnated to produce roving, tape or fabric prepreg. Therefore, NCG fibers can be readily integrated into structural laminate assemblies using established composites-manufacturing practices.

  10. Quantitative risk assessment of durable glass fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayerweather, William E; Eastes, Walter; Cereghini, Francesco; Hadley, John G

    2002-06-01

    This article presents a quantitative risk assessment for the theoretical lifetime cancer risk from the manufacture and use of relatively durable synthetic glass fibers. More specifically, we estimate levels of exposure to respirable fibers or fiberlike structures of E-glass and C-glass that, assuming a working lifetime exposure, pose a theoretical lifetime cancer risk of not more than 1 per 100,000. For comparability with other risk assessments we define these levels as nonsignificant exposures. Nonsignificant exposure levels are estimated from (a) the Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) chronic rat inhalation bioassay of durable E-glass microfibers, and (b) the Research Consulting Company (RCC) chronic inhalation bioassay of durable refractory ceramic fibers (RCF). Best estimates of nonsignificant E-glass exposure exceed 0.05-0.13 fibers (or shards) per cubic centimeter (cm3) when calculated from the multistage nonthreshold model. Best estimates of nonsignificant C-glass exposure exceed 0.27-0.6 fibers/cm3. Estimates of nonsignificant exposure increase markedly for E- and C-glass when non-linear models are applied and rapidly exceed 1 fiber/cm3. Controlling durable fiber exposures to an 8-h time-weighted average of 0.05 fibers/cm3 will assure that the additional theoretical lifetime risk from working lifetime exposures to these durable fibers or shards is kept below the 1 per 100,000 level. Measured airborne exposures to respirable, durable glass fibers (or shards) in glass fiber manufacturing and fabrication operations were compared with the nonsignificant exposure estimates described. Sampling results for B-sized respirable E-glass fibers at facilities that manufacture or fabricate small-diameter continuous-filament products, from those that manufacture respirable E-glass shards from PERG (process to efficiently recycle glass), from milled fiber operations, and from respirable C-glass shards from Flakeglass operations indicate very low median exposures of 0

  11. Additive manufacturing : A new option in manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Nestrell, Annéa

    2015-01-01

    GE Healthcare wants to investigate whether additive manufacturing would be an alternative method in their workshops in the Umeå plant. Additive manufacturing is called 3D printing in everyday language and manufactures details by building them up layer by layer in an automated machine. The purpose of this work is therefore to investigate how mature additive manufacturing methods are and how they could be used at GE. The work has been divided into three parts. The first section investigates ho...

  12. Desktop Manufacturing Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Mark

    1991-01-01

    Desktop manufacturing is the use of data from a computer-assisted design system to construct actual models of an object. Emerging processes are stereolithography, laser sintering, ballistic particle manufacturing, laminated object manufacturing, and photochemical machining. (SK)

  13. Mechanical Properties of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, Fergyanto E.; Homma, Hiroomi; Brodjonegoro, Satryo S.; Hudin, Afzer Bin Baseri; Zainuddin, Aryanti Binti

    In tropical countries such as Indonesia and Malaysia, the empty fruit bunches are wastes of the oil palm industry. The wastes are abundantly available and has reached a level that severely threats the environment. Therefore, it is a great need to find useful applications of those waste materials; but firstly, the mechanical properties of the EFB fiber should be quantified. In this work, a small tensile test machine is manufactured, and the tensile test is performed on the EFB fibers. The results show that the strength of the EFB fiber is strongly affected by the fiber diameter; however, the fiber strength is relatively low in comparison to other natural fibers.

  14. Scintillating optical fibers for fine-grained hodoscopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borenstein, S.R.; Strand, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    Fast detectors with fine spatial resolution will be needed to exploit high event rates at ISABELLE. Scintillating optical fibers for fine grained hodoscopes have been developed by the authors. A commercial manufacturer of optical fibers has drawn and clad PVT scintillator. Detection efficiencies greater than 99% have been achieved for a 1 mm fiber with a PMT over lengths up to 60 cm. Small diameter PMT's and avalanche photodiodes have been tested with the fibers. Further improvements are sought for the fiber and for the APD's sensitivity and coupling efficiency with the fiber.

  15. Tribology in Manufacturing Technology

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The present book aims to provide research advances on tribology in manufacturing technology for modern industry. This book can be used as a research book for final undergraduate engineering course (for example, mechanical, manufacturing, materials, etc) or as a subject on manufacturing at the postgraduate level. Also, this book can serve as a useful reference for academics, manufacturing and tribology researchers, mechanical, mechanical, manufacturing and materials engineers, professionals in related industries with manufacturing and tribology.

  16. Status of fiber lasers study of on ytterbium doped fiber laser and laser spectroscopy of doped fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work shows all the advantages and drawbacks of the rare-earth-doped fiber lasers and fiber optical amplifiers, pointing out their potential use for instrumentation and optical fiber sensor technology. The theory of light propagation in optical fibers is presented in order to understand the manufacturing methods. A comparative study of preform surface and concentration analysis is performed. The gain behaviour is also thoroughly examined. A synthesis of all technological parameters of the fiber laser is then established and all technologies of the constituting integrated components are reviewed and compared. The experimental techniques mainly involve: site selective excitation tunability, cooperative luminescence, oxidation state changes induced by gamma irradiation, ytterbium-doped mono-mode continuous wave tunable three-level fiber laser. (TEC). 622 refs., 176 figs

  17. Manufacturing network evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Cheng; Farooq, Sami; Johansen, John

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper examines the effect of changes at the manufacturing plant level on other plants in the manufacturing network and also investigates the role of manufacturing plants on the evolution of a manufacturing network. Design/methodology/approach –The research questions are developed...... by identifying the gaps in the reviewed literature. The paper is based on three case studies undertaken in Danish manufacturing companies to explore in detail their manufacturing plants and networks. The cases provide a sound basis for developing the research questions and explaining the interaction between...... different manufacturing plants in the network and their impact on network transformation. Findings – The paper highlights the dominant role of manufacturing plants in the continuously changing shape of a manufacturing network. The paper demonstrates that a product or process change at one manufacturing...

  18. Assessment of fiber optic pressure sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of a six-month Phase 1 study to establish the state-of-the-art in fiber optic pressure sensing and describes the design and principle of operation of various fiber optic pressure sensors. This study involved a literature review, contact with experts in the field, an industrial survey, a site visit to a fiber optic sensor manufacturer, and laboratory testing of a fiber optic pressure sensor. The laboratory work involved both static and dynamic performance tests. In addition, current requirements for environmental and seismic qualification of sensors for nuclear power plants were reviewed to determine the extent of the qualification tests that fiber optic pressure sensors may have to meet before they can be used in nuclear power plants. This project has concluded that fiber optic pressure sensors are still in the research and development stage and only a few manufacturers exist in the US and abroad which supply suitable fiber optic pressure sensors for industrial applications. Presently, fiber optic pressure sensors are mostly used in special applications for which conventional sensors are not able to meet the requirements

  19. Assessment of fiber optic pressure sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashemian, H.M.; Black, C.L.; Farmer, J.P. [Analysis and Measurement Services Corp., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-04-01

    This report presents the results of a six-month Phase 1 study to establish the state-of-the-art in fiber optic pressure sensing and describes the design and principle of operation of various fiber optic pressure sensors. This study involved a literature review, contact with experts in the field, an industrial survey, a site visit to a fiber optic sensor manufacturer, and laboratory testing of a fiber optic pressure sensor. The laboratory work involved both static and dynamic performance tests. In addition, current requirements for environmental and seismic qualification of sensors for nuclear power plants were reviewed to determine the extent of the qualification tests that fiber optic pressure sensors may have to meet before they can be used in nuclear power plants. This project has concluded that fiber optic pressure sensors are still in the research and development stage and only a few manufacturers exist in the US and abroad which supply suitable fiber optic pressure sensors for industrial applications. Presently, fiber optic pressure sensors are mostly used in special applications for which conventional sensors are not able to meet the requirements.

  20. Dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madar, Z; Thorne, R

    1987-01-01

    Studies done on dietary fiber (DF) over the past five years are presented in this Review. The involvement of dietary fiber in the control of plasma glucose and lipid levels is now established. Two dietary fiber sources (soybean and fenugreek) were studied in our laboratory and are discussed herein. These sources were found to be potentially beneficial in the reduction of plasma glucose in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus subjects. They are shown to be acceptable by human subjects and are easy to use either in a mixture of milk products and in cooking. The mechanism by which dietary fiber alters the nutrient absorption is also discussed. The effect of DF on gastric emptying, transit time, adsorption and glucose transport may contribute to reducing plasma glucose and lipid levels. DF was found to be effective in controlling blood glucose and lipid levels of pregnant diabetic women. Dietary fiber may also be potentially beneficial in the reduction of exogenous insulin requirements in these subjects. However, increased consumption of DF may cause adverse side effects; the binding capabilities of fiber may affect nutrient availability, particularly that of minerals and prolonged and high DF dosage supplementation must be regarded cautiously. This is particularly true when recommending such a diet for pregnant or lactating women, children or subjects with nutritional disorders. Physiological effects of DF appear to depend heavily on the source and composition of fiber. Using a combination of DF from a variety of sources may reduce the actual mass of fiber required to obtain the desired metabolic effects and will result in a more palatable diet. Previously observed problems, such as excess flatus, diarrhea and mineral malabsorption would also be minimized.

  1. Framework for Grid Manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈笠; 邓宏; 邓倩妮; 吴振宇

    2004-01-01

    With the development of networked manufacturing, it is more and more imminent to solve problems caused by inherent limitations of network technology, such as heterogeneity, collaboration collision, and decentralized control.This paper presents a framework for grid manufacturing, which neatly combines grid technology with the infrastructure of advanced manufacturing technology.The paper studies grid-oriented knowledge description and acquisition, and constructs a distributed knowledge grid model.The paper also deals with the protocol of node description in collaborative design, and describes a distributed collaborative design model.The protocol and node technology leads to a collaborative production model for grid manufacturing.The framework for grid manufacturing offers an effective and feasible solution for the problems of networked manufacturing.The grid manufacturing will become an advanced distributed manufacturing model and promote the development of advanced manufacturing technologies.

  2. Strategic Roles of Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Cheng

    Addressing three development trends of manufacturing, this thesis aims to explore: (1) facing challenges on manufacturing (globalisation, knowledge-based manufacturing and servitisation of manufacturing), what kinds of roles does manufacturing play within industrial companies; (2) along...... with the trend of globalisation, how do industrial companies develop their global manufacturing networks? These two questions are actually interlinked. On the one hand, facing increasing offshoring and outsourcing of production activities, industrial companies have to understand how to develop their global...... manufacturing networks. On the other hand, ongoing globalisation also brings tremendous impacts to post-industrial economies (e.g. Denmark). A dilemma therefore arises, i.e. whether it is still necessary to keep manufacturing in these post-industrial economies; if yes, what kinds of roles manufacturing should...

  3. Crystallization of compound plastic optical fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, J.I.; Blanco-Rodriguez, F.J. [Malaga Univ., Malaga (Spain). School of Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Melt-spinning processes are often used to manufacture optical, textile, electrically conducting and reinforced fibers. This paper proposed a single-phase two-dimensional model of the spinning of compound plastic optical fibers that used a Newtonian rheology modified by the degrees of crystallization and molecular orientation. The model accounted for temperature through an effective dynamic viscosity, and the molecular orientation of the liquid crystalline polymer through an orientation parameter that depended on the velocity field. For slender fibers, an asymptotic procedure based on the slenderness ratio showed that the temperature was uniform across the compound fiber provided that the Biot number was in the order of the fourth power of the slenderness ratio and the leading-order equations for the fiber's geometry and axial velocity component, temperature, molecular orientation and crystallization were one-dimensional. This paper also proposed a two-dimensional model based on the leading-order equations for the fiber's geometry and velocity for slender fibers. This model provided the two-dimensional fields of temperature, molecular orientation and degree of crystallization and indicated that for moderate Biot numbers, the temperature distribution across the fiber was not uniform and a thermal boundary layer was formed on the outer surface of the compound fiber. The study showed that the crystallization of the compound fiber affected primarily by thermal effects rather than by flow-induced effects. 17 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  4. Robust, Low Loss Approach for Fiber to Waveguide Coupling Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This NASA Phase I SBIR effort proposes to establish the feasibility of significantly improving coupling at fiber to waveguide interfaces for the manufacture of low...

  5. Fiber MOPAs with high control and high power

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, J.; Yoo, S.; Dupriez, P.; Farrell, C.; Abidin, M.S.Z.; Ji, J; Maran, J.-N.; Codemard, C. A.; Jeong, Y.; Sahu, J.K.; Richardson, D J; Payne, D. N.

    2008-01-01

    High power fiber sources have reached several kilowatts of output power, and are now leading contenders for many applications. Important attractions include control, efficiency, manufacturability, and reliability. We will exemplify opportunities and limitations for these revolutionary sources.

  6. Numerical prediction of fiber orientation in injection-molded short-fiber/thermoplastic composite parts with experimental validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thi, Thanh Binh Nguyen; Morioka, Mizuki; Yokoyama, Atsushi [Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Hamanaka, Senji; Yamashita, Katsuhisa; Nonomura, Chisato [Research Center, Toyobo Co., LTD, 2-1-1 Katata, Otsu, Shiga 520-0292 (Japan)

    2015-05-22

    Numerical prediction of the fiber orientation in the short-glass fiber (GF) reinforced polyamide 6 (PA6) composites with the fiber weight concentration of 30%, 50%, and 70% manufactured by the injection molding process is presented. And the fiber orientation was also directly observed and measured through X-ray computed tomography. During the injection molding process of the short-fiber/thermoplastic composite, the fiber orientation is produced by the flow states and the fiber-fiber interaction. Folgar and Tucker equation is the well known for modeling the fiber orientation in a concentrated suspension. They included into Jeffrey’s equation a diffusive type of term by introducing a phenomenological coefficient to account for the fiber-fiber interaction. Our developed model for the fiber-fiber interaction was proposed by modifying the rotary diffusion term of the Folgar-Tucker equation. This model was presented in a conference paper of the 29{sup th} International Conference of the Polymer Processing Society published by AIP conference proceeding. For modeling fiber interaction, the fiber dynamic simulation was introduced in order to obtain a global fiber interaction coefficient, which is sum function of the fiber concentration, aspect ratio, and angular velocity. The fiber orientation is predicted by using the proposed fiber interaction model incorporated into a computer aided engineering simulation package C-Mold. An experimental program has been carried out in which the fiber orientation distribution has been measured in 100 x 100 x 2 mm injection-molded plate and 100 x 80 x 2 mm injection-molded weld by analyzed with a high resolution 3D X-ray computed tomography system XVA-160α, and calculated by X-ray computed tomography imaging. The numerical prediction shows a good agreement with experimental validation. And the complex fiber orientation in the injection-molded weld was investigated.

  7. Numerical prediction of fiber orientation in injection-molded short-fiber/thermoplastic composite parts with experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi, Thanh Binh Nguyen; Morioka, Mizuki; Yokoyama, Atsushi; Hamanaka, Senji; Yamashita, Katsuhisa; Nonomura, Chisato

    2015-05-01

    Numerical prediction of the fiber orientation in the short-glass fiber (GF) reinforced polyamide 6 (PA6) composites with the fiber weight concentration of 30%, 50%, and 70% manufactured by the injection molding process is presented. And the fiber orientation was also directly observed and measured through X-ray computed tomography. During the injection molding process of the short-fiber/thermoplastic composite, the fiber orientation is produced by the flow states and the fiber-fiber interaction. Folgar and Tucker equation is the well known for modeling the fiber orientation in a concentrated suspension. They included into Jeffrey's equation a diffusive type of term by introducing a phenomenological coefficient to account for the fiber-fiber interaction. Our developed model for the fiber-fiber interaction was proposed by modifying the rotary diffusion term of the Folgar-Tucker equation. This model was presented in a conference paper of the 29th International Conference of the Polymer Processing Society published by AIP conference proceeding. For modeling fiber interaction, the fiber dynamic simulation was introduced in order to obtain a global fiber interaction coefficient, which is sum function of the fiber concentration, aspect ratio, and angular velocity. The fiber orientation is predicted by using the proposed fiber interaction model incorporated into a computer aided engineering simulation package C-Mold. An experimental program has been carried out in which the fiber orientation distribution has been measured in 100 x 100 x 2 mm injection-molded plate and 100 x 80 x 2 mm injection-molded weld by analyzed with a high resolution 3D X-ray computed tomography system XVA-160α, and calculated by X-ray computed tomography imaging. The numerical prediction shows a good agreement with experimental validation. And the complex fiber orientation in the injection-molded weld was investigated.

  8. 固化压力对PMI泡沫/高温固化环氧碳纤维夹层复合材料胶接性能影响的研究%Study of manufacturing pressure effect on bonding quality of polymethacrylimide(PMI) foams/high temperature cured carbon fiber sandwich composites structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洋; 刘军; 卢鑫; 郑义珠; 张冬梅; 刘卫平

    2012-01-01

    With the propose of further understand the autoclave manufacturing technology of Polymethacrylimide(PMI) foams/high temperature cured carbon fiber sandwich composites structure,the thermal stability,creep deforming properties of PMI foams with different density under manufacturing pressure of 0.2 and 0.3 MPa has been studied.The effect of manufacturing pressure on dimension stability of the PMI foams also has been investigated via testing the deformation of the core materials with different thickness and different treatment process,which under the high pressure in autoclave.The bonding quality of PMI foams/carbon fiber sandwich composites which manufactured by 0.2 and 0.3 MPa respectively has been evaluated by comparing mechanical properties of their corresponding standard samples of sandwich composites.The research results indicated that the PMI foam with high density exhibited better creep resistance,and the creep resistance was sensitive to the manufacturing pressures,higher pressure leads to higher creep ratio,and the creep resistance can be enhanced by treatment in 130℃ for 2 hours.Climbing drum peel strength of sandwich sample from 0.3 MPa processing is higher than 0.2 MPa. There is no significant difference in shear strength,plane tensile strength and flexural strength testing.%针对PMI泡沫/环氧碳纤维夹层结构复合材料的热压罐胶接成型工艺,系统研究了不同密度的PMI泡沫在0.2 MPa与0.3 MPa下的热稳定性能、蠕变性能。同时分别考察了不同厚度、不同处理条件的PMI泡沫在热压罐中的压缩变形情况,总结了压力对泡沫的尺寸稳定性的影响规律。通过研究PMI泡沫/环氧碳纤维夹层结构复合材料的力学性能,比较了不同固化压力下PMI泡沫与碳纤维面板胶接质量。结果表明,密度大的泡沫的抗蠕变性能好。泡沫的高温蠕变性能受压力影响敏感,随着压力增大,变形量迅速增大。经130℃热处理2 h后PMI泡沫的抗

  9. Photonic crystal fibers: fundamental properties and applications within sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Bo Damm; Riishede, Jesper; Broeng, Jes;

    2003-01-01

    Since the first experimental demonstration of a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) in 1996 by Knight et al. the optical properties and the fabrication of such fibers have attracted significant attention. The fiber structure with a lattice of air holes running along the length of the fiber provides a...... large variety of novel optical properties and improvements compared to standard optical fibers. The stack-and-pull procedure used to manufacture PCFs is a highly flexible method offering a large degree of freedom in the fabrication of PCFs with specific characteristics. A few of the remarkable optical...... properties of silica based PCFs are described and their applications within sensors are summarized....

  10. Manufacturing Methods of Thermoplastic Composites Reinforced with Hemp Fiber%麻纤维增强热塑性树脂复合材料的加工方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晨夕; 王伟宏; 王清文

    2011-01-01

    The authors introduced the commonly used methods for manufacturing hemp reinforced thermoplastic composites. They briefly described different forms of hemp reinforcement and their processing technologies. Finally, they analyzed the existing barriers in the processing of thermoplastic composites and discussed future research needs.%介绍麻纤维增强热塑性树脂制备复合材料的主要加工方法,包括麻纤维增强体的形态和加工工艺、增强体与聚合物的复合工艺和成型工艺.指出目前存在的问题,并针对问题,提出可行的建议和措施.

  11. Wood versus plant fibers: Similarities and differences in composite applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo; Gamstedt, E. Kristofer

    2013-01-01

    The work on cellulose fiber composites is typically strictly divided into two separated research fields depending on the fiber origin, that is, from wood and from annual plants, representing the two different industries of forest and agriculture, respectively. The present paper evaluates...... in parallel wood fibers and plant fibers to highlight their similarities and differences regarding their use as reinforcement in composites and to enable mutual transfer of knowledge and technology between the two research fields. The paper gives an introduction to the morphology, chemistry......, and ultrastructure of the fibers, the modeling of the mechanical properties of the fibers, the fiber preforms available for manufacturing of composites, the typical mechanical properties of the composites, the modeling of the mechanical properties with focus on composites having a random fiber orientation and a non...

  12. Radiation oxidation and subsequent thermal curing of polyacrylonitrile fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weihua; Wang, Mouhua; Xing, Zhe; Wu, Guozhong

    2014-01-01

    Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers were exposed to gamma-ray irradiation at room temperature under vacuum, air and oxygen to investigate the radiation oxidation effects on PAN fibers. Radiation-induced oxidation degradation and crosslinking was evaluated by measuring the gel fraction. It was found that radiation oxidation took place mainly on the fiber surface due to the limited penetration of oxygen into PAN fibers from the surface, and the oxidation thickness increased with the oxygen pressure. Chain scission was dominant in the oxidized area, and crosslinking occurred in the inner part of the fibers. However, the oxidized regions of the fibers can be converted to gel via crosslinking by thermal curing at 160 °C in a N2 atmosphere. Higher extents of radiation oxidation degradation led to a greater increase in the gel fraction. These results suggest that the radiation treatment of PAN fibers prior to thermal oxidation may be useful for manufacturing carbon fibers.

  13. Wire + Arc Additive Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Stewart W.; Martina, Filomeno; Addison, Adrian C.; Ding, Jialuo; Pardal, Goncalo; Colegrove, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Depositing large components (>10 kg) in titanium, aluminium, steel and other metals is possible using Wire + Arc Additive Manufacturing. This technology adopts arc welding tools and wire as feedstock for additive manufacturing purposes. High deposition rates, low material and equipment costs, and good structural integrity make Wire+Arc Additive Manufacturing a suitable candidate for replacing the current method of manufacturing from solid billets or large forgings, especially with regards to ...

  14. Manufacturing in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johannes; Boer, Henrike Engele Elisabeth; Boer, Harry

    This report compares the manufacturing strategies, practices, performances and improvement activities of 39 companies that are representative for the Danish assembly industry with those of 804 companies from 19 other countries. The data supporting this report were collected in 2013 and concern......: • Manufacturing strategies pursued and implemented between 2010 and 2012. • Performance improvements achieved during that period. • Actual manufacturing practices and performances as well as competitive priorities in 2012. • Manufacturing strategies pursued for the years 2010-2012....

  15. Design for Additive Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Bertran Comellas, Martí

    2012-01-01

    This Thesis, Design for Additive Manufacturing, has been mainly focused on the design process and the considerations to be taken into account when designing parts for Additive Manufacturing. It starts with an introduction to Additive Manufacturing, the different technologies and processes are described to let the readers understand their operating principle, materials used and their strengths and weaknesses. The applications of Additive manufacturing are also explained in the introductory ...

  16. 计算机辅助设计与制作一体化玻璃纤维桩核修复漏斗状根管的抗疲劳和抗折性能%Fatigue and fracture resistance of the flared roots restored with computer aided design and computer aided manufacturing glass fiber posts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李智; 王新知; 高承志; IVO Krejci

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the fatigue and fracture resistance of the flared roots restored with computer aided design (CAD) and computer aided manufacturing (CAM) glass fiber posts. Methods; In the study, 32 maxillary central incisors with roots longer than 13 mm were selected and their canals were flared, and the roots were allocated into 4 groups ( n = 8 ) by a random number chart: CAD/CAM glass fiber posts, prefabricated quartz fiber posts, cast gold alloy posts, and CAD/CAM zirconia posts. The posts were luted to the roots by resin cement and fabricate zirconia crown for every specimen. An addition-type silicone impression material was used to simulate the periodontal ligament. All the specimens were submitted to 1.2 X 106 cycles loaded with a 49 N force, at 45 degree to the long axis of the teeth simultaneously with 3 000 thermal cycles (5℃-50℃-5℃). After that, the specimens were subjected to a load at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min in a servo-hydraulic testing machine applied at 45 degree to the long axis of the tooth until fracture. The data were subjected to ANOVA test and the patterns of the failure were examined. Results; After the cycling loading, 4 crowns from prefabricated quartz fiber posts groups were deboned, and no other failure was found after the cycling loading; the fracture strengths of CAD/CAM glass fiber posts group [ (441. 5 ± 103. 2) N] and cast gold alloy posts group [ (462. 9 ± 170.0) N] were higher (F=4.613, P<0.05) than those of CAD/CAM zirconia posts group [ (284.1 ± 99.0) N] and prefabricated quartz fiber posts group [(315. 4 ± 112. 3) N] ; the entire specimens presented unfavorable failures. Conclusion; Although further in vitro and in vivo studies are necessary,the results of this study show that the use of CAD/CAM glass fiber posts and cast gold alloy posts may a-chieve better outcomes in flared roots than that of CAD/CAM zirconia posts and prefabricated quartz fiber posts.%目的:评价计算机辅助设计与制作(computer aided

  17. Soft-glass hollow-core photonic crystal fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, Leonid; Khromova, Irina; Scherbakov, Andrey; Nikishin, Nikolay

    2005-09-01

    The results of numerical modeling and experimental investigations of manufactured diamond-shaped and large area hollow core photonic crystal fibers with periodical cladding (kagome-lattice and closely packed tubes) are presented. The use of soft glasses allows to fabricate high-quality structures with moderate losses. Numerical methods, designing strategies and fabrication issues of these promising fiber structures are discussed.

  18. Fiber Optics Technician. Curriculum Research Project. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Herschel K.

    A study examined the role of technicians in the fiber optics industry and determined those elements that should be included in a comprehensive curriculum to prepare fiber optics technicians for employment in the Texas labor market. First the current literature, including the ERIC database and equipment manufacturers' journals were reviewed. After…

  19. Continuous filament composite parts and articles of manufacture thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisberg, Andrew H.

    2016-06-28

    An article of manufacture according to one embodiment includes a plurality of plies in a stacked configuration, where each ply includes a plurality of tape winds having edges. A distance between the edges of adjacent tape winds in the same ply is about constant along a length of the wind. Each tape wind comprises elongated fibers and a matrix, axes of the fibers being oriented about parallel to a longitudinal axis of the tape wind. Additional systems, methods and articles of manufacture are also presented.

  20. Hydrogenolysis of sugar beet fiber by supported metal catalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Guha, Samar K.; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Hara, Kenji; Kikuchi, Hiroto; Aritsuka, Tsutomu; Fukuoka, Atsushi

    2011-01-01

    Sugar beet fiber is an agricultural by-product in the sugar manufacturing and an available biomass source with a rich hemicellulose component. So far, there has been no report on the catalytic conversion of the beet fiber for the synthesis of chemicals. In this work, the hydrogenolysis of the beet fiber was studied by using supported metal catalysts under pressurized hydrogen conditions. Activated carbon supported Ru was found to show the highest catalytic activity to give arabitol as a major...

  1. Curved Piezoelectric Actuators for Stretching Optical Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Sidney G.; Shams, Qamar A.; Fox, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Assemblies containing curved piezoceramic fiber composite actuators have been invented as means of stretching optical fibers by amounts that depend on applied drive voltages. Piezoceramic fiber composite actuators are conventionally manufactured as sheets or ribbons that are flat and flexible, but can be made curved to obtain load-carrying ability and displacement greater than those obtainable from the flat versions. In the primary embodiment of this invention, piezoceramic fibers are oriented parallel to the direction of longitudinal displacement of the actuators so that application of drive voltage causes the actuator to flatten, producing maximum motion. Actuator motion can be transmitted to the optical fiber by use of hinges and clamp blocks. In the original application of this invention, the optical fiber contains a Bragg grating and the purpose of the controlled stretching of the fiber is to tune the grating as part of a small, lightweight, mode-hop-free, rapidly tunable laser for demodulating strain in Bragg-grating strain-measurement optical fibers attached to structures. The invention could also be used to apply controllable tensile force or displacement to an object other than an optical fiber.

  2. A survey of fiber-positioning technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Greg; Brzeski, Jurek; Miziarski, Stan; Gillingham, Peter R.; Moore, Anna; McGrath, Andrew

    2004-09-01

    A wide range of positioning technologies has been exploited to flexibly configure fiber ends on the focal surfaces of telescopes. The earliest instruments used manual plugging, or glued buttons on the focal plane. Later instruments have used robotic fisherman-round-the-pond probes and articulated armsto position fibres, each probe or arm operated by its own motors, or buttons on fiber ends moved by pick-and-place robotic positioners. A positioner using fiber spines incorporating individual actuators operating over limited patrol areas is currently being manufactured and a derivative proposed for future large telescopes. Other techniques, using independent agents carrying the fiber ends about the focal plane have been prototyped. We describe these various fiber positioning techniques and compare them, listing the issues associated with their implementation, and consider the factors which make each of them suitable for a given situation. Factors considered include: robot geometries; costs; inherent limits to the number of fibers; clustering of targets; serial and parallel positioning and reconfiguration times; adaptability to curved focal surfaces; the virtues of on-telescope versus off-telescope configuration of the field, and suitability for the various telescope foci. The design issues include selection of actuators and encoding systems, counterbalancing, configuration of fiber buttons and their associated grippers, interchanging field plates, and the need for fiber retractors. Finally we consider the competing technologies: fiber and reflective image slicer IFUs, multislit masks and reconfigurable slits.

  3. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT): Manufacturing Initiative Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA supports the Advanced Manufacturing National Program Office (AMNPO). Hosted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) the AMNPO is...

  4. Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC) 2015 Research Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhouse, Michael; Mone, Christopher; Chung, Donald; Elgqvist, Emma; Das, Sujit; Mann, Margaret; Gossett, Scott

    2016-03-01

    CEMAC has conducted four major studies on the manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Three of these focused on the end product: solar photovoltaic modules, wind turbines, and automotive lithium-ion batteries. The fourth area focused on a key material for manufacturing clean energy technologies, carbon fiber. This booklet summarizes key findings of CEMAC work to date, describes CEMAC's research methodology, and describes work to come.

  5. Evaluation of Additive Manufacturing for Composite Part Molds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duty, Chad E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Springfield, Robert M. [Tru Design, LLC, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The ORNL Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) collaborated with Tru-Design to test the quality and durability of molds used for making fiber reinforced composites using additive manufacturing. The partners developed surface treatment techniques including epoxy coatings and machining to improve the quality of the surface finish. Test samples made using the printed and surface finished molds demonstrated life spans suitable for one-of-a-kind and low-volume applications, meeting the project objective.

  6. Discussion on advanced manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiankui

    2007-01-01

    Advanced manufacturing consists of continuity of manufacturing,its broad sense,and the core of the manufacturing process.The technology of continuous manufacturing is discussed according to both historical and modern perspectives.The relationship between human development and manufacturing technology is also discussed.Manufacturing is a continuously evolving topic.It is not only the foundation and means of imagination,conception,the science,and the technology of material change,but also the expression of national economy,national defense,and the support industries.The broad sense of manufacturing theory,which extends the concept of manufacturing,is an important development in the 20th century.The sense is analyzed in connection with design,material forming theory,synthesis of manufacturing technology,manufacturing modes,life cycle of product,hardware and sottware,and support environment,etc.At the same time,the core action and the development of the theory and technology of process is also discussed.At the end of this paper,the development directions of mechanical manufacturing science and technology are mentioned.

  7. Mycelium reinforced agricultural fiber bio-composites: Summary of research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Industry and the public sector have a growing interest in utilizing natural fibers, such as agricultural substrates, in the manufacture of components and products currently manufactured from fossil fuels. A patented process, developed by Ecovative Design, LLC (Ecovative), for growing fungal species ...

  8. Gene-rich islands for fiber development in the cotton genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton fiber is an economically important seed trichome and the world's leading natural fiber used in the manufacture of textiles. As a step towards elucidating the genomic organization and distribution of gene networks responsible for cotton fiber development, we investigated the distribution of f...

  9. Carbon Fiber from Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milbrandt, Anelia [Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center, Godlen, CO (United States); Booth, Samuel [Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center, Godlen, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Carbon fiber (CF), known also as graphite fiber, is a lightweight, strong, and flexible material used in both structural (load-bearing) and non-structural applications (e.g., thermal insulation). The high cost of precursors (the starting material used to make CF, which comes predominately from fossil sources) and manufacturing have kept CF a niche market with applications limited mostly to high-performance structural materials (e.g., aerospace). Alternative precursors to reduce CF cost and dependence on fossil sources have been investigated over the years, including biomass-derived precursors such as rayon, lignin, glycerol, and lignocellulosic sugars. The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive overview of CF precursors from biomass and their market potential. We examine the potential CF production from these precursors, the state of technology and applications, and the production cost (when data are available). We discuss their advantages and limitations. We also discuss the physical properties of biomass-based CF, and we compare them to those of polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based CF. We also discuss manufacturing and end-product considerations for bio-based CF, as well as considerations for plant siting and biomass feedstock logistics, feedstock competition, and risk mitigation strategies. The main contribution of this study is that it provides detailed technical and market information about each bio-based CF precursor in one document while other studies focus on one precursor at a time or a particular topic (e.g., processing). Thus, this publication allows for a comprehensive view of the CF potential from all biomass sources and serves as a reference for both novice and experienced professionals interested in CF production from alternative sources.

  10. MEASURING MANUFACTURING INNOVATIVENESS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichfeldt, Henrik; Knudsen, Mette Præst

    2016-01-01

    Globalization and customization increases the pressure on manufacturing companies, and the ability to provide innovativeness is a potential source of competitive advantage. This paper positions the manufacturing entity in the innovation process, and investigates the relation between innovation vers...... technology and organizational concepts. Based on Danish survey data from the European Manufacturing Survey (EMS-2015) this paper finds that there is a relation between innovative companies, and their level of technology and use of organizational concepts. Technology and organizational concepts act...... as manufacturing levers to support the manufacturing and production system to provide innovativeness. The managerial implication lies in building manufacturing capabilities to support the innovative process, by standardization, optimization and creating stability in combination with automation and advanced...

  11. Metrics for Sustainable Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Reich-Weiser, Corinne; Vijayaraghavan, Athulan; Dornfeld, David

    2008-01-01

    A sustainable manufacturing strategy requires metrics for decision making at all levels of the enterprise. In this paper, a methodology is developed for designing sustainable manufacturing metrics given the specific concerns to be addressed. A top-down approach is suggested that follows the framework of goal and scope definition: (1) goal- what are the concerns addressed and what is the appropriate metric type to achieve the goal (2) scope what is the appropriate geographic and manufacturing ex...

  12. Application Specific Optical Fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Pal, Bishnu P.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter we have attempted to provide a unified summary description of the most important propagation characteristics of an optical fiber followed by discussion on several variety of special fibers for realizing fiber amplifiers, dispersion compensating fibers, microstructured optical fibers, and so on. Even though huge progress has been made on development of optical fibers for telecom application, a need for developing special fibers, not necessarily for telecom alone, has arisen. Th...

  13. Composite Structures Manufacturing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Composite Structures Manufacturing Facility specializes in the design, analysis, fabrication and testing of advanced composite structures and materials for both...

  14. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Department of Energy Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides a collaborative, shared infrastructure to...

  15. The power of fiber optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, C.

    1999-03-01

    The latest technology in optical groundwire (OPGW), involving a single cable serving as a communications network, providing high-speed data and voice transmission, and as a conventional groundwire, part of a power transmission grid, is described. The first-ever symposium devoted to OPGW was held at Hydro-Quebec`s IREQ facility in Montreal, a fitting venue, considering that Hydro-Quebec has installed an extensive network of some 3,500 km of OPGW cables since 1992. The international symposium was attended by over 130 interested experts mainly from North America, but with delegates as far away as Australia, Japan, Libya, Brazil and the UK. The three-day event showcased a number of presentations and demonstrations concerning OPGW splicing requirements, the live-line installation process, the merits of using fiber optics in a power situation, comparison of international standards in OPGW and fiber optics applications, and future developments in fiber optics technology. Demonstration of IREQ`s OPGW type-testing and manufacturer`s exhibits provided an opportunity for hands-on experience.

  16. Permeability characterization of stitched carbon fiber preforms by fiber optic sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Antonucci

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The in-plane and through thickness permeability of unidirectional stitched carbon fiber preforms have been determined through vacuum infusion tests. The impregnation of various dry preforms with different stitching characteristics has been monitored by fiber optic sensors that have been stitched together with the dry tow to manufacture the dry preform. The experimental infusion times have been fitted by a numerical procedure based on Finite Element (FE processing simulations. A good agreement between the numerical and experimental infusion times has been found demonstrating the potentiality of the fiber sensor system as suitable tool to evaluate impregnation times and permeability characteristics.

  17. Paradigm Shift from Current Manufacturing to Social Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Mohajeri, Babak

    2015-01-01

    The emergent phenomenon of social manufacturing is disrupting industries all over the world. Social manufacturing represents a new collaborative manufacturing paradigm. The shift from the current manufacturing paradigm to social manufacturing is facilitated by rapid development of mobile technologies, new digital manufacturing, and online social networks. There are already successful businesses that build upon the social manufacturing paradigm, e.g., in finance, hospitality, and transportatio...

  18. Aligning carbon fibers in micro-extruded composite ink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Chaitanya G.

    Direct write processes include a wide range of additive manufacturing techniques with the ability to fabricate structures directly onto planar and non-planar surfaces. Most additive manufacturing techniques use unreinforced polymers to produce parts. By adding carbon fiber as a reinforcing material, properties such as mechanical strength, electrical conductivity, and thermal conductivity can be enhanced. Carbon fibers can be long and continuous, or short and discontinuous. The strength of carbon fiber composite parts is greatly increased when the fibers are preferentially aligned. This research focuses on increasing the strength of additively manufactured parts reinforced using discontinuous carbon fibers that have been aligned during the micro extrusion process. A design of experiments (DOE) approach was used to identify significant process parameters affecting fiber alignment. Factors such as the length of carbon fibers, nozzle diameter, fiber loading fraction, air pressure, translational speed and standoff distance were considered. A two dimensional Fast Fourier Transform (2D FFT) was used to quantify the degree of fiber alignment in the extruded composite inks. ImageJ software supported by an oval profile plugin was used with micrographs of printed samples to obtain the carbon fiber alignment values. The optimal value for the factors was derived by identifying the significant main and interaction effects. Based on the results of the DOE, tensile test samples were printed with fibers aligned parallel and perpendicular to the tensile axis. A standard test method for tensile properties of plastic revealed that the extruded parts with fibers aligned along the tensile axis were better in tensile strength and modulus.

  19. Coating of Carbon Nanotube Fibers: Variation of Tensile Properties, Failure Behavior, and Adhesion Strength

    OpenAIRE

    Mäder, Edith; Liu, Jianwen; Hiller, Janett; Lu, Weibang; Li, Qingwen; Zhandarov, Serge; Chou, Tsu-Wei

    2015-01-01

    An experimental study of the tensile properties of CNT fibers and their interphasial behavior in epoxy matrices is reported. One of the most promising applications of CNT fibers is their use as reinforcement in multifunctional composites. For this purpose, an increase of the tensile strength of the CNT fibers in unidirectional composites as well as strong interfacial adhesion strength is desirable. However, the mechanical performance of the CNT fiber composites manufactured so far is comparab...

  20. Modern manufacturing engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book covers recent research and trends in Manufacturing Engineering. The chapters emphasize different aspects of the transformation from materials to products. It provides the reader with fundamental materials treatments and the integration of processes. Concepts such as green and lean manufacturing are also covered in this book.

  1. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-04-01

    The initiative will strategically focus and rally EERE’s clean energy technology offices and Advanced Manufacturing Office around the urgent competitive opportunity for the United States to be the leader in the clean energy manufacturing industries and jobs of today and tomorrow.

  2. Improving Project Manufacturing Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korpivaara Ville

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to develop firms’ project manufacturing coordination. The development will be made by centralizing the manufacturing information flows in one system. To be able to centralize information, a deep user need assessment is required. After user needs have been identified, the existing system will be developed to match these needs. The theoretical background is achieved through exploring the literature of project manufacturing, development project success factors and different frameworks and tools for development project execution. The focus of this research is rather in customer need assessment than in system’s technical expertise. To ensure the deep understanding of customer needs this study is executed by action research method. As a result of this research the information system for project manufacturing coordination was developed to respond revealed needs of the stakeholders. The new system improves the quality of the manufacturing information, eliminates waste in manufacturing coordination processes and offers a better visibility to the project manufacturing. Hence it provides a solid base for the further development of project manufacturing.

  3. Appraising manufacturing location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, Harm-Jan; Bruijn, de Erik J.

    2002-01-01

    International location of manufacturing activities is an issue for managers of manufacturing companies as well as public policy makers. For managers, the issue is relevant because international locations offer opportunities for lowering costs due to productivity improvements. For governments the iss

  4. Assessing manufacturing location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, Harm-Jan; Bruijn, de Erik J.

    2004-01-01

    International location of manufacturing activities is an issue for managers of manufacturing companies as well as public policy-makers. For managers, the issue is relevant because international locations offer opportunities for lowering costs due to productivity improvements. For governments the iss

  5. Testing Procedure for the Single Fiber Fragmentation Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feih, Stefanie; Wonsyld, Karen; Minzari, Daniel;

    This report describes the details of the single fiber fragmentation test as conducted at the materials research department (AFM) at Risø. The equipment and specimen manufacture is described in detail. Furthermore, examples of results interpretation are given. For the experiments in this report......, specimens with one E-glass fiber placed inside an epoxy or polyester matrix were used. Elongating the specimens with a mini tensile tester, which was placed under a microscope, leads to fiber fragmentations. Different bonding strengths between fiber and matrix result in differences in the critical fracture...

  6. A novel carbon fiber based porous carbon monolith

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burchell, T.D.; Klett, J.W.; Weaver, C.E.

    1995-06-01

    A novel porous carbon material based on carbon fibers has been developed. The material, when activated, develops a significant micro- or mesopore volume dependent upon the carbon fiber type utilized (isotropic pitch or polyacrylonitrile). The materials will find applications in the field of fluid separations or as a catalyst support. Here, the manufacture and characterization of our porous carbon monoliths are described. A novel adsorbent carbon composite material has been developed comprising carbon fibers and a binder. The material, called carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS), was developed through a joint research program between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the University of Kentucky, Center for Applied Energy Research (UKCAER).

  7. Manufacturing tolerant topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigmund, Ole

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present an extension of the topology optimization method to include uncertainties during the fabrication of macro, micro and nano structures. More specifically, we consider devices that are manufactured using processes which may result in (uniformly) too thin (eroded) or too thick...... (dilated) structures compared to the intended topology. Examples are MEMS devices manufactured using etching processes, nano-devices manufactured using e-beam lithography or laser micro-machining and macro structures manufactured using milling processes. In the suggested robust topology optimization...... that the method provides manufacturing tolerant designs with little decrease in performance. As a positive side effect the robust design formulation also eliminates the longstanding problem of one-node connected hinges in compliant mechanism design using topology optimization....

  8. 制造无胶纤维板过程中木纤维形态特征及化学特性1)--以酸性蒸气蒸煮热磨制造方法为例%Morphological Characteristics and Chemical Properties of Wood Fiber in th e Binderless Fiberboard during the Manufacture Process with the Acidic Steam Steaming Hot Mill Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金春德; 李景鹏; 杨巍; 王喆; 韩申杰

    2014-01-01

    以杨木木片、按常规中密度纤维板生产方法热磨得到的杨木纤维、经酸性蒸气蒸煮热磨得到的杨木纤维、酸性蒸气蒸煮热磨法制造的无胶纤维板为原料,用扫描电镜(SEM)、X射线衍射(XRD)、傅里叶变换红外吸收光谱( FTIR),对酸性蒸气蒸煮热磨法制造无胶纤维板过程中不同阶段的木纤维的形态特征变化、结晶特性和化学组分进行表征分析,并进一步对不同阶段木纤维细胞壁各组分的化学变化进行测量分析。结果表明:热磨过程中木纤维表面光滑,酸化热磨纤维表面凸凹不平,增加了纤维间的啮合,有利于纤维板的成型,无胶纤维板中木纤维相互呈网状交联结构。整个处理过程并未改变木纤维的晶型结构,其晶型结构仍为天然纤维素Ⅰ型结构。FITR分析表明:杨木木片在酸性蒸气蒸煮热磨过程中,木纤维的木质素发生降解,各纤维间经羟基缔合形成了氢键,有利于纤维间自胶胶合成板。化学测试分析结构,进一步证实了木纤维在酸化热磨过程中木质素和游离糠醛质量分数增加,均有益于纤维间胶合。%The experiment was conducted to study the morphological characteristics and chemical properties of the binderless fi-berboard used wood fiber during the manufacture process by the acidic steam steaming hot mill method, with the poplar wooden chips, the fiber stemmed from the conventional method of medium density fiberboard, the poplar fiber with acidifi-cation and the binderless fiberboard making through acidic steam steaming hot mill method.By scanning electron microsco-py(SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), the experiment was conducted to characterize the morphological characteristics , crystallization properties and chemical composition of the wood fiber at the different stages in the course of the manufacture process of the

  9. Surface analysis of plasma grafted carbon fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The surface characteristics of carbon fibers were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and wetting measurements. The surface of carbon fiber was modified by means of plasma graft silsesquioxane. The oxygen/carbon and silicon/carbon ratio increased rapidly after treatments. Fitting the C 1s, O 1s, and Si 2p spectra demonstrated that new photopeaks were emerged, which were indicated C-Si, Si-O groups, respectively. The degree of surface roughness and the wettability of carbon fiber surface were both increased by plasma graft silsesquioxane. The results may shed some light on the design of the appropriate surface structure, which could react with resin, and the manufacture of the carbon fiber reinforced composites

  10. Fiber optics physics and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Mitschke, Fedor

    2016-01-01

    This book tells you all you want to know about optical fibers: Their structure, their light-guiding mechanism, their material and manufacture, their use. It began with telephone, then came telefax and email. Today we use search engines, music downloads and internet videos, all of which require shuffling of bits and bytes by the zillions. The key to all this is the conduit: the line which is designed to carry massive amounts of data at breakneck speed. In their data carrying capacity optical fiber lines beat all other technologies (copper cable, microwave beacons, satellite links) hands down, at least in the long haul; wireless devices rely on fibers, too. Several effects tend to degrade the signal as it travels down the fiber: they are spelled out in detail. Nonlinear processes are given due consideration for a twofold reason: On the one hand they are fundamentally different from the more familiar processes in electrical cable. On the other hand, they form the basis of particularly interesting and innovative ...

  11. Additive Manufacturing of Ultem Polymers and Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Kathy C.; Grady, Joseph E.; Draper, Robert D.; Shin, Euy-Sik E.; Patterson, Clark; Santelle, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this project was to conduct additive manufacturing to produce aircraft engine components by Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM), using commercially available polyetherimdes Ultem 9085 and experimental Ultem 1000 filled with 10 chopped carbon fiber. A property comparison between FDM-printed and injection molded coupons for Ultem 9085, Ultem 1000 resin and the fiber-filled composite Ultem 1000 was carried out. Furthermore, an acoustic liner was printed from Ultem 9085 simulating conventional honeycomb structured liners and tested in a wind tunnel. Composite compressor inlet guide vanes were also printed using fiber-filled Ultem 1000 filaments and tested in a cascade rig. The fiber-filled Ultem 1000 filaments and composite vanes were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and acid digestion to determine the porosity of FDM-printed articles which ranged from 25-31. Coupons of Ultem 9085, experimental Ultem 1000 composites and XH6050 resin were tested at room temperature and 400F to evaluate their corresponding mechanical properties.

  12. Battery separator manufacturing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, N.I.; Sugarman, N.

    1974-12-27

    A battery with a positive plate, a negative plate, and a separator of polymeric resin having a degree of undesirable hydrophobia, solid below 180/sup 0/F, extrudable as a hot melt, and resistant to degradation by at least either acids or alkalies positioned between the plates is described. The separator comprises a nonwoven mat of fibers, the fibers being comprised of the polymeric resin and a wetting agent in an amount of 0.5 to 20 percent by weight based on the weight of the resin with the amount being incompatible with the resin below the melting point of the resin such that the wetting agent will bloom over a period of time at ambient temperatures in a battery, yet being compatible with the resin at the extrusion temperature and bringing about blooming to the surface of the fibers when the fibers are subjected to heat and pressure.

  13. Manipulation of microstructure in laser additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shuang; Yang, Lihmei; Liu, Jian

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, additive manufacturing (AM) of tungsten parts is investigated by using femtosecond fiber lasers. For the first time, manipulating microstructures of AM parts is systematically investigated and reported. Various processing conditions are studied, which leads to desired characteristics in terms of morphology, porosity, hardness, and microstructural and mechanical properties of the processed components. Fully dense tungsten part with refined grain and increased hardness was obtained for femtosecond laser, compared with parts made with different pulse widths and CW laser. Micro-hardness is investigated for the fabricated samples. This can greatly benefit to the make of complicated structures and materials that could not be achieved before.

  14. Flexible Manufacturing Systems: What's in It for the Manufacturer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, A. R.; Peckman, Donald C.

    1987-01-01

    The authors define the Flexible Manufacturing System and outline its history. They describe what the processing time includes and provide advantages and disadvantages of Flexible Manufacturing Systems compared to conventional manufacturing. (CH)

  15. Sapphire optical fiber sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Feth, Shari

    1991-01-01

    Fiber optic sensors offer many advantages over conventional sensors, including; small size, low weight, high strength and durability. Standard silica optical fibers are limited by the material properties of silica. Temperatures above 700°C and other harsh environments are incompatible with standard optical fiber sensors. Sapphire fiber sensors offer another option for fiber optic sensing. Sapphire fibers are limited by the material properties of sapphire, which include high...

  16. Photonic Bandgap Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barkou, Stig Eigil; Broeng, Jes; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    1999-01-01

    Photonic bandgap fibers are describes using a new Kagomé cladding structure. These fibers may potentially guide light in low-index regions. Such fibers offer new dispersion properties, and large design flexibility.......Photonic bandgap fibers are describes using a new Kagomé cladding structure. These fibers may potentially guide light in low-index regions. Such fibers offer new dispersion properties, and large design flexibility....

  17. Continuous fiber ceramic composites for energy related applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-07

    The US Department of Energy has established the Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites (CFCC) program to develop technology for the manufacture of CFCC`s for use in industrial applications where a reduction in energy usage or emissions could be realized. As part of this program, the Dow Chemical Company explored the manufacture of a fiber reinforced/self reinforced silicon nitride for use in industrial chemical processing. In Dow`s program, CFCC manufacturing technology was developed around traditional, cost effective, tape casting routes. Formulations were developed and coupled with unique processing procedures which enabled the manufacture of tubular green laminates of the dimension needed for the application. An evaluation of the effect of various fibers and fiber coatings on the properties of a fiber reinforced composites was also conducted. Results indicated that fiber coatings could provide composites exhibiting non-catastrophic failure and substantially improved toughness. However, an evaluation of these materials in industrial process environments showed that the material system chosen by Dow did not provide the required performance improvements to make replacement of current metallic components with CFCC components economically viable.

  18. Rapid small lot manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrigan, R.W.

    1998-05-09

    The direct connection of information, captured in forms such as CAD databases, to the factory floor is enabling a revolution in manufacturing. Rapid response to very dynamic market conditions is becoming the norm rather than the exception. In order to provide economical rapid fabrication of small numbers of variable products, one must design with manufacturing constraints in mind. In addition, flexible manufacturing systems must be programmed automatically to reduce the time for product change over in the factory and eliminate human errors. Sensor based machine control is needed to adapt idealized, model based machine programs to uncontrolled variables such as the condition of raw materials and fabrication tolerances.

  19. Competitive Manufacturing Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rymaszewska, Anna; Christensen, Irene; Karlsson, Christer

    The increasing complexity of business environments and the pressure for organizations on delivering new products faster while maintaining the superior quality of their products, has forced manufacturing organizations to rethink their operations. Managers responsible for manufacturing ramp-up need...... to constantly improve this process in terms of time to volume, according to predefined cost and quality measures. The importance of the success of this process can lead to a significant creation of competitive advantage. This paper addresses the challenges of the manufacturing ramp-up process in the context...

  20. Wood versus Plant Fibers: Similarities and Differences in Composite Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Madsen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The work on cellulose fiber composites is typically strictly divided into two separated research fields depending on the fiber origin, that is, from wood and from annual plants, representing the two different industries of forest and agriculture, respectively. The present paper evaluates in parallel wood fibers and plant fibers to highlight their similarities and differences regarding their use as reinforcement in composites and to enable mutual transfer of knowledge and technology between the two research fields. The paper gives an introduction to the morphology, chemistry, and ultrastructure of the fibers, the modeling of the mechanical properties of the fibers, the fiber preforms available for manufacturing of composites, the typical mechanical properties of the composites, the modeling of the mechanical properties with focus on composites having a random fiber orientation and a non-negligible porosity content, and finally, the moisture sensitivity of the composites. The performance of wood and plant fiber composites is compared to the synthetic glass and carbon fibers conventionally used for composites, and advantages and disadvantages of the different fibers are discussed.

  1. Agile manufacturing concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Steven L.

    1994-03-01

    The initial conceptualization of agile manufacturing was the result of a 1991 study -- chaired by Lehigh Professor Roger N. Nagel and California-based entrepreneur Rick Dove, President of Paradigm Shifts, International -- of what it would take for U.S. industry to regain global manufacturing competitiveness by the early twenty-first century. This industry-led study, reviewed by senior management at over 100 companies before its release, concluded that incremental improvement of the current system of manufacturing would not be enough to be competitive in today's global marketplace. Computer-based information and production technologies that were becoming available to industry opened up the possibility of an altogether new system of manufacturing, one that would be characterized by a distinctive integration of people and technologies; of management and labor; of customers, producers, suppliers, and society.

  2. MEDICAL MANUFACTURING INNOVATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosma Sorin Cosmin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of these studies was to improve the design and manufacturing process by selective laser melting, of new medical implants. After manufacturing process, the implants were measured, microscopically and mechanical analyzed. Implants manufactured by AM can be an attractive option for surface coatings to improve the osseointegration process. The main advantages of customized implants made by AM process are: the precise adaptation to the region of implantation, better cosmesis, reduced surgical times and better performance over their generic counterparts. These medical manufacturing changes the way that the surgeons are planning surgeries and engineers are designing custom implant. AM process has eliminated the constraints of shape, size, internal structure and mechanical properties making it possible for fabrication of implants that conform to the physical and mechanical requirements of implantation according to CT images. This article will review some custom implants fabricated in DME using biocompatible titanium.

  3. Many Manufactured Nanosats Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To achieve the capability to affordably produce scores of nano-spacecraft for envisioned constellation missions, a new manufacturing process is needed to reduce the...

  4. Manufacturing parabolic mirrors

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    The photo shows the construction of a vertical centrifuge mounted on an air cushion, with a precision of 1/10000 during rotation, used for the manufacture of very high=precision parabolic mirrors. (See Annual Report 1974.)

  5. Optimized manufacturable porous materials

    OpenAIRE

    Andreassen, Erik; Andreasen, Casper Schousboe; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole

    2012-01-01

    Topology optimization has been used to design two-dimensional material structures with specific elastic properties, but optimized designs of three-dimensional material structures are more scarsely seen. Partly because it requires more computational power, and partly because it is a major challenge to include manufacturing constraints in the optimization.This work focuses on incorporating the manufacturability into the optimization procedure, allowing the resulting material structure to be man...

  6. Energetics Manufacturing Technology Center (EMTC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Energetics Manufacturing Technology Center (EMTC), established in 1994 by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) Manufacturing Technology (ManTech) Program, is Navy...

  7. Bragg Grating Based Sensors in Microstructured Polymer Optical Fibers: Accelerometers and Microphones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefani, Alessio

    With the growing interest towards fiber Bragg grating sensors and the growing ability in manufacturing polymer optical fibers, the development of polymer fiber Bragg sensors has catched the attention of industries with the goal of developing high performance sensors. This thesis presents...... the development of fiber sensors based on polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings. The whole process from the preform to the device is discussed and reported. A presentation on the fiber drawing technique used is given. Issues encountered when working with polymer fibers and solutions concerning fiber cleaving...... gratings is shown and temperature compensation of strain sensors, by using two adjacent gratings, is demonstrated. Humidity insensitivity in a strain sensor based on a TOPAS fiber is also shown. In order to investigate the possibility of using viscoelastic materials, such as polymers, in dynamic sensors...

  8. [The dust factor in the manufacture of basalt fibers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorban', L N; Riazanov, A V; Voloboeva, A A; Rybak, E A

    1996-01-01

    A study was made of the labour conditions of those workers engaged in the production of basalt fibre (BF). Morphological makeup is examined as is dispersity and cytotoxicity of the dust produced in the process of BF making. An issue is addressed of usefulness of setting special hygienic regulations for BF dust.

  9. Manufacturing of Nanocomposite Carbon Fibers and Composite Cylinders Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lightweight structures has enormous potential for space vehicles applications as the reduction of weight from metallic structures add to vehicle performance, reduce...

  10. Fibered F-Algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Kleyn, Aleks

    2007-01-01

    The concept of F-algebra and its representation can be extended to an arbitrary bundle. We define operations of fibered F-algebra in fiber. The paper presents the representation theory of of fibered F-algebra as well as a comparison of representation of F-algebra and of representation of fibered F-algebra.

  11. Photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægsgaard, Jesper; Hansen, K P; Nielsen, M D;

    2003-01-01

    Photonic crystal fibers having a complex microstructure in the transverse plane constitute a new and promising class of optical fibers. Such fibers can either guide light through total internal reflection or the photonic bandgap effect, In this paper, we review the different types and applications...... of photonic crystal fibers with particular emphasis on recent advances in the field....

  12. High-fiber foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary fiber - self-care ... Dietary fiber adds bulk to your diet. Because it makes you feel full faster, it can help you ... Grains are another important source of dietary fiber. Eat more: ... Whole-grain breads Brown rice Popcorn High-fiber cereals, such ...

  13. Photonic Crystal Fiber Attenuator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joo Beom Eom; Hokyung Kim; Jinchae Kim; Un-Chul Paek; Byeong Ha Lee

    2003-01-01

    We propose a novel fiber attenuator based on photonic crystal fibers. The difference in the modal field diameters of a conventional single mode fiber and a photonic crystal fiber was used. A variable optical attenuator was also achieved by applying macro-bending on the PCF part of the proposed attenuator

  14. 75 FR 104 - Manufacturing & Services' Sustainable Manufacturing Initiative; Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-04

    ... International Trade Administration Manufacturing & Services' Sustainable Manufacturing Initiative; Update ACTION: Notice and request for input on proposed new areas of work for the Sustainable Manufacturing Initiative... (ITA) Manufacturing & Services Unit held a Sustainability and U.S. Competitiveness Summit on October...

  15. Fiber optic temperature sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawatari, Takeo (Inventor); Gaubis, Philip A. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A fiber optic temperature sensor uses a light source which transmits light through an optical fiber to a sensor head at the opposite end of the optical fiber from the light source. The sensor head has a housing coupled to the end of the optical fiber. A metallic reflective surface is coupled to the housing adjacent the end of the optical fiber to form a gap having a predetermined length between the reflective surface and the optical fiber. A detection system is also coupled to the optical fiber which determines the temperature at the sensor head from an interference pattern of light which is reflected from the reflective surface.

  16. Manufacturing process of a multifunctional composite panel with nanocharged matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volponi, R.; Spena, P.; De Nicola, F.; Guadagno, L.; Raimondo, M.; Vietri, U.

    2016-05-01

    This paper proposes an effective manufacturing process developed to overcome drawbacks that can occur using a nanofilled resin as matrix in aeronautical composites. Nanoparticles embedded in epoxy resins impregnating carbon fibers are able to improve a composite with new desired functionalities. As soon as the nanoparticles are dispersed in a resin, the viscosity dizzily rises and usually, the traditional manufacturing processes are not suitable to obtain a good quality of the manufactured panels. An alternative method has been developed starting from the Resin Film Infusion (RFI) process. This method has been firstly tested on several flat panels, and then it has been transferred on a more complex shaped panel with three stringers. In this work, a flame resistant resin based on a tetrafunctional epoxy precursor filled with carbon nanotubes to increase electrical conductivity, has been used for the panel manufacturing.

  17. Manufacturing tolerant topology optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ole Sigmund

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present an extension of the topology optimization method to include uncertainties during the fabrication of macro, micro and nano structures. More specifically, we consider devices that are manufactured using processes which may result in (uniformly) too thin (eroded)or too thick (dilated) structures compared to the intended topology. Examples are MEMS devices manufactured using etching processes, nano-devices manufactured using e-beam lithography or laser micro-machining and macro structures manufactured using milling processes. In the suggested robust topology optimization approach, under- and over-etching is modelled by image processing-based "erode" and "dilate" operators and the optimization problem is formulated as a worst case design problem. Applications of the method to the design of macro structures for minimum compliance and micro compliant mechanisms show that the method provides manufacturing tolerant designs with little decrease in performance. As a positive side effect the robust design formulation also eliminates the longstanding problem of one-node connected hinges in compliant mechanism design using topology optimization.

  18. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  19. High power fiber lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LOU Qi-hong; ZHOU Jun

    2007-01-01

    In this review article, the development of the double cladding optical fiber for high power fiber lasers is reviewed. The main technology for high power fiber lasers, including laser diode beam shaping, fiber laser pumping techniques, and amplification systems, are discussed in de-tail. 1050 W CW output and 133 W pulsed output are ob-tained in Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, China. Finally, the applications of fiber lasers in industry are also reviewed.

  20. Scintillator manufacture at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellott, K.; Bross, A.; Pla-Dalmau, A.

    1998-08-01

    A decade of research into plastic scintillation materials at Fermilab is reviewed. Early work with plastic optical fiber fabrication is revisited and recent experiments with large-scale commercial methods for production of bulk scintillator are discussed. Costs for various forms of scintillator are examined and new development goals including cost reduction methods and quality improvement techniques are suggested.

  1. Manufacturing Aspects of Advanced Polymer Composites for Automotive Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Klaus; Almajid, Abdulhakim A.

    2013-04-01

    Composite materials, in most cases fiber reinforced polymers, are nowadays used in many applications in which light weight and high specific modulus and strength are critical issues. The constituents of these materials and their special advantages relative to traditional materials are described in this paper. Further details are outlined regarding the present markets of polymer composites in Europe, and their special application in the automotive industry. In particular, the manufacturing of parts from thermoplastic as well as thermosetting, short and continuous fiber reinforced composites is emphasized.

  2. The Tensile Behavior of High-Strength Carbon Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langston, Tye

    2016-08-01

    Carbon fibers exhibit exceptional properties such as high stiffness and specific strength, making them excellent reinforcements for composite materials. However, it is difficult to directly measure their tensile properties and estimates are often obtained by tensioning fiber bundles or composites. While these macro scale tests are informative for composite design, their results differ from that of direct testing of individual fibers. Furthermore, carbon filament strength also depends on other variables, including the test length, actual fiber diameter, and material flaw distribution. Single fiber tensile testing was performed on high-strength carbon fibers to determine the load and strain at failure. Scanning electron microscopy was also conducted to evaluate the fiber surface morphology and precisely measure each fiber's diameter. Fiber strength was found to depend on the test gage length and in an effort to better understand the overall expected performance of these fibers at various lengths, statistical weak link scaling was performed. In addition, the true Young's modulus was also determined by taking the system compliance into account. It was found that all properties (tensile strength, strain to failure, and Young's modulus) matched very well with the manufacturers' reported values at 20 mm gage lengths, but deviated significantly at other lengths.

  3. The Tensile Behavior of High-Strength Carbon Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langston, Tye

    2016-08-01

    Carbon fibers exhibit exceptional properties such as high stiffness and specific strength, making them excellent reinforcements for composite materials. However, it is difficult to directly measure their tensile properties and estimates are often obtained by tensioning fiber bundles or composites. While these macro scale tests are informative for composite design, their results differ from that of direct testing of individual fibers. Furthermore, carbon filament strength also depends on other variables, including the test length, actual fiber diameter, and material flaw distribution. Single fiber tensile testing was performed on high-strength carbon fibers to determine the load and strain at failure. Scanning electron microscopy was also conducted to evaluate the fiber surface morphology and precisely measure each fiber's diameter. Fiber strength was found to depend on the test gage length and in an effort to better understand the overall expected performance of these fibers at various lengths, statistical weak link scaling was performed. In addition, the true Young's modulus was also determined by taking the system compliance into account. It was found that all properties (tensile strength, strain to failure, and Young's modulus) matched very well with the manufacturers' reported values at 20 mm gage lengths, but deviated significantly at other lengths. PMID:27278219

  4. 78 FR 67117 - Manufacturing Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... International Trade Administration Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of an Opportunity to Apply for Membership on the Manufacturing Council.... manufacturing industry to fill five vacant positions on the Manufacturing Council (Council). The purpose of...

  5. The Characteristics and Application of Polymer Optical Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Bo; JI Xiao-li; ZHANG Chao-can

    2003-01-01

    The recent development of polymer optical fiber (POF) at home and abroad was summarized.The special characteristics of the perfluorinated POF were introduced and its wide potential application was predicted. POF is the most suitable in conjunction network project, especially using with quartz optical fibers . Facing this market opportunity, it is a right choice to unit colleges, research institntions and manufacture corporations to accelerate the imdustrialization of POF.

  6. Optimal design of variable-stiffness fiber-reinforced composites using cellular automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setoodeh, S.

    2005-01-01

    Growing number of applications of composites materials in aerospace and naval structures along with advancements in manufacturing technologies demand continuous innovations in design of composite structures. In the traditional design of composite laminates, fiber orientation angles are constant for

  7. Fiber Optics Physics and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Mitschke, Fedor

    2010-01-01

    Telephone, telefax, email and internet -- the key ingredient of the inner workings is the conduit: the line which is designed to carry massive amounts of data at breakneck speed. In their data-carrying capacity optical fiber lines beat other technologies (copper cable, microwave beacons, satellite links) hands down, at least in the long haul. This book tells you all you want to know about optical fibers: Their structure, their light-guiding mechanism, their material and manufacture, their use. Several effects tend to degrade the signal as it travels down the fiber: they are spelled out in detail. Nonlinear processes are given due consideration for a twofold reason: On the one hand they are fundamentally different from the more familiar processes in electrical cable. On the other hand, they form the basis of particularly interesting and innovative applications, provided they are understood well enough. A case in point is the use of so-called solitons, i.e. special pulses of light which have the wonderful prope...

  8. Robust Manufacturing Control

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This contributed volume collects research papers, presented at the CIRP Sponsored Conference Robust Manufacturing Control: Innovative and Interdisciplinary Approaches for Global Networks (RoMaC 2012, Jacobs University, Bremen, Germany, June 18th-20th 2012). These research papers present the latest developments and new ideas focusing on robust manufacturing control for global networks. Today, Global Production Networks (i.e. the nexus of interconnected material and information flows through which products and services are manufactured, assembled and distributed) are confronted with and expected to adapt to: sudden and unpredictable large-scale changes of important parameters which are occurring more and more frequently, event propagation in networks with high degree of interconnectivity which leads to unforeseen fluctuations, and non-equilibrium states which increasingly characterize daily business. These multi-scale changes deeply influence logistic target achievement and call for robust planning and control ...

  9. Dynamic Strength of Fiber Glass Shells

    OpenAIRE

    Syrunin, M.; Fedorenko, A.; Ivanov, A

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents generalization of results, obtained by experimental investigations of dynamic response, strength, and load-bearing ability of cylindrical and spherical shells, manufactured from composite materials on the basis of fiber glass, under loading them by explosion of compact high-explosive charges on the inside. The paper describes mechanisms and criteria of destruction of such shells, methods to improve their specific load-bearing ability. Results of experiments concerning inve...

  10. Laser in manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Davim, J Paulo

    2013-01-01

    Generally a laser (light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) is defined as "a device which uses a quantum mechanical effect, stimulated emission, to generate a coherent beam of light from a lasing medium of controlled purity, size, and shape". Laser material processing represents a great number of methods, which are rapidly growing in current and different industrial applications as new alternatives to traditional manufacturing processes. Nowadays, the use of lasers in manufacturing is an emerging area with a wide variety of applications, for example, in electronics, molds an

  11. Knowledge Management for Manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OveRustungHjelmervik; 王克胜; 袁庆丰; 方明伦

    2004-01-01

    Technology development and implementation on the manufacturing arena has, throughout the years, frustrated employees over the requirement of constantly adjusting to new technologies. The employee's ability to learn is bounded, and thus limited. Looking at a modern production system, it is often a complicated array of technologies that have to be coordinated; or the technologies are coordinating themselves through artificial intelligence. This paper discusses the need for a holistic knowledge management approach to manufacturing,combining in-place technology with process management philosophy, in order for the firm's human resources to create, share, store and apply new knowledge.

  12. Developments in fuel manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL has a long tradition of willingness to embrace technological challenge and a dedication to quality. This paper describes advances in the overall manufacturing philosophy at BNFL's Fuel Business Group and then covers how some new technologies are currently being employed in BNFL Fuel Business Group's flagship oxide complex (OFC), which is currently in its final stages of commissioning. This plant represents a total investment of some Pound 200 million. This paper also describes how these technologies are also being deployed in BNFL's MOX plant now being built at Sellafield and, finally, covers some new processes being developed for advanced fuel manufacture. (author)

  13. Manufacturing and automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Córdoba Nieto

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents concepts and definitions from different sources concerning automation. The work approaches automation by virtue of the author’s experience in manufacturing production; why and how automation prolects are embarked upon is considered. Technological reflection regarding the progressive advances or stages of automation in the production area is stressed. Coriat and Freyssenet’s thoughts about and approaches to the problem of automation and its current state are taken and examined, especially that referring to the problem’s relationship with reconciling the level of automation with the flexibility and productivity demanded by competitive, worldwide manufacturing.

  14. State of the art on tribological behavior of polymer matrix composites reinforced with natural fibers in the green materials world

    OpenAIRE

    Emad Omrani; Pradeep L. Menezes; Pradeep K. Rohatgi

    2016-01-01

    Natural fiber reinforced polymer composites have emerged as a potential environmentally friendly and cost-effective alternative to synthetic fiber reinforced composites. Therefore, in the past decade, a number of major industries, such as the automotive, construction and packaging industries, have shown a considerable interest in the progress of new natural fiber reinforced composite materials. The availability of natural fibers and the ease of manufacturing have tempted researchers to study ...

  15. Cost analysis of advanced turbine blade manufacturing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, C. F.; Blake, D. E.; Stelson, T. S.

    1977-01-01

    A rigorous analysis was conducted to estimate relative manufacturing costs for high technology gas turbine blades prepared by three candidate materials process systems. The manufacturing costs for the same turbine blade configuration of directionally solidified eutectic alloy, an oxide dispersion strengthened superalloy, and a fiber reinforced superalloy were compared on a relative basis to the costs of the same blade currently in production utilizing the directional solidification process. An analytical process cost model was developed to quantitatively perform the cost comparisons. The impact of individual process yield factors on costs was also assessed as well as effects of process parameters, raw materials, labor rates and consumable items.

  16. CARBON FIBER COMPOSITES IN HIGH VOLUME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Charles David [ORNL; Das, Sujit [ORNL; Jeon, Dr. Saeil [Volvo Trucks North America

    2014-01-01

    Vehicle lightweighting represents one of several design approaches that automotive and heavy truck manufacturers are currently evaluating to improve fuel economy, lower emissions, and improve freight efficiency (tons-miles per gallon of fuel). With changes in fuel efficiency and environmental regulations in the area of transportation, the next decade will likely see considerable vehicle lightweighting throughout the ground transportation industry. Greater use of carbon fiber composites and light metals is a key component of that strategy. This paper examines the competition between candidate materials for lightweighting of heavy vehicles and passenger cars. A 53-component, 25 % mass reduction, body-in-white cost analysis is presented for each material class, highlighting the potential cost penalty for each kilogram of mass reduction and then comparing the various material options. Lastly, as the cost of carbon fiber is a major component of the elevated cost of carbon fiber composites, a brief look at the factors that influence that cost is presented.

  17. Continuous fiber-reinforced titanium aluminide composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, R. A.; Brindley, P. K.; Froes, F. H.

    1991-01-01

    An account is given of the fabrication techniques, microstructural characteristics, and mechanical behavior of a lightweight, high service temperature SiC-reinforced alpha-2 Ti-14Al-21Nb intermetallic-matrix composite. Fabrication techniques under investigation to improve the low-temperature ductility and environmental resistance of this material system, while reducing manufacturing costs to competitive levels, encompass powder-cloth processing, foil-fiber-foil processing, and thermal-spray processing. Attention is given to composite microstructure problems associated with fiber distribution and fiber-matrix interfaces, as well as with mismatches of thermal-expansion coefficient; major improvements are noted to be required in tensile properties, thermal cycling effects, mechanical damage, creep, and environmental effects.

  18. Amplitude-modulated fiber-ring laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caputo, J. G.; Clausen, Carl A. Balslev; Sørensen, Mads Peter;

    2000-01-01

    Soliton pulses generated by a fiber-ring laser are investigated by numerical simulation and perturbation methods. The mathematical modeling is based on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with perturbative terms. We show that active mode locking with an amplitude modulator leads to a self-starting......Soliton pulses generated by a fiber-ring laser are investigated by numerical simulation and perturbation methods. The mathematical modeling is based on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with perturbative terms. We show that active mode locking with an amplitude modulator leads to a self......-starting of stable solitonic pulses from small random noise, provided the modulation depth is small. The perturbative analysis leads to a nonlinear coupled return map for the amplitude, phase, and position of the soliton pulses circulating in the fiber-ring laser. We established the validity of this approach...

  19. Calibration artefact for the microscale with high aspect ratio: The fiber gauge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinello, Francesco; Savio, Enrico; Carmignato, Simone;

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a new concept of micro-artefact, the fiber gauge, consisting of a set of optical fibers sticking out from a flat surface. The fibers are arranged as a regular array of different height cylinders, with aspect ratios up to 20:1. The artefact is produced taking advantage of optical...... fibers manufacturing technology, featuring relatively high geometrical accuracy, combined with very good mechanical properties. The fiber gauge can be applied to calibration of most contact or non-contact instruments for characterization of surface topographies and 3Dmicro-geometries, such as micro- or...

  20. Distribution and Orientation of Carbon Fibers in Polylactic Acid Parts Produced by Fused Deposition Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofstätter, Thomas; W. Gutmann, Ingomar; Koch, Thomas;

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is the understanding of the fiber orientation by investigations in respect to the inner configuration of a polylactic acid matrix reinforced with short carbon fibers after a fused deposition modeling extrusion process. The final parts were analyzed by X-ray, tomography, and ...... magnetic resonance imaging allowing a resolved orientation of the fibers and distribution within the part. The research contributes to the understanding of the fiber orientation and fiber reinforcement of fused deposition modeling parts in additive manufacturing....

  1. Optical Fiber Fusion Splicing

    CERN Document Server

    Yablon, Andrew D

    2005-01-01

    This book is an up-to-date treatment of optical fiber fusion splicing incorporating all the recent innovations in the field. It provides a toolbox of general strategies and specific techniques that the reader can apply when optimizing fusion splices between novel fibers. It specifically addresses considerations important for fusion splicing of contemporary specialty fibers including dispersion compensating fiber, erbium-doped gain fiber, polarization maintaining fiber, and microstructured fiber. Finally, it discusses the future of optical fiber fusion splicing including silica and non-silica based optical fibers as well as the trend toward increasing automation. Whilst serving as a self-contained reference work, abundant citations from the technical literature will enable readers to readily locate primary sources.

  2. Specialty optical fibers: revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2011-10-01

    The paper contains description of chosen aspects of analysis and design of tailored optical fibers. By specialty optical fibers we understand here the fibers which have complex construction and which serve for the functional processing of optical signal rather than long distance transmission. Thus, they are called also instrumentation optical fibers. The following issues are considered: transmission properties, transformation of optical signal, fiber characteristics, fiber susceptibility to external reactions. The technology of tailored optical fibers offers a wider choice of the design tools for the fiber itself, and then various devices made from these fiber, than classical technology of communication optical fibers. The consequence is different fiber properties, nonstandard dimensions and different metrological problems. The price to be paid for wider design possibilities are bigger optical losses of these fibers and weaker mechanical properties, and worse chemical stability. These fibers find their applications outside the field of telecommunications. The applications of instrumentation optical fibers combine other techniques apart from the photonics ones like: electronic, chemical and mechatronic.

  3. A pilot-scale nonwoven roll goods manufacturing process reduces microbial burden to pharmacopeia acceptance levels for nonsterile hygiene applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    A total of seven source fiber types were selected for use in the manufacturing of nonwoven roll goods: polyester; polypropylene; rayon; greige cotton from two sources; mechanically cleaned greige cotton; and scoured and bleached cotton. The microbial burden of each source fiber was measured as a pr...

  4. Sensory and adaptive access of manufacturing equipment resources in cloud manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Mingli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensory and adaptive access of manufacturing equipment (ME is the key of physical resources virtualization in cloud manufacturing (CM. Three aspects including status sensory of ME, Internet of Things (IoT and adaptive access of CM service platform were elaborated to analyze the characteristics and to investigate the related technologies. The importance of fiber Bragg grating sensing technology for ME sensory was analyzed. The heterogeneous fusion system and fusion access method as well as device of equipment resources were discussed. The access of ME resources for CM service platform was investigated based on three aspects including information fusion, description and retrieval and service release. Taking the realization of intelligent sensory and adaptive access for typical ME resources as an example, the prototype system, the sensory of ME resources and the realization of IoT of ME resources as well as the adaptive access method for CM service platform were expounded.

  5. Nuclear fuel manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technologies used to manufacture nuclear fuel from uranium ore are outlined, with particular reference to the light water reactor fuel cycle. Capital and operating cost estimates for the processing stages are given, and the relevance to a developing uranium industry in Australia is discussed

  6. Virtual manufacturing in reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papstel, Jyri; Saks, Alo

    2000-10-01

    SMEs play an important role in manufacturing industry. But from time to time there is a shortage in resources to complete the particular order in time. Number of systems is introduced to produce digital information in order to support product and process development activities. Main problem is lack of opportunity for direct data transition within design system modules when needed temporary extension of design capacity (virtuality) or to implement integrated concurrent product development principles. The planning experience in the field is weakly used as well. The concept of virtual manufacturing is a supporting idea to solve this problem. At the same time a number of practical problems should be solved like information conformity, data transfer, unified technological concepts acceptation etc. In the present paper the proposed ways to solve the practical problems of virtual manufacturing are described. General objective is to introduce the knowledge-based CAPP system as missing module for Virtual Manufacturing in the selected product domain. Surface-centered planning concept based on STEP- based modeling principles, and knowledge-based process planning methodology will be used to gain the objectives. As a result the planning module supplied by design data with direct access, and supporting advising environment is expected. Mould producing SME would be as test basis.

  7. Manufacturing and Merchandising Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Peter J.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Anyone with a flair for business, product development, or promotion might consider a manufacturing or merchandising occupation. The music industry offers many career opportunities for administrators, salespersons, marketing specialists--the record industry offers positions from promotion manager to rack jobber. Describes instrument company…

  8. Manufacturer's Suggested Retail Prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenkranz, S.

    2003-01-01

    Based on arguments of the `reference- dependent' theory of consumer choice we assume that a retailer's discount of a manufacturer's suggested retail price changes consumers' demand. We can show that the producer benefits from suggesting a retail price. If consumers are additionally sufficiently `los

  9. Performance adaptive manufacturing processes

    OpenAIRE

    Creutznacher, T.; Lepratti, R.; Lamparter, S.; Heinecke, G.

    2013-01-01

    Part of: Selinger, Günther (Ed.): Innovative solutions : proceedings / 11th Global Conference on Sustainable Manufacturing, Berlin, Germany, 23rd - 25th September, 2013. - Berlin: Universitätsverlag der TU Berlin, 2013. - ISBN 978-3-7983-2609-5 (online). - http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:kobv:83-opus4-40276. - pp. 296-301.

  10. Drug development and manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, Benjamin P.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Burrell, Anthony K.

    2015-10-13

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry has been used for detecting binding events and measuring binding selectivities between chemicals and receptors. XRF may also be used for estimating the therapeutic index of a chemical, for estimating the binding selectivity of a chemical versus chemical analogs, for measuring post-translational modifications of proteins, and for drug manufacturing.

  11. Transfer of manufacturing units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Skov; Riis, Jens Ove; Sørensen, Brian Vejrum

    2008-01-01

    The ongoing and unfolding relocation of activities is one of the major trends, that calls for attention in the domain of operations management. In particular, prescriptive models outlining: stages of the process, where to locate, and how to establish the new facilities have been studied, while th...... and dilemmas to be addressed when transferring manufacturing units....

  12. Manufacturing halal in Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    2016-01-01

    production, trade and consumption. Based on fieldwork in Malaysia, this article explores how manufacturing companies understand and practise halal certification, standards and technoscience. I argue that while existing studies of halal overwhelmingly explore micro-social aspects such as the everyday...

  13. Effect of the Volume Fraction of Jute Fiber on the Interlaminar Shear Stress and Tensile Behavior Characteristics of Hybrid Glass/Jute Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Bar for Concrete Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan-Gi Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid glass/jute fiber reinforced polymer (HGJFRP composite bars were manufactured for concrete structures, and their interlaminar shear stress and tensile performance were evaluated. HGJFRP composite bars were manufactured using a combination of pultrusion and braiding processes. Jute fiber was surface-treated with a silane coupling agent. The mixing ratio of the fiber to the vinyl ester used in the HGJFRP composite bars was 7 : 3. Jute fiber was used to replace glass fiber in proportions of 0, 30, 50, 70, and 100%. The interlaminar shear stress decreased as the proportion of jute fiber increased. Fractures appeared due to delamination between the surface-treated component and the main part of the HGJFRP composite bar. Tensile load-strain curves with 50% jute fiber exhibited linear behavior. With a jute fiber volume fraction of 70%, some plastic deformation occurred. A jute fiber mixing ratio of 100% resulted in a display of linear elastic brittle behavior from the fiber; however, when the surface of the fiber was coated with poly(vinyl acetate, following failure, the jute fiber exhibited partial load resistance. The tensile strength decreased as the jute fiber content increased; however, the tensile strength did not vary linearly with jute fiber content.

  14. Fibers as carriers of microbial particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał L. Górny

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study was to assess the ability of natural, synthetic and semi-synthetic fibers to transport microbial particles. Material and Methods: The simultaneously settled dust and aerosol sampling was carried out in 3 industrial facilities processing natural (cotton, silk, flax, hemp, synthetic (polyamide, polyester, polyacrylonitrile, polypropylene and semi-synthetic (viscose fibrous materials; 2 stables where horses and sheep were bred; 4 homes where dogs or cats were kept and 1 zoo lion pavilion. All samples were laboratory analyzed for their microbiological purity. The isolated strains were qualitatively identified. To identify the structure and arrangement of fibers that may support transport of microbial particles, a scanning electron microscopy analysis was performed. Results: Both settled and airborne fibers transported analogous microorganisms. All synthetic, semi-synthetic and silk fibers, present as separated threads with smooth surface, were free from microbial contamination. Natural fibers with loose packing and rough surface (e.g., wool, horse hair, sheaf packing and septated surface (e.g., flax, hemp or present as twisted ribbons with corrugated surface (cotton were able to carry up to 9×105 cfu/g aerobic bacteria, 3.4×104 cfu/g anaerobic bacteria and 6.3×104 cfu/g of fungi, including pathogenic strains classified by Directive 2000/54/EC in hazard group 2. Conclusions: As plant and animal fibers are contaminated with a significant number of microorganisms, including pathogens, all of them should be mechanically eliminated from the environment. In factories, if the manufacturing process allows, they should be replaced by synthetic or semi-synthetic fibers. To avoid unwanted exposure to harmful microbial agents on fibers, the containment measures that efficiently limit their presence and dissemination in both occupational and non-occupational environments should be introduced. Med Pr 2015;66(4:511–523

  15. Single Mode Fiber Optic Connectors And Splices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, John G.

    1984-08-01

    There is a trend toward increasing use of single mode transmission, particularly in telecommunications where high data bit rates are transmitted for long distances. Inter-connections of multimode fibers can be made in a number of ways, using ferrules, v-grooves, elastomeric splices, etc. However, the connection of single mode fibers, which have core diameters of 4 to 13 μm, requires more precise alignment than do the multimode fibers having core diameters of 50 μm or more. At TRW, we have adapted the four rod alignment guide concept for single mode fiber inter-connections. The principle of this OPTAGUIDE* alignment guide is presented. The single mode connectors and splices use the four rod scheme with an index matching material to eliminate or reduce the losses incurred through fiber end roughness or angularity. We are able to produce demountable connectors for 80/4.4 pm fibers having typical insertion losses of 1.0dB. The main factors in obtaining this result are the naturally precise fiber alignment provided by the alignment guide, and the ability of several manufacturers to maintain tight diametral and core offset tolerances. The single mode OPTALIGN* SM Connectors have been subjected to performance and environmental tests including repeated matings, temperature cycle and vibration. The results of these tests are described in this paper. A feature of the OPTALIGN* SM Connectors is the relative ease and speed of attachment to fiber optic cable in the field, without the use of epoxy or polishing procedures. The alignment guide concept has also been applied to permanent single mode splices. The splicing procedure is simple to perform in the field without expensive or delicate equipment. Construction and assembly procedures of the demountable connectors and permanent splices will be described with the aid of diagrams and photographs.

  16. Historic trends in manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manufacturing accounts for more of the world's energy use - around 40% of final energy - than any other major sector. In the OECD countries, its share of final energy use declined from about 35% to 30% between 1973 and 1988 due to rising consumption in other sectors and decline in manufacturing. It plays a more important role outside the OECD countries, however, accounting for approximately 40% of energy use in the Soviet Union, 60% in China, and 35-45% in other LDCs. At a global level, it is difficult to separate manufacturing from total industrial energy use, but trends in the latter give a reasonably good picture of those in manufacturing, since the latter dominates industrial activity and energy use. The other main industrial activities - mining and construction - account for 10-20% of total industrial energy use in the OECD countries, about 20% in the former East Bloc, and around 20-25% in the LDCs. Total OECD industrial energy use has fluctuated since the early 1970s, but was less in 1988 than in 1973. In the LDCs and former East Bloc, growth has been more steady, though the growth trend for the latter has levelled off since 1988. Decrease in the relative importance of energy-intensive industries within the manufacturing sector contributed to a decline in energy use in the OECD countries. Much more important, however, were decreases in the energy intensities of the various industry groups that comprise the sector. In the Former East Bloc, there seems to have been relatively little structural change or change in intensities. There is evidence that energy intensities have declined in a number of LDCs. 21 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs

  17. Design and Manufacture of Conical Shell Structures Using Prepreg Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakimova, Regina; Burau, Florian; Degenhardt, Richard; Siebert, Mark; Castro, Saullo G. P.

    2016-06-01

    The design and manufacture of unstiffened composite conical structures is very challenging, as the variation of the fiber orientations, lay-up and the geometry of the ply pieces have a significant influence on the thickness imperfections and ply angle deviations imprinted to the final part. This paper deals with the manufacture of laminated composite cones through the prepeg/autoclave process. The cones are designed to undergo repetitive buckling tests without accumulating permanent damage. The aim is to define a process that allows the control of fiber angle deviations and the removal of thickness imperfections generated from gaps and overlaps between ply pieces. Ultrasonic scan measurements are used to proof the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  18. Carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites for future automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, K.

    2016-05-01

    After a brief introduction to polymer composite properties and markets, the state of the art activities in the field of manufacturing of advanced composites for automotive applications are elucidated. These include (a) long fiber reinforced thermoplastics (LFT) for secondary automotive components, and (b) continuous carbon fiber reinforced thermosetting composites for car body applications. It is followed by future possibilities of carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites for e.g. (i) crash elements, (ii) racing car seats, and (iii) production and recycling of automotive fenders.

  19. Mode profiling of optical fibers at high laser powers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Carøe; Pedersen, David Bue; Simonsen, R.B.;

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a measuring equipment capable of analysing the beam profile at high optical powers emitted by delivery fibers used in manufacturing processes. Together with the optical delivery system, the output beam quality from the delivery fiber and the shape...... is obtained. Choosing a highly reflective rod material and a sufficiently high rotation speed, these measurements can be done with high laser powers, without any additional optical elements between the fiber and analyzer. The performance of the analyzer was evaluated by coupling laser light into different...

  20. Fundamentals of Digital Manufacturing Science

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Zude; Chen, Dejun

    2012-01-01

    The manufacturing industry will reap significant benefits from encouraging the development of digital manufacturing science and technology. Digital Manufacturing Science uses theorems, illustrations and tables to introduce the definition, theory architecture, main content, and key technologies of digital manufacturing science. Readers will be able to develop an in-depth understanding of the emergence and the development, the theoretical background, and the techniques and methods of digital manufacturing science. Furthermore, they will also be able to use the basic theories and key technologies described in Digital Manufacturing Science to solve practical engineering problems in modern manufacturing processes. Digital Manufacturing Science is aimed at advanced undergraduate and postgraduate students, academic researchers and researchers in the manufacturing industry. It allows readers to integrate the theories and technologies described with their own research works, and to propose new ideas and new methods to...

  1. Radiation curing of composites for vehicle component and vehicle manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some traditional uses of metals in vehicle component and vehicle manufacture, such as steel (specific gravity 7.8) or aluminum (specific gravity 2.7), can be replaced by carbon-fiber composites (specific gravity 1.6) to provide significant weight savings while maintaining structural integrity. The aerospace and aircraft industries have adopted this approach. The auto or motor vehicle industries have explored the use of composites, but have been reluctant to widely adopt this technology because of concerns over manufacturing processes. A typical steel auto body weighing ∼ 750 kilos would weigh only ∼ 155 kilos if replaced with carbon-fiber composites. Structural members, as the vehicle chassis, could also be fabricated out of carbon-fiber composites. With only 20% of the body weight, smaller, lower horse-power and more fuel efficient engines could be used to power such vehicles. Commercial aircraft manufacturers that have adopted carbon-fiber structures in lieu of aluminum (a 40% weight savings) estimate a 20% savings in fuel costs for large planes. These are still made with conventional materials being used for motors, tires, interiors, and the like. A fuel efficient auto now running at ∼ 10 kilometers/liter would more than double its fuel efficiency given the nearly 80% weight savings attainable by use of carbon-fiber composites just for the vehicle body. As with aircraft, conventional systems for propulsion (motors), braking, tires and interiors could still be used. Radiation curing can simplify the manufacture of carbon-fiber composite vehicle components. Highly penetrating X-rays derived from high current, high energy electron beam (EB) accelerators can be used to cure structural composites while they are constrained within inexpensive molds; thus reducing cure cycles, eliminating heat transfer concerns and concerns over potentially hazardous emissions during the curing process. Since X-rays can penetrate mold walls, the curing process is quite versatile

  2. Jute fiber reinforced polypropylene produced by continuous extrusion compounding. Part 1. Processing and ageing properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oever, van den M.J.A.; Snijder, M.H.B.

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the processing and ageing properties of jute fiber reinforced polypropylene (PP) composites. The composite has been manufactured by a continuous extrusion process and results in free flowing composite granules, comprising up to 50 weight percent (wt %) jute fiber in PP. These

  3. Mechanical properties of carbon fiber composites for environmental applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, R.; Grulke, E. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Activated carbon fiber composites show great promise as fixed-bed catalytic reactors for use in environmental applications such as flue gas clean-up and ground water decontamination. A novel manufacturing process produces low density composites from chopped carbon fibers and binders. These composites have high permeability, can be activated to have high surface area, and have many potential environmental applications. This paper reports the mechanical and flow properties of these low density composites. Three point flexural strength tests were used to measure composite yield strength and flexural moduli. Composites containing over 10 pph binder had an adequate yield strength of about 200 psi at activations up to 40% weight loss. The composites were anisotropic, having along-fiber to cross-fiber yield strength ratios between 1.2 and 2.0. The friction factor for flow through the composites can be correlated using the fiber Reynolds number, and is affected by the composite bulk density.

  4. Characterization of new natural cellulosic fiber from Cissus quadrangularis stem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indran, S; Raj, R Edwin

    2015-03-01

    Polymer composite has contributed tremendously for energy efficient technologies in automotive and aero industries. Environmental and health concerns related to the carcinogenic nature of artificial fiber in polymer composite needs a retrofit. Eco friendly natural cellulosic fiber extract from the stem of Cissus quadrangularis plant is extensively characterized to consider as a viable alternative for man-made hazardous fibers. Anatomical study, chemical analysis, physical analysis, FTIR, XRD, SEM analysis and thermo gravimetric analysis were done to establish the certainty of using them as reinforcement fiber. Its light weight and the presence of high cellulose content (82.73%) with very little wax (0.18%) provide high specific strength and good bonding properties in composite manufacturing. The flaky honeycomb outer surface revealed through electron microscopy contributes for high modulus in CQ stem fiber and thermo gravimetric analysis ensures thermal stability up to 270 °C, which is within the polymerization process temperature.

  5. Low-temperature hermetic sealing of optical fiber components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, D.P.

    1996-10-22

    A method for manufacturing low-temperature hermetically sealed optical fiber components is provided. The method comprises the steps of: inserting an optical fiber into a housing, the optical fiber having a glass core, a glass cladding and a protective buffer layer disposed around the core and cladding; heating the housing to a predetermined temperature, the predetermined temperature being below a melting point for the protective buffer layer and above a melting point of a solder; placing the solder in communication with the heated housing to allow the solder to form an eutectic and thereby fill a gap between the interior of the housing and the optical fiber; and cooling the housing to allow the solder to form a hermetic compression seal between the housing and the optical fiber. 5 figs.

  6. Characterization of new natural cellulosic fiber from Cissus quadrangularis stem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indran, S; Raj, R Edwin

    2015-03-01

    Polymer composite has contributed tremendously for energy efficient technologies in automotive and aero industries. Environmental and health concerns related to the carcinogenic nature of artificial fiber in polymer composite needs a retrofit. Eco friendly natural cellulosic fiber extract from the stem of Cissus quadrangularis plant is extensively characterized to consider as a viable alternative for man-made hazardous fibers. Anatomical study, chemical analysis, physical analysis, FTIR, XRD, SEM analysis and thermo gravimetric analysis were done to establish the certainty of using them as reinforcement fiber. Its light weight and the presence of high cellulose content (82.73%) with very little wax (0.18%) provide high specific strength and good bonding properties in composite manufacturing. The flaky honeycomb outer surface revealed through electron microscopy contributes for high modulus in CQ stem fiber and thermo gravimetric analysis ensures thermal stability up to 270 °C, which is within the polymerization process temperature. PMID:25498651

  7. 76 FR 30908 - Foreign-Trade Zone 203-Moses Lake, Washington, Export-Only Manufacturing Authority, SGL...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 203--Moses Lake, Washington, Export-Only Manufacturing..., 2011, an application was submitted by the Port of Moses Lake Public Corporation, grantee of Foreign... manufacture carbon fiber under FTZ procedures solely for export within Site 3 of FTZ 203 in Moses...

  8. Evaluation on Decomposition granularity of Manufacturing Task in Manufacturing Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihong Wang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Task decomposition is on of the most important activities for manufacturing task planning in Manufacturing Grid. Many achievements in the methods to decompose manufacturing tasks have been obtained. But as for the decomposition granularity, the study and research are rare. Referring to the principle of “strong cohesion and weak coupling” in the software engineering field, the decomposition model of manufacturing task is built up, in which a manufacturing task is decomposed into different subtasks, and each subtask is composed of various processing events. On the basis of the model, the constraint among processing events within the subtasks is analyzed. Then the evaluation index on decomposition granularity of manufacturing task is put forward based on several definitions and evaluation steps for the decomposition granularity of manufacturing task are listed. Finally, examples to illustrate the idea of the paper are given. We hope the work of the paper can promote the study and application for Manufacturing Grid further.

  9. Manufacturing matters: conference explores challenges faced by Buffalo's manufacturing sector

    OpenAIRE

    Jane Schmitt; Richard Deitz; Ramon Garcia

    2002-01-01

    The June 6 conference "Manufacturing Matters" was sponsored by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, Buffalo Branch in conjunction with the Western New York Technology Development Center and the Buffalo Niagara Partnership's Manufacturers Council.

  10. Lyocell Fiber-Reinforced Cellulose Ester Composites - Surface and Consolidation Considerations, and Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Seavey, Kevin Christopher

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to further develop the polymer composite system consisting of cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) and high modulus, continuous, regenerated cellulose fiber (lyocell). Of particular concern were both the interfacial adhesion between the fiber and matrix and the consolidation process in the manufacture of these composite materials. Interfacial adhesion was found to be substantial due to the relative lack of the fiber pull-out phenomenon observed after tensil...

  11. Smart aircraft composite structures with embedded small-diameter optical fiber sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Nobuo; Minakuchi, Shu

    2012-02-01

    This talk describes the embedded optical fiber sensor systems for smart aircraft composite structures. First, a summary of the current Japanese national project on structural integrity diagnosis of aircraft composite structures is described with special emphasis on the use of embedded small-diameter optical fiber sensors including FBG sensors. Then, some examples of life-cycle monitoring of aircraft composite structures are presented using embedded small-diameter optical fiber sensors for low-cost and reliable manufacturing merits.

  12. Manufacturing Renaissance : Return of manufacturing to western countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kianian, Babak; Larsson, Tobias; Tavassoli, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues that the location of manufacturing is gradually shifting to the west again, i.e. Manufacturing Renaissance. Such claim is based on the recent observed trend and the discussion is contextualized within the established theory that has been able to explain the location of manufacturing, i.e. Product Life Cycle Model (PLC). Then the paper identifies and discusses the four main drivers of this new phenomenon. Finally, it is noted that the rerun of manufacturing should be kept in ...

  13. Fiber Optics Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, William E.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses various applications of fiber optics technology: information systems, industrial robots, medicine, television, transportation, and training. Types of jobs that will be available with fiber optics training (such as electricians and telephone cable installers and splicers) are examined. (CT)

  14. Fiber optic chemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chuck C.; McCrae, David A.; Saaski, Elric W.

    1998-09-01

    This paper provides a broad overview of the field of fiber optic chemical sensors. Several different types of fiber optic sensors and probes are described, and references are cited for each category discussed.

  15. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  16. Rayleigh fiber optics gyroscope

    OpenAIRE

    Kung, A.; Budin, J.; Thévenaz, Luc; Robert, P. A.

    1997-01-01

    A novel kind of fiber-optic gyroscope based on Rayleigh backscattering in a fiber-ring resonator is presented in this letter. Information on the rotation rate is obtained from the composed response of the fiber ring to an optical time-domain reflectometry (OTDR) instrument. The developed model based on the coherence properties of the Rayleigh scattering yields a polarization-insensitive and low-cost gyroscope

  17. Helical Fiber Amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koplow, Jeffrey P.; Kliner, Dahy; Goldberg, Lew

    2002-12-17

    A multi-mode gain fiber is provided which affords substantial improvements in the maximum pulse energy, peak power handling capabilities, average output power, and/or pumping efficiency of fiber amplifier and laser sources while maintaining good beam quality (comparable to that of a conventional single-mode fiber source). These benefits are realized by coiling the multimode gain fiber to induce significant bend loss for all but the lowest-order mode(s).

  18. Fundamentals of fiber lasers and fiber amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Ter-Mikirtychev, Valerii (Vartan)

    2014-01-01

    This book covers the fundamental aspects of fiber lasers and fiber amplifiers, and includes a wide range of material from laser physics fundamentals to state-of-the-art topics in this rapidly growing field of quantum electronics. Emphasis is placed on the nonlinear processes taking place in fiber lasers and amplifiers, their similarities, differences to, and their advantages over other solid-state lasers. The reader will learn basic principles of solid-state physics and optical spectroscopy of laser active centers in fibers, main operational laser regimes, and practical recommendations and suggestions on fiber laser research, laser applications, and laser product development. The book will be useful for students, researchers, and professionals who work with lasers, in the optical communications, chemical and biological industries, etc.

  19. Modelling manufacturing inventories

    OpenAIRE

    John D. Tsoukalas

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents and applies a stage-of-fabrication inventory model to the UK manufacturing sector. The model emphasises the interaction between input (raw materials and work-in-process) and output (finished goods) inventories. This interaction is an important empirical regularity and proves critical for the ability of the model to fit the data. Decisions about input and output inventory investment cannot be considered in isolation from each other, but must be analysed jointly. Overall, th...

  20. Manufacturing of Lightweight Mirror

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Fabrication of the lightweight mirror is one of the key techniques for many large optical systems. CAD,CAM and CNC technologies are adopted in designing and manufacturing such mirrors in CIOMP. Better working efficiency and higher lightweight grade have been achieved. The results show that mirrors up to 70% weight reduction and 0.02λ(rms.) surface accuracy or better can be obtained.

  1. Advanced manufacturing: Technology diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesar, A.

    1995-12-01

    In this paper we examine how manufacturing technology diffuses rom the developers of technology across national borders to those who do not have the capability or resources to develop advanced technology on their own. None of the wide variety of technology diffusion mechanisms discussed in this paper are new, yet the opportunities to apply these mechanisms are growing. A dramatic increase in technology diffusion occurred over the last decade. The two major trends which probably drive this increase are a worldwide inclination towards ``freer`` markets and diminishing isolation. Technology is most rapidly diffusing from the US In fact, the US is supplying technology for the rest of the world. The value of the technology supplied by the US more than doubled from 1985 to 1992 (see the Introduction for details). History shows us that technology diffusion is inevitable. It is the rates at which technologies diffuse to other countries which can vary considerably. Manufacturers in these countries are increasingly able to absorb technology. Their manufacturing efficiency is expected to progress as technology becomes increasingly available and utilized.

  2. Fiber Nonlinearities: A Tutorial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Govind; P.; Agrawal

    2003-01-01

    Fiber nonlinearities have long been regarded as being mostly harmful for fiber-optic communication systems. Over the last few years, however, the nonlinear effects are increasingly being used for practical telecommunications applications, the Raman amplification being only one of the recent examples. In this tutorial I review the various nonlinear effects occurring in optical fibers from both standpoints..

  3. Fiber Nonlinearities: A Tutorial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Govind P. Agrawal

    2003-01-01

    Fiber nonlinearities have long been regarded as being mostly harmful for fiber-optic communication systems. Over the last few years, however, the nonlinear effects are increasingly being used for practical telecommunications applications,the Raman amplification being only one of the recent examples. In this tutorial I review the vario us nonlinear effects occurring in optical fibers from both standpoints..

  4. Resonant filtered fiber amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Laurila, Marko; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin;

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present our recent result on utilizing resonant/bandgap fiber designs to achieve high performance ytterbium doped fiber amplifers for achieving diffraction limited beam quality in large mode area fibers, robust bending performance and gain shaping for long wavelength operation...

  5. Green Manufacturing Fundamentals and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Green Manufacturing: Fundamentals and Applications introduces the basic definitions and issues surrounding green manufacturing at the process, machine and system (including supply chain) levels. It also shows, by way of several examples from different industry sectors, the potential for substantial improvement and the paths to achieve the improvement. Additionally, this book discusses regulatory and government motivations for green manufacturing and outlines the path for making manufacturing more green as well as making production more sustainable. This book also: • Discusses new engineering approaches for manufacturing and provides a path from traditional manufacturing to green manufacturing • Addresses regulatory and economic issues surrounding green manufacturing • Details new supply chains that need to be in place before going green • Includes state-of-the-art case studies in the areas of automotive, semiconductor and medical areas as well as in the supply chain and packaging areas Green Manufactu...

  6. Manufacturing a Superconductor in School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, John

    1989-01-01

    Described is the manufacture of a superconductor from a commercially available kit using equipment usually available in schools or easily obtainable. The construction is described in detail including equipment, materials, safety procedures, tolerances, and manufacture. (Author/CW)

  7. 77 FR 69794 - Manufacturing Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... International Trade Administration Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S... Manufacturing Council. SUMMARY: On September 14, 2012, the Department of Commerce's International Trade Administration (ITA) published a notice in the Federal Register (77 FR 56811) soliciting applications...

  8. 77 FR 66179 - Manufacturing Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-02

    ... International Trade Administration Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S... manufacturing council. SUMMARY: On September 14, 2012, the Department of Commerce's International Trade Administration published a notice in the Federal Register (77 FR 56811) soliciting applications for...

  9. 75 FR 80040 - Manufacturing Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-21

    ... International Trade Administration Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S... Manufacturing Council. SUMMARY: On November 23, 2010, the Department of Commerce's International Trade Administration published a notice in the Federal Register (75 FR 71417) soliciting applications to fill...

  10. 75 FR 30781 - Manufacturing Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... International Trade Administration Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S... Manufacturing Council. SUMMARY: On March 16, 2010, the Department of Commerce's International Trade Administration published a notice in the Federal Register (75 FR 12507) soliciting applications for membership...

  11. Simulation in Semiconductor Manufacturing Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Arisha, Amr; Young, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Semiconductor manufacturing is one of the most complex industries in terms of technology and manufacturing procedure. The life cycle of a semiconductor facility (FAB) has many phases, in their life cycle including capacity planning, new products introduction, variation of products/technologies, and decline phase. The complexity of the manufacturing and the external forces from markets and technology growth make predicting the effects of changes in the manufacturing system problematic. Simulat...

  12. Additive Manufacturing for Large Products

    OpenAIRE

    Leirvåg, Roar Nelissen

    2013-01-01

    This thesis researches the possibility and feasibility of applying additive manufacturing technology in the manufacturing of propellers. The thesis concerns the production at the foundry Oshaug Metall AS. Their products consist of propellers and other large products cast in Nickel-Aluminium Bronze. This report looks at three approaches and applications for additive manufacturing at the foundry. These are additively manufactured pattern, sand mold and end metal parts. The available \\emph{State...

  13. A Fully Nonmetallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing, Part II: Additive Manufacturing and Characterization of Polymer Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Kathy C.; Grady, Joseph E.; Arnold, Steven M.; Draper, Robert D.; Shin, Eugene; Patterson, Clark; Santelle, Tom; Lao, Chao; Rhein, Morgan; Mehl, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    This publication is the second part of the three part report of the project entitled "A Fully Nonmetallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing" funded by NASA Aeronautics Research Institute (NARI). The objective of this project was to conduct additive manufacturing to produce aircraft engine components by Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM), using commercially available polyetherimides-Ultem 9085 and experimental Ultem 1000 mixed with 10% chopped carbon fiber. A property comparison between FDM-printed and injection molded coupons for Ultem 9085, Ultem 1000 resin and the fiber-filled composite Ultem 1000 was carried out. Furthermore, an acoustic liner was printed from Ultem 9085 simulating conventional honeycomb structured liners and tested in a wind tunnel. Composite compressor inlet guide vanes were also printed using fiber-filled Ultem 1000 filaments and tested in a cascade rig. The fiber-filled Ultem 1000 filaments and composite vanes were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and acid digestion to determine the porosity of FDM-printed articles which ranged from 25 to 31%. Coupons of Ultem 9085, experimental Ultem 1000 composites and XH6050 resin were tested at room temperature and 400F to evaluate their corresponding mechanical properties. A preliminary modeling was also initiated to predict the mechanical properties of FDM-printed Ultem 9085 coupons in relation to varied raster angles and void contents, using the GRC-developed MAC/GMC program.

  14. Decision Guidance for Sustainable Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Guodong

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable manufacturing has significant impacts on a company's business performance and competitiveness in today's world. A growing number of manufacturing industries are initiating efforts to address sustainability issues; however, to achieve a higher level of sustainability, manufacturers need methodologies for formally describing, analyzing,…

  15. 77 FR 2275 - Manufacturing Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... International Trade Administration Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of an opportunity to apply for membership on the Manufacturing Council... Manufacturing Council (Council). The purpose of the Council is to advise the Secretary of Commerce on...

  16. 76 FR 33244 - Manufacturing Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... International Trade Administration Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of an Opportunity To Apply for Membership on the Manufacturing Council... Manufacturing Council (Council). The purpose of the Council is to advise the Secretary of Commerce on...

  17. 77 FR 56811 - Manufacturing Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    ... International Trade Administration Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of an Opportunity to Apply for Membership on the Manufacturing Council... ] Manufacturing Council (Council) for a two-year term to begin in fall 2012. The purpose of the Council is...

  18. Qualification and Lessons Learned with Space Flight Fiber Optic Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Melanie

    2007-01-01

    This presentation covers lessons learned during the design, development, manufacturing and qualification of space flight fiber optic components. Changes at NASA, including short-term projects and decreased budgets have brought about changes to vendors and parts. Most photonics for NASA needs are now commercial off the shelf (COTS) products. The COTS Tecnology Assurance approach for space flight and qualification plans are outlined.

  19. A Review on the Mechanical Modeling of Composite Manufacturing Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baran, Ismet; Cinar, Kenan; Ersoy, Nuri;

    2016-01-01

    approaches. The process models as well as applications focusing on the prediction of residual stresses and shape distortions taking place in composite manufacturing are discussed in this study. The applications on both thermoset and thermoplastic based composites are reviewed in detail.......The increased usage of fiber reinforced polymer composites in load bearing applications requires a detailed understanding of the process induced residual stresses and their effect on the shape distortions. This is utmost necessary in order to have more reliable composite manufacturing since...... the residual stresses alter the internal stress level of the composite part during the service life and the residual shape distortions may lead to not meeting the desired geometrical tolerances. The occurrence of residual stresses during the manufacturing process inherently contains diverse interactions...

  20. Feasibility and Scaling of Composite Based Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuttall, David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chen, Xun [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kunc, Vlastimil [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Love, Lonnie J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-27

    Engineers and Researchers at Oak Ridge National Lab s Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (ORNL MDF) collaborated with Impossible Objects (IO) in the characterization of PEEK infused carbon fiber mat manufactured by means of CBAM composite-based additive manufacturing, a first generation assembly methodology developed by Robert Swartz, Chairman, Founder, and CTO of Impossible Objects.[1] The first phase of this project focused on demonstration of CBAM for composite tooling. The outlined steps focused on selecting an appropriate shape that fit the current machine s build envelope, characterized the resulting form, and presented next steps for transitioning to a Phase II CRADA agreement. Phase I of collaborative research and development agreement NFE-15-05698 was initiated in April of 2015 with an introduction to Impossible Objects, and concluded in March of 2016 with a visitation to Impossible Objects headquarters in Chicago, IL. Phase II as discussed herein is under consideration by Impossible Objects as of this writing.

  1. Fiber optic laser rod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, G.F.

    1988-04-13

    A laser rod is formed from a plurality of optical fibers, each forming an individual laser. Synchronization of the individual fiber lasers is obtained by evanescent wave coupling between adjacent optical fiber cores. The fiber cores are dye-doped and spaced at a distance appropriate for evanescent wave coupling at the wavelength of the selected dye. An interstitial material having an index of refraction lower than that of the fiber core provides the optical isolation for effective lasing action while maintaining the cores at the appropriate coupling distance. 2 figs.

  2. Development of high performance refractory fibers with enhanced insulating properties and longer service lifetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, P.C.; DePoorter, G.L.; Munoz, D.R.

    1991-02-01

    We have initiated a three phase investigation of the development of high performance refractory fibers with enhanced insulating properties and longer usable lifetimes. This report presents the results of the first phase of the study, performed from Aug. 1989 through Feb. 1991, which shows that significant energy saving are possible through the use of high temperature insulating fibers that better retain their efficient insulating properties during the service lifetime of the fibers. The remaining phases of this program include the pilot scale development and then full scale production feasibility development and evaluation of enhanced high temperature refractory insulting fibers. This first proof of principle phase of the program presents a summary of the current use patterns of refractory fibers, a laboratory evaluation of the high temperature performance characteristics of selected typical refractory fibers and an analysis of the potential energy savings through the use of enhanced refractory fibers. The current use patterns of refractory fibers span a wide range of industries and high temperature furnaces within those industries. The majority of high temperature fiber applications are in furnaces operating between 2000 and 26000{degrees}F. The fibers used in furnaces operating within this range provide attractive thermal resistance and low thermal storage at reasonable cost. A series of heat treatment studies performed for this phase of the program has shown that the refractory fibers, as initially manufactured, have attractive thermal conductivities for high temperature applications but the fibers go through rapid devitrification and subsequent crystal growth upon high temperature exposure. Development of improved fibers, maintaining the favorable characteristics of the existing as-manufactured fibers, could save between 1 and 4% of the energy consumed in high temperature furnaces using refractory fibers.

  3. In vitro evaluation of bioequiavailability of Felodipine Sustained-Release Tablets from different manufactures by fiber-optic dissolution test%光纤传感过程分析评价不同厂家非洛地平缓释片体外生物等效性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洋; 李新霞; 郑立民; 李莉; 耿东升

    2012-01-01

    目的 采用光纤传感药物溶出度实时测定仪测定非洛地平缓释片释放度,用f2评价软件比较3个厂家的非洛地平缓释片释放曲线相似性.方法 按照部颁标准非洛地平缓释片溶出度测定法第二法的装置,转速200 r·min-1,以4 g·L -1十六烷基三甲基溴化铵磷酸盐缓冲液(pH6.5)500 mL为溶出介质.选用5 mm探头,365和420 nm双波长进行测定.结果 12粒非洛地平缓释片在1,4和7 h的释放度,A厂产品均值分别为9.10%,52.1%,78.7%;RSD分别为15.9%,7.36%,5.58%;B厂产品均值分别为14.0%,63.4%,96.5% ;RSD分别为32.1%,23.6%和14.2%;C厂产品均值分别为12.1%,49.4%和80.5%;RSD分别为35.3%,28.0%和22.4%.结论 按释放度标准3个厂家的片剂均不合格,且B厂和C厂12粒药的释放度一致性不符合进行f2因子评价的条件.%Objective To monitor the release rate of Felodipine Sustained Release Tablets with fiber optic dissolution test (FODT) , and to employ f2 factor to compare the similarity of Felodipine Sustained Release Tablets dissolution curve. Methods Apparatus 2 with the paddle rotation of 200 r ( Min"1 ,4 g ) L"1 hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide phosphate buffer (pH6. 5) 500 mL as dissolution medium was used. With a probe of 5 mm path,the detect wavelength was 365 nm and the reference wavelength was 420 nm. Results The accumulated release of Felodipine Extended Release Tablets A at 1,4 and 7 h were 9. 10 % , 52. 1 % and 78. 7 % , respectively; RSD were 15. 9% ,7. 36% , and 5. 58% , respectively; Factory B were 14. 0% , 63. 4% , and 96. 5% , respectively; RSD were 32. 1% ,23. 6% and 14. 2% , respectively; Factory C were 12. 1 % , 49. 4%,and 80. 5% , respectively; RSD were 35. 3%,28. 0% and 22. 4% , respectively. Conclusion Felodipine Sustained Release Tablets from three manufacturers are all disqualification. The consistency of dissolution profile of B and C is poor, it does not meet the conditions of the f2 factor evaluation.

  4. Radiation curing of composites for vehicle component and vehicle manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some ordinary uses of metals in vehicle components and vehicle manufacture, such as steel (specific gravity 7.8) or aluminum (specific gravity 2.7), can be replaced by carbon fiber composites (specific gravity 1.6) to provide significant weight savings while still maintaining structural integrity. The aircraft and aerospace industries have adopted this concept. The motor vehicle industry is using composite materials for some nonstructural components in automobiles, but have been reluctant to widely adopt this technology because of concerns about thermal curing times and other issues in high-volume manufacturing processes. A typical steel auto body weighing ∼750 kilograms would weigh only ∼155 kilograms if replaced with carbon fiber composites. Structural members, such as the vehicle chassis and body frame, could also be made out of carbon fiber composites. With only 20% of the typical body weight, smaller, lighter, less powerful and more fuel efficient engines could be used in such vehicles. Commercial aircraft manufacturers have adopted large carbon fiber structures in lieu of aluminum for a 40% weight reduction and estimate a 20% savings in fuel costs for large planes. These aircraft still use conventional materials for motors, tires and interior components. The fuel efficiency of an automobile could be doubled with an 80% weight reduction. As with aircraft, conventional motors, tires and interior components could be used in automobiles. Radiation curing can simplify the manufacture of carbon fiber composites. Penetrating X-rays generated with high-energy, high-power electron beam (EB) accelerators can cure structural composites while they are constrained within inexpensive molds; thus reducing cure times, eliminating heat transfer concerns and potentially hazardous volatile emissions during the curing process. Since X-rays can penetrate mold walls, the curing process is quite versatile, enabling diverse components with varying designs to be cured using a

  5. Nonlinear Photonic Crystal Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Per

    2004-01-01

    , leading to reduced mode confinement and dispersion flexibility. In this thesis, we treat the nonlinear photonic crystal fiber – a special sub-class of photonic crystal fibers, the core of which has a diameter comparable to the wavelength of the light guided in the fiber. The small core results in a large...... nonlinear coefficient and in various applications, it is therefore possible to reduce the required fiber lengths quite dramatically, leading to increased stability and efficiency. Furthermore, it is possible to design these fibers with zero-dispersion at previously unreachable wavelengths, paving the way...... for completely new applications, especially in and near the visible wavelength region. One such application is supercontinuum generation. Supercontinuum generation is extreme broadening of pulses in a nonlinear medium (in this case a small-core fiber), and depending on the dispersion of the fiber, it is possible...

  6. Puncture-Healing Thermoplastic Resin Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Keith L. (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Grimsley, Brian W. (Inventor); Cano, Roberto J. (Inventor); Czabaj, Michael W. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A composite comprising a combination of a self-healing polymer matrix and a carbon fiber reinforcement is described. In one embodiment, the matrix is a polybutadiene graft copolymer matrix, such as polybutadiene graft copolymer comprising poly(butadiene)-graft-poly(methyl acrylate-co-acrylonitrile). A method of fabricating the composite is also described, comprising the steps of manufacturing a pre-impregnated unidirectional carbon fiber preform by wetting a plurality of carbon fibers with a solution, the solution comprising a self-healing polymer and a solvent, and curing the preform. A method of repairing a structure made from the composite of the invention is described. A novel prepreg material used to manufacture the composite of the invention is described.

  7. Three-Axis Distributed Fiber Optic Strain Measurement in 3D Woven Composite Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellucci, Matt; Klute, Sandra; Lally, Evan M.; Froggatt, Mark E.; Lowry, David

    2013-01-01

    Recent advancements in composite materials technologies have broken further from traditional designs and require advanced instrumentation and analysis capabilities. Success or failure is highly dependent on design analysis and manufacturing processes. By monitoring smart structures throughout manufacturing and service life, residual and operational stresses can be assessed and structural integrity maintained. Composite smart structures can be manufactured by integrating fiber optic sensors into existing composite materials processes such as ply layup, filament winding and three-dimensional weaving. In this work optical fiber was integrated into 3D woven composite parts at a commercial woven products manufacturing facility. The fiber was then used to monitor the structures during a VARTM manufacturing process, and subsequent static and dynamic testing. Low cost telecommunications-grade optical fiber acts as the sensor using a high resolution commercial Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometer (OFDR) system providing distributed strain measurement at spatial resolutions as low as 2mm. Strain measurements using the optical fiber sensors are correlated to resistive strain gage measurements during static structural loading. Keywords: fiber optic, distributed strain sensing, Rayleigh scatter, optical frequency domain reflectometry

  8. Smart Cellulose Fibers Coated with Carbon Nanotube Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haisong Qi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Smart multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT-coated cellulose fibers with a unique sensing ability were manufactured by a simple dip coating process. The formation of electrically-conducting MWCNT networks on cellulose mono- and multi-filament fiber surfaces was confirmed by electrical resistance measurements and visualized by scanning electron microscopy. The interaction between MWCNT networks and cellulose fiber was investigated by Raman spectroscopy. The piezoresistivity of these fibers for strain sensing was investigated. The MWCNT-coated cellulose fibers exhibited a unique linear strain-dependent electrical resistance change up to 18% strain, with good reversibility and repeatability. In addition, the sensing behavior of these fibers to volatile molecules (including vapors of methanol, ethanol, acetone, chloroform and tetrahydrofuran was investigated. The results revealed a rapid response, high sensitivity and good reproducibility for these chemical vapors. Besides, they showed good selectivity to different vapors. It is suggested that the intrinsic physical and chemical features of cellulose fiber, well-formed MWCNT networks and favorable MWCNT-cellulose interaction caused the unique and excellent sensing ability of the MWCNT-coated cellulose fibers, which have the potential to be used as smart materials.

  9. [INVITED] Tilted fiber grating mechanical and biochemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tuan; Liu, Fu; Guan, Bai-Ou; Albert, Jacques

    2016-04-01

    The tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) is a new kind of fiber-optic sensor that possesses all the advantages of well-established Bragg grating technology in addition to being able to excite cladding modes resonantly. This device opens up a multitude of opportunities for single-point sensing in hard-to-reach spaces with very controllable cross-sensitivities, absolute and relative measurements of various parameters, and an extreme sensitivity to materials external to the fiber without requiring the fiber to be etched or tapered. Over the past five years, our research group has been developing multimodal fiber-optic sensors based on TFBG in various shapes and forms, always keeping the device itself simple to fabricate and compatible with low-cost manufacturing. This paper presents a brief review of the principle, fabrication, characterization, and implementation of TFBGs, followed by our progress in TFBG sensors for mechanical and biochemical applications, including one-dimensional TFBG vibroscopes, accelerometers and micro-displacement sensors; two-dimensional TFBG vector vibroscopes and vector rotation sensors; reflective TFBG refractometers with in-fiber and fiber-to-fiber configurations; polarimetric and plasmonic TFBG biochemical sensors for in-situ detection of cell, protein and glucose.

  10. Preparation of oriented linear copper fiber sintered felt and its performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Long metal fibers were manufactured in horizontal lathe with a multi-tooth tool. Based on the coarse antler surface structure of copper fibers, a new sintering technology was put forward to manufacture a kind of oriented linear copper fiber sintered felt. The sintering mechanism of oriented linear copper fiber sintered felt was studied. Compared with sintered copper-wire felt, the characteristics of sintered copper-fiber felts were analyzed in details. Owing to the coarse antler surface structure of copper fibers,oriented linear copper-fiber felt was sintered under the condition of micro/nano scale range, and copper fibers easily bonded together in the sintering process. Microchannels with micro-scale coarse antler surface structure were constructed. These characters give oriented linear copper fiber felt some new merits: high filtration accuracy, high flow capability, low resistance loss, good capability to resistance pressure, stable and uniform pore, high specific surface area. The properties of oriented linear copper fiber sintered felt were analyzed.

  11. Hierarchically Structured Electrospun Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole E. Zander

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional electrospun nanofibers have a myriad of applications ranging from scaffolds for tissue engineering to components of biosensors and energy harvesting devices. The generally smooth one-dimensional structure of the fibers has stood as a limitation to several interesting novel applications. Control of fiber diameter, porosity and collector geometry will be briefly discussed, as will more traditional methods for controlling fiber morphology and fiber mat architecture. The remainder of the review will focus on new techniques to prepare hierarchically structured fibers. Fibers with hierarchical primary structures—including helical, buckled, and beads-on-a-string fibers, as well as fibers with secondary structures, such as nanopores, nanopillars, nanorods, and internally structured fibers and their applications—will be discussed. These new materials with helical/buckled morphology are expected to possess unique optical and mechanical properties with possible applications for negative refractive index materials, highly stretchable/high-tensile-strength materials, and components in microelectromechanical devices. Core-shell type fibers enable a much wider variety of materials to be electrospun and are expected to be widely applied in the sensing, drug delivery/controlled release fields, and in the encapsulation of live cells for biological applications. Materials with a hierarchical secondary structure are expected to provide new superhydrophobic and self-cleaning materials.

  12. Cloud manufacturing distributed computing technologies for global and sustainable manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Mehnen, Jörn

    2013-01-01

    Global networks, which are the primary pillars of the modern manufacturing industry and supply chains, can only cope with the new challenges, requirements and demands when supported by new computing and Internet-based technologies. Cloud Manufacturing: Distributed Computing Technologies for Global and Sustainable Manufacturing introduces a new paradigm for scalable service-oriented sustainable and globally distributed manufacturing systems.   The eleven chapters in this book provide an updated overview of the latest technological development and applications in relevant research areas.  Following an introduction to the essential features of Cloud Computing, chapters cover a range of methods and applications such as the factors that actually affect adoption of the Cloud Computing technology in manufacturing companies and new geometrical simplification method to stream 3-Dimensional design and manufacturing data via the Internet. This is further supported case studies and real life data for Waste Electrical ...

  13. 75 FR 38078 - Manufacturing and Services' Manufacture America Initiative and Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... International Trade Administration Manufacturing and Services' Manufacture America Initiative and Events ACTION... manufacturing. SUMMARY: The International Trade Administration's Manufacturing and Services Unit is launching a... government agencies as well as universities. To address these challenges, the Manufacturing and...

  14. Bond characteristics of steel fiber and deformed reinforcing steel bar embedded in steel fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete (SFRSCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslani, Farhad; Nejadi, Shami

    2012-09-01

    Steel fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete (SFRSCC) is a relatively new composite material which congregates the benefits of the self-compacting concrete (SCC) technology with the profits derived from the fiber addition to a brittle cementitious matrix. Steel fibers improve many of the properties of SCC elements including tensile strength, ductility, toughness, energy absorption capacity, fracture toughness and cracking. Although the available research regarding the influence of steel fibers on the properties of SFRSCC is limited, this paper investigates the bond characteristics between steel fiber and SCC firstly. Based on the available experimental results, the current analytical steel fiber pullout model (Dubey 1999) is modified by considering the different SCC properties and different fiber types (smooth, hooked) and inclination. In order to take into account the effect of fiber inclination in the pullout model, apparent shear strengths (τ (app)) and slip coefficient (β) are incorporated to express the variation of pullout peak load and the augmentation of peak slip as the inclined angle increases. These variables are expressed as functions of the inclined angle (ϕ). Furthurmore, steel-concrete composite floors, reinforced concrete floors supported by columns or walls and floors on an elastic foundations belong to the category of structural elements in which the conventional steel reinforcement can be partially replaced by the use of steel fibers. When discussing deformation capacity of structural elements or civil engineering structures manufactured using SFRSCC, one must be able to describe thoroughly both the behavior of the concrete matrix reinforced with steel fibers and the interaction between this composite matrix and discrete steel reinforcement of the conventional type. However, even though the knowledge on bond behavior is essential for evaluating the overall behavior of structural components containing reinforcement and steel fibers

  15. Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-09-01

    Fiber-reinforced ceramic composites demonstrate the high-temperature stability of ceramics--with an increased fracture toughness resulting from the fiber reinforcement of the composite. The material optimization performed under the continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCC) included a series of systematic optimizations. The overall goals were to define the processing window, to increase the robustinous of the process, to increase process yield while reducing costs, and to define the complexity of parts that could be fabricated.

  16. Fiber Lasers V

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim P.; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin; Broeng, Jes;

    2008-01-01

    systems require specially designed fibers with large cores and good power handling capabilities – requirements that are all met by the airclad fiber technology. In the present paper we go through many of the building blocks needed to build high-power systems and we show an example of a complete airclad...... W CW fiber laser system with an M2 of less than 1.1. Finally, we briefly touch upon the subject of photo darkening and its origin....

  17. Oriented Fiber Filter Media

    OpenAIRE

    Bharadwaj, R; A. Patel, S. Chokdeepanich, Ph.D.; G.G. Chase, Ph.D.

    2008-01-01

    Coalescing filters are widely used throughout industry and improved performance will reduce droplet emissions and operating costs. Experimental observations show orientation of micro fibers in filter media effect the permeability and the separation efficiency of the filter media. In this work two methods are used to align the fibers to alter the filter structure. The results show that axially aligned fiber media improve quality factor on the order of 20% and cutting media on an angle from a t...

  18. Fiber composite flywheel rim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Donald E.; Ingham, Kenneth T.

    1987-01-01

    A flywheel 2 comprising a hub 4 having at least one radially projecting disc 6, an annular rim 14 secured to said disc and providing a surface circumferential to said hub, a first plurality of resin-impregnated fibers 22 wound about said rim congruent to said surface, and a shell 26 enclosing said first plurality of fibers and formed by a second plurality of resin-impregnated fibers wound about said rim tangentially to said surface.

  19. Agave Americana Leaf Fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Ashish Hulle; Pradyumkumar Kadole; Pooja Katkar

    2015-01-01

    The growing environmental problems, the problem of waste disposal and the depletion of non-renewable resources have stimulated the use of green materials compatible with the environment to reduce environmental impacts. Therefore, there is a need to design products by using natural resources. Natural fibers seem to be a good alternative since they are abundantly available and there are a number of possibilities to use all the components of a fiber-yielding crop; one such fiber-yielding plant i...

  20. Development of Fiber Laser

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yang; HUANG, Guoqing

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, fiber lasers have been focused as research topic in the field of laser. It is widely applicable in the field of modern optical communication, optical sensing, materials technology, life sciences and precision mechanics, national defence science ,etc. Fiber laser is typical representative of the third generation lasers. Fiber lasers have great ad-vantages compare to any other lasers, such as long lifetime, small size, high efficiency, compact structure, etc. This repor...

  1. Radio over fiber systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ghafoor, Salman

    2012-01-01

    The three main types of Radio Over Fiber (ROF)communication systems, namely analogue ROF, baseband ROF and digitized ROF are investigated. Optical fibers are increasingly replacing copper wires. In long-haul, high-bit-rate communication systems optical fiber has already become the dominant mode of transmission due to its enormous bandwidth and low loss. ROF facilitate the seamless integration of optical and wireless communication systems. Since the RF spectrum is limited, wireless systems rel...

  2. Applications of chalcogenide fiber

    OpenAIRE

    Hewak, D. W.; Khan, K.; Huang, C. C.

    2011-01-01

    Chalcogenide glass optical fibers have been extensively studied since 1967, when sulphide based fibers and their potential applications were first proposed. While high quality fiber drawn from alloys containing a variety of chalcogen elements have been realized, their delicate nature, complicated fabrication methodology and expense has restricted widespread application and commercial acceptance. In this paper we describe our current work on the fabrication and application of chalcogenide fibe...

  3. Optical fiber technology 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.; Wójcik, Waldemar

    2013-01-01

    The Conference on Optical Fibers and Their Applications, Nał˛eczów 2012, in its 14th edition, which has been organized since more than 35 years, has summarized the achievements of the local optical fiber technology community, for the last year and a half. The conference specializes in developments of optical fiber technology, glass and polymer, classical and microstructured, passive and active. The event gathered around 100 participants. There were shown 60 presentations ...

  4. Manufacture of Probiotic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, J. A.; Ross, R. P.; Fitzgerald, G. F.; Stanton, C.

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used for many years as natural biopreservatives in fermented foods. A small group of LAB are also believed to have beneficial health effects on the host, so called probiotic bacteria. Probiotics have emerged from the niche industry from Asia into European and American markets. Functional foods are one of the fastest growing markets today, with estimated growth to 20 billion dollars worldwide by 2010 (GIA, 2008). The increasing demand for probiotics and the new food markets where probiotics are introduced, challenges the industry to produce high quantities of probiotic cultures in a viable and stable form. Dried concentrated probiotic cultures are the most convenient form for incorporation into functional foods, given the ease of storage, handling and transport, especially for shelf-stable functional products. This chapter will discuss various aspects of the challenges associated with the manufacturing of probiotic cultures.

  5. Technique for microswitch manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, T.; Kiyoyama, S.

    1983-01-01

    A five-step technique for microswitch manufacture is described: (1) A clad board is inlaid with a precious metal and the board is pressed. (2) One end of the fixed contact containing a precious metal inlay section is curved, and this edge of the precious metal inlay section becomes a fixed contact. (3) Inserts are formed in the unit body and terminal strips are placed through the top and bottom of the base and held. (4) The unit body is held by the base and the sequential contact strips are cut off. (5) Movable stripes are attached to the support of the terminal strips on the movable side and movable contacts are placed opposite the fixed contacts.

  6. Manufacturing consumption of energy 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the U.S. economy based on data from the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey. The sample used in this report represented about 250,000 of the largest manufacturing establishments which account for approximately 98 percent of U.S. economic output from manufacturing, and an expected similar proportion of manufacturing energy use. The amount of energy use was collected for all operations of each establishment surveyed. Highlights of the report include profiles for the four major energy-consuming industries (petroleum refining, chemical, paper, and primary metal industries), and an analysis of the effects of changes in the natural gas and electricity markets on the manufacturing sector. Seven appendices are included to provide detailed background information. 10 figs., 51 tabs.

  7. Additive manufacturing of optical components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Andreas; Rank, Manuel; Maillard, Philippe; Suckow, Anne; Bauckhage, Yannick; Rößler, Patrick; Lang, Johannes; Shariff, Fatin; Pekrul, Sven

    2016-08-01

    The development of additive manufacturing methods has enlarged rapidly in recent years. Thereby, the work mainly focuses on the realization of mechanical components, but the additive manufacturing technology offers a high potential in the field of optics as well. Owing to new design possibilities, completely new solutions are possible. This article briefly reviews and compares the most important additive manufacturing methods for polymer optics. Additionally, it points out the characteristics of additive manufactured polymer optics. Thereby, surface quality is of crucial importance. In order to improve it, appropriate post-processing steps are necessary (e.g. robot polishing or coating), which will be discussed. An essential part of this paper deals with various additive manufactured optical components and their use, especially in optical systems for shape metrology (e.g. borehole sensor, tilt sensor, freeform surface sensor, fisheye lens). The examples should demonstrate the potentials and limitations of optical components produced by additive manufacturing.

  8. Maintenance in sustainable manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Stuchly

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sustainable development is about reaching a balance between economic, social, and environmental goals, as well as people's participation in the planning process in order to gain their input and support. For a company, sustainable development means adoption of such business strategy and actions that contribute to satisfying present needs of company and stakeholders, as well as simultaneous protection, maintenance and strengthening of human and environmental potential which will be needed in the future. This new approach forces manufacturing companies to change their previous management paradigms. New management paradigm should include new issues and develop innovative methods, practices and technologies striving for solving problem of shortages of resources, softening environment overload and enabling development of environment-friendly lifecycle of products. Hence, its realization requires updating existing production models as they are based on previously accepted paradigm of unlimited resources and unlimited regeneration capabilities. Maintenance plays a crucial role because of its impact on availability, reliability, quality and life cycle cost, thus it should be one of the main pillars of new business running model.  Material and methods: The following paper is a result of research on the literature and observation of practices undertaken by a company within maintenance area. Results and conclusions: The main message is that considering sustainable manufacturing requires considerable expanding range of analysis and focusing on supporting processes. Maintenance offers numerous opportunities of decreasing influence of business processes on natural environment and more efficient resources utilization. The goal of maintenance processes realizing sustainable development strategy is increased profitability of exploitation and optimization of total lifecycle cost without disturbing safety and environmental issues. 

  9. Global Carbon Fiber Composites Supply Chain Competitiveness Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das. Sujit; Warren, Josh; West, Devin; Schexnayder, Susan M.

    2016-05-11

    This study identifies key opportunities in the carbon fiber supply chain where the United States Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy resources and investments can help the United States achieve or maintain a competitive advantage. The report focuses on four application areas--wind energy, aerospace, automotive, and pressure vessels--that top the list of industries using carbon fiber and carbon fiber reinforced polymers and are also particularly relevant to EERE's mission. For each of the four application areas, the report addresses the supply and demand trends within that sector, supply chain, and costs of carbon fiber and components, all contributing to a competitiveness assessment that addresses the United States' role in future industry growth. This report was prepared by researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the University of Tennessee for the Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center.

  10. Natural-fiber-reinforced polymer composites in automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbery, James; Houston, Dan

    2006-11-01

    In the past decade, natural-fiber composites with thermoplastic and thermoset matrices have been embraced by European car manufacturers and suppliers for door panels, seat backs, headliners, package trays, dashboards, and interior parts. Natural fibers such as kenaf, hemp, flax, jute, and sisal offer such benefits as reductions in weight, cost, and CO2, less reliance on foreign oil sources, and recyclability. However, several major technical considerations must be addressed before the engineering, scientific, and commercial communities gain the confidence to enable wide-scale acceptance, particularly in exterior parts where a Class A surface finish is required. Challenges include the homogenization of the fiber's properties and a full understanding of the degree of polymerization and crystallization, adhesion between the fiber and matrix, moisture repellence, and flame-retardant properties, to name but a few.

  11. Mechanical properties of carbon fiber composites for environmental applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, R.; Grulke, E.; Kimber, G. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Activated carbon fiber composites show great promise as fixed-bed catalytic reactors for use in environmental applications such as flue gas clean-up and ground water decontamination. A novel manufacturing process produces low density composites from chopped carbon fibers and binders. These composites have high permeability, can be activated to have high surface area, and have many potential environmental applications. This paper reports the mechanical and flow properties of these low density composites. Three point flexural strength tests were used to measure composite yield strength and flexural moduli. Composites containing over 10 pph binder had an adequate yield strength of about 200 psi at activations up to 40% weight loss. The composites were anisotropic, having along-fiber to cross-fiber yield strength ratios between 1.2 and 2.0. The pressure drop of air through the composites correlated with the gas velocity, and showed a dependence on sample density.

  12. Global Carbon Fiber Composites Supply Chain Competitiveness Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Sujit [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Warren, Josh [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); West, Devin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Schexnayder, Susan M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2016-05-01

    This study identifies key opportunities in the carbon fiber supply chain where the United States Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy resources and investments can help the United States achieve or maintain a competitive advantage. The report focuses on four application areas--wind energy, aerospace, automotive, and pressure vessels--that top the list of industries using carbon fiber and carbon fiber reinforced polymers and are also particularly relevant to EERE's mission. For each of the four application areas, the report addresses the supply and demand trends within that sector, supply chain, and costs of carbon fiber and components, all contributing to a competitiveness assessment that addresses the United States' role in future industry growth. This report was prepared by researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the University of Tennessee for the Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center.

  13. Oriented Fiber Filter Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bharadwaj

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Coalescing filters are widely used throughout industry and improved performance will reduce droplet emissions and operating costs. Experimental observations show orientation of micro fibers in filter media effect the permeability and the separation efficiency of the filter media. In this work two methods are used to align the fibers to alter the filter structure. The results show that axially aligned fiber media improve quality factor on the order of 20% and cutting media on an angle from a thick layered media can improve performance by about 40%. The results also show the improved performance is not monotonically correlated to the average fiber angle of the medium.

  14. Green manufacturing processes and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davim, J. Paulo (ed.) [Aveiro Univ. (Portugal). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Campus Universitario de Santiago

    2013-02-01

    This book provides the recent advances on green manufacturing processes and systems for modern industry. Chapter 1 provides information on sustainable manufacturing through environmentally-friendly machining. Chapter 2 is dedicated to environmentally-friendly machining: vegetable based cutting fluids. Chapter 3 describes environmental-friendly joining of tubes. Chapter 4 contains information on concepts, methods and strategies for zero-waste in manufacturing. Finally, chapter 5 is dedicated to the application of hybrid MCDM approach for selecting the best tyre recycling process.

  15. Manufacturing consumption of energy 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the US economy. These estimates are based on data from the 1991 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS). This survey--administered by the Energy End Use and Integrated Statistics Division, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, Energy Information Administration (EIA)--is the most comprehensive source of national-level data on energy-related information for the manufacturing industries.

  16. The evolution of manufacturing SPECIES

    OpenAIRE

    Baldwin, James Scott; Rose-Anderssen, Christen; Ridgway, Keith; Böttinger, Fabian; Michen, Marcus; Agyapong-Kodua, Kwabena; Brencsics, Ivan; Nemeth, Istvan; Krain, Roland

    2013-01-01

    This research aims to develop hierarchical and cladistic classifications of manufacturing system evolution, incorporating evolving and interacting product, process and production system features. The objectives then are to systematically organise manufacturing systems and their characteristics in classifications Forty-six candidate species of manufacturing systems have been identified and organised in a 4th generation hierarchical classification with 14 'genera', 6 'families' 3 'orders' and 1...

  17. A Review of Additive Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufui V. Wong; Aldo Hernandez

    2012-01-01

    Additive manufacturing processes take the information from a computer-aided design (CAD) file that is later converted to a stereolithography (STL) file. In this process, the drawing made in the CAD software is approximated by triangles and sliced containing the information of each layer that is going to be printed. There is a discussion of the relevant additive manufacturing processes and their applications. The aerospace industry employs them because of the possibility of manufacturing light...

  18. Applications of monolithic fiber interferometers and actively controlled fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Rugeland, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to develop applications of monolithic fiber devices and actively controlled fibers. A special twin-core fiber known as a ‘Gemini’ fiber was used to construct equal arm-length fiber interferometers, impervious to temperature and mechanical perturbations. A broadband add/drop multiplexer was constructed by inscribing fiber Bragg gratings in the arms of a Gemini Mach-Zehnder interferometer. A broadband interferometric nanosecond switch was constructed from a micr...

  19. RANKING OF MANUFACTURING SYSTEM CRITERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHARFUDDIN AHMED KHAN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A high-quality manufacturing system should be capable to meet the company goals. Moreover, it is essential for any organization that its manufacturing system should be aligned with company’s strategy. There is always a potential for improvement in components of manufacturing systems but it is also essential to identify theparticular areas of the components that need improvement. In this paper, we have discussed the most appropriate criterion for good manufacturing systems with the help of a survey that indentified the importance of seven different criteria according to the experts experience and we ranked them accordingly.

  20. Virtual CIM and Digital Manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sev V.Nagalingam; Grier C.I.Lin

    2006-01-01

    Manufacturing enterprises play an important role in improving the economic environment of a country.Today, the capability to produce high quality products with shorter delivery time and the ability to produce according to the diverse customer requirements has become the characteristics of successful manufacturing industries. Application of intelligent manufacturing systems and Computer integrated manufacturing (CIM) are the most effective methods for overcoming the issues faced by present day manufactures while retaining the employment level and revenue of a country in today's highly competitive global market. With the developments taking place in CIM and its related technologies, the application of CIM in manufacturing enterprises has become a reality from the dream. This paper highlights the historical developments towards automation and the need for CIM systems. Furthermore, it analyses some new terms such as agile manufacturing, digital manufacturing, agent-based manufacturing and others, which have been emerging recently, and argues all these new technologies are the subsystems of CIM. In addition, this paper provides a new direction in CIM to fulfil the emerging challenges in today's global market and to satisfy the emerging need of virtual enterprises in the form of Virtual CIM.

  1. Design and Manufacture of Elastically Tailored Tow Placed Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatting, Brain F.; Guerdal, Zafer; Jegley, Dawn (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Elastic stiffness tailoring of laminated composite panels by allowing the fibers to curve within the plane of the laminate is a relatively novel design concept that has been demonstrated to be both beneficial and practical. In particular, for structures with highly non-uniform stress states, such as the case of a flat panel with a central hole subjected to in-plane loading, the concept is likely to provide substantial improvements in load carrying capability. The objective of the present study is to determine the effectiveness of stiffness tailoring through the use of curvilinear fibers to reduce stress concentrations around the hole and improve the load carrying capability of panels with holes. In this study software was created that translates standard finite element models with traditional laminate definitions into ones that possess stacking sequences with curvilinear fiber paths that are directly manufacturable using an advanced tow placement machine. Preliminary designs for the manufacturing and testing phase were determined through rudimentary design studies for flat plates without holes under axial compression. These candidate designs were then analyzed using finite element models that accurately reflect the test conditions and geometries in order to select final designs for testing. A total of six large panels, measuring three feet by six feet, each of which are used to produce four specimens with or without holes, were fabricated and delivered to NASA for machining and testing.

  2. Optical Fiber Multiplexer For Industrial Nd:YAG Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goethals, Walther A.

    1989-03-01

    A lot of industrial Nd:YAG lasers are now being equipped with fiber optics for application in flexible manufacturing. One laser can be supplied with several fibers so different processing positions can receive laser power according to the time-and/or energy sharing principle. Most of the time-sharing devices (multiplexers) are based on a galvanometer mirror that couples a converging laser beam into different fibers respectively. From the industry several questions have risen to make these multiplexers faster, more reliable and suitable for smaller diameter fibers. The current designs are limited by the positioning accuracy of the galvanometer mirror and by their sensitiveness to variations in the parameters of the laser beam due to thermal lensing effects. In the patented design of the multiplexer presented here, based on a telescopic image relay and a precision fiber positioning unit, these problems were solved. A prototype has been built which addresses five fibers with 200 μm cores at a switching rate higher than 100 times per second. The fibers have special termination connectors and can be exchanged easily without losing the alignment of the optical system. For spot welding applications with pulsed Nd:YAG lasers this means that this type of multiplexer could be used to take advantage of the high laser pulse rates and the pulse shape and energy programming possibilities that manufacturers of these types of lasers offer nowadays. Another application that has been shown now is the use of several remote laser engraving units served by a single CW/Q-Switched Nd:YAG laser and a fiber multiplexer.

  3. Natural Kenaf Fiber Reinforced Composites as Engineered Structural Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittenber, David B.

    The objective of this work was to provide a comprehensive evaluation of natural fiber reinforced polymer (NFRP)'s ability to act as a structural material. As a chemical treatment, aligned kenaf fibers were treated with sodium hydroxide (alkalization) in different concentrations and durations and then manufactured into kenaf fiber / vinyl ester composite plates. Single fiber tensile properties and composite flexural properties, both in dry and saturated environments, were assessed. Based on ASTM standard testing, a comparison of flexural, tensile, compressive, and shear mechanical properties was also made between an untreated kenaf fiber reinforced composite, a chemically treated kenaf fiber reinforced composite, a glass fiber reinforced composite, and oriented strand board (OSB). The mechanical properties were evaluated for dry samples, samples immersed in water for 50 hours, and samples immersed in water until saturation (~2700 hours). Since NFRPs are more vulnerable to environmental effects than synthetic fiber composites, a series of weathering and environmental tests were conducted on the kenaf fiber composites. The environmental conditions studied include real-time outdoor weathering, elevated temperatures, immersion in different pH solutions, and UV exposure. In all of these tests, degradation was found to be more pronounced in the NFRPs than in the glass FRPs; however, in nearly every case the degradation was less than 50% of the flexural strength or stiffness. Using a method of overlapping and meshing discontinuous fiber ends, large mats of fiber bundles were manufactured into composite facesheets for structural insulated panels (SIPs). The polyisocyanurate foam cores proved to be poorly matched to the strength and stiffness of the NFRP facesheets, leading to premature core shear or delamination failures in both flexure and compressive testing. The NFRPs were found to match well with the theoretical stiffness prediction methods of classical lamination

  4. Knowledge Transfer and Manufacturing Relocation in International Manufacturing Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Skov

    2014-01-01

    This paper is built on six longitudinal case studies of knowledge transfer in manufacturing relocation. By focusing on tacit and explicit knowledge the paper introduces a model for identification of knowledge in relation to four task situations on the shop floor in a manufacturing environment...

  5. Soliton mode fiber direction couplers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. L. Andrushko

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of working towards fiber couplers in the nonlinear regime. The results can be used in the design of the main lines on the optical fibers and fiber optic sensors to create physical quantities.

  6. A Novel Polarization Maintaining Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    It introduces a novel elliptical jacket polarization maintaining fiber, whose SAP is like numeral "1". One preform can be drawn over 8km. Fiber's performances show that it is fit for fiber gyroscope and other sensors.

  7. A Novel Polarization Maintaining Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Benjamin Xue

    2003-01-01

    It introduces a novel elliptical jacket polarization maintaining fiber, whose SAP is like numeral "1" One preform can be drawn over 8km. Fiber's performances show that it is fit for fiber gyroscope and other sensors.

  8. Improving the Value Chain of Biofuel Manufacturing Operations by Enhancing Coproduct Transportation and Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biofuels, including corn-based ethanol, can partially meet the increasing demand for transportation fuels. The production of ethanol in the U.S. has dramatically increased; so too has the quantity of manufacturing coproducts. These nonfermentable residues (i.e., proteins, fibers, oils) are sold as...

  9. Manufacturing strategy issues in selected Indian manufacturing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahender Singh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some findings of Indian manufacturing sectors viz. automobile (especially two-wheeler, tractor and general manufacturing industry. Various manufacturing strategy issues such as competitive priorities, improvement activities, and performance measures, have been identified and assessed in Indian context. Sector wise comparison of competitive priorities, improvement activities i.e. advanced manufacturing technology (AMT, integrated information systems (IIS, and advanced management systems (AMS, and performance measure, is provided. Our results showed that most of the Indian companies are still emphasizing on quality. However, automobile sector has set to compete globally with high innovation rate, faster new product development, and continuous improvement. It is also observed that Indian companies are investing more in AMS as compared to IIS and AMT. Manufacturing competence index is also computed for each sector.

  10. NOVEL USE OF WASTE KERATIN AND COTTON LINTER FIBERS FOR PROTOTYPE TISSUE PAPERS AND THEIR EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Shi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Corporate environmental sustainability calls for sustainable product manufacturing with less creation of waste material or increased reuse of waste materials. One example is the use of keratin fiber from the poultry industry and cotton linter from the textile industry for paper and tissue manufacturing. In this paper, the feasibility of using these waste fibers to make paper was demonstrated in handsheets. The properties of these handsheets were compared to the properties of handsheets made with standard bleached eucalyptus tropical hardwood fibers. A blend of cotton linter and keratin fibers at 80/20 and 60/40 ratios showed a 59% and 73% improvement in sheet bulk, respectively, compared to eucalyptus handsheets. Similarly, air permeability of the cotton / keratin fiber handsheets improved 414% and 336%, respectively, versus the eucalyptus. However, the tensile index of the cotton and keratin fiber blends was lower than the eucalyptus sheets. There was no remarkable difference in water absorbency up to 20% keratin fiber. Above 20% of keratin fibers the water absorbency started to decrease, which is likely attributable to the hydrophobic nature of the protein-based keratin fiber.

  11. Laser Cutting of Carbon Fiber Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, A. N.; Schoeberl, M.; Tremmer, J.; Zaeh, M. F.

    Due to their high weight-specific mechanical stiffness and strength, parts made from carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) are increasingly used as structural components in the aircraft and automotive industry. However, the cutting of preforms, as with most automated manufacturing processes for CFRP components, has not yet been fully optimized. This paper discusses laser cutting, an alternative method to the mechanical cutting of preforms. Experiments with remote laser cutting and gas assisted laser cutting were carried out in order to identify achievable machining speeds. The advantages of the two different processes as well as their fitness for use in mass production are discussed.

  12. Applications of nonlinear fiber optics

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Govind

    2008-01-01

    * The only book describing applications of nonlinear fiber optics * Two new chapters on the latest developments: highly nonlinear fibers and quantum applications* Coverage of biomedical applications* Problems provided at the end of each chapterThe development of new highly nonlinear fibers - referred to as microstructured fibers, holey fibers and photonic crystal fibers - is the next generation technology for all-optical signal processing and biomedical applications. This new edition has been thoroughly updated to incorporate these key technology developments.The bo

  13. IMPACT STUDY OF ANISOTROPIC OPTICAL FIBERS WINDING WITH DIFFERENT TENSION VALUE ON THE H-PARAMETER INVARIANCE DEGREE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Mukhtubayev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. We have investigated the effect of anisotropic optical fibers winding with an elliptical sheath subjecting to stress on the H-parameter invariance degree. This type of optical fiber is used in the manufacture of fiber loop in fiber-optic gyroscopes. Method of Research. The method of research is based on the application of Michelson polarization scanning interferometer as a measuring device. Superluminescent diode with a central wavelength of 1575 nm and a half-width of the spectrum equal to 45 nm is used as a radiation source. The studies were carried out with anisotropic optical fiber with 50 m long elliptical sheath subjecting to stress. The fiber was wound with one layer turn to turn on the coil with a diameter of 18 cm, which is used in the design of fiber-optic gyroscope. The tension force of the optical fiber was controlled during winding on a special machine. Main Results. It was found that at the increase of tension force from 0.05 N to 0.8 H the value of H-parameter increases from 7×10-6 1/m up to 178×10-6 1/m, respectively; i.e. the coupling coefficient of orthogonal modes in the test fiber is being increased. Thus, it is necessary to consider the longitudinal tension force of fiber in the design and manufacture of the fiber-optic sensors of high accuracy class: the less the fiber winding power, the higher invariance degree of distributed H-parameter. The longitudinal tension force of anisotropic optical fiber with elliptical sheath subjecting to stress equal to 0.2 N is recommended in the process of designing fiber-optic gyroscopes. Practical Relevance. The proposed method of Michelson scanning interferometer is usable in the production process for quality determination of the optical fiber winding: no local defects, value controlling of fiber H-parameter.

  14. Design and tolerance analysis of a low bending loss hole-assisted fiber using statistical design methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Erps, Jürgen; Debaes, Christof; Nasilowski, Tomasz; Watté, Jan; Wojcik, Jan; Thienpont, Hugo

    2008-03-31

    We present the design of a low bending loss hole-assisted fiber for a 180?-bend fiber socket application, including a tolerance analysis for manufacturability. To this aim, we make use of statistical design methodology, combined with a fully vectorial mode solver. Two resulting designs are presented and their performance in terms of bending loss, coupling loss to Corning SMF-28 standard telecom fiber, and cut-off wavelength is calculated.

  15. Contact fiber bundles

    OpenAIRE

    Lerman, Eugene

    2003-01-01

    We define contact fiber bundles and investigate conditions for the existence of contact structures on the total space of such a bundle. The results are analogous to minimal coupling in symplectic geometry. The two applications are construction of K-contact manifolds generalizing Yamazaki's fiber join construction and a cross-section theorem for contact moment maps

  16. Fiber Bragg grating sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, L.K.; Nieuwland, R.A.; Toet, P.M.; Agovic, K.

    2010-01-01

    A brief overview of fiber Bragg grating based sensor technology from sensor head, read out unit and commercial applications is given. Fiber Bragg grating based sensor systems are becoming mature rapidly. Components for commercial pressure sensors and temperature sensors are available and slowly gett

  17. High-density multicore fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takenaga, K.; Matsuo, S.; Saitoh, K.;

    2016-01-01

    High-density single-mode multicore fibers were designed and fabricated. A heterogeneous 30-core fiber realized a low crosstalk of −55 dB. A quasi-single-mode homogeneous 31-core fiber attained the highest core count as a single-mode multicore fiber.......High-density single-mode multicore fibers were designed and fabricated. A heterogeneous 30-core fiber realized a low crosstalk of −55 dB. A quasi-single-mode homogeneous 31-core fiber attained the highest core count as a single-mode multicore fiber....

  18. Attracting young talents to manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perini, Stefano; Oliveira, Manuel; Costa, Joao;

    2014-01-01

    a strong integrated strategy towards attracting young talent to manufacturing, by raising the aware-ness and providing the acquisition of new manufacturing skills. The key-concepts and the strategy to achieve learning objectives are presented. Finally, ManuSkills Five Pillars, i.e. Interaction...

  19. Manufacturing mobility in global operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, Harm-Jan; Bruijn, de Erik J.

    2002-01-01

    The globalization trend inevitably affects the organization of manufacturing by enterprises. It offers opportunities to examine manufacturing from a global perspective and consequently to produce where it is most appropriate. However, globalization has also led to an increase in competitive pressure

  20. Servitisation in Danish Manufacturing Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Johansen, John

    2014-01-01

    ; Neely, 2008; Schmenner, 2009), and is perceived by many traditional manufacturers as a strategy for survival. Based on multiple cases of Danish companies, this paper discusses the main reasons and strategic implications of servitisation. Furthermore, it outlines the strategies for how traditional...... manufacturers can recoup the desired level of return from the developments associated with servitisation....

  1. Manufacturing best practices and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szász, Levente; Demeter, Krisztina; Boer, Harry

    2014-01-01

    There is an impressive body of literature about best manufacturing practices. The question is whether these practices are always best, in every situation. Aimed at investigating the effects of home and host country characteristics on the “goodness” of manufacturing practices, the paper tests whet...

  2. Training for New Manufacturing Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, James

    1988-01-01

    Examines the effects of computer-based manufacturing technologies on employment opportunities and job skills. Describes the establishment of the Industrial Technology Institute in Michigan to develop and utilize advanced manufacturing technologies, and the institute's relationship to the state's community colleges. Reviews lessons learned from…

  3. Industrial Development for Manufacturing Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Šatrevičs, V

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the development for manufacturing companies is analysed based on historical review of competitive factors used by manufacturing industry. Development strategy is built understanding the development evolution. This allows us to identify important factors for performance improvements, using resource for improving strategy level and efficiency. Traditional strategy will be substituted by achieving certain competitive factors for sustainable development. Using this approach, author ...

  4. 75 FR 12507 - Manufacturing Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ... International Trade Administration Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of an opportunity to apply for membership on the Manufacturing Council. SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce is currently seeking applications for membership on the...

  5. Balances instruments, manufacturers, history

    CERN Document Server

    Robens, Erich; Kiefer, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The book deals mainly with direct mass determination by means of a conventional balances. It covers the history of the balance from the beginnings in Egypt earlier than 3000 BC to recent developments. All balance types are described with emphasis on scientific balances. Methods of indirect mass determination, which are applied to very light objects like molecules and the basic particles of matter and celestial bodies, are included.  As additional guidance, today’s manufacturers are listed and the profile of important companies is reviewed. Several hundred photographs, reproductions and drawings show instruments and their uses. This book includes commercial weighing instruments for merchandise and raw materials in workshops as well as symbolic weighing in the ancient Egyptian’s ceremony of ‘Weighing of the Heart’, the Greek fate balance, the Roman  Justitia, Juno Moneta and Middle Ages scenes of the Last Judgement with Jesus or St. Michael and of modern balances. The photographs are selected from the...

  6. Designing MEMS for manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, Alexander; Herrmann, Andreas; Yildiz, Goekhan; Schenk, Harald; Lakner, Hubert

    2004-10-01

    MEMS (micro electro-mechanical systems) are often expected to take a development as microelectronics did in the last 35 years. Several devices are already established in mass markets like acceleration sensors, gyros, pressure sensors, ink jet heads and the DLP micromirror array. On the other hand many companies have stopped their business after the telecom bubble. Others are struggling. Many dreams based on MEMS-devices that were not at all mature and could not be manufactured in high numbers. When a commercial product is the goal, several questions must be answered already in concept phase. The specifications must clearly reflect the requirements of the application. Performance and price must be competitive to any other technology. The relation between fabrication process and design is strong and mutual. The process must create all features of the device and the design must consider the limitations of the process. Only if the design is tolerant against all process variations reproducible performance can be achieved. And only if the design is robust in all process steps the devices can survive. Regarding the time and cost frame it is always preferable to change the layout rather than the process. This article looks at MEMS technology and identifies what has been adopted from CMOS, what is desirable to adopt and what needs new solutions. Examples are given in the fields of design, modeling layout, process, test, and packaging.

  7. Precision manufacturing using LIGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our objective is the fabrication of small high-precision parts using LIGA, which can be used in a variety of industrial applications. LIGA is a combination of deep x-ray lithography, electroplating, and replication processes that enables the fabrication of microstructures with vertical dimensions several millimeters high, lateral dimensions in the micrometer range, and submicron tolerances. On beamline 10.3.2, at the Advanced Light Source (ALS), the Center for X-ray Optics (CXRO) has built an end station suitable for LIGA. The ALS is an excellent source of radiation for this application. The CXRO, in close collaboration with Sandia National Laboratory and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, has developed the other essential process steps of mask making, resist development, x-ray exposure, and electroplating. This technology provides a powerful tool for mass production and miniaturization of mechanical systems into a dimensional regime not accessible by traditional manufacturing operations. We will present several applications that exploit the characteristics of the LIGA process: the fabrication of magnetic laminations for a high precision stepping motor; miniature octopole lens for advanced e-beam lithography; high-aspect-ratio x-ray collimating grids for astronomy; and microscopic tumblers for nuclear security. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  8. APPROACHES FOR SUSTAINABLE MANUFACTURING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G(U)NTHER Seliger; SEBASTIAN Kernbaum; MARCO Zettl

    2007-01-01

    Sustainable development is a holistic approach harmonizing ecological, economical and socio-political needs with respect to the superior objective of enhancing human living standards. Thereby the availability of natural resources and the conservation of the ecosystems have to be considered that future generations have the possibility to meet their own needs. A long-term economical development demands the transition from a source-sink economy to a cycle economy as a result of limited resources, limited environmental capacities to absorb waste and emissions as well as increasing needs of a growing population. A reference model for sustainability in manufacturing is presented and used to illustrate sustainable approaches with respect to management, technology, process and product. Adaptation of products and components is a vital element for supporting efficient reuse of products and components. Consequently adaptation contributes to the ambitious goals of sustainability. Technological enablers for adaptation as modularity, information and communication technology are exemplarily introduced. Moreover, approaches for disseminating knowledge in sustainability are given.

  9. Generalized Reactive Manufacturing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蓓智

    2001-01-01

    Generalized reactive manufacturing system named GRMS is introduced. GRMS is a human-centered system based on Multi-agent. Its management and control organization is made up of three types of agents named device agent,task agent and shop-floor agent. GRMS adopts a top down and bottom- up competition and cooperation strategy based on the dynamic sifter and funnel To constrain the behavior of agents, a reward and penaity policy is introduced into the system and the closed-loop adjustment of GRMS is realized through such policy.Agents for the same task should be cooperated with each other and agents for different tasks should compete for survival in the dynamic changing environment. A distributed-hierarchical architecture with three levels of master-slave relationships among agents are proposed.Self-propelled process planning is also discussed. In order to evaluate GRMS, a time-driven simulation system-GRMOSS is developed to check the physical consistency of GRMS.

  10. Advanced Manufacture of Reflectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angel, Roger [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2014-12-17

    The main project objective has been to develop an advanced gravity sag method for molding large glass solar reflectors with either line or point focus, and with long or short focal length. The method involves taking standard sized squares of glass, 1.65 m x 1.65 m, and shaping them by gravity sag into precision steel molds. The method is designed for high volume manufacture when incorporated into a production line with separate pre-heating and cooling. The performance objectives for the self-supporting glass mirrors made by this project include mirror optical accuracy of 2 mrad root mean square (RMS), requiring surface slope errors less than 1 mrad rms, a target not met by current production of solar reflectors. Our objective also included development of new methods for rapidly shaping glass mirrors and coating them for higher reflectivity and soil resistance. Reflectivity of 95% for a glass mirror with anti-soil coating was targeted, compared to the present ~94% with no anti-soil coating. Our mirror cost objective is ~$20/m2 in 2020, a significant reduction compared to the present ~$35/m2 for solar trough mirrors produced for trough solar plants.

  11. Fluorescent fiber diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toeppen, John S.

    1994-01-01

    A fluorescent fiber (13) having a doped core (16) is pumped (11) by light (18) of a relatively short wavelength to produce fluorescence at a longer wavelength that is detected by detector (24). The level of fluorescence is monitored (26) and evaluated to provide information as to the excitation of the fiber (13) or the environment thereof. In particular, the level of intensity of the detected fluorescence may be used to measure the intensity of a light beam (18) passing axially through an optical fiber system (12) (FIG. 1 ), or the intensity of a light beam (46) passing radially through a fluorescent fiber (13) (FIG. 2 ), or the level of a fluid (32) in a tank (31) (FIG. 3 ), or a scintillation event (37) in a fluorescent fiber (13) pumped to produce amplification of the scintillation event (FIG. 4 ).

  12. Python fiber optic seal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ystesund, K.; Bartberger, J.; Brusseau, C.; Fleming, P.; Insch, K.; Tolk, K.

    1993-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a high security fiber optic seal that incorporates tamper resistance features that are not available in commercial fiber optic seals. The Python Seal is a passive fiber optic loop seal designed to give indication of unauthorized entry. The seal includes a fingerprint feature that provides seal identity information in addition to the unique fiber optic pattern created when the seal is installed. The fiber optic cable used for the seal loop is produced with tamper resistant features that increase the difficulty of attacking that component of a seal. A Seal Reader has been developed that will record the seal signature and the fingerprint feature of the seal. A Correlator software program then compares seal images to establish a match or mismatch. SNL is also developing a Polaroid reader to permit hard copies of the seal patterns to be obtained directly from the seal.

  13. Business models for additive manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadar, Ronen; Bilberg, Arne; Bogers, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Digital fabrication — including additive manufacturing (AM), rapid prototyping and 3D printing — has the potential to revolutionize the way in which products are produced and delivered to the customer. Therefore, it challenges companies to reinvent their business model — describing the logic...... of creating and capturing value. In this paper, we explore the implications that AM technologies have for manufacturing systems in the new business models that they enable. In particular, we consider how a consumer goods manufacturer can organize the operations of a more open business model when moving from...... a manufacturer-centric to a consumer-centric value logic. A major shift includes a move from centralized to decentralized supply chains, where consumer goods manufacturers can implement a “hybrid” approach with a focus on localization and accessibility or develop a fully personalized model where the consumer...

  14. Developing engineering model Cobra fiber positioners for the Subaru Telescope's prime focus spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Charles; Morantz, Chaz; Braun, David; Seiffert, Michael; Aghazarian, Hrand; Partos, Eamon; King, Matthew; Hovland, Larry E.; Schwochert, Mark; Kaluzny, Joel; Capocasale, Christopher; Houck, Andrew; Gross, Johannes; Reiley, Daniel; Mao, Peter; Riddle, Reed; Bui, Khanh; Henderson, David; Haran, Todd; Culhane, Robert; Piazza, Daniele; Walkama, Eric

    2014-07-01

    The Cobra fiber positioner is being developed by the California Institute of Technology (CIT) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) instrument that will be installed at the Subaru Telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. PFS is a fiber fed multi-object spectrometer that uses an array of Cobra fiber positioners to rapidly reconfigure 2394 optical fibers at the prime focus of the Subaru Telescope that are capable of positioning a fiber to within 5μm of a specified target location. A single Cobra fiber positioner measures 7.7mm in diameter and is 115mm tall. The Cobra fiber positioner uses two piezo-electric rotary motors to move a fiber optic anywhere in a 9.5mm diameter patrol area. In preparation for full-scale production of 2550 Cobra positioners an Engineering Model (EM) version was developed, built and tested to validate the design, reduce manufacturing costs, and improve system reliability. The EM leveraged the previously developed prototype versions of the Cobra fiber positioner. The requirements, design, assembly techniques, development testing, design qualification and performance evaluation of EM Cobra fiber positioners are described here. Also discussed is the use of the EM build and test campaign to validate the plans for full-scale production of 2550 Cobra fiber positioners scheduled to begin in late-2014.

  15. Investigation of the photosensitivity, temperature sustainability and fluorescence characteristics of several Er-doped photosensitive fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Y H; Mandal, J; Sun, T; Grattan, K T V; Wade, S A; Collins, Stephen F; Baxter, Gregory W; Dussardier, Bernard; Monnom, Gérard

    2011-01-01

    Three different types of Er doped photosensitive fibers, germanium/erbium (Ge/Er) fiber, tin/germanium/erbium fiber (Sn/Er) and antimony/germanium/erbium fiber (Sb/Er) have been manufactured and studied for use in optical sensor systems. Their characteristics of photosensitivity, the temperature sustainability of fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) written into these fibers and the fluorescence emission from the Er dopant were investigated and compared. It has been shown in this work that these fibers all show a satisfactory degree of photosensitivity to enable the fabrication of FBGs and a significant level of fluorescence emission within the 1550 nm band for sensor use. The high temperature sustainability of the FBGs written into these fibers was investigated and seen to be quite significant at temperatures as high as 850 ^{\\circ}C, in particular for the Sn/Er and Sb/Er fibers. A fiber laser using the Sb/Er fiber as the gain medium was demonstrated, giving evidence of the strong fluorescence emission from the Er do...

  16. Fiber-based adsorbents having high adsorption capacities for recovering dissolved metals and methods thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janke, Christopher J.; Dai, Sheng; Oyola, Yatsandra

    2016-09-06

    A fiber-based adsorbent and a related method of manufacture are provided. The fiber-based adsorbent includes polymer fibers with grafted side chains and an increased surface area per unit weight over known fibers to increase the adsorption of dissolved metals, for example uranium, from aqueous solutions. The polymer fibers include a circular morphology in some embodiments, having a mean diameter of less than 15 microns, optionally less than about 1 micron. In other embodiments, the polymer fibers include a non-circular morphology, optionally defining multiple gear-shaped, winged-shaped or lobe-shaped projections along the length of the polymer fibers. A method for forming the fiber-based adsorbents includes irradiating high surface area polymer fibers, grafting with polymerizable reactive monomers, reacting the grafted fibers with hydroxylamine, and conditioning with an alkaline solution. High surface area fiber-based adsorbents formed according to the present method demonstrated a significantly improved uranium adsorption capacity per unit weight over existing adsorbents.

  17. Method for the preparation of carbon fiber from polyolefin fiber precursor, and carbon fibers made thereby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naskar, Amit Kumar; Hunt, Marcus Andrew; Saito, Tomonori

    2015-08-04

    Methods for the preparation of carbon fiber from polyolefin fiber precursor, wherein the polyolefin fiber precursor is partially sulfonated and then carbonized to produce carbon fiber. Methods for producing hollow carbon fibers, wherein the hollow core is circular- or complex-shaped, are also described. Methods for producing carbon fibers possessing a circular- or complex-shaped outer surface, which may be solid or hollow, are also described.

  18. Additive Manufacturing and Characterization of Ultem Polymers and Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Kathy C.; Grady, Joseph E.; Draper, Robert D.; Shin, Euy-Sik E.; Patterson, Clark; Santelle, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this project was to conduct additive manufacturing to produce aircraft engine components by Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM), using commercially available polyetherimides - Ultem 9085 and experimental Ultem 1000 mixed with 10 percent chopped carbon fiber. A property comparison between FDM-printed and injection-molded coupons for Ultem 9085, Ultem 1000 resin and the fiber-filled composite Ultem 1000 was carried out. Furthermore, an acoustic liner was printed from Ultem 9085 simulating conventional honeycomb structured liners and tested in a wind tunnel. Composite compressor inlet guide vanes were also printed using fiber-filled Ultem 1000 filaments and tested in a cascade rig. The fiber-filled Ultem 1000 filaments and composite vanes were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and acid digestion to determine the porosity of FDM-printed articles which ranged from 25-31 percent. Coupons of Ultem 9085 and experimental Ultem 1000 composites were tested at room temperature and 400 degrees Fahrenheit to evaluate their corresponding mechanical properties.

  19. Manufacturing physics: using large(r) data sets and physical insight to develop great products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Steven

    2011-03-01

    Early stage research does a fantastic job providing knowledge and proof-of-feasibility for new product concepts. However, the handful of data points required to validate a concept is typically insufficient to provide insight on the whole range of effects relevant to manufacturing the product. Moving to manufacturing brings larger data sets and variability; opportunistic analysis of these larger sets can yield better product design rules. In the early 2000s Corning developed an optical transmission fiber optimized to suppress stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS). Analyzing the larger data set provided by the manufacturing environment using the same theoretical framework developed by the original researchers refined our understanding of how to improve SBS in optical fibers beyond what was known from our early efforts. This greater understanding allowed us to design better performing products.

  20. Characterization of Optical Fiber Strength Under Applied Tensile Stress and Bending Stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.E. Klingsporn

    2011-08-01

    Various types of tensile testing and bend radius tests were conducted on silica core/silica cladding optical fiber of different diameters with different protective buffer coatings, fabricated by different fiber manufacturers. The tensile tests were conducted to determine not only the average fiber strengths at failure, but also the distribution in fracture strengths, as well as the influence of buffer coating on fracture strength. The times-to-failure of fiber subjected to constant applied bending stresses of various magnitudes were measured to provide a database from which failure times of 20 years or more, and the corresponding minimum bend radius, could be extrapolated in a statistically meaningful way. The overall study was done to provide an understanding of optical fiber strength in tensile loading and in applied bending stress as related to applications of optical fiber in various potential coizfgurations for weapons and enhanced surveillance campaigns.

  1. Fabrication of multiple parallel suspended-core optical fibers by sheet-stacking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jindan; Feng, Xian; Lian, Zhenggang; White, Nicholas; Loh, Wei H.; Poletti, Francesco; Horak, Peter

    2014-08-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of a novel type of optical fibers with multiple parallel air-suspended cores by the sheet-stacking method. Using this technique we have constructed optical fibers with up to 10 parallel micron-size suspended cores. No extra scattering loss from the fabrication process was observed in a fabricated dual air-suspended core fiber. The sheet-stacking method opens the way towards using a wide range of optical glasses for manufacturing multiple parallel suspended-core specialty optical fibers with novel optical functionalities such as dispersion tunability. Fusion splicing has also been successfully used to connect such a multiple core fiber with a conventional silica fiber.

  2. Treatment and characterization of fiber licuri for synthesis of polymeric composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural fibers are materials of increasing use of polymeric composites, due to several advantageous properties compared to synthetic fibers: low cost, density, toxicity and excellent biodegradability. Licuri fiber is widely used in the manufacture of handicrafts, with a wide range of possible applications. Before this, characterize the properties of the fiber is of great interest economic, technological and social. This study characterized the fibers in nature, which were washed with water, treated with 5% H2SO4 or 5% NaOH. Techniques were used FTIR, DSC, TGA and XRD, as well as analysis of surface reactivity of the acid and base. All treatments altered the surface of licuri, exposing reactive sites. It was observed that sodium hydroxide licuri changed significantly, as expected. These results are very significant for the recovery of a natural fiber (licuri), abundant in poor regions of the country. (author)

  3. Effects of Fiber Finish on the Performance of Asphalt Binders and Mastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley J. Putman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of finishes applied to polyester fibers on the properties of asphalt binders and mastics. Asphalt binders were mixed with finishes that were extracted from the fibers, and mastics were also made with binder and fibers (with and without finish to isolate the effects of the finish. The results indicated that crude source plays a significant role in how the fiber finish affects the binders and mastics. Additionally different finishes had different effects on binder properties. The major finding of this study is that different polyester fibers, even from the same manufacturer, may not necessarily perform the same in an asphalt mixture. It is important to use fibers that are compatible with the particular asphalt binder that is being used because of the significance of the binder source on the interaction between the finish and the binder.

  4. SERIAL SECTIONS THROUGH A CONTINUOUS FIBER-REINFORCED POLYMER COMPOSITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Bizet

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The microstructure of a unidirectional glass-fiber composite material is described seeking especially for the influence of the stitching perpendicular to the reinforcement. Serial cuts are performed through the composite and the microstructure is quantified using global parameters and linear morphological analysis. A key result is that the stitching induces variations in fibers spacing within the yarns and in the matrix volume between the yarns. This can affect noticeably the flow of the resin during the manufacturing process and also the mechanical properties of the composite.

  5. Time for a forum on terms used for textile fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zawistoski, P. S.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The advances in manufactured fibers and textiles have garnered interest and excitement of textile artists and consumers alike for a myriad of reasons, including health, environmental, and fashion. The chemical and molecular nature of these advances, however leads to confusion and misunderstanding of the new fibers in the materials. This is exacerbated by the current climate of distrust for chemical words and desire for "green" products and the unregulated (misinformation and marketing on the web. Textile artists, consumers, and the clothing and household textile industry need clear names and labels to identify the materials they are using.

  6. Ultrashort pulsed fiber laser welding and sealing of transparent materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huan; Yang, Lih-Mei; Liu, Jian

    2012-05-20

    In this paper, methods of welding and sealing optically transparent materials using an ultrashort pulsed (USP) fiber laser are demonstrated which overcome the limit of small area welding of optical materials. First, the interaction of USP fiber laser radiation inside glass was studied and single line welding results with different laser parameters were investigated. Then multiline scanning was used to obtain successful area bonding. Finally, complete four-edge sealing of fused silica substrates with a USP laser was demonstrated and the hermetic seal was confirmed by water immersion test. This laser microwelding technique can be extended to various applications in the semiconductor industry and precision optic manufacturing. PMID:22614601

  7. Ship Effect Measurements With Fiber Optic Neutron Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Kenneth L.; Dean, Rashe A.; Akbar, Shahzad; Kouzes, Richard T.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

    2010-08-10

    The main objectives of this research project was to assemble, operate, test and characterize an innovatively designed scintillating fiber optic neutron radiation detector manufactured by Innovative American Technology with possible application to the Department of Homeland Security screening for potential radiological and nuclear threats at US borders (Kouzes 2004). One goal of this project was to make measurements of the neutron ship effect for several materials. The Virginia State University DOE FaST/NSF summer student-faculty team made measurements with the fiber optic radiation detector at PNNL above ground to characterize the ship effect from cosmic neutrons, and underground to characterize the muon contribution.

  8. Supercontinuum generation in a Bragg fiber:a novel proposal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bishnu P.Pal; Sonali Dasgupta; M.R.Shenoy; Alexej Sysoliatin

    2006-01-01

    @@ We propose a silica-core dispersion-decreasing Bragg fiber (DDBF) of mode effective area as large as 55 μm2 for supercontinuum (SC) generation at the pump wavelength of 1 060 nm.Using a fast and simple matrix method to model propagation in the DDBF,we have presented a general criterion to obtain the shortest length of the DDBF that would result in a broad SC spectrum.The proposed DDBF design should be amenable for reproducible fabrication through the well-developed MCVD fiber manufacturing technology and the concept has potential for realization as a practical device.

  9. Beryllium Manufacturing Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, A

    2006-06-30

    This report is one of a number of reports that will be combined into a handbook on beryllium. Each report covers a specific topic. To-date, the following reports have been published: (1) Consolidation and Grades of Beryllium; (2) Mechanical Properties of Beryllium and the Factors Affecting these Properties; (3) Corrosion and Corrosion Protection of Beryllium; (4) Joining of Beryllium; (5) Atomic, Crystal, Elastic, Thermal, Nuclear, and other Properties of Beryllium; and (6) Beryllium Coating (Deposition) Processes and the Influence of Processing Parameters on Properties and Microstructure. The conventional method of using ingot-cast material is unsuitable for manufacturing a beryllium product. Beryllium is a highly reactive metal with a high melting point, making it susceptible to react with mold-wall materials forming beryllium compounds (BeO, etc.) that become entrapped in the solidified metal. In addition, the grain size is excessively large, being 50 to 100 {micro}m in diameter, while grain sizes of 15 {micro}m or less are required to meet acceptable strength and ductility requirements. Attempts at refining the as-cast-grain size have been unsuccessful. Because of the large grain size and limited slip systems, the casting will invariably crack during a hot-working step, which is an important step in the microstructural-refining process. The high reactivity of beryllium together with its high viscosity (even with substantial superheat) also makes it an unsuitable candidate for precision casting. In order to overcome these problems, alternative methods have been developed for the manufacturing of beryllium. The vast majority of these methods involve the use of beryllium powders. The powders are consolidated under pressure in vacuum at an elevated temperature to produce vacuum hot-pressed (VHP) blocks and vacuum hot-isostatic-pressed (HIP) forms and billets. The blocks (typically cylindrical), which are produced over a wide range of sizes (up to 183 cm dia. by 61

  10. Advanced Manufacture of Reflectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angel, Roger [University of Arizona

    2014-12-17

    The main project objective has been to develop an advanced gravity sag method for molding large glass solar reflectors with either line or point focus, and with long or short focal length. The method involves taking standard sized squares of glass, 1.65 m x 1.65 m, and shaping them by gravity sag into precision steel molds. The method is designed for high volume manufacture when incorporated into a production line with separate pre-heating and cooling. The performance objectives for the self-supporting glass mirrors made by this project include mirror optical accuracy of 2 mrad root mean square (RMS), requiring surface slope errors <1 mrad rms, a target not met by current production of solar reflectors. Our objective also included development of new methods for rapidly shaping glass mirrors and coating them for higher reflectivity and soil resistance. Reflectivity of 95% for a glass mirror with anti-soil coating was targeted, compared to the present ~94% with no anti-soil coating. Our mirror cost objective is ~$20/m2 in 2020, a significant reduction compared to the present ~$35/m2 for solar trough mirrors produced for trough solar plants. During the first year a custom batch furnace was built to develop the method with high power radiative heating to simulate transfer of glass into a hot slumping zone in a production line. To preserve the original high polish of the float glass on both front and back surfaces, as required for a second surface mirror, the mold surface is machined to the required shape as grooves which intersect the glass at cusps, reducing the mold contact area to significantly less than 1%. The mold surface is gold-plated to reflect thermal radiation. Optical metrology of glass replicas made with the system has been carried out with a novel, custom-built test system. This test provides collimated, vertically-oriented parallel beams from a linear array of co-aligned lasers translated in a perpendicular direction across the reflector. Deviations of

  11. Specially fibers and relevant technologies for fiber optic sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiber optic sensing is one of the most important technologies in phonic sensing. Novel specially fibers and relevant technologies have been developed for various application fields, such as avionics, infrastructures, atomic plants and oil and gas industries. In this paper, recent progress in the fiber optic sensing is reviewed with a focus on the specialty fibers. (author)

  12. Continuous Natural Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastic Composites by Fiber Surface Modification

    OpenAIRE

    Patcharat Wongsriraksa; Kohsuke Togashi; Asami Nakai; Hiroyuki Hamada

    2013-01-01

    Continuous natural fiber reinforced thermoplastic materials are expected to replace inorganic fiber reinforced thermosetting materials. However, in the process of fabricating the composite, it is difficult to impregnate the thermoplastic resin into reinforcement fiber because of the high melt viscosity. Therefore, intermediate material, which allows high impregnation during molding, has been investigated for fabricating continuous fiber reinforced thermoplastic composite by aligning resin fib...

  13. Fiber Pulling Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Gary L.; Smith, Guy A.; OBrien, Sue; Adcock, Leonard

    1998-01-01

    The fiber optics industry has grown into a multi-billion marketplace that will continue to grow into the 21st century. Optical fiber communications is currently dominated by silica glass technology. Successful efforts to improve upon the low loss transmission characteristics of silica fibers have propelled the technology into the forefront of the communications industry. However, reaching the theoretical transmission capability of silica fiber through improved processing has still left a few application areas in which other fiber systems can provide an influential role due to specific characteristics of high theoretical transmission in the 2 - 3 micron wavelength region. One of the other major materials used for optical fibers is the systems based upon Heavy Metal Fluoride Glass (HMFG). Commercial interest is driven primarily by the potential for low loss repeaterless infrared fibers. An example of the major communications marketplace which would benefit from the long distance repeaterless capability of infrared fibers is the submarine cables which link the continents. When considering commercial interests, optical fiber systems provide a healthy industrial position which continues to expand. Major investments in the systems used for optical fiber communications have continued to increase each year and are predicted to continue well into the next century. Estimates of 8.5% compounded annually are predicted through 1999 for the North American market and 1 1 % worldwide. The growth for the optical fiber cable itself is expected to continue between 44 and 50 per cent of the optical fiber communications budget through 1999. The total budget in 1999 world-wide is expected to be in the neighborhood of $9 billion. Another survey predicts that long haul telecommunications represents 15% of a world-wide fiber optics market in 1998. The actual amount allotted to cable was not specified. However, another market research had predicted that the cable costs alone represents more

  14. [INVITED] Lasers in additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkerton, Andrew J.

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing is a topic of considerable ongoing interest, with forecasts predicting it to have major impact on industry in the future. This paper focusses on the current status and potential future development of the technology, with particular reference to the role of lasers within it. It begins by making clear the types and roles of lasers in the different categories of additive manufacturing. This is followed by concise reviews of the economic benefits and disadvantages of the technology, current state of the market and use of additive manufacturing in different industries. Details of these fields are referenced rather than expanded in detail. The paper continues, focusing on current indicators to the future of additive manufacturing. Barriers to its development, trends and opportunities in major industrial sectors, and wider opportunities for its development are covered. Evidence indicates that additive manufacturing may not become the dominant manufacturing technology in all industries, but represents an excellent opportunity for lasers to increase their influence in manufacturing as a whole.

  15. Genome Regions Associated with Functional Performance of Soybean Stem Fibers in Polypropylene Thermoplastic Composites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yarmilla Reinprecht

    Full Text Available Plant fibers can be used to produce composite materials for automobile parts, thus reducing plastic used in their manufacture, overall vehicle weight and fuel consumption when they replace mineral fillers and glass fibers. Soybean stem residues are, potentially, significant sources of inexpensive, renewable and biodegradable natural fibers, but are not curretly used for biocomposite production due to the functional properties of their fibers in composites being unknown. The current study was initiated to investigate the effects of plant genotype on the performance characteristics of soybean stem fibers when incorporated into a polypropylene (PP matrix using a selective phenotyping approach. Fibers from 50 lines of a recombinant inbred line population (169 RILs grown in different environments were incorporated into PP at 20% (wt/wt by extrusion. Test samples were injection molded and characterized for their mechanical properties. The performance of stem fibers in the composites was significantly affected by genotype and environment. Fibers from different genotypes had significantly different chemical compositions, thus composites prepared with these fibers displayed different physical properties. This study demonstrates that thermoplastic composites with soybean stem-derived fibers have mechanical properties that are equivalent or better than wheat straw fiber composites currently being used for manufacturing interior automotive parts. The addition of soybean stem residues improved flexural, tensile and impact properties of the composites. Furthermore, by linkage and in silico mapping we identified genomic regions to which quantitative trait loci (QTL for compositional and functional properties of soybean stem fibers in thermoplastic composites, as well as genes for cell wall synthesis, were co-localized. These results may lead to the development of high value uses for soybean stem residue.

  16. 纤维预热温度对真空气压浸渗连续SiC f/Al复合材料致密度和力学性能的影响%Effects of fiber preheating temperature on density and mechanical properties of continuous SiC f/Al composites manufactured by vacuum pressure infiltration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖焕文; 徐志锋; 余欢; 王振军

    2014-01-01

    选用先驱体法制备的直径10~15μm束丝SiC纤维作为增强体材料,采用真空气压浸渗法制备了SiC f体积分数为40%的连续SiC f/Al复合材料,研究纤维预热温度对复合材料显微组织与力学性能的影响。结果表明:复合材料中原局部存在少量团聚的SiC纤维束随着纤维预热温度的提高,纤维团聚减少,分布更趋于均匀;而复合材料致密度和抗拉强度随纤维预热温度的升高先逐渐增加后缓慢降低;其中,在纤维预热温度为500℃、浸渗温度为730℃、浸渗压力为7 MPa和保压时间为5 min的浸渗工艺条件下所制备的连续SiC f/Al复合材料的致密度为97.24%,抗拉强度达到768.9 MPa。%The vacuum pressure infiltration was performed for the continuous SiCf/Al composites with the volume fraction of SiC f being 40%, of which the reinforced material is SiC fiber with the diameter of 10-15μm fabricated by precursor method. The effects of fiber preheating temperature on the microstructure and mechanical properties of continuous SiCf/Al composites were studied. The results show that the distribution of the partial fiber reunited in the composite tends to be more uniform, while the density and tensile strength increase first and then reduce with increasing the fiber preheating temperature. Moreover, the density and tensile strength of the continuous SiCf/Al composites increase up to 97.24%and 768.9 MPa when the preheating temperature, infiltration temperature, impregnation pressure and dwell time of the fiber are set as 500℃, 730℃, 7 MPa and 5 min, respectively.

  17. Random Fiber Laser

    CERN Document Server

    de Matos, Christiano J S; Brito-Silva, Antônio M; Gámez, M A Martinez; Gomes, Anderson S L; de Araújo, Cid B

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the effects of two dimensional confinement on the lasing properties of a classical random laser system operating in the incoherent feedback (diffusive) regime. A suspension of 250nm rutile (TiO2) particles in a Rhodamine 6G solution was inserted into the hollow core of a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) generating the first random fiber laser and a novel quasi-one-dimensional RL geometry. Comparison with similar systems in bulk format shows that the random fiber laser presents an efficiency that is at least two orders of magnitude higher.

  18. Birefringent hollow core fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, John

    2007-01-01

    Hollow core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF), fabricated according to a nominally non-birefringent design, shows a degree of un-controlled birefringence or polarization mode dispersion far in excess of conventional non polarization maintaining fibers. This can degrade the output pulse in many...... and an increased overlap between the polarization modes at the glass interfaces. The interplay between these effects leads to a wavelength for optimum polarization maintenance, lambda(PM), which is detuned from the wavelength of highest birefringence. By a suitable fiber design involving antiresonance of the core...

  19. Random Fiber Laser

    OpenAIRE

    Christiano J. S. de Matos; Menezes, Leonardo de S.; Brito-Silva, Antônio M.; Gámez, M. A. Martinez; Gomes, Anderson S. L.; de Araújo, Cid B.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the effects of two dimensional confinement on the lasing properties of a classical random laser system operating in the incoherent feedback (diffusive) regime. A suspension of 250nm rutile (TiO2) particles in a Rhodamine 6G solution was inserted into the hollow core of a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) generating the first random fiber laser and a novel quasi-one-dimensional RL geometry. Comparison with similar systems in bulk format shows that the random fiber laser presents an e...

  20. Nanotube composite carbon fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, R.; Jacques, D.; Rao, A. M.; Rantell, T.; Derbyshire, F.; Chen, Y.; Chen, J.; Haddon, R. C.

    1999-08-01

    Single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were dispersed in isotropic petroleum pitch matrices to form nanotube composite carbon fibers with enhanced mechanical and electrical properties. We find that the tensile strength, modulus, and electrical conductivity of a pitch composite fiber with 5 wt % loading of purified SWNTs are enhanced by ˜90%, ˜150%, and 340% respectively, as compared to the corresponding values in unmodified isotropic pitch fibers. These results serve to highlight the potential that exits for developing a spectrum of material properties through the selection of the matrix, nanotube dispersion, alignment, and interfacial bonding.

  1. Micro manufacturing techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Ruxu; Li, Zifu

    2013-01-01

    Micro/meso-scale manufacturing has been developed in research fields of machining, forming, materials and others, but its potential to industries are yet to be fully realized. The theme of the current volume was to build a bridge joining academic research and industrial needs in micro manufacturing. Among the 12 papers selected for publication are three keynote addresses onmicro and desktop factories for micro/meso-scale manufacturing applicationsand future visions, tissue cutting mechanics and applications for needlecore biopsy and guidance, and micro-texturing onto amorphous carbonmaterials

  2. Jilin Chemical Fiber Group Launches Its Largest Carbon Fiber Preject

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Flora

    2011-01-01

    China's carbon fiber precursor production line with 5,000 tons of annual output was put into operation in Jilin Chemical Fiber Group on November 18th this year, creating the maximum production capacity currently in China, for which Jilin Chemical Fiber Group become China's largest carbon fiber precursor production base, The smooth operation of the project has laid a solid foundation for promoting China's carbon fiber industry steady, rapid, and healthy development,

  3. An Assessment of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies Implementation in Manufacturing Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Yasin Shaikh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of AMTs (Advanced Manufacturing Technologies has always been the high interest and core issue for the manufacturing enterprises to get rapid production for global market place. The developed countries have achieved its competitive advantage by implementing this unique model of technologies with full range of systems. In developing countries, the implementation of such technologies is not much common due to so many reasons, (political, social, economical and technical but entrepreneurs of growing economies are contemplating to reshape long term strategy to adopt Computer systems oriented technologies in their manufacturing companies to meet the growing needs of their indigenous market on one hand and to make a place in the international market on the other. Although, very few manufacturing organization do meet the global market requirements. But there is still lot of efforts to be taken for world class competition. An attempt has been made in this paper to develop a conceptual model taking in to account the three parameters such as, Direct, Indirect and Administrative AMTs. This research work further attempts to present an empirical data analysis conducted in the manufacturing enterprises in province of Sindh, Pakistan. The overall indigenous progress of manufacturing enterprises as according to the data collected from 60 companies reveals that the AMTs systems are partially understood and practiced that is also one of the cause towards slow progress of national exchequer.

  4. Integrated flexible manufacturing program for manufacturing automation and rapid prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, S. L.; Brown, C. W.; King, M. S.; Simons, W. R.; Zimmerman, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    The Kansas City Division of Allied Signal Inc., as part of the Integrated Flexible Manufacturing Program (IFMP), is developing an integrated manufacturing environment. Several systems are being developed to produce standards and automation tools for specific activities within the manufacturing environment. The Advanced Manufacturing Development System (AMDS) is concentrating on information standards (STEP) and product data transfer; the Expert Cut Planner system (XCUT) is concentrating on machining operation process planning standards and automation capabilities; the Advanced Numerical Control system (ANC) is concentrating on NC data preparation standards and NC data generation tools; the Inspection Planning and Programming Expert system (IPPEX) is concentrating on inspection process planning, coordinate measuring machine (CMM) inspection standards and CMM part program generation tools; and the Intelligent Scheduling and Planning System (ISAPS) is concentrating on planning and scheduling tools for a flexible manufacturing system environment. All of these projects are working together to address information exchange, standardization, and information sharing to support rapid prototyping in a Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) environment.

  5. 77 FR 27029 - The Manufacturing Council: Teleconference Meeting of the Manufacturing Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ... International Trade Administration The Manufacturing Council: Teleconference Meeting of the Manufacturing... Manufacturing Council (Council). The agenda may change to accommodate Council business. The final agenda will be... Manufacturing Council, Room 4043, 1401 Constitution Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20230, telephone...

  6. Radiation-induced effects in polarization-maintaining optical fibers for interferometric gyroscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xueqin Wang; Chunxi Zhang; Jing Jin; Ningfang Song

    2011-01-01

    @@ Radiation-induced attenuation (RIA) in four types of polarization-maintaining optical fibers for interferometric fiberoptic gyroscope (IFOG) at 1310 nm is measured.The measurements are conducted during and after steady-state γ-ray irradiation using a 60Co source in order to observe significantly different RIA behavior and recovery kinetics.Mechanisms involving dopants and manufacturing process are introduced to analyze the RIA discrepancy as well as to guide the choice and hardening of optical fibers during the design of IFOG.Medium-accuracy IFOG using Ge-F-codoped fiber and pure silica core fiber can survive in the space radiation environment.%Radiation-induced attenuation (RIA) in four types of polarization-maintaining optical fibers for interferometric fiberoptic gyroscope (IFOG) at 1310 nm is measured. The measurements are conducted during and after steady-state γ-ray irradiation using a 60Co source in order to observe significantly different RIA behavior and recovery kinetics. Mechanisms involving dopants and manufacturing process are introduced to analyze the RIA discrepancy as well as to guide the choice and hardening of optical fibers during the design of IFOG. Medium-accuracy IFOG using Ge-F-codoped fiber and pure silica core fiber can survive in the space radiation environment.

  7. Strategic Planning Improves Manufacturing Performance

    OpenAIRE

    JS Armstrong

    2004-01-01

    A quantitative critique of 28 studies concludes that formal planning is valuable for firms. The results were particularly favorable for manufacturing firms: nine studies found formal planning to be associated with better performance and none found detrimental performance.

  8. Green manufacturing processes and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Davim J, Paulo

    2012-01-01

    This volume fulfills a pressing need in both academia and industry to follow the latest innovations in sustainable manufacturing. The contents cover a host of topics, from environmentally friendly machining techniques to developments in zero-waste production.

  9. Fiber optic data transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreve, Steven T.

    1987-01-01

    The Ohio University Avionics Engineering Center is currently developing a fiber optic data bus transmission and reception system that could eventually replace copper cable connections in airplanes. The original form of the system will transmit information from an encoder to a transponder via a fiber optic cable. An altimeter and an altitude display are connected to a fiber optic transmitter by copper cable. The transmitter converts the altimetry data from nine bit parallel to serial form and send these data through a fiber optic cable to a receiver. The receiver converts the data using a cable similar to that used between the altimeter and display. The transmitting and receiving ends also include a display readout. After completion and ground testing of the data bus, the system will be tested in an airborne environment.

  10. Fiber optic gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng (Inventor); Buric, Michael P. (Inventor); Swinehart, Philip R. (Inventor); Maklad, Mokhtar S. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A gas sensor includes an in-fiber resonant wavelength device provided in a fiber core at a first location. The fiber propagates a sensing light and a power light. A layer of a material is attached to the fiber at the first location. The material is able to absorb the gas at a temperature dependent gas absorption rate. The power light is used to heat the material and increases the gas absorption rate, thereby increasing sensor performance, especially at low temperatures. Further, a method is described of flash heating the gas sensor to absorb more of the gas, allowing the sensor to cool, thereby locking in the gas content of the sensor material, and taking the difference between the starting and ending resonant wavelengths as an indication of the concentration of the gas in the ambient atmosphere.

  11. Fiber based optofluidic biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lismont, M.; Vandewalle, N.; Joris, B.; Dreesen, L.

    2014-09-01

    Medicinal diagnosis requires the development of innovative devices allowing the detection of small amounts of biological species. Among the large variety of available biosensors, the ones based on fluorescence phenomenon are really promising. Here, we show a prototype of the basic unit of a multi-sensing biosensor combining optics and microfluidics benefits. This unit makes use of two crossed optical fibers: the first fiber is used to carry small probe molecules droplets and excite fluorescence, while the second one is devoted to target molecules droplets transport and fluorescence detection. Within this scheme, the interaction takes place in each fiber node. The main benefits of this detection setup are the absence of fibers functionalization, the use of microliter volumes of target and probe species, their separation before interaction, and a better detection limit compared to cuvettes setups.

  12. Fiber Optics: No Illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American School and University, 1983

    1983-01-01

    A campus computer center at Hofstra University (New York) that holds 70 terminals for student use was first a gymnasium, then a language laboratory. Strands of fiber optics are used for the necessary wiring. (MLF)

  13. Tapered GRIN fiber microsensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Mejía, Felipe; Biazoli, Claudecir R; Cordeiro, Cristiano M B

    2014-12-15

    The sensitivity of an optical fiber microsensor based on inter-modal interference can be considerably improved by tapering a short extension of the multimode fiber. In the case of Graded Index fibers with a parabolic refractive index profile, a meridional ray exhibits a sinusoidal path. When these fibers are tapered, the period of the propagated beam decrease down-taper and increase up-taper. We take advantage of this modulation -along with the enhanced overlap between the evanescent field and the external medium- to substantially increase the sensitivity of these devices by tuning the sensor's maximum sensitivity wavelength. Moreover, the extension of this device is reduced by one order of magnitude, making it more propitious for reduced space applications. Numerical and experimental results demonstrate the success and feasibility of this approach. PMID:25606989

  14. Fiber optics standard dictionary

    CERN Document Server

    Weik, Martin H

    1997-01-01

    Fiber Optics Vocabulary Development In 1979, the National Communications System published Technical InfonnationBulle­ tin TB 79-1, Vocabulary for Fiber Optics and Lightwave Communications, written by this author. Based on a draft prepared by this author, the National Communications System published Federal Standard FED-STD-1037, Glossary of Telecommunications Terms, in 1980 with no fiber optics tenns. In 1981, the first edition of this dictionary was published under the title Fiber Optics and Lightwave Communications Standard Dictionary. In 1982, the then National Bureau of Standards, now the National Institute of Standards and Technology, published NBS Handbook 140, Optical Waveguide Communications Glossary, which was also published by the General Services Admin­ istration as PB82-166257 under the same title. Also in 1982, Dynamic Systems, Inc. , Fiberoptic Sensor Technology Handbook, co-authored and edited by published the this author, with an extensive Fiberoptic Sensors Glossary. In 1989, the handbook w...

  15. Fiber optics engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Azadeh, Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    Covering fiber optics from an engineering perspective, this text emphasizes data conversion between electrical and optical domains. Techniques to improve the fidelity of this conversion (from electrical to optical domain, and vice versa) are also covered.

  16. Block copolymer/homopolymer dual-layer hollow fiber membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Hilke, Roland

    2014-12-01

    We manufactured the first time block copolymer dual-layer hollow fiber membranes and dual layer flat sheet membranes manufactured by double solution casting and phase inversion in water. The support porous layer was based on polystyrene and the selective layer with isopores was formed by micelle assembly of polystyrene-. b-poly-4-vinyl pyridine. The dual layers had an excellent interfacial adhesion and pore interconnectivity. The dual membranes showed pH response behavior like single layer block copolymer membranes with a low flux for pH values less than 3, a fast increase between pH4 and pH6 and a constant high flux level for pH values above 7. The dry/wet spinning process was optimized to produce dual layer hollow fiber membranes with polystyrene internal support layer and a shell block copolymer selective layer.

  17. [Carbohydrates and fiber].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajolo, F M; de Menezes, E W; Filisetti-Cozzi, T M

    1988-09-01

    Dietary carbohydrates comprise two fractions that may be classified as digestible, and which are useful as energy sources (simple and complex carbohydrates) and fiber, which is presumed to be of no use to the human body. There are insufficient epidemiologic data on the metabolic effects of simple carbohydrates and it is not advisable to make quantitative recommendations of intake. It is questionable to recommend in developing countries that a fixed proportion of dietary energy be derived from simple sugars, due to the high prevalence of deficient energy intake, cultural habits, and regional differences in food intake and physical activity. In relation to recommendations of complex carbohydrates, it should be considered that their absorption is influenced by many factors inherent to the individual and to the foods. Fiber is defined as a series of different substances derived from tissue structures, cellular residues and undigested chemical substances that may be partially utilized after intestinal bacteria have acted on them. There is not a clear definition of the chemical composition of fiber, but it consists mainly of polysaccharides (such as cellulose, hemicellulose and pectins), lignin and end products of the interactions of various food components. The effects of fiber, such as control of food intake, regulation of gastrointestinal transit, post-prandial blood concentrations of cholesterol, glucose and insulin, flatulence and alterations in nutrient bioavailability are due to various physical properties inherent to its chemical components. Impairment of nutrient absorption may be harmful, mainly among populations whose food intake is lower than their energy needs, and with a high fiber content. This may be particularly important in pregnant women, growing children and the elderly, and should be considered when making nutrient recommendations. A precise knowledge of fiber is also important to calculate the real energy value of foods, mainly for two reasons: 1

  18. Whither North Carolina furniture manufacturing?

    OpenAIRE

    Robert L. Lacy

    2004-01-01

    North Carolina's furniture manufacturing industry has contracted in recent years as imports have gained a greater share of the domestic furniture market. Rapid growth of the furniture industry in China and a surge in exports from that country to the United States in particular have contributed to plant closings and consolidation of operations in the state. North Carolina's furniture manufacturers are adapting to the emergence of global competition and are developing new corporate strategies t...

  19. Production planning of biopharmaceutical manufacture.

    OpenAIRE

    Lakhdar, K.

    2006-01-01

    Multiproduct manufacturing facilities running on a campaign basis are increasingly becoming the norm for biopharmaceuticals, owing to high risks of clinical failure, regulatory pressures and the increasing number of therapeutics in clinical evaluation. The need for such flexible plants and cost-effective manufacture pose significant challenges for planning and scheduling, which are compounded by long production lead times, intermediate product stability issues and the high cost - low volume n...

  20. Emergence of sustainable manufacturing practices

    OpenAIRE

    Despeisse, Melanie; Mbaye, Fatou; Ball, Peter David; Levers, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable manufacturing appears to be a rapidly developing field and it would be expected that there is a growing body of knowledge in this area. Initial examination of the literature shows evidence of sustainable work in the areas of product design, supply chain, production technology and waste avoidance activities. Manufacturers publish metrics showing significant improvements in environmental performance at high level but information on how these improvements are achieved is sparse. Exam...

  1. Nano Manufacturing - Products and Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Alting, Leo

    2004-01-01

    The use of micro and nano technologies in components and products not only sets new demands to the manufacturing technologies. Product concepts have to be rethought and redefined in order to implement the micro and nano technologies into functional systems. Both a technology driven and a product...... driven approach can be used in this process. A framework for the product driven approach in nano manufacturing is presented and discussed. The general discussion will be supported by case studies covering polymers and metals....

  2. Technological Theory of Cloud Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Kubler, Sylvain; Holmström, Jan; Främling, Kary; Turkama, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, a flourishing number of concepts and architectural shifts appeared such as the Internet of Things, Industry 4.0, Big Data, 3D printing, etc. Such concepts are reshaping traditional manufacturing models, which become increasingly network-, service- and intelligent manufacturing-oriented. It sometimes becomes difficult to have a clear vision of how all those concepts are interwoven and what benefits they bring to the global picture (either from a service or business perspe...

  3. Fiber optic detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partin, J.K.; Ward, T.E.; Grey, A.E.

    1990-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a portable fiber optic detector that senses the presence of specific target chemicals by exchanging the target chemical for a fluorescently-tagged antigen that is bound to an antibody which is in turn attached to an optical fiber. Replacing the fluorescently-tagged antigen reduces the fluorescence so that a photon sensing detector records the reduced light level and activates an appropriate alarm or indicator.

  4. Electrospun Amplified Fiber Optics

    OpenAIRE

    Morello, Giovanni; Camposeo, Andrea; Moffa, Maria; Pisignano, Dario

    2015-01-01

    A lot of research is focused on all-optical signal processing, aiming to obtain effective alternatives to existing data transmission platforms. Amplification of light in fiber optics, such as in Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers, is especially important for an efficient signal transmission. However, the complex fabrication methods, involving high-temperature processes performed in highly pure environment, slow down the fabrication and make amplified components expensive with respect to an ideal, ...

  5. Fiber optics welder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, R.W.; Robichaud, R.E.

    A system is described for welding fiber optic waveguides together. The ends of the two fibers to be joined together are accurately, collinearly aligned in a vertical orientation and subjected to a controlled, diffuse arc to effect welding and thermal conditioning. A front-surfaced mirror mounted at a 45/sup 0/ angle to the optical axis of a stereomicroscope mounted for viewing the junction of the ends provides two orthogonal views of the interface during the alignment operation.

  6. Dark Soliton Fiber Laser

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, H.; Tang, D. Y.; L.M. Zhao; Wu, X; Bao, Q. L.; Loh, K. P.

    2009-01-01

    We report on the experimental observation of stable dark solitons in an all normal dispersion fiber laser. We found experimentally that dark soliton formation is a generic feature of the fiber laser under strong continuous wave (CW) emission. However, only under appropriate pump strength and negative cavity feedback, stable single or multiple dark soliton could be achieved. Furthermore, we show that the features of the observed dark solitons could be well understood based on the nonlinear Sch...

  7. High-power fiber optic cable with integrated active sensors for live process monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomster, Ola; Blomqvist, Mats; Bergstrand, Hans; Pålsson, Magnus

    2012-03-01

    In industrial applications using high-brilliance lasers at power levels up to and exceeding 20 kW and similarly direct diode lasers of 10 kW, there is an increasing demand to continuously monitor component status even in passive components such as fiber-optic cables. With fiber-optic cables designed according to the European Automotive Industry fiber standard interface there is room for integrating active sensors inside the connectors. In this paper we present the integrated active sensors in the new Optoskand QD fiber-optic cable designed to handle extreme levels of power losses, and how these sensors can be employed in industrial manufacturing. The sensors include photo diodes for detection of scattered light inside the fiber connector, absolute temperature of the fiber connector, difference in temperature of incoming and outgoing cooling water, and humidity measurement inside the fiber connector. All these sensors are connected to the fiber interlock system, where interlock break enable functions can be activated when measured signals are higher than threshold levels. It is a very fast interlock break system as the control of the signals is integrated in the electronics inside the fiber connector. Also, since all signals can be logged it is possible to evaluate what happened inside the connector before the interlock break instance. The communication to the fiber-optic connectors is via a CAN interface. Thus it is straightforward to develop the existing laser host control to also control the CAN-messages from the QD sensors.

  8. Design of a low-bending-loss large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napierala, Marek; Beres-Pawlik, Elzbieta; Nasilowski, Tomasz; Mergo, Pawel; Berghmans, Francis; Thienpont, Hugo

    2012-04-01

    We present a design of a photonic crystal fiber for high power laser and amplifier applications. Our fiber comprises a core with a diameter larger than 60 μm and exhibits single mode operation when the fiber is bent around a 10 cm radius at a wavelength of 1064 nm. Single mode guidance is enforced by the high loss of higher order modes which exceeds 80 dB/m whereas the loss of the fundamental mode (FM) is lower than 0.03 dB/m. The fiber can therefore be considered as an active medium for compact high power fiber lasers and amplifiers with a nearly diffraction limited beam output. We also analyze our fiber in terms of tolerance to manufacturing imperfections. To do so we employ a statistical design methodology. This analysis reveals those crucial parameters of the fiber that have to be controlled precisely during the fabrication process not to deteriorate the fiber performance. Finally we show that the fiber can be fabricated according to our design and we present experimental results that confirm the expected fiber performance.

  9. Determination of mechanical properties of intra-layer abaca–jute–glass fiber reinforced composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Composites are fabricated with jute and abaca fibers. • Fibers are arranged in different orientations. • Effects of varying proportions of fibers are studied. • Investigation on mechanical properties is done. • Failure morphology analysis is done using SEM. - Abstract: Composites made with natural fibers are finding applications in a wide variety of engineering fields due to their low cost and eco-friendly nature. This paper deals with the fabrication and evaluation of hybrid natural fiber composite using jute and abaca fibers along with glass fibers. Each composite is made up of five layers with three layers of jute and abaca enclosed by two layers of glass fibers. The composites are manufactured with three different fiber orientations and the compositions are varied in three different proportions. The fabricated composite samples are tested to investigate their various mechanical properties. From the test results, it is observed that fiber orientation plays a vital role in determining the mechanical properties of the composite. Morphological analysis is done using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)

  10. Reusable glucose fiber sensor for measuring glucose concentration in serum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-Chih Hsu; Yi-Cheng Chen; Ju-Yi Lee; Chyan-Chyi Wu

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate a glucose fiber sensor for measuring glucose concentration in serum. High resolution and rapid measurement are achieved through the integration of highly selective enzymes and heterodyne interferometry. The best resolution and response time obtained are 0.14mg/dL and 1.3 s, respectively. The stability of the sensor is also verified by investigating the initial phase variation. Experimental results show that the fiber sensor can be reused more than 10 times.%We demonstrate a glucose fiber sensor for measuring glucose concentration in serum.High resolution and rapid measurement are achieved through the integration of highly selective enzymes and heterodyne interferometry.The best resolution and response time obtained are 0.14 mg/dL and 1.3 s,respectively.The stability of the sensor is also verified by investigating the initial phase variation.Experimental results show that the fiber sensor can be reused more than 10 times.Fiber sensors have attracted considerable attention over the past two decades.Various kinds of fiber sensors have been proposed for measnring specific chemical concentrations[1-8].Most previously reported methods[1-5] involved measuring the variations in fluorescence intensity[2-4] or transmitted light[3,4].Hence,avoiding the inflnence of snrrounding light and the use of expensive photon detection equipment are important requirements.Furthermore,procedures for manufacturing optical biosensors are complicated[3] and qualitv is difficult to control[4]..

  11. Fiber-optic radiation sensor for detection of tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, K.W.; Cho, D.H.; Yoo, W.J.; Seo, J.K.; Heo, J.Y.; Park, J.-Y. [School of Biomedical Engineering, College of Biomedical and Health Science, Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Konkuk University, Chungju 380-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, B., E-mail: bslee@kku.ac.kr [School of Biomedical Engineering, College of Biomedical and Health Science, Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Konkuk University, Chungju 380-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study is to develop the radiation sensor, which is composed of a scintillator, an optical fiber bundle and a light measuring device to detect the tritium in real-time. In this study, we have fabricated fiber-optic radiation sensors using inorganic scintillators and plastic optical fiber bundles. Each scintillator interacts with electron or beta ray and generates 455-550 nm wavelength of scintillation photons. An optical fiber bundle is usually made of plastic or glass, which is used to guide the light signal from a scintillating probe to light measuring device. For the purpose of selecting the best scintillator with a high efficiency, fiber-optic sensors manufactured using three kinds of inorganic scintillator such as Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Tb, Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Ce and CsI:Tl, and they are tested with a metal hydride type of tritium source. In addition, the scintillation photons are measured as a function of distance between a fiber-optic sensor and source. Finally, we have measured the amounts of scintillation photon with different activities of tritium source and compared the measured results with those obtained using a surface activity monitor.

  12. STUDY THE CREEP OF TUBULAR SHAPED FIBER REINFORCED COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najat J. Saleh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Inpresent work tubular –shaped fiber reinforced composites were manufactured byusing two types of resins ( Epoxy and unsaturated polyester and separatelyreinforced with glass, carbon and kevlar-49 fibers (filament and woven roving,hybrid reinforcement composites of these fibers were also prepared. The fiberswere wet wound on a mandrel using a purposely designed winding machine,developed by modifying an ordinary lathe, in winding angle of 55° for filament. A creep test was made of either the fulltube or specimens taken from it. Creep was found to increase upon reinforcementin accordance to the rule of mixture and mainly decided by the type of singleor hybridized fibers. The creep behavior, showed that the observed strain tendsto appear much faster at higher temperature as compared with that exhibited atroom temperate. The creep rate also found to be depending on fiber type, matrixtype, and the fiber /matrix bonding. The creep energy calculated fromexperimental observations was found to exhibit highest value for hybridizedreinforcement.

  13. Adsorption Properties of Lignin-derived Activated Carbon Fibers (LACF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contescu, Cristian I. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gallego, Nidia C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Thibaud-Erkey, Catherine [United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), East Hartford, CT (United States); Karra, Reddy [United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), East Hartford, CT (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The object of this CRADA project between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) is the characterization of lignin-derived activated carbon fibers (LACF) and determination of their adsorption properties for volatile organic compounds (VOC). Carbon fibers from lignin raw materials were manufactured at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) using the technology previously developed at ORNL. These fibers were physically activated at ORNL using various activation conditions, and their surface area and pore-size distribution were characterized by gas adsorption. Based on these properties, ORNL did down-select five differently activated LACF materials that were delivered to UTRC for measurement of VOC adsorption properties. UTRC used standard techniques based on breakthrough curves to measure and determine the adsorption properties of indoor air pollutants (IAP) - namely formaldehyde and carbon dioxide - and to verify the extent of saturated fiber regenerability by thermal treatments. The results are summarized as follows: (1) ORNL demonstrated that physical activation of lignin-derived carbon fibers can be tailored to obtain LACF with surface areas and pore size distributions matching the properties of activated carbon fibers obtained from more expensive, fossil-fuel precursors; (2) UTRC investigated the LACF potential for use in air cleaning applications currently pursued by UTRC, such as building ventilation, and demonstrated their regenerability for CO2 and formaldehyde, (3) Both partners agree that LACF have potential for possible use in air cleaning applications.

  14. Transmission of laser light through fiber optic connectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajda, Jerzy K.

    2003-10-01

    The connections of the telecommunications tract elements have a significant influence on the quality of the information transmission. In the essay reasons and an analysis of the losses in fiber optic connectors are introduced. The case of fiber optic connectors: PC type and with a surface enlargement are emphasized. Different types of fiber sleeve connectors are discussed. These optical connectors can be divided according to following criteria: structure (ST, FC, Sc, E-2000, F-3000, LC, MT-RJ, MU, etc.) types of applied ferrules (monolithic, with multiple elements) technology of production (standard, Light Crimp - AMP, Hot Melt - 3MCrimp Lok - 3M, Universal Com Lite - Siecor) and tuning. Moreover the quality of DWDM fiber optic connectors, which have high functional density and an impact on the light polarization is touched on. The results of measurements of transmission parameters and of mechanical resistance on vibration, folding of the cable in the fiber, strikes on hard surfaces, multiple connection and disconnecting, pulling out of a cable from the connectors and climate conditions are discussed. The results of the measurements listed above with additional interferometric tests of ferrule head constitute the main factor of the fiber connectors quality analysis. Furthermore, the up to date results of the compatibility analysis of the connectors manufactured by different producers are mentioned and a future development in the field is forecasted.

  15. Textile Pressure Sensor Made of Flexible Plastic Optical Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Clemens

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report the successful development of pressure sensitive textile prototypes based on flexible optical fibers technology. Our approach is based on thermoplastic silicone fibers, which can be integrated into woven textiles. As soon as pressure at a certain area of the textile is applied to these fibers they change their cross section reversibly, due to their elastomeric character, and a simultaneous change in transmitted light intensity can be detected. We have successfully manufactured two different woven samples with fibers of 0.51 and 0.98 mm diameter in warp and weft direction, forming a pressure sensitive matrix. Determining their physical behavior when a force is applied shows that pressure measurements are feasible. Their usable working range is between 0 and 30 N. Small drifts in the range of 0.2 to 4.6%, over 25 load cycles, could be measured. Finally, a sensor array of 2 x 2 optical fibers was tested for sensitivity, spatial resolution and light coupling between fibers at intersections.

  16. Coating of carbon nanotube fibers: variation of tensile properties, failure behavior and adhesion strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith eMäder

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study of the tensile properties of CNT fibers and their interphasial behavior in epoxy matrices is reported. One of the most promising applications of CNT fibers is their use as reinforcement in multifunctional composites. For this purpose, an increase of the tensile strength of the CNT fibers in unidirectional composites as well as strong interfacial adhesion strength is desirable. However, the mechanical performance of the CNT fiber composites manufactured so far is comparable to that of commercial fiber composites. The interfacial properties of CNT fiber/polymer composites have rarely been investigated and provided CNT fiber/epoxy interfacial shear strength of 14.4 MPa studied by the microbond test.In order to improve the mechanical performance of the CNT fibers, an epoxy compatible coating with nano-dispersed aqueous based polymeric film formers and low viscous epoxy resin, respectively, was applied. For impregnation of high homogeneity, low molecular weight epoxy film formers and polyurethane film formers were used. The aqueous based epoxy film formers were not crosslinked and able to interdiffuse with the matrix resin after impregnation. Due to good wetting of the individual CNT fibers by the film formers, the degree of activation of the fibers was improved leading to increased tensile strength and Young’s modulus. Cyclic tensile loading and simultaneous determination of electric resistance enabled to characterize the fiber’s durability in terms of elastic recovery and hysteresis.The pull-out tests and SEM study reveal different interfacial failure mechanisms in CNT fiber/epoxy systems for untreated and film former treated fibers, on the one hand, and epoxy resin treated ones, on the other hand. The epoxy resin penetrated between the CNT bundles in the reference or film former coated fiber, forming a relatively thick CNT/epoxy composite layer and thus shifting the fracture zone within the fiber. In contrast to this

  17. Simulating Fiber Ordering and Aggregation In Shear Flow Using Dissipative Particle Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimatze, Justin T.

    We have developed a mesoscale simulation of fiber aggregation in shear flow using LAMMPS and its implementation of dissipative particle dynamics. Understanding fiber aggregation in shear flow and flow-induced microstructural fiber networks is critical to our interest in high-performance composite materials. Dissipative particle dynamics enables the consideration of hydrodynamic interactions between fibers through the coarse-grained simulation of the matrix fluid. Correctly simulating hydrodynamic interactions and accounting for fluid forces on the microstructure is required to correctly model the shear-induced aggregation process. We are able to determine stresses, viscosity, and fiber forces while simulating the evolution of a model fiber system undergoing shear flow. Fiber-fiber contact interactions are approximated by combinations of common pairwise forces, allowing the exploration of interaction-influenced fiber behaviors such as aggregation and bundling. We are then able to quantify aggregate structure and effective volume fraction for a range of relevant system and fiber-fiber interaction parameters. Our simulations have demonstrated several aggregate types dependent on system parameters such as shear rate, short-range attractive forces, and a resistance to relative rotation while in contact. A resistance to relative rotation at fiber-fiber contact points has been found to strongly contribute to an increased angle between neighboring aggregated fibers and therefore an increase in average aggregate volume fraction. This increase in aggregate volume fraction is strongly correlated with a significant enhancement of system viscosity, leading us to hypothesize that controlling the resistance to relative rotation during manufacturing processes is important when optimizing for desired composite material characteristics.

  18. Coating of carbon nanotube fibers: variation of tensile properties, failure behavior and adhesion strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäder, Edith; Liu, Jian-Wen; Hiller, Janett; Lu, Weibang; Li, Qingwen; Zhandarov, Serge; Chou, Tsu-Wei

    2015-07-01

    An experimental study of the tensile properties of CNT fibers and their interphasial behavior in epoxy matrices is reported. One of the most promising applications of CNT fibers is their use as reinforcement in multifunctional composites. For this purpose, an increase of the tensile strength of the CNT fibers in unidirectional composites as well as strong interfacial adhesion strength is desirable. However, the mechanical performance of the CNT fiber composites manufactured so far is comparable to that of commercial fiber composites. The interfacial properties of CNT fiber/polymer composites have rarely been investigated and provided CNT fiber/epoxy interfacial shear strength of 14.4 MPa studied by the microbond test. In order to improve the mechanical performance of the CNT fibers, an epoxy compatible coating with nano-dispersed aqueous based polymeric film formers and low viscous epoxy resin, respectively, was applied. For impregnation of high homogeneity, low molecular weight epoxy film formers and polyurethane film formers were used. The aqueous based epoxy film formers were not crosslinked and able to interdiffuse with the matrix resin after impregnation. Due to good wetting of the individual CNT fibers by the film formers, the degree of activation of the fibers was improved leading to increased tensile strength and Young’s modulus. Cyclic tensile loading and simultaneous determination of electric resistance enabled to characterize the fiber’s durability in terms of elastic recovery and hysteresis. The pull-out tests and SEM study reveal different interfacial failure mechanisms in CNT fiber/epoxy systems for untreated and film former treated fibers, on the one hand, and epoxy resin treated ones, on the other hand. The epoxy resin penetrated between the CNT bundles in the reference or film former coated fiber, forming a relatively thick CNT/epoxy composite layer and thus shifting the fracture zone within the fiber. In contrast to this, shear sliding along

  19. Chiral fiber optical isolator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Victor I.; Zhang, Guoyin; Zhang, Sheng; Genack, Azriel Z.; Neugroschl, Dan

    2009-02-01

    We propose an in-fiber chiral optical isolator based on chiral fiber polarizer technology and calculate its performance by incorporating the magnetic field into the scattering matrix. The design will be implemented in a special preform, which is passed through a miniature heat zone as it is drawn and twisted. The birefringence of the fiber is controlled by adjusted the diameter of a dual-core optical fiber. By adjusting the twist, the fiber can convert linear to circular polarization and reject one component of circular polarization. In the novel central portion of the isolator, the fiber diameter is large. The effective birefringence of the circular central core with high Verdet constant embedded in an outer core of slightly smaller index of refraction is small. The central potion is a non-reciprocal polarization converter which passes forward traveling left circularly polarized (LCP) light as LCP, while converting backward propagating LCP to right circularly polarized (RCP) light. Both polarizations of light traveling backwards are scattered out of the isolator. Since it is an all-glass structure, we anticipate that the isolator will be able to handle several watts of power and will be environmentally robust.

  20. Emergence of fiber supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dingshan; Qian, Qihui; Wei, Li; Jiang, Wenchao; Goh, Kunli; Wei, Jun; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Yuan

    2015-02-01

    Supercapacitors (SCs) are energy storage devices which have high power density and long cycle life. Conventional SCs have two-dimensional planar structures. As a new family of SCs, fiber SCs utilize one-dimensional cylindrically shaped fibers as electrodes. They have attracted significant interest since 2011 and have shown great application potential either as micro-scale devices to complement or even replace micro-batteries in miniaturized electronics and microelectromechanical systems or as macro-scale devices for wearable electronics or smart textiles. This tutorial review provides an essential introduction to this new field. We first introduce the basics of performance evaluation for fiber SCs as a foundation to understand different research approaches and the diverse performance metrics reported in the literature. Next, we summarize the current state-of-the-art progress in structure design and electrode fabrication of fiber SCs. This is followed by a discussion on the integration of multiple fiber SCs and the combination with other energy harvesting or storage devices. Last, we present our perspectives on the future development of fiber SCs and highlight key technical challenges with the hope of stimulating further research progress. PMID:25420877

  1. Electrospun amplified fiber optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Giovanni; Camposeo, Andrea; Moffa, Maria; Pisignano, Dario

    2015-03-11

    All-optical signal processing is the focus of much research aiming to obtain effective alternatives to existing data transmission platforms. Amplification of light in fiber optics, such as in Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers, is especially important for efficient signal transmission. However, the complex fabrication methods involving high-temperature processes performed in a highly pure environment slow the fabrication process and make amplified components expensive with respect to an ideal, high-throughput, room temperature production. Here, we report on near-infrared polymer fiber amplifiers working over a band of ∼20 nm. The fibers are cheap, spun with a process entirely carried out at room temperature, and shown to have amplified spontaneous emission with good gain coefficients and low levels of optical losses (a few cm(-1)). The amplification process is favored by high fiber quality and low self-absorption. The found performance metrics appear to be suitable for short-distance operations, and the large variety of commercially available doping dyes might allow for effective multiwavelength operations by electrospun amplified fiber optics.

  2. Development of Fiber Lasers and Their Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Chong-guang; QU Zhou; LIU Yang; WANG Ji; WANG Li-jun

    2006-01-01

    Development of fiber lasers, especially the latest progress in high power fiber lasers, and the problems of the commercialization of high power fiber lasers, are discussed. Research on other kinds of fiber lasers, such as microstructure fiber laser, ultrashort pulse fiber lasers, Raman fiber lasers are also involved.

  3. Fiber-optically sensorized composite wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Joannes M.; Black, Richard J.; Moslehi, Behzad; Oblea, Levy; Patel, Rona; Sotoudeh, Vahid; Abouzeida, Essam; Quinones, Vladimir; Gowayed, Yasser; Soobramaney, Paul; Flowers, George

    2014-04-01

    Electromagnetic interference (EMI) immune and light-weight, fiber-optic sensor based Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) will find increasing application in aerospace structures ranging from aircraft wings to jet engine vanes. Intelligent Fiber Optic Systems Corporation (IFOS) has been developing multi-functional fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor systems including parallel processing FBG interrogators combined with advanced signal processing for SHM, structural state sensing and load monitoring applications. This paper reports work with Auburn University on embedding and testing FBG sensor arrays in a quarter scale model of a T38 composite wing. The wing was designed and manufactured using fabric reinforced polymer matrix composites. FBG sensors were embedded under the top layer of the composite. Their positions were chosen based on strain maps determined by finite element analysis. Static and dynamic testing confirmed expected response from the FBGs. The demonstrated technology has the potential to be further developed into an autonomous onboard system to perform load monitoring, SHM and Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) of composite aerospace structures (wings and rotorcraft blades). This platform technology could also be applied to flight testing of morphing and aero-elastic control surfaces.

  4. Handbook of fiber optic data communication a practical guide to optical networking

    CERN Document Server

    DeCusatis, Casimer

    2008-01-01

    The third edition of this Handbook provides a comprehensive, easy to use guide to the field of optical fiber data communications. Written by experts in the industry from major companies such as IBM, Cisco and Nortel, the Handbook is a key reference for optical fiber technology, networking, protocols, applications, manufacturing, and future directions. It includes chapters on all the major industry standards, written by the same experts who developed them.This edition contains new material on transceiver form factors (QSFP, SFP +, XFP, X2), manufacturing standards, including JEDEC and R

  5. EDF's surveillance on fuel manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EDF has 58 PWR reactors requiring an annual supply of approximately 2,300 fuel assemblies. The issues of safety and reliability are important concerning the fuel given the risk of generic manufacturing issues. Being a nuclear power operator, EDF is responsible for the safety of the fuel being used in their vessels. EDF is subject to a French law which requires in particular the surveillance of the manufacture of the components involved in safety. This law is in some way an opportunity. It permits the entities involved to have an influence on the quality of components supplied which is an important condition to exercise an operational responsibility. EDF has applied for 30 years surveillance of the manufacturing processes of suppliers of fuel assemblies and contracts have specific clauses in order to organize this surveillance. In order to focus the surveillance on important matters, critical characteristics of the fuel have been determined between EDF and the suppliers to ensure the safety requirements. Activities related to the manufacturing and having an influence on these characteristics are subject to the surveillance required by regulation authorities. In order to obtain fuel assemblies that fulfill the safety requirements, EDF considers that several aspects need to be treated correctly: - The clear and sufficient definition of the components that constitutes the assembly (technical file: drawings and specifications), a definition which takes into account as far as possible the critical characteristics. - The demonstration of the efficiency, in terms of results, of complex manufacturing or controls steps (equipment qualification) included in the global manufacturing process (efficiency which depends on parameters that need to be defined and determined). - The definition of manufacturing processes (manufacturing quality plan) and the demonstration of their efficiency (qualification of manufacturing processes) to produce components that meet safety requirements

  6. Effects of wood fiber surface chemistry on strength of wood–plastic composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migneault, Sébastien, E-mail: sebastien.migneault@uqat.ca [University of Quebec in Abitibi-Temiscamingue (UQAT), 445 boulevard de l’Université, Rouyn-Noranda, Québec J9X 5E4 (Canada); Koubaa, Ahmed, E-mail: ahmed.koubaa@uqat.ca [UQAT (Canada); Perré, Patrick, E-mail: patrick.perre@ecp.fr [École centrale de Paris, Grande Voie des Vignes, F-92 295 Chatenay-Malabry Cedex (France); Riedl, Bernard, E-mail: Bernard.Riedl@sbf.ulaval.ca [Université Laval, 2425 rue de la Terrasse, Québec City, Québec G1V 0A6 (Canada)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses showed variations of surface chemical characteristics according to fiber origin. • Surface chemical characteristics of fibers could partly explain the differences in mechanical properties of the wood–plastic composites. • Fibers with carbohydrate rich surface led to stronger wood–plastic composites because the coupling between the matrix and fibers using coupling agent is achieved with polar sites mostly available on carbohydrates. • Conversely, lignin or extractives rich surface do not have oxidized functions for the esterification reaction with coupling agent and thus led to wood–plastic composites with lower mechanical properties. • Other factors such as mechanical interlocking and fiber morphology interfere with the effects of fiber surface chemistry. - Abstract: Because wood–plastic composites (WPC) strength relies on fiber-matrix interaction at fiber surface, it is likely that fiber surface chemistry plays an important role in WPC strength development. The objective of the present study is to investigate the relationships between fiber surface chemical characteristics and WPC mechanical properties. Different fibers were selected and characterized for surface chemical characteristics using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). WPC samples were manufactured at 40% fiber content and with six different fibers. High density polyethylene was used as matrix and maleated polyethylene (MAPE) was used as compatibility agent. WPC samples were tested for mechanical properties and fiber-matrix interface was observed with scanning electron microscope. It was found WPC strength decreases as the amount of unoxidized carbon (assigned to lignin and extractives) measured with XPS on fiber surface increases. In the opposite case, WPC strength increases with increasing level of oxidized carbon (assigned to carbohydrates) on fiber surface. The same

  7. Comparison between the preparation, structure and mechanical properties of long fiber reinforced thermoplastics and short fiber reinforced thermoplastic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Kun; Yang Jie; Wu Sizhu; Li Mei; Ma Mingtu

    2012-01-01

    This article summarizes the comparison between the preparation, structure and mechanical properties of long fiber reinforced thermoplastics (LFT) and short fiber reinforced thermoplastics (SFT). Both of the experiment and theory results showed that the mechanical properties of long glass fiber reinforced thermoplastics pellets (LGFRT) have been enhanced better than that of short glass fiber reinforced thermoplastics pellets (SGFRT) manufactured by molding procession. After regulation of the relative humidity by 50 % , the mechanical properties of 30 % ( weight percent) short glass fiber content in SFT ( SFT-PA6-SGF30 ) are similar to that of 40 % long glass fiber content in LFT. Howev- er, the density of the latter is about 17 % lower than that of the former. Thus, the corresponding weight of products is reduced by 13 % ;output rate is increased by 21% , and the cost is therefore significantly lowered. And it has the fol- lowing advantages: impact strength is increased by 87 % ; the proportion is reduced by 20 % ; molding cycle is short- ened by 10 % ;materials cost is saved by 20 % -30 % and the final total cost is saved by 30 % -40 %. So LFT (LFT-PP-LGF40) can replace SFT (SFT-PA6-SGF30) with the similar basic mechanical properties under normal tem- perature or 160 ℃ lower.

  8. Feasibility Study on Fiber-optic Radiation Sensor for Remote Gamma-ray Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Hyesu; Jang, Kyoung Won; Shin, Sang Hun and others

    2014-05-15

    In this study, we fabricated a fiber-optic radiation sensor using an optical fiber and various scintillators. To select an adequate inorganic scintillator for the sensing probe of fiber-optic radiation sensor, 5 types of scintillators were evaluated. The spectra of gamma-rays emitted from a Na-22 radiation source were measured by using the manufactured sensors. As a result, the BGO was suitable for the sensing probe of fiber-optic radiation sensor due to its high scintillation output and exact photoelectric peak for the gamma-ray energy. The basic principle of radiation detection is to detect the signals caused by interactions between radiations and materials. There are various types of radiation detectors depending on types of radiation to be detected and physical quantities to be measured. As one of the radiation detectors, a fiber-optic radiation sensor using a scintillator and an optical fiber has two advantages such as no space restraint and remote sensing. Moreover, in nuclear environments, this kind of sensor has immunities for electromagnetic field, temperature, and pressure. Thus, the fiber-optic radiation sensor can be used in various fields including nondestructive inspection, radioactive waste management, nuclear safety, radiodiagnosis and radiation therapy. As a fundamental study of the fiber-optic radiation sensor for remote gamma-ray spectroscopy, in this study, we fabricated a fiber-optic radiation sensor using an optical fiber and various scintillators. To select an adequate inorganic scintillator for the sensing probe of fiber-optic radiation sensor, 5 types of scintillators were evaluated. The spectra of gamma-rays emitted from a Na-22 radiation source were measured by using the manufactured sensors.

  9. Feasibility Study on Fiber-optic Radiation Sensor for Remote Gamma-ray Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we fabricated a fiber-optic radiation sensor using an optical fiber and various scintillators. To select an adequate inorganic scintillator for the sensing probe of fiber-optic radiation sensor, 5 types of scintillators were evaluated. The spectra of gamma-rays emitted from a Na-22 radiation source were measured by using the manufactured sensors. As a result, the BGO was suitable for the sensing probe of fiber-optic radiation sensor due to its high scintillation output and exact photoelectric peak for the gamma-ray energy. The basic principle of radiation detection is to detect the signals caused by interactions between radiations and materials. There are various types of radiation detectors depending on types of radiation to be detected and physical quantities to be measured. As one of the radiation detectors, a fiber-optic radiation sensor using a scintillator and an optical fiber has two advantages such as no space restraint and remote sensing. Moreover, in nuclear environments, this kind of sensor has immunities for electromagnetic field, temperature, and pressure. Thus, the fiber-optic radiation sensor can be used in various fields including nondestructive inspection, radioactive waste management, nuclear safety, radiodiagnosis and radiation therapy. As a fundamental study of the fiber-optic radiation sensor for remote gamma-ray spectroscopy, in this study, we fabricated a fiber-optic radiation sensor using an optical fiber and various scintillators. To select an adequate inorganic scintillator for the sensing probe of fiber-optic radiation sensor, 5 types of scintillators were evaluated. The spectra of gamma-rays emitted from a Na-22 radiation source were measured by using the manufactured sensors

  10. Characteristics and formation mechanism for stainless steel fiber with periodic micro-fins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tao; Wan, Zhenping; Lu, Longsheng; Tang, Yong

    2016-05-01

    Metal fibers have been widely used in many industrial applications due to their unique advantages. In certain applications, such as catalyst supports or orthopedic implants, a rough surface or tiny outshoots on the surface of metal fibers to increase surface area are needed. However, it has not been concerned about the surface morphologies of metal fiber in the current research of metal fiber manufacturing. In this paper, a special multi-tooth tool composed of a row of triangular tiny teeth is designed. The entire cutting layer of multi-tooth tool bifurcates into several thin cutting layers due to tiny teeth involved in cutting. As a result, several stainless steel fibers with periodic micro-fins are produced simultaneously. Morphology of periodic micro-fins is found to be diverse and can be classified into three categories: unilateral plane, unilateral tapering and bilateral. There are two forming mechanisms for the micro-fins. One is that periodic burrs remained on the free side of cutting layer of a tiny tooth create micro-fins of stainless steel fiber produced by the next neighboring tiny tooth; the other is that the connections between two fibers stuck together come to be micro-fins if the two fibers are finally detached. Influence of cutting conditions on formation of micro-fins is investigated. Experimental results show that cutting depth has no significant effect on micro-fin formation, high cutting speed is conducive to micro-fin formation, and feed should be between 0.12 mm/r and 0.2 mm/r to reliably obtain stainless steel fiber with micro-fins. This research presents a new pattern of stainless steel fiber characterized by periodic micro-fins formed on the edge of fiber and its manufacturing method.

  11. Feasibility study of prestressed natural fiber-reinforced polylactic acid (pla) composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchcliffe, Sean A.

    The feasibility of manufacturing prestressed natural-fiber reinforced biopolymer composites is demonstrated in this work. The objective of this study was to illustrate that the specific mechanical properties of biopolymers can be enhanced by leveraging a combination of additive manufacturing (3D printing) and post-tensioning of continuous natural fiber reinforcement. Tensile and flexural PLA specimens were 3D-printed with and without post-tensioning ducts. The mechanical properties of reinforcing fibers jute and flax were characterized prior to post-tensioning. The effect of matrix cross-sectional geometry and post-tensioning on the specific mechanical properties of PLA were investigated using mechanical testing. Numerical and analytical models were developed to predict the experimental results, which confirm that 3D-printed matrices improve the specific mechanical properties of PLA composites and are further improved via initial fiber prestressing. The results suggest that both additive manufacturing and fiber prestressing represent viable new methods for improving the mechanical performance of natural fiber-reinforced polymeric composites.

  12. Cellulosic Fibers: Effect of Processing on Fiber Bundle Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Anders; Madsen, Bo; Thomsen, Anne Belinda;

    2011-01-01

    A range of differently processed cellulosic fibers from flax and hemp plants were investigated to study the relation between processing of cellulosic fibers and fiber bundle strength. The studied processing methods are applied for yarn production and include retting, scutching, carding, and cotto......A range of differently processed cellulosic fibers from flax and hemp plants were investigated to study the relation between processing of cellulosic fibers and fiber bundle strength. The studied processing methods are applied for yarn production and include retting, scutching, carding...

  13. FIBER-OPTIC GYROSCOPES BASED ON PHOTONIC-CRYSTAL FIBERS

    OpenAIRE

    Haider, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few decades optical fibers have been widely deployed in navigation industries owing to their special performance as the best light guidance. Fiber-optic gyroscope is one of the applications of optical fibers dependent mainly on the Sagnac effect. It is of important applications in the field of space navigation. In the Fiber-optic gyroscope, an optical fiber is used as the medium of propagation for the light. A long fiber cable is winded into loops in order to increase the effect...

  14. Fiber-diffraction Interferometer using Coherent Fiber Optic Taper

    OpenAIRE

    Kihm, Hagyong; Lee, Yun-Woo

    2010-01-01

    We present a fiber-diffraction interferometer using a coherent fiber optic taper for optical testing in an uncontrolled environment. We use a coherent fiber optic taper and a single-mode fiber having thermally-expanded core. Part of the measurement wave coming from a test target is condensed through a fiber optic taper and spatially filtered from a single-mode fiber to be reference wave. Vibration of the cavity between the target and the interferometer probe is common to both reference and me...

  15. Advanced in In Situ Inspection of Automated Fiber Placement Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Peter D.; Cramer, K. Elliott; Seebo, Jeffrey P.

    2016-01-01

    Automated Fiber Placement (AFP) systems have been developed to help take advantage of the tailorability of composite structures in aerospace applications. AFP systems allow the repeatable placement of uncured, spool fed, preimpregnated carbon fiber tape (tows) onto substrates in desired thicknesses and orientations. This automated process can incur defects, such as overlapping tow lines, which can severely undermine the structural integrity of the part. Current defect detection and abatement methods are very labor intensive, and still mostly rely on human manual inspection. Proposed is a thermographic in situ inspection technique which monitors tow placement with an on board thermal camera using the preheated substrate as a through transmission heat source. An investigation of the concept is conducted, and preliminary laboratory results are presented. Also included will be a brief overview of other emerging technologies that tackle the same issue. Keywords: Automated Fiber Placement, Manufacturing defects, Thermography

  16. Glass pipette-carbon fiber microelectrodes for evoked potential recordings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moraes M.F.D.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Current methods for recording field potentials with tungsten electrodes make it virtually impossible to use the same recording electrode also as a lesioning electrode, for example for histological confirmation of the recorded site, because the lesioning procedure usually wears off the tungsten tip. Therefore, the electrode would have to be replaced after each lesioning procedure, which is a very high cost solution to the problem. We present here a low cost, easy to make, high quality glass pipette-carbon fiber microelectrode that shows resistive, signal/noise and electrochemical coupling advantages over tungsten electrodes. Also, currently used carbon fiber microelectrodes often show problems with electrical continuity, especially regarding electrochemical applications using a carbon-powder/resin mixture, with consequent low performance, besides the inconvenience of handling such a mixture. We propose here a new method for manufacturing glass pipette-carbon fiber microelectrodes with several advantages when recording intracerebral field potentials

  17. Modulational instability in dispersion-kicked optical fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Nodari, S Rota; Dujardin, G; Kudlinski, A; Mussot, A; Trillo, S; De Bièvre, S

    2015-01-01

    We study, both theoretically and experimentally, modulational instability in optical fibers that have a longitudinal evolution of their dispersion in the form of a Dirac delta comb. By means of Floquet theory, we obtain an exact expression for the position of the gain bands, and we provide simple analytical estimates of the gain and of the bandwidths of those sidebands. An experimental validation of those results has been realized in several microstructured fibers specifically manufactured for that purpose. The dispersion landscape of those fibers is a comb of Gaussian pulses having widths much shorter than the period, which therefore approximate the ideal Dirac comb. Experimental spontaneous MI spectra recorded under quasi continuous wave excitation are in good agreement with the theory and with numerical simulations based on the generalized nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation.

  18. Fabrication of Polyacrylonitrile Hollow Fiber Membranes from Ionic Liquid Solutions

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Dooli

    2015-10-08

    The interest in green processes and products has increased to reduce the negative impact of many industrial processes to the environment. Solvents, which play a crucial role in the fabrication of membranes, need to be replaced by sustainable and less toxic solvent alternatives for commonly used polymers. The purpose of this study is the fabrication of greener hollow fiber membranes based on polyacrylonitrile (PAN), substituting dimethylformamide (DMF) by less toxic mixtures of ionic liquids (IL) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). A thermodynamic analysis was conducted, estimating the Gibbs free energy of mixing to find the most convenient solution compositions. Hollow fiber membranes were manufactured and optimized. As a result, a uniform pattern and high porosity were observed in the inner surface of the membranes prepared from the ionic liquid solutions. The membranes were coated with a polyamide layer by interfacial polymerization the hollow fiber membranes were applied in forward osmosis experiments by using sucrose solutions as draw solution.

  19. Effect of Overlaid Material on Optical Transmission of Side-Polished Fiber Made by Wheel Side Polishing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhe Chen; Chun-He Bai

    2008-01-01

    The performance of optical power transmission through a side-polished fiber on which materials of different refractive indices were overlaid is investigated. The experiments show that the transmitted optical power through the side-polished fiber varies with the refractive index of the overlaid material. The result of our experiments fits well the theoretical calculation.Side-polished fiber manufactured by wheel polishing method can be used not only to control optical power transmission through the fiber core but also as a refractive index sensor.

  20. Production of Bamboo Fiber Reinforced Fibrillated Poly(Lactic Acid) (PLA) Material Obtained by a Papermaking Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ruibin; YANG Rendang; YANG Fei

    2015-01-01

    A devised beating process was applied, which enabled the formation of slurry consisting of uniformly dispersed fibrillated polylactic acid (PLA) fibers with bamboo fiber, and the polymer material was obtained by a conventional papermaking process. Owing to the fast dewatering time, good repeatability and the facility to manufacture on a large scale, this process was used. It was revealed that the beaten PLA fiber was overall in machinery extrusion by the results of optical microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations. The improvement in the tensile index, burst index, tear index and other mechanical properties was considered as a key benefit as a result of adding bamboo fiber.

  1. The Smart Behavior of Cement-based Composite Containing Carbon Fibers under Three-point-bending Load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Bing; WU Keru; YAO Wu

    2005-01-01

    The influences of the fiber volume fraction on the electrical conductivity and the fraction change of electrical resistance under three-point- bending test were discussed. It is found that the relationship between the electrical conductivity of composites and the fiber volume fraction can be explained by the percolation theory and the change of electrical resistance of specimens reflects to the process of loading. The sensitivity and the response of the change of electrical resistance to the load for specimens with different fiber volume fractions are quite different,which provide an important guide for the manufacture of conductive and intrinsically smart carbon fiber composite.

  2. Effect of reinforced fiber on morphology of Si phases in Al2O3/Al-Si alloy composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Alumina/aluminum-silicon alloy composite is manufactured by squeeze casting. The effect of the reinforcement on the morphology of the silicon phase in aluminum-silicon alloy is studied. The results indicate that an alumina fiber can serve as propitious sites for the heterogeneous nucleation of the silicon phase, and the primary silicon in the composite can nucleate on the surface of the fiber. The fiber in the composite can trigger twin during the coupled growth of the aluminum-silicon eutectic and lead to modification of the eutectic silicon near the fiber.

  3. Self Similar Optical Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Zheng-Xuan

    This research proposes Self Similar optical fiber (SSF) as a new type of optical fiber. It has a special core that consists of self similar structure. Such a structure is obtained by following the formula for generating iterated function systems (IFS) in Fractal Theory. The resulted SSF can be viewed as a true fractal object in optical fibers. In addition, the method of fabricating SSF makes it possible to generate desired structures exponentially in numbers, whereas it also allows lower scale units in the structure to be reduced in size exponentially. The invention of SSF is expected to greatly ease the production of optical fiber when a large number of small hollow structures are needed in the core of the optical fiber. This dissertation will analyze the core structure of SSF based on fractal theory. Possible properties from the structural characteristics and the corresponding applications are explained. Four SSF samples were obtained through actual fabrication in a laboratory environment. Different from traditional conductive heating fabrication system, I used an in-house designed furnace that incorporated a radiation heating method, and was equipped with automated temperature control system. The obtained samples were examined through spectrum tests. Results from the tests showed that SSF does have the optical property of delivering light in a certain wavelength range. However, SSF as a new type of optical fiber requires a systematic research to find out the theory that explains its structure and the associated optical properties. The fabrication and quality of SSF also needs to be improved for product deployment. As a start of this extensive research, this dissertation work opens the door to a very promising new area in optical fiber research.

  4. Radiation effects on rare-earth doped optical fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, S.; Marcandella, C. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, DIF 91 (France); Ouerdane, Y.; Tortech, B.; Boukenter, A.; Meunier, J.P.; Vivona, M. [Lab. Hubert Curien, CNRS, 42 - Saint-Etienne (France); Vivona, M.; Robin, Th.; Cadier, B. [iXFiber SAS, 22 - lannion (France)

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, we reviewed our previous work concerning the responses of rare-earth (RE) doped fibers (Yb, Er and Er/Yb) to various types of radiations like gamma-rays, X-rays and protons. For all these harsh environments, the main measured macroscopic radiation-induced effect is an increase of the linear attenuation of these waveguides due to the generation of point defects in the RE-doped core and silica-based cladding. To evaluate the vulnerability of this class of optical fibers for space missions, we characterize the growth and decay kinetics of their radiation-induced attenuation (RIA) during and after irradiation for various compositions. Laboratory testing reveals that this class of optical fibers is very sensitive to radiations compared to passive (RE-free) samples. As a consequence, despite the small length used for space applications, the understanding of the radiation-induced effects in this class of optical fibers becomes necessary before their integration as part of fiber-based systems like gyroscopes or communication systems. In this paper, we more particularly discussed about the relative influence of the rare-earth ions (Er{sup 3+} and/or Yb{sup 3+}) and of the glass matrix dopants (Al, P, ... ) on the optical degradation due to radiations. This has been done by using a set of five prototype optical fibers designed by the fiber manufacturer iXFiber SAS to enlighten the role of these parameters. Additional spectroscopic tools like con-focal microscopy of luminescence are also used to detect possible changes in the spectroscopy of the rare-earth ions and their consequences on the functionality of the active optical fibers. (authors)

  5. Enhanced radiation resistant fiber optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Peter B.; Looney, Larry D.

    1993-01-01

    A process for producing an optical fiber having enhanced radiation resitance is provided, the process including maintaining an optical fiber within a hydrogen-containing atmosphere for sufficient time to yield a hydrogen-permeated optical fiber having an elevated internal hydrogen concentration, and irradiating the hydrogen-permeated optical fiber at a time while the optical fiber has an elevated internal hydrogen concentration with a source of ionizing radiation. The radiation source is typically a cobalt-60 source and the fiber is pre-irradiated with a dose level up to about 1000 kilorads of radiation.

  6. Fiber-optic technology review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A history of fiber technology is presented. The advantages of fiber optics are discussed (bandwidth, cost, weight and size, nonmetallic construction and isolation). Some aspects of the disadvantages of fiber systems briefly discussed are fiber and cable availability, fiber components, radiation effects, receivers and transmitters, and material dispersion. Particular emphasis over the next several years will involve development of fibers and systems optimized for use at wavelengths near 1.3 μm and development of wavelengths multiplexers for simultaneous system operation at several wavelengths

  7. Nonlinear effects in optical fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Mario F

    2011-01-01

    Cutting-edge coverage of nonlinear phenomena occurring inside optical fibers Nonlinear fiber optics is a specialized part of fiber optics dealing with optical nonlinearities and their applications. As fiber-optic communication systems have become more advanced and complex, the nonlinear effects in optical fibers have increased in importance, as they adversely affect system performance. Paradoxically, the same nonlinear phenomena also offer the promise of addressing the bandwidth bottleneck for signal processing for future ultra-high speed optical networks. Nonlinear Effects in Optical Fiber

  8. Numerical implementation of constitutive material law for simulating the kinkband formation in fiber composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veluri, Badrinath; Jensen, Henrik Myhre

    2011-01-01

    Finite element models with a constitutive material behavior that represents the non-linear response of fiber composites are used to simulate the compressive failure mechanism i.e. kinkband formation. A constitutive material law in framework of micromechanical modeling containing comprehensive...... constitutive equations for the constituent materials is adopted to model the non-linear behavior of the unidirectional layered materials. This material law is implemented as UMAT user subroutine in ABAQUS/Standard to study kinkband formation. The methodology provides a procedure to investigate the kinkband...... formation due to fiber misalignment for various complex structures having voids and material discontinuities that occur normally during the manufacture of these unidirectional fiber composites....

  9. Influence of the curing cycles on the fatigue performance of unidirectional glass fiber reinforced epoxy composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüther, Jonas; Brøndsted, Povl

    2016-01-01

    During the manufacturing process of fiber reinforced polymers the curing reaction of the resin results in shrinkage of the resin and introduces internal stresses in the composites. When curing at higher temperatures in order to shorten up the processing time, higher curing stresses and thermal...... stresses are built up and frozen, as residual stresses occur. In the present work, a glass fiber reinforced epoxy composite laminate with an unidirectional architecture based on non-crimp fabrics with backing fibers is investigated. Three different curing cycles (time-temperature cycles) are used, leading...

  10. An optical fiber spool for laser stabilization with reduced acceleration sensitivity to 10-12/g

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡永奇; 董靖; 黄军超; 李唐; 刘亮

    2015-01-01

    Environmental vibration causes mechanical deformation in optical fibers, which induces excess frequency noise in fiber-stabilized lasers. In order to solve such a problem, we propose an ultralow acceleration sensitivity fiber spool with symmetrically mounted structure. By numerical analysis with the finite element method, we obtain the optimal geometry parameters of the spool with which the horizontal and vertical acceleration sensitivity can be reduced to 3.25 × 10−12/g and 5.38 × 10−12/g respectively. Moreover, the structure features the insensitivity to the variation of geometry parameters, which will minimize the infl uence from numerical simulation error and manufacture tolerance.

  11. Unidirectional fibers and polyurethane elastomer matrix based composites synthesis and properties. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakar, A.

    1984-01-01

    A study of the properties and manufacturing techniques for long-fiber reinforced elastomeric composites for flexible and damping structural materials is presented. Attention is given to the usage of polyurethane in the matrix to obtain plastic elastomeric matrices and vitreous transition temperatures which vary from -80 C to 10 C, as well as assure good fiber adhesion. Various polyurethane formulations synthesized from diisocyanate prepolymers are examined in terms of mechanical and thermal properties. The principal reinforcing fiber selected is a unidirectional glass cloth.

  12. High-temperature fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Wenhui; Jiang, Yi; Gao, Ran, E-mail: bitjy@bit.edu.cn [School of Optoelectronics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Liu, Yuewu [Key Laboratory for Mechanics in Fluid Solid Coupling Systems, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2015-05-15

    A photonic crystal fiber (PCF) based high-temperature fiber-optic sensor is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The sensor head is a Fabry-Perot cavity manufactured with a short section of endless single-mode photonic crystal fiber (ESM PCF). The interferometric spectrum of the Fabry-Perot interferometer is collected by a charge coupled device linear array based micro spectrometer. A high-resolution demodulation algorithm is used to interrogate the peak wavelengths. Experimental results show that the temperature range of 1200 °C and the temperature resolution of 1 °C are achieved.

  13. High-temperature fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wenhui; Jiang, Yi; Gao, Ran; Liu, Yuewu

    2015-05-01

    A photonic crystal fiber (PCF) based high-temperature fiber-optic sensor is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The sensor head is a Fabry-Perot cavity manufactured with a short section of endless single-mode photonic crystal fiber (ESM PCF). The interferometric spectrum of the Fabry-Perot interferometer is collected by a charge coupled device linear array based micro spectrometer. A high-resolution demodulation algorithm is used to interrogate the peak wavelengths. Experimental results show that the temperature range of 1200 °C and the temperature resolution of 1 °C are achieved.

  14. Influence of moisture absorption on properties of fiber reinforced polyamide 6 composites

    OpenAIRE

    Raghavalu Thirumalai, Durai Prabhakaran; Løgstrup Andersen, Tom; Lystrup, Aage

    2011-01-01

    A state-of-the art study of thermoplastic polymer matrix materials for fiber composites has identified polyamide 6 (PA6) as a potential candidate thermoplastic polymer relevant for manufacturing large composite structures like wind turbine blades. The mechanical properties of PA6 are highly sensitive to moisture, and if PA6 is used as matrix material in a fiber composite, the properties of the fiber composite will depend on the moisture content of the material. At standard condition (23 °C an...

  15. Continuous fiber thermoplastic prepreg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Maywood L. (Inventor); Johnson, Gary S. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A pultrusion machine employing a corrugated impregnator vessel to immerse multiple, continuous strand, fiber tow in an impregnating material, and an adjustable metered exit orifice for the impregnator vessel to control the quantity of impregnating material retained by the impregnated fibers, is provided. An adjustable height insert retains transverse rod elements within each depression of the corrugated vessel to maintain the individual fiber tows spread and in contact with the vessel bottom. A series of elongated heating dies, transversely disposed on the pultrusion machine and having flat heating surfaces with radiused edges, ensure adequate temperature exposed dwell time and exert adequate pressure on the impregnated fiber tows, to provide the desired thickness and fiber/resin ratio in the prepreg formed. The prepreg passing through the pulling mechanism is wound on a suitable take-up spool for subsequent use. A formula is derived for determining the cross sectional area opening of the metering device. A modification in the heating die system employs a heated nip roller in lieu of one of the pressure applying flat dies.

  16. Congenital fiber type disproportion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissiedu, Juliana; Prayson, Richard A

    2016-04-01

    Type I muscle fiber atrophy in childhood can be encountered in a variety of neuromuscular disorders. Congenital fiber type disproportion (CFTD) is one such condition which presents as a nonprogressive muscle weakness. The diagnosis is often made after excluding other differential diagnostic considerations. We present a 2-year-9-month-old full term boy who presented at 2 months with an inability to turn his head to the right. Over the next couple of years, he showed signs of muscle weakness, broad based gait and a positive Gower's sign. He had normal levels of creatine kinase and normal electromyography. A biopsy of the vastus lateralis showed a marked variation in muscle fiber type. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-ase stains highlighted a marked type I muscle atrophy with rare scattered atrophic type II muscle fibers. No abnormalities were observed on the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) or cytochrome oxidase stained sections. Ragged red fibers were not present on the trichrome stain. Abnormalities of glycogen or lipid deposition were not observed on the periodic acid-Schiff or Oil-Red-O stains. Immunostaining for muscular dystrophy associated proteins showed normal staining. Ultrastructural examination showed a normal arrangement of myofilaments, and a normal number and morphology for mitochondria. A diagnosis of CFTD was made after excluding other causes of type I atrophy including congenital myopathy. The lack of specific clinical and genetic disorder associated with CFTD suggests that it is a spectrum of a disease process and represents a diagnosis of exclusion. PMID:26526626

  17. Ply-based Optimization of Laminated Composite Shell Structures under Manufacturing Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rene; Lund, Erik

    2012-01-01

    This work concerns a new ply-based parameterization for performing simultaneous material selection and topology optimization of fiber reinforced laminated composite structures while ensuring that a series of different manufacturing constraints are fulfilled. The material selection can either...... be performed on the basis of different materials, and/or consist of discrete selection of the same orthotropic material with different orientations of the fibers. The problem considered is the optimization of a general laminated composite shell structure with respect to maximum stiffness (minimum compliance...

  18. Study on the Manufacturability Evaluation Based on Double-layer Model of Manufacturing Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Virtual organization is a new production patter and a principal part in advanced manufacturing systems such as agile manufacturing. Manufacturability evaluation is the necessary condition to form the virtual organization. A new manufacturability evaluation approach is described in this paper, which is carried out based on every process feature under the double-layer model of manufacturing resources proposed by authors. The manufacturing resources that build up the virtual organization are selected according to the results of manufacturability evaluation.

  19. Towards Measuring Investment in Flexible Foundry Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhythm Suren Wadhwa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing flexibility is an important instrument to ensure the success of manufacturing systems in the modern day competitive and uncertain environment. The major hindrance in integrating flexibility into decision making process is that it is difficult to measure and be compared to future indefinable manufacturing scenarios. This paper presents a methodical concept utilizing real options to evaluate flexible foundry manufacturing system.

  20. Automatic Fiber Orientation Detection for Sewed Carbon Fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Automatic production and precise positioning of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (FRP) require precise detection of the fiber orientations. This paper presents an automatic method for detecting fiber orientations of sewed carbon fibers in the production of FRP. Detection was achieved by appropriate use of regional filling, edge detection operators, autocorrelation methods, and the Hough transformation. Regional filling was used to reduce the influence of the sewed regions, autocorrelation was used to clarify the fiber directions, edge detection operators were used to extract the edge features for the fiber orientations, and the Hough transformation was used to calculate the angles. Results for two kinds of carbon fiber materials show that the method is relatively quick and precise for detecting carbon fiber orientations.