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Sample records for kapok ceiba pentandra

  1. Fabrication of zinc oxide-embedded kapok (Ceiba pentandra) paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mones, E. S.; Balela, M. D. L.; Futalan, C. C. M.; Manalo, R. D.; Herrera, M. U.

    2017-05-01

    Zinc oxide-embedded kapok (Ceiba pentandra) papers with antimicrobial property were fabricated. Fabrication of papers from kapok fibers was done using chloroform and sodium chlorite treatments. Meanwhile, embedding of zinc oxide particles on the fabricated kapok papers was done using an in situ method. The said method involved soaking the paper in zinc acetate and sodium hydroxide solutions. The method also involved heat treatment of the sample to fasten the formation of zinc oxide particles. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement shows the presence of synthesized ZnO particles on the cellulose fibers while scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed the flake-like morphology of the embedded ZnO particles. Agar diffusion test shows that the samples have higher antimicrobial effect against Staphylococcus aureus than Escherichia coli.

  2. Premixed Combustion of Kapok (ceiba pentandra) seed oil on Perforated Burner

    OpenAIRE

    I.K.G. Wirawan; I. N. G. Wardana; Rudy Soenoko; Slamet Wahyudi

    2014-01-01

    Availability of fossil fuels in the world decrease gradually due to excessive fuel exploitation. This situations push researcher to look for alternative fuels as a source of renewable energy, one of them is kapok (ceiba pentandra) seed oil. The aim this study was to know the behavior of laminar burning velocity, secondary Bunsen flame with open tip, cellular and triple flame. Premixed combustion of kapok seed oil was studied experimentally on perforated burner with equivalence ratio (φ) varie...

  3. Characterization and Thermal Decomposition Kinetics of Kapok (Ceiba pentandra L.–Based Cellulose

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    Sarifah Fauziah Syed Draman

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available nterest in using kapok (Ceiba pentandra L.–based cellulose in composite preparation is growing due to its advantages, including cost- effectiveness, light weight, non-toxicity, and biodegradability. In this study, chloroform, sodium chlorite, and sodium hydroxide were used for wax removal, delignification, and hemicellulose removal, respectively. It was observed that the air entrapment inside kapok fiber disappeared after it was treated with alkali. The structure became completely flattened and similar to a flat ribbon-like shape when examined using a vapour pressure scanning electron microscope (VPSEM. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy was used to characterize the untreated and treated kapok fibers. The peak at 898 cm−1, which is attributed to the glucose ring stretching in cellulose, was observed for the obtained cellulose samples. Peaks corresponding to lignin (1505 and 1597 cm−1 and hemicellulose (1737 and 1248 cm−1 disappeared. The results of differential scanning colorimetry (DSC indicated that the degradation of cellulose appeared as an exothermic peak at about 300 to 350 °C. The activation energy for thermal decomposition of kapok cellulose and its hemicelluloses was 185 kJ/mol and 110 kJ/mol, respectively. The activation energy for thermal decomposition can be used as an alternative approach to determine the purity of cellulose.

  4. Microwave-assisted methyl esters synthesis of Kapok (Ceiba pentandra seed oil: parametric and optimization study

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    Awais Bokhari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The depleting fossil fuel reserves and increasing environmental concerns have continued to stimulate research into biodiesel as a green fuel alternative produced from renewable resources. In this study, Kapok (Ceiba pentandra oil methyl ester was produced by using microwave-assisted technique. The optimum operating conditions for the microwave-assisted transesterification of Kapok seed oil including temperature, catalyst loading, methanol to oil molar ratio, and irradiation time were investigated by using Response Surface Methodology (RSM based on Central Composite Design (CCD. A maximum conversion of 98.9 % was obtained under optimum conditions of 57.09 °C reaction temperature, 2.15 wt% catalyst (KOH loading, oil to methanol molar ratio of 1:9.85, and reaction time of 3.29 min. Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FT-IR spectroscopy was performed to verify the conversion of the fatty acid into methyl esters. The properties of Kapok oil methyl ester produced under the optimum conditions were characterized and found in agreement with the international ASTM D 6751 and EN 14214 standards.

  5. Ability of treated kapok (Ceiba pentandra) fiber for removal of clay particle from water turbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafur, Nurfitri Abdul; Sakakibara, Masayuki; Jahja, Mohamad

    2017-06-01

    Kapok (Ceiba pentandra, family Bombacaceae) fiber (KF) is a by-product of traditional agriculture in tropical countries and is mainly used as fiberfill in fabric. The aim of this study was to explore the possibility of using KF to remove clay particles from turbid water. Firstly, KF was boiled at 100 ºC in deionized water for 15 min to remove the surface oil. A suspension of montmorillonite powder mixed 1 L of deionized water, divided into volumes of 100, 200, 300, and 400 mL, was used as the turbid water source. The ability of KF to remove clay particles from the water was assessed by filtering the water through 60 g of treated KF in a ∼397.9 cm3 acrylic column. Results showed that the treated KF effectively removed the clay particles from the entire volume of turbid water in this experiment; the results also demonstrate that this KF fiber has value as a simple and inexpensive tool for water treatment, especially in developing countries.

  6. Premixed Combustion of Kapok (ceiba pentandra seed oil on Perforated Burner

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    I.K.G. Wirawan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Availability of fossil fuels in the world decrease gradually due to excessive fuel exploitation. This situations push researcher to look for alternative fuels as a source of renewable energy, one of them is kapok (ceiba pentandra seed oil. The aim this study was to know the behavior of laminar burning velocity, secondary Bunsen flame with open tip, cellular and triple flame. Premixed combustion of kapok seed oil was studied experimentally on perforated burner with equivalence ratio (φ varied from 0.30 until 1.07. The results showed that combustion of glycerol requires a large amount of air so that laminar burning velocity (SL is the highest at very lean mixture (φ =0.36 in the form of individual Bunsen flame on each of the perforated plate hole.  Perforated and secondary Bunsen flame both reached maximum SL similar with that of ethanol and higher than that of hexadecane. Slight increase of φ decreases drastically SL of perforated and secondary Bunsen flame. When the mixture was enriched, secondary Bunsen and perforated flame disappears, and then the flame becomes Bunsen flame with open tip and triple flame (φ = 0.62 to 1.07. Flame was getting stable until the mixture above the stoichiometry. Being isolated from ambient air, the SL of perforated flame, as well as secondary Bunsen flame, becomes equal with non-isolated flame. This shows the decreasing trend of laminar burning velocity while φ is increasing. When the mixture was enriched island (φ = 0.44 to 0.48 and petal (φ = 0.53 to 0.62 cellular flame take place. Flame becomes more unstable when the mixture was changed toward stoichiometry.

  7. Biodiesel Production from Kapok (Ceiba pentandra Seed Oil using Naturally Alkaline Catalyst as an Effort of Green Energy and Technology

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    N.A. Handayani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, energy that used to serve all the needs of community, mainly generated from fossil (conventional energy. Terrace in energy consumption is not balanced with adequate fossil fuel reserves and will be totally depleted in the near future. Indonesian Government through a Presidential Decree No. 5 year 2006 mandates an increased capacity in renewable energy production from 5 percent to 15 percent in 2025. C. pentandra seed oil has feasibility as a sustainable biodiesel feedstock in Indonesia. The aim of this paper was to investigate biodiesel production from ceiba petandra seed oil using naturally potassium hydroxide catalyst. Research designs are based on factorial design with 2 levels and 3 independent variables (temperature, reaction time and molar ratio of methanol to oil. According to data calculation, the most influential single variable is molar ratio of methanol to oil. Characterization of biodiesel products meet all the qualifications standardized by SNI 04-7182-2006. Keywords: biodiesel, kapok seed oil, c. pentandra, green technology

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF KAPOK (Ceiba pentandra SEED OIL SUPPLEMENTATION ON CELLULOLYTIC ENZYME AND RUMEN MICROBIAL FERMENTATION ACTIVITY OF LOCAL SHEEP

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    W. Widiyanto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to study the influence of kapok seed oil (KSO supplementation oncellulolytic enzyme and microbial fermentation activity. Sheep rumen fluid was used as enzyme sourceand inoculant, whereas carboxymethylcellulose (CMC was used as the substrate. There were 4 levels ofKSO supplementation as treatment, i.e. : 0% (T0, 5% (T1, 10% (T2, and 15% (T3. Two measuredvariables were reduced sugar production rate and gas fermentation production. The data were analyzedby analysis of variance in completely randomized design. The result showed that reduced sugarproduction rate in T0, T1, T2 and T3 treatment groups were 2.58; 2.93; 2.08 and 1.58 mg/gCMC/minute, respectively, whereas gas production were : 15.97; 13.26; 10.54 and 7.57 mg/g CMC,respectively. Kapok seed oil supplementation up to 5% DM of cellulose substrate (CMC did notinfluence the ruminal cellulolytic enzyme activity. The KSO supplementation level 10% - 15%decreased the ruminal cellulolytic enzyme activity.

  9. Carcass Characteristics of Kacang Goats Fed Ration Containing MH-1 Variety of Kapok Seed Meal (Ceiba pentandra, GAERTN.

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    T. Hidjaz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to study the carcass characteristics of Kacang goats fed ration containing kapok seed meal (KSM as a component of the concentrate. The experiment was conducted in two stages. The first stage was to find out the best variety of kapok that will be used in the second experiment; the second stage was to determine the benefits of KSM on carcass characteristics. Twenty-five, 8 months old Kacang goats with initial body weight of 11.71±1.08 kg, were used in this experiment. The animals were housed individually based on completely randomized design (CRD with 5 treatments and 5 replications. The rations were based on forage:concentrate ratio of 50:50 dry matter basis. The ration contained concentrates, with increasing levels of KSM, i.e.: R0 (napier grass + concentrate: rice bran, coconut cake, corn, urea + 0% KSM; R5 (R0 + KSM 5%; R10 (R0 + KSM 10%; R15 (R0 + KSM 15%; and R20 (R0 + KSM 20%. Drinking water was provided ad libitum. The result of first stage showed that KSM variety of MH-1 would be used as a component of the concentrate on the second experiment. The increasing level of KSM in the rations had significant effect (P<0.05 on physical characteristics of the carcass, such as dressing percentage (44.35%, carcass length (54.006 cm, fleshing index (130.59 g/cm, plumpness of leg (87.48%, loin eye area (5.06 cm2, and percentage of carcass meat (64.69%. It is concluded that MH-1 variety of KSM can be used as a feed component up to 20 % in the goat ration.

  10. Physicochemical characterization of cellulose nanocrystal and nanoporous self-assembled CNC membrane derived from Ceiba pentandra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mohamad Azuwa; W Salleh, W N; Jaafar, Juhana; Ismail, A F; Abd Mutalib, Muhazri; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; M Zain, M F; Awang, Nor Asikin; Mohd Hir, Zul Adlan

    2017-02-10

    This research involves the rare utilisation of the kapok fibre (Ceiba pentandra) as a raw material for the fabrication of cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) and self-assembled CNC membranes. The isolation of CNC from Ceiba pentandra began with the extraction of cellulose via the chemical alkali extraction by using 5wt% NaOH, followed by the typical acidified bleaching method and, finally, the CNC production through acid hydrolysis with 60wt% H2SO4 at the optimum time of 60min. The prepared CNC was then employed for the preparation of self-assembled membrane through the water suspension casting evaporation technique. The obtained CNC membrane was characterised in terms of its composition, crystallinity, thermal stability, as well as, structural and morphological features with the use of several techniques including FTIR, XRD, AFM, TEM, FESEM, and TGA. The FESEM and AFM analyses had illustrated the achievement of a self-assembled CNC membrane with a smooth surface and a well-distributed nano-porous structure, with the porosity of 52.82±7.79%. In addition, the findings proved that the self-assembled CNC membrane displayed good adsorption capability indicated by the recorded efficiency of 79% and 85% for 10mg/L and 5mg/L of methylene blue in an aqueous solution, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF TORREFIED Ceiba pentandra WOOD

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    Ebenezer A. IYIOLA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The need for improving or enhancing the performance of wood to meet the use for high economic value is a necessity. Physico-mechanical properties of torrefied Ceiba pentandra wood were investigated. Thirty nine defect-free specimens of dimensions 20mm × 20mm × 60mm (breadth × thickness x length were prepared for the determination of dimensional stability and compression test. For the evaluation of static bending strength tests, thirty nine specimens of dimensions 20mm × 20mm x 300mm were prepared. The specimens (at constant m.c. of 12% were thermally treated at temperatures of 120, 140, 160 and 180o C for 60, 90 and 120 minutes duration. The wood samples were introduced into the furnace and ramped to the temperature at which the actual heat treatment occurred. Density, Moisture content, Weight Loss, Void Volume, Water absorption, Volume swelling, Modulus of Elasticity (MOE, Modulus of Rupture (MOR, Maximum Compression Strength (MCS and Hardness of the torrefied and untreated samples were investigated. The mean values of the density showed a significant reduction as a function of treatment condition. The mean values of the moisture content of the wood samples varies 7.40% to 3.35% which is the highest reduction found in the treatment180o C for 120minutes. High weight loss was observed at 180o C for 2hrs (6.99%. The value of the volumetric swelling ranges from 7.52% to 1.39% compared to control (28.94% in 24hrs. The mean values of thermally treated samples for Modulus of Elasticity ranging from 10401 N/mm2 (180°C at 60 min to 1757N/mm2 (120°C at 90 min compared to control (MOE = 1694N/mm2 . The Modulus of Elasticity of the heat-treated samples increased rapidly as the temperature rises to 180o C for 60minutes but decreased as the time increases. It can be concluded that thermal modification improved dimensional stability and mechanical properties of wood samples

  12. Protective effect of stem bark of Ceiba pentandra linn. against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

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    Nirmal K Bairwa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports protective activity of ethyl acetate fraction of methanol extract of stem bark of Ceiba pentandra against paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats. The ethyl acetate fraction (400 mg/kg was administered orally to the rats with hepatotoxicity induced by paracetamol (3 gm/kg. Silymarin (100 mg/kg was used as positive control. High performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC fingerprinting of ethyl acetate fraction revealed presence of its major chemical constituents. A significant (P < 0.05 reduction in serum enzymes GOT (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, GPT alkaline phosphatase (ALP, total bilirubin content and histopathological screening in the rats treated gave indication that ethyl acetate fraction of methanolic extract of Ceiba pentandra possesses hepatoprotective potential against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

  13. Protective effect of stem bark of Ceiba pentandra linn. against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Bairwa, Nirmal K.; Sethiya, Neeraj K.; Mishra, S. H.

    2010-01-01

    The present study reports protective activity of ethyl acetate fraction of methanol extract of stem bark of Ceiba pentandra against paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats. The ethyl acetate fraction (400 mg/kg) was administered orally to the rats with hepatotoxicity induced by paracetamol (3 gm/kg). Silymarin (100 mg/kg) was used as positive control. High performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprinting of ethyl acetate fraction revealed presence of its major chemical constituen...

  14. Studies on Antivenom Activity of Ceiba pentandra Leaves’ Aqueous Methanol Extract Against Echis ocellatus’ Snake Venom

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    sarkiyayi shehu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous methanol of Ceiba pentandra leaves extract was tested for antivenom activity against Echis ocellatus snake venom. Among parameters investigated include: LD50 of the Echis ocellatus snake venom, phospholipase A2 activity, percentage hemolysis. In vivo analysis of total protein content, white blood cells, pack cell volume and haemoglobin contents were also investigated. The result reveals that Echis ocellatus has an LD50 of 0.280mg/kg ± 0.065. Haemolysis due to venom has drastically reduced by the extract from 66% to 27.4%. suggesting that the extract is effective in reducing haemolysis in mice. The in vivo studies reveals that there were significant (p<0.05 decrease in packed cell volume, total protein and haemoglobin contents for the venom group and there was only slight changes in the venom/extract and control groups suggesting that the extract has some inhibitory effect on the venom activity. The purified phospholipase incubated with the extract demonstrated neutralization effect against the phospholipase A2 activity. The result has shown that Ceiba pentandra leaves extract possess potent snake venom-neutralizing capacity. The plant leaves extract could be use as an antidote for snakebite envenomation.

  15. Research and application of kapok fiber as an absorbing material: a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yian; Wang, Jintao; Zhu, Yongfeng; Wang, Aiqin

    2015-01-01

    Kapok fiber corresponds to the seed hairs of the kapok tree (Ceiba pentandra), and is a typical cellulosic fiber with the features of thin cell wall, large lumen, low density and hydrophobic-oleophilic properties. As a type of renewable natural plant fiber, kapok fiber is abundant, biocompatible and biodegradable, and its full exploration and potential application have received increasing attention in both academic and industrial fields. Based on the structure and properties of kapok fiber, this review provides a summary of recent research on kapok fiber including chemical and physical treatments, kapok fiber-based composite materials, and the application of kapok fiber as an absorbent material for oils, metal ions, dyes, and sound, with special attention to its use as an oil-absorbing material, one predominant application of kapok fiber in the coming future.

  16. Research and application of kapok fiber as an absorbing material: A mini review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yian Zheng; Jintao Wang; Yongfeng Zhu; Aiqin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Kapok fiber corresponds to the seed hairs of the kapok tree (Ceiba pentandra),and is a typical cellulosic fiber with the features of thin cell wall,large lumen,low density and hydrophobicoleophilic properties.As a type of renewable natural plant fiber,kapok fiber is abundant,biocompatible and biodegradable,and its full exploration and potential application have received increasing attention in both academic and industrial fields.Based on the structure and properties of kapok fiber,this review provides a summary of recent research on kapok fiber including chemical and physical treatments,kapok fiber-based composite materials,and the application of kapok fiber as an absorbent material for oils,metal ions,dyes,and sound,with special attention to its use as an oil-absorbing material,one predominant application of kapok fiber in the coming future.

  17. Acute oral toxicity study of ethanol extract of Ceiba pentandra leaves as a glucose lowering agent in diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hadiza Lami Muhammad; Adamu Yusuf Kabiru; Musa Bola Busari; Abdullah Mann; Abubakar Siddique Abdullah; Abdulrazaq Taye Usman; Usman Adamu

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the use of Ceiba pentandra (C. pentandra) as a glucose lowering agent and the attendant physiological changes in albino rats. Methods: Acute oral toxicity study of the extract was carried out by the administration of 10, 100, 1 000, 1 600, 2 900, and 5 000 mg/kg body weight of C. pentandra to rats in their respective groups. Twenty healthy albino rats weighing between 140 and 150 g were randomly allotted to five groups of four rats each. 100 mg/kg body weight of alloxan monohydrate was i.p. administered to rats and rats with blood glucose ? 200 mg/dL were considered diabetic. 5 mg/kg body weight of standard drug, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight of ethanol extract of C. pentandra were orally administered to diabetic rats in their respective groups once daily for 12 days while the control groups received 0.1 mL of normal saline for the same period. The blood glucose was checked after every 4 days and the experiment was terminated on the 17th day. Results: The safe dose (LD50) of the extract was greater than 5 000 mg/kg body weight. The extract treated groups exhibited a remarkable reduction in blood glucose [(87.72 ± 7.67) mg/dL for 200 mg/kg body weight dose and (86.33 ± 4.54) mg/dL for 400 mg/kg body weight dose] competitively with the normoglycemic group [(88.71 ± 4.56) mg/dL]. The body weight of the extract and standard drug treated groups appreciated significantly (P Conclusions: Ethanol extract of C. pentandra has glucose lowering effect and can ameliorate the biochemical abnormalities associated with diabetes mellitus.

  18. Kinetic study on microwave-assisted esterification of free fatty acids derived from Ceiba pentandra Seed Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieu, Thanh; Yusup, Suzana; Moniruzzaman, Muhammad

    2016-07-01

    Recently, a great attention has been paid to advanced microwave technology that can be used to markedly enhance the biodiesel production process. Ceiba pentandra Seed Oil containing high free fatty acids (FFA) was utilized as a non-edible feedstock for biodiesel production. Microwave-assisted esterification pretreatment was conducted to reduce the FFA content for promoting a high-quality product in the next step. At optimum condition, the conversion was achieved 94.43% using 2wt% of sulfuric acid as catalyst where as 20.83% conversion was attained without catalyst. The kinetics of this esterification reaction was also studied to determine the influence of factors on the rate of reaction and reaction mechanisms. The results indicated that microwave-assisted esterification was of endothermic second-order reaction with the activation energy of 53.717kJ/mol.

  19. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF WOOD PLASTIC BONDED BOARDS PRODUCED FROM COFFEE CHAFF AND CEIBA PENTANDRA SAWDUST

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    Kehinde Sesan AINA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Strength properties of Wood Plastic-bonded Boards (WPBB of 10mm in thickness were produced in this study from two lignocellulosic materials coffee and recycled low density polyethylene (rLDPE as a binder. WPBB were produced from particles of coffee chaff and Ceiba pentandra, at three levels of mixing ratio (1:1, 2:1 and 3:1, and at three levels of board density (500, 600 and 700kgm-3 given the total treatment combinations of 18 respectively. Effects of lignocelluloses particles, mixing ratio (MR and board density (BD on flexural strength properties of the WPBB were investigated. The flexural strength of the WPBB range from 0.25 to 4.79N/mm2 and 891.00 to 16415.87N/mm2 for modulus of rupture (MOR and modulus of elasticity (MOE respectively. The statistically results shows that the main factor and interaction factors were significantly different at P≤0.05 level of probability. It was observed in this study that as the plastic content with density increased, flexural strength of the boards increases. The study showed that WPBB made from coffee chaff particles are stiffer and stronger than WPBBs made from Ceiba pentandra particles. Based on the outcome of the results in this study, coffee chaff could as well be used as filler in the polymer industry to produce stronger biopolymer composite for structural applications. This study would form a baseline strategy for further research efforts on production of composite from agro-residues wastes.

  20. Extreme long-distance dispersal of the lowland tropical rainforest tree Ceiba pentandra L. (Malvaceae) in Africa and the Neotropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Christopher W; Bermingham, Eldredge; Lemes, Maristerra R; Gribel, Rogerio

    2007-07-01

    Many tropical tree species occupy continental expanses of rainforest and flank dispersal barriers such as oceans and mountains. The role of long-distance dispersal in establishing the range of such species is poorly understood. In this study, we test vicariance hypotheses for range disjunctions in the rainforest tree Ceiba pentandra, which is naturally widespread across equatorial Africa and the Neotropics. Approximate molecular clocks were applied to nuclear ribosomal [ITS (internal transcribed spacer)] and chloroplast (psbB-psbF) spacer DNA sampled from 12 Neotropical and five West African populations. The ITS (N=5) and psbB-psbF (N=2) haplotypes exhibited few nucleotide differences, and ITS and psbB-psbF haplotypes were shared by populations on both continents. The low levels of nucleotide divergence falsify vicariance explanations for transatlantic and cross-Andean range disjunctions. The study shows how extreme long-distance dispersal, via wind or marine currents, creates taxonomic similarities in the plant communities of Africa and the Neotropics.

  1. Isolation of lactic acid bacteria from kantong, a condiment produced from the fermentation of kapok (Ceiba pentandra) seeds and cassava (Manihot esculentum) flour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kpikpi, Elmer Nayra; Glover, Richard L.K.; Dzogbefia, Victoria Pearl

    2010-01-01

    and oxidase tests. The LAB were further identified by biochemical and genotypic methods using rep-PCR, (GTG)5 primer, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and carbohydrate assimilation profiling. A total of 331 Lactic acid bacteria were isolated of which 47% were Lactobacillus plantarum , 18% Lactobacillus fermentum, 8...... in the initial pH from 6.9 before fermentation to 4.9 after fermentation with change in color of the product from grayish to dark brown as well as the development of a more desirable flavor. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with counts between 106 and 109 cfu/g were isolated on MRS agar and subjected to Gram, catalase......% Leuconostoc mesenteroides, 12% Pediococcus acidilactici and 15% as Lactobacillus brevis...

  2. 6年生吉贝人工林结实特征及其影响因子分析%Fruiting Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Six-year-old Ceiba pentandra Plantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建军; 马焕成; 赵高卷; 平盼; 葛娈; 黄冬; 王彦淇

    2015-01-01

    The fruiting characteristics and fruit characters of six-year-old Ceiba pentandra plantation in Bohe town, Gejiu City, Honghe prefecture were investigated to find out the influence of terrain and planting density on the growth and fruits as well as the relationships among soil, leaf nutrient, and fruits.The results showed that: (1) The ranges of height, canopy, and DBH of six-year-old C.pentandra were 3.5~6.5 m, 8.74~17.01 cm, re-spectively.The average fruit setting amount was 17.09, and the fiber yield of single fruit was 11.03 kg. (2) The height, DBH and canopy of C.pentandra planted in valley were significantly ( Pavailable P>a-vailable N>DBH>the number of verticillate branch >height, all of those factors positively influenced on single fruit fiber.%通过对元江干热河谷———红河州个旧市保和乡6年生吉贝人工林结实特征和果实性状进行调查,探讨地形与初值密度对吉贝生长、结实和果实性状特征的影响,以及土壤和叶片养分与结实的关系。结果表明:(1)6年生吉贝初果期树高和冠幅分别在3.5~6.5 m和2.5~6.0 m之间,胸径8.74~17.01 cm在之间;结实株平均结实量为17.09个,平均单果纤维产量11.03 g;(2)山沟内的吉贝树高、胸径和冠幅显著(P<0.05)高于台地,植株结实量和单株最大结实量优于台地,并且结实量在山沟样方(4 m ×4 m)中最高;地形对果实纵径、果重以及纤维产量变化的影响显著;(3)密度影响分枝数和轮生枝台数的产生,树高、胸径和冠幅与分枝数呈负相关关系;随初植密度增加,结实量没有呈现明显的变化规律;但是高密度定植时果实横径差异极显著,不利于纤维产量的增加。从地形与密度因子来看,山沟4m×4m、台地4m×3m定植时有利生长和结实,结实率分别为72.58%和22.45%;(4)结实植株土壤速效氮和叶片氮含量高于未结实植株,氮供应与结实存

  3. INVESTIGATION ON SOUND ABSORPTION PROPERTIES OF KAPOK FIBERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-fan Xiang; Dong Wang; Hui-chao Liu; Ning Zhao; Jian Xu

    2013-01-01

    Sound absorption properties of natural kapok fibers have been investigated.Kapok fibrous assemblies with different bulk density,thickness,fiber length and orientation were manufactured,and their acoustical performances were evaluated by using an impedance tube instrument.Results show that the kapok fiber has excellent acoustical damping performance due to its natural hollow structure,and the sound absorption coefficients of kapok fibrous assemblies are significantly affected by the bulk density,thickness and arrangement of kapok fibers but less dependent on the fiber length.Compared with assemblies of commercial glass wool and degreasing cotton fibers,the kapok fiber assemblies with the same thickness but much smaller bulk density may have the similar sound absorption coefficients.Theoretical modelling of the acoustical damping performance of kapok fibers shows a good agreement with the experimental data.All the results demonstrate that kapok fiber is a promising light and environment-friendly sound absorption material.

  4. Sorption kinetics and mechanism of various oils into kapok assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ting; Wang, Fumei; Xu, Guangbiao

    2015-02-15

    Sorption rates of kapok fibers on different oils, such as diesel, cooking oil, used motor oil, and motor oil, were quantitatively evaluated by using a wicking method. Kapok fibers absorbing different oils exhibited large differences in terms sorption coefficients. Microscopic observations of oil wetting on a single kapok showed that the four oils had varying wettability and adhesiveness to kapok, but that all of them penetrated into kapok lumens quickly because of the fiber's low surface energy, which was 40.64 mN/m, and extreme hydrophobicity, with a water contact angle up to 151°. After treatment with chloroform, there were slight changes in oil absorbencies to kapok, but the sorption coefficients for the four oils increased markedly. SEM demonstrated that chloroform treatments caused the smooth surface of the kapok fibers to become highly roughened, with densely vertical grooves that provided more available surface and a larger driving force for oil sorption through the fiber assembly.

  5. ANATOMICAL CHANGES OF KEKABU WOOD (Bombax ceiba L. DUE TO MECHANICAL DENSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisdianto Krisdianto

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Kekabu wood  (Bombax  ceiba L., which is  locally known as kapok or randu  has long been planted  as crops troughout  the country, as fiber producer aimed for stuffing  pillow. This species is considered as a giant tree which could produce a large quantity of timber. Unfortunately, the timber is too soft, having low density and several physical defects during drying, limiting its uses in conventional wood processing. Any treatment which could significantly increase its structural density may be useful for diversifying the uses of this timber.   This study examined some anatomical changes that may exist during mechanical densification. Wood samples measuring 40 mm thick, 40 mm wide and 500 mm long were steamed at 126°C for 30 minutes prior to  pressing of 23.75 kg/cm'.  Anatomical measures were undertaken using light microscope and scanning electron microscope  on both treated and untreated samples. Results showed that the treatment  significantly reduced void volume and ray distance of approximately a half the initial wood structure, followed by an increased in wood density of more than 50%.

  6. SINTESIS ADSORBEN BERBASIS LIGNOSELULOSA DARI KAYU RANDU (Ceiba pentandraL. UNTUK MENJERAP Pb(II DALAM LIMBAH CAIR ARTIFISIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widi Astuti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pada penelitian ini, limbah kayu randu digunakan sebagai adsorben untuk menjerap ion Pb (II dalam larutan. Kayu randu yang telah direaksikan dengan NaOH dikarakterisasi dan diuji kemampuan adsorpsinya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pada serbuk kayu hasil reaksi dengan NaOH terlihat adanya pori dengan bentuk dan ukuran yang lebih seragam dengan luas permukaan spesifik 7,420 m2/g dan diameter pori 0.3 nm. Adsorpsi mencapai kesetimbangan pada 120 menit dengan kemampuan penjerapan sebesar 2,47 mg/g. Adsorpsi mengikuti model isotherm Freundlich dengan nilai tetapan KF sebesar 1,986 dan n sebesar 0,649.In this research, cotton wood waste was used to adsorb Pb(II ion in the solution. Sodium hydroxide treated cotton wood was characterized its spesific surface area, pore size, morphology and functional group. Furthermore, it was tested its adsorption ability to adsorb ion Pb(II. The result show that the treated cotton wood has uniform pores. Its specific surface area and pore diameter are 7.420 m2/g and 0.3 nm, respectively. The equilibrium was achieved in 120 minutes. Adsorption ability of the adsorben is 2.47 mg/g. In the adsorption, Freundlich isotherm model fit with the experimental data with the value of KF and n are 1.986 and 0.649, respectively.

  7. Catalytic hydrocracking of Kapuk seed oil (Ceiba pentandra) to produce biofuel using Zn-Mo supported HZSM-5 catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzayanti, Y. W.; Prajitno, D. H.; Roesyadi, A.

    2017-05-01

    In the present paper Kapuk seed oil (KSO) was considered as a potential biofuel for alternative fuel from inedible oil. Catalytic hydrocracking of Kapuk seed oil using Zn-Mo supported on the HZSM-5 catalyst in a slurry pressure batch reactor at various temperature with reactor pressure in range 10-15 bar. The Zn-Mo/HZSM-5 catalyst was prepared by incipient wetness impregnation. The physicochemical properties of the catalyst were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method. The best catalyst performance on catalytic hydrocracking of KSO using Zn-Mo/HZSM-5 (Si/Al = 25) with loading 2.92%wt for Zn and 7.55%wt for Mo. It displayed the highest hydrocarbon content decarboxylation and/or decarbonylation were 35.51 area% of n-paraffins and the highest content for gasoil-range alkanes was 17.24 area% at 4000C. The liquid product predominant is n-C15, and the second component is n-C17. The catalyst Zn-Mo/HZSM-5 was helpful for the catalytic hydrocracking of KSO for hydrocarbon biofuel production.

  8. SYNTHESIS OF BIODIESEL FROM KAPUK SEED OIL (Ceiba Pentandra L AT VARIATION STIRRING DURATION IN TRANSESTERIFICATION PROCESS

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    Endang Dwi Siswani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of biodiesel targeted as SNI 04-7182-2006 standard has been done from kapuk randu seed, following two steps i.e. sokhlet extraction process of kapuk seed oil from kapuk seed using n-heksane as a solvent, and the production of biodiesel from kapuk seed oil by transesterification process using methanol and KOH as catalyst. Transesterificatin process was performed at temperature 50 oC with the variation of stirring duration as followed  50, 75, 100 and 125 minutes. The kapuk randu extraction resulted  % kapuk randu seed oil, while the transestherification process resulted around 55 - 65%. The biodiesel product characteristics provided the density value of all biodiesel at stirring durations variation are suitable with SNI standard (850 – 890 kg/m3, the viscosity value of all biodiesel are  higher than the range SNI value (2,3 – 6,0 cSt. While the flash point values are lesser than SNI standard (10160 - 11000 cal/g.   Keywords: kapuk randu seed, transestherification, biodiesel

  9. Adsorption and adhesiveness of kapok fiber to different oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ting; Xu, Guangbiao; Wang, Fumei

    2015-10-15

    Adsorption and adhesiveness of single kapok to various oils, such as diesel, vegetable oil, used motor oil and motor oil were quantitatively evaluated by size and adhesive energy distribution of adsorbed oil droplets on fiber via drop-on-fiber micro-sorption experiments based on Carroll's theory of droplet morphology. Meanwhile, another micro polyester fiber was investigated as comparison. It was found that kapok fibers exihibited low surface energy of 40.64 mN/m with highly hydrophobicity and oil wettability. It had high water contact angle up to 151°, adsorbing four oils with average droplet size varying from emulsified state(0.1-25 μm) to dispersed state (25-100 μm). The average adhesive energies of kapok to four oils were 3.78×10(-11)-9.40×10(-11) J, with the highest for vegetable oil. Compared with kapok, polyester fiber adsorbed a large number of smaller oil droplets with their average size within emulsified state for its large specific surface area contributed by micro-fine of the fiber, but showed bad adhesiveness to retain the adsorbed oils with average droplet adhesive energy among 1.49×10(-11)-2.27×10(-11)J due to its relative higher surface energy of 59.15 mN/m. It is more suitable to be used as filter for secondary fine filtration under low inflow rate.

  10. Development Manufacturing Method of Highly Functional Kapok Fiber Absorbent Using Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Byung Yeoup; Kim, Jae Sung; Nho, Young Chang; Kang, Phil Hyun; Baek, Myung Hwa

    2006-01-15

    The hydrophobic characteristic of kapok fibers was changed to hydrophilic property after NaClO2, treatments which is able to break all phenolic units especially lignin. After NaClO2 treatment, NaIO4, applied to kapok fibers for opening hexagonal polysaccharide structure, this step led to produce carbonyl groups(>C=O) on kapok fibers. In the final step, NaClO2, treatments were performed again to provide carboxyl groups(-COOH) on kapok fibers. In addition, kapok fibers after all chemical treatments were retained hollow structure which was observed by scanning electron microscopy(SEM). Kapok fibers which were obtained after chemical treatments would be a good heavy metal absorbent when these fibers applied less than in 10 mg/L standard solution. Moreover, these fibers were not detached heavy metals even added physical forces and used kapok fibers are able to reuse after detached heavy metals under pH 2-3. The degree of grafting increased as the irradiation dose increased, and are in the range 32% to 250% when the concentration of glycidyl methacrylate monomer was 50 vol. %. Based on this result, various functional groups are possible to be attached on kapok fibers used by radiation grafting technique.

  11. Crosslinking of Kapok Cellulose Fiber via Azide Alkyne Click Chemistry as a New Material for Filtering System: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Syazwani Abd Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new class of green material has been elaborated by grafting the modified kapok fiber, by the means of azidated kapok fiber followed by “click-chemistry” reaction with the terminal alkyne crosslinker. The modified and synthesized product was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The study also was undertaken to investigate the effect on the absorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution onto the click fiber prepared. The findings showed that the click kapok absorbed more compared to the untreated kapok. Based on the result, the reaction of click chemistry influenced the properties of the filter made from kapok fiber.

  12. Dendrophthoe pentandra methanolic leaf extract increases progesterone levels in female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lazuardi Mochamad; Bambang Hermanto

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Human infertiliy cases in Indonesia have tended to increase at about 2-5% annually since 2000. Many tropical plants in Indonesia are potential sources of novel anti-infertility compounds, e.g. Dendrophthoe pentandra L. Miq. (benalu duku), a parasitic plant growing on Lansium domesticum. The objective of this study was to identify the effect of crude methanolic Dendrophthoe pentandra leaf extract on follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and progesterone levels in female rats. ...

  13. 紫茎泽兰对木棉种子萌发和幼苗光合特性的影响%Impacts of Eupatorium adenophorum on seed germination and seedling photosynthetic characters of Bombax ceiba L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵高卷; 马焕成; 胡世俊; 邱燕青

    2014-01-01

    Kapok tree (Bombax ceiba),a dominate tree species in the sparse thickets and savanna vegetation in dry-hot valleys (DHV),plays an important role in soil and water conservation and ecological restoration in this area.Kapok tree can flower and fruit admirably with good seed germination ratio.However,little is known about why there is no naturally regenerated seedlings or young trees nearby or under the tree.This research aimed to investigate whether this was related to the serious invasion of Eupatorium adenophorum under kapok tree.In order to evaluate the effects of E.adenophorum on seed germination and seedling photosynthetic characters of kapok,the experiments were carried out both in laboratory and field with the rhizosphere soil,extracts and powder of E.adenophorum leaf and root,by using petri dish filter paper and the potted methods.Results showed that:(1) the extract of E.adenophorum leaf and root significantly reduced the seed germination rate and seedling photosynthetic efficiency of kapok,with the degree of such inhibition increasing with the extract concentration.The higher the extract concentration the earlier such inhibition took place.For both low and high concentration,the inhibiting effect aggravated with time; (2) the inhibitory effect on the seed germination rate and seedling photosynthetic efficiency of kapok was significantly higher for the leaf extract of E.aenohporum than the root extract in high concentration,while the difference was not significant in low concentration; (3) E.adenophorum rhizosphere soil also significantly reduced the kapok seed germination rate and seedling survival rate,with the survival rate as 4.75% after one month,90.95% lower than those of control; (4) when treated with the mixture of leaf and root powder ofE.adenophorum and soil with a ratio of 20 g ∶ 1 kg,the kapok seed germination rate and survival rate showed significant decrease after one month.The results suggested that the decomposition or half

  14. Pharmacognostical and phytochemical studies on roots of Bombax ceiba Linn.

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    Pankaj H. Chaudhary

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: Bombax ceiba Linn. (Bombacaceae is a well-known plant for its antihypertensive, antioxidant, antidiabetic, aphrodisiac and uterine tonicity properties. Aims: To study pharmacognostical, physicochemical and phytochemically the roots of this plant. Methods: Pharmacognostical study included the macroscopic characters like size, color, surface characteristics, texture, fracture characteristics and odor of the roots. The intact root as well as powdered drug were studied under a microscope to analyze the cellular characteristics of the drug. Physicochemical parameter like extractive values, loss on drying (LOD, total ash, water-soluble and acid insoluble ash, foaming index and hemolytic index of Bombax ceiba root powder were determined as per WHO guidelines. Preliminary phytochemical screening and qualitative chemical examination studies have been carried out for the various phytoconstituents. HPTLC have also carried out using cyclohexane: diethyl ether: ethyl acetate as mobile phase. Results: Chemical evaluation and TLC studies shown presence of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, steroids, saponins and tannins. The microscopic characters have shown presence of cork, cambium, xylem vessels, stone cells, starch grains, calcium oxalate crystals and phloem fibers. Microscopy analysis of the powder included the cork cells, fibers, calcium oxalate crystals and vessel. The presence of steroids was confirmed in HPTLC fingerprinting studies. Conclusions: Pharmacognostical and preliminary phytochemical screening of Bombax ceiba roots will be useful in order to authenticate, standardize and avoid any adulteration in the raw material. The diagnostic microscopic characters and physicochemical data will be helpful in the development of a monograph. The chromatographic fingerprinting profile can be used to standardize extracts and formulations containing Bombax ceiba roots.

  15. Investigation of acetylated kapok fibers on the sorption of oil in water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jintao Wang; Yian Zheng; Aiqin Wang

    2013-01-01

    Kapok fibers have been acetylated for oil spill cleanup in the aqueous environment.The structures of raw and acetylated kapok fiber were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).Without severe damage to the lumen structures,the kapok fibers were successfully acetylated and the resulting fibers exhibited a better oil sorption capacity than raw fibers for diesel and soybean oil.Compared with high viscosity soybean oil,low viscosity diesel shows a better affinity to the surface of acetylated fibers.Sorption kinetics is fitted well by the pseudo second-order model,and the equilibrium data can be described by the Freundlich isotherm model.The results implied that acetylated kapok fiber can be used as the substitute for non-biodegradable oil sorption materials.

  16. EVALUATION OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON THE ROOT OF BOMBAX CEIBA LINN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garg Nitika

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The present communication attempts to evaluate the physicochemical and preliminary phytochemical studies on the roots of Bombax ceiba Linn. or the silk cotton tree. This tropical tree has a straight tall trunk and its leaves are deciduous in winter. Red flower with 5 petals appear in the spring before the new foliage. The whole plant of Bombax ceiba used as traditional folk medicines for the treatment of antidysenteric, antidiahorreal and antipyretic effects. Bombax ceiba Linn. Contains glycosides, tannins, flavanoid, b-sitosterol and lupeol. The present study deals with phytochemical investigations of Bombax ceiba root including determination of loss on drying, ash values, TLC and extractive values. The preliminary phytochemical screening of powdered drug was also carried out. The qualitative chemical examinations revealed the presence of various phytoconstituents like flavanoid, terpenoid saponins, phenolic compounds and mucilage’s in the extracts. The study revealed specific identities for the particular crude drug which will be useful in identification and control to adulterations of the raw drug.

  17. KEANEKARAGAMAN JENIS-JENIS TANAMAN KOLEKSI DI KEBUN RAYA PURWODADI, BALI DAN CIBODAS YANG DISERANG BENALU Dendrophthoe pentandra (L. Miq. (LORANTHACEAE

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    Sunaryo Sunaryo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Botanic Garden represents an ecosystem area in which parasitic plants such as mistletoes are also incorporated. Mistletoe of Dendrophthoe pentandra (L. Miq. (Loranthaceae was a parasite of various plants cultivated in Botanic Gardens of Purwodadi, Bali, and Cibodas. The mistletoe attacked 143 host species which included in 48 plant families in those three Botanic Gardens. The most attacked host plants were belong to family Moraceae, especially Ficus spp., following by members of Myrtaceae, especially Syzygium spp. The ability to become parasite of various plants species assured that mistletoe of D. pentandra did not chosen certain host plants. The parasitic study of mistletoe D. pentandra is also reported in this paper.

  18. Study of oil sorption behavior of filled and structured fiber assemblies made from polypropylene, kapok and milkweed fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengasamy, R S; Das, Dipayan; Karan, C Praba

    2011-02-15

    This article reports on oil sorption behavior of fiber assemblies made up of single natural and synthetic fibers as well as blend of natural and synthetic fibers when tested with high density oil and diesel oil. A series of filled fiber assemblies were prepared from 100% polypropylene, kapok, and milkweed fibers and another series of bonded structured fiber assemblies were prepared from a 70/30 blend of kapok and polypropylene fibers and a 70/30 blend of milkweed and polypropylene fibers. It was observed that the porosity of the fiber assemblies played a very important role in determining its oil sorption capacity. The polypropylene fiber assembly exhibited the highest sorption capacity (g/g) followed by the kapok and milkweed fiber assemblies at porosity milkweed fibers have intra fiber porosities of 0.81 and 0.83, respectively. All the fiber assemblies showed higher oil sorption capacity with the high density oil as compared to the diesel oil. As the kapok and milkweed fiber have low cellulose content, hence their slow degradation is an advantage in fresh and marine water applications. The good sorption capacity of kapok and milkweed fiber assemblies along with their bio-degradable nature offer great scope for structuring them into fiber assemblies with large porosity and uniform pores to have efficient oil sorbents. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Germination Characteristics of Dendrophthoe pentandra Seeds%五蕊寄生种子萌发特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗亚皇; 张玲

    2013-01-01

    采用室内与野外实验相结合的方法,对五蕊寄生(Dendrophthoe pentandra)种子萌发特性以及鸟类消化过程对其种子萌发的影响进行研究.结果表明:五蕊寄生种子对温度和光照较敏感,与黑暗条件相比,光照能显著提高种子的萌发率;20℃为种子萌发的最适温度,萌发率达53.8%,高温35℃及低温10℃均不利于种子萌发.研究发现纯色啄花鸟(Dicaeum concolor)是该植物的主要食果者,种子外的果肉不是限制种子萌发的关键因素,人为去除果肉并不能提高种子的萌发率,但可缩短种子萌发的时间,果实通过纯色啄花鸟类肠道消化后,随着粪便排出的种子萌发率显著提高(达69%),暗示纯色啄花鸟在五蕊寄生的种子萌发过程中具有重要的作用.%The biological characteristics of seed germination and the effects of dispersal birds on the seed germina-tion of Dendrophthoe pentandra were explored in this paper. Results showed that the seeds of D. pentandra were sen-sitive to the light and temperature. The germination percentage in light condition was significantly higher than that under dark condition. The most suitable temperature for the seed germination of D. pentandra was 20℃ , it could be as high as 53. 8% , and few seeds germinated when the temperature was 10℃ or 35℃. Our observation identified that Dicaeum concolor was the dominant disperser of D. pentandra seeds in our study sites. We also confirmed that the duration of germination become shorter when the pulp was manually peeled but the germination percentage did not significantly change. However, the germination percentage was significantly higher (69% ) when the seeds were digested by D. concolor, to compare with those of intact seeds or manually extracted pulp seeds. Our results indica-ted that D. concolor made larger contribution to improve the seed germination of D. pentandra.

  20. PRELIMIARY PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITIES OF CRUDE EXTRACTS OF ZALEYA PENTANDRA AND CORCHORUS DEPRESSUS LINN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Samina; Chaudhary, Bashir Ahmad; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Afzali, Khurram

    2015-01-01

    Zaleya pentandra (Zp) and Cochoms depressus Linn. (Cd) have been considered as herbs with potential therapeutic benefits. Zp and Cd belong to the important family Aizoaceae and Tiliaceae, respectively. The extractions were carried out successively with methanol and dichloromethane at room temperature for 24 h. Preliminary phytochemical screening of Zp and Cd revealed the presence of steroids, alkaloids, saponins, and anthraquinones. The methanolic and dichloromethane extracts of selected plants were subjected to examination of antifungal activity by using agar tube dilution. The extracts were tested against different fungi such as A. nigeir, A. flavus, F. solani, A. funigatis and Mucor. The dichloromethane extract of aerial parts of Cd showed high antifungal activity against A. niger as compared to all other tested extracts.

  1. The Surface Adsorption Characteristics of Kapok Fiber%木棉纤维表面吸附特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙向玲; 徐广标; 王府梅

    2011-01-01

    利用OCA15EC光学接触角测量仪测试了不同特性液体(如色拉油、废油、机油)在木棉纤维上的静态接触角和动态接触角,研究表明:木棉纤维是一种优良的疏水亲油性纤维,对水的静态接触角为135.89°,对各种油液的静态接触角均小于60°,水在木棉纤维表面能够形成完整的液滴接触角并不随时间变化,而不同油液在木棉纤维表面瞬间铺展,尽管因油液不同铺展速度略有差异,但总体规律类似.木棉纤维对各种液体的吸附特性主要取决于纤维表面蜡质和木棉纤维的大中腔结构,同时也与测试液体特性密切相关.%The static and dynamic contact angle of kapok fibers with different kinds of liquids such as vegetable oil, used oil and engine oil is investigated using OCA15EC contact angle measuring device. It is found that, kapok fiber is an excellent oleophylic and hydrophobic fiber with the contact angle of kapok fiber to water is 139. 55°, but it is less than 60°to various kinds of oil. The contact angle of kapok to water is the constant with the time flies. All the oil liquids on the kapok fibers have the quick spread rates, and the spread curves are similar though the spread rates varied with the viscosity and surface tension of the liquids. The static and dynamic contact angles are determined by the fiber morphological structure, chemical composition, surface free energy of kapok fiber, also related with the characteristics of different liquids.

  2. In vitro cancer cell growth inhibition and antioxidant activity of Bombax ceiba (Bombacaceae) flower extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tundis, Rosa; Rashed, Khaled; Said, Ataa; Menichini, Francesco; Loizzo, Monica R

    2014-05-01

    The flowers of Bombax ceiba were investigated for their chemical composition, antioxidant effects and antiproliferative activity against seven human cancer cell lines. The antiproliferative responses of diethyl ether (DE) and light petroleum (PE) extracts were evaluated by sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay against MCF-7, HeLa, COR-L23, C32, A375, ACHN, and LNCaP cells in comparison with a human normal cell line, 142BR. Moreover, extracts were characterized by GC-MS analysis and tested for their antioxidant properties by different in vitro systems, namely DPPH, Fe-chelating activity and beta-carotene bleaching test. Both PE and DE extracts showed the highest antiproliferative activity against human renal adenocarcinoma (ACHN) in a concentration-dependent manner. PE extract showed the highest radical scavenging activity against the DPPH radical, while DE extract was more active in the beta-carotene bleaching test. The presence of beta-sitosterol and some fatty acids may contribute to the bioactivity of B. ceiba flower extracts.

  3. 木棉纤维保暖絮片的探究%Investigation of kapok fiber warm flakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊星; 薛少林

    2014-01-01

    以木棉纤维、涤纶、棉纤维为原料,分析原料混纺比、预针刺机针刺密度及针刺深度等工艺参数对产品性能的影响,成功开发出不同组分、不同工艺的木棉非织造保暖材料,得到合适的木棉非织造保暖絮片的开发路径。%The effects of the raw material kapok fiber , polyester fiber and cotton fiber blending ratio and the needling density and needling depth of pre-acupuncture needling machine on the properties of products were investigated .Non-woven kapok fiber warm-made materials of the different components and different processes were developed successfully .The proper development path of non-woven kapok warm flacks was concluded .

  4. Cytotoxicity and Antiproliferative Activity Assay of Clove Mistletoe (Dendrophthoe pentandra (L. Miq. Leaves Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vida Elsyana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clove mistletoe (Dendrophthoe pentandra (L. Miq. is a semiparasitic plant that belongs to Loranthaceae family. Clove mistletoe was traditionally used for cancer treatment in Indonesia. In the present study, we examined cytotoxicity of clove mistletoe leaves extracts against brine shrimps and conducted their antiproliferative activity on K562 (human chronic myelogenous leukemia and MCM-B2 (canine benign mixed mammary cancer cell lines in vitro. The tested samples were water extract, ethanol extract, ethanol fraction, ethyl acetate fraction, and n-hexane fraction. Cytotoxicity was screened using Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT. Antiproliferative activity was conducted using Trypan Blue Dye Method and cells were counted using haemocytometer. The results showed that n-hexane fraction exhibited significant cytotoxicity with LC50 value of 55.31 μg/mL. The n-hexane fraction was then considered for further examination. The n-hexane fraction of clove mistletoe could inhibit growth of K562 and MCM-B2 cancer cell lines in vitro. The inhibition activity of clove mistletoe n-hexane fraction at concentration of 125 μg/mL on K562 cancer cell lines was 38.69%, while on MCM-B2 it was 41.5%. Therefore, it was suggested that clove mistletoe had potential natural anticancer activity.

  5. PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS, TOXICITY AND CYTOTOXICITY EVALUATION OF DENDROPTHOE PENTANDRA LEAVES EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Aina Syazana Nik Zainuddin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dendrophthoe pentandra known as mistletoe is a semi-parasitic plant with traditional claims for some medicinal properties. This research was done to determine phytochemical constituents of Dendropthoe petandra (DP leaves extract, to evaluate toxicity of extracts by brine shrimp lethality test (BSLT and to confirm cytotoxicity activity of DPME against various normal cell lines. The most potent extract was then evaluated by GC-MS. DP leaves that have been extracted with petroleum ether (DPPEE, methanol (DPME and water (DPWE were screened for phytochemical constituents. BSLT was carried out to determine the lethality concentration that kills 50% of tested population (LC50. The cytotoxicity was assessed by Methylene Blue Assay (MBA that evaluates the inhibition concentration for cell growth by 50% (IC50. The normal cell lines used were MDCK, L929 and Vero. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloid, flavonoid, saponin, tannin and terpenoid in those extracts. Highest total phenolic content was found in DPME (471.63±2.02 mg GAE/g. BSLT have determined the lowest LC50 value is 2.74±1.23 ppm in DPME. No IC50 detected when MDCK, L929 and Vero cell line were treated with all extracts. Therefore, this can be concluded that DP extracts did not show any harmful effects towards MDCK, L929 and Vero cell lines although the DPME, DPPEE and DPWE are toxic towards brine shrimp. Hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester and 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester are among compounds present in DPME. Further studies using mammalian cancer cell lines should be conducted on DP extracts to know if they posses anticancer potential.

  6. Una experiencia comunitaria de desarrollo local: el agua en La Ceiba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Mena Hernández

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available La construcción de un pozo en la comunidad La Ceiba, como parte de las actividades del Programa de Desarrollo Agrario de la UCA, sintetiza la práctica cotidiana, técnica y metodológica, desarrollada por los profesionales del ADAA. Esta práctica se caracteriza por recrear ambientes favorables entre los habitantes de la comunidad, para el nacimiento y/o fortalecimiento de procesos de desarrollo, con el rescate del liderazgo o de las estructuras organizativas propias del lugar, es decir que, nuestro papel es ayudar a las familias campesinas a "tomar decisiones", en este caso para solucionar uno de los principales problemas que les aquejaba: "escasez de agua para consumo humano y animal".

  7. Development of epoxide compound from kapok oil for enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anam, M. K.; Supranto; Murachman, B.; Purwono, S.

    2017-06-01

    Epoxide compound is made by reacting Kapok Oil with acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide with in situ method. The epoxidation reaction was varied at temperatures of 60 °C, 70 °C and 80 °C, while the time of reaction time was varied at 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 60 minutes and 90 minutes. The reaction rate coefficient for the epoxide was obtained as {\\boldsymbol{k}}{\\boldsymbol{=}}{{124}}{\\boldsymbol{,}}{{82}} {{\\exp }} {\\boldsymbol{\\bigg(}}\\frac{{\\boldsymbol-}{{24}}{\\boldsymbol{,}}{{14}}}{{\\boldsymbol{R}}{\\boldsymbol{T}}}{\\boldsymbol{\\bigg)}}. The addition of the epoxide compound 0.5 w/w in the formulation of SLS was able to reduce the IFT value up to 9.95 x 10-2 m N/m. The addition of co-surfactant (1-octanol) was varied between 0.1 and 0.4 of the total mass of the main formulation (SLS + epoxide + water formation). The smallest interfacial tension value is obtained on the addition of co-surfactants as much as 0.2 w/w, with the IFT value is 2.43 x 10-3 m N/m. The effectiveness of the chemicals was tested through micro displacement using artificial porous medium. The experimental results show that some chemicals developed in the laboratory can be used as EOR chemicals. The oil displacement experiments show that as much as 20 to 80 of remaining oil can be recovered by flooding it with the chemicals. The results also show that the oil recovery depends on type of chemicals and chemical concentration.

  8. Compressibility of Kapok Fibrous Assemblies under Wet and Pressure Treatment%潮湿环境和外力作用后木棉纤维集合体的压缩性能测试

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房超; 严金江; 王府梅

    2012-01-01

    为了探明不同环境湿度和外加压力作用后木棉纤维的中空压缩状态,采用KES(Kawabata Evaluation Systems)压缩仪分析测试干处理和湿处理以及外力联合作用后木棉纤维集合体的压缩性能.结果表明:干燥木棉纤维集合体的压缩弹性优于潮湿木棉纤维集合体;经外力作用后干燥和潮湿木棉纤维集合体蓬松度均有所下降,但干燥木棉纤维集合体的内部空隙和纤维圆中空结构的损失要小于潮湿木棉纤维集合体.压缩性能试验可用于间接评价木棉产品中木棉纤维的中空状态及制造技术.%Intending to find out the compression status of the hollow structure of kapok fibers under different humidity and pressure treatment, the compressibility of kapok fibrous assemblies was analyzed under dry, wet and pressure combined treatments by KES (Kawabata Evaluation Systems)compression testing machine. The results showed that the compression elasticity of dry kapok fibrous assemblies was better than that of wet kapok fibrous assemblies; the bulkiness of dry and wet kapok fibrous assemblies both reduced when they were pressed, however, the pore among wet kapok fibrous assemblies and their hollow structure were easier to decrease than dry kapok fibrous assemblies when they were pressed. The compression test is probably to be an indirect evaluating method of kapok fiber hollowness and manufacturing technology of kapok products.

  9. Revalidacion de bombax ceiba l. como especie típica del genero bombax l. y descripcion de pseudobombax gen. nov

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    En este trabajo se determina por razones históricas que Bombax Ceiba L. es la especie típica del genero Bombax L. y se tipifica dicha especie a su vez sobre Bombax quinatum Jacq. Refútase así la recomendación de B. malabaricum DC. como lectotipo de Bombax. Se propone una nueva definición, sensu maxime strictissimo, de Bombax L. y de B. Ceiba L. fundada en B. quinatum Jacq.; se mencionan los sinónimos conocidos y los ejemplares botánicos examinados. Esta tipificación causa una completa alterac...

  10. Hepatoprotective Activity of Bombax ceiba Linn against Isoniazid and Rifampicin-induced Toxicity in Experimental Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Ravi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of flowers of Bombax ceiba L. (MEBC was investigated against hepatotoxicity produced by administering a combination of two anti-tubercular drugs Isoniazid and Rifampicin for 10 and 21 days by intraperitoneal route in rats. MEBC were administered at three graded dose i.e. 150, 300 and 450 mg/kg i.p. 45 min prior to anti-tubercular challenge for 10 and 21 days. MEBC was evident in the all doses as there was a significant decrease in AST, ALT, ALP, and Total Bilirubin levels, but increased the level of total protein in comparison to control. MEBC significantly decreased the level of TBARS and elevated the level of GSH at all doses as compared to control. Histology of the liver section of the animals treated with MEBC improved the hepatotoxicity caused by antitubercular drugs. The results obtained from the analysis of biochemical parameters and histopathological studies, enabled to conclude that the MEBC were not able to revert completely the hepatic injury induced by INH + RIF, but it could limit the effect of INH + RIF to the extent of necrosis. Industrial relevance Herbal medicines are getting more importance in the treatment of liver disease because the modern medicine does not find curative treatments. A large proportion of the Indian population for their physical and psychological health needs depend on traditional system of medicine. Medicinal plants have become the focus of intense study in term of conservation as to whether their traditional uses are supported by actual pharmacological effects or merely based on folklore. Herbal medicine is free from side effects and less costly when compared to synthetic drugs. The present study will help the industry to produce herbal drugs with fewer side effects, which are affordable and more effective in the treatment of hepatotoxicity.

  11. 木棉纤维的性能及其在纺织上的应用%Performance of Kapok Fiber and Its Application in Textile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓婷

    2016-01-01

    The morphological structure , chemical composition and basic physical and chemical properties of kapok fiber were introduced and its latest application in the textile field was described .With excellent antibacte-rial and warmth retention properties , kapok fiber had become the best warming and filling materials for clothing and household textiles which had a promising application prospect .%介绍了木棉纤维的形态结构、化学组成以及基本的物理和化学性能,并阐述了其在纺织领域中的最新应用现状. 木棉纤维具有优良的抗菌性和保暖性,已成为服装好家用纺织品中首选的保暖填充材料,有较好的应用前景.

  12. Study of Heat Transfer in a Kapok Material from the Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient and the Excitation Pulse of Solicitations External Climatic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dieng

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to characterize thermal insulating local material, kapok, from a study in 3 dimensions in Cartesian coordinate and in dynamic frequency regime. From a study a 3 dimensional the heat transfer through a material made of wool kapok (thermal conductivity: &lambda = 0,035 W/m/K; density: &rho = 12, 35 kg/m3; thermal diffusivity: &alpha = 17, 1.10-7 m2 /s is presented. The evolution curves of temperature versus convective heat transfer coefficient have helped highlight the importance of pulse excitation and the depth in the material. The thermal impedance is studied from representations of Nyquist and Bode diagrams allowing characterizing the thermal behavior from thermistors. The evolution of the thermal impedance with the thermal capacity of the material is presented.

  13. The population ecology of two tropical trees, Brachychiton diversifolius (Malvaceae) and Bombax ceiba (Bombaceae), harvested by Indigenous woodcarvers in Arnhem Land, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Jennifer; Griffiths, Anthony

    2012-10-01

    We describe the population ecology of two tropical deciduous trees, Bombax ceiba leiocarpum A. Robyns and Brachychiton diversifolius R. Br., which are in high demand for Indigenous sculpture production in Arnhem Land, Australia. We monitored tagged populations of both species at two locations for 2 years to examine their reproduction, growth, and survival rates and their response to harvest. Both species have similar life histories: they reproduce during the dry season (June-November) producing a high seed load, seed predation was high, seeds did not survive in the soil past the following wet season to form a seed bank, and germination rates were low and variable for both species. Average annual circumference growth rates were 1.07 cm year(-1) for B. ceiba and 0.98 cm year(-1) for B. diversifolius, with most of the growth occurring during the early wet season. Most (65-88 %) of the harvested B. ceiba and B. diversifolius stems coppiced. Coppice and stem size class were the main factors influencing tree growth rates with coppice stems growing up to six times faster than similar sized non-coppice stems. The survival of B. ceiba and B. diversifolius stems was size class dependent and affected by local site factors (e.g. fire and other disturbances) so that the smaller size classes had a low probability of survival. Given the resprouting potential of both species, their wild harvest is likely to have only minimal local impact on wild populations. However, further population modelling is required to determine whether the small and disjunct B. ceiba populations can sustain harvesting at current levels.

  14. The Population Ecology of Two Tropical Trees, Brachychiton diversifolius (Malvaceae) and Bombax ceiba (Bombaceae), Harvested by Indigenous Woodcarvers in Arnhem Land, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Jennifer; Griffiths, Anthony

    2012-10-01

    We describe the population ecology of two tropical deciduous trees, Bombax ceiba leiocarpum A. Robyns and Brachychiton diversifolius R. Br., which are in high demand for Indigenous sculpture production in Arnhem Land, Australia. We monitored tagged populations of both species at two locations for 2 years to examine their reproduction, growth, and survival rates and their response to harvest. Both species have similar life histories: they reproduce during the dry season (June-November) producing a high seed load, seed predation was high, seeds did not survive in the soil past the following wet season to form a seed bank, and germination rates were low and variable for both species. Average annual circumference growth rates were 1.07 cm year-1 for B. ceiba and 0.98 cm year-1 for B. diversifolius, with most of the growth occurring during the early wet season. Most (65-88 %) of the harvested B. ceiba and B. diversifolius stems coppiced. Coppice and stem size class were the main factors influencing tree growth rates with coppice stems growing up to six times faster than similar sized non-coppice stems. The survival of B. ceiba and B. diversifolius stems was size class dependent and affected by local site factors (e.g. fire and other disturbances) so that the smaller size classes had a low probability of survival. Given the resprouting potential of both species, their wild harvest is likely to have only minimal local impact on wild populations. However, further population modelling is required to determine whether the small and disjunct B. ceiba populations can sustain harvesting at current levels.

  15. Enrollment, Childbearing Motivations, and Intentions of Couples in the Creighton Model Effectiveness, Intentions, and Behaviors Assessment (CEIBA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph B. Stanford

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ContextThe Creighton Model FertilityCareTM System (CrM is a standardized approach for educating women about the biomarkers of their fertility. Couples can use this information for timing intercourse during “fertile” or “infertile” days in order to try to conceive or to avoid pregnancy.ObjectivesThe study of Creighton Model Effectiveness, Intentions, and Behaviors Assessment (CEIBA was conducted to assess fertility motivations, intentions, fertility-related sexual behaviors, and their impact on effectiveness to avoid and to conceive among new users of the CrM. This paper reports enrollment baseline characteristics.Settings and designWe conducted this prospective cohort study at 17 CrM FertilityCareTM Centers; 16 in the USA and one in Toronto, Canada.Materials and methodsCouples who were new or returning users of the CrM were eligible. Couples who were initially trying to conceive or had a history of subfertility were excluded. Couples were enrolled and followed prospectively by their CrM instructors and also by CEIBA study staff. They completed baseline questionnaires.Results1,132 new couples were assessed; 1,090 (96% couples were screened; 429 (39% couples were eligible; 305 women (71% and 290 (95% male partners were enrolled. The majority of women was engaged (39% or married (51%, college graduates (77%, Caucasian non-Hispanic (80%, and Roman Catholic (80%. The most common reasons for learning CrM (women were to use a natural method for family planning (91%, for moral/ethical/religious reasons (70%, the lack of side effects (71%, or insight into the menstrual cycle and fertility (62%. Women and men intended to have a mean of three and two additional children, respectively. Of women, 21% intended to have a child within a year and 60% between 1 and 3 years. The mean positive childbearing motivation score was 3.3 for both women and men (range 1–4, with 4 being most positive.ConclusionCouples beginning use of the CrM to avoid pregnancy

  16. Cycles of activity, group composition, and diet of Lemur mongoz mongoz Linnaeus 1766 in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, R W; Tattersall, I

    1976-01-01

    A preliminary study of the ecology and behavior of Lemur mongoz mongoz was carried out in the northwest of Madagascar. The animals were observed for approximately 250 h in July till August, 1973, and for 50 h in June, 1974. L.m.mongoz has been reported to be diurnal and to live in groups of 6-8 individuals. However, we found the animals to be nocturnal and that groups contained an adult male, an adult female and their offspring (groups numbering from 2 to 4 individuals). L.m.mongoz is thus the only species of the genus Lemur studied to date that is active exclusively at night and that lives in family groups. L.m.mongoz was also found to have a very specialized diet. During our study, it was observed to feed on only five species of plant and mainly on the nectar-producing parts (flowers and nectaries) of four of these species. It spent most of its feeding time licking nectar from the flowers of the kapok tree, Ceiba pentandra, and is probably a major pollinator of this tree in Madagascar. In Africa and South and Central America, the kapok tree is usually bat-pollinated. A dietary preference for nectar, although common among bats, has not previously been observed in primates.

  17. Preparation and Utilization of Kapok Hull Carbon for the Removal of Rhodamine-B from Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Syed Shabudeen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A carbonaceous sorbent prepared from the indegeneous agricultural waste (which is facing solid waste disposal problem Kapok Hull, by acid treatment was tested for its efficiency in removing basic dyes. Batch kinetic and isotherm experiments were conducted to determine the sorption and desorption of the Rhodamine-B from aqueous solution with activated carbon. The factors affecting the rate processes involved in the removal of dye for initial dye concentration, agitation time, and carbon dose and particle size have been studied at ambient temperature. The adsorption process followed first order rate kinetics. The first-order rate equation by Lagergren was tested on the kinetic data, and isotherm data was analyzed for possible agreement with the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm equations. The intraparticle diffusion rate equation from which adsorption rate constants, diffusion rate constants and diffusion coefficients were determined. Intraparticle diffusion was found to be the rate-limiting step. The structural and morphological of activated carbon were characterized by XRD and SEM studies respectively.

  18. Oriented functionalization of natural hollow kapok fiber for highly efficient removal of toxic Hg(II from aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng eWang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to hollow and tubular structure, a natural kapok fiber (KF was used as the support and orientation matrix to control the polymerization of ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA and N-vinylimidazole (VIM along its inherent axial surface via a facile in situ rapid polymerization reaction in air atmosphere. The as-formed KF@VIM/EGDMA composite is featured with porous surface and rich N-containing functional groups for potential application as a highly efficient adsorbent for removal of toxic Hg(II from aqueous solution. The variables affecting the adsorption capacity were studied, including monomer ratio, external pH values, contact time, and initial Hg(II concentration. The pseudo-second-order equation and two adsorption isotherms including Langmuir and Freundlich equations were applied to determine the adsorption kinetics and adsorption capacity. The results show that the as-prepared KF@VIM/EGDMA composite has a maximum adsorption capacity of 697 mg/g to Hg(II, while no appreciable adsorption capacity can be found for KF itself. Given its intrinsic large lumen, faster adsorption kinetics (45 min are also expected and observed for KF@VIM/EGDMA. After a simple filtration, this adsorbent can be directly separated from the aqueous solution and then be regenerated for multi-cyclable utilization. During the adsorption process, the chemical complexing represents the main adsorption mechanism. As a naturally renewable KF, such a simple preparation method opens a new avenue to develop highly efficient and economically viable adsorbent for removal of toxic heavy metal from aqueous solution.

  19. A comparative study of cambium histology of Ceiba speciosa (A. St.-Hil.) Ravenna (Malvaceae) under urban pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vasconcellos, Thaís Jorge; Da Cunha, Maura; Callado, Cátia Henriques

    2017-05-01

    Air pollution is considered to be one of the main causes of forest decline. The cambium is responsible for increase in tree girth, and its functioning is determined by environmental pressures. This study compared cambium histology of Ceiba speciosa (A. St.-Hil.) Ravenna (Malvaceae) in polluted and preserved sites in the Atlantic Rainforest domain. Samples were obtained during periods of cambial activity and dormancy and were processed and examined according to standard light microscopy techniques. In addition to differences typically observed in cambium during periods of activity and dormancy, the fusiform initials were shorter in trees of the polluted site. Furthermore, cambial rays were shorter, but larger, in the polluted site. It should be noted that all parameters related to cambial rays showed significant differences between the study sites. This is the first report of the effects of pollution on cambial activity in a South American species. The results suggest a tolerance of C. speciosa to pollution and reveal this species to be an important biomarker for environmental monitoring studies.

  20. Physical-mechanical properties and bonding quality of heat treated poplar (I-214 clone and ceiba plywood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goli G

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper investigates the physical and mechanical modifications of both poplar (I-214 clone and ceiba veneers and plywood after heat treatments of different intensities (5 and 7 % of dry mass losses. Plywood panels were glued before and after heat treatment with urea-formaldehyde (UF and melamine-urea-formaldehyde (MUF resins. In order to assess the treatments’ effects on both the wood and the glues, the dry mass, the density, the bending strength, the Young’s modulus and the bonding quality were measured before and after heat treatment. The results of the different treatments were compared as well. Results showed that the loss in cell wall polymers due to the heat treatment caused a significant reduction of the equilibrium moisture content of the samples. From a mechanical point of view the treatment resulted in an important reduction of strength and in a small reduction of stiffness. Bonding quality as well as mechanical properties were widely affected by the heat treatment. The different intensities of the treatments (the treatment range was up to 5% and 7% of dry mass loss did not show significant differences for most of the features assessed. The mechanical performance as well as the bonding quality of treated samples suggested that veneers should be glued after heat treatment. Apparent cohesive wood failure showed that different degradations affect wood and glues with a prominent effect on the glues for UF resins and a prominent effect on the wood for MUF resins.

  1. CEIBA: a fast track plan with multiphase pumping by 750 m of water; CEIBA: un projet fast track avec pompage multiphasique par 750 m d'eau. Canyon Express: le plus profond des reseaux de production. Le Saibos FDS: un navire polyvalent adapte au defit des developements en grande profondeur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delaporte, M. [Paragon Litwin, 92 - Nanterre (France); Obsen, M. [Framo Engineering, Bergen (Norway); Bang, P.; RIjkens, F. [Total, La Defense 6, 92 - Courbevoie (France); Poirson, L. [Saibos sas, 78 - Guyancourt (France)

    2003-08-01

    The development of the field of CEIBA, located at 22 miles off the equatorial Guinea coast, has been the aim of a presentation AFTP/SPE on May 21 at Clamart. M. Delaporte, director of offshore study and development of projects at Paragon Litwin has presented at first an overview of the plan and then M. Olsen, commercial responsible of Framo Engineering has given precision on the polyphasic pumping equipments which particularize this development. (O.M.)

  2. Seletividade de herbicidas em mudas das espécies nativas Acacia polyphylla, Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Fabaceae, Ceiba speciosa e Luehea divaricata (Malvaceae Herbicides selectivity on seedlings of native species Acacia polyphylla, Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Fabaceae, Ceiba speciosa and Luehea divaricata (Malvaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. Monquero

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou a seletividade de herbicidas sobre espécies nativas de florestas estacionais semideciduais de São Paulo, amplamente utilizadas em projetos de restauração de ecossistemas naturais degradados: Acacia polyphylla e Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Fabaceae, e Ceiba speciosa e Luehea divaricata (Malvaceae. Os tratamentos consistiram de uma testemunha sem herbicida e da aplicação de herbicidas imazapyr (125, 250, 500, 1.000, 2.000 e 3.000 g ha-1, sulfentrazone (100, 200, 400, 800, 1.400 e 2.400 g ha-1, glyphosate (90, 180, 360, 720, 1.440 e 2.160 g ha-1 e metribuzin (360, 720, 1.920, 2.880, 5.760 e 8.400 g ha-1 . Foram avaliados os sintomas de fitotoxicidade aos 30 dias após aplicação (DAA e a biomassa seca da parte aérea. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições por tratamento. Cada parcela experimental foi constituída de uma muda com 30 cm de altura. Os resultados permitem concluir que, entre os herbicidas testados, o glyphosate foi o menos seletivo às espécies arbóreas, razão pela qual são sugeridas aplicações dirigidas desse produto. As espécies estudadas diferiram em relação à seletividade dos herbicidas avaliados. Para C. speciosa, o imazapyr foi o herbicida mais seletivo, seguido do sulfentrazone. O herbicida metribuzin foi seletivo para A. polyphylla. Quanto a E. contortisiliquum, o metribuzin foi menos tóxico, seguido pelo sulfentrazone. Para L. divaricata, somente o herbicida sulfentrazone foi seletivo.We aimed to evaluate the selectivity of the herbicides imazapyr, glyphosate, metribuzin, and sulfentrazone, when applied on four native species of semideciduous forests from southeastern Brazil: Acacia polyphylla and Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Fabaceae, and Ceiba speciosa and Luehea divaricata (Malvaceae. We did a randonmized design with four replicates per treatment: the application of imazapyr (125, 250, 500, 1000, 2000 and 3000 g ha-1, sulfentrazone (100

  3. A casual alien plant new to Mediterranean Europe: Ceiba speciosa (Malvaceae in the suburban area of Palermo (NW Sicily, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasta, Salvatore

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The abiotic and biotic characteristics of the first sites where floss silk tree behaves as a casual alien plant in the Mediterranean Europe are described. The species was probably first planted in botanical gardens of southern France few decades before mid XIX century. It was introduced in Palermo in 1896, a city which appears to match very well its climatic requirements. According to the available information on its biology and ecology in both its original and secondary range, the floss silk tree should not become an invasive alien plant in the Mediterranean. Nevertheless, several gaps need to be filled in order to increase our understanding of future trends of Ceiba speciosa in southern Europe, in particular, the eventual role of pollinators and seed dispersers outside the species’ natural range.Se describen las caracteristicas abióticas y bióticas de los primeros sitios del mediterráneo europeo donde el árbol palo borracho se encuentra creciendo como especie alóctona casual. Con respecto a la historia de su introducción, esta especie fue probablemente plantada en los jardines botánicos del sur de Francia unos pocos decenios antes de la mitad del siglo XIX. En 1896, sin embargo, fue introducida en Palermo, ciudad que parece satisfacer muy bien sus requerimientos climáticos. De acuerdo con la información disponible, tanto dentro como fuera de su área de distribución natural, el palo borracho no debería convertirse en planta invasora en el mediterráneo. Sin embargo, algunos vacíos de información deben ser completados antes de establecer su potencial invasor de una manera definitiva, particularmente, el posible papel de agentes polinizadores y dispersores fuera del área de distribución natural de la especie.

  4. Effects of forest fragmentation on phenological patterns and reproductive success of the tropical dry forest tree Ceiba aesculifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrerías-Diego, Yvonne; Quesada, Mauricio; Stoner, Kathryn E; Lobo, Jorge A

    2006-08-01

    Spatial isolation caused by forest fragmentation and temporal isolation caused by asynchronous flowering of plants have been proposed as important factors that affect the reproduction ofplant populations. In a 4-year study, we determined the effects of forest fragmentation and spatial isolation on flowering phenology and reproductive success of the tropical tree Ceiba aesculifolia ([Kunth] Britton & Rose). We conducted our study in the dry forest of Mexico and compared populations in two habitat conditions based on density and environmental conditions: (1) disturbed habitat (four populations of reproductive individuals/ha surrounded by agriculturalfields or pastures) and (2) undisturbed habitat (three populations of groups of >6 reproductive individuals/ha surrounded by undisturbed mature forest). We compared the following variables within these populations over 4 years: flowering overlap, proportion of individuals with flowers and fruit, total flower production, total fruit production, fruit set, seed production, and seed abortion. Little overlap in flowering occurred among the populations in the two habitat conditions. The flowering period of trees in the disturbed habitat initiated between 15 to 20 days before the flowering period of trees in the undisturbed habitat during 3 years. Flowering of trees in the undisturbed habitat peaked at the end of the flowering period of the trees in the disturbed habitat. The proportion of trees that flowered was greater in the undisturbed habitat. Nevertheless, total flower production was greater in the disturbed habitat and these differences were maintained across 3 years. The proportion of individuals that produced fruit did not differ across habitat conditions but did differ across years. Total fruit production was greater in the disturbed habitat, but fruit set and seed production were the same across years and between habitat conditions. Seed abortion varied over years between habitats. We concluded that forest

  5. Archeointensity determinations on Pre-Columbian potteries from La Ceiba and Santa Marta shelter-caves (Chiapas, Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Ceja, Maria; Camps, Pierre; Goguitchaichvili, Avto; Poidras, Thierry; Nicol, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Quite surprisingly, the abundance of archaeological baked clays found in the tropical area of Mesoamerica contrast with the small amount of archeomagnetic data available today for this area [Fanjat et al, EPSL, 2013; Alva-Valdivia et al, PEPI, 2010, Morales et al., EPS, 2009]. It seems especially difficult to try to establish a regional trend in the intensity variations. While they are few, the data are moreover of uneven quality as attested by a large scatter in experimental values during the Mesoamerican classic and post-classic periods (250-1521 AD) that cannot be explained by real fluctuations in the Earth's magnetic field [Fanjat et al, EPSL, 2013]. The present study is part of a large effort to provide reliable and perfectly dated archeointensity data for the tropical area of Mesoamerica. It focuses on Thellier-Thellier archeointensity measurements obtained from 87 small fragments from potsherds of 12 different potteries. These potteries were excavated from sedimentary sequences within two shelter-caves, La Ceiba and Santa Marta, located on the banks of Grijalva and La Venta rivers, respectively. Both are shelter-caves without constructed structures that were inhabited by humans groups. Samples were located in different stratigraphic levels, culturally well identified and well preserved due to long time sedimentation. Only samples with a homogenous color were pre-selected for the rock magnetic study performed prior to any attempt to estimate the archeointensity. This was done in order to assure, as far as possible, a uniform baking during the manufacture, which is supposed to be made in open sky fire, since no kiln construction has been found. The ceramics ages were achieved in 2 ways: for samples with organic material associated, a 14C dating was done. The rest of the samples were dated according to their typological characteristics, comparing with regional ceramic chronological classification. This includes characteristics such as the finishing surface type

  6. Root–shoot allometry of tropical forest trees determined in a large-scale aeroponic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel, Amram; Grünzweig, José M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims This study is a first step in a multi-stage project aimed at determining allometric relationships among the tropical tree organs, and carbon fluxes between the various tree parts and their environment. Information on canopy–root interrelationships is needed to improve understanding of above- and below-ground processes and for modelling of the regional and global carbon cycle. Allometric relationships between the sizes of different plant parts will be determined. Methods Two tropical forest species were used in this study: Ceiba pentandra (kapok), a fast-growing tree native to South and Central America and to Western Africa, and Khaya anthotheca (African mahogany), a slower-growing tree native to Central and Eastern Africa. Growth and allometric parameters of 12-month-old saplings grown in a large-scale aeroponic system and in 50-L soil containers were compared. The main advantage of growing plants in aeroponics is that their root systems are fully accessible throughout the plant life, and can be fully recovered for harvesting. Key Results The expected differences in shoot and root size between the fast-growing C. pentandra and the slower-growing K. anthotheca were evident in both growth systems. Roots were recovered from the aeroponically grown saplings only, and their distribution among various diameter classes followed the patterns expected from the literature. Stem, branch and leaf allometric parameters were similar for saplings of each species grown in the two systems. Conclusions The aeroponic tree growth system can be utilized for determining the basic allometric relationships between root and shoot components of these trees, and hence can be used to study carbon allocation and fluxes of whole above- and below-ground tree parts. PMID:23250916

  7. Revalidacion de Bombax Ceiba L. como especie típica del genero Bombax L. y descripcion de Pseudobombax gen. nov

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    Dugand Armando

    1943-04-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se determina por razones históricas que Bombax Ceiba L. es la especie típica del genero Bombax L. y se tipifica dicha especie a su vez sobre Bombax quinatum Jacq. Refútase así la recomendación de B. malabaricum DC. como lectotipo de Bombax. Se propone una nueva definición, sensu maxime strictissimo, de Bombax L. y de B. Ceiba L. fundada en B. quinatum Jacq.; se mencionan los sinónimos conocidos y los ejemplares botánicos examinados. Esta tipificación causa una completa alteración del concepto genérico de Bombax por cuanto B. quinatum ha sido considerado generalmente como representativo de un género intermedio (Bombacopsis Pittier cuya definición sistemática resulta ahora justamente aplicable al genera linneano. Por consiguiente es necesario hacer un ajuste nomenclatural y se propone una nueva denominación genérica (Pseudobombax Dugand que abarca, por lo pronto, tres especies: septenatum Jacq. (como tipo , ellipticum HBK. y Palmeri S. Wats., antes considerados como verdaderos Bombax. La preparación de este estudio fue realizada en su mayor parte compilando numerosos datos históricos en las bibliotecas del Arnold Arboretum y del Gray Herbarium, merced a las prerrogativas que me fueron generosamente concedidas por la Universidad de Harvard al designarme Research Fellow del Arnold Arboretum durante la visita que hice recientemente a varias instituciones botanicas de los Estados Unidos como invitado del Comité de Relaciones Artísticas e Intelectuales Inter-Americanas.

  8. Mamá ceiba

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    Bernardo Valderrama Andrade

    1967-05-01

    Full Text Available El horizonte marino, tenue línea entre dos azules de cielo y agua; el movimiento sucesivo y creciente de las olas, con sus crestas coronadas de espumas y rumores; el retozo de los bufeos a cien brazas de la orilla; el desplazamiento en parejas de los sábalos, manchas alargadas y movibles bajo el verde transparente y esmeralda del mar en los bajos.

  9. Preliminary Study on The Potential of Hybrid Rice Husk with Kapok Fiber and Hybrid Rice Husk with Coconut Fiber as Landfill Liner Material

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    Nur Azwa Muhamad Bashar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abundance of agricultural waste in Malaysia namely rice husk (RH, kapok fiber (KF and coconut fiber (CF has been increasing over the years. This cause disposal problem and air pollution problem from burning activity. In line with the Malaysian Government Policy on the application of green technology concept through the 5R's practice, this agricultural waste has a potential to be commercialized as material for landfill liner. A factor that governs the workability of landfill liner materials is the permeability should be less than 1x10-9 m/s. Therefore, a low permeability material needs to be installed to minimise the environmental impact on the leachate intrusion into groundwater. A series of standard tests to find environmental and geotechnical properties such as atterberg limit test (liquid limit, plastic limit, compaction test, permeability test (falling head method, leachate characteristics and heavy metal test were conducted at various ratio of hybrid materials (KC:RH and KC: CF in the ratio of 1:1 and 1:2 respectively. Experimental results confirmed that the hydraulic conductivity of the mixture of KC:RH:KF in the ratio of 1:1:1 is 7.29 x 10-11 m/s was less than 10-9 m/s, satisfying the requirement for landfill liner materials. Heavy metal testing showed that this hybrid material (RH:KF and RH:CF for ratio 1:2 were able to reduce at least 50 % of the leachate contaminants. The proposed hybrid materials (RH:KF and RH:CF is a green material for the landfill (as it can improve heavy metal adsorption, increase the workability of the landfill by improving the conductivity of the conventional liners, minimizing manpower on site (no need expertise for installation and reduction in cost (in terms of the use of waste materials.

  10. Long-term effects of habitat fragmentation on mating patterns and gene flow of a tropical dry forest tree, Ceiba aesculifolia (Malvaceae: Bombacoideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada, Mauricio; Herrerías-Diego, Yvonne; Lobo, Jorge A; Sánchez-Montoya, Gumersindo; Rosas, Fernando; Aguilar, Ramiro

    2013-06-01

    Tropical forest loss and fragmentation isolate and reduce the size of remnant populations with negative consequences for mating patterns and genetic structure of plant species. In a 4-yr study, we determined the effect of fragmentation on mating patterns and pollen pool genetic structure of the tropical tree Ceiba aesculifolia in two habitat conditions: isolated trees in disturbed areas (≤3 trees/ha), and trees (≥6 trees/ha) in undisturbed mature forest. • Using six allozyme loci, we estimated the outcrossing rate (tm), the mean relatedness of progeny (rp) within and between fruits, the degree of genetic structure of pollen pools (Φft), and the effective number of pollen donors (Nep). • The outcrossing rates reflected a strict self-incompatible species. Relatedness of progeny within fruits was similar for all populations, revealing single sires within fruits. However, relatedness of progeny between fruits within trees was consistently greater for trees in fragmented conditions across 4 yr. We found high levels of genetic structure of pollen pools in all populations with more structure in isolated trees. The effective number of pollen donors was greater for trees in undisturbed forest than in disturbed conditions. • Our study showed that the progeny produced by isolated trees in disturbed habitats are sired by a fraction of the diversity of pollen donors found in conserved forests. The foraging behavior of bats limits the exchange of pollen between trees, causing higher levels of progeny relatedness in isolated trees.

  11. INCLUSION OF KAPOK SEED OIL IN THE DIET FOR GROWING OF THIN-TAILED SHEEP TO REDUCE CHOLESTEROL AND TO IMPROVE OMEGA-SIX FATTY ACID CONTENTS OF LAMB

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    W. Widiyanto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to study the influence of protected kapok seed oil (PKSOsupplementation in its combination with concentrate, in this case was rice bran (RB on lipid content ofthin tailed sheep received field grass as basal feed. A number of 24 heads of male thin-tailed sheep wereused as experimental material. These sheep were divided into 8 treatment groups. There were twotreatment factors, i.e. : PKSO supplementation (S as factor I and RB supplementation (K as factor II.Factor I consisted of 2 levels, i.e. 0% (S0 and 10% (S1, whereas factor II consist of 4 levels, i.e. 0%(K0, 15% (K1, 30% (K2 and 45% (K3, respectively, based on dry matter (DM intake. Severalvariables were measured, namely content of intra muscular fat (IMF, iodine number of muscular fattyacid, content of meat cholesterol and omega 6 fatty acid (in this case linoleic acid. The collected datawere statistically analyzed by analysis of variance with factorial treatment pattern (2 x 4 in completelyrandomized design (CRD. Content of IMF in sheep supplemented with 0 and 15% KSO levels was notsignificantly different from those without kapok seed oil (KSO supplementation at the same level ofRB feeding (3.45 and 3.99% vs 3.01 and 3.75%. Supplementation of protected KSO in combinationwith 30 and 45% RP resulted in significantly increased (P < 0.05 IMF content (4.75 and 5.93% vs 4.32and 5.40% and significantly decreased (P < 0.05 meat chollesterol content (62.46 and 65.26 mg/100 g vs 89.21 and 72.63 mg/100 g also significantly increased (P < 0.05 linoleic acid proportion (15.52 and18.25% vs 3.68 and 4.04% and iodine number (12.52 and 10.25 vs 4.09 and 4.98.

  12. INCLUSION OF KAPOK SEED OIL IN THE DIET FOR GROWING OF THIN-TAILED SHEEP TO REDUCE CHOLESTEROL AND TO IMPROVE OMEGA-SIX FATTY ACID CONTENTS OF LAMB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Bachrudin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to study the influence of protected kapok seed oil (PKSO supplementation in its combination with concentrate, in this case was rice bran (RB on lipid content of thin tailed sheep received field grass as basal feed. A number of 24 heads of male thin-tailed sheep were used as experimental material. These sheep were divided into 8 treatment groups. There were two treatment factors, i.e. : PKSO supplementation (S as factor I and RB supplementation (K as factor II. Factor I consisted of 2 levels, i.e. 0% (S0 and 10% (S1, whereas factor II consist of 4 levels, i.e. 0% (K0, 15% (K1, 30% (K2 and 45% (K3, respectively, based on dry matter (DM intake. Several variables were measured, namely content of intra muscular fat (IMF, iodine number of muscular fatty acid, content of meat cholesterol and omega 6 fatty acid (in this case linoleic acid. The collected data were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance with factorial treatment pattern (2 x 4 in completely randomized design (CRD. Content of IMF in sheep supplemented with 0 and 15% KSO levels was not significantly different from those without kapok seed oil (KSO supplementation at the same level of RB feeding (3.45 and 3.99% vs 3.01 and 3.75%. Supplementation of protected KSO in combination with 30 and 45% RP resulted in significantly increased (P < 0.05 IMF content (4.75 and 5.93% vs 4.32 and 5.40% and significantly decreased (P < 0.05 meat chollesterol content (62.46 and 65.26 mg/100 g vs 89.21 and 72.63 mg/100 g also significantly increased (P < 0.05 linoleic acid proportion (15.52 and 18.25% vs 3.68 and 4.04% and iodine number (12.52 and 10.25 vs 4.09 and 4.98.

  13. Identification of Bacillus species occurring in Kantong, an acid fermented seed condiment produced in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kpikpi, Elmer Nayra; Thorsen, Line; Glover, Richard; Dzogbefia, Victoria Pearl; Jespersen, Lene

    2014-06-16

    Kantong is a condiment produced in Ghana by the spontaneous fermentation of kapok tree (Ceiba pentandra) seeds with cassava flour as an additive. Fermentation is over a 48h period followed by a drying and a kneading process. Although lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have previously been identified other micro-organisms may also be involved in the fermentation process. In this study we examined the occurrence of aerobic endospore-forming bacteria (AEB) in raw materials, during fermentation and in the final product at 2 production sites in Northern Ghana. Total aerobic mesophilic bacterial counts increased from 5.4±0.1log10CFU/g in the raw materials to 8.9±0.1log10CFU/g in the final products, with the AEB accounting for between 23% and 80% of the total aerobic mesophilic (TAM) counts. A total of 196 AEB were identified at a species/subspecies level by the use of phenotypic tests and genotypic methods including M13-PCR typing, 16S rRNA and gyrA gene sequencing. Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis (63% of the AEB), Bacillus safensis (26% of the AEB) and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum/Bacillus methylotrophicus (9% of the AEB) were the predominant Bacillus species during fermentation and in the final products. B. amyloliquefaciens/B. methylotrophicus originated from cassava flour, B. safensis from seeds and cassava flour, while the origin of B. subtilis was less clear. Brevibacillus agri and Peanibacillus spp. occurred sporadically. Further investigations are required to elucidate the role of AEB occurring in high numbers, in the fermentation of Kantong.

  14. El análisis de narrativas en etnobotánica: el "yuchán" (Ceiba Chodatii, Bombacaceae en el discurso de los wichís del Chaco Semiárido salteño, Argentina Narrative analysis in ethnobotanical investigations: the "yuchán" (Ceiba chodatii, Bombacaceae in the oral discourse of the Wichí of the Semiarid Chaco in Salta province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Suárez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio de caso referido a un árbol característico de los bosques chaquenos, el "yuchán" (Ceiba chodatii, Bombacaceae, a fin de ilustrar la importancia del análisis de narrativas vernáculas para la investigación etnobotánica. Se trabajó articulando dos enfoques teórico-metódológicos: por un lado, se estudiaron los roles, usos y significados de la planta en el contexto sociocultural wichí desde una perspectiva etnobotánica; por otro, se analizaron tres discursos orales en base a métodos propios de disciplinas como la antropología sociocultural y lingüística, la etnografía del habla y la folklorística. Además de corroborar y profundizar los resultados que surgen de los datos etnobotánicos, el análisis de las narrativas aportó nueva y valiosa información. El conjunto de los resultados obtenidos demuestran que el estudio detallado de las narrativas locales es de suma importancia para cualquier investigación etnobotánica. Los aportes que brinda posibilitan una interpretación cabal de los datos etnobotánicos recopilados y una comprensión acabada de los saberes, creencias y significados de los diversos lugares y elementos del cosmos. En este marco, el trabajo con encuestas abiertas, el conocimiento de los entrevistados y su contexto sociocultural y el registro minucioso de los recursos expresivos utilizados en las conversaciones devienen cruciales.This article is a case study of the "yuchán" (Ceiba chodatii, Bombacaceae, a typical tree of the Chaco forest, and it illustrates the importance of analyzing vernacular narratives in ethnobotanical research. Two theoretical-methodological approaches were combined: firstly, the roles, uses and meanings of this plant in the Wichí socio-cultural context were studied from an ethnobotanical perspective; then, three oral discourses were examined using methods borrowed from disciplines such as linguistic and sociocultural anthropology, linguistic ethnography and

  15. Germination des semences, développement et croissance de quelques essences locales en zone forestière

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    Mapongmetsem, RM.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed Germination, Growth and Development of some Local tree Species of the Forest Zone. Studies were conducted on eight indigenous multipurpose trees species : Alstonia boonei. De Wild, Ceiba pentandra (L. Gearth., Cordia platythyrsa Bark., Milicia excelsa (Welw ce Berg., Pycnanthus angolensis (Welw Warb., Ricinodendron heudelotii (Baill. Pierre ex Pax., Terminalia superba. Engl. et Diels et Triplochiton scleroxylon K. Schum. The objective of the study was to evaluate germination capacity, development and growth rate of the seedlings of the above mentionned species. The results showed that manual of seeds was clearly superior to the use of the other methods. For the initial growth, Ceiba pentandra and Ricinodendron heudelotii had the fastest growth. AH the species developped tap root system.

  16. Germination des semences, développement et croissance de quelques essences locales en zone forestière

    OpenAIRE

    Mapongmetsem, RM.; Duguma, B.; Nkongmeneck, BA; Selegny, E

    1999-01-01

    Seed Germination, Growth and Development of some Local tree Species of the Forest Zone. Studies were conducted on eight indigenous multipurpose trees species : Alstonia boonei. De Wild, Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gearth., Cordia platythyrsa Bark., Milicia excelsa (Welw) ce Berg., Pycnanthus angolensis (Welw) Warb., Ricinodendron heudelotii (Baill.) Pierre ex Pax., Terminalia superba. Engl. et Diels et Triplochiton scleroxylon K. Schum. The objective of the study was to evaluate germination capacity...

  17. Chemical Composition of Kapok (Ceibapentandra) Seed and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2Department of Textile Science and Technology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. [*Corresponding ... very good source of edible oil and have the potential for use as raw .... cosmetics production as well as for edible applications. (Akanniet al.

  18. List of Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Tin (II Chloride Catalyzed Esterification of High FFA Jatropha Oil: Experimental and Kinetics Study DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.75-81 75-81 Ratna Dewi Kusumaningtyas, Prima Astuti Handayani, Rochmadi Rochmadi, Suryo Purwono, Arief Budiman   Utilization of Iles-Iles and Sorghum Starch for Bioethanol Production DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.83-89 83-89 Kusmiyati Kusmiyati, Agus Sulistiyono   Premixed Combustion of Kapok (ceiba pentandra seed oil on Perforated Burner DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.91-97 91-97 I.K.G. Wirawan, I.N.G. Wardana,        Rudy Soenoko, Slamet Wahyudi   Castor Seed from Melkasa Agricultural Research Centre, East Showa, Ethiopia and it’s biodiesel performance in Four Stroke Diesel Engine DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3. 3.2.99-105 99-105 Tesfahun Tegegne Akanawa, Haimanot Gebrehiwot Moges, Ramesh Babu, Daniel Bisrat   Economic feasibility of large scale PV water pumping applications utilizing real field data for a case study in Jordan DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.107-117 107-117 Ibrahim Odeh   Development of Briquette from Coir Dust and Rice Husk Blend: An Alternative Energy Source DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.119-123 119-123 Md. Hamidul Islam, Md. Mosharraf Hossain,Md. Abdul Momin   Performance, Emissions and Combustion Characteristics of a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Fuelled with Blends of Jatropha Methyl Ester and Diesel DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.125-131 125-131 Debasish Padhee, Hifjur Raheman   The characteristic changes of betung bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper pretreated by fungal pretreatment DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.133-143 133-143 Widya Fatriasari, Wasrin Syafii, Nyoman J Wistara, Khaswar Syamsu, Bambang Prasetya   Influence of the Determination Methods of K and C Parameters on the Ability of Weibull Distribution to Suitably Estimate Wind Potential and Electric Energy DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.145-154 145-154 Ruben M. Mouangue, Myrin Y. Kazet, Alexis Kuitche, Jean-Marie Ndjaka    

  19. The modifition of hyperbranched polymers with quaternary ammonium salt and its application on kapok fiber reactive dyeing%超支化聚合物的季铵盐修饰及其在木棉纤维活性染料染色中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁颖; 高群艳; 张召阳; 蔡再生; 徐丽慧; 沈勇

    2016-01-01

    The water soluble amino-terminated hyperbranched polymer (HBP-NH2) was synthesized with Methacrylate and Diethylenetriamine. Then the quaternary ammonium hyperbranched polymers (HBP-HDC) was prepared with self-made cationic modification and hyperbranched polymers. The Infrared spectroscopy analysis confirmed the synthesis of HBP-NH2and the NMR spectrum analysis confirmed that cationic modification was successfully grafted onto HBP-NH2. The Modification process of kapok fiber with HBP-HDC is as following: the composition ratio of cationic modification and hyperbranched polymer 4∶1, HBP-HDC concentration 4 g/L, modification temperature 50 ℃, bath ratio1∶100, pH=9 and modification time 30 min. After the modification, the dyed fabric showed obvious improvement on the dyeing properties compared to the control one, with the dye uptake 98%, fixation rate 78%, K/Svalue 7.98 and washing fastness 4~5 grades.%以丙烯酸甲酯和二乙烯三胺为原料,合成了水溶性端氨基超支化聚合物(HBP-NH2),并将其与自制的阳离子改性剂接枝合成了季铵盐超支化聚合物(HBP-HDC)。通过红外分光光度计对产品进行了表征,确证了HBP-NH2的制备成功;通过核磁共振谱图确证了HBP-NH2与阳离子改性剂接枝成功。HBP-HDC改性木棉纤维的工艺:阳离子改性剂与超支化聚合物的合成比为4∶1;HBP-HDC的质量浓度为4 g/L,温度50℃,浴比1∶100,改性液pH=9,改性时间30 min。活性染料Novacron RED FN-R在改性后木棉纤维上的上染率约98%,固色率约78%,K/S值为7.98,耐水洗色牢度4~5级,均较未改性木棉有较大的提高。

  20. Isolation of endophytic bacteria from arboreal species of the Amazon and identification by sequencing of the 16S rRNA encoding gene

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    Mariza M. Coêlho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic bacteria from three arboreal species native to the Amazon (Carapa guianenses, Ceiba pentandra, and Swietenia macrophylla, were isolated and identified, through partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA encoding gene. From these, 16 isolates were obtained, although, when compared to sequences deposited in GenBank, only seven had produced identifiable fragments. Bacillus, Pantoea and two non-culturable samples were identified. Results obtained through sequence analysis revealed low genetic diversity across the isolates, even when analyzing different species and plant structures. This is the first report concerning the isolation and identification of endophytic bacteria in these plant species.

  1. Spectral radiation of tree leaves in Bogor Agricultural University campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andika Purbaya, Deki; Badriyah Rushayati, Siti; Budi Prasetyo, Lilik

    2017-01-01

    Every anthropogenic activities that use fossil fuels will produce pollutants such as greenhouse gases. CO2 with other greenhouse gases increase urban air temperatures through the greenhouse effect. The aims of this study are to measure spectral radiation of several species of trees leaves in Bogor Agricultural University Campus and determine types of trees that are effective in absorbing CO2. Data was statistically analyzed based on the order of spectral radiation value. Meanwhile, grouping the ability of species to absorb CO2 was done based on normal curve distribution. Spectral radiation value is inversely proportional to the ability of plants to absorb CO2. The tree species classified as having a high ability to absorb CO2 is Tamrindus indica, Adenanthera pavoniana, Samanea saman, and Ceiba pentandra whereas the species classified as low capacity in absorbing CO2 is Annona murricata, Pterocarpus indicus, Acacia mangium, and Canangium odoratum, the rest classified as having moderate capability.

  2. Arbuscular-mycorrhizal networks inhibit Eucalyptus tetrodonta seedlings in rain forest soil microcosms.

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    David P Janos

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus tetrodonta, a co-dominant tree species of tropical, northern Australian savannas, does not invade adjacent monsoon rain forest unless the forest is burnt intensely. Such facilitation by fire of seedling establishment is known as the "ashbed effect." Because the ashbed effect might involve disruption of common mycorrhizal networks, we hypothesized that in the absence of fire, intact rain forest arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM networks inhibit E. tetrodonta seedlings. Although arbuscular mycorrhizas predominate in the rain forest, common tree species of the northern Australian savannas (including adult E. tetrodonta host ectomycorrhizas. To test our hypothesis, we grew E. tetrodonta and Ceiba pentandra (an AM-responsive species used to confirm treatments separately in microcosms of ambient or methyl-bromide fumigated rain forest soil with or without severing potential mycorrhizal fungus connections to an AM nurse plant, Litsea glutinosa. As expected, C. pentandra formed mycorrhizas in all treatments but had the most root colonization and grew fastest in ambient soil. E. tetrodonta seedlings also formed AM in all treatments, but severing hyphae in fumigated soil produced the least colonization and the best growth. Three of ten E. tetrodonta seedlings in ambient soil with intact network hyphae died. Because foliar chlorosis was symptomatic of iron deficiency, after 130 days we began to fertilize half the E. tetrodonta seedlings in ambient soil with an iron solution. Iron fertilization completely remedied chlorosis and stimulated leaf growth. Our microcosm results suggest that in intact rain forest, common AM networks mediate belowground competition and AM fungi may exacerbate iron deficiency, thereby enhancing resistance to E. tetrodonta invasion. Common AM networks-previously unrecognized as contributors to the ashbed effect-probably help to maintain the rain forest-savanna boundary.

  3. Arbuscular-Mycorrhizal Networks Inhibit Eucalyptus tetrodonta Seedlings in Rain Forest Soil Microcosms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janos, David P.; Scott, John; Aristizábal, Catalina; Bowman, David M. J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Eucalyptus tetrodonta, a co-dominant tree species of tropical, northern Australian savannas, does not invade adjacent monsoon rain forest unless the forest is burnt intensely. Such facilitation by fire of seedling establishment is known as the "ashbed effect." Because the ashbed effect might involve disruption of common mycorrhizal networks, we hypothesized that in the absence of fire, intact rain forest arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) networks inhibit E. tetrodonta seedlings. Although arbuscular mycorrhizas predominate in the rain forest, common tree species of the northern Australian savannas (including adult E. tetrodonta) host ectomycorrhizas. To test our hypothesis, we grew E. tetrodonta and Ceiba pentandra (an AM-responsive species used to confirm treatments) separately in microcosms of ambient or methyl-bromide fumigated rain forest soil with or without severing potential mycorrhizal fungus connections to an AM nurse plant, Litsea glutinosa. As expected, C. pentandra formed mycorrhizas in all treatments but had the most root colonization and grew fastest in ambient soil. E. tetrodonta seedlings also formed AM in all treatments, but severing hyphae in fumigated soil produced the least colonization and the best growth. Three of ten E. tetrodonta seedlings in ambient soil with intact network hyphae died. Because foliar chlorosis was symptomatic of iron deficiency, after 130 days we began to fertilize half the E. tetrodonta seedlings in ambient soil with an iron solution. Iron fertilization completely remedied chlorosis and stimulated leaf growth. Our microcosm results suggest that in intact rain forest, common AM networks mediate belowground competition and AM fungi may exacerbate iron deficiency, thereby enhancing resistance to E. tetrodonta invasion. Common AM networks–previously unrecognized as contributors to the ashbed effect–probably help to maintain the rain forest–savanna boundary. PMID:23460899

  4. Scarlet Macaw, Ara macao, (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae diet in Central Pacific Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Vaughan

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available From 1993 to 1997, we observed Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao feeding behavior in Central Pacific Costa Rica. Feeding data acquired in this study were not collected systematically, but opportunistically whenever macaws were observed feeding. To supplement feeding observations, we conducted interviews with local residents. Scarlet Macaws fed on seeds, fruits, leaves, flowers and/or bark of 43 plant species. Various plant parts eaten by macaws from several tree species contain secondary compounds toxic to humans, and additional species included in their diet are nonnative, introduced for agricultural purposes. Important macaw feeding tree species are Ceiba pentandra, Schizolobium parahybum, and Hura crepitans; these species are also crucial to this macaw population because of nest cavities they provide. The results of this study contribute to the conservation of Scarlet Macaws in Central Pacific Costa Rica through promoting protection of individual trees, and through local elementary school reforestation programs focusing on tree species that macaws use for feeding and/or nesting. Scarlet Macaw conservation is extremely important, as numerous population pressures have caused significant declines in macaw numbers in Costa Rica. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (3: 919-926. Epub 2006 Sept. 29.Entre 1993-97, observamos el comportamiento de alimentación de la lapa roja (Ara macao en el Pacifico Central de Costa Rica. La lapa roja se alimentó de semillas, frutas, hojas, flores y corteza de 43 especies de plantas. Varias partes de las plantas comidas por las lapas contienen compuestos secundarios tóxicos al ser humano, y especies adicionales incluidas en la dieta son exóticas; introducidas por razones agrícolas, forestales o estéticas. Especies de árboles importantes como alimento de la lapa roja incluyen: Ceiba pentandra, Schizolobium parahybum, y Hura crepitans; también son criticas para la población de la lapa roja debido a proveen cavidades para anidaci

  5. Revisiting the phylogeny of Bombacoideae (Malvaceae): Novel relationships, morphologically cohesive clades, and a new tribal classification based on multilocus phylogenetic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho-Sobrinho, Jefferson G; Alverson, William S; Alcantara, Suzana; Queiroz, Luciano P; Mota, Aline C; Baum, David A

    2016-08-01

    Bombacoideae (Malvaceae) is a clade of deciduous trees with a marked dominance in many forests, especially in the Neotropics. The historical lack of a well-resolved phylogenetic framework for Bombacoideae hinders studies in this ecologically important group. We reexamined phylogenetic relationships in this clade based on a matrix of 6465 nuclear (ETS, ITS) and plastid (matK, trnL-trnF, trnS-trnG) DNA characters. We used maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference to infer relationships among 108 species (∼70% of the total number of known species). We analyzed the evolution of selected morphological traits: trunk or branch prickles, calyx shape, endocarp type, seed shape, and seed number per fruit, using ML reconstructions of their ancestral states to identify possible synapomorphies for major clades. Novel phylogenetic relationships emerged from our analyses, including three major lineages marked by fruit or seed traits: the winged-seed clade (Bernoullia, Gyranthera, and Huberodendron), the spongy endocarp clade (Adansonia, Aguiaria, Catostemma, Cavanillesia, and Scleronema), and the Kapok clade (Bombax, Ceiba, Eriotheca, Neobuchia, Pachira, Pseudobombax, Rhodognaphalon, and Spirotheca). The Kapok clade, the most diverse lineage of the subfamily, includes sister relationships (i) between Pseudobombax and "Pochota fendleri" a historically incertae sedis taxon, and (ii) between the Paleotropical genera Bombax and Rhodognaphalon, implying just two bombacoid dispersals to the Old World, the other one involving Adansonia. This new phylogenetic framework offers new insights and a promising avenue for further evolutionary studies. In view of this information, we present a new tribal classification of the subfamily, accompanied by an identification key.

  6. Growth, development and water use by saltcedar (Tamarix pentandra) under different conditions of weather and access to water

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Near Buckeye, Arizona, six evapotranspirometers were installed in 1959 and planted to saltcedar. This is a cooperative endeavor by the U. S. Bureau of Reclamation...

  7. Alpha-Amylase Inhibition and Antioxidative Capacity of Some Antidiabetic Plants Used by the Traditional Healers in Southeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday O. Oyedemi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome including diabetes mellitus (DM. The inhibition of alpha-amylase is an important therapeutic target in the regulation of postprandial increase of blood glucose in diabetic patients. The present study investigated the alpha-amylase inhibitory and antioxidant potential of selected herbal drugs used in the treatment of DM by the traditional healers in Isiala Mbano and Ikwuano regions of southeastern Nigeria. Antioxidant activity was evaluated in terms of free radical scavenging, reducing power, and total phenolic (TPC and flavonoid content (TFC in consonance with the TLC profiling. The results showed that methanol crude extracts from Anacardium occidentale (AO and Ceiba pentandra (CP recorded higher TPC and TFC, potent free radical scavenging, and efficient reducing power (RP as compared with other plant samples. All the plant extracts exhibited a relative alpha-amylase inhibition apart from Strophanthus hispidus (SH extract with a negative effect. We discovered a mild to weak correlation between alpha-amylase inhibition or antioxidative capacity and the total phenol or flavonoid content. At least in part, the results obtained in this work support the traditional use of certain plant species in the treatment of patients with DM.

  8. Alpha-Amylase Inhibition and Antioxidative Capacity of Some Antidiabetic Plants Used by the Traditional Healers in Southeastern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyedemi, Blessing O.; Ijeh, Ifeoma I.; Ohanyerem, Princemartins E.; Aiyegoro, Olayinka A.

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome including diabetes mellitus (DM). The inhibition of alpha-amylase is an important therapeutic target in the regulation of postprandial increase of blood glucose in diabetic patients. The present study investigated the alpha-amylase inhibitory and antioxidant potential of selected herbal drugs used in the treatment of DM by the traditional healers in Isiala Mbano and Ikwuano regions of southeastern Nigeria. Antioxidant activity was evaluated in terms of free radical scavenging, reducing power, and total phenolic (TPC) and flavonoid content (TFC) in consonance with the TLC profiling. The results showed that methanol crude extracts from Anacardium occidentale (AO) and Ceiba pentandra (CP) recorded higher TPC and TFC, potent free radical scavenging, and efficient reducing power (RP) as compared with other plant samples. All the plant extracts exhibited a relative alpha-amylase inhibition apart from Strophanthus hispidus (SH) extract with a negative effect. We discovered a mild to weak correlation between alpha-amylase inhibition or antioxidative capacity and the total phenol or flavonoid content. At least in part, the results obtained in this work support the traditional use of certain plant species in the treatment of patients with DM.

  9. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands;Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Ceiba), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  10. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Ceiba), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  11. Assessing the extent of "conflict of use" in multipurpose tropical forest trees: a regional view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Jáuregui, Cristina; Guariguata, Manuel R; Cárdenas, Dairon; Vilanova, Emilio; Robles, Marco; Licona, Juan Carlos; Nalvarte, Walter

    2013-11-30

    In the context of multiple forest management, multipurpose tree species which provide both timber and non-timber forest products (NTFP), present particular challenges as the potential of conflicting use for either product may be high. One key aspect is that the magnitude of conflict of use can be location specific, thus adding complexity to policy development. This paper focuses on the extent to which the potential for conflict of use in multipurpose tree species varies across the Amazonian lowland forests shared by Peru, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela, emphasizing the economic dimension of conflict. Based on a review of the current normative and regulatory aspects of timber and NTFP extraction in the five countries, the paper also briefly discusses the opportunities and constraints for harmonization of timber and NTFP management of multipurpose species across the region. It was found that about half of the 336 timber species reviewed across the five countries also have non-timber uses. Eleven timber species are multipurpose in all five countries: Calophyllum brasiliense, Cedrela odorata, Ceiba pentandra, Clarisia racemosa, Ficus insipida, Jacaranda copaia, Schefflera morototoni, Simarouba amara and Terminalia amazonia. Seven other multipurpose species occurred only in either Venezuela (Tabebuia impetiginosa, Spondias mombin, Pentaclethra macroloba, Copaifera officinalis, Chlorophora tinctoria, Carapa guianensis) or Ecuador (Tabebuia chrysantha). Four multipurpose tree species presented the highest potential of conflict of use across the region: Dipteryx odorata, Tabebuia serratifolia, Hymenaea courbaril and Myroxylon balsamum yet these were not evenly distributed across all five countries. None of the five studied countries have specific legislation to promote sustainable use of any of the multipurpose species reported here and thus mitigate potential conflict of use; nor documented management options for integration or else segregation of both their

  12. The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the early-stage restoration of seasonally dry tropical forest in Chamela, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Huante

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated the effect of two different sources of local inocula from two contrasting sites (mature forest, pasture of arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi (AMF and a non-mycorrhizal control on the plant growth of six woody species differing in functional characteristics (slow-, intermediate- and fast-growth, when introduced in a seasonally tropical dry forest (STDF converted into abandoned pasture. Six plots (12 X 12m were set as AMF inoculum source. Six replicates of six different species arranged in a Latin Square design were set in each plot. Plant height, cover area and the number of leaves produced by individual plant was measured monthly during the first growing season in each treatment. Species differed in their ability to benefit from AMF and the largest responsiveness in plant height and leaf production was exhibited by the slow-growing species Swietenia humilis, Hintonia latiflora and Cordia alliodora. At the end of the growing season (November, the plant height of the fast growing species Tabebuia donnel-smithii, Ceiba pentandra and Guazuma ulmifolia were not influenced by AMF. However, inocula of AMF increased leaf production of all plant species regardless the functional characteristics of the species, suggesting a better exploitation of above-ground space and generating a light limited environment under the canopy, which contributed to pasture suppression. Inoculation of seedlings planted in abandoned pasture areas is recommended for ecological restoration due to the high responsiveness of seedling growth in most of species. Use of forest inoculum with its higher diversity of AMF could accelerate the ecological restoration of the above and below-ground comunities.

  13. Avaliação de danos por insetos em toras estocadas em indústrias madeireiras de Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abreu Raimunda Liége Souza de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Em seis indústrias madeireiras de Manaus, Amazonas, foi realizado um trabalho de pesquisa, com a utilização de um questionário,para averiguar as condições de uso e processamento da madeira e as medidas preventivas contra o ataque de insetos. Foram realizados, também,um levantamento da ocorrência de insetos em 19 espécies de madeiras utilizadas por essas indústrias e a avaliação do dano provocado pelas principais espécies de Coleoptera (besouros e Isoptera (cupins. Das respostas apuradas, constatou-se que nenhuma das empresas visitadas emprega qualquer produto para prevenir o ataque de insetos às toras, assim como a secagem e a estocagem das toras são feitas de forma incorreta, contribuindo para aumentar a intensidade de ataque de insetos. Foram encontradas uma família de cupins e 16 de besouros, ressaltando que destas apenas cinco causam danos à madeira. Do total de 13 espécies de insetos coletados, destacam-se Xyleborus affinis Eichhoff e Platypus parallelus (Fabricius, encontradas em 18 espécies madeireiras, sendo conseqüentemente responsáveis pela maioria dos danos nas toras X. volvulus (Fabricius e Platypus sp. foram encontradas em cinco espécies; X. ferrugineus (Fabricius em três espécies; Minthea rugicolis Walk, Minthea sp. e Nasutitermes corniger (Motschulsky em duas, e Dinoderus bifoveolatus Wollaston, Anoplotermes sp.; e Cnesinus sp. em uma. As espécies de madeiras que sofreram maior grau de deterioração, causada principalmente por coleópteros, foram Ceiba pentandra (L. Gaertn. e Copaifera multijuga Hayne, seguidas por Couroupitaguianensis Aubl., Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess., Cedrela odorata L., Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg., Hura crepitans L., Hymenolobium sp., Maquira coriacea (Karsten C.C. Berg, Nectandra sp., Virolasurinamensis Warb. e Vochysia sp.

  14. Especies Maderables para la Cría en Laboratorio de Lyctus Brunneus (Stephens (Coleoptera: Lyctidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejía Mesa Luis Carlos

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available En el Laboratorio de Productos Forestales de La Universidad Nacional sede Medellín, se ensayaron tres especies de maderas tropicales bonga (Ceiba pentandra L. Gaertn, roble de tierra fría (Quercus humboldtii Bonpl. y chingalé (Jacaranda copaia Aubl. D. Don. Se utilizaron ramas de 5 a 8 cm de diámetro, secas al aire con un contenido de humedad del 14%. Así mismo se emplearon frascos de vidrio de 20cm por 16 cm, con tapa de baquelita perforada. Para realizar las pruebas de consumo en cada frasco se colocó una probeta de madera de 9 cm de Longitud, la cual fué infestada con 10 adultos. Se ensayaron 10 probetas por especie de madera, y como cámara de cría se implementó una vitrina metálica con puertas de vidrio. Las condiciones del ensayo fueron 20.3° C de temperatura y 63.5 % de humedad relativa. EL período de infestación a polvillo fué de 15 semanas para la bonga y el chingalé y de 24 semanas para el roble. La emergencia del primer adulto ocurrió a las 20 semanas en bonga, a las 24 semanas en chingalé y a las 31 semanas en roble. En chingalé el período de emergencia fué de 16 semanas, con un promedio de 3 adultos por hembra inicial, y la pérdida de peso en la madera por adulto emergido fué de 0.04 %. En el roble se observó, en 31 semanas de emergencia, un promedio de 7 adultos por hembra inicial, y una pérdida de peso de 0.06% no significativamente diferente al de la madera de chingalé. En bonga se observaron 2 generaciones de adultos, con un promedio de 47 por hembra inicial y un pérdida de peso en la madera de 0.23%. Los resultados permitieron catalogar a la madera de bonga como la más apta de las tres ensayadas para el cultivo de Lyctus en laboratorio.

  15. Keanekaragaman jenis benalu parasit pada tanaman koleksi di Kebun Raya Eka Karya, Bali

    OpenAIRE

    Tahan Uji; Sunaryo Sunaryo; Erlin Rachman

    2012-01-01

    Benalu is one of the parasitic plants which have ataccked many collection plants species in Eka Karya Botanical Garden, Bali. Exploration and collection of these parasitic plants in this area are conducted. Four parasitic plants species, i.e. Dendrophthoe pentandra, Helixanthera cylindrica, Scurrula atropurpurea, and S. parasitica are recorded and they attack 32 collection plants species in Eka Karya Botanical Garden. Dendrophthoe pentandra is reported as the highest population speci...

  16. 46 CFR 160.002-2 - Size and models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Life Preservers, Kapok, Adult and Child (Jacket Type), Models 3 and 5 § 160.002-2 Size and models. Each life preserver specified in this subpart is to be a: (a) Model...

  17. 46 CFR 160.002-1 - Incorporation by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Life Preservers, Kapok, Adult and Child (Jacket Type), Models 3... effect on the date life preservers are manufactured, form a part of this specification: Dwg. No. F-49-6-1...

  18. 46 CFR 160.002-6 - Marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Life Preservers, Kapok, Adult and Child (Jacket Type), Models 3 and 5 § 160.002-6 Marking. Each life preserver must have the following clearly marked in waterproof...

  19. 46 CFR 160.002-7 - Procedure for approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Life Preservers, Kapok, Adult and Child (Jacket Type), Models 3 and 5 § 160.002-7 Procedure for approval. General. Manufacturers seeking approval of a life preserver...

  20. Substrate affects growth and yield of shiitake mushroom

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M Ashrafuzzaman; A K M Kamruzzaman; M Razi ismail; S M Shahidullah; S A Fakir

    2009-01-01

    ... (Dipterocarpus alatus Roxb.), Ipil-ipil [Leucaena glauca (Linn) Benth], Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam), Mango (Mangifera indica L.), Raintree [Albizia saman (Jacq.) F Müll], Segun (Tectona grandis L.), Shimul (Bombax ceiba L), Shisoo...

  1. N-溴代丁二亚酰胺催化制备乙酰化木棉纤维及吸油性能研究%Preparation of Acetylated Kapok Fiber Using N-bromosuccinimide as a Catalyst and Its Oil Sorption Property Investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锦涛; 王爱勤

    2015-01-01

    以N-溴代丁二亚酰胺(NBS)为催化剂,制备了乙酰化木棉纤维吸油材料.利用红外光谱(FTIR)、扫描电镜(SEM)和X射线光电能谱仪(XPS)对乙酰化前后木棉纤维表面的化学组成和形貌结构进行了表征.考察了NBS浓度、乙酸酐用量、反应温度和反应时间等因素对材料吸油性能的影响.正交试验结果表明,在NBS浓度11.3mmol/L、乙酸酐用量37.5%、反应温度70℃和反应时间1h的条件下,吸油材料有最大的吸油率,对氯仿、甲苯和环己烷的吸油倍率分别可达到82.2 g/g、53.2 g/g和43.8 g/g.

  2. Keanekaragaman jenis benalu parasit pada tanaman koleksi di Kebun Raya Eka Karya, Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahan Uji

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Benalu is one of the parasitic plants which have ataccked many collection plants species in Eka Karya Botanical Garden, Bali. Exploration and collection of these parasitic plants in this area are conducted. Four parasitic plants species, i.e. Dendrophthoe pentandra, Helixanthera cylindrica, Scurrula atropurpurea, and S. parasitica are recorded and they attack 32 collection plants species in Eka Karya Botanical Garden. Dendrophthoe pentandra is reported as the highest population species to parasiting collection plants species. While the Myrtaceae family and Syzygium genera are also reported as the highest parasited species.

  3. OPTIMASI VARIABEL YANG PALING BERPENGARUH PADA PEMBUATAN BIODIESEL DARI MINYAK BIJI RANDU DENGAN PROSES TRANSESTERIFIKASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudzofar Sofyan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available [Title: Biodiesel Production from Kapok Seed Oil with KOH Catalyst Using Two Steps Transesterification Process] Biodiesel is one of diesel fuel alternative made from renewable resources such as vegetable oils and animal fats. One of the natural ingredients that can be used as a material in the production of biodiesel is kapok seed. The existence of relatively abundant raw materials is a great opportunity to be developed into alternative energy options which developed on a commercial scale. Biodiesel from kapok seed oil can be made through a two-stage transesterification reaction which helped by using a base catalyst. This research aims to characterize the kapok seed oil, determine the most influential variables between temperature, the ratio of methanol-oil, and time against yield by the factorial design method, optimization variables that most influence on yield, and characterize the biodiesel. Two-stage transesterification process using KOH as the catalyst with changing variables: temperature, methanol-oil ratio, and time. The result showed that kapok seed oil has FFA content: 17.97% and a saponification number: 172.55 mgKOH/g. Most influential variable is the variable of time. At the variable optimization of time, the result were optimally obtained at the 105th minutes with yield: 77.39%. The characterization results of biodiesel’s product show from seven parameters of testing, four parameters are required in accordance with SNI.

  4. 46 CFR 160.002-5 - Sampling, tests, and inspections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Life Preservers, Kapok, Adult and Child (Jacket... inspections must be conducted by the manufacturer of a life preserver and the accepted laboratory inspector in... life preserver shall be determined according to § 160.001-5(f) of this part with each compartment of...

  5. 46 CFR 160.002-3 - Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Life Preservers, Kapok, Adult and Child (Jacket Type), Models 3 and 5 § 160.002-3 Materials. All components used in the construction of the life preserver must meet... subchapter and shall be properly processed. (b) Envelope. The life preserver envelope, or cover, shall be...

  6. 46 CFR 160.048-4 - Construction and workmanship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... at a rate of separation of the clamping jaws of the test machine of 12 inches per minute. Each... less than 5 ounces of kapok or 9 ounces of fibrous glass each; and the volume displacement of the..., and the period of submergence shall be only long enough to determine the displacement of the pads. (e...

  7. 46 CFR 160.047-2 - Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Model. 160.047-2 Section 160.047-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Specification for a Buoyant Vest, Kapok or Fibrous Glass, Adult and Child § 160.047-2 Model. Each buoyant...

  8. Enhancement of acoustical performance of hollow tube sound absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, Azma; Khair, Fazlin Abd; Nor, Mohd Jailani Mohd

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents acoustical performance of hollow structures utilizing the recycled lollipop sticks as acoustic absorbers. The hollow cross section of the structures is arranged facing the sound incidence. The effects of different length of the sticks and air gap on the acoustical performance are studied. The absorption coefficient was measured using impedance tube method. Here it is found that improvement on the sound absorption performance is achieved by introducing natural kapok fiber inserted into the void between the hollow structures. Results reveal that by inserting the kapok fibers, both the absorption bandwidth and the absorption coefficient increase. For test sample backed by a rigid surface, best performance of sound absorption is obtained for fibers inserted at the front and back sides of the absorber. And for the case of test sample with air gap, this is achieved for fibers introduced only at the back side of the absorber.

  9. Enhancement of acoustical performance of hollow tube sound absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putra, Azma, E-mail: azma.putra@utem.edu.my; Khair, Fazlin Abd, E-mail: fazlinabdkhair@student.utem.edu.my; Nor, Mohd Jailani Mohd, E-mail: jai@utem.edu.my [Centre for Advanced Research on Energy, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Hang Tuah Jaya, Durian Tunggal Melaka 76100 Malaysia (Malaysia)

    2016-03-29

    This paper presents acoustical performance of hollow structures utilizing the recycled lollipop sticks as acoustic absorbers. The hollow cross section of the structures is arranged facing the sound incidence. The effects of different length of the sticks and air gap on the acoustical performance are studied. The absorption coefficient was measured using impedance tube method. Here it is found that improvement on the sound absorption performance is achieved by introducing natural kapok fiber inserted into the void between the hollow structures. Results reveal that by inserting the kapok fibers, both the absorption bandwidth and the absorption coefficient increase. For test sample backed by a rigid surface, best performance of sound absorption is obtained for fibers inserted at the front and back sides of the absorber. And for the case of test sample with air gap, this is achieved for fibers introduced only at the back side of the absorber.

  10. Nutritive and Antioxidant properties of Shade Dried Leafy Vegetables Consumed in Northern Côte d’Ivoire

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Dehegnan Oulaï; Lessoy Yves Thierry Zoue; Sébastien Lamine Niamké

    2016-01-01

    Leafy vegetables are highly perishable and often subjected to post-harvest wastes. Among the various methods of preservation, the effect of shadow drying on the nutritive value and antioxidant properties of five (5) leafy vegetables species widely consumed in Northern Côte d’Ivoire was investigated. These species were Amaranthus hybridus, Andasonia digitata, Ceiba patendra, Hibiscus sabdariffa and Vigna unguiculata. Experiment was conducted as follow: portions of washed and drained fresh leaf...

  11. Overcoming dormancy in seeds of cotton-silk tree

    OpenAIRE

    Irinaldo Lima do Nascimento

    2012-01-01

    Cotton-silk tree Ceiba glaziovii (kuntze) k. Schu belongs to family Bombacaceas and is locally known as barriguda. It is widely used in landscaping and reforestation, neverdeless seed dormancy affects reproduction in this species. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different methods to overcome dormancy in the germination process. Treatments included mechanical scarification with 85-grit sandpaper, chemical scarification with concentrated sulfuric acid for 5, 10,...

  12. Aspectos literarios de la obra de Don Joan de Castellanos: Capítulo V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Arbeláez

    1965-07-01

    Full Text Available Capítulo V. Comparaciones de las elegías (IV El reino vegetal proporciona a Castellanos más de un símil. En 1541 una tormenta destruyó la prosperidad de la isla de Cubagua en donde residía el cronista. El ruido de los edificios que caían la recuerda la ceiba.

  13. Antibacterial activities of the methanol extracts of Canarium schweinfurthii and four other Cameroonian dietary plants against multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim K. Dzotam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial infections are among the major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of the methanol extracts of five Cameroonian edible plants namely Colocasia esculenta, Triumfetta pentandra, Hibiscus esculentus, Canarium schweinfurthii and Annona muricata against a panel of 19 multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacterial strains. The liquid broth microdilution was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC of the extracts. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the extracts was conducted according to the standard phytochemical methods. Results showed that all extracts contained compounds belonging to the classes of polyphenols, triterpenes and steroids, other classes of chemicals being selectively distributed. Canarium schweinfurthii extract showed the best activity with MIC values ranging from 64 to 1024 μg/mL against 89.5% of the 19 tested bacteria strains. MIC values below or equal to 1024 μg/mL were also recorded with Triumfetta pentandra, Annona muricata, Colocasia esculenta and Hibiscus esculentus extracts respectively against 15/19 (78.9%, 11/19 (57.9%, 10/19 (52.6% and 10/19 (52.6% tested bacteria. Extract from C. schweinfurthii displayed the lowest MIC value (64 μg/mL against Escherichia coli AG100ATet. Finally, the results of this work provide baseline information for the use of C. esculenta, T. pentandra, H. esculentus, C. schweinfurthii and A. muricata in the treatment of bacterial infections including multidrug resistant phenotypes.

  14. Antibacterial activities of the methanol extracts of Canarium schweinfurthii and four other Cameroonian dietary plants against multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzotam, Joachim K; Touani, Francesco K; Kuete, Victor

    2016-09-01

    Bacterial infections are among the major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of the methanol extracts of five Cameroonian edible plants namely Colocasia esculenta, Triumfetta pentandra, Hibiscus esculentus, Canarium schweinfurthii and Annona muricata against a panel of 19 multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacterial strains. The liquid broth microdilution was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the extracts. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the extracts was conducted according to the standard phytochemical methods. Results showed that all extracts contained compounds belonging to the classes of polyphenols, triterpenes and steroids, other classes of chemicals being selectively distributed. Canarium schweinfurthii extract showed the best activity with MIC values ranging from 64 to 1024 μg/mL against 89.5% of the 19 tested bacteria strains. MIC values below or equal to 1024 μg/mL were also recorded with Triumfetta pentandra, Annona muricata, Colocasia esculenta and Hibiscus esculentus extracts respectively against 15/19 (78.9%), 11/19 (57.9%), 10/19 (52.6%) and 10/19 (52.6%) tested bacteria. Extract from C. schweinfurthii displayed the lowest MIC value (64 μg/mL) against Escherichia coli AG100ATet. Finally, the results of this work provide baseline information for the use of C. esculenta, T. pentandra, H. esculentus, C. schweinfurthii and A. muricata in the treatment of bacterial infections including multidrug resistant phenotypes.

  15. An assessment of the capacity for phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase to contribute to C4 photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koteyeva, Nuria K; Voznesenskaya, Elena V; Edwards, Gerald E

    2015-06-01

    Three C4 acid decarboxylases, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME), and NAD-malic enzyme (NAD-ME) were recruited from C3 plants to support C4 photosynthesis. In Poaceae, there are established lineages having PEPCK type species, and some NADP-ME lineages in which PEPCK contributes to C4. Besides family Poaceae, recently PEPCK has been reported to function in C4 photosynthesis in eudicot species including Cleome gynandra (Cleomaceae), Trianthema portulacastrum and Zaleya pentandra (Aizoaceae). We evaluated PEPCK by enzyme assay and western blots in representatives of Poaceae, Aizoaceae, Cleomaceae, and Chenopodiaceae compared to that in the PEPCK type C4 grass Spartina anglica. Eragrostis nutans was identified as the first NAD-ME type C4 grass having substantial amounts of PEPCK. In the eudicots, including C. gynandra, Cleome angustifolia, T. portulacastrum, Z. pentandra, and nine C4 members of family Chenopodiaceae (which has the most C4 species and diversity in forms among eudicot families), amounts of PEPCK were generally very low (barely detectable up to 4% of that in S. anglica). Based on these results, C4 species can be classified biochemically according to the dominant decarboxylase recruited for C4 function; and, Poaceae remains the only family in which PEPCK is known to have a significant role in C4 photosynthesis.

  16. Chemodiversity Associated with Cytotoxicity and Antimicrobial Activity of Piper aduncum var. ossanum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Yamilet; Montes, Rodny; Scull, Ramón; Sánchez, Arturo; Cos, Paul; Monzote, Lianet; Setzer, William N

    2016-12-01

    Chemical analysis, antimicrobial activity and cytotoxic effects of essential oils (EOs) from leaves of Piper aduncum var. ossanum from two localities Bauta (EO-B) and Ceiba (EO-C), Artemisa Province, Cuba, were determined. EOs were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. EO-B demonstrated higher activity against S. aureus and L. amazonensis; while a lower cytotoxicity on mammalian cells was observed. Both EOs displayed the same activity against Plasmodium falciparum, Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei, and Leishmania infantum. Both EOs were inactive against Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  17. Advanced Mathematical Model to Describe the Production of Biodiesel Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikmat S. Al-Salim

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Advanced mathematical model was used to capture the batch reactor characteristics of reacting compounds. The model was applied to batch reactor for the production of bio-diesel from palm and kapok oils. Results of the model were compared with experimental data in terms of conversion of transesterification reaction for the production of bio-diesel under unsteady state. A good agreement was obtained between our model predictions and the experimental data. Both experimental and modeling results showed that the conversion of triglycerides to methyl ester was affected by the process conditions. The transesterification process with temperature of about 70 oC, and methanol ratio to the triglyceride of about 5 times its stoichiometry, and the NAOH catalyst of wt 0.4%, appear to be acceptable process conditions for bio diesel process production from palm oil and kapok oil. The model can be applied for endothermic batch process. © 2009 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved[Received: 12 August 2009, Revised: 15 October 2009; Accepted: 18 October 2009][How to Cite: A.S. Ibrehem, H. S. Al-Salim. (2009. Advanced Mathematical Model to Describe the Production of Biodiesel Process. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 4(2: 37-42. doi:10.9767/bcrec.4.2.28.37-42][How to Link/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.4.2.28.37-42

  18. Proteinase inhibitors in Brazilian leguminosae

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    C. A. M. Sampaio

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Serine proteinase inhitors, in the seeds of several Leguminosae from the Pantanal region (West Brazil, were studied using bovine trypsin, a digestive enzyme, Factor XIIa and human plasma Kallikrein, two blood clotting factors. The inhibitors were purified from Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Mr=23,000, Torresea cearensis (Mr = 13,000, Bauhinia pentandra (Mr = 20,000 and Bauhinia bauhinioides (Mr = 20,000. E. contortisiliquum inhibitor inactivates all three enzymes, whereas the T. cearensis inhibitor inactivates trypsin and Factor XSSa, but does nor affect plasma kallikrein; both Bauhinia inhibitors, on the other hand, inactivate trypsin and plasma kallikrein but only the Bpentandra inhibitor affects Factor XIIa. Ki values were calculated between 10 [raised to the power of] -7 and 10 [raised to the power of] -8 M.

  19. Plant based native therapy for skin problems in Aurangabad district (M.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiuddin Naser

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An Ethnobotanical survey was carried out to collect information on the use of medicinal plants by the local and tribal people of some selected areas of Aurangabad district of Maharashtra state. A total of 26 plants have been recorded here which are used for curing 20 types of skin problems (Dermatological problems, such as boils, eruption, cuts, wounds, eczema, syphilis, urticaria etc. The data was collected by using questionnaire approach, group discussion and contact with traditional healers of the villages.The investigated plant taxa have been listed according to their uses in curing the diseases, along with botanical names, families, local names, parts used and routes of administration. Some noteworthy medicinal plants are Hydnocarpus pentandra, Murraya koenigii, Tagetes erecta, Withania somnifera, Sapindus trifoliatus, Rauwolfia serpentine, Centella asiatica, Eclipta alba etc.

  20. Advanced Mathematical Model to Describe the Production of Biodiesel Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmmed S. Ibrehem

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Advanced mathematical model was used to capture the batch reactor characteristics of reacting compounds. The model was applied to batch reactor for the production of bio-diesel from palm and kapok oils. Results of the model were compared with experimental data in terms of conversion of transesterification reaction for the production of bio-diesel under unsteady state. A good agreement was obtained between our model predictions and the experimental data. Both experimental and modeling results showed that the conversion of triglycerides to methyl ester was affected by the process conditions. The transesterification process with temperature of about 70 oC, and methanol ratio to the triglyceride of about 5 times its stoichiometry, and the NAOH catalyst of wt 0.4%, appear to be acceptable process conditions for bio diesel process production from palm oil and kapok oil. The model can be applied for endothermic batch process. © 2009 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved[Received: 12 August 2009, Revised: 15 October 2009; Accepted: 18 October 2009][How to Cite: A.S. Ibrehem, H. S. Al-Salim. (2009. Advanced Mathematical Model to Describe the Production of Biodiesel Process. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 4(2: 37-42.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.4.2.7109.37-42][How to Link/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.4.2.7109.37-42 || or local:  http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/7109 ] 

  1. High prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium among female sex workers in Honduras: implications for the spread of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, L G; Paz-Bailey, G; Morales-Miranda, S; Morgan, M; Alvarez, B; Hickman, L; Monterroso, E

    2012-01-01

    This study describes HIV, sexually transmitted infections (STI) and risk factors associated with Mycoplasma genitalium among female sex workers (FSWs) in four cities in Honduras. In 2006, 795 FSWs from Tegucigalpa, San Pedro Sula, La Ceiba and Comayagua were recruited using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) and tested for HIV prevalence and STI. HIV prevalence ranged from no infections in Comayagua to 5.4% in Tegucigalpa. With the exception of Comayagua, more than 20% of FSWs were infected with M. genitalium. M. genitalium in the aggregated cities was associated with HIV positivity, being aged ≤30 years old, drinking alcohol more than once weekly and always using condoms with regular clients in the past month. In comparison with a 2001 surveillance study we found lower rates of HIV infection. Interventions for HIV control and prevention among FSWs, including promotion of condom use, are needed in Honduras.

  2. The distribution of anacardiaceae in teluk bahang forest reserve, pulau pinang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juperi, Shaodah; Zakaria, Rahmad; Mansor, Asyraf

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the distribution of Anacardiaceae in Teluk Bahang Permanent Forest Reserve (TBPFR) in Pulau Pinang, all trees with a diameter at breast high (DBH) ≥ 5 cm were enumerated in a study site constituting 0.4 ha of the reserve. Seventy five individuals of Anacardiaceae (14% of all trees) are recorded. These individuals represent 4 genera and 5 species, namely, Mangifera pentandra, Mangifera macrocarpa, Gluta elegans, Campnosperma auriculatum and Swintonia floribunda. The mean density of Anacardiaceae within the study plots is 7.50±8.14 (mean±S.D.) per ha whereas the basal area (BA) calculated is 0.97 m(2)/0.40 ha. The importance value (IVi) for Anacardiaceae is 81%. The estimated total aboveground biomass (TAGB) for Anacardiaceae is 24.24 ton/0.40 ha. A total of 333 Anacardiaceae saplings with a DBH juveniles of the genera Gluta (9.99%), Swintonia (84.90%) and Mangifera (5.11%).

  3. 42种阔叶树材木纤维长度和宽度的研究%The research on wood fiber length and width of 42 kinds of hardwood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄日明; 陈承德

    2014-01-01

    对42种阔叶树材木纤维的长度和宽度进行了测定。结果表明,纤维最短的是芒果(842μm),最长的为木棉(2258μm);宽度最小的是相思树(15μm),最大是拟赤杨(44μm);纤维长宽比值,最低是泡桐仅为31,最高是木棉83。天然野生的酸枣和杜英与人工栽培的对比,二者的纤维长度均存在极显著差异,酸枣纤维宽度差异不显著,杜英差异显著。盆架木的纤维长度和宽度,集美产的和龙岩产的对比均存在显著差异,银桦和芒果纤维长度和宽度不同产地之间均无显著差异。%The wood fiber length and width of 42 kinds of hardwood were determined. The results showed: the shortest fiber is Mangifera indica (842μm); the longest fiber is Bombax ceiba (2258μm); the smallest fiber width is Acaia confusa(15μm); the largest fiber width is Alniphyllum fortunei (44μm). The minimum fiber length-width ratio is Paulownia fortuneionly with 31; the maximum is Bombax ceiba with 83. There were more significant differences between natural wild and artificial cultivation in fiber length of the Choerospondias axillaris and the Elaeocarpus decipiens. There was no significant difference between them in the fiber width of the Choerospondias axillaris. There were significant differences between them in the fiber width of the Elaeocarpus decipiens. There were significant differences in the fiber length and width of the Alstonia scholaris between Jimei and Longyan. There was no significant difference in the fiber length and width of the Grevillea robusta and Mangifera indica between different regions.

  4. Desempenho de cordeiros alimentados com dietas contendo sal forrageiro de espécies vegetais xerófitas Performance of lambs fed diets with fodder salt composed of xerophilic plants species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geógenes da Silva Gonçalves

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o uso de sal forrageiro sobre os consumos de sal forrageiro (CSF e de feno de capim-pangola (Digitaria decumbens e os consumos de matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, hemicelulose (HCEL, lignina e água (AGU, além do ganho de peso diário (GPD e da conversão alimentar de cordeiros em confinamento. Os sais forrageiros foram compostos de farelos de fenos (90% das dicotiledôneas, sal mineral (5% e milho triturado (5%. Utilizaram-se 30 animais machos não-castrados, mestiços Santa Inês, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos (sal mineral; sal forrageiro de leucena, Leucaena leucocephala; sal forrageiro da parte aérea de mandioca, Manihot esculenta; sal forrageiro de feijão-bravo, Macroptilium bracteatum; sal forrageiro de barriguda, Ceiba samauma; e sal forrageiro de quipé, Piptadenia moniliformis, cada um com cinco repetições. Os sais forrageiros de leucena e da parte aérea de mandioca promoveram melhores resultados de desempenho, ganhos de pesos totais e conversão alimentar, o que evidencia o potencial dessas forrageiras para formulação de sal forrageiro, utilizado na suplementação de dietas para cordeiros em confinamento.This study was to evaluate the use of fodder salt (salt and dicotyledon hay mix on daily intake of fodder salt (IFS and pangola (Digitaria decumbens hay, and intakes of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, hemicellulose (HCEL, lignin and water (AGU, in addition to daily weight gain (ADG and feed conversion tatio of lambs in confinement. Fodder salts were compound by dicotyledon hay meal (90%, mineral salt (5% and ground maize (5%. Thirty non-castrated male animals, crossbred Santa Inez, were distributed to a completely randomized design, with six fodder salts (mineral salt, fodder salts of: leucaena, (Leucaena leucocephala; aerial part of cassava, (Manihot

  5. Use of biomass sorbents for oil removal from gas station runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Eakalak; Virojnagud, Wanpen; Ratpukdi, Thunyalux

    2004-11-01

    The use of biomass sorbents, which are less expensive and more biodegradable than synthetic sorbents, for oil removal from gas station runoff was investigated. A bench-scale flume experiment was conducted to evaluate the oil removal and retention capabilities of the biomass sorbents which included kapok fiber, cattail fiber, Salvinia sp., wood chip, rice husk, coconut husk, and bagasse. Polyester fiber, a commercial synthetic sorbent, was also experimented for comparison purpose. Oil sorption and desorption tests were performed at a water flow rate of 20 lmin-1. In the oil sorption tests, a 50 mgl(-1) of used engine oil-water mixture was synthesized to simulate the gas station runoff. The mass of oil sorbed for all sorbents, except coconut husk and bagasse, was greater than 70%. Cattail fiber and polyester fiber were the sorbents that provided the least average effluent oil concentrations. Oil selectivity (hydrophobic properties) and physical characteristics of the sorbents are the two main factors that influence the oil sorption capability. The used sorbents from the sorption tests were employed in the desorption tests. Results indicated that oil leached out of all the sorbents tested. Polyester fiber released the highest amount of oil, approximately 4% (mass basis) of the oil sorbed.

  6. 亲油性纤维材料性能及应用%Lipophilic Fiber Material Properties and Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘高

    2013-01-01

    The cellulosic fibers are widely distributed in nature, such as cones Fatong fibers, Kapok fibers, Yanghwa fibers, Dandelion fibers are cellulose fibers, fibers with oil fast, large oil, water repellent performance characteristics fibers for textile production and processing is not easy, but can be used as a sea absorbing material, and processing method is simple, absorbing effect.%  纤维素纤维是自然界广泛分布的天然纤维,像法桐球果纤维、木棉纤维、杨花纤维、蒲公英绒纤维,都是纤维素纤维,纤维具有吸油快、吸油量大、拒水的性能特点,纤维不易进行纺织生产加工,但可以作为海面吸油材料使用,并且加工方法简单,吸油效果好。

  7. Inventory of Musa paradisiaca L. (banana kepok in Lumajang regency, Malang regency, and Magelang regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhadi Suhadi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Banana is fruit containing fairly high nutrition and provides quick reserve enegy. The crop grows in tropical area with average rainfall all the year and banana produces at any season. One of the bananas which has high value sale and high competable potency is subvariety of kepok banana. Kepok banana has various subvarieties, these subvarieties have the same morphologies but have different texture appearances thus uneasy to differenciate among them. The texture appearance determines the quality and price of the banana. Often the buyer makes a mistake in choosing subvariety of kepok he wants to, whereas the seller gives him the cheapiest subvariety of kepok. Methods we used was method of exploration using free exploration technique step by step without any certain path. There were two phases in the research namely the fi rst phase was carried out in field and the second phase was done in the laboratory. Subvarieties of kepok found in Lumajang Regency are 4 subcultivars, Malang Regency there are 3 and Magelang Regency are subcultivars subcultivars, The sequence of the qulity of kapok subcultivars are as follows, red kepok, yellow kepok, big (gede, gilo, gembrot kepok, and white kepok. Sugestion, organic ferlitilizer should be used in the fertilization of banana cultivation, and conservation of red kepok is highly required.

  8. Quantificação e Avaliação das Principais Espécies Florestais Licenciadas no Estado do Acre de 2005 a 2012

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    Flávia Alessandra Pinheiro da Rocha Cordeiro e Silva

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar, identificar e quantificar os 15 principais gêneros e espécies florestais exploradas legalmente no estado do Acre, na Amazônia brasileira, bem como analisar o número de autorizações emitidas para exploração de florestas manejadas, o volume de madeira e a área de manejo licenciada pelo Instituto de Meio Ambiente do Acre de janeiro de 2005 a agosto de 2012. Os dados coletados demonstraram que a área e o volume de madeira licenciados apresentaram um crescimento no período analisado, atingindo o ápice em 2010 e 2011, respectivamente. Os 15 principais gêneros e espécies licenciados foram: cumaru-ferro (Dipteryx spp., garapeira (Apuleia spp., sumaúma (Ceiba spp., açacu (Hura crepitans L., matamatá (Eschweilera spp., jatobá (Hymenaea spp., tauari (Couratari spp., manitê (Brosimun spp., caucho (Castilla ulei Warb., cedro (Cedrela spp., guariúba (Clarisia racemosa Ruiz e Pav., faveira (Parkia spp., copaíba (Copaifera spp., guaribeiro (Phyllocarpus riedelii Tul. e abiurana (Pouteria spp..

  9. Evaluation of Vetiver (Vetiveria nigritana Plant Extract as Eco-Friendly Wood Preservative

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    F. K. Owofadeju

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The preservative potentials of Vetiver (Vetiveria nigritana plant extracts on Ceiba pentadra wood against termites and wood borers was investigated. Samples were extracted using water and methanol. The wood samples were treated with the extracts and exposed to termites and wood borers for 12 weeks. The modulus of elasticity, modulus of rupture, decay resistance and field exposure were tested for in the samples and recorded before and after treatment for comparison in accordance to ASTM standards. Results were analysed using ANOVA. Laboratory analysis on Vetiver plant indicated the following: Na (0.5%, K (0.96%, Ca (1.28%, Mg (1.06%, P (0.46%. Mechanical tests revealed that V. nigritana extracts do not have any significant effect on the strength properties of the wood. Grave yard test showed that the untreated and V.nigritana water extract treated wood samples were damaged up to 40%, while no significance deterioration was observed in those treated with V.nigritana methanol extract. These results showed that that V.nigritana methanol extract could be used as effective eco-friendly wood preservative against termites and wood borers.

  10. Construction and evaluation of a Toolbox for the formulation of the Hydrologic component of the Basin Management Plans in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzón, Victor H.; Garzón, Ricardo; Avellaneda, Pedro M.; Rodríguez, Erasmo A.; Alfonso, Leonardo

    2016-10-01

    The Colombian Ministry of Environment, Housing and Territorial Development issued the Policy for Integrated Water Resources Management in 2010, with the formulation of Basin Management Plans (POMCA) as a key component. The main purpose of these plans is to support land use planning and sustainable management of renewable natural resources. Since the announcement of the policy; however, advances in the formulation of POMCAs have been limited, due to the need of generating knowledge and the necessary information to formulate such plans. To contribute to the generation of such knowledge, we developed HidroCHEP: a Toolbox to support the formulation and hydrologic characterization of Colombian basins. In this paper, we report the design, architecture, implementation and use of the toolbox, to understand the climatic variability of the country and to improve predictions in ungauged basins. The use of the toolbox is illustrated and evaluated through its application in three pilot river basins (Pamplonita, Gualí and Ceibas) each with different level of available hydrologic and climatic data. This paper focuses on the use of the toolbox for the development of one of the products required by the technical guide for the formulation of POMCA, in the Pamplonita river basin. Main advantages and disadvantages of its application are evaluated. It is demonstrated that the toolbox has the potential to support the formulation of POMCAs in the country and to contribute to integrated national water resources management.

  11. Anti-microbial principles of selected remedial plants from Southern India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tirupathi Rao G; Suresh Babu K; Ujwal Kumar J; Sujana P; A Veerabhadr Raoa; Sreedhar AS

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the anti-bacterial activity of leaf extracts of Morus alba L. (Moraceae) and Piper betel L. (Piperaceae), and seed extracts of Bombax ceiba L. (Borabacaceae). Methods:We have partially purified plant extracts by solvent extraction method, and evaluated the effect of individual fractions on bacterial growth using Escherichia coli (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) bacterial strains. Results: Compared withMorus and Bombax fractions, Piper fractions showed significant growth inhibition on all the three types of bacteria studied. The EtOAc-hexane fractions of Piper leaves exhibited significant anti-bacterial activity with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 50 μg/mL culture against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The EtOAc-fractions I, II, and IV inhibited bacterial colony formation on soft agar in addition to growth inhibition. A combination treatment of piper fractions with ampicillin resulted in significant growth inhibition in E. coli and P. aeruginosa, and combination with anticancer drug geldanamycin (2μg/mL) showed selective growthinhibition against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. Three major compounds, i.e., eugenol, 3-hexene-ol and stigmasterol, were primarily identified from Piper betel leaf extractions. Among the individual compounds, eugenol treatment showed improved growth inhibition compared with stigmasterol and 3-hexene-ol. Conclusions: We are reporting potential anti-bacterial compounds from Piperbetel against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria either alone or in combination with drug treatment.

  12. Pharmacogenetics in Latin American populations: regulatory aspects, application to herbal medicine, cardiovascular and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodeiro, Idania; Remírez-Figueredo, Diadelis; García-Mesa, Milagros; Dorado, Pedro; LLerena, Adrián

    2012-01-01

    Meeting report of the "Second Symposium on Pharmacology of Cytochrome P450 and Transporters" organized by the Cuban Society of Pharmacology in collaboration with the European Society of Pharmacogenetics and Theranostics (ESPT) and the Ibero-American Network of Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics (www.ribef.com). The Symposium covered different topics on pharmacogenetics and its clinical implications, focusing on Latin-American populations. The activities of the ESPT were also presented and discussed. The topics addressed were regulatory aspects, the use of pharmacogenetics in pre-clinical research, herbal medicine, and natural products, ending with a discussion about translation into clinical practice, specifically for cardiovascular disorders and psychiatry. Finally, the implication for population diversity in Latin America was also discussed. The RIBEF initiative represents a promising step towards the inclusion of Latin American populations among those to benefit from the implementation of pharmacogenetics in clinical practice. Among current RIBEF activities, the CEIBA.FP Consortium aims to study the variability of pheno- and genotypes in Hispanics that are relevant to pharmacogenetics. For this purpose, populations from Mexico, Cuba, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Colombia, Brasil, Perú, Chile, Uruguay, Argentina, Portugal, and Spain are currently being studied. The meeting's main conclusion was that population pharmacogenetic studies as well as academic clinical trials might need to be conducted in the different geographic locations/countries. This is important in order to improve drug safety, dosage recommendations, and pharmacovigilance programs, because environmental and ethnic factors vary across locations.

  13. Nutritional quality of foods marketed to children in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Matthew D; Clements, Dennis; Benjamin Neelon, Sara E

    2014-02-01

    Evidence suggests that exposure to advertising of unhealthy foods may contribute to increased rates of obesity in children. This study examined the extent to which television stations marketed unhealthy foods to children during after-school programming aired over one week in La Ceiba, Honduras. Content analysis was performed on four television stations, including one broadcast station and three cable networks. Eighty hours of programming were recorded and analyzed. Advertised products were categorized as food or non-food items, with food items further classified as healthy or unhealthy. Advertisements were coded as those aimed at children, adults, or both, and chi-square tests were used to compare the proportion of unhealthy advertisements by target audience. A total of 2271 advertisements aired during the observation period, with 1120 marketing products (49.3%). Of those, 397 (35.4%) promoted foods-30.2% were for healthy foods and 69.8% for unhealthy foods. The unhealthy foods were all advertised on cable networks and not the broadcast station. Children appeared to be targeted more than adults in advertisements for unhealthy foods (92.1%, p<0.001). Cable television programming during after-school hours advertised primarily unhealthy foods. Exposure to these advertisements may promote consumption of unhealthy foods by children, increasing their risk of obesity.

  14. Rare or rarely detected? Ceraceosorus guamensis sp. nov.: a second described species of Ceraceosorales and the potential for underdetection of rare lineages with common sampling techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijpornyongpan, Teeratas; Catherine Aime, M

    2016-08-01

    Ceraceosorales is a monotypic order in Ustilaginomycotina. Its namesake, Ceraceosorus bombacis, was described as a phytopathogen of Bombax ceiba in India. In this study, we describe Ceraceosorus guamensis sp. nov., collected on the South Pacific island of Guam, which appears to represent the second isolation of any member of this order in over 40 years. Ceraceosorus species are monokaryotic and filamentous in culture, producing conidia on potato dextrose agar. However, both species behave yeast-like when cultured on corn meal agar. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region (spanning the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) in both species of Ceraceosorus is highly heterogeneous containing multiple disparate copies that can vary intragenomically by up to 3.5 %. Moreover, this region could not be amplified using the fungal ITS primers most frequently used for culture-independent methods of assessing fungal biodiversity. This fact, combined with the extremely slow growth rates on commonly employed media, may indicate that members of this lineage are potentially underdetected by current sampling methods.

  15. Species-specific associations between overstory and understory tree species in a semideciduous tropical forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviana Maluf Souza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the occurrence of associations between overstory and understory tree species in a semideciduous tropical forest. We identified and measured all trees of nine canopy species with diameter at breast height ≥4.8 cm in a 10.24 ha plot and recorded all individuals beneath their canopies ("understory individuals" within the same diameter class. The total density of understory individuals did not significantly differ under different overstory species. One overstory species (Ceiba speciosa showed higher understory species richness compared with five other species. There was a strong positive association between three overstory species (Esenbeckia leiocarpa, Savia dictyocarpa, and C. speciosa and the density of seven understory species (Balfourodendron riedelianum, Chrysophyllum gonocarpum, E. leiocarpa, Holocalyx balansae, Machaerium stipitatum, Rhaminidium elaeocarpum, and S. dictyocarpa. These results probably reflect the outcome of a complex set of interactions including facilitation and competition, and further studies are necessary to better understand the magnitude and type of the effects of individual overstory species on understory species. The occurrence of species-specific associations shown here reinforces the importance of non-random processes in structuring plant communities and suggest that the influence of overstory species on understory species in high-diversity forests may be more significant than previously thought.

  16. Dieta de murciélagos nectarívoros del Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape, Tumbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Arias

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available En el Perú se reporta la presencia de 18 especies de murciélagos nectarívoros, sin embargo se cuenta con poca información sobre la dieta de estas especies. En este estudio se reporta por primera vez la dieta de los nectarívoros Glossophaga soricina, Lonchophylla hesperia y Anoura geoffroyi en el bosque seco ecuatorial y del bosque tropical del Pacífico del Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape, Tumbes. Analizamos 21 contenidos gastrointestinales e identificamos ocho morfotipos de polen pertenecientes a las familias Bombacaceae, Cactaceae, Fabaceae, Solanaceae, Rubiaceae, Myrtaceae, Malvaceae y Rosaceae. Encontramos evidencia del síndrome de quiropterofilia en Bombacaceae, Cactaceae, Fabaceae, Solanaceae y Rubiaceae. Observamos que A. geoffroyi consume polen de Ceiba trichistandra, Solanaceae y Rubiacea; G. soricina consume de Abutilon reflexum, Armathocereus cartwrightianus, C. trichistandra y Rubiaceae; y L. hesperia de A. cartwrightianus, Eriobotrya japonica, Fabaceae y Psidium sp.; sugiriendo una dieta generalista en estas especies. Los murciélagos G. soricina y A. geoffroyi comparten el consumo del ceibo C. trichistandra y de la Rubiaceae, mientras que G. soricina comparte con L. hesperia el consumo del cactus A. cartwrightianus. Los otros morfotipos de polen no fueron compartidos entre murciélagos. Se encuentra además que el ceibo C. trichistandra fue la especie más consumida, especialmente por G. soricina.

  17. In situ polymerized wood polymer composite: effect of additives and nanoclay on the thermal, mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devi, Rashmi R; Maji, Tarun K., E-mail: tkm@tezu.ernet.in [Department of Chemical Sciences, Tezpur University, Assam, (India)

    2013-11-01

    This study concerns the preparation and characterization of wood polymer nanocomposites based on impregnation of styrene acrylonitrile co-polymer-nanoclay intercalating system in presence of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), a cross linking agent, and vinyl trichloro silane (VTCS) as additives into Simul (Bombex ceiba, L.), a soft wood. The effect of nanoclay and VTCS on the properties of the resultant wood polymer nanocomposites (WPNC) has been evaluated. FTIR spectroscopy shows the interaction among wood, polymers, GMA, nanoclay and VTCS. The penetration of polymer and nanoclay into the wood cell wall is supported by SEM study. The distribution of nanoclay in the SAN polymer matrix present within the wood cell wall has been evidenced by TEM study. TGA results show an improvement in the thermostability of the resultant composites. The inclusion of VTCS enhances the self extinguishing behaviour of the WPNC as revealed by limiting oxygen index (LOI) test. Due to treatment, the resultant WPNC exhibits an improvement in all the properties like water repellency, dimensional stability, hardness, flexural, tensile and thermal stability compared to untreated wood. (author)

  18. Overcoming dormancy in seeds of cotton-silk tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irinaldo Lima do Nascimento

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cotton-silk tree Ceiba glaziovii (kuntze k. Schu belongs to family Bombacaceas and is locally known as barriguda. It is widely used in landscaping and reforestation, neverdeless seed dormancy affects reproduction in this species. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different methods to overcome dormancy in the germination process. Treatments included mechanical scarification with 85-grit sandpaper, chemical scarification with concentrated sulfuric acid for 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes, physical scarification with hot water at 60°, 70°, 80°and 90° C for one minute, imbibition in distilled water for 24, 48 and 72 hours, oven heating at 65° C for 1, 2, 3 and 4 hours, and a control treatment. Each treatment included four replicates of 25 seeds, using a completely randomized experimental design, and means were compared by the Scott-Knott test at the 5% probability level. Assessed parameters included emergence percentage, emergence rate index, dry matter and length of plants. The most recommended treatments were mechanical scarification, immersion in sulfuric acid for 5, 10 and 15 minutes and immersion in distilled water for 48 hours.

  19. 佛山市禅城区行道树调查研究%An Investigation on Roadside Trees of Chancheng District of Foshan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洪斌; 陈李利; 周贱平; 钟惠红; 余凤英

    2007-01-01

    通过对佛山市禅城区205条道路的调查,结果表明,禅城区共应用了58种(含变种)乔木作行道树,其分别属26科44属,其中乡土树种占65.52%,常绿乔木占74.14%;47种生长良好;细叶榕(Ficusmicrocarpa )、芒果(Mangifera indica )、大叶榕(Ficus virens var.sublanceolata )、大花紫薇(Lagerstroemia speciosa)、垂叶榕(Ficus benjamina )、木棉(Bombax ceiba)、高山榕(Ficus altissima)、阴香(Cinnamomum burmanii )、白兰花(Michelia alba )以及红花羊蹄甲(Bauhinia blakeana )等10种乔木是禅城区行道树种群的骨干树种.

  20. Comparative Genomics Including the Early-Diverging Smut Fungus Ceraceosorus bombacis Reveals Signatures of Parallel Evolution within Plant and Animal Pathogens of Fungi and Oomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rahul; Xia, Xiaojuan; Riess, Kai; Bauer, Robert; Thines, Marco

    2015-08-27

    Ceraceosorus bombacis is an early-diverging lineage of smut fungi and a pathogen of cotton trees (Bombax ceiba). To study the evolutionary genomics of smut fungi in comparison with other fungal and oomycete pathogens, the genome of C. bombacis was sequenced and comparative genomic analyses were performed. The genome of 26.09 Mb encodes for 8,024 proteins, of which 576 are putative-secreted effector proteins (PSEPs). Orthology analysis revealed 30 ortholog PSEPs among six Ustilaginomycotina genomes, the largest groups of which are lytic enzymes, such as aspartic peptidase and glycoside hydrolase. Positive selection analyses revealed the highest percentage of positively selected PSEPs in C. bombacis compared with other Ustilaginomycotina genomes. Metabolic pathway analyses revealed the absence of genes encoding for nitrite and nitrate reductase in the genome of the human skin pathogen Malassezia globosa, but these enzymes are present in the sequenced plant pathogens in smut fungi. Interestingly, these genes are also absent in cultivable oomycete animal pathogens, while nitrate reductase has been lost in cultivable oomycete plant pathogens. Similar patterns were also observed for obligate biotrophic and hemi-biotrophic fungal and oomycete pathogens. Furthermore, it was found that both fungal and oomycete animal pathogen genomes are lacking cutinases and pectinesterases. Overall, these findings highlight the parallel evolution of certain genomic traits, revealing potential common evolutionary trajectories among fungal and oomycete pathogens, shaping the pathogen genomes according to their lifestyle.

  1. TPH and PAH concentrations in the subsoil of polyduct segments, oil pipeline pumping stations, and right-of-way pipelines from Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturbe, Rosario; Castro, Alejandrina; Perez, Guillermina; Flores, Carlos; Torres, Luis G.

    2008-10-01

    For the year 1996, 366 incidents related with clandestine poaching of oil-products were reported in Mexico, 159 in 1997, and 240 in 1998. For the year 2003 (the most recently reported figure), there were 136 events. Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), very concerned with the environmental agenda, has developed programs oriented to diminish contamination levels in all of its oil facilities. This work was aimed at characterizing zones around polyduct segments, pipelines, pumping stations, and right-of-way pipelines located in the center of Mexico. The TPH contaminated sites were, in decreasing order, polyduct km 39 + 150 > polyduct km 25 + 020 > Zoquital > Tepetitlan > Catalina > Venta Prieta > Ceiba. Most of the sampled points showed the presence of more than one of the 16 PAHs considered by USEPA as priority pollutants. Except point TEPE 2A, where no PAHs were detected, all the sampled points showed values from low to medium concentrations; however, values found at the sites did not exceed the limits according to the Mexican or the American legislation. The place with the largest contaminated area corresponded to the polyduct km 39 + 150, with 130 m2 and 260 m3 to be treated. The least contaminated area was that around the JUAN 4 point at Juandho station, with 20 m2 and 22 m3 of contaminated soil. The total area to be treated is about 230 m2 and 497 m3.

  2. Efectos de la suplementación alimenticia sobre la producción de gallinas de patio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduberto Sánchez Sevilla

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo expone los resultados de una investigación experimental realizada en las comunidades de San Andrés de la Palanca y La Ceiba, del municipio de Mateare, departamento de Managua. El estudio es parte de las actividades desarrolladas en el marco del Proyecto de Desarrollo Rural, ejecutado por el Programa de Desarrollo Agrario y Agronomía (ADAA-UCA. Se analizaron los efectos de la implementación de dos dietas compuestas de Maíz y Frijol Mungo (Maíz Zea mays L + Mungo Vigna radi@ta y de Maíz y Frijol Gandul (Maíz + Gandul Çqjanusaian, como suplementos proteicos para "gallinas de patio". El objetivo de este experimento fue mejorar la condición física de las gallinas de patio, principal fuente de alimentos (huevo y carne de que disponen las familias rurales de las mencionadas comunidades.

  3. Analysis of serpentinophytes from north-east of Portugal for trace metal accumulation--relevance to the management of mine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, H; Prasad, M N V; Pratas, J

    2004-03-01

    In north-east of Portugal, the serpentinized area is about 8000 ha with a characteristic geology and flora. The serpentine plant community and respective soils were analyzed to examine the trace metal budget in different tissues of the plants exhibiting resistance to trace metals. One hundred and thirty five plant species belonging to 39 families and respective soils have been analyzed for total Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn. Substantial amounts of Ni, Cr, Co and Mn were detected in plant tissues which are listed below: NI: Alyssum serpyllifolium (38105); Bromus hordeaceus (1467); Linaria spartea (492); Plantago radicata (140); Lavandula stoechas (118) and Cistus salvifolius (114); CR: L. spartea (706.7); Ulmus procera (173.4); A. serpyllifolium (129.3); Cistus ladanifer (40.8); L. stoechas (29.5); P. radicata (27.81); Setariopsis verticillata (25.7); Plantago lanceolata (24); Digitalis purpurea (23.4); Logfia minima (23.1); Arenaria querioides (23); Hieracium peleteranum (22.7); Arenaria montana (14.5); CO: A. serpyllifolium (145.1); L. spartea (63.2); P. radicata (10.4); H. peleteranum (7.3); Lepidium heterophyllum (6.9); A. querioides (6.6); C. salvifolius (6.5); C. ladanifer (6.3); L. stoechas (6.1); Anthyllis lotoides (6.1); L. minima (6.1); Euphorbia falcata (5.7) and B. hordeaceus (5.6); MN: A. serpyllifolium (830); L. spartea (339); L. stoechas (187.1); L. minima (182.7); Castanea sativa (125); Spergula pentandra (124); P. radicata (119); Cytisus striatus (115.4); Quercus pyrenaica (110); Teucrium scorodonia (109.4); Fraxinus vulgaris (109); Anthyllis sampaiana (108); Quercus ilex (108). The significance of serpentine flora, need for conservation of these fragile and environmentally invaluable plant resources for possible use for in situ remediation of metalliferous substrates are presented in this paper.

  4. Evaluation of phenolic content variability, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic potential of selected traditional medicinal plants from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima eSingh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants have been used since ancient times as an important source of biologically active substances. The aim of the present study was to investigate the phytochemical constituents (flavonoids and phenolics, antioxidant potential, cytotoxicity against HepG2 (human hepato carcinoma cancer cell lines and the antimicrobial activity of the methanol extract of selected traditional medicinal plants collected from Mizoram, India. A number of phenolic compounds were detected using HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF-MS, mainly Luteolin, Kaempferol, Myricetin, Gallic Acid, Quercetin and Rutin, some of which have been described for the first time in the selected plants. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents showed high variation ranging from 4.44 to 181.91 µg of Gallic Acid equivalent per milligram DW (GAE/mg DW and 3.17 to 102.2 µg of Quercetin/mg, respectively. The antioxidant capacity was determined by DPPH (IC50 values ranges from 34.22 to 131.4 µg/mL, ABTS (IC50 values ranges from 24.08 to 513.4 µg/mL and reducing power assays. Antimicrobial activity was assayed against gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and yeast (Candida albicans demonstrating that the methanol extracts of some plants were efficacious antimicrobial agents. Additionally, cytotoxicity was assessed on human hepato carcinoma (HepG2 cancer cell lines and found that the extracts of Albizia lebbeck, Dillenia indica and Bombax ceiba significantly decreased the cell viability at low concentrations with IC50 values of 24.03, 25.09 and 29.66 µg/mL, respectively. This is the first report of detection of phenolic compounds along with antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic potential of selected medicinal plants from India, which indicates that these plants might be valuable source for human and animal health.

  5. Evaluation of Nutritive and Antioxidant Properties of Blanched Leafy Vegetables Consumed in Northern Côte d’Ivoire

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    Oulai Patricia D.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of steam blanching processing on the nutritive value and the antioxidant properties of five leafy vegetable species (Amaranthus hybridus, Andasonia digitata, Ceiba patendra, Hibiscus sabdariffa and Vigna unguiculata that are used for sauce preparation in Northern CÔte d'Ivoire. The selected leafy vegetables were subjected to blanching in pressure cooker for 15, 25 and 45 min and the physicochemical properties were determined using AOAC methods. The result of the study revealed that longer time of blanching (higher than 15 min caused negative impact by reducing nutritive value but positive impact by reducing anti-nutrients and increasing polyphenols. The registered losses (p0.05 at 15 min were as follow: ash (0.08-10.01%, proteins (0.36-12.03%, vitamin C (19.56-68.67%, carotenoids (18.91-55.48% oxalates (3.58-21.39% and phytates (10.51-68.02%. The average increase of polyphenols contents at 15 min of blanching was 1.61 to 30.72%. In addition, a slight increase (0.35-4.16% of fibres content was observed in the studied blanched leafy vegetables. Furthermore, after 15 min of blanching time the residual contents (p0.05 of minerals were: calcium (264.88-844.92 mg/100 g, magnesium (49.45-435.43 mg/100 g, potassium (675-1895.41 mg/100 g, iron (14.54-70.89 mg/100 g and zinc (9.48-36.46 mg/100 g. All these results suggest that the recommended time of domestic blanching must be less than 15 min for the studied leafy vegetables in order to contribute efficiently to the nutritional requirement and to the food security of Ivorian population

  6. Nutritive and Antioxidant properties of Shade Dried Leafy Vegetables Consumed in Northern Côte d’Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Dehegnan Oulaï

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Leafy vegetables are highly perishable and often subjected to post-harvest wastes. Among the various methods of preservation, the effect of shadow drying on the nutritive value and antioxidant properties of five (5 leafy vegetables species widely consumed in Northern Côte d’Ivoire was investigated. These species were Amaranthus hybridus, Andasonia digitata, Ceiba patendra, Hibiscus sabdariffa and Vigna unguiculata. Experiment was conducted as follow: portions of washed and drained fresh leafy vegetables (500 g were spread on clean filter paper and kept in a well-ventilated room of the laboratory at 25°C for 5, 10 and 15 days. The results of proximate composition after 15 days of shadow drying were: moisture (15.19 – 20.36%, ash (9.14 -19.54%, crude fiber (11.04 – 27.40%, proteins (11.14 - 17.94%, lipids (2.41 – 5.86% and carbohydrates (16.59 – 45.14%. The concentration of minerals increased with respective values after 15 days of shadow drying: calcium (68.14-408.09 mg/100 g, magnesium (50.62-317.23 mg/100 g, iron (27.52-92.03 mg/100 g and zinc (10.17-16.73 mg/100 g. During shadow drying, vitamin C and carotenoids were subjected to losses estimated to 35.52 – 70.50% and 22.82 – 45.63%, respectively. Contrary to these losses, antioxidant activity increased and ranged from 57.45 to 75.55 % after 15 days of shadow drying. All these results suggest that the considerable nutrient contents of shade dried leafy vegetables make them good source of food supplements in order to meet the nutritional requirements of Ivorian population.

  7. Study on natural breeding sites of sand flies (Diptera: Phlebotominae) in areas of Leishmania transmission in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivero, Rafael José; Torres-Gutierrez, Carolina; Bejarano, Eduar E; Peña, Horacio Cadena; Estrada, Luis Gregorio; Florez, Fernando; Ortega, Edgar; Aparicio, Yamileth; Muskus, Carlos E

    2015-02-22

    The location of the microhabitats where immature phlebotomine sand flies of the genus Lutzomyia develop is one of the least-known aspects of this group of medically important insects. For this reason strategies of source reduction approach for their control have not been possible in contrast to other insect vectors (such as mosquitoes), because their juvenile stages in terrestrial microhabitats is difficult to detect. Direct examination of soil samples, incubation of substrates and the use of emergence traps were the methods used to identify juvenile stages in 160 soil samples from urban and forest habitats within the foci of Leishmania transmission in Colombia. Immatures collected were identified subsequent from the rearing and emergence of adults using taxonomic keys or the analysis of the mitochondrial marker cytochrome oxidase I. Plant species associated with the natural breeding sites were identified and physicochemical properties of the soils were analyzed. A total of 38 (23.7%) sampling sites were identified as breeding sites, 142 phlebotomine sand flies were identified, belonging to 13 species of the genus Lutzomyia and two of Brumptomyia. The greatest numbers of immature were found within the tabular roots (51 immature sand flies from eight positive sites) and bases of trees (35 immature sand flies from 11 sites). The characterization and presence of the tree species (mainly Ceiba pentadra, Anacardium excelsum, Pseudosamanea guachapale) and the physicochemical properties (relative humidity and carbon/nitrogen ratio) of the soils associated with these breeding sites are significant factors in explaining the diversity and abundance of phlebotomine sand flies. Immature phlebotomine sand flies of the genus Lutzomyia in Colombia can be found in a wide variety of breeding sites rich in organic matter, high relative humidity and are associated with a typical vegetation of each locality. These results provide new perspectives for the study of the ecology of the

  8. An Investigation on Species of Roadside Tree in Southern Subtropical Main Cities of China%南亚热带主要城市行道树树种调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周贱平; 李洪斌; 陈李利; 余凤英; 卢俊鸿; 钟惠红

    2007-01-01

    通过对南亚热带13个主要城市的1667条主要道路行道树生长状况的调查,结果表明,共有101种(含种以下单位)乔木用作行道树.它们分别隶属于32科68属,其中乡土树种占53.47%,常绿乔木占75.25%,其中87.13%的乔木生长良好.研究认为:海南蒲桃(Syzgium cumini)、非洲桃花心木(Khaya sencgalensis )、木棉(Bombax ceiba)、芒果(Mangifera indica)、扁桃(Mangifera persiciformis )、海南红豆(Ormosia pinnata)、秋枫(Bischofia javanica)、细叶榕(Ficus microcarpa)、麻楝(Chukrasia tabularis )、樟树(Cinnamomum camphora )、阴香(Cinnamomum burmanii )、垂叶榕(Ficus bengjamina)、高山榕(Ficus altissima)、尖叶杜英(Elaeocarpus apiculatus )、人面子(Dracontomelon duperreanum )、红花羊蹄甲(Bauhinia blakeana )、凤凰木(Delonix regia)、白兰花(Michelia alba )、大花紫薇(Lagerstroemia speciosa )、糖胶树(Alstonia scholaris )、紫檀(Pterocarpus indicus )、蝴蝶果(Cleidiocarpon cavaleriei )、石栗(Alcurites moluccana )、蒲桃(Syzgium jambos)等24种乔木适宜作为南亚热带城市行道树的骨干树种;大叶榕(Ficus virens var.sublanceolata )、黄槐( Cassia suffurtiosa )等31种乔木可作为行道树一般树种.

  9. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in Terai forest of western Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Anant

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nepal Himalayas have been known as a rich source for valuable medicinal plants since Vedic periods. Present work is the documentation of indigenous knowledge on plant utilization as natural remedy by the inhabitants of terai forest in Western Nepal. Methods Study was conducted during 2010–2011 following standard ethnobotanical methods. Data about medicinal uses of plants were collected by questionnaire, personal interview and group discussion with pre identified informants. Voucher specimens were collected with the help of informants, processed into herbarium following standard methods, identified with the help of pertinent floras and taxonomic experts, and submitted in Department of Botany, Butwal Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Nepal for future references. Results During the present study 66 medicinal plant species belonging to 37 families and 60 genera has been documented. These plants were used to treat various diseases and ailments grouped under 11 disease categories, with the highest number of species (41 being used for gastro-intestinal disorders, followed by dermatological disorders (34. In the study area the informants’ consensus about usages of medicinal plants ranges from 0.93 to 0.97 with an average value of 0.94. Herbs (53% were the primary source of medicine, followed by trees (23%. Curcuma longa (84% and Azadirachta indica (76% are the most frequently and popularly used medicinal plant species in the study area. Acacia catechu, Bacopa monnieri, Bombax ceiba, Drymaria diandra, Rauvolfia serpentina, and Tribulus terrestris are threatened species which needs to be conserved for future use. Conclusions The high degree of consensus among the informants suggests that current use and knowledge are still strong, and thus the preservation of today's knowledge shows good foresight in acting before much has been lost. The connections between plant use and conservation are also important ones, especially as the

  10. Evaluación de genotipos mejorados de frijol negro Phaseolus vulgaris en Barinas y Monagas, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Águeda Duran

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La investigación se desarrolló en la finca la Alborada, sector Mamon Mamonal, municipio Rojas, en Barinas y finca La Ceiba, sector Aparicio, municipio Piar, estado Monagas en época seca en el período comprendido entre noviembre, 2011 y febrero, 2012, sobre suelos Inceptisoles y Entisoles respectivamente. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar la respuesta agroproductiva de siete genotipos de frijol negro:SA 029, Línea 13, Minita, Balina, Sesentera, Silvinera y la variedad comercial Tacarigua. Se utilizó un diseño experimental de bloques al azar con arreglo bifactorial, los factores fueron la localidad y los genotipos, con siete tratamientos y cuatro repeticiones, distribuidos en 28 parcelas con un área total del experimento de 554,8 m2. El marco de siembra fue de 0,60 x 0,07 m para un total 13200 plantas totales. Se evaluaron la altura de la planta (cm, número de vainas por planta, número de semillas por vaina, peso de 100 semillas (g y el rendimiento (t.ha-1. Los rendimientos en el estado de Barinas fueron superiores para las variedades Balina con 1,10 t/ha y Tacarigua con 1,06 t/ha y en estado de Monagas, la Línea 13 con 1,92 t/ha, seguida de la Tacarigua con 1,68 t. ha-1 y Silvinera con 1,65 t.ha-1. El efecto económico para todas las variedades por localidad y entre ambas fue satisfactorio.

  11. Wood Density and Moisture Content of Green Trees in Urban Area of Longyan, Fujian%福建龙岩城区园林树木木材密度和生材含水率研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄日明; 黄汝群; 段萍; 陈承德

    2016-01-01

    对福建龙岩城区栽植的30种园林树木测定木材基本密度、生材密度和生材含水率。结果表明,针叶树木材基本密度以柏木Cupressus funebris最高(0.636 g·cm-3),南洋杉Araucaria cunninghamii最低(0.462 g·cm-3);阔叶树以相思树Acacia confusa最高(0.757 g·cm-3),美丽异木棉Ceiba speciosa最低(0.228 g·cm-3)。生材密度针叶树竹柏Podocarpus nagi最高(0.975 g·cm-3),南洋杉最低(0.838 g·cm-3);阔叶树相思树最高(1.204 g·cm-3),石栗Aleurites moluccana最低(0.799 g·cm-3)。生材含水率针叶树竹柏最高(105%),柏木最低(30%);阔叶树以美丽异木棉最高(319%),光皮梾木Swida wilsoniana和木麻黄Casuarina equisetifolia最低,均为56%。南北两向的基本密度、生材密度和生材含水率差异不大。在距树皮8 cm范围内,基本密度和生材密度的径向变化模式可归纳为五种类型:(1)密度从髓心向树皮方向递增;(2)密度从髓心向树皮方向递减;(3)距树皮8 cm范围内密度变化不明显;(4)距树皮3~5 cm范围内密度较低;(5)距树皮3~5 cm范围内密度较高。生材含水率径向变化趋势仅限于上述前四种类型。%The wood basic density, green density and moisture content of 30 species landscape trees planted in Longyan urban area had been determined. The results showed that the highest of basic density of softwood was Cupressus funebris(0.636 g·cm-3), the lowest wasAraucaria cunninghamii (0.462 g·cm-3). In hardwood, the highest of basic density wasAcacia confusa (0.757 g·cm-3), the lowest wasCeiba speciosa (0.228 g·cm-3). The highest of green density of softwood wasPodocarpus nagi(0.975 g·cm-3), the lowest wasAraucaria cunninghamii (0.838 g·cm-3). In hardwood, the highest of green density wasAcacia confusa(1.204g·cm-3), the lowest isAleurites moluccana (0.799 g·cm-3). The highest of moisture content of green wood in softwood wasP. nagi 105%, the lowest was Cupressus funebris

  12. Case study: Development of a swath harvester for small diameter (<10 cm) woody vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felker, P. [Subsecretaria de Agricultura, Santiago del Estero (Argentina); McLauchlan, R.A.; Conkey, A. [Texas A and M University-Kingsville, Texas (United States); Brown, S. [Brown-Bear Corporation, Corning (United States)

    1999-07-01

    A 216 kW biomass harvester, modified from a John Deere silage harvester, was field tested in Texas and New Mexico to examine the productivity and cost of harvesting shrubs and small trees for energy purposes. The harvester was tested on mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa var. glandulosa) in Texas and salt cedar (Tamarisk pentandra) and pinyon (Pinus edulis)/juniper (Juniperus monosperma) stands in New Mexico. While the harvester severed and chipped a few individual 20-cm basal diameter trees, the harvester was much more efficient harvesting dense stands of small trees that were less than 10-cm in basal diameter. During the course of these trials, major modifications were made to increase the efficiency of the cutterhead and the materials handling system. After these modifications, when harvesting mesquite stands less than 10-cm in basal diameter, the machine harvested at the rate of 0.95 ha h{sup -1} with a fresh weight harvest production of 7050 kg h{sup -1}. Using $70 h{sup -1} operating cost data for similar commercial equipment, we estimated an energy cost of $1.00 kJ{sup -1} which compares favorably to energy sources such as low sulfur Wyoming coal, natural gas and fuel oil. The swath harvester described here did not bale the chips. However, baling trials with 3 commercial balers found that 2 commercial balers could pick up dense windrows of the chips and make a satisfactory 300 kg square bale and a 595 kg round bale. The large square bale with a density of 319 kg m{sup -3}, provides an opportunity for full load potential of flat bed truck trailers to be realized. As the harvester is built on an agricultural frame, it is not sufficiently robust to operate in a forestry environment. A commercial version will need to be built on a high clearance, heavy duty frame with 4 wheel drive similar to a forestry skidder. Brown Bear Corporation, the company that manufactures the cutterhead, is anxious to build this harvester for a purchase price of about $280,000. We estimate

  13. New Dynamic Analysis and System Identification of Biodiesel Production Process from Palm Oil

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    Hikmat S. Al-Salim

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present advanced mathematical model was used to capture the batch reactor characteristics of reacting compounds new parameters and new a prerequisite average slope analysis (PASA method for the system dynamic behaviour under different operational conditions is a prerequisite to the good selection for these parameters. The model was applied to batch reactor for the production of bio-diesel from palm and kapok oils. Results of the model were compared with experimental data in terms of conversion of transesterification reaction for the production of bio-diesel under unsteady state. A good agreement was obtained between our model predictions and the experimental data. Both experimental and modeling results showed that the conversion of triglycerides to methyl ester was affected by the process conditions and by using PASA that could be achieved by making some deterministic tests either in real data plant or in the physical model that properly and adequately fits the actual process. The input-output relationships are studied using the open-loop dynamic response of the process, which can be determined from the process model by stepping different inputs and recording output responses. Starting from steady state conditions, each input is perturbed with certain magnitude that is enough to show the effect on the system dynamics. The transesterficition process with temperature of about 70 oC, and methanol ratio to the triglyceride of about 5 times its stoichiometry and the NAOH catalyst of wt 0.4%, appear to be acceptable process conditions. PASA shows methanol ratio to the triglyceride has big effect on the system. PASA method can be applied for different processes. © 2009 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved[Received: 12 November 2009, Revised: 20 December 2009, Accepted: 27 December 2009][How to Cite: A. S. Ibrehem, H.S. Al-Salim. (2009. New Dynamic Analysis and System Identification of Biodiesel Production Process from Palm Oil. Bulletin

  14. New Dynamic Analysis and System Identification of Biodiesel Production Process from Palm Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmmed S. Ibrehem

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present advanced mathematical model was used to capture the batch reactor characteristics of reacting compounds new parameters and new a prerequisite average slope analysis (PASA method for the system dynamic behaviour under different operational conditions is a prerequisite to the good selection for these parameters. The model was applied to batch reactor for the production of bio-diesel from palm and kapok oils. Results of the model were compared with experimental data in terms of conversion of transesterification reaction for the production of bio-diesel under unsteady state. A good agreement was obtained between our model predictions and the experimental data. Both experimental and modeling results showed that the conversion of triglycerides to methyl ester was affected by the process conditions and by using PASA that could be achieved by making some deterministic tests either in real data plant or in the physical model that properly and adequately fits the actual process. The input-output relationships are studied using the open-loop dynamic response of the process, which can be determined from the process model by stepping different inputs and recording output responses. Starting from steady state conditions, each input is perturbed with certain magnitude that is enough to show the effect on the system dynamics. The transesterficition process with temperature of about 70 oC, and methanol ratio to the triglyceride of about 5 times its stoichiometry and the NAOH catalyst of wt 0.4%, appear to be acceptable process conditions. PASA shows methanol ratio to the triglyceride has big effect on the system. PASA method can be applied for different processes. © 2009 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved[Received: 12 November 2009, Revised: 20 December 2009, Accepted: 27 December 2009][How to Cite: A. S. Ibrehem, H.S. Al-Salim. (2009. New Dynamic Analysis and System Identification of Biodiesel Production Process from Palm Oil. Bulletin

  15. Lesson's-learned from a 2003-2006 USA-Honduras NGO and University Geosciences Education Partnership in Land use Land / Land Cover Change Analysis using Remote Sensing and GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, R. E.

    2006-12-01

    Between 2004 and 2006 the Loma Linda University ESSE21 Mesoamerican Project (Earth System Science Education for the 21st Century) collaborated with a series of academic, NGO (nongovernmental) and government agencies, including a USAID (United States Agency for International Development) integrated environmental resource management project to: a) build the human and technical capacity of local partners in the use of geospatial technologies, e.g. GIS, GPS, Remote Sensing, b) improve their capacity to apply these tools to biodiversity, health, sustainability, protected-area management, and other NRM (Natural Resource Management) decision-making needs and problems, and c) establish long term institutional relationships for teacher/student exchange, including development of joint curricula and research projects focused on health geoinformatics as well as sustainable development. Much of this has contributed toward a new "geotourism" effort adopted by Honduras called the SAVE Honduras strategy (Scientific, Academic, Volunteer, Educational). A central element of this initiative is to increase joint collaborative research and learning together by students and faculty at US universities working with Honduran institutions (private and public). See SAVE Strategy page = http://www.fundacionsave.com/home_eng.html In the presentation we describe our experience over the last three years collaborating with key partners such as the Central American Observatory of Suyapa based at the UNAH (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras) which has opened a new GIS/Remote Sensing Laboratory. We also collaborated closely with CURLA (Centro Universitario Regional del Litoral Atlántico) located near La Ceiba--a land grant-type institution- -to support outreach and extension activities by students and staff to local-level NGOs and community groups dealing with conservation, hazards mitigation, biodiversity, fisheries and related problems. We have also participated in joint "informal

  16. HIV Drug Resistance Surveillance in Honduras after a Decade of Widespread Antiretroviral Therapy.

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    Santiago Avila-Ríos

    Full Text Available We assessed HIV drug resistance (DR in individuals failing ART (acquired DR, ADR and in ART-naïve individuals (pre-ART DR, PDR in Honduras, after 10 years of widespread availability of ART.365 HIV-infected, ART-naïve, and 381 ART-experienced Honduran individuals were enrolled in 5 reference centres in Tegucigalpa, San Pedro Sula, La Ceiba, and Choluteca between April 2013 and April 2015. Plasma HIV protease-RT sequences were obtained. HIVDR was assessed using the WHO HIVDR mutation list and the Stanford algorithm. Recently infected (RI individuals were identified using a multi-assay algorithm.PDR to any ARV drug was 11.5% (95% CI 8.4-15.2%. NNRTI PDR prevalence (8.2% was higher than NRTI (2.2% and PI (1.9%, p500 vs. <350 CD4+ T cells/μL. PDR in recently infected individuals was 13.6%, showing no significant difference with PDR in individuals with longstanding infection (10.7%. The most prevalent PDR mutations were M46IL (1.4%, T215 revertants (0.5%, and K103NS (5.5%. The overall ADR prevalence in individuals with <48 months on ART was 87.8% and for the ≥48 months on ART group 81.3%. ADR to three drug families increased in individuals with longer time on ART (p = 0.0343. M184V and K103N were the most frequent ADR mutations. PDR mutation frequency correlated with ADR mutation frequency for PI and NNRTI (p<0.01, but not for NRTI. Clusters of viruses were observed suggesting transmission of HIVDR both from ART-experienced to ART-naïve individuals and between ART-naïve individuals.The global PDR prevalence in Honduras remains at the intermediate level, after 10 years of widespread availability of ART. Evidence of ADR influencing the presence of PDR was observed by phylogenetic analyses and ADR/PDR mutation frequency correlations.

  17. Resistance to Nitrogen Dioxide of 18 Kinds of Landscape Species in South China%华南18个景观树种抗N02能力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘先华; 张卫强; 李召青; 郭乐东; 周平

    2013-01-01

    为探讨18个华南景观树种抗NO2污染能力,以2~3a生实生苗为材料,通过人工气候室的盆栽试验,在NO2质量体积浓度为2.05 mg/m3的胁迫处理下,测定了叶片表观伤害症状、叶片气体交换参数及相对叶绿素含量等生理生态指标.采用隶属函数法及系统聚类分析法对其抗NO2污染能力进行了综合评价.结果表明,复羽叶栾树(Koelreuteria bipinnata)、穗花棋盘脚(Barringtonia racemosa)和广宁红山茶(Camellia chekiangoleosa)抗N02污染能力强;大花紫薇(Lagerstroemia speciosa)、紫薇(Lagerstroemia indica)、木棉(Bombax ceiba)、杜鹃红山茶(Camellia azalea)、深山含笑(Michelia maudiae)和澳洲火焰木(Brachychiton acerifolius)抗NO2污染能力较强;腊肠树(Cassia fistula)、仪花(Lysidice rhodostegia)和红花荷(Rhodoleia championii)抗N02污染能力中等;火焰木(Spathodea campanulata)、蓝花风铃木(Tabebuia pentaphylla)、樱花(Prunus serrulata)、红花羊蹄甲(Bauhinia blakeana)和美丽异木棉(Chorisia speciosa)抗NO2污染能力较弱,蓝花楹(Jacaranda mimosifolia)抗NO2污染能力弱.研究结果为华南重度酸污染地区景观树种选择提供参考.

  18. Metodología para la evaluación del potencial insecticida de especies forestales.

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    Morales Soto León

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available La diversidad florística de Colombia plantea enormes retos de investigación, con miras a una utilización racional e integral de sus recursos forestales. Las plantas con efectos biocidas utilizables en el control de plagas o enfermedades revisten una singular importancia. El objetivo de este trabajo es plantear una metodología de fácil aplicación, bajo costo y rápidos resultados, que permita acopiar la información necesaria sobre el mayor número de especies con potencial en este sentido. La metodología plantea la siguiente secuencia: selección de las especies vegetales de interés, apoyada en los reportes bibliográficos, conocimiento ancestral y observaciones personales; recolección del material en el campo; preparación del extracto total a partir del material seco; pruebas iniciales con Artemia salina Lech. para detectar actividad biológica, a través de la determinación de la LC50 (las especies con LC50 menores de 1000 ppm se consideran promisorias y ameritan procesos posteriores de fraccionamiento químico, bioensayos con las sustancias más promisorias sobre algún organismo de interés particular y determinación final de los compuestos activos en la planta. La metodología descrita fue empleada en la evaluación del potencial de acción biocida de 5 especies arbóreas o arbustivas, Guarea guidonia (L. Sleumer y Trichia hirta L. (Meliaceae, Machaerium moritzianum Benth. (Fabaceae, Swinglea glutinosa Merrill. (Rutaceae y Mammea americana L. (Clusiaceae. Se utilizó para los bioensayos iniciales el microcrustáceo Artemia salina Leach como indicador del potencial biocida con el fin de seleccionar las dos especies más promisorias a partir de las LC50 obtenidas. Con las dos se realizaron los bioensayos para evaluar la acción fagoinhibidora en la hormiga arriera Atta cephalotes (L., y el posible control de Alconeura sp. (Homoptera: Cicadellidae, insecto chupador que afecta la ceiba verde Pseudobombax septenatum (Jacq. Dugand

  19. Efecto de los biorreguladores del crecimiento en la embriogénesis somática de mandarina Cleopatra (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan.

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    Reina M. Hernández

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La regeneración de plantas in vitro vía embriogénesis somática es un prerrequisito indispensable, para la aplicación de algunas herramientas de la Biotecnología en la mejora genética de las plantas y más aún en el caso de los cítricos. Para aumentar la cantidad de estos cultivos en las plantaciones, se pueden usar técnicas de propagación in vitro, como la embriogénesis somática, que requieren de medios de cultivo artificiales y fitohormonas. Debido a los altos costos de las fitohormonas, una alternativa cubana es el uso de biorreguladores del crecimiento de producción nacional, como el Pectimorf ® y los análogos de brasinoesteroides: Biobras-6 y MH5. Estos biorreguladores, al igual que el 24-Epibrasinólido, son efectivos en los procesos morfogenéticos, generalmente a bajas concentraciones, como sustitutos o complementos de las auxinas y citoquininas. Se empleó la técnica de cultivo de óvulos fecundados in vitro, para obtener una línea celular embriogénica de Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan y como fuente de óvulos fecundados, se tomaron ovarios de dicha especie procedentes de árboles de la Estación de Cítricos de Ceiba del Agua en Caimito, provincia La Habana. Para el mantenimiento de la línea embriogénica, se utilizaron callos embriogénicos de la línea celular establecida. Este trabajo estuvo dirigido a evaluar el efecto del Pectimorf ® y los brasinoesteroides, MH5, Biobras-6 y 24-Epibrasinólido, en la obtención y el mantenimiento de la línea celular embriogénica de mandarina Cleopatra (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan.. En los resultados se pudo comprobar un incremento en la masa fresca del callo embriogénico en un menor tiempo de cultivo mediante el uso de estos biorreguladores.

  20. Rupture directivity and local site effects: the M7.3 Honduras earthquake of May 23, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, D.; Mooney, W. D.

    2009-12-01

    On May 28, 2009, at 2:24 AM local time, a M 7.3 earthquake struck off the coast of Honduras on the Motagua-Swan Fault System (MSFS), part of the boundary between the North America and Caribbean plates. This plate boundary has an average slip rate of 20 mm/year. This left-lateral earthquake had an average slip of 1.5 m on a 100-km-long near-vertical fault plane (Hayes and Ji, 2009). The hypocenter depth is estimated at 10 km. The main shock caused 130 structures, including homes and office buildings, to collapse or suffer significant damage in northern Honduras. Seven deaths were reported. Due to a lack of recordings in the area, the available documentation of the local effects of this earthquake are the USGS "Did you feel it?" responses and the data collected during our field seismic intensity investigation. We conducted a field investigation in Honduras between May 30 and June 6, 2009, focused on areas with local reports of damage, including the cities of La Ceiba, El Progresso, San Pedro Sula, Puerto Cortes in northern Honduras and the island of Roatan in the Caribbean Sea. The damage ascertained at these five sites shows that the severity of damage did not decrease with distance from the epicenter as predicted by standard attenuation relations. Instead, a concentration of damage was observed in El Progresso, approximately 75 km directly south from the SW end of the rupture and 160 km from the epicenter. The island of Roatan, just 30 km from the epicenter, was graded as VI on the Modified Mercalli Intensity scale while, El Progresso was graded as VIII (one unit higher than “Did you feel it?”). These intensity anomalies can be explained by two factors: (1) SW-directed rupture propagation and proximity to a localized 3.0m slip pulse (asperity) that occurred near the SW end of the fault (Hayes and Ji, 2009) that focused energy toward the city of El Progress on the mainland and; (2) local site effects, particularly the Precambrian schists and gneisses on the

  1. Calibration of hydrological models using flow-duration curves

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    I. K. Westerberg

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The degree of belief we have in predictions from hydrologic models will normally depend on how well they can reproduce observations. Calibrations with traditional performance measures, such as the Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency, are challenged by problems including: (1 uncertain discharge data, (2 variable sensitivity of different performance measures to different flow magnitudes, (3 influence of unknown input/output errors and (4 inability to evaluate model performance when observation time periods for discharge and model input data do not overlap. This paper explores a calibration method using flow-duration curves (FDCs to address these problems. The method focuses on reproducing the observed discharge frequency distribution rather than the exact hydrograph. It consists of applying limits of acceptability for selected evaluation points (EPs on the observed uncertain FDC in the extended GLUE approach. Two ways of selecting the EPs were tested – based on equal intervals of discharge and of volume of water. The method was tested and compared to a calibration using the traditional model efficiency for the daily four-parameter WASMOD model in the Paso La Ceiba catchment in Honduras and for Dynamic TOPMODEL evaluated at an hourly time scale for the Brue catchment in Great Britain. The volume method of selecting EPs gave the best results in both catchments with better calibrated slow flow, recession and evaporation than the other criteria. Observed and simulated time series of uncertain discharges agreed better for this method both in calibration and prediction in both catchments. An advantage with the method is that the rejection criterion is based on an estimation of the uncertainty in discharge data and that the EPs of the FDC can be chosen to reflect the aims of the modelling application, e.g. using more/less EPs at high/low flows. While the method appears less sensitive to epistemic input/output errors than previous use of limits of

  2. Digital inventory of landslides and related deposits in Honduras triggered by Hurricane Mitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harp, Edwin L.; Hagaman, Kirk W.; Held, Matthew D.; McKenna, Jonathan P.

    2002-01-01

    Intense rainfall from Hurricane Mitch from October 27-31, 1998, exceeded 900 mm in places in Honduras and triggered in excess of 500,000 landslides throughout the country. Landslides damaged an estimated 70% of the road network in Honduras based on estimates by the U. S Army Corps of Engineers. Numbers of fatalities due to landslides are not accurately known due to the fact that numerous small villages throughout Honduras lost residents to landslides without an official count being recorded. A conservative estimate would place the number at near 1,000. Debris flows accounted for over 95% of the landslides and ranged in thickness from 1 to 15 m. Flow path lengths of these failures ranged from several meters to 7.5 km. The highest concentrations of debris flows occurred in the mountains near the town of Choluteca where over 900 mm of rain fell in three days. Although landslides other than debris flows were few, several deep-seated landslides in the city of Tegucigalpa severely impacted people and property. The 'El Berrinche' rotational slump/earth flow of approximately six million cubic meters volume destroyed the entire neighborhood of Colonia Soto near the center of the city. The landslide also dammed the Rio Choluteca and created a lagoon behind the landslide dam, which immediately posed a health problem for the city, because raw, untreated sewage was emptying into the Rio Choluteca. Several areas of highly concentrated landslides have been responsible for much of the flooding problem as well. Huge sediment influxes from landslide source areas near La Ceiba, La Libertad, Marale, and in several arms of El Cajon Reservoir have reduced stream capacities to practically nothing and have exacerbated flooding conditions in even the moderate rainfall seasons since Hurricane Mitch. The ongoing hazard to communities from landslides triggered during Hurricane Mitch are being analyzed using aerial photography taken by the U.S. Air Force and by supplemental photography taken

  3. Desenvolvimento de espécies arbóreas nativas em uma área reflorestada do corredor de biodiversidade Santa Maria - PR

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    Rosimeri de Oliveira Fragoso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar um plantio de enriquecimento com 12 espécies arbóreas nativas da região, em uma área reflorestada do Corredor de Biodiversidade Santa Maria, localizado entre os Municípios de Santa Terezinha de Itaipu e São Miguel do Iguaçu, no Paraná. Objetivou-se, também, avaliar a persistência da espécie invasora Megathyrsus maximus (Jacq. B. K. Simon & S. W. L. Jacobs, conhecido como capim-colonião, e alterações nas características físicas e químicas do solo. As avaliações consistiram no acompanhamento mensal da mortalidade e desenvolvimento das mudas e da massa de matéria seca obtida no manejo do capim-colonião. As alterações promovidas no solo foram verificadas por meio de três coletas de solo ao longo do experimento. A mortalidade alcançou 24,38%, sendo mais acentuada nos dois primeiros meses, janeiro (11,88% e fevereiro (5,63%. Em relação ao desenvolvimento das mudas, destacaram-se as espécies Aloysia virgata (Ruiz & Pav. Juss. (lixeira e Ceiba speciosa (A. St.-Hil. Ravenna (paineira, com acréscimos mensais em diâmetro de 0,80 mm e 0,60 mm e em altura de 5,80 cm e 1,74 cm, respectivamente. O controle do capim-colonião pela metodologia aplicada foi eficiente, não havendo reincidência considerável ao longo dos meses. Por meio das análises de solo, foi possível observar que a recuperação da área, mesmo que por período curto, mostrou-se eficiente na alteração das características físicas e químicas do solo, podendo ainda levar a novas modificações em decorrência do desenvolvimento das mudas.

  4. A revision of the genus Planinasus Cresson (Diptera, Periscelididae

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    Wayne Mathis

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The genus Planinasus Cresson is revised and includes 18 extant and one fossil species. We clarify the status of the three previously described species and describe 15 new species as follows (type locality in parenthesis: P. aenigmaticus (Colombia. Bogota: Bogota (04°35.8`N, 74°08.8`W, P. neotropicus (Panama. Canal Zone: Barro Colorado Island (09°09.1`N, 79°50.8`W, P. kotrbae (Ecuador. Orellana: Rio Tiputini Biodiversity Station (0°38.2`S, 76°08.9`W, P. miradorus (Brazil. Maranhão: Parque Estadual Mirador, Base da Geraldina (06°22.2`S, 44°21.8`W, P. tobagoensis (Trinidad and Tobago. Tobago. St. John: Parlatuvier (11°17.9`N, 60°39`W, P. xanthops (Ecuador. Orellana: Rio Tiputini Biodiversity Station (0°38.2`S, 76°8.9`W, P. argentifacies (Peru. Madre de Dios: Río Manu, Pakitza (11°56.6`S, 71°16.9`W; 250 m, P. insulanus (Dominican Republic. La Vega: near Jarabacoa, Salto Guasara (19°04.4`N, 70°42.1`W, 680 m, P. nigritarsus (Guyana. Conservation of Ecological Interactions and Biotic Associations (CEIBA; ca. 40 km S Georgetown; 06°29.9`N, 58°13.1`W, P. atriclypeus (Brazil. Rio de Janeiro: Rio de Janeiro, Floresta da Tijuca (22°57.6`S, 43°16.4`W, P. atrifrons (Bolivia. Santa Cruz: Ichilo, Buena Vista (4-6 km SSE; Hotel Flora y Fauna; 17°29.95`S, 63°33.15`W; 4-500 m, P. flavicoxalis (West Indies. Dominica. St. David: 1.6 km N of junction of roads to Rosalie and Castle Bruce (15°23.8`N, 61°18.6`W, P. mcalpineorum (Mexico. Chiapas: Cacahoatan (7 km N; 15°04.1`N, 92°07.4`W, P. nigrifacies (Brazil. São Paulo: Mogi das Cruzes, Serra do Itapeti (23°31.5`S, 46°11.2`W, P. obscuripennis (Peru. Madre de Dios: Río Manu, Erika (near Salvación; 12°50.7`S, 71°23.3`W; 550 m. In addition to external characters, we also describe and illustrate structures of the male terminalia and for P. kotrbae sp. n., the internal female reproductive organs. Detailed locality data and distribution maps for all species are provided. For perspective and

  5. A revision of the genus Planinasus Cresson (Diptera, Periscelididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, Wayne N; Rung, Alessandra; Kotrba, Marion

    2012-01-01

    The genus Planinasus Cresson is revised and includes 18 extant and one fossil species. We clarify the status of the three previously described species and describe 15 new species as follows (type locality in parenthesis): Planinasus aenigmaticus (Colombia. Bogota: Bogota (04°35.8'N, 74°08.8'W)), Planinasus neotropicus (Panama. Canal Zone: Barro Colorado Island (09°09.1'N, 79°50.8'W)), Planinasus kotrbae (Ecuador. Orellana: Rio Tiputini Biodiversity Station (0°38.2'S, 76°08.9'W)), Planinasus miradorus (Brazil. Maranhão: Parque Estadual Mirador, Base da Geraldina (06°22.2'S, 44°21.8'W)), Planinasus tobagoensis (Trinidad and Tobago. Tobago. St. John: Parlatuvier (11°17.9'N, 60°39'W)), Planinasus xanthops (Ecuador. Orellana: Rio Tiputini Biodiversity Station (0°38.2'S, 76°8.9'W)), Planinasus argentifacies (Peru. Madre de Dios: Río Manu, Pakitza (11°56.6'S, 71°16.9'W; 250 m)), Planinasus insulanus (Dominican Republic. La Vega: near Jarabacoa, Salto Guasara (19°04.4'N, 70°42.1'W, 680 m)), Planinasus nigritarsus (Guyana. Conservation of Ecological Interactions and Biotic Associations (CEIBA; ca. 40 km S Georgetown; 06°29.9'N, 58°13.1'W)), Planinasus atriclypeus (Brazil. Rio de Janeiro: Rio de Janeiro, Floresta da Tijuca (22°57.6'S, 43°16.4'W)), Planinasus atrifrons (Bolivia. Santa Cruz: Ichilo, Buena Vista (4-6 km SSE; Hotel Flora y Fauna; 17°29.95'S, 63°33.15'W; 4-500 m)), P. flavicoxalis (West Indies. Dominica. St. David: 1.6 km N of junction of roads to Rosalie and Castle Bruce (15°23.8'N, 61°18.6'W)), Planinasus mcalpineorum (Mexico. Chiapas: Cacahoatan (7 km N; 15°04.1'N, 92°07.4'W)), Planinasus nigrifacies (Brazil. São Paulo: Mogi das Cruzes, Serra do Itapeti (23°31.5'S, 46°11.2'W)), Planinasus obscuripennis (Peru. Madre de Dios: Río Manu, Erika (near Salvación; 12°50.7'S, 71°23.3'W; 550 m)). In addition to external characters, we also describe and illustrate structures of the male terminalia and for Planinasus kotrbaesp. n., the

  6. Notas sobre la flora de Colombia y países vecinos, II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugand Armando

    1968-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es el segundo de una serie iniciada hace dos años en Phytologia (Vol. 13, No 6: 379-400. Sept. 1966, relativa en su mayor parte a la flora xerófila y subxerófila de la llanura costera del Caribe en Colombia y regiones vecinas, particularmente el norte de Venezuela. En él se hacen observaciones taxonómicas, morfológicas, distribucionales y otras varias acerca de las siguientes plantas: A.   - Especies que se señalan por primer a vez en la flora de Colombia: Aizoaceae.                           Sesuvium. edmonstonei Hook. f.                                                Sesuvium microphyllum Willd. Amaranthaceae.                 Froelichia interrupta (L. Moq. Cactaceae.                           Borzicactus sepium. (Kth. Britt. & Rose. Chenopodiaceae.               Atriplex pentandra (Jacq. Standl.                                                Heterostachys ritteriana (Moq. Ung.-Sternb. Compositae.                        Oxycarpha suedifolia Blake. Cruciferae.                           Cakile lanceolata (Willd. Schulz. Cyperaceae.                        Cyperus uncinulatus Schrad. Euphorbiaceae.                   *Chamaesyce bahiensis (Kl. & Gke. Dugand & Burch.                                                            ∆Chamaesyce dioica (Kth. Millsp. Leguminosae-Faboideae. Aeschynomene viscidula Michx.                                                Alysicarpus vaginalis (L. DC.                                                Crotalaria pumila Gómez-Ortega.