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  1. A comparison between Kaplan-Meier and weighted Kaplan-Meier methods of five-year survival estimation of patients with gastric cancer.

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    Zare, Ali; Mahmoodi, Mahmood; Mohammad, Kazem; Zeraati, Hojjat; Hosseini, Mostafa; Holakouie Naieni, Kourosh

    2014-01-01

    The 5-year survival rate is a good prognostic indicator for patients with Gastric cancer that is usually estimated based on Kaplan-Meier. In situations where censored observations are too many, this method produces biased estimations. This study aimed to compare estimations of Kaplan-Meier and Weighted Kaplan-Meier as an alternative method to deal with the problem of heavy-censoring. Data from 330 patients with Gastric cancer who had undergone surgery at Iran Cancer Institute from 1995- 1999 were analyzed. The Survival Time of these patients was determined after surgery, and the 5-year survival rate for these patients was evaluated based on Kaplan-Meier and Weighted Kaplan-Meier methods. A total of 239 (72.4%) patients passed away by the end of the study and 91(27.6%) patients were censored. The mean and median of survival time for these patients were 24.86±23.73 and 16.33 months, respectively. The one-year, two-year, three-year, four-year, and five-year survival rates of these patients with standard error estimation based on Kaplan-Meier were 0.66 (0.0264), 0.42 (0.0284), 0.31 (0.0274), 0.26 (0.0264) and 0.21 (0.0256) months, respectively. The estimations of Weighted Kaplan-Meier for these patients were 0.62 (0.0251), 0.35 (0.0237), 0.24 (0.0211), 0.17 (0.0172), and 0.10 (0.0125) months, consecutively. In cases where censoring assumption is not made, and the study has many censored observations, estimations obtained from the Kaplan-Meier are biased and are estimated higher than its real amount. But Weighted Kaplan-Meier decreases bias of survival probabilities by providing appropriate weights and presents more accurate understanding.

  2. A comparison between Kaplan-Meier and weighted Kaplan-Meier methods of five-year survival estimation of patients with gastric cancer.

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    Ali Zare

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The 5-year survival rate is a good prognostic indicator for patients with Gastric cancer that is usually estimated based on Kaplan-Meier. In situations where censored observations are too many, this method produces biased estimations. This study aimed to compare estimations of Kaplan-Meier and Weighted Kaplan-Meier as an alternative method to deal with the problem of heavy-censoring. Data from 330 patients with Gastric cancer who had undergone surgery at Iran Cancer Institute from 1995- 1999 were analyzed. The Survival Time of these patients was determined after surgery, and the 5-year survival rate for these patients was evaluated based on Kaplan-Meier and Weighted Kaplan-Meier methods. A total of 239 (72.4% patients passed away by the end of the study and 91(27.6% patients were censored. The mean and median of survival time for these patients were 24.86±23.73 and 16.33 months, respectively. The one-year, two-year, three-year, four-year, and five-year survival rates of these patients with standard error estimation based on Kaplan-Meier were 0.66 (0.0264, 0.42 (0.0284, 0.31 (0.0274, 0.26 (0.0264 and 0.21 (0.0256 months, respectively. The estimations of Weighted Kaplan-Meier for these patients were 0.62 (0.0251, 0.35 (0.0237, 0.24 (0.0211, 0.17 (0.0172, and 0.10 (0.0125 months, consecutively. In cases where censoring assumption is not made, and the study has many censored observations, estimations obtained from the Kaplan-Meier are biased and are estimated higher than its real amount. But Weighted Kaplan-Meier decreases bias of survival probabilities by providing appropriate weights and presents more accurate understanding.

  3. Understanding survival analysis: Kaplan-Meier estimate

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    Goel, Manish Kumar; Khanna, Pardeep; Kishore, Jugal

    2010-01-01

    Kaplan-Meier estimate is one of the best options to be used to measure the fraction of subjects living for a certain amount of time after treatment. In clinical trials or community trials, the effect of an intervention is assessed by measuring the number of subjects survived or saved after that intervention over a period of time. The time starting from a defined point to the occurrence of a given event, for example death is called as survival time and the analysis of group data as survival analysis. This can be affected by subjects under study that are uncooperative and refused to be remained in the study or when some of the subjects may not experience the event or death before the end of the study, although they would have experienced or died if observation continued, or we lose touch with them midway in the study. We label these situations as censored observations. The Kaplan-Meier estimate is the simplest way of computing the survival over time in spite of all these difficulties associated with subjects or situations. The survival curve can be created assuming various situations. It involves computing of probabilities of occurrence of event at a certain point of time and multiplying these successive probabilities by any earlier computed probabilities to get the final estimate. This can be calculated for two groups of subjects and also their statistical difference in the survivals. This can be used in Ayurveda research when they are comparing two drugs and looking for survival of subjects. PMID:21455458

  4. A review and comparison of methods for recreating individual patient data from published Kaplan-Meier survival curves for economic evaluations: a simulation study.

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    Xiaomin Wan

    Full Text Available In general, the individual patient-level data (IPD collected in clinical trials are not available to independent researchers to conduct economic evaluations; researchers only have access to published survival curves and summary statistics. Thus, methods that use published survival curves and summary statistics to reproduce statistics for economic evaluations are essential. Four methods have been identified: two traditional methods 1 least squares method, 2 graphical method; and two recently proposed methods by 3 Hoyle and Henley, 4 Guyot et al. The four methods were first individually reviewed and subsequently assessed regarding their abilities to estimate mean survival through a simulation study.A number of different scenarios were developed that comprised combinations of various sample sizes, censoring rates and parametric survival distributions. One thousand simulated survival datasets were generated for each scenario, and all methods were applied to actual IPD. The uncertainty in the estimate of mean survival time was also captured.All methods provided accurate estimates of the mean survival time when the sample size was 500 and a Weibull distribution was used. When the sample size was 100 and the Weibull distribution was used, the Guyot et al. method was almost as accurate as the Hoyle and Henley method; however, more biases were identified in the traditional methods. When a lognormal distribution was used, the Guyot et al. method generated noticeably less bias and a more accurate uncertainty compared with the Hoyle and Henley method.The traditional methods should not be preferred because of their remarkable overestimation. When the Weibull distribution was used for a fitted model, the Guyot et al. method was almost as accurate as the Hoyle and Henley method. However, if the lognormal distribution was used, the Guyot et al. method was less biased compared with the Hoyle and Henley method.

  5. On an exponential bound for the Kaplan-Meier estimator.

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    Wellner, Jon A

    2007-12-01

    We review limit theory and inequalities for the Kaplan-Meier Kaplan and Meier (J Am Stat Assoc 53:457-481, 1958) product limit estimator of a survival function on the whole line [Formula: see text] . Along the way we provide bounds for the constant in an interesting inequality due to Biotouzé et al. (Ann Inst H Poincaré Probab Stat 35:735-763, 1999), and provide some numerical evidence in support of one of their conjectures.

  6. A Berry-Essen Inequality for the Kaplan-Meier L-Estimator

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    Qi Hua WANG; Li Xing ZHU

    2001-01-01

    LetFn be the Kaplan-Meier estimator of distribution function F. Let J(.) be a measureablereal-valued function. In this paper, a U-statistic representation for the Kaplan-Meier L-estimator,T(Fn) = xJ(Fn(x))dFn(x), is derived. Furthermore, the representation is also used to establish aBerry-Essen inequality for T(Fn).

  7. Application of Kaplan-Meier analysis in reliability evaluation of products cast from aluminium alloys

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    J. Szymszal

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The article evaluates the reliability of AlSi17CuNiMg alloys using Kaplan-Meier-based technique, very popular as a survival estimation tool in medical science. The main object of survival analysis is a group (or groups of units for which the time of occurrence of an event (failure taking place after some time of waiting is estimated. For example, in medicine, the failure can be patient’s death. In this study, the failure was the specimen fracture during a periodical fatigue test, while the survival time was either the test duration to specimen failure (complete observations, or the test end time (censored observations. The parameters of theoretical survival function were estimated with procedures based on the method of least squares, while typical survival time distribution followed either an exponential or two-parameter Weibull distribution. The goodness of fit of a model survival function was estimated with an incremental chi-square test, based on the values of the log likelihood ratio. The effect of alloy processing history on the run of a survival function was examined. The factors shaping the alloy processing history included: mould type (sand or metal mould, alloy modification process, and heat treatment type (solution heat treatment and ageing.

  8. THE LAW OF THE ITERATED LOGARITHM OF THE KAPLAN-MEIER INTEGRAL AND ITS APPLICATION

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    HE SHUYUAN; WANG YANHUA

    2004-01-01

    For right censored data, the law of the iterated logarithm of the Kaplan-Meier integral is established. As an application, the authors prove the law of the iterated logarithm for weighted least square estimates of randomly censored linear regression model.

  9. Gastric emptying of solids in humans: improved evaluation by Kaplan-Meier plots, with special reference to obesity and gender

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    Grybaeck, P. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Naeslund, E. [Department of Surgery, Karolinska Institute at Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Hellstroem, P.M. [Department of Internal Medicine, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Jacobsson, H. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)]|[Department of Nuclear Medicine, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Backman, L. [Department of Surgery, Karolinska Institute at Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    It has been suggested that obesity is associated with an altered rate of gastric emptying, and that there are also sex differences in gastric emptying. The results of earlier studies examining gastric emptying rates in obesity and in males and females have proved inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of obesity and gender on gastric emptying, by extending conventional evaluation methods with Kaplan-Meier plots, in order to assess whether these factors have to be accounted for when interpreting results of scintigraphic gastric emptying tests. Twenty-one normal-weight volunteers and nine obese subjects were fed a standardised technetium-99m labelled albumin omelette. Imaging data were acquired at 5- and 10-min intervals in both posterior and anterior projections with the subjects in the sitting position. The half-emptying time, analysed by Kaplan-Meier plot (log-rank test), were shorter in obese subjects compared to normal-weight subjects and later in females compared to males. Also, the lag-phase and half-emptying time were shorter in obese females than in normal females. This study shows an association between different gastric emptying rates and obesity and gender. Therefore, body mass index and gender have to be accounted for when interpreting results of scintigraphic gastric emptying studies. (orig.). With 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. A practical divergence measure for survival distributions that can be estimated from Kaplan-Meier curves.

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    Cox, Trevor F; Czanner, Gabriela

    2016-06-30

    This paper introduces a new simple divergence measure between two survival distributions. For two groups of patients, the divergence measure between their associated survival distributions is based on the integral of the absolute difference in probabilities that a patient from one group dies at time t and a patient from the other group survives beyond time t and vice versa. In the case of non-crossing hazard functions, the divergence measure is closely linked to the Harrell concordance index, C, the Mann-Whitney test statistic and the area under a receiver operating characteristic curve. The measure can be used in a dynamic way where the divergence between two survival distributions from time zero up to time t is calculated enabling real-time monitoring of treatment differences. The divergence can be found for theoretical survival distributions or can be estimated non-parametrically from survival data using Kaplan-Meier estimates of the survivor functions. The estimator of the divergence is shown to be generally unbiased and approximately normally distributed. For the case of proportional hazards, the constituent parts of the divergence measure can be used to assess the proportional hazards assumption. The use of the divergence measure is illustrated on the survival of pancreatic cancer patients. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Kaplan-Meier analysis on seizure outcome after epilepsy surgery: do gender and race influence it?

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    Burneo, Jorge G; Villanueva, Vicente; Knowlton, Robert C; Faught, R Edward; Kuzniecky, Ruben I

    2008-06-01

    To evaluate seizure outcome following epilepsy surgery for patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and evaluate is gender and race/ethnicity influence it. Data were obtained from the discharge database of the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Epilepsy Center, between 1985 and 2001. The sample consisted of all patients with a primary diagnosis of medically intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) who underwent anterior temporal lobectomy. Seizure recurrence was tabulated at 7 days, 2 months, 6 months, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 years following surgery. Logistic regression analysis was used to model the presence of seizure recurrence after anterior temporal lobectomy for all patients. Kaplan-Meier analysis was done to obtain estimates and 95% CIs of seizure freedom from baseline. Baseline variables--age at surgery, age at seizure onset, sex, side of resection, immediate postoperative seizures, and pathology results--were assessed as potential predictors of each outcome by comparing the survival curves within each variable with a log rank test. Three hundred sixty-eight patients underwent surgical treatment for TLE, mean age of 30.2 years. Thirty-five patients were African American, 43% were men. Immediate postoperative seizures were seen in 23 patients, while seizure recurrence occurred in 27.3% patients within a year after surgery, and in 33.6% within 6 years. Logistic regression results showed no differences between African Americans and whites, between males and females. The occurrence of immediate postoperative seizures was a strong predictor of late seizure recurrence only at 1 year after surgery. The occurrence of seizures in the immediate postoperative period is a strong predictor of later seizure recurrence. Sex and race/ethnicity do not appear to be predictors of long-term outcome following surgery for temporal lobe epilepsy.

  12. Total Ankle Replacement Survival Rates Based on Kaplan-Meier Survival Analysis of National Joint Registry Data.

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    Bartel, Annette F P; Roukis, Thomas S

    2015-10-01

    National joint registry data provides unique information about primary total ankle replacement (TAR) survival. We sought to recreate survival curves among published national joint registry data sets using the Kaplan-Meier estimator. Overall, 5152 primary and 591 TAR revisions were included over a 2- to 13-year period with prosthesis survival for all national joint registries of 0.94 at 2-years, 0.87 at 5-years and 0.81 at 10-years. National joint registry datasets should strive for completion of data presentation including revision definitions, modes and time of failure, and patients lost to follow-up or death for complete accuracy of the Kaplan-Meier estimator.

  13. KMWin--a convenient tool for graphical presentation of results from Kaplan-Meier survival time analysis.

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    Arnd Gross

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Analysis of clinical studies often necessitates multiple graphical representations of the results. Many professional software packages are available for this purpose. Most packages are either only commercially available or hard to use especially if one aims to generate or customize a huge number of similar graphical outputs. We developed a new, freely available software tool called KMWin (Kaplan-Meier for Windows facilitating Kaplan-Meier survival time analysis. KMWin is based on the statistical software environment R and provides an easy to use graphical interface. Survival time data can be supplied as SPSS (sav, SAS export (xpt or text file (dat, which is also a common export format of other applications such as Excel. Figures can directly be exported in any graphical file format supported by R. RESULTS: On the basis of a working example, we demonstrate how to use KMWin and present its main functions. We show how to control the interface, customize the graphical output, and analyse survival time data. A number of comparisons are performed between KMWin and SPSS regarding graphical output, statistical output, data management and development. Although the general functionality of SPSS is larger, KMWin comprises a number of features useful for survival time analysis in clinical trials and other applications. These are for example number of cases and number of cases under risk within the figure or provision of a queue system for repetitive analyses of updated data sets. Moreover, major adjustments of graphical settings can be performed easily on a single window. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that our tool is well suited and convenient for repetitive analyses of survival time data. It can be used by non-statisticians and provides often used functions as well as functions which are not supplied by standard software packages. The software is routinely applied in several clinical study groups.

  14. Quantitative estimation of the stability of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain-typing systems by use of Kaplan-Meier survival analysis.

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    O'Sullivan, Matthew V N; Sintchenko, Vitali; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge concerning stability is important in the development and assessment of microbial molecular typing systems and is critical for the interpretation of their results. Typing system stability is usually measured as the fraction of isolates that change type after several in vivo passages, but this does not necessarily reflect in vivo stability. The aim of this study was to utilize survival analysis to provide an informative quantitative measure of in vivo stability and to compare the stabilities of various techniques employed in typing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). We identified 100 MRSA pairs (isolated from the same patient ≥ 1 month apart) and typed them using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), phage-derived open reading frame (PDORF) typing, toxin gene profiling (TGP), staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) subtyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and spa sequence typing. Discordant isolate pairs, belonging to different MLST clonal complexes, were excluded, leaving 81 pairs for analysis. The stabilities of these methods were examined using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, and discriminatory power was measured by Simpson's index of diversity. The probability percentages that the type remained unchanged at 6 months for spa sequence typing, TGP, multilocus variable number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA), SCCmec subtyping, PDORF typing, and PFGE were 95, 95, 88, 82, 71, and 58, respectively, while the Simpson's indices of diversity were 0.48, 0.47, 0.70, 0.72, 0.89, and 0.88, respectively. Survival analysis using sequential clinical isolates adds an important quantitative dimension to the measurement of stability of a microbial typing system. Of the methods compared here, PDORF typing provides high discriminatory power, comparable with that of PFGE, and a level of stability suitable for MRSA surveillance and outbreak investigations.

  15. Factors Determining Disease Duration in Alzheimer’s Disease: A Postmortem Study of 103 Cases Using the Kaplan-Meier Estimator and Cox Regression

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    R. A. Armstrong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Factors associated with duration of dementia in a consecutive series of 103 Alzheimer’s disease (AD cases were studied using the Kaplan-Meier estimator and Cox regression analysis (proportional hazard model. Mean disease duration was 7.1 years (range: 6 weeks–30 years, standard deviation = 5.18; 25% of cases died within four years, 50% within 6.9 years, and 75% within 10 years. Familial AD cases (FAD had a longer duration than sporadic cases (SAD, especially cases linked to presenilin (PSEN genes. No significant differences in duration were associated with age, sex, or apolipoprotein E (Apo E genotype. Duration was reduced in cases with arterial hypertension. Cox regression analysis suggested longer duration was associated with an earlier disease onset and increased senile plaque (SP and neurofibrillary tangle (NFT pathology in the orbital gyrus (OrG, CA1 sector of the hippocampus, and nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM. The data suggest shorter disease duration in SAD and in cases with hypertensive comorbidity. In addition, degree of neuropathology did not influence survival, but spread of SP/NFT pathology into the frontal lobe, hippocampus, and basal forebrain was associated with longer disease duration.

  16. Days of Shanghai Stock Index Successive Rises and Fall Based on Kaplan-Meier Algorithms%基于Kaplan-Meier算法的上证指数涨跌天数研究

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    毕建欣

    2011-01-01

    运用Kaplan-Meier算法对上证指数连续上涨和下跌天数进行研究,研究了在不同的市场交易制度(即T+0,T+1和涨停板制度)对上证指数涨跌天数的影响,其结果表明Kaplan-Meier算法对于分析股市的变动是有效的.%In this paper, Days of Shanghai Stock Index Successive rises and fall are analyzed by Kaplan-Meier Algorithms. It demonstrates the policy effect on days of Shanghai Stock Index successive rises and fall , such as" T + 0","T + 1"and"soaring deadline system". It also reveals that Kaplan-Meier Algorithms is valid for analyzing the changes of the stock market.

  17. Stavudine- and nevirapine-related drug toxicity while on generic fixed-dose antiretroviral treatment: incidence, timing and risk factors in a three-year cohort in Kigali, Rwanda.

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    van Griensven, Johan; Zachariah, Rony; Rasschaert, Freya; Mugabo, Jules; Atté, Edi F; Reid, Tony

    2010-02-01

    This cohort study was conducted to report on the incidence, timing and risk factors for stavudine (d4T)- and nevirapine (NVP)-related severe drug toxicity (requiring substitution) with a generic fixed-dose combination under program conditions in Kigali, Rwanda. Probability of 'time to first toxicity-related drug substitution' was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox-proportional hazards modeling was used to identify risk factors. Out of 2190 adults (median follow-up: 1.5 years), d4T was replaced in 175 patients (8.0%) for neuropathy, 69 (3.1%) for lactic acidosis and 157 (7.2%) for lipoatrophy, which was the most frequent toxicity by 3 years of antiretroviral treatment (ART). NVP was substituted in 4.9 and 1.3% of patients for skin rash and hepatotoxicity, respectively. Use of d4T 40 mg was associated with increased risk of lipoatrophy and early (strategies.

  18. Hazard Rate Estimation for Censored Data via Strong Representation of the Kaplan-Meier Estimator.

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    1985-08-01

    of bounded variation (condition (k4).) The process( /n 1 has mean zero and covariance SA t (26) r(s,t) E E[C(s) C(t)] - F(s) F(t) f [(u)]- 2 d Lj(u...continuous with density f(x) > 0 at x. Suppose k is of bounded variation and is continuous. Then fn(x) admits the strong approximation on the interval [0,T

  19. Early Proctoscopy is a Surrogate Endpoint of Late Rectal Toxicity in Prostate Cancer Treated With Radiotherapy

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    Ippolito, Edy; Massaccesi, Mariangela; Digesu, Cinzia; Deodato, Francesco [Radiotherapy Unit, Fondazione di Ricerca e Cura Giovanni Paolo II, Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Macchia, Gabriella, E-mail: gmacchia@rm.unicatt.it [Radiotherapy Unit, Fondazione di Ricerca e Cura Giovanni Paolo II, Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Pirozzi, Giuseppe Antonio [Endoscopy Unit, Fondazione di Ricerca e Cura Giovanni Paolo II, Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Cilla, Savino [Medical Physics Unit, Fondazione di Ricerca e Cura Giovanni Paolo II, Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Cuscuna, Daniele; Di Lallo, Alessandra [Urology Unit, General Hospital A. Cardarelli, Campobasso (Italy); Mattiucci, Gian Carlo; Mantini, Giovanna [Department of Radiotherapy, Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli, Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Rome (Italy); Pacelli, Fabio [Surgery Unit, Fondazione di Ricerca e Cura Giovanni Paolo II, Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Valentini, Vincenzo; Cellini, Numa [Department of Radiotherapy, Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli, Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Rome (Italy); Ingrosso, Marcello [Endoscopy Unit, Fondazione di Ricerca e Cura Giovanni Paolo II, Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Morganti, Alessio Giuseppe [Radiotherapy Unit, Fondazione di Ricerca e Cura Giovanni Paolo II, Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Department of Radiotherapy, Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli, Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Rome (Italy)

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To predict the grade and incidence of late clinical rectal toxicity through short-term (1 year) mucosal alterations. Methods and Materials: Patients with prostate adenocarcinoma treated with curative or adjuvant radiotherapy underwent proctoscopy a year after the course of radiotherapy. Mucosal changes were classified by the Vienna Rectoscopy Score (VRS). Late toxicity data were analyzed according to the Kaplan-Meier method. Comparison between prognosis groups was performed by log-rank analysis. Results: After a median follow-up time of 45 months (range, 18-99), the 3-year incidence of grade {>=}2 rectal late toxicity according to the criteria of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group was 24%, with all patients (24/24; 100%) experiencing rectal bleeding. The occurrence of grade {>=}2 clinical rectal late toxicity was higher in patients with grade {>=}2 (32% vs. 15 %, p = 0.02) or grade {>=}3 VRS telangiectasia (47% vs. 17%, p {<=} 0.01) and an overall VRS score of {>=}2 (31% vs. 16 %, p = 0.04) or {>=}3 (48% vs. 17%, p = 0.01) at the 1-year proctoscopy. Conclusions: Early proctoscopy (1 year) predicts late rectal bleeding and therefore can be used as a surrogate endpoint for late rectal toxicity in studies aimed at reducing this frequent complication.

  20. Bias and precision of methods for estimating the difference in restricted mean survival time from an individual patient data meta-analysis

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    Béranger Lueza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The difference in restricted mean survival time ( rmstD t ∗ $$ rmstD\\left({t}^{\\ast}\\right $$ , the area between two survival curves up to time horizon t ∗ $$ {t}^{\\ast } $$ , is often used in cost-effectiveness analyses to estimate the treatment effect in randomized controlled trials. A challenge in individual patient data (IPD meta-analyses is to account for the trial effect. We aimed at comparing different methods to estimate the rmstD t ∗ $$ rmstD\\left({t}^{\\ast}\\right $$ from an IPD meta-analysis. Methods We compared four methods: the area between Kaplan-Meier curves (experimental vs. control arm ignoring the trial effect (Naïve Kaplan-Meier; the area between Peto curves computed at quintiles of event times (Peto-quintile; the weighted average of the areas between either trial-specific Kaplan-Meier curves (Pooled Kaplan-Meier or trial-specific exponential curves (Pooled Exponential. In a simulation study, we varied the between-trial heterogeneity for the baseline hazard and for the treatment effect (possibly correlated, the overall treatment effect, the time horizon t ∗ $$ {t}^{\\ast } $$ , the number of trials and of patients, the use of fixed or DerSimonian-Laird random effects model, and the proportionality of hazards. We compared the methods in terms of bias, empirical and average standard errors. We used IPD from the Meta-Analysis of Chemotherapy in Nasopharynx Carcinoma (MAC-NPC and its updated version MAC-NPC2 for illustration that included respectively 1,975 and 5,028 patients in 11 and 23 comparisons. Results The Naïve Kaplan-Meier method was unbiased, whereas the Pooled Exponential and, to a much lesser extent, the Pooled Kaplan-Meier methods showed a bias with non-proportional hazards. The Peto-quintile method underestimated the rmstD t ∗ $$ rmstD\\left({t}^{\\ast}\\right $$ , except with non-proportional hazards at t ∗ $$ {t}^{\\ast } $$ = 5 years. In the presence of treatment effect

  1. BCNU for recurrent glioblastoma multiforme: efficacy, toxicity and prognostic factors

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    Pinsker Marcus O

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prognosis for patients with recurrent glioblastoma is still poor with a median survival between 3 and 6 months. Reports about the application of carmustine (BCNU, one of the standard chemotherapeutic drugs in the treatment of newly diagnosed glioblastoma, in the recurrent situation are rare. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of 35 patients with recurrent or progressive glioblastoma treated with 80 mg/m2 BCNU on days 1 on 3 intravenously at our department for efficacy, toxicity and prognostic factors. Progression free survival and overall survival were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. The influence of age, Karnofsky performance status (KPS, tumor burden, pretreatment with temozolomide (TMZ, type of surgery for initial diagnosis and number of previous relapses on outcome was analyzed in a proportional hazards regression model. Results The median age of the group was 53 years, median KPS was 70. Median progression free survival was 11 weeks (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8-15, median overall survival 22 weeks (95% CI: 18-27. The rate of adverse events, especially hematological toxicity, is relatively high, and in 3 patients treatment had to be terminated due to adverse events (one pulmonary embolism, one pulmonary fibrosis, and one severe bone marrow suppression. No influence of age, KPS, tumor burden, pre-treatment with TMZ and number of previous relapses on outcome could be demonstrated, while gross total resection prior to recurrence showed a borderline statistically significant negative impact on PFS and OS. These data compare well with historical survival figures. However prospective randomized studies are needed to evaluate BCNU efficacy against newer drugs like bevacizumab or the intensified temozolomide regime (one week on/one week off. Conclusion In summary, BCNU treatment appears to be a valuable therapeutic option for recurrent glioblastomas, where no other validated radio- and/or chemotherapy are

  2. In silico methods to predict drug toxicity.

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    Roncaglioni, Alessandra; Toropov, Andrey A; Toropova, Alla P; Benfenati, Emilio

    2013-10-01

    This review describes in silico methods to characterize the toxicity of pharmaceuticals, including tools which predict toxicity endpoints such as genotoxicity or organ-specific models, tools addressing ADME processes, and methods focusing on protein-ligand docking binding. These in silico tools are rapidly evolving. Nowadays, the interest has shifted from classical studies to support toxicity screening of candidates, toward the use of in silico methods to support the expert. These methods, previously considered useful only to provide a rough, initial estimation, currently have attracted interest as they can assist the expert in investigating toxic potential. They provide the expert with safety perspectives and insights within a weight-of-evidence strategy. This represents a shift of the general philosophy of in silico methodology, and it is likely to further evolve especially exploiting links with system biology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy vs. parotid-sparing 3D conformal radiotherapy. Effect on outcome and toxicity in locally advanced head and neck cancer

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    Lambrecht, M.; Nevens, D.; Nuyts, S. [University Hospitals Leuven (Belgium). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2013-03-15

    Background and purpose: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) has rapidly become standard of care in the management of locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). In this study, our aim was to retrospectively investigate the effect of the introducing IMRT on outcome and treatment-related toxicity compared to parotid-sparing 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT). Material and methods: A total of 245 patients with stage III and IV HNSCC treated with primary radiotherapy between January 2003 and December 2010 were included in this analysis: 135 patients were treated with 3DCRT, 110 patients with IMRT. Groups were compared for acute and late toxicity, locoregional control (LRC), and overall survival (OS). Oncologic outcomes were estimated using Kaplan-Meier analysis and compared using a log-rank test. Acute toxicity was analyzed according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0 and late toxicity was scored using the RTOG/EORTC late toxicity scoring system. Results: Median follow-up was 35 months in the IMRT group and 68 months in the 3DCRT group. No significant differences were found in 3-year LRC and OS rates between the IMRT group and 3DCRT group. Significantly less acute mucositis {>=} grade 3 was observed in the IMRT group (32% vs. 44%, p = 0.03). There was significantly less late xerostomia {>=} grade 2 in the IMRT group than in the 3DCRT group (23% vs. 68%, p < 0.001). After 24 months, there was less dysphagia {>=} grade 2 in the IMRT group although differences failed to reach statistical significance. Conclusion: The introduction of IMRT in the radiotherapeutic management of locally advanced head and neck cancer significantly improved late toxicity without compromising tumor control compared to a parotid-sparing 3D conformal radiotherapy technique. (orig.)

  4. Dosimetric and Late Radiation Toxicity Comparison Between Iodine-125 Brachytherapy and Stereotactic Radiation Therapy for Juxtapapillary Choroidal Melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krema, Hatem, E-mail: htmkrm19@yahoo.com [Department of Ocular Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital/University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Heydarian, Mostafa [Department of Radiation Medicine, Princess Margaret Hospital/University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Beiki-Ardakani, Akbar [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital/University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Weisbrod, Daniel [Department of Ocular Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital/University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Xu, Wei [Department of Biostatistics, Princess Margaret Hospital/University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Laperriere, Normand J.; Sahgal, Arjun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital/University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: To compare the dose distributions and late radiation toxicities for {sup 125}I brachytherapy (IBT) and stereotactic radiation therapy (SRT) in the treatment of juxtapapillary choroidal melanoma. Methods: Ninety-four consecutive patients with juxtapapillary melanoma were reviewed: 30 have been treated with IBT and 64 with SRT. Iodine-125 brachytherapy cases were modeled with plaque simulator software for dosimetric analysis. The SRT dosimetric data were obtained from the Radionics XKnife RT3 software. Mean doses at predetermined intraocular points were calculated. Kaplan-Meier estimates determined the actuarial rates of late toxicities, and the log–rank test compared the estimates. Results: The median follow-up was 46 months in both cohorts. The 2 cohorts were balanced with respect to pretreatment clinical and tumor characteristics. Comparisons of radiation toxicity rates between the IBT and SRT cohorts yielded actuarial rates at 50 months for cataracts of 62% and 75% (P=.1), for neovascular glaucoma 8% and 47% (P=.002), for radiation retinopathy 59% and 89% (P=.0001), and for radiation papillopathy 39% and 74% (P=.003), respectively. Dosimetric comparisons between the IBT and SRT cohorts yielded mean doses of 12.8 and 14.1 Gy (P=.56) for the lens center, 17.6 and 19.7 Gy (P=.44) for the lens posterior pole, 13.9 and 10.8 Gy (P=.30) for the ciliary body, 61.9 and 69.7 Gy (P=.03) for optic disc center, and 48.9 and 60.1 Gy (P<.0001) for retina at 5-mm distance from tumor margin, respectively. Conclusions: Late radiation-induced toxicities were greater with SRT, which is secondary to the high-dose exposure inherent to the technique as compared with IBT. When technically feasible, IBT is preferred to treat juxtapapillary choroidal melanoma.

  5. Duodenal Toxicity After Fractionated Chemoradiation for Unresectable Pancreatic Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Patrick; Das, Prajnan; Pinnix, Chelsea C.; Beddar, Sam; Briere, Tina; Pham, Mary; Krishnan, Sunil; Delclos, Marc E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Crane, Christopher H., E-mail: ccrane@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: Improving local control is critical to improving survival and quality of life for patients with locally advanced unresectable pancreatic cancer (LAPC). However, previous attempts at radiation dose escalation have been limited by duodenal toxicity. In order to guide future studies, we analyzed the clinical and dosimetric factors associated with duodenal toxicity in patients undergoing fractionated chemoradiation for LAPC. Methods and Materials: Medical records and treatment plans of 106 patients with LAPC who were treated with chemoradiation between July 2005 and June 2010 at our institution were reviewed. All patients received neoadjuvant and concurrent chemotherapy. Seventy-eight patients were treated with conventional radiation to 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions; 28 patients received dose-escalated radiation therapy (range, 57.5-75.4 Gy in 28-39 fractions). Treatment-related toxicity was graded according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess prognostic influence of clinical, pathologic, and treatment-related factors by using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression methods. Results: Twenty patients had treatment-related duodenal toxicity events, such as duodenal inflammation, ulceration, and bleeding. Four patients had grade 1 events, 8 had grade 2, 6 had grade 3, 1 had grade 4, and 1 had grade 5. On univariate analysis, a toxicity grade ≥2 was associated with tumor location, low platelet count, an absolute volume (cm{sup 3}) receiving a dose of at least 55 Gy (V{sub 55} {sub Gy} > 1 cm{sup 3}), and a maximum point dose >60 Gy. Of these factors, only V{sub 55} {sub Gy} ≥1 cm{sup 3} was associated with duodenal toxicity on multivariate analysis (hazard ratio, 6.7; range, 2.0-18.8; P=.002). Conclusions: This study demonstrates that a duodenal V{sub 55} {sub Gy} >1 cm{sup 3} is an important dosimetric predictor of grade 2 or greater duodenal toxicity and establishes it as a

  6. Evaluation of the efficacy and toxicity of protocol cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin compared to protocol fluorouracil, doxorubicin and mitomycin C in locally advanced and metastatic gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrić Zoran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Still there is no consensus on the choice of the most efficient and the least toxic chemotherapy regimen in the treatment of advanced gastric cancer. Nowadays few therapy protocols are available for treating this disease. Objective. Study was conducted to compare the efficacy and toxicity of FAM (flurouracil, doxorubicin, mitomycin C with CDDP and FU/FA (cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin protocols in patients with locally advanced and metastatic gastric cancer. Methods. This randomized study involved a group of 50 patients with locally advanced or metastatic gastric cancer, who had not previously undergone chemotherapy treatment. Progression free survival, overall survival and drug toxicity were evaluated. For statistical analysis chi-square test, Kaplan-Meier curve and the log rank test were used. Results. The overall response rate was 20% in the group treated with FAM and 24% in the group treated with CDDP, FU/FA (4% of patients from each group had complete response, but without significant statistical difference. Median survival was 10.9 months in the FAM group and 11.8 months in CDDP, FU/FA group, with no statistically significant difference. Non-haematological and haematological toxicities of CDDP, FU/FA were considerably less frequent than of FAM, and there was no treatment related deaths in any of the groups. Conclusion. Both investigated regimens demonstrated moderate efficacy. The study shows in favour of justified application of both protocols, while in regard to toxicity CDDP and FU/FA can be recommended as preferable treatment for locally advanced and metastatic gastric cancer. New strategies should be considered for better efficacy in the treatment of advanced gastric cancer. New strategies are necessary with the goal to achieve a better therapeutic effect.

  7. Hypofractionated conformal radiotherapy (HCRT) for primary and metastatic lung cancers with small dimension. Efficacy and toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirri, Maria Alessandra; Arcangeli, Giorgio; Pinzi, Valentina [S.C. Radioterapia Oncologica, Regina Elena National Cancer Inst., Rome (Italy); Benassi, Marcello; D' Angelo, Annelisa; Strigari, Lidia [S.C. Lab. di Fisica Medica e Sistemi Esperti, Regina Elena National Cancer Inst., Rome (Italy); Caterino, Mauro [S.C. Radiologia e Diagnostica per Immagini, Regina Elena National Cancer Inst., Rome (Italy); Rinaldi, Massimo [S.C. Oncologia Medica B. Regina Elena National Cancer Inst., Rome (Italy); Ceribelli, Anna [S.C. Oncologia Medica A. Regina Elena National Cancer Inst., Rome (Italy)

    2009-01-15

    Purpose: to report on the clinical outcome of hypofractionated conformal radiotherapy (HCRT) for medically inoperable stage I non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) or limited pulmonary metastases {<=} 5 cm in diameter. Patients and methods: from June 2003 to March 2007, 40 patients (42 lesions) underwent HCRT consisting of 40 Gy in five fractions over 2.5 weeks received by at least 95% of planning target volume. All patients underwent CT simulation and treatment under free shallow breathing. To evaluate target displacement under respiratory activity, two additional CT scans were performed with breath-holding during the expiratory and inspiratory phases. Of all patients enrolled, those with a follow-up {>=} 4 months were considered suitable for analysis. Local response was evaluated with CT imaging 4 months after the end of HCRT and every 3 months thereafter. Local relapse-free survival (LRFS) and overall survival (OS) were calculated with the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: local response to the treatment was complete response, partial response, no change, and progressive disease as seen in 29%, 43%, 14%, and 7% of tumors, respectively. LRFS at 1 year and 3 years was 76% and 63%, respectively. Lung toxicities {>=} grade 2 were observed in 4/40 patients, but no grade 4. Pericardial effusion occurred in one patient. In stage I NSCLC patients (n = 15) with a median follow-up of 25 months, the 1-year LRFS and OS rates were 88% and 81%, respectively, and the 3-year rates 72% and 61%, respectively. Conclusion: HCRT is an effective and low-toxic treatment for medically inoperable early-stage lung cancers and pulmonary metastases for all clinicians lacking the aid of a dedicated stereotactic system. (orig.)

  8. Age and Comorbid Illness Are Associated With Late Rectal Toxicity Following Dose-Escalated Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamstra, Daniel A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Stenmark, Matt H.; Ritter, Tim [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Litzenberg, Dale; Jackson, William; Johnson, Skyler; Albrecht-Unger, Liesel; Donaghy, Alex; Phelps, Laura; Blas, Kevin; Halverson, Schuyler; Marsh, Robin; Olson, Karin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Feng, Felix Y., E-mail: ffeng@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To assess the impacts of patient age and comorbid illness on rectal toxicity following external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer and to assess the Qualitative Analysis of Normal Tissue Effects in the Clinic (QUANTEC) normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model in this context. Methods and Materials: Rectal toxicity was analyzed in 718 men previously treated for prostate cancer with EBRT (≥75 Gy). Comorbid illness was scored using the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCMI), and the NTCP was evaluated with the QUANTEC model. The influence of clinical and treatment-related parameters on rectal toxicity was assessed by Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards models. Results: The cumulative incidence of rectal toxicity grade ≥2 was 9.5% and 11.6% at 3 and 5 years and 3.3% and 3.9% at 3 and 5 years for grade ≥3 toxicity, respectively. Each year of age predicted an increasing relative risk of grade ≥2 (P<.03; hazard ratio [HR], 1.04 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01-1.06]) and ≥3 rectal toxicity (P<.0001; HR, 1.14 [95% CI,1.07-1.22]). Increasing CCMI predicted rectal toxicity where a history of either myocardial infarction (MI) (P<.0001; HR, 5.1 [95% CI, 1.9-13.7]) or congestive heart failure (CHF) (P<.0006; HR, 5.4 [95% CI, 0.6-47.5]) predicted grade ≥3 rectal toxicity, with lesser correlation with grade ≥2 toxicity (P<.02 for MI, and P<.09 for CHF). An age comorbidity model to predict rectal toxicity was developed and confirmed in a validation cohort. The use of anticoagulants increased toxicity independent of age and comorbidity. NTCP was prognostic for grade ≥3 (P=.015) but not grade ≥2 (P=.49) toxicity. On multivariate analysis, age, MI, CHF, and an NTCP >20% all correlated with late rectal toxicity. Conclusions: Patient age and a history of MI or CHF significantly impact rectal toxicity following EBRT for the treatment of prostate cancer, even after controlling for NTCP.

  9. LCIA selection methods for assessing toxic releases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Birkved, Morten; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2002-01-01

    Characterization of toxic emissions in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is in many cases severely limited by the lack of characterization factors for the emissions mapped in the inventory. The number of substances assigned characterization factors for (eco)toxicity included in the dominating LCA...... methods in use to day (e.g. Eco-indicator 99 and EDIP) is in the range of 40 – 330 and often they only cover a minor part of the substances in the inventory. The user of the LCA method should in principle be able to calculate any missing factors (if needed substance data are available which is often....... The methods are evaluated against a set of pre-defined criteria (comprising consistency with characterization and data requirement) and applied to case studies and a test set of chemicals. The reported work is part of the EU-project OMNIITOX....

  10. Predictors of Toxicity After Image-guided High-dose-rate Interstitial Brachytherapy for Gynecologic Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Larissa J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Viswanathan, Akila N., E-mail: aviswanathan@lroc.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: To identify predictors of grade 3-4 complications and grade 2-4 rectal toxicity after three-dimensional image-guided high-dose-rate (HDR) interstitial brachytherapy for gynecologic cancer. Methods and Materials: Records were reviewed for 51 women (22 with primary disease and 29 with recurrence) treated with HDR interstitial brachytherapy. A single interstitial insertion was performed with image guidance by computed tomography (n = 43) or magnetic resonance imaging (n = 8). The median delivered dose in equivalent 2-Gy fractions was 72.0 Gy (45 Gy for external-beam radiation therapy and 24 Gy for brachytherapy). Toxicity was reported according to the Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events. Actuarial toxicity estimates were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: At diagnosis, the median patient age was 62 years and the median tumor size was 3.8 cm. The median D90 and V100 were 71.4 Gy and 89.5%; the median D2cc for the bladder, rectum, and sigmoid were 64.6 Gy, 61.0 Gy, and 52.7 Gy, respectively. The actuarial rates of all grade 3-4 complications at 2 years were 20% gastrointestinal, 9% vaginal, 6% skin, 3% musculoskeletal, and 2% lymphatic. There were no grade 3-4 genitourinary complications and no grade 5 toxicities. Grade 2-4 rectal toxicity was observed in 10 patients, and grade 3-4 complications in 4; all cases were proctitis with the exception of 1 rectal fistula. D2cc for rectum was higher for patients with grade 2-4 (68 Gy vs 57 Gy for grade 0-1, P=.03) and grade 3-4 (73 Gy vs 58 Gy for grade 0-2, P=.02) rectal toxicity. The estimated dose that resulted in a 10% risk of grade 2-4 rectal toxicity was 61.8 Gy (95% confidence interval, 51.5-72.2 Gy). Discussion: Image-guided HDR interstitial brachytherapy results in acceptable toxicity for women with primary or recurrent gynecologic cancer. D2cc for the rectum is a reliable predictor of late rectal complications. Three-dimensional-based treatment planning should be performed to ensure

  11. Dose-Painted Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy for Anal Cancer: A Multi-Institutional Report of Acute Toxicity and Response to Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachnic, Lisa A., E-mail: lisa.kachnic@bmc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Tsai, Henry K. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Coen, John J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Blaszkowsky, Lawrence S. [Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Hartshorn, Kevan [Department of Medicine, Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Kwak, Eunice L. [Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Willins, John D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Ryan, David P. [Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Hong, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Chemoradiation for anal cancer yields effective tumor control, but is associated with significant acute toxicity. We report our multi-institutional experience using dose-painted IMRT (DP-IMRT). Patients and Methods: Between August 2005 and May 2009, 43 patients were treated with DP-IMRT and concurrent chemotherapy for biopsy-proven, squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal at two academic medical centers. DP-IMRT was prescribed as follows: T2N0: 42 Gy, 1.5 Gy/fraction (fx) to elective nodal planning target volume (PTV) and 50.4 Gy, 1.8 Gy/fx to anal tumor PTV; T3-4N0-3: 45 Gy, 1.5 Gy/fx to elective nodal PTV, and 54 Gy, 1.8 Gy/fx to the anal tumor and metastatic nodal PTV >3 cm with 50.4 Gy, 1.68 Gy/fx to nodal PTVs {<=}3 cm in size. Acute and late toxicity was reported by the treating physician. Actuarial analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Median age was 58 years; 67% female; 16% Stage I, 37% II; 42% III; 5% IV. Fourteen patients were immunocompromised: 21% HIV-positive and 12% on chronic immunosuppression. Median follow-up was 24 months (range, 0.6-43.5 months). Sixty percent completed chemoradiation without treatment interruption; median duration of treatment interruption was 2 days (range, 2-24 days). Acute Grade 3+ toxicity included: hematologic 51%, dermatologic 10%, gastrointestinal 7%, and genitourinary 7%. Two-year local control, overall survival, colostomy-free survival, and metastasis-free survival were 95%, 94%, 90%, and 92%, respectively. Conclusions: Dose-painted IMRT appears effective and well-tolerated as part of a chemoradiation therapy regimen for the treatment of anal canal cancer.

  12. Outcome and toxicity of salvage therapy with {sup 177}Lu-octreotate in patients with metastatic gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabet, Amir; Haslerud, Torjan; Sabet, Amin; Ahmadzadehfar, Hojjat; Guhlke, Stefan; Biersack, Hans-Juergen; Ezziddin, Samer [University Hospital Bonn, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bonn (Germany); Pape, Ulrich-Frank [University Medicine Berlin, Department of Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Charite, Campus Virchow Clinic, Berlin (Germany); Gruenwald, Frank [University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    We assessed the outcome and toxicity of salvage therapy (repeat treatment) with {sup 177}Lu-octreotate and high cumulative activities in patients with metastatic gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (GEP-NET). We retrospectively analysed a consecutive cohort of 33 patients with metastatic GEP-NET who underwent salvage peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) in our institution. All patients had progressive NET prior to salvage treatment and had shown an initial response to PRRT. The mean cumulative activity was 44.3 GBq (30.0-83.7 GBq). Radiographic response was assessed using CT and/or MRI according to modified SWOG criteria. Toxicity was evaluated using laboratory data, including complete blood counts and renal function tests using CTCAE 3.0. Survival analysis was performed with the Kaplan-Meier curve method and a significance level at p < 0.05. Radiographic responses consisted of complete response in 1 patient (3.0 %), partial response in 6 patients (18.2 %), minor response in 1 patient (3.0 %), stable disease in 14 patients (42.4 %), and progressive disease in 11 patients (33.3 %). Median progression-free survival (PFS) from the start of salvage therapy was 13 months (95 % CI 9-18) and patients with a history of a durable PFS after initial PRRT tended to have long-lasting PFS after salvage treatment (p = 0.04). None of the patients developed severe nephrotoxicity (grade 3/4) or a myelodysplastic syndrome during follow-up. Relevant albeit reversible haematotoxicity (grade 3/4) occurred in 7 patients (21.2 %). The cumulative administered activity was not associated with an increased incidence of haematotoxicity. PRRT with {sup 177}Lu-octreotate in the re-treatment setting is safe and effective in patients with metastatic GEP-NET. (orig.)

  13. Clinical and laboratory toxicity after intra-arterial radioembolization with (90y-microspheres for unresectable liver metastases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten L J Smits

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate clinical and laboratory toxicity in patients with unresectable liver metastases, treated with yttrium-90 radioembolization ((90Y-RE. METHODS: Patients with liver metastases treated with (90Y-RE, between February 1(st 2009 and March 31(st 2012, were included in this study. Clinical toxicity assessment was based on the reporting in patient's charts. Laboratory investigations at baseline and during a four-month follow-up were used to assess laboratory toxicity according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.02. The occurrence of grade 3-4 laboratory toxicity was stratified according to treatment strategy (whole liver treatment in one session versus sequential sessions. Response assessment was performed at the level of target lesions, whole liver and overall response in accordance with RECIST 1.1 at 3- and 6 months post-treatment. Median time to progression (TTP and overall survival were calculated by Kaplan-Meier analysis. RESULTS: A total of 59 patients, with liver metastases from colorectal cancer (n = 30, neuroendocrine tumors (NET (n = 6 and other primary tumors (n = 23 were included. Clinical toxicity after (90Y-RE treatment was confined to grade 1-2 events, predominantly post-embolization symptoms. No grade 3-4 clinical toxicity was observed, whereas laboratory toxicity grade 3-4 was observed in 38% of patients. Whole liver treatment in one session was not associated with increased laboratory toxicity. Three-months disease control rates for target lesions, whole liver and overall response were 35%, 21% and 19% respectively. Median TTP was 6.2 months for target lesions, 3.3 months for the whole liver and 3.0 months for overall response. Median overall survival was 8.9 months. CONCLUSION: The risk of severe complications or grade 3-4 clinical toxicity in patients with liver metastases of various primary tumors undergoing (90Y-RE is low. In contrast, laboratory toxicity grade 3

  14. Skin toxicity and quality of life in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer during first-line panitumumab plus FOLFIRI treatment in a single-arm phase II study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaler Josef

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integument-related toxicities are common during epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR-targeted therapy. Panitumumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody targeting the EGFR that significantly improves progression-free survival when added to chemotherapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who have wild-type (WT KRAS tumours. Primary efficacy and tolerability results from a phase II single-arm study of first-line panitumumab plus FOLFIRI in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer have been reported. Here we report additional descriptive tolerability and quality of life data from this trial. Methods Integument-related toxicities and quality of life were analysed; toxicities were graded using modified National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria. Kaplan-Meier estimates of time to and duration of first integument-related toxicity were prepared. Quality of life was measured using EuroQoL EQ-5D and EORTC QLQ-C30. Best overall response was analysed by skin toxicity grade and baseline quality of life. Change in quality of life was analysed by skin toxicity severity. Results 154 patients were enrolled (WT KRAS n = 86; mutant KRAS n = 59; most (98% experienced integument-related toxicities (most commonly rash [42%], dry skin [40%] and acne [36%]. Median time to first integument-related toxicity was 8 days; median duration was 334 days. Overall, proportionally more patients with grade 2+ skin toxicity responded (56% compared with those with grade 0/1 (29%. Mean overall EQ-5D health state index scores (0.81 vs. 0.78, health rating scores (72.5 vs. 71.0 and QLQ-C30 global health status scores (65.8 vs. 66.7 were comparable at baseline vs. safety follow-up (8 weeks after completion, respectively and appeared unaffected by skin toxicity severity. Conclusions First-line panitumumab plus FOLFIRI has acceptable tolerability and appears to have little impact on quality of life, despite the high incidence of integument

  15. Dose-Volume Analysis of Predictors for Gastrointestinal Toxicity After Concurrent Full-Dose Gemcitabine and Radiotherapy for Locally Advanced Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Jiayi [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Robertson, John M., E-mail: jrobertson@beaumont.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Ye Hong [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Margolis, Jeffrey; Nadeau, Laura [Division of Medical Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Yan Di [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To identify dosimetric predictors for the development of gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity in patients with locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma (LAPC) treated with concurrent full-dose gemcitabine and radiotherapy (GemRT). Methods and Materials: From June 2002 to June 2009, 46 LAPC patients treated with definitive GemRT were retrospectively analyzed. The stomach and duodenum were retrospectively contoured separately to determine their dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters. GI toxicity was defined as Grade 3 or higher GI toxicity. The follow-up time was calculated from the start of RT to the date of death or last contact. Univariate analysis (UVA) and multivariate analysis (MVA) using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression models were performed to identify risk factors associated with GI toxicity. The receiver operating characteristic curve and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were used to determine the best DVH parameter to predict for GI toxicity. Results: Of the patients, 28 (61%) received concurrent gemcitabine alone, and 18 (39%) had concurrent gemcitabine with daily erlotinib. On UVA, only the V{sub 20Gy} to V{sub 35Gy} of duodenum were significantly associated with GI toxicity (all p {<=} 0.05). On MVA, the V{sub 25Gy} of duodenum and the use of erlotinib were independent risk factors for GI toxicity (p = 0.006 and 0.02, respectively). For the entire cohort, the V{sub 25Gy} of duodenum is the best predictor for GI toxicity (AUC = 0.717), and the 12-month GI toxicity rate was 8% vs. 48% for V{sub 25Gy} {<=} 45% and V{sub 25Gy} > 45%, respectively (p = 0.03). However, excluding the erlotinib group, the V{sub 35Gy} is the best predictor (AUC = 0.725), and the 12-month GI toxicity rate was 0% vs. 41% for V{sub 35Gy} {<=} 20% and V{sub 35Gy} > 20%, respectively (p = 0.04). Conclusions: DVH parameters of duodenum may predict Grade 3 GI toxicity after GemRT for LAPC. Concurrent use of erlotinib during GemRT may increase GI

  16. Comparison of toxicity and outcomes of concurrent radiotherapy with carboplatin/paclitaxel or cisplatin/etoposide in stage III non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Mun Sem; Sia, Joseph; Starmans, Maud H W; Tafreshi, Ali; Harris, Sam; Feigen, Malcolm; White, Shane; Zimet, Allan; Lambin, Philippe; Boutros, Paul C; Mitchell, Paul; John, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) has become the standard of care for patients with unresectable stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The comparative merits of two widely used regimens: carboplatin/paclitaxel (PC) and cisplatin/etoposide (PE), each with concurrent radiotherapy, remain largely undefined. Records for consecutive patients with stage III NSCLC treated with PC or PE and ≥60 Gy chest radiotherapy between 2000 and 2011 were reviewed for outcomes and toxicity. Survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox modeling with the Wald test. Comparison across groups was done using the student's t and chi-squared tests. Seventy-five (PC: 44, PE: 31) patients were analyzed. PC patients were older (median 71 vs. 63 years; P = 0.0006). Other characteristics were comparable between groups. With PE, there was significantly increased grade ≥3 neutropenia (39% vs. 14%, P = 0.024) and thrombocytopenia (10% vs. 0%, P = 0.039). Radiation pneumonitis was more common with PC (66% vs. 38%, P = 0.033). Five treatment-related deaths occurred (PC: 3 vs. PE: 2, P = 1.000). With a median follow-up of 51.6 months, there were no significant differences in relapse-free survival (median PC 12.0 vs. PE 11.5 months, P = 0.700) or overall survival (median PC 20.7 vs. PE 13.7 months; P = 0.989). In multivariate analyses, no factors predicted for improved survival for either regimen. PC was more likely to be used in elderly patients. Despite this, PC resulted in significantly less hematological toxicity but achieved similar survival outcomes as PE. PC is an acceptable CCRT regimen, especially in older patients with multiple comorbidities.

  17. A Retrospective Study of the Efficacy and Toxicity of Irinotecan in Combination with Nedaplatin versus Irinotecan in Combination with Cisplatin as Salvage
Treatment in Refractory or Relapsed Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shufei YU

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective At present no standard second-line combination has been established for recurrent small cell lung cancer (SCLC. Therefore we evaluate the efficacy and safety of irinotecan in combination with nedaplatin/cisplatin against refractory or relapsed small cell lung cancer. Methods In this retrospective study, we analyzed the data of 1,140 patients who diagnosed small cell lung cancer at our hospital from April 2009 to April 2012. Of all the patients, 34 patients were treated with irinotecan and nedaplatin (irinotecan 60 mg/m2 on days 1, 8 nedaplatin 85 mg/m2 day 1, every 3 weeks , and 20 patients were treated with irinotecan and cisplatin (irinotecan 60 mg/m2 on days 1, 8 cisplatin 75 mg/m2 day 1, every 3 weeks as the second-line treatment. Prognostic factors of overall survival (OS were estimated by Kaplan-Meier and Cox's Regression-proportional hazards model. Results Of all the 54 eligible patients, median progression free survival (PFS was 4.9 months, and median OS was 13.3 months. Median PFS was 5.4 months for irinotecan plus nedaplatin (IN and 4.9 months for irinotecan plus cisplatin (IC, respectively (P=0.465. Median OS was 14.3 months and 13.3 months, respectively (P=0.704. In multivariate analysis, ECOG PS, number of metastases and cycles of chemotherapy were independent prognostic factors. The toxicities were mild, while toxicity profile was slightly different for each of the arms: hematologic toxicity was higher in IN group, and diarrhea was higher in IC group. Conclusion Irinotecan plus platinum is effective and tolerable for refractory and relapsed small cell lung cancer. Irinotecan plus nedaplatin is non-inferior to irinotecan plus cisplatin in terms of efficacy and safety.

  18. Toward improved statistical methods for analyzing Cotinine-Biomarker health association data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark John D

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serum cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, is frequently used in research as a biomarker of recent tobacco smoke exposure. Historically, secondhand smoke (SHS research uses suboptimal statistical methods due to censored serum cotinine values, meaning a measurement below the limit of detection (LOD. Methods We compared commonly used methods for analyzing censored serum cotinine data using parametric and non-parametric techniques employing data from the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES. To illustrate the differences in associations obtained by various analytic methods, we compared parameter estimates for the association between cotinine and the inflammatory marker homocysteine using complete case analysis, single and multiple imputation, "reverse" Kaplan-Meier, and logistic regression models. Results Parameter estimates and statistical significance varied according to the statistical method used with censored serum cotinine values. Single imputation of censored values with either 0, LOD or LOD/√2 yielded similar estimates and significance; multiple imputation method yielded smaller estimates than the other methods and without statistical significance. Multiple regression modelling using the "reverse" Kaplan-Meier method yielded statistically significant estimates that were larger than those from parametric methods. Conclusions Analyses of serum cotinine data with values below the LOD require special attention. "Reverse" Kaplan-Meier was the only method inherently able to deal with censored data with multiple LODs, and may be the most accurate since it avoids data manipulation needed for use with other commonly used statistical methods. Additional research is needed into the identification of optimal statistical methods for analysis of SHS biomarkers subject to a LOD.

  19. Adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction. Neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy and radical surgery. Early results and toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leibl, Bernhard J. [Klinikum Coburg (Germany). Dept. of Surgery; Coburg Cancer Center, Coburg (Germany); Vitz, Stephanie; Schaefer, Wolfgang; Alfrink, Martin; Grabenbauer, Gerhard G. [DiCura Coburg, Coburg (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Coburg Cancer Center, Coburg (Germany); Geschwendtner, Andreas [Klinikum Coburg (Germany). Dept. of Pathology; Coburg Cancer Center, Coburg (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate treatment results and toxicity following a combined approach consisting of neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy and radical surgery in advanced adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and gastroesophageal junction. Patients and Methods: Between 2005 and 2009, a total of 41 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed nonmetastatic adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and the esophagogastric junction were evaluated, of whom 23 received neoadjuvant radiochemo-therapy (RCT). A total dose of 50.4 Gy with 2 cycles of simultaneous cisplatin/5-fluorouracil (FU) or Taxol/FU-chemotherapy were applied. A radical transthoracic subtotal esophageal and proximal gastric resection through a right thoracoabdominal laparotomy with intrathoracic anastomosis was performed 6-8 weeks following RCT. This was combined with a two-field lymphadenectomy of mediastinal and abdominal lymph nodes. Standard histopathological evaluation included the application of regression grading according to Werner and Hoefler. Toxicity was recorded on the basis of CTC criteria; survival curves were calculated according to Kaplan-Meier. V10, V15, and V20 data were correlated with pulmonary toxicity. Results: Overall survival for all 23 patients was 61% at 3 years. Of the original 23 patients, 18 (78%) patients proceeded to radical surgery. Reasons for no surgery included advanced age of 79, 82, and 86 years (n = 3), severe comorbidity (n = 1), and progression during radiochemotherapy (n = 1). Surgical morbidity (grade 3-4) and mortality rates were 35% and 6%, respectively. Resurgery was necessary in 3 cases (18%). Clear resection margins were achieved in 17 of 18 patients (94%). Twelve of 18 (67%) patients initially diagnosed with T3 tumors and 3 of 3 patients with T4 tumors experienced downstaging. The ypN0 rate was 12 of 18 patients (67%). Out of a total of 18 patients, regression grading revealed < 10% viable cells in 8 (44%) including 3 cases (17%) with complete regression, 10-50% viable

  20. Marine Biotoxins: Occurrence, Toxicity, and Detection Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, M.

    2017-04-01

    This review summarizes the role of marine organisms as vectors of marine biotoxins, and discusses the need for surveillance to protect public health and ensure the quality of seafood. I Paralytic shellfish poison (PSP) and PSP-bearing organisms-PSP is produced by toxic dinoflagellates species belonging to the genera Alexandrium, Gymnodinium, and Pyrodinium. Traditionally, PSP monitoring programs have only considered filter-feeding molluscs that concentrate these toxic algae, however, increasing attention is now being paid to higher-order predators that carry PSP, such as carnivorous gastropods and crustaceans. II. Tetrodotoxin (TTX) and TTX-bearing organisms - TTX is the most common natural marine toxin that causes food poisonings in Japan, and poses a serious public health risk. TTX was long believed to be present only in pufferfish. However, TTX was detected in the eggs of California newt Taricha torosa in 1964, and since then it has been detected in a wide variety of species belonging to several different phyla. In this study, the main toxic components in the highly toxic ribbon worm Cephalothrix simula and the greater blue-ringed octopus Hapalochlaena lunulata from Japan were purified and analysed.

  1. Status and applications of echinoid (phylum echinodermata) toxicity test methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bay, S.; Burgess, R.; Nacci, D.

    1993-01-01

    The use of echinoderms for toxicity testing has focused primarily on sea urchins and sand dollars (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, Arbacia punctulata, Lytechinus pictus, and Dendraster excentricus, for example). The status and relative sensitivity of various test methods are described. The most frequently used test methods consist of short-term exposures of sea urchin sperm or embryos; these tests can be easily conducted at all times of the year by using species with complementary spawning cycles or laboratory conditioned populations of a single species. Data from reference toxicant and effluent toxicity tests are summarized. Information on the precision and sensitivity of echinoid test methods are limited and preclude rigorous comparisons with other test methods. The available data indicate that the sensitivity and precision of these methods are comparable to short-term chronic methods for other marine invertebrates and fish. Recent application of the sperm test in toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs) and studies of effluent toxicity decay and sediment toxicity illustrate the versatility of this rapid (10 to 60 min exposure) test method. Embryo tests typically use a 48 to 96 h exposure period and measure the occurrence of embryo malformations. Most recent applications of the embryo test have been for the assessment of sediment elutriate toxicity. Adult echinoderms are not frequently used to assess effluent or receiving water toxicity. Recent studies have had success in using the adult life stage of urchins and sand dollars to assess the effects of contaminated sediment on growth, behavior, and bioaccumulation.

  2. 20-Year Experience With Intraoperative High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy for Pediatric Sarcoma: Outcomes, Toxicity, and Practice Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folkert, Michael R.; Tong, William Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); LaQuaglia, Michael P. [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Wexler, Leonard H.; Chou, Alexander J.; Magnan, Heather [Department of Pediatrics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Zelefsky, Michael J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Wolden, Suzanne L., E-mail: woldens@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Purpose: To assess outcomes and toxicity of high-dose-rate intraoperative radiation therapy (HDR-IORT) in the management of pediatric sarcoma. Methods and Materials: Seventy-five pediatric patients underwent HDR-IORT for sarcoma from May 1993 to November 2013. The median age was 9 years old (36 patients were ≤6 years old). HDR-IORT was part of initial therapy in 37 patients (49%) and for recurrent disease in 38 patients (51%). Forty-one patients (55%) received HDR-IORT and postoperative external beam RT (PORT), and 22 patients (29%) were previously treated with external beam radiation therapy to the IORT site. Local control (LC), overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) were estimated using Kaplan-Meier methods. Results: At a median follow-up of 7.8 years for surviving patients, 5-year projected rates of LC, EFS, and OS were 63% (95% confidence interval [CI] 50%-76%), 33% (95% CI 21%-45%), and 43% (95% CI 30%-55%), with a median survival of 3.1 years. The 5-year LC, EFS, and OS rates for patients with recurrent disease were 46% (95% CI, 28%-64%), 30% (95% CI, 13%-46%), and 36% (95% CI, 18%-54%). Acute toxicity ≥grade 3 occurred in 2 (2.5%) treatments; late toxicity ≥grade 3 occurred in 4 (5.3%) patients 0.3-9.9 years after HDR-IORT. The incidence of toxicity ≥grade 3 was not associated with HDR-IORT applicator size, HDR-IORT dose, prior RT or PORT, or prior or postoperative chemotherapy, but all toxicity ≥grade 3 occurred in patients ≤6 years treated with HDR-IORT doses ≥12 Gy. Conclusions: HDR-IORT is a well-tolerated component of multimodality therapy for pediatric sarcoma, allowing additional local treatment while reducing external beam exposure. Taking clinical considerations into account, doses between 8-12 Gy are appropriate for HDR-IORT in patients ≤6 years of age.

  3. Outcomes and predictors of toxicity after selective internal radiation therapy using yttrium-90 resin microspheres for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew eGabrielson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We sought to report outcomes and toxicity in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC who received resin Yttrium-90 Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (90Y-SIRT, and to identify factors associated with declining liver function.Methods: Patients treated with 90Y-SIRT were retrospectively evaluated. Radiographic response was assessed using RECIST 1.1. Median liver progression-free survival (LPFS and overall survival (OS were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Bivariate analysis was used to examine associations between change in Child-Pugh (CP score/class and patient characteristics and treatment parameters.Results: Twenty-seven patients with unresectable HCC underwent SIRT, 52% were CP Class A, 48% were Class B; 11% were BCLC stage B, 89% were stage C. Forty-four percent of patients had portal vein thrombus at baseline. One-third of patients received bilobar treatment. Median activity was 32.1 mCi (range 9.18 – 43.25 and median absorbed dose to the liver was 39.6 Gy (range 13.54 – 67.70. Median LPFS and OS were 2.5 and 11.7 months, respectively. Three-month disease control rate was 63% and 52% in the target lesions and whole liver, respectively.New onset or worsened from baseline clinical toxicities were confined to Grade 1-2 events. However, new or worsened Grade 3-4 laboratory toxicities occurred in 38% of patients at 3 months and 43% of patients at 6 months following SIRT (6 had lymphocytopenia, 3 had hypoalbuminemia, 2 had transaminasemia. After 3 months, 6 patients had worsened in CP score and 5 had worsened in class from baseline. After 6 months, 4 patients had worsened in CP score and 1 had worsened in class from baseline. Pretreatment bilirubinemia was associated with a 2+ increase in CP score within 3 months (P = 0.001 and 6 months (P = 0.039 of 90Y-SIRT. Pretreatment transaminasemia and bilirubinemia were associated with increased CP class within 3 months of SIRT (P = 0.021 and 0.009 respectively.Conclusions: 90Y

  4. Compositions and methods for removal of toxic metals and radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuero, Raul G. (Inventor); McKay, David S. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for the removal of toxic metals or radionuclides from source materials. Toxic metals may be removed from source materials using a clay, such as attapulgite or highly cationic bentonite, and chitin or chitosan. Toxic metals may also be removed using volcanic ash alone or in combination with chitin or chitosan. Radionuclides may be removed using volcanic ash alone or in combination with chitin or chitosan.

  5. CyberKnife for hilar lung tumors: report of clinical response and toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins Sean P

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To report clinical efficacy and toxicity of fractionated CyberKnife radiosurgery for the treatment of hilar lung tumors. Methods Patients presenting with primary and metastatic hilar lung tumors, treated using the CyberKnife system with Synchrony fiducial tracking technology, were retrospectively reviewed. Hilar location was defined as abutting or invading a mainstem bronchus. Fiducial markers were implanted by conventional bronchoscopy within or adjacent to tumors to serve as targeting references. A prescribed dose of 30 to 40 Gy to the gross tumor volume (GTV was delivered in 5 fractions. Clinical examination and PET/CT imaging were performed at 3 to 6-month follow-up intervals. Results Twenty patients were accrued over a 4 year period. Three had primary hilar lung tumors and 17 had hilar lung metastases. The median GTV was 73 cc (range 23-324 cc. The median dose to the GTV was 35 Gy (range, 30 - 40 Gy, delivered in 5 fractions over 5 to 8 days (median, 6 days. The resulting mean maximum point doses delivered to the esophagus and mainstem bronchus were 25 Gy (range, 11 - 39 Gy and 42 Gy (range, 30 - 49 Gy, respectively. Of the 17 evaluable patients with 3 - 6 month follow-up, 4 patients had a partial response and 13 patients had stable disease. AAT t a median follow-up of 10 months, the 1-year Kaplan-Meier local control and overall survival estimates were 63% and 54%, respectively. Toxicities included one patient experiencing grade II radiation esophagitis and one patient experiencing grade III radiation pneumonitis. One patient with gross endobronchial tumor within the mainstem bronchus developed a bronchial fistula and died after receiving a maximum bronchus dose of 49 Gy. Conclusion CyberKnife radiosurgery is an effective palliative treatment option for hilar lung tumors, but local control is poor at one year. Maximum point doses to critical structures may be used as a guide for limiting toxicities. Preliminary results

  6. Toxicity of methods of implant material sterilization on corneal endothelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, G.; Boehnke, Mv.; von Domarus, D.; Draeger, J.

    1985-11-01

    The toxicity of different procedures utilized for the sterilization of intraocular implant material was assessed on the endothelium of organ-cultured porcine corneas. Polymethylmethacrylate lenses sterilized by treatment with sodium hydroxide (NaOH), ethylene oxide, formaldehyde, and gamma radiation were added to a culture medium containing normal porcine corneas. Considering the viability of endothelial cells, appearance of intracellular degenerative vacuoles, and denudation of corneal Descemet's membrane as criterion for the evaluation of toxicity of different methods of sterilization, the NaOH-treated lenses were found to be the least toxic to porcine corneal endothelium. Phase-contrast microscopy and vital staining of the endothelium permitted direct viewing of the endothelium aiding in the assessment of toxicity.

  7. Hemithoracic Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy After Pleurectomy/Decortication for Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: Toxicity, Patterns of Failure, and a Matched Survival Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chance, William W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Rice, David C. [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Allen, Pamela K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Tsao, Anne S. [Department of Thoracic/Head and Neck Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Fontanilla, Hiral P. [Princeton Radiation Oncology, Monroe Township, New Jersey (United States); Liao, Zhongxing; Chang, Joe Y.; Tang, Chad; Pan, Hubert Y.; Welsh, James W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Mehran, Reza J. [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gomez, Daniel R., E-mail: dgomez@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate safety, efficacy, and recurrence after hemithoracic intensity modulated radiation therapy after pleurectomy/decortication (PD-IMRT) and after extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP-IMRT). Methods and Materials: In 2009-2013, 24 patients with mesothelioma underwent PD-IMRT to the involved hemithorax to a dose of 45 Gy, with an optional integrated boost; 22 also received chemotherapy. Toxicity was scored with the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v4.0. Pulmonary function was compared at baseline, after surgery, and after IMRT. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to calculate overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), time to locoregional failure, and time to distant metastasis. Failures were in-field, marginal, or out of field. Outcomes were compared with those of 24 patients, matched for age, nodal status, performance status, and chemotherapy, who had received EPP-IMRT. Results: Median follow-up time was 12.2 months. Grade 3 toxicity rates were 8% skin and 8% pulmonary. Pulmonary function declined from baseline to after surgery (by 21% for forced vital capacity, 16% for forced expiratory volume in 1 second, and 19% for lung diffusion of carbon monoxide [P for all = .01]) and declined still further after IMRT (by 31% for forced vital capacity [P=.02], 25% for forced expiratory volume in 1 second [P=.01], and 30% for lung diffusion of carbon monoxide [P=.01]). The OS and PFS rates were 76% and 67%, respectively, at 1 year and 56% and 34% at 2 years. Median OS (28.4 vs 14.2 months, P=.04) and median PFS (16.4 vs 8.2 months, P=.01) favored PD-IMRT versus EPP-IMRT. No differences were found in grade 4-5 toxicity (0 of 24 vs 3 of 24, P=.23), median time to locoregional failure (18.7 months vs not reached, P not calculable), or median time to distant metastasis (18.8 vs 11.8 months, P=.12). Conclusions: Hemithoracic intensity modulated radiation therapy after pleurectomy/decortication produced little high-grade toxicity but

  8. Survival analysis in total joint replacement: an alternative method of accounting for the presence of competing risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennema, P; Lubsen, J

    2010-05-01

    Survival analysis is an important tool for assessing the outcome of total joint replacement. The Kaplan-Meier method is used to estimate the incidence of revision of a prosthesis over time, but does not account appropriately for competing events which preclude revision. In the presence of competing death, this method will lead to statistical bias and the curve will lose its interpretability. A valid comparison of survival results between studies using the method is impossible without accounting for different rates of competing events. An alternative and easily applicable approach, the cumulative incidence of competing risk, is proposed. Using three simulated data sets and realistic data from a cohort of 406 consecutive cementless total hip prostheses, followed up for a minimum of ten years, both approaches were compared and the magnitude of potential bias was highlighted. The Kaplan-Meier method overestimated the incidence of revision by almost 4% (60% relative difference) in the simulations and more than 1% (31.3% relative difference) in the realistic data set. The cumulative incidence of competing risk approach allows for appropriate accounting of competing risk and, as such, offers an improved ability to compare survival results across studies.

  9. Rapid testing methods for food contaminants and toxicants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiachi Chiou; Arthur Ho Hon Leung; Hang Wai Lee; Wing-tak Wong

    2015-01-01

    Food safety is one of the major concerns in every country regardless of the economic and social development. The frequent occurrence of food scandals in the world has led the Chinese government to implement several strategies to fortify the food supply system to a high food safety standard. This relies heavily on laboratory testing services but conventional methods for detection of food contaminants and toxicants are limited by sophisticated sample preparation procedures, long analysis time, large instruments and professional personnel to meet the increasing demands. In this review, we have incorporated most of the current and potential rapid detection methods for many notorious food contaminants and toxicants including microbial agents, toxic ions, pesticides, veterinary drugs and preservatives, as wel as detection of geneticaly modiifed food genes and adulterated edible oil. Development of rapid, accurate, easy-to-use and affordable testing methods could urge food handlers and the public to actively screen for food contaminants and toxicants instead of passively relying on monitoring by the government examination facility. This review also provides several recommendations including how to encourage the public to engage in the food safety management system and provide optimal education and ifnancial assistance that may improve the current Chinese food safety control system.

  10. A phase II trial of carboplatin and docetaxel followed by radiotherapy given in a "Sandwich" method for stage III, IV, and recurrent endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Melissa A; Ivy, Joseph J; Ghebre, Rahel; Downs, Levi S; Judson, Patricia L; Carson, Linda F; Jonson, Amy L; Dusenbery, Kathryn; Vogel, Rachel Isaksson; Boente, Matthew P; Argenta, Peter A

    2011-04-01

    To determine feasibility and efficacy of administering docetaxel and carboplatin chemotherapy followed by pelvic radiotherapy and then consolidation chemotherapy in patients with advanced or recurrent endometrial cancer. Patients with surgically staged III-IV (excluding IIIA from positive cytology alone) endometrial cancer or biopsy confirmed recurrent disease were eligible. Treatment consisted of 3 cycles of docetaxel (75 mg/m²) and carboplatin (AUC 6) on a q21 day schedule followed by involved field irradiation (45 Gy)± brachytherapy and three additional cycles of docetaxel and carboplatin. Kaplan-Meier (KM) methods estimated overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS). Forty-two patients enrolled, 7 did not complete therapy. 95% (39/41) had primary disease. Median age=58 years (range: 21-81 years). 78% (32/41)=endometrioid histology. Stages=10 IIIA, 21 IIIC, 1 IVA, 7 IVB, (recurrent=1 IC, 1 IIA). There were 23 non-hematologic and 14 grade 3 and 16 grade 4 hematologic toxicities. Seven patients died following treatment with a median follow-up of 28 months (range: 7-70 months). KM estimates and 95% confidence intervals for OS at 1 year were 95% (82-99%), at 3 years 90% (75-96%), and at 5 years 71% (45-86%). Of the 39 with primary disease, 11 progressed or died within 5 years of study enrollment. KM estimates and 95% confidence intervals for PFS at 1 year were 87% (72-94%), at 3 years 71% (51-83%), and at 5 years 64% (42-80%). "Sandwiching" radiation between chemotherapy for advanced or recurrent endometrial cancer merits further development based on the reported PFS and OS. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Low toxicity method of inhibiting sickling of sickle erythrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, Lester; Bymun, Edwin N.

    1977-01-01

    A low toxicity method of inhibiting sickling of sickle erythrocytes which comprises intermixing the erythrocytes with an effective anti-sickling amount of a water-soluble imidoester of the formula RC(=NH)OR' wherein R is an alkyl group of 1 - 8 carbon atoms, particularly 1 - 4 carbon atoms, and R' is an alkyl group of 1 - 4 carbon atoms, specifically methyl or ethyl acetimidate.

  12. "Cold combustion" as a new method of toxic waste destruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Екатерина Юрьевна Ткаченко

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a promising new method for the destruction of toxic industrial waste, obsolete pesticides and military poisons and explosives. The proposed method can be used to create mobile modular units that will produce the destruction of the "field", to clean the soil and water containing low concentrations of a pollutant, to solve the problem of disposal of explosives, which is often accompanied by the destruction of uncontrolled detonation. The proposed method is environmentally friendly, using ice as the working body

  13. [Thought and method of reproductive toxicity research in traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jia-Yin; Yan, Yi; Liang, Ai-hua; Zhang, Yu-shi; Li, Chun-ying; Zhao, Yong; Lu, Yu-ting; Cui, Hong-yu; Li, Gui-qin

    2014-11-01

    Reproductive toxicity research takes an important place in traditional Chinese medicine pre-clinical safety evaluation. Modern reproductive toxicity experiment includes drug-related miscarriage, fetal death, teratism, and adverse effects on fertility, genital system, embryonic development and fetus, which is different from contraindicated in pregnancy in traditional Chinese medicine theory. Now the three-phases reproductive toxicity study is the method mainly applied in traditional Chinese medicine reproductive toxicity evaluation. Besides that, alternative methods of whole embryos culture and embryonic stem cell test are also used in traditional Chinese medicine embryo toxicity evaluation. This article reviews research progress and pre-clinical evaluation on reproductive toxicity of traditional Chinese medicine.

  14. Inventory of LCIA selection methods for assessing toxic releases. Methods and typology report part B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Birkved, Morten; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    This report describes an inventory of Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) selection methods for assessing toxic releases. It consists of an inventory of current selection methods and other Chemical Ranking and Scoring (CRS) methods assessed to be relevant for the development of (a) new selection...... method(s) in Work package 8 (WP8) of the OMNIITOX project. The selection methods and the other CRS methods are described in detail, a set of evaluation criteria are developed and the methods are evaluated against these criteria. This report (Deliverable 11B (D11B)) gives the results from task 7.1d, 7.1e...

  15. In silico toxicology: computational methods for the prediction of chemical toxicity

    KAUST Repository

    Raies, Arwa B.

    2016-01-06

    Determining the toxicity of chemicals is necessary to identify their harmful effects on humans, animals, plants, or the environment. It is also one of the main steps in drug design. Animal models have been used for a long time for toxicity testing. However, in vivo animal tests are constrained by time, ethical considerations, and financial burden. Therefore, computational methods for estimating the toxicity of chemicals are considered useful. In silico toxicology is one type of toxicity assessment that uses computational methods to analyze, simulate, visualize, or predict the toxicity of chemicals. In silico toxicology aims to complement existing toxicity tests to predict toxicity, prioritize chemicals, guide toxicity tests, and minimize late-stage failures in drugs design. There are various methods for generating models to predict toxicity endpoints. We provide a comprehensive overview, explain, and compare the strengths and weaknesses of the existing modeling methods and algorithms for toxicity prediction with a particular (but not exclusive) emphasis on computational tools that can implement these methods and refer to expert systems that deploy the prediction models. Finally, we briefly review a number of new research directions in in silico toxicology and provide recommendations for designing in silico models.

  16. A cost/effective screening method for assessing the toxicity of nutrient rich effluents to algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, G; Fernández, C; Tarazona, J V

    2010-07-01

    Screening whole effluent toxicity tests are cost/effective methods for detecting the presence of toxic concentrations of unknown pollutants, but the application must solve the problem associated with the effect of high and variable concentrations of nutrients in the effluent on the results of algal toxicity tests. This work proposes a cost/effective test, based on three dilution levels measured at a single point time and a discriminant model for establishing if this kind of complex samples, with difficult interpretation of dilution-response curves, should be considered toxic to algae. This procedure identified properly around 85% of the samples considered toxic by expert judgement.

  17. Development of a Chronic Toxicity Testing Method for Daphnia pulex

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    handling (Lewis 1985). Both acute and chronic Daphnia exposures have been used to determine the short-term toxicity of many aquatic contaminants, and...sublethal effects. Vincon vinyl clear tubing (1/4 in. inside diameter) (Pentair Aquatic Ecosystems, Part # TP30, Apopka, FL) was used to siphon the D...pipette. Exercise care not to damage the organism by minimizing turbulence. When transferring the organism to the fresh beaker, the tip ERDC/EL SR

  18. Microbial Hydrocarbon and ToxicPollutant Degradation Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlueter, Dietrich [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Janabi, Mustafa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); O' Neil, James [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Budinger, Thomas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-08-16

    The goal of this project is to determine optimum conditions for bacterial oxidation of hydrocarbons and long-chain alkanes that are representative of petroleum contamination of the environment. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of concern because of their toxicity, low volatility, and resistance to microbial degradation, especially under anaerobic conditions. The uniqueness of our approach is to use carbon-11 in lieu of the traditional use of carbon-14.

  19. Arsenic: A Review of the Element's Toxicity, Plant Interactions, and Potential Methods of Remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettick, Bryan E; Cañas-Carrell, Jaclyn E; French, Amanda D; Klein, David M

    2015-08-19

    Arsenic is a naturally occurring element with a long history of toxicity. Sites of contamination are found worldwide as a result of both natural processes and anthropogenic activities. The broad scope of arsenic toxicity to humans and its unique interaction with the environment have led to extensive research into its physicochemical properties and toxic behavior in biological systems. The purpose of this review is to compile the results of recent studies concerning the metalloid and consider the chemical and physical properties of arsenic in the broad context of human toxicity and phytoremediation. Areas of focus include arsenic's mechanisms of human toxicity, interaction with plant systems, potential methods of remediation, and protocols for the determination of metals in experimentation. This assessment of the literature indicates that controlling contamination of water sources and plants through effective remediation and management is essential to successfully addressing the problems of arsenic toxicity and contamination.

  20. Development of a New Toxicity Test Method Using a Bio-dipstick

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    For this reason, most toxicity test methods cannot be performed in the petroleum laboratory. The bio -dipstick is a formation of agar medium and was...designed to monitoring of microbial contamination in various industrial environments. Recently, this bio -dipstick has been also successfully used for...was studied using a bio -dipstick. The test results showed that the proposed test method was able to differentiate the toxicity level of lubricants and

  1. A Predictive Model for Toxicity Effects Assessment of Biotransformed Hepatic Drugs Using Iterative Sampling Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharwat, Alaa; Moemen, Yasmine S; Hassanien, Aboul Ella

    2016-12-09

    Measuring toxicity is one of the main steps in drug development. Hence, there is a high demand for computational models to predict the toxicity effects of the potential drugs. In this study, we used a dataset, which consists of four toxicity effects:mutagenic, tumorigenic, irritant and reproductive effects. The proposed model consists of three phases. In the first phase, rough set-based methods are used to select the most discriminative features for reducing the classification time and improving the classification performance. Due to the imbalanced class distribution, in the second phase, different sampling methods such as Random Under-Sampling, Random Over-Sampling and Synthetic Minority Oversampling Technique are used to solve the problem of imbalanced datasets. ITerative Sampling (ITS) method is proposed to avoid the limitations of those methods. ITS method has two steps. The first step (sampling step) iteratively modifies the prior distribution of the minority and majority classes. In the second step, a data cleaning method is used to remove the overlapping that is produced from the first step. In the third phase, Bagging classifier is used to classify an unknown drug into toxic or non-toxic. The experimental results proved that the proposed model performed well in classifying the unknown samples according to all toxic effects in the imbalanced datasets.

  2. Development of marine sediment toxicity identification evaluation methods using Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, Mytilus edulis, and Eohaustorius estuarius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wortham, G.; Cotsifas, J.S.; Taberski, K.; Hansen, S.R. [S.R. Hansen and Associates, Concord, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Widespread sediment toxicity, including ``clean`` reference sites, dictates that the causes of toxicity in sediments be determined. Toxicity Identification Evaluations (TIE) are useful tools in characterizing compounds responsible for toxicity, but were unavailable for sediment samples. TIE methods were developed for sediment porewater and included the following components: determination of an appropriate porewater extraction process; control TIE tests using marine water and porewater evaluating species sensitivities to the fractionation procedures; validation experiments investigating the removal efficiencies of organics using C18 solid phase extraction, and metals chelation using EDTA and STS; spiking experiments to determine the effectiveness of the TIE procedure in identifying multiple toxicants. The authors determined that fractionation procedures could be applied to both marine water and porewater using S. purpuratus, M. edulis and E. estuarius as biological detectors.

  3. The continual reassessment method for multiple toxicity grades: a Bayesian quasi-likelihood approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Z; Chappell, R; Bailey, H

    2007-03-01

    We consider the case of phase I trials for treatment of cancer or other severe diseases in which grade information is available about the severity of toxicity. Most dose allocation procedures dichotomize toxicity grades based on being dose limiting, which may not work well for severe and possibly irreversible toxicities such as renal, liver, and neurological toxicities, or toxicities with long duration. We propose a simple extension to the continual reassessment method (CRM), called the Quasi-CRM, to incorporate grade information. Toxicity grades are first converted to numeric scores that reflect their impacts on the dose allocation procedure, and then incorporated into the CRM using the quasi-Bernoulli likelihood. A simulation study demonstrates that the Quasi-CRM is superior to the standard CRM and comparable to a univariate version of the Bekele and Thall method (2004, Journal of the American Statistical Association 99, 26-35). We also present sensitivity analysis of the new method with respect to toxicity scores, and discuss practical issues such as extending the simple algorithmic up-and-down designs.

  4. Evaluation of the Treatment Process of Landfill Leachate Using the Toxicity Assessment Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aifeng Qiu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Landfill leachate is composed of a complex composition with strong biological toxicity. The combined treatment process of coagulation and sedimentation, anaerobics, electrolysis, and aerobics was set up to treat landfill leachate. This paper explores the effect of different operational parameters of coagulation and sedimentation tanks and electrolytic cells, while investigating the combined process for the removal efficiency of physicochemical indices after processing the landfill leachate. Meanwhile, a battery of toxicity tests with Vibrio fischeri, zebrafish larvae, and embryos were conducted to evaluate acute toxicity and calculated the toxicity reduction efficiency after each treatment process. The combined treatment process resulted in a 100% removal efficiency of Cu, Cd and Zn, and a 93.50% and an 87.44% removal efficiency of Ni and Cr, respectively. The overall removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD, ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N, and total nitrogen (TN were 93.57%, 97.46% and 73.60%, respectively. In addition, toxicity test results showed that the acute toxicity of landfill leachate had also been reduced significantly: toxicity units (TU decreased from 84.75 to 12.00 for zebrafish larvae, from 82.64 to 10.55 for zebrafish embryos, and from 3.41 to 0.63 for Vibrio fischeri. The combined treatment process was proved to be an efficient treatment method to remove heavy metals, COD, NH4+-N, and acute bio-toxicity of landfill leachate.

  5. Toxicity evaluation in a paper recycling mill effluent by coupling bioindicator of aging with the toxicity identification evaluation method in nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaoyi; SHEN Lulu; YU Hongxia; WANG Dayong

    2008-01-01

    Toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) can be used to determine the specific toxicant(s) in industrial effluents. In the current study,the authors have attempted to combine the advantages of the model organism, Caenorhabditis elegans, with the virtues of the TIE technique, to evaluate and identify the toxicity on aging from a paper recycling mill effluent. The results indicate that only the toxicities from mixed cellulose (MC) filtration and EDTA treatment are similar to the baseline aging toxicity, suggesting that the suspect toxicants inducing aging toxicity may largely be the heavy metal substances in this industrial effluent. Examination of the accumulation of intestinal autofluorescence in adult animals further confirms that the short lifespans are actually due to accelerated aging. In addition,exposure to fractions of EDTA manipulations cannot result in severe defects of reproduction and locomotion behaviors in C. elegans.Moreover, high levels of Ca, Al, and Fe in the effluent may account for the severe toxicity on aging of exposed nematodes, by TIE assay. The study here provides a new method for evaluating environmental risk and identifying toxicant(s) from the industrial effluent using C. elegans.

  6. Marine sediment toxicity identification evaluation methods for the anionic metals arsenic and chromium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Robert M; Perron, Monique M; Cantwell, Mark G; Ho, Kay T; Pelletier, Marguerite C; Serbst, Jonathan R; Ryba, Stephan A

    2007-01-01

    Marine sediments accumulate a variety of contaminants and, in some cases, demonstrate toxicity because of this contamination. Toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) methods provide tools for identifying the toxic chemicals causing sediment toxicity. Currently, whole-sediment TIE methods are not available for anionic metals like arsenic and chromium. In the present paper, we describe two new anion-exchange resins used in the development of whole-sediment TIE methods for arsenic and chromium. Resins were shown to reduce whole-sediment toxicity and overlying water concentrations of the anionic metals. Sediment toxicity, expressed as the median lethal concentration, was reduced by a factor of two to a factor of nearly six between amended sediment treatments containing resin and those without resin. Aqueous concentrations of arsenic and chromium in the toxicity exposures decreased to less than the detection limits or to concentrations much lower than those measured in treatments without resin. Interference studies indicated that the anion-exchange resins had no significant effect on concentrations of the representative pesticide endosulfan and minimal effects on concentrations of ammonia. However, the anion-exchange resins did significantly reduce the concentrations of a selection of cationic metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn). These data demonstrate the utility of anion-exchange resins for determining the contribution of arsenic and chromium to whole-sediment toxicity. The present results also indicate the importance of using TIE methods in a formal TIE structure to ensure that results are not misinterpreted. These methods should be useful in the performance of marine whole-sediment TIEs.

  7. Impact of VEGF gene polymorphisms and haplotypes on radiation-induced late toxicity in prostate cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langsenlehner, Tanja; Thurner, Eva-Maria; Kapp, Karin S. [Medical Univ. of Graz (Austria). Dept. of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology; Renner, Wilfried [Medical Univ. of Graz (Austria). Clinical Inst. of Medical and Chemical Lab. Diagnostics; Gerger, Armin; Hofmann, Guenter [Medical Univ. of Graz (Austria). Division of Oncology; Langsenlehner, Uwe [GKK Outpatient Dept. Graz (Austria). Division of Internal Medicine

    2011-12-15

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important determinant of microvascular permeability and angiogenesis and has been shown to be up-regulated during the late phase of radiation injury. The present prospective study was performed to evaluate the role of VEGF gene polymorphisms and haplotypes in the development of radiation-induced late side effects in prostate cancer patients. The association of VEGF gene polymorphisms and haplotypes with high-grade late rectal or urinary toxicity (defined as late toxicity EORTC/RTOG {>=}2) was analyzed using 493 prostate cancer patients from the Austrian PROCAGENE study treated with definitive radiotherapy. Seven candidate polymorphisms in the VEGF gene were selected and determined by 5'-nuclease (TaqMan) assays. Within a median follow-up time of 48 months, 42 patients (8.6%) developed high-grade late rectal and 47 patients (9.6%) urinary toxicity, respectively. In a Kaplan-Meier analysis, carriers of the VEGF -7C > T polymorphism were at increased risk of high-grade late rectal toxicity (p = 0.003) and in a multivariate analysis including clinical and dosimetric parameters as potential confounders the VEGF -7C > T polymorphism remained a significant predictor (HR = 2.8, 95% CI 1.349-5.813; p = 0.006). Furthermore, the ATTGT haplotype formed by five polymorphisms upstream of the coding sequence demonstrated a significant association with late rectal toxicity grade {>=}2 (p = 0.001). No significant associations were found for the remaining polymorphisms and haplotypes. We conclude that genetic variants in the VEGF gene may influence the risk of high-grade late rectal toxicity after definitive radiotherapy for prostate cancer.

  8. Alternative methods in toxicity testing: the current approach

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo,Gabrielle Luck de; Campos,Maria Augusta Amaral; Valente,Maria Anete Santana; Silva,Sarah Cristina Teixeira; França,Flávia Dayrell; Chaves,Miriam Martins; Tagliati, Carlos Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Alternative methods are being developed to reduce, refine, and replace (3Rs) animals used in experiments, aimed at protecting animal welfare. The present study reports alternative tests which are based on the principles of the 3Rs and the efforts made to validate these tests. In Europe, several methodologies have already been implemented, such as tests of irritability, cell viability, and phototoxicity as well as in vitro mathematical models together with the use of in silico tools. This is a...

  9. Toxicity detection of sodium nitrite, borax and aluminum potassium sulfate using electrochemical method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dengbin Yu; Daming Yong; Shaojun Dong

    2013-01-01

    Based on the inhibition effect on the respiratory chain activity of microorganisms by toxicants,an electrochemical method has been developed to measure the current variation of a mediator in the presence of microorganisms contacted with a toxicant.Microelectrode arrays were adopted in this study,which can accelerate the mass transfer rate of an analyte to the electrode and also increase the total current signal,resulting in an improvement in detection sensitivity.We selected Escherichia coli as the testee and the standard glucoseglutamic acid as an exogenous material.Under oxygen restriction,the experiments in the presence of toxicant were performed at optimum conditions (solution pH 7.0,37℃ and reaction for 3 hr).The resulting solution was then separated from the suspended microorganisms and was measured by an electrochemical method,using ferricyanide as a mediator.The current signal obtained represents the re oxidation of ferrocyanide,which was transformed to inhibiting efficiency,IC50,as a quantitative measure of toxicity.The IC50 values measured were 410,570 and 830 mg/L for sodium nitrite,borax and aluminum potassium sulfate,respectively.The results show that the toxicity sequence for these three food additives is consistent with the value reported by other methods.Furthermore,the order of damage degree to the microorganism was also observed to be:sodium nitrite > borax > aluminum potassium sulfate >blank,according to the atomic force microscopy images of E.coli after being incubated for 3 hr with the toxic compound in buffer solutions.The electrochemical method is expected to be a sensitive and simple alternative to toxicity screening for chemical food additives.

  10. T-2 toxin, a trichothecene mycotoxin: review of toxicity, metabolism, and analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanshen; Wang, Zhanhui; Beier, Ross C; Shen, Jianzhong; De Smet, David; De Saeger, Sarah; Zhang, Suxia

    2011-04-27

    This review focuses on the toxicity and metabolism of T-2 toxin and analytical methods used for the determination of T-2 toxin. Among the naturally occurring trichothecenes in food and feed, T-2 toxin is a cytotoxic fungal secondary metabolite produced by various species of Fusarium. Following ingestion, T-2 toxin causes acute and chronic toxicity and induces apoptosis in the immune system and fetal tissues. T-2 toxin is usually metabolized and eliminated after ingestion, yielding more than 20 metabolites. Consequently, there is a possibility of human consumption of animal products contaminated with T-2 toxin and its metabolites. Several methods for the determination of T-2 toxin based on traditional chromatographic, immunoassay, or mass spectroscopy techniques are described. This review will contribute to a better understanding of T-2 toxin exposure in animals and humans and T-2 toxin metabolism, toxicity, and analytical methods, which may be useful in risk assessment and control of T-2 toxin exposure.

  11. Modeling the toxicity of aromatic compounds to tetrahymena pyriformis: the response surface methodology with nonlinear methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Shijin

    2003-01-01

    Response surface models based on multiple linear regression had previously been developed for the toxicity of aromatic chemicals to Tetrahymena pyriformis. However, a nonlinear relationship between toxicity and one of the molecular descriptors in the response surface model was observed. In this study, response surface models were established using six nonlinear modeling methods to handle the nonlinearity exhibited in the aromatic chemicals data set. All models were validated using the method of cross-validation, and prediction accuracy was tested on an external data set. Results showed that response surface models based on locally weighted regression scatter plot smoothing (LOESS), multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), neural networks (NN), and projection pursuit regression (PPR) provided satisfactory power of model fitting and prediction and had similar applicabilities. The response surface models based on nonlinear methods were difficult to interpret and conservative in discriminating toxicity mechanisms.

  12. Development of methods for laboratory culture and toxicity testing of the endangered desert pupfish, Cyprinodon macularius, and evaluation of the acute toxicity of selenium

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We conducted a series of studies to evaluate methods for laboratory culture and toxicity testing with the endangered desert pupfish, Cyprinodon macularius. This...

  13. Inhalation method for delivery of nanoparticles to the Drosophila respiratory system for toxicity testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posgai, Ryan; Ahamed, Maqusood [Department of Biology, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH, 45469-2320 (United States); Hussain, Saber M. [Applied Biotechnology Branch, Human Effectiveness Directorate Air Force Research Laboratory/RHBP, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH, 45433 (United States); Rowe, John J. [Department of Biology, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH, 45469-2320 (United States); Nielsen, Mark G., E-mail: Mark.Nielsen@notes.udayton.edu [Department of Biology, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH, 45469-2320 (United States)

    2009-12-20

    The growth of the nanotechnology industry and subsequent proliferation of nanoparticle types present the need to rapidly assess nanoparticle toxicity. We present a novel, simple and cost-effective nebulizer-based method to deliver nanoparticles to the Drosophila melanogaster respiratory system, for the purpose of toxicity testing. FluoSpheres (registered) , silver, and CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles of different sizes were effectively aerosolized, showing the system is capable of functioning with a wide range of nanoparticle types and sizes. Red fluorescent CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles were successfully delivered to the fly respiratory system, as visualized by fluorescent microscopy. Silver coated and uncoated nanoparticles were delivered in a toxicity test, and induced Hsp70 expression in flies, confirming the utility of this model in toxicity testing. This is the first method developed capable of such delivery, provides the advantage of the Drosophila health model, and can serve as a link between tissue culture and more expensive mammalian models in a tiered toxicity testing strategy.

  14. Toxicity assessing for chlorpyrifos-contaminated soil with three different earthworm test methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Shi-ping; DUAN Chang-qun; FU Hui; CHEN Yu-hui; WANG Xue-hua; YU Ze-fen

    2007-01-01

    Earthworm toxicity tests are useful tools for terrestrial risk assessment but require a hierarchy of test designs that differ in effect levels (behavior, sublethal, lethal). In this study, the toxicity of chlorpyrifos contaminated soil on earthworms was assessed. In addition to the acute and chronic tests, an avoidance response test was applied. Earthworms were exposed to sublethal and lethal concentration of chlorpyrifos, and evaluated for acute toxicity, growth, fecundity and avoidance response after a certain exposure period. The test methods covered all important ecological relevant endpoints (acute, chronic, behavioral). Concentration of 78.91 mg/kg, chlorpyrifos caused significant toxic effects in all test methods, but at lower test concentrations, only significant chronic toxic effects could be observed. In the present study, chlorpyrifos had adverse effect on growth and fecundity in earthworm exposed to 5 mg/kg chlorpyrifos after eight weeks. The avoidance response test, however, showed significant repellent effects concentration of 40 mg/kg chlorpyrifos. For chlorpyrifos, concentration affecting avoidance response was far greater than growth and fecundity, it seemed likely that earthworms were not able to escape from pesticide-contaminated soil into the clean soil in field and hence were exposed continuously to elevated concentrations of pesticides.

  15. Proposed method for controlling turbid particles in solid-phase bioluminescent toxicity measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Seul-Ki; Park, Jun-Boum; Ahn, Joo-Sung; Han, Young-Soo

    2015-06-01

    In the recent half century, numerous methods have been developed to assess ecological toxicity. However, the presence of solid-particle turbidity sometimes causes such tests to end with questionable results. Many researchers focused on controlling this arbitrary turbidity effect when using the Microtox® solid-phase toxicity system, but there is not yet a standard method. In this study, we examined four solid-phase sample test methods recommended in the Microtox® manual, or proposed from the literature, and compared the existing methods with our proposed method (centrifuged basic solid-phase test, c-BSPT). Four existing methods use the following strategies to control turbid particles: complete separation of liquid and solid using 0.45-μm filtration before contacting solid samples and bacteria, natural settlement, moderate separation of large particles using coarser pore size filtration, and exclusion of light loss in the toxicity calculation caused by turbidity after full disturbance of samples. Our proposed method uses moderate centrifugation to separate out the heavier soil particles from the lighter bacteria after direct contact between them. Among the solid-phase methods tested, in which the bacteria and solid particles were in direct contact (i.e., the three existing methods and the newly proposed one, c-BSPT), no single method could be recommended as optimal for samples over a range of turbidity. Instead, a simple screening strategy for selecting a sample-dependent solid-phase test method was suggested, depending on the turbidity of the solid suspension. The results of this study highlight the importance of considering solid particles, and the necessity for optimal selection of test method to reduce errors in the measurement of solid-phase toxicity.

  16. Review of the methods to determine the hazard and toxicity of pesticides to bumblebees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, van der J.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Methods to determine the impact of pesticides on bumblebees are described. They are classified into laboratory tests to determine the acute toxicity and the hazard to bumblebees, (semi) field tests, and brood tests. The reproducibility and the significance of the data for practical purpose are discu

  17. Comparison of different physico-chemical methods for the removal of toxicants from landfill leachate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotman, Magda, E-mail: magda.cotman@ki.si [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Zgajnar Gotvajn, Andreja [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology (Slovenia)

    2010-06-15

    Our work was focused on investigation of different treatment procedures for the removal of toxic fractions from a landfill leachate, because sometimes the existing treatment in biological sequencing batch reactor (SBR) is not efficient enough, leading to a hazardous environmental impact of the present persistent and toxic compounds. The efficiency of the procedures used was monitored by chemical analyses and two toxicity tests (activated sludge and Vibrio fischeri). The existing SBR (HRT = 1.9 days) removed 46-78% of COD and 96-73% of NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N. Experiments were conducted with three landfill leachate samples expressing significant difference in concentrations of pollutants and with low BOD{sub 5}/COD ratio (0.06/0.01/0.03). The applied methods were air stripping, adsorption to activated carbon and zeolite clinoptilolite and Fenton oxidation. Air stripping at pH 11 was a viable treatment option for the removal of ammonia nitrogen (up to 94%) and reduction of toxicity to microorganisms. In the adsorption experiments in batch system with different concentration of PAC the most effective was the highest addition (50.0 g L{sup -1}) where 63-92% of COD was removed followed by significant reduction in toxicity to V. fischeri. In the column experiments with clinoptilolite 45/93/100% of NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N as well as 25/32/39% of COD removal was attained. The removal efficiency for metals followed the sequence Cr > Zn > Cd > Ni. The procedure with zeolite was the second most efficient one regarding reduction of toxicity to both organisms. Fenton oxidation at molar ratio Fe{sup 2+}:H{sub 2}O{sub 2} = 1.0:10.0 assured 70-85% removal of COD but it only slightly reduced the toxicity.

  18. Comparison of different physico-chemical methods for the removal of toxicants from landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotman, Magda; Gotvajn, Andreja Zgajnar

    2010-06-15

    Our work was focused on investigation of different treatment procedures for the removal of toxic fractions from a landfill leachate, because sometimes the existing treatment in biological sequencing batch reactor (SBR) is not efficient enough, leading to a hazardous environmental impact of the present persistent and toxic compounds. The efficiency of the procedures used was monitored by chemical analyses and two toxicity tests (activated sludge and Vibrio fischeri). The existing SBR (HRT=1.9 days) removed 46-78% of COD and 96-73% of NH(4)(+)-N. Experiments were conducted with three landfill leachate samples expressing significant difference in concentrations of pollutants and with low BOD(5)/COD ratio (0.06/0.01/0.03). The applied methods were air stripping, adsorption to activated carbon and zeolite clinoptilolite and Fenton oxidation. Air stripping at pH 11 was a viable treatment option for the removal of ammonia nitrogen (up to 94%) and reduction of toxicity to microorganisms. In the adsorption experiments in batch system with different concentration of PAC the most effective was the highest addition (50.0gL(-1)) where 63-92% of COD was removed followed by significant reduction in toxicity to V. fischeri. In the column experiments with clinoptilolite 45/93/100% of NH(4)(+)-N as well as 25/32/39% of COD removal was attained. The removal efficiency for metals followed the sequence Cr>Zn>Cd>Ni. The procedure with zeolite was the second most efficient one regarding reduction of toxicity to both organisms. Fenton oxidation at molar ratio Fe(2+):H(2)O(2)=1.0:10.0 assured 70-85% removal of COD but it only slightly reduced the toxicity.

  19. Evaluation of methods for predicting the toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, W.; Barhoumi, R.; Burghardt, R.C. [and others] [Texas A & M University, College Station, TX (USA). Dept. of Veterinary Anatomy and Public Health and Department of Civil Engineering

    2001-04-15

    Risk assessments of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures are hindered by a lack of reliable information on the potency of both mixtures and their individual components. This paper examines methods for approximating the toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mixtures. PAHs were isolated from a coal tar and then separated by ring number using HPLC. Five fractions (A-E) were generated, each possessing a unique composition and expected potency. The toxicity of each fraction was measured in the Salmonella/mutagenicity assay and the Chick Embryo Screening Test (CHEST). Their abilities to induce ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase and to inhibit gap junction intercellular communication in rat liver Clone 9 cells were also measured. In the Salmonella/mutagenicity assay, fractions were predicted to have potencies in the order C {gt} E {gt} B {gt} A. Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for fractions A-E were in the order E {ge} D {gt} C {gt} B {gt} A. TEF values were 20 652, 20 929, 441, 306 and 74.1 {mu}g of BaP equiv/g, respectively. A lack of agreement between assay-predicted potencies and chemical analysis-predicted potencies was observed with other assays and other methods of calculation. The results demonstrate the limitations of using a single method to predict the toxicity of a complex PAH mixture. 41 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. A NEW METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF TOXIC DYE USING FTIR SPECTROSCOPY

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    A new method was developed to determine toxic dyes content in textileand other products using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy withAttenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) element and KBr transmission cell. Thewavelengths used were selected using pure dyes and dye mixtures. Transmittance valuesfrom the wavelengths regions 3500 – 2650 and 1675 – 1500 cm-1 and partial least square(PLS) regression method were used to derive FTIR spectroscopic calibration model fordyes contain...

  1. Alternative methods for toxicity assessments in fish: comparison of the fish embryo toxicity and the larval growth and survival tests in zebrafish and fathead minnows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Marlo K Sellin; Stultz, Amy E; Smith, Austin W; Rawlings, Jane M; Belanger, Scott E; Oris, James T

    2014-11-01

    An increased demand for chemical toxicity evaluations has resulted in the need for alternative testing strategies that address animal welfare concerns. The fish embryo toxicity (FET) test developed for zebrafish (Danio rerio) is one such alternative, and the application of the FET test to other species such as the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) has been proposed. In the present study, the performances of the FET test and the larval growth and survival (LGS; a standard toxicity testing method) test in zebrafish and fathead minnows were evaluated. This required that testing methods for the fathead minnow FET and zebrafish LGS tests be harmonized with existing test methods and that the performance of these testing strategies be evaluated by comparing the median lethal concentrations of 2 reference toxicants, 3,4-dicholoraniline and ammonia, obtained via each of the test types. The results showed that procedures for the zebrafish FET test can be adapted and applied to the fathead minnow. Differences in test sensitivity were observed for 3,4-dicholoraniline but not ammonia; therefore, conclusions regarding which test types offer the least or most sensitivity could not be made. Overall, these results show that the fathead minnow FET test has potential as an alternative toxicity testing strategy and that further analysis with other toxicants is warranted in an effort to better characterize the sensitivity and feasibility of this testing strategy. © 2014 SETAC.

  2. A NEW METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF TOXIC DYE USING FTIR SPECTROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Elwathig Saeed Mirghani

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A new method was developed to determine toxic dyes content in textileand other products using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy withAttenuated Total Reflectance (ATR element and KBr transmission cell. Thewavelengths used were selected using pure dyes and dye mixtures. Transmittance valuesfrom the wavelengths regions 3500 – 2650 and 1675 – 1500 cm-1 and partial least square(PLS regression method were used to derive FTIR spectroscopic calibration model fordyes containing –N=N– in their structure. The coefficient of determinations (R2 for themodels were computed by comparing the results obtained from FTIR spectroscopyagainst the actual values of the dyes concentrations. R2 were 0.9321 and 0.9819 for twosamples of toxic dyes respectively. The standard errors (SE of calibrations were 1.84and 1.36 respectively. The calibration model was cross validated within the same set ofsamples and the standard deviation (SD of the difference for repeatability and accuracyof the FTIR method were determined. With its speed and ease of data manipulation,FTIR spectroscopy is a useful alternative method to wet chemical methods for rapid androutine detection of azo dyes as toxic dyes in such products for quality control.

  3. Embryonic Zebrafish Model - A Well-Established Method for Rapidly Assessing the Toxicity of Homeopathic Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Himanshu R; Patil, Yogesh; Singh, Dipty

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Advancements in nanotechnology have led to nanoparticle (NP) use in various fields of medicine. Although the potential of NPs is promising, the lack of documented evidence on the toxicological effects of NPs is concerning. A few studies have documented that homeopathy uses NPs. Unfortunately, very few sound scientific studies have explored the toxic effects of homeopathic drugs. Citing this lack of high-quality scientific evidence, regulatory agencies have been reluctant to endorse homeopathic treatment as an alternative or adjunct treatment. This study aimed to enhance our insight into the impact of commercially-available homeopathic drugs, to study the presence of NPs in those drugs and any deleterious effects they might have, and to determine the distribution pattern of NPs in zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio). Methods: Homeopathic dilutions were studied using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy with selected area electron diffraction (SAED). For the toxicity assessment on Zebrafish, embryos were exposed to a test solution from 4 - 6 hours post-fertilization, and embryos/larvae were assessed up to 5 days post-fertilization (dpf) for viability and morphology. Toxicity was recorded in terms of mortality, hatching delay, phenotypic defects and metal accumulation. Around 5 dpf was found to be the optimum developmental stage for evaluation. Results: The present study aimed to conclusively prove the presence of NPs in all high dilutions of homeopathic drugs. Embryonic zebrafish were exposed to three homeopathic drugs with two potencies (30CH, 200CH) during early embryogenesis. The resulting morphological and cellular responses were observed. Exposure to these potencies produced no visibly significant malformations, pericardial edema, and mortality and no necrotic and apoptotic cellular death. Conclusion: Our findings clearly demonstrate that no toxic effects were observed for these three homeopathic drugs at the potencies and exposure times used

  4. Statistical studies of animal response data from USF toxicity screening test method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, C. J.; Machado, A. M.

    1978-01-01

    Statistical examination of animal response data obtained using Procedure B of the USF toxicity screening test method indicates that the data deviate only slightly from a normal or Gaussian distribution. This slight departure from normality is not expected to invalidate conclusions based on theoretical statistics. Comparison of times to staggering, convulsions, collapse, and death as endpoints shows that time to death appears to be the most reliable endpoint because it offers the lowest probability of missed observations and premature judgements.

  5. In Vitro Toxicity Evaluation of Caffeine Imprinted Polymer (CAF-MIP) for Decaffeination Method on Normal Chang Liver Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Fatimah Hashim; Faizatul Shimal Mehamod; Naizatul Akmal Nawi

    2017-01-01

    Over consuming of caffeine is one of the factors to a few health problems such as insomnia, hypertension and cardiovascular disease. This preliminary study was conducted to evaluate the Caffeine-Imprinted Polymer (CAF-MIP) toxicity that was synthesized for a new alternative method for decaffeination. It is crucial to evaluate the toxicity of CAF-MIP as this product is potential to be used as complimentary with any drinks containing caffeine. In this study, the CAF-MIP toxicity potential was ...

  6. Development of methods for avian oil toxicity studies using the double crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Fred; Dean, Karen; Hanson-Dorr, Katie; Harr, Kendal; Healy, Kate; Horak, Katherine; Link, Jane; Shriner, Susan; Bursian, Steven; Dorr, Brian

    2017-07-01

    Oral and external dosing methods replicating field exposure were developed using the double crested cormorant (DCCO) to test the toxicity of artificially weathered Deepwater Horizon Mississippi Canyon 252 oil. The majority of previous oil dosing studies conducted on wild-caught birds used gavage methods to dose birds with oil and determine toxicity. However, rapid gut transit time of gavaged oil likely reduces oil absorption. In the present studies, dosing relied on injection of oil into live feeder fish for oral dosing of these piscivorous birds, or applying oil to body contour feathers resulting in transdermal oil exposure and oral exposure through preening. Both oral and external oil dosing studies identified oil-related toxicity endpoints associated with oxidative stress such as hemolytic anemia, liver and kidney damage, and immuno-modulation or compromise. External oil application allowed for controlled study of thermoregulatory stress as well. Infrared thermal images indicated significantly greater surface temperatures and heat loss in treated birds following external oil applications; however, measurements collected by coelomically implanted temperature transmitters showed that internal body temperatures were stable over the course of the study period. Birds exposed to oil externally consumed more fish than control birds, indicating metabolic compensation for thermal stress. Conversely, birds orally dosed with oil experienced hypothermia and consumed less fish compared to control birds. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. A QICAR Model for Metal Ion Toxicity Established via PLS Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu; JIANG Long; LI Xiao-li; HU Yan; WEN Jing-ya

    2013-01-01

    The partial least squares(PLS) method was employed to establish a quantitative ion characteristics-activity relationship(QICAR) model for metal ion toxicity(EC50 of 15 metal ions).The ion characteristics included AN(the atomic number),AIP(the change in ionization potential,eV),Xm(the electronegativity,eV),AW(the atomic weight),Xm2r(the covalent index),△E0(the absolute difference between electrochemical potential of the ion and that of its first stable reduced state,eV),│lgKoH│(the absolute value of the lg of the first hydrolysis constant),AR(the atomic radius,nm),AR/AW(the ratio between atomic radius and atomic weight) and σp(the softness index) selected based on relative correlation analysis.The simulated and tested(with the other four metals) efficiency coefficients of the model are 0.88 and 0.96,respectively.The information revealed from the QICAR model indicates that the value of the metal ion toxicity was positively correlated with variables AN,△IP,Xm,AW and Xm2r; negatively correlated with variables △E0,│lgKoH│,AR/AW,AR and σp,and ion characteristics AE0,Xm,σp and Xm2r were found to contribute more to the toxicity of metal ions via the accurate analysis method provided by PLS.The model could be used to predict the toxicity of the target metals and preliminary to assess combined pollution and environmental risk for heavy metals in the environments.

  8. An in vitro Method for Predicting Inhalation Toxicity of Impregnation Spray Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørli, Jorid B.; Hansen, Jitka S.; Nørgaard, Asger Wisti

    2015-01-01

    Impregnation spray products are used for making surfaces water and dirt repellent. The products are composed of one or more active film-forming components dissolved or suspended in an appropriate solvent mixture. Exposure to impregnation spray products may cause respiratory distress and new cases...... of the inhalation toxicity of impregnation spray products and thus may reduce the need for animal testing....... of this study was to evaluate whether disruption of the pulmonary surfactant film can be used as a predictor of the toxic effects in vivo. Nine impregnation products with various chemical compositions were selected for testing and the main constituents of each product, e.g., solvents, co-solvents and film...... and in vivo. The true positive rate of the in vitro method was 100%, i.e. the test could correctly identify all products with toxic effects in vivo, the true negative rate was 40%. Investigation of inhibition of the pulmonary surfactant system, e.g. by capillary surfactometry, was found useful for evaluation...

  9. Studies with the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method - Exercise wheels and oxygen replenishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    Continuing efforts to improve the University of San Francisco/NASA toxicity screening test method have included the addition of exercise wheels to provide a different measure of incapacitation, and oxygen replenishment to offset any effect of oxygen depletion by the test animals. The addition of exercise wheels limited the number of animals in each test and doubled the required number of tests without any significant improvement in reproducibility. Oxygen replenishment appears to have an effect on survival in the last 5 minutes of the 30-minute test, but the effect is expected to be similar for most materials.

  10. Improved dispersion method of multi-wall carbon nanotube for inhalation toxicity studies of experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taquahashi, Yuhji; Ogawa, Yukio; Takagi, Atsuya; Tsuji, Masaki; Morita, Koichi; Kanno, Jun

    2013-01-01

    A multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) product Mitsui MWNT-7 is a mixture of dispersed single fibers and their agglomerates/aggregates. In rodents, installation of such mixture induces inflammatory lesions triggered predominantly by the aggregates/agglomerates at the level of terminal bronchiole of the lungs. In human, however, pulmonary toxicity induced by dispersed single fibers that reached the lung alveoli is most important to assess. Therefore, a method to generate aerosol predominantly consisting of dispersed single fibers without changing their length and width is needed for inhalation studies. Here, we report a method (designated as Taquann method) to effectively remove the aggregate/agglomerates and enrich the well-dispersed singler fibers in dry state without dispersant and without changing the length and width distribution of the single fibers. This method is base on two major concept; liquid-phase fine filtration and critical point drying to avoid re-aggregation by surface tension. MWNT-7 was suspended in Tert-butyl alcohol, freeze-and-thawed, filtered by a vibrating 25 µm mesh Metallic Sieve, snap-frozen by liquid nitrogen, and vacuum-sublimated (an alternative method to carbon dioxide critical point drying). A newly designed direct injection system generated well-dispersed aerosol in an inhalation chamber. The lung of mice exposed to the aerosol contained single fibers with a length distribution similar to the original and the Taquann-treated sample. Taquann method utilizes inexpensive materials and equipments mostly found in common biological laboratories, and prepares dry powder ready to make well-dispersed aerosol. This method and the chamber with direct injection system would facilitate the inhalation toxicity studies more relevant to human exposure.

  11. An easy, rapid and inexpensive method to monitor tributyltin (TBT) toxicity in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Andreia; Moreira, Rafael; Mendo, Sónia

    2014-05-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) contamination remains a major problem worldwide. Many laboratories are committed to the development of remediation methodologies that could help reduce the negative impact of this compound in the environment. Furthermore, it is important to have at hand simple methodologies for evaluating TBT toxicity in the laboratory, besides the use of complex and costly analytical instrumentation. With that purpose, a method was adapted that is based on the inhibition of growth of an indicator strain, Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341, under TBT. Different types of matrices, of TBT concentrations and sample treatments were tested. The results herein reported show that the bioassay method can be applied for both aqueous and soil samples and also for a high range of TBT concentrations (at least up to 500 μmol/L). Besides being cheap and easy to perform, it can be performed in any laboratory. Additionally, one possible application of the method to monitor TBT degradation is presented as an example.

  12. Disease-specific survival for limited-stage small-cell lung cancer affected by statistical method of assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Fei

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In general, prognosis and impact of prognostic/predictive factors are assessed with Kaplan-Meier plots and/or the Cox proportional hazard model. There might be substantive differences from the results using these models for the same patients, if different statistical methods were used, for example, Boag log-normal (cure-rate model, or log-normal survival analysis. Methods Cohort of 244 limited-stage small-cell lung cancer patients, were accrued between 1981 and 1998, and followed to the end of 2005. The endpoint was death with or from lung cancer, for disease-specific survival (DSS. DSS at 1-, 3- and 5-years, with 95% confidence limits, are reported for all patients using the Boag, Kaplan-Meier, Cox, and log-normal survival analysis methods. Factors with significant effects on DSS were identified with step-wise forward multivariate Cox and log-normal survival analyses. Then, DSS was ascertained for patients with specific characteristics defined by these factors. Results The median follow-up of those alive was 9.5 years. The lack of events after 1966 days precluded comparison after 5 years. DSS assessed by the four methods in the full cohort differed by 0–2% at 1 year, 0–12% at 3 years, and 0–1% at 5 years. Log-normal survival analysis indicated DSS of 38% at 3 years, 10–12% higher than with other methods; univariate 95% confidence limits were non-overlapping. Surgical resection, hemoglobin level, lymph node involvement, and superior vena cava (SVC obstruction significantly impacted DSS. DSS assessed by the Cox and log-normal survival analysis methods for four clinical risk groups differed by 1–6% at 1 year, 15–26% at 3 years, and 0–12% at 5 years; multivariate 95% confidence limits were overlapping in all instances. Conclusion Surgical resection, hemoglobin level, lymph node involvement, and superior vena cava (SVC obstruction all significantly impacted DSS. Apparent DSS for patients was influenced by the

  13. Effect of biochar activation by different methods on toxicity of soil contaminated by industrial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołtowski, Michał; Charmas, Barbara; Skubiszewska-Zięba, Jadwiga; Oleszczuk, Patryk

    2017-02-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of various methods of biochar activation on the ecotoxicity of soils with various properties and with various content and origin of contaminants. The biochar produced from willow (at 700°C) was activated by 1) microwaves (in a microwave reactor under an atmosphere of water vapour), 2) carbon dioxide (in the quartz fluidized bed reactor) and 3) superheated steam (in the quartz fluidized bed reactor). Three different soils were collected from industrial areas. The soils were mixed with biochar and activated biochars at the dose of 5% and ecotoxicological parameters of mixture was evaluated using two solid phase test - Phytotoxkit F (Lepidium sativum) and Collembolan test (Folsomia candida) and one liquid phase test - Microtox® (Vibrio fischeri). Biochar activation had both positive and negative impacts, depending on the activation method, kind of bioassay and kind of soil. Generally, biochar activated by microwaves increased the effectiveness of ecotoxicity reduction relative to non-activated biochars. Whereas, biochar activated with CO2 most often cause a negative effect manifested by deterioration or as a lack of improvement in relation to non-activated biochar or to non-amended soil. It was also demonstrated that the increase of biochar specific surface area caused a significant reduction of toxicity of water leachates from the studied soils. Effectiveness of the reduction of leachate toxicity was weakened in the presence of dissolved organic carbon in the soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Validation of the dynamic direct exposure method for toxicity testing of diesel exhaust in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joeng, Lucky; Hayes, Amanda; Bakand, Shahnaz

    2013-01-01

    Diesel exhaust emission is a major health concern because of the complex nature of its gaseous content (e.g., NO2, NO, CO, and CO2) and high concentration of particulate matter (PM) less than 2.5  μ m which allows for deeper penetration into the human pulmonary system upon inhalation. The aim of this research was to elucidate the potential toxic effects of diesel exhaust on a human pulmonary-based cellular system. Validation of a dynamic direct exposure method for both laboratory (230 hp Volvo truck engine) and field (Volkswagen Passat passenger car) diesel engines, at idle mode, was implemented. Human pulmonary type II epithelial cells (A549) grown on porous membranes were exposed to unmodified diesel exhaust at a low flow rate (37.5 mL/min). In parallel, diesel emission sampling was also conducted using real-time air monitoring techniques. Induced cellular effects were assessed using a range of in vitro cytotoxicity assays (MTS, ATP, and NRU). Reduction of cell viability was observed in a time-dependent manner following 30-60 mins of exposure with NRU as the most sensitive assay. The results suggest that the dynamic direct exposure method has the potential to be implemented for both laboratory- and field-based in vitro toxicity studies of diesel exhaust emissions.

  15. Reverse osmosis pretreatment method for toxicity assessment of domestic wastewater using Vibrio qinghaiensis sp.-Q67.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoyan Y; Wang, Xiaochang C; Hao Ngo, Huu; Guo, Wenshan; Wu, Maoni N; Wang, Na

    2013-11-01

    Luminescent bacterial test is a fast and sensitive method for acute toxicity assessment of water and wastewater. In this study, an improved toxicity testing method was developed using the freshwater luminescent bacteria Vibrio qinghaiensis sp.-Q67 that involved pretreatment of water samples with reverse osmosis (RO) to eliminate the interferences caused by nutrients in concentrated samples and to improve the reliability and sensitivity of the analysis. Because water samples contain low concentrations of several target toxic substances, rapid acute toxicity testing method that is commonly employed does not achieve enough sensitivity. The proposed RO pretreatment could effectively enrich organic and inorganic substances in water samples to enable a more effective and sensitive toxicity evaluation. The kinetic characteristics of toxicity of raw sewage and secondary effluent were evaluated based on the relative luminescence unit (RLU) curves and time-concentration-effect surfaces. It was observed that when the exposure time was prolonged to 8-h or longer, the bacteria reached the logarithmic growth stage. Hence, the stimulating effects of the coexisting ions (such as Na(+), K(+), NO3(-)) in the concentrated samples could be well eliminated. A 10-h exposure time in proposed Q67 test was found to quantitatively evaluate the toxicity of the organic and inorganic pollutants in the RO-concentrated samples. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Less toxic method for producing giant paper organ sections for pathology and anatomy education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeMartinis NC

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nicole C DeMartinis, Walter E Finkbeiner Department of Pathology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA Purpose: Traditionally, medical school pathology educators have used formalin-fixed specimens to demonstrate effects of diseases on target organs, despite the handling of these "wet" tissues having distinct disadvantages, such as the need for gloves, protective clothing, and appropriate facilities to limit potential fixative moisture and fumes. Paper-mounted sections of solid organs have significant potential as an aid for teaching gross pathology and eliminate the disadvantages of handling formalin-fixed specimens. However, published techniques for preparing giant organ sections include the use of the highly toxic ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGEE; 2-ethoxyethanol. We investigated whether replacing EGEE with a less toxic dehydrating and clearing agent, Histo-Clear™, would allow production of high-quality sections.Materials and methods: Whimster's procedure for preparing rapid paper sections of lungs and other organs was modified to incorporate the xylene substitute Histo-Clear in place of EGEE.Results: Giant paper sections of various organs were prepared. In addition to lungs, excellent pathology teaching specimens were prepared from other organs, including the brain, heart, kidney, liver, and colon. Side-by-side comparisons of paper-mounted organ sections prepared using EGEE and Histo-Clear were indistinguishable. The sections prepared using Histo-Clear showed fine anatomical and pathological details.Conclusion: The Gough–Wentworth technique of preparing rapid giant paper sections of organs was made less toxic without sacrificing quality by using Histo-Clear as an alternative to EGEE. Paper-mounted sections offer a safe and portable way for studying macroscopic pathology, and have great potential for use in the anatomy and pathology classroom, as well as in postgraduate pathology training.Keywords: organ

  17. Monte Carlo method for predicting of cardiac toxicity: hERG blocker compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbi, Marco; Beeg, Marten; Toropova, Mariya A; Toropov, Andrey A; Salmona, Mario

    2016-05-27

    The estimation of the cardiotoxicity of compounds is an important task for the drug discovery as well as for the risk assessment in ecological aspect. The experimental estimation of the above endpoint is complex and expensive. Hence, the theoretical computational methods are very attractive alternative of the direct experiment. A model for cardiac toxicity of 400 hERG blocker compounds (pIC50) is built up using the Monte Carlo method. Three different splits into the visible training set (in fact, the training set plus the calibration set) and invisible validation sets examined. The predictive potential is very good for all examined splits. The statistical characteristics for the external validation set are (i) the coefficient of determination r(2)=(0.90-0.93); and (ii) root-mean squared error s=(0.30-0.40). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Timing, method and discontinuation of hydrocortisone administration for septic shock patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Estrada, Miguel A; Chávez-Peña, Quetzalcóatl; Reynoso-Estrella, Claudia I; Rios-Zermeño, Jorge; Aguilera-González, Pável E; García-Soto, Miguel A; Aguirre-Avalos, Guadalupe

    2017-01-01

    AIM To characterize the prescribing patterns for hydrocortisone for patients with septic shock and perform an exploratory analysis in order to identify the variables associated with better outcomes. METHODS This prospective cohort study included 59 patients with septic shock who received stress-dose hydrocortisone. It was performed at 2 critical care units in academic hospitals from June 1st, 2015, to July 31st, 2016. Demographic data, comorbidities, medical management details, adverse effects related to corticosteroids, and outcomes were collected after the critical care physician indicated initiation of hydrocortisone. Univariate comparison between continuous and bolus administration of hydrocortisone was performed, including multivariate analysis, as well as Kaplan-Meier analysis to compare the proportion of shock reversal at 7 d after presentation. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves determined the best cut-off criteria for initiation of hydrocortisone associated with the highest probability of shock reversal. We addressed the effects of the taper strategy for discontinuation of hydrocortisone, noting risk of shock relapse and adverse effects. RESULTS All-cause 30-d mortality was 42%. Hydrocortisone was administered as a continuous infusion in 54.2% of patients; time to reversal of shock was 49 h longer in patients who were given a bolus administration [59 h (range, 47.5-90.5) vs 108 h (range, 63.2-189); P = 0.001]. The maximal dose of norepinephrine after initiation of hydrocortisone was lower in patients on continuous infusion [0.19 μg/kg per minute (range, 0.11-0.28 μg)] compared with patients who were given bolus [0.34 μg/kg per minute (range, 0.16-0.49); P = 0.004]. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a higher proportion of shock reversal at 7 d in patients with continuous infusion compared to those given bolus (83% vs 63%; P = 0.004). There was a good correlation between time to initiation of hydrocortisone and time to reversal of shock (r = 0

  19. Assessing in vivo toxicity of graphene materials: current methods and future outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yufei; Shen, He; Tu, Xiaolong; Zhang, Zhijun

    2014-07-01

    Graphene, a novel 2D carbon nanomaterial with unique properties, has attracted massive attention. Evaluating its toxicity is of great significance due to its potential applications in many fields, especially in biomedicine. In this review, the toxicity of graphene-based nanomaterials (GNMs) and related mechanisms at the molecular and cellular level, various approaches to evaluation of the in vivo toxicity of GNMs and major factors defining their toxicity will be discussed and summarized. This review will allow better understanding of the in vitro and in vivo toxicity of GNMs, which, we believe, may facilitate design and fabrication of novel, biocompatible and efficient GNM-based systems for biomedical applications.

  20. A highly efficient nonchemical method for isolating live nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans) from soil during toxicity assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shin Woong; Moon, Jongmin; An, Youn-Joo

    2015-01-01

    The success of soil toxicity tests using Caenorhabditis elegans may depend in large part on recovering the organisms from the soil. However, it can be difficult to learn the International Organization for Standardization/ASTM International recovery process that uses the colloidal silica flotation method. The present study determined that a soil-agar isolation method provides a highly efficient and less technically demanding alternative to the colloidal silica flotation method. Test soil containing C. elegans was arranged on an agar plate in a donut shape, a linear shape, or a C curve; and microbial food was placed outside the soil to encourage the nematodes to leave the soil. The effects of ventilation and the presence of food on nematode recovery were tested to determine the optimal conditions for recovery. A linear arrangement of soil on an agar plate that was sprinkled with microbial food produced nearly 83% and 90% recovery of live nematodes over a 3-h and a 24-h period, respectively, without subjecting the nematodes to chemical stress. The method was tested using copper (II) chloride dihydrate, and the resulting recovery rate was comparable to that obtained using colloidal silica flotation. The soil-agar isolation method portrayed in the present study enables live nematodes to be isolated with minimal additional physicochemical stress, making it a valuable option for use in subsequent sublethal tests where live nematodes are required. © 2014 SETAC.

  1. Review of methods for the reduction of dietary content and toxicity of acrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mendel; Levin, Carol E

    2008-08-13

    Potentially toxic acrylamide is largely derived from heat-induced reactions between the amino group of the free amino acid asparagine and carbonyl groups of glucose and fructose in cereals, potatoes, and other plant-derived foods. This overview surveys and consolidates the following dietary aspects of acrylamide: distribution in food originating from different sources; consumption by diverse populations; reduction of the acrylamide content in the diet; and suppression of adverse effects in vivo. Methods to reduce adverse effects of dietary acrylamide include (a) selecting potato, cereal, and other plant varieties for dietary use that contain low levels of the acrylamide precursors, namely, asparagine and glucose; (b) removing precursors before processing; (c) using the enzyme asparaginase to hydrolyze asparagine to aspartic acid; (d) selecting processing conditions (pH, temperature, time, processing and storage atmosphere) that minimize acrylamide formation; (e) adding food ingredients (acidulants, amino acids, antioxidants, nonreducing carbohydrates, chitosan, garlic compounds, protein hydrolysates, proteins, metal salts) that have been reported to prevent acrylamide formation; (f) removing/trapping acrylamide after it is formed with the aid of chromatography, evaporation, polymerization, or reaction with other food ingredients; and (g) reducing in vivo toxicity. Research needs are suggested that may further facilitate reducing the acrylamide burden of the diet. Researchers are challenged to (a) apply the available methods and to minimize the acrylamide content of the diet without adversely affecting the nutritional quality, safety, and sensory attributes, including color and flavor, while maintaining consumer acceptance; and (b) educate commercial and home food processors and the public about available approaches to mitigating undesirable effects of dietary acrylamide.

  2. Actuarial and actual analysis of surgical results: empirical validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunkemeier, G L; Anderson, R P; Starr, A

    2001-06-01

    This report validates the use of the Kaplan-Meier (actuarial) method of computing survival curves by comparing 12-year estimates published in 1978 with current assessments. It also contrasts cumulative incidence curves, referred to as "actual" analysis in the cardiac-related literature with Kaplan-Meier curves for thromboembolism and demonstrates that with the former estimate the percentage of events that will actually occur.

  3. Studies with the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method - Effect of air flow and effect of fabric dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, C. J.; Lopez, M. T.

    1976-01-01

    One sample each of commercial polyurethane and polychloroprene flexible foams were evaluated using the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method. Air flow rates of 0, 0.16, 16, and 48 ml/sec were used to determine the effect of air flow on relative toxicity. Time to first sign of incapacitation and time to death were substantially reduced with both polyurethane and polychloroprene flexible foams by the introduction of 16 to 48 ml/sec air flow. The relative toxicity rankings of these materials were not altered by changes in air flow. Under these test conditions, the polyurethane foam consistently appeared more toxic than the polychloroprene foam. Samples of six different colors from the same fabric were evaluated separately, using the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method, to determine the effect of fabric dye, if any. The material was an upholstery fabric, consisting of 46 percent cotton, 33 percent wool, and 21 percent nylon. There appeared to be no significant effect of fabric dye on relative toxicity, for this material under these test conditions.

  4. Dredged Material Evaluations: Review of Zooplankton Toxicity Test Methods for Marine Water Quality Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    for elutriate toxicity tests are fish , invertebrates (crustaceans), and zooplankton. Freshwater evaluations (following CWA regulations) use standard...is not a limiting factor in cultures. However, it is appropriate to investigate lower feeding rations, or absence of food, in toxicity testing to...2012. Standard guide for selection of resident species as test organisms for aquatic and sediment toxicity tests. Designation: E1850 − 04.West

  5. Methods For Collecting , Culturing And Performing Toxicity Tests With Daphnia ambigua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, Winona L.

    2005-07-01

    Toxicity tests conducted on water collected from impacted locations in SRS streams often failed chronic toxicity tests and sometimes failed acute toxicity tests (Specht 1995). These findings prompted SRS to determine the cause of the failures. Some SRS NPDES outfalls were also failing chronic toxicity tests, even though no toxicant could be identified and when TIEs were performed, none of the TIE treatments removed the toxicity. Ultimately, it was determined that the failures were due to the low hardness of SRS surface waters, rather than to the presence of a toxicant. The species of cladoceran that the EPA recommends for toxicity testing, Ceriodaphnia dubia, is stressed by the very low hardness of SRS waters. SRS developed an alternate species toxicity test that is similar to the EPA test, but uses an indigenous cladoceran, Daphnia ambigua (Specht and Harmon, 1997; Harmon et al., 2003). In 2001, SCDHEC approved the use of D. ambigua for toxicity testing at SRS, contingent upon approval by EPA Region 4. In 2002, EPA Region 4 approved the use of this species for compliance toxicity testing at SRS. Ultimately, the use of this species demonstrated that SRS effluents were not toxic, and most toxicity testing requirements were removed from the NPDES permit that was issued in December 2003, with the exception of one round of chronic definitive testing on outfalls A-01, A-11, and G-10 just before the next NPDES permit application is submitted to SCDHEC. Although the alternate species test was developed at SRS (1996-1998), the culture was transferred to a contract toxicity testing lab (ETT Environmental) located in Greer, SC in 1998. ETT Environmental became certified by SCDHEC to perform toxicity tests using D. ambigua in 2002, and at this time is the only laboratory certified by SCDHEC to perform tests with this species. Because of the expense associated with maintaining the D. ambigua culture for several years when no toxicity testing is required, SRS decided to suspend

  6. Quantitative Characterization of the Toxicities of Cd-Ni and Cd-Cr Binary Mixtures Using Combination Index Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyun Mo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct equipartition ray design was used to construct Cd-Ni and Cd-Cr binary mixtures. Microplate toxicity analysis was used to evaluate the toxicity of individual substance and the Cd-Ni and Cd-Cr mixtures on Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Selenastrum capricornutum. The interacting toxicity of the mixture was analyzed with concentration addition (CA model. In addition, combination index method (CI was proposed and used to quantitatively characterize the toxicity of the binary mixtures of Cd-Ni and Cd-Cr observed in experiment and find the degree of deviation from the predicted outcome of the CA model, that is, the intensity of interacting toxicity. Results indicate that most of the 20 binary mixtures exhibit enhancing and synergistic effect, and only Cd-Cr-R4 and Cd-Cr-R5 mixtures have relatively high antagonistic effects against C. pyrenoidosa. Based on confidence interval, CI can compare the intensities of interaction of the mixtures under varying levels of effect. The characterization methods are applicable for analyzing binary mixture with complex interaction.

  7. Methods for estimating cleaning effectiveness, dispersion, and toxicity of shoreline cleaning agents at oil spills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stransky, B.C.; Clayton, J.R. Jr.; Schwartz, M.J.; Snyder, B.J.; Lees, D.C.; Adkins, A.C.; Reilly, T.J. [Ogden Environmental, San Diego, CA (United States); Michel, J. [Research Planning, Inc., Columbia, SC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Chemical shoreline cleaning agents (SCAs) are designed to enhance removal of stranded oil from shoreline surfaces. However, difficulties associated with estimating cleaning effectiveness and toxicity of SCAs for site-specific conditions make it desirable to perform measurements in the field with onsite oil, substrates, and resident or otherwise appropriate test organisms. Information for onsite testing should address the following questions: (1) does use of an SCA promote removal of oil from substate surfaces; (2) does use of an SCA increase the amount of dispersed oil in the water column; (3) does toxicity for resident organisms indicate a likelihood for adverse effects; (4) does toxicity with a portable test organism indicate a likelihood for adverse effects? Methodologies are described for use in a portable kit to estimate quantitative and qualitative information for cleaning effectiveness, dispersion of oil, and toxicity of SCAs in the field. Toxicity methodologies for resident organisms include echinoderm fertilization, byssal thread attachment for mussels, and righting/water-escaping ability for periwinkle snails. Microtox{trademark} is used for toxicity measurements as a portable test organism/assay. Use of portable methodologies for assessing cleaning effectiveness, dispersion of oil, and toxicity of SCAs in the field can assist onsite evaluations for cleaning performance and relative risk to biological resources, which are important for supporting use-no use decisions for SCAs.

  8. Evaluation of methods for assessing toxicity of oil spill treating agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumley, T.C.; Hollebone, B.P. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Harrison, S. [SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    The first counter-measure considered during an oil spill is the mechanical removal of the spilled oil, but this rarely collects more than 20 per cent of the spilled oil. When mechanical means are insufficient, it is advisable to use spill treating agents (STAs). The potential impact of STAs on the environment is estimated by assessing their in-vitro toxicity to sensitive or sentinel organisms. The typical endpoint in animal exposure models is acute lethality LC{sub 50}, which is the concentration that will be fatal to 50 per cent of the test population. The range of STAs include dispersants; shoreline washing agents; de-emulsifiers or emulsion inhibitors; herding agents; recovery agents; solidifiers or gelling agents; biodegradation agents; and, sinking agents. However, a thorough understanding of the overall toxicity of the agent to the environment must be determined along with the net environmental benefit. The agents must undergo rigorous toxicity evaluations to meet the requirements of the New Substances Notification or Significant New Activity Notification sections of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act of 1999. Environment Canada's guidelines for the use and acceptability of dispersants also address toxicity issues. In particular, emphasis has been on evaluating toxicity by the 96-hour rainbow trout lethality test. This paper presented challenges to the current test protocols and recommended that Environment Canada's guidelines for the use of oil STAs should be modified to include a broader definition of toxicity. The toxicity of a dispersant should be less than the toxicity of the water soluble fraction of an oil slick. However, sublethal effects of dispersant exposure, such as endocrine disruption, organ toxicity, mutagenicity and geotoxicity must be better understood. It was argued that testing on one fish species in an enclosed system does not adequately address a diverse marine environment. It was recommended that testing procedures

  9. Determination of Antioxidant Activity and Toxicity of Sambucus nigra Fruit Extract Using Alternative Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Doroftei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to measure the in vitro antioxidant activity of elderberry (Sambucus nigra fruit extract and to study its toxicity in a plant model system with regard to its possible application in food and agricultural industry. The antioxidant capacity of Sambucus nigra fruit powder was quantified by a photochemiluminescence method. The study of phytotoxicity of aqueous solutions of powder extract was performed using Allium cepa as a test organism. Photochemiluminescence determinations showed a very high antioxidant capacity of the product but also revealed its cytotoxic effect, along with mitodepressive activity and even inhibiton of mitosis at the preprophase stage when the fruit extract was used at higher concentrations. Aqueous solutions of the fruit powder have a reasonably expressed mutagenic activity in vivo on the radicles of Allium cepa, especially when they are used at a concentration of 1 g/dL for a prolonged time (48 h. At lower concentrations (0.1 g/dL, however, the mutagenic effect was not observed any more. The conclusion of our study is that Sambucus nigra fruit extract powder has a very high in vitro antioxidant activity and no mutagenic effects at low concentrations, which makes it recommendable for applications in the food industry.

  10. COMPUTER-BASED PREDICTION OF TOXICITY USING THE ELECTRON-CONFORMATIONAL METHOD. APPLICATION TO FRAGRANCE ALLERGENS AND OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia N. Gorinchoy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The electron-conformational (EC method is employed for the toxicophore (Tph identification and quantitative prediction of toxicity using the training set of 24 compounds that are considered as fragrance allergens. The values of a=LD50 in oral exposure of rats were chosen as a measure of toxicity. EC parameters are evaluated on the base of conformational analysis and ab initio electronic structure calculations (including solvent influence. The Tph consists of four sites which in this series of compounds are represented by three carbon and one oxygen atoms, but may be any other atoms that have the same electronic and geometric features within the tolerance limits. The regression model taking into consideration the Tph flexibility, anti-Tph shielding, and influence of out-of-Tph functional groups predicts well the experimental values of toxicity (R2 = 0.93 with a reasonable leaveone- out cross-validation.

  11. A roadmap for the development of alternative (non-animal) methods for systemic toxicity testing - t4 report*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basketter, David A; Clewell, Harvey; Kimber, Ian; Rossi, Annamaria; Blaauboer, Bas; Burrier, Robert; Daneshian, Mardas; Eskes, Chantra; Goldberg, Alan; Hasiwa, Nina; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Jaworska, Joanna; Knudsen, Thomas B; Landsiedel, Robert; Leist, Marcel; Locke, Paul; Maxwell, Gavin; McKim, James; McVey, Emily A; Ouédraogo, Gladys; Patlewicz, Grace; Pelkonen, Olavi; Roggen, Erwin; Rovida, Costanza; Ruhdel, Irmela; Schwarz, Michael; Schepky, Andreas; Schoeters, Greet; Skinner, Nigel; Trentz, Kerstin; Turner, Marian; Vanparys, Philippe; Yager, James; Zurlo, Joanne; Hartung, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Systemic toxicity testing forms the cornerstone for the safety evaluation of substances. Pressures to move from traditional animal models to novel technologies arise from various concerns, including: the need to evaluate large numbers of previously untested chemicals and new products (such as nanoparticles or cell therapies), the limited predictivity of traditional tests for human health effects, duration and costs of current approaches, and animal welfare considerations. The latter holds especially true in the context of the scheduled 2013 marketing ban on cosmetic ingredients tested for systemic toxicity. Based on a major analysis of the status of alternative methods (Adler et al., 2011) and its independent review (Hartung et al., 2011), the present report proposes a roadmap for how to overcome the acknowledged scientific gaps for the full replacement of systemic toxicity testing using animals. Five whitepapers were commissioned addressing toxicokinetics, skin sensitization, repeated-dose toxicity, carcinogenicity, and reproductive toxicity testing. An expert workshop of 35 participants from Europe and the US discussed and refined these whitepapers, which were subsequently compiled to form the present report. By prioritizing the many options to move the field forward, the expert group hopes to advance regulatory science.

  12. The toxic effect of cadmium on pure microbes using a microcalorimetric method and a biosensor technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiyan; Yao, Jun; Zhou, Yong; Chen, Huilun; Wang, Fei; Gai, Nan; Zhuang, Rensheng; Ceccanti, Brunello; Maskow, Thomas; Zaray, Gyula

    2008-12-01

    A microcalorimetric technique based on microbes heat-output was explored to evaluate the effect of Cd (II) on Bacillus subtilis and Candida humicola. The power-time curves of the growth metabolism of Bacillus subtilis and Candida humicola and the effect of Cd (II) on it were studied by using a TAM III microcalorimeter, ampoules method at 28 degrees C. For the evaluation of toxic effect on pure micro-organisms, the maximum peak-heat output power (P(max)) in the growth phase, the growth rate constants (k), the log phase heat effects (Q(log)), and the total heat effect (Q(T)) for Bacillus subtilis and Candida humicola were determined. Dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) were evaluated by a biosensor. Cadmium has been regarded as the essential biological trace element. Cd (II) solutions of different concentration have different effects on Bacillus subtilis and Candida humicola growth metabolism. The higher concentrations of Cd (II) inhibit the growth of Candida humicola (1600-3200 microg.mL(-1)), Bacillus subtilis (240-480 microg.mL(-1)); the lower concentrations can promote the growth of both micro-organism. The values of cell dry weight is also showed in conformity in the cell dry weight changes to the micro-organisms' growth time. Comparison of growth curves of two micro-organisms showed that both the trends of biochemical oxygen demand were exhibiting regressive changes with the passage of time during their generation times (t(G)). Results from ultraviolet spectrophotometer and precision pH meter all showed that the control growth curves were visioning same trends with the thermodynamic curves of micro-organisms measured by microcalorimeter.

  13. Sensitivity of isolated eggs of pond snails: a new method for toxicity assays and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tengteng; Koene, Joris M; Dong, Xiaoxiao; Fu, Rongshu

    2013-05-01

    The concentration of heavy metals in the environment is normally low. We here address whether using the development of isolated pond snail Radix auricularia eggs would provide a more sensitive endpoint and whether the gelatinous matrix of the egg mass surrounding the eggs indeed protects the snail embryos. In the present study, artificial removal of the gelatinous matrix of egg masses greatly increased the sensitivity of developing eggs to a heavy metal (cadmium). The sensitivity of isolated eggs to cadmium was determined using several convenient endpoints, including mortality, hatching rate, and heart rate, with an acute toxicity test and a subchronic test. In the acute toxicity test, a 96-h LC(50) value of 58.26 μg/L cadmium was determined. In the subchronic toxicity test, sublethal effects in terms of a significant reduction in hatching rate could be found in the 25-μg/L treatment, and a significant decrease of heart rate was observed in both treatments (5 and 25 μg/L). The high sensitivity of isolated eggs indicates that such tests can be efficient for toxicity assays and risk assessment, although one needs to keep in mind that the ecologically relevant measure of toxicity will be how eggs are affected when they are still inside the egg mass.

  14. Estimation of Acute Toxicity of Ammonium Sulphate to the Fresh Water Catfish,Heteropneustes fossilis——Ⅰ.Analysis of LC50 Values Determined by Various Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TarunK.Banerjee

    1993-01-01

    The acute toxic effects of ammonium sulphate to fresh-water catfish,Heteropneustes fossilis(H.fossilis)have been studied by determining LC50 values with 95% confidence limits,by the graphic method,the logistic method,the Spearman and Karber method and the trimmed Spearman-Karber method.The trimmed Spearman-Karber method was found the most ideal for ammonium salt toxicity test.The flaws in the trimmed Spearman-Karbr method are also discussed.

  15. Identification of toxic and other matters in wines by the method of Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.Sc. Vlora Gashi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Quality wines are produced in our country. The main objective of this paper was identification of toxic matter, heavy metals and minerals in wines as final produce, with a view of improving nutritional quality of our wines, produced in 2008-2009. Another important fact for this research was the determination of the presence of remnants from protective solutions containing toxic elements (Cu and Pb[1]. [1] Evgjini Papazisi Tonin Rjolli Dr. Abdul Sinani "Food Technology and Environ-mental Protection (Teknologji ushqimore dhe mbrojtje mjedisi1".

  16. Comparison of Parameter Estimation Methods for Transformer Weibull Lifetime Modelling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Dan; LI Chengrong; WANG Zhongdong

    2013-01-01

    Two-parameter Weibull distribution is the most widely adopted lifetime model for power transformers.An appropriate parameter estimation method is essential to guarantee the accuracy of a derived Weibull lifetime model.Six popular parameter estimation methods (i.e.the maximum likelihood estimation method,two median rank regression methods including the one regressing X on Y and the other one regressing Y on X,the Kaplan-Meier method,the method based on cumulative hazard plot,and the Li's method) are reviewed and compared in order to find the optimal one that suits transformer's Weibull lifetime modelling.The comparison took several different scenarios into consideration:10 000 sets of lifetime data,each of which had a sampling size of 40 ~ 1 000 and a censoring rate of 90%,were obtained by Monte-Carlo simulations for each scienario.Scale and shape parameters of Weibull distribution estimated by the six methods,as well as their mean value,median value and 90% confidence band are obtained.The cross comparison of these results reveals that,among the six methods,the maximum likelihood method is the best one,since it could provide the most accurate Weibull parameters,i.e.parameters having the smallest bias in both mean and median values,as well as the shortest length of the 90% confidence band.The maximum likelihood method is therefore recommended to be used over the other methods in transformer Weibull lifetime modelling.

  17. MATT: Monitoring, Analysis and Toxicity of Toxaphene: improvement of analytical methods

    OpenAIRE

    De Boer, J.; Klungsøyr, J; Nesje, G.; Meier, S; McHugh, B.; Nixon, E.; Rimkus, G.G.

    1999-01-01

    The European Research Project MATT (Investigation into the Monitoring, Analysis and Toxicity of Toxaphene) started in 1997 and had the objective to provide information on toxicological risks to the consumer of toxaphene residues in fish from European waters. This report includes information on the analytical block of the project, which comprised three studies.

  18. COMPENDIUM OF METHODS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF TOXIC ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN AMBIENT AIR--SECOND EDITION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Second Edition of the Compendium has been prepared to provide regional, state and local environmental regulatory agencies with step-by-step sampling and analysis procedures for the determination of selected toxic organic pollutants in ambient air. It is designed to assist t...

  19. In Vitro Toxicity Evaluation of Caffeine Imprinted Polymer (CAF-MIP for Decaffeination Method on Normal Chang Liver Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Hashim

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Over consuming of caffeine is one of the factors to a few health problems such as insomnia, hypertension and cardiovascular disease. This preliminary study was conducted to evaluate the Caffeine-Imprinted Polymer (CAF-MIP toxicity that was synthesized for a new alternative method for decaffeination. It is crucial to evaluate the toxicity of CAF-MIP as this product is potential to be used as complimentary with any drinks containing caffeine. In this study, the CAF-MIP toxicity potential was confirmed on Normal Chang Liver cell (NCLC based on its IC50 value and acridine orange and propidium iodide (AO/PI staining for mode of cell death observation. Proliferation assay was also conducted after 24, 48 and 72 hours at 30 µg/ml on NCLC and it showed that CAF-MIP promote NCLC growth as shown by at various concentration of CAF-MIP increase the percentage of NCLC viability. Observation under light microscopes on NCLC incubated wit CAF-MIP and NIP showed the normal, viable cell morphology, cuboidal and monolayer cell morphology and this can be seen with green fluorescence when view under fluorescence microscope. In conclusion, from this study, it is proved that the CAF-MIP does not initiate toxicity effects on human liver cells, meanwhile induction of cell proliferation was observed.

  20. Investigation of ZnO Thin Film Synthesized by Spray Pyrolysis Method as a Toxic Gases Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khojier, K.

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, environmental pollution, particularly toxic gases and vapors, have greatly increased; hence, their detection has become increasingly important. This paper investigates ZnO thin films fabricated by the spray pyrolysis method to fabricate a toxic gases sensor. A ZnO thin film of 100 nm thickness was deposited on a glass substrate at 100°C. The crystallographic structure was characterized by x-ray diffraction and a field-emission scanning electron microscope was employed to investigate the surface physical morphology and chemical composition. Sensitivity and selectivity of the sample were tested with respect to different toxic gases and vapors including carbon monoxide, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, chlorine, nitrogen dioxide, benzene, formaldehyde and toluene in the temperature range of 100-300°C. The results showed that the ZnO thin film is more selective to NO2 gas than the other toxic gases and vapors in the studied temperature range. The ZnO thin film-based NO2 gas sensor also showed a good reproducibility, stability, and detection limit of 10 ppm at the operating temperature of 200°C.

  1. Toxicity of six plant extracts and two pyridone alkaloids from Ricinus communis against the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachira, Sabina Wangui; Omar, Sabar; Jacob, Julia Wanjiru; Wahome, Martin; Alborn, Hans T; Spring, David R; Masiga, Daniel K; Torto, Baldwyn

    2014-07-04

    The African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s., is known to feed selectively on certain plants for sugar sources. However, the adaptive significance of this behaviour especially on how the extracts of such plants impact on the fitness of this vector has not been explored. This study determined the toxicity and larvicidal activity on this vector of extracts from six selected plants found in Kenya and two compounds identified from Ricinus communis: 3-carbonitrile-4-methoxy-N-methyl-2-pyridone (ricinine), and its carboxylic acid derivative 3-carboxy-4-methoxy-N-methyl-2-pyridone, the latter compound being reported for the first time from this plant. Feeding assays tested for toxic effects of extracts from the plants Artemisia afra Jacq. ex Willd, Bidens pilosa L., Parthenium hysterophorus L., Ricinus coummunis L., Senna didymobotrya Fresen. and Tithonia diversifolia Hemsl. on adult females and larvicidal activity was tested against third-instar larvae of Anopheles gambiae s.s. Mortality of larvae and adult females was monitored for three and eight days, respectively; Probit analysis was used to calculate LC50. Survival was analysed with Kaplan-Meier Model. LC-MS was used to identify the pure compounds. Of the six plants screened, extracts from T. diversifolia and R. communis were the most toxic against adult female mosquitoes after 7 days of feeding, with LC50 of 1.52 and 2.56 mg/mL respectively. Larvicidal activity of all the extracts increased with the exposure time with the highest mortality recorded for the extract from R. communis after 72 h of exposure (LC50 0.18 mg/mL). Mosquitoes fed on solutions of the pure compounds, 3-carboxy-4-methoxy-N-methyl-2-pyridone and ricinine survived almost as long as those fed on the R. communis extract with mean survival of 4.93 ± 0.07, 4.85 ± 0.07 and 4.50 ± 0.05 days respectively. Overall, these findings demonstrate that extracts from the six plant species exhibit varying bioactivity against the larvae

  2. Speciation Methods Used to Assess Potential Health Effects of Toxic Metals in Environmental Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Ruth E.; Morman, Suzette A.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.

    2008-01-01

    Assessing potential exposures to toxic metals or metalloids such as arsenic and chromium in environmental materials is important in protecting public health. The chemical form of an element in, or released from, a material is also important, since some forms, such as Cr(VI), are more toxic than others, for example, Cr(III). We have used a variety of procedures to assess potential exposures to hexavalent chromium in ash and burned soils from October 2007 southern California wildfires. Synthetic lung-fluid and de-ionized water extractions simulate release in the lungs and potential environmental releases due to rainfall. Extracts were analyzed for specific chromium and arsenic species using HPLC-ICP-MS methodology. Results indicate that the highly oxidizing environment in wildfires promotes some chromium conversion to Cr(VI), and that the caustic alkalinity of ash enhances Cr(VI) release and stability in lung fluids and rainfall.

  3. In-vitro methods for testing dermal absorption and penetration of toxic gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, Sharyn; Pisaniello, Dino; Edwards, John W; Bromwich, David; Reed, Sue; Logan, Michael; Baxter, Christina

    2014-01-01

    This technical note provides details of an experimental technique for in-vitro skin studies with atmospheric chemical challenge. There appear to be major evidence gaps in relation to dermal exposure of gases. We describe a modification of standard OECD protocols for an atmospheric delivery system which can be used to understand interaction of toxic gases and the skin. The system can be used to examine the mechanisms by which skin uptake occurs. Auxiliary components which allow for parameter variation such as temperature and relative humidity are also described. Methodology presented in this technical note uses examples of gas challenges (ammonia, chlorine) to illustrate its application to gases of differing physicochemical properties. This adapted protocol can be applied in the context of HAZMAT scenarios involving atmospheric toxic chemical release and dermal absorption potential under variable exposure conditions.

  4. Public Health Surveillance of Toxic Cyanobacteria in Freshwater Systems Using Remote Detection Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Mackie, Trina Nicole

    2010-01-01

    Cyanotoxins, the group of toxic chemicals produced by the blue-green algae or cyanobacteria that can proliferate in fresh and salt-water, cause a range of harmful health effects including skin rashes, flu-like symptoms, nausea, diarrhea, tingling and nerve damage, liver damage, tumors, and death ([1, 2]). Although cyanobacteria are one of the oldest organisms on the planet, anthropogenic development (e.g. dams, water diversions, nutrient rich runoff from intensive agriculture, decreased impe...

  5. Methods used for testing toxicity of industrial chemicals and the need of their international unification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyskocil, A; Tusl, M

    1989-01-01

    The work presented here provides a demonstration of approaches in testing chemical substances in the world, comparison of various guidelines, shows differences in them with the aim to unify them as much as possible and thus to achieve their international comparability. First chapter includes a comparison of American and European approaches to Good Laboratory Practice (GLP). Some parts of American GLP seem to be specific for the USA only and thus they are not suitable for application on the international level where countries having different systems of government and various levels of their economy would have to observe them. GLP published in OECD and ECETOC guidelines seem to be most beneficial for needs of socialist countries. OECD, EEC, EPA/FIFRA, EPA/TSCA, Japan/MAFF and UK/HSC guidelines are compared in subsequent chapters and recommendations given by ECETOC and the authors of this work for unification of the guidelines are presented as well. Some parts of OECD guidelines are specified in detail there especially those which are most suitable for CMEA countries. Differences or supplements contained in CMEA recommendations are presented in the end of each chapter. Acute, subchronic and chronic toxicity tests were compared as well as carcinogenicity, combined carcinogenicity/chronic toxicity studies and reproductive toxicity tests.

  6. Side effects unrelated to disease activity and acceptability of highly effective contraceptive methods in women with systemic lupus erythematosus: a randomized, clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravioto, María-del-Carmen; Jiménez-Santana, Luisa; Mayorga, Julio; Seuc, Armando H

    2014-08-01

    To assess the side effects unrelated to disease activity and the acceptability of combined oral contraceptives (COCs), progestin-only pills (POPs) and copper-releasing intrauterine devices (IUDs) in women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). A randomized clinical trial including 162 women with SLE, assigned to COC (n=54), POP (n=54) or IUD (n=54). Follow-up visits were conducted after 1, 2, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of treatment to monitor the presence of symptoms, changes in body weight and blood pressure as well as the development of health problems other than those relating to lupus. Reasons for discontinuation and satisfaction with the use of the assigned method were recorded at the end of treatment. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics, repeated measure analyses and Kaplan-Meier curves. Significantly different discontinuation rates due to any reason [35%, 55%, 29% (plupus, when counseling and specialized health attention are provided; however, the acceptability of POP appears to be inferior. Side effects unrelated to lupus disease activity are not frequent reasons to discontinue the contraceptive methods. This study delves into an area that has not been explored among patients with lupus. Our findings on the associated side effects and reasons for discontinuing COCs, POPs or copper-bearing IUDs may be useful in improving contraceptive counseling for women with lupus. Furthermore, they also heighten our knowledge on the reasons that may preclude the widespread use of effective contraceptives among lupus patients. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Comparative toxicity of chlorpyrifos and its oxon derivatives to soil microbial activity by combined methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Yao, Jun; Chen, Huilun; Chen, Ke; Trebse, Polonca; Zaray, Gyula

    2010-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of the pesticide Chlorpyrifos (CPF) and its oxon derivative (CPO) on soil microbial activity were evaluated through the measurement of metabolic parameters and the microbial urease enzyme. The thermodynamic parameters related to microbial activity were measured and recorded as power-time curves. Microbial growth rate constant k, total heat evolution Q(T), metabolic enthalpy DeltaH(met), mass specific heat rate J(Q/S), microbial biomass C and inhibitory ratio I were calculated. They showed the linear relationship with doses of CPF and CPO. Thereinto, the linear correlations, k versus biomass C and DeltaH(met) versus biomass C, elucidated that k and DeltaH(met) were growth yield dependent. In this work, 20% inhibitory ratio IC(20) was obtained with 9.8 microg g(-1) for CPF and 0.37 microg g(-1) CPO, meaning that the acute toxicity of CPO was 26 times that of CPF, since the CPO had more potent toxicity to living organism due to its active functional group. Comparing the change tendency of DeltaH(met) and other parameter, the values almost kept constant when exposure to CPF (<5.0 microg g(-1)). It illustrates that individual reacted to stress resulted from environment change by shifting resources from other biological activities (such as reproduction or growth) toward survival to some extent. Urease activity responses in relation to the CPF and CPO exposure were observed and consistent with above thermodynamic parameters.

  8. Source contributions of PAHs and toxicity in reed wetland soils of Liaohe estuary using a CMB-TEQ method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoliang; Lang, Yinhai; Yang, Wei; Peng, Peng; Wang, Xiaomei

    2014-08-15

    16 US EPA priority PAHs were analyzed in surface soils collected from reed wetland of Liaohe estuary. Total concentrations of the sixteen PAHs ranged from 235 ng g(-1) to 374 ng g(-1), while the total concentrations of seven carcinogenic PAHs (cPAHs) varied from 82.6 ng g(-1) to 109 ng g(-1). Toxicity of PAHs was assessed using toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ). The BaP and DBahA were the major contributors to TEQBaP, although IND showed the highest concentration level. Quantitative source apportionment of PAHs and toxicity (i.e. TEQBaP) were performed, using the CMB-TEQ (chemical mass balance model and TEQ) method. Results showed that, the vehicular sources (gasoline and diesel engine emissions) yielded a higher contribution to TEQBaP (95.7%) than that to PAHs (57.1%), while petrogenic source and biomass burning, two important contributors for total PAHs (21.6% and 21.3%, respectively), contributed a little to TEQBaP (3.6% and 0.7%, respectively).

  9. The Response, Outcome and Toxicity of Aggressive Palliative Thoracic Radiotherapy for Metastatic Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients with Controlled Extrathoracic Diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Chiang

    Full Text Available For metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients with controlled extrathoracic disease after systemic treatment, stable or progressive primary lung lesions may cause respiratory symptoms and increase comorbidities. In the present study, we sought to investigate whether aggressive palliative thoracic radiotherapy (RT can enhance local control and improve the survival for this subgroup of patients.Between March 2006 and December 2014, 56 patients with metastatic NSCLC who had responsive or stable extrathoracic diseases after chemotherapy and/or molecular targets, and received thoracic RT for stable and progressive primary lung lesions were included. RT with a median dose of 55 Gy (range, 40-62 Gy was administered in 1.8-2.5 Gy fractions to primary lung tumor and regional mediastinal lymph nodes using modern RT technique. Overall survival (OS from diagnosis, and locoregional progression-free survival (LRPFS, and survival calculated from radiotherapy (OS-RT were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method.There were 37 men and 19 women with a median age of 60 years at diagnosis. The median interval from the diagnosis of metastatic disease to thoracic RT was 8 months. Following thoracic RT, 26 patients (46% achieved complete or partial response (overall response rate, ORR. Patients with squamous cell carcinoma or poorly-differentiated carcinoma had a higher ORR than those with adenocarcinoma (63% vs. 34%, P = 0.034. EGFR mutations was closely associated with a better ORR (45% vs. 29%, P = 0.284. At a median follow-up time of 44 months, the median OS, LRPFS after RT, and OS-RT were 50 months, 15 months, and 18 months.Radical palliative throractic RT is safe and might be beneficial for primary lung lesions of metastatic NSCLC patients with controlled extrathoracic diseases.

  10. A Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Method for the Detection and Quantitation of Monofluoroacetate in Plants Toxic to Livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Barbosa, Joyce M; Lee, Stephen T; Cook, Daniel; Gardner, Dale R; Viana, Luis Henrique; Ré, Nilva

    2017-02-22

    Monofluoroacetate (MFA) is a potent toxin that occurs in over 50 plant species in Africa, Australia, and South America and is responsible for significant livestock deaths in these regions. A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for the analysis of MFA in plants based on the derivatization of MFA with n-propanol in the presence of sulfuric acid to form propyl fluoroacetate was developed. This method compared favorably to a currently employed high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) method for the analysis of MFA in plants. The GC-MS method was applied to the analysis of MFA in herbarium specimens of Fridericia elegans, Niedenzuella stannea, N. multiglandulosa, N. acutifolia, and Aenigmatanthera lasiandra. This is the first report of MFA being detected in F. elegans, N. multiglandulosa, N. acutifolia, and A. lasiandra, some of which have been reported to cause sudden death or that are toxic to livestock.

  11. Methods of acute biological assays in guinea-pigs for the study of toxicity and innocuity of drugs and chemicals

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In this study, 602 samples were tested by the following assays performed at the animal facilities (Cedeme) of the Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP): 385 for dermal irritability, 90 for ocular irritability (discontinued in 1995), 31 for systemic toxicity by injection, 26 for oral acute toxicity, 15 for toxicity by intracutaneous injection, 15 for skin sensitization, 15 for toxicity of serum and vaccines for human use, 14 for toxicity by intramuscular implantation, 7 for pyrogens, 2 for...

  12. Improved building up a model of toxicity towards Pimephales promelas by the Monte Carlo method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toropova, Alla P; Toropov, Andrey A; Raskova, Maria; Raska, Ivan

    2016-12-01

    By optimization of so-called correlation weights of attributes of simplified molecular input-line entry system (SMILES) quantitative structure - activity relationships (QSAR) for toxicity towards Pimephales promelas are established. A new SMILES attribute has been utilized in this work. This attribute is a molecular descriptor, which reflects (i) presence of different kinds of bonds (double, triple, and stereo chemical bonds); (ii) presence of nitrogen, oxygen, sulphur, and phosphorus atoms; and (iii) presence of fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine atoms. The statistical characteristics of the best model are the following: n=226, r(2)=0.7630, RMSE=0.654 (training set); n=114, r(2)=0.7024, RMSE=0.766 (calibration set); n=226, r(2)=0.6292, RMSE=0.870 (validation set). A new criterion to select a preferable split into the training and validation sets are suggested and discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of the method of fluoride administration on toxicity and fluoride concentrations in Japanese quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, W.J.; Schuler, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    Young Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) were administered NaF for 16 d either in their diet or by esophageal intubation. Based on the total fluoride ion (Emg F-) intake over the l6-d experimental period, fluoride administered by intubation was at least six times more toxic than that fed in the diet. Dietary concentrations of 1,000 ppm F- (Emg F- for 16 d = approx. 144) produced no mortality, whereas intubated doses produced 73% or greater mortality in all groups administered 54 mg F- /kg/d or more (Emg F- for 16 d _ approx. 23 mg). GraphIc companson of the regression of log F- ppm in femurs/mg F- intake showed that fluoride levels in the femurs of quail administered fluoride by intubation were higher than in those administered fluoride in the diet.

  14. Deciphering the toxicity of bisphenol a to Candida rugosa lipase through spectrophotometric methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Zhao, Lining; Liu, Rutao

    2016-10-01

    Bisphenol A is widely used in the manufacture of food packaging and beverage containers and can invade our food and cause contamination. Candida rugose lipase has been a versatile enzyme for biocatalysis and biotransformations to produce useful materials for food, pharmaceutical and flavor. The interactions between bisphenol A and Candida rugosa lipase in vitro were studied by UV-vis, steady-state fluorescence, circular dichroism, synchronous fluorescence, light scattering spectra, molecular docking and enzyme activity assay to better understand the toxicity and toxic mechanisms of bisphenol A. The intrinsic fluorescence of the tryptophan amino acid residue and the secondary structure of the globular protein candida rugose lipase were made use of to thoroughly investigate the structural changes caused by bisphenol A. The results of the fluorescence indicated that bisphenol A interacted with candida rugose lipase and made tryptophan be exposed to a hydrophobic environment. Multi-spectroscopic measurements showed that the addition of bisphenol A increased the intrinsic fluorescence of Candida rugosa lipase, loosened its skeleton structure and changed its secondary structure. Also, the increased activity of Candida rugosa lipase revealed that the position or the structure of the catalytic triad of Candida rugosa lipase may be changed. The molecular docking results showed that bisphenol A bound with the residue Serine 209 which could be another reason for the increased activity of Candida rugosa lipase. Moreover, as can be seen from the results of resonance light scattering and dynamic light scattering, the volume of the Candida rugosa lipase was decreased and the lid may be stripped. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparative evaluation of Jatropha curcas L. seed meals obtained by different methods of defatting on toxic, antinutritional and nutritive factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jianhui; Zhang, Hui

    2014-06-01

    Different methods of defatting have a great impact on toxic, antinutritional and nutritive factors in the oilseed meals. In order to find the most suitable methods of defatting for Jatropha curcas seed meals, the Jatropha curcas L. seed meals, defatted by Soxhlet extraction and screw-press were characterized for their toxic, anti-nutritional and nutrient factors in this study. The toxins (phorbolesters, 3.1 and 2.9 mg/g) and some anti-nutritional factors (saponins, 2.9 and 2.6%; phytates, 11.1 and 11.6%) in meals obtained by the two defatting methods were present at high concentrations. However, the trypsin inhibitors activity (TIA) and lectin (2.7 mg/g and 1.5 mg/ml) in the screw-pressed meal were significantly lower, due to the high temperature (120 °C) used in this defatting process. From nutritional side, the values of crude protein (CP), buffer-soluble nitrogen, non-protein nitrogen, pepsin insoluble nitrogen, in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), as well as essential amino acid index (EAAI), biological value (BV), nutritional index (NI) and protein-digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) of the meal obtained by Soxhlet extraction were better than the screw-pressed meal. However, taking practical application into account, from detoxification side, screw-pressed meal is better for detoxification.

  16. Refining methods for conducting long-term sediment and water toxicity tests with Chironomus dilutus: Formation of a midge chronic testing work group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standard methods have been established by USEPA, ASTM International, Environment Canada and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development for conducting sediment toxicity tests with various species of midges including Chironomus dilutus. Short-term 10-day exposures are ty...

  17. Trends in study design and the statistical methods employed in a leading general medicine journal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosho, M; Sato, Y; Nagashima, K; Takahashi, S

    2017-07-27

    Study design and statistical methods have become core components of medical research, and the methodology has become more multifaceted and complicated over time. The study of the comprehensive details and current trends of study design and statistical methods is required to support the future implementation of well-planned clinical studies providing information about evidence-based medicine. Our purpose was to illustrate study design and statistical methods employed in recent medical literature. This was an extension study of Sato et al. (N Engl J Med 2017; 376: 1086-1087), which reviewed 238 articles published in 2015 in the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) and briefly summarized the statistical methods employed in NEJM. Using the same database, we performed a new investigation of the detailed trends in study design and individual statistical methods that were not reported in the Sato study. Due to the CONSORT statement, prespecification and justification of sample size are obligatory in planning intervention studies. Although standard survival methods (eg Kaplan-Meier estimator and Cox regression model) were most frequently applied, the Gray test and Fine-Gray proportional hazard model for considering competing risks were sometimes used for a more valid statistical inference. With respect to handling missing data, model-based methods, which are valid for missing-at-random data, were more frequently used than single imputation methods. These methods are not recommended as a primary analysis, but they have been applied in many clinical trials. Group sequential design with interim analyses was one of the standard designs, and novel design, such as adaptive dose selection and sample size re-estimation, was sometimes employed in NEJM. Model-based approaches for handling missing data should replace single imputation methods for primary analysis in the light of the information found in some publications. Use of adaptive design with interim analyses is increasing

  18. [Statistical and epidemiological methods used in biomedical research: implications for initial medical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picat, M-Q; Savès, M; Asselineau, J; Dumoulin, M; Coureau, G; Salmi, L-R; Perez, P; Chêne, G

    2013-06-01

    The main source of key medical information consists in original articles published in peer-reviewed biomedical journals. Reported studies use increasingly sophisticated statistical and epidemiological approaches that first require a solid understanding of core methods. However, such understanding is not widely shared among physicians. Our aim was to assess whether the basic statistical and epidemiological methods used in original articles published in general biomedical journals are taught during the first years of the medical curriculum in France. We selected original articles published in The New England Journal of Medicine, The Lancet, and The Journal of the American Medical Association, over a period of six months in 2007 and in 2008. A standardized statistical content checklist was used to extract the necessary information in the "Abstract", "Methods", "Results", footnotes of tables, and legends of figures. The methods used in the selected articles were compared to the national program and the public health program of biostatistics and epidemiology taught during the first six years of medical school. The 237 analyzed original articles all used at least one statistical or epidemiological method. Descriptive statistics, confidence interval and Chi(2) or Fisher tests, methods used in more than 50% of articles, were repeatedly taught throughout the medicine curriculum. Measures of association, sample size, fit and Kaplan-Meier method, used in 40 to 50% of articles, were specifically taught during training sessions on critical reading methods. Cox model (41% of articles) and logistic regression (24% of articles) were never taught. The most widely used illustrations, contingency tables (92%) and flowcharts (48%), were not included in the national program. More teaching of the core methods underlying the understanding of sophisticated methods and illustrations should be included in the early medical curriculum so that physicians can read the scientific literature

  19. Effect of olive mill wastewaters on the oxygen consumption by activated sludge microorganisms: an acute toxicity test method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paixão, S M; Anselmo, A M

    2002-01-01

    The test for inhibition of oxygen consumption by activated sludge (ISO 8192-1986 (E)) was evaluated as a tool for assessing, the acute toxicity of olive mill wastewaters (OMW). According to the ISO test, information generated by this method may be helpful in estimating the effect of a test material on bacterial communities in the aquatic environment, especially in aerobic biological treatment systems. However, the lack of standardized bioassay methodology for effluents imposed that the test conditions were modified and adapted. The experiments were conducted in the presence or absence of an easily biodegradable carbon source (glucose) with different contact times (20 min and 24 h). The results obtained showed a remarkable stimulatory effect of this effluent to the activated sludge microorganisms. In fact, the oxygen uptake rate values increase with increasing effluent concentrations and contact times up to 0.98 microl O(2) h(-1) mg(-1) dry weight for a 100% OMW sample, 24 h contact time, with blanks exhibiting an oxygen uptake rate of ca. 1/10 of this value (0.07-0.10). It seems that the application of the ISO test as an acute toxicity test for effluents should be reconsidered, with convenient adaptation for its utilization as a method of estimating the effect on bacterial communities present in aerobic biological treatment systems.

  20. Influence of methods of physical rehabilitation on quality of life in patients with toxic hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmatova E.A.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available He purpose was to improve the state of the quality of life in patients with chronic toxic hepatitis in-patient treatment phase by the use of comprehensive program of physical rehabilitation. We examined 84 patients, including 55 - and 29 men - women. Quality of life was measured using a questionnaire SF - 36. The data obtained were compared with those of healthy people - donors. Found that patients significantly reduced quality of life condition. A program of physical rehabilitation with the use of complex tools: physiotherapy, massage, segmental massage, treatment status, respiration system Yoga. On 10 - 15 day in-patient revealed a positive trend against other major symptoms of the disease. At 6 - 7 day disappeared signs asthenia, improved mood, appetite, depression and aggression disappeared, abdominal pain, heaviness in the right upper quadrant. It has also the normalization of the excretory function of the gastrointestinal - intestinal tract. Patients pay attention to the improvement of the symptoms: dyspnea, normalize heart rate, decrease pain and numbness in the legs.

  1. Co-Composting As A Method To Decrease Toxicity Of Chicken Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polina Kuryntseva,

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Chicken manure is one of the bulk organic wastes generated in the Republic of Tatars tan.Without its specific processing, chicken manure has a serious negative impact on the environment. Compost based on chicken manure can be a valuable fertilizer because it contains a sufficient amount of nitrogen which is insufficient in many organic wastes. However, it is advisable to use a co-substrate for effective composting of chicken manure. In this study, the chicken manure was co-composted with organic fraction of municipal solid waste, sewage sludge (SS, food waste, DE moistenedsewage sludge, grease trap waste and expired canned foods.It has been shown that the maximal total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKNincrease and decrease in total organic carbon (TOCwas observed for mixtures with SS (at 57 and 100%, respectively and FW (54 and 118%, respectively. High microbial respiratory activity early in the process (830 mgСО2-Сkg-1 ·24h-1 and its gradual decline (to 830 mgСО2kg-1 ·24h-1 have been also observed for the same mixture with SS. Reduction of microbial biomass was similar to the reduction of TOC contents;on the 90 day of composting it has reached 1988-1301 mgCmickg-1 . Composting of the waste mixtures led to a reduction in their toxicity 1.3-17 times with respect to Parameciumcaudatum and from 1.4 to 10 times relative to Daphniamagna.Germination index of compost mixtures for 90 days of the process has increased from 12-38% to 70-106%.

  2. Different Spectrophotometric and TLC-Densitometric Methods for Determination of Mesalazine in Presence of Its Two Toxic Impurities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morcoss, Martha Moheb; Abdelwahab, Nada Sayed; Ali, Nouruddin Wagieh; Elsaady, Mohammed Taha

    2016-01-01

    Two selective spectrophotometric and TLC-densitometric methods were developed for determination of mesalazine (ME) and its two toxic impurities, 4-amino phenol (4AP) and salicylic acid (SA) without preliminary separation. The proposed methods are: ratio difference in the subtracted spectra (RDSS) {Method 1}, area under the curve (AUC) {Method 2} and TLC-densitometric {Method 3}. In method {1} combination of measuring the amplitude of the constant at 350 nm (using standard spectrum of 10 µg/mL ME as a divisor) and ratio difference in the subtracted ratio spectrum for determination of 4AP and SA using the ratio difference at 221.4 and 242.2 nm, 230 and 241.2 nm, respectively. In method {2} ME was determined by direct measuring the AUC in the wavelength range of 350-370 nm while the impurities could be determined by dividing their spectra by standard spectrum of 10 µg/mL ME then interference from ME was eliminated by subtracting the amplitude of the constant at 350 nm then multiplying by the divisor. AUC in the range of 220-230 and 235-245 nm was used for measuring concentrations of 4AP and SA. On the other hand, the third method {3} is TLC-densitometric method at which chromatographic separation was achieved using ethyl acetate-methanol-triethylamine (8.5 : 2 : 0.7, v/v/v) as a developing system with UV scanning at 230 nm. The validation of the proposed methods was performed according to International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. No significant difference was found when these methods were compared to the reported one.

  3. Meta-analysis method for discovering reliable biomarkers by integrating statistical and biological approaches: An application to liver toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyeyoung; Kim, Hyosil; Na, Dokyun; Kim, So Youn; Jo, Deokyeon; Lee, Doheon

    2016-03-04

    Biomarkers that are identified from a single study often appear to be biologically irrelevant or false positives. Meta-analysis techniques allow integrating data from multiple studies that are related but independent in order to identify biomarkers across multiple conditions. However, existing biomarker meta-analysis methods tend to be sensitive to the dataset being analyzed. Here, we propose a meta-analysis method, iMeta, which integrates t-statistic and fold change ratio for improved robustness. For evaluation of predictive performance of the biomarkers identified by iMeta, we compare our method with other meta-analysis methods. As a result, iMeta outperforms the other methods in terms of sensitivity and specificity, and especially shows robustness to study variance increase; it consistently shows higher classification accuracy on diverse datasets, while the performance of the others is highly affected by the dataset being analyzed. Application of iMeta to 59 drug-induced liver injury studies identified three key biomarker genes: Zwint, Abcc3, and Ppp1r3b. Experimental evaluation using RT-PCR and qRT-PCR shows that their expressional changes in response to drug toxicity are concordant with the result of our method. iMeta is available at http://imeta.kaist.ac.kr/index.html.

  4. Microalgae based biorefinery: evaluation of oil extraction methods in terms of efficiency, costs, toxicity and energy in lab-scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Darío González-Delgado

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Several alternatives of microalgal metabolites extraction and transformation are being studied for achieving the total utilization of this energy crop of great interest worldwide. Microalgae oil extraction is a key stage in microalgal biodiesel production chains and their efficiency affects significantly the global process efficiency. In this study, a comparison of five oil extraction methods in lab-scale was made taking as additional parameters, besides extraction efficiency, the costs of method performing, energy requirements, and toxicity of solvents used, in order to elucidate the convenience of their incorporation to a microalgae-based topology of biorefinery. Methods analyzed were Solvent extraction assisted with high speed homogenization (SHE, Continuous reflux solvent extraction (CSE, Hexane based extraction (HBE, Cyclohexane based extraction (CBE and Ethanol-hexane extraction (EHE, for this evaluation were used the microalgae strains Nannochloropsis sp., Guinardia sp., Closterium sp., Amphiprora sp. and Navicula sp., obtained from a Colombian microalgae bioprospecting. In addition, morphological response of strains to oil extraction methods was also evaluated by optic microscopy. Results shows that although there is not a unique oil extraction method which excels in all parameters evaluated, CSE, SHE and HBE appears as promising alternatives, while HBE method is shown as the more convenient for using in lab-scale and potentially scalable for implementation in a microalgae based biorefinery

  5. Methods of acute biological assays in guinea-pigs for the study of toxicity and innocuity of drugs and chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui Mi Ko

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 602 samples were tested by the following assays performed at the animal facilities (Cedeme of the Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP: 385 for dermal irritability, 90 for ocular irritability (discontinued in 1995, 31 for systemic toxicity by injection, 26 for oral acute toxicity, 15 for toxicity by intracutaneous injection, 15 for skin sensitization, 15 for toxicity of serum and vaccines for human use, 14 for toxicity by intramuscular implantation, 7 for pyrogens, 2 for acute dermal toxicity, and 2 for irritation of mucous membrane. The following agents were tested: cosmetics and related substances (42.0%, chemicals used in industry (32.9%, plastics, rubber, and other polymers (15.9%, agrotoxics (4.0%, medicines (2.7%, and vaccines (2.5%. In the present description, emphasis was given to tests of dermal irritability and sensitization. This work was conducted entirely in animal facilities, according to our general belief that animal facilities at universities, while considering ethic principles and sanitary, genetic, nutritional, and pathophysiological controls, also require laboratories specialized in areas such as transgenics, cryopreservation, ambiental physiology, functional genomics, alternative models, and mainly activities and research on methods in toxicology, as focused in this study.Descrevemos os testes usados em ensaios biológicos de curta duração para estudo de toxicidade e inocuidade de cosméticos, fármacos e outras substâncias químicas, feitos no Biotério Central/Cedeme da Unifesp, de 1986 a 2000. Testamos 602 amostras nos seguintes ensaios: 385 de irritação cutânea, 90 de irritação ocular (até 1995, 31 de toxicidade sistêmica por injeção, 26 de toxicidade oral aguda, 15 de toxicidade por aplicação intracutânea, 15 de sensibilização da pele, 15 de toxicidade de soros e vacinas de uso humano, 14 de toxicidade por implantação intramuscular, 7 de pirogênio, 2 de toxicidade dérmica aguda e

  6. A Tutorial for Analysing the Cost-effectiveness of Alternative Methods for Assessing Chemical Toxicology: The Case of Acute Oral Toxicity Prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norlen, H.; Worth, A.P.; Gabbert, S.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Compared with traditional animal methods for toxicity testing, in vitro and in silico methods are widely considered to permit a more cost-effective assessment of chemicals. However, how to assess the cost-effectiveness of alternative methods has remained unclear. This paper offers a user-oriented tu

  7. Durability of initial antiretroviral therapy in a resource-constrained setting and the potential need for zidovudine weight-based dosing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willig, James H; Echevarria, Juan; Westfall, Andrew O; Iglesias, David; Henostroza, German; Seas, Carlos; Mugavero, Michael J; Allison, Jeroan; Paz, Jorge; Hernandez, Fiorella; Tomatis, Cristina; Saag, Michael S; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2010-02-01

    Whereas access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-infected individuals in the developing world is increasing, data on factors impacting initial regimen durability are lacking. Retrospective review patients starting initial ART at Instituto de Medicine Tropical (Lima, Peru) April 1, 2004 to December 30, 2007. Survival methods (Kaplan-Meier, Cox proportional hazard) assessed factors associated with regimen durability including an interaction term between nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor backbone and time. Decreased initial regimen durability was observed with weight 70 kg. An increased risk of early toxicity-related discontinuation of AZT-containing regimens was observed for baseline weight 120 days) lowered hazards for regimen discontinuation. Weight <60 kg was associated with an increased risk of toxicity-related AZT discontinuation. As ART use expands globally, further study into maximally durable, least toxic regimens, and the role of weight-based AZT dosing is imperative.

  8. Prediction of acute mammalian toxicity using QSAR methods: a case study of sulfur mustard and its breakdown products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Patricia; Begluitti, Gino; Tincher, Terry; Wheeler, John; Mumtaz, Moiz

    2012-07-27

    Predicting toxicity quantitatively, using Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSAR), has matured over recent years to the point that the predictions can be used to help identify missing comparison values in a substance's database. In this manuscript we investigate using the lethal dose that kills fifty percent of a test population (LD₅₀) for determining relative toxicity of a number of substances. In general, the smaller the LD₅₀ value, the more toxic the chemical, and the larger the LD₅₀ value, the lower the toxicity. When systemic toxicity and other specific toxicity data are unavailable for the chemical(s) of interest, during emergency responses, LD₅₀ values may be employed to determine the relative toxicity of a series of chemicals. In the present study, a group of chemical warfare agents and their breakdown products have been evaluated using four available rat oral QSAR LD₅₀ models. The QSAR analysis shows that the breakdown products of Sulfur Mustard (HD) are predicted to be less toxic than the parent compound as well as other known breakdown products that have known toxicities. The QSAR estimated break down products LD₅₀ values ranged from 299 mg/kg to 5,764 mg/kg. This evaluation allows for the ranking and toxicity estimation of compounds for which little toxicity information existed; thus leading to better risk decision making in the field.

  9. A method to refine crude cottonseed oil using non-toxic polyamine-based cationic polymers☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hailin Lin; Tom C Wedegaertner; Xiaoyun Mao; Xudong Jing; Aicardo Roa-Espinosa

    2015-01-01

    The traditional method to refine crude cottonseed oil is time-consuming and expensive. This study evaluates the effectiveness of coagulation–flocculation–sedimentation process using quaternary polyamine-based polymers in refining crude cottonseed oil. Flocculated by four commercial polyamine-based cationic polymers (SL2700, SL3000, SL4500 and SL5000) with varied molecular weight (MW) and charge density (CD) and followed by co-agulation with sodium hydroxide, crude cottonseed oil can be effectively purified. Free fatty acids, gossypol, pig-ments and trace elements are all effectively and sufficiently removed by the four polymers in a MW-and CD-dependent manner. Our results suggest that the use of polyamine-based cationic polymers may offer an effective and feasible alternative to the traditional method for crude cottonseed oil refining.

  10. A comparison of methods used to calculate normal background concentrations of potentially toxic elements for urban soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothwell, Katherine A., E-mail: k.rothwell@ncl.ac.uk; Cooke, Martin P., E-mail: martin.cooke@ncl.ac.uk

    2015-11-01

    To meet the requirements of regulation and to provide realistic remedial targets there is a need for the background concentration of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in soils to be considered when assessing contaminated land. In England, normal background concentrations (NBCs) have been published for several priority contaminants for a number of spatial domains however updated regulatory guidance places the responsibility on Local Authorities to set NBCs for their jurisdiction. Due to the unique geochemical nature of urban areas, Local Authorities need to define NBC values specific to their area, which the national data is unable to provide. This study aims to calculate NBC levels for Gateshead, an urban Metropolitan Borough in the North East of England, using freely available data. The ‘median + 2MAD’, boxplot upper whisker and English NBC (according to the method adopted by the British Geological Survey) methods were compared for test PTEs lead, arsenic and cadmium. Due to the lack of systematically collected data for Gateshead in the national soil chemistry database, the use of site investigation (SI) data collected during the planning process was investigated. 12,087 SI soil chemistry data points were incorporated into a database and 27 comparison samples were taken from undisturbed locations across Gateshead. The SI data gave high resolution coverage of the area and Mann–Whitney tests confirmed statistical similarity for the undisturbed comparison samples and the SI data. SI data was successfully used to calculate NBCs for Gateshead and the median + 2MAD method was selected as most appropriate by the Local Authority according to the precautionary principle as it consistently provided the most conservative NBC values. The use of this data set provides a freely available, high resolution source of data that can be used for a range of environmental applications. - Highlights: • The use of site investigation data is proposed for land contamination studies

  11. The fish embryo toxicity test as an animal alternative method in hazard and risk assessment and scientific research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Embry, Michelle R., E-mail: membry@ilsi.org [ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute, 1156 15th Street, NW, Suite 200, Washington, DC 20005 (United States); Belanger, Scott E., E-mail: belanger.se@pg.com [Procter and Gamble, Central Product Safety, PO Box 538707, Miami Valley Innovation Center, Cincinnati, OH 45253-8707 (United States); Braunbeck, Thomas A., E-mail: braunbeck@zoo.uni-heidelberg.de [University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 230, Heidelberg D -69120 (Germany); Galay-Burgos, Malyka, E-mail: malyka.galay-burgos@ecetoc.org [European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC), 4 Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse B-1160, Brussels (Belgium); Halder, Marlies, E-mail: marlies.halder@jrc.ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, In-Vitro Methods Unit TP-580 Ispra 21027 (Italy); Hinton, David E., E-mail: dhinton@duke.edu [Duke University, Nicholas School of the Environment, PO Box 90328, Durham, NC 27708, Unites States (United States); Leonard, Marc A., E-mail: mleonard@rd.loreal.com [L' Oreal Recherche Avancee, Unite d' Ecotoxicologie, 1 av. E. Schueller, 93601 Aulnay sous bois (France); Lillicrap, Adam, E-mail: Adam.lillicrap@niva.no [AstraZeneca, Freshwater Quarry, Brixham TQ5 8BA (United Kingdom); Norberg-King, Teresa, E-mail: norberg-king.teresa@epa.gov [U.S. EPA, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Boulevard, Duluth, MN 55804-1636 (United States); Whale, Graham, E-mail: graham.whale@shell.com [Shell Global Solutions, Analytical Technology, P.O. Box 1, Chester CH1 3SH (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    Animal alternatives research has historically focused on human safety assessments and has only recently been extended to environmental testing. This is particularly for those assays that involve the use of fish. A number of alternatives are being pursued by the scientific community including the fish embryo toxicity (FET) test, a proposed replacement alternative to the acute fish test. Discussion of the FET methodology and its application in environmental assessments on a global level was needed. With this emerging issue in mind, the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) and the European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) held an International Workshop on the Application of the Fish Embryo Test as an Animal Alternative Method in Hazard and Risk Assessment and Scientific Research in March, 2008. The workshop included approximately 40 scientists and regulators representing government, industry, academia, and non-governmental organizations from North America, Europe, and Asia. The goal was to review the state of the science regarding the investigation of fish embryonic tests, pain and distress in fish, emerging approaches utilizing fish embryos, and the use of fish embryo toxicity test data in various types of environmental assessments (e.g., hazard, risk, effluent, and classification and labeling of chemicals). Some specific key outcomes included agreement that risk assessors need fish data for decision-making, that extending the FET to include eluethereombryos was desirable, that relevant endpoints are being used, and that additional endpoints could facilitate additional uses beyond acute toxicity testing. The FET was, however, not yet considered validated sensu OECD. An important action step will be to provide guidance on how all fish tests can be used to assess chemical hazard and to harmonize the diverse terminology used in test guidelines adopted over the past decades. Use of the FET in context of effluent assessments

  12. The fish embryo toxicity test as an animal alternative method in hazard and risk assessment and scientific research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embry, Michelle R; Belanger, Scott E; Braunbeck, Thomas A; Galay-Burgos, Malyka; Halder, Marlies; Hinton, David E; Léonard, Marc A; Lillicrap, Adam; Norberg-King, Teresa; Whale, Graham

    2010-04-15

    Animal alternatives research has historically focused on human safety assessments and has only recently been extended to environmental testing. This is particularly for those assays that involve the use of fish. A number of alternatives are being pursued by the scientific community including the fish embryo toxicity (FET) test, a proposed replacement alternative to the acute fish test. Discussion of the FET methodology and its application in environmental assessments on a global level was needed. With this emerging issue in mind, the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) and the European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) held an International Workshop on the Application of the Fish Embryo Test as an Animal Alternative Method in Hazard and Risk Assessment and Scientific Research in March, 2008. The workshop included approximately 40 scientists and regulators representing government, industry, academia, and non-governmental organizations from North America, Europe, and Asia. The goal was to review the state of the science regarding the investigation of fish embryonic tests, pain and distress in fish, emerging approaches utilizing fish embryos, and the use of fish embryo toxicity test data in various types of environmental assessments (e.g., hazard, risk, effluent, and classification and labeling of chemicals). Some specific key outcomes included agreement that risk assessors need fish data for decision-making, that extending the FET to include eluethereombryos was desirable, that relevant endpoints are being used, and that additional endpoints could facilitate additional uses beyond acute toxicity testing. The FET was, however, not yet considered validated sensu OECD. An important action step will be to provide guidance on how all fish tests can be used to assess chemical hazard and to harmonize the diverse terminology used in test guidelines adopted over the past decades. Use of the FET in context of effluent assessments

  13. Testing contamination risk assessment methods for toxic elements from mine waste sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdaal, A.; Jordan, G.; Szilassi, P.; Kiss, J.; Detzky, G.

    2012-04-01

    Major incidents involving mine waste facilities and poor environmental management practices have left a legacy of thousands of contaminated sites like in the historic mining areas in the Carpathian Basin. Associated environmental risks have triggered the development of new EU environmental legislation to prevent and minimize the effects of such incidents. The Mine Waste Directive requires the risk-based inventory of all mine waste sites in Europe by May 2012. In order to address the mining problems a standard risk-based Pre-selection protocol has been developed by the EU Commission. This paper discusses the heavy metal contamination in acid mine drainage (AMD) for risk assessment (RA) along the Source-Pathway-Receptor chain using decision support methods which are intended to aid national and regional organizations in the inventory and assessment of potentially contaminated mine waste sites. Several recognized methods such as the European Environmental Agency (EEA) standard PRAMS model for soil contamination, US EPA-based AIMSS and Irish HMS-IRC models for RA of abandoned sites are reviewed, compared and tested for the mining waste environment. In total 145 ore mine waste sites have been selected for scientific testing using the EU Pre-selection protocol as a case study from Hungary. The proportion of uncertain to certain responses for a site and for the total number of sites may give an insight of specific and overall uncertainty in the data we use. The Pre-selection questions are efficiently linked to a GIS system as database inquiries using digital spatial data to directly generate answers. Key parameters such as distance to the nearest surface and ground water bodies, to settlements and protected areas are calculated and statistically evaluated using STATGRAPHICS® in order to calibrate the RA models. According to our scientific research results, of the 145 sites 11 sites are the most risky having foundation slope >20o, 57 sites are within distance 66 (class VI

  14. Food technologies and developing countries: a processing method for making edible the highly toxic cassava roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Lambri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In addition to be a possible solution to the food crisis becoming a productive model to follow, the development of a process and/or a technique of food production in a developing country could create advantages from an industrial point of view due to the use of alternative raw materials, which have a potentially high competitiveness. In developing countries, agriculture is able to offer a variety of products making up the daily diet and provide products with potential that could make up for many nutritional deficiencies to which resident populations are subject. Food technology applications on cereals, tubers, roots, fruits, and by-products from related processes are reported at aiming to obtain finished and semi-finished foods and/or basic ingredients meeting the food safety criteria. In detail, this study aims to generate a processing method for the white bitter roots collected in a rural area of Burundi with a cyanogenic glycoside content >400 mg cyanide equivalent/kg dry weight. A standardised procedure consisting of peeling, grating, and oven drying at 60°C, with or without fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was successfully tested.

  15. The Impact of Surface Ligands and Synthesis Method on the Toxicity of Glutathione-Coated Gold Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Harper

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs are increasingly used in biomedical applications, hence understanding the processes that affect their biocompatibility and stability are of significant interest. In this study, we assessed the stability of peptide-capped AuNPs and used the embryonic zebrafish (Danio rerio as a vertebrate system to investigate the impact of synthesis method and purity on their biocompatibility. Using glutathione (GSH as a stabilizer, Au-GSH nanoparticles with identical core sizes were terminally modified with Tryptophan (Trp, Histidine (His or Methionine (Met amino acids and purified by either dialysis or ultracentrifugation. Au-GSH-(Trp2 purified by dialysis elicited significant morbidity and mortality at 200 µg/mL, Au-GSH-(His2 induced morbidity and mortality after purification by either method at 20 and 200 µg/mL, and Au-GSH-(Met2 caused only sublethal responses at 200 µg/mL. Overall, toxicity was significantly reduced and ligand structure was improved by implementing ultracentrifugation purifications at several stages during the multi-step synthesis and surface modification of Au-GSH nanoparticles. When carefully synthesized at high purity, peptide-functionalized AuNPs showed high biocompatibility in biological systems.

  16. Peritonitis-free survival in peritoneal dialysis: an update taking competing risks into account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David W; Ryckelynck, Jean-Philippe; Fabre, Emmanuel; Verger, Christian

    2010-07-01

    Peritonitis-free survival is commonly reported in the peritoneal dialysis (PD) literature. The Kaplan-Meier method appears to be the only technique used to date, although it has known limitations for cohorts with multiple outcomes, as in PD. In the presence of these 'competing risks' outcomes, the Kaplan-Meier estimate is interpretable only under restrictive assumptions. In contrast, methods which take competing risks into account provide unbiased estimates of probabilities of outcomes as actually experienced by patients. We analysed peritonitis-free survival in a cohort of 8711 incident patients from the 'Registre de Dialyse Péritonéale de Langue Française' between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2007 by calculating the cumulative incidence (CI) of the first episode of peritonitis using the Kaplan-Meier method and a method accounting for competing risks. We compared the CI in different patient groups by the log-rank test and a test developed for competing risk data, Gray's test. After 5 years of PD, the CI of at least one peritonitis episode was 0.4, and the probability of any outcome was 0.96. The Kaplan-Meier method overestimated the CI by a large amount. Compared with the log-rank test, Gray's test led to different conclusions in three out of seven comparisons. The competing risk approach shows that the CI of at least one peritonitis episode was lower than reported by the Kaplan-Meier method but that survival peritonitis-free and still on PD was overall low. The competing risk approach provides estimates which have a clearer interpretation than Kaplan-Meier methods and could be more widely used in PD research.

  17. A Novel Method for Predicting Late Genitourinary Toxicity After Prostate Radiation Therapy and the Need for Age-Based Risk-Adapted Dose Constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Awad A. [Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Egleston, Brian [Department of Biostatistics, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Alcantara, Pino [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital Universitario Clínico San Carlos, Madrid (Spain); Li, Linna [Department of Radiation Oncology, Bryn Mawr Hospital, Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania (United States); Pollack, Alan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Horwitz, Eric M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Buyyounouski, Mark K., E-mail: mark.buyyounouski@fccc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Background: There are no well-established normal tissue sparing dose–volume histogram (DVH) criteria that limit the risk of urinary toxicity from prostate radiation therapy (RT). The aim of this study was to determine which criteria predict late toxicity among various DVH parameters when contouring the entire solid bladder and its contents versus the bladder wall. The area under the histogram curve (AUHC) was also analyzed. Methods and Materials: From 1993 to 2000, 503 men with prostate cancer received 3-dimensional conformal RT (median follow-up time, 71 months). The whole bladder and the bladder wall were contoured in all patients. The primary endpoint was grade ≥2 genitourinary (GU) toxicity occurring ≥3 months after completion of RT. Cox regressions of time to grade ≥2 toxicity were estimated separately for the entire bladder and bladder wall. Concordance probability estimates (CPE) assessed model discriminative ability. Before training the models, an external random test group of 100 men was set aside for testing. Separate analyses were performed based on the mean age (≤ 68 vs >68 years). Results: Age, pretreatment urinary symptoms, mean dose (entire bladder and bladder wall), and AUHC (entire bladder and bladder wall) were significant (P<.05) in multivariable analysis. Overall, bladder wall CPE values were higher than solid bladder values. The AUHC for bladder wall provided the greatest discrimination for late bladder toxicity when compared with alternative DVH points, with CPE values of 0.68 for age ≤68 years and 0.81 for age >68 years. Conclusion: The AUHC method based on bladder wall volumes was superior for predicting late GU toxicity. Age >68 years was associated with late grade ≥2 GU toxicity, which suggests that risk-adapted dose constraints based on age should be explored.

  18. A simple and low-toxic method of preparing small specimens of bacteria, flagellates and their likes for Scanning Electron Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, O. S.; Buchman, K.; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2013-01-01

    The preparation of samples of bacteria and other very small organisms (Scanning Electron Microscopy is often complex and intricate, which typically involve the use of specialized filter systems, complex handling and toxic chemicals. Based on the methods described in the literature...

  19. The Impact of Balanced Counseling on Contraceptive Method Choice and Determinants of Long Acting and Reversible Contraceptive Continuation in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkota, Sabitri; Rajbhandary, Ruchita; Lohani, Shilpa

    2016-03-08

    Introduction Long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) reduce rates of unintended pregnancies and repeat abortion. Uptake and continuation rates of LARCs are very low in Nepal, despite free provision from most health facilities. We sought to establish the effectiveness of a new approach to LARC promotion in Nepal. Methods We examined change in contraceptive method mix in Nepal using service data resulting from introduction of a balanced counseling (BC) approach to family planning (FP). All staff located at nine randomly selected FP sites were trained and began applying BC in April and May 2014. Women who accepted LARCs from a participating facility were re-contacted at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. We estimated the LARC continuation rate and assessed determinants of continuation using descriptive analysis, Kaplan-Meier survival curves and univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis. Results A total of 5744 women received BC between April and July 2014. 1580 women (27.5 %) took up LARCs, raising its contribution to contraceptive method mix at [organization] to 40 %, significantly higher than the 15 % recorded in 2013. 913 women were followed-up, and the LARC continuation rate at 12 months was 82 %. Women's reported satisfaction with LARC [AHR 0.23; 95 % CI 0.14-0.39, p = 0.000] was the single strongest determinant of LARC continuation after adjusting for all background characteristics. Discussion The findings suggest BC is an effective approach for increasing LARC uptake in Nepal. The rate of LARC continuation and its determinants are important inputs to strategies for improved delivery of FP services.

  20. INTRAPERITONEAL AEROSOL CHEMOTHERAPY UNDER PRESSURE (IACUP – AN INNOVATIVE METHOD OF TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH PERITONEAL CARCINOMATOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Kaprin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Widespread peritoneal carcinomatosis in gastric cancer, in fact, is the end-stage of the disease. The survival median of patients is no more than 3–6 months. Development of various methods of intraperitoneal chemotherapy can improve the prognosis of this category of patients.Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy under pressure (IACUP in patients with gastric cancer with peritoneal carcinomatosis.Materials and methods. The treatment Protocol consisted of a laparotomy or laparoscopy for the staging of the tumor process, 3–4 courses of systemic chemotherapy scheme XELOX followed by conducting at least 3 sessions of intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy under pressure (IACUP with an interval of 6 weeks on the background of chemotherapy. In the case of progression the patient was excluded from the study. Currently, the study included 27 patients with disseminated gastric cancer who underwent 46 procedures of IACUP. There were 8 men and 19 women. The average age of patients was 50.6 years.Results. In the framework of the safety assessment of IACUP there were 3 cases of adverse effects. Two patients (7,4% noted nausea for the first 2 days after running the session of IACUP. In one patient the iatrogenic perforation of the diaphragm during biopsy of the peritoneum with the development of carbonetworks occurred. The survival median was 11 months. One-year survival rate (by KaplanMeier was 50.7%. 14 patients are alive and continue to participate in the study during the first year of observation.Conclusion. Intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy under pressure (IACUP is a simple, minimally invasive and safe method for the palliative treatment of patients with disseminated carcinomatosis of gastric cancer. We developed the treatment Protocol that allows us to achieve one-year survival of more than half of patients.

  1. Combined toxicity of butachlor, atrazine and λ-cyhalothrin on the earthworm Eisenia fetida by combination index (CI)-isobologram method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Wang, Yanhua; Zhao, Xueping; Qian, Yongzhong; Wang, Qiang

    2014-10-01

    Pesticides in the environment do not appear singly and usually occur as complex mixtures and their combined effect may exhibit toxicity to organisms. The individual and combined toxicities of two herbicides, atrazine and butachlor and an insecticide λ-cyhalothrin have been examined to the earthworm Eisenia fetida, as a non-target terrestrial organism, in artificial soil and filter paper tests. The order of toxicity for the individual pesticides was ranked as atrazine>λ-cyhalothrin>butachlor in both tests. We applied the combination index (CI)-isobologram method which is widely used to study chemical interactions to determine the nature of toxicological interactions of the pesticides and it allows computerized quantitation of synergism, additive effect and antagonism. For most cases in artificial soil test, synergism was observed in majority of the mixtures except for the combination of butachlor plus λ-cyhalothrin. This particular combination displayed opposite interaction in filter paper test. The CI method was compared with the classical models of Concentration Addition (CA) and Independent Action (IA) and we found that CI method could accurately predict the combined toxicity and can serve as a useful tool in ecotoxicological risk assessment.

  2. A simple and low-toxic method of preparing small specimens of bacteria, flagellates and their likes for Scanning Electron Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Møller, O. S.; Buchman, K.; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2013-01-01

    The preparation of samples of bacteria and other very small organisms (<50 μm) for Scanning Electron Microscopy is often complex and intricate, which typically involve the use of specialized filter systems, complex handling and toxic chemicals. Based on the methods described in the literature and our own tests, we have distilled a simpler (although slightly crude) method to prepare bacterial samples in a fast way. We only employ readily available chemicals requiring no more than a fume hoo...

  3. A new method for analysis of the toxicity of organophosphorus pesticide, dimethoate on rotifer based on response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ruixin; Ren, Xinkun; Ren, Hongqiang

    2012-10-30

    This study analyzed the toxicity of organophosphorus pesticide, dimethoate on freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus, using swimming angular and linear speed alteration as the sub-lethal endpoints. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied in experimental design and data analysis to consider two related factors: toxic concentration, exposure time and their interaction. In general, inhibition effect of the pesticide on rotifer swimming was observed clearly at any given toxicant concentration. The highest inhibition rates in angular and linear speed were obtained in the shortest exposure time (11.36 min) and the highest dimethoate concentration (1.85 mg L(-1)). The RSM used for the analysis of treatment combinations showed that a cubic polynomial regression model was in good agreement with experimental results, with R(2)=0.992 and 0.9997, for swimming angular speed inhibition rate and linear speed inhibition rate (p<0.01, F-test, respectively). 3D reference surface plots and contour plots showed that the toxic effect was influenced not only by dimethoate concentration, but also by the exposure time. A time-step effect was observed clearly. Thus, the pesticide dimethoate had toxic stress on the swimming behavior of rotifers.

  4. 早期鼻腔和韦氏环NK/T细胞淋巴瘤调强放疗的初步结果%Toxicity and treatment outcome of intensity-modulated radiation therapy for early stage nasal and Waldeyer ring NK/T-cell lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪华; 王朝阳; 刘新帆; 戴建荣; 余子豪; 李晔雄; 王维虎; 金晶; 宋永文; 亓姝楠; 王淑莲; 刘跃平; 刘清峰

    2010-01-01

    Objective Radiotherapy is the primary therapy for early stage nasal-type NK/T-cell lymphoma of the nasal or Waldeyer ring. This study aimed to investigate the clinical outcome of the disease treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods From November 2003 to June 2008, 48 patients with nasal or Waldeyer ring NK/T-ceil lymphoma underwent IMRT. The tumors were located in the nasal in 42 patients ,and the Waldeyer ring in 6. According to the Ann Arbor staging system, the disease was stage Ⅰ_E in 37 patients (77%), stage Ⅱ_E in 11 (23%). Of these patients, 22 received radiotherapy alone, the other 26 received combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Prescribed radiation dose was defined as a minimun dose of 95% PTV. Acute and late toxicities were scored by Radiation Therapy Oncology Group morbidity criteria. Survival probabilities were estimated using Kaplan-Meier method. Results With a median follow-up of 18 months, the 2-year local control, overall survival and progression-free survival rates were 100%, 75% and 73%, respectively. The average maximum, mean and minimum delivered doses were 62.6 Gy, 55.0 Gy and 20.3 Gy to the PTV. Only 2.4% of the PTV received less than 95% of the prescribed dose. The average maximum dose to the brain, spinal cord, optic chiasm, left optical nerve, right optical nerve, left len and right len was 43.5 Gy, 32. 7 Gy, 48.2 Gy, 50. 3 Gy, 51.3 Gy, 7. 8 Gy and 7.6 Gy, respectively. The average mean dose to the left parotid, right parotid, pituitary, left T-M joint and right T- M joint was 17. 1 Gy , 16. 5 Gy , 32. 5 Gy , 47.3 Gy and 46. 8 Gy , respectively. Acute mucositis was observed in 37% of patients with Grade 1, 41% with Grade 2, and 16% with Grade 3. Skin toxicity was observed in 78% of patients with Grade 1 and 16% with Grade 2. Acute xerestoma was observed in 65% of patients with Grade 1 and 18% with Grade 2. Conclusions IMRT provids excellent tumor target coverage and reduces the dose to the critical normal

  5. Characterizing Ipomopsis rubra (Polemoniaceae) germination under various thermal scenarios with non-parametric and semi-parametric statistical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Hector E; Kettner, Keith

    2013-10-01

    Time-to-event analysis represents a collection of relatively new, flexible, and robust statistical techniques for investigating the incidence and timing of transitions from one discrete condition to another. Plant biology is replete with examples of such transitions occurring from the cellular to population levels. However, application of these statistical methods has been rare in botanical research. Here, we demonstrate the use of non- and semi-parametric time-to-event and categorical data analyses to address questions regarding seed to seedling transitions of Ipomopsis rubra propagules exposed to various doses of constant or simulated seasonal diel temperatures. Seeds were capable of germinating rapidly to >90 % at 15-25 or 22/11-29/19 °C. Optimum temperatures for germination occurred at 25 or 29/19 °C. Germination was inhibited and seed viability decreased at temperatures ≥30 or 33/24 °C. Kaplan-Meier estimates of survivor functions indicated highly significant differences in temporal germination patterns for seeds exposed to fluctuating or constant temperatures. Extended Cox regression models specified an inverse relationship between temperature and the hazard of germination. Moreover, temperature and the temperature × day interaction had significant effects on germination response. Comparisons to reference temperatures and linear contrasts suggest that summer temperatures (33/24 °C) play a significant role in differential germination responses. Similarly, simple and complex comparisons revealed that the effects of elevated temperatures predominate in terms of components of seed viability. In summary, the application of non- and semi-parametric analyses provides appropriate, powerful data analysis procedures to address various topics in seed biology and more widespread use is encouraged.

  6. Application of field methods to assess isometamidium resistance of trypanosomes in cattle in western Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tewelde, N.; Abebe, G.; Eisler, M.;

    2004-01-01

    the proportion of infections during an 8-week follow-up period and the ratio of mean hazards in an isometamidium treated versus untreated group, provided consistent results across the three villages. In Burka village, both indices demonstrated the presence of isometamidium resistance trypanosome infections while......, in Cheleleki and Kolu villages, both indices did not indicate significant levels of resistance. There were significant differences between the Kaplan-Meier survival estimates of the control and treatment groups in Cheleleki (P 0.05)....

  7. Predictive Modeling of Developmental Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of alternative methods in conjunction with traditional in vivo developmental toxicity testing has the potential to (1) reduce cost and increase throughput of testing the chemical universe, (2) prioritize chemicals for further targeted toxicity testing and risk assessment,...

  8. Toxic Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Shakibazadeh, Shahram; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Food is considered the main source of toxic element (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) exposure to humans, and they can cause major public health effects. In this chapter, we discuss the most important sources for toxic element in food and the foodstuffs which are significant contributors...... to human exposure. The occurrence of each element in food classes from different regions is presented. Some of the current toxicological risk assessments on toxic elements, the human health effect of each toxic element, and their contents in the food legislations are presented. An overview of analytical...... techniques and challenges for determination of toxic elements in food is also given....

  9. A roadmap for the development of alternative (non-animal) methods for systemic toxicity testing - t4 report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basketter, D.A.; Clewell, H.; Kimber, I.; Rossi, A.; Blaauboer, B.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068359802; Burrier, R.; Daneshian, M.; Eskes, C.; Goldberg, A.; Hasiwa, N.

    2012-01-01

    Systemic toxicity testing forms the cornerstone for the safety evaluation of substances. Pressures to move from traditional animal models to novel technologies arise from various concerns, including: the need to evaluate large numbers of previously untested chemicals and new products (such as

  10. A roadmap for the development of alternative (non-animal) methods for systemic toxicity testing - t4 report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basketter, D.A.; Clewell, H.; Kimber, I.; Rossi, A.; Blaauboer, B.J.; Burrier, R.; Daneshian, M.; Eskes, C.; Goldberg, A.; Hasiwa, N.

    2012-01-01

    Systemic toxicity testing forms the cornerstone for the safety evaluation of substances. Pressures to move from traditional animal models to novel technologies arise from various concerns, including: the need to evaluate large numbers of previously untested chemicals and new products (such as nanopa

  11. Testing Methods of Biological Toxicity Detection for Water Quality%水质的生物毒性检测方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高小辉; 杨峰峰; 何圣兵; 戴鼎立; 陈雪初; 李玫芳

    2012-01-01

    水质生物毒性检测是水环境质量评价的重要内容.生物检测技术随着各学科间交叉发展的深入而产生了新的活力.该文综述了当前生物毒性检测技术的主要类型以及应用现状,并对未来的重点研究方向提出了一些建议,以期为水毒理学的持续发展提供科学参考.%Biological toxicity testing on water toxicity plays a significant role in water quality assessment. New technology of biological toxicity testing method has been put forward under the development of interdisciplinary infiltration. It was reviewed that the main types of biological toxicity testing and the present application situation in this paper. Meanwhile, some key directions in the future were raised, which could be contributed to the sustainable development of water toxicology detection.

  12. An ultrasound-assisted digestion method for the determination of toxic element concentrations in ash samples by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Ilander, Aki; Väisänen, Ari

    2007-01-01

    method of ultrasound-assisted digestion followed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) used for the determination of toxic element concentrations (arsenic, barium, cobalt, copper, lead, nickel, strontium, vanadium and zinc) in ash samples was developed. All the measurements were performed in robust plasma conditions which were tested by measuring the Mg(II) 280.270 nm/Mg(I) 285.213 nm line intensity ratios. The highest line intensity ratios were observed when a...

  13. Water quality benchmarking (WQB) and priority control screening (PCS) of persistent toxic substances (PTSs) in China: necessity, method and a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Qin, Ning; Kong, Xiang-Zhen; Liu, Wen-Xiu; He, Qi-Shuang; Wang, Qing-Mei; Yang, Chen; Jiang, Yu-Jiao; Yang, Bin; Wu, Wen-Jing; Xu, Fu-Liu

    2014-02-15

    The priority control screening (PCS) and water quality benchmarking (WQB) of toxic chemicals in water are key steps to ensure the safety of drinking water and aquatic ecosystem that is the crucial goal of water environment management. Owing to the different levels of social-economic development in different countries and regions, the PCS and WQB of toxic chemicals must be determined in accordance with their specific water environment situations. However, in China, the PCS and WQB of toxic chemicals in water were mainly introduced from the other countries. A method for the PCS and WQB of toxic chemicals in water based on the ecological risks was proposed, and a platform named Bayesian Matbugs Calculator (BMC) was developed. As a case study, the WQB and PCS of sixty-nine PTSs based their ecological risks were performed on the basis of one-year monthly monitoring in Lake Chaohu. The results showed that the current national water quality criteria (WQC) would underestimate the toxicological risk to organisms in this aquatic ecosystem. It appears necessary to develop new WQC for the protection of aquatic organisms in Lake Chaohu. Four grades of priority control chemicals (PCCs) in Lake Chaohu were proposed. The highest priority was assigned to organonitrogen-phosphorus pesticides, including parathion, dichlorvos, malathion, omethoate, and di-n-butyl phthalate. However, the national "blacklist" of toxic compounds only covered 7 of 20 PCCs, indicating that the other 13 PCCs would not be controlled efficiently. Because the pollution pattern of PTSs in various water bodies might be quite different, we appealed to the governments to screen the regional PPC lists or develop a more comprehensive national list for aquatic ecosystem protection in China.

  14. Building up a QSAR model for toxicity toward Tetrahymena pyriformis by the Monte Carlo method: A case of benzene derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toropova, Alla P; Schultz, Terry W; Toropov, Andrey A

    2016-03-01

    Data on toxicity toward Tetrahymena pyriformis is indicator of applicability of a substance in ecologic and pharmaceutical aspects. Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) between the molecular structure of benzene derivatives and toxicity toward T. pyriformis (expressed as the negative logarithms of the population growth inhibition dose, mmol/L) are established. The available data were randomly distributed three times into the visible training and calibration sets, and invisible validation sets. The statistical characteristics for the validation set are the following: r(2)=0.8179 and s=0.338 (first distribution); r(2)=0.8682 and s=0.341 (second distribution); r(2)=0.8435 and s=0.323 (third distribution). These models are built up using only information on the molecular structure: no data on physicochemical parameters, 3D features of the molecular structure and quantum mechanics descriptors are involved in the modeling process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A roadmap for the development of alternative (non-animal) methods for systemic toxicity testing - t4 report

    OpenAIRE

    Basketter, D. A.; Clewell, H.; Kimber, I; De Rossi, A.; Blaauboer, B.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068359802; Burrier, R.; Daneshian, M.; Eskes, C.; Goldberg, A.; Hasiwa, N

    2012-01-01

    Systemic toxicity testing forms the cornerstone for the safety evaluation of substances. Pressures to move from traditional animal models to novel technologies arise from various concerns, including: the need to evaluate large numbers of previously untested chemicals and new products (such as nanoparticles or cell therapies), the limited predictivity of traditional tests for human health effects, duration and costs of current approaches, and animal welfare considerations. The latter holds esp...

  16. Effect-based interpretation of toxicity test data using probability and comparison with alternative methods of analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gully, J.R.; Baird, R.B.; Markle, P.J.; Bottomley, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    A methodology is described that incorporates the intra- and intertest variability and the biological effect of bioassay data in evaluating the toxicity of single and multiple tests for regulatory decision-making purposes. The single- and multiple-test regulatory decision probabilities were determined from t values (n {minus} 1, one-tailed) derived from the estimated biological effect and the associated standard error at the critical sample concentration. Single-test regulatory decision probabilities below the selected minimum regulatory decision probability identify individual tests as noncompliant. A multiple-test regulatory decision probability is determined by combining the regulatory decision probability of a series of single tests. A multiple-test regulatory decision probability is determined by combining the regulatory decision probability of a series of single tests. A multiple-test regulatory decision probability below the multiple-test regulatory decision minimum identifies groups of tests in which the magnitude and persistence of the toxicity is sufficient to be considered noncompliant or to require enforcement action. Regulatory decision probabilities derived from the t distribution were compared with results based on standard and bioequivalence hypothesis tests using single- and multiple-concentration toxicity test data from an actual national pollutant discharge incorporated the precision of the effect estimate into regulatory decisions at a fixed level of effect. Also, probability-based interpretation of toxicity tests provides incentive to laboratories to produce, and permit holders to use, high-quality, precise data, particularly when multiple tests are used in regulatory decisions. These results are contrasted with standard and bioequivalence hypothesis tests in which the intratest precision is a determining factor in setting the biological effect used for regulatory decisions.

  17. Using combined bio-omics methods to evaluate the complicated toxic effects of mixed chemical wastewater and its treated effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yan; Deng, Yongfeng; Zhao, Yanping; Ren, Hongqiang, E-mail: hqren@nju.edu.cn

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Mice exposed to mixed chemical wastewater and its treated effluent for 90 days. • Hepatic transcriptomic alterations were analyzed by digital gene expression. • Serum metabolomic alterations were analyzed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance. • The water samples induced disruption of lipid metabolism and hepatotoxicity. • Omics approaches are valuable to evaluate the complicated toxicity of wastewater. - Abstract: Mixed chemical wastewaters (MCWW) from industrial park contain complex mixtures of trace contaminants, which cannot be effectively removed by wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and have become an unignored threat to ambient environment. However, limited information is available to evaluate the complicated toxic effects of MCWW and its effluent from wastewater treatment plant (WTPE) from the perspective of bio-omics. In this study, mice were exposed to the MCWW and WTPE for 90 days and distinct differences in the hepatic transcriptome and serum metabolome were analyzed by digital gene expression (DGE) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H-NMR) spectra, respectively. Our results indicated that disruption of lipid metabolism in liver and hepatotoxicity were induced by both MCWW and WTPE exposure. WTPE is still a health risk to the environment, which is in need of more attention. Furthermore, we demonstrated the potential ability of bio-omics approaches for evaluating toxic effects of MCWW and WTPE.

  18. Rapid bioassessment methods for assessing vegetation toxicity at the Savannah River Site - germination tests and root elongation trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.; Klaine, S.J.; Hook, D.D. [and others

    1996-01-01

    Plants form the basis of all ecosystems including wetlands. Although they are the most abundant life form and are the primary producers for all other organisms, they have received the least attention when it comes to environmental matters. Higher plants have rarely been used in ecotoxicity testing and may not respond in the same manner as algae, which have been used more frequently. The introduction of hazardous waste materials into wetland areas has the potential to alter and damage the ecological processes in these ecosystems. Measuring the impact of these contaminants on higher plants is therefore important and needs further research. Higher plants are useful for detecting both herbicidal toxicity and heavy metal toxicity. For phytotoxicity tests to be practical they must be simple, inexpensive, yet sensitive to a variety of contaminants. A difference between seed germination and root elongation tests is that seed germination tests measure toxicity associated with soils directly, while root elongation tests consider the indirect effects of water-soluble constituents that may be present in site samples.

  19. Systematic investigation of the influence of CdTe QDs size on the toxic interaction with human serum albumin by fluorescence quenching method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jianbo; Bai, Yalong; Wang, Yuanfeng; Chen, Jingwen; Wei, Xinlin

    2010-06-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are complementary tools to the organic fluorescent dyes used in biological system. Investigation of QDs biological toxicity has attracted great interest for their depth application. Here, the fluorescence quenching method was used to investigate the influence of CdTe QDs size on the toxic interaction with human serum albumin (HSA). Two aqueous-compatible CdTe QDs with maximum emission of 535 nm (green-emitting QDs, G-QDs, 2.04 nm) and 654 nm (red-emitting QDs, R-QDs, 3.79 nm) were tested. The fluorescence quenching results indicated that the quenching effect of QDs on HSA fluorescence depended on the size and the nature of quenching is not dynamic but probably static, resulting in forming QDs-HSA complexes. The binding constants and the number of binding sites between R-QDs and HSA were higher than those of G-QDs. The results illustrated that the size of CdTe quantum dots affected the affinity for HSA and the increasing size of QDs enhanced the affinity for HSA. The values of lg Ka are proportional to the number of binding sites ( n). This result confirms the method used here is suitable to study the toxic interaction between QDs and HSA.

  20. Duodenal surveillance improves the prognosis after duodenal cancer in familial adenomatous polyposis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Steffen; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Højen, Helle

    2012-01-01

    of cancer development. Method:  Follow-up of patients in a previous study with gastroduodenoscopy in 1990-2010. Statistical analysis included chi(2) test, actuarial method and Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results:  Among 304 patients, 261 (86%) had more than one endoscopy. The median follow-up was 14 years...

  1. Duodenal surveillance improves the prognosis after duodenal cancer in familial adenomatous polyposis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Steffen; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Højen, Helle

    2012-01-01

    of cancer development. Method: Follow-up of patients in a previous study with gastroduodenoscopy in 1990-2010. Statistical analysis included chi(2) test, actuarial method and Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results: Among 304 patients, 261 (86%) had more than one endoscopy. The median follow-up was 14 years...

  2. Tungsten toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witten, Mark L; Sheppard, Paul R; Witten, Brandon L

    2012-04-05

    There is emerging evidence that tungsten has toxic health effects. We summarize the recent tungsten toxicity research in this short review. Tungsten is widely used in many commercial and military applications because it has the second highest melting temperature of any element. Consequently, it is important to elucidate the potential health effects of tungsten.

  3. Simultaneous preconcentration of toxic elements in artificial saliva extract of smokeless tobacco product, mainpuri by cloud point extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Arain, Jamshed Bashir; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Brahman, Kapil Dev; Shah, Faheem; Naeemullah; Arain, Salma; Panhwar, Abdul Haleem

    2013-06-01

    It has been extensively investigated that smokeless tobacco chewing can lead mainly to inflammation of oral cavity. In present study, the total and artificial saliva extracted toxic elements, arsenic, cadmium, nickel and lead were estimated in smokeless tobacco product, mainpuri. Cloud point extraction has been used for the preconcentration of arsenic, cadmium, nickel and lead in artificial saliva extract, using complexing reagent, ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate. Total and extractable toxic elements were measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The chemical variables of cloud point extraction were optimized. The validity of methodology was tested by simultaneously analyzing certified reference material (Virginia tobacco leaves) and spike recovery test. The artificial saliva extractable levels of arsenic, cadmium, nickel and lead ranged from 15-22, 45-70, 35-58, and 18-32%, respectively, of total elemental contents in mainpuri samples. It was estimated that intake of 10g of different brands of mainpuri contributing the 5.88, 55.0, 45.0 and 40.3% of the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake for arsenic, cadmium, nickel and lead, respectively for adults of ~60kg.

  4. Cigarette smoking and progression in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, Marcus; van Harten, Annemarie; Uyttenboogaart, Maarten; De Keyser, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of cigarette smoking on progression and disability accumulation in multiple sclerosis ( MS). Methods: Information on past and present smoking of 364 patients with MS was obtained through a structured questionnaire survey. We used Kaplan-Meier analyses and Cox

  5. Factors associated with the risk of secondary progression in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, M; Uyttenboogaart, M; van Harten, A; De Keyser, J

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate factors associated with the risk of secondary progression in relapsing-remitting onset multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods We used Kaplan-Meier survival analyses and a multivariable Cox regression model to estimate the influence of the factors: gender, age at disease onset, use

  6. Cigarette smoking and progression in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, Marcus; van Harten, Annemarie; Uyttenboogaart, Maarten; De Keyser, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of cigarette smoking on progression and disability accumulation in multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: Information on past and present smoking of 364 patients with MS was obtained through a structured questionnaire survey. We used Kaplan-Meier analyses and Cox r

  7. The prognostic value of lymph node metastases and tumour regression grade in rectal cancer patients treated with long-course preoperative chemoradiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindebjerg, J; Spindler, Karen-Lise Garm; Ploen, J;

    2009-01-01

    to the tumour regression grade system and lymph node status in the surgical specimen was assessed. The prognostic value of clinico-pathological parameters was analysed using univariate analysis and Kaplan-Meier methods for comparison of groups. RESULTS: All patients responded to treatment and 47% had a major...

  8. EGF61A>G polymorphism as predictive marker of clinical outcome to first-line capecitabine and oxaliplatin in metastatic colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Karen-Lise Garm; Andersen, R F; Jensen, Lars Henrik;

    2010-01-01

    samples. Response was evaluated according to the RECIST. Survival analysis was described by the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank testing. RESULTS: The overall response rate was 38% and the median overall survival 19.4 months. A favorable outcome was seen in patients with the EGF61A/G genotype compared...

  9. Determination of drugs in surface water and wastewater samples by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry: Methods and preliminary results including toxicity studies with Vibrio fischeri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farre, M.; Ferrer, I.; Ginebreda, A.; Figueras, M.; Olivella, L.; Tirapu, L.; Vilanova, M.; Barcelo, D.

    2001-01-01

    In the present work a combined analytical method involving toxicity and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) was developed for the determination of pharmaceutical compounds in water samples. The drugs investigated were the analgesics: ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, and diclofenac, the decomposition product of the acetyl salicylic acid: salicylic acid and one lipid lowering agent, gemfibrozil. The selected compounds are acidic substances, very polar and all of them are analgesic compounds that can be purchased without medical prescription. The developed protocol consisted, first of all, on the use Microtox?? and ToxAlert??100 toxicity tests with Vibrio fischeri for the different pharmaceutical drugs. The 50% effective concentration (EC50) values and the toxicity units (TU) were determined for every compound using both systems. Sample enrichment of water samples was achieved by solid-phase extraction procedure (SPE), using the Merck LiChrolut?? EN cartridges followed by LC-ESI-MS. Average recoveries loading 1 l of samples with pH=2 varied from 69 to 91% and the detection limits in the range of 15-56 ng/l. The developed method was applied to real samples from wastewater and surface-river waters of Catalonia (north-east of Spain). One batch of samples was analyzed in parallel also by High Resolution Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (HRGC-MS) and the results have been compared with the LC-ESI-MS method developed in this work. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Fast method for the simultaneous quantification of toxic polyphenols applied to the selection of genotypes of yam bean (Pachyrhizus sp.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautié, E; Rozet, E; Hubert, P; Vandelaer, N; Billard, F; Felde, T Zum; Grüneberg, W J; Quetin-Leclercq, J

    2013-12-15

    The purpose of the research was to develop and validate a rapid quantification method able to screen many samples of yam bean seeds to determine the content of two toxic polyphenols, namely pachyrrhizine and rotenone. The analytical procedure described is based on the use of an internal standard (dihydrorotenone) and is divided in three steps: microwave assisted extraction, purification by solid phase extraction and assay by ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC). Each step was included in the validation protocol and the accuracy profiles methodology was used to fully validate the method. The method was fully validated between 0.25 mg and 5 mg pachyrrhizin per gram of seeds and between 0.58 mg/g and 4 mg/g for rotenone. More than one hundred samples from different accessions, locations of growth and harvest dates were screened. Pachyrrhizine concentrations ranged from 3.29 mg/g to lower than 0.25 mg/g while rotenone concentrations ranged from 3.53 mg/g to lower than 0.58 mg/g. This screening along with principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis (DA) analyses allowed the selection of the more interesting genotypes in terms of low concentrations of these two toxic polyphenols.

  11. Comparison of methods for analyzing left-censored occupational exposure data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Tran; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Banerjee, Sudipto; Monteiro, Joao; Stenzel, Mark; Sandler, Dale P; Engel, Lawrence S; Kwok, Richard K; Blair, Aaron; Stewart, Patricia A

    2014-11-01

    The National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) is conducting an epidemiologic study (GuLF STUDY) to investigate the health of the workers and volunteers who participated from April to December of 2010 in the response and cleanup of the oil release after the Deepwater Horizon explosion in the Gulf of Mexico. The exposure assessment component of the study involves analyzing thousands of personal monitoring measurements that were collected during this effort. A substantial portion of these data has values reported by the analytic laboratories to be below the limits of detection (LOD). A simulation study was conducted to evaluate three established methods for analyzing data with censored observations to estimate the arithmetic mean (AM), geometric mean (GM), geometric standard deviation (GSD), and the 95th percentile (X0.95) of the exposure distribution: the maximum likelihood (ML) estimation, the β-substitution, and the Kaplan-Meier (K-M) methods. Each method was challenged with computer-generated exposure datasets drawn from lognormal and mixed lognormal distributions with sample sizes (N) varying from 5 to 100, GSDs ranging from 2 to 5, and censoring levels ranging from 10 to 90%, with single and multiple LODs. Using relative bias and relative root mean squared error (rMSE) as the evaluation metrics, the β-substitution method generally performed as well or better than the ML and K-M methods in most simulated lognormal and mixed lognormal distribution conditions. The ML method was suitable for large sample sizes (N ≥ 30) up to 80% censoring for lognormal distributions with small variability (GSD = 2-3). The K-M method generally provided accurate estimates of the AM when the censoring was <50% for lognormal and mixed distributions. The accuracy and precision of all methods decreased under high variability (GSD = 4 and 5) and small to moderate sample sizes (N < 20) but the β-substitution was still the best of the three methods. When using the ML

  12. Rapid and Sensitive Determination of Major Active Ingredients and Toxic Components in GinkgoBiloba Leaves Extract (EGb 761) by a Validated UPLC-MS-MS Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao; Liu, Yuan; Wu, Qi; Yao, Xin; Cheng, Zongqi

    2017-01-08

    An accurate, precise and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric (UPLC-MS-MS) method was developed for the determination of flavonoids, terpene lactones, together with ginkgolic acids in Ginkgo biloba leaves extract (EGb 761). This is the first report of the simultaneous analysis of major active ingredients and toxic components in EGb 761 using UPLC-MS-MS. This analysis afforded good linearity, precision, repeatability and accuracy. In addition, the content of those major bioactive components in EGb 761 prepared by different manufacturers of China was determined to establish the effectiveness of the method. The results indicated that the quantification analysis could be readily utilized as a quality control method for EGb 761 and its other related products using flavonoids, terpene lactones and ginkgolic acids as markers.

  13. Specific detection of the toxic dinoflagellates Alexandrium tamarense and Alexandrium catenella from single vegetative cells by a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Satoshi; Itakura, Shigeru

    2012-09-01

    In this study, we succeeded in developing a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method that enables sensitive and specific detection of the toxic marine dinoflagellates Alexandrium tamarense and Alexandrium catenella from single cells of both laboratory cultures and naturally blooming cells within 25 min, by monitoring the turbidimeter from the start of the LAMP reaction. The fluorescence intensity was strong enough to allow discrimination between positive and negative results by naked eye under a UV lamp, even in amplified samples from a single cell, by using the LAMP method. Unambiguous detection by naked eye was possible even in half the volume of LAMP cocktail recommended by the manufacturer, suggesting the potential to significantly reduce the cost of Alexandrium monitoring. Therefore, we can conclude that this method is one of the most convenient, sensitive, and cost-effective molecular tools for Alexandrium monitoring.

  14. Separations chemistry of toxic metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.; Barr, M.; Barrans, R. [and others

    1996-04-01

    Sequestering and removing toxic metal ions from their surroundings is an increasingly active area of research and is gaining importance in light of current environmental contamination problems both within the DOE complex and externally. One method of separating metal ions is to complex them to a molecule (a ligand or chelator) which exhibits specific binding affinity for a toxic metal, even in the presence of other more benign metals. This approach makes use of the sometimes subtle differences between toxic and non-toxic metals resulting from variations in size, charge and shape. For example, toxic metals such as chromium, arsenic, and technetium exist in the environment as oxyanions, negatively charged species with a characteristic tetrahedral shape. Other toxic metals such as actinides and heavy metals are positively charged spheres with specific affinities for particular donor atoms such as oxygen (for actinides) and nitrogen (for heavy metals). In most cases the toxic metals are found in the presence of much larger quantities of less toxic metals such as sodium, calcium and iron. The selectivity of the chelators is critical to the goal of removing the toxic metals from their less toxic counterparts. The approach was to build a ligand framework that complements the unique characteristics of the toxic metal (size, charge and shape) while minimizing interactions with non-toxic metals. The authors have designed ligands exhibiting specificity for the target metals; they have synthesized, characterized and tested these ligands; and they have shown that they exhibit the proposed selectivity and cooperative binding effects.

  15. Separation of toxic rhodamine B from aqueous solution using an efficient low-cost material, Azolla pinnata, by adsorption method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooh, Muhammad Raziq Rahimi; Lim, Linda B L; Lim, Lee Hoon; Dahri, Muhammad Khairud

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the potential of untreated Azolla pinnata (AP) to remove toxic rhodamine B (RB) dye. The effects of adsorbent dosage, pH, ionic strength, contact time, and concentration were studied. Experiments involving the effects of pH and ionic strength indicated that hydrophobic-hydrophobic interactions might be the dominant force of attraction for the RB-AP adsorption system. The kinetics modelling of the kinetics experiment showed that pseudo-second-order best represented the adsorption process. The Weber-Morris intraparticle diffusion model showed that intraparticle diffusion is not the rate-limiting step, while the Boyd model suggested that film diffusion might be rate-limiting. The adsorption isotherm model, Langmuir, best represented the adsorption process, and the maximum adsorption capacity was predicted to be 72.2 and 199.7 mg g(-1) at 25 and 65 °C, respectively. Thermodynamics study indicates spontaneity, endothermic and physisorption-dominant adsorption process. The adsorbents were regenerated to satisfactory level with distilled water, HNO3 and NaOH. Pre-treatment of adsorbent with oxalic acid, citric acid, NaOH, HCl and phosphoric acid was investigated but the adsorption capacity was less than the untreated AP.

  16. Investigation of the toxic effect of cadmium on Candida humicola and Bacillus subtilis using a microcalorimetric method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hai-Yan; Yao, Jun; Zhou, Yong; Chen, Hui-Lun; Wang, Fei; Gai, Nan; Zhuang, Ren-Sheng; Ceccanti, Brunello; Maskow, Thomas; Zaray, Gyula

    2008-11-30

    In this study, the technique of microcalorimetry based on heat-output by aerobic bacterial respiration was explored to evaluate the toxic effect of cadmium on Candida humicola, Bacillus subtilis, singularly or in a mixture of both. Power-time curves of the growth metabolism of C. humicola and B. subtilis and the effect of Cd(2+) were studied using the TAM III (the third generation thermal activity monitor) multi-channel microcalorimetric system, isothermal mode, at 28 degrees C. The differences in shape of the power-time curves and the thermodynamic and kinetic characteristics of microorganisms growth were compared. The effect of cadmium added into microorganism would significantly reduce the life cycle and change the thermal effect of microbial metabolic process with different concentrations of Cd(2+). The experimental results revealed that at the same concentration, the sequence of inhibitory ratio (I) and maximum thermal power (P(max)) of the Cd(2+) was: mixed microorganisms>C. humicola>B. subtilis. The sequence of total thermal effect (Q(total)) and growth rate constant (k) is mixed microorganisms>B. subtilis>C. humicola. These results are important to further studies of the physiology and pharmacology of C. humicola and B. subtilis and may support the theory of restoring contaminated soil.

  17. Investigation of the toxic effect of cadmium on Candida humicola and Bacillus subtilis using a microcalorimetric method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Haiyan [School of Environmental Studies and Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology of Chinese Ministry of Education and Sino-Hungarian Joint Laboratory of Environmental Science and Health, China University of Geosciences, 430074 Wuhan (China); Yao Jun [School of Environmental Studies and Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology of Chinese Ministry of Education and Sino-Hungarian Joint Laboratory of Environmental Science and Health, China University of Geosciences, 430074 Wuhan (China)], E-mail: yaojun@cug.edu.cn; Zhou Yong; Chen Huilun; Wang Fei; Gai Nan; Zhuang Rensheng [School of Environmental Studies and Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology of Chinese Ministry of Education and Sino-Hungarian Joint Laboratory of Environmental Science and Health, China University of Geosciences, 430074 Wuhan (China); Ceccanti, Brunello [Institute of Ecosystem Studies(ISE) - Italian National Research Council (ICT-CNR) (Italy); Maskow, Thomas [UFZ Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Zaray, Gyula [Department of Chemical Technology and Environmental Chemistry, Eoetvoes University, H-1518 Budapest, P.O. Box 32 (Hungary)

    2008-11-30

    In this study, the technique of microcalorimetry based on heat-output by aerobic bacterial respiration was explored to evaluate the toxic effect of cadmium on Candida humicola, Bacillus subtilis, singularly or in a mixture of both. Power-time curves of the growth metabolism of C. humicola and B. subtilis and the effect of Cd{sup 2+} were studied using the TAM III (the third generation thermal activity monitor) multi-channel microcalorimetric system, isothermal mode, at 28 deg. C. The differences in shape of the power-time curves and the thermodynamic and kinetic characteristics of microorganisms growth were compared. The effect of cadmium added into microorganism would significantly reduce the life cycle and change the thermal effect of microbial metabolic process with different concentrations of Cd{sup 2+}. The experimental results revealed that at the same concentration, the sequence of inhibitory ratio (I) and maximum thermal power (P{sub max}) of the Cd{sup 2+} was: mixed microorganisms > C. humicola > B. subtilis. The sequence of total thermal effect (Q{sub total}) and growth rate constant (k) is mixed microorganisms > B. subtilis > C. humicola. These results are important to further studies of the physiology and pharmacology of C. humicola and B. subtilis and may support the theory of restoring contaminated soil.

  18. Using an interlaboratory study to revise methods for conducting 10-d to 42-d water or sediment toxicity tests with Hyalella azteca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Chris D; Ingersoll, Chris G; Brumbaugh, William G; Hammer, Edward J; Mount, Dave R; Hockett, J Russell; Norberg-King, Teresa J; Soucek, Dave; Taylor, Lisa

    2016-10-01

    Studies have been conducted to refine US Environmental Protection Agency, ASTM International, and Environment Canada standard methods for conducting 42-d reproduction tests with Hyalella azteca in water or in sediment. Modifications to the H. azteca method include better-defined ionic composition requirements for exposure water (i.e., >15 mg/L of chloride and >0.02 mg/L of bromide) and improved survival, growth, and reproduction with alternate diets provided as increased rations over time in water-only or whole-sediment toxicity tests. A total of 24 laboratories volunteered to participate in the present interlaboratory study evaluating the performance of H. azteca in 42-d studies in control sand or control sediment using the refined methods. Improved growth and reproduction of H. azteca was observed with 2 alternate diets of 1) ramped diatoms (Thalassiosira weissflogii) + ramped Tetramin or 2) yeast-cerophyll-trout chow (YCT) + ramped Tetramin, especially when compared with results from the traditional diet of 1.8 mg YCT/d. Laboratories were able to meet proposed test acceptability criteria and in most cases had lower variation in growth or reproduction compared with previous interlaboratory studies using the traditional YCT diet. Laboratory success in conducting 42-d H. azteca exposures benefited from adherence to several key requirements of the detailed testing, culturing, and handling methods. Results from the present interlaboratory study are being used to help revise standard methods for conducting 10-d to 42-d water or sediment toxicity exposures with H. azteca. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2439-2447. © 2016 SETAC.

  19. Using an interlaboratory study to revise methods for conducting 10-d to 42-d water or sediment toxicity tests with Hyalella azteca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Chris D.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Hammer, Edward J.; Mount, David R.; Hockett, J. Russell; Norberg-King, Teresa J.; Soucek, Dave; Taylor, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Studies have been conducted to refine US Environmental Protection Agency, ASTM International, and Environment Canada standard methods for conducting 42-d reproduction tests with Hyalella azteca in water or in sediment. Modifications to the H. azteca method include better-defined ionic composition requirements for exposure water (i.e., >15 mg/L of chloride and >0.02 mg/L of bromide) and improved survival, growth, and reproduction with alternate diets provided as increased rations over time in water-only or whole-sediment toxicity tests. A total of 24 laboratories volunteered to participate in the present interlaboratory study evaluating the performance of H. azteca in 42-d studies in control sand or control sediment using the refined methods. Improved growth and reproduction of H. azteca was observed with 2 alternate diets of 1) ramped diatoms (Thalassiosira weissflogii) + ramped Tetramin or 2) yeast–cerophyll–trout chow (YCT) + ramped Tetramin, especially when compared with results from the traditional diet of 1.8 mg YCT/d. Laboratories were able to meet proposed test acceptability criteria and in most cases had lower variation in growth or reproduction compared with previous interlaboratory studies using the traditional YCT diet. Laboratory success in conducting 42-d H. azteca exposures benefited from adherence to several key requirements of the detailed testing, culturing, and handling methods. Results from the present interlaboratory study are being used to help revise standard methods for conducting 10-d to 42-d water or sediment toxicity exposures with H. azteca.

  20. Validation and application of HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method for the quantification of RBBR decolorization, a model for highly toxic molecules, using several fungi strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlatti, Bruno; da Silva, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes; Fernandes, João Batista; Forim, Moacir Rossi

    2012-11-01

    A novel analytical method using HPLC-MS/MS operating in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) for evaluation of fungi efficacy to decolorize Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) dye solution was developed, validated and applied. The method shows high sensibility allowing the detection of 4.6 pM of RBBR. Four fungal strains were tested in liquid medium, three strains of Aspergillus (Aspergillus aculeatus, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus) and Phanerochaete chrysosporium. All fungi were able to degrade the dye, with efficiencies ranging from 40% for P. chrysosporium up to 99% for A. flavus during a 30-day incubation period. During the experiment, increased accumulation of degradation products was observed in A. flavus cultures containing RBBR. Through the use of full scan HPLC-MS technique it was possible to propose the biogenesis of the microbial metabolic degradation pathway. Screening using microorganisms and RBBR may be hereafter used to investigate microbial biodegradation of high toxicity molecules such as dioxins.

  1. Identificação de um método estatístico como instrumento da qualidade: tempo da presença do doente na sala de operação Identification of a statistical method as a quality tool: patient's length of stay in the operating room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiomar Terezinha Carvalho Aranha

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar um método estatístico que expresse o tempo da presença do doente na sala de operação e construir a "matriz de relação" de otimização deste tempo, o tempo exato e real da operação. MÉTODOS: A análise de sobrevivência e o estimador de Kaplan-Meier permitiram calcular as curvas de sobrevivência para os diferentes tempos e a "matriz de relação" com 10 hipóteses para auxiliar na escolha da nova operação. A amostra aleatória simples de 71 indivíduos, das operações eletivas de adultos da Cirurgia Cardíaca/Hospital de Clínicas/UNICAMP, no ano 2008, no nível de confiança de 95%. RESULTADOS: Os tempos das operações em média sobram em um intervalo de 140 a 200 minutos e excedem de 5 a 90 minutos. No geral, realizou-se em média diariamente uma operação dentro de 520 minutos, para um tempo disponível de 720 minutos. CONCLUSÃO: 1 Com o tempo máximo disponível de 720 minutos não é possível realizar operação, a não ser utilizando da "matriz de relação", sendo que o tempo máximo disponível varia entre 660 e 690 minutos, considerando-se intervalo de limpeza da sala. 2 O tempo do doente na sala de operação tem nele incluso o tempo de aprendizado pelo aluno, em um hospital escola, universitário. 3 Ao otimizar o tempo, mais doentes serão beneficiados, acarretando diminuição da fila de espera para novas operações. 4 A "matriz" de relação permite visualizar, opinar e decidir mediante várias hipóteses, resultando em melhor tomada de decisãoOBJECTIVE: To identify a statistical method that may express the patient length of stay in the operating room and build a "matrix of relationship" for optimizing this time, the real and exact time of the operation. METHODS: The analysis of survival and the Kaplan-Meier estimator allowed to calculate the survival curves for different times and the "matrix of relationship" with 10 hypothesis to help in choosing the new operation. The study consisted of a

  2. Human Toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolliet, Olivier; Fantke, Peter

    2015-01-01

    . The first section of this chapter outlines the complete cause-effect pathway, from emissions of toxic substances to intake by the population up to damages in terms of human health effects. Section 2 outlines the framework for assessing human toxicity in LCIA. Section 3 discusses the contributing substances......This chapter reviews the human toxicological impacts of chemicals and how to assess these impacts in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA), in order to identify key processes and pollutants. The complete cause-effect pathway – from emissions of toxic substances up to damages on human health...... – demonstrates the importance to account for both outdoor and indoor exposure, including consumer products. Analysing the variations in intake fraction (the fraction of the emitted or applied chemical that is taken in by the consumer and the general population), effect factor and characterisation factor across...

  3. Toxic myopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasnoor, Mamatha; Barohn, Richard J; Dimachkie, Mazen M

    2014-08-01

    Muscle tissue is highly sensitive to many substances. Early recognition of toxic myopathies is important, because they potentially are reversible on removal of the offending drug or toxin, with greater likelihood of complete resolution the sooner this is achieved. Clinical features range from mild muscle pain and cramps to severe weakness with rhabdomyolysis, renal failure, and even death. The pathogenic bases can be multifactorial. This article reviews some of the common toxic myopathies and their clinical presentation, histopathologic features, and possible underlying cellular mechanisms.

  4. Cheap non-toxic non-corrosive method of glass cleaning evaluated by contact angle, AFM, and SEM-EDX measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Tania; Naughton, Daragh

    2017-05-01

    Glass surface cleaning is the very first step in advanced coating deposition and it also finds use in conserving museum objects. However, most of the wet chemical methods of glass cleaning use toxic and corrosive chemicals like concentrated sulfuric acid (H2SO4), piranha (a mixture of concentrated sulfuric acid and 30% hydrogen peroxide), and hydrogen fluoride (HF). On the other hand, most of the dry cleaning techniques like UV-ozone, plasma, and laser treatment require costly instruments. In this report, five eco-friendly wet chemical methods of glass cleaning were evaluated in terms of contact angle (measured by optical tensiometer), nano-scale surface roughness (measured by atomic force microscopy or AFM), and elemental composition (measured by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy or SEM-EDX). These glass cleaning methods are devoid of harsh chemicals and costly equipment, hence can be applied in situ in close proximity with plantation such as greenhouse or upon subtle objects such as museum artifacts. Out of these five methods, three methods are based on the chemical principle of chelation. It was found that the citric acid cleaning method gave the greatest change in contact angle within the hydrophilic regime (14.25° for new glass) indicating effective cleansing and the least surface roughness (0.178 nm for new glass) indicating no corrosive effect. One of the glass sample showed unique features which were traced backed to the history of the glass usage.

  5. An environmentally friendly method to remove and utilize the highly toxic strychnine in other products based on proton-transfer complexation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Abdel Majid A.; Refat, Moamen S.; Saad, Hosam A.; Hegab, Mohamed S.

    2015-12-01

    The study of toxic and carcinogenic substances represents one of the most demanding areas in human safety, due to their repercussions for public health. There is great motivation to remove and utilize these substances in other products instead of leaving them contaminate the environment. One potentially toxic compound for humans is strychnine (Sy). In the present study, we attempted to establish a quick, simple, direct and efficient method to remove and utilize discarded Sy in other products based on proton-transfer complexation. First, Sy was reacted with the acido organic acceptors PA, DNBA and CLA. Then, the resultant salts were direct carbonized into carbon materials. Also, this study provides an insight into the structure and morphology of the obtained products by a range of physicochemical techniques, such as UV-visible, IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopies; XRD; SEM; TEM; and elemental and thermal analyses. Interestingly, the complexation of Sy with the PA or DNBA acceptor leads to a porous carbon material, while its complexation with CLA acceptor forms non-porous carbon product.

  6. Reporting of loss to follow-up information in randomised controlled trials with time-to-event outcomes: a literature survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bender Ralf

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess the reporting of loss to follow-up (LTFU information in articles on randomised controlled trials (RCTs with time-to-event outcomes, and to assess whether discrepancies affect the validity of study results. Methods Literature survey of all issues of the BMJ, Lancet, JAMA, and New England Journal of Medicine published between 2003 and 2005. Eligible articles were reports of RCTs including at least one Kaplan-Meier plot. Articles were classified as "assessable" if sufficient information was available to assess LTFU. In these articles, LTFU information was derived from Kaplan-Meier plots, extracted from the text, and compared. Articles were then classified as "consistent" or "not consistent". Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the validity of study results. Results 319 eligible articles were identified. 187 (59% were classified as "assessable", as they included sufficient information for evaluation; 140 of 319 (44% presented consistent LTFU information between the Kaplan-Meier plot and text. 47 of 319 (15% were classified as "not consistent". These 47 articles were included in sensitivity analyses. When various imputation methods were used, the results of a chi2-test applied to the corresponding 2 × 2 table changed and hence were not robust in about half of the studies. Conclusions Less than half of the articles on RCTs using Kaplan-Meier plots provide assessable and consistent LTFU information, thus questioning the validity of the results and conclusions of many studies presenting survival analyses. Authors should improve the presentation of both Kaplan-Meier plots and LTFU information, and reviewers of study publications and journal editors should critically appraise the validity of the information provided.

  7. Toxic synovitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Names Synovitis - toxic; Transient synovitis References Horowitz R. Pediatric orthopedic emergencies. In: Adams JG, ed. Emergency Medicine: Clinical ... JW III, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap ... Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francisco, CA. Also reviewed by David ...

  8. A comparison of four porewater sampling methods for metal mixtures and dissolved organic carbon and the implications for sediment toxicity evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Danielle; Brumbaugh, William G; MacDonald, Donald D

    2017-06-09

    Evaluations of sediment quality conditions are commonly conducted using whole-sediment chemistry analyses but can be enhanced by evaluating multiple lines of evidence, including measures of the bioavailable forms of contaminants. In particular, porewater chemistry data provide information that is directly relevant for interpreting sediment toxicity data. Various methods for sampling porewater for trace metals and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), which is an important moderator of metal bioavailability, have been employed. The present study compares the peeper, push point, centrifugation, and diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) methods for the quantification of 6 metals and DOC. The methods were evaluated at low and high concentrations of metals in 3 sediments having different concentrations of total organic carbon and acid volatile sulfide and different particle-size distributions. At low metal concentrations, centrifugation and push point sampling resulted in up to 100 times higher concentrations of metals and DOC in porewater compared with peepers and DGTs. At elevated metal levels, the measured concentrations were in better agreement among the 4 sampling techniques. The results indicate that there can be marked differences among operationally different porewater sampling methods, and it is unclear if there is a definitive best method for sampling metals and DOC in porewater. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;9999:1-10. Published 2017 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. Published 2017 Wiley Periodicals Inc., on behalf of SETAC.

  9. Study of DNA extraction methods for use in loop-mediated isothermal amplification detection of single resting cysts in the toxic dinoflagellates Alexandrium tamarense and A. catenella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Keigo; Hata, Naotugu; Itakura, Shigeru

    2012-09-01

    In a previous study, we experienced instable amplification and a low amplification success in loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) reactions from naturally occurring vegetative cells or resting cysts of the toxic dinoflagellates Alexandrium tamarense and Alexandrium catenella. In this study, we examined 4 methods for extracting DNA from single resting cysts of A. tamarense and A. catenella to obtain more stable and better amplification success and to facilitate unambiguous detection using the LAMP method. Apart from comparing the 4 different DNA extraction methods, namely, (1) boiling in Tris-EDTA (TE) buffer, (2) heating at 65 °C in hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide buffer, (3) boiling in 0.5% Chelex buffer, and (4) boiling in 5% Chelex buffer, we also examined the need for homogenization to crush the resting cysts before DNA extraction in each method. Homogenization of resting cysts was found to be essential for DNA extraction in all 4 methods. The detection time was significantly shorter in 5% Chelex buffer than in the other buffers and the amplification success was 100% (65/65), indicating the importance of DNA extraction and the effectiveness of 5% Chelex buffer in the Alexandrium LAMP.

  10. Microalgae based biorefinery: evaluation of oil extraction methods in terms of efficiency, costs, toxicity and energy in lab-scale

    OpenAIRE

    Ángel Darío González-Delgado; Viatcheslav Kafarov

    2013-01-01

    Several alternatives of microalgal metabolites extraction and transformation are being studied for achieving the total utilization of this energy crop of great interest worldwide. Microalgae oil extraction is a key stage in microalgal biodiesel production chains and their efficiency affects significantly the global process efficiency. In this study, a comparison of five oil extraction methods in lab-scale was made taking as additional parameters, besides extraction efficiency, the costs of me...

  11. Impact of reconstruction methods and pathological factors on survival after pancreaticoduodenectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Binziad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surgery remains the mainstay of therapy for pancreatic head (PH and periampullary carcinoma (PC and provides the only chance of cure. Improvements of surgical technique, increased surgical experience and advances in anesthesia, intensive care and parenteral nutrition have substantially decreased surgical complications and increased survival. We evaluate the effects of reconstruction type, complications and pathological factors on survival and quality of life. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study to evaluate the impact of various reconstruction methods of the pancreatic remnant after pancreaticoduodenectomy and the pathological characteristics of PC patients over 3.5 years. Patient characteristics and descriptive analysis in the three variable methods either with or without stent were compared with Chi-square test. Multivariate analysis was performed with the logistic regression analysis test and multinomial logistic regression analysis test. Survival rate was analyzed by use Kaplan-Meier test. Results: Forty-one consecutive patients with PC were enrolled. There were 23 men (56.1% and 18 women (43.9%, with a median age of 56 years (16 to 70 years. There were 24 cases of PH cancer, eight cases of PC, four cases of distal CBD cancer and five cases of duodenal carcinoma. Nine patients underwent duct-to-mucosa pancreatico jejunostomy (PJ, 17 patients underwent telescoping pancreatico jejunostomy (PJ and 15 patients pancreaticogastrostomy (PG. The pancreatic duct was stented in 30 patients while in 11 patients, the duct was not stented. The PJ duct-to-mucosa caused significantly less leakage, but longer operative and reconstructive times. Telescoping PJ was associated with the shortest hospital stay. There were 5 postoperative mortalities, while postoperative morbidities included pancreatic fistula-6 patients, delayed gastric emptying in-11, GI fistula-3, wound infection-12, burst abdomen-6 and pulmonary infection-2. Factors

  12. Human Toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolliet, Olivier; Fantke, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reviews the human toxicological impacts of chemicals and how to assess these impacts in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA), in order to identify key processes and pollutants. The complete cause-effect pathway – from emissions of toxic substances up to damages on human health...... on characterisation factors means that results should by default be reported and interpreted in log scales when comparing scenarios or substance contribution! We conclude by outlining future trends in human toxicity modelling for LCIA, with promising developments for (a) better estimates of degradation halflives, (b......) the inclusion of ionization of chemicals in human exposure including bioaccumulation, (c) metal speciation, (d) spatialised models to differentiate the variability associated with spatialisation from the uncertainty, and (e) the assessment of chemical exposure via consumer products and occupational settings...

  13. An overview of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid: pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, toxic effects, addiction, analytical methods, and interpretation of results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, H; Aydin, B E; Mueller, A; Iwersen-Bergmann, S

    2011-09-01

    Abuse of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) has been known since the early 1990's, but is not as widespread as the consumption of other illegal drugs. However, the number of severe intoxications with fatal outcomes is comparatively high; not the least of which is brought about by the consumption of the currently legal precursor substances gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD). In regards to previous assumptions, addiction to GHB or its analogues can occur with severe symptoms of withdrawal. Moreover, GHB can be used for drug-facilitated sexual assaults. Its pharmacological effects are generated mainly by interaction with both GABA(B) and GHB receptors, as well as its influence on other transmitter systems in the human brain. Numerous analytical methods for determining GHB using chromatographic techniques were published in recent years, and an enzymatic screening method was established. However, the short window of GHB detection in blood or urine due to its rapid metabolism is a challenge. Furthermore, despite several studies addressing this problem, evaluation of analytical results can be difficult: GHB is a metabolite of GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid); a differentiation between endogenous and exogenous concentrations has to be made. Apart from this, in samples with a longer storage interval and especially in postmortem specimens, higher levels can be measured due to GHB generation during this postmortem interval or storage time.

  14. Studies on the Quantitative Structure-activity Relationship of Toxicity of Chlorophenol Serial Compounds in the ab initio Methods and Substitutive Position of Chlorine Atom (NPCS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Qing; WANG Lian-Sheng

    2007-01-01

    20 Quantum chemical parameters of chlorophenol compounds were fully optimized by using B3LYP method on both 6-31G* and 6-311G* basis sets. These structural parameters are taken as theoretical descriptors, and the experimental data of 20 compounds' aquatic photogen toxicity(-1gEC50) are used to perform stepwise regression in order to obtain two predicted -lgEC50 correlation models whose correlation coefficients R2 are respectively 0.9186 and 0.9567. In addition, parameters of chlorine atom's substitutive positions and their correlations (NPCs) are taken as descriptors to obtain another predicted -1gEC50 model with the correlation coefficient R2 of 0.9444. Correlation degree of each independent variable in the three models is verified by using variance inflation factors (VIF) and t value. In the cross-validation method, cross-validation coefficients q2 of 3 models are respectively 0.8748, 0.9119 and 0.8993, which indicates that the relativity and prediction ability of this model are superior to those of the model obtained by topological and BLYP methods.

  15. An ultrasound-assisted digestion method for the determination of toxic element concentrations in ash samples by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilander, Aki; Väisänen, Ari

    2007-10-29

    A method of ultrasound-assisted digestion followed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) used for the determination of toxic element concentrations (arsenic, barium, cobalt, copper, lead, nickel, strontium, vanadium and zinc) in ash samples was developed. All the measurements were performed in robust plasma conditions which were tested by measuring the Mg(II) 280.270 nm/Mg(I) 285.213 nm line intensity ratios. The highest line intensity ratios were observed when a nebulizer gas flow of 0.6 L min(-1), auxiliary gas flow of 0.2 L min(-1) and plasma power of 1400 W were used for radially viewed plasma. The analysis of SRM 1633b showed that the ultrasound-assisted method developed is highly comparable with the microwave digestion method standardized by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA-3052). The ultrasound-assisted digestion with a digestion solution of aqua regia and hydrofluoric acid (HF) resulted in recovery rates of over 81%. One exception is arsenic which resulted in recoveries of about 60% only; however, it could be digested with good recovery (>90%) using a digestion solution of 5 mL of water and 5 mL of aqua regia. The major advantage of the ultrasound-assisted digestion over microwave digestion is the high treatment rate (30 samples simultaneously with a sonication time of 18 min).

  16. The toxicity of refrigerants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calm, J.M.

    1996-07-01

    This paper presents toxicity data and exposure limits for refrigerants. The data address both acute (short-term, single exposure) and chronic (long-term, repeated exposure) effects, with emphasis on the former. The refrigerants covered include those in common use for the last decade, those used as components in alternatives, and selected candidates for future replacements. The paper also reviews the toxicity indicators used in both safety standards and building, mechanical, and fire codes. It then outlines current classification methods for refrigerant safety and relates them to standard and code usage.

  17. Direct determination of potentially toxic elements in rice by SS-GF AAS: development of methods and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Daniel Menezes; Nomura, Cassiana Seimi

    2013-07-03

    The development of methods for direct determinations of Al, Cd, and Pb in rice by SS-GF AAS is presented. Heating program optimization associated with the use of an adequate chemical modifier containing Pd + Mg allowed direct analysis against aqueous calibrations. The obtained LOD values were 114.0, 3.0, and 16.0 μg kg⁻¹ for Al, Cd, and Pb, respectively. Important parameters associated with a solid sampling analysis were investigated, such as minimum and maximum sample mass size and analyte segregation. Seventeen rice samples available in São Paulo City were analyzed, and all of them presented analyte mass fractions less than the maximum allowed by legislation. The influences of rice washing and the cooking procedure were also investigated. The washing procedure diminished the Al and Pb total mass fractions, indicating an exogenous grain contamination. The cooking procedure diminished the Cd total mass fraction. Rice cooking using an aluminum container did not cause a significant increase in the Al mass fraction in the rice, indicating no translocation of this element from container to food. In general, coarse rice presented higher levels of Al when compared to polished or parabolized rice.

  18. Thermal Stress and Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevating ambient temperature above thermoneutrality exacerbates toxicity of most air pollutants, insecticides, and other toxic chemicals. On the other hand, safety and toxicity testing of toxicants and drugs is usually performed in mice and rats maintained at subthermoneutral te...

  19. Enhanced toxic cloud knockdown spray system for decontamination applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betty, Rita G [Rio Rancho, NM; Tucker, Mark D [Albuquerque, NM; Brockmann, John E [Albuquerque, NM; Lucero, Daniel A [Albuquerque, NM; Levin, Bruce L [Tijeras, NM; Leonard, Jonathan [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-09-06

    Methods and systems for knockdown and neutralization of toxic clouds of aerosolized chemical or biological warfare (CBW) agents and toxic industrial chemicals using a non-toxic, non-corrosive aqueous decontamination formulation.

  20. Monitoring bioaccumulation and toxic effects of hexachlorobenzene using the polyurethane foam unit method in the microbial communities of the Fuhe River, Wuhan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ting; CHEN Zhu-lei; SHEN Yun-fen; GAN Lu; CAO Li; LV Zi-zhong

    2007-01-01

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is a chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbon that was widely used for seed dressing in prevention of fungal growth on crops, and also as a component of fireworks, ammunition, and synthetic rubbers. Because of its resistance to degradation and mobility, HCB is widely distributed throughout the environment and is accumulated through food chains in different ecosystems. In this study, a preliminary investigation was carried out on the bioaccumulation and the toxic effects of HCB in the microbial (protozoan in particular) communities in the Fuhe River, Wuhan, a water body receiving industrial wastewaters containing HCB and other pollutants, using the standardized polyurethane foam units (PFU) method. Field samples were taken from eight stations established along the Fuhe River in January and August 2006. The concentration ratios of HCB in microbial communities and in water were 9.66-18.64, and the microbial communities accumulated 13.29-56.88 μg/L of HCB in January and 0.82-10.25 μg/L HCB in August. Correlation analysis showed a negative correlation between the HCB contents in the microbial assemblage, and the number of species and the diversity index of the protozoan communities. This study demonstrated the applicability of the PFU method in monitoring the effects of HCB on the level of microbial communities.

  1. Determination of triazine herbicides: development of an electroanalytical method utilizing a solid amalgam electrode that minimizes toxic waste residues, and a comparative study between voltammetric and chromatographic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Souza, Djenaine; de Toledo, Renata A; Galli, Andressa; Salazar-Banda, Giancarlo R; Silva, Maria R C; Garbellini, Gustavo S; Mazo, Luiz H; Avaca, Luis A; Machado, Sergio A S

    2007-03-01

    The use of a copper solid amalgam electrode (CuSAE) for the analytical determination of triazine herbicides (atrazine and ametryne) instead of the conventional hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE) is reported. The results obtained using electroanalytical methods utilizing each of these electrodes were also compared with those provided by the HPLC technique. The results indicated that the CuSAE electrode can be used to detect the herbicides studied, since the detection limits reached using the electrode (3.06 microg L-1 and 3.78 microg L-1 for atrazine and ametryne, respectively) are lower than the maximum values permitted by CONAMA (Brazilian National Council for the Environment) for wastewaters (50 microg L-1) and by the US EPA (Environmental Protection Agency of the United States) in natural water samples (10.00 microg L-1). An electroanalytical methodology employing CuSAE and square wave voltammetry (SWV) was successfully applied to the determination of atrazine and ametryne in natural water samples, yielding good recoveries (70.30%-79.40%). This indicates that the CuSAE provides a convenient substitute for the HMDE, particularly since the CuSAE minimizes the toxic waste residues produced by the use of mercury in HDME-based analyses.

  2. Direct synthesis of mesoporous molecular sieves of Ni-SBA-16 by internal pH adjustment method and its performance for adsorption of toxic Brilliant Green dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Tufail Shah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An ordered mesoporous novel material Ni-SBA-16 has been synthesized by internal pH-adjustment method. The synthesized material has been characterized by small angle XRD (SXRD, wide angle XRD (WXRD, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HRTEM, Fourier-transform Infra-red (FTIR spectroscope and Nitrogen Adsorption desorption techniques. The characterization results have shown that material possesses highly ordered mesostructure with high surface area (736 m2/g and large pore diameter (3.8 nm. FTIR and WXRD spectra revealed that nickel was uniformly dispersed on SBA-16 surface. The synthesized material has been used as adsorbent for removal of toxic Brilliant Green dye due to its large surface area and pore size. At optimized conditions, almost 100% of Brilliant Green dye was removed from aqueous solution by Ni-SBA-16. The isotherms analysis indicates that the Langmuir and Hill models provide the best correlation of the experimental data. The maximum adsorption capacity (qmax of Ni-SBA-16 for Brilliant Green dye was 322.58 mg/g.

  3. A novel framework for predicting in vivo toxicities from in vitro data using optimal methods for dense and sparse matrix reordering and logistic regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMaggio, Peter A; Subramani, Ashwin; Judson, Richard S; Floudas, Christodoulos A

    2010-11-01

    In this work, we combine the strengths of mixed-integer linear optimization (MILP) and logistic regression for predicting the in vivo toxicity of chemicals using only their measured in vitro assay data. The proposed approach utilizes a biclustering method based on iterative optimal reordering (DiMaggio, P. A., McAllister, S. R., Floudas, C. A., Feng, X. J., Rabinowitz, J. D., and Rabitz, H. A. (2008). Biclustering via optimal re-ordering of data matrices in systems biology: rigorous methods and comparative studies. BMC Bioinformatics 9, 458-474.; DiMaggio, P. A., McAllister, S. R., Floudas, C. A., Feng, X. J., Rabinowitz, J. D., and Rabitz, H. A. (2010b). A network flow model for biclustering via optimal re-ordering of data matrices. J. Global. Optim. 47, 343-354.) to identify biclusters corresponding to subsets of chemicals that have similar responses over distinct subsets of the in vitro assays. The biclustering of the in vitro assays is shown to result in significant clustering based on assay target (e.g., cytochrome P450 [CYP] and nuclear receptors) and type (e.g., downregulated BioMAP and biochemical high-throughput screening protein kinase activity assays). An optimal method based on mixed-integer linear optimization for reordering sparse data matrices (DiMaggio, P. A., McAllister, S. R., Floudas, C. A., Feng, X. J., Li, G. Y., Rabinowitz, J. D., and Rabitz, H. A. (2010a). Enhancing molecular discovery using descriptor-free rearrangement clustering techniques for sparse data sets. AIChE J. 56, 405-418.; McAllister, S. R., DiMaggio, P. A., and Floudas, C. A. (2009). Mathematical modeling and efficient optimization methods for the distance-dependent rearrangement clustering problem. J. Global. Optim. 45, 111-129) is then applied to the in vivo data set (21.7% sparse) in order to cluster end points that have similar lowest effect level (LEL) values, where it is observed that the end points are effectively clustered according to (1) animal species (i.e., the

  4. Attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB methods decimate populations of Anopheles malaria vectors in arid environments regardless of the local availability of favoured sugar-source blossoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beier John C

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB methods are a new and promising "attract and kill" strategy for mosquito control. Sugar-feeding female and male mosquitoes attracted to ATSB solutions, either sprayed on plants or in bait stations, ingest an incorporated low-risk toxin such as boric acid and are killed. This field study in the arid malaria-free oasis environment of Israel compares how the availability of a primary natural sugar source for Anopheles sergentii mosquitoes: flowering Acacia raddiana trees, affects the efficacy of ATSB methods for mosquito control. Methods A 47-day field trial was conducted to compare impacts of a single application of ATSB treatment on mosquito densities and age structure in isolated uninhabited sugar-rich and sugar-poor oases relative to an untreated sugar-rich oasis that served as a control. Results ATSB spraying on patches of non-flowering vegetation around freshwater springs reduced densities of female An. sergentii by 95.2% in the sugar-rich oasis and 98.6% in the sugar-poor oasis; males in both oases were practically eliminated. It reduced daily survival rates of female An. sergentii from 0.77 to 0.35 in the sugar-poor oasis and from 0.85 to 0.51 in the sugar-rich oasis. ATSB treatment reduced the proportion of older more epidemiologically dangerous mosquitoes (three or more gonotrophic cycles by 100% and 96.7%, respectively, in the sugar-poor and sugar-rich oases. Overall, malaria vectorial capacity was reduced from 11.2 to 0.0 in the sugar-poor oasis and from 79.0 to 0.03 in the sugar-rich oasis. Reduction in vector capacity to negligible levels days after ATSB application in the sugar-poor oasis, but not until after 2 weeks in the sugar-rich oasis, show that natural sugar sources compete with the applied ATSB solutions. Conclusion While readily available natural sugar sources delay ATSB impact, they do not affect overall outcomes because the high frequency of sugar feeding by mosquitoes

  5. Rapid method using two microbial enzymes for detection of L-abrine in food as a marker for the toxic protein abrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Anthony G; Carrasquillo, Kelvin; Rivera, Luis; Xu, Lei; Wackett, Lawrence P; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2015-03-01

    Abrin is a toxic protein produced by the ornamental plant Abrus precatorius, and it is of concern as a biothreat agent. The small coextracting molecule N-methyl-l-tryptophan (l-abrine) is specific to members of the genus Abrus and thus can be used as a marker for the presence or ingestion of abrin. Current methods for the detection of abrin or l-abrine in foods and other matrices require complex sample preparation and expensive instrumentation. To develop a fast and portable method for the detection of l-abrine in beverages and foods, the Escherichia coli proteins N-methyltryptophan oxidase (MTOX) and tryptophanase were expressed and purified. The two enzymes jointly degraded l-abrine to products that included ammonia and indole, and colorimetric assays for the detection of those analytes in beverage and food samples were evaluated. An indole assay using a modified version of Ehrlich's/Kovac's reagent was more sensitive and less subject to negative interferences from components in the samples than the Berthelot ammonia assay. The two enzymes were added into food and beverage samples spiked with l-abrine, and indole was detected as a degradation product, with the visual lower detection limit being 2.5 to 10.0 μM (∼0.6 to 2.2 ppm) l-abrine in the samples tested. Results could be obtained in as little as 15 min. Sample preparation was limited to pH adjustment of some samples. Visual detection was found to be about as sensitive as detection with a spectrophotometer, especially in milk-based matrices.

  6. Systemic Approach for Health Risk Assessment of Ambient Air Concentrations of Benzene in Petrochemical Environments: Integration of Fuzzy Logic, Artificial Neural Network, and IRIS Toxicity Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novin, Vahid; Givehchi, Saeed; Hoveidi, Hassan

    2016-09-01

    Reliable methods are crucial to cope with uncertainties in the risk analysis process. The aim of this study is to develop an integrated approach to assessing risks of benzene in the petrochemical plant that produces benzene. We offer an integrated system to contribute imprecise variables into the health risk calculation. The project was conducted in Asaluyeh, southern Iran during the years from 2013 to 2014. Integrated method includes fuzzy logic and artificial neural networks. Each technique had specific computational properties. Fuzzy logic was used for estimation of absorption rate. Artificial neural networks can decrease the noise of the data so applied for prediction of benzene concentration. First, the actual exposure was calculated then it combined with Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) toxicity factors to assess real health risks. High correlation between the measured and predicted benzene concentration was achieved (R(2)= 0.941). As for variable distribution, the best estimation of risk in a population implied 33% of workers exposed less than 1×10(-5) and 67% inserted between 1.0×10(-5) to 9.8×10(-5) risk levels. The average estimated risk of exposure to benzene for entire work zones is equal to 2.4×10(-5), ranging from 1.5×10(-6) to 6.9×10(-5). The integrated model is highly flexible as well as the rules possibly will be changed according to the necessities of the user in a different circumstance. The measured exposures can be duplicated well through proposed model and realistic risk assessment data will be produced.

  7. 化学农药对蜜蜂的急性毒性测定方法与危害评价%Hazard assessment and methods to measure the acute toxicity of chemical pesticides to bees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗术东; 安建东; 李继莲; 黄家兴; 彭文君; 吴杰

    2009-01-01

    Pollinators, such as honeybees and bumble bees, are crucial to the harvest. During their foraging behavior, bees are also exposed to the risk of poisoning due to chemical pesticide treatments. At the same time, they are also very sensitive to chemical pesticides for its morphological and ethological features, therefore, it is very important to assess the hazard of pesticides on bees systematic and measure the toxicity of pesticides to bees for bee protection and new pesticides exploitation. Many measuring methods were used to investigate the toxicity of pesticides to bees, among which acute toxicity bioassays were the main ones. All kinds of measuring methods are summed up from two aspects----the acute toxicity of pesticides to bees(acute oral toxicity and acute contact toxicity) and the hazard assessments of pesticides on bees and the hazard assessment was simply introduced.%蜜蜂独特的生物学特性决定了它对化学农药的危害十分敏感,因此,精确地测定化学农药对蜜蜂的毒性和评价化学农药对蜜蜂的危害,对保护蜜蜂等非靶标生物和新农药的开发与推广都具有重要作用.在众多测定化学农药对蜜蜂的毒性方法中,急性毒性的测定是最主要的手段,是评价化学农药对蜜蜂危害的基础.从急性经口毒性和急性触杀毒性两方面综述了化学农药对蜜蜂的急性毒性测定方法和危害评价体系.

  8. Retention in Care among HIV-Infected Adults in Ethiopia, 2005- 2011: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yordanos M Tiruneh

    Full Text Available Poor retention in HIV care challenges the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART. This study assessed how well patients stay in care and explored factors associated with retention in the context of an initial ART rollout in Sub-Saharan Africa.We conducted a mixed-methods study at a teaching hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A cohort of 385 patients was followed for a median of 4.6 years from ART initiation to lost-to-follow-up (LTFU-missing appointments for more than three months after last scheduled visit or administrative censoring. We used Kaplan-Meier plots to describe LTFU over time and Cox-regression models to identify factors associated with being LTFU. We held six focus group discussions, each with 6-11 patients enrolled in care; we analyzed data inductively informed by grounded theory.Patients in the cohort were predominantly female (64% and the median age was 34 years. Thirty percent were LTFU by study's end; the median time to LTFU was 1,675 days. Higher risk of LTFU was associated with baseline CD4 counts 200 cells/μL (HR = 1.62; 95% CI:1.03-2.55; and HR = 2.06; 95% CI:1.15-3.70, respectively, compared with patients with baseline CD4 counts of 100-200 cells/μL. Bedridden participants at ART initiation (HR = 2.05; 95% CIs [1.11-3.80] and those with no or only primary education (HR = 1.50; 95% CIs [1.00-2.24] were more likely to be LTFU. Our qualitative data revealed that fear of stigma, care dissatisfaction, use of holy water, and economic constraints discouraged retention in care. Social support and restored health and functional ability motivated retention.Complex socio-cultural, economic, and health-system factors inhibit optimum patient retention. Better tracking, enhanced social support, and regular adherence counseling addressing stigma and alternative healing options are needed. Intervention strategies aimed at changing clinic routines and improving patient-provider communication could address many of the identified barriers.

  9. Toxic Amblyopia (Nutritional Amblyopia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Finds Additional Content Medical News Toxic Amblyopia (Nutritional Amblyopia) By James Garrity, MD, Whitney and Betty MacMillan ... Neuropathies) Ischemic Optic Neuropathy Optic Neuritis Papilledema Toxic Amblyopia Toxic amblyopia is damage to the optic nerve ...

  10. Phase 1 Study of Erlotinib Plus Radiation Therapy in Patients With Advanced Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heath, C. Hope; Deep, Nicholas L.; Nabell, Lisle; Carroll, William R.; Desmond, Renee; Clemons, Lisa; Spencer, Sharon; Magnuson, J. Scott [Division of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama (United States); Rosenthal, Eben L., E-mail: oto@uab.edu [Division of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To assess the toxicity profile of erlotinib therapy combined with postoperative adjuvant radiation therapy in patients with advanced cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Methods and Materials: This was a single-arm, prospective, phase 1 open-label study of erlotinib with radiation therapy to treat 15 patients with advanced cutaneous head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma. Toxicity data were summarized, and survival was analyzed with the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The majority of patients were male (87%) and presented with T4 disease (93%). The most common toxicity attributed to erlotinib was a grade 2-3 dermatologic reaction occurring in 100% of the patients, followed by mucositis (87%). Diarrhea occurred in 20% of the patients. The 2-year recurrence rate was 26.7%, and mean time to cancer recurrence was 10.5 months. Two-year overall survival was 65%, and disease-free survival was 60%. Conclusions: Erlotinib and radiation therapy had an acceptable toxicity profile in patients with advanced cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. The disease-free survival in this cohort was comparable to that in historical controls.

  11. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for low-risk prostate cancer: five-year outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King Christopher R

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Hypofractionated, stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT is an emerging treatment approach for prostate cancer. We present the outcomes for low-risk prostate cancer patients with a median follow-up of 5 years after SBRT. Method and Materials Between Dec. 2003 and Dec. 2005, a pooled cohort of 41 consecutive patients from Stanford, CA and Naples, FL received SBRT with CyberKnife for clinically localized, low-risk prostate cancer. Prescribed dose was 35-36.25 Gy in five fractions. No patient received hormone therapy. Kaplan-Meier biochemical progression-free survival (defined using the Phoenix method and RTOG toxicity outcomes were assessed. Results At a median follow-up of 5 years, the biochemical progression-free survival was 93% (95% CI = 84.7% to 100%. Acute side effects resolved within 1-3 months of treatment completion. There were no grade 4 toxicities. No late grade 3 rectal toxicity occurred, and only one late grade 3 genitourinary toxicity occurred following repeated urologic instrumentation. Conclusion Five-year results of SBRT for localized prostate cancer demonstrate the efficacy and safety of shorter courses of high dose per fraction radiation delivered with SBRT technique. Ongoing clinical trials are underway to further explore this treatment approach.

  12. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Re-irradiation of Persistent or Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trovo, Marco, E-mail: marcotrovo33@hotmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico of Aviano, Pordenone (Italy); Minatel, Emilio; Durofil, Elena [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico of Aviano, Pordenone (Italy); Polesel, Jerry [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico of Aviano, Pordenone (Italy); Avanzo, Michele [Department of Medical Physics, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico of Aviano, Pordenone (Italy); Baresic, Tania [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico of Aviano, Pordenone (Italy); Bearz, Alessandra [Department of Medical Oncology, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico of Aviano, Pordenone (Italy); Del Conte, Alessandro [Department of Medical Oncology, Pordenone General Hospital, Aviano, Pordenone (Italy); Franchin, Giovanni; Gobitti, Carlo; Rumeileh, Imad Abu; Trovo, Mauro G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico of Aviano, Pordenone (Italy)

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively assess toxicity and outcome of re-irradiation with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in patients with recurrent or persistent non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), who were previously treated with radical radiation therapy (50-60 Gy). The secondary endpoint was to investigate whether there are dosimetric parameter predictors of severe radiation toxicity. Methods and Materials: The analysis was conducted in 17 patients with “in-field” recurrent/persistent centrally located NSCLC, who underwent re-irradiation with SBRT. SBRT consisted of 30 Gy in 5 to 6 fractions; these prescriptions would be equivalent for the tumor to 37.5 to 40 Gy, bringing the total 2-Gy-per-fraction cumulative dose to 87 to 100 Gy, considering the primary radiation therapy treatment. Actuarial analyses and survival were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and P values were estimated by the log-rank test, starting from the date of completion of SBRT. Dosimetric parameters from the subgroups with and without grade ≥3 pulmonary toxicity were compared using a 2-tailed Student t test. Results: The median follow-up was 18 months (range, 4-57 months). Only 2 patients had local failure, corresponding to a local control rate of 86% at 1 year. The Kaplan-Meier estimates of overall survival (OS) rates at 1 and 2 years were 59% and 29%, respectively; the median OS was 19 months. Four patients (23%) experienced grade 3 radiation pneumonitis, and 1 patient developed fatal pneumonitis. One patient died of fatal hemoptysis 2 months after the completion of SBRT. Unexpectedly, heart maximum dose, D5 (minimum dose to at least 5% of the heart volume), and D10 were correlated with risk of radiation pneumonitis (P<.05). Conclusions: Re-irradiation with SBRT for recurrent/persistent centrally located NSCLC achieves excellent results in terms of local control. However, the high rate of severe toxicity reported in our study is of concern.

  13. [A system for predicting the toxicity and hazard of chemical substances, based on the joint use of logistic and numerical methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharchevnikova, N V

    2005-01-01

    A version of a logical combinatorial intellectual system (DMS system) has been developed to predict the toxicity and hazards of chemical substances. The system is based on the combined description of the substances, which includes both structural and numerical descriptors, particularly those characterizing the reactivity of compounds or their metabolites. The selection of numerical descriptors is based on the classification of processes of the interaction of the substance with the body in accordance with the key stage of the mechanism responsible for its toxic action. The new version of the DSM system takes into account the fact that the toxicity and hazard of chemicals are frequently determined by their bioactivation. Examples of how to apply the system to the prediction of carcinogenicity are given.

  14. Distributed Structure Searchable Toxicity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Distributed Structure Searchable Toxicity (DSSTox) online resource provides high quality chemical structures and annotations in association with toxicity data....

  15. Developing and comparing two different prognostic indexes for predicting disease-free survival of nonmetastatic breast cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    TOKATLI, Zehra Füsun; Türe, Mevlüt; Ömürlü, İmran Kurt; ALAS, Ruşen Çoşar; Uzal, Mustafa Cem

    2011-01-01

    To determine 2 different prognostic indexes (PI) for the differentiation of subgroups of nonmetastatic breast cancer patients with the Cox regression analysis and survival tree (ST) methods and the additional usage of the Kaplan-Meier estimates to investigate the predictive power of these methods. Materials and methods: Prognostic factors data were collected for 410 patients. The Cox regression analysis examines the relationship of the survival distribution and covariates. The ST method is ...

  16. An omnibus CUSUM chart for monitoring time to event data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phinikettos, Ioannis; Gandy, Axel

    2014-07-01

    A non-parametric method is proposed for monitoring time-to-event data. A cumulative sum chart is constructed that is able to detect an unknown out-of-control state. This method exploits the absolute differences between the Kaplan-Meier estimator and the in-control distribution over specific time intervals. The efficiency of the algorithm is studied via a simulation and a real data study. The new method is also tested via the simulation study against existing methods.

  17. Temozolomide plus rituximab for elderly with relapsed primary central nervous system lymphoma%替莫唑胺联合利妥昔单抗对复发的老年原发中枢神经淋巴瘤的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingfeng Li; Gang Wu; Zhihua Sun; Jinghua Ren

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of our study was to analyze the long-term results of rituximab combined with temozolomide in treatment of elderly patients (> 60 years) with relapsed primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). Methods: Twelve postoperative elderly patients (> 60 years) were treated between August 2004 and October 2009. Temozolomide 100 mg/m2to 200 mg/m2 days 1 to 7 and 15 to 21 and rituximab 375 mg/m2 days 1,5, 8, 22. The maximum number of rituximab cycles was two. After one or two cycles of this combination, patients with an objective response and an acceptable level of toxicity continued treatment with single agent temozolomide (days 1 to 5, every 28 days). The overall survival was analyzed by using Kaplan-Meier. Results: The overall survival was 9 months. Toxicity was very mild with no grade 3-4 neurotoxicity toxic events. Conclusion: Rituximab combined with temozolomide seems to yields substantial long-term survival with moderate toxicity for the treatment of elderly relapsed PCNSL.

  18. Occurrence and purification on microcystis species. Chemistry and analysis method for toxic peptides produced by cyanobacteria; Aoko/sono hassei to joka taisaku. Aoko ga seisansuru yudoku pepuchido no kagaku to bunsekiho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, K. [Meijo Univ., Nagoya (Japan). Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science; Tsuji, K.; Kondo, F.

    1994-09-10

    The phenomena on a cacogenesis of the blue green algae in the lakes subjected to an eutrophication occur frequently at every places in the world, and therefore they become a serious environmental problem. Especially it is known that a part of the blue green algae produces a toxic compounds, and consequently the issues of this kind is made further complicated. One of the blue green algae occurring universally at every place in the world is the microcystis genus, and moreover it often produces the microcystin group which is a peptidic hepatic toxin. Because the microcystin was a strong hepatic toxin, the toxicity testes using the mice have been exclusively executed. However, because the constituents reached up to 50 items, and in addition a toxicity of each element is not necessarily same, it has been considered that a chemical analytical method to perform an accurate separation and a sure detection have been necessary. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is currently the most much used for an analysis of the microcystin. In order to detect the microcystin, the ultraviolet rays (UV) near 240 nm being its absorption maximum are being frequently used. However, a toxicity manifestation mechanism of the microcystin and so forth has not yet been elucidated. 24 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Toxic nephropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    2005244 Effect of acid suppression therapy for eradicating Helicobacter pylori infection on bismuth absorption from colloidal bismuth pectin. ZHANG Li(张莉) ,et al. Dept Gastroenterol, Beijing Friendship Hosp, Cap Univ Med Sci, Beijing 100050. Natl Med J Chin, 2005:85(4) :257-261. Objective: To investigate whether acid suppression therapy influences the absorption of bismuth from colloidal bismuth pectin (CBP). Methods: 48 male

  20. Preoperative chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pepek Joseph M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine toxicity and outcomes for patients treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT for gastric cancer. Methods Patients with gastroesophageal (GE junction (Siewert type II and III or gastric adenocarcinoma who underwent neoadjuvant CRT followed by planned surgical resection at Duke University between 1987 and 2009 were reviewed. Overall survival (OS, local control (LC and disease-free survival (DFS were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Toxicity was graded according to the Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. Results Forty-eight patients were included. Most (73% had proximal (GE junction, cardia and fundus tumors. Median radiation therapy dose was 45 Gy. All patients received concurrent chemotherapy. Thirty-six patients (75% underwent surgery. Pathologic complete response and R0 resection rates were 19% and 86%, respectively. Thirty-day surgical mortality was 6%. At 42 months median follow-up, 3-year actuarial OS was 40%. For patients undergoing surgery, 3-year OS, LC and DFS were 50%, 73% and 41%, respectively. Conclusions Preoperative CRT for gastric cancer is well tolerated with acceptable rates of perioperative morbidity and mortality. In this patient cohort with primarily advanced disease, OS, LC and DFS rates in resected patients are comparable to similarly staged, adjuvantly treated patients in randomized trials. Further study comparing neoadjuvant CRT to standard treatment approaches for gastric cancer is indicated.

  1. Sperm shape abnormalities induced by energy-related hydrocarbons and industrial chemicals. Progress report, January 1-June 30, 1979. [Methods of screening for toxic agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrobek, A.J.

    1979-07-23

    Using existing and new biological screening and testing systems, the presence of carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic and physiologic or metabolically toxic agents associated with coal and oil shale extraction, conversion or utilization was identified. The purpose of the study is to further develop and apply the detection of morphologically abnormal mammalian sperm as a rapid, simple, quantitative assay of the pathologic response of the male gonad to toxic agents associated with the recovery, process stream, and emission of nonnuclear sources of energy, with primary attention to substances from in situ coal gasification and in situ oil-shale extraction. Changes in mouse sperm head dimensions following low dose x-ray exposure have been compiled and analyzed.

  2. Feasibility study of the zebrafish assay as an alternative method to screen for developmental toxicity and embryotoxicity using a training set of 27 compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selderslaghs, Ingrid W T; Blust, Ronny; Witters, Hilda E

    2012-04-01

    To anticipate to increased testing needs for reproductive toxicity and 3R approaches, we studied zebrafish embryo/larva as an alternative for animal testing for developmental toxicity and embryotoxicity and evaluated a training set of 27 compounds with a standardized protocol. The classification of compounds in the zebrafish embryo/larva assay, based on a prediction model using a TI (teratogenic index) cut-off value of 2, was compared to available animal and human data. When comparing the classification of compounds in the zebrafish embryo/larva assay to available animal classification, a sensitivity of 72% and specificity of 100% were obtained. The predictive values obtained in comparison to a limited set of human data were 50, 60% respectively for teratogens, non-teratogens. Overall, we demonstrated that the zebrafish embryo/larva assay, may be used as screening tool for prioritization of compounds and could contribute to reduction of animal experiments in the field of developmental toxicology.

  3. Multiple bio-analytical methods to reveal possible molecular mechanisms of developmental toxicity in zebrafish embryos/larvae exposed to tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Zhihua [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse and School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Wang, Qiangwei [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China); Fu, Jie [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse and School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Chen, Hongshan [State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Wetland Ecology and Vegetation Restoration, School of the Environment, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Zhao, Ye [Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Zhou, Bingsheng [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China); Gong, Zhiyuan [Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Wei, Si; Li, Jun; Liu, Hongling; Zhang, Xiaowei [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse and School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Liu, Chunsheng, E-mail: liuchunshengidid@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse and School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore (Singapore); College of Fisheries, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Yu, Hongxia, E-mail: yuhx@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse and School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • TBEP exposure decreased the survival of zebrafish embryos/larvae. • TBEP exposure led to its bioconcentration in zebrafish lavare. • TBEP caused developmental toxicity by inhibiting the degradation and utilization of nutrients. • TBEP exposure caused developmental toxicity by inducing apoptosis. - Abstract: The flame retardant tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBEP) is a frequently detected contaminant in the environment, wildlife and human milk. The potentially toxic effects of TBEP and their underlying molecular mechanisms have not been elucidated. Here, zebrafish embryos were exposed to different concentrations of TBEP from 4 hours of post-fertilization (hpf) to 120 hpf, and effects on embryonic development and global protein expression patterns examined. Our results demonstrate that treatment with TBEP (0.8–100 mg/L) causes a concentration- and time-dependent decrease in embryonic survival and the hatching percentage. The median lethal concentration was 10.7 mg/L at 120 hpf. Furthermore, exposure to 150 or 800 μg/L TBEP inhibited the degradation and utilization of vitellogenins and down-regulated the expression of proteins related to cation binding, and lipid transport, uptake and metabolism, accompanied by a decrease in heart rate and body length. Exposure to TBEP (150 or 800 μg/L) also decreased the expression of proteins involved in cell proliferation and DNA repair, and led to an increased number of apoptotic cells in the tail region. Collectively, our results suggest that exposure to TBEP causes toxicity in the developing zebrafish by inhibiting the degradation and utilization of nutrients from the mother and inducing apoptosis.

  4. Efficacy and safety of the HAA regimen as induction chemotherapy in 236 de novo acute myeloid leukemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶佩佩

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the HAA regimen (homoharringtonine,cytarabine and aclarubicin) as induction chemotherapy in de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) .Methods The efficacy and safety of 236 de novo AML patients who received the HAA regimen as induction chemotherapy were retrospectively analyzed.The complete remission (CR) rate was assayed.Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate overall survival (OS) and relapse free survival (RFS) ,and the differ-

  5. Intra-arterial administration of carboplatin plus lower dosage radiation of {sup 60}CO as induction treatment in advanced oral cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okutomi, Tadashi; Kato, Yukihiro; Ichihara, Hideki; Kusunoki, Yukihiro; Hatakeyama, Daijiro; Yokoyama, Kyoko; Tatematsu, Norichika [Gifu Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Liu, Jianhua

    2000-11-01

    Conventional pre-operative chemoradiotherapy often causes severe side effects, which may result in interruption of the treatment and delay of decided operation. Carboplatin (CBDCA) is one of the effective chemotherapeutants for head and neck cancer. We treated 23 patients with advanced oral cancers by a combination of intra-arterial administration of Carboplatin and {sup 60}CO radiotherapy. The dosage of Carboplatin was between 20 mg and 35 mg per square meter of body surface. The dosage of external {sup 60}CO irradiation was 2 Gy per day and 30 to 60 Gy in total. We evaluated clinical response, toxicity and survival of this therapy of all the patients. Histologic response was also evaluated in some of them. All cancers responded to the regional chemoradiotherapy and demonstrated remission. Two (8%) completed response rate (CR) and 16 (69%) partial response rate (PR) were achieved. The accumulated five-year overall survival rate by Kaplan-Meier method was 73.9%. Fourteen patients (60.8%) showed no evidence of disease (NED) within five years after the therapy. All patients had stomatitis, but most of them were not so severe. The major hematological toxicity was leukopenia, but it was from mild to moderate and reversible. Our study showed that this therapy provided low toxicity, high clinical and histological response rate. (author)

  6. Development and optimisation of a generic micro LC-ESI-MS method for the qualitative and quantitative determination of 30-mer toxic gliadin peptides in wheat flour for food analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatansever, Bilgin; Muñoz, Amalia; Klein, Christoph L; Reinert, Knut

    2017-02-01

    We sometimes see manufactured bakery products on the market which are labelled as being gluten free. Why is the content of such gluten proteins of importance for the fabrication of bakery industry and for the products? The gluten proteins represent up to 80 % of wheat proteins, and they are conventionally subdivided into gliadins and glutenins. Gliadins belong to the proline and glutamine-rich prolamin family. Its role in human gluten intolerance, as a consequence of its harmful effects, is well documented in the scientific literature. The only known therapy so far is a gluten-free diet, and hence, it is important to develop robust and reliable analytical methods to quantitatively assess the presence of the identified peptides causing the so-called coeliac disease. This work describes the development of a new, fast and robust micro ion pair-LC-MS analytical method for the qualitative and quantitative determination of 30-mer toxic gliadin peptides in wheat flour. The use of RapiGest™ SF as a denaturation reagent prior to the enzymatic digestion showed to shorten the measuring time. During the optimisation of the enzymatic digestion step, the best 30-mer toxic peptide was identified from the maximum recovery after 3 h of digestion time. The lower limit of quantification was determined to be 0.25 ng/μL. The method has shown to be linear for the selected concentration range of 0.25-3.0 ng/μL. The uncertainty related to reproducibility of measurement procedure, excluding the extraction step, has shown to be 5.0 % (N = 12). Finally, this method was successfully applied to the quantification of 30-mer toxic peptides from commercial wheat flour with an overall uncertainty under reproducibility conditions of 6.4 % including the extraction of the gliadin fraction. The results were always expressed as the average of the values from all standard concentrations. Subsequently, the final concentration of the 30-mer toxic peptide in the flour was calculated and

  7. Acute toxicity, haematological and histopathological assessment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lorke's method was used for the acute oral toxicity testing. ... differential blood cell counts were determined using automated haematology analyzer. Histological examination of major organs was done using John D Bancroft manual method.

  8. Lifetime Risk of Cardiovascular Disease Among Individuals With and Without Diabetes Stratified by Obesity Status in the Framingham Heart Study

    OpenAIRE

    Pencina, Michael J.; Wilson, Peter W. F.; Vasan, Ramachandran S; D’Agostino, Ralph B.; Fox, Caroline; Paynter, Nina Palanza

    2008-01-01

    Objective: We assessed the lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among individuals with and without obesity and diabetes. Research Design and Methods: Participants were drawn from the original and offspring cohorts of the Framingham Heart Study. Lifetime (30-year) risk of CVD was assessed using a modified Kaplan-Meier approach adjusting for the competing risk of death, beginning from age 50 years. Results: Over 30 years, the lifetime risk of CVD among women with diabetes was 54.8% amo...

  9. Syncytin immunoreactivity in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Julie Mou; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    monoclonal syncytin antibody we have assessed syncytin expression in a retrospective series of 140 colorectal cancer patients. Variable degrees of syncytin expression were detected in both colonic and rectal tumors and the prognostic impact of such expression was analysed with the Kaplan-Meier method...... and the Cox proportional hazard model. Interestingly, increased syncytin expression was associated with decreased overall survival in rectal but not in colonic cancer patients. Thus, the prognostic impact of syncytin expression appears to vary with the tumor type....

  10. Effects of Smoking on Menopausal Age: Results From the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007 to 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Hee Jung; Suh, Pae Sun; Kim, Soo Jeong; Lee, Soon Young

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Decreased fertility and impaired health owing to early menopause are significant health issues. Smoking is a modifiable health-related behavior that influences menopausal age. We investigated the effects of smoking-associated characteristics on menopausal age in Korean women. Methods: This study used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007 to 2012. Menopausal age in relation to smoking was analyzed as a Kaplan-Meier survival curve for 11 510 ...

  11. Duración del tratamiento con etanercept y razones de discontinuación en una cohorte de pacientes con patología reumática

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    [EN]: [Objective]: To evaluate the duration of etanercept (ETN) treatment and motives for discontinuation in our local cohort of patients with rheumatic pathology and compare them to the group with other biological treatments. [Patients and methods]: Prospective observational cohort study. Disease diagnosis, start and end date and motive for discontinuation were recorded. Survival estimation was explored using Kaplan-Meier analysis with remaining patients censored at 1-year, 2-years and 5-yea...

  12. A biological method for in-situ synthesis of hydroxyapatite-coated magnetite nanoparticles using Enterobacter aerogenes: Characterization and acute toxicity assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadzadeh, Elham; Talebnia Rowshan, Farid; Hosseini, Morteza

    2017-04-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) are being widely investigated for various applications in medical engineering and wastewater treatment. In this work, the MNPs were thoroughly coated by bacterial synthesized HA nanoparticles during biomineralization process using Enterobacter aerogenes. The resulting bacterial-induced precipitate was then calcined at 600°C and investigated with respect to structural characteristics, particle size and magnetic strength by XRD, FT-IR, SEM, EDS, TEM and VSM analyses. The effects of MNPs and HA-coated MNPs (HA-MNPs) on the viability of human MCF-7 cell lines were also investigated via mitochondrial activity test (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays. The powder characterization results showed appropriate structural properties for HA-MNPs samples. The particles diameter size of the MNPs and HA-MNPs were in the range of 3-25nm and 20-80nm, respectively. The biologically-synthesized HA-MNPs formed a stable suspension in water while keeping their magnetic property. The saturation magnetization (Ms) of HA-MNPs was measured at ~10emug(-1) which was in good agreement with the structural composition of this sample. Finally, the results of the cell lines viability indicated that coating of toxic MNPs via biomineralization was a promising approach in order to synthesize bio-compatible magnetic nanoparticles with suitable physical and chemical structural characteristics. The toxicity level of MNPs was reduced by 10 fold when coated by bacterial-synthesized HA.

  13. The chronic toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles and ZnCl2 to Daphnia magna and the use of different methods to assess nanoparticle aggregation and dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Nathalie; Schmitt, Claudia; Galceran, Josep; Companys, Encarna; Vakurov, Alexander; Wallace, Rachel; Knapen, Dries; Blust, Ronny

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the effect of ZnO nanoparticles and ZnCl2 on growth, reproduction and accumulation of zinc in Daphnia magna was determined in a 21-day chronic toxicity test. A variety of techniques were used to distinguish the free zinc ion, dissolved, nanoparticle and aggregated zinc fraction in the Daphnia test medium. The results showed similar chronic effects on growth, reproduction and accumulation for the ZnO nanoparticles (EC10, 20, 50 reproduction: 0.030, 0.049, 0.112 mg Zn/l) and the ZnCl2 (EC10, 20, 50 reproduction: 0.014, 0.027, 0.082 mg Zn/l). A large fraction of the nanoparticles rapidly dissolved after introduction in the exposure medium. Aggregation of nanoparticles was also observed but within 48 h of exposure most of these ZnO aggregates were dissolved. Based on the combined dissolution kinetics and toxicity results, it can be concluded that the toxicological effects of ZnO nanoparticles at the chronic level can be largely attributed to the dissolved fraction rather than the nanoparticles or initially formed aggregates.

  14. Method for Examining Acute Inhalation Toxicity of 44 Species of Indoor Coating%44种室内装潢涂料急性吸入毒性及检测方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡红; 周永贵; 李真观

    2001-01-01

    [Objective] This study was to establish a method for assessment of acute inhalation toxicity of coating,to explore the related factors affecting the toxicity of indoor coating,and to provide the technical basis for the safety and hygiene quality management of indoor coating. [Methods] The acute inhalation toxicity and total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC) were identified for 44 species in 6 categories of indoor coating,verifying the method of the measurement and assessment. [Results] The 44 species of indoor coating were classified according to both the acute inhalation toxicity and respiratory tract irritation,the aqueous coating such as emulsion paint etc belongs to class 0,the most of organic solvent coating to class Ⅱ or Ⅲ,and a few to Ⅳ. The certain kinds of coating can cause the damage of respiratory tract and lung tissue in degree from Ⅰ to Ⅱ in animal. The significant positive association was seen among the acute inhalation toxicity,respiratory tract irritation and the TVOC value of the coating. [Conclusion] Toxicity of the organic solvent coating is higher than that of the aqueous coating,and was related to the TVOC values. The toxicity of different kinds of coating can be efficiently identified by the acute inhalation toxicity classification and pathological findings described in this paper.%[目的] 建立涂料急性吸入毒性检测方法和评价标准,探讨影响室内装潢涂料毒性的有关因素,为室内装潢涂料安全卫生质量的管理提供技术依据。 [方法] 通过44种室内装潢涂料急性吸入毒性和总挥发性有机物(TVOC)含量的测试,验证上述测试及评价方法的科学性和可行性。 [结果] 检测了6大类44种涂料,其中乳胶漆等水性涂料急性吸入毒性和呼吸道刺激性均为0级;溶剂型涂料急性吸入毒性大多在Ⅱ至Ⅲ级,个别达到Ⅳ级,并引起实验动物呼吸道和肺组织Ⅰ~Ⅱ级损伤。涂料的急性

  15. 无细胞百日咳疫苗特异性毒性检测方法现状及展望%Current status and prospect of specific methods for determination of toxicity of an acellular pertussis vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏德菊; 郭林达

    2014-01-01

    百日咳毒素是百日咳杆菌重要的保护性抗原,经化学方法脱毒成为百日咳类毒素后制成的无细胞百日咳疫苗(acellular pertussis vaccine,APV)具有残余毒性和毒性逆转的可能性,所以建立特异性毒性检测方法对于保证APV的安全性是十分必要的.此文就国内外APV特异性毒性检测方法的现状做一综述,并结合近几年国外研究的毒性检测新方法进行展望.%Pertussis toxin (PT) is a major protective antigen of Bordetella pertussis and its detoxified form obtained by a chemical process is an important component of an acellular pertussis vaccine (APV).In view of the possibility of residual toxicity or toxicity reversion of PT in the vaccines,specific tests are required to assure safety of the vaccines.This paper reviews specific methods for determination of toxicity of APV and prospect of new tests in the world.

  16. Ototoxicity evaluation in medulloblastoma patients treated with involved field boost using intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT): a retrospective review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Ototoxicity is a known side effect of combined radiation therapy and cisplatin chemotherapy for the treatment of medulloblastoma. The delivery of an involved field boost by intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) may reduce the dose to the inner ear when compared with conventional radiotherapy. The dose of cisplatin may also affect the risk of ototoxicity. A retrospective study was performed to evaluate the impact of involved field boost using IMRT and cisplatin dose on the rate of ototoxicity. Methods Data from 41 medulloblastoma patients treated with IMRT were collected. Overall and disease-free survival rates were calculated by Kaplan-Meier method Hearing function was graded according to toxicity criteria of Pediatric Oncology Group (POG). Doses to inner ear and total cisplatin dose were correlated with hearing function by univariate and multivariate data analysis. Results After a mean follow-up of 44 months (range: 14 to 72 months), 37 patients remained alive, with two recurrences, both in spine with CSF involvement, resulting in a disease free-survival and overall survival of 85.2% and 90.2%, respectively. Seven patients (17%) experienced POG Grade 3 or 4 toxicity. Cisplatin dose was a significant factor for hearing loss in univariate analysis (p ototoxicity. Median radiation dose to auditory apparatus should be kept below 42 Gy. Cisplatin doses should not exceed 375 mg/m2. PMID:25041714

  17. Intraoperative Electron-Beam Radiation Therapy for Pediatric Ewing Sarcomas and Rhabdomyosarcomas: Long-Term Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sole, Claudio V., E-mail: csole@iram.cl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Instituto de Radiomedicina, Santiago (Chile); School of Medicine, Complutense University, Madrid (Spain); Calvo, Felipe A. [School of Medicine, Complutense University, Madrid (Spain); Department of Oncology, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid (Spain); Polo, Alfredo [Service of Radiation Oncology, Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal, Madrid (Spain); Cambeiro, Mauricio [Service of Radiation Oncology, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Gonzalez, Carmen [School of Medicine, Complutense University, Madrid (Spain); Service of Radiation Oncology, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid (Spain); Desco, Manuel [School of Medicine, Complutense University, Madrid (Spain); Department of Experimental Surgery and Medicine, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid (Spain); Martinez-Monge, Rafael [Service of Radiation Oncology, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain)

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: To assess long-term outcomes and toxicity of intraoperative electron-beam radiation therapy (IOERT) in the management of pediatric patients with Ewing sarcomas (EWS) and rhabdomyosarcomas (RMS). Methods and Materials: Seventy-one sarcoma (EWS n=37, 52%; RMS n=34, 48%) patients underwent IOERT for primary (n=46, 65%) or locally recurrent sarcomas (n=25, 35%) from May 1983 to November 2012. Local control (LC), overall survival (OS), and disease-free survival were estimated using Kaplan-Meier methods. For survival outcomes, potential associations were assessed in univariate and multivariate analyses using the Cox proportional hazards model. Results: After a median follow-up of 72 months (range, 4-310 months), 10-year LC, disease-free survival, and OS was 74%, 57%, and 68%, respectively. In multivariate analysis after adjustment for other covariates, disease status (P=.04 and P=.05) and R1 margin status (P<.01 and P=.04) remained significantly associated with LC and OS. Nine patients (13%) reported severe chronic toxicity events (all grade 3). Conclusions: A multimodal IOERT-containing approach is a well-tolerated component of treatment for pediatric EWS and RMS patients, allowing reduction or substitution of external beam radiation exposure while maintaining high local control rates.

  18. Toxicity of pyrolysis gases from synthetic polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, C. J.; Soriano, J. A.; Kosola, K. L.; Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The screening test method was used to investigate toxicity in polyethylene, polystyrene, polymethyl methacrylate, polyaryl sulfone, polyether sulfone, polyphenyl sulfone, and polyphenylene sulfide. Changing from a rising temperature program to a fixed temperature program resulted on shorter times to animal responses. This effect was attributed in part to more rapid generation of toxicants. The toxicants from the sulfur containing polymers appeared to act more rapidly than the toxicants from the other polymers. It was not known whether this effect was due primarily to difference in concentration or in the nature of the toxicants. The carbon monoxide concentration found did not account for the results observed with the sulfur containing polymers. Polyphenyl sulfone appeared to exhibit the least toxicity among the sulfur containing polymers evaluated under these test conditions.

  19. Renal toxicity of the anticancer drug fostriecin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, EGE; Meijer, S; Mulder, NH; de Jong, Paul; de Jong, Robert

    Purpose: Fostriecin is an inhibitor of topoisomerase II catalytic activity. In a phase I trial we observed renal toxicity, documented as a rise in serum creatinine, which was reversible and non-dose-limiting. The purpose of this study was a detailed analysis of this toxicity. Methods: A total of 20

  20. 40 CFR 261.24 - Toxicity characteristic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... characteristic of toxicity if, using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure, test Method 1311 in “Test...-49-2 1.0 D011 Silver 7440-22-4 5.0 D039 Tetrachloroethyl-ene 127-18-4 0.7 D015 Toxaphene 8001-35-2...

  1. A capture-recapture survival analysis model for radio-tagged animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, K.H.; Bunck, C.M.; Winterstein, S.R.; Chen, C.-L.; North, P.M.; Nichols, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, survival analysis of radio-tagged animals has developed using methods based on the Kaplan-Meier method used in medical and engineering applications (Pollock et al., 1989a,b). An important assumption of this approach is that all tagged animals with a functioning radio can be relocated at each sampling time with probability 1. This assumption may not always be reasonable in practice. In this paper, we show how a general capture-recapture model can be derived which allows for some probability (less than one) for animals to be relocated. This model is not simply a Jolly-Seber model because it is possible to relocate both dead and live animals, unlike when traditional tagging is used. The model can also be viewed as a generalization of the Kaplan-Meier procedure, thus linking the Jolly-Seber and Kaplan-Meier approaches to survival estimation. We present maximum likelihood estimators and discuss testing between submodels. We also discuss model assumptions and their validity in practice. An example is presented based on canvasback data collected by G. M. Haramis of Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland, USA.

  2. Adjuvant radiotherapy for gallbladder cancer: A dosimetric comparison of conformal radiotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Nan Sun; Qi Wang; Ben-Xing Gu; Yan-Hong Zhu; Jian-Bin Hu; Guo-Zhi Shi; Shu Zheng

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To assess the efficacy and toxicity of conformal radiotherapy (CRT) and compare with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in the treatment of gallbladder cancer.METHODS: Between November 2003 and January 2010, 20 patients with gallbladder cancer were treated with CRT with or without chemotherapy after surgical resection. Preliminary survival data were collected and examined using both Kaplan-Meier and actuarial analysis. Demographic and treatment parameters were collected. All patients were planned to receive 46-56 Gy in 1.8 or 2.0 Gy per fraction. CRT planning was compared with IMRT.RESULTS: The most common reported acute toxicities requiring medication (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade2) were nausea (10/20 patients) and diarrhea (3/20).There were no treatment-related deaths. Compared with CRT planning, IMRT significantly reduced the volume of right kidney receiving > 20 Gy and the volume of liver receiving > 30 Gy. IMRT has a negligible impact on the volume of left kidney receiving > 20 Gy. The 95% of prescribed dose for a planning tumor volume using either 3D CRT or IMRT planning were 84.0% ±6.7%, 82.9% ± 6.1%, respectively (P > 0.05).CONCLUSION: IMRT achieves similar excellent target coverage as compared with CRT planning, while reducingthe mean liver dose and volume above threshold dose. IMRT offers better sparing of the right kidney compared with CRT planning, with a significantly lower mean dose and volume above threshold dose.

  3. Salvage/Adjuvant Brachytherapy After Ophthalmic Artery Chemosurgery for Intraocular Retinoblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, Jasmine H., E-mail: francij1@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Barker, Christopher A.; Wolden, Suzanne L.; McCormick, Beryl; Segal, Kira; Cohen, Gil [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Gobin, Y. Pierre; Marr, Brian P. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Weill-Cornell Medical College, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York (United States); Brodie, Scott E. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Dunkel, Ira J.; Abramson, David H. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Weill-Cornell Medical College, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of brachytherapy after ophthalmic artery chemosurgery (OAC) for retinoblastoma. Methods and Materials: This was a single-arm, retrospective study of 15 eyes in 15 patients treated with OAC followed by brachytherapy at (blinded institution) between May 1, 2006, and December 31, 2012, with a median 19 months' follow-up from plaque insertion. Outcome measurements included patient and ocular survival, visual function, and retinal toxicity measured by electroretinogram (ERG). Results: Brachytherapy was used as adjuvant treatment in 2 eyes and as salvage therapy in 13 eyes of which 12 had localized vitreous seeding. No patients developed metastasis or died of retinoblastoma. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of ocular survival was 79.4% (95% confidence interval 48.7%-92.8%) at 18 months. Three eyes were enucleated, and an additional 6 eyes developed out-of-target volume recurrences, which were controlled with additional treatments. Patients with an ocular complication had a mean interval between last OAC and plaque of 2.5 months (SD 2.3 months), which was statistically less (P=.045) than patients without ocular complication who had a mean interval between last OAC and plaque of 6.5 months (SD 4.4 months). ERG responses from pre- versus postplaque were unchanged or improved in more than half the eyes. Conclusions: Brachytherapy following OAC is effective, even in the presence of vitreous seeding; the majority of eyes maintained stable or improved retinal function following treatment, as assessed by ERG.

  4. 邻苯二甲酸酯类的毒性、分析方法及使用规定%A review of toxicity, analytical methods and regulations on phthalic acid esters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张景; 王竹天; 樊永祥; 朱蕾; 张哲

    2012-01-01

    本文对邻苯、二甲酸酯类(phthalic acid esters,PAEs)增塑剂的毒性,近5年来食品、食品包装材料、生物样品中FAEs的分析方法以及美国、欧盟、日本、中国的相关使用规定进行了综述,并就探索更为可靠的分析方法,加强人群暴露水平评估,制定食品中PAEs的安全限值进行了讨论和总结.%This article gave an outline of the scientific knowledge on phthalates about their toxicity and regulations in USA, EU, Japan and China. The toxicity of PAEs varied with their molecular weight. The management of PAEs in above authorities was different. We also summarized the analytical methods for foods, food contact materials and biological samples in the recent five years. The results showed that different levels of PAEs could be found in food and biological samples. There are urgent needs for more validated analytical methods, enhancing exposure assessment and developing more, rational regulations to protect the consumers.

  5. Pollution detected innovation of hazardous and toxic substance disposal by magnetic susceptibility method in Cikijing River, Rancaekek for testing water quality standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prananda, Yovan; Taufik, Febri; Alief, R.; Fikrianti, S.; M. Hardian, T.; Widodo

    2017-07-01

    Water pollution can defect surround the source of pollution. An example is Cikijing River, located in Rancaekek, Bandung which has expected contaminated by water disposal. Total loss approach by Total Economic Valuation is Rp 11.385.847.532.188 (± 11.4 trillion). One of the dangerous effect is the water quality in there. The aim of this research is to know and prove water disposal contaminated in that river. This research was conducted by mapping the magnetic anomaly which obtained from the surrounding river. Afterward, modeling the research is conducted to get the susceptibility value. In the previous research, the geological condition of our research field is Kosambi Formation (clay, sandstone, shale). The Kosambi Formation susceptibility value estimated 0.017cgs unit there after it used to be background susceptibility. As the result of modeling magnetic anomaly from the anomaly map, the susceptibility contrast shows negative value. The relation between magnetic anomaly and susceptibility indicated the hazardous and toxic substance pollution, which affected Cikijing River and around there.

  6. 基于发光细菌法的水体重金属标准限值毒性评价%Toxicity assessment of standards of heavy metals in water based on luminous bacteria method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱丽娜; 刘瑞志; 夏建新

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate toxicological safety of standard of heavy metals in the Environment Quality Standards for Surface Water (GB 3838-2002) and Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB 8978-1996). Methods The toxicity of eight kinds of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg, Cr, As, Pb and Ni) were detected by using luminescent bacteria method, and the linear regression equation of heavy metals concentration and luminous inhibition rate was built, and the median lethal concentration values (EC50) were calculated. Toxicological safety of standard for eight kinds of heavy metals in the Environment Quality Standards for Surface Water (GB 3838-2002) and Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB 8978-1996) were evaluated. Results The toxicity of heavy metals ranked as Pb>Hg>Zn>Cu>As>Cr>Cd>Ni. The limits of most heavy metals were in the levels of nontoxicity or low toxicity, however the limits of the total copper and total zinc in the Environment Quality Standards for Surface Water (GB 3838-2002) were in the level of high toxicity,and the limits of the total lead,total copper and total zinc in the Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB 8978-1996) were in the levels of high toxicity to extremely toxicity. Conclusion The limits of some heavy metals in water may be on the high side.%目的 评价我国GB 3838-2002《地表水环境质量标准》和GB 8978-1996《国家污水综合排放标准》中各重金属限值的毒理学安全性.方法 采用发光细菌法(受试菌种费氏弧菌)检测8种重金属(Cu、Zn、Cd、Hg、Cr、As、Pb、Ni)的急性毒性,建立重金属浓度与发光抑制率的线性回归方程,计算半数致死(半抑制)浓度(EC50)值;并对GB 3838-2002《地表水环境质量标准》和GB 8978-1996《国家污水综合排放标准》中8种重金属标准限值进行毒性等级评价.结果 各重金属毒性大小顺序为Pb>Hg>Zn>Cu>As>Cr>Cd>Ni;水质标准和排放标准中重金属阈值大部分处

  7. Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Gvozdenović Ljiljana; Pasternak Janko; Milovanović Stanislav; Ivanov Dejan; Milić Saša

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome is now recognized as a toxin-mediated, multisystem illness. It is characterized by an early onset of shock with multiorgan failure and continues to be associated with high morbidity and mortality, caused by group A Streptococcus pyogenes. The symptoms for staphylococcal and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome are similar. Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome was not well described until 1993, when children who had suffered from varicella pre...

  8. Systemic Approach for Health Risk Assessment of Ambient Air Concentrations of Benzene in Petrochemical Environments: Integration of Fuzzy Logic, Artificial Neural Network, and IRIS Toxicity Method

    OpenAIRE

    Vahid NOVIN; Givehchi, Saeed; HOVEIDI, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Reliable methods are crucial to cope with uncertainties in the risk analysis process. The aim of this study is to develop an integrated approach to assessing risks of benzene in the petrochemical plant that produces benzene. We offer an integrated system to contribute imprecise variables into the health risk calculation.Methods: The project was conducted in Asaluyeh, southern Iran during the years from 2013 to 2014. Integrated method includes fuzzy logic and artificial neural netw...

  9. CHEMICAL TOXICITY OF URANIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Cam

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Uranium, occurs naturally in the earth’s crust, is an alpha emitter radioactive element from the actinide group. For this reason, U-235 and U-238, are uranium isotopes with long half lives, have got radiological toxicity. But, for natural-isotopic-composition uranium (NatU, there is greater risk from chemical toxicity than radiological toxicity. When uranium is get into the body with anyway, also its chemical toxicity must be thought. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(3.000: 215-220

  10. Long-Term Outcomes From a Prospective Trial of Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Low-Risk Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Christopher R., E-mail: crking@mednet.ucla.edu [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Urology, University of California Los Angeles School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Brooks, James D.; Gill, Harcharan; Presti, Joseph C. [Department of Urology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiotherapy has an intrinsically different normal tissue and tumor radiobiology. The results of a prospective trial of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for prostate cancer with long-term patient-reported toxicity and tumor control rates are presented. Methods and Materials: From 2003 through 2009, 67 patients with clinically localized low-risk prostate cancer were enrolled. Treatment consisted of 36.25 Gy in 5 fractions using SBRT with the CyberKnife as the delivery technology. No patient received hormone therapy. Patient self-reported bladder and rectal toxicities were graded on the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scale (RTOG). Results: Median follow-up was 2.7 years. There were no grade 4 toxicities. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade 3, 2, and 1 bladder toxicities were seen in 3% (2 patients), 5% (3 patients), and 23% (13 patients) respectively. Dysuria exacerbated by urologic instrumentation accounted for both patients with Grade 3 toxicity. Urinary incontinence, complete obstruction, or persistent hematuria was not observed. Rectal Grade 3, 2, and 1 toxicities were seen in 0, 2% (1 patient), and 12.5% (7 patients), respectively. Persistent rectal bleeding was not observed. Low-grade toxicities were substantially less frequent with QOD vs. QD dose regimen (p = 0.001 for gastrointestinal and p = 0.007 for genitourinary). There were two prostate-specific antigen (PSA), biopsy-proven failures with negative metastatic workup. Median PSA at follow-up was 0.5 {+-} 0.72 ng/mL. The 4-year Kaplan-Meier PSA relapse-free survival was 94% (95% confidence interval, 85%-102%). Conclusion: Significant late bladder and rectal toxicities from SBRT for prostate cancer are infrequent. PSA relapse-free survival compares favorably with other definitive treatments. The current evidence supports consideration of stereotactic body radiotherapy among the therapeutic options for localized prostate cancer.

  11. Intensity modulated radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy for larynx preservation of advanced resectable hypopharyngeal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Hsing-Lung

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To analyze the rate of larynx preservation in patients of locally advanced hypopharyngeal cancer treated with intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT plus concurrent chemotherapy, and compare the results with patients treated with primary surgery. Methods Between January 2003 and November 2007, 14 patients were treated with primary surgery and 33 patients were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT using IMRT technique. Survival rate, larynx preservation rate were calculated with the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate analysis was conducted for significant prognostic factors with Cox-regression method. Results The median follow-up was 19.4 months for all patients, and 25.8 months for those alive. The 5-year overall survival rate was 33% and 44% for primary surgery and definitive CCRT, respectively (p = 0.788. The 5-year functional larynx-preservation survival after IMRT was 40%. Acute toxicities were common, but usually tolerable. The rates of treatment-related mucositis (≥ grade 2 and pharyngitis (≥ grade 3 were higher in the CCRT group. For multivariate analysis, treatment response and cricoid cartilage invasion strongly correlated with survival. Conclusions IMRT plus concurrent chemotherapy may preserve the larynx without compromising survival. Further studies on new effective therapeutic agents are essential.

  12. Novel application of statistical methods for analysis of multiple toxicants identifies DDT as a risk factor for early child behavioral problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forns, Joan; Mandal, Siddhartha; Iszatt, Nina; Polder, Anuschka; Thomsen, Cathrine; Lyche, Jan Ludvig; Stigum, Hein; Vermeulen, Roel; Eggesbø, Merete

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the association between postnatal exposure to multiple persistent organic pollutants (POPs) measured in breast milk samples and early behavioral problems using statistical methods to deal with correlated exposure data. METHODS: We used data from the No

  13. Study on the Toxic Sulfide of Oilfield Drilling Fluids and Handled Method%钻井液有毒硫化物分析及处理方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    奚宏军

    2013-01-01

    油田钻井过程中往往随着地层特性产生硫化氢等有毒气体,浸入钻井液后形成有毒硫化物,容易对钻具和人身造成重大影响.通过分析钻井液中有毒硫化物的物质成分、特性及其对钻井工作的危害和影响,指出有效的钻井液硫化氢处理方法.在对钻井液选择、钻井液pH值调节、添加H2S处理剂等三种方法的对比分析基础上,针对这些方法除硫的优缺点,结合钻井液氧化除硫方法,提出基于金属盐的钻井液氧化除硫方法.通过实验表明,金属离子可以促进钻井液氧化除硫效率的提升;同时高阶氧化性金属盐具有很高的除硫效率,可以作为钻井液中处理硫化氢的有效添加物使用.研究结果对于油田用钻井液中有毒硫化物的处理具有一定的实际意义.%The oilfield drilling processes often produce toxic gases such as hydrogen sulfide with the formation properties, and the contaminated drilling fluid is easy taking a significant impact to drill and person to have. By analyzing the material ingredients, the properties, the drilling work hazards and impact of the toxic sulfide drilling fluid, the effective treatment method for drilling fluid hydrogen sulfide is pointed out. Based on the three methods' comparative analysis of drilling fluid selection, drilling fluid pH value adjustment, adding H2S treatment agent, a metal salt-based drilling fluid oxide sulfur removal method is proposed with the advantages and disadvantages of the above three methods. The experiments show that, the metal ions can promote drilling fluid oxidation enhance sulfur removal efficiency, order oxidizing metal salt can be used as effective additives for drilling fluid handling hydrogen sulfide with its high sulfur removal efficiency. The study results take a practical significance for the treatment of oilfield drilling fluid toxic sulfide.

  14. Mechanisms of reduction of antitumor drug toxicity by liposome encapsulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Y. E.; Hanson, W. R.; Bharucha, J.; Ainsworth, E. J.; Jaroslow, B.

    1977-01-01

    The antitumor drug Actinomycin D is effective against the growth of some human solid tumors but its use is limited by its extreme toxicity. The development of a method of administering Act. D to reduce its systemic toxicity by incorporating the drug within liposomes reduced its toxicity but its tumoricidal activity was retained.

  15. Application of toxicity identification evaluation procedure to toxic industrial effluent in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Jin-Sung; Jeong, Tae-Yong; Lee, Sun-Hong; Kim, Sang Don

    2016-01-01

    Toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) was applied to the effluent from a pharmaceutical industrial complex, following the US EPA TIE guidelines. The whole effluent toxicity (WET) test found toxicity greater than 16toxic units (TU) in the effluent. Dissolved non-polar organic compounds were identified as the major contributor to the observed toxicity in the TIE manipulations in phases I and II. Among the 48 organic compounds identified, three compounds (i.e., acetophenone, benzoimide, and benzothiazole) were related to the pharmaceutical production procedure; however, no contribution to toxicity was predicted in the compounds. The results of the ECOSAR model, which predicts toxicity, indicated that the alkane compounds caused significant toxicity in the effluent. The toxicity test and heavy metal analysis, which used IC and ICP/MS, identified that particulate and heavy metals, such as Cu and Zn, contributed to the remaining toxicity, except dissolved organics. The results showed the applicability of the TIE method for predicting regional effluents produced by the industrial pharmaceutical complex in this study. Although the location was assumed to be affected by discharge of pharmaceutical related compounds in the river, no correlations were observed in the study. Based on the results, advanced treatment processes, such as activated carbon adsorption, are recommended for the wastewater treatment process in this location.

  16. Toxicity of pyrolysis gases from some synthetic polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, C. J.; Huttlinger, N. V.

    1978-01-01

    Nine samples of synthetic polymers were evaluated for toxicity of pyrolysis gases, using the toxicity screening test method developed at the University of San Francisco. The materials were polyoxymethylene, polyethylene (five samples), polypropylene, polymethyl methacrylate, and polystyrene. Of the five polyethylene samples, three contained known levels of chlorine. These test results were combined with earlier data to provide a comparison of 25 samples of synthetic polymers. Polyoxymethylene appeared to exhibit the greatest toxicity, and polystyrene the least toxicity, under these particular test conditions

  17. USE OF POWDERED COCONUT CHARCOAL AS A TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION MANIPULATION FOR ORGANIC TOXICANTS IN MARINE SEDIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report on a procedure using powdered coconut charcoal to sequester organic contaminants and reduce toxicity in sediments as part of a series of toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) methods. Powdered coconut charcoal (PCC) was effective in reducing the toxicity of endos...

  18. Toxic proteins in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Liuyi; Van Damme, Els J M

    2015-09-01

    Plants have evolved to synthesize a variety of noxious compounds to cope with unfavorable circumstances, among which a large group of toxic proteins that play a critical role in plant defense against predators and microbes. Up to now, a wide range of harmful proteins have been discovered in different plants, including lectins, ribosome-inactivating proteins, protease inhibitors, ureases, arcelins, antimicrobial peptides and pore-forming toxins. To fulfill their role in plant defense, these proteins exhibit various degrees of toxicity towards animals, insects, bacteria or fungi. Numerous studies have been carried out to investigate the toxic effects and mode of action of these plant proteins in order to explore their possible applications. Indeed, because of their biological activities, toxic plant proteins are also considered as potentially useful tools in crop protection and in biomedical applications, such as cancer treatment. Genes encoding toxic plant proteins have been introduced into crop genomes using genetic engineering technology in order to increase the plant's resistance against pathogens and diseases. Despite the availability of ample information on toxic plant proteins, very few publications have attempted to summarize the research progress made during the last decades. This review focuses on the diversity of toxic plant proteins in view of their toxicity as well as their mode of action. Furthermore, an outlook towards the biological role(s) of these proteins and their potential applications is discussed.

  19. Pyridostigmine Synergistic Toxicity Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-05-31

    AND DEET IN THE LABORATORY RAT 1. Executive Sum m ary .............................................................................................. 2 2...TOXICOLOGICAL STUDY 75-48-2665 ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY STUDY OF PYRIDOSTIGMINE BROMIDE. PERMETHRIN. AND DEET IN THE LABORATORY RAT 1. REFERENCES: See Appendix A... LABORATORY RAT 1. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine potential toxic interactions when pyridostigmine bromide. permethrin. and DEET are given

  20. A toxicidade em ambientes aquáticos: discussão e métodos de avaliação Toxicity in aquatic environments: discussion and evaluation methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Regina Costa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic toxicity tests are assays performed with different aquatic organisms of different ecological organization levels. Such tests are a source of information on the toxicity of a given substance or wastewater under controlled conditions, and they complement the physico-chemical analyses. Moreover, they allow one to evaluate the risks resulting from the presence of toxic substances in the environment. Algae, crustaceans, fishes and bacteria are frequently used in toxicity tests. In this work, we will present the main aspects related to the aquatic toxicity tests and a discussion of their applicability will also be presented.

  1. Simultaneous Integrated Boost Using Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Compared With Conventional Radiotherapy in Patients Treated With Concurrent Carboplatin and 5-Fluorouracil for Locally Advanced Oropharyngeal Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clavel, Sebastien, E-mail: sebastien.clavel@umontreal.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Nguyen, David H.A.; Fortin, Bernard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hopital Maisonneuve-Rosemont, Montreal, QC (Canada); Despres, Philippe [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Khaouam, Nader [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hopital Maisonneuve-Rosemont, Montreal, QC (Canada); Donath, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Soulieres, Denis [Department of Medical Oncology, Centre Hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Guertin, Louis [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Centre Hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Nguyen-Tan, Phuc Felix [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hopital Maisonneuve-Rosemont, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To compare, in a retrospective study, the toxicity and efficacy of simultaneous integrated boost using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) vs. conventional radiotherapy (CRT) in patients treated with concomitant carboplatin and 5-fluorouracil for locally advanced oropharyngeal cancer. Methods and Materials: Between January 2000 and December 2007, 249 patients were treated with definitive chemoradiation. One hundred patients had 70 Gy in 33 fractions using IMRT, and 149 received CRT at 70 Gy in 35 fractions. Overall survival, disease-free survival, and locoregional control were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Median follow-up was 42 months. Three-year actuarial rates for locoregional control, disease-free survival, and overall survival were 95.1% vs. 84.4% (p = 0.005), 85.3% vs. 69.3% (p = 0.001), and 92.1% vs. 75.2% (p < 0.001) for IMRT and CRT, respectively. The benefit of the radiotherapy regimen on outcomes was also observed with a Cox multivariate analysis. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy was associated with less acute dermatitis and less xerostomia at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months. Conclusions: This study suggests that simultaneous integrated boost using IMRT is associated with favorable locoregional control and survival rates with less xerostomia and acute dermatitis than CRT when both are given concurrently with chemotherapy.

  2. Uterine Carcinosarcoma Confined to the Pelvis: A Retrospective Review and Outcome Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hualei Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We compared the treatments of uterine carcinosarcoma at our institution and evaluated their impact on survival. Methods. A retrospective analysis was performed on 60 eligible patients with carcinosarcoma limited to the pelvis. Subjects were divided into four categories: surgery, surgery plus chemotherapy, surgery plus radiation therapy, and a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and RT. The most commonly used chemotherapy was cisplatin and/or carboplatin and taxol. Radiotherapy included external beam radiation therapy (EBRT alone or with high dose rate (HDR brachytherapy or HDR brachytherapy alone. Survival probability data were computed using the Kaplan-Meier method. The differences between groups were compared using the log-rank test. Results. The combination of surgery and radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy is seen to improve overall survival (OS compared to surgery alone (P=0.044 and P=0.028, resp.. Brachytherapy involving three HDR vaginal cylinder fractions shows an equally effective reduction in local recurrence compared to EBRT. Conclusion. Our study of a relatively large number of carcinosarcoma patients suggests that adjuvant radiation therapy improves OS compared to surgery alone. Brachytherapy with 3 HDR vaginal cylinder fractions is preferred because of its time-saving, better tolerance, low toxicity and equivalent OS, and local control compared to EBRT.

  3. Comparative analysis of the toxic effects of natural toxins and harmful substances produced by conventional processing methods or by irradiation and of toxicity tests; Vergleichende Darstellung der toxischen Wirkung nativer sowie durch herkoemmliche Verarbeitungsmethoden oder Strahlenbehandlung entstandener Schadstoffe in Lebensmitteln und Methoden ihrer toxikologischen Pruefung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlhelm, H.; Arndt, K.; Groeger, G.; Schreiber, G.A.; Boegl, K.W.

    1994-12-31

    In this review, tasks and methods of food toxicology as well as the application of the different toxicity tests for the risk assessment of food ingredients are described. Particular reference is made to short-term genotoxicity tests. Enzymatic digestion and extraction methods for complex foodstuffs which are used in the toxicological testing of foods in in vitro systems are described. Radiolytic products which result from irradiation of foods or components of foodstuffs and corresponding results of toxicity testing are reviewed. Foodstuffs irradiated with doses of up to 10 kGy are regarded as toxicologically safe. A survey of the toxicologically tested irradiated foodstuffs as well as the applied maximum doses are given in tables at the end of chapter 8. Among the great number of toxicological studies of irradiated foods those are especially mentioned which have given rise to discussions on the health risks involved. In addition, the difficulties associated with the testing of toxicity of irradiated foodstuffs in feeding experiments are discussed. Short-term tests used to establish the benotoxicity of irradiated foods and essential results of toxicological testing are also presented in tables. An overview is given of the occurrence, frequency and health risks of natural toxins in foods and harmful substances produced by conventional methods of cooking and preservation, in order to enable a comparison with the health risks of irradiated foods. The relevance of animal experiments and in vitro investigations for the prediction of toxic effects of harmful substances of foodstuffs in man is discussed in the final chapter. (VHE) [Deutsch] Es werden Aufgaben und Methoden der Lebensmitteltoxikologie sowie der Einsatz der verschiedenen Toxizitaetstests bei der Pruefung der gesundheitlichen Unbedenklichkeit von Lebensmittelinhaltsstoffen beschrieben. Besonders eingegangen wird auf Kurzzeittests zur Pruefung der Genotoxizitaet. Ausserdem werden enzymatische

  4. Comprehension of drug toxicity: software and databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toropov, Andrey A; Toropova, Alla P; Raska, Ivan; Leszczynska, Danuta; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2014-02-01

    Quantitative structure-property/activity relationships (QSPRs/QSARs) are a tool (in silico) to rapidly predict various endpoints in general, and drug toxicity in particular. However, this dynamic evolution of experimental data (expansion of existing experimental data on drugs toxicity) leads to the problem of critical estimation of the data. The carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, liver effects and cardiac toxicity should be evaluated as the most important aspects of the drug toxicity. The toxicity is a multidimensional phenomenon. It is apparent that the main reasons for the increase in applications of in silico prediction of toxicity include the following: (i) the need to reduce animal testing; (ii) computational models provide reliable toxicity prediction; (iii) development of legislation that is related to use of new substances; (iv) filling data gaps; (v) reduction of cost and time; (vi) designing of new compounds; (vii) advancement of understanding of biology and chemistry. This mini-review provides analysis of existing databases and software which are necessary for use of robust computational assessments and robust prediction of potential drug toxicities by means of in silico methods. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Toxicity of 56 substances to trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Lauge Peter Westergaard; Trapp, Stefan

    2017-06-17

    Toxicity data of substances to higher plants is needed for the purpose of risk assessment, site evaluation, phytoremediation, and plant protection. However, the results from the most common phytotoxicity tests, like the OECD algae and Lemna test, are not necessarily valid for higher terrestrial plants. The willow tree toxicity test uses inhibition of transpiration (aside of growth and water use efficiency) of willow cuttings grown in spiked solutions or soils as end point to quantify toxicity. This overview presents results from 60 studies including 24 new unpublished experiments for 56 different chemicals or substrates. Highest toxicity (EC50 algae, while volatile compounds like chlorinated solvents or benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene had less effect on trees than on these aquatic plants, due to volatilization from leaves and test media. In particular low (g/L range) toxicity was observed for tested nanomaterials. Effects of pharmaceuticals (typically weak acids or bases) depended strongly of the solution pH. Like for algae, baseline toxicity was observed for willows, which is related to the water solubility of the compounds, with absolute chemical activity ranging from 0.01 to 0.1, but with several exceptions. We conclude that the willow tree toxicity test is a robust method for relating uptake, accumulation, and metabolism of substances to the toxicity to trees.

  6. Mechanisms of Phosphine Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisa S. Nath

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fumigation with phosphine gas is by far the most widely used treatment for the protection of stored grain against insect pests. The development of high-level resistance in insects now threatens its continued use. As there is no suitable chemical to replace phosphine, it is essential to understand the mechanisms of phosphine toxicity to increase the effectiveness of resistance management. Because phosphine is such a simple molecule (PH3, the chemistry of phosphorus is central to its toxicity. The elements above and below phosphorus in the periodic table are nitrogen (N and arsenic (As, which also produce toxic hydrides, namely, NH3 and AsH3. The three hydrides cause related symptoms and similar changes to cellular and organismal physiology, including disruption of the sympathetic nervous system, suppressed energy metabolism and toxic changes to the redox state of the cell. We propose that these three effects are interdependent contributors to phosphine toxicity.

  7. Mechanisms of phosphine toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Nisa S; Bhattacharya, Ishita; Tuck, Andrew G; Schlipalius, David I; Ebert, Paul R

    2011-01-01

    Fumigation with phosphine gas is by far the most widely used treatment for the protection of stored grain against insect pests. The development of high-level resistance in insects now threatens its continued use. As there is no suitable chemical to replace phosphine, it is essential to understand the mechanisms of phosphine toxicity to increase the effectiveness of resistance management. Because phosphine is such a simple molecule (PH(3)), the chemistry of phosphorus is central to its toxicity. The elements above and below phosphorus in the periodic table are nitrogen (N) and arsenic (As), which also produce toxic hydrides, namely, NH(3) and AsH(3). The three hydrides cause related symptoms and similar changes to cellular and organismal physiology, including disruption of the sympathetic nervous system, suppressed energy metabolism and toxic changes to the redox state of the cell. We propose that these three effects are interdependent contributors to phosphine toxicity.

  8. Mechanisms of Phosphine Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Nisa S.; Bhattacharya, Ishita; Tuck, Andrew G.; Schlipalius, David I.; Ebert, Paul R.

    2011-01-01

    Fumigation with phosphine gas is by far the most widely used treatment for the protection of stored grain against insect pests. The development of high-level resistance in insects now threatens its continued use. As there is no suitable chemical to replace phosphine, it is essential to understand the mechanisms of phosphine toxicity to increase the effectiveness of resistance management. Because phosphine is such a simple molecule (PH3), the chemistry of phosphorus is central to its toxicity. The elements above and below phosphorus in the periodic table are nitrogen (N) and arsenic (As), which also produce toxic hydrides, namely, NH3 and AsH3. The three hydrides cause related symptoms and similar changes to cellular and organismal physiology, including disruption of the sympathetic nervous system, suppressed energy metabolism and toxic changes to the redox state of the cell. We propose that these three effects are interdependent contributors to phosphine toxicity. PMID:21776261

  9. A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for the detection and quantitation of monofluoroacetate in plants toxic to livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monofluoroacetate (MFA) is a potent toxin that occurs in over 50 plant species in Africa, Australia, and South America and is responsible for significant livestock deaths in these regions. A gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for the analysis of MFA in plants based on the derivatiza...

  10. Fourier transform infrared and near-infrared spectroscopic methods for the detection of toxic Diethylene Glycol (DEG) contaminant in glycerin based cough syrup

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, M. Khalique; McLeod, Michael P.; Nézivar, Jean; Giuliani, Allison W.

    2010-01-01

    Recently there have been reports of the contamination of cough syrups with Diethylene Glycol (DEG). The consumption of such cough syrups has devastating effects on the health. In this paper we report evidence that Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic techniques are viable, simple, cost effective, rapid and fool proof methods for the identification and quantification of DEG in glycerin based cough syrups. The FT-IR and NIR spectra of the glycerin based cough...

  11. Isolated testicular relapse in acute lymphoblastic leukemia - Effective treatment with the modified CCG-112 protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shama Goyal

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The testes have been considered a sanctuary site for leukemic cells and testicular relapses used to account for a major proportion of the poor outcome of boys with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. With use of aggressive chemotherapy which includes intermediate or high dose methotrexate, the incidence of testicular relapses has declined. However once these patients have received cranial irradiation as a part of the front line protocol, high dose methotrexate needs to be avoided because of risk of developing leucoencephalopathy. AIM: To study the use of non cross resistant chemotherapeutic agents along with a regimen containing lower doses of methotrexate in patients of isolated testicular relapse (ITR. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of 12 consecutive patients with ITR treated with modified version of the CCG-112 protocol which consists of intensive systemic chemotherapy, cranial chemoprophylaxis along with testicular irradiation. RESULTS: One patient died of regimen related toxicity. Two patients relapsed in the bone marrow during maintenance. Of the nine patients who completed treatment, eight are alive and in remission. One patient had a bone marrow relapse two months after completing treatment. The Kaplan Meier estimates give us an Event Free Survival (EFS of 66.7% at 10 yrs. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, though the incidence is very low, patients with ITR should be treated aggressively since they have an excellent chance of achieving a long term EFS.

  12. Comparative study of the effects of pyridoxine, rifampin, and renal function on hematological adverse events induced by linezolid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, Alex; Ortega, Mar; García, Sebastián; Peñarroja, Georgina; Bové, Albert; Marcos, Miguel; Martínez, Juan C; Martínez, José A; Mensa, Josep

    2007-07-01

    Hematological disturbances that develop during linezolid treatment are a major concern when linezolid is administered for prolonged periods of time. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influences of pyridoxine, rifampin, and renal function on hematological adverse events. From January 2002 to April 2006, 52 patients received a long-term course of linezolid. Blood cell counts were monitored weekly. Thrombocytopenia was defined as a decrease to or =2 g/liter from the baseline value. Twenty-four patients received linezolid alone, and 28 patients received linezolid plus 200 mg of pyridoxine. The Kaplan-Meier survival method, followed by the log-rank test, was used to estimate the cumulative probability of adverse events, and Cox regression analysis was performed to evaluate the independent predictors of toxicity. The baseline characteristics of the patients in both groups were similar. The cumulative probability of thrombocytopenia and anemia in patients who received pyridoxine was not different from that in patients who did not receive it. Hematological adverse events were less frequent in patients taking rifampin and were more frequent in patients with renal failure. However; the Cox regression analysis showed that rifampin was the only independent predictor associated with a lower risk of thrombocytopenia (hazard ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval, 0.14 to 0.98; P = 0.045). In conclusion, pyridoxine did not prevent linezolid-related hematological adverse events, and the coadministration of rifampin was associated with a lower risk of thrombocytopenia.

  13. Effects of total body irradiation-based conditioning allogenic sem cell transplantation for pediatric acute leukemia: A single-institution study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Moo; Choi, Eun Kyung; Kim, Jong Hoon [Dept.of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2014-09-15

    To evaluate the effects of total body irradiation (TBI), as a conditioning regimen prior to allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT), in pediatric acute leukemia patients. From January 2001 to December 2011, 28 patients, aged less than 18 years, were treated with TBI-based conditioning for allo-SCT in our institution. Of the 28 patients, 21 patients were diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, 75%) and 7 were diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML, 25%). TBI was completed 4 days or 1 day before stem cell infusion. Patients underwent radiation therapy with bilateral parallel opposing fields and 6-MV X-rays. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate survival outcomes. The 2-year event-free survival and overall survival rates were 66% and 56%, respectively (71.4% and 60.0% in AML patients vs. 64.3% and 52.4% in ALL patients, respectively). Treatment related mortality rate were 25%. Acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease was a major complication; other complications included endocrine dysfunction and pulmonary complications. Common complications from TBI were nausea (89%) and cataracts (7.1%). The efficacy and toxicity data in this study of TBI-based conditioning to pediatric acute leukemia patients were comparable with previous studies. However, clinicians need to focus on the acute and chronic complications related to allo-SCT.

  14. In vivo toxicity study of Lantana camara

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Badakhshan Mahdi Pour; Sreenivasan Sasidharan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the toxicity of methanol extract of various parts (Root, Stem, Leaf, Flower and Fruit) of Lantana camara(L. Camara) in Artemia salina. Methods: The methanol extracts of L. camara were tested for in vivo brine shrimp lethality assay. Results: All the tested extract exhibited very low toxicity on brine shrimp larva. The results showed that the root extract was the most toxic part of L. camara and may have potential as anticancer agent. Conclusions:Methanolic extract of L. camara is relatively safe on short-term exposure.

  15. Toxic Shock Syndrome (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Toxic Shock Syndrome KidsHealth > For Teens > Toxic Shock Syndrome Print ... it, then take some precautions. What Is Toxic Shock Syndrome? If you're a girl who's had ...

  16. Rapid toxicity screening of gasification ashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Xu; Rong, Le; Ng, Wei Cheng; Ong, Cynthia; Baeg, Gyeong Hun; Zhang, Wenlin; Lee, Si Ni; Li, Sam Fong Yau; Dai, Yanjun; Tong, Yen Wah; Neoh, Koon Gee; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2016-04-01

    The solid residues including bottom ashes and fly ashes produced by waste gasification technology could be reused as secondary raw materials. However, the applications and utilizations of these ashes are very often restricted by their toxicity. Therefore, toxicity screening of ash is the primary condition for reusing the ash. In this manuscript, we establish a standard for rapid screening of gasification ashes on the basis of in vitro and in vivo testing, and henceforth guide the proper disposal of the ashes. We used three different test models comprising human cell lines (liver and lung cells), Drosophila melanogaster and Daphnia magna to examine the toxicity of six different types of ashes. For each ash, different leachate concentrations were used to examine the toxicity, with C0 being the original extracted leachate concentration, while C/C0 being subsequent diluted concentrations. The IC50 for each leachate was also quantified for use as an index to classify toxicity levels. The results demonstrated that the toxicity evaluation of different types of ashes using different models is consistent with each other. As the different models show consistent qualitative results, we chose one or two of the models (liver cells or lung cells models) as the standard for rapid toxicity screening of gasification ashes. We may classify the gasification ashes into three categories according to the IC50, 24h value on liver cells or lung cells models, namely "toxic level I" (IC50, 24h>C/C0=0.5), "toxic level II" (C/C0=0.05gasification plants every day. Subsequently, appropriate disposal methods can be recommended for each toxicity category. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Understanding Genetic Toxicity Through Data Mining: The ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper demonstrates the usefulness of representing a chemical by its structural features and the use of these features to profile a battery of tests rather than relying on a single toxicity test of a given chemical. This paper presents data mining/profiling methods applied in a weight-of-evidence approach to assess potential for genetic toxicity, and to guide the development of intelligent testing strategies. This paper demonstrates the usefulness of representing a chemical by its structural features and the use of these features to profile a battery of tests rather than relying on a single toxicity test of a given chemical. This paper presents data mining/profiling methods applied in a weight-of-evidence approach to assess potential for genetic toxicity, and to guide the development of intelligent testing strategies.

  18. [Toxicity of sulpiride].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciszowski, Krzysztof; Szpak, Dorota; Wilimowska, Jolanta

    2010-01-01

    Sulpiride is a benzamide neuroleptic used in the treatment of some psychiatric and gastroenterological disorders. Its antipsychotic, antiautistic, activizing and antidepressive properties result from antagonistic action to dopaminergic D2, D3 and D4 receptors in the central nervous system (CNS). The oral bioavailability of sulpiride is poor and it does not appear to have an extensive first-pass metabolism, nor is it extensively protein-bound. Elimination of sulpiride appears to depend primarily on the kidneys. The acute sulpiride poisoning includes mainly neuropsychiatric (i.e., agitation, hallucinations, and CNS depression) as well as cardiac effects (i.e., hypotension, dysrhythmias, and sinus tachycardia). The life-threatening conditions with sometimes fatal outcome after sulpiride poisoning are prolongation of QTc interval with consequent torsade de pointes (TdP) and neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS). The quantitative methods for the measurement of sulpiride blood concentration are not routinely available and the toxic blood concentration is probably higher than 2 mg/L. Treatment of acute sulpiride poisoning includes standard protocols of gastrointestinal decontamination and further symptomatic and supportive measures, among them TdP (magnesium sulphate, isoproterenol, electrotherapy) and NMS treatment (benzodiazepines, bromocriptine, dantrolene, physical cooling).

  19. Toxic Anterior Segment Syndrome (TASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Öner

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS is a sterile intraocular inflammation caused by noninfectious substances, resulting in extensive toxic damage to the intraocular tissues. Possible etiologic factors of TASS include surgical trauma, bacterial endotoxin, intraocular solutions with inappropriate pH and osmolality, preservatives, denatured ophthalmic viscosurgical devices (OVD, inadequate sterilization, cleaning and rinsing of surgical devices, intraocular lenses, polishing and sterilizing compounds which are related to intraocular lenses. The characteristic signs and symptoms such as blurred vision, corneal edema, hypopyon and nonreactive pupil usually occur 24 hours after the cataract surgery. The differential diagnosis of TASS from infectious endophthalmitis is important. The main treatment for TASS formation is prevention. TASS is a cataract surgery complication that is more commonly seen nowadays. In this article, the possible underlying causes as well as treatment and prevention methods of TASS are summarized. (Turk J Oph thal mol 2011; 41: 407-13

  20. Toxics Release Inventory (TRI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) is a dataset compiled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It contains information on the release and waste...

  1. Toxicity Reference Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxicity Reference Database (ToxRefDB) contains approximately 30 years and $2 billion worth of animal studies. ToxRefDB allows scientists and the interested...

  2. Aspects of aluminum toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewitt, C.D.; Savory, J.; Wills, M.R. (Univ. of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville (USA))

    1990-06-01

    Aluminum is the most abundant metal in the earth's crust. The widespread occurrence of aluminum, both in the environment and in foodstuffs, makes it virtually impossible for man to avoid exposure to this metal ion. Attention was first drawn to the potential role of aluminum as a toxic metal over 50 years ago, but was dismissed as a toxic agent as recently as 15 years ago. The accumulation of aluminum, in some patients with chronic renal failure, is associated with the development of toxic phenomena; dialysis encephalopathy, osteomalacic dialysis osteodystrophy, and an anemia. Aluminum accumulation also occurs in patients who are not on dialysis, predominantly infants and children with immature or impaired renal function. Aluminum has also been implicated as a toxic agent in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease, Guamiam amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and parkinsonism-dementia. 119 references.

  3. Natural toxicants in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, J M

    1975-09-01

    Food constitutes the most complex part of our chemical environment. Naturally occurring substances in food, such as goitrogens and estrogens, are toxicants. However, there is a difference of degree between toxicity and hazard, and the hazard to man in normal good health from naturally occurring toxicants in food is usually slight, because of (a) the small concentrations and (b) antagonistic interactions between toxicants which provide "safety in numbers." Hazard from foods may indeed exist under some circumstances, such as the presence of abnormal contaminants, ingestion of abnormal amounts, or abnormal susceptibility existing in some disease states. However, the major hazards of the dinner table can ordinarily be ascribed to careless food handling, unbalanced or fad diets, or overeating.

  4. Toxicity of lunar dust

    CERN Document Server

    Linnarsson, Dag; Fubini, Bice; Gerde, Per; Karlsson, Lars L; Loftus, David J; Prisk, G Kim; Staufer, Urs; Tranfield, Erin M; van Westrenen, Wim

    2012-01-01

    The formation, composition and physical properties of lunar dust are incompletely characterised with regard to human health. While the physical and chemical determinants of dust toxicity for materials such as asbestos, quartz, volcanic ashes and urban particulate matter have been the focus of substantial research efforts, lunar dust properties, and therefore lunar dust toxicity may differ substantially. In this contribution, past and ongoing work on dust toxicity is reviewed, and major knowledge gaps that prevent an accurate assessment of lunar dust toxicity are identified. Finally, a range of studies using ground-based, low-gravity, and in situ measurements is recommended to address the identified knowledge gaps. Because none of the curated lunar samples exist in a pristine state that preserves the surface reactive chemical aspects thought to be present on the lunar surface, studies using this material carry with them considerable uncertainty in terms of fidelity. As a consequence, in situ data on lunar dust...

  5. A novel ultra-performance liquid chromatography hyphenated with quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry method for rapid estimation of total toxic retronecine-type of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in herbs without requiring corresponding standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Ruan, Jian-Qing; Li, Na; Fu, Peter P; Ye, Yang; Lin, Ge

    2016-03-01

    Nearly 50% of naturally-occurring pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are hepatotoxic, and the majority of hepatotoxic PAs are retronecine-type PAs (RET-PAs). However, quantitative measurement of PAs in herbs/foodstuffs is often difficult because most of reference PAs are unavailable. In this study, a rapid, selective, and sensitive UHPLC-QTOF-MS method was developed for the estimation of RET-PAs in herbs without requiring corresponding standards. This method is based on our previously established characteristic and diagnostic mass fragmentation patterns and the use of retrorsine for calibration. The use of a single RET-PA (i.e. retrorsine) for construction of calibration was based on high similarities with no significant differences demonstrated by the calibration curves constructed by peak areas of extract ion chromatograms of fragment ion at m/z 120.0813 or 138.0919 versus concentrations of five representative RET-PAs. The developed method was successfully applied to measure a total content of toxic RET-PAs of diversified structures in fifteen potential PA-containing herbs.

  6. Ultra-fast LC-ESI-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of six highly toxic Aconitum alkaloids from Aconiti kusnezoffii radix in rat plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingjing; Li, Qing; Yin, Yidi; Liu, Ran; Xu, Huarong; Bi, Kaishun

    2014-01-01

    A fast, sensitive, and efficient ultra-fast LC-ESI-MS/MS method was developed for the simultaneous quantitation of six highly toxic Aconitum alkaloids, that is, aconitine, mesaconitine, hypaconitine, benzoylaconine, benzoylmesaconine, and benzoylhypaconine, in rat plasma after oral administration of crude ethanol extracts from Aconiti kusnezoffii radix by ultrasonic extraction, reflux extraction for 1 h, and reflux extraction for 3 h, respectively. The separation of six Aconitum alkaloids and aminopyrine (internal standard) was performed on an InertSustain® C18 column, and the quantification of the analytes was performed on a 4000Q ultra-fast LC-MS/MS system with turbo ion spray source in the positive ion and multiple-reaction monitoring mode. Absolute recoveries ranged within 65.06-85.1% for plasma samples. The intra- and interday precision and accuracy of analytes were satisfactory. The methods were validated with sensitivity reaching the lower LOQ for aconitine, mesaconitine, hypaconitine, benzoylaconine, benzoylmesaconine, and benzoylhypaconine, which were 0.025, 0.025, 0.050, 0.025, 0.025, and 0.100 ng/mL, respectively. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of six Aconitum alkaloids in rat plasma after oral administration of crude ethanol extracts from the raw root of Aconitum kusnezoffii Reichb. by three different extraction processes.

  7. Mechanisms of Phosphine Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Nisa S. Nath; Ishita Bhattacharya; Andrew G. Tuck; Schlipalius, David I.; Paul R. Ebert

    2011-01-01

    Fumigation with phosphine gas is by far the most widely used treatment for the protection of stored grain against insect pests. The development of high-level resistance in insects now threatens its continued use. As there is no suitable chemical to replace phosphine, it is essential to understand the mechanisms of phosphine toxicity to increase the effectiveness of resistance management. Because phosphine is such a simple molecule (PH3), the chemistry of phosphorus is central to its toxicity...

  8. Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gvozdenović Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome is now recognized as a toxin-mediated, multisystem illness. It is characterized by an early onset of shock with multiorgan failure and continues to be associated with high morbidity and mortality, caused by group A Streptococcus pyogenes. The symptoms for staphylococcal and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome are similar. Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome was not well described until 1993, when children who had suffered from varicella presented roughly 2-4 weeks later with a clinical syndrome highly suggestive of toxic shock syndrome. Characteristics, complications and therapy. It is characterized by a sudden onset of fever, chills, vomiting, diarrhea, muscle aches and rash. It can rapidly progress to severe and intractable hypotension and multisystem dysfunction. Almost every organ system can be involved. Complications of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome may include kidney failure, liver failure and even death. Crystalloids and inotropic agents are used to treat the hypovolemic shock aggressively, with close monitoring of the patient’s mean arterial pressure and central venous pressure. An immediate and aggressive management of hypovolemic shock is essential in streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Targeted antibiotics are indicated; penicillin or a betalactam antibiotic is used for treating group A streptococci, and clindamycin has emerged as a key portion of the standard treatment.

  9. Eco-Friendly Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Through Economical Methods and Assessment of Toxicity Through Oxidative Stress Analysis in the Labeo Rohita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Saleem; Qureshi, Naureen Aziz; Jabeen, Farhat; Asghar, Muhammad Saleem; Shakeel, Muhammad; Fakhar-E-Alam, Muhammad

    2017-04-01

    The physicochemical and biological properties of metals change as the particles are reduced to nanoscale. This ability increases the application of nanoparticles in commercial and medical industry. Keeping in view this importance, Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) were synthesized by reduction methods using formaldehyde as reducing agent in the chemical route and lemon extracts in the biological route. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of nanoparticles suggested that the particles were either agglomerated or spherical in shape with mean diameter of 16.59 nm in the chemical route and 42.93 nm in the biological route. The particles were between 5 and 80 nm with maximum frequency between 5 and 20 nm in the chemical route and between 5 and 100 nm with maximum frequency between 15 and 50 nm in the biological method. In the second phase of the study, the effect of Ag-NPs on the oxidative stress was studied. For this purpose, Labeo rohita (20 ± 2.5 g in weight and 12 ± 1.4 cm in length) were involved. Six treatments were applied in three replicates having five fishes in each replicate. The first treatment was used as control group, and the other five treatments were exposed to either 10 or 20 or 30 or 45 or 55 mg L(-1) of Ag-NPs for 28 days. The treatment of Ag-NPs caused oxidative stress in the liver and gill tissues, which induced alterations in the activities of antioxidant enzymes. The level of catalase (CAT) was decreased in response to Ag-NPs concentration in dose-dependent manner. Ag-NPs treatment stimulated the liver and gill tissues to significantly increase the level of superoxide dismutase (SOD), which might be due to synthesis of SOD and addition in the pre-existing SOD level. The level decreases again due to depletion of SOD level. There was a sharp decline in the activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST) in both gills and liver tissues even at lower concentration, and this decrease in the GST activity was significantly

  10. No Clinically Significant Changes in Pulmonary Function Following Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Early- Stage Peripheral Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: An Analysis of RTOG 0236

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanic, Sinisa, E-mail: sinisa.stanic@carle.com [Carle Cancer Center and University of Illinois College of Medicine, Urbana, Illinois (United States); Paulus, Rebecca [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Timmerman, Robert D. [University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, Texas (United States); Michalski, Jeff M. [Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Barriger, Robert B. [Indiana University, Indianapolis, Indiana (United States); Bezjak, Andrea [Princess Margaret Cancer Center, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Videtic, Gregory M.M. [Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Bradley, Jeffrey [Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: To investigate pulmonary function test (PFT) results and arterial blood gas changes (complete PFT) following stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and to see whether baseline PFT correlates with lung toxicity and overall survival in medically inoperable patients receiving SBRT for early stage, peripheral, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: During the 2-year follow-up, PFT data were collected for patients with T1-T2N0M0 peripheral NSCLC who received effectively 18 Gy × 3 in a phase 2 North American multicenter study (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group [RTOG] protocol 0236). Pulmonary toxicity was graded by using the RTOG SBRT pulmonary toxicity scale. Paired Wilcoxon signed rank test, logistic regression model, and Kaplan-Meier method were used for statistical analysis. Results: At 2 years, mean percentage predicted forced expiratory volume in the first second and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide declines were 5.8% and 6.3%, respectively, with minimal changes in arterial blood gases and no significant decline in oxygen saturation. Baseline PFT was not predictive of any pulmonary toxicity following SBRT. Whole-lung V5 (the percentage of normal lung tissue receiving 5 Gy), V10, V20, and mean dose to the whole lung were almost identical between patients who developed pneumonitis and patients who were pneumonitis-free. Poor baseline PFT did not predict decreased overall survival. Patients with poor baseline PFT as the reason for medical inoperability had higher median and overall survival rates than patients with normal baseline PFT values but with cardiac morbidity. Conclusions: Poor baseline PFT did not appear to predict pulmonary toxicity or decreased overall survival after SBRT in this medically inoperable population. Poor baseline PFT alone should not be used to exclude patients with early stage lung cancer from treatment with SBRT.

  11. High-Dose and Extended-Field Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for Early-Stage NK/T-Cell Lymphoma of Waldeyer's Ring: Dosimetric Analysis and Clinical Outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bi, Xi-Wen; Li, Ye-Xiong, E-mail: yexiong@yahoo.com; Fang, Hui; Jin, Jing; Wang, Wei-Hu; Wang, Shu-Lian; Liu, Yue-Ping; Song, Yong-Wen; Ren, Hua; Dai, Jian-Rong

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To assess the dosimetric benefit, treatment outcome, and toxicity of high-dose and extended-field intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in patients with early-stage NK/T-cell lymphoma of Waldeyer's ring (WR-NKTCL). Methods and Materials: Thirty patients with early-stage WR-NKTCL who received extended-field IMRT were retrospectively reviewed. The prescribed dose was 50 Gy to the primary involved regions and positive cervical lymph nodes (planning target volume requiring radical irradiation [PTV{sub 50}]) and 40 Gy to the negative cervical nodes (PTV{sub 40}). Dosimetric parameters for the target volume and critical normal structures were evaluated. Locoregional control (LRC), overall survival (OS), and progression-free survival (PFS) were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The median mean doses to the PTV{sub 50} and PTV{sub 40} were 53.2 Gy and 43.0 Gy, respectively. Only 1.4% of the PTV{sub 50} and 0.9% of the PTV{sub 40} received less than 95% of the prescribed dose, indicating excellent target coverage. The average mean doses to the left and right parotid glands were 27.7 and 28.4 Gy, respectively. The 2-year OS, PFS, and LRC rates were 71.2%, 57.4%, and 87.8%. Most acute toxicities were grade 1 to 2, except for grade ≥3 dysphagia and mucositis. The most common late toxicity was grade 1-2 xerostomia, and no patient developed any ≥grade 3 late toxicities. A correlation between the mean dose to the parotid glands and the degree of late xerostomia was observed. Conclusions: IMRT achieves excellent target coverage and dose conformity, as well as favorable survival and locoregional control rates with acceptable toxicities in patients with WR-NKTCL.

  12. Retrospective, monocentric analysis of late effects after total body irradiation (TBI) in adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boelling, Tobias [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Paracelsus Clinic Osnabrueck (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Kreuziger, David Christoph; Ernst, Iris; Elsayed, Hassan; Willich, Normann [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy

    2011-05-15

    Purpose: Total body irradiation (TBI) is a standard treatment modality within the multidisciplinary approach for allogeneous stem cell or bone marrow transplantation. However, surviving patients are at risk for developing a variety of late sequelae. This analysis aimed to retrospectively characterize late effects after TBI in adults treated in a single center. Patients and Methods: Patients {>=} 18 years treated with fractionated TBI (4-12 Gy) between 1996 and 2008 were included in this study. Treatment data were collected retrospectively from the treating departments. Late effects were evaluated using the clinic charts and/or were obtained from the general practitioners using a standardized questionnaire. Analyses were performed by calculation of the cumulative incidences using the Kaplan-Meier method and the log rank test. Results: A total of 308 patients {>=} 18 years were treated including a TBI of whom 78 patients were excluded from further analysis due to death within less than 1 year after TBI. Patients suffered from leukemia in most cases. Late toxicity follow-up was available in 120 patients (mean age 46.1 years; range, 18-70 years) after a mean follow-up of 23 months (range, 12-96 months). The cumulative incidences (CI) at 3 years were 28% for pulmonary event, 8% for pulmonary toxicity, 25% for kidney toxicity, 8% for cataract, 17% for bone toxicity, and 10% for secondary malignancy. The CI of bone toxicity was higher in female than in male patients (p = 0.019). Conclusion: Late effects after TBI in the context of allogeneous stem cell or bone marrow transplantation can frequently be observed. Regular follow-up examinations are advised for the early registration and treatment of adverse effects. (orig.)

  13. Presence of toxic shock toxin in toxic shock and other clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus.

    OpenAIRE

    Reeves, M W; Pine, L; Feeley, J. C.; Wells, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    Toxic shock toxin (TST), also known as pyrogenic exotoxin C (Schlievert et al., J. Infect. Dis. 143:509-516, 1981) and staphylococcal enterotoxin F (Bergdoll et al., Lancet i:1017-1021, 1981), was purified from toxic shock strains of Staphylococcus aureus by preparative isoelectric focusing and by chromatofocusing. Neither method produced an absolutely pure protein as determined by silver staining of sodium dodecyl sulfate-acrylamide gels, although chromatofocusing was the better method of th...

  14. Evaluation methods and assistance in the interpreting complex toxicity data using an ecotoxicological battery of tests; Toxizitaetsdaten aus einer oekotoxikologischen Testbatterie. Auswertemethode und Interpretationshilfe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann-Hensel, H. [Dr. Fintelmann und Dr. Meyer Handels- und Umweltschutzlaboratorien, Hamburg (Germany); Pudenz, S. [Criterion - Bewertung und Informationsmanagement, Berlin (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The influence of industrial chemicals in the environment is strongly determined by the condition of the soil. Considering the complex interrelationships of soil condition and the specific parameters of the material as influential to bioavailability and decompositional reactions, it is necessary to reproduce various situations via a selected battery of ecotoxicological tests. The use of such batteries has already proved to be suitable for the examination of sediments. In order to make statements about the dangerous potential of chemicals in the soil, samples of natural soil were exposed to industrial chemicals (surfactants, mineral oil hydrocarbons, an antibiotic and a pesticide), and examined regularly in test batteries over a period of four weeks. This microcosm works as a degradation test of environmental relevance, monitoring the effects and reactions of industrial chemicals in natural soil. All test results collected over this period of time come to a very complex and multi-dimensional compilation of data which needs to be considered in full before an assessment is possible. The main goal in analysing the data is to extract the maximum possible information from the matrix. Aside from the graphic presentation, mathematic graphs of the data will be introduced. This method aims to provide a structural and logical relationship to the data, in order to build up a classification system and an order of precedence, which should make it possible to estimate potential risk. (orig.) [German] Das Verhalten von Industriechemikalien in der Umwelt wird durch das Kompartiment Boden stark beeinflusst. Vor dem Hintergrund der komplexen Verflechtung der Bodeneigenschaften und der stoffspezifischen Parameter als Einflussgroesse der Bioverfuegbarkeit und des Abbauverhaltens ist es erforderlich, verschiedene Expostionssituationen mit Hilfe von ausgewaehlten oekotoxikologischen Tests abzubilden. Dazu wurde eine Testkombination eingesetzt, die sich bereits zur Untersuchung von

  15. Doxorubicin-induced ovarian toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizel Shulamith

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young cancer patients may occasionally face infertility and premature gonadal failure. Apart from its direct effect on follicles and oocytes, chemotherapy may induce ovarian toxicity via an impact on the entire ovary. The role of doxorubicin in potential ovarian failure remains obscure. Our intention was to elucidate doxorubicin-related toxicity within ovaries. Methods Female mice were injected intraperitoneally with 7.5 or 10 mg/kg doxorubicin and their ovaries were visualized in vivo by high resolution MRI, one day and one month following treatment. Ovaries of other treated mice were excised and weighed at the same post-treatment intervals. Ovarian histological sections were stained for TUNEL or active caspase-3 and follicles were counted and categorized. Ovulation rates were evaluated in superovulated female mice treated with doxorubicin. Results A single injection of doxorubicin resulted in a major reduction in both ovarian size and weight that lasted even one month post treatment. A dramatic reduction in ovulation rate was observed one week after treatment, followed by a partial recovery at one month. Histological examination revealed positive staining of TUNEL and active caspase-3. We observed a significant reduction in the population of secondary and primordial follicles one month following treatment. Conclusions Our results may imply a mechanism of chemotherapy-induced ovarian toxicity, manifested by reduced ovulation and accompanied by a reduction in ovarian size, caused probably by an acute insult to the ovary.

  16. 杀虫剂对螺旋粉虱毒力的生物测定方法%Bioassay methods for testing the toxicity of insecticides to Aleurodicus dispersus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐良德; 符悦冠; 曾东强

    2016-01-01

    【背景】螺旋粉虱是近年来新入侵中国海南的一种危险性害虫,化学防治是目前其最主要的防治手段和应急措施,但其毒力测定及抗药性监测方法还不明确。以3种不同类型常用杀虫剂为例,探讨了2种毒力测定方法、不同饲养寄主及成虫日龄对螺旋粉虱毒力测定的影响。【方法】对叶片浸渍法和POTTER喷雾法2种毒力测定方法进行比较;以大叶榄仁叶、羊蹄甲叶和印度紫檀叶3种叶片为供试寄主,测定其对螺旋粉虱毒力测定的影响;采用POTTER喷雾法分别测定螺旋粉虱同一种群不同日龄成虫及混合日龄成虫的毒力。【结果】成虫浸叶法不能求出毒力回归方程,POTTER喷雾法能够反映剂量—死亡率关系。经POTTER喷雾法毒力测定,印度紫檀叶片为试材不能获得毒力回归曲线,大叶榄仁和羊蹄甲叶片测得毒力结果一致,供试不同日龄和自然混合日龄成虫不影响毒力测定结果。【结论与意义】POTTER喷雾法是螺旋粉虱成虫最适合的生物测定方法,大叶榄仁和羊蹄甲叶片可作为螺旋粉虱毒力测定的饲养寄主,可采用螺旋粉虱自然混合日龄成虫直接进行抗性监测。试验结果为正确评价杀虫剂对螺旋粉虱的室内毒力及开展田间抗药性监测提供了依据。%[Background] The spiraling whitefly ( Aleurodicus dispersus Russell) is a destructive invasive species and was first found in Hainan, China, in 2006. As a new quarantine pest, chemical control was usually considered the most effective measure to depress and eradicate the field population with its high efficacy and quick action, whereas, the bioassay method for testing the toxicity of in-secticides to A. disperses was not clear. In this study, we evaluated the efficiency of two different bioassay methods to test the toxicity of A. dispersus on three hosts. [Method] Two bioassay methods, leaf-dipping and Petri Dish residue-Potter tower

  17. Toxic Shock Syndrome (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Toxic Shock Syndrome KidsHealth > For Parents > Toxic Shock Syndrome Print ... en español Síndrome de shock tóxico About Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a serious ...

  18. Bioassay method for toxicity studies of insecticide formulations to Tuta absoluta (meyrick, 1917 Metodologia de bioensaio para estudos de toxicidade de formulações comerciais de inseticidas a Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcísio Visintin da Silva Galdino

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Chemical control is the main method for controlling the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae. Reported techniques for the evaluation of insecticide toxicity to the tomato leafminer are not in agreement with field conditions and do not allow us to verify whether doses used in the field are efficient for control. Thus, the objective of this work was to develop a bioassay methodology to study the toxicity of insecticide formulations to T. absoluta that represent field conditions for fast-acting insecticides (neurotoxics and inhibitors of respiration and slow-acting insecticides (Bacillus thuringiensis and insect growth regulators. The leaf-dip method was the most efficient method for toxicity studies of insecticides formulations to T. absoluta. We verified that bioassays with fast-acting insecticides should be performed with glass Petri dishes containing one tomato foliole from the 4th leaf from the plant apex infested with 10 larvae of 3rd instar and these bioassays can last 48 hours. Conversely, bioassays with slow-acting insecticides should be performed with two-liter transparent PET bottles containing the 4th leaf from the plant apex, with their petioles immersed in a glass bottle containing 120 mL of water, and this leaf should be infested with 10 larvae of 2nd instar and this bioassays can last seven days.O principal método utilizado no controle da traça-do-tomateiro Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae é a aplicação de inseticidas. As técnicas atuais de avaliação da toxicidade de inseticidas sobre essa praga não simulam a situação de campo e não possibilitam a verificação se as doses usadas no campo são eficientes no seu controle. Assim, neste trabalho, objetivou-se desenvolver uma metodologia que represente as condições de campo para inseticidas de ação rápida (neurotóxicos e inibidores respiratórios e de ação lenta (Bacillus thuringiensis e reguladores de

  19. CDP-choline: acute toxicity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, T; Romero, A; Sacristán, A; Ortiz, J A

    1983-01-01

    The acute toxicity of a single dose of cytidine diphosphate choline (CDP-choline, citicoline, Somazina) by different administration routes in mice and rats has been studied. LD50 values were determined according to the cumulative method by Reed-Muench for mortality rate, and Pizzi's method for calculation of standard error.

  20. Long-term tolerance and outcomes for dose escalation in early salvage post-prostatectomy radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safdieh, Joseph; Schwartz, David; Weiner, Joseph; Weiss, Jeffrey P.; Madeb, Isaac; Rotman, Marvin; Schreiber, David [Dept.of Veteran Affairs, New York Harbor Healthcare System, Brooklyn (United States); Rineer, Justin [University of Florida Health Cancer Center, Orlando (United States)

    2014-09-15

    To study the long-term outcomes and tolerance in our patients who received dose escalated radiotherapy in the early salvage post-prostatectomy setting. The medical records of 54 consecutive patients who underwent radical prostatectomy subsequently followed by salvage radiation therapy (SRT) to the prostate bed between 2003-2010 were analyzed. Patients included were required to have a pre-radiation prostate specific antigen level (PSA) of 2 ng/mL or less. The median SRT dose was 70.2 Gy. Biochemical failure after salvage radiation was defined as a PSA level >0.2 ng/mL. Biochemical control and survival endpoints were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis were used to identify the potential impact of confounding factors on outcomes. The median pre-SRT PSA was 0.45 ng/mL and the median follow-up time was 71 months. The 4- and 7-year actuarial biochemical control rates were 75.7% and 63.2%, respectively. The actuarial 4- and 7-year distant metastasis-free survival was 93.7% and 87.0%, respectively, and the actuarial 7-year prostate cancer specific survival was 94.9%. Grade 3 late genitourinary toxicity developed in 14 patients (25.9%), while grade 4 late genitourinary toxicity developed in 2 patients (3.7%). Grade 3 late gastrointestinal toxicity developed in 1 patient (1.9%), and grade 4 late gastrointestinal toxicity developed in 1 patient (1.9%). In this series with long-term follow-up, early SRT provided outcomes and toxicity profiles similar to those reported from the three major randomized trials studying adjuvant radiation therapy.

  1. Low-dose rate prostate brachytherapy is well tolerated in patients with a history of inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Christopher A; Cesaretti, Jamie A; Stone, Nelson N; Stock, Richard G

    2006-10-01

    We report on the follow-up of 24 patients with a prior history of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) treated with brachytherapy for early-stage prostate cancer. Twenty-four patients with a history of inflammatory bowel disease (17 with ulcerative colitis (UC), 7 with Crohn's disease [CD]) underwent prostate brachytherapy between 1992 and 2004. Fifteen patients were treated with I-125 implantation and 6 patients were treated with Pd-103 alone or in combination with 45 Gy external beam radiation. Charts were reviewed for all patients, and all living patients were contacted by phone. National Cancer Institute common toxicity scores for proctitis were assigned to all patients. Actuarial risk of late toxicity was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software. Follow-up ranged from 3 to 126 months (median, 48.5 months; mean, 56.8 months). None of the patients experienced Grade 3 or 4 rectal toxicity. Four patients experienced Grade 2 late rectal toxicity. The 5-year actuarial freedom from developing late Grade 2 rectal toxicity was 81%. At a median follow-up of 48.5 months, 23 patients were alive and had no evidence of disease with a median prostate-specific antigen for the sample of 0.1 ng/mL (range, <0.05-0.88 ng/mL). One patient died of other causes unrelated to his prostate cancer. Prostate brachytherapy is well tolerated in patients with a history of controlled IBD. Therefore, brachytherapy should be considered a viable therapeutic option in this patient population.

  2. Toxicity of adipic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Gerald L

    2002-05-01

    Adipic acid has very low acute toxicity in rats with an LD50 > 5000 mg/kg. Adipic acid produced mild to no skin irritation on intact guinea pig skin as a 50% concentration in propylene glycol; it was not a skin sensitizer. Adipic acid caused mild conjunctival irritation in washed rabbit eyes; in unwashed rabbit eyes, there was mild conjunctival irritation, minimal iritis, but no corneal effects. Adipic acid dust may irritate the mucous membranes of the lungs and nose. In a 2-year feeding study, rats fed adipic acid at concentrations up to 5% in the diet exhibited only weight loss. Adipic acid is not genetically active in a wide variety of assay systems. Adipic acid caused no developmental toxicity in mice, rats, rabbits, or hamsters when administered orally. Adipic acid is partially metabolized in humans; the balance is eliminated unchanged in the urine. Adipic acid is slightly to moderately toxic to fish, daphnia, and algae in acute tests.

  3. Toxic and Metabolic Myelopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, Joana; Nunes, Renato Hoffmann; da Rocha, Antonio José; Castillo, Mauricio

    2016-10-01

    Myelopathy describes any neurologic deficit related to the spinal cord. It is most commonly caused by its compression by neoplasms, degenerative disc disease, trauma, or infection. Less common causes of myelopathy include spinal cord tumors, infection, inflammatory, neurodegenerative, vascular, toxic, and metabolic disorders. Conditions affecting the spinal cord must be recognized as early as possible to prevent progression that may lead to permanent disability. Biopsy is rarely performed, thus the diagnosis and management rely on patient׳s history, physical examination, laboratory results, and imaging findings. Here we review the clinical presentations, pathophysiological mechanisms, and magnetic resonance imaging findings of myelopathies related to metabolic or toxic etiologies.

  4. Psychostimulant toxicity in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozalp Ekinci

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Methylphenidate is used for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children above the age of 6 with a high safety and tolerability. When used above the recommended dosage, methylphenidate has been reported to cause toxicity symptoms including neuro-psychiatric and cardiac adverse reactions. In this overview paper, the available literature on psyhcostimulant toxicity in children and the clinical symptoms and follow-up of a 4-year-old child who accidentally used high dose of methylphenidate will be discussed. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(2.000: 184-193

  5. Long-acting reversible contraceptive acceptability and unintended pregnancy among women presenting for short-acting methods: a randomized patient preference trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubacher, David; Spector, Hannah; Monteith, Charles; Chen, Pai-Lien; Hart, Catherine

    2017-02-01

    Measures of contraceptive effectiveness combine technology and user-related factors. Observational studies show higher effectiveness of long-acting reversible contraception compared with short-acting reversible contraception. Women who choose long-acting reversible contraception may differ in key ways from women who choose short-acting reversible contraception, and it may be these differences that are responsible for the high effectiveness of long-acting reversible contraception. Wider use of long-acting reversible contraception is recommended, but scientific evidence of acceptability and successful use is lacking in a population that typically opts for short-acting methods. The objective of the study was to reduce bias in measuring contraceptive effectiveness and better isolate the independent role that long-acting reversible contraception has in preventing unintended pregnancy relative to short-acting reversible contraception. We conducted a partially randomized patient preference trial and recruited women aged 18-29 years who were seeking a short-acting method (pills or injectable). Participants who agreed to randomization were assigned to 1 of 2 categories: long-acting reversible contraception or short-acting reversible contraception. Women who declined randomization but agreed to follow-up in the observational cohort chose their preferred method. Under randomization, participants chose a specific method in the category and received it for free, whereas participants in the preference cohort paid for the contraception in their usual fashion. Participants were followed up prospectively to measure primary outcomes of method continuation and unintended pregnancy at 12 months. Kaplan-Meier techniques were used to estimate method continuation probabilities. Intent-to-treat principles were applied after method initiation for comparing incidence of unintended pregnancy. We also measured acceptability in terms of level of happiness with the products. Of the 916

  6. Study on alternative methods for the acute oral toxicity in detection of chemicals%急性经口毒性替代方法在化学品检验中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭剑斌; 赵敏; 杨杏芬; 周轶琳; 陈壁锋; 陈瑞仪; 黄建康

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨3种急性经口毒性替代法(固定剂量法、急性毒性分级法和上下法)在化学品急性毒性评价中的应用价值.方法 健康雌性SD大鼠,8~12周龄,体重160~200 g.分别选取10种化妆品原料和12种日化品原料共22种化学品作为受试物,参照经济合作与发展组织(OECD)3个急性经口毒性试验替代方法进行检测,依据全球化学品统一分类及标签制度(GHS)急性经口毒性分级原则获得各受试物毒性分级,分析各替代方法结果与传统试验方法之间的相关性和一致性.结果 与传统试验方法结果相比较,各替代方法判断化妆品原料急性毒性分级的一致率均为80%(8/10),固定剂量法、急性毒性分级法和上下法判断日化品原料的一致率分别为91.7%(11/12)、75.0%(9/12)和83.0%(10/12).各替代方法消耗动物数量均少于传统试验方法,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),但所需实验时间长于传统试验方法,差异亦有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 在化妆品和日化品原料急性经口毒性分析检测中,3种替代方法结果与传统试验方法具有较高的一致性和相关性,其中固定剂量法在日化品原料毒性检测中更具应用潜力.%Objective To evaluate three alternative methods for LD50 test-Fixed Dose Procedure (FDP),the Acute Toxic Class Method (ATC) and Up and Down Procedure (UDP).Methods Female SD rats (8~12 weeks of age,160~200 g) were used.Three alternative methods from OECD were applied to assess 22 chemicals (10 cosmetic raw materials and 12 raw materials of personal and home care products).The toxicity ranking for tested chemicals was established according to Globally Harmonized System(GSH).The results LD50 test were compared for the consistency and correlation between alternative methods and traditional test.Results For cosmetic raw materials,the concordance rate of the three alternative methods was 80%(8/10);for raw material of personal and home care products

  7. Field experiments of Anopheles gambiae attraction to local fruits/seedpods and flowering plants in Mali to optimize strategies for malaria vector control in Africa using attractive toxic sugar bait methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bah Sekou

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on recent studies in Israel demonstrating that attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB methods can be used to decimate local anopheline and culicine mosquito populations, an important consideration is whether the same methods can be adapted and improved to attract and kill malaria vectors in Africa. The ATSB approach uses fruit or flower scent as an attractant, sugar solution as a feeding stimulant, and an oral toxin. The ATSB solutions are either sprayed on vegetation or suspended in simple bait stations, and the mosquitoes ingesting the toxic solutions are killed. As such, this approach targets sugar-feeding female and male mosquitoes. This study examines the attractiveness of African malaria vectors to local fruits/seedpods and flowering plants, key biological elements of the ATSB approach for mosquito control. Methods Three field experiments were conducted at sites in Mali. The attraction of Anopheles gambiae s.l. to 26 different local fruits and seedpods was determined at a site in the semi-arid Bandiagara District of Mali. Wire mesh glue traps with fruits/seedpods suspended on skewers inside were set along a seasonal lagoon. Seven replicates of each fruit/seedpod species were tested, with a water-soaked sponge and a sugar-soaked sponge as controls. The attraction of An. gambiae s.l. to 26 different types of flowering plants was determined at a site near Mopti in Mali. The flowering plants held in a water-filled buried container were tested using the same glue traps, with controls including water only and sugar solution. Six replicates of each selected plant type were tested on transects between rice paddies. Additional studies using CDC light traps were done to determine the relative densities and periodicity of An. gambiae s.l. attraction to branches of the most highly attractive flowering plant, branches without flowers, human odor, and candescent light. Results Of the 26 fruits and seedpods tested, 6 were attractive

  8. Application Value of Different Processing Methods in the Genetic Toxicity of Rhubarb%不同炮制方法在大黄遗传毒性减毒中的应用价值探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    南香兰

    2016-01-01

    目的:探究不同炮制方法在大黄遗传毒性减毒中的应用价值。方法分别使用醋蒸法、醋炒法炮制生大黄,建立污染物致突变性检测(AMES)实验检测其效果,比较结果差异性。结果醋蒸[TA97的S9阴性、阳性值分别为(244.5±9.1)、(250.1±8.0)]的大黄样品除醋蒸样品在代谢非活化条件下呈阳性外,菌株TA97、TA98、TA100及TA102的致突变性都呈现阴性结果,醋炒大黄结果仍呈阳性。结论醋蒸法炮制后能有效降低大黄毒作用,醋炒法炮制后大黄减毒效果不明显。%ObjectiveTo explore the application value of different processing methods in the genetic toxicity reduction of rhubarb.Methods Using vinegar steamed method,vinegar fried method of raw rhubarb,the establishment of polutant mutagenicity test experiment to detect its effect,compare the difference between the results.Results Steaming with vinegar[TA97 S9 negative and positive values respectively(244.5±9.1),(250.1±8.0)] of Rhubarb Samples from vinegar steamed samples in non metabolic activation is positive,strains TA97,TA98,TA100 and TA102 induced mutagenicity showed negative results,vinegar fried rhubarb results is stil positive.ConclusionWith vinegar steaming method can effectively reduce the large effect of vinegar fried by pornography,vinegar fried method of the effect is not obvious.

  9. Nanomaterials and Retinal Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The neuroretina should be considered as a potential site of nanomaterial toxicity. Engineered nanomaterials may reach the retina through three potential routes of exposure including; intra­ vitreal injection of therapeutics; blood-borne delivery in the retinal vasculature an...

  10. Respiratory Toxicity Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The advancement in high throughput genomic, proteomic and metabolomic techniques have accelerated pace of lung biomarker discovery. A recent growth in the discovery of new lung toxicity/disease biomarkers have led to significant advances in our understanding of pathological proce...

  11. Local anaesthetic toxicity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this review is to follow the history of the search for less toxic local anaesthetic drugs, to highlight ..... Lignocaine is an anti-arrhythmic drug as it causes a fast blockade, ... ion trafficking.32 In terms of their physiological effect, the heart.

  12. Nanomaterials and Retinal Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The neuroretina should be considered as a potential site of nanomaterial toxicity. Engineered nanomaterials may reach the retina through three potential routes of exposure including; intra­ vitreal injection of therapeutics; blood-borne delivery in the retinal vasculature an...

  13. Field experiments of Anopheles gambiae attraction to local fruits/seedpods and flowering plants in Mali to optimize strategies for malaria vector control in Africa using attractive toxic sugar bait methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Günter C; Beier, John C; Traore, Sekou F; Toure, Mahamoudou B; Traore, Mohamed M; Bah, Sekou; Doumbia, Seydou; Schlein, Yosef

    2010-09-20

    Based on recent studies in Israel demonstrating that attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB) methods can be used to decimate local anopheline and culicine mosquito populations, an important consideration is whether the same methods can be adapted and improved to attract and kill malaria vectors in Africa. The ATSB approach uses fruit or flower scent as an attractant, sugar solution as a feeding stimulant, and an oral toxin. The ATSB solutions are either sprayed on vegetation or suspended in simple bait stations, and the mosquitoes ingesting the toxic solutions are killed. As such, this approach targets sugar-feeding female and male mosquitoes. This study examines the attractiveness of African malaria vectors to local fruits/seedpods and flowering plants, key biological elements of the ATSB approach for mosquito control. Three field experiments were conducted at sites in Mali. The attraction of Anopheles gambiae s.l. to 26 different local fruits and seedpods was determined at a site in the semi-arid Bandiagara District of Mali. Wire mesh glue traps with fruits/seedpods suspended on skewers inside were set along a seasonal lagoon. Seven replicates of each fruit/seedpod species were tested, with a water-soaked sponge and a sugar-soaked sponge as controls. The attraction of An. gambiae s.l. to 26 different types of flowering plants was determined at a site near Mopti in Mali. The flowering plants held in a water-filled buried container were tested using the same glue traps, with controls including water only and sugar solution. Six replicates of each selected plant type were tested on transects between rice paddies. Additional studies using CDC light traps were done to determine the relative densities and periodicity of An. gambiae s.l. attraction to branches of the most highly attractive flowering plant, branches without flowers, human odor, and candescent light. Of the 26 fruits and seedpods tested, 6 were attractive to An. gambiae s.l. females and males, respectively

  14. Comparing toxic air pollutant programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, S.C. [ECKENFELDER Inc., Greenville, SC (United States)

    1997-05-01

    This article compares state and federal toxic air pollutant programs. The Clean Air Act Ammendments created a program for the control of Hazardous Air Pollutants based on the establishment of control technology standards. State toxic programs can be classified into two categories: control technology-based and ambient concentration-based. Many states have opened to implement the MACT standards while enforcing their own state air toxics programs. Specific topics discussed include the following: the Federal air toxics program; existing state regulations; New Jersey Air Toxic Program; New York Toxics program.

  15. Evaluation of toxic metals in canned fish market in Tehran

    OpenAIRE

    AyubEbadi Fathabad; Nabi Shariatifar; Ali Ehsani; Mehran sayadi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Fish meat may be contaminated to toxic metals during commercial transport and processing depending on the raw material before processing occurs. Therefore, monitoring of these products is important with respect to toxic elements affecting human health. Objective: The aim of this study is to assess toxic metals in canned fish marketed in Tehran,Iran. Methods: This study based-cross-sectional was carried out in five different Iranian brands. Forty six canned fishes from this brand...

  16. Allegheny County Toxics Release Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) data provides information about toxic substances released into the environment or managed through recycling, energy recovery, and...

  17. Ethylene oxide potential toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha Mendes, Gisela Cristina; da Silva Brandão, Teresa Ribeiro; Miranda Silva, Cristina Luisa

    2008-05-01

    The future of ethylene oxide (EO) sterilization has been questioned, owing to its associated toxicity. EO has been around for more than 60 years, mainly due to its recognized characteristics of reliability and effectiveness, coupled with the process flexibility, as well as its compatibility with most mechanical devices. Despite the well-known EO toxicity, the undesirable effects of medical devices' EO residues on the patient's health have not yet been well established. There are limitations related to the current risk-assessment studies. To overcome these drawbacks, demands on greater safety are increasing, which lead to improvements in sterilizers and aeration equipment, as well as the design of the processes. The paper under evaluation highlights risks related to EO sterilization of materials used during processing of stem cells for transplantation, but is an example of a study where the dose of the residues in the devices is not considered.

  18. Tungsten Toxicity in Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamakis, Ioannis-Dimosthenis S.; Panteris, Emmanuel; Eleftheriou, Eleftherios P.

    2012-01-01

    Tungsten (W) is a rare heavy metal, widely used in a range of industrial, military and household applications due to its unique physical properties. These activities inevitably have accounted for local W accumulation at high concentrations, raising concerns about its effects for living organisms. In plants, W has primarily been used as an inhibitor of the molybdoenzymes, since it antagonizes molybdenum (Mo) for the Mo-cofactor (MoCo) of these enzymes. However, recent advances indicate that, beyond Mo-enzyme inhibition, W has toxic attributes similar with those of other heavy metals. These include hindering of seedling growth, reduction of root and shoot biomass, ultrastructural malformations of cell components, aberration of cell cycle, disruption of the cytoskeleton and deregulation of gene expression related with programmed cell death (PCD). In this article, the recent available information on W toxicity in plants and plant cells is reviewed, and the knowledge gaps and the most pertinent research directions are outlined. PMID:27137642

  19. Olfactory toxicity in fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Keith B; Baldwin, David H; Hara, Toshiaki J; Ross, Peter S; Scholz, Nathaniel L; Kennedy, Christopher J

    2010-01-21

    Olfaction conveys critical environmental information to fishes, enabling activities such as mating, locating food, discriminating kin, avoiding predators and homing. All of these behaviors can be impaired or lost as a result of exposure to toxic contaminants in surface waters. Historically, teleost olfaction studies have focused on behavioral responses to anthropogenic contaminants (e.g., avoidance). More recently, there has been a shift towards understanding the underlying mechanisms and functional significance of contaminant-mediated changes in fish olfaction. This includes a consideration of how contaminants affect the olfactory nervous system and, by extension, the downstream physiological and behavioral processes that together comprise a normal response to naturally occurring stimuli (e.g., reproductive priming or releasing pheromones). Numerous studies spanning several species have shown that ecologically relevant exposures to common pollutants such as metals and pesticides can interfere with fish olfaction and disrupt life history processes that determine individual survival and reproductive success. This represents one of the pathways by which toxic chemicals in aquatic habitats may increasingly contribute to the decline and at-risk status of many commercially and ecologically important fish stocks. Despite our emerging understanding of the threats that pollution poses for chemical communication in aquatic communities, many research challenges remain. These include: (1) the determination of specific mechanisms of toxicity in the fish olfactory sensory epithelium; (2) an understanding of the impacts of complex chemical mixtures; (3) the capacity to assess olfactory toxicity in fish in situ; (4) the impacts of toxins on olfactory-mediated behaviors that are still poorly understood for many fish species; and (5) the connections between sublethal effects on individual fish and the long-term viability of wild populations. This review summarizes and integrates

  20. Toxic Substances Control Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Toxic Substances Control Act and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  1. [Acute toxicity of different type pesticide surfactants to Daphnia magna].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiu-huan; Li, Hua; Chen, Cheng-yu; Li, Jian-tao; Liu, Feng

    2013-08-01

    By using the standard test methods in Experimental Guideline for Environmental Safety Evaluation of Chemical Pesticide to aquatic organisms, a comparative study was conducted on the acute toxicity of 39 nonionic, 6 anionic, and 3 cationic surfactants to Daphnia magna. The acute toxicity of three cationic surfactants 1427, 1227 and C8-10 to D. magna belonged to virulent level, and the toxicity of 1427 was the highest, with the EC50 value being 0.97 x 10(-2) mg x L(-1). The acute toxicity of nonionic surfactants polyoxyethylene ether castor oil EL, Tween, and Span emulsifiers belonged to low level, but the toxicity of alkylphenol polyoxyethylene ether and fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene ether surfactants was relatively high, of which, AEO-7 and AEO-5 displayed high toxicity, with the EC50 value being 0.82 and 0.97 mg x L(-1), respectively. In these surfactants, the more liposolubility, the higher the toxicity was. Most of the anionic surfactants were medium in toxicity, but the acute toxicity of NNO belonged to high toxicity, with the EC50 value being 0.17 mg x L(-1).

  2. Compatibility of hydroxypropyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin with algal toxicity bioassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fai, Patricia Bi; Grant, Alastair [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Reid, Brian J. [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: b.reid@uea.ac.uk

    2009-01-15

    Numerous reports have indicated that hydrophobic organic compound bioaccessibility in sediment and soil can be determined by extraction using aqueous hydroxypropyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin (HPCD) solutions. This study establishes the compatibility of HPCD with Selenastrum capricornutum and assesses whether its presence influences the toxicity of reference toxicants. Algal growth inhibition (72 h) showed no significant (P > 0.05) difference at HPCD concentrations up to and including 20 mM. HPCD presence did not influence the toxicity of the inorganic reference toxicant (ZnSO{sub 4}), with IC50 values of 0.82 {mu}M and 0.85 {mu}M, in the presence and absence of HPCD (20 mM), respectively. However, HPCD presence (20 mM) reduced the toxicity of 2,4-dichlorophenol and the herbicides diuron and isoproturon. These reductions were attributed to inclusion complex formation between the toxicants and the HPCD cavity. Liberation of complexed toxicants, by sample manipulation prior to toxicity assessment, is proposed to provide a sensitive, high throughput, bioassay that reflects compound bioaccessibility. - Compatibility of the biomimetic HPCD extraction method with algal cell growth inhibition bioassays to assess toxicity of reference toxicants and environmental relevant herbicides.

  3. Ammonia toxicity in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, D J; Tsui, T K N

    2002-01-01

    Ammonia is present in the aquatic environment due to agricultural run-off and decomposition of biological waste. Ammonia is toxic to all vertebrates causing convulsions, coma and death, probably because elevated NH4+ displaces K+ and depolarizes neurons, causing activation of NMDA type glutamate receptor, which leads to an influx of excessive Ca2+ and subsequent cell death in the central nervous system. Present ammonia criteria for aquatic systems are based on toxicity tests carried out on, starved, resting, non-stressed fish. This is doubly inappropriate. During exhaustive exercise and stress, fish increase ammonia production and are more sensitive to external ammonia. Present criteria do not protect swimming fish. Fish have strategies to protect them from the ammonia pulse following feeding, and this also protects them from increases in external ammonia, as a result starved fish are more sensitive to external ammonia than fed fish. There are a number of fish species that can tolerate high environmental ammonia. Glutamine formation is an important ammonia detoxification strategy in the brain of fish, especially after feeding. Detoxification of ammonia to urea has also been observed in elasmobranches and some teleosts. Reduction in the rate of proteolysis and the rate of amino acid catabolism, which results in a decrease in ammonia production, may be another strategy to reduce ammonia toxicity. The weather loach volatilizes NH3, and the mudskipper, P. schlosseri, utilizes yet another unique strategy, it actively pumps NH4+ out of the body.

  4. The toxicity of methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tephly, T.R. (Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Methanol toxicity in humans and monkeys is characterized by a latent period of many hours followed by a metabolic acidosis and ocular toxicity. This is not observed in most lower animals. The metabolic acidosis and blindness is apparently due to formic acid accumulation in humans and monkeys, a feature not seen in lower animals. The accumulation of formate is due to a deficiency in formate metabolism which is, in turn, related, in part, to low hepatic tetrahydrofolate (H{sub 4}folate). An excellent correlation between hepatic H{sub 4} folate and formate oxidation rates has been shown within and across species. Thus, humans and monkeys possess low hepatic H{sub 4}folate levels, low rates of formate oxidation and accumulation of formate after methanol. Formate, itself, produces blindness in monkeys in the absence of metabolic acidosis. In addition to low hepatic H{sub 4}folate concentrations, monkeys and humans also have low hepatic 10-formyl H{sub 4}folate dehydrogenase levels, the enzyme which is the ultimate catalyst for conversion of formate to carbon dioxide. This review presents the basis for the role of folic acid-dependent reactions in the regulation of methanol toxicity.

  5. Nanoparticle toxicity and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevenslik, T.

    2011-07-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have provided significant advancements in cancer treatment. But as in any technology, there is a darkside. Experiments have shown NPs in body fluids pose a health risk by causing DNA damage that in of itself may lead to cancer. To avoid the dilemma that NPs are toxic to both cancer cells and DNA alike, the mechanism of NP toxicity must be understood so that the safe use of NPs may go forward. Reactive oxidative species (ROS) of peroxide and hydroxyl radicals damage the DNA by chemical reaction, but require NPs provide energies of about 5 eV not possible by surface effects. Only electromagnetic (EM) radiations beyond ultraviolet (UV) levels may explain the toxicity of NPs. Indeed, experiments show DNA damage from radiation, Hence, it is reasonable to hypothesize that NPs produce their own source of UV radiation, albeit at low intensity. Ionizing radiation from NPs at UV levels is consistent with the theory of QED induced EM radiation. QED stands for quantum electrodynamics. By this theory, fine radiation need not be limited to natural or man-made NPs. Extensions suggest UV radiation is produced from biological NPs within the body, e.g., enzyme induced fragmentation of epithelial tissue, exocytosis of small proteins, and ironically, the same molecular markers used to detect cancer itself.

  6. Simple test guidelines for screening oilspill sorbents for toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blenkinsopp, S.A.; Sergy, G. [Environment Canada, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Doe, K.; Jackman, P. [Environment Canada, Moncton, NB (Canada); Huybers, A. [Harris Industrial Testing Services Ltd., Milford, NS (Canada)

    1998-09-01

    Environment Canada`s Emergencies Science Division has established a program to develop a standard test method suitable for evaluating the toxicity of common sorbent materials. Sorbents are used to absorb or adsorb spilled oil and other hazardous materials. They vary widely in composition and packaging. They are often treated with oleophilic and hydrophobic compounds to improve performance and have been used in large quantities during oil spills. Until now, their potential toxicity has never been considered. Three tests have been evaluated to determine how appropriate they are in screening the toxicity of sorbents. Seven toxicity test recommendations for sorbents were presented. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

  7. Castleman′s disease and radiotherapy: A single center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bora Uysal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The role of radiotherapy (RT in the management of Castleman′s disease (CD is analyzed. Aims: The main goal of this study is to examine the efficiency of RT in the treatment of unresectable and recurrent CD. Settings and Design: Retrospective study. Subjects and Methods: Between 1980 and 2012, 11 CD patients referred and treated at our clinic were studied. Three of the patients were female, and eight of them were male. Four patients had multicentric (MC and seven patients had unicentric CD. Five patients were managed with incisional biopsy and RT; three unicentric patients underwent total excision followed by RT, and three unicentric patients had total excision and chemotherapy. Patients were retrospectively evaluated. Median follow-up time was 36 (24-60 months with median age 41 (24-52 years and RT dose 30 (30-45 Gy. Statistical Analysis Used: Kaplan-Meier method. Results: About 72.7% of patients were male, and 27.3% were female. 63.6% of the patients were unicentric, and 36.4% were MC CD. 54.5% of the patients were managed with total excision, and 45.5% underwent incisional biopsy. About 63.6% of CD patients received RT and 27.3% were given only chemotherapy, whereas one patient (9.09% received both RT and chemotherapy. Three-year survival was 83%, and 3-year disease free survival was 91%. No late toxicity was noted with. Acute toxicity was noted in two patients who received 45 Gy and no late radiation-induced toxicity was observed. Conclusions: RT is an effective treatment option for CD recurrences and sole treatment for unresectable CD.

  8. Clinical outcome of patients with primary gliosarcoma treated with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide: A single institutional analysis of 27 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G K Rath

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND AIM: The prognosis of primary gliosarcoma (PGS remains dismal with current treatment modalities. We analyzed the outcome of PGS patients treated with concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Retrospective single institutional analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 27 patients of PGS treated with radiotherapy (RT and TMZ during 2007-2012. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Overall survival (OS was estimated by the use of Kaplan Meier method and toxicities were evaluate using common terminology criteria for adverse events version 2.0 (National Cancer Institute, USA. RESULTS: Median age at presentation and Karnofsky performance status was 45 years and 90 respectively and male: female ratio was 20:7. Patients received adjuvant RT to a total dose of 60 Gy at 2 Gy/fraction. All patients except 5 received adjuvant TMZ to a median number of 6 cycles. Grade 2 and 3 hematological toxicity was seen in 8% and 4% of patients respectively during concurrent RT. During adjuvant chemotherapy, 13.6% had Grade 3 thrombocytopenia and 9.5% had Grade 3 neutropenia. Median OS was 16.7 months (1 year and 2 year actuarial OS was 70.8% and 32.6% respectively. Adjuvant TMZ was associated with a better survival (median survival 21.21 vs. 11.93 months; P = 0.0046 on univariate analysis and also on multivariate analysis (hazard ratio 1.82, 95% confidence interval: 1.503-25.58; P = 0.012. CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study, largest series of patients with PGS treated with concurrent and adjuvant TMZ shows an impressive survival with acceptable toxicity. We suggest TMZ be included in the “standard of care” for this tumor.

  9. Long-term local control achieved after hypofractionated stereotactic body radiotherapy for adrenal gland metastases: A retrospective analysis of 34 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scorsetti, Marta; Alongi, Filippo [Radiotherapy and Radiosurgery Dept., IRCCS Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Humanitas Cancer Center, Rozzano, Milano (Italy)], Email: filippo.alongi@humanitas.it; Filippi, Andrea Riccardo [Radiation Oncology Unit, Dept. of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Univ. of Turin, Turin (Italy)] [and others

    2012-05-15

    Aims and background. To describe feasibility, tolerability and clinical outcomes of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in the treatment of adrenal metastases in 34 consecutive cancer patients. Material and methods. Between March 2004 and July 2010, a total of 34 consecutive patients, accounting for 36 adrenal metastatic lesions, were treated with SBRT. SBRT treatments were delivered by a Linac Varian 600 with microMLC (3DLine, Elekta, Stockholm, Sweden) and a Linac ELEKTA Precise (Elekta). All 34 patients were clinically and radiologically evaluated during and after completion of SBRT. Following outcomes were taken into account: best clinical response at any time, local control, time to systemic progression, time to local progression, overall survival and toxicity. Survival was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and factor potentially affecting outcomes were analyzed with Cox regression analysis. Results. Total RT doses ranged from 20 Gy in 4 fractions to 45 Gy in 18 fractions (median dose: 32 Gy; median number of fractions: 4). All doses were prescribed to the 95% isodose line. No cases of Grade {>=} 3 toxicity were recorded. At a median follow-up time of 41 months (range, 12-75) 22 patients were alive. Three of 28 lesions (11%) showed complete response, 13/28 (46%) partial response, 10/28 (36%) stable disease and 2/28 (7%) progressed in the treated area. Local failure was observed in 13 cases. Actuarial local control rates at one and two years were 66% and 32%, respectively. Median time to local progression was 19 months. Median survival was 22 months. Conclusion. SBRT in adrenal gland metastasis is feasible without significant acute and late toxicities, with a good rate of local control. New SBRT fractionation schemes and the possibility to combine new systemic approaches should be investigated in order to further increase local control and reduce systemic disease progression.

  10. Clinical Characteristics and Outcome of Gleason Score 10 Prostate Cancer on Core Biopsy Treated by External Radiotherapy and Hormone Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-peng Mai; Wei-gang Yan; Han-zhong Li; Zhi-gang Ji; Fu-quan Zhang; Ke Hu; Yu Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with Gleason score 10 prostate cancer treated by external radiotherapy and hormone therapy. Methods From January 2003 to March 2014, 1832 patients with prostate cancer were treated, among which 9 patients (represented 0.49%) were identified as Gleason score 10 disease on prostate core biopsy without distant metastases when first diagnosed. All 9 patients were treated by whole pelvic external radiotherapy (The whole pelvic dose was 50.0 Gy and the boost dose ranged from 76.2 to 78.0 Gy) and long-term hormone therapy. We assessed the clinical characteristics, treatment outcomes and treatment toxicities. Survival curves were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results The median follow-up was 4.8 years. Six patients’ pre-treatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels were lower than 20.0μg/L and three patients’ pre-treatment PSA levels were higher than 70.0μg/L. The median percentage of positive biopsy cores was 91%. Three, four and two cases were classified as T2c, T3a and T3b stage, respectively. Three cases were assessed as N1 stage. The 5-year biochemical failure-free survival, distant metastasis-free survival, cancer specific survival and overall survival rates were 28.6%, 57.1%, 66.7%and 57.1%, respectively. Five patients experienced grade 1-2 acute gastrointestinal toxicities and six patients complained of grade 1-2 acute genitourinary toxicities. No bone fracture or cardiovascular disease was detected. Conclusions Gleason score 10 prostate cancer on core biopsy is usually combined with other high risk factors. The pre-treatment PSA levels lie in two extremes. Timely and active treatments are urgent needed because unfavourable oncological outcomes are often presented.

  11. Long-Term Clinical Outcome of Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Inoperable Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: The MD Anderson Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Zhiqin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai (China); Yang Kunyu [Cancer Centre, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Komaki, Ritsuko; Wei Xiong [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Tucker, Susan L. [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Zhuang Yan; Martel, Mary K.; Vedam, Sastray; Balter, Peter [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Zhu Guangying [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peking University School of Oncology, Beiijng Cancer Hospital and Institute, Beijing (China); Gomez, Daniel [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Lu, Charles [Department of Thoracic Medical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Mohan, Radhe [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Cox, James D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Liao Zhongxing, E-mail: zliao@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: In 2007, we published our initial experience in treating inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). The current report is an update of that experience with long-term follow-up. Methods and Materials: Patients in this retrospective review were 165 patients who began definitive radiotherapy, with or without chemotherapy, for newly diagnosed, pathologically confirmed NSCLC to a dose of {>=}60 Gy from 2005 to 2006. Early and late toxicities assessed included treatment-related pneumonitis (TRP), pulmonary fibrosis, esophagitis, and esophageal stricture, scored mainly according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events 3.0. Other variables monitored were radiation-associated dermatitis and changes in body weight and Karnofsky performance status. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to compute survival and freedom from radiation-related acute and late toxicities as a function of time. Results: Most patients (89%) had Stage III to IV disease. The median radiation dose was 66 Gy given in 33 fractions (range, 60-76 Gy, 1.8-2.3 Gy per fraction). Median overall survival time was 1.8 years; the 2-year and 3-year overall survival rates were 46% and 30%. Rates of Grade {>=}3 maximum TRP (TRP{sub max}) were 11% at 6 months and 14% at 12 months. At 18 months, 86% of patients had developed Grade {>=}1 maximum pulmonary fibrosis (pulmonary fibrosis{sub max}) and 7% Grade {>=}2 pulmonary fibrosis{sub max}. The median times to maximum esophagitis (esophagitis{sub max}) were 3 weeks (range, 1-13 weeks) for Grade 2 and 6 weeks (range, 3-13 weeks) for Grade 3. A higher percentage of patients who experienced Grade 3 esophagitis{sub max} later developed Grade 2 to 3 esophageal stricture. Conclusions: In our experience, using IMRT to treat NSCLC leads to low rates of pulmonary and esophageal toxicity, and favorable clinical outcomes in terms of survival.

  12. method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Kimball

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an interior point algorithm to solve the multiperiod hydrothermal economic dispatch (HTED. The multiperiod HTED is a large scale nonlinear programming problem. Various optimization methods have been applied to the multiperiod HTED, but most neglect important network characteristics or require decomposition into thermal and hydro subproblems. The algorithm described here exploits the special bordered block diagonal structure and sparsity of the Newton system for the first order necessary conditions to result in a fast efficient algorithm that can account for all network aspects. Applying this new algorithm challenges a conventional method for the use of available hydro resources known as the peak shaving heuristic.

  13. Rapid toxicity testing based on yeast respiratory activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haubenstricker, M.E. (Environmental Protection Agency, Ann Arbor, MI (USA)); Meier, P.G.; Mancy, K.H. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (USA)); Brabec, M.J. (Eastern Michigan Univ., Ypsilanti (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Rapid and economical techniques are needed to determine the effects of environmental contaminants. At present, the main methods to assess the impact of pollutants are based on chemical analysis of the samples. Invertebrate and vertebrate exposures have been used over the last two decades in assessing acute and chronic toxicities. However, these tests are labor intensive and require several days to complete. An alternative to whole organism exposure is to determine toxic effects in monocellular systems. Another approach for assessing toxicity is to monitor sensitive, nonspecific, subcellular target sites such as mitochondria. Changes in mitochondrial function which could indicate a toxic effect can be demonstrated readily after addition of a foreign substance. In initial assessments of various chemicals, rat liver mitochondria (RLM) were evaluated as a biological sensor of toxicity. False toxicity assessments will result if these ions are present even though they are generally considered nontoxic. Because of these disadvantages, an alternative mitochondrial system, such as found in bakers yeast, was evaluated.

  14. Modern toxic antipersonnel projectiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Yvan; Regenstreif, Philippe; Fanton, Laurent

    2014-12-01

    In the spring of 1944, Kurt von Gottberg, the SS police chief in Minsk, was shot and injured by 2 Soviet agents. Although he was only slightly injured, he died 6 hours later. The bullets were hollow and contained a crystalline white powder. They were 4-g bullets, semi-jacketed in cupronickel, containing 28 mg of aconitine. They were later known as akonitinnitratgeschosse. The Sipo (the Nazi security police) then ordered a trial with a 9-mm Parabellum cartridge containing Ditran, an anticholinergic drug with hallucinogenic properties causing intense mental confusion. In later years, QNB was used and given the NATO code BZ (3-quinuclidinyl-benzylate). It was proven that Saddam Hussein had this weapon (agent 15) manufactured and used it against the Kurds. Serbian forces used the same type of weapon in the Bosnian conflict, particularly in Srebrenica.The authors go on to list the Cold War toxic weapons developed by the KGB and the Warsaw pact countries for the discreet elimination of dissidents and proindependence leaders who had taken refuge in the West. These weapons include PSZh-13 launchers, the Troika electronic sequential pistol, and the ingenious 4-S110T captive piston system designed by the engineer Stechkin. Disguised as a cigarette case, it could fire a silent charge of potassium cyanide. This rogues gallery also includes the umbrella rigged to inject a pellet of ricin (or another phytalbumin of similar toxicity, such as abrin or crotin) that was used to assassinate the Bulgarian writer and journalist Georgi Markov on September 7, 1978, in London.During the autopsy, the discovery of a bullet burst into 4 or 5 parts has to make at once suspecting the use of a toxic substance. Toxicological analysis has to look for first and foremost aconitine, cyanide, suxamethonium, Ditran, BZ, or one of the toxic phytalbumins. The use of such complex weapons has to make suspect a powerful organization: army, secret service, terrorism. The existence of the Russian UDAR spray

  15. Toxic Effects of Phthalates on Ocean Algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the interaction of phthalates and ocean algae based on the standard appraisal method of chemical medicine for algae toxicity. Through the experiments on the toxic effects of dimethyl (o-) phthalate (DMP), diethyl (o-) phthalate (DEP), dibutyl (o-)phthalate (DBP) on ocean algae, the 50 % lethal concentration of the three substances in 48 h and 96 h for plaeodectylum tricornutum, platymonas sp, isochrysis galbana, and skeletonema costatum is obtained. Tolerance limits of the above ocean algae of DMP, DEP, and DBP are discussed.

  16. Using Spider-Web Patterns To Determine Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noever, David A.; Cronise, Raymond J.; Relwani, Rachna A.

    1995-01-01

    Method of determining toxicities of chemicals involves recording and analysis of spider-web patterns. Based on observation spiders exposed to various chemicals spin webs that differ, in various ways, from normal webs. Potential alternative to toxicity testing on higher animals.

  17. Toxicity Studies on "840 Biologic Pesticide"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    [Objective] "840 Biologic Pesticide" is a very effective biologic pesticide. It consists of Abamectin and celastrus angulatus. Toxicity study was aimed to provide scientific toxicological basis. [Methods] The acute toxicity test,Ames test,micronucleus test and testicle chromosome aberration test were done. [Results] The acute toxicity of single dose of "840 Biologic Pesticide" showed that acute oral LD50 for female and male rats are 4 300 and 4 280 mg/kg,and for female and male mice are 2 330 and 5 110 mg/kg,respectively. The dermal LD50 was >2 000 mg/kg for female and male rats. The mutagenesis studies indicated that Ames test,micronucleus test and testicle chromosome aberration test were negative. [Conclusion] Tested pesticidc belongs to low toticity grade.

  18. Catalytic destruction of toxic organic chamicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berty, J.M.

    1992-05-19

    This patent describes a method for the conversion of toxic hydrocarbons and halocarbons materials to non-toxic by-products. It comprises contacting the toxic materials with an effective amount of catalyst in the presence of oxygen or an oxygen-containing gas, wherein the catalyst consists essentially of a metal selected from the group consisting of manganese, copper, silver, iron, and aluminum, or a metal oxide selected from the group consisting of nickel oxide, cobalt oxide, aluminum oxide, vanadium oxide, tungsten oxide, molybdenum oxide, and mixtures thereof, and wherein the metal or metal oxide is impregnated on or dispersed in an alkali metal carbonate, alkali metal bicarbonate, alkali-earth metal carbonate or alkali-earth metal bicarbonate, or mixtures thereof.

  19. [Toxicity of puffer fish fins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Shunichi; Ichimaru, Shunichi; Arakawa, Osamu; Takatani, Tomohiro; Noguchi, Tamao; Ishizaki, Shoichiro; Nagashima, Yuji

    2007-10-01

    Puffer fish is prized as a Japanese traditional food and its fin is also used in the cuisine. However, whether the fin is edible or not is determined for convenience from the toxicity of skin, since little information is available about the toxicity of puffer fish fins. In the present study, we examined the toxicity of fins and skin of three toxic species, Takifugu vermicularis, T. snyderi, and T. porphyreus. The toxicity of T. vermicularis fins (< 5-52.4 MU/g) was significantly lower than that of skin (<5-1200 MU/g). HPLC analysis showed that tetrodotoxin was a major toxic principle irrespective of the toxicity value in each tissue of T. vermicularis. In the case of T. snyderi and T. porphyreus, the toxicity of fins was at almost the same level as that of the skin. The toxicity (< 10-12 MU/g) of caudal fins of T. porphyreus was apparently increased to 16.5-22.0 MU/g by drying. However, the toxin amounts in the dried fins were slightly decreased as compared with those of the non-dried fins. These results demonstrate that puffer fish with toxic skin also have toxic fins.

  20. Effectiveness of the Dader Method for Pharmaceutical Care on Patients with Bipolar I Disorder: Results from the EMDADER-TAB Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Ospina, Andrea; Amariles, Pedro; Hincapié-García, Jaime A; González-Avendaño, Sebastián; Benjumea, Dora M; Faus, Maria José; Rodriguez, Luis F

    2017-01-01

    Bipolar I disorder (BD-I) is a chronic illness characterized by relapses alternating with periods of remission. Pharmacists can contribute to improved health outcomes in these patients through pharmaceutical care in association with a multidisciplinary health team; however, more evidence derived from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is needed to demonstrate the effect of pharmaceutical care on patients with BD-I. To assess the effectiveness of a pharmaceutical intervention using the Dader Method on patients with BD-I, measured by the decrease in the number of hospitalizations, emergency service consultations, and unscheduled outpatient visits from baseline through 1 year of follow-up. This study is based on the EMDADER-TAB trial, which was an RCT designed to compare pharmaceutical care with the usual care given to outpatients with BD-I in a psychiatric clinic. The main outcome was the use of health care services, using Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox regression. The trial protocol was registered in ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier NCT01750255). 92 patients were included in the EMDADER-TAB study: 43 pharmaceutical care patients (intervention group) and 49 usual care patients (control group). At baseline, no significant differences in demographic and clinical characteristics were found across the 2 groups. After 1 year of follow-up, the risk of hospitalizations and emergencies was higher for the control group than for the intervention group (HR = 9.03, P = 0.042; HR = 3.38, P = 0.034, respectively); however, the risk of unscheduled outpatient visits was higher for the intervention group (HR = 4.18, P = 0.028). There was no "placebo" treatment, and patients in the control group might have produced positive outcomes and reduced the magnitude of differences compared with the intervention group. Compared with usual care, pharmaceutical care significantly reduced hospitalizations and emergency service consultations by outpatients with BD-I. This study received funding from

  1. Concomitant chemoradiotherapy versus induction chemotherapy followed by chemoradiotherapy as definitive, first line treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. A retrospective single center analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balermpas, P.; Bauer, C.; Fraunholz, I.; Ottinger, A.; Fokas, E.; Roedel, C.; Weiss, C. [Goethe University Frankfurt, Department of Radiation Therapy and Oncology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Wagenblast, J.; Stoever, T. [Goethe University, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Seitz, O. [Goethe University, Department of Oral Maxillofacial and Plastic Facial Surgery, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    Routine stuetzen, wird sie immer haeufiger fuer Patienten mit lokal fortgeschrittenen Plattenepithelkarzinomen der Kopf-Hals-Region (SCCHN) eingesetzt. Wir praesentieren hier die Ergebnisse einer retrospektiven monozentrischen Analyse zur Durchfuehrbarkeit, Therapievertraeglichkeit sowie die Resultate beider Behandlungsstrategien. Zwischen 2007 und 2010 wurden 83 Patienten mit einer IC + CRT (42 Patienten) oder mit einer primaeren CRT (41 Patienten) behandelt. Die IC bestand aus Docetaxel, Cisplatin und 5-Fluorouracil (TPF) oder Cisplatin und 5-Fluorouracil (PF). Fuer alle Patienten war eine simultane CRT mit 2 Zyklen einer PF-Chemotherapie geplant. Nebenwirkungen wurden analog den ''common toxicity criteria of adverse events'' (CTCAE v. 3.0) erfasst. Abhaengigkeiten wurden mit dem Chi{sup 2}-Test ueberprueft und Ueberlebensraten anhand der Kaplan-Meier-Methode geschaetzt. Es ereigneten sich signifikant mehr Grad-4-Nebenwirkungen in der IC + CRT-Gruppe (42,9 % vs. 9,8 %; p = 0,001). Eine Nierentoxizitaet ≥ Grad 2 ereignete sich in jeweils 52,4% vs. 7,3% (p < 0,001). Die geplante Radiotherapie in voller Dosis erhielten 93% der Patienten mit einer CRT im Vergleich zu 71 % mit einer IC + CRT (p = 0,012). Die mediane Nachbeobachtungszeit betrug 30,35 Monate (Spanne 2,66-61,25 Monate). Das Gesamtueberleben nach 2 Jahren war fuer die CRT-Gruppe signifikant hoeher (74,8 % vs. 54 %; p = 0,041). Dies ist nach unserer Kenntnis die groesste retrospektive Untersuchung, die eine IC gefolgt von einer CRT mit einer definitiven CRT vergleicht. Die IC zeigte eine hohe Rate an Akuttoxizitaeten, welche die Durchfuehrbarkeit der simultanen CRT einschraenkten, und die letztlich mit einer geringeren Ueberlebensrate assoziiert war. Der fehlende klinische Vorteil, zusammen mit einer erhoehten Nebenwirkungsrate spricht gegen den Einsatz einer IC in der klinischen Routine. (orig.)

  2. A risk-adapted study of cisplatin and etoposide, with or without ifosfamide, in patients with metastatic seminoma: results of the GETUG S99 multicenter prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fizazi, Karim; Delva, Rémi; Caty, Armelle; Chevreau, Christine; Kerbrat, Pierre; Rolland, Frederic; Priou, Frank; Geoffrois, Lionnel; Rixe, Olivier; Beuzeboc, Philippe; Malhaire, Jean-Pierre; Culine, Stephane; Aubelle, Marie-Stephanie; Laplanche, Agnes

    2014-02-01

    Whether patients with good prognosis and intermediate/poor prognosis advanced seminoma should be treated differently has not been defined. To assess a risk-adapted chemotherapy regimen in patients with advanced seminoma. A total of 132 patients were included in this prospective study. Patients with a good prognosis according to the International Germ Cell Cancer Collaboration Group (IGGCCG) were treated with four cycles of cisplatin-etoposide (EP). Patients with an intermediate prognosis according to the IGCCCG (or a poor prognosis according to the Medical Research Council classification) were treated with four cycles of VIP (EP and ifosfamide) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). Survival curves were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The median follow-up was 4.5 yr (range: 0.4-11.6 yr). Among 108 patients (82%) with a good prognosis who received EP, grade 3-4 toxicity included neutropenia (47%) and neutropenic fever (12%). Among the 24 patients (18%) with an intermediate/poor prognosis who received VIP plus G-CSF, toxicity included grade 3-4 neutropenia (36%), neutropenic fever (23%), thrombocytopenia (23%), anemia (23%), and a toxicity-related death (n=1; 4%). The 3-yr progression-free survival (PFS) rate was 93% (range: 85-97%) in the good prognosis group and 83% (range: 63-93%) in the intermediate/poor prognosis group (p=0.03 for PFS). The 3-yr overall survival (OS) rate was 99% (range: 92-100%) and 87% (range: 67-95%), respectively (pseminoma or its treatment. A risk-adapted chemotherapy policy for advanced seminoma yielded an excellent outcome with a 3-yr OS rate of 96%. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Intensity-Modulated and Image-Guided Radiotherapy in Patients with Locally Advanced Inoperable Pancreatic Cancer after Preradiation Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sinn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Radiotherapy (RT in patients with pancreatic cancer is still a controversial subject and its benefit in inoperable stages of locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC, even after induction chemotherapy, remains unclear. Modern radiation techniques such as image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT may improve effectiveness and reduce radiotherapy-related toxicities. Methods. Patients with LAPC who underwent radiotherapy after chemotherapy between 09/2004 and 05/2013 were retrospectively analyzed with regard to preradiation chemotherapy (PRCT, modalities of radiotherapy, and toxicities. Progression-free (PFS and overall survival (OS were estimated by Kaplan-Meier curves. Results. 15 (68% women and 7 men (median age 64 years; range 40–77 were identified. Median duration of PRCT was 11.1 months (range 4.3–33.0. Six patients (27% underwent conventional RT and 16 patients (73% advanced IMRT and IGRT; median dosage was 50.4 (range 9–54 Gray. No grade III or IV toxicities occurred. Median PFS (estimated from the beginning of RT was 5.8 months, 2.6 months in the conventional RT group (conv-RT, and 7.1 months in the IMRT/IGRT group (P=0.029; median OS was 11.0 months, 4.2 months (conv-RT, and 14.0 months (IMRT/IGRT; P=0.141. Median RT-specific PFS for patients with prolonged PRCT > 9 months was 8.5 months compared to 5.6 months for PRCT 9 months group, with 19.0 months compared to 8.5 months in the PRCT  <  9 months group (P=0.049. Conclusions. IGRT and IMRT after PRCT are feasible and effective options for patients with LAPC after prolonged preradiation chemotherapy.

  4. FEASIBILITY OF INDUCTION DOCETAXEL, CISPLATIN, 5-FLUOROURACIL, CETUXIMAB (TPF-C FOLLOWED BY CONCURRENT CETUXIMAB RADIOTHERAPY FOR LOCALLY ADVANCED HEAD AND NECK SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos eCharalambakis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report our experience with a sequential regimen of induction TPF-C followed by radioimmunotherapy with cetuximab in patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC. Patients and Methods: Toxicity and outcome was retrospectively analyzed in 22 patients receiving sequential therapy with induction TPF-C followed by radioimmunotherapy between October 2008 and December 2011. Outcome was estimated using Kaplan-Meier analyses. In addition, we performed mutation analysis for PIK3CA genes and high-risk HPV-DNA detection using PCR. Results: Median follow-up was 16 months. Six patients were TNM Stage III, 15 patients IV (IVA or IVB and 1 patient Stage II with bulky disease. During TPF-C, Grade 3 and 4 toxicities occurred in 8 patients (36.4%, dose modifications in 7 (31.8%, delays in 1 (4.5%, and unplanned admissions in 5 (22.7%. Clinical tumor response was documented in 18 of the 21 patients who completed at least 3 cycles of TPF-C (85.7% with 3 patients developing complete response and 15 partial responses. Grade 3/4 mucositis was observed in 6 (31.6% patients. At a median follow up of 19 months, 13 patients were alive and 9 (40.9% had died including 7 patients as a result of disease persistence or recurrence and two as a result of unrelated causes. PIK3CA mutations were not identified and our 2 oropharynx cases were HPV negative.Conclusions: The combination of induction TPF-C with concurrent cetuximab radioimmunotherapy in patients with locally advanced HNSCC is tolerable, with encouraging efficacy.Keywords: HNSCC, TPF-C, cetuximab radiotherapy, toxicity and outcome, mutation analysis, PIK3CA, HPV-DNA.

  5. 利用DNA shuffling技术构建含5个cry基因的突变体库以筛选高毒力杀虫蛋白%Constructing cry genes mutant library with DNA shuffling method for screening high toxic Cry protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小琼; 林拥军

    2011-01-01

    An E.coli-expression mutant library containing 1 000 cry mutant genes was constructed using DNA family shuffling method with five initial cry genes cry1Ac,cry1Ab, cry1C * ,cry2A * and cry9C *.The 1 000 clones were expressed in E.coli and their toxicity was tested upon Helicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm) larvae.The expression level of mutation clones were quantified by ELISA.Compared with the original Cry1Ac, there were 122 clones with significantly enhanced toxicity, 38 clones with similar toxicity; 232 clones with decreased toxicity; and 608 clones with lost toxicity.All 1 000 cry mutant genes in the library were sequenced and amino acid sequence homology of all cry mutant genes was analyzed by multiple comparisons.Gene sources of 945 clones were found and divided into 5 classes based on homology, 55 clones were unrecognized.According to toxicity level, the 1 000 clones were further divided into 3 classes: increased toxicity, similar toxicity and decreased toxicity.Analyzing the amino acid sequences of the 1 000 clones, the homology in 5 decreased toxicity classes was lower than increased toxicity classes and similar toxicity classes.%以改造合成的5个Bt基因(crylC*、cry2A*、crylAb、crylAc和fry9C*)为材料,利用DNA shuff-ling的体外分子进化技术构建1个含有1 000个重组基因克隆的大肠杆菌表达库;通过诱导表达重组蛋白.ELISA方法测定蛋白表达量,以棉铃虫(Helicoverpa armigera)为试验昆虫进行毒性试验.结果显示:重组克隆的蛋白毒性与阳性对照crylAc相比,增强的有122个,持平的有38个,有毒性但毒性降低的有232个,失去毒性的有608个;对这1 000个重组克隆进行了测序.比较了重组基因与原始基因的序列同源性,除去55个克隆未能找到其原始基因来源,将其余的945个重组克隆从5个Cry蛋白的核苷酸编码序列的同源性出发,划分为源于crylC*、cry2A*、crylAb、crylAc和fry9C*的5个重组克隆类型.根据毒力变化分为

  6. Toxic metals and autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sarmishtha; Sarkar, Shuvasree; Bhattacharya, Shelley

    2014-11-17

    The earth's resources are finite, and it can no longer be considered a source of inexhaustible bounty for the human population. However, this realization has not been able to contain the human desire for rapid industrialization. The collateral to overusing environmental resources is the high-level contamination of undesirable toxic metals, leading to bioaccumulation and cellular damage. Cytopathological features of biological systems represent a key variable in several diseases. A review of the literature revealed that autophagy (PCDII), a high-capacity process, may consist of selective elimination of vital organelles and/or proteins that intiate mechanisms of cytoprotection and homeostasis in different biological systems under normal physiological and stress conditions. However, the biological system does survive under various environmental stressors. Currently, there is no consensus that specifies a particular response as being a dependable biomarker of toxicology. Autophagy has been recorded as the initial response of a cell to a toxic metal in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Various signaling pathways are triggered through cellular proteins and/or protein kinases that can lead to autophagy, apoptosis (or necroptosis), and necrosis. Although the role of autophagy in tumorigenesis is associated with promoting tumor cell survival and/or acting as a tumor suppressive mechanism, PCDII in metal-induced toxicity has not been extensively studied. The aim of this review is to analyze the comparative cytotoxicity of metals/metalloids and nanoparticles (As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Fe, and metal-NP) in cells enduring autophagy. It is noted that metals/metalloids and nanoparticles prefer ATG8/LC3 as a potent inducer of autophagy in several cell lines or animal cells. MAP kinases, death protein kinases, PI3K, AKT, mTOR, and AMP kinase have been found to be the major components of autophagy induction or inhibition in the context of cellular responses to metals/metalloids and

  7. The classification and application of toxic Chinese materia medica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinmin; Wang, Qiong; Song, Guangqing; Zhang, Guangping; Ye, Zuguang; Williamson, Elizabeth M

    2014-03-01

    Many important drugs in the Chinese materia medica (CMM) are known to be toxic, and it has long been recognized in classical Chinese medical theory that toxicity can arise directly from the components of a single CMM or may be induced by an interaction between combined CMM. Traditional Chinese Medicine presents a unique set of pharmaceutical theories that include particular methods for processing, combining and decocting, and these techniques contribute to reducing toxicity as well as enhancing efficacy. The current classification of toxic CMM drugs, traditional methods for processing toxic CMM and the prohibited use of certain combinations, is based on traditional experience and ancient texts and monographs, but accumulating evidence increasingly supports their use to eliminate or reduce toxicity. Modern methods are now being used to evaluate the safety of CMM; however, a new system for describing the toxicity of Chinese herbal medicines may need to be established to take into account those herbs whose toxicity is delayed or otherwise hidden, and which have not been incorporated into the traditional classification. This review explains the existing classification and justifies it where appropriate, using experimental results often originally published in Chinese and previously not available outside China.

  8. Neurological oxygen toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmery, Scott; Sykes, Oliver

    2012-10-01

    SCUBA diving has several risks associated with it from breathing air under pressure--nitrogen narcosis, barotrauma and decompression sickness (the bends). Trimix SCUBA diving involves regulating mixtures of nitrogen, oxygen and helium in an attempt to overcome the risks of narcosis and decompression sickness during deep dives, but introduces other potential hazards such as hypoxia and oxygen toxicity convulsions. This study reports on a seizure during the ascent phase, its potential causes and management and discusses the hazards posed to the diver and his rescuer by an emergency ascent to the surface.

  9. [Toxic shock syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyll, T; Bílková, M; Revinová, A; Müller, M; Čurdová, M; Zlámal, M; Holub, M

    2015-10-01

    The authors present an up-to-date review of toxic shock syndrome (TSS) - a life-threatening condition where toxins of the Gram-positive bacteria Staphyloccocus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes play a key role in the pathogenesis. The authors provide insight into the epidemiology and pathogenesis of the disease and point out the relevant patient history data and clinical signs and symptoms that may indicate progression of TSS. Last but not least, the state of the art diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to early and full blown TSS are summarized. Case reports are presented to illustrate two different etiological forms of this relatively rare nosological entity.

  10. Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xixin Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available ZrO2 nanotube arrays were prepared by anodization method in aqueous electrolyte containing (NH42SO4 and NH4F. The morphology and structure of nanotube arrays were characterized through scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and infrared spectra analysis. The zirconia nanotube arrays were used as catalyst in esterification reaction. The effects of calcination temperature and electrolyte concentration on catalytic esterification activity have been investigated in detail. Experiments indicate that nanotube arrays have highest catalytic activity when the concentration of (NH42SO4 is 1 mol/L, the concentration of NH4F is 1 wt%, and the calcination temperature is 400°C. Esterification reaction yield of as much as 97% could be obtained under optimal conditions.

  11. Comparison of the mouse Embryonic Stem cell Test, the rat Whole Embryo Culture and the Zebrafish Embryotoxicity Test as alternative methods for developmental toxicity testing of six 1,2,4-triazoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Esther; Barenys, Marta; Hermsen, Sanne A B; Verhoef, Aart; Ossendorp, Bernadette C; Bessems, Jos G M; Piersma, Aldert H

    2011-06-01

    The relatively high experimental animal use in developmental toxicity testing has stimulated the search for alternatives that are less animal intensive. Three widely studied alternative assays are the mouse Embryonic Stem cell Test (EST), the Zebrafish Embryotoxicity Test (ZET) and the rat postimplantation Whole Embryo Culture (WEC). The goal of this study was to determine their efficacy in assessing the relative developmental toxicity of six 1,2,4-triazole compounds,(1) flusilazole, hexaconazole, cyproconazole, triadimefon, myclobutanil and triticonazole. For this purpose, we analyzed effects and relative potencies of the compounds in and among the alternative assays and compared the findings to their known in vivo developmental toxicity. Triazoles are antifungal agents used in agriculture and medicine, some of which are known to induce craniofacial and limb abnormalities in rodents. The WEC showed a general pattern of teratogenic effects, typical of exposure to triazoles, mainly consisting of reduction and fusion of the first and second branchial arches, which are in accordance with the craniofacial malformations reported after in vivo exposure. In the EST all triazole compounds inhibited cardiomyocyte differentiation concentration-dependently. Overall, the ZET gave the best correlation with the relative in vivo developmental toxicities of the tested compounds, closely followed by the EST. The relative potencies observed in the WEC showed the lowest correlation with the in vivo developmental toxicity data. These differences in the efficacy between the test systems might be due to differences in compound kinetics, in developmental stages represented and in the relative complexity of the alternative assays. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of Zinc Toxicity on Lymphoid Organs in Chickens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Heng-min; ZHAO Cui-yan; LI De-bing; PENG Xi; DENG Jun-liang

    2004-01-01

    The experiment was conducted with the objective of studies on effects of zinc toxicity on lymphoid organs by the methods of experimental pathology and flow cytometry (FCM). 200one-day-old Avian broilers were divided into four groups randomly, and fed on diets as follows: controls (Zn 100mg kg-1)and zinc toxic (Zn 1 500mg kg-1, zinc toxic group Ⅰ; Zn 2 000 mg kg-1, zinc toxic group Ⅱ; Zn 2 500 mg kg-1, zinc toxic group Ⅲ) for seven weeks. The weight and growth index of the thymus, spleen and bursa of Fabricius were reduced in both zinc toxic group Ⅱ and zinc toxic group Ⅲ when compared with those of control group. The G0/G1 phase of the cell cycles of the lymphoid organs was higher, and S, G2+M phases lower in zinc toxic groups Ⅱ and Ⅲ than in control group. Lymphocytes were depleted and degenerate in the lymphoid organs. The reticular cells of the bursa of Fabricius proliferated and the reticular cells of the thymus were also degenerate and necrotic,particularly in zinc toxic groups Ⅱ and Ⅲ. The results demonstrated that more than 1 500 mg kg-1 impaired the progression of lymphocytes from the G0/G1 phase to S phase obviously, inhibited the development of lymphoid organs and caused marked pathological changes in the lymphoid organs. Potential mechanisms underlying these observations are also discussed.

  13. [Toxicity of monkshood. Review.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingolfsdottir, K; Olafsson, K

    1997-03-01

    Monkshood, Aconitum napellus L. (Ranunculaceae), is considered one of the most poisonous plants growing in Europe. Monkshood and other Aconitum species are still used in Oriental and homeopathic medicine as analgesics, febrifuges and hypotensives. The neurotoxin aconitine is the principal alkaloid in most subspecies of monkshood. A review is presented, which includes historical aspects of monkshood as a poisonous and medicinal plant, the mode of action of aconitine, symptoms of toxicity, treatment and reports of recent poisoning incidents. In addition, results of quantitative HPLC examination of hypogeous and epigeous organs from a population of A. napellus ssp. vulgare cultivated in Iceland are discussed. The fact that children in Iceland have commonly been known to eat the sweet tasting nectaries in monkshood prompted an investigation of the alkaloidal content of these organs specifically. The low aconitine content found in the nectaries as well as in whole flowers accords with the absence of reported toxicity arising from the handling of flowers and consumption of nectaries from A. napellus in this country.

  14. Toxic compounds in honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Nazmul; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Islam, Md Asiful; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-07-01

    There is a wealth of information about the nutritional and medicinal properties of honey. However, honey may contain compounds that may lead to toxicity. A compound not naturally present in honey, named 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), may be formed during the heating or preservation processes of honey. HMF has gained much interest, as it is commonly detected in honey samples, especially samples that have been stored for a long time. HMF is a compound that may be mutagenic, carcinogenic and cytotoxic. It has also been reported that honey can be contaminated with heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium. Honey produced from the nectar of Rhododendron ponticum contains alkaloids that can be poisonous to humans, while honey collected from Andromeda flowers contains grayanotoxins, which can cause paralysis of limbs in humans and eventually leads to death. In addition, Melicope ternata and Coriaria arborea from New Zealand produce toxic honey that can be fatal. There are reports that honey is not safe to be consumed when it is collected from Datura plants (from Mexico and Hungary), belladonna flowers and Hyoscamus niger plants (from Hungary), Serjania lethalis (from Brazil), Gelsemium sempervirens (from the American Southwest), Kalmia latifolia, Tripetalia paniculata and Ledum palustre. Although the symptoms of poisoning due to honey consumption may differ depending on the source of toxins, most common symptoms generally include dizziness, nausea, vomiting, convulsions, headache, palpitations or even death. It has been suggested that honey should not be considered a completely safe food.

  15. Biochemical toxicity of benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, S V S; Verma, Yeshvandra

    2005-04-01

    Human exposure to benzene in work environment is a global occupational health problem. After inhalation or absorption, benzene targets organs viz. liver, kidney, lung, heart and brain etc. It is metabolized mainly in the liver by cytochrome P450 multifunctional oxygenase system. Benzene causes haematotoxicity through its phenolic metabolites that act in concert to produce DNA strand breaks, chromosomal damage, sister chromatid exchange, inhibition of topoisomerase II and damage to mitotic spindle. The carcinogenic and myelotoxic effects of benzene are associated with free radical formation either as benzene metabolites or lipid peroxidation products. Benzene oxide and phenol have been considered as proheptons. Liver microsomes play an important role in biotransformation of benzene whereas in kidney, it produces degenerative intracellular changes. Cohort studies made in different countries suggest that benzene induces multiple myeloma in petrochemical workers. Though extensive studies have been performed on its toxicity, endocrinal disruption caused by benzene remains poorly known. Transgenic cytochrome P450 IIE1 mice may help in understanding further toxic manifestations of benzene.

  16. Thallium toxicity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvjetko, Petra; Cvjetko, Ivan; Pavlica, Mirjana

    2010-03-01

    Thallium is a naturally occurring trace element, widely distributed in the earth's crust, but at very low concentrations. It does not have a known biological use and does not appear to be an essential element for life. It has been considered one of the most toxic heavy metals.Occasionally, there are reports on thallium poisoning as results of suicide or murder attempt or accident. The main threat to humans is through occupational exposure, environmental contamination, and accumulation in food, mainly in vegetables grown on contaminated soil. Increasing use in emerging new technologies and demanding high-tech industry constantly raise concern about exposure risk to all living organisms. Thallium is considered a cumulative poison that can cause adverse health effects and degenerative changes in many organs. The effects are the most severe in the nervous system. The exact mechanism of thallium toxicity still remains unknown, although impaired glutathione metabolism, oxidative stress, and disruption of potassium-regulated homeostasis may play a role. The lack of data about mutagenic, carcinogenic, or teratogenic effects of thallium compounds in humans calls for further research.

  17. Molecular toxicity of nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xue-Ling; Yang, Sheng-Tao; Xing, Gengmei

    2014-10-01

    With the rapid developments in the fields of nanoscience and nanotechnlogy, more and more nanomaterials and their based consumer products have been used into our daily life. The safety concerns of nanomaterials have been well recognized by the scientific community and the public. Molecular mechanism of interactions between nanomaterials and biosystems is the most essential topic and final core of the biosafety. In the last two decades, nanotoxicology developed very fast and toxicity phenomena of nanomaterials have been reported. To achieve better understanding and detoxication of nanomaterials, thorough studies of nanotoxicity at molecular level are important. The interactions between nanomaterials and biomolecules have been widely investigated as the first step toward the molecular nanotoxicology. The consequences of such interactions have been discussed in the literature. Besides this, the chemical mechanism of nanotoxicology is gaining more attention, which would lead to a better design of nontoxic nanomaterials. In this review, we focus on the molecular nanotoxicology and explore the toxicity of nanomaterials at molecular level. The molecular level studies of nanotoxicology are summarized and the published nanotoxicological data are revisited.

  18. 联合利华在毒理测试替代方法开发及 化妆品安全评估方面的研究介绍%Overview of unilever’s programme of work to develop alternative methods for toxicity testing and cosmetics safety assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛文波; 赖顺果; 张秀军; 朱介兵; Penny Jones; Carl Westmoreland; Jin Li

    2016-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews Unilever’s historic efforts in the development of alternative methods to animal testing for local toxicity endpoints and advancing the approaches of safety assessment for cosmetic products, as well as its ongoing research and development of modern alternative methods for systemic toxicity endpoints, in partnership with its global collaborators across governments, academia and industry.%回顾了联合利华在局部毒性测试替代方法开发及化妆品安全评估等方面所取得的成果,同时介绍了联合利华与各国政府机构、学术界和工业界合作开发用于全身毒性评估的动物实验替代方法。

  19. In Vitro Toxicity Assessment Technique for Volatile ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is tasked with evaluating the human health, environmental, and wildlife effects of over 80,000 chemicals registered for use in the environment and commerce. The challenge is that sparse chemical data exists; traditional toxicity testing methods are slow, costly, involve animal studies, and cannot keep up with a chemical registry that typically grows by at least 1000 chemicals every year. In recent years, High Throughput Screening (HTS) has been used in order to prioritize chemicals for traditional toxicity screening or to complement traditional toxicity studies. HTS is an in vitro approach of rapidly assaying a large number of chemicals for biochemical activity using robotics and automation. However, no method currently exists for screening volatile chemicals such as air pollutants in a HTS fashion. Additionally, significant uncertainty regarding in vitro to in in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) remains. An approach to bridge the IVIVE gap and the current lack of ability to screen volatile chemicals in a HTS fashion is by using a probe molecule (PrM) technique. The proposed technique uses chemicals with empirical human pharmacokinetic data as PrMs to study toxicity of molecules with no known data for gas-phase analysis. We are currently studying the xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme CYP2A6 using transfected BEAS-2B bronchial epithelial cell line. The CYP2A6 pathway activity is studied by the formation of cotinine from nicot

  20. Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Gnatov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently repair and recovery vehicle body operations become more and more popular. A special place here is taken by equipment that provides performance of given repair operations. The most interesting things are methods for recovery of car body panels that allow the straightening without disassembling of car body panels and damaging of existing protective coating. Now, there are several technologies for repair and recovery of car body panels without their disassembly and dismantling. The most perspective is magnetic-pulse technology of external noncontact straightening. Basics of magnetic-pulse attraction, both ferromagnetic and nonferromagnetic thin-walled sheet metal, are explored. Inductor system calculation models of magnetic-pulse straightening tools are presented. Final analytical expressions for excited efforts calculation in the tools under consideration are introduced. According to the obtained analytical expressions, numerical evaluations of excited forces were executed. The volumetric epures of the attractive force radial distributions for different types of inductors were built. The practical testing of magnetic-pulse straightening with research tools is given. Using the results of the calculations we can create effective tools for an external magnetic-pulse straightening of car body panels.

  1. TRACKING PYRETHROID TOXICITY IN SURFACE WATER SAMPLES: EXPOSURE DYNAMICS AND TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION TOOLS FOR LABORATORY TESTS WITH HYALELLA AZTECA (AMPHIPODA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deanovic, Linda A; Stillway, Marie; Hammock, Bruce G; Fong, Stephanie; Werner, Inge

    2017-09-09

    Pyrethroid insecticides are commonly used in pest control and are present at toxic concentrations in surface waters of agricultural and urban areas worldwide. Monitoring is challenging due to their high hydrophobicity and low toxicity thresholds, which often fall below the detection limits of analytical methods. Standard daphnid bioassays used in surface water monitoring are not sensitive enough to protect more susceptible invertebrate species such as the amphipod, Hyalella azteca, and chemical loss during toxicity testing is of concern. In this study, we quantified toxicity loss during storage and testing, using both natural and synthetic water, and present a tool to enhance toxic signal strength for improved sensitivity of H. azteca toxicity tests. The average half-life during storage in LDPE cubitainers at 4°C of five pyrethroids (permethrin, bifenthrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, cyfluthrin, esfenvalerate) and one organophosphate (chlorpyrifos; used as reference) was 1.4 d, and piperonyl butoxide (PBO) proved an effective tool to potentiate toxicity. We conclude that toxicity tests on ambient water samples containing these hydrophobic insecticides are likely to underestimate toxicity present in the field, and mimic short pulse rather than continuous exposures. Where these chemicals are of concern, the addition of PBO during testing can yield valuable information on their presence or absence. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. The 434(G>C) polymorphism in the eosinophil cationic protein gene and its association with tissue eosinophilia in oral squamous cell carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Michele C; Oliveira, Denise T; Olivieri, Eloísa H R

    2010-01-01

    variables. METHODS: The ECP genotypes of 165 healthy individuals and 157 OSCC patients were detected by PCR-RFLP analysis after cleavage of the amplified DNA sequence with enzyme PstI. TATE was obtained by morphometric analysis. Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test was used to analyze the association...... of ECP-gene polymorphism 434(G>C) with TATE, demographic, clinical, and microscopic variables in OSCC patients. Disease-free survival and overall survival were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier product-limit actuarial method and the comparison of the survival curves were performed using log rank test...

  3. Incidence and Outcome of BRCA Mutations in Unselected Patients with Triple Receptor-Negative Breast Cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gonzalez-Angulo, Ana M

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the incidence of germline and somatic BRCA1\\/2 mutations in unselected patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and determine the prognostic significance of carrying a mutation. Methods: DNA was obtained from 77 TNBC and normal tissues. BRCA1\\/2 exons\\/flanking regions were sequenced from tumor and patients classified as mutant or wild type (WT). Sequencing was repeated from normal tissue to identify germline and somatic mutations. Patient characteristics were compared with chi-square. Survival was estimated by Kaplan-Meier method and compared with log-rank. Cox proportional hazards models were fit to determine the independent association of mutation status with outcome.

  4. Pulmonary Toxicity of Cholinesterase Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    discusses respiratory and pulmonary toxicity through direct venomous and was synthesized at Porton Down, England, inhalation of AChEIs and indirect...effects on all aspects of res- in 1952. piration through systemic toxicity. Due to their high toxicity in mammals and volatile OP nerve agents can be... produc - century with the development of the present-day vesicants tion facility late in the war and moved it back to Russia, and AChEIs (or OP class

  5. Identification of Chemical Toxicity Using Ontology Information of Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanpeng Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advance of the combinatorial chemistry, a large number of synthetic compounds have surged. However, we have limited knowledge about them. On the other hand, the speed of designing new drugs is very slow. One of the key causes is the unacceptable toxicities of chemicals. If one can correctly identify the toxicity of chemicals, the unsuitable chemicals can be discarded in early stage, thereby accelerating the study of new drugs and reducing the R&D costs. In this study, a new prediction method was built for identification of chemical toxicities, which was based on ontology information of chemicals. By comparing to a previous method, our method is quite effective. We hope that the proposed method may give new insights to study chemical toxicity and other attributes of chemicals.

  6. Treatment of Meniere's disease with intratympanic dexamethazone plus high dosage of betahistine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albu, Silviu; Nagy, Alina; Doros, Caius; Marceanu, Luigi; Cozma, Sebastian; Musat, Gabriela; Trabalzini, Franco

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess if the combined therapy of intratympanic dexamethasone (ITD) and high dosage of betahistine (HDBH) is able to provide increased vertigo control compared to ITD alone in patients suffering from definite unilateral Meniere's disease (MD). Consecutive MD patients were enrolled and randomly divided in two groups, each comprising 33 cases. Group A received a combination of ITD and identical-appearing placebo pills while Group B received a combination of ITD and HDBH. ITD protocol consisted of three consecutive daily injections. HDBH comprised 144mg/day (48mg tid). The main outcome measures were: 1) vertigo class, pure tone average (PTA), speech discrimination score (SDS) and Functional Level Score (FLS) according to the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery criteria; 2) complete and substantial vertigo control according to the Kaplan-Meier survival method. Sixty two patients completed the 24-month follow-up. A complete vertigo control was achieved in 14 patients (44%) from Group A and in 22 patients (73.3%) from Group B, statistically significant (p=0.01). Complete vertigo relief is also significant according to the Kaplan-Meier method: p=0.027, log rank test. Substantial vertigo control was obtained in 21 patients (65.6%) in Group A and 27 patients (90%) in Group B. The difference is statistically significant, p=0.02. The difference is significant according to the Kaplan-Meier method: p=0.035, log rank test. No significant differences between hearing levels and tinnitus scores were demonstrated between the groups. Our preliminary results demonstrate that complete and substantial vertigo control is significantly higher in patients treated with a combination of HDBH and ITD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Low-Dose Consolidation Radiation Therapy for Early Stage Unfavorable Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torok, Jordan A., E-mail: jordan.torok@dm.duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Wu, Yuan [Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Prosnitz, Leonard R.; Kim, Grace J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Beaven, Anne W.; Diehl, Louis F. [Division of Hematologic Malignancy and Cellular Therapy, Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Kelsey, Chris R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: The German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG) trial HD11 established 4 cycles of doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (ABVD) and 30 Gy of radiation therapy (RT) as a standard for early stage (I, II), unfavorable Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Additional cycles of ABVD may allow for a reduction in RT dose and improved toxicity profile. Methods and Materials: Patients treated with combined modality therapy at the Duke Cancer Institute for early stage, unfavorable HL by GHSG criteria from 1994 to 2012 were included. Patients who did not undergo post-chemotherapy functional imaging (positron emission tomography or gallium imaging) or who failed to achieve a complete response were excluded. Clinical outcomes were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Late effects were also evaluated. Results: A total of 90 patients met inclusion criteria for analysis. Median follow-up was 5 years. Chemotherapy consisted primarily of ABVD (88%) with a median number of 6 cycles. The median dose of consolidation RT was 23.4 Gy. Four patients had relapses, 2 of which were in-field. Ten-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 93% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.82-0.97) and 98% (95% CI: 0.92-0.99), respectively. For the subset of patients (n=46) who received 5 to 6 cycles of chemotherapy and ≤24 Gy, the 10-year PFS and OS values were 88% (95% CI: 70%-96%) and 98% (95% CI: 85% - 99%), respectively. The most common late effect was hypothyroidism (20%) with no cardiac complications. Seven secondary malignancies were diagnosed, with only 1 arising within the RT field. Conclusions: Lower doses of RT may be sufficient when combined with more than 4 cycles of ABVD for early stage, unfavorable HL and may result in a more favorable toxicity profile than 4 cycles of ABVD and 30 Gy of RT.

  8. Intraoperative EBRT and resection for renal cell carcinoma. Twenty-year outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo, F.A. [Hospital Gneral Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Oncology; Complutense Univ., Madrid (Spain). School of Medicine; Sole, C.V. [Hospital Gneral Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Oncology; Complutense Univ., Madrid (Spain). School of Medicine; Instituto de Radiomedicina, Santiago (Spain). Service of Radiation Oncology; Martinez-Monge, R.; Aristu, J. [Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Azinovic, I. [Hospital de San Jaime, Torrevieja (Spain). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Zudaire, J.; Berian, J.M. [Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain). Dept. of Urology; Garcia-Sabrido, J.L. [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain). Dept. of General Surgery

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: We report the outcomes of a multimodality treatment approach combining maximal surgical resection and intraoperative electron radiotherapy (IOERT) with or without external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) in patients with locoregionally (LR) recurrent renal cell carcinoma (RCC) after radical nephrectomy or LR advanced primary RCC. Patients and methods: From 1983 to 2008, 25 patients with LR recurrent (n = 10) or LR advanced primary (n = 15) RCC were treated with this approach. Median patient age was 60 years (range, 16-79 years). Fifteen patients (60%) received perioperative EBRT (median dose, 44 Gy). Surgical resection was R0 (negative margins) in 6 patients (24%) and R1 (residual microscopic disease) in 19 patients (76%). The median dose of IOERT was 14 Gy (range, 9-15). Overall survival (OS) and relapse patterns were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Median follow-up for surviving patients was 22.2 years (range, 3.6-26 years). OS and DFS at 5 and 10 years were 38% and 18% and 19% and 14%, respectively. LR control (tumor bed or regional lymph nodes) and distant metastases-free survival rates at 5 years were 80% and 22%, respectively. The death rate within 30 days of surgery and IOERT was 4% (n = 1). Six patients (24%) experienced acute or late toxicities of grade 3 or higher according to the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria (NCI-CTCAE) v4. Conclusion: In patients with LR recurrent or LR advanced primary RCC, a multimodality approach consisting of maximal surgical resection and IOERT with or without adjuvant EBRT yielded encouraging local control results, justifying further evaluation. (orig.)

  9. Metronomic therapy with oral 6-mercaptopurine in elderly acute myeloid leukemia: A prospective pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhil Kapoor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML in elderly patients differs biologically from that in younger patients and is known to have unfavorable chromosomal rearrangements, higher resistance, and lower tolerance to chemotherapy. In such circumstances, instead of giving full-blown chemotherapy, palliative metronomic chemotherapy (MCT could be a treatment option. Patients and Methods: We performed a prospective pilot study of old AML patients (age >60 years not amenable to curative treatment. Thirty-two patients were enrolled into the study and were treated with daily oral 6-mercaptopurine 75 mg/m 2 . The following inclusion criteria were used: age >60 years, nonpromyelocytic AML, the absence of uncontrolled comorbidities, and patient not amenable to curative treatment. Overall survival (OS was calculated using Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analysis were used to calculate the hazards ratio of significant factors. Results: The median age of the patients was 69 years (range: 61-86 years with male: female ratio of 2.5:1. About 59.4% of patients had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 while rest had the status of 3. The median OS was 6 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.4-7.6. Males had median OS of 7 months (95% CI: 5.4-8.6 versus females with OS of 3 months (95% CI: 1.5-4.4; P = 0.008. There was no survival difference on the basis of baseline hemoglobin or French-American-British class. There were no Grade 4 toxicities and no episode of febrile neutropenia. Conclusions: MCT with oral 6-mercaptopurine is an attractive treatment option in elderly AML patients who are not amenable to curative therapy with minimal toxicities.

  10. Presence of toxic shock toxin in toxic shock and other clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, M W; Pine, L; Feeley, J C; Wells, D E

    1984-01-01

    Toxic shock toxin (TST), also known as pyrogenic exotoxin C (Schlievert et al., J. Infect. Dis. 143:509-516, 1981) and staphylococcal enterotoxin F (Bergdoll et al., Lancet i:1017-1021, 1981), was purified from toxic shock strains of Staphylococcus aureus by preparative isoelectric focusing and by chromatofocusing. Neither method produced an absolutely pure protein as determined by silver staining of sodium dodecyl sulfate-acrylamide gels, although chromatofocusing was the better method of the two. Three molecular weight variants of the protein were found in the two toxic shock syndrome strains that were studied, regardless of the purification method that was used. An isoelectric point of 7.15 and molecular weights of 21,400, 22,100, and 23,200 were determined for the different forms of the protein from electrophoresis data. A sedimentation coefficient of 2.3S was determined by sucrose gradient centrifugation, and a Stokes radius of 2 X 10(-7) cm was determined by gel filtration. An average molecular weight of 18,900 for all of the TST forms was calculated from these data by the Stokes-Einstein equation. A survey for TST in 32 control and 46 toxic shock strains of S. aureus by isoelectric focusing and by agarose gel double immunodiffusion with specific rabbit antiserum revealed that the isoelectric focusing method tends to overestimate the number of TST-positive strains because of the detection of non-TST, neutral staphylococcal proteins. Based on immunodiffusion data, the association of TST with toxic shock strains was found to be 100% in vaginal isolates and 62% in non-vaginal isolates. In the control strains, TST was found in 16% of the vaginal strains and 23% of the non-vaginal strains. The value of this toxin as a marker for toxic shock and its relationship to the pathogenesis of this disease are discussed. Images PMID:6500702

  11. Electrocardiographic Manifestations of Benzodiazepine Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Kazemzadeh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the clinical and electrocardiographic (ECG manifestations of benzodiazepines (BZs. Methods: In this retrospective study, all BZ-poisoned patients hospitalized at Loghman Hakim Hospital between September 2010 and March 2011 were evaluated. Patients’ information including age, sex, time elapsed between the ingestion and presentation, and type of the BZ used were extracted from the patients' charts and recorded. ECGs on presentation to the emergency department (ED were evaluated and parameters such as PR interval, QRS duration, corrected QT, amplitude of S wave in lead I, height of R wave and R/S ratio in the lead aVR were also measured and recorded. Results: Oxazepam, chlordiazepoxide, lorazepam, alprazolam, diazepam, and clonazepam were ingested by 9 (3%, 13 (4.4%, 29 (9.9%, 105 (35.8%, 65 (22.2%, and 72 (24.6% patients, respectively. Mean PR interval was reported to be 0.16 ± 0.03 sec and PR interval of greater than 200 msec was detected in 12 (4.5% patients. Mean QRS duration was 0.07 ± 0.01sec and QRS≥120 msec was observed in 7 (2.6% cases. Conclusion: Diazepam is the only BZ that does not cause QRS widening and oxazepam is the only one not causing PR prolongation. It can be concluded that if a patient refers with a decreased level of consciousness and accompanying signs of BZ toxicity, QRS widening in ECG rules out diazepam, whereas PR prolongation rules out oxazepam toxicity.

  12. Amiodarone pulmonary toxicity: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Nada

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Amiodarone, an antiarrhythmic drug, which contains iodine compound, has a tendency to accumulate in some organs including the lungs. This is age, drug dosage and therapy duration dependent. Case Outline. We present a case of a 73-year-old man, a smoker, who was admitted as emergency case due to severe dyspnea, tachypnea with signs of cyanosis and respiratory insufficiency. Chest x-ray revealed bilateral diffuse pulmonary shadows in the middle and upper parts of the lungs, similar to those in tuberculosis. His illness history showed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, arterial hypertension, and atrial fibrillation which has been treated with amiodarone for six years. Sputum smears were negative for mycobacteria, and by the diagnostic elimination method for specific, non-specific and malignant disease the diagnosis of amiodarone pulmonary toxicity was made. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy and pathohistological findings of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia confirmed the diagnosis. As the first therapeutic approach, amiodarone therapy was stopped. Then, systemic therapy with methylprednisolone 21 (sodium succinate 40 mg i.v. daily during the first two weeks was initiated and continued with daily dose of methylprednisolone 30 mg orally during the next three months. The patient showed a marked subjective improvement during the first week, which was followed by the improvement of respiratory function and withdrawal of pulmonary changes with complete radiographic and CT resolution after eight months. Conclusion. Amiodarone pulmonary toxicity should be taken into consideration, especially in elderly patients with respiratory symptoms and pulmonary changes, even if only a low dose of amiodarone is administred over a longer time period.

  13. Inflammatory and toxic myopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalakas, M C

    1992-10-01

    The major advances in the immunopathogenesis and treatment of inflammatory myopathies, and the main criteria that distinguish polymyositis (PM) from dermatomyositis (DM) or inclusion-body myositis (IBM) are presented. The origin and implications of the amyloid and ubiquitin deposits found within the vacuolated fibers of patients with IBM are considered. The pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human T-cell lymphotrophic virus (HTLV)-I-associated PM is presented, and the role of retroviruses in triggering PM, even in the absence of detectable viral genome within the muscle fibers, is discussed. In addition, three toxic myopathies with distinct morphologic, biochemical, or molecular characteristics, caused by zidovudine [azidothymidine (AZT) myopathy], the cholesterol-lowering-agent myopathy (CLAM), and the combination of blocking agents with corticosteroids are presented.

  14. 不同饮水消毒方法对水中有机提取物毒性的影响%Toxicity of Organic Chemicals Extracted from Surface Water Treated With Different Disinfect Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建文; 邓菁; 吕斌; 田峰; 张梦; 伍雅婷; 刘飞

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of different disinfect methods on the oxidative stress and apoptosis of HepG2 cells induced by organic chemicals extracted from drinking water. Methods Water from Hanjiang river was disinfected by different sequential treatments using ozone(()3 )> chloride dioxide(Cl()2 ) or chlorine(CI2 ) as the primary disinfectant followed by chlorine(Cl2 )as the secondary disinfectant. Oxidative stress and apoptosis level of HepG2 cells treated by organic chemicals extracted from water treated by different sequential treatments were analyzed. Results Sequential treatments with O3 or C1O2 as primary disinfectant following chlorine disinfection reduced chlorinated by-products, but did not reduce oxidative stress and apoptosis level in HepG2 cells. Conclusion Sequential treatments with O3 or C1O2 as primary disinfectant following chlorine disinfection reduced chlorinated by-products without significantly reducing toxicity of disinfected Hanjiang water.%目的 探讨不同消毒方法对饮水中有机提取物所致人肝肿瘤HepG2细胞的氧化损伤和凋亡作用的影响.方法 分别采用不同预消毒方法(氯、二氧化氯或臭氧)结合氯消毒对汉江水进行消毒,提取消毒水中有机物,分别测定不同消毒水中有机提取物对人肝肿瘤HepG2细胞活性氧族(ROS)、丙二醛(MDA)、谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-Px)、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)水平及细胞凋亡率的影响.结果 不同消毒方法对水中有机提取物的氧化应激水平的影响无明显差异,对细胞凋亡的影响也无明显差异.结论 与常规的氯预消毒方法比较,二氧化氯以及臭氧预消毒的汉江水对HepG2细胞的氧化应激和凋亡的影响无明显差异.对于有机物含量较高的汉江水,单纯改变预消毒方法,并不能减低水中有机提取物的氧化应激水平和凋亡毒性.

  15. Lead toxicity: Current concerns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyer, R.A. (Univ. of Western Ontario, London (Canada))

    1993-04-01

    Over the 20-year period since the first issue of Environmental Health Perspectives was published, there has been considerable progress in the understanding of the potential toxicity of exposure to lead. Many of these advances have been reviewed in published symposia, conferences, and review papers in EHP. This brief review identifies major advances as well as a number of current concerns that present opportunities for prevention and intervention strategies. The major scientific advance has been the demonstration that blood lead (PbB) levels of 10-15 micrograms/dL in newborn and very young infants result in cognitive and behavioral deficits. Further support for this observation is being obtained by prospective or longitudinal studies presently in progress. The mechanism(s) for the central nervous system effects of lead is unclear but involve lead interactions within calcium-mediated intracellular messenger systems and neurotransmission. Effects of low-level lead exposure on blood pressure, particularly in adult men, may be related to the effect of lead on calcium-mediated control of vascular smooth muscle contraction and on the renin-angiotensin system. Reproductive effects of lead have long been suspected, but low-level effects have not been well studied. Whether lead is a carcinogen or its association with renal adenocarcinoma is a consequence of cystic nephropathy is uncertain. Major risk factors for lead toxicity in children in the United States include nutrition, particularly deficiencies of essential metals, calcium, iron, and zinc, and housing and socioeconomic status. A goal for the year 2000 is to reduce prevalence of blood lead levels exceeding 15 micrograms/dL. 97 refs.

  16. Toxicity of medicinal plants used in traditional medicine in Northern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann, R.W.; Malca, G.; Glenn, A.; Sharon, D.; Nilsen, B.; Parris, B.; Dubose, D; Ruiz, D.; Saleda, J.; Martinez, M.; Carillo, L.; Walker, K.; Kuhlman, A.; Townesmith, A.

    2011-01-01

    Aim The plant species reported here are traditionally used in Northern Peru for a wide range of illnesses. Most remedies are prepared as ethanol or aqueous extracts and then ingested. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential toxicity of these extracts. Materials and methods The toxicity of ethanolic and water extracts of 341 plant species was determined using a Brine-Shrimp assay. Results Overall 24% of the species in water extract and 76% of the species in alcoholic extract showed elevated toxicity levels to brine-shrimp. Although in most cases multiple extracts of the same species showed very similar toxicity values, in some cases the toxicity of different extracts of the same species varied from non-toxic to highly toxic. Conclusions Traditional preparation methods take different toxicity levels in aqueous and ethanol extracts into account when choosing the appropriate solvent for the preparation of a remedy. PMID:21575699

  17. Neutral red uptake cytotoxicity tests for estimating starting doses for acute oral toxicity tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, William S; Casati, Silvia; Strickland, Judy; Paris, Michael

    2008-05-01

    In vitro cytotoxicity assays can be used as alternative toxicity tests to reduce the total number of animals needed for acute oral toxicity tests. This unit describes two methods for determining the in vitro cytotoxicity of test substances using neutral red uptake (NRU) and using the in vitro data to determine starting doses for in vivo acute oral systemic toxicity tests, e.g., the up-and-down procedure or the acute toxic class method. The use of the NRU methods to determine starting doses for acute oral toxicity tests may reduce the number of animals required, and for relatively toxic substances, this approach may also reduce the number of animals that die or require humane euthanasia due to severe toxicity. An interlaboratory validation study has demonstrated that the methods are useful and reproducible for these purposes. Two standardized protocols provide details for performing NRU tests with rodent and human cells.

  18. Toxic Elements in Food: Occurrence, Binding, and Reduction Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajeb, P.; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Shakibazadeh, Sh

    2014-01-01

    Toxic elements such as mercury, arsenic, cadmium, and lead, sometimes called heavy metals, can diminish mental and central nervous system function; elicit damage to blood composition as well as the kidneys, lungs, and liver; and reduce energy levels. Food is considered one of the main routes...... of their entry into the human body. Numerous studies have been performed to examine the effects of common food processing procedures on the levels of toxic elements in food. While some studies have reported negative effects of processing, several have shown that processing practices may have a positive effect...... on the reduction of toxic elements in foodstuffs. A number of studies have also introduced protocols and suggested chemical agents that reduce the amount of toxic elements in the final food products. In this review, the reported methods employed for the reduction of toxic elements are discussed with particular...

  19. Effect of Copper Toxicity on Lymphoid Organs in Ducklings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Heng-min; CHEN Huai-tao; PENG Xi; YANG Guang; DENG Jun-liang; LI De-bing

    2004-01-01

    210 one-day-old Tianfu meat ducklings ware divided into three groups,and fed on diets as follows: (1) control (Cu 12.16 mg kg-1),(2) copper toxic Ⅰ (Cu 850 mg kg-1) and (3)copper toxic Ⅱ( Cu 1 050 mg kg-1) for studies on effects of copper toxicity on lymphoid organs in duckling with the methods of experimental pathology and flow cytometry (FCM).The weight and growth index of the thymus,spleen and bursa of Fabricius were markedly reduced (P< 0.05 or P< 0.01) in both copper toxic group Ⅰ and Cu toxic group Ⅱ when compared with control group.The G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle of the thymus,spleen and bursa of Fabricius was much higher,and S,G2+M phases lower in Cu toxic groups Ⅰ and Ⅱ than in the control group.There were lymphocyte degeneration and depletion of lymphoid organs,and the reticular cells of spleen and bursa of Fabricius proliferated and the reticular cells of thymus were also degenerate and necrotic in Cu toxic groups.The results demonstrated that Cu toxicity seriously impaired the progression of lymphocytes from the G0/G1 phase to S phase,inhibited the development of lymphoid organs and caused marked pathological injury in lymphoid organs.The results also showed that the effect of Cu toxicity on the primary lymphoid organs occurred stronger than on the secondary lymphoid organs.The effect of Cu toxicity was the greatest on the bursa of Fabricius,followed hy the thymus,and then the spleen.Potential mechanisms underlying aforementioned observation were also discussed.key words: Copper toxicity,Lesion,Cell cycle,Lymphoid organ,Duckling

  20. Understanding the toxicity of carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Zhao, Yuliang; Sun, Baoyun; Chen, Chunying

    2013-03-19

    Because of their unique physical, chemical, electrical, and mechanical properties, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted a great deal of research interest and have many potential applications. As large-scale production and application of CNTs increases, the general population is more likely to be exposed to CNTs either directly or indirectly, which has prompted considerable attention about human health and safety issues related to CNTs. Although considerable experimental data related to CNT toxicity at the molecular, cellular, and whole animal levels have been published, the results are often conflicting. Therefore, a systematic understanding of CNT toxicity is needed but has not yet been developed. In this Account, we highlight recent investigations into the basis of CNT toxicity carried out by our team and by other laboratories. We focus on several important factors that explain the disparities in the experimental results of nanotoxicity, such as impurities, amorphous carbon, surface charge, shape, length, agglomeration, and layer numbers. The exposure routes, including inhalation, intravenous injection, or dermal or oral exposure, can also influence the in vivo behavior and fate of CNTs. The underlying mechanisms of CNT toxicity include oxidative stress, inflammatory responses, malignant transformation, DNA damage and mutation (errors in chromosome number as well as disruption of the mitotic spindle), the formation of granulomas, and interstitial fibrosis. These findings provide useful insights for de novo design and safe application of carbon nanotubes and their risk assessment to human health. To obtain reproducible and accurate results, researchers must establish standards and reliable detection methods, use standard CNT samples as a reference control, and study the impact of various factors systematically. In addition, researchers need to examine multiple types of CNTs, different cell lines and animal species, multidimensional evaluation methods, and

  1. Animal alternatives for whole effluent toxicity testing ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the 1940s, effluent toxicity testing has been utilized to varying degrees in many countries to assess potential ecological impacts and assist in determining necessary treatment options for environmental protection. However, it was only in the early 1980’s that toxicity based effluent assessments and subsequent discharge controls became globally important, when it was recognized that physical and chemical measurements alone did not protect the environment from potential impacts. Consequently, various strategies using different toxicity tests, whole effluent assessment techniques (incorporating bioaccumulation potential and persistence) plus supporting analytical tools have been developed over 30 years of practice. Numerous workshops and meetings have focused on effluent risk assessment through ASTM, SETAC, OSPAR, UK competent authorities, and EU specific country rules. Concurrent with this drive to improve effluent quality using toxicity tests, interest in reducing animal use has risen. The Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) organized and facilitated an international workshop in March 2016 to evaluate strategies for concepts, tools, and effluent assessments and update the toolbox of for effluent testing methods. The workshop objectives were to identify opportunities to use a suite of strategies for effluents, and to identify opportunities to reduce the reliance on animal tests and to determine barriers to implementation of new methodologie

  2. Toxicity test of a dental commercial composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce-Bravo, Santa; Martínez-Rivera, José-Luis; Garcés-Ortíz, Maricela

    2015-01-01

    Background International rules must be followed for testing biosecurity in dental materials. A new brand of restorative material appeared in the market and regulations indicated that it should be tested for toxicity. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the 90-day sub chronic toxicity of one triethylene glycol dimethacrylate containing composite (MEDENTAL Light-Cure Composite™) orally administered to rats according to Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development no. 48 guidelines and the requirements specified in the ISO 10993-11. Material and Methods Wistar rats ate the polymerized composite during 90 days and were observed to determine changes in their behavior, eye and skin signs and other attitudes such as aggressiveness, posture, walking and response to handling. After 90 days were sacrificed to ascertain blood alterations, we did special hematological tests and assessed microscopic slides from 33 different organs. Results We recorded no significant changes in clinical behavior of the animals. Microscopic review of the H&E stained slides obtained from the analyzed organs showed no abnormal inflammatory or cytological changes and all hematological special tests were within normal limits. Conclusions Results of this study show that under our experimental conditions the MEDENTAL Light-Cure Composite™ does not produce inflammatory or cytological changes suggestive of toxicity. Key words:Dental materials, composite resin, toxicity, inflammation, TEGDMA. PMID:26155348

  3. Animal alternatives for whole effluent toxicity testing ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the 1940s, effluent toxicity testing has been utilized to varying degrees in many countries to assess potential ecological impacts and assist in determining necessary treatment options for environmental protection. However, it was only in the early 1980’s that toxicity based effluent assessments and subsequent discharge controls became globally important, when it was recognized that physical and chemical measurements alone did not protect the environment from potential impacts. Consequently, various strategies using different toxicity tests, whole effluent assessment techniques (incorporating bioaccumulation potential and persistence) plus supporting analytical tools have been developed over 30 years of practice. Numerous workshops and meetings have focused on effluent risk assessment through ASTM, SETAC, OSPAR, UK competent authorities, and EU specific country rules. Concurrent with this drive to improve effluent quality using toxicity tests, interest in reducing animal use has risen. The Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) organized and facilitated an international workshop in March 2016 to evaluate strategies for concepts, tools, and effluent assessments and update the toolbox of for effluent testing methods. The workshop objectives were to identify opportunities to use a suite of strategies for effluents, and to identify opportunities to reduce the reliance on animal tests and to determine barriers to implementation of new methodologie

  4. Incidences and Risk Factors of Organ Manifestations in the Early Course of Systemic Sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Veronika K; Wirz, Elina G; Allanore, Yannick

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a rare and clinically heterogeneous autoimmune disorder characterised by fibrosis and microvascular obliteration of the skin and internal organs. Organ involvement mostly manifests after a variable period of the onset of Raynaud's phenomenon (RP). We aimed...... and their risk factors were assessed using Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: Of the 695 SSc patients who had a baseline visit within 1 year after RP onset, the incident non-RP manifestations (in order of frequency) were: skin sclerosis (75%) GI symptoms (71%), impaired diffusing capacity...

  5. Brain metastases: epidemiological profile and therapeutic results, about a cohort of patients treated in a radiotherapy department in Algiers; Les metastases cerebrales: profil epidemiologique et resultats therapeutiques, a propos d'une serie de patients traites dans un service de radiotherapie a Alger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chami, S.; Mekki, F. [Service de radiotherapie, hopital d' Alger, Alger (Algeria)

    2010-10-15

    The authors report a retrospective study of the epidemiological profile, clinic characteristics, and mainly palliative therapeutic treatments, more particularly in terms of life quality, and improvement of clinic symptomatology and performance index. This study is based on 38 patients (17 women and 21 men), with a median age of 58.6, and a Karnofsky index greater than 70 per cent. Various data have been collected: brain metastasis number and topography, time interval between cancer diagnosis and metastasis diagnosis, impact on neuro-cognitive function. Survival has been analysed with the Kaplan-Meier method. Short communication

  6. Running Related injury, mileage and Q-angle: A prospective follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramskov, Daniel; Nielsen, R.O.; Rasmussen, Sten

    intensity, time or distance. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survival mileage until RRI in each group. If a participant reported an injury, their survival mileage was eliminated, they underwent examination and the RRI was diagnosed. To evaluate the outcome, cox-regression model was used......The Quadriceps angle (Q-angle) may be associated with the development of Running Related Injuries (RRI). Only a few studies have investigated the association between Q-angle, and the likelihood of RRI. These studies have not led to any firm conclusions, on the link between Q-angle and development...

  7. Clinical and evolving features of women diagnosed with precancerous cervical lesions, screened and treated in the Amazon region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Patricia Rezende do; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge; Silva, Ilce Ferreira da

    2014-09-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the dynamics of precancerous lesions in women of a cohort treated for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and followed up over the next two years. The conditional probability of failure was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and the raw and adjusted hazard ratios (HR) were determined using Cox regression with a p-value entry of history of more frequent pregnancies and a histological diagnosis of CIN II/III are directly correlated with risk of CIN treatment failure, whereas being in a stable relationship is inversely correlated with this risk.

  8. Long-term survival and radiological results of the Duracon™ total knee arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Bachmann, Matthias; Bolliger, Lilianna; Ilchmann, Thomas; Clauss, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to analyse the long-term (>ten years) survival rate and radiological results of the Duracon TKA. Methods Between 1992 and 1999 159 Duracon TKA were implanted at our institution. A Kaplan-Meier survival analysis for the endpoints exchange, addition or removal of any component for any reason, revision due to aseptic loosening and mechanical failure was performed. Radiological long-term (>ten years) follow-up (FU) analysis was performed according to the Knee Soc...

  9. Infants with prenatally diagnosed kidney anomalies have an increased risk of urinary tract infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Maria; Sunde, Lone; Andersen, René F

    2017-01-01

    computed. Mortality was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: We identified 412 foetuses with parenchymal kidney anomalies out of 362 069 who underwent ultrasound scans and 277 were born alive. The overall risk of a UTI before the age of two years was 19%, and it was 14% among infants without...... between 2007 and 2012 had previously been identified. These were compared with foetuses without kidney anomalies who were prenatally scanned the same year. Live born infants were followed from birth until the diagnosis of UTI, emigration, death or two years of age. Cumulative incidences of UTIs were...

  10. Implant survival of the most common cemented total hip devices from the Nordic Arthroplasty Register Association database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junnila, Mika; Laaksonen, Inari; Eskelinen, Antti

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose - According to previous Nordic Arthroplasty Register Association (NARA) data, the 10-year implant survival of cemented total hip arthroplasties (THAs) is 94% in patients aged 65-74 and 96% in patients aged 75 or more. Here we report a brand-level comparison of cemented THA...... based on the NARA database, which has not been done previously. Patients and methods - We determined the rate of implant survival of the 9 most common cemented THAs in the NARA database. We used Kaplan-Meier analysis with 95% CI to study implant survival at 10 and 15 years, and Cox multiple regression...

  11. Countrywise results of total hip replacement. An analysis of 438,733 hips based on the Nordic Arthroplasty Register Association database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mäkelä, Keijo T; Matilainen, Markus; Pulkkinen, Pekka

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose An earlier Nordic Arthroplasty Register Association (NARA) report on 280,201 total hip replacements (THRs) based on data from 1995-2006, from Sweden, Norway, and Denmark, was published in 2009. The present study assessed THR survival according to country, based on the NARA...... database with the Finnish data included. Material and methods 438,733 THRs performed during the period 1995-2011 in Sweden, Denmark, Norway, and Finland were included. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to calculate survival probabilities with 95% confidence interval (CI). Cox multiple regression...

  12. Experience of the Casablanca radiotherapy-oncology centre on radiotherapy in the treatment of the adult Hodgkin lymphoma; Experience du centre de radiotherapie-oncologie de Casablanca sur la radiotherapie dans le traitement du lymphome de Hodgkin de l'adulte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchbika, Z.; Benchakroun, N.; Sellai, N.; Jouhadi, H.; Tawfiq, N.; Sahraoui, S.; Benider, A. [Service radiotherapie-oncologie, CHU Ibn-Rochd, Casablanca (Morocco)

    2011-10-15

    The authors report the assessment of the local control, global survival and survival without recurrence, and also late complications, based on retrospective study over 8 years of 169 cases Hodgkin lymphoma in patients older than 18 (average age of 34) and who had been submitted to radiotherapy. Survival has been computed according to the Kaplan-Meier method. The authors notice that the recurrence rate is slightly higher than in the literature. During the considered period, radiotherapy was two-dimensional with higher doses than those corresponding to current standards. The improvement of radiotherapy techniques and the decrease of doses within the standards should improve the therapeutic results. Short communication

  13. Markov chains and semi-Markov models in time-to-event analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abner, Erin L; Charnigo, Richard J; Kryscio, Richard J

    2013-10-25

    A variety of statistical methods are available to investigators for analysis of time-to-event data, often referred to as survival analysis. Kaplan-Meier estimation and Cox proportional hazards regression are commonly employed tools but are not appropriate for all studies, particularly in the presence of competing risks and when multiple or recurrent outcomes are of interest. Markov chain models can accommodate censored data, competing risks (informative censoring), multiple outcomes, recurrent outcomes, frailty, and non-constant survival probabilities. Markov chain models, though often overlooked by investigators in time-to-event analysis, have long been used in clinical studies and have widespread application in other fields.

  14. Characterization of annual disease progression of multiple sclerosis patients: A population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freilich, Jonatan; Manouchehrinia, Ali; Trusheim, Mark

    2017-01-01

    the milestone. To characterize clinical factors influencing MS disease progression as annual transitions from each Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). The annual progression of 11,964 patients from the Swedish MS Registry was analysed with 10 multinomial logistic regressions, that is, one for transition......Previous research characterizing factors influencing multiple sclerosis (MS) disease progression has typically been based on time to disease milestones (Kaplan-Meier, Cox hazard regression, etc.). A limitation of these methods is the handling of the often large groups of patients not reaching...

  15. Late Urinary Side Effects 10 Years After Low-Dose-Rate Prostate Brachytherapy: Population-Based Results From a Multiphysician Practice Treating With a Standardized Protocol and Uniform Dosimetric Goals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyes, Mira, E-mail: mkeyes@bccancer.bc.ca; Miller, Stacy; Pickles, Tom; Halperin, Ross; Kwan, Winkle; Lapointe, Vincent; McKenzie, Michael; Spadinger, Ingrid; Pai, Howard; Chan, Elisa K.; Morris, W. James

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To determine late urinary toxicity (>12 months) in a large cohort of uniformly treated low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy patients. Methods and Materials: From 1998 to 2009, 2709 patients with National Comprehensive Cancer Network–defined low-risk and low-tier intermediate-risk prostate cancer were treated with Iodine 125 ({sup 125}I) low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy; 2011 patients with a minimum of 25 months of follow-up were included in the study. Baseline patients, treatment, implant factors, and late urinary toxicity (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group [RTOG] grading system and International Prostate Symptom Score [IPSS]) were recorded prospectively. Time to IPSS resolution, late RTOG genitourinary toxicity was examined with Kaplan-Meier and log-rank tests. Cox proportional hazards regression was done for individual covariates and multivariable models. Results: Median follow-up was 54.5 months (range, 2-13 years). Actuarial toxicity rates reached 27% and 10% (RTOG ≥2 and ≥3, respectively) at 9-13 years. Symptoms resolved quickly in the majority of patients (88% in 6-12 months). The prevalence of RTOG 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 toxicity with a minimum of 7 years' follow-up was 70%, 21%, 6.4%, 2.3%, and 0.08%, respectively. Patients with a larger prostate volume, higher baseline IPSS, higher D90, acute toxicity, and age >70 years had more late RTOG ≥2 toxicity (all P≤.02). The IPSS resolved slower in patients with lower baseline IPSS and larger ultrasound prostate volume, those not receiving androgen deprivation therapy, and those with higher D90. The crude rate of RTOG 3 toxicity was 6%. Overall the rate of transurethral resection of the prostate was 1.9%; strictures, 2%; incontinence, 1.3%; severe symptoms, 1.8%; late catheterization, 1.3%; and hematuria, 0.8%. The majority (80%) resolved their symptoms in 6-12 months. Conclusion: Long-term urinary toxicity after brachytherapy is low. Although actuarial rates increase with longer

  16. Radiation Therapy for Chloroma (Granulocytic Sarcoma)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakst, Richard; Wolden, Suzanne [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Yahalom, Joachim, E-mail: yahalomj@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Objectives: Chloroma (granulocytic sarcoma) is a rare, extramedullary tumor of immature myeloid cells related to acute nonlymphocytic leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome. Radiation therapy (RT) is often used in the treatment of chloromas; however, modern studies of RT are lacking. We reviewed our experience to analyze treatment response, disease control, and toxicity associated with RT to develop treatment algorithm recommendations for patients with chloroma. Patients and Methods: Thirty-eight patients who underwent treatment for chloromas at our institution between February 1990 and June 2010 were identified and their medical records were reviewed and analyzed. Results: The majority of patients that presented with chloroma at the time of initial leukemia diagnosis (78%) have not received RT because it regressed after initial chemotherapy. Yet most patients that relapsed or remained with chloroma after chemotherapy are in the RT cohort (90%). Thirty-three courses of RT were administered to 22 patients. Radiation subsite breakdown was: 39% head and neck, 24% extremity, 9% spine, 9% brain, 6% genitourinary, 6% breast, 3% pelvis, and 3% genitourinary. Median dose was 20 (6-36) Gy. Kaplan-Meier estimates of progression-free survival and overall survival in the RT cohort were 39% and 43%, respectively, at 5 years. At a median follow-up of 11 months since RT, only 1 patient developed progressive disease at the irradiated site and 4 patients developed chloromas at other sites. RT was well tolerated without significant acute or late effects and provided symptom relief in 95% of cases. Conclusions: The majority of patients with chloromas were referred for RT when there was extramedullary progression, marrow relapse, or rapid symptom relief required. RT resulted in excellent local disease control and palliation of symptoms without significant toxicity. We recommend irradiating chloromas to at least 20 Gy, and propose 24 Gy in 12 fractions as an appropriate regimen.

  17. Maintenance treatment with gemcitabine have a promising activity on metastatic bladder cancer survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuş, Tülay; Aktaş, Gökmen

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the effects of gemcitabine maintenance treatment on survival in patients with metastatic bladder cancer. Gemcitabine maintenance monotherapy was administered following the standard platinum-gemcitabine therapy in patients with metastatic bladder cancer. Patients who had responded to standard treatment received maintenance gemcitabine therapy as 1000 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 8 every three weeks until progression or development of unacceptable toxicity. The following clinical factors were noted: performance status, age, sex, stage, site of metastasis, choice of cisplatin-gemcitabine or carboplatin-gemcitabine, response rates to the initial chemotherapy. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) for standard treatment, and following gemcitabine monotreatment and for maintenance gemcitabine therapy were calculated using Kaplan-Meier method. A total of 88 patients with metastatic bladder cancer treated between February 2009 to October 2015 were evaluated retrospectively and 23 patients (26.1%) who had responded to six cycles of platinum-gemcitabine treatment were included in this study. Maintenance gamcitabine was administered for a median of 7 times (range 3-14 times). Grade 3 hematotoxicity according to the criteria of the Common Terminology Criteria of Adverse Events was observed in 7 (30.4%) patients. Median PFS of patients was 46 (range: 30-82) weeks for platinum-based treatment plus maintenance gemcitabine therapy. A higher median PFS was obtained in patients who were maintenance therapy in metastatic bladder cancer patients who did not shown progression after the standard platinum-gemcitabine treatment contributes to survival and presents low toxicity profile, when compared to historical controls.

  18. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy in the treatment of head and neck cancer: results after five years of a randomized study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santarelli, M.; Raffetto, N.; Torcia, P.; Vitturini, A.; Tombolini, V.; Maurizi Enrici, R. [Istituto di radiologia Universita Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Rome (Italy)

    1999-11-01

    Purpose: this study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of two regimens of chemoradiotherapy in the treatment of locally advanced head and neck cancer. Methods: from 1992 to 1997, 127 patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer (stage III-IV) were randomized. Sixty-six patients (group a), 42 male and 24 female, with a median age of 48 years (range 40-72) received during radiotherapy two courses (1.-6. week) of chemotherapy with carbo-platin (300 mg/m{sup 2} day 1) and etoposide (60 mg/m{sup 2} days 1 to 3). Sixty-one patients (group b), 40 male and 21 female, with a median age of 51 years (range 42-69) received two cycles of chemotherapy with 5 FU (750 mg/m{sup 2} days 1 to 5) and MIT C ( 10 mg/m{sup 2} day 1). The median dose of radiotherapy was 60 Gy (range 55-66 Gy) 180 cGy /d 5w. Results: the actuarial five-year survival rate(Kaplan-Meier) was 38 % for group a (CBDCA+etoposide+RT) and 25 % for group b (5FU+MIT C+RT). The difference was statistically significant (p = 0.036). Toxicity group a: mucositis G III in 41 patients and G IV in 16; dysphagia G III in 46 patients and IV in 5; leukopenia in 24 patients; 28 patients required nutritional therapy. Toxicity group b: mucositis G III in 38 patients and G IV in 17; dysphagia G III in 48 patients and G IV in 3; leukopenia in 23 patients; 25 patients needed nutritional therapy. Conclusions: the data of the actuarial survival five-year rate suggest that concomitant chemotherapy in group a (CBDCA+etoposide+RT) is better than the concomitant chemotherapy in group b (5FU+MIT C+RT). (author)

  19. Toxic encephalopathy induced by capecitabine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, B; Rochlitz, C; Herrmann, R; Pless, M

    2004-01-01

    Toxic encephalopathy is a rarely described side effect of 5-fluorouracil which usually presents with cerebellar, neuropsychiatric, and focal neurological symptoms. Magnetic resonance imaging findings are described as patchy white matter alterations. We report the 1st case of capecitabine-induced toxic encephalopathy with epilepsy-like symptoms and diffuse white matter alterations on magnetic resonance imaging.

  20. One Health and Toxic Cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    One Health and toxic cyanobacteria Blooms of toxic freshwater blue-green algae or cyanobacteria (HABs) have been in the news after HABs associated with human and animal health problems have been reported in Florida, California and Utah during 2016. HABs occur in warm, slow moving...

  1. Discussion about an important treatment way of malignant blood diseases, method of warming the cold-toxicity%议恶性血液病的重要治法——温化寒毒法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周庆兵; 胡晓梅

    2012-01-01

    恶性血液病包括急慢性白血病、淋巴瘤等,对恶性血液病(特别是急性白血病)的病因病机多从热毒内盛、气阴不足、痰瘀互结、脾肾不足等角度阐述,清热解毒、益气养阴、活血化痰、补脾益肾为治疗常用大法,也取得了一定的疗效,然而目前把寒毒作为恶性血液病的病因病机很少论及.砒霜提取物二氧化二砷( As2O3)及雄黄治疗各种恶性血液病已取得了巨大成功,特别是对急性髓系白血病M3的疗效更是获得了世界范围内的认可.然雄黄、砒霜皆属大热、有毒之品,因而部分恶性血液病的病因可认为是寒毒内盛,温化寒毒法应是此类恶性血液病的主要治法.目前,对于骨髓增生异常综合征(MDS)的治疗以温化寒毒法显示出了良效.另外,当前恶性血液病中存在的难点可试着从温化寒毒入手,寻找开发温化解毒之品,以进一步提高恶性血液病的中医治疗水平.%Malignant blood diseases contain acute leukemia, chronic leukemia, lymphoma and so on. At present, heat toxin, deficiency of Qi and Yin, phlegm and blood stasis, deficiency of spleen and kidney are considered to be the main pathogenesises of malignant blood diseases (especially acute leukemia). Thus, clearing away the heat toxin, nourishing the Qi and Yin, removing the phlegm and blood stasis, reinforcing the spleen and kidney are the primary ways for the treatment of the diseases, and have obtained certain curative effect. However, cold toxin as the etiology of malignant blood diseases has been rarely discussed. We know that arsenic and realgar has achieved great success in treating malignant blood diseases, especially acute leukemia M3 and the success is worldwide. Because arsenic and realgar are hot and poisonous, the etiology of some malignant blood diseases blood can be thought of cold poison and the method of warming cold toxicity should be the main treatment for suchmalignant blood diseases. In recent

  2. Polish Toxic Currency Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Gontarski

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Toxic currency options are defined on the basis of the opposition to the nature (essence of an option contract, which is justified in terms of norms founded on the general law clause of characteristics (nature of a relation (which represents an independent premise for imposing restrictions on the freedom of contracts. So-understood toxic currency options are unlawful. Indeed they contravene iuris cogentis regulations. These include for instance option contracts, which are concluded with a bank, if the bank has not informed about option risk before concluding the contract; or the barrier options, which focus only on the protection of banks interests. Therefore, such options may appear to be invalid. Therefore, performing contracts for toxic currency options may be qualified as a criminal mismanagement. For the sake of security, the manager should then take into consideration filing a claim for stating invalidity (which can be made in a court verdict. At the same time, if the supervisory board member in a commercial company, who can also be a subject to mismanagement offences, commits an omission involving lack of reaction (for example, if he/she fails to notify of the suspected offence committed by the management board members acting to the companys detriment when the management board makes the company conclude option contracts which are charged with absolute invalidity the supervisory board member so acting may be considered to act to the companys detriment. In the most recent Polish jurisprudence and judicature the standard of a good host is treated to be the last resort for determining whether the managers powers resulting from criminal regulations were performed. The manager of the exporter should not, as a rule, issue any options. Issuing options always means assuming an obligation. In the case of currency put options it is an absolute obligation to purchase a given amount in euro at exchange rate set in advance. On the other hand issuing

  3. Toxic Mixtures in Time-The Sequence Makes the Poison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashauer, Roman; O'Connor, Isabel; Escher, Beate I

    2017-03-07

    "The dose makes the poison". This principle assumes that once a chemical is cleared out of the organism (toxicokinetic recovery), it no longer has any effect. However, it overlooks the other process of re-establishing homeostasis, toxicodynamic recovery, which can be fast or slow depending on the chemical. Therefore, when organisms are exposed to two toxicants in sequence, the toxicity can differ if their order is reversed. We test this hypothesis with the freshwater crustacean Gammarus pulex and four toxicants that act on different targets (diazinon, propiconazole, 4,6-dinitro-o-cresol, 4-nitrobenzyl chloride). We found clearly different toxicity when the exposure order of two toxicants was reversed, while maintaining the same dose. Slow toxicodynamic recovery caused carry-over toxicity in subsequent exposures, thereby resulting in a sequence effect-but only when toxicodynamic recovery was slow relative to the interval between exposures. This suggests that carry-over toxicity is a useful proxy for organism fitness and that risk assessment methods should be revised as they currently could underestimate risk. We provide the first evidence that carry-over toxicity occurs among chemicals acting on different targets and when exposure is several days apart. It is therefore not only the dose that makes the poison but also the exposure sequence.

  4. VARIATIONS IN REPRODUCTIVE TOXICANT IDENTIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, F

    2008-05-13

    Reproductive toxicants are a very important class of compounds. They present unique hazards to those of child bearing ages, perform their 'dirty work' using a wide variety of mechanisms on a number of different organs, and are regulatorily important. Because of all of this, properly identifying reproductive toxicants is important, but fraught with difficulty. In this paper we will describe types or reproductive toxicants, their importance, and both mistakes and good practices that people who are not experts in reproductive toxicology may use in their attempts to identify them. Additionally, this paper will focus on chemical reproductive toxicants and will not address biological agents that could affect reproductive toxicity although many principles outlined here could be applied to that endeavor.

  5. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy plus adjuvant chemotherapy versus concurrent chemoradiotherapy in locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. A matched-pair multicenter analysis of outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Yi-Yuan [Affiliated Hospital of Guilin Medical University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Guilin (China); Guilin Medical University Affiliated Hospital, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Guilin (China); Xiang, Chun [Nan Xishan Hospital, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Guilin (China); Lu, Jian-Xun [Affiliated Hospital of Youjiang Medical University for Nationalities, Department of Oncology, Baise (China); Su, Yi-Xin [Lingshan People' s Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Lingshan (China); Pan, Yu-Fei [Nan Xishan Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Guilin (China); Cai, Rui; Zhang, Rong-Jun; He, Zhuo-Kai; Liu, Mei-Lian; Huang, Hui; Bai, Xue; Tang, Hua-Ying; Shi, Yun-Hua; Wang, Yan; Jiang, Wei [Affiliated Hospital of Guilin Medical University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Guilin (China)

    2016-06-15

    The benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) in locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is controversial. This study compared concurrent chemoradiotherapy plus AC (CCRT/AC) with CCRT. Pair-matched analysis based on eight clinicopathological features of 244 patients treated with platinum-based CCRT/AC or CCRT alone was performed. Survival outcomes were assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. Toxicities and response rates were compared using Fisher's exact test. Four-year overall survival, progression-free survival, distant failure-free survival, and locoregional failure-free survival were 72 %, 61 %, 71 %, and 81 %, respectively, for the CCRT arm, compared to 74 % (hazard ratio, HR 0.89; 95 % confidence interval, CI 0.64-1.23; P = 0.474), 62 % (HR 0.91, 95 % CI 0.68-1.20, P = 0.489), 73 % (HR 0.84, 95 % CI 0.59-1.18, P = 0.316), and 84 % (HR 0.84, 95 % CI 0.52-1.24, P = 0.323), respectively, for the CCRT/AC arm. Cox multivariate regression analysis demonstrated AC was not an independent prognostic factor. Overall, there was a higher incidence of grade 3-4 toxicities in the CCRT/AC arm. The most common grade 3-4 adverse events in the CCRT/AC arm were vomiting (27 %), nausea (43 %), leukopenia/neutropenia (23 %), thrombocytopenia (8.8 %), and anemia (6.2 %). Addition of AC to CCRT increased toxicities but did not improve survival in locoregionally advanced NPC. (orig.) [German] Der Nutzen der adjuvanten Chemotherapie (AC) bei lokoregional fortgeschrittenem nasopharyngealem Karzinom (NPC) ist kontrovers. In dieser Studie wurde die simultane Radiochemotherapie (''concurrent chemoradiotherapy'', CCRT) plus adjuvante Chemotherapie (AC) mit einer alleinigen CCRT verglichen. Die Matched-pair-Analyse basiert auf acht klinisch-pathologischen Merkmalen von 244 Patienten, die mit platinbasierter CCRT/AC oder alleiniger CCRT behandelt wurden. Die Ueberlebensendpunkte wurden mit der Kaplan-Meier-Methode und dem Log

  6. Toxic epidermal necrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelain, Florence; Humbert, Philippe

    2012-11-01

    Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a severe mucocutaneous drug-induced syndrome that causes massive keratinocyte apoptosis and therefore hydro-electrolytic disorders and systemic infection. TEN approximately affects one to two cases per million per year. Mortality rate may reach thirty percent of cases. Thus, TEN constitutes a therapeutic emergency at diagnosis. Typically, clinical examination shows a mucocutaneous detachment involving more than thirty percent of body area. Definitive diagnosis is made on cutaneous biopsy with histological exam that shows the blister of necrotic keratinocytes. Main differential diagnosis are acute staphylococcus epidermis, acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, linear IgA bullous dermatosis, paraneoplastic pemphigus, bullous fixed pigmented erythema, acute lupus erythematosus. In the early days, SCORTEN gives a good estimation and is now widely used as prognostic score. Drugs are generally considered as the main etiology of TEN but in some cases bacterial or viral infections could be involved. Physiopathology remains unclear even if recent advances have reported the possible implication of immune pathways based on activation of T and NK cells. Treatment of TEN requires to be instituted as soon as the diagnosis is made and the patient is preferentially referred to a specialized unit. Supportive care consist of covering areas of cutaneous detachment. No other therapy has demonstrated its efficiency, but high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin might improve the prognosis.

  7. Toxicity of energy drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolk, Brian J; Ganetsky, Michael; Babu, Kavita M

    2012-04-01

    'Energy drinks', 'energy shots' and other energy products have exploded in popularity in the past several years; however, their use is not without risk. Caffeine is the main active ingredient in energy drinks, and excessive consumption may acutely cause caffeine intoxication, resulting in tachycardia, vomiting, cardiac arrhythmias, seizures, and death. The effects of chronic high-dose caffeine intake in children and adolescents are unknown. Caffeine may raise blood pressure, disrupt adolescent sleep patterns, exacerbate psychiatric disease, cause physiologic dependence, and increase the risk of subsequent addiction. Coingestion of caffeine and ethanol has been associated with increased risk-taking behaviors, harm to adolescent users, impaired driving, and increased use of other illicit substances. The toxicity of ingredients often present in energy drinks, such as taurine, niacin, and pyridoxine, is less well defined. Recent and significant literature describing adverse events associated with energy drink use are reviewed. Although prior studies have examined the effects of caffeine in adolescents, energy drinks should be considered a novel exposure. The high doses of caffeine, often in combination with ingredients with unknown safety profiles, mandates urgent research on the safety of energy drink use in children and adolescents. Regulation of pediatric energy drink use may be a necessary step once the health effects are further characterized.

  8. Evaluación de la toxicidad aguda por el procedimiento de dosis fijas de un extracto de Boldoa purpurascens Cav. (Evaluation of the acute toxicity of the method fixed dose procedure of an extract of Boldoa prurpurascens Cav.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez Machín, Maykel

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available ResumenSe realizó un estudio experimental con el objetivo de evaluar el posible efecto tóxico de un extracto acuoso liofilizado de Boldoa purpurascen Cav. (nitro blanco. Para el desarrollo del mismo se utilizó el Procedimiento de Dosis Fijas (FDP, utilizando una dosis límite de 2000 mg/kg de peso corporal. Los animales seleccionados fueron ratas de la línea Sprague Dawley, con un peso comprendido entre 150 y 200 g. Los resultados demostraron la inocuidad de la planta al no observarse signos ni síntomas de toxicidad. El peso corporal se comportó acorde a la curva de crecimiento de la especie y no se apreciaron alteraciones macroscópicas en los órganos estudiados, todo lo que permite afirmar que la DL50 se ubica por encima de 2000 mg/kg PC, considerándose el producto como No Clasificado (no tóxico. SummaryAn experimental study to assess the toxic effects of an aqueous and later lyophilised extract of Boldoa purpurascens Cav. (nitro blanco was carried out. It was employed the alternative Fixed Dose Procedure. There were used Sprague Dawley rats weighing between 150 and 200 g, which received a limit dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight and were kept under standardized experimental conditions. Results showed neither signs nor symptoms of toxicity. Bodyweight behaved consistent with the growing curve of this species and there were no alterations in macroscopic observations on main organs. The LD50 of this extract is located above 2000 mg/kg body weight, considering it as Non Classified (non toxic.

  9. 应用3种方法评价4种新氯化烟碱类杀虫剂对棉花粉蚧的毒力%Toxicities of 4 neonicotinoid insecticides to Phenacoccus solenopsis by 3 bioassay methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁巧丽; 陆永跃; 梁广文

    2014-01-01

    【目的】探讨棉花粉蚧Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley的化学防治,筛选高效的防治药剂.【方法】采用浸叶法、浸渍法和药膜法评价吡虫啉、啶虫脒、噻虫嗪和烯啶虫胺4种新氯化烟碱类杀虫剂对棉花粉蚧3龄若虫的毒力.【结果和结论】40 mg· L-1噻虫嗪处理24和48 h后3龄若虫的死亡率:浸叶法为90.0%、98.8%,浸渍法为98.9%、100.0%,药膜法为85.8%、85.8%.应用浸叶法测得的4种杀虫剂对3龄若虫的相对毒力为噻虫嗪>啶虫脒>烯啶虫胺>吡虫啉,浸渍法依次为噻虫嗪>吡虫啉>啶虫脒>烯啶虫胺,药膜法依次为噻虫嗪>啶虫脒>吡虫啉>烯啶虫胺.3种方法测定结果均显示噻虫嗪对棉花粉蚧有相对较高的毒力.3种毒力测定方法中,就吡虫啉而言以浸渍法测定的毒力最高,药膜法次之,浸叶法最低;啶虫脒以浸渍法和药膜法相近,浸叶法较低;噻虫嗪浸渍法较高,药膜法和浸叶法较低;烯啶虫胺3种方法测定的毒力相近.浸渍法较好地反映了新氯化烟碱类杀虫剂对粉蚧的触杀、通过内吸而导致的胃毒等综合作用.%Objective] To study the chemical control of cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley and to screen its efficient pesticides .[Method] The toxicities of 4 neonicotinoid insecticides ( imidaclo-prid, acetamiprid, thiamethoxam, nitenpyram) to P.solenopsis were determined by three methods: leaf dipping, nymph and leaf dipping , and the residual film method under the laboratory conditions .[Result and conclusion] The results showed that the mortalities of the 3rd instar mealybug nymphs treated with 40 mg· L-1 thiamethoxam after 24 and 48 h were 90.0%and 98.8%by using leaf dipping method , 98.9%and 100.0%by using nymph and leaf dipping method , 85.8% and 85.8% by using the residual film method.Relative toxicities of four insecticides from high to low to P.solenopsis 3rd instar

  10. Naphthalene toxicity and antioxidant nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohs, Sidney J; Ohia, Sunny; Bagchi, Debasis

    2002-10-30

    Naphthalene is a bicyclic aromatic compound that has wide industrial and commercial applications. It is used as the starting material for the synthesis of other compounds, as a moth repellent, soil fumigant and lavatory deodorant. Most exposure occurs through low dose chronic inhalation, dermal contact or ingestion through the food chain. The lungs and eyes appear to be most susceptible to toxicity, although biochemical markers of toxicity can be demonstrated in other tissues, such as the kidney, brain and liver. In addition to lens opacification (cataracts) and histological changes associated with pneumotoxicity, other biomarkers of toxic effects include glutathione depletion, lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation and the production of the active oxygen species as superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical. In addition, the urinary excretion of lipid metabolites occurs. A role for the tumor suppressor gene p53 has been demonstrated. Toxic manifestations of naphthalene are associated with its oxidative metabolism to various products including quinones. The ability to protect against the toxic effects of naphthalene by using various antioxidants and free radical scavengers has been demonstrated. Studies have been conducted with vitamin E, vitamin E succinate, melatonin, curcumin, various L-cysteine prodrugs, several aldose reductase inhibitors and spin-trapping agents. The ability to prevent the toxic manifestations of naphthalene is dependent on the pharmacokinetic properties of the agents, which have been studied. The appropriate selection of chemoprotectants can be useful in preventing naphthalene toxicity.

  11. Percutaneous ethanol injection therapy of autonomous (toxic)thyroid nodules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dieter Erich Apitzsch. M.D.; Staedtische Paracelsusklinik; Marl, Germany

    2005-01-01

    @@ Percutaneous ethanol injection therapy(PElT) has been established as an interventional method of the ablation of hepatic malignancies, especially hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC), since long. Its effects are based on cellular dehydration,toxic and coagulation necrosis and thrombosis of small venules within the tumour. The result is fibrosis of the damaged tissue, loss of function and shrinkage. Hence the "ablative" effect of absolute(95%) ethanol. The more confined ally lesion the better the ablative effect due to the high concentration of the toxic liquid. Highest effects will be achieved in encapsulated nodules which prevent diffusion of the toxic agent into surrounding normal tissue which is the case in HCC.

  12. Cardiac Toxicity after definitive Radiotherapy of locally advanced NSCLC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schytte, Tine; Hansen, Olfred; Stohlberg-Rohr, Thomine

    2010-01-01

    report the heart toxicities in locally-regionally advanced NSCLC (LA-NSCLC) patients (pts) treated with RT in our centre.   Methods and material: From 01.01.1995-30.11.2007, 287 pts with LA-NSCLC (stage IIB-IIIB) were treated with RT at our centre with planned dose 60-66 Gy. All RT was applied as 3D RT......    Cardiac Toxicity after definitive Radiotherapy of locally advanced NSCLC Tine Schytte, Olfred Hansen, Thomine Stolberg-Rohr* and Carsten Brink*. Dept. Oncology and Radiophysic Lab.* Odense University Hospital, Denmark   Keyword: Radiotherapy, Locally advanced NSCLC, Cardiac toxicity...

  13. Molecular toxicity mechanism of nanosilver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle McShan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Silver is an ancient antibiotic that has found many new uses due to its unique properties on the nanoscale. Due to its presence in many consumer products, the toxicity of nanosilver has become a hot topic. This review summarizes recent advances, particularly the molecular mechanism of nanosilver toxicity. The surface of nanosilver can easily be oxidized by O2 and other molecules in the environmental and biological systems leading to the release of Ag+, a known toxic ion. Therefore, nanosilver toxicity is closely related to the release of Ag+. In fact, it is difficult to determine what portion of the toxicity is from the nano-form and what is from the ionic form. The surface oxidation rate is closely related to the nanosilver surface coating, coexisting molecules, especially thiol-containing compounds, lighting conditions, and the interaction of nanosilver with nucleic acids, lipid molecules, and proteins in a biological system. Nanosilver has been shown to penetrate the cell and become internalized. Thus, nanosilver often acts as a source of Ag+ inside the cell. One of the main mechanisms of toxicity is that it causes oxidative stress through the generation of reactive oxygen species and causes damage to cellular components including DNA damage, activation of antioxidant enzymes, depletion of antioxidant molecules (e.g., glutathione, binding and disabling of proteins, and damage to the cell membrane. Several major questions remain to be answered: (1 the toxic contribution from the ionic form versus the nano-form; (2 key enzymes and signaling pathways responsible for the toxicity; and (3 effect of coexisting molecules on the toxicity and its relationship to surface coating.

  14. National Air Toxic Assessments (NATA) Results

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Air Toxics Assessment was conducted by EPA in 2002 to assess air toxics emissions in order to identify and prioritize air toxics, emission source types...

  15. Multidrug toxicity involving sumatriptan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knittel, Jessica L; Vorce, Shawn P; Levine, Barry; Hughes, Rhome L; Bosy, Thomas Z

    2015-01-01

    A multidrug fatality involving sumatriptan is reported. Sumatriptan is a tryptamine derivative that acts at 5-HT(1B/1D) receptors and is used for the treatment of migraines. The decedent was a 21-year-old white female found dead in bed by her spouse. No signs of physical trauma were observed and a large number of prescription medications were discovered at the scene. Toxicological analysis of the central blood revealed sumatriptan at a concentration of 1.03 mg/L. Following therapeutic dosing guidelines, sumatriptan concentrations do not exceed 0.095 mg/L. Sumatriptan was isolated by solid-phase extraction and analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in multiple reaction monitoring mode. A tissue distribution study was completed with the following concentrations measured: 0.61 mg/L in femoral blood, 0.56 mg/L in iliac blood, 5.01 mg/L in urine, 0.51 mg/kg in liver, 3.66 mg/kg in kidney, 0.09 mg/kg in heart, 0.32 mg/kg in spleen, 0.01 mg/kg in brain, 15.99 mg/kg in lung and 78.54 mg/45 mL in the stomach contents. Carisoprodol, meprobamate, fluoxetine, doxylamine, orphenadrine, dextromethorphan and hydroxyzine were also present in the blood at the following concentrations: 3.35, 2.36, 0.63, 0.19, 0.06, 0.55 and 0.16 mg/L. The medical examiner ruled the cause of death as acute mixed drug toxicity and the manner of death as accident.

  16. Methylmercury toxicity and functional programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: Adverse health effects of developmental toxicants may induce abnormal functional programming that leads to lasting functional deficits. This notion is considered from epidemiological evidence using developmental methylmercury neurotoxicity as an example. MOST IMPORTANT FINDINGS...... of certain brain functions, thereby causing confounding bias. The functional deficits caused by prenatal methylmercury exposure appear to be permanent, and their extent may depend on the joint effect of toxicants and nutrients. PRINCIPAL CONCLUSIONS: The lasting functional changes caused...... by neurodevelopmental methylmercury toxicity fit into the pattern of functional programming, with effects opposite to those linked to beneficial stimuli....

  17. Toxic Picoplanktonic Cyanobacteria—Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Jakubowska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria of a picoplanktonic cell size (0.2 to 2.0 µm are common organisms of both freshwater and marine ecosystems. However, due to their small size and relatively short study history, picoplanktonic cyanobacteria, in contrast to the microplanktonic cyanobacteria, still remains a poorly studied fraction of plankton. So far, only little information on picocyanobacteria toxicity has been reported, while the number of reports concerning their presence in ecosystems is increasing. Thus, the issue of picocyanobacteria toxicity needs more researchers’ attention and interest. In this report, we present information on the current knowledge concerning the picocyanobacteria toxicity, as well as their harmfulness and problems they can cause.

  18. Toxic picoplanktonic cyanobacteria--review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowska, Natalia; Szeląg-Wasielewska, Elżbieta

    2015-03-18

    Cyanobacteria of a picoplanktonic cell size (0.2 to 2.0 µm) are common organisms of both freshwater and marine ecosystems. However, due to their small size and relatively short study history, picoplanktonic cyanobacteria, in contrast to the microplanktonic cyanobacteria, still remains a poorly studied fraction of plankton. So far, only little information on picocyanobacteria toxicity has been reported, while the number of reports concerning their presence in ecosystems is increasing. Thus, the issue of picocyanobacteria toxicity needs more researchers' attention and interest. In this report, we present information on the current knowledge concerning the picocyanobacteria toxicity, as well as their harmfulness and problems they can cause.

  19. Toxicity of Uranium Adsorbent Materials using the Microtox Toxicity Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jiyeon [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jeters, Robert T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gill, Gary A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kuo, Li-Jung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bonheyo, George T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Marine Sciences Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated the toxicity of a diverse range of natural and synthetic materials used to extract uranium from seawater. The uranium adsorbent materials are being developed as part of the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Resources Program. The goal of this effort was to identify whether deployment of a farm of these materials into the marine environment would have any toxic effects on marine organisms.

  20. 蛋白核小球藻(Chlorella pyrenoidosa)微板毒性分析方法优化%Optimization of Microplate Toxicity Analysis Method Based on Chlorella Pyrenoidose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁静; 刘树深; 王丽娟; 邵玉敏

    2011-01-01

    Taking Chlorella pyrenoidosa (CP) as an indicator organism, a 96-well microplate as an exposure carrier, and 72 h algae growth inhibition rate as a toxicity endpoint, a microplate toxicity analysis based on CP (CP-MTA) was developed. The growth curve and absorption spectra of CP were detected systematically. The linear relationship between the algal cell density and optical density at a wavelength of 683 nm was determined. The effects of initial cell density, illumination, exposure time, and exposure volume on the algae growth were examined. CP-MTA was employed to determine the growth inhibition toxicities of eight chemicals including heavy metal salts, herbicides, pesticides and ionic liquid on CP. It was found that ff the pEC50 value was taken as a toxicity biomarker,the order of toxicity was: diquat > CuSO4 ·5H2O ≈ CdCl2 ·2. 5H20 > l-methyl-3-octyl- imidazolium chloride >glyphosate > l-ethyl-3-methyl- imidazolium chloride > dichlorvos > dimethoate, which is consistent with other results in the literature. CP-MTA has some advantages such as small sample volumes, convenience for parallel testing, and good repeatability due to taking a microplate as the exposure carrier.%以蛋白核小球藻(Chlorella pyrenoidosa,CP)为指示生物,96 孔微板为暴露载体,污染物对藻的 72 h 生长抑制率为毒性指标,通过系统地检测蛋白核小球藻的生长曲线和吸收光谱,确定藻细胞密度和 683 nm 波长处光密度(D683)之间的线性关系,考察不同初始藻密度、照度、暴露时间和暴露体积对藻生长的影响,建立了蛋白核小球藻微板毒性分析方法(CP-MTA 法).将 CP-MTA 法应用于重金属盐、除草剂、杀虫剂以及离子液体等 8 种化学品对蛋白核小球藻的生长抑制毒性测试,以 pEC为毒性指标,毒性大小顺序为敌草快 > CuSO·5HO ≈ CdCl2·2.5H2O > 氯化 1-甲基-3-辛基咪唑([Omim]Cl) > 草甘膦 > 氯化 1-甲基-3-丁基咪唑([Bmim]Cl) > 敌敌畏 > 乐

  1. User’s Guide for T.E.S.T. (version 4.2) (Toxicity Estimation Software Tool) A Program to Estimate Toxicity from Molecular Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    The user's guide describes the methods used by TEST to predict toxicity and physical properties (including the new mode of action based method used to predict acute aquatic toxicity). It describes all of the experimental data sets included in the tool. It gives the prediction res...

  2. USE OF CARBOXYLESTERASE ACTIVITY TO REMOVE PYRETHROID-ASSOCIATED TOXICITY TO CERIODAPHNIA DUBIA AND HYALELLA AZTECA IN TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION EVALUATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelock, Craig E.; Miller, Jeff L.; Miller, Mike J.; Phillips, Bryn M.; Huntley, Sarah A.; Gee, Shirley J.; Tjeerdema, Ronald S.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2006-01-01

    Increases in the use and application of pyrethroid insecticides have resulted in concern regarding potential effects on aquatic ecosystems. Methods for the detection of pyrethroids in receiving waters are required to monitor environmental levels of these insecticides. One method employed for the identification of causes of toxicity in aquatic samples is the toxicity identification evaluation (TIE); however, current TIE protocols do not include specific methods for pyrethroid detection. Recent work identified carboxylesterase treatment as a useful method for removing/detecting pyrethroid-associated toxicity. The present study has extended this earlier work and examined the ability of carboxylesterase activity to remove permethrin- and bifenthrin-associated toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella azteca in a variety of matrices, including laboratory water, Sacramento River (CA, USA) water, and Salinas River (CA, USA) interstitial water. Esterase activity successfully removed 1,000 ng/L of permethrin-associated toxicity and 600 ng/L of bifenthrin-associated toxicity to C. dubia in Sacramento River water. In interstitial water, 200 ng/L of permethrin-associated toxicity and 60 ng/L of bifenthrin-associated toxicity to H. azteca were removed. The selectivity of the method was validated using heat-inactivated enzyme and bovine serum albumin, demonstrating that catalytically active esterase is required. Further studies showed that the enzyme is not significantly inhibited by metals. Matrix effects on esterase activity were examined with municipal effluent and seawater in addition to the matrices discussed above. Results confirmed that the esterase retains catalytic function in a diverse array of matrices, suggesting that this technique can be adapted to a variety of aquatic samples. These data demonstrate the utility of carboxylesterase treatment as a viable step to detect the presence of pyrethroids in receiving waters. PMID:16629136

  3. Testing of Toxicity to Broadbean Aphids by Two Chloronicotinyl Insecticides with Different Treatment Methods%2种氯化烟碱类杀虫剂不同处理方法对蚕豆蚜的毒力测定研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    斯哲人; 王在林; 姚安庆

    2015-01-01

    为了明确杀虫剂毒力与其测定方法间的关系,选取蚕豆蚜为试验对象分别采用浸渍法、离体喷雾法和连续浸液法测定噻虫嗪和呋虫胺的毒力.结果表明,噻虫嗪浸渍法和连续浸液法对蚕豆蚜的毒力显著高于离体喷雾法;呋虫胺浸渍法对蚕豆蚜的毒力显著高于离体喷雾法和连续浸液法.由此可知,同种药剂不同测定方法与其毒力的表达结果具有显著的相关性.%In order to clarify the relationship between the toxicity of insecticides and its determination method, the paper selected the aphid virulence as experimental objects using the immersion, isolated spray method and continuous infusion method for the determination of thiamethoxam and dinotefuran.Results showed that the virulence of thiamethoxam impregnation method and continuous immersion method of broad bean aphid was significantly higher than that in vitro spray method.Virulence dinotefuran impregnation on the broad bean aphid was significantly higher than that in vitro spray method and continuous immersion method.Therefore, the same medicament different vulence methods and expression of pesticide toxicity results had significant correlation.

  4. [Advance in study on zearalenone's toxicity and determination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qing-Hua; Xu, Yang

    2005-07-01

    The article is intended to introduce the zearalenone's toxicity, determination methods and prevention. Zearalenone is one of the most widely distributed mycotoxins produces by Fusarium Species, it is harm to animals and human. And it can induce human liver cancer,carcinoma of tesis esophagus cancer. Now we use high-performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, thin layer chromatography, non-toxicity determinations to detect it.

  5. Haemolytic micromethod for rapid estimation of toxic alfalfa saponin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Jurzysta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available On a plate covered with a thin layer of blood suspension with gelatine 10 microliters of alfalfa juice or alfalfa meal extract is spotted. As a result of saponin diffusion and their reaction with blood a haemolytic ring appears, the diameter of which is proportional to the concentration of toxic saponins. Selected by this method low-saponin individual alfalfa plants proved non toxic for fishes and did not inhibit the growth of Trichoderma viride.

  6. Toxicity assessment of unrefined crude oil fractions in soil ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goudey, J.S.; Wilson, J.J. [HydroQual Lab. Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Chu, A. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    The chemical and physical differences amongst crude oils and bioavailability (toxicity) of crude oil constituents are not addressed with existing numerical criteria for remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils. The constituents of crude oil include short chain hydrocarbons, such as light ends or gasoline, and long chain hydrocarbons (saturates), aromatic and polar compounds and heavier asphaltenes. Natural weathering and biodegradation take care of the lighter compounds. Less biodegradable are the heavier compounds which tend to be immobile. A range of questions concerning these immobile substances need to be answered to determine their effect on the bioavailability, hence toxicity, when solutes become solvents, etc. In this study, different crude oils and crude oil fractions were assessed as to their effect on the bioavailability (as toxicity) to microbes, plants and invertebrates. Five fractions with boiling point distillation were obtained from the separation of each of three base crude oils for a total of fifteen fractions. This practical approach to fractionating hydrocarbon represents the standard method for crude characterization. Ecological relevance, volume requirements, and availability of standard methods formed the basis for the selection of the tests and test species. The relative amounts of the different compounds (aromatics, saturates, polars, and asphaltenes) were different for each crude. Worm survival and lettuce seeding emergence tests were conducted on the spiked soils, and the extracts were tested with bacterial luminescence and lettuce root elongation. The results obtained for the three crude oils were similar. It was found that the heavier fractions were not toxic. Aging decreased the toxicity of aqueous extracts of spiked soils. Methanol extracts showed no loss of toxicity. The toxicity of whole crude was compared to the toxicity recovered in the fractions. The aqueous extracts of the naphthenic crude and the methanol extract of the

  7. Determination of leachate toxicity through acute toxicity using Daphnia pulex and Anaerobic Toxicity Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Torres Lozada

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The municipal solid waste (MSW of large cities, in particular in developing countries, is mainly disposed of in landfills (LFs, whose inadequate management generates the emission of greenhouse gases and the production of leachates with high concentrations of organic and inorganic matter and occasionally heavy metals. In this study, the toxicity of the leachates from an intermediate-age municipal landfill was evaluated by ecotoxicity and anaerobic digestion tests. The acute toxicity assays with Daphnia pulex presented a toxic unit (TU value of 49.5%, which indicates that these leachates should not be directly discharged into water sources or percolate into the soil because they would affect the ecosystems served by these waters. According to statistical analyses, the leachate toxicity is mainly associated with the inorganic fraction, with chlorides, calcium hardness and calcium having the greatest influence on the toxicity. The anaerobic toxicity assays showed that in the exposure stage, the methanogenic activity exceeded that of the control, which suggests that the anaerobic bacteria easily adapted to the leachate. Therefore, this treatment could be an alternative to mitigate the toxicity of the studied leachates. The inhibition presented in the recovery stage, represented by a reduction of the methanogenic activity, could arise because the amount of supplied substrate was not enough to fulfill the carbon and nutrient requirements of the bacterial population present.

  8. Non-Toxic HAN Monopropellant Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Non-toxic monopropellants have been developed that provide better performance than toxic hydrazine. Formulations based on hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) have...

  9. Non-Toxic HAN Monopropellant Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Non-toxic monopropellants have been developed that provide better performance than toxic hydrazine. Formulations based on hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) have...

  10. Interlaboratory Evaluation of Hyalella Azteca and Chironomus Tentans Short-term and Long-term Sediment Toxicity Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents the results of interlaboratory toxicity tests on sediment toxicity methods for use in routine testing and this data has been presented in an EPA report and this is a summary of that data.

  11. Interlaboratory Evaluation of Hyalella Azteca and Chironomus Tentans Short-term and Long-term Sediment Toxicity Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents the results of interlaboratory toxicity tests on sediment toxicity methods for use in routine testing and this data has been presented in an EPA report and this is a summary of that data.

  12. 2011 NATA - Air Toxics Monitors

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset includes annual (2005 - 2013) statistics of measured ambient air toxics concentrations (in micrograms per cubic meter) and associated risk estimates for...

  13. Hydroxycut-induced Liver Toxicity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hanumantp

    Keywords: Hydroxycut, Liver toxicity, Nutritional supplements. Access this article ... presumed notion of safety with over the counter and so called natural weight ... increasing basal metabolic rate and decreasing total body fat. However, there ...

  14. Low-Toxicity PMR Polyimide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pater, Ruth H.; Ely, Robert M.; Stanfield, Clarence E.; Dickerson, George E.; Snoha, John J.; Srinivasan, Krishna; Hou, Tan

    1994-01-01

    New low-toxicity PMR system developed and designated LaRC-RP46. Exhibits better processability, toughness, and thermo-oxidative stability than does PMR-15. Polyimide inexpensive and readily processed into high-quality graphite-fiber-reinforced composite. Used as high-performance, high-temperature-resistant adhesive, molding, composite, film, and coating material where low toxicity desired characteristic. Significantly extends applications of PMR-type polyimides.

  15. Ranking of aquatic toxicity of esters modelled by QSAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Ester; Battaini, Francesca; Gramatica, Paola

    2005-02-01

    Alternative methods like predictions based on Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSARs) are now accepted to fill data gaps and define priority lists for more expensive and time consuming assessments. A heterogeneous data set of 74 esters was studied for their aquatic toxicity, and available experimental toxicity data on algae, Daphnia and fish were used to develop statistically validated QSAR models, obtained using multiple linear regression (MLR) by the OLS (Ordinary Least Squares) method and GA-VSS (Variable Subset Selection by Genetic Algorithms) to predict missing values. An ESter Aquatic Toxicity INdex (ESATIN) was then obtained by combining, by PCA, experimental and predicted toxicity data, from which model outliers and esters highly influential due to their structure had been eliminated. Finally this integrated aquatic toxicity index, defined by the PC1 score, was modelled using only a few theoretical molecular descriptors. This last QSAR model, statistically validated for its predictive power, could be proposed as a preliminary evaluative method for screening/prioritising esters according to their integrated aquatic toxicity, just starting from their molecular structure.

  16. Pre-exenterative chemotherapy, a novel therapeutic approach for patients with persistent or recurrent cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uribe Jesus

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most cervical cancer patients with pelvic recurrent or persistent disease are not candidates for exenteration, therefore, they only receive palliative chemotherapy. Here we report the results of a novel treatment modality for these patients pre-exenterative chemotherapy- under the rational that the shrinking of the pelvic tumor would allow its resection. Methods Patients with recurrent or persistent disease and no evidence of systemic disease, considered not be candidates for pelvic exenteration because of the extent of pelvic tumor, received 3-courses of platinum-based chemotherapy. Response was evaluated by CT scan and bimanual pelvic examination; however the decision to perform exenteration relied on the physical findings. Toxicity to chemotherapy was evaluated with standard criteria. Survival was analyzed with the Kaplan-Meier method. Results Seventeen patients were studied. The median number of chemotherapy courses was 4. There were 9 patients who responded to chemotherapy, evaluated by bimanual examination and underwent pelvic exenteration. Four of them had pathological complete response. Eight patients did not respond and were not subjected to surgery. One patient died due to exenteration complications. At a median follow-up of 11 months, the median survival for the whole group was 11 months, 3 months in the non-operated and 32 months in those subjected to exenteration. Conclusion Pre-exenterative chemotherapy is an alternative for cervical cancer patients that are no candidates for exenteration because of the extent of the pelvic disease. Its place in the management of recurrent disease needs to be investigated in randomized studies, however, its value for offering long-term survival in some of these patients with no other option than palliative care must be stressed.

  17. Sulfasalazine and temozolomide with radiation therapy for newly diagnosed glioblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Takeuchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A recent phase 1/2 clinical trial argued for caution for the use of sulfasalazine in progressive glioblastoma (GBM. However, the study enrolled patients with recurrent or progressive high-grade glioma indicating that patients recruited probably had severe disease. Thus, the study may not accurately reflect the effectiveness of sulfasalazine for GBM and we hypothesized that earlier sulfasalazine administration may lead to anticancer effects. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate whether sulfasalazine can improve the outcomes of patients with newly diagnosed GBM. Subjects and Methods: A total of 12 patients were treated with temozolomide and sulfasalazine with radiation therapy after surgery. Twelve patients with primary GBM treated with temozolomide and radiation therapy formed the control group. Progression-free survival (PFS, overall survival (OS and seizure-free survival (SFS curves were obtained using the Kaplan-Meier method. The survival curves were compared using the log-rank test. Results: The median OS, PFS and SFS did not differ between the groups. Grade 3 or 4 adverse events occurred over the duration of the study in nine (75% patients. The median SFS was 12 months in nine patients who received sulfasalazine administration for more than 21 days, which was strongly but not significantly longer than the 3 months observed in the control group (P = 0.078. Conclusions: Sulfasalazine treatment with temozolomide plus radiotherapy for newly diagnosed primary GBM is associated with a high rate of discontinuation due to hematologic toxic effects. This treatment may have no effect on OS or PFS, although it may improve seizure control if an adequate dose can be administered.

  18. Phase II Trial of Adjuvant Pelvic Radiation “Sandwiched” Between Combination Paclitaxel and Carboplatin in Women with Uterine Papillary Serous Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Mark H.; Frimer, Marina; Kuo, Dennis Y-S; Reimers, Laura L.; Mehta, Keyur; Mutyala, Subhakar; Huang, Gloria S.; Hou, June Y.; Goldberg, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the safety and survival in women treated with adjuvant pelvic radiation “sandwiched” between six cycles of paclitaxel and carboplatin chemotherapy with completely resected UPSC. Methods Surgically staged women with UPSC (FIGO stage 1-4) and no visible residual disease were enrolled. Treatment involved paclitaxel (175 mg/m2) and carboplatin (AUC=6.0-7.5) every 21 days for 3 doses, followed by radiation therapy (RT), followed by an additional 3 cycles of paclitaxel and carboplatin (AUC=5-6). Survival analysis, using Kaplan-Meier methods, was performed on patients who completed at least 3 cycles of chemotherapy and RT. Results A total of 81 patients were enrolled, of which 72 patients completed the first 3 cycles of chemotherapy followed by prescribed RT. Median age was 67 years (range: 43–82 years). 59/72 (82%) had disease confined to the uterus and 13/72 (18%) had completely resected extra-uterine disease (stage 3&4). 65 (83%) completed the protocol. Overall PFS and OS for combined stage 1&2 patients was 65.5±3.6 months and 76.5±4.3 months, respectively. PFS and OS for combined stage 3&4 patients was 25.8±3.0 and 35.9±5.3 months, respectively. Three-year % survival probability for stage 1&2 patients was 84% and for stage 3&4 patients was 50%. Of the 435 chemotherapy cycles administered, there were 11(2.5%) G3/G4 non-hematologic toxicities. 26(6.0%) cycles had dose reductions and 37(8.5%) had dose delays. Conclusions Compared to prior studies of single modality adjuvant therapy, RT “sandwiched” between paclitaxel and carboplatin chemotherapy is well-tolerated and highly efficacious in women with completely resected UPSC. PMID:22035806

  19. Efficacy and prognostic factors of intensity-modulated radiotherapy for large primary hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FANG Ziyan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the efficacy of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT in treating large primary hepatocellular carcinoma (LHCC which is unsuitable for surgery or has poor response to radiofrequency ablation, interventional therapy, and other local treatments, and to identify the prognostic factors for survival. MethodsWe retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 29 LHCC patients who received IMRT from April 2008 to August 2011. There were five fractions per week and the dose for each fraction was 2 to 6 Gy; the total dose was 50 to 70 Gy. The short-term efficacy and prognosis were observed and analyzed. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate survival rates and the log-rank test was used for survival difference analysis. Multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox regression model. ResultsThe complete remission, partial remission, stable disease, and disease progression rates were 3.57%, 32.14%, 53.57%, and 10.72%, respectively. The overall median progression-free survival (PFS time was 6.43 months, and the median overall survival (OS time was 11.43 months. The 1- and 2-year survival rates were 46.79% and 25.23%, respectively. Univariate analysis showed tumor response rate was an independent prognostic factor for PFS. The Cox proportional hazard model suggested the tumor response rate and prescribed dose were the independent prognostic factors for PFS. In addition, the independent prognostic factors for OS included tumor response rate, tumor diameter, and tumor volume. The common acute radiotherapy toxicities included gastrointestinal discomfort, radiation-induced liver damage, and myelosuppression. ConclusionIMRT is a safe and effective option for the LHCC patients who are unsuitable for surgery or in the cases that other local therapies fail.

  20. Effect of intensity-modulated radiotherapy versus three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy on clinical outcomes in patients with glioblastoma multiforme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yi-dong; FENG Jin; FANG Tong; YANG Ming; QIU Xiao-guang; JIANG Tao

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies were reported on the comparison of clinical outcomes between intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM).This study aimed to determine whether IMRT improves clinical outcomes compared with 3D-CRT in patients with GBM.Methods The records of 54 patients with newly-diagnosed GBM from July 2009 to December 2010 were reviewed.The patients underwent postoperative IMRT or 3D-CRT with concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide.Kaplan-Meier method and log rank test were used to estimate differences of patients' survival.Results The median follow-up was 13 months.Of the 54 patients,fifty (92.6%) completed the combined modality treatment.The 1-year overall survival rate (OS) was 79.6%.The pattern of failure was predominantly local.A comparative analysis revealed that no statistical difference was observed between the IMRT group (n=21) and the 3D-CRT group (n=33) for 1-year OS (89.6% vs.75.8%,P=0.795),or 1-year progression-free survival (PFS) (61.0% vs.45.5%,P=0.867).In dosimetric comparison,IMRT seemed to allow better sparing of organs at risk than 3D-CRT did (P=0.050,P=0.055).However,there was no significant difference for toxicities of irradiation between the IMRT group and the 3D-CRT group.Conclusions Our preliminary results suggested that delivering standard radiation doses by IMRT is unlikely to improve local control or overall survival for GBM compared with 3D-CRT.Given this lack of survival benefit and increased costs of IMRT,the utilization of IMRT treatment for GBM needs to be carefully rationalized.

  1. Ocular toxicity of targeted therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renouf, Daniel J; Velazquez-Martin, Juan P; Simpson, Rand; Siu, Lillian L; Bedard, Philippe L

    2012-09-10

    Molecularly targeted agents are commonly used in oncology practice, and many new targeted agents are currently being tested in clinical trials. Although these agents are thought to be more specific and less toxic then traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy, they are associated with a variety of toxicities, including ocular toxicity. Many of the molecules targeted by anticancer agents are also expressed in ocular tissues. We reviewed the literature for described ocular toxicities associated with both approved and investigational molecularly targeted agents. Ocular toxicity has been described with numerous approved targeted agents and also seems to be associated with several classes of agents currently being tested in early-phase clinical trials. We discuss the proposed pathogenesis, monitoring guidelines, and management recommendations. It is important for oncologists to be aware of the potential for ocular toxicity, with prompt recognition of symptoms that require referral to an ophthalmologist. Ongoing collaboration between oncologists and ocular disease specialists is critical as the use of molecularly targeted agents continues to expand and novel targeted drug combinations are developed.

  2. Comparative toxicity of some detergents on an estuarine fish, Ambassis commersonii

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    The comparative toxicity was evaluated using four detergents, viz, linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), branched alkylbenzene sulfonate (BAS), sodium sulfonate (SS) and alfa-olefin sulfonate (AOS) on an estuarine fish, Ambassis commersonii, abundant in Kali estuarine system. Standard toxicity bioassay method was followed as per APHA (1980). AOS concentration in "Mega" soap was determined by the standard MBAS method described in APHA (1980). The results indicate that LAS was the most toxic det...

  3. Acute Toxicity of Four Organophosphorus Pesticide Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Acute toxicity of phoxim,acephate,isofenphos-methyl and isocarbophos on male SD rats of clean grade was carried out by gastric lavage method at room temperature of 18℃. These rats are 4 to 5 months old with body weight of 180 to 220 kg. The results indicate that the orders of the toxicity of these four pesticides on SD rats are isofenphos-methyl,isocarbophos,acephate,phoxim. We found that the median lethal concentration of phoxim in 24 h,48 h,72 h and 96 h is 3. 892 g /kg,3. 051 g /kg,2. 618 g /kg and 2. 458 g /kg respectively; the median lethal concentration of isofenphos-methyl in 24 h,48 h,72 h and 96 h is 0. 015 g /kg,0. 013g /kg,0. 012g /kg and 0. 011 g /kg respectively; the median lethal concentration of isocarbophos in 24 h,48 h,72 h and 96 h is 0. 049 g /kg,0. 046 g /kg,0. 043 g /kg,0. 041 g /kg respectively; and the median lethal concentration of acephate in 24 h,48 h,72 h and 96 h is 0. 137 g /kg,0. 113 g /kg,0. 100 g /kg,0. 085 g /kg respectively. Finally,we evaluated the characteristics of toxicity effect and safe concentration of these pesticides to SD rats.

  4. Phenytoin toxicity in patients with traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananth P Abraham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We observed that in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI who did not improve as expected, serum levels of phenytoin were in the toxic range and that their sensorium improved with modification of the dose. This led us to study the usage of phenytoin in patients with TBI. Aims: To determine the prevalence of phenytoin toxicity in TBI patients and to study the suitability of using ideal body weight (IBW to guide phenytoin dosing. Setting and Design: Neurotrauma unit of a tertiary care centre in India. Prospective data collection from an already established protocol of drug level monitoring. Materials and Methods: The study cohort included 100 consecutive adult patients with mild or moderate TBI who were administered phenytoin based on IBW. Trough serum phenytoin and albumin levels were measured on day 4 after administration of the loading dose and actual body weight obtained when it was possible. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square was used for comparing categorical variables, student′s t-test for continuous variables and multivariate regression analysis to obtain independent risk factors. Results: Clinical toxicity was observed in 15% of patients and biochemical toxicity in 36%, with a significant association between the two (P < 0.01. Using multivariate analysis, abdominal girth ≤75 cm (P = 0.07, neck circumference ≤34 cm (P = 0.025 and IV dose proportion ≥80% (P = 0.003 were independent risk factors for biochemical toxicity. The plot between actual weight and IBW showed that toxicity occurred when IBW was higher than actual weight. Conclusion: The prevalence of biochemical phenytoin toxicity was high, with independent risk factors being a higher proportion of IV administration and overestimation of weight by IBW. Clinical suspicion of phenytoin toxicity was a good predictor of biochemical toxicity.

  5. Safety and efficacy of semiextended field intensity-modulated radiation therapy and concurrent cisplatin in locally advanced cervical cancer patients: An observational study of 10-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jie; Lin, Jhen-Bin; Sun, Fang-Ju; Chen, Yu-Jen; Chang, Chih-Long; Jan, Ya-Ting; Wu, Meng-Hao

    2017-03-01

    Patients with locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC) are at risk of para-aortic lymph node (PALN) metastasis. Pelvic concurrent chemoradiotherapy, the current standard treatment for LACC, has a PALN failure rate of 9% according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Trial 90-01, suggesting that it may not completely eliminate all microscopic tumors in the PALNs. To minimize the toxicities associated with conventional prophylactic extended-field radiotherapy, our institute use prophylactic semiextended field radiotherapy that includes only the PALNs below the level of the renal vessels. Use of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is another means of reducing the incidence of toxicity. This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of prophylactic semiextended field IMRT (SEF-IMRT) and concurrent cisplatin chemotherapy in patients with LACC.We retrospectively assessed survival and toxicity in 76 patients with stage IB2-IVA cervical cancer and negative PALNs who received prophylactic SEF-IMRT and concurrent weekly cisplatin (40 mg/m) between 2004 and 2013. The region targeted by SEF-IMRT included the PALNs below the level of the renal vessels, and the prescribed dose was 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions. Brachytherapy was administered at a dose of 30 Gy in 6 fractions. Survival outcomes were calculated by using the Kaplan-Meier method, and acute and late toxicities were scored according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0.All patients completed the planned SEF-IMRT, as well as brachytherapy. Acute grade ≥3 gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and hematologic toxicities were observed in 2, 0, and 41 patients, respectively. The median follow-up time after SEF-IMRT was 55 (range, 11-124) months. Eight patients developed out-field distant recurrences without PALN failure, and 1 patient experienced out-field PALN failure with simultaneous distant metastasis. No patients had late genitourinary toxicities, and 3 patients had late grade 3

  6. Systematic Review of Radiation Therapy Toxicity Reporting in Randomized Controlled Trials of Rectal Cancer: A Comparison of Patient-Reported Outcomes and Clinician Toxicity Reporting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, Alexandra, E-mail: a.gilbert@leeds.ac.uk [Leeds Institute of Cancer & Pathology, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Ziegler, Lucy; Martland, Maisie [Leeds Institute of Cancer & Pathology, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Davidson, Susan [The Christie Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom); Efficace, Fabio [Italian Group for Adult Hematologic Diseases, Rome (Italy); Sebag-Montefiore, David; Velikova, Galina [Leeds Institute of Cancer & Pathology, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    The use of multimodal treatments for rectal cancer has improved cancer-related outcomes but makes monitoring toxicity challenging. Optimizing future radiation therapy regimens requires collection and publication of detailed toxicity data. This review evaluated the quality of toxicity information provided in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of radiation therapy in rectal cancer and focused on the difference between clinician-reported and patient-reported toxicity. Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched (January 1995-July 2013) for RCTs reporting late toxicity in patients treated with regimens including preoperative (chemo)radiation therapy. Data on toxicity measures and information on toxicity reported were extracted using Quantitative Analyses of Normal Tissue Effects in the Clinic recommendations. International Society for Quality of Life Research standards on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) were used to evaluate the quality of patient-reported toxicity. Twenty-one RCT publications met inclusion criteria out of 4144 articles screened. All PRO studies reported higher rates of toxicity symptoms than clinician-reported studies and reported on a wider range and milder symptoms. No clinician-reported study published data on sexual dysfunction. Of the clinician-reported studies, 55% grouped toxicity data related to an organ system together (eg “Bowel”), and 45% presented data only on more-severe (grade ≥3) toxicity. In comparison, all toxicity grades were reported in 79% of PRO publications, and all studies (100%) presented individual symptom toxicity data (eg bowel urgency). However, PRO reporting quality was variable. Only 43% of PRO studies presented baseline data, 28% did not use any psychometrically validated instruments, and only 29% of studies described statistical methods for managing missing data. Analysis of these trials highlights the lack of reporting standards for adverse events and reveals the differences between clinician and

  7. Chemoradiotherapy in squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal: a single institution experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Hwan; Chang, Jee Suk; Keum, Ki Chang; Ahn, Joong Bae; Lee, Chang Geol; Koom, Woong Sub [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    We reviewed the treatment outcomes and prognostic factors for patients with anal canal carcinoma who were treated with curative intent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) at Severance Hospital from 2005 to 2011. Data for 38 eligible patients treated during this period were reviewed. All patients were treated with curative intent using radiotherapy (RT) with (n = 35) or without concomitant chemotherapy (n = 3). Among 35 patients who received CRT, most of the chemotherapeutic regimens were either 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) plus mitomycin C (23 patients) or 5-FU plus cisplatin (10 patients). Recurrence-free survival (RFS), colostomy-free survival (CFS), overall survival (OS), and locoregional control (LRC) rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method and survival between subgroups were compared using the log-rank test. Cox's proportional hazard model was used for multivariate analysis. Over a median follow-up period of 44 months (range, 11 to 96 months), 3-year RF S, Cfs, OS, and LRC were 80%, 79%, 85%, and 92%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, tumor size >4 cm was an independent predicting factor for poorer RFS (hazard ratio [HR], 6.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.42 to 28.5; p = 0.006) and CFS (HR, 6.25; 95% CI, 1.39-28.0; p = 0.017), while the presence of external iliac lymph node metastasis was an independent prognosticator for poorer OS (HR, 9.32; 95% CI, 1.24 to 70.3; p 0.030). No treatment-related colostomies or deaths occurred during or after treatment. Curative intent CRT resulted in excellent outcomes that were comparable to outcomes in previous randomized trials. No severe treatment-related toxicities were observed.

  8. Exposure-Response Analyses of Ramucirumab from Two Randomized, Phase III Trials of Second-line Treatment for Advanced Gastric or Gastroesophageal Junction Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabernero, Josep; Ohtsu, Atsushi; Muro, Kei; Van Cutsem, Eric; Oh, Sang Cheul; Bodoky, György; Shimada, Yasuhiro; Hironaka, Shuichi; Ajani, Jaffer A; Tomasek, Jiri; Safran, Howard; Chandrawansa, Kumari; Hsu, Yanzhi; Heathman, Michael; Khan, Azhar; Ni, Lan; Melemed, Allen S; Gao, Ling; Ferry, David; Fuchs, Charles S

    2017-10-01

    Ramucirumab is an IgG1 monoclonal antibody specific for the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2. Ramucirumab, 8 mg/kg every 2 weeks, administered as monotherapy (REGARD) or in combination with paclitaxel (RAINBOW), was safe and effective in patients with previously treated advanced gastric or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) cancer. We evaluated exposure-efficacy and exposure-safety relationships of ramucirumab from two randomized, placebo-controlled phase III trials. Sparse pharmacokinetic samples were collected, and a population pharmacokinetic analysis was conducted to predict ramucirumab minimum trough concentration at steady state (Cmin,ss). Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the ramucirumab exposure (Cmin,ss)-efficacy relationship to overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate exposure-safety relationships. Analyses included 321 ramucirumab + paclitaxel and 335 placebo + paclitaxel patients from RAINBOW and 72 ramucirumab and 35 placebo patients from REGARD. Exposure-efficacy analysis showed ramucirumab Cmin,ss was a significant predictor of OS and PFS in both trials. Higher ramucirumab exposure was associated with longer OS and PFS. In RAINBOW, grade ≥3 hypertension, leukopenia, and neutropenia, but not febrile neutropenia, significantly correlated with Cmin,ss, with increased exposure leading to increased incidence. Exploratory exposure-response analyses suggest a positive relationship between efficacy and ramucirumab exposure with manageable toxicities at exposures generated from a dose of 8 mg/kg ramucirumab given every 2 weeks for patients with advanced gastric/GEJ cancer. These findings suggest an opportunity to further optimize benefit versus risk profiles of ramucirumab treatment in patients with gastric/GEJ cancer. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(10); 2215-22. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Intra-Arterial Delivery of Bevacizumab after Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption for the Treatment of Recurrent Glioblastoma: Progression-Free Survival and Overall Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Jan-Karl; Riina, Howard; Shin, Benjamin J.; Christos, Paul; Kesavabhotla, Kartik; Hofstetter, Christoph P.; Tsiouris, Apostolos John; Boockvar, John A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND This prospective, single-center study assesses progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) treated with a single dose of superselective intra-arterial cerebral infusion (SIACI) of bevacizumab (BV) after blood-brain barrier disruption (BBBD). Patients were initially enrolled in our phase I study, for which the primary end point was to determine the safety and maximum tolerated dose of SIACI BV. METHODS Fourteen patients with recurrent GBM were recruited between August 2009 and November 2010 after failing the standard treatment with radiation therapy and temozolomide. None of these patients were previously treated with BV. After receiving a single dose of IA BV (2 to 15 mg/kg), standard IV BV chemotherapy was continued in 12 of 14 patients (86%). The recently updated Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology Working Group (RANO) criteria were used to evaluate PFS, and the Kaplan-Meier estimator was used to evaluate PFS and OS. RESULTS Using RANO criteria, the median PFS in these patients was 10 months. The median OS estimation for this cohort was 8.8 months. The OS was less than the PFS because 4 patients died without progressing. Toxicity attributed to the IA BV treatment was present in 2 patients (wound dehiscence and rash). Another patient suffered from seizures 1 week after the SIACI procedure; however, this patient had epilepsy before and seizure type/frequency were similar before and after therapy. CONCLUSIONS Our study shows that for patients naïve to BV, a single dose of SIACI BV after BBBD followed by IV BV offers an encouraging outcome in terms of PFS when compared with previous trials using IV BV with and without concomitant irinotecan (CPT-11). Larger phase II trials are warranted to determine whether repeated IA BV alone is superior to IV BV for recurrent GBM. PMID:22405392

  10. Functional Promoter Variant rs2868371 of HSPB1 Is Associated With Risk of Radiation Pneumonitis After Chemoradiation for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

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    Pang, Qingsong [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology and Lung Cancer Center, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin (China); Wei, Qingyi [Department of Epidemiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (United States); Xu, Ting [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (United States); Yuan, Xianglin [Department of Oncology, Tongji Hospital, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Lopez Guerra, Jose Luis [Department of Medicine, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (Spain); Levy, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (United States); Liu, Zhensheng [Department of Epidemiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (United States); Gomez, Daniel R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (United States); Zhuang, Yan [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (United States); Wang, Li-E. [Department of Epidemiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (United States); Mohan, Radhe [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (United States); Komaki, Ritsuko [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (United States); Liao, Zhongxing, E-mail: zliao@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To date, no biomarkers have been found to predict, before treatment, which patients will develop radiation pneumonitis (RP), a potentially fatal toxicity, after chemoradiation for lung cancer. We investigated potential associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in HSPB1 and risk of RP after chemoradiation for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Subjects were patients with NSCLC treated with chemoradiation at 1 institution. The training data set comprised 146 patients treated from 1999 to July 2004; the validation data set was 125 patients treated from August 2004 to March 2010. We genotyped 2 functional SNPs of HSPB1 (rs2868370 and rs2868371) from all patients. We used Kaplan-Meier analysis to assess the risk of grade ≥2 or ≥3 RP in both data sets and a parametric log-logistic survival model to evaluate the association of HSPB1 genotypes with that risk. Results: Grade ≥3 RP was experienced by 13% of those with CG/GG and 29% of those with CC genotype of HSPB1 rs2868371 in the training data set (P=.028); corresponding rates in the validation data set were 2% CG/GG and 14% CC (P=.02). Univariate and multivariate analysis confirmed the association of CC of HSPB1 rs2868371 with higher risk of grade ≥3 RP than CG/GG after adjustment for sex, age, performance status, and lung mean dose. This association was validated both in the validation data set and with Harrell's C statistic. Conclusions: The CC genotype of HSPB1 rs2868371 was associated with severe RP after chemoradiation for NSCLC.

  11. Clinical outcome of patients who reduced sunitinib or pazopanib during first-line treatment for advanced kidney cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovelli, Roberto; Cossu Rocca, Maria; Galli, Luca; De Giorgi, Ugo; Sabbatini, Roberto; Santoni, Matteo; Mosca, Alessandra; Fornarini, Giuseppe; Massari, Francesco; Masini, Cristina; Bersanelli, Melissa; Biasco, Elisa; Lolli, Cristian; Guida, Annalisa; Berardi, Rossana; Terrone, Carlo; Pastorino, Alessandro; Ardizzoni, Andrea; Pinto, Carmine; Buti, Sebastiano; Nolè, Franco; Tortora, Giampaolo

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the different outcomes in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) who receive a reduced first-line dose of sunitinib or pazopanib compared to those who continue at the standard dose. All the patients treated in 11 oncological centers in Italy for mRCC who started first-line treatment with sunitinib or pazopanib at the standard dose. Descriptive statistical tests were used to highlight differences among groups. Survival was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and compared across the groups using log-rank tests, the Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for statistically significant variables was also done. A total of 591 patients were included in the study. Of these, 45.7% received a reduced dose of sunitinib or pazopanib after a median treatment time of 3.6 months at the standard dose. The median overall survival in the patients who continued to receive the standard dose was 24.0 months compared to 49.4 months for those who received a reduced dose (hazard ratio = 1.80; 95% CI: 1.42-2.29; P<0.001). Only 45% of the patients received second-line therapy: 42.5% had an mTOR and 54.1% a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Second-line overall survival was 19.8 and 11.8 months, respectively, in the patients who received, or did not, a reduced dose during first-line therapy (P = 0.007). Toxicity-related dose reduction is a common event in mRCC patients who have started first-line therapy with either sunitinib or pazopanib. This is positively related to the outcomes of both first- and second-line therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Safety of methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis: a retrospective cohort study in clinical practice

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    G. Mennillo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the treatment duration with MTX monotherapy or in association with DMARDs or anti TNFa inhibitors and the incidence and typology of adverse events (AE occurred in rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients. Methods. A retrospective large cohort study of RA outpatients, consecutively seen from January 2000 to June 2005 was performed. Study group were RA patients classified according to the 1984 ACR criteria for the classification of rheumatoid arthritis. The patients were divided in 3 groups according to the treatment regimen: MTX monotherapy, MTX in combination with DMARD or with anti TNFa agents. We analyzed 348 therapeutic cycles, 177 of whom using MTX monotherapy. Results. The 224 RA patients accumulated 800 person-years of follow up. Follow up for each of the groups was: MTX monotherapy 479.4 person-years, MTX in combination with DMARDs 244.5, or with anti TNFa inhibitors, 75.7 person- years. From the Kaplan-Meier analysis, the probability of patients remaining on treatment 5 years was 58.5 after starting MTX. The incidence of any AE was 8.87 per 100 person-years. From all, 69 (97.2% AE were no severe. Among those, more frequently were observed at gastrointestinal tract (31%, liver (19.7%, skin (15.5%. Incidence of severe AE (lung adenocarcinoma, 1 case; pancreatitis, 1 case was 0.25 per 100 person-years, occurring in patients taking MTX monotherapy or MTX in combination with DMARDs, respectively. Conclusions. These data confirm that methotrexate is well tolerated in clinical practice in the medium-long term. Nevertheless, the occurrence of severe AE require an accurate vigilance for methotrexate toxicity.

  13. Selective internal radiation therapy with SIR-spheres for the treatment of unresectable colorectal hepatic metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianni, Roberto; Urigo, Carlo; Notarianni, Ermanno; Saltarelli, Adelchi; Salvatori, Rita; Pasqualini, Valerio; Dornbusch, Tracie; Cortesi, Enrico

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of colorectal cancer (CRC) liver metastasis radioembolization with yttrium-90 (Y90), assessing toxicity and survival rates in patients with no response to chemotherapy through our 3-year experience. From February 2005 to January 2008, we treated 41 patients affected by CRC from a cohort of selective internal radiation therapy patients treated at our institution. All patients examined showed disease progression and arrived for our observation with an abdominal CT, a body PET, and a hepatic angiography followed by gastroduodenal artery coiling previously performed by us. We excluded patients with a bilirubin level>1.8 mg/dl and pulmonary shunt>20% but not patients with minor extrahepatic metastases. On treatment day, under fluoroscopic guidance, we implanted a dose of Y90 microspheres calculated on the basis of liver tumoral involvement and the body surface area formula. All patients were discharged the day after treatment. We obtained, according to Response Evaluation Criteria on Solid Tumors, a complete response in 2 patients, a partial response in 17 patients, stable disease in 14 patients, and progressive disease in 8 patients. In all cases, we obtained a carcinoembryonic antigen level decrease, especially in the week 8 evaluation. Technical success rate was 98% and technical effectiveness estimated at 3 months after treatment was 80.5%. Side effects graded by Common Terminology Criteria on Adverse Events were represented by one grade 4 hepatic failure, two grade 2 gastritis, and one grade 2 cholecystitis. The median survival and the progression-free survival calculated by Kaplan-Meier analysis were 354 and 279 days, respectively. In conclusion, according to our 3-year experience, Y90 SIR-Spheres radioembolization is a feasible and safe method to treat CRC liver metastases, with an acceptable level of complications and a good response rate.

  14. Management of Pediatric Myxopapillary Ependymoma: The Role of Adjuvant Radiation

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    Agbahiwe, Harold C.; Wharam, Moody [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Batra, Sachin [Department of Neurosurgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Cohen, Kenneth [Division of Pediatric Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Terezakis, Stephanie A., E-mail: sterezak@jhmi.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Introduction: Myxopapillary ependymoma (MPE) is a rare tumor in children. The primary treatment is gross total resection (GTR), with no clearly defined role for adjuvant radiation therapy (RT). Published reports, however, suggest that children with MPE present with a more aggressive disease course. The goal of this study was to assess the role of adjuvant RT in pediatric patients with MPE. Methods: Sixteen patients with MPE seen at Johns Hopkins Hospital (JHH) between November 1984 and December 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Fifteen of the patients were evaluable with a mean age of 16.8 years (range, 12-21 years). Kaplan-Meier curves and descriptive statistics were used for analysis. Results: All patients received surgery as the initial treatment modality. Surgery consisted of either a GTR or a subtotal resection (STR). The median dose of adjuvant RT was 50.4 Gy (range, 45-54 Gy). All patients receiving RT were treated at the involved site. After a median follow-up of 7.2 years (range, 0.75-26.4 years), all patients were alive with stable disease. Local control at 5 and 10 years was 62.5% and 30%, respectively, for surgery alone versus 1