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Sample records for kaons neutral short-lived

  1. $\\tau$ decays with neutral kaons

    Abbiendi, G.; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Anderson, K.J.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Ashby, S.F.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Bailey, I.; Ball, A.H.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, Roger J.; Batley, J.R.; Baumann, S.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Bentvelsen, S.; Bethke, S.; Betts, S.; Biebel, O.; Biguzzi, A.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Bock, P.; Bohme, J.; Boeriu, O.; Bonacorsi, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Chrisman, D.; Ciocca, C.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Clay, E.; Cohen, I.; Conboy, J.E.; Cooke, O.C.; Couchman, J.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Coxe, R.L.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Dallison, S.; Davis, R.; de Roeck, A.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dixit, M.S.; Donkers, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Estabrooks, P.G.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fanti, M.; Faust, A.A.; Feld, L.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fierro, M.; Fleck, I.; Frey, A.; Furtjes, A.; Futyan, D.I.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, J.W.; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Gingrich, D.M.; Glenzinski, D.; Goldberg, J.; Gorn, W.; Grandi, C.; Graham, K.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Hajdu, C.; Hanson, G.G.; Hansroul, M.; Hapke, M.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Hargrove, C.K.; Harin-Dirac, M.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hildreth, M.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hobson, P.R.; Hocker, James Andrew; Hoffman, Kara Dion; Homer, R.J.; Honma, A.K.; Horvath, D.; Hossain, K.R.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Imrie, D.C.; Ishii, K.; Jacob, F.R.; Jawahery, A.; Jeremie, H.; Jimack, M.; Jones, C.R.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanaya, N.; Kanzaki, J.; Karapetian, G.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kayal, P.I.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kim, D.H.; Klier, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Kokott, T.P.; Kolrep, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kuhl, T.; Kupper, M.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Lauber, J.; Lawson, I.; Layter, J.G.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Liebisch, R.; Lillich, J.; List, B.; Littlewood, C.; Lloyd, A.W.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Long, G.D.; Losty, M.J.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, J.; Macchiolo, A.; Macpherson, A.; Mader, W.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellini, S.; Marchant, T.E.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Martinez, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.John; McKenna, J.; Mckigney, E.A.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Mendez-Lorenzo, P.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, I.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oakham, F.G.; Odorici, F.; Ogren, H.O.; Okpara, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Patt, J.; Perez-Ochoa, R.; Petzold, S.; Pfeifenschneider, P.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poli, B.; Polok, J.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rembser, C.; Rick, H.; Robins, S.A.; Rodning, N.; Roney, J.M.; Rosati, S.; Roscoe, K.; Rossi, A.M.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Rust, D.R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sang, W.M.; Sarkisian, E.K.G.; Sbarra, C.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schmitt, S.; Schoning, A.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.P.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Snow, G.A.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spagnolo, S.; Sproston, M.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Stoll, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Surrow, B.; Talbot, S.D.; Taras, P.; Tarem, S.; Teuscher, R.; Thiergen, M.; Thomas, J.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Towers, S.; Trefzger, T.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Van Kooten, Rick J.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Wackerle, F.; Waller, D.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wetterling, D.; White, J.S.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.

    2000-01-01

    The branching ratio of the tau lepton to a neutral K meson is measured from a sample of approximately 200,000 tau decays recorded by the OPAL detector at centre-of-mass energies near the Z0 resonance. The measurement is based on two samples which identify one-prong tau decays with KL and KS mesons. The combined branching ratios are measured to be B(tau- -->pi- K0bar nutau) = (9.33+-0.68+-0.49)x10^-3 B(tau- -->pi- K0bar [>=1pi0] nutau) = (3.24+-0.74+-0.66)x10^-3 B(tau- -->K- K0bar [>=0pi0] nutau) = (3.30+-0.55+-0.39)x10^-3 where the first error is statistical and the second systematic.

  2. Photoproduction of Neutral Kaons on Deuterons

    Beckford, Brian

    2006-11-01

    Experimentation to greater understand the strangeness production mechanism can be performed by observing the electromagnetic interaction that leads to Kaon photoproduction. The n (γ, K^0) λ reaction may assist in answering questions about the strangeness photo-production process. An experiment into the elementary Kaon photoproduction process was investigated in an experiment conducted at the Laboratory of Nuclear Science of Tohoku University (LNS) using the Neutral Kaon Spectrometer. (NKS). The experiment was conducted by the d (γ, K^0) reaction. K^0 will be measured in the K^0->π^+π^- decay chain by the NKS. The NKS implements many detectors working in coincidence: These ranging from the Tagged Photon Beam generated by the 1.2 GeV Electron beam via bremsstrahlung, an Inner Plastic Scintillator Hodoscope (IH), a Straw Drift Chamber (SDC), a Cylindrical Drift Chamber (CDC), and an Outer Plastic Scintillator Hodoscope. Due to the background produced through the γ-> e+e- process, electron veto counters (EV) were placed in the middle of the OH to reject charged particles in the horizontal plane of the beam line. Preliminary analysis of the data indicates the need for pulse height correction. This was achieved by analysis of the Inner and Outer hodoscopes, and determining the energy deposit in the scintillators.

  3. Direct СP violation in neutral kaon decays

    The final result of the NA48 experiment is presented and performed at the CERN SPS neutral kaon beams, on the direct CP violation parameter Re ( ′ / ) , as measured from the decay rates of neutral kaons into two pions. The data collected in the years 1997-2001 yield the evidence for the direct CP violation with Re ...

  4. Direct evidence for T violation in the neutral kaon system

    Adler, R; Angelopoulos, Angelos; Aspostolakis, A; Aslanides, Elie; Backenstoss, Gerhard; Bee, C P; Behnke, O; Benelli, A; Bertin, V; Blanc, F; Bloch, P; Bula, C; Carlson, P J; Carroll, M; Carvalho, J; Cawley, E; Charalambous, S; Chardalas, M; Chardin, G; Chertok, M B; Cody, A; Danielsson, M; Dedoussis, S; Dejardin, M; Derré, J; Duclos, J; Ealet, A; Eckart, B; Eleftheriadis, C; Evangelou, I; Faravel, L; Fassnacht, P; Faure, J L; Felder, C; Ferreira-Marques, R; Fetscher, W; Fidecaro, Maria; Filipcic, A; Francis, D; Fry, J; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gamet, R; Garreta, D; Gerber, H J; Go, A; Guyot, C; Haselden, A; Hayman, P J; Henry-Coüannier, F; Hollander, R W; Hubert, E; Jon-And, K; Kettle, P R; Kochowski, Claude; Kokkas, P; Kreuger, R; Le Gac, R; Leimgruber, F; Liolios, A; Machado, E; Mandic, I; Manthos, N; Marel, Gérard; Mikuz, M; Miller, J; Montanet, François; Nakada, Tatsuya; Onofre, A; Pagels, B; Papadopoulos, I M; Pavlopoulos, P; Pinto da Cunha, J; Policarpo, Armando; Polivka, G; Rickenbach, R; Roberts, B L; Rozaki, E; Ruf, T; Sakelliou, L; Sanders, P; Santoni, C; Sarigiannis, K; Schäfer, M; Schaller, L A; Schopper, A; Schune, P; Soares, A; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thibault, C; Touchard, F; Touramanis, C; Triantis, F A; Van Beveren, E; van Eijk, C W E; Varner, G S; Vlachos, S; Weber, P; Wigger, O; Wolter, M; Yéche, C; Zavrtanik, D; Zimmerman, D

    1995-01-01

    We present the first direct observation of T violation in the neutral kaon system, showing a positive signal with a significance of more than two standard deviations. The result does not rely on the validity of the CPT theorem.

  5. Direct evidence for T violation in the neutral kaon system

    Dejardin, M.; Angelopoulos, A.; Apostolakis, A.; Aslanides, E.; Bertin, V.; Behnke, O.; Benelli, A.

    1995-01-01

    The first direct observation of T violation in the neutral kaon system, is presented showing a positive signal with a significance of more than two standard deviations. The results does not rely on the validity of the CPT theorem. (author)

  6. Results from neutral kaon regeneration at high energies

    Hladky, J.

    1976-01-01

    Experimental neutral kaon regeneration results at Serpukhov energies up to 50 GeV are presented, including the coherent regeneration on hydrogen, deuterium and carbon regenerators and elastic regeneration on deuterium and carbon regenerators. (author)

  7. Testing general relativity with the neutral kaon system

    Chardin, G.

    1992-01-01

    The arguments favouring gravitation as the 'Master Arrow of Time' are briefly reviewed and the possibility that CP violation observed in the neutral kaon system may be explained by a violation of the Equivalence Principle is discussed. It was attempted to demonstrate that the arguments against antigravity should be reconsidered and that the neutral kaon system, the most sensitive interferometric system at the disposal, is ideal to test the existence of antigravity. (R.P.) 33 refs

  8. Violation of Bell's inequality in neutral kaons system

    We show by general considerations that it is not possible to test violation of the existing versions of Bell's inequality in entangled neutral kaons system using experimentally accessible thin regenerators. We point out the loophole in the recent argument (A Bramon and M Nowakowski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1 (1999)) that ...

  9. Violation of Bell's inequality in neutral kaons system

    Abstract. We show by general considerations that it is not possible to test violation of the existing versions of Bell's inequality in entangled neutral kaons system using experimentally accessible thin regenerators. We point out the loophole in the recent argument (A Bramon and M Nowakowski,. Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1 (1999)) ...

  10. Non-locality versus entanglement in the neutral kaon system

    Ableitinger, A.; Bertlmann, R.A.; Durstberger, K.; Hiesmayr, B.C.; Krammer, P.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Particle physics has become an interesting testing ground for fundamental questions of quantum mechanics (QM). The entangled massive meson-antimeson systems are specially suitable as they offer a unique laboratory to test various aspects of particle physics (CP violation, CPT violation, . . . ) as well to test foundations of QM (local realistic theories versus QM, Bell inequalities, decoherence effects, quantum marking and erasure concepts, . . . ). For the neutral kaon system we show that nonlocality detected by the violation of a Bell inequality and entanglement are indeed different concepts. (author)

  11. Bose-Einstein correlations of charged and neutral kaons in deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S.

    2007-05-01

    Bose-Einstein correlations of charged and neutral kaons have been measured in e ± p deep inelastic scattering with an integrated luminosity of 121 pb -1 using the ZEUS detector at HERA. The two-particle correlation function was studied as a function of the four-momentum difference of the kaon pairs, Q 12 =√(-(p 1 -p 2 ) 2 ), assuming a Gaussian shape for the particle source. The values of the radius of the production volume, r, and of the correlation strength, λ, were obtained for both neutral and charged kaons. The radii for charged and neutral kaons are similar and are consistent with those obtained at LEP. (orig.)

  12. Status of CP and CPT violation in the neutral kaon system

    Ruf, T

    1996-01-01

    A phenomenological description of the neutral-kaon system is presented without assuming \\CPT\\ conservation. The experimental methods and the underlying assumptions used to determine parameters of the neutral-kaon system (\\CP-violating and non \\CP-violating ones) are discussed. The experimental results are combined to test \\CPT\\ conservation with as little prejudice as possible.

  13. Photoproduction of neutral kaons in the threshold region

    Takahashi, Toshiyuki

    2004-01-01

    It is expected that γ + n → K 0 + Λ reaction provides important information to the study of strangeness creation mechanism. Neutral Kaon Spectrometer (NKS) has been constructed at Laboratory of Nuclear Science, Tohoku University, which was designed to measure pions with magnetic spectrometer after the K s 0 → π + π - decay to identify K 0 by reconstructing the reaction. Principle of the design of the spectrometer and experimental set up are described. Up to the present quasi-free reaction from carbon target has been successfully observed in the threshold energy region. K s 0 was clearly separated in the preliminary data analysis indicating that performance of NKS is high enough to the objective. Information of γ + n → K 0 + Λ reaction is expected to be obtained by further analysis. (S. Funahashi)

  14. The Measurement of CP Asymmetries in the Three-Body Charmless Decay Neutral B Meson Decays to Neutral Kaon(S) Neutral Kaon(S) Neutral Kaon(S)

    Hadavand, Haleh K.; /UC, San Diego

    2006-03-28

    In this dissertation, a measurement of CP-violating effects in decays of neutral B mesons is presented. The data sample for this measurement consists of about 272 million {Upsilon}(4S) {yields} B{bar B} decays collected between 1999 and 2004 with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider, located at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. One neutral B meson is fully reconstructed in the CP eigenstate B{sup 0} {yields} K{sub S}{sup 0} K{sub S}{sup 0} K{sub S}{sup 0}. The other B meson is determined to be either a B{sup 0} or a {bar B}{sup 0}, at the time of its decay, from the properties of its decay products. The proper time {Delta}t elapsed between the decay of the two mesons is determined by reconstructing their decay vertices, and by measuring the distance between them. A novel technique for determining the B vertex of the decay to the CP eigenstate B{sup 0} {yields} K{sub S}{sup 0} K{sub S}{sup 0} K{sub S}{sup 0} has been applied since the tracks in the final state do not originate from the B decay vertex. The time-dependent CP asymmetry amplitudes are determined by the distributions of {Delta}t in events with a reconstructed B meson in the CP eigenstate. The detector resolution and the b flavor tagging parameters are constrained by the {Delta}t distributions of events with a fully reconstructed flavor eigenstate. Because of the special topology of this decay, the detector resolution on {Delta}t must be checked for consistency with decays with tracks which originate from the B decay. From a maximum likelihood fit to the {Delta}t distributions of all selected events, the value of the CP violating asymmetries are measured to be S{sub 3K{sub S}{sup 0}} = -0.71{sub -0.32}{sup +0.38} {+-} 0.04 and C{sub 3K{sub S}{sup 0}} = -0.34{sub -0.25}{sup +0.28} {+-} 0.05. Fixing C = 0 we measure the time-dependent CP asymmetry amplitude sin 2{beta} = -S{sub 3K{sub S}{sup 0}} = 0.79{sub -0.36}{sup +0.39} {+-} 0.04. The value of sin 2{beta} is

  15. First direct observation of time-reversal non-invariance in the neutral-kaon system

    Angelopoulos, Angelos; Aslanides, Elie; Backenstoss, Gerhard; Bargassa, P; Behnke, O; Benelli, A; Bertin, V; Blanc, F; Bloch, P; Carlson, P J; Carroll, M; Cawley, E; Chertok, M B; Danielsson, M; Dejardin, M; Derré, J; Ealet, A; Eleftheriadis, C; Faravel, L; Fetscher, W; Fidecaro, Maria; Filipcic, A; Francis, D; Fry, J; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gamet, R; Gerber, H J; Go, A; Haselden, A; Hayman, P J; Henry-Coüannier, F; Hollander, R W; Jon-And, K; Kettle, P R; Kokkas, P; Kreuger, R; Le Gac, R; Leimgruber, F; Mandic, I; Manthos, N; Marel, Gérard; Mikuz, M; Miller, J; Montanet, François; Müller, A; Nakada, Tatsuya; Pagels, B; Papadopoulos, I M; Pavlopoulos, P; Polivka, G; Rickenbach, R; Roberts, B L; Ruf, T; Santoni, C; Schäfer, M; Schaller, L A; Schietinger, T; Schopper, A; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thibault, C; Touchard, F; Touramanis, C; van Eijk, C W E; Vlachos, S; Weber, P; Wigger, O; Wolter, M; Zavrtanik, D; Zimmerman, D

    1998-01-01

    We report on the first observation of time-reversal symmetry violation through a comparison of the probabilities of $\\bar{K}^0$ transforming into $K^0$ and $K^0$ into $\\bar{K}^0$ as a function of the neutral-kaon eigentime $t$. The comparison is based on the analysis of the neutral-kaon semileptonic decays recorded in the CPLEAR experiment. There, the strangeness of the neutral kaon at time $t=0$ was tagged by the kaon charge in the reaction $p\\bar{p} \\rightarrow K^{\\pm} \\pi^{\\mp} K^0(\\bar{K}^0)$ at rest, whereas the strangeness of the kaon at the decay time $t=\\tau$ was tagged by the lepton charge in the final state. An average decay-rate asymmetry \\begin{equation*} \\langle^{R(\\bar{K}^0_{t=0} \\to e^+\\pi^-\

  16. Equivalence between classical and quantum dynamics. Neutral kaons and electric circuits

    Caruso, M.; Fanchiotti, H.; Canal, C.A. Garcia

    2011-01-01

    An equivalence between the Schroedinger dynamics of a quantum system with a finite number of basis states and a classical dynamics is presented. The equivalence is an isomorphism that connects in univocal way both dynamical systems. We treat the particular case of neutral kaons and found a class of electric networks uniquely related to the kaon system finding the complete map between the matrix elements of the effective Hamiltonian of kaons and those elements of the classical dynamics of the networks. As a consequence, the relevant ε parameter that measures CP violation in the kaon system is completely determined in terms of network parameters. - Highlights: → We provide a formal equivalence between classical and quantum dynamics. → We make use of the decomplexification concept. → Neutral kaon systems can be represented by electric circuits. → CP symmetry violation can be taken into account by non-reciprocity. → Non-reciprocity is represented by gyrators.

  17. Quantum field-theoretical description of neutrino and neutral kaon oscillations

    Volobuev, Igor P.

    2018-05-01

    It is shown that the neutrino and neutral kaon oscillation processes can be consistently described in quantum field theory using only plane waves of the mass eigenstates of neutrinos and neutral kaons. To this end, the standard perturbative S-matrix formalism is modified so that it can be used for calculating the amplitudes of the processes passing at finite distances and finite time intervals. The distance-dependent and time-dependent parts of the amplitudes of the neutrino and neutral kaon oscillation processes are calculated and the results turn out to be in accordance with those of the standard quantum mechanical description of these processes based on the notion of neutrino flavor states and neutral kaon states with definite strangeness. However, the physical picture of the phenomena changes radically: now, there are no oscillations of flavor or definite strangeness states, but, instead of it, there is interference of amplitudes due to different virtual mass eigenstates.

  18. Bose-Einstein correlations of charged and neutral kaons in deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (US)] (and others)

    2007-05-15

    Bose-Einstein correlations of charged and neutral kaons have been measured in e{sup {+-}}p deep inelastic scattering with an integrated luminosity of 121 pb{sup -1} using the ZEUS detector at HERA. The two-particle correlation function was studied as a function of the four-momentum difference of the kaon pairs, Q{sub 12}={radical}(-(p{sub 1}-p{sub 2}){sup 2}), assuming a Gaussian shape for the particle source. The values of the radius of the production volume, r, and of the correlation strength, {lambda}, were obtained for both neutral and charged kaons. The radii for charged and neutral kaons are similar and are consistent with those obtained at LEP. (orig.)

  19. Decay of B mesons into charged and neutral kaons

    Brody, A.; Chen, A.; Goldberg, M.; Horwitz, N.; Kandaswamy, J.; Kooy, H.; Moneti, G.C.; Pistilli, P.; Alam, M.S.; Csorna, S.E.; Fridman, A.; Hicks, R.G.; Panvini, R.S.; Andrews, D.; Avery, P.; Berkelman, K.; Cabenda, R.; Cassel, D.G.; DeWire, J.W.; Ehrlich, R.; Ferguson, T.; Gilchriese, M.G.D.; Gittelman, B.; Hartill, D.L.; Herrup, D.; Herzlinger, M.; Kreinick, D.L.; Mistry, N.B.; Morrow, F.; Nordberg, E.; Perchonok, R.; Plunkett, R.; Shinsky, K.A.; Siemann, R.H.; Silverman, A.; Stein, P.C.; Stone, S.; Talman, R.; Weber, D.; Wilcke, R.; Sadoff, A.J.; Bebek, C.; Haggerty, J.; Hempstead, M.; Izen, J.M.; Longuemare, C.; Loomis, W.A.; MacKay, W.W.; Pipkin, F.M.; Rohlf, J.; Tanenbaum, W.; Wilson, R.; Chadwick, K.; Chauveau, J.; Ganci, P.; Gentile, T.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Melissinos, A.C.; Olsen, S.L.; Poling, R.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rucinski, G.; Thorndike, E.H.; Green, J.; Mueller, J.J.; Sannes, F.; Skubic, P.; Snyder, A.; Stone, R.

    1982-01-01

    Data on inclusive kaon production in e + e - annihilations at energies in the vicinity of the UPSILON(4S) resonance are presented. A clear excess of kaons is observed on the UPSILON(4S) compared to the continuum. Under the assumption that the UPSILON(4S) decays into BB-bar, a total of 3.38 +- 0.34 +- 0.68 kaons per UPSILON(4S) decay is found. In the context of the standard B-decay model this leads to a value for (b→c)/(b→all) of 1.09 +- 0.33 +- 0.13

  20. NA48 results on neutral kaon and hyperon rare decays

    The NA48 Collaboration has performed an extensive program of kaon and hyperon rare decays using the data collected during the period 1997-2001. This program includes new tests of chiral perturbation theory, new measurements of the mass and K S lifetime and the possibility to measure the Cabibbo angle using Ξ ...

  1. Measurements of Discrete Symmetries in the Neutral Kaon System with the CPLEAR (PS195) Experiment

    Ruf, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The antiproton storage ring LEAR offered unique opportunities to study the symmetries which exist between matter and antimatter. At variance with other approaches at this facility, CPLEAR was an experiment devoted to the study of T, CPT and CP symmetries in the neutral kaon system. It measured with high precision the time evolution of initially strangeness-tagged $K^0$ and $\\bar{K}^0$ states to determine the size of violations with respect to these symmetries in the context of a systematic study. In parallel, limits concerning quantum-mechanical predictions (EPR paradox, coherence of the wave function) or the equivalence principle of general relativity have been obtained. This article will first discuss briefly the unique low energy antiproton storage ring LEAR followed by a description of the CPLEAR experiment, including the basic formalism necessary to understand the time evolution of a neutral kaon state and the main results related to measurements of discrete symmetries in the neutral kaon system. An exce...

  2. Contribution of CPLEAR to the physics of the neutral-kaon system

    Angelopoulos, A.; Apostolakis, A.; Aslanides, E.; Backenstoss, G.; Bargassa, P.; Behnke, O.; Benelli, A.; Bertin, V.; Blanc, F.; Bloch, P.; Carlson, P.; Carroll, M.; Cawley, E.; Chertok, M.B.; Danielsson, M.; Dejardin, M.; Derre, J.; Ealet, A.; Eleftheriadis, C.A.; Faravel, L.; Fetscher, W.; Fidecaro, M.; Filipcic, A.; Francis, D.; Fry, J.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamet, R.; Gerber, H.-J.; Go, A.; Haselden, A.; Hayman, P.J.; Henry-Couannier, F.; Hollander, R.W.; Jon-And, K.; Kettle, P.-R.; Kokkas, P.; Kreuger, R.; Le Gac, R.; Leimgruber, F.; Mandic, I.; Manthos, N.; Marel, G.; Mikuz, M.; Miller, J.; Montanet, F.; Muller, A.; Nakada, T.; Pagels, B.; Papadopoulos, I.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Polivka, G.; Rickenbach, R.; Roberts, B.L.; Ruf, T.; Schaefer, M.; Schaller, L.A.; Schietinger, T.; Schopper, A.; Schune, P.; Tauscher, L.; Thibault, C.; Touchard, F.; Touramanis, C.; Van Eijk, C.W.E.; Vlachos, S.; Weber, P.; Wigger, O.; Wolter, M.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zimmerman, D.

    1999-01-01

    We report the results of the CPLEAR experiment on CP-, T- and CPT-symmetries in the neutral kaon system. CP-violation parameters are given for different decay channels. For the first time T-violation is measured by a direct method using semileptonic decays. The CPT symmetry in the kaons decays is tested through the parameters Im(δ), from the Bell-Steinberger relation, with a precision of 10 -5 and Re(δ) with a precision of a few 10 -4 (two order of magnitude better than the previous measurement). These two measurements allow us to bound the difference in mass and width of K 0 and K-bar 0 to be equal within 10 -18 GeV. In the limit of CPT invariance in the neutral kaon decays, the K 0 and K-bar 0 masses are equal within 10 -19 GeV

  3. Associative Production of $\\phi$ Mesons and Neutral Kaons in the EXCHARM Experiment

    Aleev, A N; Balandin, V P; Balev, S; Bulekov, O I; Emelianov, D D; Eremin, S V; Geshkov, I M; Goudzovski, E A; Ivanchenko, I M; Kapishin, M N; Kekelidze, V D; Kosarev, I G; Kozhenkova, Z I; Kuzmin, N A; Kvatadze, R A; Ljubimov, A L; Loktionov, A A; Madigozhin, D T; Mazny, V G; Mestvirishvili, A S; Mitsyn, V V; Molokanova, N A; Morozov, A N; Pismenyj, R E; Polansky, A; Polenkevich, I A; Ponosov, A K; Potrebenikov, Yu K; Sergeev, F M; Shkarovsky, S N; Slepets, L A; Spaskov, V N; Zinchenko, A I

    2005-01-01

    Associative $\\phi$-meson and neutral kaon production has been investigated in neutron--carbon interactions with the EXCHARM spectrometer at the Serpukhov accelerator. The cross section of inclusive associative $\\phi$ and $K^0/\\bar{K^0}$ production has been defined. The fraction of processes, permitted by Okubo--Zweig--Iizuka rule, was estimated in reactions with $\\phi$-meson production.

  4. Photoproduction of neutral kaons on a liquid deuterium target in the threshold region

    Tsukada, K.; Takahashi, T.; Watanabe, T.; Fujii, Y.; Futatsukawa ., K.; Hashimoto, O.; Hirose, K.; Ito, K.; Kameoka, S.; Kanda, H.; Maeda, K.; Matsumura, A.; Miura, Y.; Myiase, H.; Nakamura, S. N.; Nomura, H.; Nonaka, K.; Osaka, T.; Okayasu, Y.; Tamura, H.; Tsubota, H.; Ukai, M.; Yamauchi, H.; Wakamatsu, M.; Ishikawa, T.; Kinoshita, T.; Miyahara, F.; Nakabayashi, T.; Shimizu, H.; Tamae, T.; Yamazaki, H.; Sasaki, A.; Konno, O.; Bydžovský, Petr; Sotona, Miloslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 78, - (2008), 014001/1-014000/10 ISSN 0556-2813 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/2142 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : neutral kaons * liguit deuterium * treshold region Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 3.124, year: 2008

  5. Photo-production of neutral kaons on C-12 in the threshold region

    Watanabe, T.; Bydžovský, Petr; Dobashi, K.; Endo, S.; Fujii, Y.; Hashimoto, O.; Ishikawa, T.; Itoh, K.; Kanda, H.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 651, č. 4 (2007), s. 269-274 ISSN 0370-2693 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/2142 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : photo-production * neutral kaon * quasi-free reaction Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 4.189, year: 2007

  6. CPLEAR experiment at CERN: Measurement of CP, T and CPT in the neutral kaon system

    Adler, R.; Backenstoss, G.; Eckart, B.; Felder, C.; Leimgruber, F.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Polivka, G.; Rickenbach, R.; Santoni, C.; Schietinger, T.; Tauscher, L.; Vlachos, S.; Angelopoulos, A.; Apostolakis, A.; Sakeliou, L.; Aslanides, E.; Bertin, V.; Ealet, A.; Fassnacht, P.; Henry-Couannier, F.

    1997-01-01

    Using strangeness tagging at production time, CPLEAR measures K 0 /K-bar 0 time-dependent asymmetries in pionic and semileptonic kaon decays. From those, a set of parameters describing CP, T and CPT violation in neutral kaon mixing and decay can be determined. Strangeness tagging at decay time with the lepton charge allows for time-reversal violation to be directly observed with a significance of more than three standard deviations. The precision on each of the CPT violation parameters is discussed. The mass equality of the K 0 and K-bar 0 is tested within 4.x10 -19 GeV

  7. CP, T, and CPT violation in the neutral kaon system at the CPLEAR experiment

    Adler, R; Angelopoulos, Angelos; Aslanides, Elie; Backenstoss, Gerhard; Bee, C P; Behnke, O; Bennet, J; Bertin, V; Blanc, F; Bloch, P; Bula, C; Carlson, P J; Carroll, M; Carvalho, J; Cawley, E; Charalambous, S; Chardalas, M; Chardin, G; Chertok, M B; Cody, A; Danielsson, M; Dedoussis, S; Dejardin, M; Derré, J; Dodgson, M; Duclos, J; Ealet, A; Eckart, B; Eleftheriadis, C; Evangelou, I; Faravel, L; Fassnacht, P; Faure, J L; Felder, C; Ferreira-Marques, R; Fetscher, W; Fidecaro, Maria; Filipcic, A; Francis, D; Fry, J; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gamet, R; Garreta, D; Geralis, T; Gerber, H J; Gumplinger, P; Go, A; Guyot, C; Haselden, A; Hayman, P J; Henry-Coüannier, F; Hollander, R W; Hubert, E; Jansson, K; Johner, H U; Jon-And, K; Kettle, P R; Kochowski, Claude; Kokkas, P; Kreuger, R; Lawry, T; Le Gac, R; Leimgruber, F; Liolios, A; Machado, E; Maley, P; Mandic, I; Manthos, N; Marel, Gérard; Mikuz, M; Miller, J; Montanet, François; Nakada, Tatsuya; Onofre, A; Pagels, B; Pavlopoulos, P; Pelucchi, F; Pinto da Cunha, J; Policarpo, Armando; Polivka, G; Postma, H; Rickenbach, R; Roberts, B L; Rozaki, E; Ruf, T; Sacks, L; Sakelliou, L; Sanders, P; Santoni, C; Sarigiannis, K; Schäfer, M; Schaller, L A; Schopper, A; Schune, P; Soares, A; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thibault, C; Touchard, F; Touramanis, C; Triantis, F A; Tröster, D A; Van Beveren, E; van Eijk, C W E; Vlachos, S; Weber, P; Wigger, O; Witzig, C; Wolter, M; Yéche, C; Zavrtanik, D; Zimmerman, D

    1996-01-01

    The essential characteristics of the neutral kaon system and the way CP, T, and possible CPT violations may be observed in it are recalled. The principle of the CPLEAH experiment is presented CPLEAH experimental results in the semi-leptonic decay channels are given and discussed. It is shown, in particular, that direct. time reversal invariance violation will be experimentally observed for the first time.

  8. Measurements of Discrete Symmetries in the Neutral Kaon System with the CPLEAR (PS195) Experiment

    Ruf, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    The antiproton storage ring LEAR offered unique opportunities to study the symmetries which exist between matter and antimatter. At variance with other approaches at this facility, CPLEAR was an experiment devoted to the study of T, \\{CPT} and \\{CP} symmetries in the neutral kaon system. It measured with high precision the time evolution of initially strangeness-tagged K0 and overline K ^0 states to determine the size of violations with respect to these symmetries in the context of a systematic study. In parallel, limits concerning quantum-mechanical predictions (EPR paradox, coherence of the wave function) or the equivalence principle of general relativity have been obtained. This article will first discuss briefly the unique low energy antiproton storage ring LEAR followed by a description of the CPLEAR experiment, including the basic formalism necessary to understand the time evolution of a neutral kaon state and the main results related to measurements of discrete symmetries in the neutral kaon system. An excellent and exhaustive review of the CPLEAR experiment and all its measurements is given in Ref. 1.

  9. An experimental test of CPT conservation in decays of neutral kaons

    Grazer, G.L.

    1988-01-01

    We have measured the phase difference Δphi between the complex parameters eta 00 and eta/sub +-/, which describe CP violation in the decays of neutral kaons to neutral and charged pion final states. Three phases are observable in the interference effects which come about from a superposition of short- and long-lived kaons. A non-zero value of Δphi, suggested by a 1979 measurement made by a group at New York University, would imply CPT violation. In a recent experiment at Fermilab, we created K/sub L/-K/sub S/ interference by sending a pure K/sub L/ beam though a regenerator, producing a beam which contained a superposition of both K/sub S/ and K/sub L/. We collected over 14,000 decays of these kaons to π 0 π 0 and about 110,000 to π + π - . The shapes of the proper time spectra for these decays depend on the phases of eta 00 for decays to neutral pions and eta/sub +-/ for decays to charged pions. By comparing these spectra with corresponding distributions obtained from a Monte Carlo simulation, we find that the phase difference phi 00 - phi/sub +-/ = - 0.2 0 +- 9.8 0 (statistics) +- 5.8 0 (systematic). We therefore see no evidence for CPT violation, although within the uncetainty our result is compatible with the NYU measurement. 19 refs., 69 figs., 10 tabs

  10. Search for New Physics in Neutral Kaon Decays

    Comfort, Joseph R. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    2016-04-30

    This report will summarize contributions made by the ASU group during the grant period. Focus will be given to three areas: (1) Monte Carlo simulations; (2) signal processing in the electronics; and (3) data analysis software. For reference, a drawing of the KOTO detector is shown in Fig. 1. The production target for the neutral beam particles was about 20 meters upstream of the detector.

  11. Consistent Probabilistic Description of the Neutral Kaon System: Novel Observable Effects

    Bernabeu, J.; Villanueva-Perez, P.

    2013-01-01

    The neutral Kaon system has both CP violation in the mass matrix and a non-vanishing lifetime difference in the width matrix. This leads to an effective Hamiltonian which is not a normal operator, with incompatible (non-commuting) masses and widths. In the Weisskopf-Wigner Approach (WWA), by diagonalizing the entire Hamiltonian, the unphysical non-orthogonal "stationary" states $K_{L,S}$ are obtained. These states have complex eigenvalues whose real (imaginary) part does not coincide with the eigenvalues of the mass (width) matrix. In this work we describe the system as an open Lindblad-type quantum mechanical system due to Kaon decays. This approach, in terms of density matrices for initial and final states, provides a consistent probabilistic description, avoiding the standard problems because the width matrix becomes a composite operator not included in the Hamiltonian. We consider the dominant-decay channel to two pions, so that one of the Kaon states with definite lifetime becomes stable. This new approa...

  12. Test of CPT and Lorentz symmetry in entangled neutral kaons with the KLOE experiment

    Babusci, D.; Balwierz-Pytko, I.; Bencivenni, G.; Bloise, C.; Bossi, F.; Branchini, P.; Budano, A.; Caldeira Balkeståhl, L.; Capon, G.; Ceradini, F.; Ciambrone, P.; Curciarello, F.; Czerwiński, E.; Danè, E.; De Leo, V.; De Lucia, E.; De Robertis, G.; De Santis, A.; De Simone, P.

    2014-01-01

    Neutral kaon pairs produced in ϕ decays in anti-symmetric entangled state can be exploited to search for violation of CPT symmetry and Lorentz invariance. We present an analysis of the CP-violating process ϕ→K S K L →π + π − π + π − based on 1.7 fb −1 of data collected by the KLOE experiment at the Frascati ϕ-factory DAΦNE. The data are used to perform a measurement of the CPT-violating parameters Δa μ for neutral kaons in the context of the Standard Model Extension framework. The parameters measured in the reference frame of the fixed stars are: Δa 0 =(−6.0±7.7 stat ±3.1 syst )×10 −18 GeV, Δa X =(0.9±1.5 stat ±0.6 syst )×10 −18 GeV, Δa Y =(−2.0±1.5 stat ±0.5 syst )×10 −18 GeV, Δa Z =(3.1±1.7 stat ±0.5 syst )×10 −18 GeV. These are presently the most precise measurements in the quark sector of the Standard Model Extension.

  13. The neutral kaon decays to $\\pi^+ \\pi^- \\pi^0$ a detailed analysis of the CPLEAR data

    Angelopoulos, Angelos; Aslanides, Elie; Backenstoss, Gerhard; Bargassa, P; Behnke, O; Benelli, A; Bertin, V; Blanc, F; Bloch, P; Carlson, P J; Carroll, M; Cawley, E; Chertok, M B; Danielsson, M; Dejardin, M; Derré, J; Ealet, A; Eleftheriadis, C; Faravel, L; Fassnacht, P; Fetscher, W; Fidecaro, Maria; Filipcic, A; Francis, D; Fry, J; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gamet, R; Gerber, H J; Go, A; Haselden, A; Hayman, P J; Henry-Coüannier, F; Hollander, R W; Jon-And, K; Kettle, P R; Kokkas, P; Kreuger, R; Le Gac, R; Leimgruber, F; Mandic, I; Manthos, N; Marel, Gérard; Mikuz, M; Miller, J; Montanet, François; Nakada, Tatsuya; Pagels, B; Papadopoulos, I M; Pavlopoulos, P; Polivka, G; Rickenbach, R; Roberts, B L; Ruf, T; Schäfer, M; Schaller, L A; Schietinger, T; Schopper, A; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thibault, C; Touchard, F; Touramanis, C; van Eijk, C W E; Vlachos, S; Weber, P; Wigger, O; Wolter, M; Zavrtanik, D; Zimmerman, D

    1998-01-01

    A detailed analysis of neutral kaons decaying to \\Pgpp \\Pgpm \\Pgpz\\ is presented based on the complete data set containing half a million events. Time-dependent decay rate asymmetries are measured between initially tagged \\PKz\\ and \\PaKz\\ and for different regions of the phase space. These asymmetries, resulting from the interference between the CP-conserving decay amplitude of \\PKzL\\ and the decay amplitude of \\PKzS\\ -- either CP-violating or CP-conserving -- allow the determinationof the \\PKzS\\ parameters \\etapmz\\ (CP-violating) and \\lampmz\\ (CP-conserving), and also of the main i sospin components of the \\PKzS\\ decay amplitude. The branching ratio of \\PKzS\\ $\\rightarrow$ \\Pgpp \\Pgpm \\Pgpz\\ (CP-conserving) is deduced directly from \\lampmz . In addition, we extract the slope parameters describing the energy dependence of the $\\PKzL \\rightarrow \\Pgpp \\Pgpm \\Pgpz $ Dalitz plot. The whole set of our results fits well within the current phenomenological picture of the neut ral-kaon system including CP violation ...

  14. Measurements of Direct CP Violation, CPT Symmetry, and Other Parameters in the Neutral Kaon System

    Worcester, Elizabeth Turner [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    2007-12-01

    The authors present precision measurements of the direct CP violation parameter, Re(ϵ'/ϵ), the kaon parameters, Δm and τS, and the CPT tests, Φ± and ΔΦ, in neutral kaon decays. These results are based on the full dataset collected by the KTeV experiment at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory during 1996, 1997, and 1999. This dataset contains ~ 15 million K → π0π0 decays and ~ 69 million K → π+π- decays. They describe significant improvements to the precision of these measurements relative to previous KTeV analyses. They find Re(ϵ'/ϵ = [19.2 ± 1.1(stat) ± 1.8(syst)] x 10-4, Δm = (5265 ± 10) x 106 hs-1, and τS = (89.62 ± 0.05) x 10-12 s. They measure Φ± = (44.09 ± 1.00)° and ΔΦ = (0.29 ± 0.31)°; these results are consistent with CPT symmetry.

  15. Measurement of the neutral kaon regeneration amplitude in carbon at momenta below 1 GeV/c

    Angelopoulos, Angelos; Aslanides, Elie; Backenstoss, Gerhard; Bargassa, P; Behnke, O; Benelli, A; Bertin, V; Blanc, F; Bloch, P; Carlson, P J; Carroll, M; Carvalho, J; Cawley, E; Charalambous, S; Chardin, G; Chertok, M B; Cody, A; Danielsson, M; Dejardin, M; Derré, J; Ealet, A; Eleftheriadis, C; Evangelou, I; Faravel, L; Ferreira-Marques, R; Fetscher, W; Fidecaro, Maria; Filipcic, A; Francis, D; Fry, J; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gamet, R; Garreta, D; Gerber, H J; Go, A; Haselden, A; Hayman, P J; Henry-Coüannier, F; Hollander, R W; Hubert, E; Jon-And, K; Kettle, P R; Kokkas, P; Kreuger, R; Le Gac, R; Leimgruber, F; Liolios, A; Machado, E; Mandic, I; Manthos, N; Marel, Gérard; Mikuz, M; Miller, J; Montanet, François; Müller, A; Nakada, Tatsuya; Pagels, B; Papadopoulos, I M; Pavlopoulos, P; Pinto da Cunha, J; Policarpo, Armando; Polivka, G; Rickenbach, R; Roberts, B L; Ruf, T; Sakelliou, L; Sanders, P; Schäfer, M; Schaller, L A; Schietinger, T; Schopper, A; Soares, A; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thibault, C; Touchard, F; Touramanis, C; Triantis, F A; Van Beveren, E; van Eijk, C W E; Vlachos, S; Weber, P; Wigger, I; Wolter, M; Yéche, C; Zavrtanik, D; Zimmerman, D

    1997-01-01

    The neutral kaon regeneration amplitude in carbon at momenta between 250 and 750~MeV/$c$ was determined by measuring the interference of inherent and coherently regenerated \\PKS\\ amplitudes. This interference appears in the rates of initially pure (tagged) \\PKz\\ and \\PaKz\\ decaying to \\Pgpp\\Pgpm\\ after crossing a carbon absorber.

  16. Test of CPT and Lorentz symmetry in entangled neutral kaons with the KLOE experiment

    Babusci, D. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Balwierz-Pytko, I. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Cracow (Poland); Bencivenni, G.; Bloise, C.; Bossi, F. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Branchini, P. [INFN Sezione di Roma Tre, Roma (Italy); Budano, A. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica dell' Università “Roma Tre”, Roma (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma Tre, Roma (Italy); Caldeira Balkeståhl, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Capon, G. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Ceradini, F. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica dell' Università “Roma Tre”, Roma (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma Tre, Roma (Italy); Ciambrone, P. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Curciarello, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra dell' Università di Messina, Messina (Italy); INFN Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Czerwiński, E. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Cracow (Poland); Danè, E. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); De Leo, V. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra dell' Università di Messina, Messina (Italy); INFN Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); De Lucia, E. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); De Robertis, G. [INFN Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); De Santis, A., E-mail: antonio.desantis@roma1.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Università “Sapienza”, Roma (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma, Roma (Italy); De Simone, P. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); and others

    2014-03-07

    Neutral kaon pairs produced in ϕ decays in anti-symmetric entangled state can be exploited to search for violation of CPT symmetry and Lorentz invariance. We present an analysis of the CP-violating process ϕ→K{sub S}K{sub L}→π{sup +}π{sup −}π{sup +}π{sup −} based on 1.7 fb{sup −1} of data collected by the KLOE experiment at the Frascati ϕ-factory DAΦNE. The data are used to perform a measurement of the CPT-violating parameters Δa{sub μ} for neutral kaons in the context of the Standard Model Extension framework. The parameters measured in the reference frame of the fixed stars are: Δa{sub 0}=(−6.0±7.7{sub stat}±3.1{sub syst})×10{sup −18} GeV, Δa{sub X}=(0.9±1.5{sub stat}±0.6{sub syst})×10{sup −18} GeV, Δa{sub Y}=(−2.0±1.5{sub stat}±0.5{sub syst})×10{sup −18} GeV, Δa{sub Z}=(3.1±1.7{sub stat}±0.5{sub syst})×10{sup −18} GeV. These are presently the most precise measurements in the quark sector of the Standard Model Extension.

  17. Determination of the T- and CPT-violation parameters in the neutral-kaon system using the Bell-Steinberger relation and data from CPLEAR

    Apostolakis, Alcibiades J; Backenstoss, Gerhard; Bargassa, P; Behnke, O; Benelli, A; Bertin, V; Blanc, F; Bloch, P; Carlson, P J; Carroll, M; Cawley, E; Chertok, M B; Danielsson, M; Dejardin, M; Derré, J; Ealet, A; Eleftheriadis, C; Fetscher, W; Fidecaro, Maria; Filipcic, A; Francis, D; Fry, J; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gamet, R; Gerber, H J; Go, A; Haselden, A; Hayman, P J; Henry-Coüannier, F; Hollander, R W; Jon-And, K; Kettle, P R; Kokkas, P; Kreuger, R; Le Gac, R; Leimgruber, F; Mandic, I; Manthos, N; Marel, Gérard; Mikuz, M; Miller, J; Montanet, François; Müller, A; Nakada, Tatsuya; Pagels, B; Papadopoulos, I M; Pavlopoulos, P; Polivka, G; Rickenbach, R; Roberts, B L; Sakelliou, L; Ruf, T; Schäfer, M; Schaller, L A; Schietinger, T; Schopper, A; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thibault, C; Touchard, F; Touramanis, C; van Eijk, C W E; Vlachos, S; Weber, P; Wigger, O; Wolter, M; Zavrtanik, D; Zimmerman, D

    1999-01-01

    Data from the CPLEAR experiment, together with the most recent world averages for some of the neutral-kaon parameters, were constrained with the Bell--Steinberger (or unitarity) relation, allowing the T-violation parameter $\\ree$ and the CPT-violation parameter $\\imd$ of the neutral-kaon mixing matrix to be determined with an increased accuracy: $\\ree = (164.9 \\pm 2.5)\\times 10^{-5}$, $\\imd = ( 2.4 \\pm 5.0)\\times 10^{-5}$. Moreover, the constraint allows the CPT-violation parameter for the neutral-kaon semileptonic decays, $\\rey$, to be determined for the first time. The $\\Delta S \

  18. A determination of the CPT violation parameter Re($\\delta$) from the semileptonic decay of strangeness-tagged neutral kaons

    Angelopoulos, Angelos; Aslanides, Elie; Backenstoss, Gerhard; Bargassa, P; Behnke, O; Benelli, A; Bertin, V; Blanc, F; Bloch, P; Carlson, P J; Carroll, M; Cawley, E; Chertok, M B; Danielsson, M; Dejardin, M; Derré, J; Ealet, A; Eleftheriadis, C; Faravel, L; Fetscher, W; Fidecaro, Maria; Filipcic, A; Francis, D; Fry, J; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gamet, R; Gerber, H J; Go, A; Haselden, A; Hayman, P J; Henry-Coüannier, F; Hollander, R W; Jon-And, K; Kettle, P R; Kokkas, P; Kreuger, R; Le Gac, R; Leimgruber, F; Mandic, I; Manthos, N; Marel, Gérard; Mikuz, M; Miller, J; Montanet, François; Müller, A; Nakada, Tatsuya; Pagels, B; Papadopoulos, I M; Pavlopoulos, P; Polivka, G; Rickenbach, R; Roberts, B L; Ruf, T; Schäfer, M; Schaller, L A; Schietinger, T; Schopper, A; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thibault, C; Touchard, F; Touramanis, C; van Eijk, C W E; Vlachos, S; Weber, P; Wigger, O; Wolter, M; Zavrtanik, D; Zimmerman, D

    1998-01-01

    We have improved by two orders of magnitude the limit currently available for the CPT violation parameter \\red . To this purpose we have analyzed the full sample of neutral-kaon decays to \\semi\\ recorded in the CPLEAR experiment, where the strangeness of the neutral kaons was tagged at production and decay time. An appropriate function of the measured decay rates, including information from the analysis of \\pip\\pim\\ decay channel, gives directly \\red . The result $\\red = (3.0 \\pm 3.3_\\mathrm{{stat}} \\pm 0.6_\\mathrm{{syst}}) \\times 10^{-4}$ is compatible with zero. Values for the parameters $\\imd$, $\\rexm$ and $\\imxp$ were also obtained.

  19. Measurement of the $K_{L}-K_{S}$ mass difference using semileptonic decays of tagged neutral kaons

    Angelopoulos, Angelos; Aslanides, Elie; Backenstoss, Gerhard; Bargassa, P; Behnke, O; Benelli, A; Bertin, V; Blanc, F; Bloch, P; Carlson, P J; Carroll, M; Cawley, E; Chertok, M B; Danielsson, M; Dejardin, M; Derré, J; Ealet, A; Eleftheriadis, C; Faravel, L; Fetscher, W; Fidecaro, Maria; Filipcic, A; Francis, D; Fry, J; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gamet, R; Gerber, H J; Go, A; Haselden, A; Hayman, P J; Henry-Coüannier, F; Hollander, R W; Jon-And, K; Kettle, P R; Kokkas, P; Kreuger, R; Le Gac, R; Leimgruber, F; Mandic, I; Manthos, N; Marel, Gérard; Mikuz, M; Miller, J; Montanet, François; Müller, A; Nakada, Tatsuya; Pagels, B; Papadopoulos, I M; Pavlopoulos, P; Polivka, G; Rickenbach, R; Roberts, B L; Ruf, T; Schäfer, M; Schaller, L A; Schietinger, T; Schopper, A; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thibault, C; Touchard, F; Touramanis, C; van Eijk, C W E; Vlachos, S; Weber, P; Wigger, O; Wolter, M; Zavrtanik, D; Zimmerman, D

    1998-01-01

    We report on a new measurement of the \\kl--\\ks\\ mass difference \\dm\\ using the CPLEAR full data sample of neutral-kaon decays to \\semi. The result is $\\dm = (0.5295 \\pm 0.0020_{\\stat} \\pm 0.0003_{\\syst}) \\times 10^{10}$\\ \\hbs. It includes earlier data reported in Ref. \\cite{deltam1}. A measurement of the \\dsdq\\ violating parameter \\rex\\ is also obtained.

  20. A detailed description of the analysis of the decay of neutral kaons to $\\pi^+ \\pi^-$ in the CPLEAR experiment

    Apostolakis, Alcibiades J; Backenstoss, Gerhard; Bargassa, P; Behnke, O; Benelli, A; Bertin, V; Blanc, F; Bloch, P; Carlson, P J; Carroll, M; Cawley, E; Chertok, M B; Danielsson, M; Dejardin, M; Derré, J; Ealet, A; Eleftheriadis, C; Fetscher, W; Fidecaro, Maria; Filipcic, A; Francis, D; Fry, J; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gamet, R; Gerber, H J; Go, A; Haselden, A; Hayman, P J; Henry-Coüannier, F; Hollander, R W; Jon-And, K; Kettle, P R; Kokkas, P; Kreuger, R; Le Gac, R; Leimgruber, F; Mandic, I; Manthos, N; Marel, Gérard; Mikuz, M; Miller, J; Montanet, François; Müller, A; Nakada, Tatsuya; Pagels, B; Papadopoulos, I M; Pavlopoulos, P; Polivka, G; Rickenbach, R; Roberts, B L; Ruf, T; Sakelliou, L; Schäfer, M; Schaller, L A; Schietinger, T; Schopper, A; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thibault, C; Touchard, F; Touramanis, C; van Eijk, C W E; Vlachos, S; Weber, P; Wigger, O; Wolter, M; Yéche, C; Zavrtanik, D; Zimmerman, D

    2000-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the analysis of neutral kaons decaying to \\pipi , based on the complete data sample collected with the CPLEAR experiment.Using a novel approach involving initially strangeness-tagged \\kn\\ and \\knb ,the time-dependent decay rate asymmetry has been measured. This asymmetry, resulting from the interference between the \\ks\\and \\kl\\ decay amplitudes, has enabled both the magnitudeand phase of the CP-violation parameter, \\ita , to be measured, with aprecision comparable to that of the current world average values.

  1. A detailed description of the analysis of the decay of neutral kaons to π+π- in the CPLEAR experiment

    Apostolakis, A.; Aslanides, E.

    2000-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the analysis of neutral kaons decaying to π + π - , based on the complete set of data collected with the CPLEAR experiment. Using a novel approach involving initially strangeness-tagged K 0 and anti K 0 , the time-dependent decay-rate asymmetry has been measured. This asymmetry, resulting from the interference between the K S and K L decay amplitudes, has enabled both the magnitude and phase of the CP-violation parameter, η +- , to be measured, with a precision comparable to that of the current world-average values. (orig.)

  2. PRAMANA NA48 results on neutral kaon and hyperon rare decays

    Abstract. The NA48 Collaboration has performed an extensive program of kaon and hyperon rare decays using the data collected during the period 1997-2001. This program includes new tests of chiral perturbation theory, new measurements of the η mass and Ks lifetime and the possibility to measure the Cabibbo angle ...

  3. Dispersion relation analysis of the neutral kaon regeneration amplitude in carbon

    Angelopoulos, Angelos; Locher, M P; Markushin, V E; Aslanides, Elie; Backenstoss, Gerhard; Bargassa, P; Behnke, O; Benelli, A; Bertin, V; Blanc, F; Bloch, P; Carlson, P J; Carroll, M; Cawley, E; Chertok, M B; Danielsson, M; Dejardin, M; Derré, J; Ealet, A; Eleftheriadis, C; Faravel, L; Festcher, W; Fidecaro, Maria; Filipcic, A; Francis, D; Fry, J; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gamet, R; Gerber, H J; Go, A; Haselden, A; Hayman, P J; Henry-Coüannier, F; Hollander, R W; Jon-And, K; Kettle, P R; Kokkas, P; Kreuger, R; Le Gac, R; Leimgruber, F; Mandic, I; Manthos, N; Marel, Gérard; Mikuz, M; Miller, J; Montanet, François; Müller, A; Nakada, Tatsuya; Pagels, B; Papadopoulos, I M; Pavlopoulos, P; Polivka, G; Rickenbach, R; Roberts, B L; Ruf, T; Schäfer, M; Schaller, L A; Schietinger, T; Schopper, A; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thibault, C; Touchard, F; Touramanis, C; van Eijk, C W E; Vlachos, S; Weber, P; Wigger, O; Wolter, M; Zavrtanik, D; Zimmerman, D

    1999-01-01

    We apply a forward dispersion relation to the regeneration amplitude for kaon scattering on /sup 12/C using all available data. The CPLEAR data at low energies allow the determination of the net contribution from the subthreshold $9 region which turns out to be much smaller than earlier evaluations, solving a long standing puzzle. (29 refs).

  4. Workshop on Physics with Neutral Kaon Beam at JLab (KL2016) Mini-Proceedings

    Strakovsky, Igor I. [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Amaryan, Moskov [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Chudakov, Eugene A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Meyer, Curtis A. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Pennington, Michael R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Ritman, James L. [Forschungszentrum Juelich Institut fuer Kernphysik

    2016-05-01

    The KL2016 Workshop is following the Letter of Intent LoI12-15-001 "Physics Opportunities with Secondary KL beam at JLab" submitted to PAC43 with the main focus on the physics of excited hyperons produced by the Kaon beam on unpolarized and polarized targets with GlueX setup in Hall D. Such studies will broaden a physics program of hadron spectroscopy extending it to the strange sector. The Workshop was organized to get a feedback from the community to strengthen physics motivation of the LoI and prepare a full proposal.

  5. The Beam and detector for the NA48 neutral kaon CP violation experiment at CERN

    Fanti, V; Marras, D; Musa, L; Nappi, A; Batley, J Richard; Bevan, A; Dosanjh, R S; Galik, R; Gershon, T; Hay, B; Kalmus, George Ernest; Katvars, S; Lazzeroni, C; Moore, R; Munday, D J; Needham, M D; Olaiya, E; Parker, M A; Patel, M; Slater, M; Takach, S; White, T O; Wotton; Bal, F; Barr, G; Bocquet, G; Bremer, J; Brodier-Yourstone, P; Buchholz, P; Burns, M; Ceccucci, A; Clément, M; Cuhadar-Donzelsmann, T; Cundy, Donald C; Doble, Niels; Falaleev, V; Formenti, F; Funk, W; Gatignon, L; Gonidec, A; Grafström, P; Hallgren, B; Kapusta, P; Kesseler, G; Kubischta, Werner; Iwanski, W; Lacourt, A; Laverriere, G; Linser, G; Ljuslin, C; Marchioro, A; Mast, M; Matheys, J P; Morel, M; Norton, A; Orlic, J P; Panzer-Steindel, B; Schinzel, D; Seidl, W; Taureg, H; Tarlé, J C; Velasco, M; Vossnack, O; Wahl, H; Wertelaers, P; Weterings, J; Cheshkov, C; Gaponenko, A; Goudzovski, E; Khristov, P Z; Kalinin, A; Kekelidze, V D; Kozhevnikov, Yu; Madigozhin, D T; Molokanova, N A; Potrebenikov, Yu K; Tkatchev, A; Zinchenko, A I; Boyle, O; Knowles, I; Martin, V; Parsons, H; Peach, K J; Sacco, R; Veitch, E; Walker, A; Carassiti, V; Contalbrigo, M; Cotta-Ramusino, A; Dalpiaz, P; Damiani, C; Duclos, J; Ferretti, P; Frabetti, P L; Gianoli, A; Martini, M; Petrucci, F; Porcu, M; Rossi, F; Savrié, M; Scarpa, M; Simani, C; Bizzeti, A; Calvetti, M; Collazuol, G; Graziani, G; Iacopini, E; Lenti, M; Martelli, F; Michetti, A; Ruggiero, G; Veltri, M; Becker, H G; Behler, M; Blümer, H; Coward, D; Ebersberger, C; Eppard, K; Eppard, M; Fox, H; Geib, K H; Hirstius, A; Kalter, A; Kleinknecht, K; Koch, U; Köpke, L; Lopes da Silva, P; Luitz, S; Marouelli, P; Masetti, L; Melzer-Pellmann, I; Moosbrugger, U; Morales-Morales, C; Peters, A; Renk, B; Scheidt, J; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, S A; Schönharting, V; Schué, Yu; Staeck, J; Wanke, R; Wilhelm, R; Winhart, A; Wittgen, M; Zeitnitz, O; Dabrowski, A; Fonseca-Martin, T; Chollet, J C; Crépé, S; de La Taille, C; Fayard, L; Iconomidou-Fayard, L; Martin-Chassard, G; Ocariz, J; Unal, G; Wingerter-Seez, I; Anzivino, Giuseppina; Bordacchini, F; Cenci, P; Imbergamo, E; Lariccia, P; Lubrano, P; Mestvirishvili, A; Papi, A; Pepé, M; Piccini, M; Punturo, M; Talamonti, C; Tondini, F; Bertanza, L; Calafiura, P; Carosi, R; Casali, R; Cerri, C; Cirilli, M; Costantini, F; Fantechi, R; Fidecaro, Francesco; Fiorini, L; Giudici, S; Gorini, B; Laico, F; Lamanna, G; Mannelli, I; Marzulli, V; Passuello, D; Pierazzini, G M; Raffaelli, F; Sozzi, M; Tripiccione, R; Anvar, S; Bédérède, D; Bugeon, F; Chèze, J B; Cogan, J; De Beer, M; Debu, P; Durand, D; Edard, S; Fallou, J L; Formica, A; Gosset, L; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Heitzmann, J; Le Provost, H; Louis, F; Mandzhavidze, I; Mazzucato, E; Migliori, A; Mur, M; Peyaud, B; Schanne, S; Steinkamp, O; Tarte, Gérard; Turlay, René; Vallage, B; Holder, M; Augustin, I; Bender, M; Maier, A; Schwarz, I; Ziolkowski, M; Arcidiacono, R; Barberis, P L; Benotto, F; Bertolino, F; Biino, C; Brunasso, O; Cartiglia, N; Clemencic, M; Dattola, D; Goy-Lopez, S; Govi, G; Guida, R; Marchetto, F; Menichetti, E; Palestini, S; Pastrone, N; Chlopik, A; Guzik, Z; Nassalski, J P; Rondio, E; Szleper, M; Wislicki, W; Wronka, S; Dibon, Heinz; Fischer, G; Jeitler, Manfred; Markytan, Manfred; Mikulec, I; Neuhofer, G; Pernicka, M; Taurok, Anton; Widhalm, L

    2007-01-01

    The beam and detector, used for the NA48 experiment, devoted to the measurement of $\\Re(\\epsilon^{\\prime}/\\epsilon)$, and for the NA48/1 experiment on rare $K_{S}$ and neutral hyperon decays, are described.

  6. Performance of the KTeV high-energy neutral kaon beam at Fermilab

    Bocean, V.

    1998-01-01

    The performance of the primary and secondary beams for the KTeV experiments E832 and E799-II is reviewed. The beam was commissioned in the summer of 1996 and initially operated for approximately one year. The report includes results on the primary beam, target station including primary beam dump and muon sweeping system, neutral beam collimation system, and alignment

  7. 'KAON' physics

    Fearing, H.W.

    1989-07-01

    Plans and prospects are described for KAON, a proposal by TRIUMF to build an advanced hadron facility or kaon factory. The machine would be a 30 GeV high intensity proton machine producing intense beams of kaons, pions, muons, antiprotons, and neutrinos. Some of the interesting physics which could be done with such a machine is described. (Author) 11 refs., 2 figs., tab

  8. Experimental searches for CP and CPT symmetries violation in the neutral kaons system

    Debu, P.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this lecture is to give an overview of the experiments devoted to the study and research of CP, T and CPT symmetries invariance violations in the system of neutral K mesons. The discovery of K mesons has provided crucial informations for the elaboration of the standard model. However, the observation of CP violation has remained confined to the K system. The origin of the observed CP violation remains hypothetic. Its origin could be a complex phase in the mixing matrix of quarks. In the standard model of electroweak interactions, several evidences of the CP violation exist: the observed K neutral mesons (K L and K S ) are not proper states of CP and are due to CP violation in the K 0 - anti-K 0 mixture. On the other hand, the model predicts also a CP violation in decay amplitudes, named direct CP violation. Important experiments have been carried out for its demonstration. The K system is also the most precise test for CPT invariance. A description of the experiments in progress developed to improve the precision of these tests is given. The plan of the lecture is the following: after a recall of K 0 - anti-K 0 phenomenology, some important steps in the CP violation study are described. Then, the regeneration phenomenon is briefly described and two of the most recent measurements of the direct CP violation parameter are analysed. Finally, the CPT invariance tests are described with their parameters and the measurements in progress. A review of the principal results is given in conclusion with their improvements expected in a near future. (J.S.). 71 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  9. Testing the non-locality of quantum theory in two-kaon systems

    Eberhard, P.H. (California Univ., Berkeley (United States). Lawrence Berkeley Lab.)

    1993-06-07

    An idea for testing the non-local character of quantum theory in systems made of two neutral kaons is suggested. Such tests require detecting two long-lived or two short-lived neutral kaons in coincidence, when copper slabs are either interposed on or removed from their paths. They may be performed at an asymmetric [Phi][sup 0]-factory. They could answer some questions raised by the EPR paradox and Bell's inequalities. If such tests are performed and if predictions of quantum mechanics and standard theory of kaon regeneration are verified experimentally, all descriptions of the relevant phenomena in terms of local interactions will be ruled out in principle with the exception of very peculiar ones, which imply the existence of hidden variables, of different kinds of kaons corresponding to different values of the hidden variables, and, for some of these kaons, of regeneration probabilities enhanced by a factor of the order of 400 or more over the average. Of course, the experiment may also reveal a break down of quantum theory. (orig.)

  10. $T$-violation and $CPT$-invariance measurements in the CPLEAR experiment a detailed description of the analysis of neutral-kaon decays to $e\\pi\

    Angelopoulos, Angelos; Backenstoss, Gerhard; Bargassa, P; Behnke, O; Benelli, A; Bertin, V; Blanc, F; Bloch, P; Carlson, P J; Carroll, M; Cawley, E; Chertok, M B; Danielsson, M; Dejardin, M; Derré, J; Ealet, A; Eleftheriadis, C; Fetscher, W; Fidecaro, Maria; Filipcic, A; Francis, D; Fry, J; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gamet, R; Gerber, H J; Go, A; Haselden, A; Hayman, P J; Henry-Coüannier, F; Hollander, R W; Jon-And, K; Kettle, P R; Kokkas, P; Kreuger, R; Le Gac, R; Leimgruber, F; Mandic, I; Manthos, N; Marel, Gérard; Mikuz, M; Miller, J; Montanet, François; Müller, A; Nakada, Tatsuya; Pagels, B; Papadopoulos, I M; Pavlopoulos, P; Polivka, G; Rickenbach, R; Roberts, B L; Ruf, T; Sakelliou, L; Schäfer, M; Schaller, L A; Schietinger, T; Schopper, A; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thibault, C; Touchard, F; Touramanis, C; van Eijk, C W E; Vlachos, S; Weber, P; Wigger, O; Wolter, M; Zavrtanik, D; Zimmerman, D

    2001-01-01

    A detailed description of the analysis of neutral kaons decaying to \\pen\\ is given, based on the complete set of data collected with the CPLEAR experiment. Using a novel approach involving initially strangeness-tagged \\kn\\ and \\knb , time-dependent decay-rate asymmetries were measured. These asymmetries enabled \\Tz - and \\CPTz -violation parameters to be measured in the context of a systematic study. The highlights of this study are the first direct observation of \\Tz\\ violation and the direct determination of the \\CPTz\\ parameter \\red\\ with an accuracy improved by two orders of magnitude with respect to the current value.

  11. T-violation and CPT-invariance measurements in the CPLEAR experiment: a detailed description of the analysis of neutral-kaon decays to eπν

    Angelopoulos, A.; Aslanides, E.; Backenstoss, G.

    2001-01-01

    A detailed description of the analysis of neutral kaons decaying to eπν is given, based on the complete set of data collected with the CPLEAR experiment. Using a novel approach involving initially strangeness-tagged K 0 and K 0 , time-dependent decay-rate asymmetries were measured. These asymmetries enabled T- and CPT-violation parameters to be measured in the context of a systematic study. The highlights of this study are the first direct observation of T violation and the direct determination of the CPT parameter Re(δ) with an accuracy improved by two orders of magnitude with respect to the current value. (orig.)

  12. Inclusive distributions of diffractively produced neutral kaons, lambdas, and antilambdas, and upper limits on Λ/sub c/+ production in high energy γ p interactions

    Bhadra, S.

    1985-01-01

    The author has used a large acceptance spectrometer in a tagged photon beam to study the interactions of real photons with protons in a hydrogen target. In particular, this thesis presents distributions of neutral kaons, lambdas, and antilambdas from diffractive dissociation where the kinematic regions of the target and projectile fragments are clearly distinguished by using events with clean recoiling protons. This data extends the neutral strange particle production rate measurements to higher overall centre-of-mass energies than previous photoproduction experiments. Comparison to pion-induced reactions supports the hypothesis that the photon behaves primarily as a hardon. Finally, upper limits have been set on the Λ/sub c/ + cross section times the branching ratio for decay modes leading to neutral strange particles for a diffractive dissociation process

  13. Kaon interferometry

    Roldao, C.G.; Padula, S.S.

    1994-01-01

    Preliminary results of the χ 2 analysis where data on kaon interferometry, obtained from the E859 Collaboration of the AGS/Brookhaven Nat.Lab., are compared with results of a hadronic resonance production model are presented. The main goal is to test the resolution power of the method here discussed when applied to the two-dimensional kaon interferometry

  14. Kaon interferometry; Interferometria de kaons

    Roldao, C.G.; Padula, S.S. [Instituto de Fisica Teorica (IFT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1994-06-01

    Preliminary results of the {chi}{sup 2} analysis where data on kaon interferometry, obtained from the E859 Collaboration of the AGS/Brookhaven Nat.Lab., are compared with results of a hadronic resonance production model are presented. The main goal is to test the resolution power of the method here discussed when applied to the two-dimensional kaon interferometry. 11 refs., 2 figs.; e-mail: roldao at axp.ift.unesp.br; padula at axp.ift.unesp.br.

  15. Kaon factories

    Craddock, M.K.

    1983-03-01

    Kaon factories would provide beams 100-1000 times more intense than those available from present accelerators in the 10-30 GeV range. More intense or cleaner secondary beams of kaons, antiprotons and neutrinos would be of particular interest for high precision experiments and studies of rare processes in both particle and nuclear physics, e.g. symmetry violations in K-decay, neutrino scattering, meson and baryon spectroscopy, hypernuclei, exotic atoms, K + studies of nuclear density and resonance propagation in nuclei. The various accelerators proposed include both fast-cycling synchrotrons providing 100 μA proton beams at 15 to 32 GeV and superconducting isochronous ring cyclotrons giving 100-400 μA at up to 15 GeV. This paper describes these designs and the various technical problems associated with them

  16. Practical applications of short-lived radioisotopes

    NONE

    1963-01-15

    The advantages of the use of short-lived radioisotopes in agriculture, food industry and medicine as well as some industrial uses are discussed. Methods for isotope production in small research reactors and laboratories are presented

  17. KAON factories

    Craddock, M.K.

    1989-09-01

    Proposals for high intensity proton synchrotrons (typically providing 100 μA (6 x 10 14 p/s)) at 30 GeV have been made in Canada, Europe, Japan, the USA and the USSR. These beams would be roughly 100 times more intense than those available now and would yield equivalent increases in the fluxes of secondary particles (kaons, pions, muons, antiprotons, hyperons and neutrinos) - or cleaner beams for a smaller increase in flux. The ability to investigate rare processes on the precision frontier opens new avenues to fundamental questions in both particle and nuclear physics, complementary to traditional approaches via the energy frontier. The demand for higher currents has led to novel features in many of the accelerator designs: asymmetric magnet cycles, avoidance of transition crossing, separate collector and stretcher rings, three-dimensional beam painting at injection, bucket-to-bucket beam transfer, perpendicular biassing of microwave ferrite in the rf tuners, the use of Siberian Snakes to preserve polarization, and the addition of a pre-septum to make slow extraction >99.8% efficient. Other characteristic features include rapid cycling rates, booster stages, H - injection, low impedance enclosures, powerful feedback systems for control of beam instabilities and beam loading, and local collimation systems for handling beam loss. This paper reviews the general features of kaon factory accelerator design and the status of the various proposals

  18. Measurement of CP Asymmetries and Branching Fractions in Neutral B Meson Decays to Charged Pions and Kaons with the BABAR Detector

    Farbin, A.

    2005-02-10

    This dissertation presents a measurement of CP asymmetries and branching fractions for neutral B meson decays to two-body final states of charged pions and kaons. The results are obtained from a data sample of about 88 million {Upsilon}(4S) {yields} B{bar B} decays collected between 1999 and 2002 with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B factory located at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. A fit to kinematic, topological, and particle identification information measures the charge-averaged branching fractions {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}) = (4.7 {+-} 0.6 {+-} 0.2) x 10{sup -6} and {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}) = (17.9 {+-} 0.9 {+-} 0.7) x 10{sup -6}; the 90% confidence level upper limit {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -}) < 0.6 x 10{sup -6}; and the direct CP-violating charge asymmetry {Alpha}{sub K{pi}} = -0.102 {+-} 0.050 {+-} 0.016 [-0.188, -0.016], where the first uncertainties are statistical and the second are systematic and the ranges in square brackets indicate the 90% confidence interval. A fit which adds decay time and b-flavor tagging information measures the CP-violating parameters for B{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decays S{sub {pi}{pi}} = 0.02 {+-} 0.34 {+-} 0.05 [-0.54, +0.58] and C{sub {pi}{pi}} = -0.30 {+-} 0.25 {+-} 0.04 [-0.72, +0.12].

  19. Study of T and CPT symmetries in semileptonic disintegrations of kaons neutral K{sup 0} and anti K{sup 0}; Etude des symetries T et CPT dans les desintegrations semileptoniques des kaons neutres K{sup 0} et anti K{sup 0}

    Soares-Svagelski, A.

    1996-06-05

    This thesis begins by a presentation of the different symmetries such P, C, T, CP and CPT. Then, there is a phenomenon description of violation parameters of T, CPT and CP in the system of kaons neutral, the study system. It is shown how the violation of CP has been introduced in the super weak model then, in the standard model. Then, we have a description of the experience called CP LEAR with the presentation of apparatus and devices and the data acquisition. Before the analysis of semileptonic events, the selection of these events is detailed. The determination of parameters is followed by a discussion of gained values. The other measures of the experience are only little discussed. (N.C.). 67 refs., 65 figs., 14 tabs.

  20. Kaons in nuclear matter

    Heiselberg, H [NORDITA, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1998-06-01

    The kaon energy in a nuclear medium and its dependence on kaon-nucleon and nucleon-nucleon correlations is discussed. The transition from the Lenz potential at low densities to the Hartree potential at high densities can be calculated analytically by making a Wigner-Seitz cell approximation and employing a square well potential. As the Hartree potential is less attractive than the Lenz one, kaon condensation inside cores of neutron stars appears to be less likely than previously estimated. (orig.)

  1. Kaons in nuclear matter

    Kolomeitsev, E.E.

    1997-02-01

    The subject of the doctoral thesis is examination of the properties of kaons in nuclear matter. A specific method is explained that has been developed for the scientific objectives of the thesis and permits description of the kaon-nucleon interactions and kaon-nucleon scattering in a vacuum. The main challenge involved was to find approaches that would enable application of the derived relations out of the kaon mass shell, connected with the second objective, namely to possibly find methods which are independent of models. The way chosen to achieve this goal relied on application of reduction formulas as well as current algebra relations and the PCAC hypothesis. (orig./CB) [de

  2. Separation of short-lived fission products

    Tamai, Tadaharu; Ohyoshi, Emiko; Ohyoshi, Akira; Kiso, Yoshiyuki; Shinagawa, Mutsuaki.

    1976-01-01

    A rbief review is presented on the various methods of separation available for both gaseous and liquid states, for the separation of short-lived fission products formed by binary fission of neutron irradiated uranium. The means available for gaseous state are the hot atom reaction, the hydride method and on-line mass separation. For liquid state, use can be made of precipitation, ionic or atomic exchange, solvent extraction and paper electrophoresis. Particular reference is made to electrophoretic separation of ions produced by fission in aqueous solution of uranium. The principle of electrophoretic separation and the procedures for separating the element of interest from the other fission products are outlined, with reference made to the results obtained with the method by the present authors. The elements in question are alkalines, alkaline earths, rare earths, halogens, selenium and

  3. Measurements of Short-Lived Fission Isomers

    Finch, Sean; Bhike, Megha; Howell, Calvin; Krishichayan, Fnu; Tornow, Werner

    2016-09-01

    Fission yields of the short lived isomers 134mTe (T1 / 2 = 162 ns) and 136mXe (T1 / 2 = 2 . 95 μs) were measured for 235U and 238U. The isomers were detected by the γ rays associated with the decay of the isomeric states using high-purity germanium detectors. Fission was induced using both monoenergetic γ rays and neutrons. At TUNL's High-Intensity Gamma-ray Source (HI γS), γ rays of 9 and 11 MeV were produced . Monoenergetic 8 MeV neutrons were produced at TUNL's tandem accelerator laboratory. Both beams were pulsed to allow for precise time-gated spectroscopy of both prompt and delayed γ rays following fission. This technique offers a non-destructive probe of special nuclear materials that is sensitive to the isotopic identity of the fissile material.

  4. NA62 and NA48/2 results on search for Heavy Neutral Leptons

    Lamanna Gianluca

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present new results on upper limits for the search of Heavy Neutral Leptons (HNL with data collected by NA48/2 (2003-2004, NA62-RK (2007 and NA62 (2015 CERN experiments. The data collected with different trigger configuration allow to search for both long and short living heavy neutrinos in the mass range below the kaon mass. In addition the status of the search for K+ → π+vv with the NA62 detector will be briefly presented.

  5. Kaons Review and Outlook

    Ceccucci, A

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a review of recent results and an outlook of kaon physics. After enjoying a renaissance, the discipline is now becoming and endangered species. Action will be needed to keep kaon physics at the heart of future FPCP meetings.

  6. Baryon spectroscopy at KAON

    Comyn, Martin

    1992-07-01

    The unique opportunities for the study of baryon spectroscopy at the TRIUMF KAON Factory are outlined. Related issues in other areas of hadron spectroscopy are discussed. The complex of accelerators that comprise the TRIUMF KAON Factory, and the properties of the separated beams that will be available to experimenters, are described. Initial design considerations for detectors to be used in the study of hadron spectroscopy are presented, along with a proposed detector configuration. The progress towards realization of the TRIUMF KAON Factory is examined, and the timetable for the determination of the initial experimental programme and facilities is explained. 23 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Radiopharmaceuticals and other compounds labelled with short-lived radionuclides

    Welch, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals and Other Compounds Labelled with Short-Lived Radionuclides covers through both review and contributed articles the potential applications and developments in labeling with short-lived radionuclides whose use is restricted to institutions with accelerators. The book discusses the current and potential use of generator-produced radionuclides as well as other short-lived radionuclides, and the problems of quality control of such labeled compounds. The book is useful to nuclear medicine physicians.

  8. TRIUMF kaon factory plans

    Blackmore, E.W.

    1983-01-01

    A progress report on the TRIUMF Kaon Factory Feasibility Study is presented. The requirements placed on the machine parameters and experimental facilities by the potentially interesting experiments are discussed

  9. TRIUMF kaon factory plans

    Blackmore, E.W.

    1982-11-01

    A progress report on the TRIUMF Kaon Factory Feasibility Study is presented. The requirements placed on the machine parameters and experimental facilities by the potentially interesting experiments are discussed

  10. RARE KAON DECAYS

    LITTENBERG, L.

    2005-01-01

    Lepton flavor violation (LFV) experiments have probed sensitivities corresponding to mass scales of well over 100 TeV, making life difficult for models predicting accessible LFV in kaon decay and discouraging new dedicated experiments of this type

  11. Physics for KAON

    Anon.

    1989-12-15

    The KAON high intensity beam factory project at the Canadian TRIUMF Laboratory in Vancouver, continues to receive favourable ratings by US nuclear science advisory groups. Only the CEBAF Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility under construction at Newport News, Virginia, and the RHIC heavy ion collider proposal at Brookhaven are accorded higher priority. Meanwhile to estimate, stimulate and coordinate physics interest the KAON project team has organized a series of international physics workshops, including one at Bad Honnef in Germany earlier this year.

  12. Optimizing kaon production

    Berley, D.

    1976-01-01

    Kaon production data are examined with the view toward producing high quality beams in the future. Emphasis is placed upon the low momentum region, below 1 GeV/c, where the behavior of the kaon momentum spectrum is shown to be dominated by strongly momentum dependent kinematic factors. No complete experimental survey of production cross sections at different incident proton energies exists from a single apparatus. Information on relative production yields for different proton energies is important in the choice of parameters for an accelerator constructed primarily as a source of kaons. A summary is presented of existing kaon production facilities in the United States. These are all at proton accelerators. The possibility of using electron accelerators as kaon sources is examined. It is found that secondary beam fluxes can be contained at electron linacs, which are comparable to those obtained at proton synchrotrons. All kaon beam transport systems presently in use employ quadrupole and dipole magnet elements. A superconducting solenoid transport system has the potential advantage of much larger solid angle acceptance than the familiar quadrupole system. The possibility of mass separation by the differential energy loss method appears adaptable to the solenoid system

  13. Lambda/kaon relative production in anti p + nucleus reactions in terms of a quark recombination diagram

    Haatuft, A.; Halsteinslid, A.; Breivik, F.O.

    1989-03-01

    The ratio R=N(Λ o )/N(K o S) between the number N(Λ o ) of Λ o 's and the number N(K o s) of the short-lived neutral kaons produced in the reaction anti p + nucleus reactions at low energy has in previous papers been discussed in terms of the fireball model of Cugnon and Vandermeulen and in terms of the reaction anti KN → Λ o π, where the anti K has been produced in the primary reaction anti pp → anti KK + X. In this note the ratio R is discussed in terms of the quark model. The results indicate that quark effects may be important for the reaction studied, even if the energy is low. The discussion is based on the assumption that diagrams with connected quark-lines from initial to final state are suppressed, and that valence quarks survive to the final state. This assumption is supported by the results of exclusive anti pp-reactions at low energy, which shows that final states with more than two pions or kaons are more likely than final states with two mesons only, even if low multiplicity is favoured by phase space

  14. Optimizing kaon production

    Berley, D.

    1976-01-01

    Kaon production data is examined with the view toward producing high quality beams in the future. Emphasis is placed upon the low momentum region, below 1 GeV/c, where the behavior of the kaon momentum spectrum is shown to be dominated by strongly momentum dependent kinematic factors. No complete experimental survey of production cross sections at different incident proton energies exists from a single apparatus. Information on relative production yields for different proton energies is important in the choice of parameters for an accelerator constructed primarily as a source of kaons. Data from different accelerators do exist and have been compiled. The key element in understanding how to present the data from different laboratories in a consistent way is an analysis of the effects of target material, target size, and production angle. This analysis not only enables a unification of the data but also indicates simple, useful and powerful principles about optimizing target efficiency. A summary is presented of existing kaon production facilities in the United States. These are all at proton accelerators. The possibility of using electron accelerators as kaon sources is examined. It is found that secondary beam fluxes can be obtained at electron linacs which are comparable to those obtained at proton synchrotrons

  15. KAON CONDENSATION IN NEUTRON STARS

    RAMOS, A.; SCHAFFNER-BIELICH, J.; WAMBACH, J.

    2001-01-01

    We discuss the kaon-nucleon interaction and its consequences for the change of the properties of the kaon in the medium. The onset of kaon condensation in neutron stars under various scenarios as well its effects for neutron star properties are reviewed

  16. Review of kaon factory proposals

    Thiessen, H.A.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear physics issues and particle physics issues for a kaon factory are discussed. Kaon factory accelerator proposals are then considered. Secondary beam considerations are covered and hardware development for a kaon factory is discussed. The prospects for construction are presented. 9 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Theory of Kaon Physics

    D'Ambrosio, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    I review rare kaon decays. I introduce the flavor problem and p ossible solutions. Very rare kaon decays like K → π ν ̄ ν are very important to this purpose but also K → π l + l − . A new interesting channel is K → π π ee . Chiral dynamics is important to disentangle short distanc e effects. We discuss also the decays K 0 → μ + μ − , which have received recently some attention due to the measurement by LHCB.therefore we will study also K L → π 0 e + e − , K + → π + π 0 γ , K + → π + π 0 e + e − and related channels

  18. The TRIUMF KAON Project

    Hasinoff, M.D.

    1992-08-01

    The TRIUMF KAON project is briefly described along with an overview of the basic physics program. Special emphasis is given to the possibilities for rare K/μ decays, CP-violation and neutrino physics. An update of the current funding situation is also presented. 27 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Measurement of the branching ratio of the long lived neutral kaon decay into a muon pair and a photon, and development of a trigger system in the NA48 experiment at CERN

    Schanne, S.

    1997-01-01

    The study of direct CP violation in the neutral K meson system is the primary goal of the high precision NA 48 experiment at CERN, based on a spectrometer and a liquid krypton calorimeter. This experiment is also sensitive to rare kaon decays, in particular the one of the K L into a muon pair and a photon, discussed on the first part of he dissertation. The second part presents a detailed description on the second level 'charged' trigger system of the experiment, operating at a 100 kHz event input rate. Its aim is to select the decays of K L or K S into a pair of charged pions, based on a high speed digital signal processor farm performing the online reconstruction of the invariant mass of an event in less than 100 microseconds, using the spectrometer data for an efficient rejection of the physical backgrounds. The reconstruction algorithm, the realization of the farm and its performances are presented. The third part determines a measurement of the branching ratio of the K L decay into a pair of muons and a proton using the data taken in 1995. 59 signal events are found containing a background estimated to 14. The results is (3.4±0.6 (stat) ± 0.4 (syst) x 10 -7 and allows the determination of the value of the ratio between the coupling constants of the weak non leptonic transitions through vector and pseudo-scalar intermediate states α K = 0.048680 .21 +024 . A search for decays of K l into two muons and two electrons has been performed. No candidate has been found. An upper limit for the branching fraction of the process of 3.8 x 10 -8 at a 90 % confidence level is obtained. (author)

  20. The TRIUMF KAON Factory

    Craddock, M.

    1989-05-01

    TRIUMF has been awarded $11M for a one-year pre-construction Engineering Design and Impact Study of the KAON Factory. This will enable prototypes of many accelerator components to be built and the design of the accelerators and the layout of the experimental areas to be reviewed. The building and tunnel designs will be finalized, environmental, legal and economic impact studies carried out, and international involvement pursued further

  1. How Short-Lived Ikaite Affects Calcite Crystallization

    Besselink, R; Rodriguez-Blanco, JD; Stawski, TM; Benning, LG; Tobler, DJ

    2017-01-01

    The pathways of CaCO3 crystallization are manifold, often involving one or several metastable amorphous or nanocrystalline intermediate phases. The presence of such intermediates is often overlooked, because they are short-lived and/or occur at small molar fractions. However, their occurrence does not just impact the mechanisms and pathways of formation of the final stable CaCO3 phase, but also affects their crystal size, shape, and structure. Here we document the presence of a short-lived in...

  2. A kaon physics program at the Fermilab Main Injector

    Cooper, Peter

    1997-11-01

    In this paper we describe a triad of kaon experiments which will form the foundation of a kaon physics program at Fermilab in the Main Injector era. These three experiments; KAMI, CKM and CPT, span the range of experiment types discussed above. KAMI will use the existing neutral kaon beam and the KTeV detector as the basis of a search for the Standard Model ultra rare decay K L → π 0 ν anti ν decay mode is by far the theoretically cleanest measurement of the Standard Model parameter responsible for CP violation. CKM will measure the analogous charged kaon decay mode. Together these two experiments will determine the Standard Model contribution to CP violation independent of the B meson sector. The Standard Model parameters controlling CP violation must be observed to be the same in the K and B meson sectors in order to confirm the Standard Model as the sole source of CP violation in nature. CPT is a hybrid beam experiment using a high purity K + beam to produce a pure K 0 beam in order to search for violation of CPT symmetry at a mass scale up to the Planck mass. CPT also will measure new CP violation parameters to test the Standard Model and search for rare K S decays. The Fermilab infrastructure for such a physics program largely already exists. The Main Injector will be an existing accelerator by late 1998 with beam properties comparable to any of the previous ''kaon factory'' proposals. The KTeV detector and neutral kaon beamline are unsurpassed in the world and were originally designed to also operate with the 120 GeV Main Injector beam as KAMI. The Fermilab Meson laboratory was originally designed as an area for fixed target experiments using 200 GeV proton beams. The charged kaon beam experiments will naturally find a home there. Both charged kaon experiments, CKM and CPT, will share a new high purity RF separated charged kaon beam based on superconducting RF technology which will provide the highest intensity and purity charged kaon beam in the world

  3. Test of local realism with entangled kaon pairs and without inequalities

    Bramon, Albert; Garbarino, Gianni

    2002-01-01

    We propose the use of entangled pairs of neutral kaons, considered as a promising tool to close the well known loopholes affecting generic Bell's inequality tests, in a specific Hardy-type experiment. Hardy's contradiction without inequalities between local realism and quantum mechanics can be translated into a feasible experiment by requiring ideal detection efficiencies for only one of the observables to be alternatively measured. Neutral kaons are near to fulfill this requirement and therefore to close the efficiency loophole

  4. Study of charged kaon production in three-prong tau decays

    Hao Wei.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis presents the measurement of kaon production in 3-prong τ decays. The data sample of Z 0 events is used that was recorded with the DELPHI detector at LEP in 1992, 1993 and 1994. Charged kaons in the τ decay are identified on a track-by-track basis using the Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector (RICH). The branching ratios of τ - →K - K + π - (neutrals) ν τ and τ - →K - π + π - (neutrals) ν τ are determined. The resonance structure of these two decays is studied. Evidence for a simple QCD process of kaon pair production in τ decay is discussed. (orig.)

  5. Short-lived positron emitter labeled radiotracers - present status

    Fowler, J.S.; Wolf, A.P.

    1982-01-01

    The preparation of labelled compounds is important for the application of positron emission transaxial tomography (PETT) in biomedical sciences. This paper describes problems and progress in the synthesis of short-lived positron emitter ( 11 C, 18 F, 13 N) labelled tracers for PETT. Synthesis of labelled sugars, amino acids, and neurotransmitter receptors (pimozide and spiroperidol tagged with 11 C) is discussed in particular

  6. Measurement of short-lived particles at PETRA

    Saxon, D.H.

    1987-04-01

    The contribution of PETRA to the measurement of short-lived particles is reviewed with discussion of the detectors and analysis techniques. New results are presented on lifetimes of identified particles and the systematics of b-life measurement outlined. The first application of vertex-tagging to flavour separation is described. (author)

  7. Fast Resonance Raman Spectroscopy of Short-Lived Radicals

    Pagsberg, Palle Bjørn; Wilbrandt, Robert Walter; Hansen, Karina Benthin

    1976-01-01

    We report the first application of pulsed resonance Raman spectroscopy to the study of short-lived free radicals produced by pulse radiolysis. A single pulse from a flash-lamp pumped tunable dye laser is used to excite the resonance Raman spectrum of the p-terphenyl anion radical with an initial...

  8. Applications of nuclear data on short-lived fission products

    Rudstam, G.; Aagaard, P.; Aleklett, K.; Lund, E.

    1981-01-01

    The study of short-lived fission products gives information about the nuclear structure on the neutron-rich side of stability. The data are also of interest for various applications both to basic science and to nuclear technology. Some of these applications, taken up by the OSIRIS group at Studsvik, are described in the present contribution. (orig.)

  9. Soot and short-lived pollutants provide political opportunity

    Victor, David G.; Zaelke, Durwood; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran

    2015-09-01

    Cutting levels of soot and other short-lived pollutants delivers tangible benefits and helps governments to build confidence that collective action on climate change is feasible. After the Paris climate meeting this December, actually reducing these pollutants will be essential to the credibility of the diplomatic process.

  10. CP violation in the neutral kaon system

    Aslanides, E.

    1994-01-01

    A short description of the K 0 system is given in order to review the known and to identify the missing observables. The review of the most recent results and of the experiments in preparation illustrates the complementarity between the classical, regenerator type, studies and the new approach using initially pure K 0 and K-bar 0 beams. (author)

  11. NEUTRAL KAON PHOTOPRODUCTION AT LNS, TOHOKU UNIVERSITY

    Kaneta, M.; Chiga, N.; Beckford, B.; Ejima, M.; Fujii, T.; Fujii, Y.; Fujibayashi, T.; Gogami, T.; Futatsukawa, K.; Hashimoto, O.; Hosomi, K.; Hirose, K.; Iguchi, A.; Kameoka, S.; Kanda, H.; Kato, H.; Kawama, D.; Kawasaki, T.; Kimura, C.; Kiyokawa, S.; Koike, T.; Kon, T.; Ma, Y.; Maeda, K.; Maruyama, N.; Matsumura, A.; Miyagi, Y.; Miura, Y.; Miwa, K.; Nakamura, S. N.; Nomura, H.; Okuyama, A.; Ohtani, A.; Otani, T.; Sato, M.; Shichijo, A.; Shirotori, K.; Takahashi, T.; Tamura, H.; Taniya, N.; Tsubota, H.; Tsukada, K.; Terada, N.; Ukai, M.; Uchida, D.; Watanabe, T.; Yamamoto, T.; Yamauchi, H.; Yokota, K.; Ishikawa, T.; Kinoshita, T.; Miyahara, H.; Nakabayashi, T.; Shimizu, H.; Suzuki, K.; Tamae, T.; Terasawa, T.; Yamazaki, H.; Han, Y. C.; Wang, T. S.; Sasaki, A.; Konno, O.; Bydžovský, Petr; Sotona, Miloslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 12 (2010), s. 2355-2362 ISSN 0218-3013. [Sendai International Conference on Strangeness in Nuclear and Hadronic Systems. Sendai, 15.12.2008-18.12.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/2142; GA ČR GA202/08/0984 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Strangeness * photoproduction Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.695, year: 2010

  12. TRIUMF: Kaon factory physics

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The second TRIUMF Kaon Factory Physics Workshop was held on 10-14 August, 1981. About a hundred physicists participated in the meeting, which consisted of fifteen invited talks and four afternoon workshop sessions, and proved to be a stimulating and productive event. The discussions centred on identifying the most important physics that could be studied with a machine providing an increase in intensity of two orders of magnitude in primary proton beam over present accelerators in the energy range 8 to 20 GeV, and on establishing some preliminary guidelines on the desirable properties of secondary beams at such a machine

  13. The TRIUMF KAON factory

    Craddock, M.K.

    1991-05-01

    The TRIUMF KAON Factory is designed to produce beams of kaons, antiprotons, other hadrons and neutrinos 100 times more intense, or cleaner, than are available now, for a broad range of particle and nuclear physics experiments. This will require a 100 μA beam of 30 GeV protons, to be produced by an interleaved sequence of two fast-cycling synchrotrons and three storage rings, with the existing TRIUMF H - cyclotron as injector. An $11-million preconstruction study has enabled the overall design to be reviewed and prototypes of various components to be built and evaluated -fast-cycling dipole and quadrupole magnets, a dual-frequency magnet power supply, ceramic beam pipes with internal RF shields, an RF cavity (using perpendicular bias), an extraction kicker, and RF beam chopper, and production targets. Environmental, industrial and economic impact studies have also been completed and the cost estimates and schedule updated. The total cost of $708 million (Canadian) will be shared equally between Canada, British Columbia (already approved) and international contributors. The federal decision is expected shortly. (Author) 29 refs., 5 figs

  14. The TRIUMF KAON Factory

    Craddock, M.K.

    1990-11-01

    The TRIUMF KAON Factory is designed to produce beams of kaons, antiprotons, other hadrons and neutrinos 100 times more intense, or cleaner, than are available now, for a broad range of experiments in particle and nuclear physics. This will require a 100 μA beam of 30 GeV protons, to be produced by an interleaved sequence of two fast-cycling synchrotrons and three storage rings, with the existing TRIUMF H - cyclotron as injector. An $11-million preconstruction study has enabled the overall design to be reviewed and prototypes of various accelerator components to be built and evaluated. Environmental, industrial and economic impact studies have also been completed. Payment of one-third of the total cost of $708 million (Canadian) has been approved by the government of British Columbia; a further third is expected from international sources, on the basis of inter-governmental consultations. A decision on the final third is expected from the government of Canada before the end of 1990. (Author) (15 refs., 7 figs.)

  15. Kaon Interference in the Hadronic Decays of the $Z^{0}$

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Agasi, E; Aleksan, Roy; Alekseev, G D; Alemany, R; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Amaldi, Ugo; Amato, S; Andreazza, A; Andrieux, M L; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barate, R; Barbi, M S; Barbiellini, Guido; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Baroncelli, A; Bärring, O; Barrio, J A; Bartl, Walter; Bates, M J; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Baudot, J; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Belous, K S; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Berggren, M; Bertini, D; Bertrand, D; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Billoir, P; Bloch, D; Blume, M; Blyth, S; Bolognese, T; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Bosworth, S; Botner, O; Boudinov, E; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brand, K D; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Bricman, C; Brillault, L; Brown, R C A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschmann, P; Buys, A; Cabrera, S; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camacho-Rozas, A J; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Canepa, M; Cankocak, K; Cao, F; Carena, F; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Chabaud, V; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Chauveau, J; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chen, M; Chierici, R; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Chudoba, J; Cindro, V; Collins, P; Contreras, J L; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; Dahl-Jensen, Erik; Dahm, J; D'Almagne, B; Dam, M; Damgaard, G; Dauncey, P D; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Defoix, C; Deghorain, A; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Brabandere, S; De Clercq, C; La Vaissière, C de; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; De Saint-Jean, C; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Djama, F; Dolbeau, J; Dönszelmann, M; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Drees, K A; Dris, M; Durand, J D; Edsall, D M; Ehret, R; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, Michael; Fenyuk, A; Ferrer, A; Fichet, S; Filippas-Tassos, A; Firestone, A; Fischer, P A; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Formenti, F; Franek, B J; Frenkiel, P; Fries, D E C; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gandelman, M; García, C; García, J; Gaspar, C; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Gerber, J P; Gerdyukov, L N; Gibbs, M; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Gumenyuk, S A; Gunnarsson, P; Günther, M; Guy, J; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Hajduk, Z; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hao, W; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Henriques, R P; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Higón, E; Hilke, Hans Jürgen; Hill, T S; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Holthuizen, D J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, L B; Jönsson, P E; Joram, Christian; Juillot, P; Kaiser, M; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Karlsson, M; Karvelas, E; Katargin, A; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; King, B J; Kjaer, N J; Klein, H; Klovning, A; Kluit, P M; Köne, B; Kokkinias, P; Koratzinos, M; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Kramer, P H; Krammer, Manfred; Kreuter, C; Kronkvist, I J; Krumshtein, Z; Krupinski, W; Kubinec, P; Kucewicz, W; Kurvinen, K L; Lacasta, C; Laktineh, I; Lamblot, S; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Lapin, V; Last, I; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Legan, C K; Leitner, R; Lemoigne, Y; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Liko, D; Lindner, R; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Loken, J G; López, J M; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Maehlum, G; Maio, A; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R P; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Maron, T; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Masik, J; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; Medbo, J; Merk, M; Meroni, C; Meyer, S; Meyer, W T; Myagkov, A; Michelotto, M; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Morettini, P; Müller, H; Mundim, L M; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Naraghi, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Nawrocki, K; Negri, P; Neumann, W; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nieuwenhuizen, M; Nikolaenko, V; Niss, P; Nomerotski, A; Normand, Ainsley; Novák, M; Oberschulte-Beckmann, W; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganini, P; Paganoni, M; Pagès, P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Papageorgiou, K; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Passeri, A; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Perevozchikov, V; Pernegger, H; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Petrovykh, M; Phillips, H T; Piana, G; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Pindo, M; Plaszczynski, S; Podobrin, O; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Prest, M; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Reale, M; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Reid, D; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Richardson, J; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Ripp, I; Romero, A; Roncagliolo, I; Ronchese, P; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Rosso, E; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Rückstuhl, W; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sahr, O; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sánchez, J; Sannino, M; Schimmelpfennig, M; Schneider, H; Schwickerath, U; Schyns, M A E; Sciolla, G; Scuri, F; Seager, P; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Seitz, A; Sekulin, R L; Shellard, R C; Siccama, I; Siegrist, P; Simonetti, S; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Sitár, B; Skaali, T B; Smadja, G; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Solokov, A; Sosnowski, R; Souza-Santos, D; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Sponholz, P; Squarcia, S; Stanescu, C; Stapnes, Steinar; Stavitski, I; Stichelbaut, F; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tavernet, J P; Tilquin, A; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Todorov, T; Todorova, S; Toet, D Z; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Trischuk, W; Tristram, G; Trombini, A; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyndel, M; Tzamarias, S; Überschär, B; Ullaland, O; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; Van der Velde, C; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Van Doninck, W K; Van Eldik, J; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Vilanova, D; Vincent, P; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Weierstall, M; Weilhammer, Peter; Weiser, C; Wetherell, Alan M; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wielers, M; Wilkinson, G R; Williams, W S C; Winter, M; Witek, M; Woschnagg, K; Yip, K; Yushchenko, O P; Zach, F; Zaitsev, A; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zito, M; Zontar, D; Zuberi, R; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G

    1996-01-01

    The first measurement of like-sign charged kaon correlations in hadronic decays of the Z$^0$ is presented, based on data collected by the DELPHI detector. The charged kaons are identified by means of ring imaging Cherenkov detectors. A significant enhancement at small values of the four-momentum difference is observed in the ratio of like-sign to unlike-sign KK pairs and in the ratio of like-sign pairs to a simulated reference sample. An update of the measurement of \\ksks~interference is also presented. An enhancement is found in the production of pairs of \\kos of similar momenta, as compared with a simulated reference sample. The measured Bose-Einstein correlation parameters $\\lambda$ and $r$ are similar for charged and neutral kaon pairs. The value of the Bose-Einstein correlation strength $\\lambda$ is consistent with unity.

  16. Passive Mobile Bandwidth Classification Using Short Lived TCP Connections

    Michelinakis, Foivos; Kreitz, Gunnar; Petrocco, Riccardo; Zhang, Boxun; Widmer, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of multimedia content is moving from a residential environment to mobile phones. Optimizing Quality of Experience—smooth, quick, and high quality playback—is more difficult in this setting, due to the highly dynamic nature of wireless links. A key requirement for achieving this goal is estimating the available bandwidth of mobile devices. Ideally, this should be done quickly and with low overhead. One challenge is that the majority of connections on mobiles are short-lived TCP con...

  17. Tau decays into kaons in DELPHI

    Ruckstuhl, W.

    1994-01-01

    Exclusive and inclusive branching ratios of several τ decays with kaons in the final state have been measured using data collected with the DELPHI detector. Charged kaons are tagged over a large momentum range by the Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector, and the secondary vertices of K s 0 decays into charged pions are reconstructed. The result BR(τ→Kν)=(0.85±0.18)% is in agreement with the Standard Model prediction based on τ-μ-e universality. The branching ratio BR(τ→K ' v)=(1.71±0.36)% is a combination of two independent measurements in the π ± K s 0 and the K ± π 0 mode. Also inclusive branching ratio were measured: BR(τ→Kv≥0 neutrals)=(1.54±0.24)%, BR(τ→Kv≥1 neutrals)=(0.64±0.24)% and BR(τ→K s 0 X ± v)=(0.99±0.19)%. The uncertainties of all results are dominated by statistics. (orig.)

  18. Collins and Sivers asymmetries in muonproduction of pions and kaons off transversely polarised proton

    Adolph, C.; Alexeev, M G; Alexeev, G D; Amoroso, A; Andrieux, V; Anosov, V; Austregesilo, A; Badełek, B; Balestra, F; Barth, J; Baum, G; Beck, R; Bedfer, Y; Berlin, A; Bernhard, J; Bicker, K; Bieling, J; Birsa, R; Bisplinghoff, J; Bodlak, M; Boer, M; Bordalo, P; Bradamante, F; Braun, C; Bressan, A; Büchele, M; Burtin, E; Capozza, L; Chiosso, M; Chung, S U; Cicuttin, A; Crespo, M L; Curiel, Q; Dalla Torre, S; Dasgupta, S S; Dasgupta, S; Denisov, O Yu; Donskov, S V; Doshita, N; Duic, V; Dünnweber, W; Dziewiecki, M; Efremov, A; Elia, C; Eversheim, P D; Eyrich, W; Faessler, M; Ferrero, A; Filin, A; Finger, M; Finger jr , M; Fischer, H; Franco, C; du Fresne von Hohenesche, N; Friedrich, J M; Frolov, V; Gautheron, F; Gavrichtchouk, O P; Gerassimov, S; Geyer, R; Gnesi, I; Gobbo, B; Goertz, S; Gorzellik, M; Grabmüller, S; Grasso, A; Grube, B; Grussenmeyer, T; Guskov, A; Guthörl, T; Haas, F; von Harrach, D; Hahne, D; Hashimoto, R; Heinsius, F H; Herrmann, F; Hinterberger, F; Höppner, Ch; Horikawa, N; d'Hose, N; Huber, S; Ishimoto, S; Ivanov, A; Ivanshin, Yu; Iwata, T; Jahn, R; Jary, V; Jasinski, P; Jörg, P; Joosten, R; Kabuß, E; Ketzer, B; Khaustov, G V; Khokhlov, Yu A; Kisselev, Yu; Klein, F; Klimaszewski, K; Koivuniemi, J H; Kolosov, V N; Kondo, K; Königsmann, K; Konorov, I; Konstantinov, V F; Kotzinian, A M; Kouznetsov, O; Krämer, M; Kroumchtein, Z V; Kuchinski, N; Kunne, F; Kurek, K; Kurjata, R P; Lednev, A A; Lehmann, A; Levillain, M; Levorato, S; Lichtenstadt, J; Maggiora, A; Magnon, A; Makke, N; Mallot, G K; Marchand, C; Martin, A; Marzec, J; Matousek, J; Matsuda, H; Matsuda, T; Meshcheryakov, G; Meyer, W; Michigami, T; Mikhailov, Yu V; Miyachi, Y; Nagaytsev, A; Nagel, T; Nerling, F; Neubert, S; Neyret, D; Nikolaenko, V I; Novy, J; Nowak, W -D; Nunes, A S; Olshevsky, A G; Orlov, I; Ostrick, M; Panknin, R; Panzieri, D; Parsamyan, B; Paul, S; Peshekhonov, D V; Platchkov, S; Pochodzalla, J; Polyakov, V A; Pretz, J; Quaresma, M; Quintans, C; Ramos, S; Regali, C; Reicherz, G; Rocco, E; Rossiyskaya, N S; Ryabchikov, D I; Rychter, A; Samoylenko, V D; Sandacz, A; Sarkar, S; Savin, I A; Sbrizzai, G; Schiavon, P; Schill, C; Schlüter, T; Schmidt, K; Schmieden, H; Schönning, K; Schopferer, S; Schott, M; Shevchenko, O Yu; Silva, L; Sinha, L; Sirtl, S; Slunecka, M; Sosio, S; Sozzi, F; Srnka, A; Steiger, L; Stolarski, M; Sulc, M; Sulej, R; Suzuki, H; Szabelski, A; Szameitat, T; Sznajder, P; Takekawa, S; ter Wolbeek, J; Tessaro, S; Tessarotto, F; Thibaud, F; Uhl, S; Uman, I; Virius, M; Wang, L; Weisrock, T; Wilfert, M; Windmolders, R; Wollny, H; Zaremba, K; Zavertyaev, M; Zemlyanichkina, E; Ziembicki, M; Zink, A

    2015-03-31

    Measurements of the Collins and Sivers asymmetries for charged pions and charged and neutral kaons produced in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering of high energy muons off transversely polarised protons are presented. The results were obtained using all the available COMPASS proton data, which were taken in the years 2007 and 2010. The Collins asymmetries exhibit in the valence region a non-zero signal for pions and there are hints of non-zero signal also for kaons. The Sivers asymmetries are found to be positive for positive pions and kaons and compatible with zero otherwise.

  19. Short-lived radiopharmaceuticals for the diagnosis of ocular melanoma

    Packer, S.; Lambrecht, R.; Atkins, H.L.; Wolf, A.P.

    1974-01-01

    An experimental procedure has been established to evaluate radiopharmaceuticals for the specific purpose of melanoma detection by scintiscanning. By using the Greene melanoma in the hamster several labeled compounds were compared. Specifically the tumor uptake along with detailed analyses of uptake by various parts of the eye and body were determined in a hamster model. Of those short-lived radionuclides investigated 203 Pb-tris was the most promising as a non-invasive localizing agent for ocular melanoma and it should prove effective for ocular scintigraphy. (U.S.)

  20. Feasibility of short-lived radionuclide production at Fermilab

    Ten Haken, R.K.; Awschalom, M.; Rosenberg, I.

    1985-01-01

    The requirements for establishing a short-lived radionuclide production program at Fermilab are explored. Such a program would utilize beam from the linac portion of the injector much like the present Neutron Therapy Facility. It should be possible to use approximately 10 to 20 μA of 66-MeV protons for iodine-123 production. Several additional magnets would need to be acquired and a shielded target facility would need to be constructed. However, the feasibility of establishing such a program hinges upon its harmonious operation with the high energy physics program

  1. TRIUMF: Regional government offers KAON operating costs

    Anon.

    1992-09-15

    After a period of uncertainty, confidence in the major KAON project for the Canadian TRIUMF Laboratory in Vancouver was boosted on 28 May at a rally of about a thousand KAON supporters in downtown Vancouver when the regional government of British Columbia announced its willingness to pay part of KAON's operating costs.

  2. TRIUMF: Regional government offers KAON operating costs

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    After a period of uncertainty, confidence in the major KAON project for the Canadian TRIUMF Laboratory in Vancouver was boosted on 28 May at a rally of about a thousand KAON supporters in downtown Vancouver when the regional government of British Columbia announced its willingness to pay part of KAON's operating costs

  3. Are crab-type supernova remnants (plerions) short-lived

    Weiler, K.W.; Panagia, N.

    1978-01-01

    Arguments are given for a possible picture of the origin, maintenance, and lifetimes of the so-called Crab-like supernova remnants. It is suggested that these objects imply the existence of at least two distinct types of supernova events. A possible connection of the remnant types with the optically defined supernovae of Type I and Type II is discussed. Accepting that a pulsar is formed in at least some supernova events, the proposal is made that a rapidly rotating, rapidly slowing pulsar is necessary to create and maintain a Crab-like supernova remnant. Finally, arguments are presented that such a supernova remnant will be relatively short lived with respect to the more common shell-type of supernova remnant, perhaps surviving only 10000-20000 yr before fading into the Galactic background. The name of plerion is proposed for these filled-center supernova remnants and observational possiblities for confirming their nature are suggested. (orig.) [de

  4. Kinetic aspects of the syntheses using short-lived radionuclides

    Laangstroem, B.; Obenius, U.; Sjoeberg, S.; Bergson, G.

    1981-01-01

    In syntheses using short-lived radionuclides, such as 11 C, the reaction conditions are usually such that the concentrations of the reactants, except for the labelled reactant, can be considered constant during the reaction. Two kinetic models have been investigated - irreversible and reversible bimolecular elementary reactions. The influence of the rate constants, of the equilibrium constants, and of the ratio between the starting reactants on the yield of the labelled product has been studied. The results show that, even in cases with unfavourable equilibrium constants, high yields of the labelled products can be obtained if the rate constant for the forward reaction is large. In addition, the specific activity of the labelled product as a function of time has been studied for the irreversible bimolecular case. (author)

  5. Electron scattering off short-lived radioactive nuclei

    Wang, S.; Emoto, T.; Furukawa, Y.

    2009-01-01

    We have established a novel method which make electron scattering off short-lived radioactive nuclei come into being. This novel method was named SCRIT (Self-Confining RI ion Target). It was based on the well known "ion trapping" phenomenon in electron storage rings. Stable nucleus, 133 Cs, was used as target nucleus in the R&D experiment. The luminosity of interaction between stored electrons and Cs ions was about 1.02(0.06) × 10 26 cm -2 s -1 at beam current around 80 mA. The angular distribution of elastically scattered electrons from trapped Cs ions was measured. And an online luminosity monitor was used to monitor the change of luminosity during the experiment. (author)

  6. Organic synthesis with short-lived positron-emitting radioisotopes

    Pike, V.W.

    1988-01-01

    Chemistry with short-lived positron-emitting radioisotopes of the non-metals, principally 11 C, 13 N and 18 F, has burgeoned over the last decade. This has been almost entirely because of the emergence of positron emission tomography (PET) as a powerful non-invasive technique for investigating pathophysiology in living man. PET is essentially an external technique for the rapid serial reconstruction of the spatial distribution of any positron-emitting radioisotope that has been administered in vivo. Such a distribution is primarily governed by the chemical form in which the positron-emitting radioisotope is incorporated, and importantly for clinical research, is often perturbed by physical, biological or clinical factors. Judicious choice of the chemical form enables specific biological information to be obtained. For example, the labelling of glucose with a positron-emitting radioisotope could be expected to provide a radiopharmaceutical for the study of glucose utilisation in both health and disease. (author)

  7. Activation analysis with neutron generators using short-lived radionuclides

    Salma, I.

    1993-01-01

    The short half-life involves a number of important differences in production, transportation and measurement of radionuclides, and in counting statistics as compared with those in traditional activation analysis. Experiments were performed to investigate the analytical possibilities and prospective utilization of short-lived radionuclides produced by 14-MeV neutron irradiation. A rapid pneumatic transfer system for use with neutron generators was installed and applied for detecting radionuclides with a half-life from 300 ms to 30 s. The transport time for samples with a total mass of 1-4 g is between 130 and 160 ms for pressurized air of 0.1-0.4 MPa. 11 elements were studied by the conventional activation method using both a typical pneumatic transport system (run time 3 s) and the fast pneumatic transport facility. The effect of the cyclic activation technique on the elemental sensitivities was also investigated. (orig.)

  8. Nondispersive x-ray diagnostics of short lived plasmas

    Day, R.H.

    1983-01-01

    In this NATO Advanced Study Institute, we have discussed in detail the diagnosis of many pulse power machine properties, including their electrical behavior, grounding and shielding, and related data acquisition techniques. The purpose for many of these machines is to create high temperature/high density plasmas and, therefore, the subsequent behavior of these plasmas is of critical concern. The energy density of these plasmas is such that they will naturally radiate in the x-ray regime and thus the diagnosis of their x-ray emission is a crucial measurement of the entire system performance. In this lecture, I describe the general techniques used to perform nondispersive x-ray diagnostics of these short lived plasmas

  9. Study on the production of charged and neutral kaons in Au+Au at 1.23A GeV with HADES; Untersuchung zur Produktion von geladenen und neutralen Kaonen in Au+Au bei 1.23A GeV mit HADES

    Gill, Katharina

    2013-06-06

    V/c{sup 2} with a width of σ=(28.7±1.6) MeV/c{sup 2} was identified. Up to now, the negatively charged kaons could only be identified at small polar angles of the detector. The width of the K{sup -} signal was determined to be σ(14.8±0.8) MeV/c{sup 2}. The neutrally charged kaons were reconstructed via their decay products π{sup +} and π{sup -} by using the invariant mass method. The charged pions were selected by applying cuts on their track reconstruction quality as well as the velocity in the momentum spectrum. For background rejection in the K{sub S}{sup 0} signal region, topological cuts on the decay and production vertices were used. The combinatorial background is described by an exponential or polynomial function. Within this analysis, 7.1.10{sup 4} K{sub S}{sup 0}-mesons have been reconstructed with a signal-to-background ratio of 16.5, with a mass peak at M=(493.2±0.4) MeV/c{sup 2} and a width of σ=(10.8±1.0) MeV/c{sup 2}. Using the UrQMD and GEANT simulation packages with an equivalently composed dataset tested by the same analysis strategy, the identified kaons could be corrected for the detector acceptance as well as the detector, cut and reconstruction efficiencies. Therefore, the production rates of kaons per heavy-ion collision resulted in (1.6±0.4).10{sup -3} for K{sup +}, (4.5±1.0).10{sup -5} for K{sup -} and (7.5±0.6).10{sup -4} for K{sub S}{sup 0}. The preliminary K{sup 0}/K{sup +} and K{sup -}/K{sup +} particle ratios were found to be 0.94±0.30 and (2.82±1.29).10{sup -2}, correspondingly, and lie in the order of the expected values as predicted by the statistical hadronization model and the microscopic transport model. Final conclusions, however, can only be drawn when further improvements will be realized in the future, such as final detector calibration, track reconstruction and an improved description of detector performance in the simulation.

  10. Rare pion and kaon decays

    Bryman, D.

    1983-09-01

    Some rare pion and kaon decays, which provide clues to the generation puzzle, are discussed. The π→ eν/π→μ/ν branching ratio test of universality and the status of searches for K + → π + rho anti rho are reviewed

  11. A kaon facility for TRIUMF

    Craddock, M.K.

    1982-08-01

    A proposal is in preparation at TRIUMF for a 10-15 GeV, 100 μA proton accelerator as the basis of a kaon factory to yield beams of kaons, neutrinos and other secondary particles 100 to 1000 times more intense or with much better purity than those available at present. A whole range of new measurements would become possible in both particle and nuclear physics, e.g. symmetry violations in kaon decay, neutrino scattering, meson and baryon spectroscopy, hypernuclei, exotic atoms, K + studies of nuclear density, and resonance propagation in nuclei. A number of specimen experimental proposals is in preparation. Two options appear to be open for the 15 GeV accelerator. One would be a 30 Hz rapid-cycling proton synchrotron with separate accumulator and stretcher rings mounted in the same 80 m radius tunnel. The other would be a two-stage isochronous ring cyclotron using 5 T superconducting dc magnets. The first stage would be a 15 sector, 10 m radius machine going to 3.5 GeV, while the second stage of 42 sectors and 41 m radius would continue to full energy. The design of kaon beams of greater purity is also under way

  12. The discovery of coloured kaons

    Feldman, G.

    1976-01-01

    The recently discovered M(1.86) mesons may be coloured kaons and a weak interaction in Han-Nambu theory is proposed which has the required general properties and forces the charged M particle to decay into the observed exotic state. (Auth.)

  13. Production of medical short-lived radionuclides in Canada

    Wiebe, L.I.

    1985-01-01

    The production of radionuclides for medical and biomedical research in Canada has been reviewed with respect to the national geographic and demographic characteristics which influence their use. The types of facilities available for the production of short-lived radionuclides have been summarized, and a tabulation of the radionuclides that are produced has been presented. In broad terms production facilities can be classified as belonging to one of two groups, nuclear reactor or charged-particle accelerators. The charged-particle accelerators produce the more neutron-deficient and (because of the resultant decay properties) the more useful radionuclides for medical application. The nuclear reactor facilities for radionuclide production range in size and capacity from the high-flux research reactors of AECL to the six SLOWPOKE reactors, five of which are located on university campuses across the country. The McMaster University reactor is used to produce curie quantities of fluorine-18 weekly. Millicurie amounts of a large number of radionuclides, most of which have half-lives ranging from 2 to 50 hr, are produced in the low-flux reactors, in support of basic medical research

  14. Contribution of short-lived nuclides to decay heat

    Katakura, Jun-ichi

    1987-01-01

    Comments are made on the calculation of decay heat, centering on evaluation of average decay energy. It is difficult to obtain sufficiently useful decay diagrams of short lived nucleides. High-energy levels are often missing in inferior decay diagrams, leading to an overestimation of the intensity of beta-rays at low-energy levels. Such an overestimation or underestimation due to the inferiority of a decay diagram is referred to as pandemonium effect. The pandemonium effect can be assessed by means of the ratio of the measured energy of the highest level of the daughter nuclide to the Q β -value of the beta-decay. When a satisfactory decay diagram cannot be obtained, the average decay energy has to be estimated by theoretical calculation. The gross theory for beta-decay proposed by Yamada and Takahashi is employed for the calculation. To carry out the calculation according to this theory, it is required to determine the value for the parameter Q 00 , the lowest energy of the daughter nuclide that meets the selection rule for beta-decay. Currently, Q 00 to be used for this purpose is estimated from data on the energy of the lowest level found in a decay diagram, even if it is inferior. Some examples of calculation of decay heat using the average beta- or gamma-ray energy are shown and compared with measurements. (author)

  15. Changing-Look AGNs or Short-Lived Radio Sources?

    Wołowska, Aleksandra [Toruń Centre for Astronomy, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Toruń (Poland); Kunert-Bajraszewska, Magdalena; Mooley, Kunal [Centre for Astrophysical Surveys, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Hallinan, Gregg, E-mail: ola@astro.umk.pl [Cahill Center for Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2017-11-17

    The evolution of extragalactic radio sources has been a fundamental problem in the study of active galactic nuclei for many years. A standard evolutionary model has been created based on observations of a wide range of radio sources. In the general scenario of the evolution, the younger and smaller Gigahertz-Peaked Spectrum (GPS) and Compact Steep Spectrum (CSS) sources become large-scale FRI and FRII objects. However, a growing number of observations of low power radio sources suggests that the model cannot explain all their properties and there are still some aspects of the evolutionary path that remain unclear. There are indications, that some sources may be short-lived objects on timescales of 10{sup 4}–10{sup 5} years. Those objects represent a new population of active galaxies. Here, we present the discovery of several radio transient sources on timescales of 5–20 yrs, largely associated with renewed AGN (Active Galactic Nucleus) activity. These changing-look AGNs possibly represent behavior typical for many active galaxies.

  16. Emission channeling lattice location experiments with short-lived isotopes

    Wahl, U; Ronning, C R

    2007-01-01

    Emission channeling with position-sensitive detectors is a well-established technique at ISOLDE for studying the lattice location of radioactive impurities implanted into single crystals. In the case of electron emitting isotopes, however, due to count rate and noise-related limitations of the detection systems, the technique was restricted to isotopes with half lives above 6 h and electron energies above 40 keV. Recently, major technical developments have been realized and new equipment has been acquired which has allowed these limitations to be overcome and made feasible electron emission channeling experiments with short-lived isotopes and at low electron energies.\\\\ As first application, making use of two new on-line emission channeling setups at ISOLDE, we propose to investigate the lattice location of the transition metals Ni (2.5 h) and Co (1.6 h) in semiconductors, in particular in ZnO and GaN, by means of on-line $\\beta^{-}$-emission channeling experiments. In addition, we would like to study the lat...

  17. Quantifying short-lived events in multistate ionic current measurements.

    Balijepalli, Arvind; Ettedgui, Jessica; Cornio, Andrew T; Robertson, Joseph W F; Cheung, Kin P; Kasianowicz, John J; Vaz, Canute

    2014-02-25

    We developed a generalized technique to characterize polymer-nanopore interactions via single channel ionic current measurements. Physical interactions between analytes, such as DNA, proteins, or synthetic polymers, and a nanopore cause multiple discrete states in the current. We modeled the transitions of the current to individual states with an equivalent electrical circuit, which allowed us to describe the system response. This enabled the estimation of short-lived states that are presently not characterized by existing analysis techniques. Our approach considerably improves the range and resolution of single-molecule characterization with nanopores. For example, we characterized the residence times of synthetic polymers that are three times shorter than those estimated with existing algorithms. Because the molecule's residence time follows an exponential distribution, we recover nearly 20-fold more events per unit time that can be used for analysis. Furthermore, the measurement range was extended from 11 monomers to as few as 8. Finally, we applied this technique to recover a known sequence of single-stranded DNA from previously published ion channel recordings, identifying discrete current states with subpicoampere resolution.

  18. Fast neutron activation analysis using short-lived radionuclides

    Salma, I.; Zemplen-Papp, E.

    1993-01-01

    Fast neutron activation analysis experiments were performed to investigate the analytical possibilities and prospective utilization of short-lived activation products. A rapid pneumatic transfer system for use with neutron generators has been installed and applied for detecting radionuclides with a half-life from ∼300 ms to 20 s. The transport time for samples of total mass of 1-4 g is between 130 and 160 ms for pressurized air of 0.1-0.4 MPa. The reproducibility of transport times is less than 2%. The employed method of correcting time-dependent counting losses is based on the virtual pulse generator principle. The measuring equipment consists of CAMAC modules and a special gating circuit. Typical time distributions of counting losses are presented. The same 14 elements were studied by the conventional activation method (single irradiation and single counting) by both a typical pneumatic transport system (run time 3 s) and the fast pneumatic transport facility. Furthermore, the influence of the cyclic activation technique on the elemental sensitivities was investigated. (author) 15 refs.; 5 figs.; 3 tabs

  19. Short-lived radiopharmaceutical development at E.R. Squibb and Sons, Inc

    Loberg, M.D.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the present status and future plans of E.R. Squibb and Sons, Inc. as they relate to the development of short-lived radiopharmaceuticals. The advantages of short-lived radiopharmaceuticals are summarized as are the problems inherent in their manufacture, quality control, and distribution. The nuclear generator is advocated as the best means of distributing short-lived radiopharmaceuticals. The E.R. Squibb and Sons work with the 82 Sr → 82 Rb generator is summarized

  20. Study of charged kaon production in three-prong tau decays

    Hao Wei

    1996-02-01

    This thesis presents the measurement of kaon production in 3-prong {tau} decays. The data sample of Z{sup 0} events is used that was recorded with the DELPHI detector at LEP in 1992, 1993 and 1994. Charged kaons in the {tau} decay are identified on a track-by-track basis using the Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector (RICH). The branching ratios of {tau}{sup -}{yields}K{sup -}K{sup +}{pi}{sup -} (neutrals) {nu}{sub {tau}} and {tau}{sup -}{yields}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} (neutrals) {nu}{sub {tau}} are determined. The resonance structure of these two decays is studied. Evidence for a simple QCD process of kaon pair production in {tau} decay is discussed. (orig.).

  1. A kaon factory for TRIUMF

    Measday, D.F.

    1988-11-01

    The design study for the TRIUMF Kaon Factory has recently been funded. A short discussion of the scientific motivation is given first, followed by a brief description of the 30 GeV synchrotron which is being proposed. There will be five rings altogether using the present TRIUMF 500 MeV cyclotron as an injector. If the project is funded in 1990 the accelerators would be completed in 1995 or so, and the experimental programme would start a year later

  2. Pulsed neutron sources at KAON

    Thorson, I.M.; Egelstaff, P.A.; Craddock, M.K.

    1991-01-01

    The proposed KAON Factory facility at TRIUMF consists of a number of synchrotrons and storage rings which offer proton beams of energies between 0.45 and 30 GeV with varying pulse amplitudes, widths and repetition rates. Various possibilities for feeding these beams to a pulsed neutron facility and their potential for future development are examined. The incremental cost of such a pulsed neutron facility is estimated approximately. (author)

  3. EPR Test with Photons and Kaons Analogies

    Gisin, Nicolas

    2001-01-01

    We present a unified formalism describing EPR test using spin 1/2 particles, photons and kaons. This facilitates the comparison between existing experiments using photons and kaons. It underlines the similarities between birefringence and polarization dependent losses that affects experiments using optical fibers and mixing and decay that are intrinsic to the kaons. We also discuss the limitation these two characteristics impose on the testing of Bell's inequality.

  4. Rare kaon decays at LAMPF II

    Sanford, T.W.L.

    1982-06-01

    At LAMPF II, intense beams of kaons will be available that will enable the rare kaon-decay processes to be investigated. This note explores some of the possibilities, which divide into two classes: (1) those that test the standard model of Weinberg and Salam and (2) those that are sensitive to new interactions. For both classes, experiments have been limited not by systematic errors but rather by statistical ones. LAMPF II with its intense flux of kaons thus will enable the frontier of rare kaon decay to be realistically probed

  5. A measurement of the kaon charge radius

    Amendolia, S.R.; Batignani, G.; Bertolucci, E.; Bosisio, L.; Bradaschia, C.; Dell'Orso, M.; Fidecaro, F.; Foa, L.; Focardi, E.; Gianetti, P.; Giazzotto, A.; Giorgi, M.A.; Marrocchesi, P.S.; Menzione, A.; Ristori, L.; Scribano, A.; Tonelli, G.; Triggiani, G.; Beck, G.A.; Bologna, G.; D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; Mannocchi, G.; Picchi, P.; Budinich, M.; Liello, F.; Ragusa, F.; Rolandi, L.; Stefanini, A.; Fabbri, F.L.; Laurelli, P.; Zallo, A.; Gren, M.G.; Landon, M.P.J.; March, P.V.; Strong, J.A.; Tenchini, R.; Meroni, E.

    1986-01-01

    The negative kaon electromagnetic form factor has been measured in the space-like q 2 range 0.015-0.10 (GeV/c) 2 by the direct scattering of 250 GeV kaons from electrons at the CERN SPS. It is found that the kaon mean square charge radius K 2 >=0.34±0.05 fm 2 . From data collected simultaneously for πe scattering, the difference between the charged pion and kaon mean square radii (which is less sensitive to systematic errors) is found to be π 2 >- K 2 >=0.10±0.045 fm 2 . (orig.)

  6. Particle physics prospects for the KAON factory

    Bryman, D.

    1989-05-01

    The Kaon Factory at TRIUMF will produce beams of kaons, antiprotons, neutrinos and other particles with a hundred-fold increase in intensity over existing machines in the 30 GeV region. This will make possible new high precision experiments designed to test current ideas as well as high sensitivity measurements which could potentially reveal new effects. A sample of particle physics experiments involving rare kaon decays, CP and T violation studies, neutrino properties and reactions and light quark spectroscopy which might take advantage of the new opportunities presented by the Kaon Factory is discussed

  7. Harvard-MIT research program in short-lived radiopharmaceuticals. Final report

    Adelstein, S.J.

    1995-02-01

    The Harvard-MIT Research Program in Short-lived Radiopharmaceuticals was established in 1977 to foster interaction among groups working in radiopharmaceutical chemistry at Harvard Medical School, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and the Massachusetts General Hospital. To this was added a group at The Childrens Hospital. From these collaborations and building upon the special strengths of the participating individuals, laboratories and institutions, it was hoped that original approaches would be found for the design of new, clinically useful, radiolabeled compounds. The original thrust of this proposal included: (a) examination of the coordination chemistry of technetium as a basis for rational radiopharmaceutical design, (b) development of an ultrashort-lived radionuclide generator for the diagnosis of congenital heart disease in newborns, (c) synthesis of receptor-site-directed halopharmaceuticals, (d) improved facile labeling of complex molecules with positron-emitting radionuclides. The authors' 1986 proposal was oriented toward organs and disease, emphasizing radiolabeled agents that delineate specific functions and the distribution of receptors in brain, heart, and tumors. In 1989, they further refined their purposes and focused on two major aims: (a) synthesis and utilization of neutral technetium and rhenium complexes of high specific activity, and (b) development of new approaches to the radiolabeling of proteins, peptides, immunoglobulins, and their fragments. In 1992, the authors amended this proposal to concentrate their efforts on biologically active peptides and proteins for targeted radiodiagnosis and therapy

  8. Harvard-MIT research program in short-lived radiopharmaceuticals. Final report

    Adelstein, S.J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Office of Sponsored Programs

    1995-02-01

    The Harvard-MIT Research Program in Short-lived Radiopharmaceuticals was established in 1977 to foster interaction among groups working in radiopharmaceutical chemistry at Harvard Medical School, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and the Massachusetts General Hospital. To this was added a group at The Childrens Hospital. From these collaborations and building upon the special strengths of the participating individuals, laboratories and institutions, it was hoped that original approaches would be found for the design of new, clinically useful, radiolabeled compounds. The original thrust of this proposal included: (a) examination of the coordination chemistry of technetium as a basis for rational radiopharmaceutical design, (b) development of an ultrashort-lived radionuclide generator for the diagnosis of congenital heart disease in newborns, (c) synthesis of receptor-site-directed halopharmaceuticals, (d) improved facile labeling of complex molecules with positron-emitting radionuclides. The authors` 1986 proposal was oriented toward organs and disease, emphasizing radiolabeled agents that delineate specific functions and the distribution of receptors in brain, heart, and tumors. In 1989, they further refined their purposes and focused on two major aims: (a) synthesis and utilization of neutral technetium and rhenium complexes of high specific activity, and (b) development of new approaches to the radiolabeling of proteins, peptides, immunoglobulins, and their fragments. In 1992, the authors amended this proposal to concentrate their efforts on biologically active peptides and proteins for targeted radiodiagnosis and therapy.

  9. Sizes and shapes of short-lived nuclei via laser spectroscopy. Final report

    Lewis, D.A.

    1985-10-01

    This project, a collaboration involving Iowa State University, Argonne National Lab., and the University of Minnesota, was aimed at the determination of properties of short-lived nuclei through their atomic hyperfine structure and optical isotope shifts. The basic approach was to use a cryogenic He-jet system to thermalize, neutralize, and transport radioactive nuclei produced online into a region suitable for laser spectroscopy. The photon burst method was then used for high sensitivity with the resulting continuous atomic beam. The experiment was located on beamline of the ANL superconducting heavy-ion accelerator. The He-jet system developed would reliably transport approx.10 2 nuclei into phase space useful for high resolution laser spectroscopy. The laser system developed could accurately and reproducibly sweep small frequency ranges for periods greater than or equal to1 day and sensitivity limits less than or equal to1 atom/s were achieved. However the nuclei were not transported as free atoms precluding nuclear determinations. Attempts to obtain free atoms by eliminating turbulence and contamination were not successful. Some of the high sensitivity spectroscopy techniques developed in this work are now being applied in a search for nuclear relics of the Big Bang and in studies of the photon statistics of light scattered by a single atom. 3 refs., 4 figs

  10. Magnets for TRIUMF's KAON factory

    Otter, A.J.; Reeve, P.A.

    1991-05-01

    The KAON Factory will require over 2000 magnets to transport protons from the existing 500 Mev cyclotron through three storage rings and two synchrotrons and deliver them to the experimental area at 30 Gev. The magnet requirements are summarized and the results of measurements on prototypes for the 50 hz Booster magnets are compared with design values. This paper will address three topics: the results of prototype work, some of the more difficult design aspects of other magnets and the tolerances required to achieve production magnets uniform to ± 2 parts in 10 4 . (Author) 10 refs., 3 figs., tab

  11. The quantum CP-violating kaon system reproduced in the electronic laboratory

    Caruso, M.; Fanchiotti, H.; García Canal, C. A.; Mayosky, M.; Veiga, A.

    2016-11-01

    The equivalence between the Schrödinger dynamics of a quantum system with a finite number of basis states and a classical dynamics is realized in terms of electric networks. The isomorphism that connects in a univocal way both dynamical systems was applied to the case of neutral mesons, kaons in particular, and the class of electric networks univocally related to the quantum system was analysed. Moreover, under CPT invariance, the relevant ɛ parameter that measures CP violation in the kaon system is reinterpreted in terms of network parameters. All these results were explicitly shown by means of both a numerical simulation of the implied networks and by constructing the corresponding circuits.

  12. A straw drift chamber spectrometer for studies of rare kaon decays

    Lang, K.; Ambrose, D.; Arroyo, C.; Bachman, M.; Connor, D.; Eckhause, M.; Ecklund, K.M.; Graessle, S.; Hamela, M.; Hamilton, S.; Hancock, A.D.; Hartman, K.; Hebert, M.; Hoff, C.H.; Hoffmann, G.W.; Irwin, G.M.; Kane, J.R.; Kanematsu, N.; Kuang, Y.; Lee, R.; Marcin, M.; Martin, R.D.; McDonough, J.; Milder, A.; Molzon, W.R.; Ouimette, D.; Pommot-Maia, M.; Proga, M.; Riley, P.J.; Ritchie, J.L.; Rubin, P.D.; Vassilakopoulos, V.I.; Ware, B.; Welsh, R.E.; Wojcicki, S.G.; Worm, S.

    2004-01-01

    We describe the design, construction, readout, tests, and performance of planar drift chambers, based on 5-mm-diameter copperized Mylar and Kapton straws, used in an experimental search for rare kaon decays. The experiment took place in the high-intensity neutral beam at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron of Brookhaven National Laboratory, using a neutral beam stop, two analyzing dipoles, and redundant particle identification to remove backgrounds

  13. The KAON Factory at TRIUMF

    Craddock, M.K.

    1992-08-01

    The TRIUMF KAON Factory is designed to produce beams of kaons, antiprotons, other hadrons and neutrinos 100 times more intense, or cleaner, than are available now, for a broad range of particle and nuclear physics experiments. This will require a 100 μA beam of 30 GeV protons, to be produced by an interleaved sequence of two fast-cycling synchrotrons and three storage rings, with the existing TRIUMF H - cyclotron as injector. An $11-million preconstruction study has enabled the overall design to be reviewed and prototypes of various components to be built and evaluated -fast-cycling dipole and quadrupole magnets, a dual-frequency magnet power supply, ceramic beam pipes with internal rf shields, and rf cavity (using perpendicular bias), an extraction kicker, and rf beam chopper, and production targets. Environmental, industrial and economic impact studies have also been completed and the cost estimates and schedule updated. The total cost of $708 million (Canadian) will be shared equally between Canada, British Columbia and international contributors: the first two-thirds of this sum have already been approved and negotiations for the remainder are under way. 25 refs., 7 figs

  14. The KAON factory at TRIUMF

    Craddock, M.K.

    1992-07-01

    The TRIUMF KAON Factory is designed to produce beams of kaons, antiprotons, other hadrons and neutrinos 100 times more intense, or cleaner, than are available now, for a broad range of particle and nuclear physics experiments. This will require a 100 μA beam of 30 GeV protons, to be produced by an interleaved sequence of two fast-cycling synchrotrons and three storage rings, with the existing TRIUMF H - cyclotron as injector. An $11-million pre-construction study has enabled the overall design to be reviewed and prototypes of various components to be built and evaluated: fast-cycling dipole and quadrupole magnets, a dual frequency magnet power supply, ceramic beam pipes with internal rf shields, an rf cavity (using perpendicular bias), an extraction kicker, an rf beam chopper, and production targets. Environmental, industrial and economic impact studies have also been completed and the cost estimates and schedule updated. The total cost of $708 million (Canadian) will be shared equally between Canada, British Columbia and international contributors; the first two-thirds of this sum have already been approved and negotiations for the remainder are under way. 26 refs., 6 figs

  15. Precision tests of the Standard Model with Kaon decays at CERN

    Massri, Karim

    2015-01-01

    Recent results and prospects for precision tests of the Standard Model in kaon decay-in-flight experiments at CERN are presented. A measurement of the ratio of leptonic decay rates of the charged kaon at the level of 0.4% precision constrains the parameter space of new physics models with extended Higgs sector, a fourth generation of quarks and leptons or sterile neutrinos. Searches for heavy neutrino mass states and the dark photon in the ∼ 100 MeV/c 2 mass range based on samples collected in 2003-2007 are in progress and prospects will be discussed. The NA62 experiment, starting in 2014, will search for a range of lepton number and lepton flavour violating decays of the charged kaon and the neutral pion at improved sensitivities down to ∼ 10 -12 , which will probe new physics scenarios involving heavy Majorana neutrinos or R-parity violating SUSY. (paper)

  16. Interest of the Department of Energy in production and development of short-lived radionuclides

    Thiessen, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    The Department of Energy has developed production of potentially useful radionuclides for applications in medicine. The Department's financial commitment and the short-lived radionuclide production program, with emphasis on iodine-123, is discussed

  17. Historical review of short-lived isotope applications in New Zealand

    More, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    Production of short-lived isotopes, nitrogen 13, fluorine 18 and carbon 11 with a small Van de Graaff accelerator. Applications of these isotopes in uptake and photosynthetic translocation studies in plants, and fluorine tracing in dental studies

  18. Nuclear physics at the KAON factory

    Kitching, R.

    1989-05-01

    The author surveys the range of nuclear physics issues which can be addressed with a high intensity hadron facility such as the KAON factory. He discusses hadron spectroscopy, kaon scattering, hypernuclear physics, spin physics, and nuclear physics with neutrinos. Nuclear Physics is defined rather broadly, encompassing the study of strongly interacting systems, and including the structure of individual hadrons, hadron-hadron interactions, hadronic weak and electromagnetic currents (in nuclei too), conventional nuclear structure, and exotic nuclei. The basic theme is how the KAON Factory can shed light on non-perturbative QCD and its relation to conventional nuclear physics

  19. Kaon: an advanced hadron facility

    Oers, W.T.H. van; Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB

    1990-01-01

    An advanced hadron facility KAON has been proposed to be built in Canada. The report of the Project Definition Study has been presented to both levels of Government (federal and provincial) on May 24, 1990, for action in the near future. A short discussion will be given of the scientific motivation. The physics along the intensity and precision frontier is fully complementary to the physics along the energy frontier. Following, a description will be given of the 100 μA, 30 GeV proton synchrotron proposed. The accelerator will consist of five rings using the present 500 MeV cyclotron as an injector. If the project were funded this year, the accelerators would be completed by 1995 or so, with the experimental program starting a year later

  20. The BNL rare kaon decay program

    Littenberg, L.

    1996-12-31

    The rare kaon decay program at Brookhaven National Laboratory is reviewed. Results from the last round of experiments are briefly discussed. The three experiments currently collecting data are described. Prospects for future experiments are discussed.

  1. Kaon-nucleus reactions and hypernuclei

    Dover, C.B.

    1987-01-01

    Recent advances in hypernuclear physics and kaon-nucleus scattering are discussed, with emphasis on the spectroscopy of Λ single particle states in heavy systems, as revealed by the (π + ,K + ) reaction. 26 refs., 8 figs

  2. One-prong $\\tau$ decays with kaons

    Barate, R.; Ghez, Philippe; Goy, C.; Lees, J.P.; Merle, E.; Minard, M.N.; Pietrzyk, B.; Alemany, R.; Casado, M.P.; Chmeissani, M.; Crespo, J.M.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Garrido, L.; Grauges, E.; Juste, A.; Martinez, M.; Merino, G.; Miquel, R.; Mir, L.M.; Pacheco, A.; Park, I.C.; Riu, I.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; De Palma, M.; Gelao, G.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Tricomi, A.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Ouyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Abbaneo, D.; Becker, U.; Boix, G.; Cattaneo, M.; Ciulli, V.; Dissertori, G.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R.W.; Frank, M.; Halley, A.W.; Hansen, J.B.; Harvey, John; Janot, P.; Jost, B.; Lehraus, I.; Leroy, O.; Mato, P.; Minten, A.; Moutoussi, A.; Ranjard, F.; Rolandi, Gigi; Rousseau, D.; Schlatter, D.; Schmitt, M.; Schneider, O.; Tejessy, W.; Teubert, F.; Tomalin, I.R.; Tournefier, E.; Wright, A.E.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Badaud, F.; Chazelle, G.; Deschamps, O.; Falvard, A.; Ferdi, C.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Montret, J.C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Hansen, J.D.; Hansen, J.R.; Hansen, P.H.; Nilsson, B.S.; Rensch, B.; Waananen, A.; Daskalakis, G.; Kyriakis, A.; Markou, C.; Simopoulou, E.; Siotis, I.; Vayaki, A.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J.C.; Rouge, A.; Rumpf, M.; Swynghedauw, M.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Zachariadou, K.; Cavanaugh, R.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Antonelli, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Cerutti, F.; Chiarella, V.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G.P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Curtis, L.; Lynch, J.G.; Negus, P.; O'Shea, V.; Raine, C.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Thompson, A.S.; Buchmuller, O.; Dhamotharan, S.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Hansper, G.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E.E.; Putzer, A.; Sommer, J.; Tittel, K.; Werner, S.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D.M.; Cameron, W.; Dornan, P.J.; Girone, M.; Goodsir, S.; Martin, E.B.; Marinelli, N.; Sedgbeer, J.K.; Spagnolo, P.; Thomson, Evelyn J.; Williams, M.D.; Ghete, V.M.; Girtler, P.; Kneringer, E.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Betteridge, A.P.; Bowdery, C.K.; Buck, P.G.; Colrain, P.; Crawford, G.; Finch, A.J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jones, R.W.L.; Robertson, N.A.; Williams, M.I.; Giehl, I.; Hoffmann, C.; Jakobs, K.; Kleinknecht, K.; Quast, G.; Renk, B.; Rohne, E.; Sander, H.G.; van Gemmeren, P.; Wachsmuth, H.; Zeitnitz, C.; Aubert, J.J.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Carr, J.; Coyle, P.; Etienne, F.; Motsch, F.; Payre, P.; Talby, M.; Thulasidas, M.; Aleppo, M.; Antonelli, M.; Ragusa, F.; Berlich, R.; Buescher, Volker; Dietl, H.; Ganis, G.; Huttmann, K.; Lutjens, G.; Mannert, C.; Manner, W.; Moser, H.G.; Schael, S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Stenzel, H.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wolf, G.; Azzurri, P.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Chen, S.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.F.; Heusse, P.; Hocker, Andreas; Jacholkowska, A.; Kim, D.W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrancois, J.; Lutz, A.M.; Schune, M.H.; Veillet, J.J.; Videau, I.; Zerwas, D.; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bettarini, S.; Boccali, T.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Dell'Orso, R.; Ferrante, I.; Foa, L.; Giassi, A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Marrocchesi, P.S.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sciaba, A.; Sguazzoni, G.; Tenchini, R.; Vannini, C.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P.G.; Blair, G.A.; Cowan, G.; Green, M.G.; Medcalf, T.; Strong, J.A.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J.H.; Botterill, D.R.; Clifft, R.W.; Edgecock, T.R.; Norton, P.R.; Thompson, J.C.; Bloch-Devaux, Brigitte; Colas, P.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lancon, E.; Lemaire, M.C.; Locci, E.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.F.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.P.; Schwindling, J.; Trabelsi, A.; Vallage, B.; Black, S.N.; Dann, J.H.; Johnson, R.P.; Kim, H.Y.; Konstantinidis, N.; Litke, A.M.; McNeil, M.A.; Taylor, G.; Booth, C.N.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Kelly, M.S.; Lehto, M.; Thompson, L.F.; Affholderbach, K.; Boehrer, Armin; Brandt, S.; Grupen, C.; Prange, G.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Rothberg, J.; Wasserbaech, S.; Armstrong, S.R.; Charles, E.; Elmer, P.; Ferguson, D.P.S.; Gao, Y.; Gonzalez, S.; Greening, T.C.; Hayes, O.J.; Hu, H.; Jin, S.; McNamara, P.A., III; Nachtman, J.M.; Nielsen, J.; Orejudos, W.; Pan, Y.B.; Saadi, Y.; Scott, I.J.; Walsh, J.; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, X.; Zobernig, G.

    1999-01-01

    One-prong $\\tau$ decays into final states involving kaons are studied with about 161k $\\tau^+\\tau^-$ events collected by the ALEPH detector from 1991 to 1995. Charged kaons are identified by dE/dx measurement, while $K^0_L$'s are detected through their interaction in calorimeters. Branching ratios are measured for the inclusive mode, $B(\\tau^-\\rightarrow K^-X\

  3. Kaons in nuclear matter; Kaonen in Kernmaterie

    Kolomeitsev, E.E.

    1997-02-01

    The subject of the doctoral thesis is examination of the properties of kaons in nuclear matter. A specific method is explained that has been developed for the scientific objectives of the thesis and permits description of the kaon-nucleon interactions and kaon-nucleon scattering in a vacuum. The main challenge involved was to find approaches that would enable application of the derived relations out of the kaon mass shell, connected with the second objective, namely to possibly find methods which are independent of models. The way chosen to achieve this goal relied on application of reduction formulas as well as current algebra relations and the PCAC hypothesis. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Die Arbeit befasst sich mit der Untersuchung der Eigenschaften von Kao nen in Kernmaterie. Zu diesem Zweck wurde ein Verfahren entwickelt, di e Kaon- Nukleon- Wechselwirkung und Kaon- Nukleon- Streuung im Vakuumzu beschreiben. Die Hauptherausforderung bestand darin, dass die abgel eiteten Relationen ausserhalb der Kaonen- Massenschale anwendbar werde n. Eine Nebenforderung war, dass die vorgeschlagenen Verfahren moeglic hst modell- unabhaengig sind. Um dieses Ziel zu erreichen, wurden Redu ktionsformeln, Stromalgebra- Relationen und die PCAC- Hypothese angewe ndet.

  4. Kaon femtoscopy in Pb-Pb collisions at √{sNN}=2.76 TeV

    Acharya, S.; Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; Adolfsson, J.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, N.; Ahn, S. U.; Aiola, S.; Akindinov, A.; Alam, S. N.; Alba, J. L. B.; Albuquerque, D. S. D.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alfaro Molina, R.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altenkamper, L.; Altsybeev, I.; Alves Garcia Prado, C.; Andrei, C.; Andreou, D.; Andrews, H. A.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anson, C.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Anwar, R.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Arnaldi, R.; Arnold, O. W.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Audurier, B.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Azmi, M. D.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Ball, M.; Baral, R. C.; Barbano, A. M.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barioglio, L.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartalini, P.; Barth, K.; Bartsch, E.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Batigne, G.; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bello Martinez, H.; Bellwied, R.; Beltran, L. G. E.; Belyaev, V.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Bertens, R. A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhat, I. R.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Biro, G.; Biswas, R.; Biswas, S.; Blair, J. T.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Boca, G.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Bonomi, G.; Bonora, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Borri, M.; Botta, E.; Bourjau, C.; Bratrud, L.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Broker, T. A.; Broz, M.; Brucken, E. J.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buhler, P.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Butt, J. B.; Buxton, J. T.; Cabala, J.; Caffarri, D.; Caines, H.; Caliva, A.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Capon, A. A.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Carnesecchi, F.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Castro, A. J.; Casula, E. A. R.; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Cerello, P.; Chandra, S.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Chartier, M.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chauvin, A.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D. D.; Cho, S.; Chochula, P.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Chowdhury, T.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Concas, M.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa Del Valle, Z.; Connors, M. E.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortés Maldonado, I.; Cortese, P.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Costanza, S.; Crkovská, J.; Crochet, P.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dahms, T.; Dainese, A.; Danisch, M. C.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Das, S.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; de, S.; de Caro, A.; de Cataldo, G.; de Conti, C.; de Cuveland, J.; de Falco, A.; de Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; de Pasquale, S.; de Souza, R. D.; Degenhardt, H. F.; Deisting, A.; Deloff, A.; Deplano, C.; Dhankher, P.; di Bari, D.; di Mauro, A.; di Nezza, P.; di Ruzza, B.; Diaz Corchero, M. A.; Dietel, T.; Dillenseger, P.; Divià, R.; Djuvsland, Ø.; Dobrin, A.; Domenicis Gimenez, D.; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Doremalen, L. V. V.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Duggal, A. K.; Dupieux, P.; Ehlers, R. J.; Elia, D.; Endress, E.; Engel, H.; Epple, E.; Erazmus, B.; Erhardt, F.; Espagnon, B.; Esumi, S.; Eulisse, G.; Eum, J.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Fabbietti, L.; Faivre, J.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Feldkamp, L.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Ferencei, J.; Fernández Téllez, A.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Feuillard, V. J. G.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A. S.; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Francisco, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fronze, G. G.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Furs, A.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A. M.; Gajdosova, K.; Gallio, M.; Galvan, C. D.; Ganoti, P.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Garg, K.; Gargiulo, C.; Gasik, P.; Gauger, E. F.; Gay Ducati, M. B.; Germain, M.; Ghosh, J.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Giubilato, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glässel, P.; Goméz Coral, D. M.; Gomez Ramirez, A.; Gonzalez, A. S.; Gonzalez, V.; González-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Görlich, L.; Gotovac, S.; Grabski, V.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Graham, K. L.; Greiner, L.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grion, N.; Gronefeld, J. M.; Grosa, F.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grosso, R.; Gruber, L.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Guzman, I. B.; Haake, R.; Hadjidakis, C.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Hamon, J. C.; Haque, M. R.; Harris, J. W.; Harton, A.; Hassan, H.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, S.; Heckel, S. T.; Hellbär, E.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herrera Corral, G.; Herrmann, F.; Hess, B. A.; Hetland, K. F.; Hillemanns, H.; Hills, C.; Hippolyte, B.; Hladky, J.; Hohlweger, B.; Horak, D.; Hornung, S.; Hosokawa, R.; Hristov, P.; Hughes, C.; Humanic, T. J.; Hussain, N.; Hussain, T.; Hutter, D.; Hwang, D. S.; Iga Buitron, S. A.; Ilkaev, R.; Inaba, M.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Islam, M. S.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, V.; Izucheev, V.; Jacak, B.; Jacazio, N.; Jacobs, P. M.; Jadhav, M. B.; Jadlovsky, J.; Jaelani, S.; Jahnke, C.; Jakubowska, M. J.; Janik, M. A.; Jayarathna, P. H. S. Y.; Jena, C.; Jena, S.; Jercic, M.; Jimenez Bustamante, R. T.; Jones, P. G.; Jusko, A.; Kalinak, P.; Kalweit, A.; Kang, J. H.; Kaplin, V.; Kar, S.; Karasu Uysal, A.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karayan, L.; Karczmarczyk, P.; Karpechev, E.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Keijdener, D. L. D.; Keil, M.; Ketzer, B.; Khabanova, Z.; Khan, P.; Khan, S. A.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Khatun, A.; Khuntia, A.; Kielbowicz, M. M.; Kileng, B.; Kim, B.; Kim, D.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, H.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J.; Kim, M.; Kim, M.; Kim, S.; Kim, T.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Kiss, G.; Klay, J. L.; Klein, C.; Klein, J.; Klein-Bösing, C.; Klewin, S.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M. L.; Knospe, A. G.; Kobdaj, C.; Kofarago, M.; Kollegger, T.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Kondratyuk, E.; Konevskikh, A.; Konyushikhin, M.; Kopcik, M.; Kour, M.; Kouzinopoulos, C.; Kovalenko, O.; Kovalenko, V.; Kowalski, M.; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G.; Králik, I.; Kravčáková, A.; Krivda, M.; Krizek, F.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.; Kubera, A. M.; Kučera, V.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P. G.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, J.; Kumar, L.; Kumar, S.; Kundu, S.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, A. B.; Kuryakin, A.; Kushpil, S.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; La Pointe, S. L.; La Rocca, P.; Lagana Fernandes, C.; Lai, Y. S.; Lakomov, I.; Langoy, R.; Lapidus, K.; Lara, C.; Lardeux, A.; Lattuca, A.; Laudi, E.; Lavicka, R.; Lea, R.; Leardini, L.; Lee, S.; Lehas, F.; Lehner, S.; Lehrbach, J.; Lemmon, R. C.; Lenti, V.; Leogrande, E.; León Monzón, I.; Lévai, P.; Li, X.; Lien, J.; Lietava, R.; Lim, B.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lindsay, S. W.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Litichevskyi, V.; Llope, W. J.; Lodato, D. F.; Loenne, P. I.; Loginov, V.; Loizides, C.; Loncar, P.; Lopez, X.; López Torres, E.; Lowe, A.; Luettig, P.; Luhder, J. R.; Lunardon, M.; Luparello, G.; Lupi, M.; Lutz, T. H.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahajan, S.; Mahmood, S. M.; Maire, A.; Majka, R. D.; Malaev, M.; Malinina, L.; Mal'Kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Mao, Y.; Marchisone, M.; Mareš, J.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Margotti, A.; Margutti, J.; Marín, A.; Markert, C.; Marquard, M.; Martin, N. A.; Martinengo, P.; Martinez, J. A. L.; Martínez, M. I.; Martínez García, G.; Martinez Pedreira, M.; Mas, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Masson, E.; Mastroserio, A.; Mathis, A. M.; Matyja, A.; Mayer, C.; Mazer, J.; Mazzilli, M.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Meddi, F.; Melikyan, Y.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Meninno, E.; Mercado Pérez, J.; Meres, M.; Mhlanga, S.; Miake, Y.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Mihaylov, D. L.; Mikhaylov, K.; Milosevic, J.; Mischke, A.; Mishra, A. N.; Miśkowiec, D.; Mitra, J.; Mitu, C. M.; Mohammadi, N.; Mohanty, B.; Mohisin Khan, M.; Montes, E.; Moreira de Godoy, D. A.; Moreno, L. A. P.; Moretto, S.; Morreale, A.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Mühlheim, D.; Muhuri, S.; Mukherjee, M.; Mulligan, J. D.; Munhoz, M. G.; Münning, K.; Munzer, R. H.; Murakami, H.; Murray, S.; Musa, L.; Musinsky, J.; Myers, C. J.; Myrcha, J. W.; Nag, D.; Naik, B.; Nair, R.; Nandi, B. K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Narayan, A.; Naru, M. U.; Natal da Luz, H.; Nattrass, C.; Navarro, S. R.; Nayak, K.; Nayak, R.; Nayak, T. K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nedosekin, A.; Negrao de Oliveira, R. A.; Nellen, L.; Nesbo, S. V.; Ng, F.; Nicassio, M.; Niculescu, M.; Niedziela, J.; Nielsen, B. S.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Noferini, F.; Nomokonov, P.; Nooren, G.; Noris, J. C. C.; Norman, J.; Nyanin, A.; Nystrand, J.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S.; Ohlson, A.; Okubo, T.; Olah, L.; Oleniacz, J.; Oliveira da Silva, A. C.; Oliver, M. H.; Onderwaater, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Orava, R.; Oravec, M.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Oskarsson, A.; Otwinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pacik, V.; Pagano, D.; Pagano, P.; Paić, G.; Palni, P.; Pan, J.; Pandey, A. K.; Panebianco, S.; Papikyan, V.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Pareek, P.; Park, J.; Parmar, S.; Passfeld, A.; Pathak, S. P.; Paticchio, V.; Patra, R. N.; Paul, B.; Pei, H.; Peitzmann, T.; Peng, X.; Pereira, L. G.; Pereira da Costa, H.; Peresunko, D.; Perez Lezama, E.; Peskov, V.; Pestov, Y.; Petráček, V.; Petrov, V.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Pezzi, R. P.; Piano, S.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pimentel, L. O. D. L.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Piyarathna, D. B.; Płoskoń, M.; Planinic, M.; Pliquett, F.; Pluta, J.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L. M.; Poghosyan, M. G.; Polichtchouk, B.; Poljak, N.; Poonsawat, W.; Pop, A.; Poppenborg, H.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.; Pozdniakov, V.; Prasad, S. K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C. A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puccio, M.; Puddu, G.; Pujahari, P.; Punin, V.; Putschke, J.; Rachevski, A.; Raha, S.; Rajput, S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Rami, F.; Rana, D. B.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Räsänen, S. S.; Rascanu, B. T.; Rathee, D.; Ratza, V.; Ravasenga, I.; Read, K. F.; Redlich, K.; Rehman, A.; Reichelt, P.; Reidt, F.; Ren, X.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A. R.; Reshetin, A.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Ricci, R. A.; Richert, T.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Ristea, C.; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M.; Røed, K.; Rogochaya, E.; Rohr, D.; Röhrich, D.; Rokita, P. S.; Ronchetti, F.; Rosas, E. D.; Rosnet, P.; Rossi, A.; Rotondi, A.; Roukoutakis, F.; Roy, A.; Roy, C.; Roy, P.; Rubio Montero, A. J.; Rueda, O. V.; Rui, R.; Rumyantsev, B.; Rustamov, A.; Ryabinkin, E.; Ryabov, Y.; Rybicki, A.; Saarinen, S.; Sadhu, S.; Sadovsky, S.; Šafařík, K.; Saha, S. K.; Sahlmuller, B.; Sahoo, B.; Sahoo, P.; Sahoo, R.; Sahoo, S.; Sahu, P. K.; Saini, J.; Sakai, S.; Saleh, M. A.; Salzwedel, J.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Sandoval, A.; Sarkar, D.; Sarkar, N.; Sarma, P.; Sas, M. H. P.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Scheid, H. S.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schmidt, M. O.; Schmidt, M.; Schmidt, N. V.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, R.; Šefčík, M.; Seger, J. E.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Sekihata, D.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Senosi, K.; Senyukov, S.; Serradilla, E.; Sett, P.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabanov, A.; Shabetai, A.; Shahoyan, R.; Shaikh, W.; Shangaraev, A.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, M.; Sharma, M.; Sharma, N.; Sheikh, A. I.; Shigaki, K.; Shou, Q.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Siddhanta, S.; Sielewicz, K. M.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Simatovic, G.; Simonetti, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R.; Singhal, V.; Sinha, T.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T. B.; Slupecki, M.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R. J. M.; Snellman, T. W.; Song, J.; Song, M.; Soramel, F.; Sorensen, S.; Sozzi, F.; Spiriti, E.; Sputowska, I.; Srivastava, B. K.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stankus, P.; Stenlund, E.; Stocco, D.; Storetvedt, M. M.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Suleymanov, M.; Suljic, M.; Sultanov, R.; Šumbera, M.; Sumowidagdo, S.; Suzuki, K.; Swain, S.; Szabo, A.; Szarka, I.; Tabassam, U.; Takahashi, J.; Tambave, G. J.; Tanaka, N.; Tarhini, M.; Tariq, M.; Tarzila, M. G.; Tauro, A.; Tejeda Muñoz, G.; Telesca, A.; Terasaki, K.; Terrevoli, C.; Teyssier, B.; Thakur, D.; Thakur, S.; Thomas, D.; Thoresen, F.; Tieulent, R.; Tikhonov, A.; Timmins, A. R.; Toia, A.; Torres, S. R.; Tripathy, S.; Trogolo, S.; Trombetta, G.; Tropp, L.; Trubnikov, V.; Trzaska, W. H.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsuji, T.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Tveter, T. S.; Ullaland, K.; Umaka, E. N.; Uras, A.; Usai, G. L.; Utrobicic, A.; Vala, M.; van der Maarel, J.; van Hoorne, J. W.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vanat, T.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Varga, D.; Vargas, A.; Vargyas, M.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vauthier, A.; Vázquez Doce, O.; Vechernin, V.; Veen, A. M.; Velure, A.; Vercellin, E.; Vergara Limón, S.; Vernet, R.; Vértesi, R.; Vickovic, L.; Vigolo, S.; Viinikainen, J.; Vilakazi, Z.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Villatoro Tello, A.; Vinogradov, A.; Vinogradov, L.; Virgili, T.; Vislavicius, V.; Vodopyanov, A.; Völkl, M. A.; Voloshin, K.; Voloshin, S. A.; Volpe, G.; von Haller, B.; Vorobyev, I.; Voscek, D.; Vranic, D.; Vrláková, J.; Wagner, B.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, Y.; Weber, M.; Weber, S. G.; Weiser, D. F.; Wenzel, S. C.; Wessels, J. P.; Westerhoff, U.; Whitehead, A. M.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilk, G.; Wilkinson, J.; Willems, G. A.; Williams, M. C. S.; Willsher, E.; Windelband, B.; Witt, W. E.; Yalcin, S.; Yamakawa, K.; Yang, P.; Yano, S.; Yin, Z.; Yokoyama, H.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yoon, J. H.; Yurchenko, V.; Zaccolo, V.; Zaman, A.; Zampolli, C.; Zanoli, H. J. C.; Zardoshti, N.; Zarochentsev, A.; Závada, P.; Zaviyalov, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, C.; Zhigareva, N.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, Y.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, A.; Zimmermann, M. B.; Zinovjev, G.; Zmeskal, J.; Zou, S.; Alice Collaboration

    2017-12-01

    We present the results of three-dimensional femtoscopic analyses for charged and neutral kaons recorded by ALICE in Pb-Pb collisions at √{sNN}=2.76 TeV. Femtoscopy is used to measure the space-time characteristics of particle production from the effects of quantum statistics and final-state interactions in two-particle correlations. Kaon femtoscopy is an important supplement to that of pions because it allows one to distinguish between different model scenarios working equally well for pions. In particular, we compare the measured three-dimensional kaon radii with a purely hydrodynamical calculation and a model where the hydrodynamic phase is followed by a hadronic rescattering stage. The former predicts an approximate transverse mass (mT) scaling of source radii obtained from pion and kaon correlations. This mT scaling appears to be broken in our data, which indicates the importance of the hadronic rescattering phase at LHC energies. A kT scaling of pion and kaon source radii is observed instead. The time of maximal emission of the system is estimated by using the three-dimensional femtoscopic analysis for kaons. The measured emission time is larger than that of pions. Our observation is well supported by the hydrokinetic model predictions.

  5. Vehicle emissions of short-lived and long-lived climate forcers: trends and tradeoffs.

    Edwards, Morgan R; Klemun, Magdalena M; Kim, Hyung Chul; Wallington, Timothy J; Winkler, Sandra L; Tamor, Michael A; Trancik, Jessika E

    2017-08-24

    Evaluating technology options to mitigate the climate impacts of road transportation can be challenging, particularly when they involve a tradeoff between long-lived emissions (e.g., carbon dioxide) and short-lived emissions (e.g., methane or black carbon). Here we present trends in short- and long-lived emissions for light- and heavy-duty transport globally and in the U.S., EU, and China over the period 2000-2030, and we discuss past and future changes to vehicle technologies to reduce these emissions. We model the tradeoffs between short- and long-lived emission reductions across a range of technology options, life cycle emission intensities, and equivalency metrics. While short-lived vehicle emissions have decreased globally over the past two decades, significant reductions in CO 2 will be required by mid-century to meet climate change mitigation targets. This is true regardless of the time horizon used to compare long- and short-lived emissions. The short-lived emission intensities of some low-CO 2 technologies are higher than others, and thus their suitability for meeting climate targets depends sensitively on the evaluation time horizon. Other technologies offer low intensities of both short-lived emissions and CO 2 .

  6. Low Q2 kaon electroproduction

    Markowitz, P.; Acha, A.

    2010-01-01

    A measurement of the H(e, e′ K + ) reaction was performed at Hall A, TJNAF as part of the hypernuclear experiment E94-107. Data was taken at very low Q 2 (~ 0.07 (GeV/c) 2 ) and W = 2.2 GeV. Kaons were detected along the direction of q-vector, the momentum transferred by the incident electron (θ CM = 6°). These measurements provide data about the Σ 0 /Λ ratio which drops rapidly with Q 2 , the angular dependence of the cross sections as Q 2 → 0, and the dependence of the cross section with respect to Q 2 ,W and θ CM . The dependence of the cross section at very forward angles has been poorly known. Available models are inadequate to describe the results. The measurement of the elementary cross section will constrain models for the elementary reaction which are inadequate to describe these results. It is also a key ingredient in the hypernuclear spectroscopy studies performed at the same kinematics. Details of the calculations and results will be shown. (author)

  7. Application of accelerator-produced short-lived radionuclides in industry

    Kupsch, H.

    1986-01-01

    Several problems such as corrosion, catalysis, wear, process optimization and diagnosis, damage analysis, arising in idustry can be solved using short-lived radioisotopes. Some examples of technological target designs which have been developed are demonstrated for the radionuclide production based on p,n; d,α; α,n; α,2n; α,p; γ,n; γ,p nuclear reactions. Applications of short-lived radionuclides in plants and processes of electrodeposition and gas concrete production are described. (author)

  8. A technique for the measurement of electron attachment to short-lived excited species

    Christophorou, L.G.; Pinnaduwage, L.A.; Bitouni, A.P.

    1990-01-01

    A technique is described for the measurement of electron attachment to short-lived (approx-lt 10 -9 s) excited species. Preliminary results are presented for photoenhanced electron attachment to short-lived electronically-excited states of triethylamine molecules produced by laser two-photon excitation. The attachment cross sections for these excited states are estimated to be >10 -11 cm 2 and are ∼10 7 larger compared to those for the unexcited (ground-state) molecules. 8 refs., 4 figs

  9. Improved kaon beam and spectrometer for the AGS

    Hungerford, E.V. III.

    1979-01-01

    The properties of the existing low energy separated kaon beams at the Brookhaven AGS, and the preliminary plans to construct an improved kaon beam line with a high resolution spectrometer for this facility are reported. 10 references

  10. Exploring Hadron Structure Through Exclusive Kaon Electroproduction

    Carmignotto, Marco A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2017-04-01

    The kaon electroproduction cross section was extracted from data from the E93-018 and the E01-004 (FPI-2) experiments taken at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in the p(e,e'K+)Λ channel. The cross section was fully separated into longitudinal, transverse, and two interference components at four-momentum transfers Q2 of 1.0 (GeV/c)2 (with center of mass energy W=1.81 GeV), 1.36 and 2.07 (GeV/c)2 (W=2.31 GeV). The kaon form factor (FK) was extracted from the longitudinal cross section in these kinematics using the Regge model by Vanderhaeghen, Guidal, and Laget. Results show FK to be systematically lower than the empirical monopole form, although still compatible with this form within the estimated uncertainties. The resulting kaon form factor values were combined with the world pion and kaon form factor data to extract the transverse change densities of the pion and kaon. These were compared to that of the proton, showing a possible experimental glimpse of the transition between the proton core and the meson cloud in terms of transverse densities.

  11. Entanglement properties of kaons and tests of hidden-variable models

    Genovese, M.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we discuss entanglement properties of neutral kaons systems and their use for testing local realism. In particular, we analyze a Hardy-type scheme [A. Bramon and G. Garbarino, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 160401 (2002)] recently suggested for performing a test of hidden-variable theories against standard quantum mechanics. Our result is that this scheme could, in principle, lead to a conclusive test of local realism, but only if higher identification efficiencies than in today's experiments will be reached

  12. Transverse flow of kaons in heavy-ion collisions

    Zheng Yu Ming; Fuchs, C; Faessler, A; Xiao Wu; Hua Da Ping; Yan Yu Peng

    2002-01-01

    The transverse flow of positively charged kaons from heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energy is investigated within the framework of the quantum molecular dynamics model. The calculated results show that the experimental data are only consistent with those including the kaon mean-field potential from the chiral Lagrangian. This indicates that the transverse flow pattern of kaons is a useful probe of the kaon potential in a nuclear medium

  13. Transport and deposition of nano-particles. Application to the free action of short-lived radon daughters

    Malet, J.

    1997-01-01

    Short-lived radon daughters ( 218 Po, 214 Pb, 214 Bi, and 214 Po) are important contributors to the natural average annual individual dose. The models describing the evolution of these aerosol in a house depend critically on a parameter, the 218 Po deposition velocity, which, although aerosol deposition has been extensively studied, is poorly known. A numerical and experimental study is thus carried out for a simple case: deposition in a cylindrical tube under laminar flow condition. The numerical results help understanding the difference between the transport and deposition of these radionuclides and those of non radioactive aerosols. Comparison of these well environment does not give satisfactory correlation, requiring the study of phenomena that may affect deposition. The first of these is the possible variation in the e 218 Po diffusion coefficient. Furthermore, experiments coupled with numerical calculations show that this variation could be due to 218 Po neutralization. The second phenomenon concerns the effect of the surface type, which is also shown experimentally. By modelling the neutralization and using results with a piratically smooth surface, good numerical/experimental correlations are obtained. Understanding this simple case than makes possible studying a more complex case: deposition in controlled turbulent flow. Two theories are thus experimentally validated. In addition, a 218 Po deposition velocity representative of our experimental conditions is determined. Finally, we report a feasibility study of radon daughters transport and deposition in a ventilated chamber taking into account all the involved phenomena. (author)

  14. Proceedings of the Workshop on CP Violation at KAON Factory

    Ng, J.N.

    1989-07-01

    These proceedings contain the written version of eight talks delivered at the Workshop on CP Violation at KAON Factory. The articles contain reviews on the exploration of CP violation effects associated with the s-quark. Discussion on the use of intense kaon fluxes, which will be available at the proposed KAON Factory, are included

  15. Electrons and kaons in charmed particle decays

    Feller, J.M.

    1979-05-01

    Inclusive studies of the electron content, kaon content, and associated electron-kaon content of the decays of D mesons and other charmed particles produced in electron-positron annihilation are presented. At the psi(3772) resonance the following inclusive branching ratios for D meson decays to charged kaons were measured. Also at the psi(3772) resonance the average semileptonic branching ratio for D 0 and D + decays to electrons has been measured to be .076 +- .028. The average semileptonic branching ratio of charmed particles produced in e + e - annihilation at center-of-mass energies from 3.9 to 7.4 GeV is found to be equal within errors to that of the D's. At all energies the electron momentum spectra are consistent with a combination of the decays D → Ke nu and D → K*e nu. 84 references

  16. Kaon decay experiments at J-PARC

    Nanjo, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    Three kaon-decay experiments, E14 (KOTO), E36, and E06 (TREK), are being performed or planned in the Hadron Experimental Facility of J-PARC. The J-PARC accelerator provides 30-GeV intense proton beam with a slow-extraction method, which is one of the key points to achieve the physics goals for the experiments. In this article, the features of the kaon decay as a tool to explore new physics beyond the Standard Model are explained. The J-PARC accelerator and the Hadron Experimental Facility are briefly described. The three kaon-decay experiments are introduced, all of which are sensitive to the new physics beyond the Standard Model. (author)

  17. A new integrative methodology for desertification studies based on magnetic and short-lived radioisotope measurements

    Oldfield, F.; Higgitt, S.R.; Maher, B.A.; Appleby, P.G.; Scoullos, M.

    1986-01-01

    The use of mineral magnetic measurements and short-lived radioisotope studies with 210 Pb and 137 Cs is discussed within the ecosystem watershed conceptual framework. Used in conjunction with geomorphological, sedimentological, palaeoecological and geochemical techniques, these methods can form the core of an integrated multidisciplinary study of desertification and erosion processes on all relevant temporal and spatial scales. 30 refs.; 4 figs

  18. Applications of short-lived isotopes in agricultural research in New Zealand

    McCallum, G.J.; More, R.D.; McNaughton, G.S.; Minchin, P.E.H.; Presland, M.R.; Stout, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    The use of the short-lived isotopes 11 C and 13 N in agricultural research studies in New Zealand is reviewed. The methods employed to produce these radioisotopes using a 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator are given. Experiments on transport processes and the uptake of nutrient by plants, and the study of soil processes are described. (Auth.)

  19. Synthesis of radiopharmaceuticals containing short-lived radionuclides. Comprehensive report, March 1, 1980-February 26, 1986

    Kabalka, G.W.

    1985-09-01

    New methods for the rapid introduction of short-lived radionuclides into agents for use in diagnostic nuclear medicine are reported. Among the new syntheses reported are those for 123 I-labeled fatty acids and steroids, for 11 C-labeled alcohols, for 13 N-labeled amines, and for 15 O-labeled alcohols. 33 refs

  20. Analysing environmental and fishing effects on a short-lived species ...

    Short-lived species are extremely dependent on the seasonal and interannual variability of environmental conditions, and determining their stock status is often difficult. This study investigates the effects of environmental variability and fishing pressure on the stock of octopus Octopus vulgaris in Senegalese waters over a ...

  1. Disentangling the effects of CO2 and short-lived climate forcer mitigation

    Rogelj, J.; Schaeffer, M.; Meinshausen, M.; Shindell, D.T.; Hare, W.; Klimont, Z.; Velders, G.J.M.; Amann, M.; Schellnhuber, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic global warming is driven by emissions of a wide variety of radiative forcers ranging from very short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs), like black carbon, to very long-lived, like CO2. These species are often released from common sources and are therefore intricately linked. However, for

  2. Developing role of short-lived radionuclides in nuclear medical practice. DOE symposium series; 56

    Paras, P.; Thiessen, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose was to define the developing role and state-of-the-art development of short-lived radionuclides (SLR's) in current nuclear medical practice. Special emphasis was placed on radionuclides with general-purpose labeling capabilities. The need for high-purity labeling-grade iodine-123 was emphasized in the program. Papers have been separately abstracted for the data base

  3. Synthesis of radiopharmaceuticals containing short-lived radionuclides. Progress report, March 1, 1985-February 26, 1986

    Kabalka, G.W.

    1985-09-01

    Methods for the rapid introduction of short-lived radionuclides into agents for use in diagnostic nuclear medicine are reported. Methods to synthesize radioiodinated fatty acids, lipids, and amphetamine derivatives are described. New routes for the introduction of bromine-77, chlorine-34m, and carbon-11 into agents of interest are elaborated. 46 refs

  4. Development of the k0-based cyclic neutron activation analysis for short-lived radionuclides

    Dung, H.M.; Blaauw, M.; Beasley, D.; Freitas, M.D.C.

    2011-01-01

    The k0-based cyclic neutron activation analysis (k0-CNAA) technique has been studied to explore the applicability at the Portuguese research reactor (RPI). In particular, for the determination of elements which form short-lived radionuclides, particularly fluorine (20F, 11.16 s half-life) and

  5. Short Lived Fission Product Yield Measurements in 235U, 238U and 239Pu

    Silano, Jack; Tonchev, Anton; Tornow, Werner; Krishichayan, Fnu; Finch, Sean; Gooden, Matthew; Wilhelmy, Jerry

    2017-09-01

    Yields of short lived fission products (FPYs) with half lives of a few minutes to an hour contain a wealth of information about the fission process. Knowledge of short lived FPYs would contribute to existing data on longer lived FPY mass and charge distributions. Of particular interest are the relative yields between the ground states and isomeric states of FPYs since these isomeric ratios can be used to determine the angular momentum of the fragments. Over the past five years, a LLNL-TUNL-LANL collaboration has made precision measurements of FPYs from quasi-monoenergetic neutron induced fission of 235U, 238U and 239Pu. These efforts focused on longer lived FPYs, using a well characterized dual fission chamber and several days of neutron beam exposure. For the first time, this established technique will be applied to measuring short lived FPYs, with half lives of minutes to less than an hour. A feasibility study will be performed using irradiation times of < 1 hour, improving the sensitivity to short lived FPYs by limiting the buildup of long lived isotopes. Results from this exploratory study will be presented, and the implications for isomeric ratio measurements will be discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of US DOE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  6. Short-lived brain state after cued motor imagery in naive subjects

    Pfurtscheller, G.; Scherer, R.; Müller-Putz, G.R.; Lopes da Silva, F.H.

    2008-01-01

    Multi-channel electroencephalography recordings have shown that a visual cue, indicating right hand, left hand or foot motor imagery, can induce a short-lived brain state in the order of about 500 ms. In the present study, 10 able-bodied subjects without any motor imagery experience (naive subjects)

  7. The development of fast tantalum foil targets for short-lived isotopes

    Bennett, J R J; Drumm, P V; Ravn, H L

    2003-01-01

    The development of fast tantalum foil targets for short-lived isotopes was discussed. It was found that the effusion was faster but the diffusion out of the foils was a limiting factor. The performance of the targets at ISOLDE with beams of **1**1Li, **1**2Be and **1**4Be was also analyzed. (Edited abstract) 13 Refs.

  8. Measurements of Neutral Kaon Decays to Two Electron Positron Pairs

    Halkiadakis, Eva [Rutgers U., Piscataway

    2001-01-01

    We observed 441 $K_L \\to e^+ e^- e^+ e^-$ events with a background of 4.2 events in the KTeV/E799II experiment at Fermilab. We present here a measurement of the $K_L \\to e^+ e^- e^+ e^-$ branching ratio (B), a study of CP symmetry and the first detailed study of the $e^+ e^-$ invariant mass spectrum in this decay mode....

  9. Tests of the equivalence principle with neutral kaons

    Apostolakis, Alcibiades J; Backenstoss, Gerhard; Bargassa, P; Behnke, O; Benelli, A; Bertin, V; Blanc, F; Bloch, P; Carlson, P J; Carroll, M; Cawley, E; Chardin, G; Chertok, M B; Danielsson, M; Dejardin, M; Derré, J; Ealet, A; Eleftheriadis, C; Faravel, L; Fetscher, W; Fidecaro, Maria; Filipcic, A; Francis, D; Fry, J; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gamet, R; Gerber, H J; Go, A; Haselden, A; Hayman, P J; Henry-Coüannier, F; Hollander, R W; Jon-And, K; Kettle, P R; Kokkas, P; Kreuger, R; Le Gac, R; Leimgruber, F; Mandic, I; Manthos, N; Marel, Gérard; Mikuz, M; Miller, J; Montanet, François; Müller, A; Nakada, Tatsuya; Pagels, B; Papadopoulos, I M; Pavlopoulos, P; Polivka, G; Rickenbach, R; Roberts, B L; Ruf, T; Sakelliou, L; Schäfer, M; Schaller, L A; Schietinger, T; Schopper, A; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thibault, C; Touchard, F; Touramanis, C; van Eijk, C W E; Vlachos, S; Weber, P; Wigger, O; Wolter, M; Zavrtanik, D; Zimmerman, D; Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Mavromatos, Nikolaos E; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V

    1999-01-01

    We test the Principle of Equivalence for particles and antiparticles, using CPLEAR data on tagged Pkao and Pkab decays into $pi^+ pi^-$. For the first time, we search for possible annual, monthly and diurnal modulations of the observables $|eta_{+-}|$ and $phi _{+-}$, that could be correlated with variations in astrophysical potentials. Within the accuracy of CPLEAR, the measured values of $|eta _{+-}|$ and $phi _{+-}$ are found not to be correlated with changes of the gravitational potential. We analyze data assuming effective scalar, vector and tensor interactions, and we conclude that the Principle of Equivalence between particles and antiparticles holds to a level of $6.5$, $4.3$ and $1.8 imes 10^{-9}$, respectively, for scalar, vector and tensor potentials originating from the Sun with a range much greater than the distance Earth-Sun. We also study energy-dependent effects that might arise from vector or tensor interactions. Finally, we compile upper limits on the gravitational coupling difference betwee...

  10. Limits on variances from symmetry in neutral kaon decays

    Dass, G V

    1972-01-01

    An analysis is made of the limits on the possible departures from CP-, T-, and TCP- invariance, both in the structure of K/sub L/ and K/sub S / states and in the decay amplitudes to pi pi and pi l nu channels. A small violation of the requirements of CP- and T-invariance on the structure of K/sub L/ and K/sub S/ states can be deduced under quite plausible assumptions, but there is no evidence of any other departure from the requirements of CP-, or T-, or TCP-invariance. However, the present limit for one measure delta of TCP-noninvariance is several times larger than the estimated value of the corresponding CP- and T- noninvariance parameter sigma =Re(K/sub L/ mod K/sub s/). Taking a conservative view of the experimental data, symmetry-violating parts of 2 pi decay amplitudes are limited to better than 1% for the I=0 channel and to within a small percentage for the I=2 channel, in relative magnitude. The corresponding limits which can be deduced for leptonic decay amplitudes are somewhat larger but there are ...

  11. Rare kaon decay: challenges and perspectives

    D'Ambrosio, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    I review rare kaon decays. I introduce the flavor problem and p ossible solutions. Very rare kaon decays like K → π ν ̄ ν are very important to this purpose but also K → π l + l − . A new interesting channel is K → π π ee . Chiral dynamics is important to disentangle short distanc e effects. We discuss also the decays K 0 → μ + μ − , which have received recently some attention due to the measurement by LHCB.therefore we will study also K L → π 0 e + e − , K + → π + π 0 γ , K + → π + π 0 e + e − and related channels

  12. Rare kaon, muon, and pion decay

    Littenberg, L.

    1998-01-01

    The author discusses the status of and prospects for the study of rare decays of kaons, muons, and pions. Studies of rare kaon decays are entering an interesting new phase wherein they can deliver important short-distance information. It should be possible to construct an alternative unitarity triangle to that determined in the B sector, and thus perform a critical check of the Standard Model by comparing the two. Rare muon decays are beginning to constrain supersymmetric models in a significant way, and future experiments should reach sensitivities which this kind of model must show effects, or become far less appealing

  13. Hadronic atoms at a kaon factory

    Leon, M.

    1982-01-01

    Beyond doubt, the advent of a kaon factory will be of immense significance for the study of hadronic atoms. Here we will discuss some classes of experiments that certainly can and will be done at a kaon factory, as well as some very interesting possibilities which deserve investigation. Among the certains we include the observation of hadronic x rays from kaonic and μ - atoms, for both Z greater than one and for the isotopes of hydrogen, mainly for strong interaction information. More conjectural is the possibility of measuring Xi - and Ω - x rays

  14. Kaon dynamics in dense nuclear matter

    David, Ch.

    1998-01-01

    In this thesis a list of cross sections concerning the kaons and antikaons production, has been presented. A new method for the parametrisation of particles rescattering cross sections, based on the neural networks has been developed. Because of the influence of the nuclear matter on kaons properties, the effect of the optical potential parameters has been studied. In particular a term has been added to the vector part of this potential to determine the relative importance of this part compared to the scalar part. A new parametrisation of the resonance lifetime has been proposed. (A.L.B.)

  15. Effective lagrangian for Kaon-nucleon scattering

    Andrade, S.C.B. de; Ferreira, E.M.

    1980-11-01

    A model for the Kaon-nucleon interaction is investigated, based on a lagrangian which includes the Yukawa interactions of hyperons, kaons and nucleons plus contact terms representing short range interactions in each isospin state. All diagrams up to fourth order are evaluated and the partial wave S matrix elements are unitarized through diagonal Pade approximants. The results of the calculations with this model give a good description of all experimental data on both I = O and I = 1 states of the KN system at low and intermediate energies. (Author) [pt

  16. Racetrack lattices for the TRIUMF KAON factory

    Servranckx, R.V.; Wienands, U.; Craddock, M.K.; Rees, G.H.

    1989-03-01

    Separated-function racetrack lattices have been developed for the KAON Factory accelerators that have more flexibility than the old circular lattices. Straight sections with zero dispersion are provided for rf cavities and fast injection and extraction, and with controlled dispersion for H - injection and slow extraction. In addition the new lattices have fewer depolarizing resonances than the old circular lattices

  17. PLANS FOR KAON PHYSICS AT BNL.

    REDLINGER,G.

    2004-06-05

    The author gives an overview of current plans for kaon physics at BNL. The program is centered around the rare decay modes K{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{nu}{bar {nu}} and K{sub L} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{nu}{bar {nu}}.

  18. Bose-Einstein correlations between kaons

    Akesson, T.; Batley, R.; Breuker, H.; Dam, P.; Eidelman, S.; Fabian, C.W.; Frandsen, P.; Goerlach, U.; Heck, B.; Hilke, H.J.; Jeffreys, P.; Kalinovsky, A.; Kesseler, G.; Lans, J. van der; Lindsay, J.; Markou, A.; Mjoernmark, U.; Nielsen, B.S.; Olsen, L.H.; Rosselet, L.; Rosso, E.; Rudge, A.; Schindler, R.; Willis, W.J.; Witzeling, W.; Albrow, M.G.; Cockerill, D.; Evans, W.M.; Gibson, M.; Hiddleston, J.; MacCubbin, N.A.; Williamson, J.; Benary, O.; Dagan, S.; Lissauer, D.; Oren, Y.; Boeggild, H.; Botner, O.; Dahl-Jensen, E.; Dahl-Jensen, I.; Damgaard, G.; Hansen, K.H.; Hooper, J.; Moeller, R.; Brody, H.; Frankel, S.; Frati, W.; Molzon, W.; Vella, E.; Zajc, W.A.; Burkert, V.; Carter, J.R.; Cecil, P.; Chung, S.U.; Gordon, H.; Ludlam, T.; Winik, M.; Woody, C.; Cleland, W.E.; Kroeger, R.; Sullivan, M.; Thompson, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Bose-Einstein correlations between identical charged kaons are observed in αα, pp, and panti p collisions at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings. The average radial extension of the K-emitting region is found to be (2.4+-0.9) fm. (orig.)

  19. Neutron-induced cross sections of short-lived nuclei via the surrogate reaction method

    Morel P.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of neutron-induced cross sections of short-lived nuclei is extremely difficult due to the radioactivity of the samples. The surrogate reaction method is an indirect way of determining cross sections for nuclear reactions that proceed through a compound nucleus. This method presents the advantage that the target material can be stable or less radioactive than the material required for a neutron-induced measurement. We have successfully used the surrogate reaction method to extract neutron-induced fission cross sections of various short-lived actinides. In this work, we investigate whether this technique can be used to determine neutron-induced capture cross sections in the rare-earth region.

  20. Neutron-induced cross sections of short-lived nuclei via the surrogate reaction method

    Tassan-Got L.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of neutron-induced cross sections of short-lived nuclei is extremely difficult due to the radioactivity of the samples. The surrogate reaction method is an indirect way of determining cross sections for nuclear reactions that proceed through a compound nucleus. This method presents the advantage that the target material can be stable or less radioactive than the material required for a neutron-induced measurement. We have successfully used the surrogate reaction method to extract neutron-induced fission cross sections of various short-lived actinides. In this work, we investigate whether this technique can be used to determine neutron-induced capture cross sections in the rare-earth region.

  1. Determination of short-lived trace elements in environmental samples by neutron activation analysis

    Wardani, S.; Sihombing, E.; Hamzah, A.; Rochidi; Hery, P.S.; Hartaman, S.; Iman, J.

    1998-01-01

    Concentration of a short-lived trace elements in environmental samples were determined by neutron activation analysis, a counting loss often occur due to the high counting rate. A Pile-Up Rejecter (PUR) electric circuit was installed in counting a short-lived trace elements by a γ-ray spectrometer in order to correct a counting loss. The samples were irradiated for 30∼60 seconds at neutron flux of 3.5 x 10 12 n.cm -2 .s -1 , then the samples cooled for 120 second and counted for 180 second using this system. The nuclides concentration in the varieties environmental samples have a difference analysis result, was more accurate and precise, which the measured result would be 30 % more higher by PUR system than the result would be counted using a conventional γ-ray spectrometry method

  2. Use of short-lived radionuclides in the agricultural and environmental sciences

    Krohn, K.A.

    1985-01-01

    In addition to their well-known uses in physiology, biochemistry, and medicine, short-lived radioisotopes have played an important part in promoting the authors knowledge of the agricultural and environmental sciences. Numerous investigators have found that the scientific rewards justify the additional demands associated with use of short-lived radioisotopes when novel or uniquely precise results can be achieved. This is best exemplified by examining the use of 13 N. Nitrogen-13 is the longest lived radioisotope of this very important element. The 10-min half-life of 13 N has required that the agricultural or environmental test model be brought to the laboratory where the isotope is made, but this has been done successfully in numerous instances. One major incentive for this research has probably been the fact that there is no analog of the very useful 14 C tracer to study nitrogen chemistry and biology

  3. Studies on short-lived fission products at the Mainz TRIGA reactor

    Trautmann, N.

    1974-01-01

    Neutron-rich nuclei of medium mass number are produced by thermal-neutron-induced fission of heavy elements, e.g., 235 U, 239 Pu, and 249 Cf. Pulse irradiations lead to an enhancement of the ratio of short-lived activities to the accompanying longer-lived components. One approach for investigating the properties of short-lived nuclei consists in a combination of rapid chemical separations with higher-resolution gamma spectroscopy. This is demonstrated by the isolation of neutron-rich isotopes of niobium by sorption on glass and of ruthenium by solvent extraction. Other rapid separation procedures from aqueous solutions are briefly summarized and a few examples for their application in nuclear fission- and delayed neutron studies are given. Some experiments with an on-line mass separator of the ISOLDE-type, using chemical targets, are described. (U.S.)

  4. Aube storage centre for short-lived low- and intermediate-level wastes. Annual report 2009

    2010-06-01

    The National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra), was established by the December 1991 Waste Act as a public body in charge of the long-term management of all radioactive waste, under the supervision of the Ministry of Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and the Sea (formerly the Ministry of Industry and the Ministry of Environment), and the Ministry of Research. The Andra operates two storage centers in the Aube region (France): the center for short-lived low- and intermediate-level wastes, and the center for very-low-level radioactive wastes. This document is the 2009 activity report of the center for short-lived low- and intermediate-level wastes. It presents a review of the activities of the center: presentation of the installations, safety and radiation protection, events or incidents, environmental monitoring, wastes management, public information, opinion of the Health and safety Committee (CHSCT)

  5. Aube storage center for short-lived low- and intermediate-level wastes. Annual report 2008

    2009-06-01

    The National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra), was established by the December 1991 Waste Act as a public body in charge of the long-term management of all radioactive waste, under the supervision of the Ministry of Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and the Sea (formerly the Ministry of Industry and the Ministry of Environment), and the Ministry of Research. The Andra operates two storage centers in the Aube region (France): the center for short-lived low- and intermediate-level wastes, and the center for very-low-level radioactive wastes. This document is the 2008 activity report of the center for short-lived low- and intermediate-level wastes. It presents a review of the activities of the center: presentation of the installations, safety and radiation protection, events or incidents, environmental monitoring, wastes management, public information

  6. Aube storage center for short-lived low- and intermediate-level wastes. Annual report 2010

    2011-06-01

    The National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra), was established by the December 1991 Waste Act as a public body in charge of the long-term management of all radioactive waste, under the supervision of the Ministry of Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and the Sea (formerly the Ministry of Industry and the Ministry of Environment), and the Ministry of Research. The Andra operates two storage centers in the Aube region (France): the center for short-lived low- and intermediate-level wastes, and the center for very-low-level radioactive wastes. This document is the 2010 activity report of the center for short-lived low- and intermediate-level wastes. It presents a review of the activities of the center: presentation of the installations, safety and radiation protection, events or incidents, environmental monitoring, wastes management, public information, recommendations of the Health and safety Committee (CHSCT)

  7. Simulation Studies of Diffusion-Release and Effusive-Flow of Short-Lived Radioactive Isotopes

    Zhang, Yan; Kawai, Yoko

    2005-01-01

    Delay times associated with diffusion release from targets and effusive-flow transport of radioactive isotopes to ion sources are principal intensity limiters at ISOL-based radioactive ion beam facilities, and simulation studies with computer models are cost effective methods for designing targets and vapor transport systems with minimum delay times to avoid excessive decay losses of short lived ion species. A finite difference code, Diffuse II, was recently developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to study diffusion-release of short-lived species from three principal target geometries. Simulation results are in close agreement with analytical solutions to Fick’s second equation. Complementary to the development of Diffuse II, the Monte-Carlo code, Effusion, was developed to address issues related to the design of fast vapor transport systems. Results, derived by using Effusion, are also found to closely agree with experimental measurements. In this presentation, the codes will be used in conc...

  8. Dynamical Detection of Topological Phase Transitions in Short-Lived Atomic Systems

    Setiawan, F.; Sengupta, K.; Spielman, I. B.; Sau, Jay D.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that dynamical probes provide direct means of detecting the topological phase transition (TPT) between conventional and topological phases, which would otherwise be difficult to access because of loss or heating processes. We propose to avoid such heating by rapidly quenching in and out of the short-lived topological phase across the transition that supports gapless excitations. Following the quench, the distribution of excitations in the final conventional phase carries signat...

  9. Extrinsic and intrinsic factors that shape the life history of the short living scallop Argopecten ventricosus

    Guerra, Citlali

    2011-01-01

    The scallop Argopecten ventricosus is characterized by its high swimming activity, fast growth, high reproductive effort and the early age to get first sexual maturity. These traits may be the result of the adaptation to a specific environment that favors an active lifestyle and a short lifespan (2 years). This opens the question of how environmental factors modulate the way a short living marine ectotherm budget energy investments among life history traits and how this modulation impacts the...

  10. Place of the final disposal of short lived dismantling waste; Plats foer slutfoervaring av kortlivat rivningsavfall

    NONE

    2013-01-15

    This report deals with the short-lived low and intermediate level radioactive waste, which will mainly arise from the dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power plants, but also the dismantling of other nuclear facilities. For these installations to be dismantled, there must be the capacity to receive and dispose of dismantling waste. SKB plans to expand the existing final repository for short-lived radioactive waste (SFR) in Forsmark for this purpose. The legislation requires alternatives to the chosen location. The alternate location for the disposal of decommissioning waste SKB has chosen to compare with is a location in the Simpevarp area outside Oskarshamn. There are currently Oskarshamn nuclear power plant and SKB between stock 'CLAB'. The choice of Simpevarp as alternative location is based on that it's one of the places in the country where data on the bedrock is available to an extent that allows an assessment of the prospects for long-term security, such an assessment is actually showing good potential, and that the location provide realistic opportunities to put into practice the disposal of decommissioning waste. At a comparison between the disposal of short-lived decommissioning waste in an extension of SFR with the option to build a separate repository for short-lived decommissioning waste in Simpevarp, the conclusion is that both options offer potentially good prospects for long-term security. The differences still indicated speaks to the Forsmark advantage. Similar conclusions were obtained when comparing the factors of environment, health and social aspects.

  11. Continuous administration of short-lived isotopes for evaluating dynamic parameters

    Selikson, M.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper it is shown that continuous but varying infusions (specifically, exponential infusions) of a short-lived radionuclide can be used to evaluate a wide range of dynamic parameters. The detector response to exponential infusions is derived. An example of an inert diffusible substrate for evaluating regional flow and a glucose model for evaluating regional metabolic rate are both worked out. The advantages of using exponential infusion methods are discussed

  12. Identification of short-lived neutron-rich ruthenium and rhodium isotopes in fission

    Franz, G.; Herrmann, G.

    1975-01-01

    Short-lived ruthenium and rhodium isotopes ( 107 Ru, 108 Ru, 108 Rh, 109 Ru, 109 Rh, 110 Ru, 110 Rh, 111 Ru, 111 Rh, 112 Ru, 112 Rh, 113 Ru) have been separated from fission products by a rapid chemical procedure and identified by means of γ-ray spectroscopy. Nuclides with half-lives down to 3 sec were accessible. Ruthenium isotopes up to mass number 113 have been identified. (author)

  13. Review of short-lived radionuclide activities in the United States

    Sodd, V.J.

    1985-01-01

    A review is given of the accelerator-produced short-lived radionuclides which are used in radiopharmaceuticals available commercially in the US and of the accelerator facilities devoted primarily to their production. Reactions for the efficient production of 67 Ga, 81 Rb → /sup 81m/Kr, 111 In, 201 Tl, and 123 I are given. Methods for the production of higher purity 123 I are suggested

  14. Last developments in the Belgian disposal programme for low and intermediate short-lived waste

    Boyazis, Jean-Paul

    2006-01-01

    After an historical reminder of the several phases of the Belgian program for the disposal of low and medium level short-lived waste since the creation of ONDRAF/NIRAS and the bad results obtained in the 90's by using a pure technical approach, the presentation will explain the main lines of the new methodology developed, as a consequence of the government decision of 16 January 1998 in ONDRAF/NIRAS to improve local acceptance for the disposal project. The way local partnerships were created with four nuclear municipalities under the form of a non-profit organization with a clear mission, the functioning, on a voluntary base, of the different partnerships during four to six years and the concrete results obtained until now using this very innovative method will be addressed. The last developments of the Belgian program for the disposal of low and medium level and short-lived waste will be presented, including the recent and very important decision of the Belgian government of 23 June 2006 to dispose of the low and medium active short-lived waste in a surface disposal installation on the territory of the municipality Dessel. (author)

  15. Applications of short lived nuclides in activation analysis, problems and progress

    Grass, F [Atominstitut, Vienna (Austria)

    1976-07-01

    Short lived nuclides or isomeric transitions, respectively would have some advantages over long lived ones. Although we published a paper concerning a germanium-determination in iron meteorites some years ago, only few laboratories use this technique, the main reason being that the high matrix activity disturbs the measurement of energy-spectra. A multichannel analyzer in the time sequence mode enables Li-8 determination by a purely instrumental method which is therefore used more frequently. In the time sequence mode much higher counting rates up to 10 - 50 MHz are processed then by taking energy-spectra. This is the reason why activation analysis with short lived isomeric states is seldom applied when counting rate and pulse height are to be detected simultaneously. Exceptional difficulties are encountered in measurement of samples activated by a reactor pulse. Further difficulties arise from the fact that an optimal expelling time depends on the half life of the nuclide, and is more critical if the half life is short and the full width half maximum of the reactor pulse is small. Commercial Ge-Li-detectors can be used only at low counting rates, so that samples with high matrix activities cannot be measured. Modifying the electronic system enables registration of samples with high matrix activities. For short lived nuclides emitting hard beta-rays, e.g. B-12 or Li-8, a Cerenkov-detector is optimal. These problems are discussed in examples. (author)

  16. Kaon condensates, nuclear symmetry energy and cooling of neutron stars

    Kubis, S. E-mail: kubis@alf.ifj.edu.pl; Kutschera, M

    2003-06-02

    The cooling of neutron stars by URCA processes in the kaon-condensed neutron star matter for various forms of nuclear symmetry energy is investigated. The kaon-nucleon interactions are described by a chiral Lagrangian. Nuclear matter energy is parametrized in terms of the isoscalar contribution and the nuclear symmetry energy in the isovector sector. High density behaviour of nuclear symmetry energy plays an essential role in determining the composition of the kaon-condensed neutron star matter which in turn affects the cooling properties. We find that the symmetry energy which decreases at higher densities makes the kaon-condensed neutron star matter fully protonized. This effect inhibits strongly direct URCA processes resulting in slower cooling of neutron stars as only kaon-induced URCA cycles are present. In contrast, for increasing symmetry energy direct URCA processes are allowed in the almost whole density range where the kaon condensation exists.

  17. Kaon condensates, nuclear symmetry energy and cooling of neutron stars

    Kubis, S.; Kutschera, M.

    2003-01-01

    The cooling of neutron stars by URCA processes in the kaon-condensed neutron star matter for various forms of nuclear symmetry energy is investigated. The kaon-nucleon interactions are described by a chiral Lagrangian. Nuclear matter energy is parametrized in terms of the isoscalar contribution and the nuclear symmetry energy in the isovector sector. High density behaviour of nuclear symmetry energy plays an essential role in determining the composition of the kaon-condensed neutron star matter which in turn affects the cooling properties. We find that the symmetry energy which decreases at higher densities makes the kaon-condensed neutron star matter fully protonized. This effect inhibits strongly direct URCA processes resulting in slower cooling of neutron stars as only kaon-induced URCA cycles are present. In contrast, for increasing symmetry energy direct URCA processes are allowed in the almost whole density range where the kaon condensation exists

  18. Pion and kaon freezeout in NA44

    1994-01-01

    The NA44 spectrometer is optimized for the study of single and two-particle particle spectra near mid-rapidity for transverse momenta below ∼ 1 GeV/c. A large fraction of all pairs in the spectrometer's acceptance are at low relative momenta, resulting in small statistical uncertainties on the extracted size parameters. In addition, the spectrometer's clean particle identification allows the authors to measure correlation functions for pions, kaons, and protons. This contribution will concentrate on the source size parameters determined from pion and kaon correlation functions. These size parameters will be compared to calculations from the RQMD event generator and also interpreted in the context of a hydrodynamic model. Finally, the measured single particle spectra will be examined from the viewpoint of hydrodynamics

  19. Hadronic form factors in kaon photoproduction

    Syukurilla, L., E-mail: tmart@fisika.ui.ac.id; Mart, T., E-mail: tmart@fisika.ui.ac.id [Department Fisika, FMIPA, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, 164242 (Indonesia)

    2014-09-25

    We have revisited the effect of hadronic form factors in kaon photoproduction process by utilizing an isobaric model developed for kaon photoproduction off the proton. The model is able to reproduce the available experimental data nicely as well as to reveal the origin of the second peak in the total cross section, which was the main source of confusion for decades. Different from our previous study, in the present work we explore the possibility of using different hadronic form factors in each of the KΛN vertices. The use of different hadronic form factors, e.g. dipole, Gaussian, and generalized dipole, has been found to produce a more flexible isobar model, which can provide a significant improvement in the model.

  20. Review of proposed kaon factory facilities

    Macek, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    A number of proton accelerator facilities, popularly called ''Kaon Factories,'' have been proposed to extend the intensity frontier from about 1 GeV to higher energies in the range of 15 to 45 GeV. Seven proposed facilities - LAMPF II, TRIUMF II, SIN II, AGS II, KEK, MUNICH, and KYOTO - are reviewed with emphasis on capabilities of the experimental facilities. Costs and the choice of energy and current are also discussed. 7 refs., 29 figs., 7 tabs

  1. Isospin violation in pion-kaon scattering

    Kubis, Bastian E-mail: b.kubis@fz-juelich.de; Meissner, Ulf-G. E-mail: ulf-g.meissner@fz-juelich.de

    2002-03-11

    We consider strong and electromagnetic isospin violation in near-threshold pion-kaon scattering. At tree level, such effects are small for all physical channels. We work out the complete one-loop corrections to the process {pi}{sup -}K{sup +}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}K{sup 0}. They come out rather small. We also show that the corresponding radiative cross section is highly suppressed at threshold.

  2. Isospin violation in pion-kaon scattering

    Kubis, Bastian; Meissner, Ulf-G.

    2002-01-01

    We consider strong and electromagnetic isospin violation in near-threshold pion-kaon scattering. At tree level, such effects are small for all physical channels. We work out the complete one-loop corrections to the process π - K + →π 0 K 0 . They come out rather small. We also show that the corresponding radiative cross section is highly suppressed at threshold

  3. Potential kaon and antiproton beams at BNL

    Lazarus, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    The AGS at Brookhaven is the worlds most prolific producer of kaons and low energy antiprotons during operations. With the imminent operation of the AGS Booster which will increase intensities by an anticipated factor of six in the next few years, it will become possible to have purified beams of particles containing strange quarks and anti-quarks with intensities comparable to the pion beams which have so successfully dominated precision hadron spectroscopy in the past. 10 refs., 3 figs

  4. Precision kaon and hadron physics with KLOE

    Bossi, F.; De Lucia, E.; Lee-Franzini, J.; Miscetti, S.; Palutan, M.

    2008-01-01

    We describe the KLOE detector at DAΦNE, the Frascati φ, and its physics program. We begin with a brief description of the detector design and operation. Kaon physics is a major topic of investigation with KLOE thanks in part to the unique availability of pure K S , K L , K ± beams at a φ. We have measured all significant branching ratios of all kaon species, the K L and K ± lifetimes and the K → π form factor's t dependence. From the measurements we verify the validity of Cabibbo unitarity and lepton universality. We have studied properties of light scalar and pseudoscalar mesons with unprecedented accuracy. We have measured the e + e - → π + π - cross-section necessary for computing the major part of the hadronic contribution to the muon anomaly. The methods employed in all the above measurements as well as the φ leptonic width, precision mass measurements and searches for forbidden or extremely rare decays of kaons and η-mesons arc described. The impact of our results on flavor and hadron physics to date, as well as an outlook for further improvement in the near future, are discussed

  5. Comprehensive Profiling of Immune Responses in MARV Survivors Demonstrates Robust Th1-Skewing with Short Lived Neutralizing Antibody Responses

    2017-03-29

    Peters. 1999. Markedly elevated levels of interferon (IFN)-gamma, IFN- alpha , interleukin (IL)-2, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor - alpha associated with...multiorgan failure, cerebral oedema, and activation of proangiogenic and antiangiogenic factors in a case of Marburg haemorrhagic fever. Lancet

  6. Systematic measurement of beta-decay half-lives of short-lived isotopes

    Hirose, T.; Yamamoto, H.; Kawade, K. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan); Iida, T.; Takahashi, A.; Kasugai, Y.; Ikeda, Y.

    1997-03-01

    We have measured the half-lives of short-lived isotopes for past decade and deduced the half-lives of 6 isotopes further. These results demonstrated that most of the literature values shorter than 10 min systematically deviated from our measurement ones. The cause seems to be that a large number of the previous half-life studies were performed with scintillation counters before 1970 and they had a difficulty in distinguishing the interest {gamma}-ray from the contamination and correcting for pile-up and dead-time losses. Moreover, the deviated data found to be quoted for evaluation. (author)

  7. Quantum non-locality in a two-slit interferometer for short-lived particles

    Klein, Spencer R.; Nystrand, Joakim

    2001-01-01

    We describe a new test of quantum nonlocality, using an interferometer for short-lived particles. The separation is large compared with the particle lifetimes. This interferometer is realized by vector meson production in distant heavy ion collisions. The mesons decay before waves from the two sources (ions) can overlap, so interference is only possible among the decay products. The post-decay wave function must retain amplitudes for all possible decays. The decay products are spatially separated, necessitating a non-local wave function. The interference is measurable by summing the product momenta. Alternately, the products positions could be observed, allowing new tests of the EPR paradox

  8. Short-lived cyclotron-produced radioisotopes: Medi-Physics, Inc.'s commitment

    Kramer, H.H.

    1985-01-01

    Medi-Physics, Inc., is a major US supplier of short-lived cyclotron-produced radioisotopes for radiopharmaceuticals, as well as routinely producing and distributing the greatest number of 123 I radiopharmaceuticals. The present commercial production capacity for 123 I is more than ten times the theoretical need for existing procedures and is more than adequate for the research and development of new radiopharmaceuticals. However, production capacity is only one component of many that are required to supply a radioisotope for human use. These components are summarized in this paper

  9. Rapid transfer of short-lived radioisotopes via a 2. 4 km rabbit system

    Burgerjon, J J; Gelbart, Z; Lau, V; Lehnart, D; Lenz, J; Pate, B D; Ruth, T J; Sprenger, H P; van Oers, N S.C.

    1984-09-01

    A 2.4 km long pipeline between a cyclotron and a hospital is used for the rapid transfer of short-lived radiopharmaceuticals. The vials containing the pharmaceuticals are placed inside capsules (rabbits) that are blown through a tube by means of compressed air. Travel times as short as 2 min are achieved, which makes the system suitable for the transfer of /sup 15/O, which has a 2 min half-life. The construction and test results of the system are described along with a computer model, developed to explain some properties of the system. 7 references, 15 figures, 2 tables.

  10. [Hyperfine structure and isotope shift measurements of short lived elements by laser spectroscopy

    Schuessler, H.A.

    1986-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine nuclear moments and charge distributions of short-lived isotopes produced both on-line and off-line to a nuclear facility. These measurements give detailed information on the nuclear force and are used to test current nuclear models. The small amounts of nuclei which can be produced off stability constitute the challenge in these experiments. Presently mainly neutron-rich isotopes are being studied by three ultrasensitive high-resolution laser techniques. These are collinear fast ion-beam laser spectroscopy, stored-ion laser spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. 5 figs

  11. Tantalum-178 - a short-lived nuclide for nuclear medicine: development of a potential generator system

    Neirinckx, R.D.; Jones, A.G.; Davis, M.A.; Harris, G.I.; Holman, B.L.

    1978-01-01

    We describe a chemical separation that may form the basis of a generator system for the short-lived radionuclide Ta-178 (T/sub 1/2/ = 9 min). The parent nuclide W-178 (T/sub 1/2/ = 21.7 days) is loaded on an anion-exchange column and the daughter eluted with a mixture of dilute hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide. The yields of tantalum and the breakthrough of the tungsten parent as a function of the eluting conditions are discussed, and preliminary animal distribution data are presented for various treatments of the eluant solution

  12. Preparing isomerically pure beams of short-lived nuclei at JYFLTRAP

    Eronen, T. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FIN-40014 (Finland)], E-mail: tommi.eronen@jyu.fi; Elomaa, V.-V.; Hager, U.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kankainen, A.; Rahaman, S.; Rissanen, J.; Weber, C.; Aystoe, J. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FIN-40014 (Finland)

    2008-10-15

    A new procedure to prepare isomerically clean samples of short-lived ions with a mass resolving power of more than 1 x 10{sup 5} has been developed at the JYFLTRAP tandem Penning trap system. The method utilises a dipolar rf-excitation of the ion motion with separated oscillatory fields in the precision trap. During a subsequent retransfer to the purification trap, the contaminants are rejected and as a consequence, the remaining bunch is isomerically cleaned. This newly-developed method is suitable for very high-resolution cleaning and is at least a factor of five faster than the methods used so far in Penning trap mass spectrometry.

  13. Short-lived radioactive nuclides in meteorites and early solar system processes

    Chaussidon, M.; Gounelle, M.

    2007-01-01

    Now extinct, short-lived radioactive nuclides, such as 7 Be (T 1/2 = 53 days), 10 Be (T 1/2 = 1.5 Ma), 26 Al (T 1/2 = 0.74 Ma), 36 Cl (T 1/2 = 0.3 Ma), 41 Ca (T 1/2 = 0.1 Ma), 53 Mn (T 1/2 = 3.7 Ma) and 60 Fe (T 1/2 = 1.5 Ma), were present in the proto-solar nebula when the various components of meteorites formed. The presence of these radioactive isotopes requires a 'last-minute' origin, either nucleosynthesis in a massive star dying close in space and time to the nascent solar system or production by local irradiation of part of the proto-solar disk by high-energy solar cosmic rays. In this review, we list: (i) the different observations indicating the existence of multiple origins for short-lived radioactive nuclides, namely 7 Be, 10 Be and 36 Cl for irradiation scenario and 60 Fe for injection scenario; (ii) the constraints that exist on their distribution (homogeneous or heterogeneous) in the accretion disk; (iii) the constraints they brought on the timescales of nebular processes (from Ca-Al-rich inclusions to chondrules) and of the accretion and differentiation of planetesimals. (authors)

  14. Behaviour of short-lived fission products within operating UO2 fuel elements

    Hastings, I.J.; Hunt, C.E.L.; Lipsett, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    We have carried out experiments using a ''sweep gas'' technique to determine the behaviour of short-lived fission products within operating, intact UO 2 fuel elements. The Zircaloy-4-clad elements were 500 mm long and contained fuel of density 10.65-10.71 Mg/m 3 . A He-2% H 2 carrier gas swept gaseous or volatile fission products out of the operating fuel element past a gamma spectrometer for measurement. In tests at linear powers of 45 and 60 kW/m to maximum burnups of 70 MW.h/kg U, the species measured directly at the spectrometer were generally the short-lived xenons and kryptons. We did not observe iodine or bromine during normal operation. However, we have deduced the behaviour of I-133 and I-135 from the decay of Xe-133 and Xe-135 during reactor shutdowns. Plots of R/B (released/born) against lambda (decay constant) or effective lambda for all isotopes observed at 45 and 60 kW/m show that a line of slope -0.5, corresponding with diffusion kinetics, is a good fit to the measured xenon and krypton data. Our inferred release of iodine fits the same line. From this we can extrapolate to an R/B for I-131 of about 5x10 -3 . The ANS 5.4 release correlation gives calculated results in good agreement with our measurements. (author)

  15. Search for short-lived particles produced on nuclei with a heavy liquid mini bubble chamber

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this experiment is to search for short-lived particles produced in hadronic interactions on nuclei with our high resolution heavy liquid mini bubble chamber BIBC, aiming to establish the cross-section for associated production in hadron-nucleus collisions, its $A$-dependence and an approximate value of the lifetime. The chamber will be operated at a bubble density of 290 bubbles/cm and with an apparent bubble size of 30 $\\mu$m in real space. In test runs at CERN we measured detection efficiencies which, together with simulations of $D\\bar{D}$ production and decay, lead to a sensitivity of 0.25 events/($\\mu$b/N) per day if the lifetime is of the order of $5\\times10^{-13}$s. A null result after 10 days running time would set an upper limit on the production cross section to $3 \\mu$b. \\\\ \\\\ In order to measure the momenta of charged decay products of short-lived particles, the bubble chamber will be placed 1.80 m upstream of the streamer chamber of the NA5 experiment (MPI). The geometrical acceptance ...

  16. Continuous administration of short-lived radioisotope tracers and the analogous Laplace transform

    Orr, J.S.

    1979-01-01

    Short-lived radioactive tracers are used because of the low radiation dose to patients. Another advantage finding increasing use, however, is that the equilibrium activities achieved by continuous administration to a steady state contain kinetic information. This is not the case with long-lived isotopes. The derivation of quantitative kinetic information in the form of rate constants or flows requires the formulation of a model of the system being studied. Several approaches to this have been published based on a model of single compartments with simultaneous arrival of tracer. To deal with more realistic models a method is proposed which uses the analogy between the procedure of continuous administration of short-lived tracer and the Laplace transform. This analogy permits all the theorems of Laplace transform theory to be applied to the analysis of measured activities. The basis of the analogy is explained and examples are given of its application to a number of models which represent actual physiology more realistically than single compartment models. In these applications the transformed equations representing the model, with measured values of activity inserted for each transform, are solved to derive the rate constants. This is different from the use of Laplace transforms where the constant coefficients are known and the initial value problem is solved to find the behaviour of the variables. (author)

  17. Production of exotic, short lived carbon isotopes in ISOL-type facilities

    Franberg, Hanna; Köster, Ulli; Ammann, Markus

    2008-01-01

    The beam intensities of short-lived carbon isotopes at Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) facilities have been limited in the past for technical reasons. The production of radioactive ion beams of carbon isotopes is currently of high interest for fundamental nuclear physics research. To produce radioactive ions a target station consisting of a target in a container connected to an ion source via a transfer line is commonly used. The target is heated to vaporize the product for transport. Carbon in elementary form is a very reactive element and react strongly with hot metal surfaces. Due to the strong chemisorption interaction, in the target and ion source unit, the atoms undergo significant retention on their way from the target to the ion source. Due to this the short lived isotopes decays and are lost leading to low ion yields. A first approach to tackle these limitations consists of incorporating the carbon atoms into less reactive molecules and to use materials for the target housing and the transfer line ...

  18. Short-lived pollutants in the Arctic: their climate impact and possible mitigation strategies

    S. Menon

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Several short-lived pollutants known to impact Arctic climate may be contributing to the accelerated rates of warming observed in this region relative to the global annually averaged temperature increase. Here, we present a summary of the short-lived pollutants that impact Arctic climate including methane, tropospheric ozone, and tropospheric aerosols. For each pollutant, we provide a description of the major sources and the mechanism of forcing. We also provide the first seasonally averaged forcing and corresponding temperature response estimates focused specifically on the Arctic. The calculations indicate that the forcings due to black carbon, methane, and tropospheric ozone lead to a positive surface temperature response indicating the need to reduce emissions of these species within and outside the Arctic. Additional aerosol species may also lead to surface warming if the aerosol is coincident with thin, low lying clouds. We suggest strategies for reducing the warming based on current knowledge and discuss directions for future research to address the large remaining uncertainties.

  19. Short-lived pollutants in the Arctic: their climate impact and possible mitigation strategies

    Menon, Surabi; Quinn, P.K.; Bates, T.S.; Baum, E.; Doubleday, N.; Fiore, A.M.; Flanner, M.; Fridlind, A.; Garrett, T.J.; Koch, D.; Menon, S.; Shindell, D.; Stohl, A.; Warren, S.G.

    2007-09-24

    Several short-lived pollutants known to impact Arctic climate may be contributing to the accelerated rates of warming observed in this region relative to the global annually averaged temperature increase. Here, we present a summary of the short-lived pollutants that impact Arctic climate including methane, tropospheric ozone, and tropospheric aerosols. For each pollutant, we provide a description of the major sources and the mechanism of forcing. We also provide the first seasonally averaged forcing and corresponding temperature response estimates focused specifically on the Arctic. The calculations indicate that the forcings due to black carbon, methane, and tropospheric ozone lead to a positive surface temperature response indicating the need to reduce emissions of these species within and outside the Arctic. Additional aerosol species may also lead to surface warming if the aerosol is coincident with thin, low lying clouds. We suggest strategies for reducing the warming based on current knowledge and discuss directions for future research to address the large remaining uncertainties.

  20. Diffusive instability of a kaon condensate in neutron star matter

    Kubis, Sebastian

    2004-01-01

    The beta equilibrated dense matter with kaon condensate is analyzed with respect to extended stability conditions, including charge fluctuations. This kind of the diffusive instability appeared to be common property in the kaon condensation case. Results for three different nuclear models are presented

  1. Collins and Sivers Transverse Spin Asymmetries for Pions and Kaons on Deuterons

    Alekseev, M.; Alexandrov, Yu.; Alexeev, G.D.; Amoroso, A.; Arbuzov, A.; Badelek, Barbara Maria; Balestra, F.; Ball, J.; Barth, J.; Baum, Guenter; Bedfer, Y.; Bernet, Colin; Bertini, R.; Bettinelli, M.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, Franco; Brona, G.; Burtin, E.; Bussa, M.P.; Chapiro, A.; Chiosso, M.; Cicuttin, A.; Colantoni, M.; Crespo, M.L.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dafni, T.; Das, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; De Masi, R.; Dedek, N.; Dhara, L.; Diaz, V.; Dinkelbach, A.M.; Donskov, S.V.; Dorofeev, V.A.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dunnweber, W.; Eversheim, P.D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Falaleev, V.; Ferrero, L.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; Franz, J.; Friedrich, J.M.; Garfagnini, R.; Gautheron, Fabrice; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gazda, R.; Geyer, R.; Giorgi, M.; Gobbo, Benigno; Gorin, A.M.; Grabmuller, S.; Grajek, O.A.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Gushterski, R.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; Hannappel, J.; von Harrach, D.; Hasegawa, T.; Heckmann, J.; Hedicke, S.; Heinsius, Fritz-Herbert; Hermann, R.; Hess, C.; Hinterberger, F.; von Hodenberg, M.; Horikawa, S.; d'Hose, N.; Ilgner, C.; Ioukaev, A.I.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, O.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Jahn, R.; Janata, A.; Jasinski, P.; Joosten, R.; Jouravlev, N.I.; Kabuss, E.; Kang, D.; Ketzer, Bernhard; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu.A.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koblitz, S.; Kolosov, V.N.; Komissarov, E.V.; Kondo, K.; Konigsmann, Kay; Konstantinov, V.F.; Korentchenko, A.S.; Koutchinski, N.A.; Kral, A.; Kravchuk, N.P.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Kuhn, R.; Kunne, Fabienne; Kurek, Krzysztof; Ladygin, M.E.; Le Goff, Jean-Marc; Lednev, A.A.; Lehmann, A.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Liska, T.; Ludwig, I.; Maggiora, A.; Maggiora, M.; Magnon, A.; Mallot, G.K.; Mann, A.; Marchand, C.; Marroncle, J.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Massmann, F.; Matsuda, T.; Meyer, W.Thomas; Mikhailov, Yu.V.; Moinester, M.A.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Nahle, O.; Nassalski, J.; Neliba, S.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.P.; Nikolaenko, V.I.; Nikolaev, K.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Ostrick, M.; Padee, A.; Pagano, P.; Panebianco, S.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Paul, S.; Pawlukiewicz-Kaminska, B.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Peshekhonov, V.D.; Piragino, G.; Platchkov, Stephane; Pochodzalla, J.; Polak, J.; Polyakov, V.A.; Pretz, J.; Procureur, S.; Quintans, C.; Rajotte, J.F.; Ramos, S.; Rapatsky, V.; Reicherz, G.; Reggiani, D.; Richter, A.; Robinet, F.; Rondio, Ewa; Rozhdestvensky, A.M.; Ryabchikov, D.I.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Sandacz, A.; Sapozhnikov, M.G.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, Igor A.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, Christian; Schonmeier, P.; Schroder, W.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sissakian, A.N.; Slunecka, M.; Smirnov, G.I.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Stinzing, F.; Sugonyaev, V.P.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Takabayashi, N.; Tchalishev, V.V.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Teufel, A.; Tkatchev, L.G.; Venugopal, G.; Virius, M.; Vlassov, N.V.; Vossen, A.; Webb, Robert C.; Weitzel, Q.; Windmolders, R.; Wirth, S.; Wislicki, W.; Wollny, H.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziegler, R.; Zvyagin, A.

    2009-01-01

    The measurements of the Collins and Sivers asymmetries of identified hadrons produced in deep-inelastic scattering of 160 GeV/c muons on a transversely polarised 6LiD target at COMPASS are presented. The results for charged pions and charged and neutral kaons correspond to all data available, which were collected from 2002 to 2004. For all final state particles both the Collins and Sivers asymmetries turn out to be small, compatible with zero within the statistical errors, in line with the previously published results for not identified charged hadrons, and with the expected cancellation between the u- and d-quark contributions.

  2. Kaon transverse charge density from space- and timelike data

    Mecholsky, N. A.; Meija-Ott, J.; Carmignotto, M.; Horn, T.; Miller, G. A.; Pegg, I. L.

    2017-12-01

    We used the world data on the kaon form factor to extract the transverse kaon charge density using a dispersion integral of the imaginary part of the kaon form factor in the timelike region. Our analysis includes recent data from e+e- annihiliation measurements extending the kinematic reach of the data into the region of high momentum transfers conjugate to the region of short transverse distances. To calculate the transverse density we created a superset of both timelike and spacelike data and developed an empirical parameterization of the kaon form factor. The spacelike set includes two new data points we extracted from existing cross section data. We estimate the uncertainty on the resulting transverse density to be 5% at b =0.025 fm and significantly better at large distances. New kaon data planned with the 12 GeV Jefferson Lab may have a significant impact on the charge density at distances of b <0.1 fm.

  3. Short-lived Isotopes from a Close-by AGB Star Triggering the Protosolar Nebula

    Gallino, R.; Busso, M.; Wasserburg, G. J.; Straniero, O.

    The presence of short-lived isotopes in the early solar system, in particular 26Al, 41Ca, 60Fe, and 107Pd, point to a close-by and fresh nucleosynthesis source, possibly triggering the collapse of the protosolar nebula. We present the results of nucleosynthesis calculations based on an AGB polluting hypothesis. A general concordance of the predicted yields of the above radioactivities relative to 26Al can be obtained in the case of an intermediate mass AGB star with hot bottom burning in the envelope (thus producing 26Al), and mixing through a series of third dredge-up episodes a fraction of the C-rich and s-processed material from the He intershell with the extended envelope. Polution of the protosolar nebula with freshly synthesized material may derive from the efficient winds of the AGB star. In AGB stars, the s-process nucleosynthesis occurs both during the maximum phase of every thermal runaway, driven by the partial activation of the 22Ne(alpha,n)25Mg reaction, and in the interpulse phase, where the 13C nuclei are fully consumed in radiative conditions by the activation of the 13C(alpha,n)16O reaction. We have used different prescriptions for the amount of the 13C nuclei present in the intershell. A minimum amount of 13C is naturally expected in the ashes of H-shell burning. Possible formation of an extra "13C-pocket" derives from the injection of a small amount of protons from the envelope into the 12C-rich intershell during any third dredge-up episode, when the H-shell is inactivated. Prediction for other short-lived, 36Cl, 135Cs, and 205Pb, are given. General consequences for the pollution of the protosolar nebula with newly synthesized stable isotopes from the AGB winds are outlined. The origin of other detected short-lived nuclei, in particular 53Mn, 129I, and 182Hf, which cannot come from an AGB source, is analysed. The alternative trigger hypothesis by a close-by Supernova is discussed.

  4. Kaon interactions with very light nuclei

    Gibson, B.F.

    1979-01-01

    Low energy kaon interactions (both K and anti K) with very light nuclei are reviewed. Limitations upon present K-nucleus studies due to uncertainties in the K-N amplitudes are emphasized along with promising uses. A brief review of some of the many interesting aspects of anti K-nucleus scattering is given. Comparison of the limited anti K-d and anti K- 4 He elastic data with theory is made. The anti Kd → πΛp reaction is discussed including the possible ΣN virtual bound state. 49 references

  5. STRANGE BARYONIC MATTER AND KAON CONDENSATION

    Gazda, Daniel; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.; Mareš, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 26, 3-4 (2011), s. 567-569 ISSN 0217-751X. [11th International Workshop on Meson Production, Properties and Interaction. Krakow, 10.06.2010-15.06.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/1441 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : (K)over-bar-nuclear bound states * strange baryonic matter * kaon condensation Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.053, year: 2011

  6. Racetrack lattices for the TRIUMF KAON factory

    Servranckx, R.V.; Craddock, M.K.

    1989-05-01

    Separated-function racetrack lattices have been developed for the KAON Factory accelerators that have more flexibility than the old circular lattices. The arcs of the large rings have a regular FODO structure with a superimposed six-fold symmetric modulation of the betafunction in order to raise γ t to infinity. In the small rings, γ t is kept high enough by choosing a sufficiently large phase advance in the arcs. Straight sections with zero dispersion are provided for rf cavities and fast injection and extraction, and with controlled dispersion for H - injection and slow extraction. The ion-optical properties of the lattices and the results from tracking studies are discussed

  7. Truly neutral microobjects and oscillations in particle physics

    Bilenky, S.M.; Pontecorvo, B.

    1982-01-01

    Oscillation phenomena between different states of neutral elementary particles are discussed. The known kaon oscillation and the proposed neutrino, neutron and other kinds of oscillations are analysed. The proper bound states of neutral objects (neutrinos, neutrons, hydrogen atoms) are investigated in the case of small and strong violation of CP symmetry. Consequences concerning the observable masses and quantum numbers of such neutral objects are drawn. (D.Gy.)

  8. Measurements of beta-decay half-lives of short-lived nuclei

    Hirose, T.; Tsurita, Y.; Yamamoto, H.; Kawade, K. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan); Iida, T.; Takahashi, A.; Kasugai, Y.; Ikeda, Y.

    1997-03-01

    The {beta}-decay half-lives of short-lived nuclei produced by 14 MeV neutron bombardments were measured with Ge detectors, a High-rate spectroscopy amplifier (EG and G ORTEC model 973) and a Spectrum multi-scaler (Laboratory equipment corporation SMS-48) in the multi-scaling mode. The adequate corrections for pile-up and dead-time losses were made by applying source and pulser methods. The half-lives of {sup 53}V, {sup 53g}Fe, {sup 89m}Y and {sup 162}Tb were determined with uncertainties of 0.13-0.65%. It has been shown that previous values shorter than 10 min were systematically longer than the present ones. (author)

  9. Laser generation of proton beams for the production of short-lived positron emitting radioisotopes

    Spencer, I.; Ledingham, K.W.D.; Singhal, R.P.; McCanny, T.; McKenna, P.; Clark, E.L.; Krushelnick, K.; Zepf, M.; Beg, F.N.; Tatarakis, M.; Dangor, A.E.; Norreys, P.A.; Clarke, R.J.; Allott, R.M.; Ross, I.N.

    2001-01-01

    Protons of energies up to 37 MeV have been generated when ultra-intense lasers (up to 10 20 W cm -2 ) interact with hydrogen containing solid targets. These protons can be used to induce nuclear reactions in secondary targets to produce β + -emitting nuclei of relevance to the nuclear medicine community, namely 11 C and 13 N via (p, n) and (p,α) reactions. Activities of the order of 200 kBq have been measured from a single laser pulse interacting with a thin solid target. The possibility of using ultra-intense lasers to produce commercial amounts of short-lived positron emitting sources for positron emission tomography (PET) is discussed

  10. Radioactivity of radon and its short-lived decay products in room air, 2

    Shimo, Michikuni; Katoh, Takao

    1983-01-01

    In the reactor room of the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, the measurements of radon (Rn) and its short-lived decay products (Rn-Dts) were carried out under ventilated and non-ventilated conditions. The indoor activities were equal to outdoor ones under ventilated condition and those activities increased till about 10 times of outdoors under non-ventilated condition. We attempted to explain these results on a basis of a simple model. The calculations were performed taking into account: (1) supply of Rn and Rn-Dts from outdoor, (2) the emanation rate of Rn from the wall materials of building, (3) the removal rate of Rn-Dts by ventilation and wall deposition, and (4) the attachment rate of unattached atom to aerosols. In addition, natural ventilation were considered during periods without artificial ventilation. (author)

  11. New three-count technique for short-lived radon decay products in air

    Tian Deyuan; Lu Zhizhao

    1998-01-01

    Up to the present, radon and its short-lived decay products in air are usually monitored by means of a detection. But radon progeny, including RaB ( 214 Pb) and RaC ( 214 Bi) which are β and γ emitters, contribute about 90% to the equilibrium equivalent radon concentration (EECRn). Therefore, this paper introduces a new three-count technique by a β detector in the light of radioactive decay law and its boundary conditions during sampling and counting times to solve the Bateman equation. β (even low level β) instruments have been fairly popularized domestically and internationally. It can be used not only as an instrument for radon and its daughters in air, but also as a monitor for β airborne activity in the environment. This new method taps further the latent power of the present instrument and realizes various uses for a unit. (author)

  12. NMR detection of short-lived β-emitter {sup 12}N implanted in water

    Sugihara, T., E-mail: sugihara@vg.phys.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp; Mihara, M.; Shimaya, J.; Matsuta, K.; Fukuda, M.; Ohno, J.; Tanaka, M.; Yamaoka, S.; Watanabe, K.; Iwakiri, S.; Yanagihara, R.; Tanaka, Y.; Du, H.; Onishi, K.; Kambayashi, S.; Minamisono, T. [Osaka University, Department of Physics (Japan); Nishimura, D. [Tokyo University of Science, Department of Physics (Japan); Izumikawa, T. [Niigata University, Radioisotope Center (Japan); Ozawa, A. [University of Tsukuba, Department of Physics (Japan); Ishibashi, Y. [RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science (Japan); and others

    2017-11-15

    The beta-detected nuclear magnetic resonance (β-NMR) in liquid H{sub 2}O has been observed for the first time using a short-lived β-ray emitter {sup 12}N (I{sup π} = 1{sup +},T{sub 1/2}=11 ms). A nuclear spin polarized {sup 12}N beam with an energy of about 20 MeV/nucleon was implanted into an enclosed water sample. About 50 % of implanted {sup 12}N ions maintained nuclear polarization and exhibited a β-NMR spectrum. The chemical shift of {sup 12}N in H{sub 2}O relative to {sup 12}N in Pt was deduced to be −(3.6±0.5) × 10{sup 2} ppm.

  13. Dynamical Detection of Topological Phase Transitions in Short-Lived Atomic Systems

    Setiawan, F.; Sengupta, K.; Spielman, I. B.; Sau, Jay D.

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate that dynamical probes provide direct means of detecting the topological phase transition (TPT) between conventional and topological phases, which would otherwise be difficult to access because of loss or heating processes. We propose to avoid such heating by rapidly quenching in and out of the short-lived topological phase across the transition that supports gapless excitations. Following the quench, the distribution of excitations in the final conventional phase carries signatures of the TPT. We apply this strategy to study the TPT into a Majorana-carrying topological phase predicted in one-dimensional spin-orbit-coupled Fermi gases with attractive interactions. The resulting spin-resolved momentum distribution, computed by self-consistently solving the time-dependent Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations, exhibits Kibble-Zurek scaling and Stückelberg oscillations characteristic of the TPT. We discuss parameter regimes where the TPT is experimentally accessible.

  14. Separation efficiency of the MASHA facility for short-lived mercury isotopes

    Rodin, A. M.; Belozerov, A. V.; Chernysheva, E. V.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Gulyaev, A. V.; Gulyaeva, A. V.; Itkis, M. G.; Kliman, J.; Kondratiev, N. A.; Krupa, L.; Novoselov, A. S.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Podshibyakin, A. V.; Salamatin, V. S.; Siváček, I.; Stepantsov, S. V.; Vanin, D. V.; Vedeneev, V. Yu.; Yukhimchuk, S. A.; Granja, C.; Pospisil, S.

    2014-06-01

    The mass-separator MASHA built to identify Super Heavy Elements by their mass-to-charge ratios is described. The results of the off- and on-line measurements of its separation efficiency are presented. In the former case four calibrated leaks of noble gases were used. In the latter the efficiency was measured via 284 MeV Ar beam and with using the hot catcher. The ECR ion source was used in both cases. The -radioactive isotopes of mercury produced in the complete fusion reaction Ar+SmHg+xn were detected at the mass-separator focal plane. The half-lives and the separation efficiency for the short-lived mercury isotopes were measured. Potentialities of the MEDIPIX detector system have been demonstrated for future use at the mass-separator MASHA.

  15. Short-lived radionuclide production capability at the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer

    Mausner, L.F.; Richards, P.

    1985-01-01

    The Brookhaven National Linac Isotope Producer is the first facility to demonstrate the capability of a large linear accelerator for efficient and economical production of difficult-to-make, medically useful radionuclides. The linac provides a beam of 200-MeV protons at an integrated beam current of up to 60 μA. The 200-MeV proton energy is very suitable for isotope production because the spallation process can create radionuclides unavailable at lower energy accelerators or reactors. Several medically important short-lived radionuclides are presently being prepared for on-site and off-site collaborative research programs. These are iodine-123, iron-52, manganese-52m, ruthenium-97, and the rubidium-81-krypton-81m system. The production parameters for these are summarized

  16. The short-lived African turquoise killifish: an emerging experimental model for ageing.

    Kim, Yumi; Nam, Hong Gil; Valenzano, Dario Riccardo

    2016-02-01

    Human ageing is a fundamental biological process that leads to functional decay, increased risk for various diseases and, ultimately, death. Some of the basic biological mechanisms underlying human ageing are shared with other organisms; thus, animal models have been invaluable in providing key mechanistic and molecular insights into the common bases of biological ageing. In this Review, we briefly summarise the major applications of the most commonly used model organisms adopted in ageing research and highlight their relevance in understanding human ageing. We compare the strengths and limitations of different model organisms and discuss in detail an emerging ageing model, the short-lived African turquoise killifish. We review the recent progress made in using the turquoise killifish to study the biology of ageing and discuss potential future applications of this promising animal model. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Production, study and use of short-lived nuclides in pure and applied nuclear research

    Bjoernstad, T.

    1986-01-01

    The thesis which is based on 17 published papers, reports on the on-line performance of the fast radiochemical separation system SISAK, technical devlopment in the preparation of sources for beta-particles and neutrons, and on important SISAK system improvements concerning liquid hold-up time. It further reports on the development of new production targets at ISOLDE for 600 MeV proton and 910 MeV 3 He-particle irradiations, on tests with a heavy ion beam of 1 GeV 12 C-particles, and on the present availability of mass-separated beams of the halogen elements through new ion source development. Some results from nuclear spectroscopic studies of nuclides in selected mass regions when using such new or improved techniques are given. Examples of techniques for practical application of short-lived nuclides in radiochemical analysis and for radiochemical production for medical purposes are presented

  18. Short-lived climate pollutant mitigation and the Sustainable Development Goals

    Haines, Andy; Amann, Markus; Borgford-Parnell, Nathan; Leonard, Sunday; Kuylenstierna, Johan; Shindell, Drew

    2017-12-01

    The post-2015 development agenda is dominated by a set of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) that arose from the 2012 Rio+20 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development. The 17 goals and 169 targets address diverse and intersecting aspects of human and environmental needs and challenges. Achieving the SDGs by 2030 requires implementing coordinated and concerted strategies and actions that minimize potential trade-offs and conflicts and maximize synergies to contribute to multiple SDGs. Measures to mitigate emissions of short-lived climate pollutants are an example of actions that contribute to multiple outcomes relevant to development. This Perspective highlights the interlinkages between these pollutants and the SDGs, and shows that implementing emissions reduction measures can contribute to achieving many of the SDGs.

  19. Limited BRC rulemaking: Regulatory approach and experience in Texas for short-lived radioactive waste

    McBurney, Ruth E.; Pollard, Christine G.

    1992-01-01

    In 1987, the Texas Department of Health (TDH) implemented a rule to allow, under certain conditions, wastes containing limited concentrations of short- lived radionuclides (less than 300-day half-life) to be disposed of in Type I sanitary landfills. The rule was based on a technical analysis that demonstrated the degree of safety for approximately 340 m of radioactive waste generated annually in Texas and identified major restrictions and conditions for disposal. TDH's Bureau of Radiation Control staff have been able to maintain an account of licensees utilizing the rule during the past years. Several research and industrial facilities in the state have saved significantly on waste disposal expenses. Public concerns and economic impacts for licensees as well as other regulatory aspects and experiences with the rule are discussed. (author)

  20. Behaviour of short-lived iodines in operating UO2 fuel elements

    Lipsett, J.J.; Hastings, I.J.; Hunt, C.E.L.

    1984-11-01

    Sweep gas experiments have been done to determine the behaviour of short-lived fission products within operating UO 2 fuel elements at linear powers of 45, 54, and 60 KW/m, and to burnups of 70, 80, and 50 MWh/kgU respectively. Although radioiodine transport was not observed directly during normal operation, equilibrium gap inventories for I-131 were deduced from the shutdown decay behaviour of the fission gases. These inventories were a strong function of fuel power and ranged from 10 GBq (0.27 Ci) to 100 GBq (2.7 Ci) over the range tested. We conclude that the iodine inventory was adsorbed onto the fuel and/or sheath surfaces with a volatile fraction of less than 10 -2 and a charcoal-filter-penetrating fraction of less than 2x10 -4

  1. Synthesis of radiopharmaceuticals containing short-lived radionuclides: Progress report, March 1, 1987-February 28, 1988

    Kabalka, G.W.

    1987-09-01

    The objective is the creation of new methods for introducing short-lived isotopes into agents for use in diagnostic nuclear medicine. Focus is on the design of new molecular architecture as opposed to the application of known reactions to the synthesis of specific radiopharmaceuticals. The new technology is utilized in nuclear medicine research at the University of Tennessee Medical Imaging Center and in collaboration with colleagues at other DOE facilities. The program provides training for students in the scientific aspects of nuclear medicine. The academic nature of the program facilitates collaborative interactions with other DOE nuclear medicine programs and helps to insure the continued availability of skilled scientists dedicated to the advancement of nuclear medicine. 70 refs., 9 figs

  2. Optimization of irradiation decay and counting times in nuclear activation analysis using short-lived nuclides

    Bjoernstad, T.

    This work describes a method and outlines a procedure for optim- ization of an activation analysis with respect to the experimental times, irradiation time, t(subi), decay time and counting time. The method is based on the 'minimum relative standard deviation criterion', and specially designed for the use on short-lived nuclides. A computer program, COMB1, is written in the BASIC language in order to make the calculations easier and faster. It is intended to be understandable, and easily applicable on a computer of modest size. Time and cost are important factors, especially for routine analysis on a service basis. In such cases one can often allow a controlled reduction in the analysis quality (through a higher relative standard deviation). The procedure outlined can therefore help find acceptable conditions by calculation of the 'best practical' (or reasonable) experimental time values, and the minimum number of accumulation cycles necessary to fulfil the requirements given. (Auth.)

  3. Simulation of radon short lived decay daughters' inhalation using the lung compartmental model

    Tomulescu, Vlad C.

    2002-01-01

    Radon and its short-lived decay daughters are the main source of radiation on natural ways for population. The radon gas, released from soil, water or construction materials is producing by radioactive decay the following solid daughters: Po-218, Bi-214, Pb-214, and Po-214, which can attach to aerosols, and consequently penetrate the organism by inhalation. The human respiratory tract can be approximated by aid of a compartment model that takes into account the different anatomical structures exposed to contamination and irradiation, as well as the respective physiological processes. This model is associated to a mathematical equation system that describes the behavior of the radioactive material inside the body. The results represent the dose equivalent on different organs and tissues, as a function of subject and the activity performed in contaminating environment. (author)

  4. Investigation of short-living fission products from the spontaneous fission of Cf-252

    Klonk, H.

    1976-01-01

    In this paper, a method of separating and measuring fission products of Cf-252 is presented. The measurement was achieved by means of γ-spectrometry and thus provides a quantitative analysis with a good separation of the fission products with respect to both atomic number Z and mass number A. The separation of the fission products from the fission source was achieved by means of solid traps. An automatic changing apparatus made it possible to keep irradiation and measuring times short, so even very short-lived fission products could be registered. The quantitative evaluation of primary fission products was made possible by correction according to Bateman equations. With that, the yields of single nuclides and the dispersion of charge can be determined. (orig./WL) [de

  5. Transport of short lived radioactive contaminants with prologed half-lives of daughters through river water

    Metwally, S.M.; Prohl, G.

    2005-01-01

    One of the main pathways for transporting contaminants to other parts in the environment, are rivers. This work is devoted for deriving and assessment the concentration of soluble radio contaminants along a river at any time after discharge, including the short-lived radionuclides in comparison with the discharge time interval, and prolonged half-life of the produced daughter nuclei. The assumed boundary conditions and deduced formulas can be applied either in case of accidental release or discharge under authority control. The formulas determining the produced daughter nuclei concentration require inequality of the parent and daughter nuclei half-lives. Because of the regional variation of river morphology, the assumed constancy of the flow velocity and dispersion coefficient requires dividing the river path into zones of similar hydrologic characteristics

  6. External tandem target system for efficient production of short-lived positron emitting radionuclides

    Koh, K.; Dwyer, J.; Finn, R.; Sheh, Y.; Sinnreich, J.; Wooten, T.

    1983-01-01

    Recent developments in radiopharmaceutical chemistry allow the incorporation of short-lived, positron-emitting radionuclides into a variety of compounds which when used with a positron emission tomograph provide a means of monitoring physiological disorders by a standard technique. To effectively meet the increased ''in-house'' clinical demands while maintaining a production schedule, a tandem target was designed and has been installed for the simultaneous ''on-line'' preparation of oxygen-15 labelled compounds such as CO 2 15 , H 2 O 15 ; and nitrogen-13 labelled compounds such as 13 NH 3 , 13 N 2 O, and 13 N 2 . The processing time required for the synthesis of the nitrogen-13 products as compared to the essentially instantaneous formation of oxygen-15 labelled compounds has provided the necessary time delay for clinical utilization. The characterisitcs of this external tandem target system as well as the automation for the dual processing are presented

  7. Compton suppression spectrometry for analysis of short-lived neutron activation products in foods

    Anderson, D.L.; Cunningham, W.C.

    2008-01-01

    Compton suppression spectrometry was used to analyze foods for elements with short-lived neutron activation products (half-lives of about 2 minutes to 1.5 days). Analysis conditions were optimized to provide quality assurance analyses for iodine in FDA's Total Diet Study. Iodine mass fractions (0.075 to 2.03 mg/kg) were measured in 19 of 42 foods analyzed, with limits of detection (LODs) ranging from 0.03 to 1.4 mg/kg, mostly depending on NaCl content. LODs were lowered by up to a factor of 2 for 16 elements. Suppression factors ranged from about 2 to 8 over the energy range 400 to 3200 keV. (author)

  8. Magnetic moment of short lived {beta}-emitter {sup 24m}Al

    Nishimura, D., E-mail: daiki@vg.phys.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp; Komurasaki, J.; Matsuta, K.; Mihara, M.; Matsumiya, R. [Osaka University, Department of Physics (Japan); Momota, S. [Kochi University of Technology (Japan); Ohtsubo, T. [Niigata University, Department of Physics (Japan); Izumikawa, T. [Niigata University, RI Center (Japan); Hirano, H. [Niigata University, Department of Physics (Japan); Kitagawa, A.; Kanazawa, M.; Torikoshi, M.; Sato, S. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (Japan); Fukuda, M.; Ishikawa, D. [Osaka University, Department of Physics (Japan); Minamisono, T. [Fukui University of Technology (Japan); Watanabe, R.; Kubo, T. [Niigata University, Department of Physics (Japan); Nojiri, Y. [Kochi University of Technology (Japan); Alonso, J. R. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (United States)

    2007-11-15

    The magnetic moment of short lived {beta}-emitter {sup 24m}Al (426 keV, I{sup {pi}} = 1{sup +}, T{sub 1/2} = 131 ms) has been measured by means of {beta}-NMR technique, for the first time. From the {beta}-NMR spectrum, the magnetic moment was determined as |{mu}({sup 24m}Al)|=(2.99{+-}0.09){mu}{sub N}. Combined with the known magnetic moment of the mirror partner {sup 24m}Na, the expectation value of < S{sub z} > is obtained to be (0.08 {+-} 0.12). These values are reproduced well by the shell model calculation.

  9. Radiotracer diffusion in semiconductors and metallic compounds using short-lived isotopes

    Deicher, M; Kronenberg, J; Wagner, F E

    The transport of atoms in solids is of central importance for solid state physics, chemistry, metallurgy, and material sciences. Since the mobility of atoms in solids contributes to many physical phenomena the study of diffusion processes is of fundamental interest for solid state physics. Diffusion processes were frequently investigated using radioactive isotopes (radiotracers). The application of short-lived isotopes delivered at ISOLDE extends substantially the possibilities of investigating diffusion processes in solids. In particular, a new experimental set-up to be installed at ISOLDE in this year will enable the use of radioactive isotopes with half-lives down to minutes. Alternatively, in special cases diffusion processes can be investigated with help of hyperfine techniques on an atomic scale, like by perturbed $\\gamma \\gamma$-angular correlation (PAC). Here, the motion of the atom of interest becomes visible directly via characteristic changes in the measured PAC spectra.

  10. CARIBIC observations of short-lived halocarbons and carbonyl sulphide over Asia

    Leedham, E.; Wisher, A.; Oram, D.; Baker, A. K.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    The CARIBIC project (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container, www.caribic-atmospheric.com) aims to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of a wide-range of compounds, including those of marine origin/influence, via ~monthly flights to collect in situ data and whole air samples aboard a commercial Lufthansa aircraft. CARIBIC measures up to an altitude of 12 km, allowing the influence of marine compounds on the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS) to be explored. In particular, CARIBIC is a useful tool for exploring the impact of very short lived halocarbons (e.g. CH2Br2, CHBr3), whose impact on stratospheric ozone is dependent on convective uplift to the UTLS, a process which is not yet fully quantified. As part of the suite of CARIBIC measurements, whole air samples are analysed at the University of East Anglia (UEA) via gas chromatography mass spectrometry for carbonyl sulphide (OCS) and up to 40 halocarbons (accounting for virtually 100% of organic chlorine, bromine and iodine in the UTLS). Here we present an overview of short-lived halocarbons and OCS measured by CARIBIC. We focus on two regions of particular interest. (1) measurements made in 2012 over the tropical west Pacific to link with UEA measurements made during the SHIVA campaign. (2) measurements made during a collection of flights over India in 2008. Flights over India investigated the impact of monsoon circulation on the distribution of these compounds; for example, elevated concentrations of OCS were seen in CARIBIC samples taken over India during the summer monsoon (July - September). These flights, along with a wider range of flights over Asia (from Frankfurt to Guangzhou, Manila, Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur) can provide unique information on the influence of tropical convection and monsoon circulation on halocarbon and OCS transport within this region.

  11. Evaluation of regional pulmonary function using short-lived radioactive gases

    Ashitaka, Tsuyoshi [Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1993-05-01

    We investigated the application of short-lived radioactive gases for the assessment of regional pulmonary function, particularly diffusing capacity, in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease and interstitial lung disease. Short-lived radioactive gases including C[sup 15]O-O, [sup 11]CO[sub 2], and [sup 11]CO were produced using a baby cyclotron for medical care. Using a [gamma] camera, breath-holding images were taken serially after inhalation of the radioactive gases. The first exponential component of time-activity curve was analyzed to obtain clearance rate, which was expressed as exponential coefficient ([lambda]). Moreover, we created a functional map which was calculated by the clearance rate of [sup 11]CO[sub 2] as a percentage. Regional clearance rates of each gas in normal volunteers revealed higher values in the lower lung field than in the upper lung field. Whole lung clearance rates ([lambda]) of each gas in patients correlated well with D[sub LCO]/V[sub A], which indicates diffusing capacity. The functional map showed decreased regional diffusion closely matched to the perfusion defects seen by [sup 99m]Tc-MAA perfusion images. However, in certain interstitial lung diseases decreased clearance of [sup 11]CO[sub 2] was observed in regions having no evidence of perfusion defects. We concluded the functional map display of [sup 11]CO[sub 2] is useful indicator of the regional diffusing capacity of both the normal and diseased lung, and that it is beneficial to analyze the pathogenic physiology of diseased lungs by making a comparison between the functional map of [sup 11]CO[sub 2] and [sup 99m]Tc-MAA perfusion images. (author).

  12. Antigen modulation of the immune response. III. Evaluation of the hypothetical short-lived memory cell

    Feldbush, T.L.; Lande, I.; Bryan, B.; O'Neill, E.

    1974-01-01

    The putative short-lived memory cells, whose existence has been suggested by the results of secondary adoptive transfer experiments, were investigated. On the basis of the following evidences we have concluded that the short-lived memory cell is probably an artifact of the adoptive transfer technique: when immune thoracic duct lymphocytes, known to consist predominantly of long-lived memory cells, were transferred to irradiated recipients and challenged at various times after transfer, approximately 80 to 90 percent of the initial response was absent by Day 14 challenge; preirradiating adoptive recipients with increasing dose of x-irradiation tended to lengthen the observed half life of memory cells; single or multiple treatments of immune donors with 0.3 mg Vinblastin before transfer resulted in neither a depression of the initial secondary response nor an alteration in the rate of decline of the memory potential; reconstitution of irradiated hosts with normal spleen cells one day before transfer of memory cells and challenge resulted in inhibition of the adoptive secondary response; and the transfer of memory cells to antigen free intermediate hosts, in which they were allowed to reside for one day or fourteen days before transfer to irradiated recipients, resulted in only a slight decline in their capacity to respond. We propose that the rapid decline of memory potential in adoptive recipients challenged at various times after transfer is due to modulating effects by the hosts as it recovers from irradiation. These effects may be the result of cell crowding or the loss of irradiation-produced stimulatory factors. The relevance of these findings to adoptive transfer systems in general and the secondary response of intact animals is discussed

  13. Muscle senescence in short-lived wild mammals, the soricine shrews Blarina brevicauda and Sorex palustris.

    Hindle, Allyson G; Lawler, John M; Campbell, Kevin L; Horning, Markus

    2009-06-01

    Red-toothed (soricine) shrews are consummate predators exhibiting the highest energy turnovers and shortest life spans (ca. 18 months) of any mammal, yet virtually nothing is known regarding their physiological aging. We assessed the emerging pattern of skeletal muscle senescence (contractile/connective tissue components) in sympatric species, the semi-aquatic water shrew (WS), Sorex palustris, and the terrestrial short-tailed shrew (STS), Blarina brevicauda, to determine if muscle aging occurs in wild, short-lived mammals (H(0): shrews do not survive to an age where senescence occurs), and if so, whether these alterations are species-specific. Gracilis muscles were collected from first-year (n=17) and second-year (n=17) field-caught shrews. Consistent with typical mammalian aging, collagen content (% area) increased with age in both species (S. palustris: approximately 50%; B. brevicauda: approximately 60%). Muscle was dominated by stiffer Type I collagen, and the ratio of collagen Type I:Type III more than doubled with age. The area ratio of muscle:collagen decreased with age in both species, but was considerably lower in adult STS, suggesting species-specificity of senescence. Extracellular space was age-elevated in B. brevicauda, but was preserved in S. palustris ( approximately 50 vs. 10% elevation). Though juvenile interspecific comparisons revealed no significance, adult WS myocytes had 68% larger cross-sectional area and occurred at 28% lower fibers/area than those of adult STS. We demonstrate that age-related muscle senescence does occur in wild-caught, short-lived mammals, and we therefore reject this classic aging theory tenet. Our findings moreover illustrate that differential age adjustments in contractile/connective tissue components of muscle occur in the two species of wild-caught shrews. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Muscle Senescence in Short-Lived Wild Mammals, the Soricine Shrews Blarina brevicauda and Sorex palustris

    HINDLE, ALLYSON G.; LAWLER, JOHN M.; CAMPBELL, KEVIN L.; HORNING, MARKUS

    2015-01-01

    Red-toothed (soricine) shrews are consummate predators exhibiting the highest energy turnovers and shortest life spans (ca. 18 months) of any mammal, yet virtually nothing is known regarding their physiological aging. We assessed the emerging pattern of skeletal muscle senescence (contractile/connective tissue components) in sympatric species, the semi-aquatic water shrew (WS), Sorex palustris, and the terrestrial short-tailed shrew (STS), Blarina brevicauda, to determine if muscle aging occurs in wild, short-lived mammals (H0: shrews do not survive to an age where senescence occurs), and if so, whether these alterations are species-specific. Gracilis muscles were collected from first-year (n = 17) and second-year (n = 17) field-caught shrews. Consistent with typical mammalian aging, collagen content (% area) increased with age in both species (S. palustris: ~50%; B. brevicauda: ~60%). Muscle was dominated by stiffer Type I collagen, and the ratio of collagen Type I:Type III more than doubled with age. The area ratio of muscle:collagen decreased with age in both species, but was considerably lower in adult STS, suggesting species-specificity of senescence. Extracellular space was age-elevated in B. brevicauda, but was preserved in S. palustris (~50 vs. 10% elevation). Though juvenile interspecific comparisons revealed no significance, adult WS myocytes had 68% larger cross-sectional area and occurred at 28% lower fibers/area than those of adult STS. We demonstrate that age-related muscle senescence does occur in wild-caught, short-lived mammals, and we therefore reject this classic aging theory tenet. Our findings moreover illustrate that differential age adjustments in contractile/connective tissue components of muscle occur in the two species of wild-caught shrews. PMID:19296507

  15. DEMOGRAPHY OF ALPINE SHORT-LIVED PLANTS, LONGEVITY AND ONTOGENY STAGE DURATIONS

    E. S. Kazantseva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim - to evaluate lifespan (full cycle and ontogeny stage durations of nine alpine short-lived North- West Caucasus plants.Methods. For calculation we used a new method which was developed and suggested earlier by us. This method is based on a discrete ontogeny description and on the probability theory and random processes. The data on the monitoring of the marked individuals were collected during six years.Results. We found out that the lifespan of Anthyllis vulneraria is 2.6±0.3 years (hereinafter “±” is Standard error, Draba hispida – 4.5±0.3, Murbeckiella huetii – 4.6±1.1, Carum meifolium – 7.8±1.4, Eritrichium caucasicum – 9.1±1.4, Trifolium badium – 10.3±2.6, Sedum tenellum – 11±2.05, Androsace albana – 12.1±2.5, Minuartia recurva – 22.9±4.5. Also we demonstrated the matrix population models for studied plants, which show the probability of transition of individuals from one ontogeny stage to another in time interval (in our experiment – 1 year.Conclusion. Mortality of seedlings and juvenile plants, except Murbeckiella huetii, is around and more than 50%. Two years is the minimal amount of time that is necessary for full cycle of short-lived alpine plants, as it was shown for Anthyllis vulneraria, Murbeckiella huetii и Trifolium badium. A 3-12 years lifespan was calculated for other studied species. Persistence of Eritrichium caucasicum and Androsace albana populations provided by resistance of adult vegetative plants.

  16. Report of the kaon subcommittee of nuclear science advisory committee: Final report

    Barnes, P.D.; Domingo, J.; Einhorn, M.; Feshbach, H.; Jackson, H.; Sirmann, R.; Zeller, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the possibility of a joint US-Canada venture in support of a kaon ''factory'' to be built in Canada also discussed are the following topics: Proposed accelerator; anially costs at KAON; management; strong interaction physics at AHF/KAON; antiproton physics at AHF/KAON, and electroweak physics issues

  17. Measurement of kaons in the Helios experiment

    van Hecke, H.

    1990-01-01

    We have measured kaons and pions in the rapidity interval 0.8--1.3 and p T interval 100--600 MeV/c. We have observed an excess in the ratio of positive kaons to pions over what is expected from p-p for transverse momenta above 300 MeV/c. No such excess is seen for negatives. This excess of K/π increasing with p T has been observed in 14.5 GeV/A Si + Au collisions by E802 at the AGS. Though their data are concentrated at high p T , there is a small region of overlap between the coverage of HELIOS and E802 for p T = 0.4--0.5 GeV/c. In this region the K/π ratios for both positive and negative particles are very similar even though the bombarding energies differ by more than an order of magnitude. We find no strong indication that the rise in K/π above values expected from p-p collisions is higher for high-E T events than for low-E T events

  18. The status of the KAON project

    Craddock, M.K.

    1993-05-01

    The TRIUMF KAON Factory is designed to produce beams of kaons, antiprotons, other hadrons and neutrinos 100 times more intense, or cleaner, than are available now, for a broad range of particle and nuclear physics experiments. This will require a 100 μA beam of 30 GeV protons, to be produced by an interleaved sequence of two fast-cycling synchrotrons and three storage rings, with the existing TRIUMF H - cyclotron as injector. An $11-million preconstruction study has enabled the overall design to be reviewed and prototypes of various components to he built and evaluated -fast-cycling dipole and quadrupole magnets, a dual-frequency magnet power supply, ceramic beam pipes with internal rf shields, an rf cavity (using perpendicular bias), an extraction kicker, an rf beam chopper, and production targets. Environmental, industrial and economic impact studies have also been completed and the cost estimates and schedule updated. The total cost of $708 million (Canadian) will be shared equally between Canada, British Columbia and international contributors; the first two-thirds of this sum have already been approved and negotiations for the remainder are under way. (author). 29 refs., 9 figs

  19. Interplay between kaon condensation and hyperons in highly dense matter

    Muto, Takumi

    2008-01-01

    The possible coexistence and/or competition of kaon condensation with hyperons are investigated in hyperonic matter, where hyperons are mixed in the ground state of neutron-star matter. The formulation is based on the effective chiral Lagrangian for the kaon-baryon interaction and the nonrelativistic baryon-baryon interaction model. First, the onset condition of the s-wave kaon condensation realized from hyperonic matter is reexamined. It is shown that the usual assumption of the continuous phase transition is not always kept valid in the presence of the negatively charged hyperons (Σ - ). Second, the equation of state (EOS) of the kaon-condensed phase in hyperonic matter is discussed. In the case of the stronger kaon-baryon attractive interaction, it is shown that a local energy minimum with respect to the baryon number density appears as a result of considerable softening of the EOS due to both kaon condensation and hyperon mixing and recovering of the stiffness of the EOS at very high densities. This result implies a possible existence of self-bound objects with kaon condensates on any scale from an atomic nucleus to a neutron star

  20. Kaon electroproduction at large four-momentum transfer

    Markowitz, P.

    2004-01-01

    Exclusive H(e, e'K)Y data were taken in January, March and April of 2001 at the Jefferson Lab Hall A. The electrons and kaons were detected in coincidence in the hall's two High Resolution Spectrometers (HRS). The kaon arm of the pair had been specially outfitted with two aerogel Cerenkov threshold detectors, designed to separately provide pion and proton particle identification thus allowing kaon identification. Preliminary data show the cross section's dependence on the invariant mass, W, along with results of systematic studies. Ultimately the data will be used to perform a Rosenbluth Separation as well, separating the longitudinal from the transverse response functions. (author)

  1. Neutron stars with kaon condensation in relativistic effective model

    Wu, Chen; Ma, Yugang; Qian, Weiliang; Yang, Jifeng

    2013-01-01

    Relativistic mean-field theory with parameter sets FSUGold and IU-FSU is extended to study the properties of neutron star matter in β equilibrium by including Kaon condensation. The mixed phase of normal baryons and Kaon condensation cannot exist in neutron star matter for the FSUGold model and the IU-FSU model. In addition, it is found that when the optical potential of the K - in normal nuclear matter U K ≳ -100 MeV, the Kaon condensation phase is absent in the inner cores of the neutron stars. (author)

  2. Kaon production and kaon to pion ratio in Au+Au collisions at $\\sqrt {s_{NN}} = 130 GeV

    Adler, C; Allgower, C; Amonett, J; Anderson, B D; Anderson, M; Averichev, G S; Balewski, J; Barannikova, O; Barnby, L S; Baudot, J; Bekele, S; Belaga, V V; Bellwied, R; Berger, J; Bichsel, H; Billmeier, A; Bland, L C; Blyth, C O; Bonner, B E; Boucham, A; Brandin, A; Bravar, A; Cadman, R V; Caines, H; Cardenas, A; Carroll, J; Castillo, J; Castro, M; Cebra, D; Chaloupka, P; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, Y; Chernenko, S P; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Choi, B; Christie, W; Coffin, J P; Cormier, T M; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Deng, W S; Derevshchikov, A A; Didenko, L; Dietel, T; Draper, J E; Dunin, V B; Dunlop, J C; Eckardt, V; Efimov, L G; Emelianov, V; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Fachini, P; Faine, V; Filimonov, K; Finch, E; Fisyak, Yu; Flierl, D; Foley, K J; Fu, J; Gagliardi, C A; Gagunashvili, N; Gans, J; Gaudichet, L; Germain, M; Geurts, F; Ghazikhanian, V; Grachov, O; Grigoriev, V; Guedon, M; Gushin, E; Hallman, T J; Hardtke, D; Harris, J W; Henry, T W; Heppelmann, S; Herston, T; Hippolyte, B; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Hoffmann, G W; Horsley, M; Huang, H Z; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Ishihara, A; Ivanshin, Yu I; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Janik, M; Johnson, I; Jones, P G; Judd, E G; Kaneta, M; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Kiryluk, J; Kisiel, A; Klay, J; Klein, S R; Klyachko, A; Konstantinov, A S; Kopytine, M; Kotchenda, L; Kovalenko, A D; Krämer, M; Kravtsov, P; Krüger, K; Kuhn, C; Kulikov, A I; Kunde, G J; Kunz, C L; Kutuev, R K; Kuznetsov, A A; Lakehal-Ayat, L; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Lange, S; Lansdell, C P; Lasiuk, B; Laue, F; Le Vine, M J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Leontiev, V M; Li, Q; Lindenbaum, S J; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Liu, L; Liu, Q J; Liu, Z; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Lo Curto, G; Long, H; Longacre, R S; López-Noriega, M; Love, W A; Ludlam, T; Lynn, D; Ma, J; Majka, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Martin, L; Marx, J; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Yu A; McShane, T S; Meissner, F; Melnik, Yu M; Meschanin, A; Messer, M; Miller, M L; Milosevich, Z; Minaev, N G; Mitchell, J; Moiseenko, V A; Moore, C F; Morozov, V; Munhoz, M G; Nelson, J M; Nevski, P; Nikitin, V A; Nogach, L V; Norman, B; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Ogawa, A; Okorokov, V; Oldenburg, M; Olson, D; Paic, G; Pandey, S U; Panebratsev, Yu A; Panitkin, S Y; Pavlinov, A I; Pawlak, T; Perevozchikov, V; Peryt, W; Petrov, V A; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Porile, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Potrebenikova, E V; Prindle, D; Pruneau, C A; Putschke, J; Rai, G; Rakness, G; Ravel, O; Ray, R L; Razin, S V; Reichhold, D M; Reid, J G; Retière, F; Ridiger, A; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevski, O V; Romero, J L; Rose, A; Roy, C; Rykov, V; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Saulys, A C; Savin, I; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmitz, N; Schröder, L S; Schüttauf, A; Schweda, K; Seger, J; Seliverstov, D M; Seyboth, P; Shahaliev, E; Shestermanov, K E; Shimansky, S S; Shvetcov, V S; Skoro, G P; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Sørensen, P; Sowinski, J; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stephenson, E J; Stock, R; Stolpovsky, A; Strikhanov, M N; Stringfellow, B C; Struck, C; Suaide, A A P; Sugarbaker, E R; Suire, C; Sumbera, M; Surrow, B; Symons, T J M; Szarwas, P; Tai, A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Thomas, J H; Thompson, M; Tikhomirov, V; Tokarev, M; Tonjes, M B; Trainor, T A; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Trofimov, V; Tsai, O; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; Van der Molen, A M; Vasilevski, I M; Vasilev, A N; Vigdor, S E; Voloshin, S A; Wang, F; Ward, H; Watson, J W; Wells, R; Westfall, G D; Whitten, C; Wieman, H; Willson, R; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wood, J; Xu, N; Xu, Z; Yakutin, A E; Yamamoto, E; Yang, J; Yepes, P; Yurevich, V I; Zanevsky, Yu V; Zborovský, I; Zhang, H; Zhang, W M; Zoulkarneev, R; Zubarev, A N; De Moura, M M; Szanto de Toledo, A; De la Barca-Sanchez, M C; 10.1016/j.physletb.2004.06.044

    2004-01-01

    Midrapidity transverse mass spectra and multiplicity densities of charged and neutral kaons are reported for Au+Au collisions at square root s/sub NN/=130 GeV at RHIC. The spectra are exponential in transverse mass, with an inverse slope of about 280 MeV in central collisions. The multiplicity densities for these particles scale with the negative hadron pseudorapidity density. The charged kaon to pion ratios are K/sup +// pi /sup -/=0.161+or-0.002(stat)+or-0.024(syst) and K/sup -// pi /sup -/=0.146+or-0.002(stat)+or-0.022(syst) for the most central collisions. The K/sup +// pi /sup -/ ratio is lower than the same ratio observed at the SPS while the K/sup -// pi /sup -/ is higher than the SPS result. The ratios are enhanced by about 50% relative to p+p and p+p collision data at similar energies.

  3. Variation in the local population dynamics of the short-lived Opuntia macrorhiza (Cactaceae).

    Haridas, C V; Keeler, Kathleen H; Tenhumberg, Brigitte

    2015-03-01

    Spatiotemporal variation in demographic rates can have profound effects for population persistence, especially for dispersal-limited species living in fragmented landscapes. Long-term studies of plants in such habitats help with understanding the impacts of fragmentation on population persistence but such studies are rare. In this work, we reanalyzed demographic data from seven years of the short-lived cactus Opuntia macrorhiza var. macrorhiza at five plots in Boulder, Colorado. Previous work combining data from all years and all plots predicted a stable population (deterministic log lamda approximately 0). This approach assumed that all five plots were part of a single population. Since the plots were located in a suburban-agricultural interface separated by highways, grazing lands, and other barriers, and O. macrorhiza is likely dispersal limited, we analyzed the dynamics of each plot separately using stochastic matrix models assuming each plot represented a separate population. We found that the stochastic population growth rate log lamdaS varied widely between populations (log lamdaS = 0.1497, 0.0774, -0.0230, -0.2576, -0.4989). The three populations with the highest growth rates were located close together in space, while the two most isolated populations had the lowest growth rates suggesting that dispersal between populations is critical for the population viability of O. macrorhiza. With one exception, both our prospective (stochastic elasticity) and retrospective (stochastic life table response experiments) analysis suggested that means of stasis and growth, especially of smaller plants, were most important for population growth rate. This is surprising because recruitment is typically the most important vital rate in a short-lived species such as O. macrorhiza. We found that elasticity to the variance was mostly negligible, suggesting that O. macrorhiza populations are buffered against large temporal variation. Finally, single-year elasticities to means

  4. Harvard--MIT research program in short-lived radiopharmaceuticals. Progress report, September 1, 1977--April 30, 1978

    Adelstein, S.J.; Brownell, G.L.

    1978-05-01

    Progress is reported on the following studies: chemistry studies designed to achieve a more complete understanding of the fundamental chemistry of technetium in order to facilitate the design of future radiopharmaceuticals incorporating the radionuclide /sup 99m/Tc; the development of new radiopharmaceuticals intended to improve image quality and lower radiation doses by the use of short-lived radionuclides and disease-specific agents; the development of short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides which offer advantages in transverse section imaging of regional physiological processes; and studies of the toxic effects of particulate radiation

  5. Cosmology tests in rare kaon decays

    Duk Viacheslav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Standard Model (SM of particle physics is an extremely successful theory that effectively describes strong and electroweak interactions up to the energies presently accessible. Still, the SM does not explain the observed parameters of neutrino oscillations, baryon asymmetry of the Universe and Dark Matter (DM, and contains a fine-tuning of 16 orders of magnitude (the gauge hierarchy problem. Various New Physics (NP models beyond the SM have been developed in order to address the above limitations. This paper concentrates on several models related to cosmology and their tests in rare kaon decays. In particular, recent NA48/2 results on the search for heavy neutrinos, light in-flatons and dark photons are presented. Prospects for the ongoing NA62 experiment are discussed.

  6. Searches for very rare decays of kaons

    Lang, K. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The physics motivation for searches for very rare kaon decays, either forbidden or suppressed within the Standard Model, is briefly discussed. Simple arguments conclude that such searches probe possible new forces at a 200 TeV mass scale or constitute a precision test of the electroweak model. The examples of such process are decays of K{sub L}{sup 0} {yields} {mu} {sup {+-}}e{sup -+}, K{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +} {mu}{sup +} e{sup -}, K{sub L}{sup 0} {yields} {mu}{sup +} {mu}{sup -}, and K{sup +} {yields} {pi} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{nu}{bar {nu}}. We present the current experimental status and describe the new efforts to reach sensitivities down to one part in 10{sup 12}. The discussion is focused on the experimental program at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory, where intense beams make such studies possible.

  7. Lattices for the TRIUMF KAON factory

    Servranckx, R.V.; Craddock, M.K.

    1989-09-01

    Separated-function racetrack lattices have been developed for the KAON Factory accelerators that have more flexibility than the old circular lattices. The arcs of the large rings have a regular FODO structure with a superimposed six-fold symmetric modulation of the betafunction in order to raise γ t to infinity. Straight sections with zero dispersion are provided for rf cavities and fast injection and extraction, and with controlled dispersion for H - injection and slow extraction. For the small rings, sixfold symmetric circular lattices with high γ t are retained. In the Accumulator lattice, a straight section with double waist and controlled η function allows for H - injection and phase-space painting. The ion-optical properties of the lattices and the results from tracking studies are discussed

  8. Kaon decay physics in the next decade

    Bryman, D.

    1993-05-01

    Rare and CP violating kaon decays provide important access to fundamental issues in particle physics. Experiments at BNL, CERN, Fermilab and KEK have recently reported results dealing with stringent tests of the standard model and sensitive searches for novel effects which probe very high mass scales. The next generation of experiments is now being constructed to establish the presence of direct CP violation as predicted in the standard model, to unambiguously examine higher order weak interaction effects and to search for lepton flavor violation with unprecedented sensitivity. In addition, new accelerator facilities are being built and planned which will allow orders of magnitude gains in sensitivity for the most critical measurements. (author). 45 refs., 7 figs

  9. Searches for very rare decays of kaons

    Lang, K.

    1997-01-01

    The physics motivation for searches for very rare kaon decays, either forbidden or suppressed within the Standard Model, is briefly discussed. Simple arguments conclude that such searches probe possible new forces at a 200 TeV mass scale or constitute a precision test of the electroweak model. The examples of such process are decays of K L 0 → μ ± e -+ , K + → π + μ + e - , K L 0 → μ + μ - , and K + → π → π + ν bar ν. We present the current experimental status and describe the new efforts to reach sensitivities down to one part in 10 12 . The discussion is focused on the experimental program at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory, where intense beams make such studies possible

  10. Searches for very rare decays of kaons

    Lang, K.

    1995-01-01

    The physics motivation for searches for very rare kaon decays, either forbidden or suppressed within the Standard Model, is briefly discussed. Simple arguments conclude that such searches probe possible new forces at a 200 TeV mass scale or constitute a precision test of the electroweak model. The examples of such processes are decays of K L O →μ ± e minus-plus , K + →π + μ + e - , K L O →μ - , and K + →π + ν bar ν. We present the current experimental status and describe the new efforts to reach sensitivities down to 1 part in 10 12 . The discussion is focused on the experimental program at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory, where intense beams make such studies possible

  11. Status of the TRIUMF KAON factory proposal

    Craddock, M.K.

    1988-03-01

    Over the last year considerable progress has been achieved on both technical and political fronts. Hardware studies have continued on both magnet power supplies and on rf cavities - the latter work gaining an extra dimension from a recently-instituted formal collaboration with LAMPF. A racetrack-shaped lattice is being considered in conjunction with a three-element slow extraction system in an effort to reduce losses to the 0.1% level. British Columbia has agreed to fund the buildings and tunnels (Cdn $87M) and is making the KAON Factory its tope priority project with the Canadian federal government. A joint federal-provincial delegation has traveled abroad and found that a number of countries would consider significant contributions to the cost. Government approval contingent upon such contributions is anticipated later in 1988, together with preconstruction R and D funds

  12. Determination of copper in biological materials by neutron activation analysis using short-lived 66Cu

    Dybczynski, R.; Danko, B.; Kaczorowski, J.

    1989-01-01

    A method for determination of copper traces in biological materials based on neutron activation employing 65 Cu(n, γ) 66 Cu reaction and preconcentration by extraction chromatography has been devised. The 200-500 mg samples after wet digestion and evaporation were dissolved in glycine solution and after pH adjusting to ca. 4.4 were passed through the column with Lix 64N on Bio Beads SM-1 for isolation of copper traces from the matrix elements. Other cations were selectively eluted with 0.1 mol x 1 -1 (glycine-HNO 3 ) buffer, 1 mol x 1 -1 in NH 4 NO 3 (pH = 3.6). The resin bed with quantitatively retained copper was sealed in the PE bag and irradiated together with Cu standards in EWA reactor using pneumatic tube facility. The activity of the short-lived 66 Cu was measured in samples and standard by gamma-ray spectrometry with Ge(Li) detector. Good accuracy of the method was confirmed by analysis of the following certified reference materials: NBS 1571 Orchad leaves, IAEA H-4 Animal muscle, IAEA V-8 Rye flour, IAEA A-11 milk powder. The detection limit amounted to 0.34 mg/kg, for the sample weight of 500 mg. (author)

  13. Quantitative cerebral blood flow patterns with the short lived isotope 195m Au

    Lindner, P.; Nickel, O.

    1984-01-01

    A previously reported theory for quantitative cerebral blood flow measurements using intravenously injected nondiffusible radiotracers has been applied on patients after stroke and on volunteers undergoing a mental stimulation exercise. Quantitative measurements of cerebral blood flow patterns (in ml/min/100g) not only in p.a. but also in lateral views of the brain are possible by using of the short-lived (30 sec) isotope Au 195m. The energy spectrum of the eluate of the generator shows two strong photon peaks, one at 68 keV and a second at 262 keV. The 68 keV peak is suitable for perfusion studies in lateral views of the hemispheres, no 'look through' effect is seen. The 262 keV peak is good for studies in p.a. positions. The studies last less than 1 minute and can be repeated after 3 minutes. Parametric images for quantitative regional cerebral blood flow can be generated. The area of occluded vessels in the case of stroke can be made visible. Quantitative activation patterns of cerebral blood flow during mental stimulation can be generated. After optical stimulation a clear increase of blood flow was seen in the visual cortex. The results prove that not only with freely diffusible (like Xenon) but also with nondiffusible indicators like 195m Au it is possible to measure quantitatively cerebral blood flow patterns. Au 195m is very advantageous for quantitative clinical investigations of cerebrovascular disease. (Author)

  14. ''Sleeping reactor'' irradiations: Shutdown reactor determination of short-lived activation products

    Jerde, E.A.; Glasgow, D.C.

    1998-01-01

    At the High-Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the principal irradiation system has a thermal neutron flux (φ) of ∼ 4 x 10 14 n/cm 2 · s, permitting the detection of elements via irradiation of 60 s or less. Irradiations of 6 or 7 s are acceptable for detection of elements with half-lives of as little as 30 min. However, important elements such as Al, Mg, Ti, and V have half-lives of only a few minutes. At HFIR, these can be determined with irradiation times of ∼ 6 s, but the requirement of immediate counting leads to increased exposure to the high activity produced by irradiation in the high flux. In addition, pneumatic system timing uncertainties (about ± 0.5 s) make irradiations of 9 Be(γ,n) 8 Be, the gamma rays principally originating in the spent fuel. Upon reactor SCRAM, the flux drops to ∼ 1 x 10 10 n/cm 2 · s within 1 h. By the time the fuel elements are removed, the flux has dropped to ∼ 6 x 10 8 . Such fluxes are ideal for the determination of short-lived elements such as Al, Ti, Mg, and V. An important feature of the sleeping reactor is a flux that is not constant

  15. Short-Lived Buildings in China: Impacts on Water, Energy, and Carbon Emissions.

    Cai, Wenjia; Wan, Liyang; Jiang, Yongkai; Wang, Can; Lin, Lishen

    2015-12-15

    This paper has changed the vague understanding that "the short-lived buildings have huge environmental footprints (EF)" into a concrete one. By estimating the annual floor space of buildings demolished and calibrating the average building lifetime in China, this paper compared the EF under various assumptive extended buildings' lifetime scenarios based on time-series environmental-extended input-output model. Results show that if the average buildings' lifetime in China can be extended from the current 23.2 years to their designed life expectancy, 50 years, in 2011, China can reduce 5.8 Gt of water withdrawal, 127.1 Mtce of energy consumption, and 426.0 Mt of carbon emissions, each of which is equivalent to the corresponding annual EF of Belgium, Mexico, and Italy. These findings will urge China to extend the lifetime of existing and new buildings, in order to reduce the EF from further urbanization. This paper also verifies that the lifetime of a product or the replacement rate of a sector is a very important factor that influences the cumulative EF. When making policies to reduce the EF, adjusting people's behaviors to extend the lifetime of products or reduce the replacement rate of sectors may be a very simple and cost-effective option.

  16. New use of global warming potentials to compare cumulative and short-lived climate pollutants

    Allen, Myles R.; Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Shine, Keith P.; Reisinger, Andy; Pierrehumbert, Raymond T.; Forster, Piers M.

    2016-08-01

    Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) have requested guidance on common greenhouse gas metrics in accounting for Nationally determined contributions (NDCs) to emission reductions. Metric choice can affect the relative emphasis placed on reductions of `cumulative climate pollutants' such as carbon dioxide versus `short-lived climate pollutants' (SLCPs), including methane and black carbon. Here we show that the widely used 100-year global warming potential (GWP100) effectively measures the relative impact of both cumulative pollutants and SLCPs on realized warming 20-40 years after the time of emission. If the overall goal of climate policy is to limit peak warming, GWP100 therefore overstates the importance of current SLCP emissions unless stringent and immediate reductions of all climate pollutants result in temperatures nearing their peak soon after mid-century, which may be necessary to limit warming to ``well below 2 °C'' (ref. ). The GWP100 can be used to approximately equate a one-off pulse emission of a cumulative pollutant and an indefinitely sustained change in the rate of emission of an SLCP. The climate implications of traditional CO2-equivalent targets are ambiguous unless contributions from cumulative pollutants and SLCPs are specified separately.

  17. Emission channeling with short-lived isotopes lattice location of impurities in semiconductors and oxides

    We propose to perform emission channeling lattice location experiments in a number of semiconductor and oxide systems of technological relevance: \\\\- The lattice location of the transition metal probes $^{56}$Mn ($\\textit{t}_{1/2}$=2.6 h), $^{59}$Fe (45 d), $^{61}$Co (1.6 h) and $^{65}$Ni (2.5 h) is to be investigated in materials of interest as dilute magnetic semiconductors, such as GaMnAs, GaMnN, GaFeN, AlGaN, SiC, and in a number of oxides that are candidates for “single ion ferromagnetism”, in particular SrTiO$_3$ and LiNbO$_3$.\\\\- The topic of $\\textit{p}$-type doping of nitride semiconductors shall be addressed by studying the lattice sites of the acceptor dopants Mg and Be in GaN and AlN using the short-lived probes $^{27}$Mg (9.5 min) and $^{11}$Be (13.8 s). The aim is to reach a lattice location precision around 0.05 Å in order to provide critical tests for recent theoretical models which e.g. have predicted displacements of the Mg atom from the ideal substitutional Ga and Al sites of the order...

  18. Applications of short-lived activation products in neutron activation analysis of bio-environmental specimens

    1987-03-01

    This report discusses the advantages and disadvantages, special techniques, and actual and potential applications of neutron activation analysis (NAA) utilizing short-lived neutron-induced products, with special reference to the analysis of samples of biological and environmental origin. Attention is devoted mainly to products having half-lives in roughly the range of 10 milliseconds to 60 seconds, but with some discussion of the usefulness of even shorter-lived species, and ones with half-lives as long as a few minutes. Important aspects of the analytical methodology include sample preparation, irradiation/transfer systems, activity measurements, data processing and analytical quality assurance. It is concluded that several trace elements can be determined in bio-environmental samples (as well as in samples of industrial, geochemical and other origin). In particular, this method provides analytical possibilities for several elements (e.g. B, F, Li and V) that are difficult to determine in some matrices at trace levels by any other technique. These conclusions are illustrated in an annex by results of calculations in which the applicability of the techniques to the analysis of several biological and environmental reference materials is evaluated by means of an advance computer prediction program. The report concludes with an annotated bibliography of relevant publications (including abstracts, where available) taken from the INIS database. (author)

  19. Labeling suspended aerosol particles with short-lived radionuclides for determination of particle deposition

    Smith, M.F.; Bryant, S.; Welch, S.; Digenis, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    Radiotracer techniques were developed to examine parameters that characterize pressurized aerosols designed to deliver insoluble particles suspended in the aerosol formulation. Microaggregated bovine serum albumin microspheres that were to be suspended were labeled with iodine-131 (t1/2 . 8 d). This iodination procedure (greater than 80% effective) is also applicable to iodine-123, which possesses superior characteristics for external imaging and further in vivo studies. This report shows that for pressurized aerosols containing suspended particles, each metered dose is approximately equal (not including the priming doses and the emptying doses). Increase in the delivery of the albumin particles out of the canister was best achieved by pretreating the valve assembly with a solution of 2% (w/v) bovine serum albumin in phosphate buffer. Use of a cascade impactor delineated the particle size distribution of the micropheres, with the majority of particles ranging in size from 2 to 8 microns. The data disclosed here indicate that the techniques developed with short-lived radionuclides can be used to quantitate each metered dose, characterize the particle size distribution profile of the aerosol contents, and determine the extent of deposition of the particles in the aerosol canister and all of its components

  20. High rate gamma spectroscopy system for activation analysis of short-lived isomeric transitions

    Westphall, G P [Atominstitut der Oesterreichischen Hochschulen, Vienna

    1976-07-15

    A high rate spectroscopy system specially suited for measurement of short-lived isomeric transitions is described, which, as part of a fast activation analysis facility at the TRIGA Mark II reactor, provides for automatic recording and immediate evaluation of gamma spectra taken from nuclides activated at stationary or pulsed reactor power. The system consists of a commercial de-coupled Ge(Li)-detector of 70 cm/sup 3/ modified for recycling operation for input rates in excess of 500000 c/s /sup 60/Co, a time variant trapezoidal shaping section and a fast constant dead-time ADC coupled to a programmed multichannel analyzer. Novel circuits for efficient pile-up rejection and time variant base line restoration extend the concept of gated integration up to count rates of more than 200000 c/s /sup 60/Co. Time-sequenced recording of spectra is performed by a minicomputer operated as a front-end processor of a larger laboratory computer, where final data processing takes place. New concepts for very simple and cost-effective implementation of multichannel analyzers by means of general purpose small computers are described.

  1. Dissolved organic matter composition drives the marine production of brominated very short-lived substances.

    Liu, Yina; Thornton, Daniel C O; Bianchi, Thomas S; Arnold, William A; Shields, Michael R; Chen, Jie; Yvon-Lewis, Shari A

    2015-03-17

    Brominated very short-lived substances (BrVSLS), such as bromoform, are important trace gases for stratospheric ozone chemistry. These naturally derived trace gases are formed via bromoperoxidase-mediated halogenation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in seawater. Information on DOM type in relation to the observed BrVSLS concentrations in seawater, however, is scarce. We examined the sensitivity of BrVSLS production in relation to the presence of specific DOM moieties. A total of 28 model DOM compounds in artificial seawater were treated with vanadium bromoperoxidase (V-BrPO). Our results show a clear dependence of BrVSLS production on DOM type. In general, molecules that comprise a large fraction of the bulk DOM pool did not noticeably affect BrVSLS production. Only specific cell metabolites and humic acid appeared to significantly enhance BrVSLS production. Amino acids and lignin phenols suppressed enzyme-mediated BrVSLS production and may instead have formed halogenated nonvolatile molecules. Dibromomethane production was not observed in any experiments, suggesting it is not produced by the same pathway as the other BrVSLS. Our results suggest that regional differences in DOM composition may explain the observed BrVSLS concentration variability in the global ocean. Ultimately, BrVSLS production and concentrations are likely affected by DOM composition, reactivity, and cycling in the ocean.

  2. Short-Lived Electronically-Excited Diatomic Molecules Cooled via Supersonic Expansion from a Plasma Microjet

    Houlahan, Thomas J., Jr.; Su, Rui; Eden, Gary

    2014-06-01

    Using a pulsed plasma microjet to generate short-lived, electronically-excited diatomic molecules, and subsequently ejecting them into vacuum to cool via supersonic expansion, we are able to monitor the cooling of molecules having radiative lifetimes as low as 16 ns. Specifically, we report on the rotational cooling of He_2 molecules in the d^3Σ_u^+, e^3Π_g, and f^3Σ_u^+ states, which have lifetimes of 25 ns, 67 ns, and 16 ns, respectively. The plasma microjet is driven with a 2.6 kV, 140 ns high-voltage pulse (risetime of 20 ns) which, when combined with a high-speed optical imaging system, allows the nonequilibrium rotational distribution for these molecular states to be monitored as they cool from 1200 K to below 250 K with spatial and temporal resolutions of below 10 μm and 10 ns, respectively. The spatial and temporal resolution afforded by this system also allows the observation of excitation transfer between the f^3Σ_u^+ state and the lower lying d^3Σ_u^+ and e^3Π_g states. The extension of this method to other electronically excited diatomics with excitation energies >5 eV will also be discussed.

  3. Impact on short-lived climate forcers increases projected warming due to deforestation.

    Scott, C E; Monks, S A; Spracklen, D V; Arnold, S R; Forster, P M; Rap, A; Äijälä, M; Artaxo, P; Carslaw, K S; Chipperfield, M P; Ehn, M; Gilardoni, S; Heikkinen, L; Kulmala, M; Petäjä, T; Reddington, C L S; Rizzo, L V; Swietlicki, E; Vignati, E; Wilson, C

    2018-01-11

    The climate impact of deforestation depends on the relative strength of several biogeochemical and biogeophysical effects. In addition to affecting the exchange of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and moisture with the atmosphere and surface albedo, vegetation emits biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) that alter the formation of short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs), which include aerosol, ozone and methane. Here we show that a scenario of complete global deforestation results in a net positive radiative forcing (RF; 0.12 W m -2 ) from SLCFs, with the negative RF from decreases in ozone and methane concentrations partially offsetting the positive aerosol RF. Combining RFs due to CO 2 , surface albedo and SLCFs suggests that global deforestation could cause 0.8 K warming after 100 years, with SLCFs contributing 8% of the effect. However, deforestation as projected by the RCP8.5 scenario leads to zero net RF from SLCF, primarily due to nonlinearities in the aerosol indirect effect.

  4. Context of the long-term management of low-level short-lived waste

    Hooft, E.

    2004-01-01

    Until the international moratorium of 1983, Belgium relied on sea disposal for its low-level waste. Since then, ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Belgian radioactive waste management agency, has launched studies to look for land-based solutions. These studies, which are still going on, have gone through various phases. The sometimes harsh reactions in public opinion and the recommendations of independent experts, however, progressively led ONDRAF/NIRAS to question its work methodology. On 16 January 1998 was a milestone in Belgian's nuclear waste management. On that day, the Belgian federal government opted for a final, or potentially final, solution for the long-term management of short-lived, low-level radioactive waste, a solution that also had to be progressive, flexible, and reversible. At the same time, the government entrusted new missions to ONDRAF/NIRAS in particular that of developing methods to enable the integration of final repository project proposals at a local level and restricted the number of potential sites for final disposal to the four existing nuclear sites in Belgium and to possibly interested local districts. The government's decision of 16 January 1998 forced ONDRAF/NIRAS to change its strategy. The agency set up a new work programme and worked out an innovative methodology. This new methodology aims to generate, at the level of the interested towns and villages, draft projects for a final repository supported by a wide public consensus. (author)

  5. Monitoring of processes with gamma-rays of neutron capture and short-living radionuclides

    Aripov, G.A.; Kurbanov, B.I.; Allamuratova, G.

    2004-01-01

    Element content is a fundamental parameter of a substance, on which all its properties, and also character of physical, chemical, biological, technological and ecological processes depend. Therefore monitoring of element content (in the course of technological process - on line; in natural conditions - in site; or in living organisms - in vivo) becomes necessary for investigation of aforementioned processes. This problem can be successfully solved by using the methods of prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) on short-living radionuclides. These methods don't depend on type of substance (biological, geological, technological etc.), since the content is determined by gamma radiation of nuclei, and allows to meet such a serious requirement like the necessity of achieving minimal irradiation of the object and its minimal residual activity. In this work minimal determinable concentrations of various elements are estimated (based on experimental data) by the method of PGAA using radionuclide 252 Cf - source of neutrons with the yield of the oil of 10 8 neutron/sec on the experimental device with preliminary focusing of neutrons /1/, and also data of determination of elements by their isotopes with maximum time efficiency /2,3/ by the method of INAA. (author)

  6. A high rate gamma spectroscopy system for activation analysis of short lived isomeric transitions

    Westphal, G P [Atominstitut, Vienna (Austria)

    1976-07-01

    A high rate spectroscopy system specially suited for measurement of short-lived isomeric transitions is described, which, as part of a fast activation analysis facility at the TRIGA Mark II reactor, provides for automatic recording and immediate evaluation of gamma spectra taken from nuclides activated at stationary or pulsed reactor power. The system consists of a commercial DC-coupled Ge(Li)-detector of 70 cm{sup 3} modified for recycling operation for input rates in excess of 500,000 c/s Co-60, a time variant trapezoidal shaping section and a fast constant dead-time ADC coupled to a programmed multi-channel analyzer. Novel circuits for efficient pile-up rejection and time variant base line restoration extend the concept of gated integration up to count rates of more than 300,000 c/s Co-60. Time-sequenced recording of spectra is performed by a mini computer operated as a front-end processor of a larger laboratory computer, where final data processing takes place. New concepts for very simple and cost-effective implementation of multi-channel analyzers by means of general purpose small computers are described. (author)

  7. Kaon project accelerates drive to raise $571 million

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The proposed addition of a Kaon factory to the TRIUMF Meson Facility in Vancouver is receiving promises of financial backing from Canada's provinces, the U.S., Germany, Japan, and the global scientific community

  8. Number of detectable kaon decays at LAMPF II

    Sanford, T.W.L.

    1982-04-01

    The maximum number of kaon decays detectable at LAMPF II is estimated for both in-flight and stopping decays. Under reasonable assumptions, the momentum of the kaon beam that optimizes the decay yield occurs at about 6 GeV/c and 600 MeV/c for in-flight and stopping decays, respectively. K + decay yields are fo the order of 7 x 10 7 per 10 14 interacting with K - yields being typically 5 times less. By measuring decays from such beams, a statistical limit of 10 -15 on a branching ratio to a particular channel can be placed in a 100-day run. The large number of kaon decays available at LAMPF II thus provides a powerful tool for sensitively examining rare-decay processes of the kaon

  9. Two-dimensional χ2 analysis in kaon interferometry

    Roldao, C.G.; Padula, S.S.

    1997-01-01

    This work presents preliminary results obtained from the χ 2 analysis performed on the E 859 Joint Work data. The work objective is to quantify the resolution power of the kaon two-dimension interferometry

  10. Hypernuclear physics with a neutral meson spectrometer

    Peng, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    The (K - , π degrees) reaction, which complements the (K - , π - ) and the (π + , K + ) reactions, offers another means to study hypernuclear physics. The physics motivation for measuring the (K - , π degrees) reaction is discussed. The feasibility for detecting π degrees using the LAMPF Neutral Meson Spectrometer is studied with Monte-Carlo simulations. We conclude that the (K - , π degrees) reaction can be well measured at existing kaon beam lines

  11. Rare and forbidden kaon decays at the AGS

    Kettell, S.

    1997-12-09

    An overview of the Rare Kaon Decay program at the AGS is presented, with particular emphasis on the three major experiments currently running and analyzing data. A brief overview of earlier kaon decay experiments and of the AGs performance improvements is also provided. This review concludes with a discussion of proposed and developing experiments planned to run in the year 2000 and beyond (AGS-2000).

  12. Determination of the pion and kaon structure functions

    Aitkenhead, W.; Barton, D.S.; Brandenburg, G.W.; Busza, W.; Dobrowolski, T.; Friedman, J.I.; Kendall, H.W.; Lyons, T.; Nelson, B.; Rosenson, L.; Toy, W.; Verdier, R.; Votta, L.; Chiaradia, M.T.; DeMarzo, C.; Favuzzi, C.; Germinario, G.; Guerriero, L.; LaVopa, P.; Maggi, G.; Posa, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Spinelli, P.; Waldner, F.; Brenner, A.E.; Carey, D.C.; Elias, J.E.; Garbincius, P.H.; Mikenberg, G.; Polychronakos, V.A.; Meunier, R.; Cutts, D.; Dulude, R.S.; Lanou, R.E. Jr.; Massimo, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    Quark structure functions have been extracted from low-p/sub T/ inclusive hadron production data for the pion and kaon with use of the recombination model. n/sup π/=1.0 +- 0.1 and n/sup K/=2.5 +- 0.6 is obtained, where n is the leading (1-x) power of the nonstrange--valence-quark distribution. Both the pion and kaon nonstrange--sea-quark functions have napprox. =3.5

  13. Determination of gamma-ray exposure rate from short-lived fission products under criticality accident conditions

    Yanagisawa, Hiroshi; Ohno, Akio; Aizawa, Eijyu

    2002-01-01

    For the assessment of γ-ray doses from short-lived fission products (FPs) under criticality accident conditions, γ-ray exposure rates varying with time were experimentally determined in the Transient Experiment Critical Facility (TRACY). The data were obtained by reactivity insertion in the range of 1.50 to 2.93$. It was clarified from the experiments that the contribution of γ-ray from short-lived FPs to total exposure during the experiments was evaluated to be 15 to 17%. Hence, the contribution cannot be neglected for the assessment of γ-ray doses under criticality accident conditions. Computational analyses also indicated that γ-ray exposure rates from short-lived FPs calculated with the Monte Carlo code, MCNP4B, and photon sources based on the latest FP decay data, the JENDL FP Decay Data File 2000, well agreed with the experimental results. The exposure rates were, however, extremely underestimated when the photon sources were obtained by the ORIGEN2 code. The underestimation is due to lack of energy-dependent photon emission data for major short-lived FP nuclides in the photon database attached to the ORIGEN2 code. It was also confirmed that the underestimation arose in 1,000 or less of time lapse after an initial power burst. (author)

  14. Sizes and shapes of short-lived nuclei via laser spectroscopy. Progress report, May 1, 1980-January 31, 1981

    Lewis, D.A.

    1981-02-01

    The first stage of the program to study the sizes and shapes of short-lived nuclei through their atomic hyperfine structure is to develop a movable laser spectroscopy system. This system is now almost complete and is described in this report along with plans for measurements at Argonne National Laboratory and Brookhaven National Laboratory

  15. Non-destructive investigation of technical plants and processes and natural processes by short-lived radionuclides (radiotracer)

    Jentsch, Thorsten; Zeuner, Albert

    2009-01-01

    Short lived open radionuclides are very suitable to investigate transport and mixing processes. They do not pollute the product. After decay of the radionuclide, the product can be used without any restrictions. Examples are showed for technical processes investigation by aid of radiotracer. (orig.)

  16. A proposal for assessing study quality: Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and Short-lived Chemicals (BEES-C) instrument

    LaKind, Judy S.; Sobus, Jon R.; Goodman, Michael; Barr, Dana Boyd; Fürst, Peter; Albertini, Richard J.; Arbuckle, Tye E.; Schoeters, Greet; Tan, Yu-Mei; Teeguarden, Justin; Tornero-Velez, Rogelio; Weisel, Clifford P.

    2015-01-01

    The quality of exposure assessment is a major determinant of the overall quality of any environmental epidemiology study. The use of biomonitoring as a tool for assessing exposure to ubiquitous chemicals with short physiologic half-lives began relatively recently. These chemicals present several challenges, including their presence in analytical laboratories and sampling equipment, difficulty in establishing temporal order in cross-sectional studies, short- and long-term variability in exposures and biomarker concentrations, and a paucity of information on the number of measurements required for proper exposure classification. To date, the scientific community has not developed a set of systematic guidelines for designing, implementing and interpreting studies of short-lived chemicals that use biomonitoring as the exposure metric or for evaluating the quality of this type of research for WOE assessments or for peer review of grants or publications. We describe key issues that affect epidemiology studies using biomonitoring data on short-lived chemicals and propose a systematic instrument – the Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and Short-lived Chemicals (BEES-C) instrument – for evaluating the quality of research proposals and studies that incorporate biomonitoring data on short-lived chemicals. Quality criteria for three areas considered fundamental to the evaluation of epidemiology studies that include biological measurements of short-lived chemicals are described: 1) biomarker selection and measurement, 2) study design and execution, and 3) general epidemiological study design considerations. We recognize that the development of an evaluative tool such as BEES-C is neither simple nor non-controversial. We hope and anticipate that the instrument will initiate further discussion/debate on this topic. PMID:25137624

  17. Convective Transport of Very-short-lived Bromocarbons to the Stratosphere

    Liang, Qing; Atlas, Elliot Leonard; Blake, Donald Ray; Dorf, Marcel; Pfeilsticker, Klaus August; Schauffler, Sue Myhre

    2014-01-01

    We use the NASA GEOS Chemistry Climate Model (GEOSCCM) to quantify the contribution of two most important brominated very short-lived substances (VSLS), bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2), to stratospheric bromine and its sensitivity to convection strength. Model simulations suggest that the most active transport of VSLS from the marine boundary layer through the tropopause occurs over the tropical Indian Ocean, the Western Pacific warm pool, and off the Pacific coast of Mexico. Together, convective lofting of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 and their degradation products supplies 8 ppt total bromine to the base of the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL, 150 hPa), similar to the amount of VSLS organic bromine available in the marine boundary layer (7.8-8.4 ppt) in the above active convective lofting regions. Of the total 8 ppt VSLS-originated bromine that enters the base of TTL at 150 hPa, half is in the form of source gas injection (SGI) and half as product gas injection (PGI). Only a small portion (Br2, together, contribute 7.7 pptv to the present-day inorganic bromine in the stratosphere. However, varying model deep convection strength between maximum and minimum convection conditions can introduce a 2.6 pptv uncertainty in the contribution of VSLS to inorganic bromine in the stratosphere (BryVSLS). Contrary to the conventional wisdom, minimum convection condition leads to a larger BryVSLS as the reduced scavenging in soluble product gases, thus a significant increase in PGI (2-3 ppt), greatly exceeds the relative minor decrease in SGI (a few 10ths ppt.

  18. Microspheres labelled with short-lived isotopes: Development and application for tumors treatment (Experimental study)

    Drozdovsky, B.Y.; Rosiev, R.A.; Goncharova, A.Y.; Skvortsov, V.G.; Petriev, V.M.; Grigoriev, A.N.; Schischkanov, N.G.

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of the conducted studies strongly suggests the possibility of usage of the domestic protein microspheres as a vehicle for radionuclide. The neutron-activating method of RPP production enables to utilize a broad spectrum of short-living isotopes that can be delivered into the target organ and anchored there for a long time. Good treatment results were obtained in case of the experimentally induced rheumatoid arthritis in rats after intraarticular loading of 165 Dy-hMSA. Mathematical calculations show that homogeneous distribution of RPP in human articulation cavity with the square of 100 cm 2 can be achieved when the quantity of administered particles exceeds 3000. On the example of 165 Dy-hMSA energy characteristic distribution we demonstrated that the absorbed dose for damaged cells at 2mm distance from the radioactive source is 7 times less than the one for a sphere of 2mm diameter. Analysis of dosimetric data in case of intratumoral loading of 165 Dy-hMSA also point out the necessity of the absorbed dose calculation methods taking into account the distance from the source and possible heterogeneity of RPP distribution inside the tumor to be employed. The prolonged RPP detention in the target causing no essential morphological and functional changes was achieved by embolization on the level of septal and interlobular arteries and of efferent arterioles in the animal's renal. The uniformity of microsphere distribution in the organ and their accumulation in tumors depends on the number of particles being administered. Investigations carried out suggest the efficacy of radionuclide therapy application for treatment of oncological and heavy somatic diseases. They also indicate the necessity of further investigations aimed to optimize the usage of microspheres as a radionuclide carrier usage and to work out the criteria of dosimetric planning

  19. Microspheres labelled with short-lived isotopes: Development and application for tumors treatment (Experimental study)

    Drozdovsky, B.Y.; Rosiev, R.A.; Goncharova, A.Y.; Skvortsov, V.G.; Petriev, V.M.; Grigoriev, A.N.; Schischkanov, N.G. [Medical Radiological Research Centre RAMS, Kaluga Region, (Russian Federation)

    1997-10-01

    Analysis of the conducted studies strongly suggests the possibility of usage of the domestic protein microspheres as a vehicle for radionuclide. The neutron-activating method of RPP production enables to utilize a broad spectrum of short-living isotopes that can be delivered into the target organ and anchored there for a long time. Good treatment results were obtained in case of the experimentally induced rheumatoid arthritis in rats after intraarticular loading of {sup 165}Dy-hMSA. Mathematical calculations show that homogeneous distribution of RPP in human articulation cavity with the square of 100 cm{sup 2} can be achieved when the quantity of administered particles exceeds 3000. On the example of {sup 165}Dy-hMSA energy characteristic distribution we demonstrated that the absorbed dose for damaged cells at 2mm distance from the radioactive source is 7 times less than the one for a sphere of 2mm diameter. Analysis of dosimetric data in case of intratumoral loading of {sup 165}Dy-hMSA also point out the necessity of the absorbed dose calculation methods taking into account the distance from the source and possible heterogeneity of RPP distribution inside the tumor to be employed. The prolonged RPP detention in the target causing no essential morphological and functional changes was achieved by embolization on the level of septal and interlobular arteries and of efferent arterioles in the animal`s renal. The uniformity of microsphere distribution in the organ and their accumulation in tumors depends on the number of particles being administered. Investigations carried out suggest the efficacy of radionuclide therapy application for treatment of oncological and heavy somatic diseases. They also indicate the necessity of further investigations aimed to optimize the usage of microspheres as a radionuclide carrier usage and to work out the criteria of dosimetric planning 25 refs.

  20. A growing threat to the ozone layer from short-lived anthropogenic chlorocarbons

    D. E. Oram

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Large and effective reductions in emissions of long-lived ozone-depleting substance (ODS are being achieved through the Montreal Protocol, the effectiveness of which can be seen in the declining atmospheric abundances of many ODSs. An important remaining uncertainty concerns the role of very short-lived substances (VSLSs which, owing to their relatively short atmospheric lifetimes (less than 6 months, are not regulated under the Montreal Protocol. Recent studies have found an unexplained increase in the global tropospheric abundance of one VSLS, dichloromethane (CH2Cl2, which has increased by around 60 % over the past decade. Here we report dramatic enhancements of several chlorine-containing VSLSs (Cl-VSLSs, including CH2Cl2 and CH2ClCH2Cl (1,2-dichloroethane, observed in surface and upper-tropospheric air in East and South East Asia. Surface observations were, on occasion, an order of magnitude higher than previously reported in the marine boundary layer, whilst upper-tropospheric data were up to 3 times higher than expected. In addition, we provide further evidence of an atmospheric transport mechanism whereby substantial amounts of industrial pollution from East Asia, including these chlorinated VSLSs, can rapidly, and regularly, be transported to tropical regions of the western Pacific and subsequently uplifted to the tropical upper troposphere. This latter region is a major provider of air entering the stratosphere, and so this mechanism, in conjunction with increasing emissions of Cl-VSLSs from East Asia, could potentially slow the expected recovery of stratospheric ozone.

  1. Regional scale temperature and circulation impacts of short-lived climate pollutants reductions

    Oudar, T.; Kushner, P. J.; Fyfe, J. C.; von Salzen, K.; Shrestha, R.

    2017-12-01

    The role of anthropogenic aerosols on climate is still not clearly understood. Aerosol forcing is spatially heterogeneous and their emissions are controlled by regional economic and regulatory factors. For example, it is known that black carbon is responsible for a global net warming but its regional impacts are less understood. We evaluate the regional climate impacts of anthropogenic aerosol emission changes over the recent past and near future. Specifically, we report on numerical experiments using aerosol emissions from the Evaluating the Climate and Air Quality Impacts of Short-Lived Pollutants (ECLIPSE, Stohl et al., 2015) project. These scenarios are alternative mitigation pathways for black carbon and organic aerosol over the period from 1990 to 2050. With these scenarios, we carried out three sets of simulation using the second generation Canadian Earth System Model (CanESM2): 1) A current legislation emission (CLE) scenario for black carbon and organic aerosols; 2) A mitigation (MIT) scenario for black carbon and organic aerosols, and; 3) A black carbon only mitigation scenario (MIT-BC). Five simulations were carried out for each scenario and the response analyzed in the context of a large fifty-member initial condition ensemble of simulations using historical anthropogenic aerosol forcings to 2005 as well as those forcing from the RCP8.5 scenario to 2020. Our main finding is a significant springtime cooling over the Northern midlatitudes that attributable to black carbon. Other cooling signals attributable to black carbon reductions are found in the boreal summer over Southern Europe as well as over the Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes and tropical troposphere in boreal summer and fall. All of these cooling signals are to some degree offset by simultaneous reductions in organic aerosols. As a check on the robustness, we will also report on results of five-member draws from the large ensemble over periods of comparably strong radiative forcing changes, to

  2. Production and Use of Short-Lived Radioisotopes from Reactors. Vol. II. Proceedings of a Seminar on the Practical Applications of Short-Lived Radioisotopes Produced in Small Research Reactors

    1963-01-01

    There are many radioisotope applications in which it is important that the radiation should rapidly fall to an insignificant level once the initial intense activity has served its purpose. Such applications include diagnostic tests in medicine, where it is essential to reduce the radiation dose to the patient to a minimum, non-destructive testing methods which must be applied without contaminating the material or product concerned, and repeated routine tests which are possible only if the residual activity from the previous test is negligible. All these applications call for radionuclides whose half- lives are measured in hours or even minutes. Similarly, in the new but increasingly important technique of activation analysis, whereby the quantities of elements present in a material can be determined by irradiating the material in a reactor and assaying the radionuclides produced, the latter are mainly short-lived and must be measured immediately. While the production of long-lived radionuclides can most economically be left to the large reactors at the main radioisotope centres, short-lived isotopes must be produced, or materials activation performed, in a reactor at or near the place of intended use or analysis; this, then, represents one of the most important uses for the large number of small reactors which have been installed in recent years, or will come into operation in the near future, in many parts of the world. Since in many countries the new problems of producing, separating and applying short-lived radioisotopes are being faced for the first time, the International Atomic Energy Agency believed it would be valuable to survey the state of the art by convening an international Seminar on Practical Applications of Short-lived Radioisotopes produced in Small Research Reactors at its Vienna headquarters in November, 1962. This Seminar provided an opportunity for the producers and users of short-lived radioisotopes from many countries to meet and discuss the

  3. Production and Use of Short-Lived Radioisotopes from Reactors. Vol. II. Proceedings of a Seminar on the Practical Applications of Short-Lived Radioisotopes Produced in Small Research Reactors

    NONE

    1963-03-15

    There are many radioisotope applications in which it is important that the radiation should rapidly fall to an insignificant level once the initial intense activity has served its purpose. Such applications include diagnostic tests in medicine, where it is essential to reduce the radiation dose to the patient to a minimum, non-destructive testing methods which must be applied without contaminating the material or product concerned, and repeated routine tests which are possible only if the residual activity from the previous test is negligible. All these applications call for radionuclides whose half- lives are measured in hours or even minutes. Similarly, in the new but increasingly important technique of activation analysis, whereby the quantities of elements present in a material can be determined by irradiating the material in a reactor and assaying the radionuclides produced, the latter are mainly short-lived and must be measured immediately. While the production of long-lived radionuclides can most economically be left to the large reactors at the main radioisotope centres, short-lived isotopes must be produced, or materials activation performed, in a reactor at or near the place of intended use or analysis; this, then, represents one of the most important uses for the large number of small reactors which have been installed in recent years, or will come into operation in the near future, in many parts of the world. Since in many countries the new problems of producing, separating and applying short-lived radioisotopes are being faced for the first time, the International Atomic Energy Agency believed it would be valuable to survey the state of the art by convening an international Seminar on Practical Applications of Short-lived Radioisotopes produced in Small Research Reactors at its Vienna headquarters in November, 1962. This Seminar provided an opportunity for the producers and users of short-lived radioisotopes from many countries to meet and discuss the

  4. Spectroscopy of neutral radium

    Mol, Aran; De, Subhadeep; Jungmann, Klaus; Wilschut, Hans; Willmann, Lorenz [KVI, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2008-07-01

    The heavy alkaline earth atoms radium is uniquely sensitive towards parity and time reversal symmetry violations due to a large enhancement of an intrinsic permanent electric dipole moment of the nucleous or the electron. Furthermore, radium is sensitive to atomic parity violation and the nuclear anapole moment. To prepare such experiments spectroscopy of relevant atomic states need to be done. At a later stage we will build a neutral atom trap for radium. We have built an atomic beam of the short lived isotope {sup 225}Ra with a flux of several 10{sup 4} atoms/sec. We are preparing the laser spectroscopy using this beam setup. In the preparation for efficient laser cooling and trapping we have successfully trapped barium, which is similar in it's requirements for laser cooling. The techniques which we have developed with barium can be used to trap rare radium isotopes. We report on the progress of the experiments.

  5. Revisited kinetics of the short lived afterglow of a nitrogen microwave discharge

    Foissac, C.; Supiot, P.; Mazouffre, S.; Engeln, R.A.H.; Schram, D.C.; Sadeghi, N.; Campargue, A.; Stoffels, W.W.

    2001-01-01

    Nitrogen discharges and afterglows at pressures of a few hundreds of Pascal have been very extensively studied in the past two decades. However, most of the experimental works are based on emission spectroscopy and so far no overall description of the plasma together with the kinetics of the neutral

  6. Hadron spectroscopy at RHIC and KAON

    Chung, S.U.

    1990-01-01

    A description is given of the physics opportunities at RHIC regarding quark-gluon spectroscopy. The basic idea is to isolate with appropriate triggers the sub-processes pomeron + pomeron → hadrons and γ + +γ + → hadrons with the net effective mass of hadrons in the range of 1.0 to 10.0 GeV, in order to study the hadronic states composed of u, d, c, b and gluons. The double-pomeron interactions are expected to produce glueballs and hybrids preferentially, while the two-offshell-photon initial states should couple predominantly to quarkonia and multiquark states. Of particular interest is the possibility of carrying out a CP-violation study in the B decays. The KAON facility, proposed for TRIUMF, Vancouver, Canada, is an intense hadron factory with a proton flux some 25 times higher than that available at the BNL AGS with the Booster. Therefore, a general purpose hadron spectrometer will be able to tackle the problem of studying gluonic and multiquark degrees of freedom in strangeonia. 19 refs., 3 figs

  7. Kaon correlation systematics in E859

    Vossnack, O.E.

    1993-01-01

    Bose-Einstein correlations between K + 's and between π + 's produced in collisions of 14.6 A·GeV/c 28 Si ions and 197 Au nuclei have been measured using the E859 spectrometer. Parameters obtained from fits to correlation functions in relative momentum describe a K + source that is slightly smaller than the π + source and comparable in size to the 28 Si projectile. Correlation functions were also formed for πK + and pK + pairs extracted from the data set. Bose-Einstein correlations are expected to be absent here. The observed correlations can be understood as being the result primarily of the two-particle Coulomb interaction. For the pK + pairs, an adequate description is obtained only when taking into account the finite sizes of the p K + sources. The space-time coordinate distributions of pions and kaons produced by the event generator ARC for the 14.6 A·GeV/c 28 Si on 197 Au collision yield source sizes that are larger than those observed in the experiment. Much closer agreement is seen when viewing the distributions through a simulated version of the detector

  8. Kaon interferometry as signal for the QCD phase transition at RHIC

    Bernard, S.; Maruhn, J.A.; Greiner, W.; Rischke, D.H.

    1997-01-01

    Pion and kaon correlations in relativistic nuclear collisions are studied in the framework of boost-invariant, cylindrically symmetric hydrodynamics. It is investigated how the inverse widths, R out , R side , of the two-particle correlation functions in out- and side-direction depend on the average transverse momentum K perpendicular to of the particle pair, the initial energy density ε 0 , and the equation of state of the system. The QCD transition leads to a time delay in the expansion of the system and consequently to an enhancement of the ratio R out /R side . This time-delay signal is found to be particularly strong for large average transverse momenta K perpendicular to ∝1 GeV and initial energy densities accessible at RHIC, ε 0 ∝10-20 GeV fm -3 . Neutral kaon pair correlation functions, which are not influenced by final state Coulomb effects and less contaminated by resonance decays than pion correlation functions, seem to be the ideal tool to detect this collective time-delay signature of the QCD transition. (orig.)

  9. Search for New Physics in a Kaon Decay

    Depommier, P.

    2009-01-01

    The present theory of the electroweak interaction (referred to as the Standard Model has been very successful in explaining all presently observed experimental facts but we are not satisfied with the present state of this theory: it has too many arbitrary parameters; several of its predictions have not yet been confirmed experimentally. Nobody believes that this Standard Model is the final theory of the electroweak interaction. Also we would like to see a better unity in particle physics and the next step should be the confirmation of a unified theory of the electroweak and strong interactions. It is hoped that the expected start of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN will soon be able to test several predictions of the electroweak theory; the first one would be the observation of the Higgs boson. Many other predictions will also be submitted to experimental tests. This approach consists in going to higher energies and is referred as to an exploration of the e nergy frontier . Another approach consists in using more modest accelerators, delivering particles at lower energies, but looking for observables which do not exist in the Standard Model. Here the experiments are aimed at the observation of small (sometimes very small) effects at much lower energies. This approach is referred to as the p recision frontier . The aim of this approach is not to observe new particles but to observe small effects which will be used to put upper limits on theoretical predictions and possibly reject some of these predictions. A long time ago, Sakurai, a Japanese physicist, proposed an experiment based on the measurement of the transverse polarization of the muon emitted in the following weak decay: positive kaon going to a neutral pion plus a positive muon plus a neutrino (K + p μ + n μ). In such an experiment it is impossible to detect the neutrino. The energy and direction of the neutral pion can be detected by observing the two gamma rays produced in its decay. The positive muon

  10. Dormancy and germination in short-lived lepidium perfoliatu l. (brassicaceae) seeds

    Tang, An-Jun; Tian, M.; Long, Chun-Lin

    2010-01-01

    To understand germination timing in an ecological context, the response to environmental events that effect seed dormancy is central and has to be combined with knowledge of germination responses to different ecological factors. In this study, seed dormancy, germination and seedling survival of annual short-lived clasping pepper weed Lepidium perfoliatum L. (Brassicaceae) were investigated. Three types of pre-treatments viz., various temperature dry storage, light and water stress were tested as possible dormancy and survival-affecting environmental events. Fresh mature seeds were greatly dormant. Warm (30 deg. C) dry storage more facilitated breaking dormancy, they germinated well under apt conditions (e.g. 20 deg. C and 10/20 deg. C plus periodic light, 14 h/d). For those seeds which underwent after-ripening, they could germinate at a range of constant temperatures (4, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 deg. C) and one alternating temperature (10/20 deg. C). Under alternating temperature regimes, the final percent germination of L. perfoliatum seeds increased from 37 deg. C to 93% when temperature altered from 4/10 deg. C to 10/20 deg. C in light, then decreased with increasing temperature. The germination pattern under constant temperature conditions was similar to that under alternating temperature and significant differences in final percent germinations and rates of germination were observed among different temperatures. Under different light treatments, final germination of showed significant differences, only with 35% of germination percentage in dark, much lower than those in red and white light (i.e. 93% and 91%, respectively). GA3 could promote the germination of non-dormant seeds in dark. When water potentials were reduced, final percent germination decreased dramatically, and few seeds germinated at -0.98 MPa (generated by PEG-8000). The changes of proline content in resultant seedlings were reverse to that of final percent germination with changing water

  11. Seasonal variation in the behaviour of a short-lived rodent.

    Eccard, Jana A; Herde, Antje

    2013-11-15

    Short lived, iteroparous animals in seasonal environments experience variable social and environmental conditions over their lifetime. Animals can be divided into those with a "young-of-the-year" life history (YY, reproducing and dying in the summer of birth) and an "overwinter" life history (OW, overwintering in a subadult state before reproducing next spring).We investigated how behavioural patterns across the population were affected by season and sex, and whether variation in behaviour reflects the variation in life history patterns of each season. Applications of pace-of-life (POL) theory would suggest that long-lived OW animals are shyer in order to increase survival, and YY are bolder in order to increase reproduction. Therefore, we expected that in winter and spring samples, when only OW can be sampled, the animals should be shyer than in summer and autumn, when both OW and YY animals can be sampled.We studied common vole (Microtus arvalis) populations, which express typical, intra-annual density fluctuation. We captured a total of 492 voles at different months over 3 years and examined boldness and activity level with two standardised behavioural experiments. Behavioural variables of the two tests were correlated with each other. Boldness, measured as short latencies in both tests, was extremely high in spring compared to other seasons. Activity level was highest in spring and summer, and higher in males than in females. Being bold in laboratory tests may translate into higher risk-taking in nature by being more mobile while seeking out partners or valuable territories. Possible explanations include asset-protection, with OW animals being rather old with low residual reproductive value in spring. Therefore, OW may take higher risks during this season. Offspring born in spring encounter a lower population density and may have higher reproductive value than offspring of later cohorts. A constant connection between life history and animal personality, as

  12. Regional emission metrics for short-lived climate forcers from multiple models

    B. Aamaas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs, the impact of emissions depends on where and when the emissions take place. Comprehensive new calculations of various emission metrics for SLCFs are presented based on radiative forcing (RF values calculated in four different (chemical-transport or coupled chemistry–climate models. We distinguish between emissions during summer (May–October and winter (November–April for emissions in Europe and East Asia, as well as from the global shipping sector and global emissions. The species included in this study are aerosols and aerosol precursors (BC, OC, SO2, NH3, as well as ozone precursors (NOx, CO, VOCs, which also influence aerosols to a lesser degree. Emission metrics for global climate responses of these emissions, as well as for CH4, have been calculated using global warming potential (GWP and global temperature change potential (GTP, based on dedicated RF simulations by four global models. The emission metrics include indirect cloud effects of aerosols and the semi-direct forcing for BC. In addition to the standard emission metrics for pulse and sustained emissions, we have also calculated a new emission metric designed for an emission profile consisting of a ramping period of 15 years followed by sustained emissions, which is more appropriate for a gradual implementation of mitigation policies.For the aerosols, the emission metric values are larger in magnitude for emissions in Europe than East Asia and for summer than winter. A variation is also observed for the ozone precursors, with largest values for emissions in East Asia and winter for CO and in Europe and summer for VOCs. In general, the variations between the emission metrics derived from different models are larger than the variations between regions and seasons, but the regional and seasonal variations for the best estimate also hold for most of the models individually. Further, the estimated climate impact of an illustrative mitigation

  13. Radon and its short-lived daughter products in the lower atmosphere

    Servant, J.

    1964-01-01

    The variations of vertical and temporal distributions of natural radioactivity with geographical location in the lower atmospheric layers are shown. The content of radon and its short lived daughters products are measured. Radon content is measured continually with a new apparatus, the sensibility of which is 0,2.10 -11 Ci m -3 i.e. the fiftieth of the mean concentration near the soil, this apparatus allowed us to show that radioactive equilibrium between radon and its daughter products is realised when the atmosphere is stable. Air observations between 0 and 100 meters above the ground point out that radon and its decay products are valuable tracers to mark the stability of the atmosphere. Under very stable nighttime conditions the radon accumulates in the former 30 meters of the air layer, at sunrise it ascends and at 9 o'clock attains 100 meters high. The removal rate of the air in the lower atmosphere is computed from the movement of this radon mass, it is equal to 90 per cent for a summer day. We have show that this radon comes from the soil in which it diffuses by brownian motion the intensity of which varies with the water content of the soil, its value for June 1958 is 6,10 -17 Ci cm -2 s -1 and for January 1959 0.2,10 -17 Ci cm -2 s - 1. During the year 1958-1959 general mean of flux for the sedimentary soil studied is equal to 3. 8 ± 1.3, 10 -17 Ci cm -2 s -1 it is identical to the world wide mean computed by H. Israel. In a hilly site in the Morvan, air movements are well marked by this radioactivity. We observed from one hand downslope and up-slope breezes having, respectively, speeds of 0.2 m s -1 and 0.7 m s -1 and from the other hand by night, in the valley and with a light wind favours the stagnation of the air near the ground, a strong increase of the radioactivity which is proportional to the one of the granitic rocks of the region. The radon flux of this soil is 74,10 -17 Ci cm -2 s -1 and the radioactivity of the air can attain 1.5,10 -8 Ci m

  14. Evaluating the climate and air quality impacts of short-lived pollutants

    Stohl, A.; Aamaas, B.; Amann, M.; Baker, L. H.; Bellouin, N.; Berntsen, T. K.; Boucher, O.; Cherian, R.; Collins, W.; Daskalakis, N.; Dusinska, M.; Eckhardt, S.; Fuglestvedt, J. S.; Harju, M.; Heyes, C.; Hodnebrog, Ø.; Hao, J.; Im, U.; Kanakidou, M.; Klimont, Z.; Kupiainen, K.; Law, K. S.; Lund, M. T.; Maas, R.; MacIntosh, C. R.; Myhre, G.; Myriokefalitakis, S.; Olivié, D.; Quaas, J.; Quennehen, B.; Raut, J.-C.; Rumbold, S. T.; Samset, B. H.; Schulz, M.; Seland, Ø.; Shine, K. P.; Skeie, R. B.; Wang, S.; Yttri, K. E.; Zhu, T.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a summary of the work done within the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme project ECLIPSE (Evaluating the Climate and Air Quality Impacts of Short-Lived Pollutants). ECLIPSE had a unique systematic concept for designing a realistic and effective mitigation scenario for short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs; methane, aerosols and ozone, and their precursor species) and quantifying its climate and air quality impacts, and this paper presents the results in the context of this overarching strategy. The first step in ECLIPSE was to create a new emission inventory based on current legislation (CLE) for the recent past and until 2050. Substantial progress compared to previous work was made by including previously unaccounted types of sources such as flaring of gas associated with oil production, and wick lamps. These emission data were used for present-day reference simulations with four advanced Earth system models (ESMs) and six chemistry transport models (CTMs). The model simulations were compared with a variety of ground-based and satellite observational data sets from Asia, Europe and the Arctic. It was found that the models still underestimate the measured seasonality of aerosols in the Arctic but to a lesser extent than in previous studies. Problems likely related to the emissions were identified for northern Russia and India, in particular. To estimate the climate impacts of SLCPs, ECLIPSE followed two paths of research: the first path calculated radiative forcing (RF) values for a large matrix of SLCP species emissions, for different seasons and regions independently. Based on these RF calculations, the Global Temperature change Potential metric for a time horizon of 20 years (GTP20) was calculated for each SLCP emission type. This climate metric was then used in an integrated assessment model to identify all emission mitigation measures with a beneficial air quality and short-term (20-year) climate impact. These measures together

  15. Measurements of airborne short-lived radioactivity concentration in a PET facility at a national University hospital

    Saito, Tadashi

    2006-01-01

    National universities in Japan became under regulation of Industrial Safety and Health Law since 2004FY. One of the legal obligations is working environment measurements such as airborne radioactivity concentration in the rooms where employees handle unsealed radiation sources. Both in 2004FY and in 2005FY, measurements of airborne radioactivity concentration were carried out by two different agencies. The most prominent difference among them is the measurement for short-lived PET nuclides. In 2004FY, one agency measured the radioactivity with a Ge spectrometer at its own laboratory, whereas, in 2005FY, the other agency brought a NaI scintillation counter for gross gamma counting to the Hospital. It can be shown that detection limits for short-lived PET nuclides are in principle almost the same in both methods. It is also found that, in the actual case, gamma spectrometry with a Ge spectrometer is superior in judgement of detection of the radioactivity. (author)

  16. Possibilities of chemical isolation of element 106 from aqueous solutions according to the model experiments with short lived tungsten isotopes

    Szeglowski, Z.; Bruchertseifer, H.; Brudanin, V.B.

    1993-01-01

    A rapid method for continuous separation of short-lived tungsten isotopes from the lanthanides has been developed. It consists in transforming nuclear reaction products from the target by an aerosol jet to an absorber where the KCl particulates are dissolved in 0.2 M HF and percolating the product solution through three successively linked columns filled with ion exchange resins Dowex 50X8 (cationite), Dowex 1X8 (anionite) and again Dowex 50X8. 3 refs

  17. PANTHER Data from SOLVE-II Through CR-AVE: A Contrast Between Long and Short Lived Compounds.

    Moore, F. L.; Dutton, G. S.; Elkins, J. W.; Hall, B. D.; Hurst, D. F.; Nance, J. D.; Thompson, T. M.

    2006-12-01

    PANTHER (PAN and other Trace Hydrohalocarbons ExpeRiment) is an airborne 6-channel gas chromatograph that measures approximately 20 important atmospheric trace gases whose changing burdens impact air quality, climate change and both stratospheric and tropospheric ozone. In this presentation we will contrast measurements of the long-lived compounds against the short-lived compounds. The long-lived compounds tend to have well-defined troposphere boundary conditions and develop spatial gradients due to stratospheric processing. These measurements have played a major role in quantifying stratospheric transport, stratosphere- troposphere exchange, and ozone loss. In contrast the short-lived species develop spatial and temporal gradients in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL), due to variations in the surface boundary layer concentrations and the coupling of this surface boundary layer to the TTL via convective processes. Deep convection acts like a "conveyor belt" between the source region in the boundary layer and the relatively stable TTL region, often bypassing the free troposphere where scavenging of these short lived species takes place. Loss rates due to reaction with OH and thermal decomposition are reduced in the cold, dry air of the TTL, resulting in longer survival times. Isolation of the TTL region from the free troposphere can last from days to over a month. Significant amounts of these short-lived compound and their byproducts can therefore be transported into the lower stratosphere (LS). Of particular interest are compounds that contain bromine, iodine, and sulfur, not only because of their intrinsic harmful effects in the atmosphere, but also because they have unique source and sink regions that can help to de- convolve transport.

  18. The ratio of long-lived to short-lived radon-222 progeny concentrations in ground-level air

    Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R. [Institut fuer Strahlenschutz, GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Neuherberg Oberschleissheim (Germany)

    1996-02-09

    The ratio of {sup 210}Pb air concentration to the short-lived radon ({sup 222}Rn) decay products concentration at ground level was investigated at a semi-rural location 10 km north of Munich, south Germany, for a period of 11 years (1982-1992). The average ratio from 132 monthly mean values has been found to be (7.5{+-}2.2) x 10{sup -5} (arithmetic mean{+-}S.D.). While the time series of the short-lived radon daughter concentration exhibit a distinct seasonal pattern with maxima mostly in October of each year, the course of {sup 210}Pb air concentration is characterized by high values from October through February. Consequently, high ratios of {sup 210}Pb to short-lived decay product concentration are often observed in the winter months of December-February. To study the influence of meteorological conditions on this behaviour, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 214}Pb concentrations were measured on a short-term basis with sampling intervals of 2-3 days from October 1991 to November 1992. The air concentrations obtained within those intervals were then correlated with actual meteorological parameters. On the base of this investigation the seasonal behaviour can essentially be explained by the more frequent inversion weather conditions in winter than in the summer months. At the same location, the average ratio of {sup 210}Po to {sup 210}Pb concentration in ground level air has been found to be 0.079 from 459 weakly mean values between 1976 and 1985. Hence, the corresponding average ratios of the short-lived radon daughters (EEC) to {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po, were 1:7.5x10{sup -5} and 1:0.6 x 10{sup -5}, respectively.

  19. The ratio of long-lived to short-lived radon-222 progeny concentrations in ground-level air

    Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R.

    1996-01-01

    The ratio of 210 Pb air concentration to the short-lived radon ( 222 Rn) decay products concentration at ground level was investigated at a semi-rural location 10 km north of Munich, south Germany, for a period of 11 years (1982-1992). The average ratio from 132 monthly mean values has been found to be (7.5±2.2) x 10 -5 (arithmetic mean±S.D.). While the time series of the short-lived radon daughter concentration exhibit a distinct seasonal pattern with maxima mostly in October of each year, the course of 210 Pb air concentration is characterized by high values from October through February. Consequently, high ratios of 210 Pb to short-lived decay product concentration are often observed in the winter months of December-February. To study the influence of meteorological conditions on this behaviour, 210 Pb and 214 Pb concentrations were measured on a short-term basis with sampling intervals of 2-3 days from October 1991 to November 1992. The air concentrations obtained within those intervals were then correlated with actual meteorological parameters. On the base of this investigation the seasonal behaviour can essentially be explained by the more frequent inversion weather conditions in winter than in the summer months. At the same location, the average ratio of 210 Po to 210 Pb concentration in ground level air has been found to be 0.079 from 459 weakly mean values between 1976 and 1985. Hence, the corresponding average ratios of the short-lived radon daughters (EEC) to 210 Pb and 210 Po, were 1:7.5x10 -5 and 1:0.6 x 10 -5 , respectively

  20. Proceedings of the kaon pds magnet design workshop

    Otter, A.J.; Strathdee, A.

    1989-03-01

    These proceedings bring together the papers given at the Magnet Design Workshop (October 3 - 5 ) which was held to kick off the Kaon Factory PDS which was officially started on October 1, 1988. The workshop included sessions on power supplies and measurements as well as synchrotron and kicker magnet design. The aim of the meetings was to bring together experts who could advise us on magnet and power supply techniques which, prior to the Kaon era, have not been required at TRIUMF. These include fast - cycling cyclotron magnets and their power supplies, and the kickers needed to switch the beam from one ring to another or to the experimental areas. We also invited participation from industrial companies who will be potential magnet suppliers when Kaon Factory is funded. It was a pleasure to have representatives from six industrial companies amongst the participants

  1. Neutrino opacities in kaon condensation and evolution of neutron stars

    Muto, Takumi [Chiba Institute of Technology, Dept. of Physics, Narashino, Chiba (Japan); Yasuhira, Masatomi [Kyoto Univ., Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto (Japan); Tatsumi, Toshitaka [Kyoto Univ., Dept. of Physics, Kyoto (Japan); Iwamoto, Naoki [Kagawa Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Takamatsu, Kagawa (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    The neutrino mean free paths are obtained in kaon condensates realized from hot neutron-star matter. Kaon-induced neutrino absorption processes (KA), {nu}{sub e}N {yields} e{sup -}N (N stands for the nucleon), which are unique in the presence of kaon condensates, are mainly considered in nondegenerate neutrino case. The mean free paths for the KA processes are compared with the neutrino scatterings (S), {nu}{sub e}N {yields} {nu}{sub e}N. It is shown that the mean free paths for KA are shorter than the ordinary two-nucleon processes, {nu}{sub e}nN {yields} e{sup -}pN by several orders of magnitude when the temperature is not very high. However, the scattering processes have a dominant contribution to the neutrino opacities as compared with KA, so that KA has a minor effect on the thermal and dynamical evolution of protoneutron stars. (author)

  2. Kaon production in intermediate-energy nuclear collisions

    Russkikh, V.N.; Ivanov, Yu.B.

    1992-01-01

    Production of positive kaons in nuclear collisions at intermediate energies (∝ 1-2 GeV/nucleon) is studied within the 3-dimensional fluid dynamics combined with the hadrochemical kinetics for strangeness production. Sensitivity of the kaon probe to a form of the nuclear equation of state is analyzed. The model reproduces total and differential cross sections of Ne+NaF→K + +X and Ne+Pb→K + +X reactions at E lab =2.1 GeV/nucleon, provided a soft equation of state is used. The pion-production data are also well described employing the same equation of state. Predictions are made for the current experiment on kaon production at the SIS accelerator. The obtained results are compared with the predictions of other models. (orig.)

  3. Multi-model evaluation of short-lived pollutant distributions over east Asia during summer 2008

    Quennehen, B.; Raut, J.-C.; Law, K. S.; Daskalakis, N.; Ancellet, G.; Clerbaux, C.; Kim, S.-W.; Lund, M. T.; Myhre, G.; Olivié, D. J. L.; Safieddine, S.; Skeie, R. B.; Thomas, J. L.; Tsyro, S.; Bazureau, A.; Bellouin, N.; Hu, M.; Kanakidou, M.; Klimont, Z.; Kupiainen, K.; Myriokefalitakis, S.; Quaas, J.; Rumbold, S. T.; Schulz, M.; Cherian, R.; Shimizu, A.; Wang, J.; Yoon, S.-C.; Zhu, T.

    2016-08-01

    is too weak to explain the differences between the models. Our results rather point to an overestimation of SO2 emissions, in particular, close to the surface in Chinese urban areas. However, we also identify a clear underestimation of aerosol concentrations over northern India, suggesting that the rapid recent growth of emissions in India, as well as their spatial extension, is underestimated in emission inventories. Model deficiencies in the representation of pollution accumulation due to the Indian monsoon may also be playing a role. Comparison with vertical aerosol lidar measurements highlights a general underestimation of scattering aerosols in the boundary layer associated with overestimation in the free troposphere pointing to modelled aerosol lifetimes that are too long. This is likely linked to too strong vertical transport and/or insufficient deposition efficiency during transport or export from the boundary layer, rather than chemical processing (in the case of sulphate aerosols). Underestimation of sulphate in the boundary layer implies potentially large errors in simulated aerosol-cloud interactions, via impacts on boundary-layer clouds.This evaluation has important implications for accurate assessment of air pollutants on regional air quality and global climate based on global model calculations. Ideally, models should be run at higher resolution over source regions to better simulate urban-rural pollutant gradients and/or chemical regimes, and also to better resolve pollutant processing and loss by wet deposition as well as vertical transport. Discrepancies in vertical distributions require further quantification and improvement since these are a key factor in the determination of radiative forcing from short-lived pollutants.

  4. Multi-model evaluation of short-lived pollutant distributions over east Asia during summer 2008

    B. Quennehen

    2016-08-01

    mitigation in Beijing is too weak to explain the differences between the models. Our results rather point to an overestimation of SO2 emissions, in particular, close to the surface in Chinese urban areas. However, we also identify a clear underestimation of aerosol concentrations over northern India, suggesting that the rapid recent growth of emissions in India, as well as their spatial extension, is underestimated in emission inventories. Model deficiencies in the representation of pollution accumulation due to the Indian monsoon may also be playing a role. Comparison with vertical aerosol lidar measurements highlights a general underestimation of scattering aerosols in the boundary layer associated with overestimation in the free troposphere pointing to modelled aerosol lifetimes that are too long. This is likely linked to too strong vertical transport and/or insufficient deposition efficiency during transport or export from the boundary layer, rather than chemical processing (in the case of sulphate aerosols. Underestimation of sulphate in the boundary layer implies potentially large errors in simulated aerosol–cloud interactions, via impacts on boundary-layer clouds.This evaluation has important implications for accurate assessment of air pollutants on regional air quality and global climate based on global model calculations. Ideally, models should be run at higher resolution over source regions to better simulate urban–rural pollutant gradients and/or chemical regimes, and also to better resolve pollutant processing and loss by wet deposition as well as vertical transport. Discrepancies in vertical distributions require further quantification and improvement since these are a key factor in the determination of radiative forcing from short-lived pollutants.

  5. Kaon Condensation in Neutron Stars and High Density Behaviour of Nuclear Symmetry Energy

    Kubis, S.; Kutschera, M.

    1999-01-01

    We study the influence of a high density behaviour of the nuclear symmetry energy on a kaon condensation in neutron stars. We find that the symmetry energy typical for several realistic nuclear potentials, which decreases at high densities, inhibits kaon condensation for weaker kaon-nucleon couplings at any density. There exists a threshold coupling above which the kaon condensate forms at densities exceeding some critical value. This is in contrast to the case of rising symmetry energy, as e.g. for relativistic mean field models, when the kaon condensate can form for any coupling at a sufficiently high density. Properties of the condensate are also different in both cases. (author)

  6. Kaon Condensation in Neutron Stars and High Density Behaviour of Nuclear Symmetry Energy

    Kubis, S.; Kutschera, M.

    1999-04-01

    We study the influence of a high density behaviour of the nuclear symmetry energy on a kaon condensation in neutron stars. We find that the symmetry energy typical for several realistic nuclear potentials, which decreases at high densities, inhibits kaon condensation for weaker kaon-nucleon couplings at any density. There exists a threshold coupling above which the kaon condensate forms at densities exceeding some critical value. This is in contrast to the case of rising symmetry energy, as e.g. for relativistic mean field models, when the kaon condensate can form for any coupling at a sufficiently high density. Properties of the condensate are also different in both cases

  7. Proceedings of TRIUMF/KEK workshop on hypernuclear physics at KAON

    1989-07-01

    A workshop on 'Hypernuclear Physics at KAON' was held on June 17-18, 1989 at KEK. 18 participants from abroad and more than 30 domestic participants attended. Following the general reviews of pre-KAON status, active discussions of future possibilities with KAON were carried out. Fundamental questions which stimulate experimental efforts were raised and various new ambitious ideas for experimental possibilities were presented. The discussions assist design studies of the KAON beam lines and help to promote the field of KAON physics. This publication is the collection of the transparencies and memoranda of the presentations and discussions. (A.Y.)

  8. Transport of short-lived species into the Tropical Tropopause Layer

    Ashfold, M. J.; Harris, N. R. P.; Atlas, E. L.; Manning, A. J.; Pyle, J. A.

    2012-07-01

    We use NAME, a trajectory model, to investigate the routes and timescales over which air parcels reach the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). Our aim is to assist the planning of aircraft campaigns focussed on improving knowledge of such transport. We focus on Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific which appears to be a particularly important source of air that enters the TTL. We first study the TTL above Borneo in November 2008, under neutral El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) conditions. Air parcels (trajectories) arriving in the lower TTL (below ~15 km) are most likely to have travelled from the boundary layer (BL; planning flights for the long-duration aircraft now capable of making such measurements.

  9. Antiproton-nucleus experiments at LEAR and KAON

    Yavin, A.I.

    1989-12-01

    Antimatter and matter-antimatter systems are briefly discussed. Results of the antiproton-nucleus scattering experiments at LEAR are described, with the emphasis on unfinished experiments and on proposed experiments yet untouched. A few remarks on antiproton and antideuteron experiments at KAON are then presented

  10. Centuries of thermal sea-level rise due to anthropogenic emissions of short-lived greenhouse gases.

    Zickfeld, Kirsten; Solomon, Susan; Gilford, Daniel M

    2017-01-24

    Mitigation of anthropogenic greenhouse gases with short lifetimes (order of a year to decades) can contribute to limiting warming, but less attention has been paid to their impacts on longer-term sea-level rise. We show that short-lived greenhouse gases contribute to sea-level rise through thermal expansion (TSLR) over much longer time scales than their atmospheric lifetimes. For example, at least half of the TSLR due to increases in methane is expected to remain present for more than 200 y, even if anthropogenic emissions cease altogether, despite the 10-y atmospheric lifetime of this gas. Chlorofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons have already been phased out under the Montreal Protocol due to concerns about ozone depletion and provide an illustration of how emission reductions avoid multiple centuries of future TSLR. We examine the "world avoided" by the Montreal Protocol by showing that if these gases had instead been eliminated in 2050, additional TSLR of up to about 14 cm would be expected in the 21st century, with continuing contributions lasting more than 500 y. Emissions of the hydrofluorocarbon substitutes in the next half-century would also contribute to centuries of future TSLR. Consideration of the time scales of reversibility of TSLR due to short-lived substances provides insights into physical processes: sea-level rise is often assumed to follow air temperature, but this assumption holds only for TSLR when temperatures are increasing. We present a more complete formulation that is accurate even when atmospheric temperatures are stable or decreasing due to reductions in short-lived gases or net radiative forcing.

  11. Development of a Method to Assess the Radiation Dose due to Internal Exposure to Short-lived Radioactive Materials

    Benmaman, D.; Koch, J.; Ribak, J.

    2014-01-01

    Work with radioactive materials requires monitoring of the employees' exposure to ionizing radiation. Employees may be exposed to radiation from internal and/or external exposure. Control of external exposure is mostly conducted through personal radiation dosimeters provided to employees. Control of internal exposure can be performed by measuring the concentration of radioactive substances excreted in urine or through whole-body counting in which the entire body or target organs are scanned with a sensitive detector system (1). According to the regulations in Israel an employee that may be internally exposed must undergo an exposure control at least once every three months. The idea lying behind the control of internal exposure by urine testing is that if radioactive material has penetrated into the employee body, it can be detected even if the test is performed once every three months. A model was fitted for each element describing its dispersion in the body and its excretion therefrom (2). By means of this model, one can estimate the activity that entered the body and calculate the resulting radiation dose to which the worker was exposed. There is a problem to implement this method when it comes to short-lived radioactive materials, for which it is very likely that the material that penetrated into the body has decayed and cannot be detected by testing once every three months. As a result, workers with short-lived radioactive materials are presently not monitored for internal exposure, in contradiction to the requirements of the Safety at Work Regulations. The purpose of the study is to develop an alternative method to assess the amount of radioactive material absorbed in the body and the resulting radiation dose due to internal exposure of workers to short-lived radioactive materials

  12. Online selection of short-lived particles on many-core computer architectures in the CBM experiment at FAIR

    Zyzak, Maksym

    2016-07-07

    Modern experiments in heavy ion collisions operate with huge data rates that can not be fully stored on the currently available storage devices. Therefore the data flow should be reduced by selecting those collisions that potentially carry the information of the physics interest. The future CBM experiment will have no simple criteria for selecting such collisions and requires the full online reconstruction of the collision topology including reconstruction of short-lived particles. In this work the KF Particle Finder package for online reconstruction and selection of short-lived particles is proposed and developed. It reconstructs more than 70 decays, covering signals from all the physics cases of the CBM experiment: strange particles, strange resonances, hypernuclei, low mass vector mesons, charmonium, and open-charm particles. The package is based on the Kalman filter method providing a full set of the particle parameters together with their errors including position, momentum, mass, energy, lifetime, etc. It shows a high quality of the reconstructed particles, high efficiencies, and high signal to background ratios. The KF Particle Finder is extremely fast for achieving the reconstruction speed of 1.5 ms per minimum-bias AuAu collision at 25 AGeV beam energy on single CPU core. It is fully vectorized and parallelized and shows a strong linear scalability on the many-core architectures of up to 80 cores. It also scales within the First Level Event Selection package on the many-core clusters up to 3200 cores. The developed KF Particle Finder package is a universal platform for short- lived particle reconstruction, physics analysis and online selection.

  13. Online selection of short-lived particles on many-core computer architectures in the CBM experiment at FAIR

    Zyzak, Maksym

    2016-01-01

    Modern experiments in heavy ion collisions operate with huge data rates that can not be fully stored on the currently available storage devices. Therefore the data flow should be reduced by selecting those collisions that potentially carry the information of the physics interest. The future CBM experiment will have no simple criteria for selecting such collisions and requires the full online reconstruction of the collision topology including reconstruction of short-lived particles. In this work the KF Particle Finder package for online reconstruction and selection of short-lived particles is proposed and developed. It reconstructs more than 70 decays, covering signals from all the physics cases of the CBM experiment: strange particles, strange resonances, hypernuclei, low mass vector mesons, charmonium, and open-charm particles. The package is based on the Kalman filter method providing a full set of the particle parameters together with their errors including position, momentum, mass, energy, lifetime, etc. It shows a high quality of the reconstructed particles, high efficiencies, and high signal to background ratios. The KF Particle Finder is extremely fast for achieving the reconstruction speed of 1.5 ms per minimum-bias AuAu collision at 25 AGeV beam energy on single CPU core. It is fully vectorized and parallelized and shows a strong linear scalability on the many-core architectures of up to 80 cores. It also scales within the First Level Event Selection package on the many-core clusters up to 3200 cores. The developed KF Particle Finder package is a universal platform for short- lived particle reconstruction, physics analysis and online selection.

  14. Harvard-MIT research program in short-lived radiopharmaceuticals. Progress report, March 1, 1985-February 28, 1986

    1986-03-01

    The Harvard-MIT Research Program in Short-Lived Radiopharmaceuticals was established in 1977 to foster interaction among groups working at Harvard Medical School, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Massachusetts General Hospital in fields related to radiopharmaceutical chemistry. From these collaborations and building upon the special, but different, strengths of the participating individuals, laboratories and institutions, it was hoped that original approaches would be found for the design of new, clinically useful, labeled compounds. We believe that examination of the record demonstrates that this has been a fruitful alliance

  15. Harvard-MIT research program in short-lived radiopharmaceuticals. Progress report, March 1, 1983-February 29, 1984

    Adelstein, S.J.; Brownell, G.L.

    1984-02-01

    This report describes research efforts towards the achievement of a clearer understanding of the solution chemistry of technetium in order to facilitate the design of future clinical agents labeled with Tc-99m, the development of new receptor binding radiopharmaceuticals for the in vivo assessment of insulin receptors and for imaging the adrenal medulla and the brain, the examination of the utility of monoclonal antibodies and liposomes in the design of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and therapy, and the synthesis of short-lived positron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals for transverse imaging of regional physiological processes

  16. Large drainages from short-lived glacial lakes in the Teskey Range, Tien Shan Mountains, Central Asia

    Narama, Chiyuki; Daiyrov, Mirlan; Duishonakunov, Murataly; Tadono, Takeo; Sato, Hayato; Kääb, Andreas; Ukita, Jinro; Abdrakhmatov, Kanatbek

    2018-04-01

    Four large drainages from glacial lakes occurred during 2006-2014 in the western Teskey Range, Kyrgyzstan. These floods caused extensive damage, killing people and livestock as well as destroying property and crops. Using satellite data analysis and field surveys of this area, we find that the water volume that drained at Kashkasuu glacial lake in 2006 was 194 000 m3, at western Zyndan lake in 2008 was 437 000 m3, at Jeruy lake in 2013 was 182 000 m3, and at Karateke lake in 2014 was 123 000 m3. Due to their subsurface outlet, we refer to these short-lived glacial lakes as the tunnel-type, a type that drastically grows and drains over a few months. From spring to early summer, these lakes either appear, or in some cases, significantly expand from an existing lake (but non-stationary), and then drain during summer. Our field surveys show that the short-lived lakes form when an ice tunnel through a debris landform gets blocked. The blocking is caused either by the freezing of stored water inside the tunnel during winter or by the collapse of ice and debris around the ice tunnel. The draining then occurs through an opened ice tunnel during summer. The growth-drain cycle can repeat when the ice-tunnel closure behaves like that of typical supraglacial lakes on debris-covered glaciers. We argue here that the geomorphological characteristics under which such short-lived glacial lakes appear are (i) a debris landform containing ice (ice-cored moraine complex), (ii) a depression with water supply on a debris landform as a potential lake basin, and (iii) no visible surface outflow channel from the depression, indicating the existence of an ice tunnel. Applying these characteristics, we examine 60 depressions (> 0.01 km2) in the study region and identify here 53 of them that may become short-lived glacial lakes, with 34 of these having a potential drainage exceeding 10 m3 s-1 at peak discharge.

  17. Large drainages from short-lived glacial lakes in the Teskey Range, Tien Shan Mountains, Central Asia

    C. Narama

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Four large drainages from glacial lakes occurred during 2006–2014 in the western Teskey Range, Kyrgyzstan. These floods caused extensive damage, killing people and livestock as well as destroying property and crops. Using satellite data analysis and field surveys of this area, we find that the water volume that drained at Kashkasuu glacial lake in 2006 was 194 000  m3, at western Zyndan lake in 2008 was 437 000 m3, at Jeruy lake in 2013 was 182 000 m3, and at Karateke lake in 2014 was 123 000 m3. Due to their subsurface outlet, we refer to these short-lived glacial lakes as the tunnel-type, a type that drastically grows and drains over a few months. From spring to early summer, these lakes either appear, or in some cases, significantly expand from an existing lake (but non-stationary, and then drain during summer. Our field surveys show that the short-lived lakes form when an ice tunnel through a debris landform gets blocked. The blocking is caused either by the freezing of stored water inside the tunnel during winter or by the collapse of ice and debris around the ice tunnel. The draining then occurs through an opened ice tunnel during summer. The growth–drain cycle can repeat when the ice-tunnel closure behaves like that of typical supraglacial lakes on debris-covered glaciers. We argue here that the geomorphological characteristics under which such short-lived glacial lakes appear are (i a debris landform containing ice (ice-cored moraine complex, (ii a depression with water supply on a debris landform as a potential lake basin, and (iii no visible surface outflow channel from the depression, indicating the existence of an ice tunnel. Applying these characteristics, we examine 60 depressions (> 0.01 km2 in the study region and identify here 53 of them that may become short-lived glacial lakes, with 34 of these having a potential drainage exceeding 10 m3 s−1 at peak discharge.

  18. The low to intermediate activity and short living waste storage facility. For a controlled management of radioactive wastes

    2006-01-01

    Sited at about 50 km of Troyes (France), the Aube facility started in 1992 and has taken over the Manche facility for the surface storage of low to intermediate and short living radioactive wastes. The Aube facility (named CSFMA) is the answer to the safe management of these wastes at the industrial scale and for 50 years onward. This brochure presents the facility specifications, the wastes stored at the center, the surface storage concept, the processing and conditioning of waste packages, and the environmental monitoring performed in the vicinity of the site. (J.S.)

  19. Impact of preindustrial to present-day changes in short-lived pollutant emissions on atmospheric composition and climate forcing

    Naik, Vaishali; Horowitz, Larry W.; Fiore, Arlene M.; Ginoux, Paul; Mao, Jingqiu; Aghedo, Adetutu M.; Levy, Hiram

    2013-07-01

    We describe and evaluate atmospheric chemistry in the newly developed Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory chemistry-climate model (GFDL AM3) and apply it to investigate the net impact of preindustrial (PI) to present (PD) changes in short-lived pollutant emissions (ozone precursors, sulfur dioxide, and carbonaceous aerosols) and methane concentration on atmospheric composition and climate forcing. The inclusion of online troposphere-stratosphere interactions, gas-aerosol chemistry, and aerosol-cloud interactions (including direct and indirect aerosol radiative effects) in AM3 enables a more complete representation of interactions among short-lived species, and thus their net climate impact, than was considered in previous climate assessments. The base AM3 simulation, driven with observed sea surface temperature (SST) and sea ice cover (SIC) over the period 1981-2007, generally reproduces the observed mean magnitude, spatial distribution, and seasonal cycle of tropospheric ozone and carbon monoxide. The global mean aerosol optical depth in our base simulation is within 5% of satellite measurements over the 1982-2006 time period. We conduct a pair of simulations in which only the short-lived pollutant emissions and methane concentrations are changed from PI (1860) to PD (2000) levels (i.e., SST, SIC, greenhouse gases, and ozone-depleting substances are held at PD levels). From the PI to PD, we find that changes in short-lived pollutant emissions and methane have caused the tropospheric ozone burden to increase by 39% and the global burdens of sulfate, black carbon, and organic carbon to increase by factors of 3, 2.4, and 1.4, respectively. Tropospheric hydroxyl concentration decreases by 7%, showing that increases in OH sinks (methane, carbon monoxide, nonmethane volatile organic compounds, and sulfur dioxide) dominate over sources (ozone and nitrogen oxides) in the model. Combined changes in tropospheric ozone and aerosols cause a net negative top

  20. Application of dynamic and transition magnetic fields for determination of magnetic moments of short-lived nuclear states

    Burgov, N.A.

    1986-01-01

    Problem of measuring magnetic momenta of short-living nuclear states is discussed. Different methods for measuring magnetic momenta using interionic and transient magnetic fields were considered. Possibility for determining a value g by means of measuring correlation attenuation is investigated as well as measuring magnetic momenta by means of inclined foils. At present 2 + level magnetic momenta for many odd-odd nuclei have been determined by means of the above methods. The methods are only ones for determining magnetic momenta of nuclear levels with small lifetimes up to tenth and hundredth of shares of picoseconds

  1. Moments and mean square charge radii of short-lived argon isotopes

    Klein, A; Georg, U; Keim, M; Lievens, P; Neugart, R; Neuroth, M; Silverans, R E; Vermeeren, L

    1996-01-01

    We report on the measurement of optical isotope shifts for $^{32-40}$Ar and for $^{46}$Ar from which the changes in mean square nuclear charge radii across the N = 20 neutron shell closure are deducted. The investigations were carried out by collinear laser spectroscopy in fast beams of neutral argon atoms. The ultra-sensitive detection combines optical pumping, state-selective collisional ionization and counting of $\\beta$-radioactivity. By reaching far into the sd-shell, the results add new information to the systematics of radii in the calcium region (Z $\\approx$ 20). Contrary to all major neutron shell closures with N $\\geq$ 28, the N = 20 shell closure causes no significant slope change in the development of the radii. Information from the hyperfine structure of the odd-A isotopes includes includes the magnetic moments of $^{33}$Ar (I=1/2) and $^{39}$Ar (I=7/2), and the quadrupole moments of $^{35}$Ar, $^{37}$Ar (I=3/2) and $^{39}$Ar. The electromagnetic moments are compared to shell-model predictions fo...

  2. Corrections for the combined effects of decay and dead time in live-timed counting of short-lived radionuclides

    Fitzgerald, R.

    2016-01-01

    Studies and calibrations of short-lived radionuclides, for example "1"5O, are of particular interest in nuclear medicine. Yet counting experiments on such species are vulnerable to an error due to the combined effect of decay and dead time. Separate decay corrections and dead-time corrections do not account for this issue. Usually counting data are decay-corrected to the start time of the count period, or else instead of correcting the count rate, the mid-time of the measurement is used as the reference time. Correction factors are derived for both those methods, considering both extending and non-extending dead time. Series approximations are derived here and the accuracy of those approximations are discussed. - Highlights: • Derived combined effects of decay and dead time. • Derived for counting systems with extending or non-extending dead times. • Derived series expansions for both midpoint and decay-to-start-time methods. • Useful for counting experiments with short-lived radionuclides. • Examples given for "1"5O, used in PET scanning.

  3. Determination of k0-factors of short-lived nuclides and application of k0-NAA to selected trace elements

    Acharya, R.; Holzbecher, J.; Chatt, A.

    2012-01-01

    As part of the standardization program of k 0 -based NAA (k 0 -NAA) methods at the Dalhousie University SLOWPOKE-2 reactor (DUSR) facility, the k 0 -factors of 15 analytically important short-lived nuclides (half-life 197 Au). The elemental standards used were prepared mostly from their primary standard solutions. The samples were irradiated in both inner and outer pneumatic sites of the DUSR facility and counted using an HPGe-detector coupled to an ORTEC’s digital gamma-ray spectrometer. The k 0 -factors determined using both inner and outer irradiation sites were found to be within ±5% with respect to either recommended or literature values in most cases. The Z-score values at 95% confidence level were found to be in the range of ±0.03–1.6. The k 0 -NAA method was applied to three different NIST standard reference materials (SRMs) and concentrations of six elements, namely Ag, F, Hf, Rb, Sc, and Se were determined using their short-lived nuclides. The concentrations of these elements were also determined by relative NAA method for comparison purposes.

  4. Production cross sections of short-lived silver radionuclides from natPd(p,xn) nuclear processes

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Kim, Kwangsoo; Kim, Guinyun

    2012-01-01

    Production cross-sections of short-lived 103 Ag, 104m Ag and 104g Ag radionuclides from proton-induced reactions on natural palladium (Pd) were measured up to 41 MeV by using a stacked-foil activation technique combined with high resolution γ-ray spectrometry. The present results are compared with the available literature values as well as theoretical data calculated by the TALYS and the ALICE-IPPE computer codes. Note that production cross-sections of the 104m Ag radionuclide from nat Pd(p,xn) processes has been measured here for the first time. Physical thick target yields for the investigated radionuclides were deduced from the respective threshold energy to 41 MeV taking into account that the total energy is absorbed in the targets. Measured data of the short-lived 103 Ag radionuclide are noteworthy due to its possible applications as a precursor for the indirect production of widely used therapeutic 103 Pd radionuclide via nat Pd(p,xn) 103 Ag → 103 Pd processes. On the other hand, the investigated 104 Ag radionuclide finds importance due to its potential use as a diagnostic and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging analogue. Above all, measured data will enrich the literature database leading to various applications in science and technology.

  5. New methodology for Ozone Depletion Potentials of short-lived compounds: n-Propyl bromide as an example

    Wuebbles, Donald J.; Patten, Kenneth O.; Johnson, Matthew T.; Kotamarthi, Rao

    2001-07-01

    A number of the compounds proposed as replacements for substances controlled under the Montreal Protocol have extremely short atmospheric lifetimes, on the order of days to a few months. An important example is n-propyl bromide (also referred to as 1-bromopropane, CH2BrCH2CH3 or simplified as 1-C3H7Br or nPB). This compound, useful as a solvent, has an atmospheric lifetime of less than 20 days due to its reaction with hydroxyl. Because nPB contains bromine, any amount reaching the stratosphere has the potential to affect concentrations of stratospheric ozone. The definition of Ozone Depletion Potentials (ODP) needs to be modified for such short-lived compounds to account for the location and timing of emissions. It is not adequate to treat these chemicals as if they were uniformly emitted at all latitudes and longitudes as normally done for longer-lived gases. Thus, for short-lived compounds, policymakers will need a table of ODP values instead of the single value generally provided in past studies. This study uses the MOZART2 three-dimensional chemical-transport model in combination with studies with our less computationally expensive two-dimensional model to examine potential effects of nPB on stratospheric ozone. Multiple facets of this study examine key questions regarding the amount of bromine reaching the stratosphere following emission of nPB. Our most significant findings from this study for the purposes of short-lived replacement compound ozone effects are summarized as follows. The degradation of nPB produces a significant quantity of bromoacetone which increases the amount of bromine transported to the stratosphere due to nPB. However, much of that effect is not due to bromoacetone itself, but instead to inorganic bromine which is produced from tropospheric oxidation of nPB, bromoacetone, and other degradation products and is transported above the dry and wet deposition processes of the model. The MOZART2 nPB results indicate a minimal correction of the

  6. Hadron Mass Effects for Kaon Production on deuteron

    Guerrero, Juan

    2017-09-01

    The spin-independent cross section for semi-inclusive lepton-nucleon scattering are derived in the framework of collinear factorization, including the effects of the target and produced hadron masses at small momentum transfer squared Q2. At leading order, the cross section factorizes into products of parton distributions and fragmentation functions evaluated in terms of new, mass-dependent scaling variables. This talk focuses on Kaon production at HERMES and COMPASS kinematics. In particular, hadron mass corrections for integrated kaon multiplicities measured by the two collaborations are shown to sizeably reduce the apparent large discrepancy between the results for both experiments. This work was supported by the DOE contract No. DE-AC05-06OR23177, under which Jefferson Science Associates, LLC operates Jefferson Lab, and by the DOE Contract No. DE-SC008791.

  7. From kaons to neutrinos: quantum mechanics of particle oscillations

    Zralek, M.

    1998-01-01

    The problem of particle oscillation is considered in a pedagogical and comprehensive way. Examples from K, B and neutrino physics are given. Conceptual difficulties of the traditional approach to particle oscillation are discussed. It is shown how the probability current density and the wave packet treatments of particle oscillations resolve some problems. It is also shown that only full field theoretical approach is free from conceptual difficulties. The possibility of oscillation of particles produced together with kaons or neutrinos is considered in full wave packet quantum mechanics language. Precise definition of the oscillation of particles which recoil against mixed states is given. The general amplitude which describes the oscillation of two particles in the final states is found. Using this EPR-type amplitude the problem of oscillation of particles recoiling against kaons or neutrinos is resolved. The relativistic EPR correlations on distances of the order of coherence lengths are considered. (author)

  8. Review of kaon physics at CERN and in Europe

    Anzivino, Giuseppina

    2015-01-01

    After reporting on recent results of the measurement of R_K, the ratio of kaon leptonic decays rates, K"± → e"+ν and K"± → μ"+ν, the physics prospects and the status of the construction and commissioning of the NA62 experiment will be presented. The aim of NA62 is the measurement of the Branching Ratio (BR) of the K"+ → π"+νν-bar decay with ∼10% precision in two years of data taking. While the rate of the decay can be predicted with minimal theoretical uncertainty in the Standard Model (SM), the smallness of the BR and the challenging experimental signature make it very difficult to measure, making it a sensitive probe of the flavour sector of the SM. Kaon physics results and prospects from other experiments at CERN (e.g. LHCb) and in Europe (e.g. KLOE) will also be presented. (author)

  9. Kaon fragmentation function from NJL-jet model

    Matevosyan, Hrayr H.; Thomas, Anthony W.; Bentz, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    The NJL-jet model provides a sound framework for calculating the fragmentation functions in an effective chiral quark theory, where the momentum and isospin sum rules are satisfied without the introduction of ad hoc parameters [1]. Earlier studies of the pion fragmentation functions using the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model within this framework showed good qualitative agreement with the empirical parameterizations. Here we extend the NJL-jet model by including the strange quark. The corrections to the pion fragmentation function and corresponding kaon fragmentation functions are calculated using the elementary quark to quark-meson fragmentation functions from NJL. The results for the kaon fragmentation function exhibit a qualitative agreement with the empirical parameterizations, while the unfavored strange quark fragmentation to pions is shown to be of the same order of magnitude as the unfavored light quark's. The results of these studies are expected to provide important guidance for the analysis of a large variety of semi-inclusive data.

  10. Lambda-neutron interaction in kaon photoproduction from the deuteron

    Adelseck, R.A.; Wright, L.E.

    1989-01-01

    The importance of hyperon-nucleon final-state interaction in kaon photoproduction from the deuteron is examined. By calculating the deuteron wave function using the Reid, Paris, or Bonn NN potentials, the uncertainty of this process due to the nucleonic wave function is found to be negligible. The insignificance of off-shell and relativistic effects is demonstrated by employing a completely relativistic wave function and comparing various approximations. We find the influence of the kaon production operator to be the most critical ingredient in this calculation. Final-state effects, which are included via a distorted-wave formalism, involve partial waves up to l = 3. They produce a sharp rise of the cross section near threshold resulting in an enhancement by about a factor of 3, but diminish rapidly as the energy increases. Different ΛN potential models show variations of the effect by up to 10%

  11. Kaon-Nucleon scattering in a constituent quark model

    Lemaire, S.

    2002-06-01

    We have investigated Kaon-Nucleon (KN) interaction in a constituent quark model in the momentum range for the Kaon between 0 and 1 GeV/c in the laboratory frame. This study has been motivated by the fact that in an approach relying on a boson exchange mechanism the Bonn group was forced, in order to obtain good agreement with I = 0 s-wave phase shifts, to add the exchange of a short range fictitious repulsive scalar meson. This need for repulsion, whose range (∼ 0.2 fm) is smaller than the nucleon radius, clearly shows that the quark substructure of the nucleons and K + mesons cannot be neglected. The Kaon-Nucleon phase shifts are calculated in a quark potential model using the resonating group method (RGM). We have to cope with a five body problem with antisymmetrization with respect to the four ordinary quarks of the Kaon-Nucleon system. One requirement of our approach is that the quark-quark interaction must give a quite good description of the hadron spectra. One goal of the present work aims at determining the influence of a relativistic kinematics, in this constituent quark model, for the calculation of KN phase shifts. We have also investigated s, p, d, f, g waves KN elastic phase shifts and we have included a spin-orbit term in the quark-quark interaction. Then we have studied the influence of medium and long range exchange mechanism in the quark quark interaction on KN phase shifts. (author)

  12. RF field control for Kaon Factory booster cavities

    Craig, S.T.; de Jong, M.S.

    1992-08-01

    A conceptual design is developed for control of the Kaon Factory booster rf accelerating fields. This design addresses control of cavity: tuning, voltage amplitude, and voltage phase angle. Time-domain simulations were developed to evaluate the proposed controllers. These simulations indicate that adequate tuning performance can be obtained with the combination of adaptive feed forward and proportional feedback control. Voltage amplitude and voltage phase can be adequately controlled using non-adaptive feed forward and proportional feedback control. (Author) (figs., tabs.)

  13. RF field control for KAON Factory booster cavities

    Craig, S.T.; de Jong, M.S.

    1990-11-01

    A conceptual design is developed for control of the KAON Factory Booster rf accelerating fields. This design addresses control of cavity: tuning, voltage amplitude, and voltage phase angle. Time-domain simulations were developed to evaluated the proposed controllers. These simulations indicated that adequate tuning performance can be obtained with the combination of adaptive feed-forward and proportional feedback control. Voltage amplitude and voltage phase can be adequately controlled using non-adaptive feedforward and proportional feedback control

  14. Power supply system for the TRIUMF KAON factory

    Reiniger, K.W.

    1991-05-01

    The TRIUMF KAON Factory consists of 5 rings, 3 of which are dc powered and 2 synchrotrons running at 50 Hz and 10 Hz, respectively. This paper deals with the power supply system envisaged for the accelerator as well as the experimental results obtained using dc-biased single and dual frequency resonant magnet excitation for the booster and driver synchrotrons. (Author) 6 refs., 8 figs

  15. Three-prong $\\tau$ decays with charged kaons

    Barate, R; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Nief, J Y; Pietrzyk, B; Casado, M P; Chmeissani, M; Comas, P; Crespo, J M; Delfino, M C; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Garrido, L; Juste, A; Martínez, M; Merino, G; Miquel, R; Mir, L M; Padilla, C; Park, I C; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Riu, I; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Gelao, G; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Tricomi, A; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Abbaneo, D; Alemany, R; Becker, U; Bazarko, A O; Bright-Thomas, P G; Cattaneo, M; Cerutti, F; Dissertori, G; Drevermann, H; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Hansen, J B; Harvey, J; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Lutters, G; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Moneta, L; Pacheco, A; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rizzo, G; Rolandi, Luigi; Rousseau, D; Schlatter, W D; Schmitt, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Wachsmuth, H W; Wagner, A; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Ferdi, C; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rosnet, P; Rossignol, J M; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Rensch, B; Wäänänen, A; Daskalakis, G; Kyriakis, A; Markou, C; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Zachariadou, K; Corden, M; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Casper, David William; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Passalacqua, L; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Curtis, L; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Teixeira-Dias, P; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Thomson, F; Turnbull, R M; Buchmüller, O L; Dhamotharan, S; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hansper, G; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Sommer, J; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Dornan, Peter J; Girone, M; Goodsir, S M; Martin, E B; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; Sedgbeer, J K; Spagnolo, P; Stacey, A M; Williams, M D; Ghete, V M; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Betteridge, A P; Bowdery, C K; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Jones, R W L; Sloan, Terence; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Giehl, I; Greene, A M; Hoffmann, C; Jakobs, K; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Renk, B; Rohne, E; Sander, H G; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Carr, J; Coyle, P; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Konstantinidis, N P; Leroy, O; Motsch, F; Payre, P; Talby, M; Sadouki, A; Thulasidas, M; Trabelsi, K; Aleppo, M; Antonelli, M; Ragusa, F; Berlich, R; Blum, Walter; Büscher, V; Dietl, H; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Stenzel, H; Wiedenmann, W; Wolf, G; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Chen, S; Choi, Y; Cordier, A; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Höcker, A; Jacholkowska, A; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Nikolic, I A; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Tournefier, E; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Zerwas, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Palla, Fabrizio; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Vannini, C; Venturi, A; Verdini, P G; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Chambers, J T; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Medcalf, T; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Wright, A E; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Black, S N; Dann, J H; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Brew, C A J; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Kelly, M S; Lehto, M H; Newton, W M; Reeve, J; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Grupen, Claus; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Musolino, G; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Charles, E; Elmer, P; Ferguson, D P S; González, S; Greening, T C; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; Jin, S; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Nielsen, J; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Scott, I J; Walsh, J; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zobernig, G

    1998-01-01

    Final states with charged kaons in three-prong $\\tau$ decays are studied by exploiting the particle identification from the dE/dx measurement. The results are based on a sample of about $1.6\\times 10^{5}$ detected $\\tau$ pairs collected with the ALEPH detector between 1991 and 1995 around the Z peak. The following branching ratios have been measured: $B(\\tau^{-}~\\rightarrow~K^{-}K^{+}\\pi^{-}\

  16. Exotic atoms and the kaon-nucleon interaction

    Batty, C.J.

    1989-12-01

    Recent progress in the study of p-bar-p and p-bar-nucleus atoms is briefly reviewed before moving on to a discussion of the kaon-nucleon interaction at low energies. The need for new definitive X-ray measurements for K - p atoms is emphasised. Finally some comments are made about K-bar-nucleus and Σ - , Ξ - and Ω - atoms. (author)

  17. Prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) and short-lived neutron activation analysis (NAA) applied to the characterization of legacy materials

    English, G.A.; Firestone, R.B.; Perry, D.L.; Reijonen, J.P.; Ka-Ngo Leung; Garabedian, G.F.; Molnar, G.L.; Revay, Zs.

    2008-01-01

    Without quality historical records that provide the composition of legacy materials, the elemental and/or chemical characterization of such materials requires a manual analytical strategy that may expose the analyst to unknown toxicological hazards. In addition, much of the existing legacy inventory also incorporates radioactivity, and, although radiological composition may be determined by various nuclear-analytical methods, most importantly, gamma-spectroscopy, current methods of chemical characterization still require direct sample manipulation, thereby presenting special problems with broad implications for both the analyst and the environment. Alternately, prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) provides a 'single-shot' in-situ, non-destructive method that provides a complete assay of all major entrained elemental constituents. Additionally, neutron activation analysis (NAA) using short-lived activation products complements PGAA and is especially useful when NAA activation surpasses the PGAA in elemental sensitivity. (author)

  18. Microcomputer-based systems for automatic control of sample irradiation and chemical analysis of short-lived isotopes

    Bourret, S.C.

    1974-01-01

    Two systems resulted from the need for the study of the nuclear decay of short-lived radionuclides. Automation was required for better repeatability, speed of chemical separation after irradiation and for protection from the high radiation fields of the samples. A MCS-8 computer was used as the nucleus of the automatic sample irradiation system because the control system required an extensive multiple-sequential circuit. This approach reduced the sequential problem to a computer program. The automatic chemistry control system is a mixture of a fixed and a computer-based programmable control system. The fixed control receives the irradiated liquid sample from the reactor, extracts the liquid and disposes of the used sample container. The programmable control executes the chemistry program that the user has entered through the teletype. (U.S.)

  19. Synthesis of radiopharmaceuticals containing short-lived radionuclides: Comprehensive progress report, March 1, 1986-February 28, 1989

    Kabalka, G.W.

    1988-06-01

    The primary objective of the DOE Nuclear Medicine Program at The University of Tennessee is the creation of new methods for intoducing short-lived isotopes into agents for use in PET and SPECT. A portion of our effort is directed toward the design and in vivo quantitation of boron-containing neutron therapy agents. The uniqueness of the program is its focus on the design of new chemistry (molecular architecture) and technology as opposed to the application of known reactions to the synthesis of specific radiopharmaceuticals. The following topics are outlined in this paper: new isotope incorporation reactions utilizing nitrogen 13, oxygen 15, and carbon 11; technetium-boron complexes; boron-neutron-capture

  20. Precision mass measurements of very short-lived, neutron-rich Na isotopes using a radiofrequency spectrometer

    Lunney, M D; Doubre, H; Henry, S; Monsanglant, C; De Saint-Simon, M; Thibault, C; Toader, C F; Borcea, C; Bollen, G

    2001-01-01

    Mass measurements of high precision have been performed on sodium isotopes out to $^{30}$Na using a new technique of radiofrequency excitation of ion trajectories in a homogeneous magnetic field. This method, especially suited to very short-lived nuclides, has allowed us to significantly reduce the uncertainty in mass of the most exotic Na isotopes: a relative error of 5x10$^{-7}$ was achieved for $^{28}$Na having a half-life of only 30.5 ms and 9x10$^{-7}$ for the weakly produced $^{30}$Na. Verifying and minimizing binding energy uncertainties in this region of the nuclear chart is important for clarification of a long standing problem concerning the strength of the $N$=20 magic shell closure. These results are the fruit of the commissioning of the new experimental program Mistral.

  1. Time-separated oscillatory fields for high-precision mass measurements on short-lived Al and Ca nuclides

    George, Simon; Blank, B.; Blaum, K.; Breitenfeldt, M.; Hager, U.; Herfurth, F.; Herlert, A.; Kellerbauer, A.; Kluge, H.J.; Kretzschmar, M.; Lunney, D.; Savreux, R.; Schwarz, Andreas S.; Schweikhard, L.; Yazidjian, C.

    2008-01-01

    High-precision Penning trap mass measurements on the stable nuclide $^{27}$Al as well as on the short-lived radionuclides $^{26}$Al and $^{38,39}$Ca have been performed by use of radio-frequency excitation with time-separated oscillatory fields, i.e. Ramsey's method, as recently introduced for the excitation of the ion motion in a Penning trap, was applied. A comparison with the conventional method of a single continuous excitation demonstrates its advantage of up to ten times shorter measurements. The new mass values of $^{26,27}$Al clarify conflicting data in this specific mass region. In addition, the resulting mass values of the superallowed $\\beta$-emitter $^{38}$Ca as well as of the groundstate of the $\\beta$-emitter $^{26}$Al$^{m}$ confirm previous measurements and corresponding theoretical corrections of the ft-values.

  2. The utilisation of short-lived radionuclides in the assessment of formulation and in vivo disposition of drugs

    Digenis, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    The utilisation of short-lived radionuclides in the assessment of drug formulations, and the in vivo distribution of drugs is discussed. Disintegration of tablets and capsules as a function of the formulation, and gastric emptying are important. The applicability of perturbed angular correlation to the study of the dissolution of water soluble substances from solid dosages in man is shown. Examples are given to illustrate how external scintigraphy can be applied to study the tissue distribution of 18 F-haloperidol, 82 Br-bromperidol, in rat and monkey. 11 C, L-andD-phenylalanine in rats, 11 C, D-leucine in mice with human colon tumours; 13 N-nitrosoureas and 13 N-nitroso-carbamates. (U.K.)

  3. Prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) and short-lived neutron activation analysis (NAA) applied to the characterization of legacy materials

    Firestone, Richard B; English, G.A.; Firestone, R.B.; Perry, D.L.; Reijonen, J.P.; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Garabedian, G.F.; Molnar, G.L.; Revay, Zs.

    2008-01-01

    Without quality historical records that provide the composition of legacy materials, the elemental and/or chemical characterization of such materials requires a manual analytical strategy that may expose the analyst to unknown toxicological hazards. In addition, much of the existing legacy inventory also incorporates radioactivity, and, although radiological composition may be determined by various nuclear-analytical methods, most importantly, gamma-spectroscopy, current methods of chemical characterization still require direct sample manipulation, thereby presenting special problems with broad implications for both the analyst and the environment. Alternately, prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) provides a 'single-shot' in-situ, non-destructive method that provides a complete assay of all major entrained elemental constituents.1-3. Additionally, neutron activation analysis (NAA) using short-lived activation products complements PGAA and is especially useful when NAA activation surpasses the PGAA in elemental sensitivity

  4. First Isochronous Time-of-Flight Mass Measurements of Short-Lived Projectile Fragments in the ESR

    Stadlmann, J.; Geissel, H.; Hausmann, M.; Nolden, F.; Radon, T.; Schatz, H.; Scheidenberger, C.; Attallah, F.; Beckert, K.; Bosch, F.; Falch, M.; Franczak, B.; Franzke, B.; Kerscher, Th.; Klepper, O.; Kluge, H.J.; Kozhuharov, C.; Loebner, K.E.G.; Muenzenberg, G.; Novikov, Yu.N.; Steck, M.; Sun, Z.; Suemmerer, K.; Weick, H.; Wollnik, H.

    2000-01-01

    A new method for precise mass measurements of short-lived hot nuclei is presented. These nuclei were produced via projectile fragmentation, separated with the FRS and injected into the storage ring ESR being operated in the isochronous mode. The revolution time of the ions is measured with a time-of-flight detector sensitive to single particles. This new method allows access to exotic nuclei with half-lives in the microsecond region. First results from this novel method obtained with measurements on neutron-deficient fragments of a chromium primary beam with half-lives down to 50 ms are reported. A precision of deltam/m ≤ 5 · 10 -6 has been achieved

  5. A phase-imaging ion-cyclotron-resonance technique for mass measurements of short-lived nuclides

    Eliseev, Sergey; Blaum, Klaus; Doerr, Andreas; Eronen, Tommi; Goncharov, Mikhail; Hoecker, Martin; Ketter, Jochen; Ramirez, Enrique Minaya; Simon, Vanessa [Max-Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics (Germany); Block, Michael [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany); Chenmarev, Stanislav; Filjanin, Pavel; Nesterenko, Dmitriy; Novikov, Yuri [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Droese, Christian; Schweikhard, Lutz [Institute for Physics, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    A novel approach to mass measurements on the sub-ppb level even for short-lived nuclides with half-lives well below one second is presented. It is based on the projection of the radial ion motion in a Penning trap onto a position sensitive detector. Compared to the presently employed time-of-flight ion-cyclotron-resonance technique, the novel approach is 25-times faster and provides a 40-fold gain in resolving power. With the new technique low-lying isomeric states with excitation energy on the 10-keV level can be separated from the ground state. Moreover, the new technique possesses a substantially higher sensitivity since just two ions are sufficient to determine the ion cyclotron frequency. A measurement of the mass difference of singly charged ions of {sup 132}Xe and {sup 131}Xe with an uncertainty of 25 eV has demonstrated the great potential of the new approach.

  6. Release studies of a thin foil tantalum target for the production of short-lived radioactive nuclei

    Bennett, J R J; Drumm, P V; Lettry, Jacques; Nilsson, T; Catherall, R; Jonsson, O C; Ravn, H L; Simon, H

    2002-01-01

    Measurements have been made at ISOLDE, of the release curves and yields of radioactive beams of lithium, sodium and beryllium from a target constructed from 2 $\\mu$m thick foils. The release curves have been analysed by fitting to a mathematical model to determine the coefficients of diffusion of the particles in the foils and effusion through the target and ionizer at several temperatures. Through a better understanding of the rate of transport of the particles, it is possible to design targets and ionizers with improved yields. This is most important for the rare, short-lived isotopes in which there is considerable interest for physics experiments. This target has demonstrated large increases in the yields of $^{11}$Li and $^{12}$Be, in agreement with the predictions of the model. (11 refs).

  7. Thyroid cancer in the Marshallese: relative risk of short-lived internal emitters and external radiation exposure

    Lessard, E.T.; Brill, A.B.; Adams, W.H.

    1985-01-01

    In a study of the comparative effects of internal versus external irradiation of the thyroid in young people, we determined that the dose from internal irradiation of the thyroid with short-lived internal emitters produced several times less thyroid cancer than did the same dose of radiation given externally. We determined this finding for a group of 85 Marshall Islands children, who were less than 10 years of age at the time of exposure and who were accidentially exposed to internal and external thyroid radiation at an average level of 1400 rad. The external risk coefficient ranged between 2.5 and 4.9 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk, and thus, from our computations, the internal risk coefficient for the Marshallese children was estimated to range between 1.0 and 1.4 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk. In contrast, for individual more than 10 years of age at the time of exposure, the dose from internal irradiation of the thyroid with short-lived internal emitters produced several times more thyroid cancer than did the same dose of radiation given externally. The external risk coefficients for the older age groups were reported in the literature to be in the range of 1.0 to 3.3 cancers per million person-rad-years-at risk. We computed internal risk coefficients of 3.3 to 8.1 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk for adolescent and adult groups. This higher sensitivity to cancer induction in the exposed adolescents and adults, is different from that seen in other exposed groups. 14 refs., 8 tabs

  8. Thyroid cancer in the Marshallese: relative risk of short-lived internal emitters and external radiation exposure

    Lessard, E.T.; Brill, A.B.; Adams, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    In a study of the comparative effects of internal versus external irradiation of the thyroid in young people, we determined that the dose from internal irradiation of the thyroid with short-lived internal emitters produced several times less thyroid cancer than did the same dose of radiation given externally. The authors determined this finding for a group of 85 Marshall Islands children, who were less than 10 years of age at the time of exposure and who were accidentally exposed to internal and external thyroid radiation at an average level of 1400 rad. The external risk coefficient ranged between 2.5 and 4.9 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk, and thus, from our computations, the internal risk coefficient for the Marshallese children was estimated to range between 1.0 and 1.4 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk. In contrast, for individuals more than 10 years of age at the time of exposure, the dose from internal irradiation of the thyroid with short-lived internal emitters produced several times more thyroid cancer than did the same dose of radiation given externally. The external risk coefficients for the older age groups were reported in the above literature to be in the range of 1.0 to 3.3 cancers per million person-rad-years-at risk. The authors computed internal risk coefficients of 3.3 to 8.1 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk for adolescent and adult groups. This higher sensitivity to cancer induction in the exposed adolescents and adults, is different from that seen in other exposed groups. The small number of cancers in the exposed population and the influence of increased levels of TSH, nonuniform irradiation of the thyroid, and thyroid cell killing at high dose make it difficult to draw firm conclusions from these studies. 14 references, 8 tables

  9. Measurement of the charged kaon mass with the MIPP RICH

    Graf, Nicholas J. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    2008-08-01

    The currently accepted value of the charged kaon mass is 493.677 ± 0.013 MeV (26 ppm). It is a weighted average of six measurements, most of which use kaonic atom X-ray energy techniques. The two most recent and precise results dominate the average but differ by 122 ppm. Inconsistency in the data set needs to be resolved, preferably using independent techniques. One possibility uses the Cherenkov effect. A measurement of the charged kaon mass using this technique is presented. The data was taken with the Main Injector Particle Production experiment at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory using a tagged beam of protons, kaons, and pions ranging in momentum from 37 GeV/c to 63 GeV/c. The measured value is 491.3 ± 1.7 MeV. This is within 1.4σ of the current value. An improvement in precision by a factor of 35 would make this technique competitive for resolving the ambiguity in the X-ray data.

  10. Pion and kaon valence-quark parton quasidistributions

    Xu, Shu-Sheng; Chang, Lei; Roberts, Craig D.; Zong, Hong-Shi

    2018-05-01

    Algebraic Ansätze for the Poincaré-covariant Bethe-Salpeter wave functions of the pion and kaon are used to calculate their light-front wave functions, parton distribution amplitudes, parton quasidistribution amplitudes, valence parton distribution functions, and parton quasidistribution functions (PqDFs). The light-front wave functions are broad, concave functions, and the scale of flavor-symmetry violation in the kaon is roughly 15%, being set by the ratio of emergent masses in the s - and u -quark sectors. Parton quasidistribution amplitudes computed with longitudinal momentum Pz=1.75 GeV provide a semiquantitatively accurate representation of the objective parton distribution amplitude, but even with Pz=3 GeV , they cannot provide information about this amplitude's end point behavior. On the valence-quark domain, similar outcomes characterize PqDFs. In this connection, however, the ratio of kaon-to-pion u -quark PqDFs is found to provide a good approximation to the true parton distribution function ratio on 0.4 ≲x ≲0.8 , suggesting that with existing resources computations of ratios of parton quasidistributions can yield results that support empirical comparison.

  11. 182Hf-182W age dating of a 26Al-poor inclusion and implications for the origin of short-lived radioisotopes in the early Solar System

    Holst, Jesper Christian; Olsen, Mia Bjørg Stolberg; Paton, Chad

    2013-01-01

    provide a unique window into the earliest Solar System, including the origin of short-lived radioisotopes. However, their chronology is unknown. Using the 182Hf–182W chronometer, we show that a FUN CAI recording a condensation origin from a solar gas formed coevally with canonical CAIs, but with 26Al/27Al......Refractory inclusions [calcium–aluminum-rich inclusions, (CAIs)] represent the oldest Solar System solids and provide information regarding the formation of the Sun and its protoplanetary disk. CAIs contain evidence of now extinct short-lived radioisotopes (e.g., 26Al, 41Ca, and 182Hf) synthesized...... in one or multiple stars and added to the protosolar molecular cloud before or during its collapse. Understanding how and when short-lived radioisotopes were added to the Solar System is necessary to assess their validity as chronometers and constrain the birthplace of the Sun. Whereas most CAIs formed...

  12. A survey of selected neutron-activation reactions with short-lived products of importance to fusion reactor technology

    Ward, R.C.; Gomes, I.C.; Smith, D.L.

    1994-11-01

    The status of the cross sections for production of short-lived radioactivities in the intense high-energy neutron fields associated with D-T fusion reactors is investigated. The main concerns relative to these very radioactive isotopes are with radiation damage to sensitive components such as superconducting magnets, the decay-heat problem and the safety of personnel during operation of the facility. The present report surveys the status of nuclear data required to assess these problems. The study is limited to a few high-priority nuclear reactions which appear to be of critical concern in this context. Other reactions of lesser concern are listed but are not treated in the present work. Among the factors that were considered in defining the relevant reactions and setting priorities are: quantities of the elemental materials in a fusion reactor, isotopic abundances within elemental categories, the decay properties of the induced radioactive byproducts, the reaction cross sections, and the nature of the decay radiations. Attention has been focused on radioactive species with half lives in the range from about 1 second to 15 minutes. Available cross-section and reaction-product decay information from the literature has been compiled and included in the report. Uncertainties have been estimated by examining several sets of experimental as well as evaluated data. Comments on the general status of data for various high-priority reactions are offered. On the basis of this investigation, it has been found that the nuclear data are in reasonably good shape for some of the most important reactions but are unacceptable for others. Based on this investigation, the reactions which should be given the greatest attention are: 16 O(n,p) 16 N, 55 Mn(n,p) 55 Cr, 57 Fe(n,p) 57 Mn, 186 W(n,2n) 185m W, and 207 Pb(n,n') 207m Pb. However, the development of fusion power would benefit from an across-the-board refinement in these nuclear data so that a more accurate quantitative

  13. Harvard--MIT research program in short-lived radiopharmaceuticals. Progress report, September 1, 1977--April 30, 1978. [/sup 99m/Tc, positron-emitting radionuclides

    Adelstein, S.J.; Brownell, G.L.

    1978-05-01

    Progress is reported on the following studies: chemistry studies designed to achieve a more complete understanding of the fundamental chemistry of technetium in order to facilitate the design of future radiopharmaceuticals incorporating the radionuclide /sup 99m/Tc; the development of new radiopharmaceuticals intended to improve image quality and lower radiation doses by the use of short-lived radionuclides and disease-specific agents; the development of short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides which offer advantages in transverse section imaging of regional physiological processes; and studies of the toxic effects of particulate radiation.

  14. Bose–Einstein condensation of anti-kaons and neutron star twins

    We investigate the role of Bose–Einstein condensation (BEC) of anti-kaons on the equation of state (EoS) and other properties of compact stars. In the framework of relativistic mean field model we determine the EoS for -stable hyperon matter and compare it to the situation when anti-kaons condense in the system.

  15. Regge-plus-resonance predictions for charged-kaon photoproduction from the deuteron

    Van Cauteren T.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a Regge-inspired effective-Lagrangian framework for charged-kaon photoproduction from the deuteron. Quasi-free kaon production is investigated using the Regge-plus-resonance elementary operator within the non-relativistic plane-wave impulse approximation. The Regge-plus-resonance model was developed to describe photoinduced and electroinduced kaon production off protons and can be extended to strangeness production off neutrons. The non-resonant contributions to the amplitude are modelled in terms of K+ (494 and K*+ (892 Regge-trajectory exchange in the t-channel. This amplitude is supplemented with a selection of s-channel resonance-exchange diagrams. We investigate several sources of theoretical uncertainties on the semi-inclusive charged-kaon production cross section. The experimental error bars on the photocoupling helicity amplitudes turn out to put severe limits on the predictive power when considering quasi-free kaon production on a bound neutron.

  16. Short-lived radionuclides produced on the ORNL 86-inch cyclotron and High-Flux Isotope Reactor

    Lamb, E.

    1985-01-01

    The production of short-lived radionuclides at ORNL includes the preparation of target materials, irradiation on the 86-in. cyclotron and in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), and chemical processing to recover and purify the product radionuclides. In some cases the target materials are highly enriched stable isotopes separated on the ORNL calutrons. High-purity 123 I has been produced on the 86-in. cyclotron by irradiating an enriched target of 123 Te in a proton beam. Research on calutron separations has led to a 123 Te product with lower concentrations of 124 Te and 126 Te and, consequently to lower concentrations of the unwanted radionuclides, 124 I and 126 I, in the 123 I product. The 86-in. cyclotron accelerates a beam of protons only but is unique in providing the highest available beam current of 1500 μA at 21 MeV. This beam current produces relatively large quantities of radionuclides such as 123 I and 67 Ga

  17. The investigation of properties of short-lived SF isotopes (Z > 100 at the focal plane of VASSILISSA separator

    Svirikhin Alexandr

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available For experiments aimed at the study of spontaneous fission of transfermium nuclei improvements in the focal plane detector system of recoil separator VASSILISSA have been made. A neutron detector consisting of 54 3He-filled counters has been mounted around the focal-plane detector chamber. The reaction 48Ca + 206Pb = 2n + 252No is used for tuning the separator settings and calibrating the detector system with the spontaneous fission of the 252No. The average neutron number per 252No spontaneous fission event is as large as ν̅ = 4.06 ± 0.12. The short-lived heavy isotopes 244,246Fm, produced in the complete fusion reactions 40Ar + 206,208Pb, are investigated. The average number of neutrons per spontaneous fission of 244,246Fm from the experimental data were (ν̅ = 3.3 ± 0.3 and (ν̅ = 3.55 ± 0.50, respectively. Both values are determined for the first time.

  18. Neutron-captures in Low Mass Stars and the Early Solar System Record of Short-lived Radioactivities

    Busso, Maurizio; Vescovi, Diego; Trippella, Oscar; Palmerini, Sara; Cristallo, Sergio; Piersanti, Luciano

    2018-01-01

    Noticeable improvements were recently introduced in the modelling of n-capture nucleosynthesis in the advanced evolutionary stages of giant stars (Asymptotic Giant Branch, or AGB, stars). Two such improvements are closely linked together and concern the introduction of non-parameterized, physical models for extended mixing processes and the adoption of accurate reaction rates for H- and He-burning reactions, including the one for the main neutron source 13C(α,n)16O. These improvements profited of a longstanding collaboration between stellar physicists and C. Spitaleri's team and of his seminal work both as a leader in the Nuclear Astrophysics scenario and as a talent-scout in the recruitment of young researchers in the field. We present an example of the innovative results that can be obtained thanks to the novelties introduced, by estimating the contributions from a nearby AGB star to the synthesis of short-lived (t1/2 ≤ 10 Myr) radioactive nuclei which were alive in early Solar System condensates. We find that the scenario indicating an AGB star as the source of such radioactivities, discussed for many years by researchers in this field, appears now to be no longer viable, when the mentioned improvements of AGB models and nuclear parameters are considered.

  19. Simulation study on the measurements of diffusion coefficients in solid materials by short-lived radiotracer beams

    Jeong, S C; Kawakami, H

    2003-01-01

    We have examined, by a computer simulation, an on-line measurement of diffusion coefficients by using a short-lived alpha particle emitter, sup 8 Li (half life of 0.84s), as a radiotracer. The energy spectra of alpha particles emitted from diffusing sup 8 Li primarily implanted in the sample of LiAl ar simulated as a measure of the diffusion of sup 8 Li in the sample. As a possible time sequence for the measurement, a time cycle of 6s, i.e. the implantation of sup 8 Li for 1.5s and subsequent diffusion for 4.5s, is supposed. The sample is primarily set on a given temperature for the measurement. The time-dependent yields of alpha particles during the time cycle reveal the possibility to measure the diffusion coefficient with an accuracy of 10% if larger than 1 x 10 sup - sup 9 cm sup 2 /s, by the comparison with the experimental spectra measured at the temperature, i.e. at a certain diffusion coefficient. (author)

  20. Impact of short-lived non-CO2 mitigation on carbon budgets for stabilizing global warming

    Rogelj, Joeri; Riahi, Keywan; Meinshausen, Malte; Schaeffer, Michiel; Knutti, Reto

    2015-01-01

    Limiting global warming to any level requires limiting the total amount of CO 2 emissions, or staying within a CO 2 budget. Here we assess how emissions from short-lived non-CO 2 species like methane, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), black-carbon, and sulphates influence these CO 2 budgets. Our default case, which assumes mitigation in all sectors and of all gases, results in a CO 2 budget between 2011–2100 of 340 PgC for a >66% chance of staying below 2°C, consistent with the assessment of the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Extreme variations of air-pollutant emissions from black-carbon and sulphates influence this budget by about ±5%. In the hypothetical case of no methane or HFCs mitigation—which is unlikely when CO 2 is stringently reduced—the budgets would be much smaller (40% or up to 60%, respectively). However, assuming very stringent CH 4 mitigation as a sensitivity case, CO 2 budgets could be 25% higher. A limit on cumulative CO 2 emissions remains critical for temperature targets. Even a 25% higher CO 2 budget still means peaking global emissions in the next two decades, and achieving net zero CO 2 emissions during the third quarter of the 21st century. The leverage we have to affect the CO 2 budget by targeting non-CO 2 diminishes strongly along with CO 2 mitigation, because these are partly linked through economic and technological factors. (letter)

  1. Proceedings of the specialists' meeting on 'nuclear spectroscopy and condensed matter physics using short-lived nuclei'

    Kobayashi, Yoshio; Shibata, Michihiro; Ohkubo, Yoshitaka

    2016-02-01

    The research reactor at Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University is a very useful neutron generator, providing us neutron-rich unstable nuclei by bombarding nuclei with those neutrons. The produced unstable nuclei exhibit aspects distinct from those of stable ones. Nuclear structure studies on a variety of excited states reflecting dynamic nuclear properties are one of fascinating research subjects of physics. On the other hand, some radioactive nuclei can be used as useful probes for understanding interesting properties of condensed matters through studies of hyperfine interactions of static nuclear electromagnetic moments with extranuclear fields. Concerning these two research fields and related areas, the 2nd symposium under the title of 'Nuclear Spectroscopy and Condensed Matter Physics Using Short-lived Nuclei' was held at the Institute for two days on November 4 and 5 in 2015. We are pleased that many hot discussions were made. The talks were given on the followings: 1) Nuclear spectroscopic experiments, 2) TDPAC (time-differential perturbed angular correlation), 3) β-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance), 4) Moessbauer spectroscopy, 5) muon, etc. This issue is the collection of 17 papers presented at the entitled meeting. The 6 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  2. Comparison of short-lived medical isotopes activation by laser thin target induced protons and conventional cyclotron proton beams

    Murray, Joseph; Dudnikova, Galina; Liu, Tung-Chang; Papadopoulos, Dennis; Sagdeev, Roald; Su, J. J.; UMD MicroPET Team

    2014-10-01

    Production diagnostic or therapeutic nuclear medicines are either by nuclear reactors or by ion accelerators. In general, diagnostic nuclear radioisotopes have a very short half-life varying from tens of minutes for PET tracers and few hours for SPECT tracers. Thus supplies of PET and SPECT radiotracers are limited by regional production facilities. For example 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is the most desired tracer for positron emission tomography because its 110 minutes half-life is sufficient long for transport from production facilities to nearby users. From nuclear activation to completing image taking must be done within 4 hours. Decentralized production of diagnostic radioisotopes will be idea to make high specific activity radiotracers available to researches and clinicians. 11 C, 13 N, 15 O and 18 F can be produced in the energy range from 10-20 MeV by protons. Protons of energies up to tens of MeV generated by intense laser interacting with hydrogen containing targets have been demonstrated by many groups in the past decade. We use 2D PIC code for proton acceleration, Geant4 Monte Carlo code for nuclei activation to compare the yields and specific activities of short-lived isotopes produced by cyclotron proton beams and laser driven protons.

  3. Measurement method of activation cross-sections of reactions producing short-lived nuclei with 14 MeV neutrons

    Kawade, K; Kasugai, Y; Shibata, M; Iida, T; Takahashi, A; Fukahori, T

    2003-01-01

    We describe a method for obtaining reliable activation cross-sections in the neutron energy range between 13.4 and 14.9 MeV for the reactions producing short-lived nuclei with half-lives between 0.5 and 30 min. We noted neutron irradiation fields and measured induced activities, including (1) the contribution of scattered low-energy neutrons, (2) the fluctuation of the neutron fluence rate during the irradiation, (3) the true coincidence sum effect, (4) the random coincidence sum effect, (5) the deviation in the measuring position due to finite sample thickness, (6) the self-absorption of the gamma-ray in the sample material and (7) the interference reactions producing the same radionuclides or the ones emitting the gamma-ray with the same energy of interest. The cross-sections can be obtained within a total error of 3.6%, when good counting statistics are achieved, including an error of 3.0% for the standard cross-section of sup 2 sup 7 Al (n, alpha) sup 2 sup 4 Na. We propose here simple methods for measuri...

  4. Short-lived non-coding transcripts (SLiTs): Clues to regulatory long non-coding RNA.

    Tani, Hidenori

    2017-03-22

    Whole transcriptome analyses have revealed a large number of novel long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). Although the importance of lncRNAs has been documented in previous reports, the biological and physiological functions of lncRNAs remain largely unknown. The role of lncRNAs seems an elusive problem. Here, I propose a clue to the identification of regulatory lncRNAs. The key point is RNA half-life. RNAs with a long half-life (t 1/2 > 4 h) contain a significant proportion of ncRNAs, as well as mRNAs involved in housekeeping functions, whereas RNAs with a short half-life (t 1/2 regulatory ncRNAs and regulatory mRNAs. This novel class of ncRNAs with a short half-life can be categorized as Short-Lived non-coding Transcripts (SLiTs). I consider that SLiTs are likely to be rich in functionally uncharacterized regulatory RNAs. This review describes recent progress in research into SLiTs.

  5. Investigation of short-lived neutron-rich palladium and silver isotopes after fast chemical separation from fission fragments

    Bruechle, W.

    1976-01-01

    In this paper, chemical separation processes are described permitting fast and neat isolation of short-lived palladium and silver nuclides from fusion product mixtures. The process for palladium is based on the stability of palladium diethyldithiophosphate. From fission products of the reactions 238 U(n,f) and 249 Cf(nth,f), the following palladium niclides could be studied for the first time by gamma spectroscopy: 1.66 min 113 Pd, 2.45 min 114 Pd, 29 sec sup(115a)Pd, 54 sec sup(115b)Pd, 12.5 sec 116 Pd. 113 Pd could also be indentified according to the reaction 116 Cd(n,α) 113 Pd. The separation of silver is based on the fast isotopic exchange on AgCl. With this process, the following nuclides have been separated from fission product mixtures and studied by gamma spectroscopy: 70 sec sup(113m)Ag, 5.0 sec 114 Ag, 19.2 sec sup(115m)Ag, 2.65 min sup(116g)Ag, 10.5 sec sup(116m)Ag, 1.3 min sup(117g)Ag, 6.0 sec sup(117m)Ag, 4.0 sec 118 Ag. (orig./WL) [de

  6. The kaon factory - towards the physics of strongly interacting systems

    Vogt, Erich

    1988-01-01

    With the advent of the standard model for quarks and leptons and unified forces there are profound new questions for the physics of strongly interacting systems: the nature of the nucleon, the physics of quark confinement, fundamental symmetries governing hadron decay and the effect of quarks and gluons on nuclear behaviour. Of the new large facilities now planned to respond to these questions the kaon factory is central. It uses very intense (∼100 μA) primary proton beams (∼30 GeV) to generate intense secondary beams of various hadrons and leptons. (author)

  7. Kaon mass by critical absorption of kaonic atom x rays

    Lum, G.K.

    1979-10-01

    The energy of the kaonic 6h → 5g transition has been determined using the calculated μ/rho curve. Because the detectors used could not resolve the noncircular transitions, the predictions from a calculated cascade program were used. According to the cascade results for potassium, the number of noncircular x-rays was about 10% of all the transitions between n = 6 to n = 5. Based on the available information, the mass of the kaon was measured to be 493.576/sub -0.069//sup +0.044/ MeV

  8. Kaon-nucleon scattering in three-dimensional technique

    Salam, Agus; Fachruddin, Imam

    2016-01-01

    Kaon-nucleon (KN) scattering is formulated in the three-dimensional (3D) momentum space, in which the basis state is not expanded into partial waves. Based on this basis the Lippmann-Schwinger equation for the T-matrix is evaluated. We obtain as final equation for the T-matrix elements a set of two coupled integral equations in two variables, which are the momentum’s magnitude and the scattering angle. Calculations for the differential cross section and some spin observables are shown, for which we employ a hadrons exchange model with the second order contributions only.

  9. Pade approximants in field theory: pion and kaon systems

    Zinn-Justin, J.

    1969-01-01

    We construct the Pade approximants of the S-matrix, starting from the perturbation series, in the case of two body pion and kaon systems. We have three parameters. The seven lowest lying two body resonances (ρ, K * (890), φ, K * (1420), f 0 , f', A 2 ) are obtained within a few per cent of their actual masses. The Regge trajectories are rising, the intercepts of the ρ and f 0 agree well with the experimental values. In the appendices we give some properties and applications of the Pade approximants. (author) [fr

  10. Kaon-nucleon scattering in three-dimensional technique

    Salam, Agus, E-mail: agus.salam@sci.ui.ac.id; Fachruddin, Imam [Departemen Fisika, FMIPA, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424 (Indonesia)

    2016-03-11

    Kaon-nucleon (KN) scattering is formulated in the three-dimensional (3D) momentum space, in which the basis state is not expanded into partial waves. Based on this basis the Lippmann-Schwinger equation for the T-matrix is evaluated. We obtain as final equation for the T-matrix elements a set of two coupled integral equations in two variables, which are the momentum’s magnitude and the scattering angle. Calculations for the differential cross section and some spin observables are shown, for which we employ a hadrons exchange model with the second order contributions only.

  11. Hadron Mass Effects: Kaons at HERMES vs. COMPASS

    Guerrero Teran, Juan V. [Hampton Univ., Hampton, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Accardi, Alberto [Hampton Univ., Hampton, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Experimental data for integrated kaon multiplicities taken at HERMES and COMPASS measurements look incompatible with each other. In this talk, we investigate the effects of hadron masses calculated at leading-order and leading twist at the kinematics of these two experiments. We present evidence that Hadron Mass Corrections can fully reconcile the data for the K+/K- multiplicity ratio, and can also sizeably reduce the apparent large discrepancy in the case of K++K- data. Residual differences in the shape of the latter one remains to be understood.

  12. CEBAF at higher energies and the kaon electromagnetic form factor

    Baker, O.K.

    1994-04-01

    The electromagnetic production of strangeness, the physics of exciting systems having strangeness degrees of freedom (production of hadrons with one or more strange constituent quarks) using electromagnetic probes (real or virtual photons), is one of the frontier areas of research which will be investigated at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) when it becomes operational. CEBAF is expected to have an important impact upon this field of research using its specialized set of detection instruments and high quality electron beam. This paper focusses upon one aspect of the associated production of strangeness - the determination of the kaon electromagnetic form factor at high squared momentum transfers.

  13. Transport and deposition of nano-particles. Application to the free action of short-lived radon daughters; Transport et depot des aerosols nanometriques. Application a la fraction libre des descendants a vie courte du radon

    Malet, J

    1997-10-10

    Short-lived radon daughters ({sup 218}Po, {sup 214}Pb, {sup 214}Bi, and {sup 214}Po) are important contributors to the natural average annual individual dose. The models describing the evolution of these aerosol in a house depend critically on a parameter, the {sup 218}Po deposition velocity, which, although aerosol deposition has been extensively studied, is poorly known. A numerical and experimental study is thus carried out for a simple case: deposition in a cylindrical tube under laminar flow condition. The numerical results help understanding the difference between the transport and deposition of these radionuclides and those of non radioactive aerosols. Comparison of these well environment does not give satisfactory correlation, requiring the study of phenomena that may affect deposition. The first of these is the possible variation in the e {sup 218}Po diffusion coefficient. Furthermore, experiments coupled with numerical calculations show that this variation could be due to {sup 218}Po neutralization. The second phenomenon concerns the effect of the surface type, which is also shown experimentally. By modelling the neutralization and using results with a piratically smooth surface, good numerical/experimental correlations are obtained. Understanding this simple case than makes possible studying a more complex case: deposition in controlled turbulent flow. Two theories are thus experimentally validated. In addition, a {sup 218}Po deposition velocity representative of our experimental conditions is determined. Finally, we report a feasibility study of radon daughters transport and deposition in a ventilated chamber taking into account all the involved phenomena. (author)

  14. A new measurement of direct CP violation in two pion decays of the neutral kaon

    Fanti, V.; Marras, D.; Musa, L.; Bevan, A.J.; Gershon, T.J.; Hay, B.; Moore, R.W.; Moore, K.N.; Munday, D.J.; Needham, M.D.; Parker, Michael Andrew; Takach, S.F.; White, T.O.; Wotton, S.A.; Barr, G.; Blumer, H.; Bocquet, G.; Bremer, J.; Ceccucci, A.; Cogan, J.; Cundy, D.; Doble, N.; Funk, W.; Gatignon, L.; Gianoli, A.; Gonidec, A.; Govi, G.; Grafstrom, P.; Kesseler, G.; Kubischta, W.; Lacourt, A.; Luitz, S.; Matheys, J.P.; Norton, A.; Palestini, S.; Panzer-Steindel, B.; Peyaud, B.; Schinzel, D.; Taureg, H.; Velasco, M.; Vossnack, O.; Wahl, Heinrich; Wirrer, G.; Gaponenko, A.; Kekelidze, V.; Madigozhin, D.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Potrebenikov, Yu.; Tatishvili, G.; Tkatchev, A.; Zinchenko, A.; Bertolotto, L.; Boyle, O.; Knowles, I.G.; Martin, V.J.; Parsons, H.L.C.; Peach, K.J.; Talamonti, C.; Contalbrigo, M.; Dalpiaz, P.; Duclos, J.; Formica, A.; Frabetti, P.L.; Martini, M.; Petrucci, F.; Savrie, M.; Bizzeti, A.; Calvetti, M.; Collazuol, G.; Graziani, G.; Iacopini, E.; Lenti, M.; Michetti, A.; Becker, H.G.; Buchholz, P.; Coward, D.H.; Ebersberger, C.; Fox, H.; Kalter, A.; Kleinknecht, K.; Koch, U.; Kopke, L.; Renk, B.; Scheidt, J.; Schmidt, J.; Schonharting, V.; Schue, Y.; Wilhelm, R.; Wittgen, M.; Chollet, J.C.; Crepe-Renaudin, Sabine; Fayard, L.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Ocariz, J.; Unal, G.; Vattolo, D.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Anzivino, G.; Bordacchini, F.; Cenci, P.; Lubrano, P.; Nappi, A.; Pepe, M.; Punturo, M.; Bertanza, L.; Bigi, A.; Calafiura, P.; Carosi, R.; Casali, R.; Cerri, C.; Cirilli, M.; Costantini, F.; Fantechi, R.; Giudici, S.; Gorini, B.; Mannelli, I.; Marzulli, V.; Pierazzini, G.; Raffaelli, F.; Sozzi, M.; Cheze, J.B.; De Beer, M.; Debu, P.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Hristov, P.; Mazzucato, E.; Schanne, S.; Turlay, R.; Vallage, B.; Augustin, I.; Bender, M.; Holder, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Arcidiacono, R.; Biino, C.; Cester, R.; Marchetto, F.; Menichetti, Ezio A.; Pastrone, N.; Nassalski, J.; Rondio, E.; Szleper, M.; Wislicki, W.; Wronka, S.; Dibon, H.; Fischer, G.; Jeitler, M.; Markytan, M.; Mikulec, I.; Neuhofer, G.; Pernicka, M.; Taurok, A.

    1999-01-01

    The NA48 experiment at CERN has performed a new measurement of direct CP violation, based on data taken in 1997 by simultaneously collecting $kl$ and $ks$ decays into $pipin$ and $pipic$. The result for the CP violating parameter $ epr$ is $(18.5 pm 4.5 mathrm{(stat)} pm 5.8 mathrm{(syst)}) imes10^{-4}$.

  15. Contribution of CPLEAR to the physics of the neutral kaon system

    Pavlopoulos, P; Alhalel, T; Angelopoulos, Angelos; Apostolakis, Alcibiades J; Aslanides, Elie; Backenstoss, Gerhard; Bee, C P; Behnke, O; Benelli, A; Bertin, V; Blanc, F; Bloch, P; Carlson, P J; Carroll, M; Carvalho, J; Cawley, E; Charalambous, S; Chardin, G; Chertok, M B; Cody, A; Danielsson, M; Dejardin, M; Derré, J; Ealet, A; Eckart, B; Eleftheriadis, C; Evangelou, I; Faravel, L; Fassnacht, P; Felder, C; Ferreira-Marques, R; Fetscher, W; Fidecaro, Maria; Filipcic, A; Francis, D; Fry, J; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gamet, R; Garreta, D; Gerber, H J; Go, A; Guyot, C; Haselden, A; Hayman, P J; Henry-Coüannier, F; Hollander, R W; Hubert, E; Jon-And, K; Kettle, P R; Kochowski, Claude; Kokkas, P; Kreuger, R; Le Gac, R; Leimgruber, F; Liolios, A; Machado, E; Mandic, I; Manthos, N; Marel, Gérard; Mikuz, M; Miller, J; Montanet, François; Nakada, Tatsuya; Pagels, B; Papadopoulos, I M; Pinto da Cunha, J; Policarpo, Armando; Polivka, G; Rickenbach, R; Roberts, B L; Ruf, T; Sakelliou, L; Sanders, M P; Santoni, C; Schäfer, M; Schaller, L A; Schietinger, T; Schopper, A; Schune, P; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thibault, C; Touchard, F; Touramanis, C; Triantis, F A; Van Beveren, E; van Eijk, C W E; Vlachos, S; Weber, P; Wigger, O; Wolter, M; Yéche, C; Zavrtanik, D; Zimmerman, D

    1999-01-01

    We present the physics results of the CP-- and CPT--violation measurements performed by CPLEAR. CPLEAR has experimentally determined for the first time, the violation of T invariance and is able to disentangle all the CP-- and CPT--violating quantities from each other. This allows each of the CPT violating parameters to be determined with a precision of a few $10^{-4}$ and, in particular, the mass and width equality between the \\kn and \\knb to be tested down to the level of $10^{-19}$ GeV. Moreover, the precision of the CPLEAR measurements allows us to probe for the first time physics on a scale approaching the Planck mass.

  16. CPLEAR results on the CP parameters of neutral kaons decaying to $\\pi^+ \\pi^- \\pi^0$

    Adler, R; Apostolakis, Alcibiades J; Aslanides, Elie; Backenstoss, Gerhard; Bargassa, P; Bee, C P; Behnke, O; Benelli, A; Bertin, V; Blanc, F; Bloch, P; Carlson, P J; Carroll, M; Carvalho, J; Cawley, E; Charalambous, S; Chardin, G; Chertok, M B; Cody, A; Danielsson, M; Dejardin, M; Derré, J; Ealet, A; Eckart, B; Eleftheriadis, C; Evangelou, I; Faravel, L; Fassnacht, P; Felder, C; Ferreira-Marques, R; Fetscher, W; Fidecaro, Maria; Filipcic, A; Francis, D; Fry, J; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gamet, R; Garreta, D; Gerber, H J; Go, A; Guyot, C; Haselden, A; Hayman, P J; Henry-Coüannier, F; Hollander, R W; Hubert, E; Jon-And, K; Kettle, P R; Kochowski, Claude; Kokkas, P; Kreuger, R; Le Gac, R; Leimgruber, F; Liolios, A; Machado, E; Mandic, I; Manthos, N; Marel, Gérard; Mikuz, M; Miller, J; Montanet, François; Müller, A; Nakada, Tatsuya; Pagels, B; Papadopoulos, I M; Pavlopoulos, P; Pinto da Cunha, J; Policarpo, Armando; Polivka, G; Rickenbach, R; Roberts, B L; Ruf, T; Sakelliou, L; Sanders, P; Santoni, C; Schäfer, M; Schaller, L A; Schietinger, T; Schopper, A; Schune, P; Soares, A; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thibault, C; Touchard, F; Touramanis, C; Triantis, F A; Van Beveren, E; van Eijk, C W E; Vlachos, S; Weber, P; Wigger, O; Wolter, M; Yéche, C; Zavrtanik, D; Zimmerman, D

    1997-01-01

    The CPLEAR experiment measured time-dependent decay-rate asymmetries of \\PKz\\ and \\PaKz\\ decaying to \\pipmz\\ in order to study the interference between the decay amplitudes of \\PKzS\\ --- either CP-violating or CP-conserving --- and the CP-conserving \\PKzL\\ decay amplitude. From the analysis of the complete data set we find for the CP-violating parameter \\etapmz , % % $ \\reeta = \\left( -2 \\pm 7 \\mbox{\\rm \\ stat.\\ } ^{+4}_{-1} \\mbox{\\rm \\ syst.} \\right) \\times 10^{-3} , $ $ \\imeta = \\left( -2 \\pm 9 \\mbox{\\rm \\ stat.\\ } ^{+2}_{-1} \\mbox{\\rm \\ syst.} \\right) \\times 10^{-3} $ % % and for the CP-conserving parameter \\lampmz , % % $ \\relam = \\left(+28 \\pm 7 \\mbox{\\rm \\ stat.\\ } \\pm 3 \\mbox{\\rm \\ syst.} \\right) \\times 10^{-3} , $ $ \\imlam = \\left( -10 \\pm 8 \\mbox{\\rm \\ stat.\\ } \\pm 2 \\mbox{\\rm \\ syst.} \\right) \\times 10^{-3}. $ % % From the latter, the branching ratio of the CP-conserving $\\PKzS \\rightarrow \\pipmz $ decay is deduced to be % % $ \\mathrm{B} = \\left( 2.5 ^{+1.3}_{-1.0} \\mathrm{\\ stat.\\ } ^{+0.5}_{-0.6} ...

  17. Measurement of the strange quark contribution to the proton spin using neutral kaons at HERMES

    Lu, Shaojun

    2007-03-15

    This thesis reports a new ''isoscalar'' measurement of {delta}s + {delta} anti s. Because strange quarks carry no isospin, the strange seas in the proton and neutron are identical. In the deuteron, an isoscalar target, the fragmentation process in DIS can be described without any assumptions regarding isospin dependent fragmentation. In the isoscalar extraction of {delta}s + {delta} anti s only the spin asymmetry for K{sup 0}{sub s} A{sup K{sup 0}{sub s1,d}} (x,Q{sup 2}, z) and the inclusive asymmetry A{sub 1,d}(x,Q{sup 2}) are used. An accurate measurement of the total non-strange quark polarisation {delta}Q = {delta}u + {delta} anti u + {delta}d + {delta} anti d comes directly from A{sub 1,d}(x,Q{sup 2}). The fragmentation functions needed for a leading order (LO) extraction of {delta}S = {delta}s + {delta} anti s are measured directly at HERMES kinematics using the same data. As a result of this analysis, the helicity densities for the strange quarks are consistent with zero with the experimental uncertainty over the measured x kinematic range. (orig.)

  18. A phenomenological study of violation of CP and CPT symmetries in the neutral kaon system

    Kojima, Kazushi; Sugiyama, Wataru; Tsai, S.Y.

    1996-01-01

    A phenomenological study is given of the (possible) violation of CP and CPT symmetries in the K 0 -K-bar 0 system. Special attention is paid to the problem of phase ambiguity and phase convention. Mixing parameters and decay amplitudes are parametrized in a rephasing invariant way, and the well-known parameters η +- and η 00 describing 2π modes as well as various leptonic asymmetries are expressed in terms of these parameters. The parameters ε and Δ characterizing mixing between |K 0 > and |K-bar 0 > are treated with as little theoretical prejudice as possible. (author)

  19. Local realistic theories and quantum mechanics for the two-neutral-kaon system

    Dalitz, R.H.; Garbarino, G.

    2001-01-01

    The predictions of local realistic theories for the observables concerning the evolution of a K 0 K-bar 0 quantum entangled pair (created in the decay of the phi-meson) are discussed. It is shown, in agreement with Bell's theorem, that the most general local hidden-variable model fails in reproducing the whole set of quantum-mechanical joint probabilities. We achieve these conclusion by employing two different approaches. In the first approach, the local realistic observables are deduced from the most general premises concerning locality and realism, and Bell-like inequalities are not employed. The other approach makes use of Bell's inequalities. In the first approach, under particular conditions for the detection times, the discrepancy between quantum mechanics and local realism for the time-dependent asymmetry turns out to be not less than 20%. A similar incompatibility can be made evident by means of a Bell-type test by employing both Wigner's and (once properly normalized probabilities are used) Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt's inequalities. Because of its relatively low experimental accuracy, the data obtained by the CPLEAR collaboration for the asymmetry parameter do not yet allow a decisive test of local realism. Such a test, both with and without the use of Bell's inequalities, should be feasible in the future at the Frascati PHI-factory

  20. Cyclotron production of molecules labelled with short-lived radioisotopes β+ emitters (15O, 13N, 11C) and their clinical uses

    Bougharouat, B.

    1981-01-01

    Clinical use of three short-lived radioisotopes: 15 O, 13 N and 11 C is studied on two complementary aspects. A production and purification system is realized; detection instruments in medical use are studied. The production of labelled molecules with the three radiotracers 15 O, 13 N, 11 C from the target bombardment with charged and accelerated particles was studied [fr

  1. A crossed-beam experiment on intramultiplet mixing collisions with short-lived Ne** {(2p)5(3p)} atoms

    Manders, M.P.I.; Ruyten, W.M.J.; van de Beucken, F..J.H.M.; Driessen, J.P.J.; Veugelers, W.J.T.; Kramer, P.H.; Vredenbregt, E.J.D.; van Hoek, W.B.M.; Sandker, G.J.; Beijerinck, H.C.W.; Verhaar, B.J.

    1988-01-01

    We describe the design, operation, and calibration of a crossed-beam experiment for the study of intramultiplet mixing collisions of short-lived electronically excited Ne{(2p)5(3p)}≡{α} atoms with ground-state atoms/molecules. The excellent performance of almost 1 kHz/Å2 (number of counts per unit

  2. Effect of pion mean-field on properties of pions and kaons from heavy-ion collisions

    Zheng Yuming; Chu Zili; Wang Hui; Sa Benhao

    1996-01-01

    The Relativistic Vlasov-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (RVUU) model is used to study the properties of pions and kaons produced in heavy ion collisions. We include the nuclear medium effect on kaon and pion in the model, and simulate pion production and subthreshold kaon production in Kr + Zr reactions at 1 GeV/u. The calculated results show that the attractive pion optical potential changes the final-state pion momentum spectrum, enhancing the yield of pions with low transverse momenta. At the same time it also increases the kaon abundance and modifies the kaon momentum distribution

  3. Recent developments on the TRIUMF KAON factory proposal

    Craddock, M.K.; Baartman, R.; Burge, R.

    1988-06-01

    The TRIUMF KAON Factory proposal has made considerable progress on both technical and political fronts over the last year. A racetrack-shaped lattice is now being considered in conjunction with a three-element slow extraction system in an effort to reduce losses to the 0.1% level. Hardware studies have continued on both magnet power supplies and on rf cavities - the latter work gaining an extra dimension from a recently-instituted formal collaboration with LAMPF. The H - extraction system for the cyclotron has been tested successfully with 66 μA pulsed and 10 μA average beams. On the political side, British Columbia has agreed to fund the buildings and tunnels (Cdn dollar 87M) and is making the KAON Factory its top priority project with the Canadian federal government. A joint federal-provincial delegation has traveled abroad and found that a number of countries would consider significant contributions to the cost. Approval of dollar 11 million in pre-construction R and D funds is expected imminently, permitting formal negotiations to start abroad, with final approval for construction coming in 1989

  4. Induced polarization of Λ (1116) in kaon electroproduction

    Gabrielyan, M.; Raue, B. A.; Carman, D. S.; Park, K.; Adhikari, K. P.; Adikaram, D.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Avakian, H.; Ball, J.; Baltzell, N. A.; Battaglieri, M.; Baturin, V.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Biselli, A. S.; Bono, J.; Boiarinov, S.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Burkert, V. D.; Cao, T.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cortes, O.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Doughty, D.; Dupre, R.; El Fassi, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Fleming, J. A.; Forest, T. A.; Garillon, B.; Gevorgyan, N.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guidal, M.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Hattawy, M.; Hicks, K.; Ho, D.; Holtrop, M.; Hughes, S. M.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Jenkins, D.; Jiang, H.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, W.; Klein, F. J.; Koirala, S.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, S. E.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Lenisa, P.; Levine, W. I.; Livingston, K.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Meyer, C. A.; Mestayer, M. D.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Moody, C. I.; Moutarde, H.; Movsisyan, A.; Munevar, E.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Osipenko, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Paremuzyan, R.; Pasyuk, E.; Peng, P.; Phelps, W.; Phillips, J. J.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Pozdniakov, S.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Protopopescu, D.; Rimal, D.; Ripani, M.; Rizzo, A.; Sabatié, F.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Simonyan, A.; Smith, G. D.; Sober, D. I.; Sokhan, D.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Stepanyan, S.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Tang, W.; Ungaro, M.; Vlassov, A. V.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Wei, X.; Weinstein, L. B.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zonta, I.; CLAS Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    We have measured. the induced polarization of the Λ(1116) in the reaction ep →e'K+Λ, detecting the scattered e' and K+ in the final state along with the proton from the decay Λ →pπ-. The present study used the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS), which allowed for a large kinematic acceptance in invariant energy W (1.6≤W≤2.7 GeV) and covered the full range of the kaon production angle at an average momentum transfer Q2=1.90GeV2. In this experiment a 5.50-GeV electron beam was incident upon an unpolarized liquid-hydrogen target. We have mapped out the W and kaon production angle dependencies of the induced polarization and found striking differences from photoproduction data over most of the kinematic range studied. However, we also found that the induced polarization is essentially Q2 independent in our kinematic domain, suggesting that somewhere below the Q2 covered here there must be a strong Q2 dependence. Along with previously published photo- and electroproduction cross sections and polarization observables, these data are needed for the development of models, such as effective field theories, and as input to coupled-channel analyses that can provide evidence of previously unobserved s-channel resonances.

  5. Limits on the production of neutral penetrating states in a beam dump

    LoSecco, J.; Sulak, L.; Galik, R.; Horstkotte, J.; Knauer, J.; Williams, H.H.; Soukas, A.; Wanderer, P.; Weng, W.

    1981-01-01

    We present limits on the production of neutral penetrating states produced in 28 GeV proton nucleus collisions. We obtain limits for light, heavy and unstable neutral states. For light stable states our limit sigmasub(I)sigmasub(P) -69 cm 4 /nucleon 2 is more than a factor of 5.5 better than previous limits. Time of flight techniques are used to study heavy states. We have poor sensitivity to short-lived states. (orig.)

  6. The effects of short-lived radionuclides and porosity on the early thermo-mechanical evolution of planetesimals

    Lichtenberg, Tim; Golabek, Gregor J.; Gerya, Taras V.; Meyer, Michael R.

    2016-08-01

    The thermal history and internal structure of chondritic planetesimals, assembled before the giant impact phase of chaotic growth, potentially yield important implications for the final composition and evolution of terrestrial planets. These parameters critically depend on the internal balance of heating versus cooling, which is mostly determined by the presence of short-lived radionuclides (SLRs), such as 26Al and 60Fe, as well as the heat conductivity of the material. The heating by SLRs depends on their initial abundances, the formation time of the planetesimal and its size. It has been argued that the cooling history is determined by the porosity of the granular material, which undergoes dramatic changes via compaction processes and tends to decrease with time. In this study we assess the influence of these parameters on the thermo-mechanical evolution of young planetesimals with both 2D and 3D simulations. Using the code family I2ELVIS/I3ELVIS we have run numerous 2D and 3D numerical finite-difference fluid dynamic models with varying planetesimal radius, formation time and initial porosity. Our results indicate that powdery materials lowered the threshold for melting and convection in planetesimals, depending on the amount of SLRs present. A subset of planetesimals retained a powdery surface layer which lowered the thermal conductivity and hindered cooling. The effect of initial porosity was small, however, compared to those of planetesimal size and formation time, which dominated the thermo-mechanical evolution and were the primary factors for the onset of melting and differentiation. We comment on the implications of this work concerning the structure and evolution of these planetesimals, as well as their behavior as possible building blocks of terrestrial planets.

  7. Inactivation of Candida glabrata by a humid DC argon discharge afterglow: dominant contributions of short-lived aqueous active species

    Xiong, Qing; Liu, Hongbin; Xu, Le; Wang, Xia; Zhu, Qunlin; Lu, Weiping; Chen, Qiang; Zeng, Xue; Yi, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Plasma medicine applications are currently attracting significant interest all over the world. Bactericidal treatments of Candida glabrata cultured in saline suspension are performed in this study by a room-temperature reactive afterglow of a DC-driven argon discharge. Water vapor was added to the discharge to study the inactivation contributions of reactive hydrolytic species including OH and H 2 O 2 transporting along the gas flow to the treated solutions. The inactivation results indicate that the dominant roles in the bactericidal treatments are played by the short-lived aqueous active species, but not the stable species like H 2 O 2aq (aq indicates an aqueous species). Further analysis shows that the ·OH aq radicals play an important role in the inactivation process. The ·OH aq radicals in the suspension are mostly produced from the direct dissolution of the OH species in the reactive afterglow. With the increase of added water vapor content, the ·OH aq production increases and enhances the inactivation efficiency of C. glabrata . Furthermore, it is found that the ambient air diffusion shows essential effects on the bactericidal activity of the remote humid argon discharge. Higher bactericidal effects can be obtained in open-space treatments compared to in a controlled Ar + H 2 O gas atmosphere. Key active air-byproduct species are believed to be generated in the suspension during the treatments and contributing to the inactivation process. Based on chemical analysis, the peroxynitrous acid ONOOH aq is considered as the key antimicrobial air-byproduct species. These results indicate the important dependence of plasma biomedical effects on the processing environment, which finally relates to the critical contributions of the key reactive species formed therein. (paper)

  8. Study on the risk of late damage in humans after incorporation of the short-lived alpha emitter Ra-224

    Wick, R.R.; Nekolla, E.A.; Kellerer, A.M.; Goessner, W.

    2003-01-01

    An epidemiological study has been carried out at the GSF - National Research Center for Environment and Health - between 1948 and 1975, on 1460 ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients. The aim of the study was to ascertain the late health effects suffered by these patients who had received repeated intravenous injections of the short lived α-emitter 224 Ra. These patients have been followed together with a control group of 1323 ankylosing spondylitis patients not treated with radioactive drugs and/or X-rays. Causes of death have been ascertained for 842 exposed patients and 861 controls by the end of 2002. In the exposed group there has been a total of 219 malignant diseases and 206 cases among the controls. In particular, we observed 15 cases of leukaemia in the exposure group and 8 cases of leukaemia in the control group. Further subclassification of the leukaemias demonstrated a high increase of myeloid leukaemia in the exposure group (9 cases obs. vs. 2.5 cases exp.), and out of these especially the acute myeloid leukaemias (6 cases observed vs. 1.6 expected), whereas in the control group the observed cases are within the expected range (3 myeloid leukaemias vs. 2.6 cases). Out of these 6 cases of myeloid leukaemia, 3 cases have been observed at doses comparable to those of the currently applied 224 Ra treatment with the preparation SpondylAT registered , in one case the 224 Ra-dose was the 0.6fold, in another case 1.6fold, whereas in one case the total dose could not be verified exactly. The enhanced leukaemia incidence in our exposed group is in line with results from animal experiments in mice having been injected with bone seeking α-emitters given at low dose rates. (orig.) [de

  9. Inactivation of Candida glabrata by a humid DC argon discharge afterglow: dominant contributions of short-lived aqueous active species

    Xiong, Qing; Liu, Hongbin; Lu, Weiping; Chen, Qiang; Xu, Le; Wang, Xia; Zhu, Qunlin; Zeng, Xue; Yi, Ping

    2017-05-01

    Plasma medicine applications are currently attracting significant interest all over the world. Bactericidal treatments of Candida glabrata cultured in saline suspension are performed in this study by a room-temperature reactive afterglow of a DC-driven argon discharge. Water vapor was added to the discharge to study the inactivation contributions of reactive hydrolytic species including OH and H2O2 transporting along the gas flow to the treated solutions. The inactivation results indicate that the dominant roles in the bactericidal treatments are played by the short-lived aqueous active species, but not the stable species like H2O2aq (aq indicates an aqueous species). Further analysis shows that the ·OHaq radicals play an important role in the inactivation process. The ·OHaq radicals in the suspension are mostly produced from the direct dissolution of the OH species in the reactive afterglow. With the increase of added water vapor content, the ·OHaq production increases and enhances the inactivation efficiency of C. glabrata. Furthermore, it is found that the ambient air diffusion shows essential effects on the bactericidal activity of the remote humid argon discharge. Higher bactericidal effects can be obtained in open-space treatments compared to in a controlled Ar + H2O gas atmosphere. Key active air-byproduct species are believed to be generated in the suspension during the treatments and contributing to the inactivation process. Based on chemical analysis, the peroxynitrous acid ONOOHaq is considered as the key antimicrobial air-byproduct species. These results indicate the important dependence of plasma biomedical effects on the processing environment, which finally relates to the critical contributions of the key reactive species formed therein.

  10. Tests of non-local interferences in kaon physics at asymmetric φ-factories

    Eberhard, P.H.

    1993-01-01

    Tests of non-local interference effects in the two-kaon system are proposed. The first kind of tests consists of measuring the amount of destructive interference between K S → K L regeneration processes of two distant kaons. The second kind deals with constructive interference. These tests could be performed at an asymmetric φ-factory. Estimates are given of the number of events predicted by orthodox quantum mechanics and kaon regeneration theory in various suitable experimental conditions. The impact on local theories if the predictions of quantum mechanics hold is discussed

  11. 0.8-GeV/c kaon channel for LAMPF II

    Lobb, D.E.

    1986-07-01

    The design for a 0.8-GeV/c charged-kaon channel suitable for LAMPF II features a two-dipole extraction system in the primary proton-beam line, a section to define the phase-space acceptance of the channel, a separator section before a mass slit, and a quadrupole triplet to transmit the kaon beam to an experimental target. A novel feature of this channel is a shaped slit to remove the tail of the pion-beam spot that would be adjacent to the kaon-beam spot at the mass slit

  12. The partnership experience on the disposal of low- and intermediate-level short-lived waste in Belgium

    Preter, P. de; Cool, W.; Hooft, E.; Waffelaert, A.; Blommaert, J.; Draulans, J.

    2008-01-01

    With the governmental decision of January 16, 1998, the long-term storage option for the low- and intermediate-level short-lived waste (category A waste) was abandoned and ONDRAF/NIRAS was given the mission to further examine the options of deep and surface disposal, in order to prepare a federal decision on the technical option to be developed. ONDRAF/NIRAS was also asked to develop the methods and structures of interaction with the local stakeholders, and to limit its siting activities to nuclear and candidate municipalities. This brought ONDRAF/NIRAS to the concept of local partnerships with interested municipalities, and during the pre-project phase 1998-2006 partnerships were created with the municipalities of Dessel (STOLA-Dessel, 1999), Mol (MONA, 2000) and Fleurus-Farciennes (PaLoFF, 2003). On 23 June, 2006 the Belgian Government decided that category A waste will be disposed of in a near-surface repository on the territory of the Dessel municipality. This decision implies that ONDRAF/NIRAS, in further interaction with the local stakeholders, can start the preparation of a licence application. This decision was the endpoint of the pre-project phase (1998-2006) and was based on the final reports of the partnerships of Dessel (STOLA-Dessel, now STORA) and Mol (MONA), approved by their municipality councils, and on ONDRAF/NIRAS final report, confirming the feasibility of the proposed disposal systems. As the municipality council of Fleurus did not approve the final report of the partnership PaLoFF, ONDRAF/NIRAS did not submit this report to the responsible minister. The preceding positive local decision in both Dessel (May 2005) and Mol (July 2005), and both on the partnership and municipality council level, to accept, under certain conditions, a disposal facility on their territory was the result of a 6 years long process of discussions within the partnership of all aspects of the disposal system and its integration in the municipality. During these

  13. Higher order mode damping in Kaon factory RF cavities

    Enegren, T.; Poirier, R.; Griffin, J.; Walling, L.; Thiessen, H.A.; Smythe, W.R.

    1989-05-01

    Proposed designs for Kaon factory accelerators require that the rf cavities support beam currents on the order of several amperes. The beam current has Fourier components at all multiples of the rf frequency. Empty rf buckets produce additional components at all multiples of the revolution frequency. If a Fourier component of the beam coincides with the resonant frequency of a higher order mode of the cavity, which is inevitable if the cavity has a large frequency swing, significant excitation of this mode can occur. The induced voltage may then excite coupled bunch mode instabilities. Effective means are required to damp higher order modes without significantly affecting the fundamental mode. A mode damping scheme based on coupled transmission lines has been investigated and is report

  14. Magnet design studies for the TRIUMF KAON factory proposal

    Otter, A.J.; Ellstrom, L.; Haddock, C.; Harold, M.; Reeve, P.; Sasaki, H.; Schwandt, P.

    1989-10-01

    TRIUMF is engaged on a one year Project Definition Study of its KAON factory proposal. This proposal calls for a total of 1800 magnets to be installed in three storage rings, two synchrotrons, beam transfer lines and experimental facilities to increase the present beam from 200 μA at 500 MeV to 100 μA at 30 GeV. The paper discusses the current design status concentrating on the ac booster synchrotron ring magnets which will be driven by biased dc current modulated at 50 Hz. Methods of estimating the core losses for this excitation, the coil eddy current losses and design and fabrication features of prototypes will be presented

  15. Final design of kaon beam K2 at KEK

    Kurokawa, Shin-ichi; Yamamoto, Akira.

    1977-09-01

    Final design of the 2.3 GeV/c kaon beam K2 is given. The K2 beam starts from the production target in slow extracted beam. Momentum range is 1 GeV/c through 2.3 GeV/c. Nominal total beam length is 27.9 m and solid-angle momentum acceptance is 6.25 msr%ΔP/P. Using a platinum target of diameter 3 mm and length 6 cm, 2.0 GeV/c beam fluxes of 1.0 x 10 6 K + and 5.2 x 10 5 K - per 10 12 13 GeV/c incident protons are expected at the final focus. (auth.)

  16. Non-leptonic kaon decays at large Nc

    Donini, Andrea; Hernández, Pilar; Pena, Carlos; Romero-López, Fernando

    2018-03-01

    We study the scaling with the number of colors Nc of the weak amplitudes mediating kaon mixing and decay, in the limit of light charm masses (mu = md = ms = mc). The amplitudes are extracted directly on the lattice for Nc = 3 - 7 (with preliminar results for Nc = 8 and 17) using twisted mass QCD. It is shown that the (sub-leading) 1 /Nc corrections to B\\hatk are small and that the naive Nc → ∞ limit, B\\hatk = 3/4, seems to be recovered. On the other hand, the O (1/Nc) corrections in K → ππ amplitudes (derived from K → π matrix elements) are large and fully anti-correlated in the I = 0 and I = 2 channels. This may have some implications for the understanding of the ΔI = 1/2 rule.

  17. One-prong τ decays into charged kaons

    Buskulic, D.; Casper, D.; de Bonis, I.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Minard, M.-N.; Odier, P.; Pietrzyk, B.; Ariztizabal, F.; Chmeissani, M.; Crespo, J. M.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Gaitan, V.; Garrido, Ll.; Martinez, M.; Mattison, T.; Ortue, S.; Pacheco, A.; Padilla, C.; Pascual, A.; Teubert, F.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Farilla, A.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Marinelli, N.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Romano, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Chai, Y.; Huang, D.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, D.; Xu, R.; Xu, R.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Blucher, E.; Bonvicini, G.; Boudreau, J.; Comas, P.; Coyle, P.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Ganis, G.; Gay, C.; Girone, M.; Hagelberg, R.; Harvey, J.; Jacobsen, R.; Jost, B.; Knobloch, J.; Lehraus, I.; Maggi, M.; Markou, C.; Mato, P.; Meinhard, H.; Minten, A.; Miquel, R.; Palazzi, P.; Pater, J. R.; Perlas, J. A.; Perrodo, P.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Ranjard, F.; Rolandi, L.; Rothberg, J.; Ruan, T.; Saich, M.; Schlatter, D.; Schmelling, M.; Sefkow, F.; Tejessy, W.; Tomalin, I. R.; Veenhof, R.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wasserbaech, S.; Widenmann, W.; Wildish, T.; Witzeling, W.; Wotschack, J.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Bardadin-Otwinowska, M.; Barres, A.; Boyer, C.; Falvard, A.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Saadi, F.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Johnson, S. D.; Møllerud, R.; Nilsson, B. S.; Kyriakis, A.; Simopoulou, E.; Siotis, I.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Badier, J.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J. C.; Bourdon, P.; Fouque, G.; Passalacqua, L.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Tanaka, R.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Candlin, D. J.; Parsons, M. I.; Veitch, E.; Focardi, E.; Moneta, L.; Parrini, G.; Corden, M.; Delfino, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Jaffe, D. E.; Levinthal, D.; Antonelli, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Cerutti, F.; Chiarella, V.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Salomone, S.; Colrain, P.; Ten Have, I.; Knowles, I. G.; Lynch, J. G.; Maitland, W.; Morton, W. T.; Raine, C.; Reeves, P.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Smith, M. G.; Thompson, A. S.; Thorn, S.; Turnbull, R. M.; Becker, U.; Braun, O.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Putzer, A.; Rensch, B.; Schmidt, M.; Stenzel, H.; Tittel, K.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Cattaneo, M.; Colling, D. J.; Dornan, P. J.; Hassard, J. F.; Konstantinidis, N.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; Payne, D. G.; San Martin, G.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Wright, A. G.; Girtler, P.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Vogl, R.; Bowdery, C. K.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jackson, D.; Keemer, N. R.; Nuttall, M.; Patel, A.; Sloan, T.; Snow, S. W.; Whelan, E. P.; Galla, A.; Greene, A. M.; Kleinknecht, K.; Raab, J.; Renk, B.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmidt, H.; Walther, S. M.; Wanke, R.; Wolf, B.; Bencheikh, A. M.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Calvet, D.; Carr, J.; Diaconu, C.; Etienne, F.; Nicod, D.; Payre, P.; Roos, L.; Rousseau, D.; Schwemling, P.; Talby, M.; Adlung, S.; Assmann, R.; Bauer, C.; Blum, W.; Brown, D.; Cattaneo, P.; Dehning, B.; Dietl, H.; Dydak, F.; Frank, M.; Halley, A. W.; Jakobs, K.; Kroha, H.; Lauber, J.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Moser, H.-G.; Richter, R.; Schröder, J.; Schwarz, A. S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Stierlin, U.; Stiegler, U.; St. Denis, R.; Wolf, G.; Alemany, R.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Janot, P.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Musolino, G.; Park, H.-J.; Schune, M.-H.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Abbaneo, D.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bottigli, U.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; Ciulli, V.; Dell'Orso, R.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Foà, L.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Martin, E. B.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Spagnolo, P.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Triggiani, G.; Valassi, A.; Vannini, C.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Walsh, J.; Betteridge, A. P.; Gao, Y.; Green, M. G.; Johnson, D. L.; March, P. V.; Medcalf, T.; Mir, Ll. M.; Quasi, I. S.; Strong, J. A.; Bertin, V.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Haywood, S.; Edwards, M.; Norton, P. R.; Thompson, J. C.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Duarte, H.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Marx, B.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Rosowsky, A.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Si Mohand, D.; Vallage, B.; Johnson, R. P.; Litke, A. M.; Taylor, G.; Wear, J.; Beddall, A.; Booth, C. N.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Dawson, I.; Koksal, A.; Rankin, C.; Thompson, L. F.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Cowan, G.; Feigl, E.; Grupen, C.; Lutters, G.; Minguet-Rodriguez, J.; Rivera, F.; Saraiva, P.; Schäfer, U.; Smolik, L.; Bosisio, L.; Della Marina, R.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Pitis, L.; Ragusa, F.; Bellantoni, L.; Chen, W.; Conway, J. S.; Feng, Z.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y. S.; Grahl, J.; Harton, J. L.; Hayes, O. J.; Hu, H.; Nachtman, J. M.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Schmitt, M.; Scott, I.; Sharma, V.; Turk, J. D.; Walsh, A. M.; Weber, F. V.; Lan Wu, Sau; Wu, X.; Yamartino, J. M.; Zheng, M.; Zobernig, G.; Aleph Collaboration

    1994-07-01

    Form a sample of about 75000 τ decays measured in the ALEPH detector, 1-prong charged kaon decays are identified by the dE/ dx measurement in the central detector. The resulting branching ratios for the inclusive and exclusive modes are: B( τ → ντK- ≥ 0 π0 ≥ 0 K0) = (1.60±0.07±0.12)%, B( τ → ντK- = (0.64±0.05±0.05)%, B( τ → ντ-π0 = (0.53±0.05±0.07)% and B( τ → ντK-π0π0) = (0.04±0.03±0.02)%. Exclusive modes are corrected for measured KL0 production. The rate for τ → ντK- agrees well with the prediction based on τ - μ universality.

  18. The zerology of kaon-nucleon forward scattering amplitudes

    Dumbrajs, O.

    1981-01-01

    It has been realized for a long time that zeros of the forward kaon-nucleon scattering amplitudes are useful in correlating different low and high-energy scattering parameters and in providing a consistency test of available data. The simplest possibility of exploring zeros is to evaluate the ordinary dispersion relations in the complex energy plane. The more natural way of bringing zeros of amplitudes into play is to consider either one of the more sophisticated forms of dispersion relations: i) phase dispersion relations, ii) inverse-amplitude dispersion relations, iii) logarithmic dispersion relations, or to apply the maximum modulus theorem and a factorization theorem. The author concentrates on the use of logarithmic dispersion relations because this approach seems to be the most convenient one for future extensions to nonforward scattering data analyses based on the zeros of the amplitude. (Auth.)

  19. Neutral currents

    Paschos, E.A.

    1977-01-01

    It is stated that over the past few years considerable progress has been made in the field of weak interactions. The existence of neutral currents involving leptons and hadrons has been established and some of the questions concerning their detailed structure have been answered. This imposes constraints on the gauge theories and has eliminated large classes of models. New questions have also been raised, one of which concerns the conservation laws obeyed by neutral currents. The wide range of investigations is impressive and is expected to continue with new results from particle, nuclear, and atomic physics. Headings include - various aspects of a gauge theory (choice of group, the symmetry breaking scheme, representation assignments for fermion fields); space-time structure; isospin structure; leptonic neutral currents; and atomic experiments. (U.K.)

  20. Neutral currents

    Aubert, B.

    1994-11-01

    The evidence for the existence of weak neutral current has been a very controverted topics in the early 1970's, as well as the muon did in the 1930's. The history is very rich considering the evolution of the experimental techniques in high energy particle physics. The history of the discovery and the study of weak neutral current is reviewed. Later the quest of the intermediate vector boson continues with the decision of the community to build a large proton antiproton collider. (K.A.). 14 refs., 1 fig

  1. Nuclear physics with use of KUR. Reviews of 30 years studies on short-lived nuclei and perspectives for the future

    Kawase, Yoichi

    1995-01-01

    The research works which were carried out over the past 30 years on nuclear structure study have been reviewed with emphasis on the technical developments of experimental apparatus for the studies of very short-lived isotopes produced by the Kyoto University reactor(KUR). In the first chapter, nuclear structure studies of neutron-rich nuclei with use of the on-line irradiation apparatus and the on-line isotope separator(ISOL) for fission products have been described. In the second chapter, applications of nuclear methods to solid state physics by the perturbed angular correlation(PAC) technique have been examined to investigate the local electromagnetic fields in metals and compounds through the hyperfine interactions. Perspectives for the future of related research fields are given aiming at the advanced uses of short-lived radioisotopes. (author)

  2. Contribution of the short lived radionuclides in food to the total radiation burden of man after the nuclear accident in Chernobyl

    Popovic, D.; Djuric, G.; Smelcerovic, M.; Maksimovic, B.

    1989-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the short lived radionuclides (I-131, Te(I)-132, Cs-136, Ce-141,144, Ru-103,106, Ba(La)-140, Zr-95, Mo-99, Nb-95, Sb-125) mass activities estimation in some foodstuff (milk and milk products), immediately after the nuclear accident in Chernobyl, in May 1986. The activities of the radionuclides were determined on Ge(Li) detector by standard gamma spectrometry, with the total error less than 20%. The results enabled the evaluation of the short lived radionuclides contribution in the total dose due to ingestion of milk and milk products, in the first month after the accident, compared to the contribution of I-131 and to the contribution of the main long lived radionuclides: Ce-134 and Cs-137 (author)

  3. Analysis of the pion-kaon sigma term and related topics

    Frink, M.; Kubis, B.; Meissner, U.G.

    2002-01-01

    We calculate the one-loop contributions to the difference Δ πK between the isoscalar on-shell pion-kaon scattering amplitude at the Cheng-Dashen point and the scalar form factor Γ K (2M 2 π ) in the framework of three flavor chiral perturbation theory. These corrections turn out to be small. This is further sharpened by treating the kaons as heavy fields (two flavor chiral perturbation theory). We also analyze the two-loop corrections to the kaon scalar form factor based on a dispersive technique. We find that these corrections are smaller than in the comparable case of the scalar form factor of the pion. This is related to the weaker final state interactions in the pion-kaon channel. (orig.)

  4. Analysis of the pion-kaon sigma term and related topics

    Frink, M.; Kubis, B.; Meissner, U.G. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik (Theorie), Juelich (Germany)

    2002-09-01

    We calculate the one-loop contributions to the difference {delta}{sub {pi}}{sub K} between the isoscalar on-shell pion-kaon scattering amplitude at the Cheng-Dashen point and the scalar form factor {gamma}{sub K} (2M{sup 2}{sub {pi}}) in the framework of three flavor chiral perturbation theory. These corrections turn out to be small. This is further sharpened by treating the kaons as heavy fields (two flavor chiral perturbation theory). We also analyze the two-loop corrections to the kaon scalar form factor based on a dispersive technique. We find that these corrections are smaller than in the comparable case of the scalar form factor of the pion. This is related to the weaker final state interactions in the pion-kaon channel. (orig.)

  5. 1 to 2 GeV/c beam line for hypernuclear and kaon research

    Chrien, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    A kaon beam line operating in the range from 1.0 to 2.0 GeV/c is proposed. The line is meant for kaon and pion research in a region hitherto inaccessible to experimenters. Topics in hypernuclear and kaon physics of high current interest include the investigation of doubly strange nuclear systems with the K - ,K + reaction, searching for dibaryon resonances, hyperon-nucleon interactions, hypernuclear γ rays, and associated production of excited hypernuclei. The beam line would provide separated beams of momentum analyzed kaons at intensities greater than 10 6 particles per spill with a momentum determined to one part in a thousand. This intensity is an order of magnitude greater than that currently available. 63 references

  6. Kaon versus pion interferometry signatures of quark-gluon plasma formation

    Gyulassy, M.; Padula, S.S.

    1990-01-01

    The advantages of kaon versus pion interferometry as a probe of quark-gluon plasma formation in high energy nuclear collisions are studied by comparing predictions of Lund resonance gas and plasma hydrodynamic models

  7. Overview of past activities for the use of short-lived radionuclides and the role of the Bureau of Radiological Health

    Paras, P.

    1985-01-01

    The Bureau of Radiological Health has developed a national program to control unnecessary medical radiation exposures to man and to assure the safe and effective use of radiation. The continuing interest and the role of the Bureau in the use of short-lived radionuclides (SLR's) are emphasized. An overview of the Bureau's SLR program, past accomplishments, and the status of production and use of iodine-123 are presented

  8. Present and Future Kaon Physics (Kaon Decays: Status and Prospects of Experiments)

    Bryman, Doug

    2005-01-01

    Study of the ultra-rare K → πν(bar ν) decays is highly motivated by their unique theoretical access to short distance physics allowing deep probing of physics beyond the Standard Model including possible new sources of CP violation and flavor symmetry breaking. It also appears that through the development of targeted experimental techniques, both the charged and neutral processes, K + → π + ν(bar ν) and K L 0 → π 0 ν(bar ν), are accessible to detailed measurement. Three events consistent with K + → π + ν(bar ν) decay have been observed by BNL E787/E949 and further measurements of this reaction are being planned. The new KOPIO experiment at BNL is aiming to study the special CP-violating decay K L 0 → π 0 ν(bar ν) with a precision of 10%. The motivations, experimental methods, prospects, and possible impact of KOPIO and other future measurements will be discussed.

  9. Collins fragmentation function for pions and kaons in a spectator model

    Bacchetta, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Gamberg, L.P. [Penn State Univ., Berks, PA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Goldstein, G.R. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Mukherjee, A. [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai (India). Physics Dept.

    2007-07-15

    We calculate the Collins fragmentation function in the framework of a spectator model with pseudoscalar pion-quark coupling and a Gaussian form factor at the vertex. We determine the model parameters by fitting the unpolarized fragmentation function for pions and kaons. We show that the Collins function for the pions in this model is in reasonable agreement with recent parametrizations obtained by fits of the available data. In addition, we compute for the first time the Collins function for the kaons. (orig.)

  10. The Kaon B-parameter from Two-Flavour Dynamical Domain Wall Fermions

    Dawson, C.

    2005-01-01

    We report on the calculation of the kaon B-parameter using two dynamical flavours of domain wall fermions. Our analysis is based on three ensembles of configurations, each consisting of about 5,000 HMC trajectories, with a lattice spacing of approximately 1.7 GeV for 16 3 x32 lattices; dynamical quark masses range from approximately the strange quark mass to half of that. Both degenerate and non-degenerate quark masses are used for the kaons

  11. Drag on a Satellite Moving across a Spherical Galaxy: Tidal and Frictional Forces in Short-lived Encounters

    Colpi, Monica; Pallavicini, Andrea

    1998-07-01

    The drag force on a satellite of mass M moving with speed V in the gravitational field of a spherically symmetric background of stars is computed. During the encounter, the stars are subject to a time-dependent force that alters their equilibrium. The resulting distortion in the stellar density field acts back to produce a force FΔ that decelerates the satellite. This force is computed using a perturbative technique known as linear response theory. In this paper, we extend the formalism of linear response to derive the correct expression for the back-reaction force FΔ that applies when the stellar system is described by an equilibrium one-particle distribution function. FΔ is expressed in terms of a suitable correlation function that couples the satellite dynamics to the unperturbed dynamics of the stars. At time t, the force depends upon the whole history of the composite system. In the formalism, we account for the shift of the stellar center of mass resulting from linear momentum conservation. The self-gravity of the response is neglected since it contributes to a higher order in the perturbation. Linear response theory applies also to the case of a satellite orbiting outside the spherical galaxy. The case of a satellite moving on a straight line, at high speed relative to the stellar dispersion velocity, is explored. We find that the satellite during its passage raises (1) global tides in the stellar distribution and (2) a wake, i.e., an overdense region behind its trail. If the satellite motion is external to the galaxy, it suffers a dissipative force that is not exclusively acting along V but acquires a component along R, the position vector relative to the center of the spherical galaxy. We derive the analytical expression of the force in the impulse approximation. In penetrating short-lived encounters, the satellite moves across the stellar distribution and the transient wake excited in the density field is responsible for most of the deceleration. We

  12. Subthreshold kaon production in nucleus-nucleus collisions: A sensitive probe for the nuclear equation of state

    Schurmann, B.; Zwermann, W.

    1986-01-01

    In principle, subthreshold kaon production provides an appropriate tool for testing the compressional part of the nuclear equation of state. Eventually, the experimental data have to be confronted with theoretical model predictions to extract the compressional energy. Due to the fact that the elementary kaon production cross section which is an essential input into the calculations, is poorly known in the energy regime needed, uncertainties of at least a factor of two arise in the calculated kaon yield; this makes the determination of the compressional energy from absolute kaon yields difficult. The authors find it more profitable to study kaon yield ratios of heavy to light colliding nuclei at fixed energy instead; in such ratios the mass number dependence is almost the same for the various parametrizations of the elementary kaon production cross section. With compression effects present, the mass number dependence will be largely reduced

  13. Leptoquarks meet ɛ '/ ɛ and rare Kaon processes

    Bobeth, Christoph; Buras, Andrzej J.

    2018-02-01

    We analyse for the first time the CP violating ratio ɛ '/ ɛ in K → ππ decays in leptoquark (LQ) models. Assuming a mass gap to the electroweak (EW) scale, the main mechanism for LQs to contribute to ɛ ' /ɛ is EW gauge-mixing of semi-leptonic into non-leptonic operators, which we treat in the Standard Model effective theory (SMEFT). We perform also the one-loop decoupling for scalar LQs, finding that in all models with both left-handed and right-handed LQ couplings box-diagrams generate numerically strongly enhanced EW-penguin operators Q 8,8' already at the LQ scale. We then investigate correlations of ɛ ' /ɛ with rare Kaon processes ( {K}_L\\to {π}^0ν \\overline{ν} , {K}+\\to {π}+ν \\overline{ν} , {K}_L\\to {π}^0ℓ \\overline{ℓ} , {K}_S\\to μ \\overline{μ} , Δ M K and ɛ K ) and find that even imposing only a moderate enhancement of ( ɛ ' /ɛ)NP = 5 × 10-4 to explain the current anomaly hinted by the Dual QCD approach and RBC-UKQCD lattice QCD calculations leads to conflicts with experimental upper bounds on rare Kaon processes. They exclude all LQ models with only a single coupling as an explanation of the ɛ ' /ɛ anomaly and put strong-to-serious constraints on parameter spaces of the remaining models. Future results on {K}+\\to {π}+ν \\overline{ν} from the NA62 collaboration, {K}_L\\to {π}^0ν \\overline{ν} from the KOTO experiment and {K}_S\\to μ \\overline{μ} from LHCb will even stronger exhibit the difficulty of LQ models in explaining the measured ɛ ' /ɛ, in case the ɛ ' /ɛ anomaly will be confirmed by improved lattice QCD calculations. Hopefully also improved measurements of {K}_L\\to {π}^0ℓ \\overline{ℓ} decays will one day help in this context.

  14. Two-dimensional {chi}{sup 2} analysis in kaon interferometry; Analise bi-dimensional de {chi}{sup 2} em interferometria de kaons

    Roldao, C.G.; Padula, S.S. [Instituto de Fisica Teorica , IFT, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    This work presents preliminary results obtained from the {chi}{sup 2} analysis performed on the E 859 Joint Work data. The work objective is to quantify the resolution power of the kaon two-dimension interferometry 11 refs., 1 fig.; e-mail: roldao at axp.ift.unesp.br; padula at axp.ift.unesp.br

  15. Possible kaon and antiproton factory designs for TRIUMF

    Craddock, M K [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver (Canada); Kost, C J; Richardson, J R [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver (Canada). TRIUMF Facility

    1979-12-01

    Two alternative designs based on proton synchrotrons and isochronous ring cyclotrons, respectively are considered for accelerating high currents (<30 ..mu..A) from TRIUMF (0.45 GeV) to energies high enough for the production of high fluxes of kaons (8-10 GeV) and antiprotons (25-30 GeV). The first synchrotron would be fast cycling at 20 Hz, with third harmonic flat-topping to aid in injection and extraction. The cw beam from TRIUMF would be extracted in 100-turn macropulses at 22 ..mu..sec intervals. With 400 ..mu..A in TRIUMF and injection over 8-20 % of the magnet cycle, 30-80 ..mu..A could be accelerated to 10 GeV. A second synchrotron would accelerate 30 ..mu..A to 30 GeV for production of antiprotons. The ring cyclotron option would also be built in two stages, 0.45 to 3 GeV (15 sectors, 10 m radius) and 3 to 8.5 GeV (30 sectors, 20 m radius). With superconducting magnets (5 T) the weight of steel could be kept below 2000 tons for each ring. Large field-free regions between the spiral ium ions, are obtained with an av the polarimetry installation is being carried out.

  16. A 1 MHz beam chopper for the KAON Factory

    Wait, G.D.; Barnes, M.J.; Waters, G.; Figley, C.B.

    1990-06-01

    The proposed KAON Factory at TRIUMF requires a high repetition rate beam chopper for the injection process into the accumulator ring. Prototype studies on a novel design for an energy efficient 1 MHz (10 6 discrete pulses/s) beam chopper are described. In the low voltage prototype 20 V electrical pulses are stored in a low loss transmission line which is open circuited at the far end. Testing has just begun on high voltage prototype in which 7 kV pulses have been produced at the end of 10 cm diameter, 50 Ω coaxial cable. In the final version the voltage may be as high as 20 kV and the low loss transmission line will be coupled to an open circuited set of deflection plates through which the beam passes. Results on the performance of the low voltage prototype are presented as well as a description of the first test results from the high voltage prototype. (Author) 16 refs., 5 figs., tab

  17. Proposed Fermilab fixed target experiment: Kaons at the Tevatron

    1993-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0898, evaluating the impacts associated with the proposed fixed target experiment at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Femilab) in Batavia, Illinois, known as Kaons at the Tevatron (KTeV). The proposed KTeV project includes reconfiguration of an existing target station, enhancement of an existing beam transport system connected to existing utility facilities, and construction of a new experimental detector hall area. The study of the K meson, a type of subatomic particle, has been going on at Fermilab for 20 years. The proposed KTEV project advances the search for the origins of a violation of a fundamental symmetry of nature called charge parity (CP) violation. Based on the analysis in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required

  18. Hunting Down Massless Dark Photons in Kaon Physics

    Fabbrichesi, M.; Gabrielli, E.; Mele, B.

    2017-07-01

    If dark photons are massless, they couple to standard-model particles only via higher dimensional operators, while direct (renormalizable) interactions induced by kinetic mixing, which motivates most of the current experimental searches, are absent. We consider the effect of possible flavor-changing magnetic-dipole couplings of massless dark photons in kaon physics. In particular, we study the branching ratio for the process K+→π+π0γ ¯ with a simplified-model approach, assuming the chiral quark model to evaluate the hadronic matrix element. Possible effects in the K0-K¯ 0 mixing are taken into account. We find that branching ratios up to O (10-7) are allowed—depending on the dark-sector masses and couplings. Such large branching ratios for K+→π+π0γ ¯ could be of interest for experiments dedicated to rare K+ decays like NA62 at CERN, where γ ¯ can be detected as a massless invisible system.

  19. Climate response to projected changes in short-lived species under an A1B scenario from 2000-2050 in the GISS climate model

    Menon, Surabi; Shindell, Drew T.; Faluvegi, Greg; Bauer, Susanne E.; Koch, Dorothy M.; Unger, Nadine; Menon, Surabi; Miller, Ron L.; Schmidt, Gavin A.; Streets, David G.

    2007-03-26

    We investigate the climate forcing from and response to projected changes in short-lived species and methane under the A1B scenario from 2000-2050 in the GISS climate model. We present a meta-analysis of new simulations of the full evolution of gas and aerosol species and other existing experiments with variations of the same model. The comparison highlights the importance of several physical processes in determining radiative forcing, especially the effect of climate change on stratosphere-troposphere exchange, heterogeneous sulfate-nitrate-dust chemistry, and changes in methane oxidation and natural emissions. However, the impact of these fairly uncertain physical effects is substantially less than the difference between alternative emission scenarios for all short-lived species. The net global mean annual average direct radiative forcing from the short-lived species is .02 W/m{sup 2} or less in our projections, as substantial positive ozone forcing is largely offset by negative aerosol direct forcing. Since aerosol reductions also lead to a reduced indirect effect, the global mean surface temperature warms by {approx}0.07 C by 2030 and {approx}0.13 C by 2050, adding 19% and 17%, respectively, to the warming induced by long-lived greenhouse gases. Regional direct forcings are large, up to 3.8 W/m{sup 2}. The ensemble-mean climate response shows little regional correlation with the spatial pattern of the forcing, however, suggesting that oceanic and atmospheric mixing generally overwhelms the effect of even large localized forcings. Exceptions are the polar regions, where ozone and aerosols may induce substantial seasonal climate changes.

  20. 182Hf-182W age dating of a 26Al-poor inclusion and implications for the origin of short-lived radioisotopes in the early Solar System.

    Holst, Jesper C; Olsen, Mia B; Paton, Chad; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Schiller, Martin; Wielandt, Daniel; Larsen, Kirsten K; Connelly, James N; Jørgensen, Jes K; Krot, Alexander N; Nordlund, Ake; Bizzarro, Martin

    2013-05-28

    Refractory inclusions [calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions, (CAIs)] represent the oldest Solar System solids and provide information regarding the formation of the Sun and its protoplanetary disk. CAIs contain evidence of now extinct short-lived radioisotopes (e.g., (26)Al, (41)Ca, and (182)Hf) synthesized in one or multiple stars and added to the protosolar molecular cloud before or during its collapse. Understanding how and when short-lived radioisotopes were added to the Solar System is necessary to assess their validity as chronometers and constrain the birthplace of the Sun. Whereas most CAIs formed with the canonical abundance of (26)Al corresponding to (26)Al/(27)Al of ∼5 × 10(-5), rare CAIs with fractionation and unidentified nuclear isotope effects (FUN CAIs) record nucleosynthetic isotopic heterogeneity and (26)Al/(27)Al of Solar System, including the origin of short-lived radioisotopes. However, their chronology is unknown. Using the (182)Hf-(182)W chronometer, we show that a FUN CAI recording a condensation origin from a solar gas formed coevally with canonical CAIs, but with (26)Al/(27)Al of ∼3 × 10(-6). The decoupling between (182)Hf and (26)Al requires distinct stellar origins: steady-state galactic stellar nucleosynthesis for (182)Hf and late-stage contamination of the protosolar molecular cloud by a massive star(s) for (26)Al. Admixing of stellar-derived (26)Al to the protoplanetary disk occurred during the epoch of CAI formation and, therefore, the (26)Al-(26)Mg systematics of CAIs cannot be used to define their formation interval. In contrast, our results support (182)Hf homogeneity and chronological significance of the (182)Hf-(182)W clock.

  1. Changes in oxidative stress parameters in relation to age, growth and reproduction in the short-lived catarina scallop Argopecten ventricosus reared in its natural environment.

    Guerra, C; Zenteno-Savín, T; Maeda-Martínez, A N; Philipp, E E R; Abele, D

    2012-08-01

    Increase in oxidative damage and decrease in cellular maintenance is often associated with aging, but, in marine ectotherms, both processes are also strongly influenced by somatic growth, maturation and reproduction. In this study, we used a single cohort of the short-lived catarina scallop Argopecten ventricosus, to investigate the effects of somatic growth, reproduction and aging on oxidative damage parameters (protein carbonyls, TBARS and lipofuscin) and cellular maintenance mechanisms (antioxidant activity and apoptosis) in scallops, caged in their natural environment. The concentrations of protein carbonyls and TBARS increased steeply during the early period of fast growth and during reproduction in one-year-old scallops. However, oxidative damage was transient, and apoptotic cell death played a pivotal role in eliminating damage in gill, mantle and muscle tissues of young scallops. Animals were able to reproduce again in the second year, but the reduced intensity of apoptosis impaired subsequent removal of damaged cells. In late survivors low antioxidant capacity and apoptotic activity together with a fast accumulation of the age pigment lipofuscin was observed. Rates of oxygen consumption and oxidative stress markers were strongly dependent on somatic growth and reproductive state but not on temperature. Compared to longer-lived bivalves, A. ventricosus seems more susceptible to oxidative stress with higher tissue-specific protein carbonyl levels and fast accumulation of lipofuscin in animals surviving the second spawning. Superoxide dismutase activity and apoptotic cell death intensity were however higher in this short-lived scallop than in longer-lived bivalves. The life strategy of this short-lived and intensely predated scallop supports rapid somatic growth and fitness as well as early maturation at young age at the cost of fast cellular degradation in second year scallops. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Freshly induced short-lived gamma-ray activity as a measure of fission rates in lightly re-irradiated spent fuel

    Kroehnert, H., E-mail: hanna.kroehnert@psi.c [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), OPRA-E07, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Perret, G., E-mail: gregory.perret@psi.c [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), OPRA-E07, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Murphy, M.F., E-mail: mike.murphy@psi.c [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), OPRA-E07, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Chawla, R., E-mail: rakesh.chawla@epfl.c [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), OPRA-E07, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2010-12-01

    A new measurement technique has been developed to determine fission rates in burnt fuel, following re-irradiation in a zero-power research reactor. The development has been made in the frame of the LIFE-PROTEUS program at the Paul Scherrer Institute, which aims at characterizing the interfaces between fresh and highly burnt fuel assemblies in modern LWRs. To discriminate against the high intrinsic gamma-ray activity of the burnt fuel, the proposed measurement technique uses high-energy gamma-rays, above 2000 keV, emitted by short-lived fission products freshly produced in the fuel. To demonstrate the feasibility of this technique, a fresh UO{sub 2} sample and a 36 GWd/t burnt UO{sub 2} sample were irradiated in the PROTEUS reactor and their gamma-ray activities were recorded directly after irradiation. For both fresh and the burnt fuel samples, relative fission rates were derived for different core positions, based on the short-lived {sup 142}La (2542 keV), {sup 89}Rb (2570 keV), {sup 138}Cs (2640 keV) and {sup 95}Y (3576 keV) gamma-ray lines. Uncertainties on the inter-position fission rate ratios were mainly due to the uncertainties on the net-area of the gamma-ray peaks and were about 1-3% for the fresh sample, and 3-6% for the burnt one. Thus, for the first time, it has been shown that the short-lived gamma-ray activity, induced in burnt fuel by irradiation in a zero-power reactor, can be used as a quantitative measure of the fission rate. For both fresh and burnt fuel, the measured results agreed, within the uncertainties, with Monte Carlo (MCNPX) predictions.

  3. A general dead-time correction method based on live-time stamping. Application to the measurement of short-lived radionuclides.

    Chauvenet, B; Bobin, C; Bouchard, J

    2017-12-01

    Dead-time correction formulae are established in the general case of superimposed non-homogeneous Poisson processes. Based on the same principles as conventional live-timed counting, this method exploits the additional information made available using digital signal processing systems, and especially the possibility to store the time stamps of live-time intervals. No approximation needs to be made to obtain those formulae. Estimates of the variances of corrected rates are also presented. This method is applied to the activity measurement of short-lived radionuclides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Measurement of formation cross sections producing short-lived nuclei by 14 MeV neutrons. Pr, Ba, Ce, Sm, W, Sn, Hf

    Murahira, S.; Satoh, Y.; Honda, N.; Shibata, M.; Yamamoto, H.; Kawade, K.; Takahashi, A.; Iida, T.

    1996-01-01

    Thirteen neutron activation cross sections for (n,2n), (n,p), (n,np) and (n,α) reactions producing short-lived nuclei with half-lives between 56 s and 24 min were measured in the energy range from 13.4 MeV to 14.9 MeV for Pr, Ba, Ce, Sm, W, Sn and Hf. The cross sections of 179 Hf(n,np) 178m Lu and 180 Hf(n,p) 180 Lu were measured for the first time. (author)

  5. Kaon-pion ratio from ISR results and the derived sea level muon spectrum from Maeda's model

    Bhattacharya, D P

    1978-01-01

    The sea-level muon spectrum has been calculated using Maeda's (1973) model. The contribution of the muon flux caused by kaon decay has been included in the calculation as the kaon-pion ratio. The value used for this ratio is that determined by the CERN Intersecting Storage Ring Group, Antinucci et al. (1973). (7 refs).

  6. Possible kaon and antiproton factory designs for TRIUMF

    Craddock, M.K.; Kost, C.J.; Richardson, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    Two alternative designs based on proton synchrotrons and isochronous ring cyclotrons, respectively are considered for accelerating high currents (<30 μA) from TRIUMF (0.45 GeV) to energies high enough for the production of high fluxes of kaons (8-10 GeV) and antiprotons (25-30 GeV). The first synchrotron would be fast cycling at 20 Hz, with third harmonic flat-topping to aid in injection and extraction. The cw beam from TRIUMF would be extracted in 100-turn macropulses at 22 μsec intervals. With 400 μA in TRIUMF and injection over 8-20 % of the magnet cycle, 30-80 μA could be accelerated to 10 GeV. A second synchrotron would accelerate 30 μA to 30 GeV for production of antiprotons. The ring cyclotron option would also be built in two stages, 0.45 to 3 GeV (15 sectors, 10 m radius) and 3 to 8.5 GeV (30 sectors, 20 m radius). With superconducting magnets (5 T) the weight of steel could be kept below 2000 tons for each ring. Large field-free regions between the spiral sector magnets allow room for multiple SIN-style accelerating cavities, permitting energy gains of many MeV/turn. Second or third harmonic cavities and the phase compression effect help in achieving separated turn extraction. Up to 100 % of the beam in TRIUMF could be accelerated to 8.5 GeV. (auth)

  7. Possible kaon and antiproton factory designs for TRIUMF

    Craddock, M.K.; Kost, C.J.; Richardson, J.R.

    1979-11-01

    Two alternative designs based on proton synchrotrons and isochronous ring cyclotrons, respectively are considered for accelerating high currents (>=30 μA) from TRIUMF (0.45 GeV) to energies high enough for the production of high fluxes of kaons (8-10 GeV) and antiprotons (25-30 GeV). The first synchrotron would be fast cycling at 20 Hz, with third harmonic flat-topping to aid in injection and extraction. The cw beam from TRIUMF would be extracted in 100-turn macropulses at 22 μsec intervals. With 400 μA in TRIUMF and injection over 8-20% of the magnet cycle, 30-80 μA could be accelerated to 10 GeV. A second synchrotron would accelerate 30 μA to 30 GeV for production of antiprotons. The ring cyclotron option would also be built in two stages, 0.45 to 3 GeV (15 sectors, 10 m radius) and 3 to 8.5 GeV (30 sectors, 20 m radius). With superconducting magnets (5 T) the weight of steel could be kept below 2000 tons for each ring. Large field-free regions between the spiral sector magnets allow room for multiple SIN-style accelerating cavities, permitting energy gains of many MeV/turn. Second or third harmonic cavities and the phase compression effect help in achieving separated turn extraction. Up to 100% of the beam in TRIUMF could be accelerated to 8.5 GeV. (auth)

  8. Study of 3-prong hadronic {tau} decays with charged kaons

    Richichi, S. J. [University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States); Severini, H. [University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States); Skubic, P. [University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States); Undrus, A. [University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States); Bishai, M. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Chen, S. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Fast, J. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Hinson, J. W. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Menon, N. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Miller, D. H. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)] (and others)

    1999-12-01

    Using a sample of 4.7 fb{sup -1} integrated luminosity accumulated with the CLEO-II detector at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR), we have measured the ratios of the branching fractions B({tau}{sup -}{yields}K{sup -}h{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{nu}{sub {tau}})/B({tau}{sup -}{yields}h{sup -}h{sup +}h{sup -}{nu}{sub {tau}})=(5.16(+= - )0.20{+-}0.50)x10{sup -2}, B({tau}{sup -}{yields}K{sup -}h{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}{nu}{sub {tau}})/B({tau}{sup -}{yields}h{sup -}h{sup +}h{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}{nu}{sub (t= a u))=(2.54{+-}0.44{+-}0.39)x10{sup -2}, B({tau}{sup -}{yields}K{sup -}K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{nu}{sub {tau}})/B({tau}{sup -}{yields}h{sup -}h{sup +}h{sup -}{nu}{sub {tau}})=(1.52(+= - )0.14{+-}0.29)x10{sup -2}, and the upper limit B({tau}{sup -}{yields}K{sup -}K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}{nu}{sub {tau}})/B({tau}{sup -}{yields}h{sup -}h{sup +}h{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}{nu}{sub (t= a u))<0.0154 at 95% C.L. Coupled with additional experimental information, we use our results to extract information on the structure of three-prong tau decays to charged kaons. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society.

  9. S-wave kaon-nucleon phase shifts with instanton induced effects

    Lemaire, S.; Labarsouque, J.; Silvestre-Brac, B.

    2003-01-01

    The kaon-nucleon S-wave phase shifts have been calculated, for both isospin channels I=0 and I=1, in the framework of a semirelativistic quark potential model which includes an instanton induced force. The agreement with experimental phase shifts is poor essentially because of a dominant attraction coming from instantons. The low-energy behaviour of S-wave phase shifts, for I=0 and I=1 channels, obtained in the kaon-nucleon system is characteristic of a potential which can produce one loosely bound state

  10. S-wave kaon-nucleon phase shifts with instanton induced effects

    Lemaire, S. E-mail: lemaire@cenbg.in2p3.fr; Labarsouque, J.; Silvestre-Brac, B

    2003-09-22

    The kaon-nucleon S-wave phase shifts have been calculated, for both isospin channels I=0 and I=1, in the framework of a semirelativistic quark potential model which includes an instanton induced force. The agreement with experimental phase shifts is poor essentially because of a dominant attraction coming from instantons. The low-energy behaviour of S-wave phase shifts, for I=0 and I=1 channels, obtained in the kaon-nucleon system is characteristic of a potential which can produce one loosely bound state.

  11. Development of a system for real-time measurements of metabolite transport in plants using short-lived positron-emitting radiotracers

    Kiser, Matthew R.

    Over the past 200 years, the Earth's atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2) concentration has increased by more than 35%, and climate experts predict that CO2 levels may double by the end of this century. Understanding the mechanisms of resource management in plants is fundamental for predicting how plants will respond to the increase in atmospheric CO 2. Plant productivity sustains life on Earth and is a principal component of the planet's system that regulates atmospheric CO2 concentration. As such, one of the central goals of plant science is to understand the regulatory mechanisms of plant growth in a changing environment. Short-lived positron-emitting radiotracer techniques provide time-dependent data that are critical for developing models of metabolite transport and resource distribution in plants and their microenvironments. To better understand the effects of environmental changes on resource transport and allocation in plants, we have developed a system for real-time measurements of rnetabolite transport in plants using short-lived positron-emitting radio-tracers. This thesis project includes the design, construction, and demonstration of the capabilities of this system for performing real-time measurements of metabolite transport in plants. The short-lived radiotracer system described in this dissertation takes advantage of the combined capabilities and close proximity of two research facilities at. Duke University: the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) and the Duke University Phytotron, which are separated by approximately 100 meters. The short-lived positron-emitting radioisotopes are generated using the 10-MV tandem Van de Graaff accelerator located in the main TUNL building, which provides the capability of producing short-lived positron-emitting isotopes such as carbon-11 (11C: 20 minute half-life), nitrogen-13 (13N; 10 minute half-life), fluorine-18 (18F; 110 minute half-life), and oxygen-15 (15O; 2 minute half-life). The radioisotopes may

  12. Jagiellonian University Recent QCD-related results from kaon physics at CERN (NA48/2 and NA62)

    Shkarovskiy, Sergey

    2017-01-01

    The NA48/2 experiment presents a preliminary result of $K^{\\pm}_{l}$ decays form factors measurement based on the $4.28 \\times 10^{6} K^{\\pm}_{e3}$ and $2.91 \\times 10^{6} K^{\\pm}_{\\mu 3}$ selected decays collected in 2004. The result is competetive with other measurements in $K^{\\pm}_{\\mu 3}$ mode and has a smallest uncertainty for $K^{\\pm}_{e3}$ , that leads to the most precise combined $K^{\\pm}_{l3}$ and allows to reduce the form factor uncertainty of $\\left | V_{US} \\right |$. The NA62 experiment collected a large sample of charged kaon decays with a highly efficient trigger for decays into electrons in 2007. A final result of a new measurement of the electromagnetic transition form factor slope of the neutral pion in the time-like momentum region from the $1.11 \\times 10^6$ fully reconstructed $\\pi^{0}$ Dalitz decays is presented in the second part of this article.

  13. Detection of 210Po on filter papers 16 years after use for the collection of short-lived radon progeny in a room

    Abu-Jarad, F.; Fazal-ur-Rehman

    2003-01-01

    Radon gas was allowed to accumulate in its radium source and then injected into a 36 m 3 test room, resulting in an initial radon concentration of 15 kBq m -3 . Filter papers were used to collect the short-lived radon progeny and thus to measure the Potential Alpha Energy Concentration (PAEC) in-situ in the year 1984 at different times and conditions according to the experimental design. The radon progeny collected on the filter papers were studied as a function of aerosol particle concentration ranging from 10 2 -10 5 particles cm -3 in three different experiments. The highest aerosol particle concentration was generated by indoor cigarette smoking. Those filters were stored after the experiment, and were used after 16 years to study the activity of the radon long-lived alpha emitter progeny, 210 Po (T 1/2 =138 days). This isotope is separated from the short-lived progeny by 210 Pb beta emitter with 22.3 years half-life. After 16 years' storage of these filters, each filter paper was sandwiched and wrapped between two CR-39 nuclear track detectors, to put the detectors in contact with the surfaces of different filters, for 337 days. Correlation between the PAEC measured using filter papers in the year 1984 and the activity of long-lived alpha emitter 210 Po on the same filter papers measured in the year 2000 were studied. The results of the 210 Po activity showed a very good correlation of 0.92 with the PAEC 16 years ago. The results also depict that the PAEC and 210 Po activity in indoor air increased with the increase of aerosol particle concentration, which shows the attachment of short-lived radon progeny with the aerosol particles. The experiment proves that indoor cigarette smoking is a major source of aerosol particles carrying radon progeny and, thus, indoor cigarette smoking is an additional source of internal radiation hazard to the occupants whether smoker or non-smoker

  14. Detection of {sup 210}Po on filter papers 16 years after use for the collection of short-lived radon progeny in a room

    Abu-Jarad, F. E-mail: falah.abujarad@aramco.com; Fazal-ur-Rehman

    2003-07-01

    Radon gas was allowed to accumulate in its radium source and then injected into a 36 m{sup 3} test room, resulting in an initial radon concentration of 15 kBq m{sup -3}. Filter papers were used to collect the short-lived radon progeny and thus to measure the Potential Alpha Energy Concentration (PAEC) in-situ in the year 1984 at different times and conditions according to the experimental design. The radon progeny collected on the filter papers were studied as a function of aerosol particle concentration ranging from 10{sup 2}-10{sup 5} particles cm{sup -3} in three different experiments. The highest aerosol particle concentration was generated by indoor cigarette smoking. Those filters were stored after the experiment, and were used after 16 years to study the activity of the radon long-lived alpha emitter progeny, {sup 210}Po (T{sub 1/2}=138 days). This isotope is separated from the short-lived progeny by {sup 210}Pb beta emitter with 22.3 years half-life. After 16 years' storage of these filters, each filter paper was sandwiched and wrapped between two CR-39 nuclear track detectors, to put the detectors in contact with the surfaces of different filters, for 337 days. Correlation between the PAEC measured using filter papers in the year 1984 and the activity of long-lived alpha emitter {sup 210}Po on the same filter papers measured in the year 2000 were studied. The results of the {sup 210}Po activity showed a very good correlation of 0.92 with the PAEC 16 years ago. The results also depict that the PAEC and {sup 210}Po activity in indoor air increased with the increase of aerosol particle concentration, which shows the attachment of short-lived radon progeny with the aerosol particles. The experiment proves that indoor cigarette smoking is a major source of aerosol particles carrying radon progeny and, thus, indoor cigarette smoking is an additional source of internal radiation hazard to the occupants whether smoker or non-smoker.

  15. Study of short-lived fission products with the aid of an isotope separator connected to reactor R2-0

    Rudstam, G.

    1976-01-01

    This report constitutes a final report on project 74-3289 together with a preliminary report for project 75-3332. These projects have been included in the budget years 1974/75 and 1975/76 as a contribution to the operating costs of reactor R2-0 at Studsvik. The reactor was used for experimental studies on short-lived fission products with OSIRIS isotope-separator equipment. The scientific programme is very broad. It comprises, in the first place, characterisation of fission products (a study of their excitation levels, measurement of decay properties such as half-life and emission of delayed neutrons, determination of neutron energy spectrum, determination of total decay energy, etc.). An important application of this field of research is the determination of decay heat in nuclear fuel. The programme thus comprises research of a fundamental character and applied research. (H.E.G.)

  16. Design a 10 kJ IS Mather Type Plasma Focus for Solid Target Activation to Produce Short-Lived Radioisotopes 12C(d,n)13N

    Sadat Kiai, S. M.; Adlparvar, S.; Sheibani, S.; Elahi, M.; Safarien, A.; Farhangi, S.; Zirak, A. R.; Alhooie, S.; Mortazavi, B. N.; Khalaj, M. M.; Khanchi, A. R.; Dabirzadeh, A. A.; Kashani, A.; Zahedi, F.

    2010-10-01

    A 10 kJ (15 kV, 88 μF) IS (Iranian Sun) Mather type plasma focus device has been studied to determine the activity of a compound exogenous carbon solid target through 12C(d,n)13N nuclear reaction. The produced 13N is a short-lived radioisotope with a half-life of 9.97 min and threshold energy of 0.28 MeV. The results indicate that energetic deuterons impinging on the solid target can produce yield of = 6.7 × 10-5 with an activity of A = 6.8 × 104 Bq for one plasma focus shut and A ν = 4 × 105 Bq for 6 shut per mint when the projectile maximum deuterons energy is E max = 3 MeV.

  17. Detailed description of a new management system for solid, short-lived low and intermediate level radioactive waste at Ignalina NPP

    2002-01-01

    The objective is to modify and extend the existing system at the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) for handling of Very Low Level Waste (VLLW), short lived Low and Intermediate Level Waste (LLW-SL and ILW-SL). The ultimate aim is to reduce the risks and the influence on the personnel and the environment. According to the request from INPP, the modified system is based on the existence of an incineration plant. This system description describes treatment of non-combustible VLLW, LLW-SL and ILW-SL at a new waste handling facility (WHF) located in the future buildings 159/2 and 159/3 at the INPP. The new WHF is also handling Exempt Waste (EW), Reusable Material (RM) and Free Release Goods (FRG). The buildings 159/2 and 159/3 are future extensions of the existing building 159. (author)

  18. Studies of short-lived radicals in the. gamma. -irradiated aqueous solution of uridine-5'-monophosphate by the spin-trapping method and the liquid chromatography

    Kominami, S [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan); Rokushika, S; Hatano, H

    1976-12-01

    An aerated aqueous solution of uridine-5'-monophosphate was ..gamma..-irradiated with 2-methyl-2-nitrosopropane as a spin-trapping reagent. Liquid chromatography was applied to separate the stable nitroxide radicals in the irradiated solution. The radicals were detected by U.V. and e.s.r. spectrometry. The e.s.r. detection showed four peaks in the chromatogram. The orcinol method for detection of the residual sugar moieties was applied before and after reduction of the base to determine the existence of the 5,6-double bond for the molecules in each fraction. From the combined results of the e.s.r. and orcinol methods, the short-lived radicals which were trapped by 2-methyl-2-nitrosopropane were identified as radicals of N-1 and C-6 positions of the base moiety and t-butyl radicals which was the radiolytic product of the trapping reagent.

  19. Surface disposal of low-level and medium-level short-lived waste. How safe is the disposal facility in Dessel in the long term?

    2014-01-01

    A disposal facility for the disposal of low-level and medium-level short-lived waste is planned to be built on a site located in the community of Dessel (Belgium). The facility will consist of 34 modules, corresponding to a storage volume capacity of approximately 70,000 m3. The disposal concept includes waste containers that are encapsulated in a concrete box which is filled with mortar. Approximately 900 of these blocks, or monoliths, fit inside each module. The article discusses the Research and Development programme that has been conducted at the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN in conjunction with the development of this facility. Main emphasis is on the models that have been developed for predicting the long-term containment of the disposal facility.

  20. Formation of short-lived positron emitters in reactions of protons of energies up to 200 MeV with the target elements carbon, nitrogen and oxygen

    Kettern, K; Qaim, S M; Shubin, Yu N; Steyn, G F; Van der Walt, T N; 10.1016/j.apradiso.2004.02.007

    2004-01-01

    Excitation functions were measured by the stacked-foil technique for proton induced reactions on carbon, nitrogen and oxygen leading to the formation of the short-lived positron emitters /sup 11/C (T/sub 1 /2/=20.38 min) and /sup 13/N (T/sub 1/2/=9.96 min). The energy region covered extended up to 200 MeV. The product activity was measured non-destructively via gamma -ray spectrometry. A careful decay curve analysis of the positron annihilation radiation was invariably performed. The experimental results were compared with theoretical data obtained using the modified hybrid nuclear model code ALICE-IPPE for intermediate energies. The agreement was found to be generally satisfactory. The data are of importance in proton therapy.

  1. Fractional release of short-lived noble gases and iodine from HTGR fuel compact containing a fraction of coated fuel particles with through-coating defects

    Ogawa, Toru; Fukuda, Kosaku; Kobayashi, Fumiaki; Kikuchi, Teruo; Tobita, Tsutomu; Kashimura, Satoru; Kikuchi, Hironobu; Yamamoto, Katsumune.

    1986-10-01

    Fractional release (R/B) data of short-lived noble gases and iodine from sweep-gas irradiated HTGR fuel compacts were analyzed. Empirical formulas to predict R/B of 88 Kr as a function of temperature and fraction through-coating defects, and to calculate ratios of R/B's of other shortlived gases to that of 88 Kr were proposed. A method to predict R/B of iodine was also proposed. As for 131 I, a fission product of major safety concern, (R/B) I 131 ≅ (R/B) Xe 133 was predicted. Applying those methods, R/B from OGL-1 fuel element (5th and 6th) was predicted to show a good agreement with observation. (author)

  2. Unattached fraction of short-lived Rn decay products in indoor and outdoor environments: An improved single-screen method and results

    Reineking, A.; Porstendoerfer, J.

    1990-01-01

    The unattached fraction fp of potential alpha energy of short-lived Rn decay products was measured under realistic, natural conditions in different dwellings and in the open atmosphere by a single-screen technique. An improved data evaluation method was developed where the measured activities of 218 Po (RaA) and 214 Pb (RaB) were corrected by the screen-attached activities of 214 Bi ( 214 Po) [RaC (RaC')]. This method is based on the experimental observation that the 214 Bi ( 214 Po) unattached activities are negligible under realistic living conditions and that the size distributions of the aerosol-attached activities of all short-lived Rn daughters are identical. In closed rooms without additional aerosol sources, a mean unattached fraction fp of the potential alpha energy of 0.096 was obtained at a mean aerosol particle concentration of 6100 cm-3 and at a mean equilibrium factor F of 0.30. This mean fp value is about three times higher than the value used in the literature for the radiation exposure calculation of the human public. In closed rooms with additional aerosol sources (cigarette smoke, heating systems, aerosols from a burning candle), the aerosol particle concentrations ranged up to 10(6) cm-3 and the attachment rates, X, increased up to 1000 h-1. The fp values sometimes decreased below the detection limit of 0.005, and the F values increased to as high as 0.77. In the ambient atmosphere in the vicinity of Goettingen, a mean unattached fraction fp of 0.02 and a mean aerosol particle concentration of 3.4 x 10(4) cm-3 were measured at 1 m above the ground. The mean equilibrium factor F was determined to be 0.7.A

  3. Investigation concerning the relative formation rate and half-life time of short-lived nuclides with a fast conveyor tube system

    Kreiner, H.J.

    1976-01-01

    Since the installation of the 'Ultrafast Rabbit System' at the FRN in end of 1974, some research was started concerning the possibility of neutron activation analysis of short-lived nuclides (0.02 1/2 < 1 s) and measurements of short-lived fission products of U-235 and Pu-239. One of the results of the investigations is a more exact gamma-energy determination of the 0.8 s Cl-38m with 671.33 keV. In NAA it was possible to reach a sensitivity for lead and boron near 2 μg per sample respectively 10 ppm. In measurements of light fission products 0.1 - 8s after a pulse irradiation some differences of the relative formation rate and half-life in the region of A approximately 100 were found in comparison to literature. For example a strong build-up could be seen measuring the gamma-energy of 276.1 keV that belongs to Nb-101. Therefore we suppose the existence of an isomeric state of Nb-101. In comparison to our own results of yield ratio of the Pu- and U-fission products a good agreement with known data was found. Furthermore the measuring method gives the possibility of coordination of unknown gamma-lines to nuclides using the rate of formation, the half-life, the yield ratio between U and Pu and the build-up factor. That could be verified in some cases, e.g. Nb-103 and Sr-96. (author)

  4. Low interannual precipitation has a greater negative effect than seedling herbivory on the population dynamics of a short-lived shrub, Schiedea obovata.

    Bialic-Murphy, Lalasia; Gaoue, Orou G

    2018-01-01

    Climate projections forecast more extreme interannual climate variability over time, with an increase in the severity and duration of extreme drought and rainfall events. Based on bioclimatic envelope models, it is projected that changing precipitation patterns will drastically alter the spatial distributions and density of plants and be a primary driver of biodiversity loss. However, many other underlying mechanisms can impact plant vital rates (i.e., survival, growth, and reproduction) and population dynamics. In this study, we developed a size-dependent integral projection model (IPM) to evaluate how interannual precipitation and mollusk herbivory influence the dynamics of a Hawaii endemic short-lived shrub, Schiedea obovata (Caryophyllaceae). Assessing how wet season precipitation effects population dynamics it critical, as it is the timeframe when most of the foliar growth occurs, plants flower and fruit, and seedlings establish. Temporal variation in wet season precipitation had a greater effect than mollusk herbivory on S . obovata population growth rate λ, and the impact of interannual precipitation on vital rates shifted across plant ontogeny. Furthermore, wet season precipitation influenced multiple vital rates in contrasting ways and the effect of precipitation on the survival of larger vegetative and reproductively mature individuals contributed the most to variation in the population growth rate. Among all combination of wet season precipitation and herbivory intensities, the only scenario that led to a growing population was when high wet precipitation was associated with low herbivory. Our study highlights the importance of evaluating how abiotic factors and plant-consumer interactions influence an organism across its life cycle to fully understand the underpinning mechanisms that structure its spatial and temporal distribution and abundance. Our results also illustrate that for short-lived species, like S. obovata , seedling herbivory can have

  5. Tests to determine the release of short-lived fission products from UO2 fuel operating at linear powers of 45 and 60 kW/m

    Hastings, I.J.; Hunt, C.E.L.; Lipsett, J.J.; MacDonald, R.D.

    1985-09-01

    Experiments have been carried out using a 'sweep gas' technique to determine the behaviour of short-lived fission products within operating, intact UO 2 fuel elements. The Zircaloy-4-clad elements were 600 mm long and contained fuel of density 10.65 - 10.71 Mg/m 3 . A He-2% H 2 carrier gas swept gaseous or volatile fission products out of the operating fuel element past a gamma spectrometer for measurement. We outline our loop model and give full details of calculational procedures. In tests at linear powers of 45 (FIO-122) and 60 kW/m (FIO-124) to a maximum burnup of 80 MW.h/kg U, the species measured directly at the spectrometer during normal operation were generally the short-lived xenons and kryptons. Iodines were not observed during normal operation. The behaviour of I-133 and I-135 was deduced from the decay of Xe-133 and Xe-135 during reactor shutdowns. Plots of R/B (released/born) against λ (decay constant) or effective λ for all isotopes observed at 45 and 60 kW/m show that a line of slope -0.5, corresponding with diffusion kinetics, is a good fit to the measured xenon and krypton data. The inferred release of iodine fits the same line. From this we can extrapolate to an R/B for I-131 of about 5 x 10 -4 at 45 kW/m, and 3 x 10 -3 at 60 kW/m. Both tests were terminated by defects. Under defect conditions, R/B dependence on λ was about 0.6. I-131 release under defect conditions was 5 Ci and 60 mCi for FIO-122 and FI0-124, respectively. 22 refs

  6. Multiplicities of charged kaons from deep-inelastic muon scattering off an isoscalar target

    Adolph, C.; Aghasyan, M.; Akhunzyanov, R.; Alexeev, M. G.; Alexeev, G. D.; Amoroso, A.; Andrieux, V.; Anfimov, N. V.; Anosov, V.; Augsten, K.; Augustyniak, W.; Austregesilo, A.; Azevedo, C.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Ball, M.; Barth, J.; Beck, R.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bicker, K.; Bielert, E. R.; Birsa, R.; Bodlák, M.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bressan, A.; Büchele, M.; Capozza, L.; Chang, W.-C.; Chatterjee, C.; Chiosso, M.; Choi, A.; Chung, S. U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M.; Curiel, Q.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S. S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O.; Dhara, L.; Donskov, S. V.; Doshita, N.; Dreisbach, Ch.; Duic, V.; Dünnweber, W.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Eversheim, P.D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; Finger jr., M.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; Fresne von Hohenesche, N.; Friedrich, J. M.; Frolov, V.; Fuchey, E.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O. P.; Gerassimov, S.; Giordano, F.; Gnesi, I.; Gorzellik, M.; Grabmüller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grosse-Perdekapm, M.; Grube, B.; Grussenmeyer, T.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; Hahne, D.; Hamar, G.; von Harrach, D.; Heinsius, F. H.; Heitz, R.; Herrmann, F.; Horikawa, N.; d'Hose, N.; Hsieh, C.-Yu.; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jarý, V.; Joosten, R.; Jörg, P.; Kabuss, E.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G. V.; Khokhlov, Yu. A.; Kisselev, Y.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koivuniemi, J. H.; Kolosov, V. N.; Kondo, K.; Königsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V. F.; Kotzinian, A. M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Krämer, M.; Kremser, P.; Krinner, F.; Kroumchtein, Z. V.; Kulinich, Y.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kurjata, R. P.; Lednev, A. A.; Lehmann, A.; Levillain, M.; Levorato, S.; Lian, Y.-S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Longo, R.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makins, N.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G.; Marianski, B.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matoušek, R.; Matsuda, H.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Meyer, M.; Meyer, W.; Mikhailov, Yu. V.; Mikhasenko, M.; Mitrofanov, E.; Mitrofanov, N.; Miyachi, Y.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nerling, F.; Neyret, D.; Nový, J.; Nowak, W. D.; Nukazuka, G.; Nunes, A.S.; Olshevsky, A. G.; Orlov, I.; Ostrick, M.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Peng, J.-C.; Pereira, F.; Pešek, M.; Peshekhonov, D. V.; Pierre, N.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polyakov, V. A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Regali, C.; Reicherz, G.; Riedl, C.; Roskot, M.; Rossiyskaya, N. S.; Ryabchikov, D.; Rybnikov, A.; Rychter, A.; Salač, R.; Samoylenko, V. D.; Sandacz, A.; Santos, C.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I. A.; Sawada, H.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schmidt, K.; Schmieden, H.; Schönning, K.; Seder, E.; Selyunin, A.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sirtl, S.; Slunecka, M.; Smolík, J.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, Aleš; Steffen, D.; Stolarski, M.; Subrt, O.; Sulc, M.; Suzuki, H.; Szabelski, A.; Szameitat, T.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Thibaud, F.; Thiel, A.; Tosello, F.; Tskhay, V.; Uhl, S.; Veloso, J.; Virius, M.; Vondra, J.; Wallner, S.; Weisrock, T.; Wilfert, M.; Windmolders, R.; Ter Wolbeek, J.; Zaremba, K.; Závada, P.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Zhuravlev, N.; Ziembicki, M.; Zink, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 767, 10 APRIL (2017), s. 133-141 ISSN 0370-2693 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : deep inelastic scattering * kaon multiplicities * quark fragmentation functions * strange quark Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Nuclear physics Impact factor: 4.807, year: 2016

  7. Measurements of x-rays and γ-rays from stopped kaons

    Godfrey, G.L.

    1975-01-01

    Intensities of x rays and γ rays from negative kaons stopped in elements, pure isotopes, and some compounds ranging from Z = 2 through Z = 92 have been measured. Included were x rays from K - atoms, Σ - atoms, and π - atoms. Also some nuclear γ rays associated with the stopped kaons were observed. The kaonic x-ray intensities for low n, Δn = 1 transitions, varied from .1 to .5 x rays/K/sub stop/ and showed a remarkable oscillation as Z changed. Peaks occurred near elements with closed electron shells. Within experimental accuracy, isotopes of the same elements yielded equal intensities. By searching for μ - from K - → μ - anti ν it was concluded that less than or equal to 5 percent of the stopped kaons decayed before nuclear capture in those elements studied. A cascade calculation was performed that reasonably reproduced the Δn = 1 intensities but gave Δn = 2 intensities high by a factor of 2. Initial kaon distributions in n = 30 proportional to (2l + 1) out to some l/sub max/ were used to begin the cascade. The value of l/sub max/ changed with Z. It is suggested that l/sub max/ might be related to an impact parameter picture with the lever arm equal to one-half the distance between the atoms in their lattice. (U.S.)

  8. Kaon pseudorapidity distribution in pA and AA collisions at AGS and SPS energies

    Liu, Fuhu; Zhang, Donghai; Duan, Maiying; Allah, Nabil N. Abd

    2003-01-01

    We study systematically the kaon pseudorapidity distribution in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at AGS and SPS energies within the cylinder model. The calculated results are compared and shown to be in agreement with the available experimental data. (author)

  9. Model independent measurement of the leptonic kaon decay $K^\\pm \\to \\mu^\\pm \

    Bizzeti, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Two recent results on rare kaon decays are presented, based on $\\sim 2 \\times 10^{11} K^{\\pm}$ decays recorded by the NA48/2 experiment at CERN SPS in 2003 and 2004. The branching ratio of the rare leptonic decay $K^{\\pm} \\to \\mu^{\\pm} \

  10. Kaon-nucleon S-wave phase shifts in a QCD-motivated quark model

    Bender, I.; Dosch, H.G.

    1982-01-01

    We calculate kaon-nucleon central potentials and S-wave phase shifts for I = 0 and I = 1 in an QCD-motivated quark model. In our model the K-N interaction is derived from short-range perturbative quark-quark interactions. (orig.)

  11. Design of a new low momentum kaon beam for the AGS

    Lazarus, D.M.

    1976-01-01

    The low momentum beam described is to be a unique source of antiprotons as well as kaons. The discussion covers (1) choice of production angle; (2) secondary beams; (3) the use of sector dipole magnets for minimizing aberrations; (4) beam bending magnets; (5) beam separators; and (6) beam acceptance

  12. Current algebra method for form factors and strong decays with hard pions and kaons

    Srivastava, P.P.

    1969-01-01

    The F K /F Π ratio between the kaon and pion decay couplings in one lepton pair, sum rules for Weinberg spectral functions, form factor renormalization of the K l3 decay because of the SU(3) symmetry violation and the calculations of strong decays of the K* and K A strange resonances are presented and discussed. (L.C.) [pt

  13. Model independent measurement of the leptonic kaon decay $K^\\pm \\to \\mu^\\pm \

    Bizzeti, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Two recent results on rare kaon decays are presented, based on $\\sim 2 \\times 10^{11} K^{\\pm}$ decays recorded by the NA48/2 experiment at CERN SPS in 2003 and 2004. The branching ratio of the rare leptonic decay $K^{\\pm} \\to \\mu^{\\pm} \

  14. Pion-Kaon correlations in central Au+Au collisions at square root [sNN] = 130 GeV.

    Adams, J; Adler, C; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Amonett, J; Anderson, B D; Anderson, M; Arkhipkin, D; Averichev, G S; Badyal, S K; Balewski, J; Barannikova, O; Barnby, L S; Baudot, J; Bekele, S; Belaga, V V; Bellwied, R; Berger, J; Bezverkhny, B I; Bhardwaj, S; Bhaskar, P; Bhati, A K; Bichsel, H; Billmeier, A; Bland, L C; Blyth, C O; Bonner, B E; Botje, M; Boucham, A; Brandin, A; Bravar, A; Cadman, R V; Cai, X Z; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Carroll, J; Castillo, J; Castro, M; Cebra, D; Chaloupka, P; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, Y; Chernenko, S P; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Choi, B; Christie, W; Coffin, J P; Cormier, T M; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Das, D; Das, S; Derevschikov, A A; Didenko, L; Dietel, T; Dong, X; Draper, J E; Du, F; Dubey, A K; Dunin, V B; Dunlop, J C; Dutta Majumdar, M R; Eckardt, V; Efimov, L G; Emelianov, V; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Fachini, P; Faine, V; Faivre, J; Fatemi, R; Filimonov, K; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fisyak, Y; Flierl, D; Foley, K J; Fu, J; Gagliardi, C A; Ganti, M S; Gutierrez, T D; Gagunashvili, N; Gans, J; Gaudichet, L; Germain, M; Geurts, F; Ghazikhanian, V; Ghosh, P; Gonzalez, J E; Grachov, O; Grigoriev, V; Gronstal, S; Grosnick, D; Guedon, M; Guertin, S M; Gupta, A; Gushin, E; Hallman, T J; Hardtke, D; Harris, J W; Heinz, M; Henry, T W; Heppelmann, S; Herston, T; Hippolyte, B; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Hoffmann, G W; Horsley, M; Huang, H Z; Huang, S L; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Ishihara, A; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Janik, M; Johnson, I; Jones, P G; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kaneta, M; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Kiryluk, J; Kisiel, A; Klay, J; Klein, S R; Klyachko, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Konstantinov, A S; Kopytine, M; Kotchenda, L; Kovalenko, A D; Kramer, M; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kuhn, C; Kulikov, A I; Kumar, A; Kunde, G J; Kunz, C L; Kutuev, R Kh; Kuznetsov, A A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Lange, S; Lansdell, C P; Lasiuk, B; Laue, F; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednický, R; Leontiev, V M; LeVine, M J; Li, C; Li, Q; Lindenbaum, S J; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Liu, L; Liu, Z; Liu, Q J; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Long, H; Longacre, R S; Lopez-Noriega, M; Love, W A; Ludlam, T; Lynn, D; Ma, J; Ma, Y G; Magestro, D; Mahajan, S; Mangotra, L K; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Manweiler, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Martin, L; Marx, J; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Yu A; McShane, T S; Meissner, F; Melnick, Yu; Meschanin, A; Messer, M; Miller, M L; Milosevich, Z; Minaev, N G; Mironov, C; Mishra, D; Mitchell, J; Mohanty, B; Molnar, L; Moore, C F; Mora-Corral, M J; Morozov, V; de Moura, M M; Munhoz, M G; Nandi, B K; Nayak, S K; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nevski, P; Nikitin, V A; Nogach, L V; Norman, B; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Okorokov, V; Oldenburg, M; Olson, D; Paic, G; Pandey, S U; Pal, S K; Panebratsev, Y; Panitkin, S Y; Pavlinov, A I; Pawlak, T; Perevoztchikov, V; Peryt, W; Petrov, V A; Phatak, S C; Picha, R; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Porile, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Potekhin, M; Potrebenikova, E; Potukuchi, B V K S; Prindle, D; Pruneau, C; Putschke, J; Rai, G; Rakness, G; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ravel, O; Ray, R L; Razin, S V; Reichhold, D; Reid, J G; Renault, G; Retiere, F; Ridiger, A; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevski, O V; Romero, J L; Rose, A; Roy, C; Ruan, L J; Rykov, V; Sahoo, R; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Savin, I; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmitz, N; Schroeder, L S; Schweda, K; Seger, J; Seliverstov, D; Seyboth, P; Shahaliev, E; Shao, M; Sharma, M; Shestermanov, K E; Shimanskii, S S; Singaraju, R N; Simon, F; Skoro, G; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Sood, G; Sorensen, P; Sowinski, J; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, S; Stock, R; Stolpovsky, A; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Struck, C; Suaide, A A P; Sugarbaker, E; Suire, C; Sumbera, M; Surrow, B; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Szarwas, P; Tai, A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Thein, D; Thomas, J H; Tikhomirov, V; Tokarev, M; Tonjes, M B; Trainor, T A; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Trivedi, M D; Trofimov, V; Tsai, O; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; VanderMolen, A M; Vasiliev, A N; Vasiliev, M; Vigdor, S E; Viyogi, Y P; Voloshin, S A; Waggoner, W; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Ward, H; Watson, J W; Wells, R; Westfall, G D; Whitten, C; Wieman, H; Willson, R; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wood, J; Wu, J; Xu, N; Xu, Z; Xu, Z Z; Yakutin, A E; Yamamoto, E; Yang, J; Yepes, P; Yurevich, V I; Zanevski, Y V; Zborovský, I; Zhang, H; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, W M; Zhang, Z P; Zołnierczuk, P A; Zoulkarneev, R; Zoulkarneeva, J; Zubarev, A N

    2003-12-31

    Pion-kaon correlation functions are constructed from central Au+Au STAR data taken at sqrt[s(NN)]=130 GeV by the STAR detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The results suggest that pions and kaons are not emitted at the same average space-time point. Space-momentum correlations, i.e., transverse flow, lead to a space-time emission asymmetry of pions and kaons that is consistent with the data. This result provides new independent evidence that the system created at RHIC undergoes a collective transverse expansion.

  15. Finite volume effects on the electric polarizability of neutral hadrons in lattice QCD

    Lujan, M.; Alexandru, A.; Freeman, W.; Lee, F. X.

    2016-10-01

    We study the finite volume effects on the electric polarizability for the neutron, neutral pion, and neutral kaon using eight dynamically generated two-flavor nHYP-clover ensembles at two different pion masses: 306(1) and 227(2) MeV. An infinite volume extrapolation is performed for each hadron at both pion masses. For the neutral kaon, finite volume effects are relatively mild. The dependence on the quark mass is also mild, and a reliable chiral extrapolation can be performed along with the infinite volume extrapolation. Our result is αK0 phys=0.356 (74 )(46 )×10-4 fm3 . In contrast, for neutron, the electric polarizability depends strongly on the volume. After removing the finite volume corrections, our neutron polarizability results are in good agreement with chiral perturbation theory. For the connected part of the neutral pion polarizability, the negative trend persists, and it is not due to finite volume effects but likely sea quark charging effects.

  16. Short Lived Climate Pollutants cause a Long Lived Effect on Sea-level Rise: Analyzing climate metrics for sea-level rise

    Sterner, E.; Johansson, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change depends on the increase of several different atmospheric pollutants. While long term global warming will be determined mainly by carbon dioxide, warming in the next few decades will depend to a large extent on short lived climate pollutants (SLCP). Reducing emissions of SLCPs could contribute to lower the global mean surface temperature by 0.5 °C already by 2050 (Shindell et al. 2012). Furthermore, the warming effect of one of the most potent SLCPs, black carbon (BC), may have been underestimated in the past. Bond et al. (2013) presents a new best estimate of the total BC radiative forcing (RF) of 1.1 W/m2 (90 % uncertainty bounds of 0.17 to 2.1 W/m2) since the beginning of the industrial era. BC is however never emitted alone and cooling aerosols from the same sources offset a majority of this RF. In the wake of calls for mitigation of SLCPs it is important to study other aspects of the climate effect of SLCPs. One key impact of climate change is sea-level rise (SLR). In a recent study, the effect of SLCP mitigation scenarios on SLR is examined. Hu et al (2013) find a substantial effect on SLR from mitigating SLCPs sharply, reducing SLR by 22-42% by 2100. We choose a different approach focusing on emission pulses and analyse a metric based on sea level rise so as to further enlighten the SLR consequences of SLCPs. We want in particular to understand the time dynamics of SLR impacts caused by SLCPs compared to other greenhouse gases. The most commonly used physical based metrics are GWP and GTP. We propose and evaluate an additional metric: The global sea-level rise potential (GSP). The GSP is defined as the sea level rise after a time horizon caused by an emissions pulse of a forcer to the sea level rise after a time horizon caused by an emissions pulse of a CO2. GSP is evaluated and compared to GWP and GTP using a set of climate forcers chosen to cover the whole scale of atmospheric perturbation life times (BC, CH4, N2O, CO2 and SF6). The study

  17. IN-SITU RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT NEAR THE NOPAL I URANIUM DEPOSIT AT PENA BLANCA, MEXICO: CONSTRAINTS FROM SHORT-LIVED DECAY-SERIES RADIONUCLIDES

    Luo, S.; Ku, T.L.; Todd, V.; Murrell, M.; Pineda, J. Alfredo Rodriguez; Dinsmoor, J.; Mitchell, A.

    2005-01-01

    For nuclear waste management, an important mechanism by which radioactive waste components are isolated from returning to the human environment, the biosphere, is by the geological barrier in which the effectiveness of the barrier is characterized by in-situ retardation factor, i.e., the transport rate of a radionuclide relative to that of groundwater. As part of natural analog studies of the Yucca Mountain Project of the U. S. Department of Energy, we propose such characterization by using naturally-occurring decay-series radioisotopes as an analog. We collected large-volume (>1000 liters) groundwater samples from three wells (PB, Pozos, and PB4, respectively) near the Nopal I Uranium Ore site at Pena Blanca, Mexico, by using an in-situ Mn-cartridge filtration technique for analysis of short-lived decay-series radionuclides. Results show that the activities of short-lived radioisotopes ( 228 Ra, 224 Ra and 223 Ra) and activity ratios of 224 Ra/ 228 Ra and 224 Ra/ 223 Ra are higher at PB and Pozos than at PB4. In contrast, the 210 Po activity is much lower at PB and Pozos than at PB4. The high Ra activities and activities ratios at PB and Pozos are attributable to the high alpha-recoil input from the aquifer rocks, while the high 210 Po activity at PB4 is due to the enhanced colloidal transport. Based on a uranium-series transport model, we estimate that the in-situ retardation factor of Ra is (0.43 ± 0.02) x 10 3 at PB, (1.68 ± 0.08) x 10 3 at Pozos, and (1.19 ± 0.08) x 10 3 at PB4 and that the mean fracture width in the aquifer rocks is about 0.23 (micro)m at PB, 0.37 (micro)m at Posos, and 4.0 (micro)m at PB4, respectively. The large fracture width at PB4 as derived from the model provides an additional evidence to the inference from the Po measurements that particle-reactive radionuclides are transported mainly as colloidal forms through the large fractures in rocks. Our model also suggests that in addition to alpha recoil, decay of 226 Ra from the adsorbed

  18. IN-SITU RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT NEAR THE NOPAL I URANIUM DEPOSIT AT PENA BLANCA, MEXICO: CONSTRAINTS FROM SHORT-LIVED DECAY-SERIES RADIONUCLIDES

    S. Luo; T.L. Ku; V. Todd; M. Murrell; J. Alfredo Rodriguez Pineda; J. Dinsmoor; A. Mitchell

    2005-07-11

    For nuclear waste management, an important mechanism by which radioactive waste components are isolated from returning to the human environment, the biosphere, is by the geological barrier in which the effectiveness of the barrier is characterized by in-situ retardation factor, i.e., the transport rate of a radionuclide relative to that of groundwater. As part of natural analog studies of the Yucca Mountain Project of the U. S. Department of Energy, we propose such characterization by using naturally-occurring decay-series radioisotopes as an analog. We collected large-volume (>1000 liters) groundwater samples from three wells (PB, Pozos, and PB4, respectively) near the Nopal I Uranium Ore site at Pena Blanca, Mexico, by using an in-situ Mn-cartridge filtration technique for analysis of short-lived decay-series radionuclides. Results show that the activities of short-lived radioisotopes ({sup 228}Ra, {sup 224}Ra and {sup 223}Ra) and activity ratios of {sup 224}Ra/{sup 228}Ra and {sup 224}Ra/{sup 223}Ra are higher at PB and Pozos than at PB4. In contrast, the {sup 210}Po activity is much lower at PB and Pozos than at PB4. The high Ra activities and activities ratios at PB and Pozos are attributable to the high alpha-recoil input from the aquifer rocks, while the high {sup 210}Po activity at PB4 is due to the enhanced colloidal transport. Based on a uranium-series transport model, we estimate that the in-situ retardation factor of Ra is (0.43 {+-} 0.02) x 10{sup 3} at PB, (1.68 {+-} 0.08) x 10{sup 3} at Pozos, and (1.19 {+-} 0.08) x 10{sup 3} at PB4 and that the mean fracture width in the aquifer rocks is about 0.23 {micro}m at PB, 0.37 {micro}m at Posos, and 4.0 {micro}m at PB4, respectively. The large fracture width at PB4 as derived from the model provides an additional evidence to the inference from the Po measurements that particle-reactive radionuclides are transported mainly as colloidal forms through the large fractures in rocks. Our model also suggests that

  19. Increased Concentrations of Short-Lived Decay-Series Radionuclides in Groundwaters Underneath the Nopal I Uranium Deposit at Pena Blanca, Mexico

    Luo, S.; Ku, T.; Todd, V.; Murrell, M. T.; Dinsmoor, J. C.

    2007-05-01

    The Nopal I uranium ore deposit at Pena Blanca, Mexico, located at > 200 meters above the groundwater table, provides an ideal natural analog for quantifying the effectiveness of geological barrier for isolation of radioactive waste nuclides from reaching the human environments through ground water transport. To fulfill such natural analog studies, three wells (PB1, PB2, and PB3 respectively) were drilled at the site from the land surface down to the saturated groundwater zone and ground waters were collected from each of these wells through large- volume sampling/in-situ Mn-filter filtration for analyses of short-lived uranium/thorium-series radionuclides. Our measurements from PB1 show that the groundwater standing in the hole has much lower 222Rn activity than the freshly pumped groundwater. From this change in 222Rn activity, we estimate the residence time of groundwater in PB1 to be about 20 days. Our measurements also show that the activities of short-lived radioisotopes of Th (234Th), Ra (228Ra, 224Ra, 223Ra), Rn (222Rn), Pb (210Pb), and Po (210Po) in PB1, PB2, and PB3 are all significantly higher than those from the other wells near the Nopal I site. These high activities provide evidence for the enrichment of long-lived U and Ra isotopes in the groundwater as well as in the associated adsorbed phases on the fractured aquifer rocks underneath the ore deposit. Such enrichment suggests a rapid dissolution of U and Ra isotopes from the uranium ore deposit in the vadose zone and the subsequent migration to the groundwater underneath. A reactive transport model can be established to characterize the in-situ transport of radionuclides at the site. The observed change of 222Rn activity at PB1 also suggests that the measured high radioactivityies in ground waters from the site isare not an artifact of drilling operations. However, further studies are needed to assess if or to what extent the radionuclide migration is affected by the previous mining activities at

  20. Daily and seasonal variation of short-lived radon decay product concentrations in ground-level air at Munich-Neuherberg - a long-term study

    Winkler, R.

    2001-09-01

    Daily and seasonal variation of the equilibrium equivalent radon concentration (EEC Rn-222 ) and of the concentration of the short-lived radon decay product 214 Pb in ground-level air was investigated at Munich-Neuherberg from 1982 to 2000, and from 1989 to 2000, respectively. For this, the EEC was measured continuously with an alpha/beta aerosol monitor at 2.5 m above ground, and 214 Pb was determined by online gamma spectrometry at about 12 m above ground. The resulting time series were analysed statistically. For the respective periods, the measurements yielded a long-term average concentration of 7.8 Bq m -3 (geometric mean: 6.1 Bq m -3 ) for the EEC, and 6.0 Bq m -3 (geom. mean: 5.0 Bq m -3 ) for 214 Pb. In these periods, daily averages ranged from 0.6 to 49 Bq m -3 (EEC), and from 0.6 to 43 Bq m -3 ( 214 Pb). Monthly mean concentrations varied between 3.0 Bq m -3 in March 1988 and 20 Bq m -3 in October 1985 (EEC), and from 3.4 Bq m -3 in April 1992 to 11 Bq m -3 in October 1995 ( 214 Pb), respectively. The annual average concentrations were from 5.9 Bq m -3 in 1999 to 10.6 Bq m -3 in 1985 (EEC), and from 5.3 Bq m -3 in 1999 to 6.8 Bq m -3 in 1991 ( 214 Pb). From the long-term average equilibrium equivalent radon concentration (EEC), an average annual effective dose of 0.13 mSv due to the short-lived radon progeny outdoors was estimated. The time series showed distinct daily and seasonal variations. The variations from day to day are mainly caused by the actual weather conditions (wind, rain, etc.), i.e. the short-term turbulent conditions. The seasonal pattern is characterised by an autumn to winter maximum and an early summer minimum, and reflects the prevailing turbulent conditions at the respective seasons. As known, at Munich-Neuherberg during autumn and winter months (October/November to February) inversion weather conditions frequently occur, while the other months are characterised by more turbulent conditions. (orig.)

  1. AGE-DEPENDENT INHALATION DOSE DUE TO EXPOSURE OF SHORT LIVED PROGENY OF RADON AND THORON FOR DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS IN JAMMU & KASHMIR, HIMALAYAS.

    Sharma, Sumit; Kumar, Ajay; Mehra, Rohit

    2018-05-16

    Dosimetric approach is used in this study for the assessment of doses due to inhalation of short lived radon/thoron progeny to the inhabitants of Udhampur district of Jammu & Kashmir. This paper also presents the activity concentrations and unattached fraction of radon and thoron progeny. The observed annual concentration of attached and unattached 222Rn and 220Rn progeny has been found to vary from 8 to 32 and 0.09 to 14 Bq/m3, 0.75 to 3.16 and 0.01 to 1.13 Bq/m3, respectively. The inhalation doses from radon progeny to different body organs of different age groups have been calculated by using the age dependent biokinetic model. The attachment rate of 222Rn and indoor aerosol concentration of 222Rn and 220Rn have been estimated and their relation between them has also been studied. The dose conversion factor for mouth and nasal breathing to different exposure conditions has been obtained from Porstendorfer model.

  2. Studies on the separation of rare earth elements and the nuclear decay properties of short lived rare-earth nuclides in U-235 fission products

    Ohyoshi, Akira; Ohyoshi, Emiko.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of a complex-forming agent, with which rare earths consecutively form the complexes, on the separation of a pair of adjacent rare earths by electromigration has been investigated. The relation between the separation factor for two complexes and the ligand-ion concentration was examined in the separation of La-Ce and Ce-Pr pairs with nitrilotriacetic acid. Rare earths were able to be isolated rapidly at the optimum ligand-ion concentration in lower one, and this method was applied to study the nuclear decay properties of the short lived isotopes of La, Ce, Pr, Nd and Yt formed in the fission of U-235. This method permits the direct measurement of the decay of La-144 without the interference from the radiation of other fission products. The gamma-ray spectrum of La-144 was measured with a high resolution Ge(Li) detector, and the gamma-transition was observed. From the decay plots of two strong photopeaks, the half-life of La-144 was determined. In the case of Ce fraction, the photopeaks assigned to respective isotopes were observed. In the studies on the decay properties of Pr-148 and Pr-149, the decay plot of the strong photopeak showed good linearity, and the accurate half-life of Pr-148 was determined. Similarly, the half-life of Pr-149 was longer than the previously reported value. (Kako, I.)

  3. 4-Amino-3H-pyrimidin-2-one ('isocytosine') is a short-lived non-radical intermediate formed in the pulse radiolysis of cytosine in aqueous solution

    Nien Schuchmann, Man; Naumov, Sergej; Schuchmann, Heinz-Peter; Sonntag, Justus von; Sonntag, Clemens von

    2005-01-01

    In the pulse radiolysis of 2'-deoxycytidine (dCyd) in N 2 O-saturated solutions containing 0.5M tertiary butanol to completely scavenge the water radicals, a short-lived intermediate (λmax=287nm) is observed by UV spectroscopy which is attributed to dCydH + , generated in the reaction of dCyd with H + formed during the pulse. By reacting with OH - , which is formed in the pulse in amounts matching that of H + , this intermediate disappears in the μs time range without a change of the spectrum. Similarly, cytosine (Cyt) gives rise to CytH + which, in contrast, in part transforms into another species (λmax=286nm) which can be assigned to isocytosine 1, 4-amino-3H-pyrimidin-2-one, a tautomer of Cyt which is formed by two routes (i) deprotonation of CytH + at N(1) by OH - and (ii) deprotonation of Cyt and reprotonation of the Cyt anion by water at N(3). Compared to Cyt, 1 is richer in Gibbs' free enthalpy by 14kJmol -1 . Its presence in low equilibrium concentrations has also been observed by conventional UV spectroscopy, making use of the increase of its equilibrium concentration with increasing temperature. From these data, an absorption coefficient of 3.3x10 4 dm 3 mol -1 cm -1 at 286nm has been calculated. Supporting quantum chemical calculations are also reported

  4. FORMATION OF THE SHORT-LIVED RADIONUCLIDE 36Cl IN THE PROTOPLANETARY DISK DURING LATE-STAGE IRRADIATION OF A VOLATILE-RICH RESERVOIR

    Jacobsen, Benjamin; Yin Qingzhu; Matzel, Jennifer; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Ramon, Erick C.; Weber, Peter K.; Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Ishii, Hope A.; Ciesla, Fred J.

    2011-01-01

    Short-lived radionuclides (SLRs) in the early solar system provide fundamental insight into protoplanetary disk evolution. We measured the 36 Cl- 36 S-isotope abundance in wadalite ( 36 Cl (τ 1/2 ∼ 3 x 10 5 yr) in the early solar system. Its presence, initial abundance, and the noticeable decoupling from 26 Al raise serious questions about the origin of SLRs. The inferred initial 36 Cl abundance for wadalite, corresponding to a 36 Cl/ 35 Cl ratio of (1.81 ± 0.13) x 10 -5 , is the highest 36 Cl abundance ever reported in any early solar system material. The high level of 36 Cl in wadalite and the absence of 26 Al ( 26 Al/ 27 Al ≤ 3.9 x 10 -6 ) in co-existing grossular (1) unequivocally support the production of 36 Cl by late-stage solar energetic particle irradiation in the protoplanetary disk and (2) indicates that the production of 36 Cl, recorded by wadalite, is unrelated to the origin of 26 Al and other SLRs ( 10 Be, 53 Mn) recorded by primary minerals of CAIs and chondrules. We infer that 36 Cl was largely produced by irradiation of a volatile-rich reservoir in an optically thin protoplanetary disk adjacent to the region in which the CV chondrite parent asteroid accreted while the Sun was a weak T Tauri star. Subsequently, 36 Cl accreted into the Allende CV chondrite together with condensed water ices.

  5. Transport of short-lived climate forcers/pollutants (SLCF/P) to the Himalayas during the South Asian summer monsoon onset

    Cristofanelli, P; Putero, D; Landi, T C; Marinoni, A; Duchi, R; Calzolari, F; Bonasoni, P; Adhikary, B; Stocchi, P; Verza, G; Vuillermoz, E; Laj, P; Kang, S; Ming, J

    2014-01-01

    Over the course of six years (2006–2011), equivalent black carbon (eqBC), coarse aerosol mass (PM 1–10 ), and surface ozone (O 3 ), observed during the monsoon onset period at the Nepal Climate Observatory–Pyramid WMO/GAW Global Station (NCO-P, 5079 m a.s.l.), were analyzed to investigate events characterized by a significant increase in these short-lived climate forcers/pollutants (SLCF/P). These events occurred during periods characterized by low (or nearly absent) rain precipitation in the central Himalayas, and they appeared to be related to weakening stages (or ‘breaking’) of the South Asian summer monsoon system. As revealed by the combined analysis of atmospheric circulation, air-mass three-dimensional back trajectories, and satellite measurements of atmospheric aerosol loading, surface open fire, and tropospheric NO x , the large amount of SLCF/P reaching the NCO-P appeared to be related to natural (mineral dust) and anthropogenic emissions occurring within the PBL of central Pakistan (i.e., Thar Desert), the Northwestern Indo-Gangetic plain, and the Himalayan foothills. The systematic occurrence of these events appeared to represent the most important source of SLCF/P inputs into the central Himalayas during the summer monsoon onset period, with possible important implications for the regional climate and for hydrological cycles. (letter)

  6. Design and development of a computer-based continuous monitor for the determination of the short-lived decay products of radon and thoron

    Bigu, J [Department of Energy, Mines and Resources, Elliot Lake, Ontario (Canada). Elliot Lake Lab.; Raz, R; Golden, K; Dominguez, P [Alpha-NUCLEAR, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1984-08-15

    A portable, rugged, monitor has been designed and built for measuring the short-lived decay products of radon and thoron. The monitor is computer-based and employs a continuous filter strip which can be advanced at programmable time intervals to allow unattended continuous operation with automatic sampling, analysis and recording of radiation levels. Radionuclide analysis is carried out by two silicon diffused-junction alpha-detectors and electronic circuitry with multichannel spectral analysis capabilities. Standard gross ..cap alpha..-count methods and ..cap alpha..-spectroscopy methods can easily be implemented. The built-in computer performs a variety of operations via a specially designed interface module, including control and data recording functions, and computations, program storage and display functions. Programs and data are stored in the built-in casette tape drive and the computer integrated CRT display and keyboard allow simple, prompted menu-type operation of standard software. Graphical presentation of ..cap alpha..-spectra can be shown on the computer CRT and printed when required on the computer built-in thermal printer. In addition, to implementing the specially developed radionuclide analysis software, the operator can interact and modify existing software, and program new ones, through BASIC language programming, or employ the computer in a totally unrelated, general purpose model. Although the monitor is ideally suited for environmental radon (thoron) daughter monitoring, it could also be used in the determination of other airborne radionuclides provided adequate analytical procedures are developed or included in the already existing computer software.

  7. Half-life and mass measurement of the short-lived {sup 215}Po isotope (1.78 ms) at the FRS ion catcher

    Rink, Ann-Kathrin; Bergmann, Julian; Ebert, Jens; Hornung, Christine; Miskun, Ivan; Reiter, Moritz P. [Justus-Liebig Universitaet Giessen (Germany); Ayet San Andres, Samuel; Dickel, Timo; Plass, Wolfgang R.; Scheidenberger, Christoph [Justus-Liebig Universitaet Giessen (Germany); GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Geissel, Hans; Purushothaman, Sivaji [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    At the Low-Energy Branch (LEB) of the Super-FRS at FAIR, precision experiments with exotic nuclei will be performed using ion traps and lasers. The nuclei will be produced at relativistic energies, slowed down, thermalised in a cryogenic stopping cell (CSC) and made available to various experiments. The thermalisation is a challenging task because of the large energy straggling of the nuclei after production, which requires a stopping cell with large areal densities. Also, the process needs to be performed on a millisecond time scale in order to give access to short-lived nuclides. This method has already been successfully applied at the FRS Ion Catcher at GSI using a prototype CSC. Recently the potential of the method has been demonstrated by the mass and half-life measurement of the {sup 215}Po nuclide with a half-life of 1.78 ms only. The multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer at the FRS Ion Catcher has been used to determine the mass to a sub-ppm accuracy and to provide a mass-selected beam for alpha spectroscopy. Furthermore, experiments have been performed with the prototype CSC in order to test novel concepts to be used with the final version of the CSC for the LEB.

  8. Tropospheric ozone and its precursors from the urban to the global scale from air quality to short-lived climate forcer

    Monks, P. S.; Archibald, A. T.; Colette, A.; Cooper, O.; Coyle, M.; Derwent, R.; Fowler, D.; Granier, C.; Law, K. S.; Mills, G. E.; Stevenson, D. S.; Tarasova, O.; Thouret, V.; von Schneidemesser, E.; Sommariva, R.; Wild, O.; Williams, M. L.

    2015-08-01

    Ozone holds a certain fascination in atmospheric science. It is ubiquitous in the atmosphere, central to tropospheric oxidation chemistry, yet harmful to human and ecosystem health as well as being an important greenhouse gas. It is not emitted into the atmosphere but is a byproduct of the very oxidation chemistry it largely initiates. Much effort is focused on the reduction of surface levels of ozone owing to its health and vegetation impacts, but recent efforts to achieve reductions in exposure at a country scale have proved difficult to achieve owing to increases in background ozone at the zonal hemispheric scale. There is also a growing realisation that the role of ozone as a short-lived climate pollutant could be important in integrated air quality climate change mitigation. This review examines current understanding of the processes regulating tropospheric ozone at global to local scales from both measurements and models. It takes the view that knowledge across the scales is important for dealing with air quality and climate change in a synergistic manner. The review shows that there remain a number of clear challenges for ozone such as explaining surface trends, incorporating new chemical understanding, ozone-climate coupling, and a better assessment of impacts. There is a clear and present need to treat ozone across the range of scales, a transboundary issue, but with an emphasis on the hemispheric scales. New observational opportunities are offered both by satellites and small sensors that bridge the scales.

  9. Triggering Collapse of the Presolar Dense Cloud Core and Injecting Short-lived Radioisotopes with a Shock Wave. V. Nonisothermal Collapse Regime

    Boss, Alan P., E-mail: aboss@carnegiescience.edu [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution for Science, 5241 Broad Branch Road, NW, Washington, DC 20015-1305 (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Recent meteoritical analyses support an initial abundance of the short-lived radioisotope (SLRI) {sup 60}Fe that may be high enough to require nucleosynthesis in a core-collapse supernova, followed by rapid incorporation into primitive meteoritical components, rather than a scenario where such isotopes were inherited from a well-mixed region of a giant molecular cloud polluted by a variety of supernovae remnants and massive star winds. This paper continues to explore the former scenario, by calculating three-dimensional, adaptive mesh refinement, hydrodynamical code (FLASH 2.5) models of the self-gravitational, dynamical collapse of a molecular cloud core that has been struck by a thin shock front with a speed of 40 km s{sup −1}, leading to the injection of shock front matter into the collapsing cloud through the formation of Rayleigh–Taylor fingers at the shock–cloud intersection. These models extend the previous work into the nonisothermal collapse regime using a polytropic approximation to represent compressional heating in the optically thick protostar. The models show that the injection efficiencies of shock front materials are enhanced compared to previous models, which were not carried into the nonisothermal regime, and so did not reach such high densities. The new models, combined with the recent estimates of initial {sup 60}Fe abundances, imply that the supernova triggering and injection scenario remains a plausible explanation for the origin of the SLRIs involved in the formation of our solar system.

  10. 'Sleeping reactor' irradiations. The use of a shut-down reactor for the determination of elements with short-lived activation products

    Jerde, E.A.; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN; Glasgow, D.C.

    1999-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis utilizing the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) immediately following SCRAM is a workable solution to obtaining data for ultra-short lived species, principally Al, Ti, Mg, and V. Neutrons are produced in the HFIR core within the beryllium reflector due to gamma-ray bombardment from the spent fuel elements. This neutron flux is not constant, varying by over two orders of magnitude during the first 24 hours. The problems associated with irradiation in a changing neutron flux are removed through the use of a specially tailored activation equation. This activation equation is applicable to any irradiation at HFIR in the firs 24 hours after SCRAM since the fuel elements are identical from cycle to cycle, and the gamma-emitting nuclides responsible for the neutrons reach saturation during the fuel cycle. Reference material tests demonstrate that this method is successful, and detection limit estimates reveal that it should be applicable to materials of widely ranging mass and composition. (author)

  11. The origin and disappearance of the late Pleistocene-early Holocene short-lived coastal wetlands along the Carmel coast, Israel

    Sivan, Dorit; Greenbaum, Noam; Cohen-Seffer, Ronit; Sisma-Ventura, Guy; Almogi-Labin, Ahuva

    The formation of short-lived backswamps along the Carmel coast of Israel coincides with the rapid global sea-level rise during the late Pleistocene-early Holocene transition. The current study shows that the wetland phenomena originated around 10,000 yr ago and dried up shortly before the local Pre-Pottery Neolithic humans settled on the wetland dark clay sediments 9430 cal yr BP. Palaeontological and stable-isotope data were used in this study to elucidate previously published sedimentological reconstruction obtained from a core drilled into the western trough of the Carmel coastal plain. The water body contained typical brackish calcareous fauna, with variable numerical abundance and low species richness of ostracods and foraminifera. The δ 18O and δ 13C of the ostracod Cyprideis torosa show close similarity to the present Pleistocene coastal aquifer isotopic values. This study therefore concludes that the wetlands were shallow-water bodies fed by groundwater, with no evidence of sea-water mixing. It seems that they developed as the result of high groundwater levels, transportation of sediments landward, and deposition of sand bars at the paleo-river mouths. It is still not fully understood why these wetlands deteriorated abruptly and disappeared within less than 1000 yr.

  12. Design and Performance Assessment of a Conceptual Cover Cap of Near Surface Repository for Short Lived Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste

    Asaba, Ruth; Kim, Changlak [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The safety of the overall waste disposal system is determined by the performance of its individual components: waste form, waste container, engineered barrier and the host environment. The design of the cover cap helps in preventing percolation of water, and in retarding radionuclide migration from the disposal facility to the biosphere. The cover of a disposal facility is usually a combination of materials such as sand, gravel, concrete, clay and soil conditioned for vegetation growth. The cover system will be designed using models such as EPA's Hydrological Evaluation of Land fill Performance (HELP) code. This paper describes a conceptual design for a cover cap for a land fill as a preferred disposal facility for low and short lived intermediate radioactive waste in Uganda. Majority of the waste is generated from disused sealed and unsealed radioactive sources arising from medical, industrial applications, and research. Radioactive waste management has raised a lot of concern in both developed and developing countries. Each country has a responsibility to come up with a solution to prevent contamination of the environment and humans from radioactive waste. It is important to have thicker soil layers in cap designs so as to support vegetation growth since some activities such as erosion and settlements are expected. Help simulations in this study will assist to demonstrate that it is possible to design a cover cap which can contain radioactive waste packages for hundreds of years provided the proper institutional and performance monitoring schemes are implemented.

  13. Leadership emergence over time in short-lived groups: Integrating expectations states theory with temporal person-perception and self-serving bias.

    Kalish, Yuval; Luria, Gil

    2016-10-01

    Research into leadership emergence typically focuses on the attributes of the emergent leader. By considering also the attributes of perceivers and the passage of time, we develop a more complete theory of leadership emergence in short-lived groups. Using expectation states theory as an overarching theoretical framework, and integrating it with the surface- and deep-level diversity literature and with theories of self-serving biases, we examine the predictors of leadership emergence in short timeframes. We conduct a field study in a military assessment boot camp (a pilot study, n = 60; and a main study, n = 89). We use cross-sectional and longitudinal exponential random graph models to analyze data on participants' abilities and on their perceptions of who, in their respective groups, were "leaders." We find that the criteria by which people perceive leadership in others change over time, from easily noticeable attributes to covert leadership-relevant attributes, and that people also rely on leadership-relevant attributes that they possess at high levels to inform their perceptions of leadership in others. The integration of expectation states theory, attribute salience over time and theories of self-serving bias is needed for a full understanding of leadership emergence in groups, because perceivers' own abilities are instrumental in shaping their perceptions of emergent leadership over time. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Design and development of a computer-based continuous monitor for the determination of the short-lived decay products of radon and thoron

    Bigu, J.

    1984-01-01

    A portable, rugged, monitor has been designed and built for measuring the short-lived decay products of radon and thoron. The monitor is computer-based and employs a continuous filter strip which can be advanced at programmable time intervals to allow unattended continuous operatin with automatic sampling, analysis and recording of radiation levels. Radionuclide analysis is carried out by two silicon diffused-junction alpha-detectors and electronic circuitry with multichannel spectral analysis capabilities. Standard gross α-count methods and α-spectroscopy methods can easily be implemented. The built-in computer performs a variety of operations via a specially designed interface module, including control and data recording functions, and computations, program storage and display functions. Programs and data are stored in the built-in casette tape drive and the computer integrated CRT display and keyboard allow simple, prompted menu-type operation of standard software. Graphical presentation of α-spectra can be shown on the computer CRT and printed when required on the computer built-in thermal printer. In addition, to implementing the specially developed radionuclide analysis software, the operator can interact and modify existing software, and program new ones, through BASIC language programming, or employ the computer in a totally unrelated, general purpose model. Although the monitor is ideally suited for environmental radon (thoron) daughter monitoring, it could also be used in the determination of other airborne radionuclides provided adequate analytical procedures are developed or included in the already existing computer software. (orig.)

  15. Climate impacts of short-lived climate forcers versus CO2 from biodiesel: a case of the EU on-road sector.

    Lund, Marianne T; Berntsen, Terje K; Fuglestvedt, Jan S

    2014-12-16

    Biofuels are proposed to play an important role in several mitigation strategies to meet future CO2 emission targets for the transport sector but remain controversial due to significant uncertainties in net impacts on environment, society, and climate. A switch to biofuels can also affect short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs), which provide significant contributions to the net climate impact of transportation. We quantify the radiative forcing (RF) and global-mean temperature response over time to EU on-road fossil diesel SLCFs and the impact of 20% (B20) and 100% (B100) replacement of fossil diesel by biodiesel. SLCFs are compared to impacts of on-road CO2 using different approaches from existing literature to account for biodiesel CO2. Given the best estimates for changes in emissions when replacing fossil diesel with biodiesel, the net positive RF from EU on-road fossil diesel SLCFs of 3.4 mW/m(2) is reduced by 15% and 80% in B20 and B100, respectively. Over time the warming of SLCFs is likely small compared to biodiesel CO2 impacts. However, SLCFs may be relatively more important for the total warming than in the fossil fuel case if biodiesel from feedstock with very short rotation periods and low land-use-change impacts replaces a high fraction of fossil diesel.

  16. Charged kaon femtoscopic correlations in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV

    Abelev, B; Adamova, D; Adare, A M; Aggarwal, M M; Aglieri Rinella, G; Agnello, M; Agocs, A G; Agostinelli, A; Ahammed, Z; Ahmad, N; Ahmad Masoodi, A; Ahn, S U; Ahn, S A; Ajaz, M; Akindinov, A; Aleksandrov, D; Alessandro, B; Alici, A; Alkin, A; Almaraz Avina, E; Alme, J; Alt, T; Altini, V; Altinpinar, S; Altsybeev, I; Andrei, C; Andronic, A; Anguelov, V; Anielski, J; Anson, C; Anticic, T; Antinori, F; Antonioli, P; Aphecetche, L; Appelshauser, H; Arbor, N; Arcelli, S; Arend, A; Armesto, N; Arnaldi, R; Aronsson, T; Arsene, I C; Arslandok, M; Asryan, A; Augustinus, A; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Aysto, J; Azmi, M D; Bach, M; Badala, A; Baek, Y W; Bailhache, R; Bala, R; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Baldisseri, A; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F; Ban, J; Baral, R C; Barbera, R; Barile, F; Barnafoldi, G G; Barnby, L S; Barret, V; Bartke, J; Basile, M; Bastid, N; Basu, S; Bathen, B; Batigne, G; Batyunya, B; Baumann, C; Bearden, I G; Beck, H; Behera, N K; Belikov, I; Bellini, F; Bellwied, R; Belmont-Moreno, E; Bencedi, G; Beole, S; Berceanu, I; Bercuci, A; Berdnikov, Y; Berenyi, D; Bergognon, A A E; Berzano, D; Betev, L; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhom, J; Bianchi, L; Bianchi, N; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bilandzic, A; Bjelogrlic, S; Blanco, F; Blanco, F; Blau, D; Blume, C; Boccioli, M; Bottger, S; Bogdanov, A; Boggild, H; Bogolyubsky, M; Boldizsar, L; Bombara, M; Book, J; Borel, H; Borissov, A; Bossu, F; Botje, M; Botta, E; Braidot, E; Braun-Munzinger, P; Bregant, M; Breitner, T; Browning, T A; Broz, M; Brun, R; Bruna, E; Bruno, G E; Budnikov, D; Buesching, H; Bufalino, S; Buncic, P; Busch, O; Buthelezi, Z; Caballero Orduna, D.; Caffarri, D; Cai, X; Caines, H; Calvo Villar, E; Camerini, P; Canoa Roman, V; Cara Romeo, G; Carena, F; Carena, W; Carlin Filho, N; Carminati, F; Casanova Diaz, A; Castillo Castellanos, J; Castillo Hernandez, J F; Casula, E A R; Catanescu, V; Cavicchioli, C; Ceballos Sanchez, C; Cepila, J; Cerello, P; Chang, B; Chapeland, S; Charvet, J L; Chattopadhyay, S; Chattopadhyay, S; Chawla, I; Cherney, M; Cheshkov, C; Cheynis, B; Chibante Barroso, V; Chinellato, D D; Chochula, P; Chojnacki, M; Choudhury, S; Christakoglou, P; Christensen, C H; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, S U; Cicalo, C; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Cleymans, J; Coccetti, F; Colamaria, F; Colella, D; Collu, A; Conesa Balbastre, G; Conesa del Valle, Z; Connors, M E; Contin, G; Contreras, J G; Cormier, T M; Corrales Morales, Y; Cortese, P; Cortes Maldonado, I; Cosentino, M R; Costa, F; Cotallo, M E; Crescio, E; Crochet, P; Cruz Alaniz, E; Cuautle, E; Cunqueiro, L; Dainese, A; Dalsgaard, H H; Danu, A; Das, S; Das, I; Das, D; Das, K; Dash, A; Dash, S; De, S; de Barros, G O V; De Caro, A; De Cataldo, G; de Cuveland, J; De Falco, A; De Gruttola, D; Delagrange, H; Deloff, A; De Marco, N; Denes, E; De Pasquale, S; Deppman, A; D'Erasmo, G; de Rooij, R; Diaz Corchero, M A; Di Bari, D; Dietel, T; Di Giglio, C; Di Liberto, S; Di Mauro, A; Di Nezza, P; Divia, R; Djuvsland, O; Dobrin, A; Dobrowolski, T; Donigus, B; Dordic, O; Driga, O; Dubey, A K; Dubla, A; Ducroux, L; Dupieux, P; Dutta Majumdar, A K; Dutta Majumdar, M R; Elia, D; Emschermann, D; Engel, H; Erazmus, B; Erdal, H A; Espagnon, B; Estienne, M; Esumi, S; Evans, D; Eyyubova, G; Fabris, D; Faivre, J; Falchieri, D; Fantoni, A; Fasel, M; Fearick, R; Fehlker, D; Feldkamp, L; Felea, D; Feliciello, A; Fenton-Olsen, B; Feofilov, G; Fernandez Tellez, A; Ferretti, A; Festanti, A; Figiel, J; Figueredo, M A S; Filchagin, S; Finogeev, D; Fionda, F M; Fiore, E M; Floratos, E; Floris, M; Foertsch, S; Foka, P; Fokin, S; Fragiacomo, E; Francescon, A; Frankenfeld, U; Fuchs, U; Furget, C; Fusco Girard, M; Gaardhoje, J J; Gagliardi, M; Gago, A; Gallio, M; Gangadharan, D R; Ganoti, P; Garabatos, C; Garcia-Solis, E; Garishvili, I; Gerhard, J; Germain, M; Geuna, C; Gheata, M; Gheata, A; Ghosh, P; Gianotti, P; Girard, M R; Giubellino, P; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Glassel, P; Gomez, R; Ferreiro, E G; Gonzalez-Trueba, L H; Gonzalez-Zamora, P; Gorbunov, S; Goswami, A; Gotovac, S; Graczykowski, L K; Grajcarek, R; Grelli, A; Grigoras, C; Grigoras, A; Grigoriev, V; Grigoryan, S; Grigoryan, A; Grinyov, B; Grion, N; Gros, P; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J F; Grossiord, J Y; Grosso, R; Guber, F; Guernane, R; Guerzoni, B; Guilbaud, M; Gulbrandsen, K; Gulkanyan, H; Gunji, T; Gupta, A; Gupta, R; Haaland, O; Hadjidakis, C; Haiduc, M; Hamagaki, H; Hamar, G; Han, B H; Hanratty, L D; Hansen, A; Harmanova-Tothova, Z; Harris, J W; Hartig, M; Harton, A; Hasegan, D; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hayashi, S; Hayrapetyan, A; Heckel, S T; Heide, M; Helstrup, H; Herghelegiu, A; Herrera Corral, G; Herrmann, N; Hess, B A; Hetland, K F; Hicks, B; Hippolyte, B; Hori, Y; Hristov, P; Hrivnacova, I; Huang, M; Humanic, T J; Hwang, D S; Ichou, R; Ilkaev, R; Ilkiv, I; Inaba, M; Incani, E; Innocenti, G M; Innocenti, P G; Ippolitov, M; Irfan, M; Ivan, C; Ivanov, V; Ivanov, A; Ivanov, M; Ivanytskyi, O; Jacholkowski, A; Jacobs, P M; Jang, H J; Janik, M A; Janik, R; Jayarathna, P.H S Y; Jena, S; Jha, D M; Jimenez Bustamante, R T; Jones, P G; Jung, H; Jusko, A; Kaidalov, A B; Kalcher, S; Kalinak, P; Kalliokoski, T; Kalweit, A; Kang, J H; Kaplin, V; Karasu Uysal, A; Karavichev, O; Karavicheva, T; Karpechev, E; Kazantsev, A; Kebschull, U; Keidel, R; Khan, M M; Khan, P; Khan, K H; Khan, S A; Khanzadeev, A; Kharlov, Y; Kileng, B; Kim, S; Kim, M; Kim, M; Kim, J S; Kim, J H; Kim, D W; Kim, B; Kim, D J; Kim, T; Kirsch, S; Kisel, I; Kiselev, S; Kisiel, A; Klay, J L; Klein, J; Klein-Bosing, C; Kliemant, M; Kluge, A; Knichel, M L; Knospe, A G; Kohler, M K; Kollegger, T; Kolojvari, A; Kompaniets, M; Kondratiev, V; Kondratyeva, N; Konevskikh, A; Kour, R; Kovalenko, V; Kowalski, M; Kox, S; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G; Kral, J; Kralik, I; Kramer, F; Kravcakova, A; Krawutschke, T; Krelina, M; Kretz, M; Krivda, M; Krizek, F; Krus, M; Kryshen, E; Krzewicki, M; Kucheriaev, Y; Kugathasan, T; Kuhn, C; Kuijer, P G; Kulakov, I; Kumar, J; Kurashvili, P; Kurepin, A B; Kurepin, A; Kuryakin, A; Kushpil, V; Kushpil, S; Kvaerno, H; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Ladron de Guevara, P; Lakomov, I; Langoy, R; La Pointe, S L; Lara, C; Lardeux, A; La Rocca, P; Lea, R; Lechman, M; Lee, G R; Lee, K S; Lee, S C; Legrand, I; Lehnert, J; Lenhardt, M; Lenti, V; Leon, H; Leon Monzon, I; Leon Vargas, H; Levai, P; Li, S; Lien, J; Lietava, R; Lindal, S; Lindenstruth, V; Lippmann, C; Lisa, M A; Ljunggren, H M; Loenne, P I; Loggins, V R; Loginov, V; Lohner, D; Loizides, C; Loo, K K; Lopez, X; Lopez Torres, E; Lovhoiden, G; Lu, X G; Luettig, P; Lunardon, M; Luo, J; Luparello, G; Luzzi, C; Ma, K; Ma, R; Madagodahettige-Don, D M; Maevskaya, A; Mager, M; Mahapatra, D P; Maire, A; Malaev, M; Maldonado Cervantes, I; Malinina, L; Mal'Kevich, D; Malzacher, P; Mamonov, A; Manceau, L; Mangotra, L; Manko, V; Manso, F; Manzari, V; Mao, Y; Marchisone, M; Mares, J; Margagliotti, G V; Margotti, A; Marin, A; Markert, C; Marquard, M; Martashvili, I; Martin, N A; Martinengo, P; Martinez, M I; Martinez Davalos, A; Martinez Garcia, G; Martynov, Y; Mas, A; Masciocchi, S; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Massacrier, L; Mastroserio, A; Matthews, Z L; Matyja, A; Mayer, C; Mazer, J; Mazzoni, M A; Meddi, F; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Mercado Perez, J; Meres, M; Miake, Y; Mikhailov, K; Milano, L; Milosevic, J; Mischke, A; Mishra, A N; Miskowiec, D; Mitu, C; Mizuno, S; Mlynarz, J; Mohanty, B; Molnar, L; Montano Zetina, L; Monteno, M; Montes, E; Moon, T; Morando, M; Moreira De Godoy, D A; Moretto, S; Morreale, A; Morsch, A; Muccifora, V; Mudnic, E; Muhuri, S; Mukherjee, M; Muller, H; Munhoz, M G; Musa, L; Musinsky, J; Musso, A; Nandi, B K; Nania, R; Nappi, E; Nattrass, C; Navin, S; Nayak, T K; Nazarenko, S; Nedosekin, A; Nicassio, M; Niculescu, M; Nielsen, B S; Niida, T; Nikolaev, S; Nikolic, V; Nikulin, S; Nikulin, V; Nilsen, B S; Nilsson, M S; Noferini, F; Nomokonov, P; Nooren, G; Novitzky, N; Nyanin, A; Nyatha, A; Nygaard, C; Nystrand, J; Ochirov, A; Oeschler, H; Oh, S K; Oh, S; Oleniacz, J; Oliveira Da Silva, A C; Oppedisano, C; Ortiz Velasquez, A; Oskarsson, A; 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Yamaguchi, Y; Yang, H; Yang, S; Yasnopolskiy, S; Yi, J; Yin, Z; Yoo, I K; Yoon, J; Yu, W; Yuan, X; Yushmanov, I; Zaccolo, V; Zach, C; Zampolli, C; Zaporozhets, S; Zarochentsev, A; Zavada, P; Zaviyalov, N; Zbroszczyk, H; Zelnicek, P; Zgura, I S; Zhalov, M; Zhang, H; Zhang, X; Zhou, D; Zhou, Y; Zhou, F; Zhu, J; Zhu, H; Zhu, J; Zhu, X; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, A; Zinovjev, G; Zoccarato, Y; Zynovyev, M; Zyzak, M

    2013-01-01

    Correlations of two charged identical kaons (K$^{ch}$ K$^{ch}$) are measured in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$=7 TeV by the ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). One-dimensional K$^{ch}$ K$^{ch}$ correlation functions are constructed in three multiplicity and four transverse momentum ranges. The K$^{ch}$ K$^{ch}$ femtoscopic source parameters R and lambda are extracted. The K$^{ch}$ K$^{ch}$ correlations show a slight increase of femtoscopic radii with increasing multiplicity and a slight decrease of radii with increasing transverse momentum. These trends are similar to the ones observed for $\\pi\\pi$ and $K_s^0 K_s^0$ correlations in pp and heavy-ion collisions. However, the observed one dimensional correlation radii for charged kaons are larger at high multiplicities than those for pions in contrast to what was observed in heavy-ion collisions at RHIC.

  17. Model independent measurement of the leptonic kaon decay $K^{\\pm}\\to \\mu^{\\pm}\

    Marchevski, Radoslav; Baldini, W; Balev, S; Batley, J R; Behler, M; Bifani, S; Biino, C; Bizzeti, A; Bloch-Devaux, B; Bocquet, G; Cabibbo, N; Calvetti, M; Cartiglia, N; Ceccucci, A; Cenci, P; Cerri, C; Cheshkov, C; ChèZe, J B; Clemencic, M; Collazuol, G; Costantini, F; Cotta Ramusino, A; Coward, D; Cundy, D; Dabrowski, A; Dalpiaz, P; Damiani, C; De Beer, M; Derré, J; Dibon, H; Dilella, L; Doble, N; Eppard, K; Falaleev, V; Fantechi, R; Fidecaro, M; Fiorini, L; Fiorini, M; Fonseca Martin, T; Frabetti, P L; Gatignon, L; Gersabeck, E; Gianoli, A; Giudici, S; Gonidec, A; Goudzovski, E; Goy Lopez, S; Holder, M; Hristov, P; Iacopini, E; Imbergamo, E; Jeitler, M; Kalmus, G; Kekelidze, V; Kleinknecht, K; Kozhuharov, V; Kubischta, W; Lamanna, G; Lazzeroni, C; Lenti, M; Litov, L; Madigozhin, D; Maier, A; Mannelli, I; Marchetto, F; Marel, G; Markytan, M; Marouelli, P; Martini, M; Masetti, L; Mazzucato, E; Michetti, A; Mikulec, I; Molokanova, N; Monnier, E; Moosbrugger, U; Morales Morales, C; Munday, D J; Nappi, A; Neuhofer, G; Norton, A; Patel, M; Pepe, M; Peters, A; Petrucci, F; Petrucci, M C; Peyaud, B; Piccini, M; Pierazzini, G; Polenkevich, I; Potrebenikov, Yu; Raggi, M; Renk, B; Rubin, P; Ruggiero, G; Savrié, M; Scarpa, M; Shieh, M; Slater, M W; Sozzi, M; Stoynev, S; Swallow, E; Szleper, M; Valdata-Nappi, M; Vallage, B; Velasco, M; Veltri, M; Venditti, S; Wache, M; Wahl, H; Walker, A; Wanke, R; Widhalm, L; Winhart, A; Winston, R; Wood, M D; Wotton, S A; Zinchenko, A; Ziolkowski , M

    2016-01-01

    A measurement of the branching ratio of the rare leptonic kaon decay K ± → μ ± ν μ e + e − is pre- sented using data collected by the NA48/2 experiment in 2003 and 2004. The measurement is performed in the region M ee > 140 MeV/c 2 . In this particular region low energy QCD contri- butions become important and can be calculated in the framework of Chiral Perturbation Theory (ChPT). From a total number of 1 . 56 × 10 11 recorded kaon decays, the branching ratio is mea- sured to be B ( K ± → μ ± ν μ e + e − | M ee > 140 MeV / c 2 ) = ( 7 . 8 ± 0 . 2 ) × 10 − 8

  18. Exclusive channels in semi-inclusive production of pions and kaons

    Markus Diehl; Wolfgang Kugler; Andreas Schaefer; Christian Weiss

    2005-06-01

    We investigate the role of exclusive channels in semi-inclusive electroproduction of pions and kaons. Using the QCD factorization theorem for hard exclusive processes we evaluate the cross sections for exclusive pseudoscalar and vector meson production in terms of generalized parton distributions and meson distribution amplitudes. We investigate the uncertainties arising from the modeling of the nonperturbative input quantities. Combining these results with available experimental data, we compare the cross sections for exclusive channels to that obtained from quark fragmentation in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering. We find that rho0 production is the only exclusive channel with significant contributions to semi-inclusive pion production at large z and moderate Q2. The corresponding contribution to kaon production from the decay of exclusively produced phi and Kstar is rather small.

  19. Sivers asymmetries for inclusive pion and kaon production in deep-inelastic scattering

    Ellis, John; Hwang, Dae Sung; Kotzinian, Aram

    2009-01-01

    We calculate the Sivers distribution functions induced by the final-state interaction due to one-gluon exchange in diquark models of a nucleon structure, treating the cases of scalar and axial-vector diquarks with both dipole and Gaussian form factors. We use these distribution functions to calculate the Sivers single-spin asymmetries for inclusive pion and kaon production in deep-inelastic scattering. We compare our calculations with the results of HERMES and COMPASS, finding good agreement for π + production at HERMES, and qualitative agreement for π 0 and K + production. Our predictions for pion and kaon production at COMPASS could be probed with increased statistics. The successful comparison of our calculations with the HERMES data constitutes prima facie evidence that the quarks in the nucleon have some orbital angular momentum in the infinite-momentum frame.

  20. Sivers Asymmetries for Inclusive Pion and Kaon Production in Deep-Inelastic Scattering

    Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Kotzinian, Aram

    2009-01-01

    We calculate the Sivers distribution functions induced by the final-state interaction due to one-gluon exchange in diquark models of nucleon structure, treating the cases of scalar and axial-vector diquarks with both dipole and Gaussian form factors. We use these distribution functions to calculate the Sivers single-spin asymmetries for inclusive pion and kaon production in deep-inelastic scattering. We compare our calculations with the results of HERMES and COMPASS, finding good agreement for pi+ production at HERMES, and qualitative agreement for pi0 and K+ production. Our predictions for pion and kaon production at COMPASS could be probed with increased statistics. The successful comparison of our calculations with the HERMES data constitutes prima facie evidence that the quarks in the nucleon have some orbital angular momentum in the infinite-momentum frame.