WorldWideScience

Sample records for kaonic nuclear states

  1. A search for deeply-bound kaonic nuclear states at J-PARC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakaguchi A.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The J-PARC E15 experiment will be performed to search for the simplest kaonic nuclear bound state, K− pp, by the in-flight 3He(K−,n reaction. The exclusive measurement can be performed by a simultaneous measurement of the missing mass using the primary neutron and the invariant mass via the expected decay, K− pp → Λp → pπ− p. In this report, an overview of the experiment and the preparation status are presented.

  2. Radial sensitivity of kaonic atoms and strongly bound K¯ states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnea, N.; Friedman, E.

    2007-02-01

    The strength of the low-energy K--nucleus real potential has recently received renewed attention in view of experimental evidence for the possible existence of strongly bound K- states. Previous fits to kaonic atom data led to either “shallow” or “deep” potentials, where only the former are in agreement with chiral approaches but only the latter can produce strongly bound states. Here we explore the uncertainties of the K--nucleus optical potentials, obtained from fits to kaonic atom data, using the functional derivatives of the best-fit χ2 values with respect to the potential. We find that only the deep type of potential provides information that is applicable to the K- interaction in the nuclear interior.

  3. Strong interaction studies with kaonic atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marton J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The strong interaction of antikaons (K− with nucleons and nuclei in the low-energy regime represents an active research field connected intrinsically with few-body physics. There are important open questions like the question of antikaon nuclear bound states - the prototype system being K−pp. A unique and rather direct experimental access to the antikaon-nucleon scattering lengths is provided by precision X-ray spectroscopy of transitions in low-lying states of light kaonic atoms like kaonic hydrogen isotopes. In the SIDDHARTA experiment at the electron-positron collider DAΦNE of LNF-INFN we measured the most precise values of the strong interaction observables, i.e. the strong interaction on the 1s ground state of the electromagnetically bound K−p atom leading to a hadronic shift ϵ1s and a hadronic broadening Γ1s of the 1s state. The SIDDHARTA result triggered new theoretical work which achieved major progress in the understanding of the low-energy strong interaction with strangeness. Antikaon-nucleon scattering lengths have been calculated constrained by the SIDDHARTA data on kaonic hydrogen. For the extraction of the isospin-dependent scattering lengths a measurement of the hadronic shift and width of kaonic deuterium is necessary. Therefore, new X-ray studies with the focus on kaonic deuterium are in preparation (SIDDHARTA2. Many improvements in the experimental setup will allow to measure kaonic deuterium which is challenging due to the anticipated low X-ray yield. Especially important are the data on the X-ray yields of kaonic deuterium extracted from a exploratory experiment within SIDDHARTA.

  4. Kaonic atoms – studies of the strong interaction with strangeness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marton J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The strong interaction of charged antikaons (K− with nucleons and nuclei in the low-energy regime is a fascinating topic. The antikaon plays a peculiar role in hadron physics due to the strong attraction antikaon-nucleon which is a key question for possible kaonic nuclear bound states. A rather direct experimental access to the antikaon-nucleon scattering lengths is provided by precision X-ray spectroscopy of transitions to low-lying states in light kaonic atoms like kaonic hydrogen and deuterium. After the successful completion of precision measurements on kaonic hydrogen and helium isotopes by SIDDHARTA at DAΦNE/LNF, new X-ray studies with the focus on kaonic deuterium are in preparation (SIDDHARTA2. In the future with kaonic deuterium data the antikaon-nucleon isospin-dependent scattering lengths can be extracted for the first time. An overview of the experimental results of SIDDHARTA and an outlook to future perspectives in the SIDDHARTA2 experiments in this frontier research field will be given.

  5. Strong interaction studies with kaonic atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Marton, J; Beer, G; Berucci, C; Bosnar, D; Bragadireanu, A M; Cargnelli, M; Clozza, A; Curceanu, C; d'Uffizi, A; Fiorini, C; Ghio, F; Guaraldo, C; Hayano, R; Iliescu, M; Ishiwatari, T; Iwasaki, M; Sandri, P Levi; Okada, S; Pietreanu, D; Piscicchia, K; Ponta, T; Quaglia, R; Vidal, A Romero; Sbardella, E; Scordo, A; Shi, H; Sirghi, D L; Sirghi, F; Tatsuno, H; Doce, O Vazquez; Widmann, E; Zmeskal, J

    2016-01-01

    The strong interaction of antikaons with nucleons and nuclei in the low-energy regime represents an active research field connected intrinsically with few-body physics. There are important open questions like the question of antikaon nuclear bound states. A unique and rather direct experimental access to the antikaon-nucleon scattering lengths is provided by precision X-ray spectroscopy of transitions in low-lying states of light kaonic atoms like kaonic hydrogen isotopes. In the SIDDHARTA experiment at the electron-positron collider DAFNE of LNF-INFN we measured the most precise values of the strong interaction observables, i.e. the strong interaction on the 1s ground state of the electromagnetically bound kaonic hydrogen atom leading to a hadronic shift and a hadronic broadening of the 1s state. The SIDDHARTA result triggered new theoretical work which achieved major progress in the understanding of the low-energy strong interaction with strangeness. Antikaon-nucleon scattering lengths have been calculated ...

  6. Isospin and particle representations for quasi-bound state of kaonic clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filikhin, Igor; Kezerashvili, Roman; Vlahovic, Branislav

    2017-01-01

    In the framework of the method of the Faddeev equations in configuration space, the NNK (I = 0) (and KK) kaonic cluster system including two identical particles is considered. We use the formalism of isospin and particle representations to describe the systems. The treatment of I = 1 and I = 0 isospin KN channels is discussed. The presence of the Coulomb force in ppK- channel violates the isospin symmetry of the NNK (I = 0) system. According to the particle representation, NNK is a two-level system of coupled ppK- and ppnl channels with and without the Coulomb energy, respectively. The results of calculations for the bound states with the phenomenological and chiral motivated KN potentials are given for different representations. In particular, new single channel calculations for the ppK- (and K-K- p) cluster are presented. It is shown that the exchange of identical particles plays an important role in the formation of a bound state of the systems. The relation of the exchange and the three-body mass rearrangement effects is discussed. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation grant Supplement to the NSF grant HRD-1345219 and NASA (NNX09AV07A).

  7. X-ray spectroscopy of kaonic atoms at SIDDHARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cargnelli M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The X-ray measurements of kaonic atoms play an important role for understanding the low-energy QCD in the strangeness sector. The SIDDHARTA experiment studied the X-ray transitions of 4 light kaonic atoms (H, D, 3He, and 4He using the DAFNE electron-positron collider at LNF (Italy. Most precise values of the shift and width of the kaonic hydrogen 1s state were determined, which have been now used as fundamental information for the low-energy K−p interaction in theoretical studies. An upper limit of the X-ray yield of kaonic deuterium was derived, important for future K−d experiments. The shifts and widths of the kaonic 3He and 4He 2p states were obtained, confirming the end of the “kaonic helium puzzle”. In this contribution also the plans for new experiments of kaonic deuterium are being presented.

  8. K--Nucleus Potentials Consistent with Kaonic Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieply, A.; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.; Mares, J.

    2004-03-01

    Various models of the K- nucleus potential have been compared and tested in fits to kaonic atom data. The calculations give basically two vastly different predictions for the depth of the K- optical potential at the nuclear density. The study of the (K-stop, π ) reaction could help to distinguish between K- optical potentials as the Λ -hypernuclear formation rates are sensitive to the details of the initial-state K- wave function.

  9. K- nuclear states: Binding energies and widths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrtánková, J.; Mareš, J.

    2017-07-01

    K- optical potentials relevant to calculations of K- nuclear quasibound states were developed within several chiral meson-baryon coupled-channels interaction models. The applied models yield quite different K- binding energies and widths. Then the K- multinucleon interactions were incorporated by a phenomenological optical potential fitted recently to kaonic atom data. Though the applied K- interaction models differ significantly in the K-N subthreshold region, our self-consistent calculations of kaonic nuclei across the periodic table lead to conclusions valid quite generally. Due to K- multinucleon absorption in the nuclear medium, the calculated widths of K- nuclear states are sizable, ΓK-≥90 MeV, and exceed substantially their binding energies in all considered nuclei.

  10. Strong interaction studies with kaonic atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Marton, J; Beer, G; Berucci, C; Bosnar, D; Bragadireanu, A M; Cargnelli, M; Clozza, A; Curceanu, C; d'Uffizi, A; Fiorini, C; Ghio, F; Guaraldo, C; Hayano, R; Iliescu, M; Ishiwatari, T; Iwasaki, M; Sandri, P Levi; Okada, S; Pietreanu, D; Piscicchia, K; Ponta, T; Quaglia, R; Vidal, A Romero; Sbardella, E; Scordo, A; Shi, H; Sirghi, D L; Sirghi, F; Tatsuno, H; Doce, O Vazquez; Widmann, E; Zmeskal, J

    2015-01-01

    The strong interaction of antikaons (K-) with nucleons and nuclei in the low energy regime represents an active research field connected intrinsically with few-body physics. There are important open questions like the question of antikaon nuclear bound states - the prototype system being K-pp. A unique and rather direct experimental access to the antikaon-nucleon scattering lengths is provided by precision X-ray spectroscopy of transitions in low-lying states of light kaonic atoms like kaonic hydrogen isotopes. In the SIDDHARTA experiment at the electron-positron collider DA?NE of LNF-INFN we measured the most precise values of the strong interaction observables, i.e. the strong interaction on the 1s ground state of the electromagnetically bound K-p atom leading to a hadronic shift and a hadronic broadening of the 1s state. The SIDDHARTA result triggered new theoretical work which achieved major progress in the understanding of the low-energy strong interaction with strangeness. Antikaon-nucleon scattering le...

  11. Eta nuclear bound states revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, E; Mareš, J

    2013-01-01

    The strong energy dependence of the s-wave eta-N scattering amplitude at and below threshold, as evident in coupled-channels K-matrix fits and chiral models that incorporate the S11 N*(1535) resonance, is included self consistently in eta-nuclear bound state calculations. This approach, applied recently in calculations of kaonic atoms and Kbar-nuclear bound states, is found to impose stronger constraints than ever on the onset of eta-nuclear binding, with a minimum value of Re a_{eta N} approximately 0.9 fm required to accommodate an eta-4He bound state. Binding energies and widths of eta-nuclear states are calculated within several underlying eta-N models for nuclei across the periodic table, including eta-25Mg for which some evidence was proposed in a recent COSY experiment.

  12. Measurement of the strong interaction induced shift and width of the 1s state of kaonic deuterium at J-PARC

    CERN Document Server

    Zmeskal, J; Ajimura, S; Bazzi, M; Beer, G; Berucci, C; Bhang, H; Bosnar, D; Bragadireanu, M; Buehler, P; Busso, L; Cargnelli, M; Choi, S; Clozza, A; Curceanu, C; D'uffizi, A; Enomoto, S; Fabbietti, L; Faso, D; Fiorini, C; Fujioka, H; Ghio, F; Golser, R; Guaraldo, C; Hashimoto, T; Hayano, R S; Hiraiwa, T; Iio, M; Iliescu, M; Inoue, K; Ishimoto, S; Ishiwatari, T; Itahashi, K; Iwai, M; Iwasaki, M; Kawasaki, S; Lachner, J; Sandri, P Levi; Ma, Y; Marton, J; Matsuda, Y; Mizoi, Y; Morra, O; Moskal, P; Nagae, T; Noumi, H; Ohnishi, H; Okada, S; Outa, H; Pietreanu, D; Piscicchia, K; Lener, M Poli; Vidal, A Romero; Sada, Y; Sakaguchi, A; Sakuma, F; Sbardella, E; Scordo, A; Sekimoto, M; Shi, H; Silarski, M; Sirghi, D; Sirghi, F; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, S; Suzuki, T; Tanida, K; Tatsuno, H; Tokuda, M; Toyoda, A; Tucakovic, I; Tsukada, K; Doce, O Vazquez; Widmann, E; Yamaga, T; Yamazaki, T; Zhang, Q

    2015-01-01

    The antikaon-nucleon interaction close to threshold provides crucial information on the interplay between spontaneous and explicit chiral symmetry breaking in low-energy QCD. In this context the importance of kaonic deuterium X-ray spectroscopy has been well recognized, but no experimental results have yet been obtained due to the difficulty of the measurement. We propose to measure the shift and width of the kaonic deuterium 1s state with an accuracy of 60 eV and 140 eV respectively at J-PARC. These results together with the kaonic hydrogen data (KpX at KEK, DEAR and SIDDHARTA at DAFNE) will then permit the determination of values of both the isospin I=0 and I=1 antikaon-nucleon scattering lengths and will provide the most stringent constraints on the antikaon-nucleon interaction, promising a breakthrough. Refined Monte Carlo studies were performed, including the investigation of background suppression factors for the described setup. These studies have demonstrated the feasibility of determining the shift a...

  13. Study of hyperon-pion resonances from kaonic absorption with KLOE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vázquez Doce Oton

    2015-01-01

    The study of the antiK-hadron interactions inside the drift chamber of KLOE was initiated in order to search for signals from the formation of deeply bound kaonic nuclear states and the study of resonances like the Λ(1405 and the Σ(1385, and constitute a first step towards the preparation of the AMADEUS experiment at DAFNE, the e+e− collider of the Frascati National Laboratories (Italy of INFN.

  14. η-nuclear bound states revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, E.; Gal, A.; Mareš, J.

    2013-10-01

    The strong energy dependence of the s-wave ηN scattering amplitude at and below threshold, as evident in coupled-channels K-matrix fits and chiral models that incorporate the S11N* (1535) resonance, is included self-consistently in η-nuclear bound-state calculations. This approach, applied recently in calculations of kaonic atoms and Kbar-nuclear bound states, is found to impose stronger constraints than ever on the onset of η-nuclear binding, with a minimum value of ReaηN ≈ 0.9 fm required to accommodate an η-4He bound state. Binding energies and widths of η-nuclear states are calculated within several underlying ηN models for nuclei across the periodic table, including Mg25η for which some evidence was proposed in a recent COSY experiment.

  15. Precision Spectroscopy of Kaonic Atoms at DAΦNE

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    Scordo A.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The SIDDHARTA experiment aims at a precise measurement of K -series kaonic hydrogen x-rays and the first-ever measurement of the kaonic deuterium x-rays to determine the strong-interaction energy-level shift and width of the lowest lying atomic states. These measurements offer a unique possibility to precisely determine the isospin-dependent $ar{K}$-nucleon scattering lengths.

  16. Search for the kaonic bound state ppK- in pp→ pK +Λ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münzer, Robert; Epple, Eliane; Fabbietti, Laura

    2015-08-01

    The investigation of the kaon-nucleon interaction has been intensified in the last years due to new measurements of the Λ(1405) resonance and indications on the existence of the ppK- bound state. Such results are heavily discussed, since they can lead to new knowledge about the -Nucleon interaction. In the last years, the reaction p+p →p+ K+ + Λ has been measured at the GSI Helmholtzcentre in Darmstadt with the FOPI and the HADES spectrometers at beam energies of 3.1 GeV and 3.5 GeV, respectively. New analyses methods have been developed to understand quantitatively all the processes contributing to the pK+Λ final state. At the FOPI experiment a set of around 1.000 events and in the HADES experiment around 22.000 events of the exclusive reaction p+p →p+ K+ + Λ could be extracted. These reconstructed exclusive events were analyzed within the Bonn Gatchina Partial Wave Analysis (BG-PWA) framework, which provides a coherent description of the data including several resonant and non-resonant production channels. The results have shown that the inclusion of interferences between different channels has to be considered in the analysis. Based on the description of the data with the Partial Wave Analysis an upper limit on the cross-section for the production of the ppK- could be determined.

  17. Precision X-ray spectroscopy of kaonic atoms as a probe of low-energy kaon-nucleus interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, H; Beer, G; Bellotti, G; Berucci, C; Bragadireanu, A M; Bosnar, D; Cargnelli, M; Curceanu, C; Butt, A D; d'Uffizi, A; Fiorini, C; Ghio, F; Guaraldo, C; Hayano, R S; Iliescu, M; Ishiwatari, T; Iwasaki, M; Sandri, P Levi; Marton, J; Okada, S; Pietreanu, D; Piscicchia, K; Vidal, A Romero; Sbardella, E; Scordo, A; Sirghi, D L; Sirghi, F; Tatsuno, H; Doce, O Vazquez; Widmann, E; Zmeskal, J

    2016-01-01

    In the exotic atoms where one atomic $1s$ electron is replaced by a $K^{-}$, the strong interaction between the $K^{-}$ and the nucleus introduces an energy shift and broadening of the low-lying kaonic atomic levels which are determined by only the electromagnetic interaction. By performing X-ray spectroscopy for Z=1,2 kaonic atoms, the SIDDHARTA experiment determined with high precision the shift and width for the $1s$ state of $K^{-}p$ and the $2p$ state of kaonic helium-3 and kaonic helium-4. These results provided unique information of the kaon-nucleus interaction in the low energy limit.

  18. On kaonic hydrogen. Quantum field theoretic and relativistic covariant approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, A. N.; Cargnelli, M.; Faber, M.; Marton, J.; Troitskaya, N. I.; Zmeskal, J.

    2004-07-01

    We study kaonic hydrogen, the bound K - p state A K p . Within a quantum field theoretic and relativistic covariant approach we derive the energy level displacement of the ground state of kaonic hydrogen in terms of the amplitude of K - p scattering for arbitrary relative momenta. The amplitude of low-energy K - p scattering near threshold is defined by the contributions of three resonances Λ(1405), Λ(1800) and Σ^0(1750) and a smooth elastic background. The amplitudes of inelastic channels of low-energy K - p scattering fit experimental data on the near-threshold behaviour of the cross-sections and the experimental data by the DEAR Collaboration. We use the soft-pion technique (leading order in Chiral Perturbation Theory) for the calculation of the partial width of the radiative decay of pionic hydrogen A_{π p} to n + γ and the Panofsky ratio. The theoretical prediction for the Panofsky ratio agrees well with experimental data. We apply the soft-kaon technique (leading order in Chiral Perturbation Theory) to the calculation of the partial widths of radiative decays of kaonic hydrogen A_{Kp} to Λ^0 + γ and A_{K p} to Σ^0 + γ. We show that the contribution of these decays to the width of the energy level of the ground state of kaonic hydrogen is less than 1%.

  19. Kaonic atoms and in-medium K-N amplitudes II: Interplay between theory and phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, E.; Gal, A.

    2013-02-01

    A microscopic kaonic-atom optical potential VK-(1) is constructed, using the Ikeda-Hyodo-Weise NLO chiral K-N subthreshold scattering amplitudes constrained by the kaonic hydrogen SIDDHARTA measurement, and incorporating Pauli correlations within the Waas-Rho-Weise generalization of the Ericson-Ericson multiple-scattering approach. Good fits to kaonic atom data over the entire periodic table require additionally sizable K-NN-motivated absorptive and dispersive phenomenological terms, in agreement with our former analysis based on a post-SIDDHARTA in-medium chirally-inspired NLO separable model by Cieplý and Smejkal. Such terms are included by introducing a phenomenological potential VK-(2) and coupling it self-consistently to VK-(1). Properties of resulting kaonic atom potentials are discussed with special attention paid to the role of K--nuclear absorption and to the extraction of density-dependent amplitudes representing K- multi-nucleon processes.

  20. X-ray spectroscopy of light kaonic atoms – new results and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marton, J. [Stefan-Meyer-Institut für subatomare Physik, Boltzmanngasse 3, 1090 Wien (Austria); Bazzi, M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, C.P. 13, Via E. Fermi 40, I-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Beer, G. [Dep. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O.Box 3055, Victoria B.C. Canada V8W3P6 (Canada); Berucci, C. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, C.P. 13, Via E. Fermi 40, I-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Bombelli, L. [Politecnico di Milano, Dip. di Elettronica e Informazione, Piazza L. da Vinci, 32 I-20133 Milano (Italy); Bragadireanu, A.M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, C.P. 13, Via E. Fermi 40, I-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); IFIN-HH, P.O. box MG-6, R76900 Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Cargnelli, M. [Stefan-Meyer-Institut für subatomare Physik, Boltzmanngasse 3, 1090 Wien (Austria); Curceanu, C. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, C.P. 13, Via E. Fermi 40, I-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); D' Uffizi, A.; Fiorini, C.; Frizzi, T. [Politecnico di Milano, Dip. di Elettronica e Informazione, Piazza L. da Vinci, 32 I-20133 Milano (Italy); Ghio, F. [INFN Sez. di Roma I and Instituto Superiore di Sanita I-00161, Roma (Italy); Guaraldo, C. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, C.P. 13, Via E. Fermi 40, I-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Hayano, R. [University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Iliescu, M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, C.P. 13, Via E. Fermi 40, I-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Ishiwatari, T. [Stefan-Meyer-Institut für subatomare Physik, Boltzmanngasse 3, 1090 Wien (Austria); Iwasaki, M. [RIKEN, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Saitama (Japan); and others

    2012-12-15

    The antikaon interaction on nucleons and nuclei in the low-energy regime is neither simple nor well understood. Rather direct access to this field is provided by x-ray spectroscopy of light kaonic atoms like kaonic hydrogen, deuterium and helium isotopes. A series of precision measurements on kaonic atoms was performed very successfully by the SIDDHARTA Collaboration at the DAΦNE electron-positron collider at LNF-INFN (Frascati, Italy). Consequently, new precision data on the strong interaction observables (i.e. energy shift and broadening of low-lying atomic states) were delivered having an important impact on the theory of low-energy QCD with strangeness. Presently, the follow-up experiment, SIDDHARTA-2, is in preparation, aiming at a determination of the strong interaction observables in kaonic deuterium as the highest priority; other type of measurements (light and heavier kaonic atoms) are as well foreseen. With the kaonic deuterium data the antikaon-nucleon isospin-resolved scattering lengths can be extracted for the first time. An overview of the progress and present status of experimental studies and an outlook to future perspectives in this fascinating research field is given.

  1. On kaonic deuterium. Quantum field theoretic and relativistic covariant approach

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, A N; Faber, M; Fuhrmann, H; Ivanova, V A; Marton, J; Troitskaya, N I; Zmeskal, J

    2004-01-01

    We study kaonic deuterium, the bound K^-d state A_{K d}. Within a quantum field theoretic and relativistic covariant approach we derive the energy level displacement of the ground state of kaonic deuterium in terms of the amplitude of K^-d scattering for arbitrary relative momenta. Near threshold our formula reduces to the well-known DGBT formula. The S-wave amplitude of K^-d scattering near threshold is defined by the resonances Lambda(1405), Sigma(1750) and a smooth elastic background, and the inelastic channels K^- d -> NY and K^- d -> NY pion, with Y = Sigma^{+/-}, Sigma^0 and Lambda^0, where the final-state interactions play an important role. The Ericson-Weise formula for the S-wave scattering length of K^-d scattering is derived. The total width of the energy level of the ground state of kaonic deuterium is estimated using the theoretical predictions of the partial widths of the two-body decays A_{Kd} -> NY and experimental data on the rates of the NY-pair production in the reactions K^-d -> NY. We obt...

  2. In-medium mathaccent "7016relax K- and eta -meson Interactions and Bound States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, A.; Friedman, E.; Barnea, N.; Cieplý, A.; Mareš, J.; Gazda, D.

    The role played by subthreshold meson-baryon dynamics is demonstrated in kaonic-atom, Kbar-nuclear and eta-nuclear bound-state calculations within in-medium models of Kbar-N and eta-N interactions. New analyses of kaonic atom data reveal appreciable multi-nucleon contributions. Calculations of eta-nuclear bound states show, in particular, that the eta-N scattering length is not a useful indicator of whether or not eta mesons bind in nuclei nor of the widths anticipated for such states.

  3. On kaonic hydrogen. Quantum field theoretic and relativistic covariant approach

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, A N; Faber, M; Marton, J; Troitskaya, N I; Zmeskal, J

    2003-01-01

    We study kaonic hydrogen, the bound K^-p state A_(Kp). Within a quantum field theoretic and relativistic covariant approach we derive the energy level displacement of the ground state of kaonic hydrogen in terms of the amplitude of K^-p scattering for arbitrary energies. The amplitude of low-energy K^-p scattering near threshold is defined by the contributions of three resonances Lambda(1405), Lambda(1800) and Sigma^0(1750) and a smooth elastic background. The amplitudes of inelastic channels of low-energy K^-p scattering fit experimental data on near threshold behaviour of the cross sections and the experimental data by the DEAR Collaboration. We use the soft-pion technique (leading order in Chiral Perturbation Theory) for the calculate of the partial width of the radiative decay of pionic hydrogen A_(pi p) -> n + gamma and the Panofsky ratio. The theoretical prediction for the Panofsky ratio agrees well with experimental data. We apply the soft-kaon technique (leading order in Chiral Perturbation Theory) to...

  4. In-medium K̄ interactions and bound states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gal Avraham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Correct treatment of subthreshold K̄ N dynamics is mandatory in K− -atom and K̄ -nuclear bound-state calculations, as demonstrated by using in-medium chirally-based models of K̄ N interactions. Recent studies of kaonic atom data reveal appreciable multi-nucleon contributions. K̄ -nuclear widths larger than 50 MeV are anticipated.

  5. Feasibility guidelines for kaonic atom experiments with ultra-high-resolution X-ray spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, E.; Okada, S.

    2013-10-01

    Recent studies of strong-interaction effects in kaonic atoms suggest that analysing so-called 'lower' and 'upper' levels in the same atom could separate one-nucleon absorption from multinucleon processes. The present work examines the feasibility of direct measurements of upper level widths in addition to lower level widths in future experiments, using superconducting microcalorimeter detectors. About ten elements are identified as possible candidates for such experiments, all of medium-weight and heavy nuclei. New experiments focused on achieving good accuracy for widths of such pairs of levels could contribute significantly to our knowledge of the K--nucleon interaction in the nuclear medium.

  6. Solid-State Nuclear Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    A strategy for "Solid-State" Nuclear Power is proposed to guide development of technologies and systems into the second 50 years of nuclear spaceflight. The strategy emphasizes a simple and highly integrated system architecture with few moving parts or fluid loops; the leverage of modern advances in materials, manufacturing, semiconductors, microelectromechanical and nanotechnology devices; and the targeted advancement of high temperature nuclear fuels, materials and static power conversion to enable high performance from simple system topologies.

  7. Kaonic atoms and in-medium K-N amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, E.; Gal, A.

    2012-05-01

    Recent work on the connection between in-medium subthreshold K-N amplitudes and kaonic atom potentials is updated by using a next to leading order chirally motivated coupled channel separable interaction model that reproduces K¯N observables at low energies, including the very recent SIDDHARTA results for the atomic K--hydrogen 1s level shift and width. The corresponding K--nucleus potential is evaluated self-consistently within a single-nucleon approach and is critically reviewed with respect to empirical features of phenomenological optical potentials. The need to supplement the single-nucleon based approach with multi-nucleon interactions is demonstrated by showing that additional empirical absorptive and dispersive terms, beyond the reach of chirally motivated K--nucleus potentials, are required in order to achieve good agreement with the bulk of the data on kaonic atoms.

  8. K-K-pp - an important gateway toward multi-kaonic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Maeda, Shuji; Yamazaki, Toshimitsu

    2016-01-01

    Based on our Faddeev-Yakubowsky calculations of four-body kaonic nuclear systems it was revealed that the structure of K-K-pp is well approximated by two Lambda*=K-p's with strong mutual attraction. It is vitally important to study this nucleus, as it is an essential gateway toward multi-Lambda* nuclei. Two experimental proposals are presented: i) production of K-K-pp by p+p reactions at T_p = 7 GeV, and ii) search for K-K-pp from the invariant mass of M(Lambda-Lambda) around 2.6 GeV/c2 in high-energy HI reactions.

  9. X-ray energies of circular transitions and electrons screening in kaonic atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, J P; Desclaux, J P; Indelicato, P J; Parente, F; Indelicato, Paul; ccsd-00002661, ccsd

    2004-01-01

    The QED contribution to the energies of the circular (n,l=n-1), 2 ≤ n ≤ 19 transitions have been calculated for several kaonic atoms throughout the periodic table, using the current world average kaon mass. Calculations were done in the framework of the Klein-Gordon equation, with finite nuclear size and all-order Uelhing vacuum polarization corrections, as well as Kallen and Sabry and Wichmann and Kroll corrections. These energy level values are compared with other computed values. The circular transition energies are compared with available measured and theoretical transition energy. Electron screening is evaluated using a Dirac-Fock model for the electronic part of the wave function. The effect of electronic wavefunction correlation is evaluated for the first time.

  10. Kaon-nucleon scattering lengths from kaonic deuterium experiments revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Döring, M

    2011-01-01

    We analyse the impact of the recent measurement of kaonic hydrogen X rays by the SIDDHARTA collaboration on the allowed ranges for the kaon-deuteron scattering length in the framework of non-relativistic effective field theory. Based on data from KN scattering only, we predict the kaon-deuteron scattering length A_Kd= (-1.46 + i 1.08) fm, with an estimated uncertainty of about 25% in both the real and the imaginary part.

  11. The Dynamical Nonlocality of Neutral Kaons and the Kaonic Quantum Eraser

    CERN Document Server

    Hiesmayr, Beatrix C

    2010-01-01

    Testing quantum foundations for systems in high energy physics gets currently more and more attention e.g. witnessed for entangled neutral K-mesons by the approved programme of the KLOE collaboration at the accelerator facility DAPHNE (Frascati, Italy). We focus on this quantum system in high energy physics and discuss two topics, Bell inequalities and the kaonic quantum eraser, and show how the neutral kaon system differs from systems of ordinary matter and light. In detail, we show a relation of the imbalance of matter and antimatter to the violation of a Bell inequality and discuss another Bell inequality which is maximally violated for a non-maximally entangled state though neutral kaons can be considered as two state systems. We compare in general this system in high energy physics with bipartite qudits. Last but not least we review the quantum marking and eraser procedure and explain why neutral kaons offer more eraser possibilities than usual quantum systems.

  12. The nuclear equation of state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahana, S.

    1986-01-01

    The role of the nuclear equation of state in determining the fate of the collapsing cores of massive stars is examined in light of both recent theoretical advances in this subject and recent experimental measurements with relativistic heavy ions. The difficulties existing in attempts to bring the softer nuclear matter apparently required by the theory of Type II supernovae into consonance with the heavy ion data are discussed. Relativistic mean field theory is introduced as a candidate for derivation of the equation of state, and a simple form for the saturation compressibility is obtained. 28 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  13. A covariant nonlocal Lagrangian for the description of the scalar kaonic sector

    CERN Document Server

    Soltysiak, Milena

    2016-01-01

    Mesons are extended objects, hence their interaction can be described by utilizing form factors. At the Lagrangian level, one can use nonlocal interaction terms. Here we describe two possible nonlocal Lagrangians leading to a 3D form factor: the first one is simple but does not fulfill covariance (if one insists on a 3D cutoff), the second extension is more involved but guarantees covariance. Such form factors are useful when calculating mesonic loops. As an important example, we discuss the scalar kaonic sector, $I(J^{P})=\\frac{1}{2}(0^{+})$. The Lagrangian contains a single scalar kaon (the well-establish state $K_{0}^{\\ast}(1430)$), but through loops $K_{0}^{\\ast}(800)$ emerges as a dynamically generated companion pole (which disappears in the large-$N_{c}$ limit).

  14. Precision X-ray measurements on kaonic atoms at LNF

    CERN Document Server

    Marton, J

    2007-01-01

    After the successfully performed DEAR experiment at DAFNE - resulting in the most precise data on the hadronic shift and width in kaonic hydrogen up-to-now - the next step will be the measurement at the percent level using new X-ray detectors. These detectors (silicon drift detectors) are developed within the SIDDHARTA project. The asynchronous background will be suppressed using the time correlation between the kaon and the X-ray by 2-3 orders of magnitude. These measurements will lead to precise values of the isospin-dependent antikaon-nucleon scattering lengths, thus opening a new insight in the low-energy kaon nucleon interaction.

  15. Precision X-ray measurements on kaonic atoms at LNF

    OpenAIRE

    Marton, J.

    2007-01-01

    After the successfully performed DEAR experiment at DAFNE - resulting in the most precise data on the hadronic shift and width in kaonic hydrogen up-to-now - the next step will be the measurement at the percent level using new X-ray detectors. These detectors (silicon drift detectors) are developed within the SIDDHARTA project. The asynchronous background will be suppressed using the time correlation between the kaon and the X-ray by 2-3 orders of magnitude. These measurements will lead to pr...

  16. Multi-kaonic Hypernuclei and Kaon Condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazda, D.; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.; Mareš, J.

    2011-09-01

    This contribution reports on dynamical, self-consistent calculations of multi-bar K hypernuclei, which were performed by adding antikaons to particle-stable nuclear configurations of nucleons, Λ and Ξ hyperons. Our results show a robust pattern of saturation of the bar K separation energy Bbar K as a function of the number of bar K mesons, with Bbar K bounded from above by 200 MeV. The associated baryon densities saturate at values 2-3 times nuclear-matter density. The main reason for saturation is the repulsion induced by the vector meson fields between bar K mesons, similarly to what was found for multi-bar K nuclei. The calculations confirm that strangeness in finite strong-interaction self-bound systems is realized through hyperons, with no room for kaon condensation.

  17. Nuclear structure with coherent states

    CERN Document Server

    Raduta, Apolodor Aristotel

    2015-01-01

    This book covers the essential features of a large variety of nuclear structure properties, both collective and microscopic in nature. Most of results are given in an analytical form thus giving deep insight into the relevant phenomena. Using coherent states as variational states, which allows a description in the classical phase space, or provides the generating function for a boson basis, is an efficient tool to account, in a realistic fashion, for many complex properties. A detailed comparison with all existing nuclear structure models provides readers with a proper framework and, at the same time, demonstrates the prospects for new developments. The topics addressed are very much of current concern in the field. The book will appeal to practicing researchers and, due to its self-contained account, can also be successfully read and used by new graduate students.

  18. K- nuclear potentials from in-medium chirally motivated models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieplý, A.; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.; Gazda, D.; Mareš, J.

    2011-10-01

    A self-consistent scheme for constructing K- nuclear optical potentials from subthreshold in-medium K¯N s-wave scattering amplitudes is presented and applied to analysis of kaonic atoms data and to calculations of K- quasibound nuclear states. The amplitudes are taken from a chirally motivated meson-baryon coupled-channel model, both at the Tomozawa-Weinberg leading order and at the next to leading order. Typical kaonic atoms potentials are characterized by a real part -ReVK-chiral=85±5 MeV at nuclear matter density, in contrast to half this depth obtained in some derivations based on in-medium K¯N threshold amplitudes. The moderate agreement with data is much improved by adding complex ρ- and ρ2-dependent phenomenological terms, found to be dominated by ρ2 contributions that could represent K¯NN→YN absorption and dispersion, outside the scope of meson-baryon chiral models. Depths of the real potentials are then near 180 MeV. The effects of p-wave interactions are studied and found secondary to those of the dominant s-wave contributions. The in-medium dynamics of the coupled-channel model is discussed and systematic studies of K- quasibound nuclear states are presented.

  19. X-ray transition yields of low-Z kaonic atoms produced in Kapton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazzi, M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, C.P. 13, Via E. Fermi 40, I-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Beer, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 1700 STN CNC, Victoria, BC V8W 2Y2 (Canada); Berucci, C. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, C.P. 13, Via E. Fermi 40, I-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Stefan-Meyer-Institut für subatomare Physik, Boltzmanngasse 3, 1090 Wien (Austria); Bombelli, L. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Elettronica e Informazione, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Bragadireanu, A.M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, C.P. 13, Via E. Fermi 40, I-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); IFIN-HH, Institutul National pentru Fizica si Inginerie Nucleara Horia Hulubei, Reactorului 30, Magurele (Romania); Cargnelli, M. [Stefan-Meyer-Institut für subatomare Physik, Boltzmanngasse 3, 1090 Wien (Austria); Curceanu, C.; D' Uffizi, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, C.P. 13, Via E. Fermi 40, I-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Fiorini, C. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Elettronica e Informazione, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Ghio, F. [INFN Sezione di Roma I and Instituto Superiore di Sanita, I-00161 Roma (Italy); Guaraldo, C. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, C.P. 13, Via E. Fermi 40, I-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Hayano, R.S. [University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Iliescu, M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, C.P. 13, Via E. Fermi 40, I-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Ishiwatari, T., E-mail: tomoichi.ishiwatari@assoc.oeaw.ac.at [Stefan-Meyer-Institut für subatomare Physik, Boltzmanngasse 3, 1090 Wien (Austria); Iwasaki, M. [RIKEN, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); and others

    2013-10-23

    The X-ray transition yields of kaonic atoms produced in Kapton polyimide (C{sub 22}H{sub 10}N{sub 2}O{sub 5}) were measured for the first time in the SIDDHARTA experiment. X-ray yields of the kaonic atoms with low atomic numbers (Z=6,7, and 8) and transitions with high principal quantum numbers (n=5–8) were determined. The relative yields of the successive transitions in the same atoms and the yield ratios of carbon-to-nitrogen (C:N) and carbon-to-oxygen (C:O) for the same transitions were also determined. These X-ray yields provide important information for understanding the capture ratios and cascade mechanisms of kaonic atoms produced in a compound material, such as Kapton.

  20. X-ray transition yields of low-Z kaonic atoms produced in Kapton

    CERN Document Server

    Bazzi, M; Berucci, C; Bombelli, L; Bragadireanu, A M; Cargnelli, M; Curceanu, C; d'Uffizi, A; Fiorini, C; Ghio, F; Guaraldo, C; Hayano, R S; Iliescu, M; Ishiwatari, T; Iwasaki, M; Kienle, P; Sandri, P Levi; Longoni, A; Marton, J; Okada, S; Pietreanu, D; Ponta, T; Quaglia, R; Vidal, A Romero; Sbardella, E; Scordo, A; Shi, H; Sirghi, D L; Sirghi, F; Tatsuno, H; Tudorache, A; Tudorache, V; Doce, O Vazquez; Widmann, E; Zmeskal, J

    2013-01-01

    The X-ray transition yields of kaonic atoms produced in Kapton polyimide (C22H10N2O5) were measured for the first time in the SIDDHARTA experiment. X-ray yields of the kaonic atoms with low atomic numbers (Z = 6, 7, and 8) and transitions with high principal quantum numbers (n = 5-8) were determined. The relative yield ratios of the successive transitions and those of carbon-to-nitrogen (C:N) and carbon-to-oxygen (C:O) were also determined. These X-ray yields provide important information for understanding the capture ratios and cascade mechanisms of kaonic atoms produced in a compound material, such as Kapton.

  1. K- nuclear potentials based on chiral meson-baryon amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareš, J.; Cieplý, A.; Gazda, D.; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.

    2012-09-01

    K- nuclear optical potentials are constructed from in-medium subthreshold K¯N scattering amplitudes within a chirally motivated coupled-channel model. We demonstrate how the strong energy and density dependence of the scattering amplitudes at and below threshold leads to a deep K- nuclear potential VK- for kaonic atoms and K- nuclear quasibound states. Selfconsistent evaluations yield K- potential depths -ReVK- (ρ0) of order 100 MeV. Allowing for K- NN absorption, better agreement with K- atoms data is achieved, leading to increased potential depths, -ReVK- (ρ0) ˜ 175 MeV, in accord with density dependent potentials obtained in purely phenomenological fits. Self consistent dynamical calculations of K- nuclear quasibound states are reported and discussed, as well.

  2. The systematic study of deeply bound kaonic nuclei with antisymmetrized molecular dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dote, Akinobu; Akaishi, Yoshinori [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Horiuchi, Hisashi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Yamazaki, Toshimitsu [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Wako, Saitama (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    We have investigated systematically kaonic nuclei which are ppnK{sup -}, pppK{sup -}, pppnK{sup -} and {sup 6}BeK{sup -}. In the present study we have improved the framework of antisymmetrized molecular dynamics (AMD) so that we can treat K{sup -} - K-bar{sup 0} mixing and perform not only angular-momentum projection but also isospin projection. As a result of our calculation with a new framework of AMD, all kaonic nuclei we calculated are deeply bound by about 100 MeV. We found interesting structures in pppK{sup -} and {sup 6}BeK{sup -}. (author)

  3. Baryon resonances as dynamically generated states in chiral dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Jido, Dasiuke

    2012-01-01

    We discuss baryon resonances which are dynamically generated in hadron dynamics based on chiral coupled channels approach. With the dynamical description of the baryon resonance, we discuss the origin of the resonance pole, finding that for the description of N(1535) some other components than meson and baryon are necessary. Since the chiral unitary model provides a microscopic description in terms of constituent hadrons, it is straightforward to calculate transition amplitudes and form factors of resonances without introducing further parameters. Finally we briefly discuss few-body nuclear kaonic systems as hadronic molecular states.

  4. State of art of nuclear telerobots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Ji Sup; Oh, S. C.; Park, Y. S.; Kim, K. S

    1997-03-01

    A state-of-the-art survey on telerobotics technology for nuclear applications is made with view to provide technical data base to interested users. Most of the information are gathered from G7 countries with some addition of Korean status of development. Although the bulk of information is focussed on mobile robots, graphic simulation for man-machine interface is also included in the survey. Examples of telerobotics application to nuclear work are investigated. (author). 108 refs., 9 tabs., 64 figs

  5. Nuclear dynamics of K¯ bound states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareš, J.; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.

    2006-07-01

    nuclear bound states were generated dynamically within a relativistic mean field (RMF) model. Substantial polarization of the core nucleus was found for light nuclei. The behavior of the dynamically calculated width ΓK¯ as function of the K¯ binding energy was studied. A lower limit of ΓK¯ ˜ 35 - 45 MeV for 1s K¯ nuclear states in light nuclei such as 12C was placed on the width expected for deep binding in the range B K¯ ˜ 100 - 200 MeV.

  6. Nuclear internal conversion between bound atomic states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemin, J. F.; Harston, M. R.; Karpeshin, F. F.; Carreyre, J.; Attallah, F.; Aleonard, M. M.; Scheurer, J. N.; Boggaert, G.; Grandin, J. R.; Trzhaskovskaya, M. B.

    2003-01-01

    We present experimental and theoretical results for rate of decay of the (3/2)+ isomeric state in 125Te versus the ionic charge state. For charge state larger than 44 the nuclear transition lies below the threshold for emission of a K-shell electron into the continuum with the result that normal internal conversion is energetically forbiden. Rather surprisingly, for the charge 45 and 46 the lifetime of the level was found to have a value close to that in neutral atoms. We present direct evidence that the nuclear transition could still be converted but without the emission of the electron into the continuum, the electron being promoted from the K-shell to an other empty bound state lying close to the continuum. We called this process BIC. The experimental results agree whith theoretical calculations if BIC resonances are taken into account. This leads to a nuclear decay constant that is extremely sensitive to the precise initial state and simple specification of the charge state is no longer appropriate. The contribution to decay of the nucleus of BIC has recently been extended to the situation in which the electron is promoted to an intermediate filled bound state (PFBIC) with an apparent violation of the Pauli principle. Numerical results of the expected dependence of PFBIC on the charge state will be presented for the decay of the 77.351 keV level in 197Au.

  7. Managing nuclear weapons in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, G.

    1993-03-16

    This report discusses the management and security of nuclear weapons in the post-cold war United States. The definition of what constitutes security is clearly changing in the US. It is now a much more integrated view that includes defense and the economy. The author tries to bring some semblance of order to these themes in this brief adaptation of a presentation.

  8. $K$-series X-rays yield measurement of kaonic hydrogen atoms in gaseous target

    CERN Document Server

    Bazzi, M; Bellotti, G; Berucci, C; Bragadireanu, A M; Bosnar, D; Cargnelli, M; Curceanu, C; Butt, A D; d'Uffizi, A; Fiorini, C; Ghio, F; Guaraldo, C; Hayanao, R S; Iliescu, M; Ishiwatari, T; Iwasaki, M; Sandri, P Levi; Marton, J; Okada, S; Pietreanu, D; Piscicchia, K; Vidal, A Romero; Sbardella, E; Scordo, A; Shi, H; Sirghi, D L; Sirghi, F; Tatsuno, H; Doce, O Vazquez; Widmann, E; Zmeskal, J

    2016-01-01

    We measured the $K$-series X-rays of the $K^{-}p$ exotic atom in the SIDDHARTA experiment with a gaseous hydrogen target of 1.3 g/l, which is about 15 times the $\\rho_{\\rm STP}$ of hydrogen gas. At this density, the absolute yields of kaonic X-rays, when a negatively charged kaon stopped inside the target, were determined to be 0.012$^{+0.004}_{-0.003}$ for $K_{\\alpha}$ and 0.043$^{+0.012}_{-0.011}$ for all the $K$-series transitions $K_{tot}$. These results, together with the KEK E228 experiment results, confirm for the first time a target density dependence of the yield predicted by the cascade models, and provide valuable information to refine the parameters used in the cascade models for the kaonic atoms.

  9. Spin-Polarized States of Nuclear Matter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Wei; U. Lombardo; SHEN Cai-Wan

    2003-01-01

    The equations of state of spin-polarized nuclear matter and pure neutron matter are studied in theframework of the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock theory including a three-body force. The energy per nucleon E A (δ) calculatedin the full range of spin polarization δ = (ρ↑ - ρ↓)/ρ for symmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter fulfills aparabolic law. In both the cases the spin-symmetry energy is calculated as a function of the baryonic density alongwith the related quantities such as the magnetic susceptibility and the Landau parameter Go. The main effect of thethree-body force is to strongly reduce the degenerate Fermi gas magnetic susceptibility even more than the value withonly two-body force. The equation of state is monotonically increasing with the density for all spin-aligned configurationsstudied here so that no any signature is found for a spontaneous transition to a ferromagnetic state.

  10. Preliminary study of kaonic deuterium X-rays by the SIDDHARTA experiment at DAΦNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazzi, M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, C.P. 13, Via E. Fermi 40, I-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Beer, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, Victoria BC V8W3P6 (Canada); Berucci, C. [Stefan-Meyer-Institut für subatomare Physik, Boltzmanngasse 3, 1090 Wien (Austria); INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, C.P. 13, Via E. Fermi 40, I-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Bombelli, L. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Elettronica e Informazione, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Bragadireanu, A.M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, C.P. 13, Via E. Fermi 40, I-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); IFIN-HH, Institutul National pentru Fizica si Inginerie Nucleara Horia Hulubei, Reactorului 30, Magurele (Romania); Cargnelli, M., E-mail: michael.cargnelli@oaaw.ac.at [Stefan-Meyer-Institut für subatomare Physik, Boltzmanngasse 3, 1090 Wien (Austria); Curceanu, C.; D' Uffizi, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, C.P. 13, Via E. Fermi 40, I-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Fiorini, C.; Frizzi, T. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Elettronica e Informazione, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Ghio, F. [INFN Sezione di Roma I and Instituto Superiore di Sanita, I-00161 Roma (Italy); Guaraldo, C. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, C.P. 13, Via E. Fermi 40, I-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Hayano, R. [University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Iliescu, M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, C.P. 13, Via E. Fermi 40, I-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Ishiwatari, T. [Stefan-Meyer-Institut für subatomare Physik, Boltzmanngasse 3, 1090 Wien (Austria); Iwasaki, M. [RIKEN, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); and others

    2013-06-03

    The study of the K{sup ¯}N system at very low energies plays a key role for the understanding of the strong interaction between hadrons in the strangeness sector. At the DAΦNE electron–positron collider of Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati we studied kaonic atoms with Z=1 and Z=2, taking advantage of the low-energy charged kaons from Φ-mesons decaying nearly at rest. The SIDDHARTA experiment used X-ray spectroscopy of the kaonic atoms to determine the transition yields and the strong interaction induced shift and width of the lowest experimentally accessible level (1s for H and D and 2p for He). Shift and width are connected to the real and imaginary part of the scattering length. To disentangle the isospin dependent scattering lengths of the antikaon–nucleon interaction, measurements of K{sup −}p and of K{sup −}d are needed. We report here on an exploratory deuterium measurement, from which a limit for the yield of the K-series transitions was derived: Y(K{sub tot})<0.0143 and Y(K{sub α})<0.0039 (CL 90%). Also, the upcoming SIDDHARTA-2 kaonic deuterium experiment is introduced.

  11. Preliminary study of kaonic deuterium X-rays by the SIDDHARTA experiment at DAΦNE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzi, M; Beer, G; Berucci, C; Bombelli, L; Bragadireanu, A M; Cargnelli, M; Curceanu Petrascu, C; Dʼuffizi, A; Fiorini, C; Frizzi, T; Ghio, F; Guaraldo, C; Hayano, R; Iliescu, M; Ishiwatari, T; Iwasaki, M; Kienle, P; Levi Sandri, P; Longoni, A; Marton, J; Okada, S; Pietreanu, D; Ponta, T; Romero Vidal, A; Sbardella, E; Scordo, A; Shi, H; Sirghi, D L; Sirghi, F; Tatsuno, H; Tudorache, A; Tudorache, V; Vazquez Doce, O; Widmann, E; Zmeskal, J

    2013-06-03

    The study of the [Formula: see text] system at very low energies plays a key role for the understanding of the strong interaction between hadrons in the strangeness sector. At the DAΦNE electron-positron collider of Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati we studied kaonic atoms with [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], taking advantage of the low-energy charged kaons from Φ-mesons decaying nearly at rest. The SIDDHARTA experiment used X-ray spectroscopy of the kaonic atoms to determine the transition yields and the strong interaction induced shift and width of the lowest experimentally accessible level (1s for H and D and 2p for He). Shift and width are connected to the real and imaginary part of the scattering length. To disentangle the isospin dependent scattering lengths of the antikaon-nucleon interaction, measurements of [Formula: see text] and of [Formula: see text] are needed. We report here on an exploratory deuterium measurement, from which a limit for the yield of the K-series transitions was derived: [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] (CL 90%). Also, the upcoming SIDDHARTA-2 kaonic deuterium experiment is introduced.

  12. The Hoyle state in Nuclear Lattice EFT

    CERN Document Server

    Lähde, Timo A; Krebs, Hermann; Lee, Dean; Meißner, Ulf-G; Rupak, Gautam

    2014-01-01

    We review the calculation of the Hoyle state of $^{12}$C in Nuclear Lattice Effective Field Theory (NLEFT) and its anthropic implications for the nucleosynthesis of $^{12}$C and $^{16}$O in red giant stars. We also review the extension of NLEFT to the regime of medium-mass nuclei, with emphasis on the determination of the ground-state energies of the alpha nuclei $^{16}$O, $^{20}$Ne, $^{24}$Mg and $^{28}$Si by means of Euclidean time projection. Finally, we review recent NLEFT results for the spectrum, electromagnetic properties, and alpha-cluster structure of $^{16}$O.

  13. High-density kaonic-proton matter (KPM) composed of Lambda* equiv K-p multiplets and its astrophysical connections

    CERN Document Server

    Akaishi, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    We propose and examine a new high-density composite of Lambda* equiv K-p = (s ubar) times (uud), which may be called Kaonic Proton Matter (KPM), or simply, Lambda*-Matter (Lambda*-M}, where substantial shrinkage of baryonic bound systems originating from the strong attraction of the (KbarN) I=0 interaction takes place, providing a ground-state neutral baryonic system with a huge energy gap. The mass of an ensemble of (K-p) m, where m, the number of the K-p pair, is larger than m approx 10, is predicted to drop down below its corresponding neutron ensemble, (n) m, since the attractive interaction is further increased by the Heitler-London type molecular covalency, as well as by chiral symmetry restoration of the QCD vacuum. Since the seed clusters K-p, K-pp and K-K-pp) are short-lived, the formation of such a stabilized relic ensemble, (K-p) m, may only be conceived during the Big-Bang Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP) period in the early universe before the hadronization and quark-anti-quark annihilation proceed. At t...

  14. A search for the K−pp bound state in the 3He(K−in-flight, n reaction at J-PARC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashimoto T.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We have collected the first physics data of an experimental search for the simplest kaonic nuclear bound state, “K− pp”, by the 3He(K− n reaction at J-PARC. We confirmed that our spectrometer system works as designed and observed clear peak structure composed of the quasi-elastic K−“n” → K−n and the charge-exchange K−“p” → ¯̅K0n reactions in the forward neutron spectrum.

  15. Study of kaonic deuterium X-rays by the SIDDHARTA experiment at DAFNE

    CERN Document Server

    Bazzi, M; Berucci, C; Bombelli, L; Bragadireanu, A M; Cargnelli, M; Curceanu, C; d'Uffizi, A; Fiorini, C; Frizzi, T; Ghio, F; Guaraldo, C; Hayano, R; Iliescu, M; Ishiwatari, T; Iwasaki, M; Kienle, P; Sandri, P Levi; Longoni, A; Marton, J; Okada, S; Pietreanu, D; Ponta, T; Vidal, A Romero; Sbardella, E; Scordo, A; Shi, H; Sirghi, D L; Sirghi, F; Tatsuno, H; Tudorache, A; Tudorache, V; Doce, O Vazquez; Widmann, E; Zmeskal, J

    2013-01-01

    The study of the KbarN system at very low energies plays a key role for the understanding of the strong interaction between hadrons in the strangeness sector. At the DAFNE electron-positron collider of Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati we studied kaonic atoms with Z=1 and Z=2, taking advantage of the low-energy charged kaons from Phi-mesons decaying nearly at rest. The SIDDHARTA experiment used X-ray spectroscopy of the kaonic atoms to determine the transition yields and the strong interaction induced shift and width of the lowest experimentally accessible level (1s for H and D and 2p for He). Shift and width are connected to the real and imaginary part of the scattering length. To disentangle the isospin dependent scattering lengths of the antikaon-nucleon interaction, measurements of Kp and of Kd are needed. We report here on an exploratory deuterium measurement, from which a limit for the yield of the K-series transitions was derived: Y(K_tot)<0.0143 and Y(K_alpha)<0.0039 (CL 90%). Also, the upcoming ...

  16. Economical state of nuclear industries in 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc., has carried out the survey of the actual state of atomic energy industries in Japan every year, and the 22nd survey was performed on the state in 1980. In this survey, the atomic energy industries are classified into electric power business, mining and manufacture, and trading companies. The actual results of expenditures, sales, the investment in facilities, backlogs, the volume of business, the number of employees and so on were surveyed by questionnaire, respectively. The data show the history of the atomic energy industries for a quarter of a century, and are utilized to search for the problems. The period of survey was from April 1, 1980, to March 31, 1981. The number of enterprises surveyed was 1234, and 924 companies replied, accordingly, the ratio of reply was 75%. 546 enterprises among the 924 had some results related to atomic energy, therefore, the results of survey were classified, totalized, examined and analyzed, based on the survey papers of these 546 enterprises. As for the Japanese economy, the real growth of economy was 3.8%, the index of mining and manufacturing production increased by 4.6%, but total energy consumption decreased by 4.4%, as compared with the previous year. One nuclear power plant began the operation, and 4000 centrifuges are operated in the uranium enrichment pilot plant. The trends of expenditures, sales and employees are shown.

  17. Solid state nuclear track detection principles, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Durrani, S A; ter Haar, D

    1987-01-01

    Solid State Nuclear Track Detection: Principles, Methods and Applications is the second book written by the authors after Nuclear Tracks in Solids: Principles and Applications. The book is meant as an introduction to the subject solid state of nuclear track detection. The text covers the interactions of charged particles with matter; the nature of the charged-particle track; the methodology and geometry of track etching; thermal fading of latent damage trails on tracks; the use of dielectric track recorders in particle identification; radiation dossimetry; and solid state nuclear track detecti

  18. Nuclear Security Education Program at the Pennsylvania State University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uenlue, Kenan [The Pennsylvania State University, Radiation Science and Engineering Center, University Park, PA 16802-2304 (United States); The Pennsylvania State University, Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, University Park, PA 16802-2304 (United States); Jovanovic, Igor [The Pennsylvania State University, Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, University Park, PA 16802-2304 (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The availability of trained and qualified nuclear and radiation security experts worldwide has decreased as those with hands-on experience have retired while the demand for these experts and skills have increased. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) has responded to the continued loss of technical and policy expertise amongst personnel and students in the security field by initiating the establishment of a Nuclear Security Education Initiative, in partnership with Pennsylvania State University (PSU), Texas A and M (TAMU), and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). This collaborative, multi-year initiative forms the basis of specific education programs designed to educate the next generation of personnel who plan on careers in the nonproliferation and security fields with both domestic and international focus. The three universities worked collaboratively to develop five core courses consistent with the GTRI mission, policies, and practices. These courses are the following: Global Nuclear Security Policies, Detectors and Source Technologies, Applications of Detectors/Sensors/Sources for Radiation Detection and Measurements Nuclear Security Laboratory, Threat Analysis and Assessment, and Design and Analysis of Security Systems for Nuclear and Radiological Facilities. The Pennsylvania State University (PSU) Nuclear Engineering Program is a leader in undergraduate and graduate-level nuclear engineering education in the USA. The PSU offers undergraduate and graduate programs in nuclear engineering. The PSU undergraduate program in nuclear engineering is the largest nuclear engineering programs in the USA. The PSU Radiation Science and Engineering Center (RSEC) facilities are being used for most of the nuclear security education program activities. Laboratory space and equipment was made available for this purpose. The RSEC facilities include the Penn State Breazeale

  19. Comparison of nuclear electric resonance and nuclear magnetic resonance in integer and fractional quantum Hall states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Tomimatsu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Electric-field-induced nuclear resonance (NER: nuclear electric resonance involving quantum Hall states (QHSs was studied at various filling factors by exploiting changes in nuclear spins polarized at quantum Hall breakdown. Distinct from the magnetic dipole interaction in nuclear magnetic resonance, the interaction of the electric-field gradient with the electric quadrupole moment plays the dominant role in the NER mechanism. The magnitude of the NER signal strongly depends on whether electronic states are localized or extended. This indicates that NER is sensitive to the screening capability of the electric field associated with QHSs.

  20. Liquid-state nuclear spin comagnetometers

    CERN Document Server

    Ledbetter, Micah; Budker, Dmitry; Romalis, Michael; Blanchard, John; Pines, Alex

    2012-01-01

    We discuss nuclear spin comagnetometers based on ultra-low-field nuclear magnetic resonance in mixtures of miscible solvents, each rich in a different nuclear spin. In one version thereof, Larmor precession of protons and ${\\rm ^{19}F}$ nuclei in a mixture of thermally polarized pentane and hexafluorobenzene is monitored via a sensitive alkali-vapor magnetometer. We realize transverse relaxation times in excess of 20 s and suppression of magnetic field fluctuations by a factor of 3400. We estimate it should be possible to achieve single-shot sensitivity of about $5\\times{\\rm 10^{-9} Hz}$, or about $5\\times 10^{-11} {\\rm Hz}$ in $\\approx 1$ day of integration. In a second version, spin precession of protons and ${\\rm ^{129}Xe}$ nuclei in a mixture of pentane and hyperpolarized liquid xenon is monitored using superconducting quantum interference devices. Application to spin-gravity experiments, electric dipole moment experiments, and sensitive gyroscopes are discussed.

  1. United States nuclear tests, July 1945 through September 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    This document lists chronologically and alphabetically by name all nuclear tests and simultaneous detonations conducted by the United States from July 1945 through September 1992. Several tests conducted during Operation Dominic involved missile launches from Johnston Atoll. Several of these missile launches were aborted, resulting in the destruction of the missile and nuclear device either on the pad or in the air.

  2. Multiple Nuclear Polarization States in a Double Quantum Dot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danon, J.; Vink, I.T.; Koppens, F.H.L.; Nowack, K.C.; Vandersypen, L.M.K.; Nazarov, Y.V.

    2009-01-01

    We observe multiple stable states of nuclear polarization and nuclear self-tuning over a large range of fields in a double quantum dot under conditions of electron spin resonance. The observations can be understood within an elaborated theoretical rate equation model for the polarization in each of

  3. Nuclear liability coverage developments in the United States of America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown II, Omer F.

    1995-12-31

    The availability of such nuclear liability coverage has been a concern of nuclear power plant vendors, suppliers and operators, and public officials in the United States or many years. This paper addresses implications of the Federal Price-Anderson Act (42 U.S.C. 2014, 2020; Sections 11 and 170 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended); on the financial liability of persons accountable for an accident in the United States. (author).

  4. Ongoing Space Nuclear Systems Development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bragg-Sitton; J. Werner; S. Johnson; Michael G. Houts; Donald T. Palac; Lee S. Mason; David I. Poston; A. Lou Qualls

    2011-10-01

    Reliable, long-life power systems are required for ambitious space exploration missions. Nuclear power and propulsion options can enable a bold, new set of missions and introduce propulsion capabilities to achieve access to science destinations that are not possible with more conventional systems. Space nuclear power options can be divided into three main categories: radioisotope power for heating or low power applications; fission power systems for non-terrestrial surface application or for spacecraft power; and fission power systems for electric propulsion or direct thermal propulsion. Each of these areas has been investigated in the United States since the 1950s, achieving various stages of development. While some nuclear systems have achieved flight deployment, others continue to be researched today. This paper will provide a brief overview of historical space nuclear programs in the U.S. and will provide a summary of the ongoing space nuclear systems research, development, and deployment in the United States.

  5. Commercial Nuclear Reprocessing in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherrill, Charles Leland [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States); Balatsky, Galya Ivanovna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-09

    The short presentation outline: Reprocessing Overview; Events leading up to Carter’s Policy; Results of the decision; Policy since Nuclear Nonproliferation Act. Conclusions reached: Reprocessing ban has become an easy and visible fix to the public concern about proliferation, but has not completely stopped proliferation; and, Reprocessing needs to become detached from political considerations, so technical research can continue, regardless of the policy decisions we decide to take.

  6. Fragmentation and the Nuclear Equation of State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Wolfgang [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-2320 (United States)]. E-mail: bauer@pa.msu.edu

    2007-05-01

    Progress on the determination of the order of the fragmentation phase transition, the location of its critical point in the nuclear matter phase diagram, the values of the critical exponents that determine the universality class of the transition, and finite size scaling effects is discussed. Evidence for the presence of Zipf-Mandelbrot-scaling in the relative size of the largest clusters is examined, and the connection to the value of the critical exponent {tau} is established.

  7. Nuclear states with anomalously large radius (size isomers)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogloblin, A. A.; Demyanova, A. S., E-mail: a.s.demyanova@bk.ru; Danilov, A. N. [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Belyaeva, T. L. [Ciudad Universitaria, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Meéxico (Mexico); Goncharov, S. A. [Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics (Russian Federation); Trzaska, W. [University of Jyvaäskylaä (Finland)

    2016-07-15

    Methods of determination of the nuclear excited state radii are discussed together with the recently obtained data on the states of some light nuclei having abnormally large radii (size isomers). It is shown that such states include excited neutron-halo states in {sup 9}Be, {sup 11}Be, and {sup 13}C and some alpha-cluster states in {sup 12}C, {sup 11}B, and {sup 13}C. Among the latter ones, there is the well-known Hoyle state in {sup 12}C—the structure of this state exhibit rudimentary features of alpha-particle states.

  8. Iran: The Next Nuclear Threshold State?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    receive Okinawa back from the United States, which occurred in 1972. Although U.S. occupation of the island offered protection in the form of...its commitment to nonproliferation and disarmament. On December 19, 1955, the Diet adopted Japan’s Atomic Energy Basic Law, which states that Japan

  9. State-federal interactions in nuclear regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasternak, A.D.; Budnitz, R.J.

    1987-12-01

    The Atomic Energy Act of 1954 established, and later Congressional amendments have confirmed, that except in areas which have been explicitly granted to the states, the federal government possesses preemptive authority to regulate radiation hazards associated with the development and use of atomic energy. Since the passage of the original Act, numerous decisions by the courts have reaffirmed the legitimacy of federal preemption, and have defined and redefined its scope. In this study, the aim is to explore the underlying issues involved in federal preemption of radiation-hazard regulation, and to recommend actions that the Department of Energy and other agencies and groups should consider undertaking in the near term to protect the preemption principle. Appropriate roles of the states are discussed, as well as recent state-level activities and their rationale, and several current arenas in which state-federal conflicts about regulation of hazards are being played out. The emphasis here is on four particular arenas that are now important arenas of conflict, but the issues discussed are far broader in scope. These four arenas are: state-level moratorium activity; emergency planning for reactors; conflicts arising from state financial regulation; and inroads in federal preemption through litigation under state law.

  10. Report of the State of Nevada Commission on Nuclear Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-12-01

    This third biennial Report of the Nevada Commission on Nuclear Projects has been prepared in fulfillment of the requirements of NRS 459.0092, which stipulates that the Commission shall report to the Governor and Legislature on any matter relating to radioactive waste disposal the Commission deems appropriate and advise and make recommendations on the policy of the State concerning nuclear waste disposal projects. Chapter One of the Report presents a brief overview of the Commission`s functions and statutory charges. It also contains a summary of developments which have affected the overall nuclear waste disposl issue since the last Commission Report was published in November, 1988. Chapter Two contains a synthesis of Commission activities and reports on the findings of the Commission relative to the geotechnical, environmental, socioeconomic, transportation, intergovernmental and legal aspects of federal and State nuclear waste program efforts.

  11. Virial Expansion of the Nuclear Equation of State

    CERN Document Server

    Maganaa, Ruslan; Bonasera, Aldo

    2010-01-01

    We study the equation of state (EOS) of nuclear matter as function of density. We expand the energy per particle (E/A) of symmetric infinite nuclear matter in powers of the density to take into account 2,3,. . .,N-body forces. New EOS are proposed by fitting ground state properties of nuclear matter (binding energy, compressibility and pressure) and assuming that at high densities a second order phase transition to the Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP) occurs. The latter phase transition is due to symmetry breaking at high density from nuclear matter (locally color white) to the QGP (globally color white). In the simplest implementation of a second order phase transition we calculate the critical exponent ? by using Landau's theory of phase transition. We find ? = 3. Refining the properties of the EOS near the critical point gives ? = 5 in agreement with experimental results. We also discuss some scenarios for the EOS at finite temperatures.

  12. Virial Expansion of the Nuclear Equation of State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magana, Ruslan; Zheng, Hua; Bonasera, Aldo

    We study the equation of state (EOS) of nuclear matter as function of density. We expand the energy per particle (E/A) of symmetric infinite nuclear matter in powers of the density to take into account 2, 3, …, N-body forces. New EOS are proposed by fitting ground state properties of nuclear matter (binding energy, compressibility and pressure) and assuming that at high densities a second-order phase transition to the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) occurs. The latter phase transition is due to symmetry breaking at high density from nuclear matter (locally color white) to the QGP (globally color white). In the simplest implementation of a second-order phase transition we calculate the critical exponent δ by using Landau's theory of phase transition. We find δ = 3. Refining the properties of the EOS near the critical point gives δ = 5 in agreement with experimental results. We also discuss some scenarios for the EOS at finite temperatures.

  13. Extraction of Nuclear Matter Properties from Nuclear Masses by a Model of Equation of State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.C.Chung; C.S.Wang; A.J.Santiago

    2001-01-01

    The extraction of nuclear matter properties from measured nuclear masses is investigated in the energy density functional formalism of nuclei.It is shown that the volume energy a1 and the nuclear incompressibility Ko depend essentially on μnN -+- pZ - 2EN,whereas the symmetry energy J and the density symmetry coefficient L as well as symmetry incompressibility Ks depend essentially on μn - μp,where μp =μp - Ec/ Z,μn and μp are the neutron and proton chemical potentials respectively,EN the nuclear energy,and Ec the Coulomb energy.The obtained symmetry energy is J = 28.5 MeV,while other coefficients are uncertain within ranges depending on the model of nuclear equation of state.``

  14. One-group constant libraries for nuclear equilibrium state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizutani, Akihiko; Sekimoto, Hiroshi [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Research Lab. for Nuclear Reactors

    1997-03-01

    One-group constant libraries for the nuclear equilibrium state were generated for both liquid sodium cooled MOX fuel type fast reactor and PWR type thermal reactor with Equilibrium Cell Iterative Calculation System (ECICS) using JENDL-3.2, -3, -2 and ENDF/B-VI nuclear data libraries. ECICS produced one-group constant sets for 129 heavy metal nuclides and 1238 fission products. (author)

  15. Phi meson spectral moments and QCD condensates in nuclear matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubler, Philipp; Weise, Wolfram

    2016-10-01

    A detailed analysis of the lowest two moments of the ϕ meson spectral function in vacuum and nuclear matter is performed. The consistency is examined between the constraints derived from finite energy QCD sum rules and the spectra computed within an improved vector dominance model, incorporating the coupling of kaonic degrees of freedom with the bare ϕ meson. In the vacuum, recent accurate measurements of the e+e- →K+K- cross section allow us to determine the spectral function with high precision. In nuclear matter, the modification of the spectral function can be described by the interactions of the kaons from ϕ → K K ‾ with the surrounding nuclear medium. This leads primarily to a strong broadening and an asymmetric deformation of the ϕ meson peak structure. We confirm that, both in vacuum and nuclear matter, the zeroth and first moments of the corresponding spectral functions satisfy the requirements of the finite energy sum rules to a remarkable degree of accuracy. Limits on the strangeness sigma term of the nucleon are examined in this context. Applying our results to the second moment of the spectrum, we furthermore discuss constraints on four-quark condensates and the validity of the commonly used ground state saturation approximation.

  16. nuclear bound states in a dynamical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareš, J.; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.

    2006-05-01

    A comprehensive data base of K-atom level shifts and widths is re-analyzed in order to study the density dependence of the K¯-nuclear optical potential. Significant departure from a tρ form is found only for ρ(r)/ρ ≲ 0.2 and extrapolation to nuclear-matter density ρ yields an attractive potential, about 170 MeV deep. Partial restoration of chiral symmetry compatible with pionic atoms and low-energy pion-nuclear data plays no role at the relevant low-density regime, but this effect is not ruled out at densities of order ρ and beyond. K¯-nuclear bound states are generated across the periodic table self consistently, using a relativistic mean-field model Lagrangian which couples the K¯ to the scalar and vector meson fields mediating the nuclear interactions. The reduced phase space available for K¯ absorption from these bound states is taken into account by adding an energy-dependent imaginary term which underlies the corresponding K¯-nuclear level widths, with a strength required by fits to the atomic data. Substantial polarization of the core nucleus is found for light nuclei, and the binding energies and widths calculated in this dynamical model differ appreciably from those calculated for a static nucleus. A wide range of binding energies is spanned by varying the K¯ couplings to the meson fields. Our calculations provide a lower limit of Γ=50±10 MeV on the width of nuclear bound states for K¯-binding energy in the range B˜100-200 MeV. Comments are made on the interpretation of the FINUDA experiment at DAΦNE which claimed evidence for deeply bound Kpp states in light nuclei.

  17. Is there a crystalline state of nuclear matter?

    CERN Document Server

    Yakhshiev, U T; Kim, H C; Kim, H C

    2005-01-01

    The possibility of a crystalline state of nuclear matter is discussed in a medium--modified Skyrme model. The interaction energy per nucleon in nuclear matter is evaluated by taking into account the medium influence on a single nucleon--skyrmion properties and the tensor part of the nucleon--nucleon potential, and by using a variational method of a Hartree--Fock type including zero--point quantum fluctuations. It is shown that in this approach the ground state of the skyrmionic matter has no crystalline structure due to quantum fluctuations as well as medium modifications of hadron properties.

  18. Nuclear equation of state for core-collapse supernova simulations with realistic nuclear forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togashi, H., E-mail: hajime.togashi@riken.jp [Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Nakazato, K. [Faculty of Arts and Science, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Takehara, Y.; Yamamuro, S.; Suzuki, H. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, Yamazaki 2641, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan); Takano, M. [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Department of Pure and Applied Physics, Graduate School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

    2017-05-15

    A new table of the nuclear equation of state (EOS) based on realistic nuclear potentials is constructed for core-collapse supernova numerical simulations. Adopting the EOS of uniform nuclear matter constructed by two of the present authors with the cluster variational method starting from the Argonne v18 and Urbana IX nuclear potentials, the Thomas–Fermi calculation is performed to obtain the minimized free energy of a Wigner–Seitz cell in non-uniform nuclear matter. As a preparation for the Thomas–Fermi calculation, the EOS of uniform nuclear matter is modified so as to remove the effects of deuteron cluster formation in uniform matter at low densities. Mixing of alpha particles is also taken into account following the procedure used by Shen et al. (1998, 2011). The critical densities with respect to the phase transition from non-uniform to uniform phase with the present EOS are slightly higher than those with the Shen EOS at small proton fractions. The critical temperature with respect to the liquid–gas phase transition decreases with the proton fraction in a more gradual manner than in the Shen EOS. Furthermore, the mass and proton numbers of nuclides appearing in non-uniform nuclear matter with small proton fractions are larger than those of the Shen EOS. These results are consequences of the fact that the density derivative coefficient of the symmetry energy of our EOS is smaller than that of the Shen EOS.

  19. Performance of a 229 Thorium solid-state nuclear clock

    CERN Document Server

    Kazakov, G A; Romanenko, V I; Yatsenko, L P; Romanenko, A V; Schreitl, M; Winkler, G; Schumm, T

    2012-01-01

    The 7.8 eV nuclear isomer transition in 229 Thorium has been suggested as an etalon transition in a new type of optical frequency standard. Here we discuss the construction of a "solid-state nuclear clock" from Thorium nuclei implanted into single crystals transparent in the vacuum ultraviolet range. We investigate crystal-induced line shifts and broadening effects for the specific system of Calcium fluoride. At liquid Nitrogen temperatures, the clock performance will be limited by decoherence due to magnetic coupling of the Thorium nucleus to neighboring nuclear moments, ruling out the commonly used Rabi or Ramsey interrogation schemes. We propose a clock stabilization based on counting of flourescence photons and present optimized operation parameters. Taking advantage of the high number of quantum oscillators under continuous interrogation, a fractional instability level of 10^{-19} might be reached within the solid-state approach.

  20. Pulse Design in Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palani, Ravi Shankar

    2017-01-01

    The work presented in this dissertation is centred on the theory of experimental methods in solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, which deals with interaction of electromagnetic radiation with nuclei in a magnetic field and possessing a fundamental quantum mechanical property...

  1. How neutron stars constrain the nuclear equation of state

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Hell; Weise, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    Recent neutron star observations set new constraints for the equation of state of baryonic matter. A chiral effective field theory approach is used for the description of neutron-dominated nuclear matter present in the outer core of neutron stars. Possible hybrid stars with quark matter in the inner core are discussed using a three-flavor Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model.

  2. Research program in nuclear and solid state physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronach, C. E.

    1973-01-01

    The spectra of prompt gamma rays emitted following nuclear pion absorption were studied to determine the states of excited daughter nuclei, and the branching ratios for these states. Studies discussed include the negative pion absorption of C-12, S-32, and N-14; and the positive pion absorption on 0-16. Abstracts of papers submitted to the conference of the American Physical Society are included.

  3. Nuclear Equation of State and Neutron Star Cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Yeunhwan; Lee, Chang-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the effects of the nuclear equation of state (EoS) to the neutron star cooling. New era for nuclear EoS has begun after the discovery of $\\sim 2\\msun$ neutron stars PSR J1614$-$2230 and PSR J0348$+$0432 [1, 2]. Also recent works on the mass and radius of neutron stars from low-mass X-ray binaries [3] strongly constrain the EoS of nuclear matter. On the other hand, observations of the neutron star in Cassiopeia A (Cas A) more than 10 years confirmed the existence of nuclear superfluidity [4, 5]. Nuclear superfluidity reduces the heat capacities as well as neutrino emissivities. With nuclear superfluidity the neutrino emission processes are highly suppressed, and the existence of superfluidity makes the cooling path quite different from that of the standard cooling process. Superfluidity also allows new neutrino emission process, which is called `Pair Breaking and Formation'(PBF). PBF is a fast cooling process and can explain the fast cooling rate of neutron star in Cas A. Therefore, it is essent...

  4. ηN interactions in the nuclear medium. η-nuclear bound states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareš, J.; Barnea, N.; Cieplý, A.; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.

    2016-11-01

    We report on our recent study of in-medium ηN interactions and η-nuclear quasi-bound states. The ηN scattering amplitudes considered in the calculations are constructed within coupled-channel models that incorporate the S11 N*(1535) resonance. The implications of self-consistent treatment and the role played by subthreshold dynamics are discussed.

  5. Chiral symmetry and nuclear matter equation of state

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A B Santra

    2001-08-01

    We investigate the effect on the nuclear matter equation of state (EOS) due to modification of meson and nucleon parameters in nuclear medium as a consequence of partial restoration of chiral symmetry. To get the EOS, we have used Brueckner–Bethe–Golstone formalism with Bonn- potential as two-body interaction and QCD sum rule and Brown–Rho scaling prescriptions for modification of hadron parameters. We find that EOS is very much sensitive to the meson parameters. We can fit, with two body interaction alone, both the saturation density and the binding energy per nucleon.

  6. Negative-parity nucleon excited state in nuclear matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtani, Keisuke; Gubler, Philipp; Oka, Makoto

    2016-10-01

    Spectral functions of the nucleon and its negative-parity excited state in nuclear matter are studied by using QCD sum rules and the maximum entropy method (MEM). It is found that in-medium modifications of the spectral functions are attributed mainly to density dependencies of the and condensates. The MEM reproduces the lowest-energy peaks of both the positive- and negative-parity nucleon states at finite density up to ρ ˜ρN (normal nuclear matter density). As the density grows, the residue of the nucleon ground state decreases gradually while the residue of the lowest negative-parity excited state increases slightly. On the other hand, the positions of the peaks, which correspond to the total energies of these states, are almost density independent for both parity states. The density dependencies of the effective masses and vector self-energies are also extracted by assuming phenomenological mean-field-type propagators for the peak states. We find that, as the density increases, the nucleon effective mass decreases while the vector self-energy increases. The density dependence of these quantities for the negative-parity state on the other hand turns out to be relatively weak.

  7. Nuclear Successor States of the Soviet Union, Nuclear Weapon and Sensitive Export Status Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-24

    Jane’s Defense Weekly, March 27, 1993, p. 7; "Lineup of Russian Aerospace Power , 1992," Air Force Magazine , July 1993, p. 65; "Nuclear Notebook," The...also JPRS-TND 12/ 8 /93, p. 46] 11/9193 - UNCLASSIFIED REPORT FROM THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ON BELARUSIAN DELEGATION ATTENDING WORKSHOP (SEPT. 13-17...director of Chernobyl nuclear power plant, in conjunction with the heads of the State Committee on Atomic Energy Usage, the public should not be overly

  8. Charged particle assisted nuclear reactions in solid state environment: renaissance of low energy nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kálmán, Péter

    2015-01-01

    The features of electron assisted neutron exchange processes in crystalline solids are survayed. It is stated that, contrary to expectations, the cross section of these processes may reach an observable magnitude even in the very low energy case because of the extremely huge increment caused by the Coulomb factor of the electron assisted processes and by the effect of the crystal-lattice. The features of electron assisted heavy charged particle exchange processes, electron assisted nuclear capure processes and heavy charged particle assisted nuclear processes are also overviewed. Experimental observations, which may be related to our theoretical findings, are dealt with. The anomalous screening phenomenon is related to electron assisted neutron and proton exchange processes in crystalline solids. A possible explanation of observations by Fleischmann and Pons is presented. The possibility of the phenomenon of nuclear transmutation is qualitatively explained with the aid of usual and charged particle assisted r...

  9. Negative-parity nucleon excited state in nuclear matter

    CERN Document Server

    Ohtani, Keisuke; Oka, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Spectral functions of the nucleon and its negative parity excited state in nuclear matter are studied using QCD sum rules and the maximum entropy method (MEM). It is found that in-medium modifications of the spectral functions are attributed mainly to density dependencies of the $\\langle \\bar{q}q \\rangle $ and $\\langle q^{\\dagger}q \\rangle $ condensates. The MEM reproduces the lowest-energy peaks of both the positive and negative parity nucleon states at finite density up to $\\rho \\sim \\rho_N$ (normal nuclear matter density). As the density grows, the residue of the nucleon ground state decreases gradually while the residue of the lowest negative parity excited state increases slightly. On the other hand, the positions of the peaks, which correspond to the total energies of these states, are almost density independent for both parity states. The density dependencies of the effective masses and vector self-energies are also extracted by assuming the mean-field green functions for the peak states. We find that,...

  10. The Hoyle state in nuclear lattice effective field theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Timo A Lähde; Evgeny Epelbaum; Hermann Krebs; Dean Lee; Ulf-G Meißner; Gautam Rupak

    2014-11-01

    We review the calculation of the Hoyle state of 12C in nuclear lattice effective field theory (NLEFT) and its anthropic implications in the nucleosynthesis of 12C and 16O in red giant stars. We also analyse the extension of NLEFT to the regime of medium-mass nuclei, with emphasis on the determination of the ground-state energies of the nuclei 16O, 20Ne, 24Mg, and 28Si by Euclidean time projection. Finally, we discuss recent NLEFT results for the spectrum, electromagnetic properties, and α-cluster structure of 16O.

  11. State of Nevada, Agency for Nuclear Projects/Nuclear Waste Project Office narrative report, January 1--June 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The Agency for Nuclear Projects/Nuclear Waste Project Office (NWPO) is the State of Nevada agency designated by State law to monitor and oversee US Department of Energy (DOE) activities relative to the possible siting, construction, operation and closure of a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain and to carry out the State of Nevada`s responsibilities under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. During the reporting period the NWPO continued to work toward the five objectives designed to implement the Agency`s oversight responsibilities. (1) Assure that the health and safety of Nevada`s citizens are adequately protected with regard to any federal high-level radioactive waste program within the State. (2) Take the responsibilities and perform the duties of the State of Nevada as described in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (Public Law 97-425) and the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987. (3) Advise the Governor, the State Commission on Nuclear Projects and the Nevada State Legislature on matters concerning the potential disposal of high-level radioactive waste in the State. (4) Work closely and consult with affected local governments and State agencies. (5) Monitor and evaluate federal planning and activities regarding high-level radioactive waste disposal. Plan and conduct independent State studies regarding the proposed repository.

  12. Effect of nuclear-reaction mechanisms on the population of excited nuclear states and isomeric ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skobelev, N. K.

    2016-07-01

    Experimental data on the cross sections for channels of fusion and transfer reactions induced by beams of radioactive halo nuclei and clustered and stable loosely bound nuclei were analyzed, and the results of this analysis were summarized. The interplay of the excitation of single-particle states in reaction-product nuclei and direct reaction channels was established for transfer reactions. Respective experiments were performed in stable (6Li) and radioactive (6He) beams of the DRIBs accelerator complex at the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, and in deuteron and 3He beams of the U-120M cyclotron at the Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy Sciences of Czech Republic (Řež and Prague, Czech Republic). Data on subbarrier and near-barrier fusion reactions involving clustered and loosely bound light nuclei (6Li and 3He) can be described quite reliably within simple evaporation models with allowance for different reaction Q-values and couple channels. In reactions involving halo nuclei, their structure manifests itself most strongly in the region of energies below the Coulomb barrier. Neutron transfer occurs with a high probability in the interactions of all loosely bound nuclei with light and heavy stable nuclei at positive Q-values. The cross sections for such reactions and the respective isomeric ratios differ drastically for nucleon stripping and nucleon pickup mechanisms. This is due to the difference in the population probabilities for excited single-particle states.

  13. Nuclear ground-state masses and deformations: FRDM(2012)

    CERN Document Server

    Moller, P; Ichikawa, T; Sagawa, H

    2015-01-01

    We tabulate the atomic mass excesses and binding energies, ground-state shell-plus-pairing corrections, ground-state microscopic corrections, and nuclear ground-state deformations of 9318 nuclei ranging from $^{16}$O to $A=339$. The calculations are based on the finite-range droplet macroscopic model and the folded-Yukawa single-particle microscopic model. Relative to our FRDM(1992) mass table in {\\sc Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables} [{\\bf 59} 185 (1995)], the results are obtained in the same model, but with considerably improved treatment of deformation and fewer of the approximations that were necessary earlier, due to limitations in computer power. The more accurate execution of the model and the more extensive and more accurate experimental mass data base now available allows us to determine one additional macroscopic-model parameter, the density-symmetry coefficient $L$, which was not varied in the previous calculation, but set to zero. Because we now realize that the FRDM is inaccurate for some high...

  14. Nuclear matter equation of state and -meson parameters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A B Santra; U Lambardo

    2005-01-01

    We try to determine phenomenologically the extent of in-medium modification of -meson parameters so that the saturation observables of the nuclear matter equation of state (EOS) are reproduced. To calculate the EOS we have used Brueckner–Bethe–Goldstone formalism with Bonn potential as two-body interaction. We find that it is possible to understand all the saturation observables, namely, saturation density, energy per nucleon and incompressibility, by incorporating in-medium modification of -meson–nucleon coupling constant and -meson mass by a few per cent.

  15. United States nuclear regulatory commission program for inspection of decommissioning nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, P.W. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC or Commission) has been inspecting decommissioning commercial nuclear power plants in the United States (U.S.) since the first such facility permanently shutdown in September 1967. Decommissioning inspections have principally focused on the safe storage and maintenance of spent reactor fuel; occupational radiation exposure; environmental radiological releases; the dismantlement and decontamination of structures, systems, and components identified to contain or potentially contain licensed radioactive material; and the performance of final radiological survey of the site and remaining structures to support termination of the USNRC-issued operating license. Over the last 5 years, USNRC inspection effort in these areas has been assessed and found to provide reasonable confidence that decommissioning can be conducted safely and in accordance with Commission rules and regulations. Recently, the staff has achieved a better understanding of the risks associated with particular decommissioning accidents 1 and plans to apply these insights to amendments proposed to enhance decommissioning rules and regulations. The probabilities, scenarios, and conclusions resulting from this effort are being assessed as to their applicability to the inspection of decommissioning commercial power reactors. (author)

  16. Bridging Nuclear Shells: Neutral $s$-States Are Different

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffman, C R; Schiffer, J P

    2013-01-01

    The behavior of the low-lying 1/2$^+$ state in light nuclei and its intrusion into the opposite-parity $1p$ shell is a prime example of the fragility of nuclear shell structure. Utilizing the available experimental data, including recent measurements with short-lived beams, we compare the difference in energies between the 1/2$^+$ and 5/2$^+$ neutron excitations and find that the $\\sim$3 MeV change in this difference between $^9$Be and $^{17}$O seems to depend primarily on the number of protons. Such a trend is in the direction expected from the tensor interaction influencing the $5/2^+$ energy, but more detailed analysis suggests that the dominant factor is probably the geometric effect of finite binding, the changing proximity of the 1/2$^+$ neutron excitation to threshold that is also responsible for the phenomenon of nuclear halos. Once the geometric effect of finite binding is removed, perhaps $<$1~MeV of the $1/2^+$ to $5/2^+$ energy difference could still arise from the tensor interaction. A similar...

  17. Multinuclear solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance of inorganic materials

    CERN Document Server

    MacKenzie, Kenneth J D

    2002-01-01

    Techniques of solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy are constantly being extended to a more diverse range of materials, pressing into service an ever-expanding range of nuclides including some previously considered too intractable to provide usable results. At the same time, new developments in both hardware and software are being introduced and refined. This book covers the most important of these new developments. With sections addressed to non-specialist researchers (providing accessible answers to the most common questions about the theory and practice of NMR asked by novices) as well as a more specialised and up-to-date treatment of the most important areas of inorganic materials research to which NMR has application, this book should be useful to NMR users whatever their level of expertise and whatever inorganic materials they wish to study.

  18. Diallyl phthalate (DAP) solid state nuclear track detector

    CERN Document Server

    Koguchi, Y; Ashida, T; Tsuruta, T

    2003-01-01

    Diallyl phthalate (DAP) solid state nuclear track detector is suitable for detecting heavy ions such as fission fragments, because it is insensitive to right ions such as alpha particles and protons. Detection efficiency of fission tracks is about 100%, which is unaffected under conditions below 240degC lasting for 1h or below 1 MGy of gamma-ray irradiation. Optimum etching condition for the DAP detector for detection of fission fragments is 2-4 h using 30% KOH aqueous solution at 90degC or 8-15 min using PEW-65 solution at 60degC. DAP detector is useful in detecting induced fission tracks for dating of geology or measuring intense heavy ions induced by ultra laser plasma. The fabrication of copolymers of DAP and CR-39 makes it possible to control the discrimination level for detection threshold of heavy ions. (author)

  19. Laboratory tests of low density astrophysical nuclear equations of state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, L; Hagel, K; Wada, R; Natowitz, J B; Shlomo, S; Bonasera, A; Röpke, G; Typel, S; Chen, Z; Huang, M; Wang, J; Zheng, H; Kowalski, S; Barbui, M; Rodrigues, M R D; Schmidt, K; Fabris, D; Lunardon, M; Moretto, S; Nebbia, G; Pesente, S; Rizzi, V; Viesti, G; Cinausero, M; Prete, G; Keutgen, T; El Masri, Y; Majka, Z; Ma, Y G

    2012-04-27

    Clustering in low density nuclear matter has been investigated using the NIMROD multidetector at Texas A&M University. Thermal coalescence modes were employed to extract densities, ρ, and temperatures, T, for evolving systems formed in collisions of 47A MeV (40)Ar+(112)Sn, (124)Sn and (64)Zn+(112)Sn, (124)Sn. The yields of d, t, (3)He, and (4)He have been determined at ρ=0.002 to 0.03 nucleons/fm(3) and T=5 to 11 MeV. The experimentally derived equilibrium constants for α particle production are compared with those predicted by a number of astrophysical equations of state. The data provide important new constraints on the model calculations.

  20. Measurement of solid state nuclear tracks in apatite by thermal analysis method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE ShaoRong; YANG TongSuo; LI TianXiang; LU BaiZuo; JI ShuLi; HENG ShuYun

    2009-01-01

    A new measurement method of thermal analysis for solid state nuclear tracks is proposed. The an-nealing heat emitted by the unit mass of solid state nuclear tracks in heavy particles of the sample is determined via micro-thermal analysis method. Hence, the number of solid state nuclear tracks in the unit mass of sample is determined. In particular, this paper introduces the method and its significance to measure the number of a-particles nuclear tracks in apatite by measuring the annealing heat of a-particles nuclear tracks. In addition, the mechanism of the measurement and potential applications are discussed.

  1. Ub-library of Atomic Masses and Nuclear Ground States Deformations (CENPL.AMD)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The atomic mass is one of basic data of a nuclear. There are the atomic masses in all nuclear reaction model formulas and motion equations. For any reaction calculations atomic masses are basic data for getting binding energies or Q-values. In some applications, it is important also to have atomic masses even for exotic nuclei quite far from the valley of stability. In addition, nuclear ground state deformations and abundance values are also requisite in the nuclear data calculations. For this purpose, A data file on atomic masses and nuclear ground states deformations (AMD) were constructed, which

  2. Current state of nuclear fuel cycles in nuclear engineering and trends in their development according to the environmental safety requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vislov, I. S.; Pischulin, V. P.; Kladiev, S. N.; Slobodyan, S. M.

    2016-08-01

    The state and trends in the development of nuclear fuel cycles in nuclear engineering, taking into account the ecological aspects of using nuclear power plants, are considered. An analysis of advantages and disadvantages of nuclear engineering, compared with thermal engineering based on organic fuel types, was carried out. Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) reprocessing is an important task in the nuclear industry, since fuel unloaded from modern reactors of any type contains a large amount of radioactive elements that are harmful to the environment. On the other hand, the newly generated isotopes of uranium and plutonium should be reused to fabricate new nuclear fuel. The spent nuclear fuel also includes other types of fission products. Conditions for SNF handling are determined by ecological and economic factors. When choosing a certain handling method, one should assess these factors at all stages of its implementation. There are two main methods of SNF handling: open nuclear fuel cycle, with spent nuclear fuel assemblies (NFAs) that are held in storage facilities with their consequent disposal, and closed nuclear fuel cycle, with separation of uranium and plutonium, their purification from fission products, and use for producing new fuel batches. The development of effective closed fuel cycles using mixed uranium-plutonium fuel can provide a successful development of the nuclear industry only under the conditions of implementation of novel effective technological treatment processes that meet strict requirements of environmental safety and reliability of process equipment being applied. The diversity of technological processes is determined by different types of NFA devices and construction materials being used, as well as by the composition that depends on nuclear fuel components and operational conditions for assemblies in the nuclear power reactor. This work provides an overview of technological processes of SNF treatment and methods of handling of nuclear fuel

  3. Gulf States Strategic Vision to Face Iranian Nuclear Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Strategic International Studies, 2011), 32, http://csis.org/files/110202. pdf . 5 Ibid. 6 Tariq Khaitous, Arab Reactions to a Nuclear -Armed Iran...of a nuclear reactor in the city of Bushehr. The partnership with Germany was critical in helping the company make gains in the business. The...program saw Iran continue to construct new nuclear reactors south of Bushehr, with each plant having an output of 1200 MW of energy.72 Patrikarakos

  4. Theoretical Studies in Nuclear Physics. [Oregon State Univ. , Corvallis, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landau, R.H.; Madsen, V.A.

    1992-01-01

    Work in nuclear structure and reaction theory, specifically, the relation of reactions to the nuclear structure. Other work was in intermediate energy physics, few-body problems, and computational physics that heavy ions can be used to measure simultaneously both neutron and proton multipole matrix elements of the target nucleus has added new interest to this area of nuclear structure. Considerable attention to the is therefore paid to the to the methods for calculating multiple matrix elements.

  5. On the possibility of maser action between nuclear states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, G. C.; Neissel, J. P.; Terhune, J. H.; Tonks, L.

    1963-06-15

    The possibility of a stimulated emission device, analogous to the laser, which can generate radiation at gammaray wavelengths is examined. Lacking reflectors, its operation would consist of multiplication during single passage of photon avalanches initiated by spontaneous emission. The required high concentration of excited states may be obtainable in many nuclides by radiochemical procedures. The maximum possible resonant cross section exceeds ordinary absorption by several orders of magnitude. Only a fraction of the resonant cross-section can be effective, because of line-broadening interactions with the nuclear environment. Singular effects in solids (optical branch excitation, localization of lattice disturbance, or Bragg-angle effects) are suggested that may allow operation at a recoil-displaced energy without population inversion, as alternatives to the Mossbauer effect. An experimental technique for directly measuring the stimulated-emission cross-section by detection of a coherent component in the total radiation is described in some detail. It is concluded that the question of gammamaser feasibility can be conclusively answered only by experiment. (auth)

  6. Nuclear equation of state and finite nucleon volumes

    CERN Document Server

    Rożynek, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    It is shown how the Equation of State (EoS) depends on nucleon properties inside Nuclear Matter (NM). We propose to benefit from the concept of enthalpy in order to include volume corrections to the nucleon rest energy, which are proportional to pressure and absent in a standard Relativistic Mean Field (RMF) with point-like nucleons. As a result, the nucleon mass can decrease inside NM, making the model nonlinear and the EoS softer. The course of the EoS in our RMF model agrees with a semi-empirical estimate and is close to the results obtained from extensive DBHF calculations with a Bonn A potential, which produce an EoS stiff enough to describe neutron star properties (mass--radius constraint), especially the masses of PSR J1614_2230 and PSR J0348_0432, known as the most massive ($\\sim 2 M_\\odot$) neutron stars. The presented model has proper saturation properties, including a good value of compressibility.

  7. Feasibility of probing solid state nuclear tracks by thermal analysis method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG TongSuo; ZHOU Bing; YANG XinXin; HE ShaoRong; HENG ShuYun; YUAN SunSheng

    2007-01-01

    The feasibility of probing solid state nuclear tracks by thermal analysis method is discussed both theoretically and experimentally. Comparison is made between the thermal analysis method and the optical microscope method, and it is demonstrated that this thermal analysis method is applicable to probing solid state nuclear tracks.

  8. Smart Power: The United States, Iran, and a Nuclear Deal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    long-term nuclear agreement. 92Kenneth Katzman, Iran Sanctions (Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, 2013), 1. 93Faith Karimi , “20... Karimi , Faith. “20 questions about the Iran nuclear deal: What it says, what’s at stake, what’s next,” CNN, http://www.cnn.com/2013/11/24/world/meast/iran

  9. Equation of state for isospin asymmetric nuclear matter using Lane potential

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, D N; Samanta, C

    2006-01-01

    A variational method of obtaining equation of state (EOS) for symmetric nuclear matter from a density dependent M3Y interaction supplemented by a zero-range potential is described. The energy per nucleon is minimized to obtain the ground state of symmetric nuclear matter. The saturation energy per nucleon used for nuclear matter calculations is determined from the co-efficient of the volume term of Bethe-Weizs\\"acker mass formula which is evaluated by fitting the recent experimental and estimated atomic mass excesses from Audi-Wapstra-Thibault atomic mass table by minimizing the mean square deviation. The constants of density dependence of the effective interaction are obtained by reproducing the saturation energy per nucleon and the saturation density of spin and isospin symmetric cold infinite nuclear matter. The EOS of symmetric nuclear matter, thus obtained, provide reasonably good estimate of nuclear incompressibility. Once the consants of density dependence are determined, EOS for asymmetric nuclear mat...

  10. 78 FR 77508 - Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC; William States Lee III Nuclear Station, Units 1 and 2; Combined...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC; William States Lee III Nuclear Station, Units 1 and 2; Combined Licenses Application Review AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Final environmental impact...

  11. The United States Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program - Over 151 Million Miles Safely Steamed on Nuclear Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-03-01

    NNSA’s third mission pillar is supporting the U.S. Navy’s ability to protect and defend American interests across the globe. The Naval Reactors Program remains at the forefront of technological developments in naval nuclear propulsion and ensures a commanding edge in warfighting capabilities by advancing new technologies and improvements in naval reactor performance and reliability. In 2015, the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program pioneered advances in nuclear reactor and warship design – such as increasing reactor lifetimes, improving submarine operational effectiveness, and reducing propulsion plant crewing. The Naval Reactors Program continued its record of operational excellence by providing the technical expertise required to resolve emergent issues in the Nation’s nuclear-powered fleet, enabling the Fleet to safely steam more than two million miles. Naval Reactors safely maintains, operates, and oversees the reactors on the Navy’s 82 nuclear-powered warships, constituting more than 45 percent of the Navy’s major combatants.

  12. K--nucleus relativistic mean field potentials consistent with kaonic atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, E.; Gal, A.; Mareš, J.; Cieplý, A.

    1999-08-01

    K- atomic data are used to test several models of the K- nucleus interaction. The t(ρ)ρ optical potential, due to coupled channel models incorporating the Λ(1405) dynamics, fails to reproduce these data. A standard relativistic mean field (RMF) potential, disregarding the Λ(1405) dynamics at low densities, also fails. The only successful model is a hybrid of a theoretically motivated RMF approach in the nuclear interior and a completely phenomenological density dependent potential, which respects the low density theorem in the nuclear surface region. This best-fit K- optical potential is found to be strongly attractive, with a depth of 180+/-20 MeV at the nuclear interior, in agreement with previous phenomenological analyses.

  13. A State-of-the-Art Report on Cutting Technologies for Decommissioning Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Kyun; Lee, Dong Gyu; Lee, Kune Woo; Jung, Chong Hun

    2007-10-15

    This report provides the status of the cryogenic cutting technology as a new dismantling technology for dismantling radioactive nuclear facilities and also presents the direction of study to apply it to a radioactive nuclear facility research aim of its nuclear. This report consists of four chapter : - 1. Background and objectives of dismantling technology for dismantling a radioactive nuclear facility. - 2. Analysis of the status of conventional cutting technologies - 3. Analysis of the status of cryogenic cutting technology - 4. Discussion, conclusion, and future work on state-of-the-art technology of dismantling for nuclear facilities.

  14. Nuclear electric dipole moments for the lowest 1/2+ states in Xe and Ba isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, N.; Higashiyama, K.; Arai, R.; Teruya, E.

    2014-04-01

    The electric dipole moments for the lowest 1/2+ states of Xe and Ba isotopes are calculated in terms of the nuclear shell model, which includes two-body nucleon interactions violating parity and time-reversal invariance. Using the wave functions thus obtained, the nuclear electric dipole moments arising from the intrinsic nucleon electric dipole moments and also from asymmetric charge distribution are calculated. The upper limits for the nuclear electric dipole moments of Xe and Ba isotopes are estimated.

  15. Liquid-Gas Phase Transition in Nuclear Equation of State

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, S J

    1997-01-01

    A canonical ensemble model is used to describe a caloric curve of nuclear liquid-gas phase transition. Allowing a discontinuity in the freeze out density from one spinodal density to another for a given initial temperature, the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition can be described as first order. Averaging over various freeze out densities of all the possible initial temperatures for a given total reaction energy, the first order characteristics of liquid-gas phase transition is smeared out to a smooth transition. Two experiments, one at low beam energy and one at high beam energy show different caloric behaviors and are discussed.

  16. Proliferación Nuclear y Estado de Excepción (Nuclear Proliferation and State of Exception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Carlo Delgado

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde el 11.09, es observable un recrudecimiento de las medidas y acciones en la denominada "guerra contra el terrorismo". La concentración de poderes por parte del ejecutivo estadounidense, la erogación o suspensión de diversas Leyes son indicativos, entre otros, de la instauración de facto de un Estado de Excepción que, además se encuentra empantanado en una dinámica de guerra altamente desestabilizadora, sobre todo en términos de la seguridad internacional. Es un contexto en el que la carrera armamentista se viene acelerando, incluyendo su variable nuclear –en parte estimulada por el animado empuje a la nucleoelectricidad como supuesta alternativa viable al cambio climático. En flagrante violación a diversos acuerdos internacionales, pero sobre todo, en este caso, del “Tratado de No Proliferación Nuclear”, Estados Unido viene jugando la carta nuclear de tal modo que ya muchos consideran que, de seguir esta tendencia, estamos en camino hacia una eventual "nueva era nuclear". Y es que debido a la diversidad de actores, variables e intereses involucrados, tanto a nivel global como regional, el orden de probabilidades de una confrontación con armas nucleares cada vez más se incrementa; en especial cuando las posturas de diversos países, pero fundamentalmente de EUA, se tornan cada vez más totalitarias. El reloj del juicio final no en vano ha sido recientemente ajustado dos minutos más cerca de una guerra general termonuclear. Since 11.09, it is observable an upsurge on the measures and actions meant for the progress of the so called “war on terrorism”. The concentration of power in the US Executive, the derogation of diverse laws or the suspension of civil rights, are aspects, among others, that indicate that in fact an State of Exception has been established. One that, what's more, it´s trapped in a highly and increasingly destabilizing dynamic of (petrowar in the Middle East which affects not only international

  17. Proliferación Nuclear y Estado de Excepción (Nuclear Proliferation and State of Exception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Carlo Delgado

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde el 11.09, es observable un recrudecimiento de las medidas y acciones en la denominada "guerra contra el terrorismo". La concentración de poderes por parte del ejecutivo estadounidense, la erogación o suspensión de diversas Leyes son indicativos, entre otros, de la instauración de facto de un Estado de Excepción que, además se encuentra empantanado en una dinámica de guerra altamente desestabilizadora, sobre todo en términos de la seguridad internacional. Es un contexto en el que la carrera armamentista se viene acelerando, incluyendo su variable nuclear –en parte estimulada por el animado empuje a la nucleoelectricidad como supuesta alternativa viable al cambio climático. En flagrante violación a diversos acuerdos internacionales, pero sobre todo, en este caso, del “Tratado de No Proliferación Nuclear”, Estados Unido viene jugando la carta nuclear de tal modo que ya muchos consideran que, de seguir esta tendencia, estamos en camino hacia una eventual "nueva era nuclear". Y es que debido a la diversidad de  actores, variables e intereses involucrados, tanto a nivel global como regional, el orden de probabilidades de una confrontación con armas nucleares cada vez más se incrementa; en especial cuando las posturas de diversos países, pero fundamentalmente de EUA, se tornan cada vez más totalitarias. El reloj del juicio final no en vano ha sido recientemente ajustado dos minutos más cerca de una guerra general termonuclear. Since 11.09, it is observable an upsurge on the measures and actions meant for the progress of the so called “war on terrorism”. The concentration of power in the US Executive, the derogation of diverse laws or the suspension of civil rights, are aspects, among others, that indicate that in fact an State of Exception has been established. One that, what's more, it´s trapped in a highly and increasingly destabilizing dynamic of (petrowar in the Middle East which affects not only international

  18. Nuclear-spin-induced localization of edge states in two-dimensional topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chen-Hsuan; Stano, Peter; Klinovaja, Jelena; Loss, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the influence of nuclear spins on the resistance of helical edge states of two-dimensional topological insulators (2DTIs). Via the hyperfine interaction, nuclear spins allow electron backscattering, otherwise forbidden by time-reversal symmetry. We identify two backscattering mechanisms, depending on whether the nuclear spins are ordered or not. Their temperature dependence is distinct but both give resistance, which increases with the edge length, decreasing temperature, and increasing strength of the electron-electron interaction. Overall, we find that the nuclear spins will typically shut down the conductance of the 2DTI edges at zero temperature.

  19. Explaining nuclear energy pursuance: A comparison of the United States, Germany, and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Lauren Emily

    Energy is critical to the functioning of the global economy and seriously impacts global security as well. What factors influence the extent to which countries will pursue nuclear energy in their overall mix of energy approaches? This dissertation explores this critical question by analyzing the nuclear energy policies of the United States, Germany and Japan. Rather than citizen opposition or proximity to nuclear disasters, it seems that a country's access to other resources through natural endowments or trading relationships offers the best explanation for nuclear energy pursuance.

  20. 10 CFR Appendix D to Part 20 - United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regional Offices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RADIATION Pt. 20, App. D Appendix D to Part 20—United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regional Offices..., Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Kansas, Louisiana, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma...

  1. United States Nuclear Tests, July 1945 through September 1992, December 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-12-01

    This document list chronologically and alphabetically by name all nuclear tests and simultaneous detonations conducted by the United States from July 1945 through September 1992. Revision 15, dated December 2000.

  2. United States Nuclear Tests, July 1945 through September 1992, September 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-09-01

    This document lists chronologically and alphabetically by name all nuclear tests and simultaneous detonations conducted by the United States from July 1945 through September 1992. This is Revision 16, dated September 2015.

  3. Calculations of bar K-nuclear quasi-bound states using chiral bar KN amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareš, J.; Barnea, N.; Cieplý, A.; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.; Gazda, D.

    2014-03-01

    We review our recent calculations of K- quasi-bound states in nuclear systems using subthreshold energy dependent chiral bar KN amplitudes. Strong energy dependence of the scattering amplitudes requires self-consistent evaluation of the involved bar KN interactions. In view of sizable widths predicted by our calculations, an unambiguous identification of K--nuclear quasi-bound states in ongoing experimental searches would be difficult.

  4. Thermodynamics of the symmetry energy and the equation of state of isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellenhofer, Corbinian; Kaiser, Norbert [Physik Department, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Holt, Jeremy W. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle (United States); Weise, Wolfram [Physik Department, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); ECT, Villa Tambosi, Trento (Italy)

    2015-07-01

    Knowledge of the thermodynamic properties of the nuclear symmetry energy is essential for the study of heavy-ion collisions and a multitude of astrophysical phenomena. In this work, we investigate the density and temperature dependence of the symmetry energy using many-body perturbation theory with microscopic chiral nuclear forces. The calculational methods and nuclear force models are benchmarked against empirical constraints for isospin-symmetric nuclear matter and the virial expansion of low-density neutron matter. It is found that whereas the symmetry free energy and entropy both increase uniformly with temperature, the symmetry energy exhibits almost universal behavior. Moreover, we show results for the equation of state of isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter, obtained from the parabolic approximation. The different thermodynamic instabilities at subsaturation densities are examined, and we construct the equation of state corresponding to an equilibrium liquid-gas phase transition by means of the generalized Maxwell construction for two-component fluids.

  5. United States and Russian Cooperation on Issues of Nuclear Nonproliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    used to replace existing HEU fuels. • Completed a bilateral agreement with Uzbekistan on cooperation. • Conversion analysis was initiated for...Verified the conversion of 171.3 MTs of HEU to LEU from 1995 through December 2002. • Conducted 18 of the 24 allowed Special Monitoring Visits at...SAFEGUARDS e. RUSSIAN TRANSITIONS INITIATIVES f. HEU TRANSPARENCY IMPLEMENTATION g. INTERNATIONAL NUCLEAR SAFETY AND COOPERATION h

  6. Optical detection and ionization of donors in specific electronic and nuclear spin States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, A; Steger, M; Karaiskaj, D; Thewalt, M L W; Cardona, M; Itoh, K M; Riemann, H; Abrosimov, N V; Churbanov, M F; Gusev, A V; Bulanov, A D; Kaliteevskii, A K; Godisov, O N; Becker, P; Pohl, H-J; Ager, J W; Haller, E E

    2006-12-01

    We resolve the remarkably sharp bound exciton transitions of highly enriched 28Si using a single-frequency laser and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy, as well as photocurrent spectroscopy. Well-resolved doublets in the spectrum of the 31P donor reflect the hyperfine coupling of the electronic and nuclear donor spins. The optical detection of the nuclear spin state, and selective pumping and ionization of donors in specific electronic and nuclear spin states, suggests a number of new possibilities which could be useful for the realization of silicon-based quantum computers.

  7. High-fidelity transfer and storage of photon states in a single nuclear spin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sen; Wang, Ya; Rao, D. D. Bhaktavatsala; Hien Tran, Thai; Momenzadeh, Ali S.; Markham, M.; Twitchen, D. J.; Wang, Ping; Yang, Wen; Stöhr, Rainer; Neumann, Philipp; Kosaka, Hideo; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2016-08-01

    Long-distance quantum communication requires photons and quantum nodes that comprise qubits for interaction with light and good memory capabilities, as well as processing qubits for the storage and manipulation of photons. Owing to the unavoidable photon losses, robust quantum communication over lossy transmission channels requires quantum repeater networks. A necessary and highly demanding prerequisite for these networks is the existence of quantum memories with long coherence times to reliably store the incident photon states. Here we demonstrate the high-fidelity (˜98%) coherent transfer of a photon polarization state to a single solid-state nuclear spin that has a coherence time of over 10 s. The storage process is achieved by coherently transferring the polarization state of a photon to an entangled electron-nuclear spin state of a nitrogen-vacancy centre in diamond. The nuclear spin-based optical quantum memory demonstrated here paves the way towards an absorption-based quantum repeater network.

  8. AAPM/SNMMI Joint Task Force: report on the current state of nuclear medicine physics training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, Beth A; Allison, Jerry D; Clements, Jessica B; Coffey, Charles W; Fahey, Frederic H; Gress, Dustin A; Kinahan, Paul E; Nickoloff, Edward L; Mawlawi, Osama R; MacDougall, Robert D; Pizzutiello, Robert J

    2015-09-08

    The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI) recognized the need for a review of the current state of nuclear  medicine physics training and the need to explore pathways for improving nuclear medicine physics training opportunities. For these reasons, the two organizations formed a joint AAPM/SNMMI Ad Hoc Task Force on Nuclear Medicine Physics  Training. The mission of this task force was to assemble a representative group of stakeholders to:• Estimate the demand for board-certified nuclear medicine physicists in the next 5-10 years,• Identify the critical issues related to supplying an adequate number of physicists who have received the appropriate level of training in nuclear medicine physics, and• Identify approaches that may be considered to facilitate the training of nuclear medicine physicists.As a result, a task force was appointed and chaired by an active member of both organizations that included representation from the AAPM, SNMMI, the American Board of Radiology (ABR), the American Board of Science in Nuclear Medicine (ABSNM), and the Commission for the Accreditation of Medical Physics Educational Programs (CAMPEP). The Task Force first met at the AAPM Annual Meeting in Charlotte in July 2012 and has met regularly face-to-face, online, and by conference calls. This manuscript reports the findings of the Task Force, as well as recommendations to achieve the stated mission.

  9. The current state of FPGA technology in the nuclear domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranta, J.

    2012-07-01

    Field programmable gate arrays are a form of programmable electronic device used in various applications including automation systems. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the use of FPGA-based systems also for safety automation of nuclear power plants. The interest is driven by the need for reliable new alternatives to replace, on one hand, the aging technology currently in use and, on the other hand, microprocessor and software-based systems, which are seen as overly complex from the safety evaluation point of view. This report presents an overview of FPGA technology, including hardware aspects, the application development process, risks and advantages of the technology, and introduces some of the current systems. FPGAs contain an interesting combination of features from software-based and fully hardware-based systems. Application development has a great deal in common with software development, but the final product is a hardware component without the operating system and other platform functions on which software would execute. Currently the number of FPGA-based applications used for safety functions of nuclear power plants is rather limited, but it is growing. So far there is little experience or common solid understanding between different parties on how FPGAs should be evaluated and handled in the licensing process. (orig.)

  10. Zero-Point Fluctuations in the Nuclear Born-Oppenheimer Ground State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettili, Nouredine

    The small-amplitude oscillations of rigid nuclei around the equilibrium state are described by means of the nuclear Born-Oppenheimer (NBO) method. In this limit, the method is shown to give back the random phase approximation (RPA) equations of motion. The contribution of the zero-point fluctuations to the ground state are examined, and the NBO ground state energy derived is shown to be identical to the RPA ground state energy.

  11. Solving Quantum Ground-State Problems with Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhaokai; Chen, Hongwei; Lu, Dawei; Whitfield, James D; Peng, Xinhua; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Du, Jiangfeng

    2011-01-01

    Quantum ground-state problems are computationally hard problems; for general many-body Hamiltonians, there is no classical or quantum algorithm known to be able to solve them efficiently. Nevertheless, if a trial wavefunction approximating the ground state is available, as often happens for many problems in physics and chemistry, a quantum computer could employ this trial wavefunction to project the ground state by means of the phase estimation algorithm (PEA). We performed an experimental realization of this idea by implementing a variational-wavefunction approach to solve the ground-state problem of the Heisenberg spin model with an NMR quantum simulator. Our iterative phase estimation procedure yields a high accuracy for the eigenenergies (to the 10^-5 decimal digit). The ground-state fidelity was distilled to be more than 80%, and the singlet-to-triplet switching near the critical field is reliably captured. This result shows that quantum simulators can better leverage classical trial wavefunctions than c...

  12. Attainable entanglement of unitary transformed thermal states in liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance with the chemical shift

    CERN Document Server

    Ota, Y; Ohba, I; Yoshida, N; Mikami, Shuji; Ohba, Ichiro; Ota, Yukihiro; Yoshida, Noriyuki

    2006-01-01

    Recently, Yu, Brown, and Chuang [Phys. Rev. A {\\bf 71}, 032341 (2005)] investigated the entanglement attainable from unitary transformed thermal states in liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Their research gave an insight into the role of the entanglement in a liquid-state NMR quantum computer. Moreover, they attempted to reveal the role of mixed-state entanglement in quantum computing. However, they assumed that the Zeeman energy of each nuclear spin which corresponds to a qubit takes a common value for all; there is no chemical shift. In this paper, we research a model with the chemical shifts and analytically derive the physical parameter region where unitary transformed thermal states are entangled, by the positive partial transposition (PPT) criterion with respect to any bipartition. We examine the effect of the chemical shifts on the boundary between the separability and the nonseparability, and find it is negligible.

  13. Constraining the nuclear matter equation of state around twice saturation density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leifels Y.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using data on elliptic flow measured by the FOPI collaboration we extract constraints for the equation of state (EOS of symmetric nuclear matter with the help of the microscopic transport code IQMD. Best agreement between data and calculations is obtained with a ’soft’ equation of state including a momentum dependent interaction. From the model it can be deduced that the characteristic density related to the observed flow signal is around twice saturation density and that both compression within the fireball and the presence of the surrounding spectator matter is necessary for the development of the signal and its sensitivity to the nuclear equation of state.

  14. Atomic clock with a nuclear transition: solid state approach at TU Wien

    CERN Document Server

    Kazakov, G A; Winkler, G; Sterba, J H; Steinhauser, G; Schumm, T

    2011-01-01

    The nucleus of 229Thorium presents a unique isomer state of very low energy and long lifetime, current estimates are around 7.8 eV and seconds to hours respectively. This nuclear transitions therefore is a promising candidate for a novel type of frequency standard and several groups worldwide have set out to investigate this system. Our aim is to construct a "solid state nuclear clock", i.e. a frequency standard where Thorium ions are implanted into Calciumfluoride crystals transparent in vacuum ultraviolet range. As a first step towards an accurate determination of the exact energy and lifetime of this isomer state we perform low-resolution fluorescent spectroscopic measurements.

  15. Preparation of Nuclear Spin Singlet States using Spin-Lock Induced Crossing

    CERN Document Server

    DeVience, Stephen J; Rosen, Matthew S

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a broadly applicable technique to create nuclear spin singlet states in organic molecules and other many-atom systems. We employ a novel pulse sequence to produce a spin-lock induced crossing (SLIC) of the spin singlet and triplet energy levels, which enables triplet/singlet polarization transfer and singlet state preparation. We demonstrate the utility of the SLIC method by producing a long-lived nuclear spin singlet state on two strongly-coupled proton pairs in the tripeptide molecule phenylalanine-glycine-glycine dissolved in D2O, and by using SLIC to measure the J-couplings, chemical shift differences, and singlet lifetimes of the proton pairs. We show that SLIC is more efficient at creating nearly-equivalent nuclear spin singlet states than previous pulse sequence techniques, especially when triplet/singlet polarization transfer occurs on the same timescale as spin-lattice relaxation.

  16. FAULT DIAGNOSIS WITH MULTI-STATE ALARMS IN A NUCLEAR POWER CONTROL SIMULATOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin Ragsdale; Roger Lew; Brian P. Dyre; Ronald L. Boring

    2012-10-01

    This research addresses how alarm systems can increase operator performance within nuclear power plant operations. The experiment examined the effect of two types of alarm systems (two-state and three-state alarms) on alarm compliance and diagnosis for two types of faults differing in complexity. We hypothesized three-state alarms would improve performance in alarm recognition and fault diagnoses over that of two-state alarms. We used sensitivity and criterion based on Signal Detection Theory to measure performance. We further hypothesized that operator trust would be highest when using three-state alarms. The findings from this research showed participants performed better and had more trust in three-state alarms compared to two-state alarms. Furthermore, these findings have significant theoretical implications and practical applications as they apply to improving the efficiency and effectiveness of nuclear power plant operations.

  17. Fault Diagnosis with Multi-State Alarms in a Nuclear Power Control Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart A. Ragsdale; Roger Lew; Ronald L. Boring

    2014-09-01

    This research addresses how alarm systems can increase operator performance within nuclear power plant operations. The experiment examined the effects of two types of alarm systems (two-state and three-state alarms) on alarm compliance and diagnosis for two types of faults differing in complexity. We hypothesized the use of three-state alarms would improve performance in alarm recognition and fault diagnoses over that of two-state alarms. Sensitivity and criterion based on the Signal Detection Theory were used to measure performance. We further hypothesized that operator trust would be highest when using three-state alarms. The findings from this research showed participants performed better and had more trust in three-state alarms compared to two-state alarms. Furthermore, these findings have significant theoretical implications and practical applications as they apply to improving the efficiency and effectiveness of nuclear power plant operations.

  18. Probing the nuclear equation-of-state and the symmetry energy with heavy-ion collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verde Giuseppe

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present status of studies aimed at constraining the nuclear equation of state with heavy-ion collision dynamics is presented. Multifragmentation phenomena, including their isotopic distributions, charge correlations and emission time-scales, may revel the existence of liquid-gas transitions in the phase diagram. Exploring the isotopic degree of freedom in nuclear dynamics is then required in order to constrain the equation of state of asymmetric nuclear matter which presently represents a major priority due to its relevance to both nuclear physics and astrophysics. Some observables that have successfully constrained the density dependence of the symmetry energy are presented, such as neutron-proton yield ratios and isospin diffusion and drift phenomena. The reported results and status of the art is discussed by also considering some of the present problems and some future perspectives for the heavy-ion collision community.

  19. Solid state nuclear track detectors in hadrontherapy and radiation protection in space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scampoli, Paola, E-mail: paola.scampoli@na.infn.i [Department of Radiation Oncology, Inselspital Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S.Angelo, Napoli (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    The recent widespread of carbon-therapy for cancer treatment and the long duration manned exploration planned by NASA require the knowledge of nuclear data both for assessing the correct dose distribution in the target volume and surrounding healthy tissue (radiation therapy), and for a better knowledge of the mixed radiation field to which astronauts will be exposed (radiation protection in space). Nuclear fragmentation taking place in traversed material, even human body itself, is indeed responsible for a beam quality change whose biological effects have to be evaluated. Solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) provide accurate measurements of fluence and fragmentation of heavy ions needed for hadrontherapy and space radiation-protection purposes.

  20. Why do states build nuclear weapons? Three models in search of a bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagan, S.D.

    1996-12-31

    The central purpose of this article is to challenge conventional wisdom about nuclear proliferation. The author argues that the consensus view, focusing on national security considerations as the cause of proliferation, is dangerously inadequate because nuclear weapons programs also serve other, more parochial and less obvious objectives. Nuclear weapons, like other weapons, are more than tools of national security; they are political objects of considerable importance in domestic debates and internal bureaucratic struggles and can also serve as international normative symbols of modernity and identity. The body of this article examines three alternate theoretical frameworks - called {open_quotes}models{close_quotes} in the very informal sense of the term - about why states decide to build or refrain from developing nuclear weapons: {open_quotes}the security model,{close_quotes} according to which states build nuclear weapons to increase national security against foreign threats, especially nuclear threats; {open_quotes}the domestic politics model,{close_quotes} which envisions nuclear weapons as political tools used to advance parochial domestic and bureaucratic interests; and {open_quotes}the norms model,{close_quotes} under which nuclear weapons decisions are made because weapons acquisition, or restraint in weapons development, provides an important normative symbol of a state`s modernity and identity. Although many of the ideas underlying these models exist in the vast case-study and proliferation-policy literatures, they have not been adequately analyzed, nor placed in a comparative theoretical framework, nor properly evaluated against empirical evidence. Models are compared to their theoretical conceptions of the causes of weapons development, present alternative interpretations of the history of some major proliferation decisions, and contrast the models` implications for nonproliferation policy. 71 refs.

  1. Equation of State of Nuclear Matter in Chiral σ-ω Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wei; DONG Dong-Qiao; WEN De-Hua; LIU Guo-Tao; LIU Liang-Gang

    2004-01-01

    The equation of state of nuclear matter is studied in the 1-loop approximation of chiral linear σ-ω model.By introducing the density-dependent coupling constants, the problem of tachyon pole in the chiral σ-ω model is resolved.The 1-loop contributions ofσ and π mesons to the nucleon's binding energy are included, while the empirical properties of nuclear matter such as saturation density, binding energy, and incompressibility are well reproduced.

  2. pK+\\Lambda final state: towards the extraction of the ppK- contribution

    CERN Document Server

    Fabbietti, L; Balanda, A; Belver, D; Belyaev, A V; Berger-Chen, J-C; Blanco, A; Böhmer, M; Boyard, J L; Cabanelas, P; Castro, E; Chernenko, S; Christ, T; Destefanis, M; Dohrmann, F; Dybczak, A; Epple, E; Eberl, T; Fateev, O V; Finocchiaro, P; Fonte, P; Friese, J; Fröhlich, I; Galatyuk, T; Garzon, J A; Gernhäuser, R; Gilardi, C; Golubeva, M; Gonzalez-Diaz, D; Guber, F; Gumberidze, M; Heinz, T; Hennino, T; Holzmann, R; Iori, I; Ivashkin, A; Jurkovic, M; Kämpfer, B; Kanaki, K; Karavicheva, T; Koenig, I; Koenig, W; Kolb, B W; Kotte, R; Krasa, A; Krizek, F; Krücken, R; Kuc, H; Kühn, W; Kugler, A; Kurepin, A; Lalik, R; Lang, S; Lange, J S; Lapidus, K; Liu, T; Lopes, L; Lorenz, M; Maier, L; Mangiarotti, A; Markert, J; Metag, V; Michalska, B; Michel, J; Moriniere, E; Mousa, J; Müntz, C; Naumann, L; Otwinowski, J; Pachmayer, Y C; Palka, M; Parpottas, Y; Pechenov, V; Pechenova, O; Pietraszko, J; Przygoda, W; Ramstein, B; Reshetin, A; Rustamov, A; Sadovsky, A; Salabura, P; Schmah, A; Schwab, E; Siebenson, J; Sobolev, Yu G; Spataro, S; Spruck, B; Ströbele, H; Stroth, J; Sturm, C; Tarantola, A; Teilab, K; Tlusty, P; Traxler, M; Trebacz, R; Tsertos, H; Wagner, V; Weber, M; Wendisch, C; Wüstenfel, J; Yurevich, S; Zanevsky, Y V

    2013-01-01

    The reaction p(@3.5\\,GeV)+p -> p+\\Lambda + K^+ can be studied to search for the existence of kaonic bound states like ppK^- leading to this final state. This effort has been motivated by the assumption that in p+p collisions the \\Lambda(1405) resonance can act as a doorway to the formation of the kaonic bound states. The status of this analysis within the HADES collaboration, with particular emphasis on the comparison to simulations, is shown in this work and the deviation method utilized by the DISTO collaboration in a similar analysis is discussed. The outcome suggests the employment of a partial wave analysis to disentangle the different contributions to the measured pK^+\\Lambda final state.

  3. pK+Λ final state: Towards the extraction of the ppK- contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbietti, L.; Agakishiev, G.; Behnke, C.; Belver, D.; Belyaev, A.; Berger-Chen, J. C.; Blanco, A.; Blume, C.; Böhmer, M.; Cabanelas, P.; Chernenko, S.; Dritsa, C.; Dybczak, A.; Epple, E.; Fateev, O.; Fonte, P.; Friese, J.; Fröhlich, I.; Galatyuk, T.; Garzón, J. A.; Gill, K.; Golubeva, M.; González-Díaz, D.; Guber, F.; Gumberidze, M.; Harabasz, S.; Hennino, T.; Höhne, C.; Holzmann, R.; Huck, P.; Ierusalimov, A.; Ivashkin, A.; Jurkovic, M.; Kämpfer, B.; Karavicheva, T.; Koenig, I.; Koenig, W.; Kolb, B. W.; Korcyl, G.; Kornakov, G.; Kotte, R.; Krása, A.; Krebs, E.; Krizek, F.; Kuc, H.; Kugler, A.; Kurepin, A.; Kurilkin, A.; Kurilkin, P.; Ladygin, V.; Lalik, R.; Lang, S.; Lapidus, K.; Lebedev, A.; Lopes, L.; Lorenz, M.; Maier, L.; Mangiarotti, A.; Markert, J.; Metag, V.; Michel, J.; Müntz, C.; Münzer, R.; Naumann, L.; Palka, M.; Parpottas, Y.; Pechenov, V.; Pechenova, O.; Pietraszko, J.; Przygoda, W.; Ramstein, B.; Rehnisch, L.; Reshetin, A.; Rustamov, A.; Sadovsky, A.; Salabura, P.; Scheib, T.; Schuldes, H.; Siebenson, J.; Sobolev, Yu. G.; Spataro, S.; Ströbele, H.; Stroth, J.; Strzempek, P.; Sturm, C.; Svoboda, O.; Tarantola, A.; Teilab, K.; Tlusty, P.; Traxler, M.; Tsertos, H.; Vasiliev, T.; Wagner, V.; Weber, M.; Wendisch, C.; Wüstenfeld, J.; Yurevich, S.; Zanevsky, Y.

    2013-09-01

    The reaction p(@3.5 GeV)+p→p+Λ+K+ can be studied to search for the existence of kaonic bound states like ppK- leading to this final state. This effort has been motivated by the assumption that in p+p collisions the Λ(1405) resonance can act as a doorway to the formation of the kaonic bound states. The status of this analysis within the HADES Collaboration, with particular emphasis on the comparison to simulations, is shown in this work and the deviation method utilized by the DISTO Collaboration in a similar analysis is discussed. The outcome suggests the employment of a partial wave analysis do disentangle the different contributions to the measured pK+Λ final state.

  4. Solid effect in the electron spin dressed state: A new approach for dynamic nuclear polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, V.; Bennati, M.; Rosay, M.; Griffin, R. G.

    2000-10-01

    We describe a new type of solid effect for dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) that is based on simultaneous, near resonant microwave (mw) and radio frequency (rf) irradiation of a coupled electron nuclear spin system. The interaction of the electron spin with the mw field is treated as an electron spin dressed state. In contrast to the customary laboratory frame solid effect, it is possible to obtain nuclear polarization with the dressed state solid effect (DSSE) even in the absence of nonsecular hyperfine coupling. Efficient, selective excitation of dressed state transitions generates nuclear polarization in the nuclear laboratory frame on a time scale of tens of μs, depending on the strength of the electron-nuclear coupling, the mw and rf offset and field strength. The experiment employs both pulsed mw and rf irradiation at a repetition rate comparable to T1e-1, where T1e is the electronic spin lattice relaxation time. The DSSE is demonstrated on a perdeuterated BDPA radical in a protonated matrix of polystyrene.

  5. Interaction of science and diplomacy: Latin American, the United States and nuclear energy, 1945-1955

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabral, R.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear programs in Argentina and Brazil can be traced to August 1945 when their scientific communities articulated responses to the atomic bombings of Japan. They culminated in attempts to develop independent nuclear programs, sharply opposed by the United States, during the nationalist governments of Juan Peron and Getulio Vargas. This dissertation, based on primary sources from the three nations, analyzes these programs and the American responses. Latin America entered the nuclear age attempting to control natural resources, to improve scientific establishments, and to appraise Latin American-United States relations. Despite some clear warnings about nuclear dangers, the new form of energy was seen as the solution to industrial problems, poverty, and outside political interference. International opposition, which may have included nuclear threats from the United States, blocked Argentina's first attempt in 1947. After 1948, Peron wanted a nuclear program for cheap energy and prestige. The qualifications of the Brazilian scientists gave more substance to their program. The program originated in August, 1945, but assumed national proportion with the government of Vargas in 1951. Lack of American cooperation forced Vargas to establish a secret program with Germany. American troops intervened taking over the German equipment already completed. The final collapse came about with Vargas' suicide in August, 1954.

  6. Systematic study of α preformation probability of nuclear isomeric and ground states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Dong; Wu, Xi-Jun; Zheng, Bo; Xiang, Dong; Guo, Ping; Li, Xiao-Hua

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, based on the two-potential approach combining with the isospin dependent nuclear potential, we systematically compare the α preformation probabilities of odd-A nuclei between nuclear isomeric states and ground states. The results indicate that during the process of α particle preforming, the low lying nuclear isomeric states are similar to ground states. Meanwhile, in the framework of single nucleon energy level structure, we find that for nuclei with nucleon number below the magic numbers, the α preformation probabilities of high-spin states seem to be larger than low ones. For nuclei with nucleon number above the magic numbers, the α preformation probabilities of isomeric states are larger than those of ground states. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11205083), Construct Program of Key Discipline in Hunan Province, Research Foundation of Education Bureau of Hunan Province, China (15A159), Natural Science Foundation of Hunan Province, China (2015JJ3103, 2015JJ2123), Innovation Group of Nuclear and Particle Physics in USC, Hunan Provincial Innovation Foundation for Postgraduate (CX2015B398)

  7. Nuclear quasi-molecular states in ternary fission

    CERN Document Server

    Poenaru, D N; Greiner, W; Hamilton, J H; Ramayya, A V

    2000-01-01

    A three-center phenomenological model, able to explain qualitatively therecently obtained experimental results concerning the quasimolecular stage of alight-particle accompanied fission process, was developed. A new minimum of ashort-lived molecular state appears in the deformation energy at a separationdistance very close to the touching point. The influence of the shell effectsis discussed. The half-lives of some quasimolecular states which could beformed in the ^{10}Be and ^{12}C accompanied fission of ^{252}Cf are roughlyestimated to be the order of 1ns, and 1 ms, respectively.

  8. Search for superradiant emission states in nuclear isomer crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundberg, R.S.; Wilhelmy, J.B.; Taylor, R.D.; Solem, J.C.; Fowler, M.M.; Miller, G.G.; Baldwin, G.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective was to verify the stimulated emission of gamma rays from {sup 125m}Te, as claimed by Russian scientists. The reported cross section for stimulated emission was sufficiently large to allow gain in a single-pass gamma-ray laser. The stimulated emission of gamma rays from a nuclear isomer is expected to result in collinear photons and, therefore, should be observable as a sum peak in the gamma-ray spectrum. Skorobogatov and Dzevitskii reported an increase of an order of magnitude in the sum peak (218.56 keV) when a sample of beryllium telluride containing {sup 125m}Te was cooled from room temperature to near-liquid-helium temperatures. The authors have repeated their experiment and have observed no increase in the sum peak above accidental summing. The upper limit for the stimulated-emission cross section based on the three-standard-deviation statistical error is 6.8 x 10 {sup {minus}21} cm{sup 2}. This result is one order of magnitude lower than the cross section reported by Skorobogatov and Dzevitskii. The cross section would not allow gain in a single-pass gamma-ray laser. Their results support the position of Baldwin and Solem rather than that of Kamenov.

  9. Relativistic Pseudospin Symmetry and the Structure of Nuclear States

    CERN Document Server

    Leviatan, A

    2001-01-01

    We show that a natural explanation for characteristic features (angular momentum and radial quantum numbers) of pseudospin doublets and intruder levels in nuclei can be obtained by combining the relativistic attributes of pseudospin symmetry with known properties of Dirac bound states.

  10. Few-body calculations of η-nuclear quasibound states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Barnea

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We report on precise hyperspherical-basis calculations of ηNN and ηNNN quasibound states, using energy dependent ηN interaction potentials derived from coupled-channel models of the S11 N⁎(1535 nucleon resonance. The ηN attraction generated in these models is too weak to generate a two-body bound state. No ηNN bound-state solution was found in our calculations in models where ReaηN≲1 fm, with aηN the ηN scattering length, covering thereby the majority of N⁎(1535 resonance models. A near-threshold ηNNN bound-state solution, with η separation energy of less than 1 MeV and width of about 15 MeV, was obtained in the 2005 Green–Wycech model where Re aηN≈1 fm. The role of handling self consistently the subthreshold ηN interaction is carefully studied.

  11. Few-body calculations of $\\eta$-nuclear quasibound states

    CERN Document Server

    Barnea, N; Gal, A

    2015-01-01

    We report on precise hyperspherical-basis calculations of $\\eta NN$ and $\\eta NNN$ quasibound states, using energy dependent $\\eta N$ interaction potentials derived from coupled-channel models of the $S_{11}$ $N^{\\ast}(1535)$ nucleon resonance. The $\\eta N$ attraction generated in these models is too weak to generate a two-body bound state. No $\\eta NN$ bound-state solution was found in our calculations in models where Re $a_{\\eta N}\\lesssim 1$ fm, with $a_{\\eta N}$ the $\\eta N$ scattering length, covering thereby the majority of $N^{\\ast}(1535)$ resonance models. A near-threshold $\\eta NNN$ bound-state solution, with $\\eta$ separation energy of less than 1 MeV and width of about 15 MeV, was obtained in the 2005 Green-Wycech model where Re $a_{\\eta N}\\approx 1$ fm. The role of handling self consistently the subthreshold $\\eta N$ interaction is carefully studied.

  12. Few-body calculations of η-nuclear quasibound states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnea, N.; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.

    2015-07-01

    We report on precise hyperspherical-basis calculations of ηNN and ηNNN quasibound states, using energy dependent ηN interaction potentials derived from coupled-channel models of the S11N* (1535) nucleon resonance. The ηN attraction generated in these models is too weak to generate a two-body bound state. No ηNN bound-state solution was found in our calculations in models where ReaηN ≲ 1 fm, with aηN the ηN scattering length, covering thereby the majority of N* (1535) resonance models. A near-threshold ηNNN bound-state solution, with η separation energy of less than 1 MeV and width of about 15 MeV, was obtained in the 2005 Green-Wycech model where Re aηN ≈ 1 fm. The role of handling self consistently the subthreshold ηN interaction is carefully studied.

  13. Doorway states in nuclear reactions as a manifestation of the "super-radiant" mechanism

    CERN Document Server

    Auerbach, N

    2007-01-01

    A mechanism is considered for generating doorway states and intermediate structure in low-energy nuclear reactions as a result of collectivization of widths of unstable intrinsic states coupled to common decay channels. At the limit of strong continuum coupling, the segregation of broad (''super-radiating") and narrow (''trapped") states occurs revealing the separation of direct and compound processes. We discuss the conditions for the appearance of intermediate structure in this process and doorways related to certain decay channels.

  14. The many facets of the (non relativistic) Nuclear Equation of State

    CERN Document Server

    Giuliani, G; Bonasera, A

    2013-01-01

    A nucleus is a quantum many body system made of strongly interacting Fermions, protons and neutrons (nucleons). This produces a rich Nuclear Equation of State whose knowledge is crucial to our understanding of the composition and evolution of celestial objects. The nuclear equation of state displays many different features; first neutrons and protons might be treated as identical particles or nucleons, but when the differences between protons and neutrons are spelled out, we can have completely different scenarios, just by changing slightly their interactions. At zero temperature and for neutron rich matter, a quantum liquid gas phase transition at low densities or a quark-gluon plasma at high densities might occur. Furthermore, the large binding energy of the $\\alpha$ particle, a Boson, might also open the possibility of studying a system made of a mixture of Bosons and Fermions, which adds to the open problems of the nuclear equation of state.

  15. Widths of K¯-nuclear deeply bound states in a dynamical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareš, J.; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.

    2005-01-01

    The relativistic mean field (RMF) model is applied to a system of nucleons and a Kbar meson, interacting via scalar and vector boson fields. The model incorporates the standard RMF phenomenology for bound nucleons and, for the Kbar meson, it relates to low-energy Kbar N and K- atom phenomenology. Deeply bound Kbar nuclear states are generated dynamically across the periodic table and are exhibited for 12C and 16O over a wide range of binding energies. Substantial polarization of the core nucleus is found for these light nuclei. Absorption modes are also included dynamically, considering explicitly both the resulting compressed nuclear density and the reduced phase space for Kbar absorption from deeply bound states. The behavior of the calculated width as function of the Kbar binding energy is studied in order to explore limits on the possible existence of narrow Kbar nuclear states.

  16. Nuclear structure and high-spin states of 137Pr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragulescu, E.; Ivascu, M.; Petrache, C.; Popescu, D.; Semenescu, G.; Gurgu, I.; Ionescu-Bujor, M.; Iordachescu, A.; Pascovici, G.; Meyer, R. A.; Lopac, V.; Brant, S.; Paar, V.; Vorkapić, D.; Vretenar, D.

    1992-10-01

    Levels in 137Pr were populated in the 126Te( 14N, 3n) and 122Sn( 19F, 4n) reactions and the subsequent radiation was studied using in-beam γ-ray spectroscopy methods including γ-ray excitation-function, angular-distribution, γγ( t) coincidence and γ( t) measurements. A level scheme with new states up to spin {35}/{2} belonging to 137Pr is given. The lifetime of the {11}/{21} state at 563.4 keV has been determined as T {1}/{2} = 2.66±0.07 μ s. The calculation of low-lying levels in 137Pr performed in IBFM has been compared to experimental data.

  17. Induced Quantum Entanglement of Nuclear Metastable States of 115In

    CERN Document Server

    Van Gent, D L

    2004-01-01

    Experiments conducted in our laboratory conclusively demonstrated that at least 20% of 115In metastable states become quantum entangled (QE) during gamma photo-excitation processes where a significant fraction of the photo-excitation gamma (E > 1.02 MeV) are QE. In addition, it was found that the half-life of 115mIn populations in identical photo-excited indium foils varied as much as 70% depending on whether the 99.999% purity indium foils were photo-excited with a High Intensity 60Co Source (HICS) or a Varian CLINAC (Compact Linear Accelerator) with average energy 2 MeV and maximum energy 6 MeV Bremsstrahlung photo-excitation quanta. Decay kinetics of 115mIn populations in indium foils demonstrate that these metastable states are primarily QE in pairs when photo-excited in the HICS apparatus and at higher orders of entanglement of triplets and possibly quadruplets when photo-excited with the CLINAC. It appears that QE gamma photons can transfer quantum entangled properties to radioactive metastable states.

  18. -matrix approach to the equation of state of dilute nuclear matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J N De; S K Samaddar; B K Agrawal

    2014-04-01

    Based on the general analysis of the grand canonical partition function in the -matrix framework, a method is presented to calculate the equation of state of dilute warm nuclear matter. The result is a model-independent virial series for the pressure and density that systematically includes contributions from all the ground and excited states of all the stable nuclear species and their scattering channels. The multiplicity distribution of these species to keep the matter in statistical equilibrium is found out and then the pressure, incompressibility and the symmetry energy of the system are evaluated. The calculated symmetry energy coefficients are found to be in fair agreement with the recent experimental data.

  19. Are $\\eta$- and $\\omega$-nuclear states bound ?

    CERN Document Server

    Tsushima, K; Thomas, A W; Saitô, K

    1998-01-01

    We investigate theoretically whether it is feasible to detect $\\eta$- and $^{40}$Ca, $^{90}$Zr and $^{208}$Pb, we also investigate $^6$He, $^{11}$B and $^{26}$Mg, which are the final nuclei in the proposed experiment involving the (d,$^3$He) reaction at GSI. Potentials for the $\\eta$ and $\\omega$ mesons in these nuclei are calculated in local density approximation, embedding the mesons in the nucleus described by solving the mean-field equations of motion in the QMC model. Our results suggest that one should expect to find $\\eta$- and $\\omega$-nucleus bound states in all these nuclei.

  20. FMCT after South Asia's tests. A view from a nuclear-weapon state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, L.A. [Science Applications Int. Corp. (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Proposals to negotiate an international treaty to cutoff the production of plutonium and highly-enriched uranium for nuclear weapons have been on the international nuclear agenda for many decades. Hopes in the early 1990s that it would be possible finally to negotiate a FMCT, however, have not been borne out. Instead, a deadlock had ensued at the Geneva CD. It remains to be seen whether the recent nuclear tests by India and Pakistan will contribute to breaking that deadlock - or only to foreclosing any prospects for negotiating cutoff in the foreseeable future. The key lies in the attitudes of Delhi and Islamabad - influenced to the extent possible by the efforts of the international community to convince both countries' leaders to stop short of an escalating nuclear war in the region. Regardless, there are a variety of other initiatives aimed at heightening transparency and controls over the nuclear weapons materials in the five NPT nuclear weapon states that could be pursued as part of broader ongoing efforts to roll back the Cold War nuclear legacies.

  1. On the Floquet–Magnus expansion: Applications in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance and physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mananga, Eugene Stephane, E-mail: emananga@gradcenter.cuny.edu [Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital, Center for Advanced Medical Imaging Sciences, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Physics, Department of Radiology, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Charpentier, Thibault, E-mail: thibault.charpentier@cea.fr [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique, IRAMIS, Service interdisciplinaire sur les systèmes moléculaires et matériaux, CEA/CNRS UMR 3299, 91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2016-01-22

    Theoretical approaches are useful and powerful tools for more accurate and efficient spin dynamics simulation to understand experiments and devising new RF pulse sequence in nuclear magnetic resonance. Solid-state NMR is definitely a timely topic or area of research, and not many papers on the respective theories are available in the literature of nuclear magnetic resonance or physics reports. This report presents the power and the salient features of the promising theoretical approach called Floquet–Magnus expansion that is helpful to describe the time evolution of the spin system at all times in nuclear magnetic resonance. The report presents a broad view of algorithms of spin dynamics, based on promising and useful theory of Floquet–Magnus expansion. This theory provides procedures to control and describe the spin dynamics in solid-state NMR. Major applications of the Floquet–Magnus expansion are illustrated by simple solid-state NMR and physical applications such as in nuclear, atomic, molecular physics, and quantum mechanics, NMR, quantum field theory and high energy physics, electromagnetism, optics, general relativity, search of periodic orbits, and geometric control of mechanical systems. The aim of this report is to bring to the attention of the spin dynamics community, the bridge that exists between solid-state NMR and other related fields of physics and applied mathematics. This review article also discusses future potential theoretical directions in solid-state NMR.

  2. Ultrafast control of nuclear spins using only microwave pulses: towards switchable solid-state quantum gates

    CERN Document Server

    Mitrikas, George; Papavassiliou, Georgios

    2009-01-01

    Since the idea of quantum information processing (QIP) fascinated the scientific community, electron and nuclear spins have been regarded as promising candidates for quantum bits (qubits). A fundamental challenge in the realization of a solid-state quantum computer is the construction of fast and reliable two-qubit quantum gates. Of particular interest in this direction are hybrid systems of electron and nuclear spins, where the two qubits are coupled through the hyperfine interaction. However, the significantly different gyromagnetic ratios of electron and nuclear spins do not allow for their coherent manipulation at the same time scale. Here we demonstrate the control of the alpha-proton nuclear spin, I=1/2, coupled to the stable radical CH(COOH)2, S=1/2, in a gamma-irradiated malonic acid single crystal using only microwave pulses. We show that, depending on the state of the electron spin (mS=+1/2 or -1/2), the nuclear spin can be locked in a desired state or oscillate between mI=+1/2 and mI=-1/2 on the na...

  3. Americium separation from nuclear fuel dissolution using higher oxidation states.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce J. Mincher

    2009-09-01

    Much of the complexity in current AFCI proposals is driven by the need to separate the minor actinides from the lanthanides. Partitioning and recycling Am, but not Cm, would allow for significant simplification because Am has redox chemistry that may be exploited while Cm does not. Here, we have explored methods based on higher oxidation states of Am (AmV and AmVI) to partition Am from the lanthanides. In a separate but related approach we have also initiated an investigation of the utility of TRUEX Am extraction from thiocyanate solution. The stripping of loaded TRUEX by Am oxidation or SCN- has not yet proved successful; however, the partitioning of inextractable AmV by TRUEX shows promise.

  4. Effect of changes in meson properties in a nuclear medium $J/\\psi$ dissociation in nuclear matter, and meson-nucleus bound states

    CERN Document Server

    Tsushima, K; Saitô, K; Thomas, A W; Lu, D H

    2000-01-01

    We discuss the effect of changes in meson properties in a nuclear medium on physical observables, notably, $J/\\Psi$ dissociation on pion and $\\rho$ meson comovers in relativistic heavy ion collisions, and the prediction of the $\\omega$-, $\\eta$- and $\\eta'$-nuclear bound states.

  5. 76 FR 79228 - Combined Licenses at William States Lee III Nuclear Station Site, Units 1 and 2; Duke Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Combined Licenses at William States Lee III Nuclear Station Site, Units 1 and 2; Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft environmental impact statement; public...

  6. Proposal for broader United States-Russian transparency of nuclear arms reductions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Percival, C.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ingle, T.H.; Bieniawski, A.J. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-07-01

    During the January 1994 Summit Presidents Clinton and Yeltsin agreed on the goal of ensuring the ``transparency and irreversibility`` of the nuclear arms reduction process. As a result, negotiations are presently underway between the United States Government and the Russian Federation to confirm the stockpiles of plutonium and highly enriched uranium removed from nuclear weapons. In December 1994 the United States presented a paper to the Russian Federation proposing additional measures to provide broader transparency of nuclear arms reduction. The US Department of Energy is studying the implementation of these broader transparency measures at appropriate DOE facilities. The results of the studies include draft protocols for implementation, assessments of the implementation procedures and the impacts on the facilities and estimates of the cost to implement these measures at various facilities.

  7. Study of the neutron radiography characteristics for the solid state nuclear track detector Makrofol-DE

    CERN Document Server

    Pugliesi, R

    2002-01-01

    In this work, the track-etch method was employed for Neutron Radiography purposes. A combination of the Solid State Nuclear Track Detector Makrofol-DE with a natural boron converter screen has been used to register the image. The radiography characteristics such as, track size, track production rate, characteristic curves and spatial resolution, have been studied. The detectors were irradiated up to neutron exposures about 5x10 sup 1 sup 0 n/cm sup 2 , in a radiography facility installed at the IEA-R1 Nuclear Research Reactor, and etched in a KOH aqueous solution at a constant temperature of 70 deg. C. The obtained results were compared with those reported by other and discussed according to the theory of the image formation in solid state nuclear track detectors. The experimental conditions to obtain the best image contrast, and the corresponding value of the spatial resolution, were also determined.

  8. Probing the nuclear equation of state by heavy-ion reactions and neutron star properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahu, P.K.; Cassing, W.; Thoma, M.H. [Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik, Univ. Giessen (Germany)

    1998-06-01

    We discuss the nuclear equation of state (EOS) using a non-linear relativistic transport model. From the baryon flow for Ni + Ni as well as Au + Au systems we find that the strength of the vector potential has to be reduced at high density or at high relative momenta to describe the experimental flow data at 1-2 A GeV. We use the same dynamical model to calculate the nuclear EOS and then employ this EOS to neutron star structure calculations. We consider the core of the neutron star to be composed of neutrons with an admixture of protons, electrons, muons, sigmas and lambdas at zero temperature. We find that the nuclear equation of state is softer at high densities and hence the maximum mass and the radius of the neutron star are in the observable range of M {proportional_to} 1.7 M{sub s}un and R = 8 km, respectively. (orig.)

  9. Determination of the equation of state of asymmetric nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsang, Manyee Betty [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2016-12-30

    A new Time Projection Chamber (TPC), called the SπRIT (SAMURAI pion Reconstruction Ion Tracker) TPC was constructed and used successfully in two experiments with the SAMURAI spectrometer at RIKEN, Japan to study the equation of state of neutron rich matter. As a result of the project, the SπRIT collaboration, an international collaboration consisting of groups from US, Japan, Korea, Poland, China and Germany, has been formed to pursue the science opportunities provided by the SπRIT TPC. After completion of the TPC and the two experiments, the collaboration continues to develop the software to analyze the SπRIT experiments and extract constraints of symmetry energy at supra-saturation densities. Over 250 TB of data have been obtained in the last SπRIT TPC experimental campaign. Construction of the TPC provided opportunities for the scientists to develop new designs for the light-weight and thin-walled field cage for the large pad plane and for the gating grid. Two PhD students (1 US and 1 Korea) graduated in 2016 based on their research on the TPC. At least four more doctoral theses (2 US, 1 Japan and 1 Korea) based on physics from the SπRIT experiments are expected.

  10. [The Chinese nuclear test and 'atoms for peace' as a measure for preventing nuclear armament of Japan: the nuclear non-proliferation policy of the United States and the introduction of light water reactors into Japan, 1964-1968].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Masakatsu

    2014-07-01

    Japan and the United States signed in 1968 a new atomic energy agreement through which US light-water nuclear reactors, including those of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant of Tokyo Electric Power Company, were to be introduced into Japan. This paper studies the history of negotiations for the 1968 agreement using documents declassified in the 1990s in the US and Japan. After the success of the Chinese nuclear test in October 1964, the United States became seriously concerned about nuclear armament of other countries in Asia including Japan. Expecting that Japan would not have its own nuclear weapons, the US offered to help the country to demonstrate its superiority in some fields of science including peaceful nuclear energy to counter the psychological effect of the Chinese nuclear armament. Driven by his own political agenda, the newly appointed Prime Minister Eisaku Sato responded to the US expectation favorably. When he met in January 1965 with President Johnson, Sato made it clear that Japan would not pursue nuclear weapons. Although the US continued its support after this visit, it nevertheless gave priority to the control of nuclear technology in Japan through the bilateral peaceful nuclear agreement. This paper argues that the 1968 agreement implicitly meant a strategic measure to prevent Japan from going nuclear and also a tactic to persuade Japan to join the Nuclear Non -Proliferation Treaty.

  11. A comparison of the nuclear options for greenhouse gas mitigation in China and in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Chi-Jen, E-mail: cj.y@duke.edu [Center on Global Change, Box 90658, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    China is quickly building up its nuclear power capacity while the hailed nuclear renaissance in the United States has been largely stagnant. The political and industrial structures explain the divergent paths. This paper draws lessons from the French experiences in deploying nuclear power and uses the lessons in comparing Chinese and U.S. policies. An authoritative political system and state-owned utility industry allow China to emulate the French approaches such as government-backed financing and broad-scale deployment with standardized design. The democratic political system and fragmented utility industry, and the laissez-faire ideology in the United States, on the other hand, are unfavorable to a nuclear renaissance. The prospect of a nuclear revival in the United States remains highly uncertain. As China builds up its nuclear industry, it will be able to reduce carbon emissions without a carbon price through a national plan to deploy low-carbon nuclear electricity, while the United States cannot implement a climate policy without a carbon price. American politicians should stop using China's lack of carbon cap as an excuse for postponing the legislation of a carbon price. - Highlights: > The Chinese government and Chinese state-owned companies are indigenizing nuclear power technologies, establishing nuclear manufacturing capacity, and gradually scaling up nuclear power deployment. > China is likely on a path to the biggest nuclear buildup in human history. > The hailed nuclear renaissance in the United States has been largely stagnant. > The underlying causes of U.S. Nuclear stagnation is rooted in the democratic political system and fragmented utility industry, and the laissez-faire ideology, which are unlikely to change in the foreseeable future. > China can move toward a low-carbon electricity system without a carbon price. The United States needs a carbon price to implement a climate policy.

  12. Nuclear radiative recoil corrections to the hyperfine structure of S-states in muonic hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faustov, R. N.; Martynenko, A. P.; Martynenko, F. A.; Sorokin, V. V.

    2017-09-01

    Nuclear radiative recoil corrections of order α( Zα)5 to the hyperfine splitting of S-states in muonic hydrogen are calculated on the basis of quasipotential method in quantum electrodynamics. The calculation is performed in the infrared safe Fried-Yennie gauge. Modern experimental data on the proton form factors are used.

  13. Transition Operators Entering Neutrinoles Double Electron Capture to Excited Nuclear States

    CERN Document Server

    Vergados, J D

    2011-01-01

    We construct the effective transition operators relevant for neutrinoless double electron capture leading to final nuclear states different than $0^{+}$. From the structure of these operators we see that, if such a process is observed experimentally, it will be very helpful in singling out the very important light neutrino mass contribution from the other lepton violating mechanisms

  14. Study of coals by high resolution solid state nuclear magnetic resonance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨保联; 冯继文; 周建威; 李丽云; 叶朝辉

    1999-01-01

    By using high resolution solid state nuclear magnetic resonance method, six coal samples coming from four countries were investigated. Twelve structural parameters of these samples were measured and compared with those of Chinese coals. Spectral editing experiment was carried out and 15N NMR spectrum was obtained.

  15. Preparation of pseudopure state in nuclear spin ensemble using CNOT gates combination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is one of the experimental schemes for quantum computation. Most initial state of quantum algorithm in NMR computation is the pseudopure state. Until now, there are several methods to prepare pseudopure state. This note, based on the idea of controlled-not (CNOT) gates combination, has analyzed the characteristics of this method in the odd- and even-qubit system. Also, we have designed the pulse sequence for a 4-qubit sample to obtain pseudopure state, and realized it in the experiment. This method reduces the complexity of experiment and gives a high signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio.

  16. Advanced international training course on state systems of accounting for and control of nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    This report incorporates all lectures and presentations at the Advanced International Training Course on State Systems of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material held April 27 through May 12, 1981 at Santa Fe and Los Alamos, New Mexico, and Richland, Washington, USA. Authorized by the US Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act and sponsored by the US Department of Energy in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, the course was developed to provide practical training in the design, implementation, and operation of a state system of nuclear materials accountability and control that satisfies both national and international safeguards. Major emphasis for the 1981 course was placed on safeguards methods used at bulk-handling facilities, particularly low-enriched uranium conversion and fuel fabrication plants. The course was conducted by the University of California's Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and Exxon Nuclear Company, Inc. Tours and demonstrations were arranged at both the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, and the Exxon Nuclear fuel fabrication plant, Richland, Washington.

  17. Cat-state generation and stabilization for a nuclear spin through electric quadrupole interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulutay, Ceyhun

    2017-07-01

    Spin cat states are superpositions of two or more coherent spin states (CSSs) that are distinctly separated over the Bloch sphere. Additionally, the nuclei with angular momenta greater than 1/2 possess a quadrupolar charge distribution. At the intersection of these two phenomena, we devise a simple scheme for generating various types of nuclear-spin cat states. The native biaxial electric quadrupole interaction that is readily available in strained solid-state systems plays a key role here. However, the fact that built-in strain cannot be switched off poses a challenge for the stabilization of target cat states once they are prepared. We remedy this by abruptly diverting via a single rotation pulse the state evolution to the neighborhood of the fixed points of the underlying classical Hamiltonian flow. Optimal process parameters are obtained as a function of electric field gradient biaxiality and nuclear-spin angular momentum. The overall procedure is seen to be robust under 5% deviations from optimal values. We show that higher-level cat states with four superposed CSS can also be formed using three rotation pulses. Finally, for open systems subject to decoherence we extract the scaling of cat-state fidelity damping with respect to the spin quantum number. This reveals rates greater than the dephasing of individual CSSs. Yet, our results affirm that these cat states can preserve their fidelities for practically useful durations under the currently attainable decoherence levels.

  18. Calculation of the spectrum of {gamma} rays connecting superdeformed and normally deformed nuclear states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dossing, T.; Khoo, T.L.; Lauritsen, T. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The decay out of superdeformed states occurs by coupling to compound nuclear states of normal deformation. The coupling is very weak, resulting in mixing of the SD state with one or two normal compound states. With a high energy available for decay, a statistical spectrum ensues. The shape of this statistical spectrum contains information on the level densities of the excited states below the SD level. The level densities are sensitively affected by the pair correlations. Thus decay-out of a SD state (which presents us with a means to start a statistical cascade from a highly-excited sharp state) provides a method for investigating the reduction of pairing with increasing thermal excitation energy.

  19. The politics of nuclear energy in France, Sweden, and the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasper, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Why did nuclear policies in France, Sweden, and the United States, virtually identical through the oil crisis of 1973-1974, come to diverge so sharply by the end of the 1970's The answer lies neither in the relative penetration of the anti-nuclear movements, which had little effect in all three countries, nor in rational economic assessments of alternative energy resources, which were recognized only after key policy choices had been made. Nuclear energy policies arose out of conflict between many individuals, organizations, and political groups within the state in each country. Political and economic structures, from autonomous bureaucracies to nationalized industries, explain the amount of power these actors had, but they cannot fully explain the policy outcomes. The structural approach has to be filled in with accounts of the symbolic grids of the actors. One of these grids is the characteristic policy styles (rhetorics, symbols, and formulas) groups used for both deriving and defending their positions. Another grid is the dominant ideological cleavages among competing political parties: government intervention versus the free market in the United States, labor versus capital in France, the governing Social Democrats versus everyone else in Sweden. Because the issue of nuclear policy was twisted to fit these grids, what was at stake differed in the three countries.

  20. Study of polonium isotopes ground state properties by simultaneous atomic- and nuclear-spectroscopy

    CERN Multimedia

    Koester, U H; Kalaninova, Z; Imai, N

    2007-01-01

    We propose to systematically study the ground state properties of neutron deficient $^{192-200}$Po isotopes by means of in-source laser spectroscopy using the ISOLDE laser ion source coupled with nuclear spectroscopy at the detection setup as successfully done before by this collaboration with neutron deficient lead isotopes. The study of the change in mean square charge radii along the polonium isotope chain will give an insight into shape coexistence above the mid-shell N = 104 and above the closed shell Z = 82. The hyperfine structure of the odd isotopes will also allow determination of the nuclear spin and the magnetic moment of the ground state and of any identifiable isomer state. For this study, a standard UC$_{x}$ target with the ISOLDE RILIS is required for 38 shifts.

  1. Medical response to a nuclear detonation: creating a playbook for state and local planners and responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrain-Hill, Paula; Coleman, C Norman; Hick, John L; Redlener, Irwin; Weinstock, David M; Koerner, John F; Black, Delaine; Sanders, Melissa; Bader, Judith L; Forsha, Joseph; Knebel, Ann R

    2011-03-01

    For efficient and effective medical responses to mass casualty events, detailed advanced planning is required. For federal responders, this is an ongoing responsibility. The US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) prepares playbooks with formal, written plans that are reviewed, updated, and exercised regularly. Recognizing that state and local responders with fewer resources may be helped in creating their own event-specific response plans, subject matter experts from the range of sectors comprising the Scarce Resources for a Nuclear Detonation Project, provided for this first time a state and local planner's playbook template for responding to a nuclear detonation. The playbook elements are adapted from DHHS playbooks with appropriate modification for state and local planners. Individualization by venue is expected, reflecting specific assets, populations, geography, preferences, and expertise. This playbook template is designed to be a practical tool with sufficient background information and options for step-by-step individualized planning and response.

  2. Summary of inspection findings of licensee inservice testing programs at United States commercial nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunlop, A.; Colaccino, J.

    1996-12-01

    Periodic inspections of pump and valve inservice testing (IST) programs in United States commercial nuclear power plants are performed by Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regional Inspectors to verify licensee regulatory compliance and licensee commitments. IST inspections are conducted using NRC Inspection Procedure 73756, {open_quotes}Inservice Testing of Pumps and Valves{close_quotes} (IP 73756), which was updated on July 27, 1995. A large number of IST inspections have also been conducted using Temporary Instruction 2515/114, {open_quotes}Inspection Requirements for Generic Letter 89-04, Acceptable Inservice Testing Programs{close_quotes} (TI-2515/114), which was issued January 15, 1992. A majority of U.S. commercial nuclear power plants have had an IST inspection to either IP 73756 or TI 2515/114. This paper is intended to summarize the significant and recurring findings from a number of these inspections since January of 1990.

  3. Nuclear ground-state spin and magnetic moment of 21Mg

    CERN Document Server

    Krämer, J; De Rydt, M; Flanagan, K T; Geppert, Ch; Kowalska, M; Lievens, P; Neugart, R; Neyens, G; Nörtershäuser, W; Stroke, H H; Vingerhoets, P; Yordanov, D T

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of combined laser spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance studies of 21Mg. The nuclear ground-state spin was measured to be I=5/2 with a magnetic moment of μ=−0.983(7)μN. The isoscalar magnetic moment of the mirror pair is evaluated and compared to the extreme single-particle prediction and to nuclear shell-model calculations. We determine an isoscalar spin expectation value of σ=1.15(2), which is significantly greater than the empirical limit of unity given by the Schmidt values of the magnetic moments. Shell-model calculations taking into account isospin non-conserving effects, are in agreement with our experimental results.

  4. Personnel involved in the development of nuclear standards in the United States, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, E.B. (ed.)

    1976-05-01

    The development of voluntary nuclear standards in the United States is an active and necessary endeavor of the technical community concerned with the safe, orderly, and economic development of the nuclear potential. There are almost 8000 people presently involved either in writing voluntary standards and codes or in the management and processing roles necessary for their approval and promulgation. This document records the current participation of these people as member, chairman, or secretary of about 900 identified committees and projects. The standards projects are identified with the organizations that are responsible for the preparation, review, and maintenance of the standards and that provide support through supervisory committees and headquarters staff. The Directory has four major sections: personnel, employers, committees, and a KWIC Index of committee titles. The Directory can be used to identify those nuclear standards projects currently active, to indicate the participation of employers, and to recognize the contributions of individuals to these often interdisciplinary activities.

  5. Personnel involved in the development of nuclear standards in the United States, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, E.B. (ed.)

    1977-03-01

    The development of voluntary nuclear standards in the United States is an active and necessary endeavor of the technical community concerned with the safe, orderly, and economic development of the nuclear potential. There are almost 8000 people presently involved either in writing voluntary standards and codes or in the management and processing roles necessary for their approval and promulgation. This document records the current participation of these people as member, chairman, or secretary of about 900 identified committees and projects. The standards projects are identified with the organizations that are responsible for the preparation, review, and maintenance of the standards and that provide support through supervisory committees and headquarters staff. The directory has four major sections: personnel, employers, committees, and a KWIC index of committee titles. The directory can be used to identify those nuclear standards projects currently active, to indicate the participation of employers, and to recognize the contributions of individuals to these often interdisciplinary activities.

  6. Instrumentation for solid-state dynamic nuclear polarization with magic angle spinning NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosay, Melanie; Blank, Monica; Engelke, Frank

    2016-03-01

    Advances in dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) instrumentation and methodology have been key factors in the recent growth of solid-state DNP NMR applications. We review the current state of the art of solid-state DNP NMR instrumentation primarily based on available commercial platforms. We start with a general system overview, including options for microwave sources and DNP NMR probes, and then focus on specific developments for DNP at 100 K with magic angle spinning (MAS). Gyrotron microwave sources, passive components to transmit microwaves, the DNP MAS probe, a cooling device for low-temperature MAS, and sample preparation procedures including radicals for DNP are considered.

  7. Nuclear matter properties from local chiral interactions with Δ isobar intermediate states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logoteta, Domenico; Bombaci, Ignazio; Kievsky, Alejandro

    2016-12-01

    Using two-nucleon and three-nucleon interactions derived in the framework of chiral perturbation theory (ChPT) with and without the explicit Δ isobar contributions, we calculate the energy per particle of symmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter in the framework of the microscopic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach. In particular, we present for the first time nuclear matter calculations using the new fully local in coordinate-space two-nucleon interaction at the next-to-next-to-next-to-leading-order (N3LO) of ChPT with Δ isobar intermediate states (N 3 LO Δ ) recently developed by Piarulli et al. [arXiv:1606.06335]. We find that using this N 3 LO Δ potential, supplemented with a local N2LO three-nucleon interaction with explicit Δ isobar degrees of freedom, it is possible to obtain a satisfactory saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter. For this combination of two- and three-nucleon interactions we also calculate the nuclear symmetry energy and we compare our results with the empirical constraints on this quantity obtained using the excitation energies to isobaric analog states in nuclei and using experimental data on the neutron skin thickness of heavy nuclei, finding a very good agreement in all the considered nucleonic density range. In addition, we find that the explicit inclusion of Δ isobars diminishes the strength of the three-nucleon interactions needed to get a good saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter. We also compare the results of our calculations with those obtained by other research groups using chiral nuclear interactions with different many-body methods, finding in many cases a very satisfactory agreement.

  8. New Nuclear Equation of State for Core-Collapse Supernovae with the Variational Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Togashi H.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We report the current status of our project to construct a new nuclear equation of state (EOS with the variational method for core-collapse supernova (SN simulations. Starting from the realistic nuclear Hamiltonian, the EOS for uniform nuclear matter is constructed with the cluster variational method: For non-uniform nuclear matter, the EOS is calculated with the Thomas-Fermi method. The obtained thermodynamic quantities of uniform matter are in good agreement with those with more sophisticated Fermi Hypernetted Chain variational calculations, and phase diagrams constructed so far are close to those of the Shen-EOS. The structure of neutron stars calculated with this EOS at zero temperature is consistent with recent observational data, and the maximum mass of the neutron star is slightly larger than that with the Shen-EOS. Using the present EOS of uniform nuclear matter, we also perform the 1D simulation of the core-collapse supernovae by a simplified prescription of adiabatic hydrodynamics. The stellar core with the present EOS is more compact than that with the Shen-EOS, and correspondingly, the explosion energy in this simulation with the present EOS is larger than that with the Shen-EOS.

  9. Finite nuclear size and Lamb shift of p-wave atomic states

    CERN Document Server

    Milstein, A I; Terekhov, I S

    2003-01-01

    We consider corrections to the Lamb shift of p-wave atomic states due to the finite nuclear size (FNS). In other words, these are radiative corrections to the atomic isotop shift related to FNS. It is shown that the structure of the corrections is qualitatively different from that for s-wave states. The perturbation theory expansion for the relative correction for a $p_{1/2}$-state starts from $\\alpha\\ln(1/Z\\alpha)$-term, while for $s_{1/2}$-states it starts from $Z\\alpha^2$ term. Here $\\alpha$ is the fine structure constant and $Z$ is the nuclear charge. In the present work we calculate the $\\alpha$-terms for $2p$-states, the result for $2p_{1/2}$-state reads $(8\\alpha/9\\pi)[\\ln(1/(Z\\alpha)^2)+0.710]$. Even more interesting are $p_{3/2}$-states. In this case the ``correction'' is by several orders of magnitude larger than the ``leading'' FNS shift.

  10. Job creation due to nuclear power resurgence in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenley, C.R.; Klingler, R.D.; Plowman, C.M.; Soto, R.; Turk, R.J. [R and D Support Services, Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 N. Fremont Avenue, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-3419 (United States); Baker, R.L.; Close, S.A.; McDonnell, V.L.; Paul, S.W.; Rabideau, L.R.; Rao, S.S.; Reilly, B.P. [Bechtel Power Corporation, Frederick, MD 21703 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    The recent revival of global interest in the next generation of nuclear power reactors is causing a re-examination of the role of nuclear power in the United States. This renewed interest has led to questions regarding the capability and capacity of current US industries to support a renewal of nuclear power plant deployment. Key among the many questions currently being asked is what potential exists for the creation of new jobs as a result of developing and operating these new plants? Idaho National Laboratory and Bechtel Power Corporation collaborated to perform a Department of Energy-sponsored study that evaluated the potential for job creation in the United States should these new next generation nuclear power plants be built. The study focused primarily on providing an initial estimate of the numbers of new manufacturing jobs that could be created, including those that could be repatriated from overseas, resulting from the construction of these new reactors. In addition to the growth in the manufacturing sector, the study attempted to estimate the potential increase in construction trades necessary to accomplish the new construction. (author)

  11. The state of the art report on the development of advanced nuclear fuel cladding tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeong Yong; Jeong, Yong Hwan; Park, Sang Yoon; Lee, Myung Ho; Baek, Jong Hyuk; Nam, Cheol; Choi, Byung Kwon

    2001-04-01

    Since the operating conditions of modern PWR trend toward long-term operation, high burn-up, high coolant temperature and high pH, the need to develop a new advanced nuclear fuel cladding as an alternative to Zircaloy-4 increased. To overcome this problem, a number of researches to develop a advanced nuclear fuel cladding tube with superior corrosion resistance and creep resistance have been performed in many advanced nations in the field of nuclear power. Especially, some advanced cladding tubes are already confirmed to have an excellent in-pile properties from the test results in commercial reactor. Also in Korea, KAERI has been researching extensively to develop a high burn-up nuclear fuel cladding Zr alloy since 1990. To design new alloys, it is necessary to study the state of the art on the development of advanced alloys in other countries. In this report, as a part of development of advanced Zr alloy, we studied the state of the art on the development of ZIRLO in U.S.A., E635 in Russia, M5 in France, and MDA and NDA in Japan, which will be applied as basic data to develop an advanced Zr alloy.

  12. Relativistic analysis of nuclear ground state densities at 135 to 200 MeV

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M A Suhail; N Neeloffer; Z A Khan

    2005-12-01

    A relativistic analysis of p + 40Ca elastic scattering with different nuclear ground state target densities at 135 to 200 MeV is presented in this paper. It is found that the IGO densities are more consistent in reproducing the data over the energy range considered here. The reproduction of spin-rotation-function data with the simultaneous fitting of differential cross-section and analyzing power, and the appearance of wine-bottle-bottom shaped Re eff() in the transition energy region, sensitively depends on the input nuclear ground state densities and are not solely the relativistic characteristic signatures. We also found that the wine-bottle-bottom shaped Re eff() is preferred by the spin observables in the transition energy region (i.e. 181 MeV to 200 MeV).

  13. Optical pumping and population transfer of nuclear-spin states of caesium atoms in high magnetic fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Jun; Sun Xian-Ping; Zeng Xi-Zhi; Zhan Ming-Sheng

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear-spin states of gaseous-state Cs atoms in the ground state are optically manipulated using a Ti:sapphire laser in a magnetic field of 1.516 T, in which optical coupling of the nuclear-spin states is achieved through hyperfine interactions between electrons and nuclei. The steady-state population distribution in the hyperfine Zeeman sublevels of the ground state is detected by using a tunable diode laser. Furthermore, the state population transfer among the of Cs in the ground state due to stochastic collisions between Cs atoms and buffer-gas molecules, is studied at different of the hyperfine interaction can strongly cause the state population transfer and spin-state interchange among the hyperfine Zeeman sublevels. The calculated results maybe explain the steady-state population in hyperfine Zeeman sublevels in terms of rates of optical-pumping, electron-spin flip, nuclear spin flip, and electron-nuclear spin flip-flop transitions among the hyperfine Zeeman sublevels of the ground state of Cs atoms. This method may be applied to the nuclear-spin-based solid-state quantum computation.

  14. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance studies of prion peptides and proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, Jonathan [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    High-resolution structural studies using x-ray diffraction and solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) are not feasible for proteins of low volubility and high tendency to aggregate. Solid state NMR (SSNMR) is in principle capable of providing structural information in such systems, however to do this efficiently and accurately, further SSNMR tools must be developed This dissertation describes the development of three new methods and their application to a biological system of interest, the priori protein (PrP).

  15. Uranium analysis by neutron induced fissionography method using solid state nuclear track detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Akyuez, T; Guezel, T; Akyuz, S

    1999-01-01

    In this study total twenty samples (eight reference materials and twelve sediment samples) were analysed for their uranium content which is in the range of 1-17 mu g/g, by neutron induced fissionography (NIF) method using solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) in comparison with the results of neutron activation analysis (NAA), delayed neutron counting (DNC) technique or fluorometric method. It is found that NIF method using SSNTDs is very sensitive for analysis of uranium.

  16. Nuclear single-particle states: dynamical shell model and energy density functional methods

    CERN Document Server

    Bortignon, P F; Sagawa, H

    2010-01-01

    We discuss different approaches to the problem of reproducing the observed features of nuclear single-particle (s.p.) spectra. In particular, we analyze the dominant energy peaks, and the single-particle strength fragmentation, using the example of neutron states in 208Pb. Our main emphasis is the interpretation of that fragmentation as due to particle-vibration coupling (PVC). We compare with recent Energy Density Functional (EDF) approaches, and try to present a critical perspective.

  17. The calibration of the solid state nuclear track detector LR 115 for radon measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Gericke, C; Jönsson, G; Freyer, K; Treutler, H C; Enge, W

    1999-01-01

    An experimental calibration of indoor room and outdoor soil detector devices which are based on LR 115 as sensitive element has taken place at the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute in Stockholm (Sweden) in 1994 and 1996, at the Physikalisch-Technischen Bundesanstalt in Braunschweig (Germany) in 1997 and at the Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle (Germany) in 1997. Special properties of the used solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) material LR 115 have been measured to define the application of the experimental calibration.

  18. Simulating decoherence behavior of a system in entangled state using nuclear magnetic resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, J; Shan, L; Deng, Z; Zhang, Jingfu; Lu, Zhiheng; Shan, Lu; Deng, Zhiwei

    2002-01-01

    By choosing H nucleus in Carbon-13 labelled trichloroethylene as one qubit environment, and two C nuclei as a two-qubit system, we have simulated quantum decoherence when the system lies in an entangled state using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Decoupling technique is used to trace over the environment degrees of freedom. Experimental results show agreements with the theoretical predictions. Our experiment scheme can be generalized to the case that environment is composed of multiple qubits.

  19. Nuclear matter properties from local chiral interactions with $\\Delta$ isobar intermediate states

    CERN Document Server

    Logoteta, Domenico; Kievsky, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Using two-nucleon and three-nucleon interactions derived in the framework of chiral perturbation theory (ChPT) with and without the explicit $\\Delta$ isobar contributions, we calculate the energy per particle of symmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter in the framework of the microscopic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach. In particular, we present for the first time nuclear matter calculations using the new fully local in coordinate-space two-nucleon interaction at the next-to-next-to-next-to-leading-order (N3LO) of ChPT with $\\Delta$ isobar intermediate states (N3LO$\\Delta$) recently developed by Piarulli et al. [arXiv:1606:06335]. We find that using this N3LO$\\Delta$ potential, supplemented with a local N2LO three-nucleon interaction with explicit $\\Delta$ isobar degrees of freedom, it is possible to obtain a satisfactory saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter. For this combination of two- and three-nucleon interactions we also calculate the nuclear symmetry energy and we compare our results wit...

  20. Baltic states: self-sufficiency through nuclear electricity; Pays Baltes: une independance par le nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sainte Catherine, C. [CEA/Ambassade de France a Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-07-15

    The Baltic states are connected to the Russian power grid and direct connection to the European grid are scheduled through the ENTSO-E (European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity). In end 2009 Lithuania closed its last RBMK reactor on the Ignalina site, this plant provided Lithuania with 70% of its electricity demand. A project of new reactors on the Ignalina site has been considered since 2004 but this complex regional project including Estonia, Latvia but also Poland, lacks momentum to go ahead. Nevertheless, the project shows that a nuclear plant of 3400 MW would be necessary to assure 1000 MW to Poland and 500 MW to Latvia. Latvia has not nuclear plant and produces most of its electricity by hydro-energy and bio-energy (70%) and by natural gas combustion (30%). A share in the construction of the Lithuanian nuclear power plant will allow Latvia to be less dependent on Russian gas imports. The production of electricity of Estonia is based on the burning of oil shale which is very polluting. Estonia has committed itself to use only no-emitting CO{sub 2} energy sources to generate its electricity by 2030. A share in the Lithuanian power plant or in a new nuclear power plant in Finland might be an adequate solution. Since the end of 2008 Estonia authorities are studying the construction of a mid-size reactor whose power output would range between 400 and 900 MW. (A.C.)

  1. New Kohn-Sham density functional based on microscopic nuclear and neutron matter equations of state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldo, M.; Robledo, L. M.; Schuck, P.; Viñas, X.

    2013-06-01

    A new version of the Barcelona-Catania-Paris energy functional is applied to a study of nuclear masses and other properties. The functional is largely based on calculated ab initio nuclear and neutron matter equations of state. Compared to typical Skyrme functionals having 10-12 parameters apart from spin-orbit and pairing terms, the new functional has only 2 or 3 adjusted parameters, fine tuning the nuclear matter binding energy and fixing the surface energy of finite nuclei. An energy rms value of 1.58 MeV is obtained from a fit of these three parameters to the 579 measured masses reported in the Audi and Wapstra [Nucl. Phys. ANUPABL0375-947410.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.003 729, 337 (2003)] compilation. This rms value compares favorably with the one obtained using other successful mean field theories, which range from 1.5 to 3.0 MeV for optimized Skyrme functionals and 0.7 to 3.0 for the Gogny functionals. The other properties that have been calculated and compared to experiment are nuclear radii, the giant monopole resonance, and spontaneous fission lifetimes.

  2. NSCL and FRIB at Michigan State University: Nuclear science at the limits of stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gade, A.; Sherrill, B. M.

    2016-05-01

    The National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) at Michigan State University (MSU) is a scientific user facility that offers beams of rare isotopes at a wide range of energies. This article describes the facility, its capabilities, and some of the experimental devices used to conduct research with rare isotopes. The versatile nuclear science program carried out by researchers at NSCL continues to address the broad challenges of the field, employing sensitive experimental techniques that have been developed and optimized for measurements with rare isotopes produced by in-flight separation. Selected examples showcase the broad program, capabilities, and the relevance for forefront science questions in nuclear physics, addressing, for example, the limits of nuclear existence; the nature of the nuclear force; the origin of the elements in the cosmos; the processes that fuel explosive scenarios in the Universe; and tests for physics beyond the standard model of particle physics. NSCL will cease operations in approximately 2021. The future program will be carried out at the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, FRIB, presently under construction on the MSU campus adjacent to NSCL. FRIB will provide fast, stopped, and reaccelerated beams of rare isotopes at intensities exceeding NSCL’s capabilities by three orders of magnitude. An outlook will be provided on the enormous opportunities that will arise upon completion of FRIB in the early 2020s.

  3. High-Spin Isomeric States in Nuclear Reactions Induced by He Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuvilskaya, Tatjana; Shirokova, Alla

    2010-11-01

    The high-spin states production in nuclear reactions is reviewed. The analysis of various experiments, our estimates and calculations reveal that in different compound nucleus energy regions maximal relative yield of high-spin states can be realized by different projectiles: at low energies -- by neutrons, in ˜ 20 -- 50 MeV region -- by α-particles, at higher energies -- by heavy ions. It was predicted [1] that there are energy ranges in which neutron-rich radioactive ions (^6,8He, for example) are favorable. σm/σg (the ratio between the yields of high-spin Jm and low-spin Jg metastable states of a nucleus in one and the same reaction) e.g. the isomeric cross-section ratio is a very good indicator of high-spin states production capability of a nuclear reaction. These experiments demonstrate that maximal values of isomeric cross-section ratios (up to 30) are obtained in α-particle induced reactions. Experiment with ^6He beam [2] confirms the predictions of the work [1] concerning the prospects of neutron-rich radioactive-ion beams in high-spin states population. The results of calculations of the isomeric cross section ratios using the code EMPIRE-II-18 approach to statistical theory of nuclear reactions demonstrate rather good agreement with the experimental data. Due to that these prediction power of these calculation is confirmed. The results of widespread calculations of the isomeric cross-section ratios of the reactions with ^6,8He are presented. [1] T.V.Chvilskaya et al., AIP-Conference Proceedings ENAM-98 1998. V. 455. P. 482. [2] P.A.DeYoung et al., Phys.Rev.C. 2000. V. 62. P.047601.

  4. Strangeness in nuclear matter at DA{Phi}NE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gianotti, P. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy)

    1998-01-01

    The low energy kaons from the {phi} meson produced at DA{Phi}NE offer a unique opportunity to study strangeness in nuclear matter. The interaction of kaons with hadronic matter can be investigated at DA{Phi}NE using three main approaches: study of hypernuclei production and decay, kaons scattering on nucleons, kaonic atoms formation. These studies explore kaon-nucleon and hyperon-nucleon forces at very low energy, the nuclear shell model in presence of strangeness quantum number and eventual quarks deconfinement phenomena. The experiments devoted to study this physical program at DA{Phi}NE are FINUDA and DEAR. The physics topics of both experiments are illustrated together with a detailed descriptions of the two detectors.

  5. Mitigating Community Impacts of Energy Development: Some Examples for Coal and Nuclear Generating Plants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peelle, Elizabeth

    The Hartsville, Tennessee nuclear reactor site, the coal plant at Wheatland, Wyoming, and the nuclear plant at Skagit, Washington have mitigation plans developed in response to a federal, state, and local regulatory agency, respectively; the three mitigation plans aim at internalizing community-level social costs and benefits during the…

  6. Simultaneous Acquisition of Multi-nuclei Enhanced NMR/MRI by Solution State Dynamic Nuclear Polarization

    CERN Document Server

    He, Yugui; Feng, Jiwen; Huang, Chongyang; Chen, Fang; Liu, Maili; Liu, Chaoyang

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) has become a very important hyperpolarization method because it can dramatically increase the sensitivity of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of various molecules. Liquid-state DNP based on Overhauser effect is capable of directly enhancing polarizations of all kinds of nuclei in the system. The combination of simultaneous Overhauser multi-nuclei enhancements with the multi-nuclei parallel acquisitions provides a variety of important applications in both MR spectroscopy (MRS) and image (MRI). Here we present two simple illustrative examples for simultaneously enhanced multi-nuclear spectra and images to demonstrate the principle and superiority. We have observed very large simultaneous DNP enhancements for different nuclei, such as 1H and 23Na, 1H and 31P, 19F and 31P, especially for the first time to report sodium ion enhancement in liquid. We have also obtained the simultaneous imaging of 19H and 31P at low field by solution-state DNP for the first time. This method can ob...

  7. On the theoretical description of nuclear quadrupole coupling in Π states of small molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fišer, J. [Department of Physical and Macromolecular Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Hlavova 2030, 128 40 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Polák, R., E-mail: rudolf.polak@jh-inst.cas.cz [J. Heyrovský Institute of Physical Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i, Dolejškova 3, 182 23 Prague 8 (Czech Republic)

    2013-11-08

    Highlights: • Nuclear quadrupole coupling (NQC) in Π states of small molecules was investigated. • The many-electron modification of the orbital method of Western et al. was used. • The calculated NQC constants were compared with available corresponding data. - Abstract: Axial (eQq{sub 0}) and perpendicular (eQq{sub 2}) nuclear quadrupole coupling constants were evaluated from the electric field gradient at the quadrupolar nuclei ({sup 7}Li, {sup 14}N, {sup 17}O, {sup 33}S, {sup 35}Cl) in diatomic (LiO, CN, NH{sup +}, NH, N{sub 2}{sup +}, NO, OH, HCl{sup +}, CCl, OCl, NS) and polyatomic (C{sub 2}N, C{sub 4}N, NCO, N{sub 3}) Π states. For diatomics the nuclear quadrupole coupling constants (NQCCs) were determined as a function of the vibrational quantum number. The calculations were performed using the internally contracted multireference configuration interaction and single-configuration coupled-cluster approaches with large correlation-consistent basis sets. The overall quality of the wave functions was tested by comparing the calculated electric dipole moments and diatomic spectroscopic constants with external data. The calculated NQCCs were discussed and compared with previous experimental and theoretical studies.

  8. The internationalization of nuclear industry: state and capital in atomic relations; A internacionalizacao da industria nuclear: estado e capital em relacoes atomicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira Junior, Evaristo Santiago

    1986-03-15

    This paper analyzes the causes and scope of the nuclear energy diffusion process in the capitalist world. It also aims at explaining Brazil's role in this process. The study contemplates two main concepts that are, here, considered to be driving and directing vectors: the World Capital and the Capitalist State. According to the expanded reproduction logic, World Capital forms the world nuclear productive subsystem, which commands and directs, in this process, hundreds (or thousands) of productive units, regardless of their geographical location, nationality or capital control. Thru the utilization of available public intervention tools, the Capitalist state has favored the formation of the world nuclear productive subsystem, thus guiding the accumulation process in the interior of this system. Therefore, the conclusion of the Nuclear Cooperation Agreement between Brazil and Germany and the resultant establishment of the Brazilian Nuclear Program (following the authoritarian model of public administration), is well fitted in the general dynamics of subordination/articulation of the Brazilian economy to the world economy and, particularly, to the world nuclear productive subsystem. (author)

  9. Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) solid-state NMR spectroscopy, a new approach to study humic material?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knicker, Heike; Lange, Sascha; van Rossum, Barth; Oschkinat, Hartmut

    2016-04-01

    Compared to solution NMR spectroscopy, solid-state NMR spectra suffer from broad resonance lines and low resolution. This could be overcome by the use of 2-dimenstional solid-state NMR pulse sequences. Until recently, this approach has been unfeasible as a routine tool in soil chemistry, mainly because of the low NMR sensitivity of the respective samples. A possibility to circumvent those sensitivity problems represents high-field Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) solid-state NMR spectroscopy (Barnes et al., 2008), allowing considerable signal enhancements (Akbey et al., 2010). This is achieved by a microwave-driven transfer of polarization from a paramagnetic center to nuclear spins. Application of DNP to MAS spectra of biological systems (frozen solutions) showed enhancements of the factor 40 to 50 (Hall et al., 1997). Enhancements of this magnitude, thus may enable the use of at least some of the 2D solid-state NMR techniques that are presently already applied for pure proteins but are difficult to apply to soil peptides in their complex matrix. After adjusting the required acquisition parameters to the system "soil organic matter", lower but still promising enhancement factors were achieved. Additional optimization was performed and allowed the acquisition of 2D 13C and 15N solid-state NMR spectra of humified 13C and 15N enriched plant residues. Within the present contribution, the first solid-state DNP NMR spectra of humic material are presented. Those data demonstrate the great potential of this approach which certainly opens new doors for a better understanding of biochemical processes in soils, sediments and water. Akbey, Ü., Franks, W.T., Linden, A., Lange, S., Griffin, R.G., van Rossum, B.-J., Oschkinat, H., 2010. Dynamic nuclear polarization of deuterated proteins. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 49, 7803-7806. Barnes, A.B., De Paëpe, G., van der Wel, P.C.A., Hu, K.N., Joo, C.G., Bajaj, V.S., Mak-Jurkauskas, M.L., Sirigiri, J.R., Herzfeld, J

  10. Effects due to temperature-dependent nuclear binding energies on the equation of state for hot nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benvenuto, O.G. (Facultad de Ciencias Astronomica y Geofisicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina)); Civitarese, O.; Reboiro, M. (Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina))

    1993-05-01

    The influence of finite temperature nuclear effects upon the adiabatic index, for a system of nuclei, nucleons, and leptons, is discussed. It is found that the inclusion of temperature-dependent nuclear binding energies affects the behavior of the adiabats and of the adiabatic index, particularly, at low entropies.

  11. Fully quantum non-adiabatic dynamics in electronic-nuclear coherent state basis

    CERN Document Server

    Humeniuk, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Direct dynamics methods using Gaussian wavepackets have to rely only on local properties, such as gradients and hessians at the center of the wavepacket, so as to be compatible with the usual quantum chemistry methods. Matrix elements of the potential energy surfaces between wavepackets therefore usually have to be approximated. It is shown, that if a modified form of valence bond theory is used instead of the usual MO-based theories, the matrix elements can be obtained exactly. This is so because the molecular Hamiltonian only contains the Coulomb potential, for which matrix elements between different basis functions (consisting of Gaussian nuclear and electronic orbitals) are all well-known. In valence bond theory the self-consistent field calculation can be avoided so that the matrix elements are analytical functions of the nuclear coordinates. A method for simulating non-adiabatic quantum dynamics is sketched, where coherent state trajectories are propagated "on the fly" on adiabatic potential energy surf...

  12. Three-body Effect on Equation of State of Spin-polarized Nuclear Matter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZuoWei

    2003-01-01

    The equation of state (EOS) of spin-polarized nuclear matter has been investigated within the spin-dependent; Brueckner-Hartree-Fock framework by adopting the realistic nucleon-nucleon interaction supplemented with a microscopic three-body force. The three-body force effects have been studied and stressed with a special attention. The calculated results are given in Fig.1. It is seen that; in the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock framework the predicted energy per particle of spin-polarized nuclear matter versus the neutron and proton spin-polarization parameters fulfills a quadratic law in the whole range of spin-polarization. The related physical quantities such as spin the Landau parameters Go in spin channel and G′0 in spin-isospin channel, have been also calculated.

  13. State of the art review of radioactive waste volume reduction techniques for commercial nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-01

    A review is made of the state of the art of volume reduction techniques for low level liquid and solid radioactive wastes produced as a result of: (1) operation of commercial nuclear power plants, (2) storage of spent fuel in away-from-reactor facilities, and (3) decontamination/decommissioning of commercial nuclear power plants. The types of wastes and their chemical, physical, and radiological characteristics are identified. Methods used by industry for processing radioactive wastes are reviewed and compared to the new techniques for processing and reducing the volume of radioactive wastes. A detailed system description and report on operating experiences follow for each of the new volume reduction techniques. In addition, descriptions of volume reduction methods presently under development are provided. The Appendix records data collected during site surveys of vendor facilities and operating power plants. A Bibliography is provided for each of the various volume reduction techniques discussed in the report.

  14. What Do Iranians Think? A Survey of Attitudes on the United States, the Nuclear Program, and the Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    of Iran and the United States, such as the development of nuclear weapons. But on other issues, including the economy and the prospect of reestablishing U.S.-Iranian ties, respondents expressed more-unified opinions.

  15. 75 FR 13427 - Delegation of Certain Functions Under Section 204(c) of the United States-India Nuclear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... Functions Under Section 204(c) of the United States-India Nuclear Cooperation Approval and Nonproliferation... President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby delegate to you the functions conferred upon the President by section...

  16. In-medium ηN interactions and η nuclear bound states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieplý, A.; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.; Mareš, J.

    2014-05-01

    The in-medium ηN interaction near and below threshold is constructed from a free-space chirally-inspired meson-baryon coupled-channel model that captures the physics of the N*(1535) baryon resonance. Nucleon Pauli blocking and hadron self-energies are accounted for. The resulting energy-dependent in-medium interaction is used in self-consistent dynamical calculations of η nuclear bound states. Narrow states of width Γη≲2 MeV are found across the periodic table, beginning with A⩾10, for this in-medium coupled-channel interaction model. The binding energy of the 1sη state increases with A, reaching a value of B1s(η)≈15 MeV. The implications of our self-consistency procedure are discussed with respect to procedures used in other works.

  17. Covariant energy density functionals: nuclear matter constraints and global ground state properties

    CERN Document Server

    Afanasjev, A V

    2016-01-01

    The correlations between global description of the ground state properties (binding energies, charge radii) and nuclear matter properties of the state-of-the-art covariant energy density functionals have been studied. It was concluded that the strict enforcement of the constraints on the nuclear matter properties (NMP) defined in Ref.\\ \\cite{RMF-nm} will not necessary lead to the functionals with good description of the binding energies and other ground and excited state properties. In addition, it will not substantially reduce the uncertainties in the predictions of the binding energies in neutron-rich systems. It turns out that the functionals, which come close to satisfying these NMP constraints, have some problems in the description of existing data. On the other hand, these problems are either absent or much smaller in the functionals which are carefully fitted to finite nuclei but which violate some NMP constraints. This is a consequence of the fact that the properties of finite nuclei are defined not o...

  18. Direct determination of bulk etching rate for LR-115-II solid state nuclear track detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T A Salama; U Seddik; T M Heggazy; A Ahmed Morsy

    2006-09-01

    The thickness of the removed layer of the LR-115-II solid state nuclear track detector during etching is measured directly with a rather precise instrument. Dependence of bulk etching rate on temperature of the etching solution is investigated. It has been found that the bulk etching rate is 3.2 m/h at 60°C in 2.5 N NaOH of water solution. It is also found that the track density in detectors exposed to soil samples increases linearly with the removed layer.

  19. Radon diffusion in polymer vessels using CR-39 solid state nuclear track detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Andre Cavalcanti; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.; Rocha, Zildete; Pereira, Marcio Tadeu, E-mail: andreccarneiro@gmail.com, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br, E-mail: zildete@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Santos, Talita de Oliveira; Lara, Evelise Gomes; Braga, Mario Roberto Martins S.S., E-mail: mariomartins@gmail.com, E-mail: evelise.lara@gmail.com, E-mail: talitaolsantos@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    At CDTN/CNEN, the method to determine {sup 226}Ra in several matrices by gamma spectrometry is already established; however, the method should be improved. This paper is about the first step of this improvement. Several polymer vessels were studied verifying the effect of radiolysis on the walls of the vessel. A test about the diffusion of {sup 222}Rn through the walls was carried out using the CR-39 solid state nuclear track detector. The results pointed out that the vessel made up by acrylic material is the best candidate to replace the vessel actually used. (author)

  20. In-laboratory development of an automatic track counting system for solid state nuclear track detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, Sefa Kemal; Demiröz, Işık; Ulus, İzzet

    2017-01-01

    In this study, an automatic track counting system was developed for solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD). Firstly the specifications of required hardware components were determined, and accordingly the CCD camera, microscope and stage motor table was supplied and integrated. The system was completed by developing parametric software with VB.Net language. Finally a set of test intended for radon activity concentration measurement was applied. According to the test results, the system was enabled for routine radon measurement. Whether the parameters of system are adjusted for another SSNTD application, it could be used for other fields of SSNTD like neutron dosimetry or heavy charged particle detection.

  1. State and local fiscal impacts associated with nuclear energy centers: some initial considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjornstad, D.J.

    1976-04-01

    The concept of the nuclear energy center is designed to consolidate a number of electrical power reactors and/or related fuel cycle activities on a single site. Such a siting strategy would concentrate a great deal of economic activity in one area and, as a consequence, generate significant impacts on state and local governments by increasing tax bases and public service demands and by altering intergovernmental fiscal relations. This study was designed to place rough empirical measures on relevant impact variables and to highlight areas for which a need for further research was indicated.

  2. Equation of state of the neutron star matter, and the nuclear symmetry energy

    CERN Document Server

    Loan, Doan Thi; Khoa, Dao T; Margueron, Jerome

    2011-01-01

    The nuclear mean-field potentials obtained in the Hartree-Fock method with different choices of the in-medium nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction have been used to study the equation of state (EOS) of the neutron star (NS) matter. The EOS of the uniform NS core has been calculated for the np$e\\mu$ composition in the $\\beta$-equilibrium at zero temperature, using version Sly4 of the Skyrme interaction as well as two density-dependent versions of the finite-range M3Y interaction (CDM3Y$n$ and M3Y-P$n$), and versions D1S and D1N of the Gogny interaction. Although the considered effective NN interactions were proven to be quite realistic in numerous nuclear structure and/or reaction studies, they give quite different behaviors of the symmetry energy of nuclear matter at supranuclear densities that lead to the \\emph{soft} and \\emph{stiff} scenarios discussed recently in the literature. Different EOS's of the NS core and the EOS of the NS crust given by the compressible liquid drop model have been used as input of the...

  3. Supernova equations of state including full nuclear ensemble with in-medium effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusawa, Shun; Sumiyoshi, Kohsuke; Yamada, Shoichi; Suzuki, Hideyuki

    2017-01-01

    We construct new equations of state for baryons at sub-nuclear densities for the use in core-collapse supernova simulations. The abundance of various nuclei is obtained together with thermodynamic quantities. The formulation is an extension of the previous model, in which we adopted the relativistic mean field theory with the TM1 parameter set for nucleons, the quantum approach for d, t, h and α as well as the liquid drop model for the other nuclei under the nuclear statistical equilibrium. We reformulate the model of the light nuclei other than d, t, h and α based on the quasi-particle description. Furthermore, we modify the model so that the temperature dependences of surface and shell energies of heavy nuclei could be taken into account. The pasta phases for heavy nuclei and the Pauli- and self-energy shifts for d, t, h and α are taken into account in the same way as in the previous model. We find that nuclear composition is considerably affected by the modifications in this work, whereas thermodynamical quantities are not changed much. In particular, the washout of shell effect has a great impact on the mass distribution above T ∼ 1 MeV. This improvement may have an important effect on the rates of electron captures and coherent neutrino scatterings on nuclei in supernova cores.

  4. A state of the art on primary side stress corrosion cracking in nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H. P.; Kim, J. S.; Han, J. H.; Lee, D. H.; Lim, Y. S.; Suh, J. H.; Hwang, S. S.; Hur, D. H

    1999-09-01

    A state of art on primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) of alloy 600 used as steam generator tubing of nuclear power plant and remedial action on the PWSCC were reviewed and analyzed. One of the major metallurgical factors which have effect on PWSCC is Cr carbide distribution. A semicontinuous intergranular Cr carbide distribution enhance PWSCC of alloy 600. PWSCC rate is reported to be reported to be proportional to exp(-50 cal/RT) {sigma}{sup 4}. PWSCC rate also increase with increase in hydrogen partial pressure from 0 to 150 ppm and then decreased with further increase in hydrogen partial pressure to 757 ppm. Development of PWSCC prediction technology which takes into account tubing material, fabrication process and operating history of steam generator is needed to manage PWSCC of domestic nuclear power plant. PWSCC has mainly occurred at expansion irregularities within tubesheet, expansion transitions, dented tube support plate intersections and transition and apex of U bend. Remedial actions to PWSCC are sleeving, plugging, temperature reduction, Ni plating, Ni sleeving, shot peening and steam generator replacement in worst case. Option to remedial actions depend on plant specific such as plant age, leak rate from primary to secondary, density and progression of PWSCC. Ni sleeving developed in Framatome seems to be a powerful method because it never subject to PWSCC. Remedial action should be developed and evaluated for possible PWSCC of domestic nuclear power plant. (author)

  5. From Crisis to Transition: The State of Russian Science Based on Focus Groups with Nuclear Physicists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, T P; Ball, D Y

    2001-12-09

    The collapse of the Soviet system led to a sharp contraction of state funding for science. Formerly privileged scientists suddenly confronted miserly salaries (often paid late), plummeting social prestige, deteriorating research facilities and equipment, and few prospects for improvement. Many departed the field of science for more lucrative opportunities, both within Russia and abroad. The number of inventions, patent applications, and publications by Russian scientists declined. Reports of desperate nuclear physicists seeking work as tram operators and conducting hunger strikes dramatized the rapid collapse of one of the contemporary world's most successful scientific establishments. Even more alarming was the 1996 suicide of Vladimir Nechai, director of the second largest nuclear research center in Russia (Chelyabinsk-70, now known as Snezhinsk). Nechai, a respected theoretical physicist who spent almost 40 years working on Soviet and Russian nuclear programs, killed himself because he could no longer endure his inability to rectify a situation in which his employees had not been paid for more than 5 months and were ''close to starvation.'' The travails of Russia's scientists sparked interest in the West primarily because of the security threat posed by their situation. The seemingly relentless crisis in science raised fears that disgruntled scientists might sell their nuclear weapons expertise to countries or organizations that harbor hostile intentions toward the United States. Such concerns are particularly pressing in the wake of the September 2001 terrorist attacks in the US. At the same time, we should not overlook other critical implications that the state of Russian science has for Russia's long-term economic and political development. It is in the West's interest to see Russia develop a thriving market economy and stable democracy. A successful scientific community can help on both counts. Science and technology

  6. In Situ Decommissioning (ISD) Concepts and Approaches for Excess Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning End State - 13367

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrato, Michael G. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Musall, John C.; Bergren, Christopher L. [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) currently has numerous radiologically contaminated excess nuclear facilities waiting decommissioning throughout the Complex. The traditional decommissioning end state is complete removal. This commonly involves demolishing the facility, often segregating various components and building materials and disposing of the highly contaminated, massive structures containing tons of highly contaminated equipment and piping in a (controlled and approved) landfill, at times hundreds of miles from the facility location. Traditional demolition is costly, and results in significant risks to workers, as well as risks and costs associated with transporting the materials to a disposal site. In situ decommissioning (ISD or entombment) is a viable alternative to demolition, offering comparable and potentially more protective protection of human health and the environment, but at a significantly reduced cost and worker risk. The Savannah River Site (SRS) has completed the initial ISD deployment for radiologically contaminated facilities. Two reactor (P and R Reactors) facilities were decommissioned in 2011 using the ISD approach through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. The SRS ISD approach resolved programmatic, regulatory and technical/engineering issues associated with avoiding the potential hazards and cost associated with generating and disposing of an estimated 124,300 metric tons (153,000 m{sup 3}) of contaminated debris per reactor. The DOE Environmental Management Office of Deactivation and Decommissioning and Facility Engineering, through the Savannah River National Laboratory, is currently investigating potential monitoring techniques and strategies to assess ISD effectiveness. As part of SRS's strategic planning, the site is seeking to leverage in situ decommissioning concepts, approaches and facilities to conduct research, design end states, and assist in regulatory interactions in broad national and

  7. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance studies of cross polarization from quadrupolar nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Paul, Susan M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The development of solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) has, to a large extent, focused on using spin-1/2 nuclei as probes to investigate molecular structure and dynamics. For such nuclei, the technique of cross polarization is well-established as a method for sensitivity enhancement. However, over two-thirds of the nuclei in the periodic table have a spin-quantum number greater than one-half and are known as quadrupolar nuclei. Such nuclei are fundamental constituents of many inorganic materials including minerals, zeolites, glasses, and gels. It is, therefore, of interest to explore the extent to which polarization can be transferred from quadrupolar nuclei. In this dissertation, solid-state NMR experiments involving cross polarization from quadrupolar nuclei to spin-1/2 nuclei under magic-angle spinning (MAS) conditions are investigated in detail.

  8. Theoretical approaches to control spin dynamics in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Eugene Stephane Mananga

    2015-12-01

    This article reviews theoretical approaches for controlling spin dynamics in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance. We present fundamental theories in the history of NMR, namely, the average Hamiltonian and Floquet theories. We also discuss emerging theories such as the Fer and Floquet-Magnus expansions. These theories allow one to solve the time-dependent Schrodinger equation, which is still the central problem in spin dynamics of solid-state NMR. Examples from the literature that highlight several applications of these theories are presented, and particular attention is paid to numerical integrators and propagator operators. The problem of time propagation calculated with Chebychev expansion and the future development of numerical directions with the Cayley transformation are considered. The bibliography includes 190 references.

  9. MAG spectrometer for investigation of hadron-nuclear interactions with identification of final nuclei states

    CERN Document Server

    Bezuglov, M P; Bystritskaya, E V

    2002-01-01

    A MAG spectrometer is designed to analyze kinematics of hadron-nuclear interactions with identification of nucleus final state. Spectrometer consists of a wide-aperture magnetic spectrometer with proportional chambers, scintillation counters, hodoscopes and a Ge(Li)-detector base gamma-spectrometer. Paper describes an electronic system for acquisition and processing of spectrometric information. MAG spectrometer ensures approx 1.2 mm coordinate resolution and 3 mrad angular resolution. Its average efficiency within 0-5 deg angle range is equal to 85%. Energy resolution of gamma-spectrometer is equal to 8 and 16 keV at 0.5 and 2.0 MeV photon energy, respectively. Error of 1 GeV energy particle pulse damnation constitutes 2.2%. Resolution of two-particle state efficient mass is equal to 14 MeV/s sup 2

  10. Equation of State and Phase Transitions in the Nuclear and Hadronic Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bugaev, Kyrill A

    2010-01-01

    An investigation of strongly interacting matter equation of state remains one of the major tasks of modern high energy nuclear physics for almost a quarter of century. The present work is my doctor of science thesis which contains my contribution (42 works) to this field made between 1993 and 2008. Inhere I mainly discuss the common physical and mathematical features of several exactly solvable statistical models which describe the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition and the deconfinement phase transition. Luckily, in some cases it was possible to rigorously extend the solutions found in thermodynamic limit to finite volumes and to formulate the finite volume analogs of phases directly from the grand canonical partition. It turns out that finite volume (surface) of a system generates also the temporal constraints, i.e. the finite formation/decay time of possible states in this finite system. Among other results I would like to mention the calculation of upper and lower bounds for the surface entropy of physic...

  11. Nuclear Level Mixing: From a Curiosity to Applications in Nuclear Physics, Solid State Physics and Gamma Optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neyens, Gerda [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica (Belgium)

    2001-07-15

    The history of 'Nuclear Level Mixing' is closely related to the research that Prof. Coussement performed during the last 25 years. In particular, the impact of this quantum mechanical concept on different research fields will be discussed. Without going in detail, we aim to give the reader an idea of how one single concept may lead to different discoveries.

  12. Technical cooperation on nuclear security between the United States and China : review of the past and opportunities for the future.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pregenzer, Arian Leigh

    2011-12-01

    The United States and China are committed to cooperation to address the challenges of the next century. Technical cooperation, building on a long tradition of technical exchange between the two countries, can play an important role. This paper focuses on technical cooperation between the United States and China in the areas of nonproliferation, arms control and other nuclear security topics. It reviews cooperation during the 1990s on nonproliferation and arms control under the U.S.-China Arms Control Exchange, discusses examples of ongoing activities under the Peaceful Uses of Technology Agreement to enhance security of nuclear and radiological material, and suggests opportunities for expanding technical cooperation between the defense nuclear laboratories of both countries to address a broader range of nuclear security topics.

  13. Evaluation of diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine services of Pernambuco and Alagoas states - Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Ricardo Braz F. da; Hazin, Clovis A., E-mail: chazin@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Lima, Fabiana F., E-mail: fflima@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The medical use of ionizing radiation contributes significantly to population exposure to radiation. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic procedures carried out in nuclear medicine (SMN) in Pernambuco and Alagoas in order to gather data to subsidize the proposal of reference levels for nuclear medicine in Brazil. Data were collected of the SMN in Pernambuco and Alagoas in the period of 2005 to 2009, according by UNSCEAR. The study used data from IBGE. The results showed that the total number of examinations in the period 2005 to 2009 was 34.828 in Pernambuco and 27.700 in Alagoas, corresponding to 6.966 and 5.540 average annual examinations in Pernambuco and Alagoas, respectively. The total number of examinations performed in both states in 2009 was twice the number carried out in 2005. Scintigraphy is the cardiovascular examination most performed in both states, followed by bone scintigraphy. Tc-99m is the radionuclide used most often, followed by I-131. The number of tests using Tc-99m in 2009 doubled when compared with the examinations performed in 2005. The results indicate that there has been a significant increase in the number of examinations in MN, and that females outnumber males, as far as the use of this diagnostic resource is concerned. The study of the activities of the radionuclides administered to patients in the states of Pernambuco and Alagoas showed that they are high when compared to the values recommended by the IAEA in its Safety Report Series Document No. 40. (author)

  14. Subthreshold pion production: The effects of three body collisions the Fermi momentum, and the nuclear equation of state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molitoris, J.; Bonasera, A.; Adorno, A.

    1993-04-01

    The authors study pion production at subthreshold energies in nucleus-collisions using the extended Boltzmann-Nordheim-Vlasov (BNV) model. The extreme sensitivity of the pion yield to the initial momentum space Fermi distribution is demonstrated. The effect of the three body collision term is also shown to be substantial. However, the nuclear equation of state has no significant effect at these energies. Details and implications of the nuclear kinetic equation simulation are discussed.

  15. Effects of etching time on alpha tracks in Solid state Nuclear Track Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmore, Gavin; Wertheim, David; Crust, Simon

    2013-04-01

    Inhalation of radon gas is thought to be the cause of about 1100 lung cancer related deaths each year in the UK (1). Radon concentrations can be monitored using Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs) as the natural decay of radon results in alpha particles which form tracks in the detectors and these tracks can be etched in order to enable microscopic analysis. We have previously shown that confocal microscopy can be used for 3D visualisation of etched SSNTDs (2, 3). The aim of the study was to examine the effect of etching time on the appearance of alpha tracks in SSNTDs. Six SSNTDs were placed in a chamber with a luminous dial watch for a fixed period. The detectors were etched for between 30 minutes and 4.5 hours using 6M NaOH at a temperature of 90oC. A 'LEXT' OLS4000 confocal laser scanning microscope (Olympus Corporation, Japan) was used to acquire 2D and 3D image datasets of CR-39 plastic SSNTDs. Confocal microscope 3D images were acquired using a x50 or x100 objective lens. Data were saved as images and also spreadsheet files with height measurements. Software was written using MATLAB (The MathWorks Inc., USA) to analyse the height data. Comparing the 30 minute and 4 hour etching time detectors, we observed that there were marked differences in track area; the lower the etching time the smaller the track area. The degree to which etching may prevent visualising adjacent tracks also requires further study as it is possible that etching could result in some tracks being subsumed in other tracks. On the other hand if there is too little etching, track sizes would be reduced and hence could be more difficult to image; thus there is a balance required to obtain suitable measurement accuracy. (1) Gray A, Read S, McGale P and Darby S. Lung cancer deaths from indoor radon and the cost effectiveness and potential of policies to reduce them. BMJ 2009; 338: a3110. (2) Wertheim D, Gillmore G, Brown L, and Petford N. A new method of imaging particle tracks in

  16. A new baryonic equation of state at sub-nuclear densities for core-collapse simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furusawa, Shun; Yamada, Shoichi; Sumiyoshi, Kohsuke; Suzuki, Hideyuki [Department of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Department of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan) and Advanced Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Numazu College of Technology, Ooka 3600, Numazu, Shizuoka 410-8501 (Japan); Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, Yamazaki 2641, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan)

    2012-11-12

    We construct a new equation of state for baryons at sub-nuclear densities for the use in core-collapse simulations of massive stars. The formulation is based on the nuclear statistical equilibrium description and the liquid drop approximation of nuclei. The model free energy to minimize is calculated by using relativistic mean field theory for nucleons and the mass formula for nuclei with atomic number up to {approx} 1000. We have also taken into account the pasta phase. We find that the free energy and other thermodynamical quantities are not very different from those given in the standard EOSs that adopt the single nucleus approximation. On the other hand, the average mass is systematically different, which may have an important effect to the rates of electron captures and coherent neutrino scatterings on nuclei in supernova cores. It is also interesting that the root mean square of the mass number is not very different from the average mass number, since the former is important for the evaluation of coherent scattering rates on nuclei but has been unavailable so far.

  17. A new equation of state for core-collapse supernovae based on realistic nuclear forces and including a full nuclear ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusawa, S.; Togashi, H.; Nagakura, H.; Sumiyoshi, K.; Yamada, S.; Suzuki, H.; Takano, M.

    2017-09-01

    We have constructed a nuclear equation of state (EOS) that includes a full nuclear ensemble for use in core-collapse supernova simulations. It is based on the EOS for uniform nuclear matter that two of the authors derived recently, applying a variational method to realistic two- and three-body nuclear forces. We have extended the liquid drop model of heavy nuclei, utilizing the mass formula that accounts for the dependences of bulk, surface, Coulomb and shell energies on density and/or temperature. As for light nuclei, we employ a quantum-theoretical mass evaluation, which incorporates the Pauli- and self-energy shifts. In addition to realistic nuclear forces, the inclusion of in-medium effects on the full ensemble of nuclei makes the new EOS one of the most realistic EOSs, which covers a wide range of density, temperature and proton fraction that supernova simulations normally encounter. We make comparisons with the FYSS EOS, which is based on the same formulation for the nuclear ensemble but adopts the relativistic mean field theory with the TM1 parameter set for uniform nuclear matter. The new EOS is softer than the FYSS EOS around and above nuclear saturation densities. We find that neutron-rich nuclei with small mass numbers are more abundant in the new EOS than in the FYSS EOS because of the larger saturation densities and smaller symmetry energy of nuclei in the former. We apply the two EOSs to 1D supernova simulations and find that the new EOS gives lower electron fractions and higher temperatures in the collapse phase owing to the smaller symmetry energy. As a result, the inner core has smaller masses for the new EOS. It is more compact, on the other hand, due to the softness of the new EOS and bounces at higher densities. It turns out that the shock wave generated by core bounce is a bit stronger initially in the simulation with the new EOS. The ensuing outward propagations of the shock wave in the outer core are very similar in the two simulations, which

  18. Calibration of solid state nuclear track detector CR-39 for radon measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Marcia Pires de; Martins, Elaine Wirney [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: mpcampos@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    Solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) are widely used for radon measurements and CR-39 is one of the most popular SSNTD. In this work it was determined the calibration factor for radon concentration measurements through the passive method with CR-39 detectors. The detectors were put in a proper device (an adapted Lucas cell) and exposed to the standard radon concentration through the Pylon Model RN-150 flow through radon gas source. After exposure, the detectors were etched for 5.5 hours in a KOH solution at 80 deg C in a bath at a constant temperature. The track density was read in an Axiolab-Zeiss optical microscope, with nominal magnification of X10 connected to a video camera and to a personal computer. The calibration factor was obtained through the relation between standard radon concentration, track density and exposure time. (author)

  19. 3-D imaging of particle tracks in solid state nuclear track detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wertheim

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that 3 to 5% of total lung cancer deaths in the UK may be associated with elevated radon concentration. Radon gas levels can be assessed using CR-39 plastic detectors which are often assessed by 2-D image analysis of surface images. 3-D analysis has the potential to provide information relating to the angle at which alpha particles impinge on the detector. In this study we used a "LEXT" OLS3100 confocal laser scanning microscope (Olympus Corporation, Tokyo, Japan to image tracks on five CR-39 detectors. We were able to identify several patterns of single and coalescing tracks from 3-D visualisation. Thus this method may provide a means of detailed 3-D analysis of Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors.

  20. 3-D imaging of particle tracks in solid state nuclear track detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertheim, D.; Gillmore, G.; Brown, L.; Petford, N.

    2010-05-01

    It has been suggested that 3 to 5% of total lung cancer deaths in the UK may be associated with elevated radon concentration. Radon gas levels can be assessed using CR-39 plastic detectors which are often assessed by 2-D image analysis of surface images. 3-D analysis has the potential to provide information relating to the angle at which alpha particles impinge on the detector. In this study we used a "LEXT" OLS3100 confocal laser scanning microscope (Olympus Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) to image tracks on five CR-39 detectors. We were able to identify several patterns of single and coalescing tracks from 3-D visualisation. Thus this method may provide a means of detailed 3-D analysis of Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors.

  1. Charged projectile spectrometry using solid-state nuclear track detector of the PM-355 type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinowska Aneta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To use effectively any radiation detector in high-temperature plasma experiments, it must have a lot of benefits and fulfill a number of requirements. The most important are: a high energy resolution, linearity over a wide range of recorded particle energy, high detection efficiency for these particles, a long lifetime and resistance to harsh conditions existing in plasma experiments and so on. Solid-state nuclear track detectors have been used in our laboratory in plasma experiments for many years, but recently we have made an attempt to use these detectors in spectroscopic measurements performed on some plasma facilities. This paper presents a method that we used to elaborate etched track diameters to evaluate the incident projectile energy magnitude. The method is based on the data obtained from a semiautomatic track scanning system that selects tracks according to two parameters, track diameter and its mean gray level.

  2. Single-sheet identification method of heavy charged particles using solid state nuclear track detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M F Zaki; A Abdel-Naby; A Ahmed Morsy

    2007-08-01

    The theoretical and experimental investigations of the penetration of charged particles in matter played a very important role in the development of modern physics. Solid state nuclear track detectors have become one of the most important tools for many branches of science and technology. An attempt has been made to examine the suitability of the single-sheet particle identification technique in CR-39 and CN-85 polycarbonate by plotting track cone length vs. residual range for different heavy ions in these detectors. So, the maximum etchable ranges of heavy ions such as 93Nb, 86Kr and 4He in CR-39 and 4He and 132Xe in CN-85 polycarbonate have been determined. The ranges of these ions in these detectors have also been computed theoretically using the Henke–Benton program. A reasonably good agreement has been observed between the experimentally and theoretically computed values.

  3. State-of-the-art of beyond mean field theories with nuclear density functionals

    CERN Document Server

    Egido, J Luis

    2016-01-01

    We present an overview of beyond mean field theories (BMFT) based on the generator coordinate method (GCM) and the recovery of symmetries used in nuclear physics with effective forces. After a reminder of the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) theory a discussion of the shortcomings of any mean field approximation (MFA) is presented. The recovery of the symmetries spontaneously broken in the HFB approach, in particular the angular momentum, is necessary, among others, to describe excited states and transitions. Particle number projection is needed to guarantee the right number of protons and neutrons. Furthermore a projection before the variation prevents the pairing collapse in the weak pairing regime. The lack of fluctuations around the average values of the MFA is a shortcoming of this approach. To build in correlations in BMFT one selects the relevant degrees of freedom: quadrupole, octupole and the pairing vibrations as well as the single particle ones. In the GCM the operators representing these degrees of f...

  4. Aspects of the state safety regulation dealing with management of radioactive wastes from nuclear vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markarov, Valentin G

    1999-07-01

    According to this presentation, the Constitution of the Russian Federation states that nuclear power engineering and fissile materials are under the jurisdiction of the Russian Federation. But there is no federal law with detailed directions for radioactive waste (RW) management, which thus comes under the Federal law ''On Use of Atomic Energy''. This law defines the legal basis and principles of regulating the relations occurring during RW management and sets some general requirements. RW management safety is regulated by the federal norms and rules (1) Radiation Safety Norms (NRB-96), Basic Sanitary Rules (OSP-72, 87) and (3) Sanitary Rules for RW Management (SPORO-85), etc. A number of normative documents on RW management will be put in force in 1999. For work in the field of RW management, licence must in general be obtained from Gozatomnazdor of Russia. The conditions for receiving a license for the management of RW from vessels are presented.

  5. Solid state 31phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance of iron-, manganese-, and copper-containing synthetic hydroxyapatites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, B.; Taylor, R. E.; Hossner, L. R.; Ming, D. W.

    2002-01-01

    The incorporation of micronutrients into synthetic hydroxyapatite (SHA) is proposed for slow release of these nutrients to crops in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Advanced Life Support (ALS) program for Lunar or Martian outposts. Solid state 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was utilized to examine the paramagnetic effects of Fe3+, Mn2+, and Cu2+ to determine if they were incorporated into the SHA structure. Separate Fe3+, Mn2+, and Cu2+ containing SHA materials along with a transition metal free SHA (pure-SHA) were synthesized using a precipitation method. The proximity (concentrations were incorporated in the SHA structure. Iron-, Mn-, and Cu-containing SHA are potential slow release sources of Fe, Mn, and Cu in the ALS cropping system.

  6. Nuclear level densities with pairing and self-consistent ground-state shell effects

    CERN Document Server

    Arnould, M

    1981-01-01

    Nuclear level density calculations are performed using a model of fermions interacting via the pairing force, and a realistic single particle potential. The pairing interaction is treated within the BCS approximation with different pairing strength values. The single particle potentials are derived in the framework of an energy-density formalism which describes self-consistently the ground states of spherical nuclei. These calculations are extended to statistically deformed nuclei, whose estimated level densities include rotational band contributions. The theoretical results are compared with various experimental data. In addition, the level densities for several nuclei far from stability are compared with the predictions of a back-shifted Fermi gas model. Such a comparison emphasizes the possible danger of extrapolating to unknown nuclei classical level density formulae whose parameter values are tailored for known nuclei. (41 refs).

  7. Recent Advances in Characterization of Lignin Polymer by Solution-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Run-Cang Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The demand for efficient utilization of biomass induces a detailed analysis of the fundamental chemical structures of biomass, especially the complex structures of lignin polymers, which have long been recognized for their negative impact on biorefinery. Traditionally, it has been attempted to reveal the complicated and heterogeneous structure of lignin by a series of chemical analyses, such as thioacidolysis (TA, nitrobenzene oxidation (NBO, and derivatization followed by reductive cleavage (DFRC. Recent advances in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR technology undoubtedly have made solution-state NMR become the most widely used technique in structural characterization of lignin due to its versatility in illustrating structural features and structural transformations of lignin polymers. As one of the most promising diagnostic tools, NMR provides unambiguous evidence for specific structures as well as quantitative structural information. The recent advances in two-dimensional solution-state NMR techniques for structural analysis of lignin in isolated and whole cell wall states (in situ, as well as their applications are reviewed.

  8. Introduction of the Floquet-Magnus expansion in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mananga, Eugène S; Charpentier, Thibault

    2011-07-28

    In this article, we present an alternative expansion scheme called Floquet-Magnus expansion (FME) used to solve a time-dependent linear differential equation which is a central problem in quantum physics in general and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in particular. The commonly used methods to treat theoretical problems in solid-state NMR are the average Hamiltonian theory (AHT) and the Floquet theory (FT), which have been successful for designing sophisticated pulse sequences and understanding of different experiments. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the FME scheme in the context of solid state NMR and we compare this approach with other series expansions. We present a modified FME scheme highlighting the importance of the (time-periodic) boundary conditions. This modified scheme greatly simplifies the calculation of higher order terms and shown to be equivalent to the Floquet theory (single or multimode time-dependence) but allows one to derive the effective Hamiltonian in the Hilbert space. Basic applications of the FME scheme are described and compared to previous treatments based on AHT, FT, and static perturbation theory. We discuss also the convergence aspects of the three schemes (AHT, FT, and FME) and present the relevant references.

  9. 3D visualisation and analysis of single and coalescing tracks in Solid state Nuclear Track Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertheim, David; Gillmore, Gavin; Brown, Louise; Petford, Nick

    2010-05-01

    Exposure to radon gas (222Rn) and associated ionising decay products can cause lung cancer in humans (1). Solid state Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs) can be used to monitor radon concentrations (2). Radon particles form tracks in the detectors and these tracks can be etched in order to enable 2D surface image analysis. We have previously shown that confocal microscopy can be used for 3D visualisation of etched SSNTDs (3). The aim of the study was to further investigate track angles and patterns in SSNTDs. A 'LEXT' confocal laser scanning microscope (Olympus Corporation, Japan) was used to acquire 3D image datasets of five CR-39 plastic SSNTD's. The resultant 3D visualisations were analysed by eye and inclination angles assessed on selected tracks. From visual assessment, single isolated tracks as well as coalescing tracks were observed on the etched detectors. In addition varying track inclination angles were observed. Several different patterns of track formation were seen such as single isolated and double coalescing tracks. The observed track angles of inclination may help to assess the angle at which alpha particles hit the detector. Darby, S et al. Radon in homes and risk of lung cancer : collaborative analysis of individual data from 13 European case-control studies. British Medical Journal 2005; 330, 223-226. Phillips, P.S., Denman, A.R., Crockett, R.G.M., Gillmore, G., Groves-Kirkby, C.J., Woolridge, A., Comparative Analysis of Weekly vs. Three monthly radon measurements in dwellings. DEFRA Report No., DEFRA/RAS/03.006. (2004). Wertheim D, Gillmore G, Brown L, and Petford N. A new method of imaging particle tracks in Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors. Journal of Microscopy 2010; 237: 1-6.

  10. Influence of the nuclear equation of state on the hadron-quark phase transition in neutron stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Fang; SHEN Hong

    2008-01-01

    We study the hadron-quark phase transition in the interior of neutron stars, and examine the influence of the nuclear equation of state on the phase transition and neutron star properties. The relativistic mean field theory with several parameter sets is used to construct the nuclear equation of state, while the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model is used for the description of the deconfined quark phase. Our results show that a harder nuclear equation of state leads to an earlier onset of a mixed phase of hadronic and quark matter. We find that a massive neutron star possesses a mixed phase core, but it is not dense enough to possess a pure quark core.

  11. The nuclear in Italy - state of the art; Le nucleaire en Italie - etat des lieux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schifano, F.; Ziller, T

    2007-02-15

    This report aims to evaluate the italian situation in matter of the nuclear, following the referendum of 1987 which decided to stop the nuclear power plants in the country. The first part is devoted to the historical aspects of the nuclear sector in Italy. The second chapter presents the institutional and legislative framework. The third chapter discusses the today situation and the italian actors of the nuclear, from the radioactive wastes management and the dismantling of nuclear installations to the engineering service realized in other countries. It discusses also the research and development programs. The last chapter proposes perspectives of the debate around a possible restart of the nuclear activity in Italy.

  12. International training course on implementation of state systems of accounting for and control of nuclear materials: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-06-01

    This report incorporates all lectures and presentations at the International Training Course on Implementation of State Systems of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Materials held October 17 through November 4, 1983, at Santa Fe and Los Alamos, New Mexico and Richland, Washington, USA. Authorized by the US Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act and sponsored by the US Department of Energy in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, the course was developed to provide practical training in the design, implementation, and operation of a State system of nuclear materials accountability and control that satisfies both national and international safeguards requirements. Major emphasis for the 1983 course was placed on safeguards methods used at bulk-handling facilities, particularly low-enriched uranium conversion and fuel fabrication plants. The course was conducted by the University of California's Los Alamos National Laboratory and Exxon Nuclear Company, Inc. Tours and demonstrations were arranged at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, and the Exxon Nuclear fuel fabrication plant, the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Westinghouse Fast Flux Test Facility Visitor Center, and Washington Public Power System nuclear reactor facilities in Richland, Washington. Individual presentations were indexed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  13. Diamond nitrogen vacancy electronic and nuclear spin-state anti-crossings under weak transverse magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clevenson, Hannah; Chen, Edward; Dolde, Florian; Teale, Carson; Englund, Dirk; Braje, Danielle

    2016-05-01

    We report on detailed studies of electronic and nuclear spin states in the diamond nitrogen vacancy (NV) center under moderate transverse magnetic fields. We numerically predict and experimentally verify a previously unobserved NV ground state hyperfine anti-crossing occurring at magnetic bias fields as low as tens of Gauss - two orders of magnitude lower than previously reported hyperfine anti-crossings at ~ 510 G and ~ 1000 G axial magnetic fields. We then discuss how this regime can be optimized for magnetometry and other sensing applications and propose a method for how the nitrogen-vacancy ground state Hamiltonian can be manipulated by small transverse magnetic fields to polarize the nuclear spin state. Acknowlegement: The Lincoln Laboratory portion of this work is sponsored by the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research & Engineering under Air Force Contract #FA8721-05-C-0002. Opinions, interpretations, conclusions and recommendations are those of the authors and are not necessarily endorsed by the United States Government.

  14. H2A.Z-mediated localization of genes at the nuclear periphery confers epigenetic memory of previous transcriptional state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Garvey Brickner

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Many genes are recruited to the nuclear periphery upon transcriptional activation. The mechanism and functional significance of this recruitment is unclear. We find that recruitment of the yeast INO1 and GAL1 genes to the nuclear periphery is rapid and independent of transcription. Surprisingly, these genes remain at the periphery for generations after they are repressed. Localization at the nuclear periphery serves as a form of memory of recent transcriptional activation, promoting reactivation. Previously expressed GAL1 at the nuclear periphery is activated much more rapidly than long-term repressed GAL1 in the nucleoplasm, even after six generations of repression. Localization of INO1 at the nuclear periphery is necessary and sufficient to promote more rapid activation. This form of transcriptional memory is chromatin based; the histone variant H2A.Z is incorporated into nucleosomes within the recently repressed INO1 promoter and is specifically required for rapid reactivation of both INO1 and GAL1. Furthermore, H2A.Z is required to retain INO1 at the nuclear periphery after repression. Therefore, H2A.Z-mediated localization of recently repressed genes at the nuclear periphery represents an epigenetic state that confers memory of transcriptional activation and promotes reactivation.

  15. March to Armageddon: The United States and the nuclear arms race, 1939 to the present

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powaski, R.

    1987-01-01

    This history of the events, forces, and factors that have brought the world to the brink of nuclear holocaust probes two basic questions: what factors perpetuate the nuclear arms race and why is it so difficult to end. Starting with the opening days of World War II, this study traces the escalating arms race up to the present and notes that, while nuclear arsenals continue to grow, nuclear arms treaties are on the verge of collapse.

  16. U.S. Job Creation Due to Nuclear Power Resurgence in The United States — Volumes 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catherine M. Plowman

    2004-11-01

    The recent revival of interest in nuclear power is causing a reexamination of the role of nuclear power in the United States. This renewed interest has led to questions regarding the capability and capacity of current U.S. industries to support a renewal of nuclear power plant deployment. This study was conducted to provide an initial estimate of jobs to be gained in the U.S. through the repatriation of the nuclear manufacturing industry. In the course of the study, related job categories were also modeled to provide an additional estimate of the potential expansion of existing industries (i.e., plant construction and operations) in conjunction with the repatriation of manufacturing jobs.

  17. Excited-State Spin Manipulation and Intrinsic Nuclear Spin Memory using Single Nitrogen-Vacancy Centers in Diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Gregory

    2011-03-01

    Nitrogen vacancy (NV) center spins in diamond have emerged as a promising solid-state system for quantum information processing and precision metrology at room temperature. Understanding and developing the built-in resources of this defect center for quantum logic and memory is critical to achieving these goals. In the first case, we use nanosecond duration microwave manipulation to study the electronic spin of single NV centers in their orbital excited-state (ES). We demonstrate ES Rabi oscillations and use multi-pulse resonant control to differentiate between phonon-induced dephasing, orbital relaxation, and coherent electron-nuclear interactions. A second resource, the nuclear spin of the intrinsic nitrogen atom, may be an ideal candidate for a quantum memory due to both the long coherence of nuclear spins and their deterministic presence. We investigate coherent swaps between the NV center electronic spin state and the nuclear spin state of nitrogen using Landau-Zener transitions performed outside the asymptotic regime. The swap gates are generated using lithographically fabricated waveguides that form a high-bandwidth, two-axis vector magnet on the diamond substrate. These experiments provide tools for coherently manipulating and storing quantum information in a scalable solid-state system at room temperature. We gratefully acknowledge support from AFOSR, ARO, and DARPA.

  18. Characterization of proton exchange membrane materials for fuel cells by solid state nuclear magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Zueqian [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has been used to explore the nanometer-scale structure of Nafion, the widely used fuel cell membrane, and its composites. We have shown that solid-state NMR can characterize chemical structure and composition, domain size and morphology, internuclear distances, molecular dynamics, etc. The newly-developed water channel model of Nafion has been confirmed, and important characteristic length-scales established. Nafion-based organic and inorganic composites with special properties have also been characterized and their structures elucidated. The morphology of Nafion varies with hydration level, and is reflected in the changes in surface-to-volume (S/V) ratio of the polymer obtained by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The S/V ratios of different Nafion models have been evaluated numerically. It has been found that only the water channel model gives the measured S/V ratios in the normal hydration range of a working fuel cell, while dispersed water molecules and polymer ribbons account for the structures at low and high hydration levels, respectively.

  19. Regulatory application of seismic experience data for nuclear power plants in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Pei-Ying [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-03-01

    On the basis of its review and evaluation (Reference 3) of the SQUG GIP (Reference 2) and on the basis of the differences between current seismic qualification requirements and the criteria and procedures provided in the GIP, the NRC staff does not consider the USI A-46 methodology given in the GIP to be a `seismic qualification` procedure. Rather, the staff considers the GIP methodology to be a seismic adequacy verification procedure, which was developed on the basis of generic equipment earthquake experience data, supplemented by generic equipment test data. The implementation of the GIP approach for USI A-46 plants provides safety enhancement, in certain aspects, beyond the original licensing bases. Therefore, the GIP methodology is an acceptable evaluation method, for USI A-46 plants only, to verify the seismic adequacy of the safe-shutdown equipment installed in the NPPs in the United States. With the new development in the experience-based approach for seismic qualification of equipment currently underway in the U.S. nuclear industry, there is a potential for future regulatory application of an experience-based approach as a seismic qualification method for certain selected equipment installed in NPPs in the United States. However, industry`s use of the experience-based approach will be dependent on the submittal and staff approval of this approach. (J.P.N.)

  20. Electron momentum spectroscopy of dimethyl ether taking account of nuclear dynamics in the electronic ground state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morini, Filippo; Deleuze, Michael Simon, E-mail: michael.deleuze@uhasselt.be [Center of Molecular and Materials Modelling, Hasselt University, Agoralaan Gebouw D, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Watanabe, Noboru; Kojima, Masataka; Takahashi, Masahiko [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2015-10-07

    The influence of nuclear dynamics in the electronic ground state on the (e,2e) momentum profiles of dimethyl ether has been analyzed using the harmonic analytical quantum mechanical and Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics approaches. In spite of fundamental methodological differences, results obtained with both approaches consistently demonstrate that molecular vibrations in the electronic ground state have a most appreciable influence on the momentum profiles associated to the 2b{sub 1}, 6a{sub 1}, 4b{sub 2}, and 1a{sub 2} orbitals. Taking this influence into account considerably improves the agreement between theoretical and newly obtained experimental momentum profiles, with improved statistical accuracy. Both approaches point out in particular the most appreciable role which is played by a few specific molecular vibrations of A{sub 1}, B{sub 1}, and B{sub 2} symmetries, which correspond to C–H stretching and H–C–H bending modes. In line with the Herzberg-Teller principle, the influence of these molecular vibrations on the computed momentum profiles can be unraveled from considerations on the symmetry characteristics of orbitals and their energy spacing.

  1. Solid-state 27Al nuclear magnetic resonance investigation of three aluminum-centered dyes

    KAUST Repository

    Mroué, Kamal H.

    2010-02-01

    We report the first solid-state 27Al NMR study of three aluminum phthalocyanine dyes: aluminum phthalocyanine chloride, AlPcCl (1); aluminum-1,8,15,22-tetrakis(phenylthio)-29H,31H-phthalocyanine chloride, AlPc(SPh)4Cl (2); and aluminum-2,3-naphthalocyanine chloride, AlNcCl (3). Each of these compounds contains Al3+ ions coordinating to four nitrogen atoms and a chlorine atom. Solid-state 27Al NMR spectra, including multiple-quantum magic-angle spinning (MQMAS) spectra and quadrupolar Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (QCPMG) spectra of stationary powdered samples have been acquired at multiple high magnetic field strengths (11.7, 14.1, and 21.1 T) to determine their composition and number of aluminum sites, which were analyzed to extract detailed information on the aluminum electric field gradient (EFG) and nuclear magnetic shielding tensors. The quadrupolar parameters for each 27Al site were determined from spectral simulations, with quadrupolar coupling constants (CQ) ranging from 5.40 to 10.0 MHz and asymmetry parameters (η) ranging from 0.10 to 0.50, and compared well with the results of quantum chemical calculations of these tensors. We also report the largest 27Al chemical shielding anisotropy (CSA), with a span of 120 ± 10 ppm, observed directly in a solid material. The combination of MQMAS and computational predictions are used to interpret the presence of multiple aluminum sites in two of the three samples.

  2. Nuclear control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Wan Kee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-02-01

    International cooperation in nuclear industries requires nuclear control as prerequisites. The concept of nuclear control is based on the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapon (NPT). The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) plays central role in implementing nuclear control. Nuclear control consists of nuclear safeguards, physical protection, and export/import control. Each member state of NPT is subject to the IAEA`s safeguards by concluding safeguards agreements with the IAEA. IAEA recommends member states to implement physical protection on nuclear materials by `The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material` and `The Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material` of IAEA. Export/Import Control is to deter development of nuclear weapons by controlling international trade on nuclear materials, nuclear equipments and technology. Current status of domestic and foreign nuclear control implementation including recent induction of national inspection system in Korea is described and functions of recently set-up Technology Center for Nuclear Control (TCNC) under the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) are also explained. 6 tabs., 11 refs. (Author).

  3. Offsite environmental monitoring report; radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, Calendar Year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.G.; Flotard, R.D.; Fontana, C.A.; Huff, P.A.; Maunu, H.K.; Mouck, T.L.; Mullen, A.A.; Sells, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program. This laboratory operated an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs); and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs). No nuclear weapons testing was conducted in 1996 due to the continuing nuclear test moratorium. During this period, R and IE personnel maintained readiness capability to provide direct monitoring support if testing were to be resumed and ascertained compliance with applicable EPA, DOE, state, and federal regulations and guidelines. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no airborne radioactivity from diffusion or resuspension detected by the various EPA monitoring networks surrounding the NTS. There was no indication of potential migration of radioactivity to the offsite area through groundwater and no radiation exposure above natural background was received by the offsite population. All evaluated data were consistent with previous data history.

  4. Nuclear chemistry progress report, Oregon State University. August 1, 1995--August 1, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loveland, W.

    1996-12-31

    In this report, the authors summarize the highlights of the work done between August 1, 1995, and August 1, 1996. The work reported herein is the result of a collaborative effort between the nuclear chemists at Oregon State University and many other individuals and research groups. Each project discussed was the result of a joint effort of the groups, interchanging roles in data acquisition and analysis. The work described is part of a project involving the study of low energy (< 10 MeV/nucleon), and intermediate energy (10--100 MeV/nucleon) heavy ion reactions. Their work in the low energy regime included: the first US studies of fusion utilizing radioactive beams. Half of their effort was spent in the study of intermediate energy nuclear collisions. Among the accomplishments were: the establishment of a systematics of angular momentum transfer in peripheral collisions; completion of the first portion of high resolution studies of heavy residue formation in reactions induced by 20 MeV/nucleon {sup 197}Au utilizing the MSU A1200 separator; synthesis of several new neutron-deficient nuclides in reactions of 20 MeV/nucleon {sup 197}Au with heavy targets (Ti, Zr and Au); their participation in exclusive studies of heavy residue formation in the reaction of 35 MeV/nucleon {sup 86}Kr with {sup 197}Au in which it was found that the residues had large associated particle multiplicities indicating their formation in highly dissipative collisions, and that particle emission leading to residue formation relative to fission was favored as the dissipated energy increased.

  5. Quality evaluation of radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine services in the states of Alagoas and Sergipe - Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Poliane Angelo de Lucena; Andrade, Wellington Gomes de; Lima, Fernando Roberto de Andrade, E-mail: wandrade@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: falima@cnen.gov.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Lima, Fabiana Farias de, E-mail: fflima@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals are compounds associated with a radionuclide. They can be considered as vectors that have some specificity for an organ or a physiological or pathophysiological function. Assessing the radiopharmaceutical's quality is essential to obtain adequate images, avoiding repetition of examinations and unnecessary absorbed dose to the patient. Resolution no. 8 (RCD 38) of 06/04/2008 by Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria (ANVISA) states the obligation of performing a minimum of tests in the routines of nuclear medicine services (NMS). The aim of this work was to evaluate the radiochemical purity and pH of radiopharmaceuticals used in NMS in states of Alagoas and Sergipe - Brazil. Radiochemical purity was determined by thin layer chromatography where a paper Whatman and TLC were used as steady state and the solvents were used related to the appropriate radiopharmaceutical, both as recommended by the manufacturer's directions. The chromatographic strips were placed in closed containers to avoid contact with the walls. After, the strips were cut in 1cm pieces and the activity was determined in each NMS's activity calibrators. The radiopharmaceuticals pH was evaluated by using universal pH paper (Merck) and the obtained color was compared with its range of colors. It was observed that 33.34% and 2.3% of the tested radiopharmaceuticals showed PRQ (radiochemical purity) and pH values, respectively, are outside of the limits described by the manufacturers. The results show that the radiochemical purity assessment in the NMS's routine can indicate problems with a radioisotope tagging, allowing their exclusion before administration. (author)

  6. Nuclear and radiation techniques - state of art and development trends; Techniki jadrowe i radiacyjne - stan obecny oraz kierunki rozwoju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielewski, A.G. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    The state of art and development trends of nuclear and radiation techniques in Poland and worldwide have been presented. Among them the radiometric gages, radiation technologies, radiotracer methods and measuring systems for pipeline and vessels, brightness control have been described and their applications in industry, agriculture, health and environment protection have been shown and discussed. 35 refs, 1 fig.

  7. Quadrupole moments of Cd and Zn nuclei: When solid-state, molecular, atomic, and nuclear theory meet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haas, Heinz; Sauer, Stephan P. A.; Hemmingsen, Lars Bo Stegeager

    2017-01-01

    The nuclear quadrupole moment (Q) of the 5/2+ isomeric state of 111Cd, of particular importance to the interpretation of Perturbed Angular Correlation experiments in condensed matter, was determined by combining existing PAC data with high-level ab initio (CCSD(T)) calculations for Cd-dimethyl an...

  8. Photographs and Pamphlet about Nuclear Fallout. The Constitution Community: Postwar United States (1945 to Early 1970s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor, John M., Jr.

    In August 1945, the United States unleashed an atomic weapon against the Japanese at Hiroshima and Nagasaki and brought an end to World War II. These bombs killed in two ways -- by the blast's magnitude and resulting firestorm, and by nuclear fallout. After the Soviet Union exploded its first atom bomb in 1949, the Cold War waged between the two…

  9. State-of-the-art of beyond mean field theories with nuclear density functionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egido, J. Luis

    2016-07-01

    We present an overview of different beyond mean field theories (BMFTs) based on the generator coordinate method (GCM) and the recovery of symmetries used in many body nuclear physics with effective forces. In a first step a short reminder of the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) theory is given. A general discussion of the shortcomings of any mean field approximation (MFA), stemming either from the lack of the elementary symmetries (like particle number and angular momentum) or the absence of fluctuations around the mean values, is presented. The recovery of the symmetries spontaneously broken in the HFB approach, in particular the angular momentum, is necessary, among others, to describe excited states and transitions. Particle number projection is also needed to guarantee the right number of protons and neutrons. Furthermore a projection before the variation prevents the pairing collapse in the weak pairing regime. A whole chapter is devoted to illustrate with examples the convenience of recovering symmetries and the differences between the projection before and after the variation. The lack of fluctuations around the average values of the MFA is a big shortcoming inherent to this approach. To build in correlations in BMFT one selects the relevant degrees of freedom of the atomic nucleus. In the low energy part of the spectrum these are the quadrupole, octupole and the pairing vibrations as well as the single particle degrees of freedom. In the GCM the operators representing these degrees of freedom are used as coordinates to generate, by the constrained (projected) HFB theory, a collective subspace. The highly correlated GCM wave function is finally written as a linear combination of a projected basis of this space. The variation of the coefficients of the linear combination leads to the Hill-Wheeler equation. The flexibility of the GCM Ansatz allows to describe a whole palette of physical situations by conveniently choosing the generator coordinates. We discuss the

  10. Analysis on the revision of the United States authorizing procedure for the transfer of unclassified nuclear technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Sung-ho; Seo, Hana; Lee, Chansuh; Kim, Jong-sook [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The DOE (Department Of Energy) has not comprehensively update 10CFR810 since 1986. Since then, the global civil nuclear market has expanded, particularly in China, the Middle East, and Eastern Europe, with vendors from France, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Russia, and Canada. In result, DOE issued revised 810 in respond to comments received from the public and commercial nuclear market changes. This regulation revision improves the efficiency of authorization process to promote national nuclear industry while maintaining nonproliferation control. Even though ROK has initiated a legal basis for Intangible technology transfer (ITT) for nuclear export control, working implementation system is not set up. This research proposes recommendable ITT implementation of the ROK according to the analysis result of the US regulation. In this revision, of 124 countries had been classified as general authorization under 10CFR810, 80 countries reclassified into the specific authorization. By remaining 'fast track' for specific authorization, in particular, time frames for internal DOE and interagency reviews are reduced. This means the US government actively copes with commercial nuclear market expands to promote their industry. Meanwhile, by remaining some of nuclear-weapon states (China, Russia, India) as specific authorization maintaining that the determinations are consistent with current US national security, diplomatic, and trade policy. By benchmarking the US regulation, Korea can improve the efficiency of the technology transfer authorization process easing the regulatory burden by reducing uncertainty and timelines while maintaining the highest level of nonproliferation control.

  11. Nuclear Ambitions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China will begin to build the world’s first third-generation nuclear power plant at the Sanmen Nuclear Power Project in Sanmen City, coastal Zhejiang Province, in March 2009, accord-ing to the State Nuclear Power Technology Corp.

  12. Choosing to comply with the U.S.-India civil nuclear agreement. Factors leading to state compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio González Segovia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available State compliance with international commitments is uneven. However, the perception of which countries will and will not comply and to what extent can be biased. Some scholars assume that the U.S. will abide by the India-U.S. 123 civil nuclear agreement, which main objective is to supply India with nuclear fuel. At the same time, some other researchers doubt that India would honor its respective commitments, namely, to maintain safeguard measures in its nuclear facilities. The present study expands the knowledge of the factors affecting compliance within the realm of nuclear trade by analyzing a non-binding instrument negotiated between two asymmetrical actors. Drawing on Peter Haas’ compliance theories, the author analyzes the incidence as well as the relevance of international institutional and ideational factors which, in combination with domestic politics and structures, can influence the actor’s decision to comply. The paper’s findings suggest that India can be expected to more fully comply with the provisions of the treaty than the United States. Depending on whether certain institutional or ideational factor intervenes, Washington is either not capable or is not willing to comply. Its will to comply could be affected, inter alia, by important domestic actors concerned with the application of the Hyde Act, as evidenced during the ratification process. Therefore, contrary to the mainstream view, the 123 Agreement neither enables India to achieve energy security nor ends thirty-four years of nuclear isolation.

  13. International training course on implementation of state systems of accounting for and control of nuclear materials: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-06-01

    This report incorporates all lectures and presentations at the International Training Course on Implementation of State Systems of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Materials held June 3 through June 21, 1985, at Santa Fe and Los Alamos, New Mexico, and San Clemente, California. Authorized by the US Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act and sponsored by the US Department of Energy in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Course was developed to provide practical training in the design, implementation, and operation of a state system of nuclear materials accountability and control that satisfies both national and international safeguards requirements. Major emphasis for the 1985 course was placed on safeguards methods used at item-control facilities, particularly nuclear power generating stations and test reactors. An introduction to safeguards methods used at bulk handling facilities, particularly low-enriched uranium conversion and fuel fabrication plants, was also included. The course was conducted by the University of California's Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Southern California Edison Company. Tours and demonstrations were arranged at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, and the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, San Clemente, California.

  14. Central and Eastern United States (CEUS) Seismic Source Characterization (SSC) for Nuclear Facilities Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin J. Coppersmith; Lawrence A. Salomone; Chris W. Fuller; Laura L. Glaser; Kathryn L. Hanson; Ross D. Hartleb; William R. Lettis; Scott C. Lindvall; Stephen M. McDuffie; Robin K. McGuire; Gerry L. Stirewalt; Gabriel R. Toro; Robert R. Youngs; David L. Slayter; Serkan B. Bozkurt; Randolph J. Cumbest; Valentina Montaldo Falero; Roseanne C. Perman' Allison M. Shumway; Frank H. Syms; Martitia (Tish) P. Tuttle

    2012-01-31

    This report describes a new seismic source characterization (SSC) model for the Central and Eastern United States (CEUS). It will replace the Seismic Hazard Methodology for the Central and Eastern United States, EPRI Report NP-4726 (July 1986) and the Seismic Hazard Characterization of 69 Nuclear Plant Sites East of the Rocky Mountains, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Model, (Bernreuter et al., 1989). The objective of the CEUS SSC Project is to develop a new seismic source model for the CEUS using a Senior Seismic Hazard Analysis Committee (SSHAC) Level 3 assessment process. The goal of the SSHAC process is to represent the center, body, and range of technically defensible interpretations of the available data, models, and methods. Input to a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) consists of both seismic source characterization and ground motion characterization. These two components are used to calculate probabilistic hazard results (or seismic hazard curves) at a particular site. This report provides a new seismic source model. Results and Findings The product of this report is a regional CEUS SSC model. This model includes consideration of an updated database, full assessment and incorporation of uncertainties, and the range of diverse technical interpretations from the larger technical community. The SSC model will be widely applicable to the entire CEUS, so this project uses a ground motion model that includes generic variations to allow for a range of representative site conditions (deep soil, shallow soil, hard rock). Hazard and sensitivity calculations were conducted at seven test sites representative of different CEUS hazard environments. Challenges and Objectives The regional CEUS SSC model will be of value to readers who are involved in PSHA work, and who wish to use an updated SSC model. This model is based on a comprehensive and traceable process, in accordance with SSHAC guidelines in NUREG/CR-6372, Recommendations for Probabilistic

  15. Nuclear theory group. Progress report and renewal proposal. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G. E.; Jackson, A. D.; Kuo, T. T.S.; Feingold, Arnold M.; Yang, C. N.

    1979-01-01

    The work discussed covers a broad range of topics in theoretical nuclear and intermediate-energy physics and nuclear astrophysics. Primary emphasis is placed on understanding the underlying nucleon-nucleon and meson-nucleon interactions. The research is categorized as follows: fundamental interactions; intermediate-energy physics; effective interactions, nuclear models and many-body theory; structure of finite nuclei; nuclear astrophysics; heavy-ion physics; and numerical analysis. Page-length summaries of the work are given; completed work has been or will be published. Staff vitas, recent publications, and a proposed budget complete the report. (RWR)

  16. Investigation of the low energy kaons hadronic interactions in light nuclei by AMADEUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piscicchia K.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of such investigations is to face the major open questions in hadron nuclear physics in the strangeness sector, such as the nature of the Λ(1405 state and the resonant versus non-resonant yield in nuclear K− capture, the possible existence of kaonic nuclear clusters, strongly related to a quantitative understanding of single versus multi-nucleon K− absorption.

  17. Nuclear Ground State Properties in Strontium by Fast Beam Laser Spectroscopy

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Hyperfine structures and isotope shifts of strontium isotopes with A=78 to A=100 were measured by collinear fast beam laser spectroscopy. Nuclear spins, moments and changes in mean square charge radii are extracted from the data. The spins and moments of most of the odd isotopes are explained in the framework of the single particle model. The changes in mean square charge radii show a decrease with increasing neutron number below the N=50 shell closure. Above N=50 the charge radii increase regularly up to N=59 before revealing a strong discontinuity, indicating the onset of strong ground state deformation. A comparison of the droplet model shows that for the transitional isotopes below and above N=50, the zero point quadrupole motion describes part of the observed shell effect. Calculations carried out in the Hartree-Fock plus BCS model suggest an additional change in the surface region of the charge distribution at spherical shape. From these calculations it is furthermore proposed, that the isotopes $^7

  18. Measurements of Indoor Radon Levels in India using Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors: Need for Standardisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Subba Ramu

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available Solid-state nuclear track detectors are being used to obtain the time integrated concentration levels of indoor radon/thoron and their daughters. This technique is preferred for taking such measurements in dwellings. Such measurements are important as the radiation dose to human beings due to indoor radon constitutes more than 50 per cent of the total dose including that received from the natural sources. Normalisation is necessary to obtain a representative value of the effective dose equivalent to the population. Indoor measurements carried out by several laboratories all over the country show that the indoor radon levels vary from 1.5 to about 2000 Bq m/sup -3/, while the normal level is in the range of 10 to 60 Bq m/sup -3/. It is rather difficult to compare the levels since the exposure conditions, the period of measurements and the calibration techniques used are not standardised. The present paper discusses the measurements of indoor radon in India by various groups and the important problems associated with the standardisation of these measurements. The standardisation procedure and the calibration set-up developed at this laboratory are also presented.

  19. Increasing the energy dynamic range of solid-state nuclear track detectors using multiple surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zylstra, A. B.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Sinenian, N.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Manuel, M.; Seguin, F. H.; Casey, D. T.; Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge,Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Solid-state nuclear track detectors, such as CR-39, are widely used in physics and in many inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. In the ICF experiments, the particles of interest, such as D{sup 3}He-protons, have ranges of order of the detector thickness. In this case, the dynamic range of the detector can be extended by recording data on both the front and back sides of the detector. Higher energy particles which are undetectable on the front surface can then be measured on the back of the detector. Studies of track formation under the conditions on the front and back of the detector reveal significant differences. Distinct front and back energy calibrations of CR-39 are therefore necessary and are presented for protons. Utilizing multiple surfaces with additional calibrations can extend the range of detectable energies on a single piece of CR-39 by up to 7-8 MeV. The track formation process is explored with a Monte Carlo code, which shows that the track formation difference between front and back is due to the non-uniform ion energy deposition in matter.

  20. Measurement of soil carbon oxidation state and oxidative ratio by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockaday, W.C.; Masiello, C.A.; Randerson, J.T.; Smernik, R.J.; Baldock, J.A.; Chadwick, O.A.; Harden, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    The oxidative ratio (OR) of the net ecosystem carbon balance is the ratio of net O2 and CO2 fluxes resulting from photosynthesis, respiration, decomposition, and other lateral and vertical carbon flows. The OR of the terrestrial biosphere must be well characterized to accurately estimate the terrestrial CO2 sink using atmospheric measurements of changing O2 and CO2 levels. To estimate the OR of the terrestrial biosphere, measurements are needed of changes in the OR of aboveground and belowground carbon pools associated with decadal timescale disturbances (e.g., land use change and fire). The OR of aboveground pools can be measured using conventional approaches including elemental analysis. However, measuring the OR of soil carbon pools is technically challenging, and few soil OR data are available. In this paper we test three solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques for measuring soil OR, all based on measurements of the closely related parameter, organic carbon oxidation state (Cox). Two of the three techniques make use of a molecular mixing model which converts NMR spectra into concentrations of a standard suite of biological molecules of known C ox. The third technique assigns Cox values to each peak in the NMR spectrum. We assess error associated with each technique using pure chemical compounds and plant biomass standards whose Cox and OR values can be directly measured by elemental analyses. The most accurate technique, direct polarization solid-state 13C NMR with the molecular mixing model, agrees with elemental analyses to ??0.036 Cox units (??0.009 OR units). Using this technique, we show a large natural variability in soil Cox and OR values. Soil Cox values have a mean of -0.26 and a range from -0.45 to 0.30, corresponding to OR values of 1.08 ?? 0.06 and a range from 0.96 to 1.22. We also estimate the OR of the carbon flux from a boreal forest fire. Analysis of soils from nearby intact soil profiles imply that soil carbon losses associated

  1. Thermal-hydraulic modeling of the Pennsylvania State University Breazeale Nuclear Reactor (PSBR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jong E.

    2005-11-01

    Earlier experiments determined that the Pennsylvania State University Breazeale Nuclear Reactor (PSBR) core is cooled, not by an axial flow, but rather by a strong cross flow due to the thermal expansion of the coolant. To further complicate the flow field, a nitrogen-16 (N-16) pump was installed above the PSBR core to mix the exiting core buoyant thermal plume in order to delay the rapid release of radioactive N-16 to the PSBR pool surface. Thus, the interaction between the N-16 jet flow and the buoyancy driven flow complicates the analysis of the flow distribution in the PSBR pool. The main objectives of this study is to model the thermal-hydraulic behavior of the PSBR core and pool. During this study four major things were performed including the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model for the PSBR pool, the stand-alone fuel rod model for a PSBR fuel rod, the velocity measurements in and around the PSBR core, and the temperature measurements in the PSBR pool. Once the flow field was predicted by the CFD model, the measurement devices were manufactured and calibrated based on the CFD results. The major contribution of this study is to understand and to explain the flow behavior in the PSBR subchannels and pool using the FLOW3D model. The stand-alone dynamic fuel rod model was developed to determine the temperature distribution inside a PSBR fuel rod. The stand-alone fuel rod model was coupled to the FLOW3D model and used to predict the temperature behavior during steady-state and pulsing. The heat transfer models in the stand-alone fuel rod code are used in order to overcome the disadvantage of the CFD code, which does not calculate the mechanical stress, the gap conductance, and the two phase heat transfer. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  2. A State-of-the-Art Report on Technologies of a Safety Assessment and a Radioactivity Exposure Assessment for the Decommissioning Process of Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kwan Seong; Kang, Young Ae; Lee, Dong Gyu; Lee, Kune Woo; Jung, Chong Hun

    2007-09-15

    This report is to provide the reference contents of research and development for technologies of radioactivity exposure and safety assessment for development of the decommissioning technology for nuclear facilities. This report consists of as follows: - Analyzing and discussing on state-of-the-art technologies of a radioactivity exposure assessment of a decommissioning for nuclear facilities - Analyzing and discussing on state-of-the-art technologies of a safety assessment of a decommissioning for nuclear facilities.

  3. Equation of state for nucleonic matter and its quark mass dependence from the nuclear force in lattice QCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takashi; Aoki, Sinya; Doi, Takumi; Hatsuda, Tetsuo; Ikeda, Yoichi; Ishii, Noriyoshi; Murano, Keiko; Nemura, Hidekatsu; Sasaki, Kenji

    2013-09-13

    Quark mass dependence of the equation of state (EOS) for nucleonic matter is investigated, on the basis of the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock method with the nucleon-nucleon interaction extracted from lattice QCD simulations. We observe saturation of nuclear matter at the lightest available quark mass corresponding to the pseudoscalar meson mass ≃469  MeV. Mass-radius relation of the neutron stars is also studied with the EOS for neutron-star matter from the same nuclear force in lattice QCD. We observe that the EOS becomes stiffer and thus the maximum mass of neutron star increases as the quark mass decreases toward the physical point.

  4. Design-Basis Flood Estimation for Site Characterization at Nuclear Power Plants in the United States of America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, Rajiv; Hibler, Lyle F.; Coleman, Andre M.; Ward, Duane L.

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe approaches and methods for estimation of the design-basis flood at nuclear power plant sites. Chapter 1 defines the design-basis flood and lists the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) regulations that require estimation of the design-basis flood. For comparison, the design-basis flood estimation methods used by other Federal agencies are also described. A brief discussion of the recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency for estimation of the design-basis floods in its member States is also included.

  5. The development of pure β-NQR techniques for measurements of nuclear ground state quadrupole moments in lithium isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, A.; Pearson, M. R.; Billowes, J.; Buchinger, F.; Chow, K. H.; Crawford, J. E.; Hossein, M. D.; Kiefl, R. F.; Levy, C. D. P.; MacFarlane, W. A.; Mané, E.; Morris, G. D.; Parolin, T. J.; Saadaoui, H.; Salman, Z.; Smadella, M.; Song, Q.; Wang, D.

    2011-09-01

    A β-NQR spectrometer becomes a powerful tool to study changes in nuclear ground state properties along isotopic chains when coupled to a laser excitation beamline to polarise the nuclei of interest. Recently, the β-NQR technique in a zero magnetic field has been applied for the first-time to measure ratios of static nuclear quadrupole moments of, Li. Preliminary results of the experiment determining the ratios Q9/Q8 and Q11/Q9 show agreement with present literature values with improved precision.

  6. JAHN—A program for representing atomic and nuclear states within an isospin basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaigalas, G.; Fritzsche, S.; Gaidamauskas, E.; Kiršanskas, G.; Žalandauskas, T.

    2006-07-01

    A computer program is presented to deal with atomic and nuclear state functions within an isospin-coupled basis. Apart from the classification of the isospin bases states, the program JAHN supports the computation of the corresponding coefficients of fractional parentage as well as of the transformation matrices going from a LS-coupled to an isospin-coupled basis. In the future, these features may facilitate the treatment of atomic systems in order to obtain a deeper insight into the coupling of open-shell atoms and ions. The JAHN program has been designed for interactive work and is distributed as a MAPLE module. Program summaryTitle of program:JAHN Catalogue identifier:ADXA_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADXA_v1_0 Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions:None Computers for which the program is designed: All computers with a valid license of the computer algebra package MAPLE which is a registered trademark of Waterloo Maple Inc. Installations: University of Kassel (Germany) Operating systems under which the program has been tested: Linux 8.1+ Program language used:MAPLE, Release 8 and 9 Memory required to execute with typical data: 30 MB Number of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 38 158 Number of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 743 689 Distribution format: tar.gz Nature of the physical problem: The accurate computation of atomic (nuclear) properties and level structures requires a good understanding and implementation of the atomic (nuclear) shell model and, hence, a fast and reliable access to its classification, the coefficients of fractional parentage and the coefficients of fractional grandparentage. For open-shell atoms and ions, moreover, a reliable classification of the level structure often requires the knowledge of some transformation matrices in order to find the main components of the wave functions as well as

  7. Taking the Lead: Russia, the United States, and Nuclear Nonproliferation after Bush

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    2002), especially chap. 5; Henry D. Sokolski, ed., Pakistan’s Nuclear Future: Worries beyond War ( Carl - isle: SSI, January 2008); Henry Sokolski and...Two sides of this issue are argued in Scott D. Sagan and Kenneth N. Waltz, The Spread of Nuclear Weapons: A Debate (New York: W. W. Norton, 995

  8. State of the Art of Imaging Equipment and Tools for Nuclear Cardiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byeong Il [Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Hwasun (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    Nuclear cardiology in Korea is less active, compared to nuclear oncology, but it has been specialized and ramified. Lately, sophisticated nuclear cardiac imaging methods provide more convenience for patients. It is necessary to accurately estimate the recent progress in the imaging devices for nuclear cardiology. Myocardial perfusion imaging is a well established study to evaluate heart function. Myocardial perfusion SPECT and PET have been used for assessment of coronary artery disease with various radiopharmaceuticals. And of late, the development of advanced imaging devices - multi-pinhole technique and high definition imaging technique - and software made the scanning time shorter and expanded the application field. Therefore, it is required to review the nuclear cardiology hardware/software for the clinical practice and research. In this review, the characteristics about recently-developed SPECT/PET and software for nuclear cardiology are described. It is hoped that this information would contribute to improving the activity of nuclear cardiac research in Korea where the research for the fusion imaging combining CT and nuclear imaging is drawing more attention.

  9. Deterrence of Nuclear Terrorism via Post-Detonation Attribution: Is the United States on Target?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    analysis of recovered materials. Elemental and isotopic bulk analysis tools include chemical assay, radiochemistry , radioactive counting techniques...disciplines as chemistry, geochemistry, radiochemistry , nuclear physics, radiation physics, and nuclear engineering.193 The current staffing...198 Student enrollment in university graduate radiochemistry programs has dwindled; in fact, less than six doctoral degrees in radiochemistry are

  10. Constraining the equation of state of nuclear matter from fusion hindrance in reactions leading to the production of superheavy elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselsky, M.; Klimo, J.; Ma, Yu-Gang; Souliotis, G. A.

    2016-12-01

    The mechanism of fusion hindrance, an effect preventing the synthesis of superheavy elements in the reactions of cold and hot fusion, is investigated using the Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck equation, where Coulomb interaction is introduced. A strong sensitivity is observed both to the modulus of incompressibility of symmetric nuclear matter, controlling the competition of surface tension and Coulomb repulsion, and to the stiffness of the density-dependence of symmetry energy, influencing the formation of the neck prior to scission. The experimental fusion probabilities were for the first time used to derive constraints on the nuclear equation of state. A strict constraint on the modulus of incompressibility of nuclear matter K0=240 -260 MeV is obtained while the stiff density-dependences of the symmetry energy (γ >1 ) are rejected.

  11. Heavy ion collisions with A = 10/sup 57/: Aspects of nuclear stability and the nuclear equation of state in coalescing neutron-star binary systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathews, G.J.; Wilson, J.R.; Evans, C.R.; Detweiler, S.L.

    1987-12-01

    The dynamics of the final stages of the coalescence of two neturon stars (such as the binary pulsar PSR 1913+16) is an unsolved problem in astrophysics. Such systems are probably efficient generators of gravitational radiation, and may be significant contributors to heavy-element nucleosynthesis. The input physics for the study of such systems is similar to that required for the strudy of heavy-ion collision hydrodynamics; e.g., a finite temperature nuclear equation of state, properties of nuclei away from stability, etc. We discuss the development of a relativistic hydrodynamics code in three spatial dimensions for the purpose of studying such neutron-star systems. The properties of the mass-radius relation (determined by the nuclear equation of state) may lead to a proposed mechanism by which hot, highly neutronized matter is ejected from the coalescing stars. This material is photodisintegrated into a free (mostly) neutron gas which may subsequently experience rapid-neutron capture (r-process) nucleosynthesis. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  12. State-of-art report on digital I and C system reliability issues for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, In Koo; Lee, Dong Gyoung; Cha, Kyung Ho; Kwon, Kee Choon [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Wood, Richard T. [ORNL, TN (United States)

    2000-01-01

    As the instrumentation and control (Iand C) equipment suppliers tend to provide digital components rather than conventional analog type components for instrument and control systems of nuclear power plants(NPPs), it is unavoidable to adopt digital equipment for safety I and C systems as well as non-safety systems. However, the full introduction of digital equipment to I and C systems of nuclear power plants raises several concerns which have not been considered for conventional analog I and C systems. The two major examples of the issues of digital systems are electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and software reliability. KAERI invited a technical expert, Dr. Richard T. Wood, from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Unites States and held seminars to recognize the state-of-art of the above issues and to share the information on techniques dealing with the problems. Dr. Wood has been working on the development of EMC guidelines and technical basis in using digital equipment for safety systems in nuclear power plants on the sponsorship of US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Being based on his statements and discussions during his visit, this report describes technical considerations and issues on digital safety I and C system application in NPPs, EMC methods, environmental effects vulnerable to digital components, reliability assurance methods, etc. (author)

  13. Zero-quantum stochastic dipolar recoupling in solid state nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Wei; Tycko, Robert

    2012-09-14

    We present the theoretical description and experimental demonstration of a zero-quantum stochastic dipolar recoupling (ZQ-SDR) technique for solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of (13)C-labeled molecules, including proteins, under magic-angle spinning (MAS). The ZQ-SDR technique combines zero-quantum recoupling pulse sequence blocks with randomly varying chemical shift precession periods to create randomly amplitude- and phase-modulated effective homonuclear magnetic dipole-dipole couplings. To a good approximation, couplings between different (13)C spin pairs become uncorrelated under ZQ-SDR, leading to spin dynamics (averaged over many repetitions of the ZQ-SDR sequence) that are fully described by an orientation-dependent N × N polarization transfer rate matrix for an N-spin system, with rates that are inversely proportional to the sixth power of internuclear distances. Suppression of polarization transfers due to non-commutivity of pairwise couplings (i.e., dipolar truncation) does not occur under ZQ-SDR, as we show both analytically and numerically. Experimental demonstrations are reported for uniformly (13)C-labeled L-valine powder (at 14.1 T and 28.00 kHz MAS), uniformly (13)C-labeled protein GB1 in microcrystalline form (at 17.6 T and 40.00 kHz MAS), and partially labeled (13)C-labeled protein GB1 (at 14.1 T and 40.00 kHz MAS). The experimental results verify that spin dynamics under ZQ-SDR are described accurately by rate matrices and suggest the utility of ZQ-SDR in structural studies of (13)C-labeled solids.

  14. 3D imaging of particle tracks in Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertheim, D.; Gillmore, G.; Brown, L.; Petford, N.

    2009-04-01

    Inhalation of radon gas (222Rn) and associated ionizing decay products is known to cause lung cancer in human. In the U.K., it has been suggested that 3 to 5 % of total lung cancer deaths can be linked to elevated radon concentrations in the home and/or workplace. Radon monitoring in buildings is therefore routinely undertaken in areas of known risk. Indeed, some organisations such as the Radon Council in the UK and the Environmental Protection Agency in the USA, advocate a ‘to test is best' policy. Radon gas occurs naturally, emanating from the decay of 238U in rock and soils. Its concentration can be measured using CR?39 plastic detectors which conventionally are assessed by 2D image analysis of the surface; however there can be some variation in outcomes / readings even in closely spaced detectors. A number of radon measurement methods are currently in use (for examples, activated carbon and electrets) but the most widely used are CR?39 solid state nuclear track?etch detectors (SSNTDs). In this technique, heavily ionizing alpha particles leave tracks in the form of radiation damage (via interaction between alpha particles and the atoms making up the CR?39 polymer). 3D imaging of the tracks has the potential to provide information relating to angle and energy of alpha particles but this could be time consuming. Here we describe a new method for rapid high resolution 3D imaging of SSNTDs. A ‘LEXT' OLS3100 confocal laser scanning microscope was used in confocal mode to successfully obtain 3D image data on four CR?39 plastic detectors. 3D visualisation and image analysis enabled characterisation of track features. This method may provide a means of rapid and detailed 3D analysis of SSNTDs. Keywords: Radon; SSNTDs; confocal laser scanning microscope; 3D imaging; LEXT

  15. Preliminary assessment of nuclear energy centers and energy systems complexes in the western United States. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottlieb, P.; Robinson, J.H.; Smith, D.R.

    1978-02-01

    The Nuclear Energy Center siting opportunities in the eleven western states have been systematically examined. The study area has been divided into 10-mile by 10-mile grid cells, and each cell has been evaluated in terms of overall suitability and site-related costs. Composite suitability consists of a weighted sum of ten important nuclear power plant siting issues; the particular weights used for this study were decided by a Delphi session of twenty individuals with energy facility siting expertise, with at least one representative from each of the eleven western states. Site-related costs consist of the additional expenditures required for seismic hardening (in seismically active areas), electric power transmission lines (for sites significantly far from load centers), and wet/dry cooling system costs (limited water availability and/or high summer temperatures).

  16. State of the art report: Underwater examination techniques for spent nuclear fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Yong Bum

    1997-06-01

    In these days, much efforts are being put to increase the final discharge burnup of PWR fuels. Therefore, the necessity of the inspection of irradiated nuclear fuels assembly during the the refueling outage is greatly increased to evaluate the safe operation and soundness of fuel assemblies in their next cycles in core, and apply the results for safe operation and effective core management. The necessity to evaluate the irradiation performance of indigenous nuclear fuels pushes the relative researchers to the development of on-site fuel inspection techniques and devices which can perform the underwater inspection and measurement of irradiated nuclear fuels during refueling outage. To ensure the technologies, the status of in situ underwater fuel inspection techniques and equipment were investigated and reviewed. Those information provides the fuel inspection capability to evaluate and certificate the performance and integrity of nuclear fuels which leads to the safe operation of NPP. (author). 49 refs., 52 figs

  17. State-of-the-art research: Reflections on a concerted Nordic-Baltic nuclear energy effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husdal, Lars; Tveit, Jesper; Vaagen, Jan S.; Ridikas, Danas

    2009-09-15

    Quite a few hold the view that nuclear energy will have its renaissance in the not too distant future. Technology is, however, a necessary, but not sufficient condition. The needed prerequisites represent a complex issue. With increasing energy demand and depletion of non-renewable energy resources, nuclear will have to prove its role in an increasing energy mix, globally, regionally and often also nationally. Based on its history, experience with coordinated interplay in electricity production from a variety of energy sources, and science engagements, we argue for a future Nordic/Baltic SHOWCASE: A nuclear weapons free and proliferation safe nuclear energy supplier in the region, with a concerted role in competence building and in international ventures, and with focus on operation, safety, economy and societal aspects. (Author)

  18. Progress in Understanding the Nuclear Equation of State at the Quark Level

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, A W; Thomas, AW; Guichon, PAM

    2007-01-01

    At the present time there is a lively debate within the nuclear community concerning the relevance of quark degrees of freedom in understanding nuclear structure. We outline the key issues and review the impressive progress made recently within the framework of the quark-meson coupling model. In particular, we explain in quite general terms how the modification of the internal structure of hadrons in-medium leads naturally to three- and four-body forces, or equivalently, to density dependent effective interactions.

  19. Progress in Understanding the Nuclear Equation of State at the Quark Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.W. Thomas; P.A.M. Guichon

    2007-01-03

    At the present time there is a lively debate within the nuclear community concerning the relevance of quark degrees of freedom in understanding nuclear structure. We outline the key issues and review the impressive progress made recently within the framework of the quark-meson coupling model. In particular, we explain in quite general terms how the modification of the internal structure of hadrons in-medium leads naturally to three- and four-body forces, or equivalently, to density dependent effective interactions.

  20. Quality assessment of radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine services at Northeast states, Brazil; Avaliacao da qualidade de radiofarmacos em servicos de medicina nuclear de estados da regiao nordeste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Wellington Gomes de

    2012-07-01

    The radiopharmaceuticals are used in the field nuclear medicine services (NMS) as tracer in the diagnoses and treatment of many diseases. Radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine and usually have a minimum of pharmacological effect. The procedures for labelling Radiopharmaceuticals should be observed in order to minimize risks to patients, employees and individuals from the public, and to be administered in humans, must be sterile and free of pyrogens and possess elements all measures of quality controls required a conventional drug. The 'Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria (ANVISA)' in its 'Resolucao de Diretoria Colegiada' (RDC) No. 38 of June 4{sup th} 2008, decided that the NMS must perform quality control in the generators eluate and radiopharmaceuticals according to recommendations of manufacturers and scientific evidence accepted by ANVISA. Thus, this study proposes to evaluate the quality of the generator {sup 99M}o-{sup 99m}Tc eluate and radiopharmaceuticals labeled with {sup 99m}Tc used in most NMS of some states in the Northeast, in relation to radionuclide, chemical, radiochemical purity and pH and promote the inclusion of procedure for quality control of radiopharmaceuticals in routine NMS. The results show that 90% radionuclidic purity, 98.2% purity chemical and radiochemical purity of 46% and 100% of the eluates are in agreement with international pharmacopoeias; already radiopharmaceuticals showed 82.6% purity and all radiochemical pH values are also in accordance with international pharmacopoeias. Even with so many positive results, staff the majority of MNS was not able to perform the quality control of the eluates and radiopharmaceuticals. Showing the importance of implementing of quality control programs of the eluates and radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine. (author)

  1. Simulation of radiation induced dissolution of spent nuclear fuel using the steady-state approach. A comparison to experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Fredrik; Ekeroth, Ella; Eriksen, Trygve E.; Jonsson, Mats

    2008-02-01

    Using the recently developed steady-state model for simulation of radiation induced dissolution of spent nuclear fuel in water we have estimated the rate of dissolution for relatively fresh fuel to 1.64 × 10 -9 mol m -2 s -1. A series of experiments have been performed on fuel fragments in deoxygenated water containing 10 mM HCO 3-. The dissolution rates obtained from these experiments range from 2.6 × 10 -10 to 1.6 × 10 -9 mol m -2 s -1. The leaching time in the experiments is 40 days or less and during this time the amount of released uranium increases linearly with time which indicates that the system has reached steady-state. The excellent agreement between the estimated dissolution rate and the dissolution rates obtained from the spent nuclear fuel leaching experiments indicates that the steady-state approach can indeed be used to predict the rate of spent nuclear fuel dissolution.

  2. The COMPASS sandwich veto detector and a first look at kaonic final states from a $\\pi^-$ (190 GeV} beam on a proton target

    CERN Document Server

    Schlüter, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    We introduce the sandwich veto detector that was built for the 2008 and 2009 hadron runs of the COMPASS experiment at CERN. During these beamtimes it was serving as a veto detector for neutral and charged particles outside the spectrometer acceptance, mostly thought to originate from reactions which excited the target. We also present first mass spectra from $\\pi^-(190\\,\\GeV) p \\to \\pi^- \\Kshort \\Kshort p$ that were measured in the 2008 hadron run.

  3. The outlook for nuclear energy in the United States dark ages, renaissance, or age of enlightenment?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodman, J.

    2009-07-01

    According to the World Nuclear Association (WNA), today there are some 439 nuclear power reactors operating in 31 countries (including Taiwan), with a combined capacity of over 370 GWe. These reactors provided about 15% of the world's electricity in 2007. Nuclear energy was responsible for more than 25% of the total electricity supply in 16 countries. In kWh, the US, France, Russia and Korea were the largest producers of nuclear energy in 2008. As of August 2009, some 52 nuclear power units were under construction in 14 countries, and most of these were being built in China (16), Russia (9), India (6), and S. Korea (5). After being suspended in 1985, construction of the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Watts Bar Unit 2 resumed in 2008, making it the only nuclear unit under construction in the US at this time. In addition to those under construction, many more reactors (100 +) have been proposed and are in various stages of the pre-construction planning and licensing process. As of September 1, 2009, this includes 18 construction and operating license (COL) applications that have been filed with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for 28 new units in the US alone. Furthermore, according to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the WNA, approximately 30 additional countries are exploring the possibility of starting nuclear energy programs as an option for meeting their future electricity needs. In a global sense, this certainly looks like a 'renaissance' to a casual observer or to someone who is inclined to see it that way. However, most of the renaissance is occurring elsewhere, and the US and some other countries are still struggling to launch substantial new nuclear build programs. The renaissance is also a cause of concern to some. The growing number of reactors in a growing number of countries, many with relatively limited nuclear experience, also increases the risk of a safety-related accident or terrorist incident. While

  4. Nuclear theory group progress report and renewal proposal. December 1, 1978--November 30, 1979. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G E; Jackson, A D; Kuo, T T.S.

    1979-12-01

    The proposed work covers a broad range of topics in theoretical nuclear and intermediate-energy physics and in nuclear astrophysics. With free nucleon--nucleon interactions as a basis, effective forces in nuclei are constructed through a chain of field-theoretic, dispersions and many-body techniques. Dynamical theories of nuclear excitations are constructed. Infinite nuclear systems at a variety of densities are studied in order to determine reliable equations of state for nuclear and neutron matter. These equations of state are applied in astrophysical problems, such as the gravitational collapse of stars, as well as in standard nuclear contexts. Brief summaries of individual projects completed and planned are given. Completed research is reported in the appropriate places.

  5. State of the environment in the arrangement area of the enterprises for repairing and utilization of nuclear-powered submarines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovgusha; Bychenkov; Blekher; Belyaev; Krupkin; Kovygin; Puzikov; Ryabchikov; Stepanov; Toropov

    2001-01-01

    The influence of nuclear-powered utilization (disjunction) upon the state of health of the soil, vegetation and atmospheric air was studied. It was stated that the concentration of hazardous metals in the air of an industrial site did not exceed the permissible levels. In the residential area the cases of increased concentrations of manganese and chromium were noted. The major pollutants of vegetation are manganese, titanium, copper and nickel. The authors propose a complex of anthropogenic factors to be the cause of the environmental contamination by hard metals. The volume activity of radioactive aerosols in the studied site is confined to the local hum.

  6. Unveiling the equation of state of nuclear matter with binary neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galeazzi, F.; Rezzolla, L. [Frankfurt Univ., Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Inst. for Theoretical Physics

    2016-11-01

    the electromagnetic counterparts of these events, will shed some light on the engine that powers short gamma ray bursts. The properties of matter at the ultra high densities and low temperatures reached inside neutron stars cannot be observed in a conventional laboratory on Earth and for this reason accurate GW astronomy is a unique opportunity to constraint the current knowledge of the equation of state that describes these regimes. But GWs are not the only observable that can be linked to the equation of state of neutron star matter, during the violent merger of two neutron stars large amount of neutron rich material is ejected leading to the creation of heavy elements. While undergoing radioactive decay, these elements emit in near-infrared and optical bands of the electromagnetic spectrum. The characteristics of these emissions are strongly affected by the composition, temperature and total mass of the dynamically ejected material and for this reason we have developed a series of cutting-edge methods to simulate in full general relativity the inspiral, merger and collapse including relativistic hydrodynamics, the use of nuclear finite-temperature equations of state and an approximate treatment of neutrino emission and absorption. Such simulations require the use of computational facilities such as the one at LRZ where we make use of thousands of CPUs every week for each of our simulations and producing several terabytes of data. This data are processed in situ at the LRZ facility and, for a more detailed analysis, transferred to our local cluster in Frankfurt am Main (LOEWE).

  7. Formation of Selfbound States in a One-Dimensional Nuclear Model -- A Renormalization Group based Density Functional Study

    CERN Document Server

    Kemler, Sandra; Braun, Jens

    2016-01-01

    In nuclear physics, Density Functional Theory (DFT) provides the basis for state-of-the art studies of ground-state properties of heavy nuclei. However, the direct relation of the density functional underlying these calculations and the microscopic nuclear forces is not yet fully understood. We present a combination of DFT and Renormalization Group (RG) techniques which allows to study selfbound many-body systems from microscopic interactions. We discuss its application with the aid of systems of identical fermions interacting via a long-range attractive and short-range repulsive two-body force in one dimension. We compute ground-state energies, intrinsic densities, and density correlation functions of these systems and compare our results to those obtained from other methods. In particular, we show how energies of excited states as well as the absolute square of the ground-state wave function can be extracted from the correlation functions within our approach. The relation between many-body perturbation theo...

  8. Formation of selfbound states in a one-dimensional nuclear model—a renormalization group based density functional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemler, Sandra; Pospiech, Martin; Braun, Jens

    2017-01-01

    In nuclear physics, density functional theory (DFT) provides the basis for state-of-the art studies of ground-state properties of heavy nuclei. However, the direct relation of the density functional underlying these calculations and the microscopic nuclear forces is not yet fully understood. We present a combination of DFT and renormalization group (RG) techniques which allows to study selfbound many-body systems from microscopic interactions. We discuss its application with the aid of systems of identical fermions interacting via a long-range attractive and short-range repulsive two-body force in one dimension. We compute ground-state energies, intrinsic densities, and density correlation functions of these systems and compare our results to those obtained from other methods. In particular, we show how energies of excited states as well as the absolute square of the ground-state wave function can be extracted from the correlation functions within our approach. The relation between many-body perturbation theory and our DFT-RG approach is discussed and illustrated with the aid of the calculation of the second-order energy correction for a system of N identical fermions interacting via a general two-body interaction. Moreover, we discuss the control of spuriously emerging fermion self-interactions in DFT studies within our framework. In general, our approach may help to guide the development of energy functionals for future quantitative DFT studies of heavy nuclei from microscopic interactions.

  9. Development of alpha spectroscopy method with solid state nuclear track detector using aluminium thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwaikat, N., E-mail: ndwaikat@kfupm.edu.sa [King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, College of Sciences, Department of Physics, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-10-15

    This work presents the development of alpha spectroscopy method with Solid-state nuclear track detectors using aluminum thin films. The resolution of this method is high, and it is able to discriminate between alpha particles at different incident energy. It can measure the exact number of alpha particles at specific energy without needing a calibration of alpha track diameter versus alpha energy. This method was tested by using Cf-252 alpha standard source at energies 5.11 MeV, 3.86 MeV and 2.7 MeV, which produced by the variation of detector -standard source distance. On front side, two detectors were covered with two Aluminum thin films and the third detector was kept uncovered. The thickness of Aluminum thin films was selected carefully (using SRIM 2013) such that one of the films will block the lower two alpha particles (3.86 MeV and 2.7 MeV) and the alpha particles at higher energy (5.11 MeV) can penetrate the film and reach the detectors surface. The second thin film will block alpha particles at lower energy of 2.7 MeV and allow alpha particles at higher two energies (5.11 MeV and 3.86 MeV) to penetrate and produce tracks. For uncovered detector, alpha particles at three different energies can produce tracks on it. For quality assurance and accuracy, the detectors were mounted on thick enough copper substrates to block exposure from the backside. The tracks on the first detector are due to alpha particles at energy of 5.11 MeV. The difference between the tracks number on the first detector and the tracks number on the second detector is due to alpha particles at energy of 3.8 MeV. Finally, by subtracting the tracks number on the second detector from the tracks number on the third detector (uncovered), we can find the tracks number due to alpha particles at energy 2.7 MeV. After knowing the efficiency calibration factor, we can exactly calculate the activity of standard source. (Author)

  10. Overview of United States Department of Energy activities to support life extension of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, D.L. [USDOE Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of LWR Safety and Technology; Rosinski, S.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-11-01

    Today, 109 nuclear power plants provide over 20 percent of the electrical energy generated in the US The operating license of the first of these plants will expire in the year 2000; one-third of the operating licenses will expire by 2010 and the remaining plant licenses are scheduled to expire by 2033. The National Energy Strategy assumes that 70 percent of these plants will continue to operate beyond their current license expiration to assist in ensuring an adequate, diverse, and environmentally acceptable energy supply for economic growth. In order to preserve this energy resource in the US three major tasks must be successfully completed: establishment of regulations, technical standards, and procedures for the preparation and review of a license renewal application; development, verification, and validation of technical criteria and bases for monitoring, refurbishing, and/or replacing plant equipment; and demonstration of the regulatory process. Since 1985, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been working with the nuclear industry and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to establish and demonstrate the option to extend the life of nuclear power plants through the renewal of operating licenses. This paper focuses primarily on DOE`s Plant Lifetime Improvement (PLIM) Program efforts to develop the technical criteria and bases for effective aging management and lifetime improvement for continued operation of nuclear power plants. This paper describes current projects to resolve generic technical issues in the principal areas of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) integrity, fatigue, and environmental qualification (EQ).

  11. Toward Armageddon: the foundation of United States nuclear strategy, 1945-1961

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    This study recounts the development of US nuclear strategy during its formative period, and argues that it was shaped less by high policy guidance than by dynamics of targeting and operational planning. From 1948 on, responsibility for nuclear war planning at an operational level rested primarily with the Strategic Air Command. SAC plans were based on broad target priorities and damage criteria established by the Joint Chiefs of Staff, but reflected the limitations imposed by inadequate intelligence, the desire to achieve maximum effect with a limited atomic stockpile, and concerns about operational capability and efficiency. They called for a massive, simultaneous, non-discriminating attack on all known Soviet military and urban-industrial targets at the outbreak of general war. Although Presidents Truman and Eisenhower both decisively rejected the concept of preventive war, neither was willing to rule out the option of preempting an impending Soviet nuclear strike by the rapid implementation of such an offensive.

  12. The Non-Proliferation Treaty of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and the insertion of the Brazilian State in its regime; O tratado sobre a nao proliferacao de armas nucleares (TNP) e a insercao do Estado brasileiro no regime dele decorrente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcos Valle Machado da

    2010-07-01

    The issue of nuclear weapons continues to appear as a focal point of International Relations. The efforts and concrete actions on disarmament, non-proliferation, and nuclear arms control are still issues that generate recurring tensions between States. However, in Brazil, there is little analysis of an academic nature about these issues and, with respect to current and prospective position of the Brazilian State in the Nuclear Weapons Non- Proliferation Regime, studies and analysis are even more scarce, or incipient. The present dissertation has as its object of study to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), the Regime arisen from NPT, and the Brazilian State insertion process in this Regime. Therefore our research work is structured in three areas: the first one is about the role of nuclear weapons in States security perception, the second is about NPT and its Regime, the third runs over the insertion of the Brazilian state in this regime. So, in summary, the research performed included the reasons that make a State to develop nuclear weapons, the NPT genesis and evolution of the perception of the meaning of that Treaty by the States, and the process and the degree of insertion of Brazil in the Nuclear Weapons Non- Proliferation Regime. The inquiry sought to place this object of study in the broader debate on Foreign Relations, based on the approaches of the discipline devoted to the question of managing the security of States, id est, the two approaches that constitute the mainstream of the discipline: the perspective theoretical liberal (and neoliberal variants) and realistic thinking (and neo-realist). Thus, we have used different theoretical lenses, which we think necessary for understanding the specific parts and causal connections between these parts of a complex issue. (author)

  13. Position paper nuclear cardiology: Update 2008. State-of-the-art of scintigraphic methods; Positionspapier Nuklearkardiologie: Update 2008. Aktueller Stand der szintigraphischen Methodik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefers, Michael [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Bengel, F. [Johns Hopkins Univ. Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States). Cardiovascular Nuclear Medicine; Buell, U. [Universitaetsklinikum Aachen (DE). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin] (and others)

    2009-07-01

    Nuclear cardiology is well established in clinical diagnostic algorithms for many years. This is an update 2008 of the first common position paper of the German Association of Nuclear Medicine and the German Association of Cardiology, Heart and Circulation Research published in 2001 aiming at an overview of state-of-the-art scintigraphic methods.

  14. Method and basis set dependence of anharmonic ground state nuclear wave functions and zero-point energies: application to SSSH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmann, Stephen J; Jordan, Meredith J T

    2010-02-07

    One of the largest remaining errors in thermochemical calculations is the determination of the zero-point energy (ZPE). The fully coupled, anharmonic ZPE and ground state nuclear wave function of the SSSH radical are calculated using quantum diffusion Monte Carlo on interpolated potential energy surfaces (PESs) constructed using a variety of method and basis set combinations. The ZPE of SSSH, which is approximately 29 kJ mol(-1) at the CCSD(T)/6-31G* level of theory, has a 4 kJ mol(-1) dependence on the treatment of electron correlation. The anharmonic ZPEs are consistently 0.3 kJ mol(-1) lower in energy than the harmonic ZPEs calculated at the Hartree-Fock and MP2 levels of theory, and 0.7 kJ mol(-1) lower in energy at the CCSD(T)/6-31G* level of theory. Ideally, for sub-kJ mol(-1) thermochemical accuracy, ZPEs should be calculated using correlated methods with as big a basis set as practicable. The ground state nuclear wave function of SSSH also has significant method and basis set dependence. The analysis of the nuclear wave function indicates that SSSH is localized to a single symmetry equivalent global minimum, despite having sufficient ZPE to be delocalized over both minima. As part of this work, modifications to the interpolated PES construction scheme of Collins and co-workers are presented.

  15. The effects of electric power industry restructuring on the safety of nuclear power plants in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Thomas S.

    Throughout the United States the electric utility industry is restructuring in response to federal legislation mandating deregulation. The electric utility industry has embarked upon an extraordinary experiment by restructuring in response to deregulation that has been advocated on the premise of improving economic efficiency by encouraging competition in as many sectors of the industry as possible. However, unlike the telephone, trucking, and airline industries, the potential effects of electric deregulation reach far beyond simple energy economics. This dissertation presents the potential safety risks involved with the deregulation of the electric power industry in the United States and abroad. The pressures of a competitive environment on utilities with nuclear power plants in their portfolio to lower operation and maintenance costs could squeeze them to resort to some risky cost-cutting measures. These include deferring maintenance, reducing training, downsizing staff, excessive reductions in refueling down time, and increasing the use of on-line maintenance. The results of this study indicate statistically significant differences at the .01 level between the safety of pressurized water reactor nuclear power plants and boiling water reactor nuclear power plants. Boiling water reactors exhibited significantly more problems than did pressurized water reactors.

  16. The Effect of Quantum Fluctuations in the High-Energy Cold Nuclear Equation of State and in Compact Star Observables

    CERN Document Server

    Pósfay, Péter; Jakovác, Antal

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel technique to obtain exact equation of state (EoS) by the Functional Renormalization Group (FRG) method, using the expansion of the effective potential in a base of harmonic functions at finite chemical potential. Within this theoretical framework we determined the equation of state and the phase diagram of a simple model of massless fermions coupled to scalars through Yukawa-coupling at the zero-temperature limit. We compared our results to the 1-loop and the mean field approximation of the same model and other high-density nuclear matter equation of states. We found a $10-20\\%$ difference between these approximations. As an application, we used our exact, FRG-based equation of states to test the effect of the quantum fluctuations in superdense nuclear matter of a compact astrophysical object for the first time. We calculated the mass-radius relation for a compact star using the Tolmann-Oppenheimer-Volkov equation and observed a $\\sim 5\\%$ effect in compact star observables due to quantum f...

  17. On The Potential of Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Enhanced Diamonds in Solid-State and Dissolution (13) C NMR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretschneider, Christian O; Akbey, Ümit; Aussenac, Fabien; Olsen, Greg L; Feintuch, Akiva; Oschkinat, Hartmut; Frydman, Lucio

    2016-09-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is a versatile option to improve the sensitivity of NMR and MRI. This versatility has elicited interest for overcoming potential limitations of these techniques, including the achievement of solid-state polarization enhancement at ambient conditions, and the maximization of (13) C signal lifetimes for performing in vivo MRI scans. This study explores whether diamond's (13) C behavior in nano- and micro-particles could be used to achieve these ends. The characteristics of diamond's DNP enhancement were analyzed for different magnetic fields, grain sizes, and sample environments ranging from cryogenic to ambient temperatures, in both solution and solid-state experiments. It was found that (13) C NMR signals could be boosted by orders of magnitude in either low- or room-temperature solid-state DNP experiments by utilizing naturally occurring paramagnetic P1 substitutional nitrogen defects. We attribute this behavior to the unusually long electronic/nuclear spin-lattice relaxation times characteristic of diamond, coupled with a time-independent cross-effect-like polarization transfer mechanism facilitated by a matching of the nitrogen-related hyperfine coupling and the (13) C Zeeman splitting. The efficiency of this solid-state polarization process, however, is harder to exploit in dissolution DNP-enhanced MRI contexts. The prospects for utilizing polarized diamond approaching nanoscale dimensions for both solid and solution applications are briefly discussed.

  18. Offsite environmental monitoring report. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, S. C.; Grossman, R. F.; Mullen, A. A.; Potter, G. D.; Smith, D. D. [comps.

    1983-07-01

    A principal activity of the Offsite Radiological Safety Program is routine environmental monitoring for radioactive materials in various media and for radiation in areas which may be affected by nuclear tests. It is conducted to document compliance with standards, to identify trends, and to provide information to the public. This report summarizes these activities for CY 1982.

  19. State of the art of nuclear facilities with organic cooled reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brede, O.; Nagel, S.; Ziegenbein, D.

    1984-06-01

    USA, Canadian, and USSR activities aimed at developing nuclear facilities with organic cooled reactors are summarized. The facilities OMRE, PNPF, WR-1, and ARBUS are described, discussing in particular the problems of the chemistry of organic coolants. Finally, problems of further development and prospects of the application of organic cooled reactors are briefly outlined.

  20. Conformational selection in the molten globule state of the nuclear coactivator binding domain of CBP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Magnus; Teilum, Kaare; Poulsen, Flemming M

    2010-01-01

    Native molten globules are the most folded kind of intrinsically disordered proteins. Little is known about the mechanism by which native molten globules bind to their cognate ligands to form fully folded complexes. The nuclear coactivator binding domain (NCBD) of CREB binding protein is particul...

  1. Setting the Future Course of the United States Nuclear Stockpile Through Just War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    Maintain the Nuclear Triad?” Air and Space Power Journal 24, No 2: 23-29. 31. Henderson. 32. Karimi , Nasser and Adam Schreck, “Iran Test Fires Long...2009. Johnson, James Turner. Just War Tradition and the Restraint of War. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1981. Karimi , Nasser and

  2. 76 FR 69120 - Regulatory Changes To Implement the United States/Australian Agreement for Peaceful Nuclear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... about NRC dockets to Carol Gallagher, telephone: (301) 492- 3668; email: Carol.Gallagher@nrc.gov . FOR... by the Commission on June 30, 1997, and published in the Federal Register on September 3, 1997 (62 FR..., Maryland, this 13th day of October 2011. For the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Michael F. Weber,...

  3. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristensen, Hans M. [Federation of American Scientists, Washington, DC (United States)

    2014-05-09

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  4. The road to Yucca Mountain—Evolution of nuclear waste disposal in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckless, John S.; Levich, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    The generation of electricity by nuclear power and the manufacturing of atomic weapons have created a large amount of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. There is a world-wide consensus that the best way to protect mankind and the environment is to dispose of this waste in a deep geologic repository. Initial efforts focused on salt as the best medium for disposal, but the heat generated by the radioactive waste led many earth scientists to examine other rock types. In 1976, the director of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) wrote to the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA), predecessor agency of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), suggesting that there were several favorable environments at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and that the USGS already had extensive background information on the NTS. Later, in a series of communications and one publication, the USGS espoused the favorability of the thick unsaturated zone. After the passage of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (1982), the DOE compiled a list of nine favorable sites and settled on three to be characterized. In 1987, as the costs of characterizing three sites ballooned, Congress amended the Nuclear Waste Policy Act directing the DOE to focus only on Yucca Mountain in Nevada, with the proviso that if anything unfavorable was discovered, work would stop immediately. The U.S. DOE, the U.S. DOE national laboratories, and the USGS developed more than 100 detailed plans to study various earth-science aspects of Yucca Mountain and the surrounding area, as well as materials studies and engineering projects needed for a mined geologic repository. The work, which cost more than 10 billion dollars and required hundreds of man-years of work, culminated in a license application submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 2008.

  5. A priori calculations of hyperfine interactions in highly ionized atoms: g-factor measurements on aligned pico-second states populated in nuclear reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, N. J., E-mail: n.stone@physics.ox.ac.uk; Stone, J. R. [University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Jonsson, P. [Malmo University (Sweden)

    2010-04-15

    Calculations of hyperfine interaction strength and life-times of states in highly ionized atoms, using the GRASP atomic structure package, are reported. The calculations aim at providing calibration for Recoil-in-Vacuum nuclear excited state g-factor measurements. The method is outlined and results compared with experiment. Inclusion of decay of higher electronic states is discussed.

  6. Review report: safety and reliability issues on digital instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants and United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s dispositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Norio; Suzudo, Tomoaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-09-01

    Recently, digital instrumentation and control (I and C) systems have been applied to nuclear power plants (NPPs) in various countries. Introduction of digital I and C systems, however, raises special issues on design, implementation, safety and licensing. Since FY 1997, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been carrying out a project, Study on Reliability of Digital I and C Systems, which includes extensive reviews of design approaches, technical standards, regulatory processes, especially, in the United States. This report summarizes the results from the study of National Research Council (NRC) and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (USNRC`s) responses to the recommendations made by the NRC`s study. That study identified six technical key issues (system aspects of digital I and C technology, software quality assurance, common-mode software failure potential, safety and reliability assessment methods, human factors and man-machine interface, dedication of commercial off-the-shelf hardware and software) and two strategic key issues (case-by-case licensing process, adequacy of technical infrastructure) that arise from the introduction of digital I and C technology and then, made recommendations to the USNRC for coping with digital I and C applications. The USNRC responded to each recommendation and showed their own dispositions in which the USNRC agreed with most of the recommendations. In Japan, it is expected that introduction of digital I and C technology is inevitable in NPPs because the vendors are gradually discontinuing support and stocking of analog components. To cope with such situations, there is a need to develop and update the standards and guidelines applicable to digital I and C technology. The key issues and the USNRC`s dispositions provided in this report is believed to be useful for developing and updating them. (J.P.N.)

  7. Applications of solid state nuclear magnetic resonance techniques to the study of coals and polymers. [Ph. D. thesis; 125 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pembleton, R.G.

    1979-01-01

    The use of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) to study molecules in the solid state has grown rapidly over the past several years. This is due to the advent of techniques which allow for the removal of certain interactions in the solid state which previously have thwarted most attempts at obtaining chemical shift or their anisotropies. With these parameters and others now available, NMR has become an important tool to be used in the understanding of the chemistry of solids. The work reported in this dissertation applies the techniques of solid state NMR to a number of chemical systems. Specific applications are made to crystallinity in polymers, to combined sample spinning and multiple pulse techniques, and to aromatic and aliphatic content of vitrain portions of coals of varying carbon content.

  8. State of Fukushima nuclear fuel debris tracked by Cs137 in cooling water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grambow, B; Mostafavi, M

    2014-11-01

    It is still difficult to assess the risk originating from the radioactivity inventory remaining in the damaged Fukushima nuclear reactors. Here we show that cooling water analyses provide a means to assess source terms for potential future releases. Until now already about 34% of the inventories of (137)Cs of three reactors has been released into water. We found that the release rate of (137)Cs has been constant for 2 years at about 1.8% of the inventory per year indicating ongoing dissolution of the fuel debris. Compared to laboratory studies on spent nuclear fuel behavior in water, (137)Cs release rates are on the higher end, caused by the strong radiation field and oxidant production by water radiolysis and by impacts of accessible grain boundaries. It is concluded that radionuclide analyses in cooling water allow tracking of the conditions of the damaged fuel and the associated risks.

  9. Nuclear Spins as Quantum Testbeds: Singlet States, Quantum Correlations, and Delayed-choice Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Soumya Singha

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) forms a natural test-bed to perform quantum information processing (QIP) and has so far proven to be one of the most successful quantum information processors. The nuclear spins in a molecule treated as quantum bits or qubits which are the basic building blocks of a quantum computer. The development of NMR over half a century puts it in a platform where we can utilize its excellent control techniques over an ensemble of spin systems and perform quantum computation in a highly controlled way. Apart from a successful quantum information processor, NMR is also a highly powerful quantum platform where many of the potentially challenging quantum mechanical experiments can be performed.

  10. The current state of affairs for disaster planning for a nuclear terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffman, Thomas E

    2009-01-01

    The author presents current thinking on the effects of an atomic bomb blast from a medical point of view and will argue that current US Federal plans for a nuclear disaster are simply crude, insufficient, disarticulated, and principally relies on martial law as a means of crowd control. The simple physics of a fusion reaction bomb is discussed along with the plans of other countries, apparently "secret"American plans, which show a poor knowledge of the physics of nuclear bombs as well as poor insight into what will be needed to help the maximum number of citizens. An alternative plan involving computer modeling and educating the public to the effects of a fission explosion are presented. The key issue of statewide planning is discussed, as the Federal government has dumped medical problems on "the local level."

  11. Scalar quanta in Fermi liquids: Zero sounds, instabilities, Bose condensation, and a metastable state in dilute nuclear matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolomeitsev, E. E.; Voskresensky, D. N.

    2016-12-01

    The spectrum of bosonic scalar-mode excitations in a normal Fermi liquid with local scalar interaction is investigated for various values and momentum dependence of the scalar Landau parameter f0 in the particle-hole channel. For f0 > 0 the conditions are found when the phase velocity on the spectrum of zero sound acquires a minimum at non-zero momentum. For -1 excitations, and for f0 excitations. An effective Lagrangian for the scalar excitation modes is derived after performing a bosonization procedure. We demonstrate that the instability may be tamed by the formation of a static Bose condensate of the scalar modes. The condensation may occur in a homogeneous or inhomogeneous state relying on the momentum dependence of the scalar Landau parameter. We show that in the isospin-symmetric nuclear matter there may appear a metastable state at subsaturation nuclear density owing to the condensate. Then we consider a possibility of the condensation of the zero-sound-like excitations in a state with a non-zero momentum in Fermi liquids moving with overcritical velocities, provided an appropriate momentum dependence of the Landau parameter f0(k) > 0. We also argue that in peripheral heavy-ion collisions the Pomeranchuk instability may occur already for f0 > -1.

  12. A world's dilemma 'upon which the sun never sets'. The nuclear waste management strategy. Western European nation states and the United States of America. Pt. II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, Mark Callis [Sanders Engineering, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Sanders, Charlotta E. [Nevada Univ., Las Vegas (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2016-12-15

    The management of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and nuclear wastes demands a strategy to provide for the safe, secure, and permanent disposal of radioactive material from power generation, defense uses, and other activities. Nation states have taken different paths to nuclear waste management and are at various stages of the development of a nuclear waste management strategy. A strategy may include developing a geological repository, nuclear fuel reprocessing, interim storage, as well as discussions of the creation of a multinational storage facility. The paper provides an overview of the strategy used (or being developed) and its place within the legal framework. The paper concludes that though each nation state must look outward to its shared international obligations, there must also be an inward reflection of a nation state to its own traditions, customs, and legal/law making regimes.

  13. A world's dilemma upon which the sun never sets. The nuclear waste management strategy: Western European nation states and the United States of America. Part I of III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, Mark Callis [Sanders Engineering, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Sanders, Charlotta E. [Nevada Univ., Las Vegas (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2016-11-15

    The management of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and nuclear wastes demands a strategy to provide for the safe, secure, and permanent disposal of radioactive material from power generation, defense uses, and other activities. Nation states have taken different paths to nuclear waste management and are at various stages of the development of a nuclear waste management strategy. A strategy may include developing a geological repository, nuclear fuel reprocessing, interim storage, as well as discussions of the creation of a multinational storage facility. The paper provides an overview of the strategy used (or being developed) and its place within the legal framework. The paper concludes that though each nation state must look outward to its shared international obligations, there must also be an inward reflection of a nation state to its own traditions, customs, and legal/law making regimes.

  14. A world's dilemma 'upon which the sun never sets'. The nuclear waste management strategy. Western European nation states and the United States of America. Pt. III of III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, Mark Callis [Sanders Enineering, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Sanders, Charlotta E. [Nevada Univ., Las Vegas, NV (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2017-01-15

    The management of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and nuclear wastes demands a strategy to provide for the safe, secure, and permanent disposal of radioactive material from power generation, defense uses, and other activities. Nation states have taken different paths to nuclear waste management and are at various stages of the development of a nuclear waste management strategy. A strategy may include developing a geological repository, nuclear fuel reprocessing, interim storage, as well as discussions of the creation of a multinational storage facility. The paper provides an overview of the strategy used (or being developed) and its place within the legal framework. The paper concludes that though each nation state must look outward to its shared inter - national obligations, there must also be an inward reflection of a nation state to its own traditions, customs, and legal/law making regimes.

  15. Perturbation approach for nuclear magnetic resonance solid-state quantum computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Berman

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A dynamics of a nuclear-spin quantum computer with a large number (L=1000 of qubits is considered using a perturbation approach. Small parameters are introduced and used to compute the error in an implementation of an entanglement between remote qubits, using a sequence of radio-frequency pulses. The error is computed up to the different orders of the perturbation theory and tested using exact numerical solution.

  16. Negative magnetoresistance temperature dependence induced by current-pumped nuclear spin polarization at the ν =2/3 quantum Hall state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Shibun; Nguyen, Minh-Hai; Terasawa, Daiju; Fukuda, Akira; Sawada, Anju

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the huge longitudinal resistance (HLR) at which the magnetoresistance of the ν =2/3 fractional quantum Hall state (QHS) is increased with dynamic nuclear spin polarization. We measure the magnetoresistance temperature dependence in the resistively saturated HLR by increasing the temperature of the sample rapidly in order to prevent relaxation of the nuclear spin polarization. The obtained results indicate that the magnetoresistance decreases as the temperature increases. The Hall resistance in the HLR is also measured and found to exhibit a plateau close to a quantized value. We discuss the negative magnetoresistance temperature dependence with a stripe-shaped domain state deformed by the nuclear spin polarization.

  17. STATE AND PROSPECTS OF RUSSIAN-VIETNAMESE COOPERATION IN NUCLEAR ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordeev-Burgvits Mikhail Alekseevich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2010 the Vietnam government arrived at a decision to build the first nuclear power plant in the country Ninh Thuan 1 according to Russian project and with the help of Russian specialists. The construction of NPP in Vietnam will essentially relieve the deficit in energy production. The political leaders of Vietnam reckon upon the further growth of the economy. Energy of Vietnam is now generally held on big HPPs and TPPs. Small hydropower and such renewable energy sources as sun and wind play an important role in energy production. Because of the small amount of falls in the recent years in spite of monsoon climate, HPPs in Vietnam produce energy using not their full capacity. In TPP coal, diesel oil and gas is used as energy resources. The share of coal is still quite big (around 18 % and coal TPPs have a serious negative impact on the environment. That’s why the specialists count on the development of nuclear energy. The paper presents the plans for the construction of a nuclear power plant "Ninh Thuan" in Vietnam, the alleged NPP project, its advantage over other projects, prerequisites and prospects for cooperation between the Russian and Vietnamese governments in this field.

  18. Use of radiopharmaceuticals in diagnostic nuclear medicine in the United States: 1960-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Brill, Aaron B; Callahan, Ronald J; Clanton, Jeffrey A; DePietro, Allegra; Goldsmith, Stanley J; Greenspan, Bennett S; Gross, Milton D; Hays, Marguerite T; Moore, Stephen C; Ponto, James A; Shreeve, Walton W; Melo, Dunstana R; Linet, Martha S; Simon, Steven L

    2015-05-01

    To reconstruct reliable nuclear medicine-related occupational radiation doses or doses received as patients from radiopharmaceuticals over the last five decades, the authors assessed which radiopharmaceuticals were used in different time periods, their relative frequency of use, and typical values of the administered activity. This paper presents data on the changing patterns of clinical use of radiopharmaceuticals and documents the range of activity administered to adult patients undergoing diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures in the U.S. between 1960 and 2010. Data are presented for 15 diagnostic imaging procedures that include thyroid scan and thyroid uptake; brain scan; brain blood flow; lung perfusion and ventilation; bone, liver, hepatobiliary, bone marrow, pancreas, and kidney scans; cardiac imaging procedures; tumor localization studies; localization of gastrointestinal bleeding; and non-imaging studies of blood volume and iron metabolism. Data on the relative use of radiopharmaceuticals were collected using key informant interviews and comprehensive literature reviews of typical administered activities of these diagnostic nuclear medicine studies. Responses of key informants on relative use of radiopharmaceuticals are in agreement with published literature. Results of this study will be used for retrospective reconstruction of occupational and personal medical radiation doses from diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals to members of the U.S. radiologic technologists' cohort and in reconstructing radiation doses from occupational or patient radiation exposures to other U.S. workers or patient populations.

  19. Excitation function of elliptic flow in Au+Au collisions and the nuclear matter equation of state

    CERN Document Server

    Andronic, A; Basrak, Z; Bastid, N; Benabderrahmane, L; Berek, G; Caplar, R; Cordier, E; Crochet, Philippe; Dupieux, P; Dzelalija, M; Fodor, Z; Gasparic, I; Grishkin, Yu; Hartmann, O N; Herrmann, N; Hildenbrand, K D; Hong, B; Kecskeméti, J; Kim, Y J; Kirejczyk, M; Koczón, P; Korolija, M; Kotte, R; Kress, T; Lebedev, A; Leifels, Y; López, X; Mangiarotti, A; Merschmeyer, M; Neubert, W; Pelte, D; Petrovici, M; Rami, F; Reisdorf, W; de Schauenburg, B; Schüttauf, A; Seres, Z; Sikora, B; Sim, K S; Simion, V; Siwek-Wilczynska, K; Smolyankin, V T; Stockmeier, M R; Stoicea, G; Tyminski, Z; Wagner, P; Wisniewski, K; Wohlfarth, D; Xiao, Z G; Yushmanov, I E; Zhilin, A

    2005-01-01

    We present measurements of the excitation function of elliptic flow at midrapidity in Au+Au collisions at beam energies from 0.09 to 1.49 GeV per nucleon. For the integral flow, we discuss the interplay between collective expansion and spectator shadowing for three centrality classes. A complete excitation function of transverse momentum dependence of elliptic flow is presented for the first time in this energy range, revealing a rapid change with incident energy below 0.4 AGeV, followed by an almost perfect scaling at the higher energies. The equation of state of compressed nuclear matter is addressed through comparisons to microscopic transport model calculations.

  20. Probability based load criteria for the design of nuclear structures: a critical review of the state-of-the-art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinozuka, M.; Ellingwood, B.R.; Wang, P.C.; Meyer, C.; Wen, Y.K.; Kao, S.; Shooman, M.L.; Philippacopoulos, A.J.

    1981-04-01

    Structures for nuclear power plant facilities must be designed to withstand safely and effectively all kinds of loads and load combinations that may be expected to occur during their lifetime. The traditional methods of structural design attempt to account for the inevitable variability in the loads, material strengths, in-service environments, and fabrication process, etc., through the use of safety factor, allowable stresses or load and resistance factors. These approaches may result in an unknown and nonuniform reliability because of the subjective manner in which the safety factors have been determined. The stochastic nature loads and the uncertainties in material properties dictate a probabilistic approach for a rational assessment of structural safety and performance. This report presents: an in-depth review of the state-of-the-art pertaining to probability-based analysis and design of civil engineering structures; basis for extending existing probability-based methods to seismic category I nuclear structures; and the availability of the pertinent data required to perform probabilistic analysis for seismic category I nuclear structures.

  1. A Nuclear Role for miR-9 and Argonaute Proteins in Balancing Quiescent and Activated Neural Stem Cell States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shauna Katz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Throughout life, adult neural stem cells (NSCs produce new neurons and glia that contribute to crucial brain functions. Quiescence is an essential protective feature of adult NSCs; however, the establishment and maintenance of this state remain poorly understood. We demonstrate that in the adult zebrafish pallium, the brain-enriched miR-9 is expressed exclusively in a subset of quiescent NSCs, highlighting a heterogeneity within these cells, and is necessary to maintain NSC quiescence. Strikingly, miR-9, along with Argonaute proteins (Agos, is localized to the nucleus of quiescent NSCs, and manipulating their nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio impacts quiescence. Mechanistically, miR-9 permits efficient Notch signaling to promote quiescence, and we identify the RISC protein TNRC6 as a mediator of miR-9/Agos nuclear localization in vivo. We propose a conserved non-canonical role for nuclear miR-9/Agos in controlling the balance between NSC quiescence and activation, a key step in maintaining adult germinal pools.

  2. Optical Nuclear Polarization in the Excited State Through Cross-Relaxation and Its Use in the Study of the Carbon-13 Hyperfine Coupling in the Lowest Triplet State of 1-13C-p-Benzoquinone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lichtenbelt, Jan H.; Fremeijer, Jan G.F.M.; Wiersma, Douwe A.

    1976-01-01

    In this paper the phenomenon of optical nuclear polarization in the excited state through cross-relaxation is described. It is shown that when the populating and depopulating rates of the triplet spin sublevels are known the absolute nuclear polarizations can be calculated and that optical detection

  3. Coherence-Controlled Nonadiabatic Dynamics via State-Space Decomposition: A Consistent Way To Incorporate Ehrenfest and Born-Oppenheimer-Like Treatments of Nuclear Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Guohua

    2016-11-03

    Accurately describing nuclear motion is crucial in electronically nonadiabatic dynamics simulations. In this work, a coherence-controlled (CC) approach is proposed based on the mapping between the classical state space and the full electronic matrix and that between the decomposed state space and different nuclear dynamics that allows nuclear motion to properly follow either Ehrenfest dynamics in the coherence domain or Born-Oppenheimer-like dynamics in the single-state domain in a consistent manner. This new method is applied to several benchmark models involving nonadiabatic transitions in two-state or three-state systems, and the obtained results are in excellent agreement with exact quantum calculations. As a generalization of the recently developed symmetrical quasiclassical approach and the augmented image (AI) version of the multistate trajectory approach, the proposed method is extremely efficient and numerically stable. Therefore, it has great potential for implementation in nonadiabatic molecular dynamics simulations for realistic complex systems, such as materials and biological molecules.

  4. Level crossing analysis of chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization: Towards a common description of liquid-state and solid-state cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnovsky, Denis V.; Jeschke, Gunnar; Matysik, Jörg; Vieth, Hans-Martin; Ivanov, Konstantin L.

    2016-04-01

    Chemically Induced Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (CIDNP) is an efficient method of creating non-equilibrium polarization of nuclear spins by using chemical reactions, which have radical pairs as intermediates. The CIDNP effect originates from (i) electron spin-selective recombination of radical pairs and (ii) the dependence of the inter-system crossing rate in radical pairs on the state of magnetic nuclei. The CIDNP effect can be investigated by using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) methods. The gain from CIDNP is then two-fold: it allows one to obtain considerable amplification of NMR signals; in addition, it provides a very useful tool for investigating elusive radicals and radical pairs. While the mechanisms of the CIDNP effect in liquids are well established and understood, detailed analysis of solid-state CIDNP mechanisms still remains challenging; likewise a common theoretical frame for the description of CIDNP in both solids and liquids is missing. Difficulties in understanding the spin dynamics that lead to the CIDNP effect in the solid-state case are caused by the anisotropy of spin interactions, which increase the complexity of spin evolution. In this work, we propose to analyze CIDNP in terms of level crossing phenomena, namely, to attribute features in the CIDNP magnetic field dependence to Level Crossings (LCs) and Level Anti-Crossings (LACs) in a radical pair. This approach allows one to describe liquid-state CIDNP; the same holds for the solid-state case where anisotropic interactions play a significant role in CIDNP formation. In solids, features arise predominantly from LACs, since in most cases anisotropic couplings result in perturbations, which turn LCs into LACs. We have interpreted the CIDNP mechanisms in terms of the LC/LAC concept. This consideration allows one to find analytical expressions for a wide magnetic field range, where several different mechanisms are operative; furthermore, the LAC description gives a way to determine CIDNP sign

  5. Level crossing analysis of chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization: Towards a common description of liquid-state and solid-state cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnovsky, Denis V; Jeschke, Gunnar; Matysik, Jörg; Vieth, Hans-Martin; Ivanov, Konstantin L

    2016-04-14

    Chemically Induced Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (CIDNP) is an efficient method of creating non-equilibrium polarization of nuclear spins by using chemical reactions, which have radical pairs as intermediates. The CIDNP effect originates from (i) electron spin-selective recombination of radical pairs and (ii) the dependence of the inter-system crossing rate in radical pairs on the state of magnetic nuclei. The CIDNP effect can be investigated by using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) methods. The gain from CIDNP is then two-fold: it allows one to obtain considerable amplification of NMR signals; in addition, it provides a very useful tool for investigating elusive radicals and radical pairs. While the mechanisms of the CIDNP effect in liquids are well established and understood, detailed analysis of solid-state CIDNP mechanisms still remains challenging; likewise a common theoretical frame for the description of CIDNP in both solids and liquids is missing. Difficulties in understanding the spin dynamics that lead to the CIDNP effect in the solid-state case are caused by the anisotropy of spin interactions, which increase the complexity of spin evolution. In this work, we propose to analyze CIDNP in terms of level crossing phenomena, namely, to attribute features in the CIDNP magnetic field dependence to Level Crossings (LCs) and Level Anti-Crossings (LACs) in a radical pair. This approach allows one to describe liquid-state CIDNP; the same holds for the solid-state case where anisotropic interactions play a significant role in CIDNP formation. In solids, features arise predominantly from LACs, since in most cases anisotropic couplings result in perturbations, which turn LCs into LACs. We have interpreted the CIDNP mechanisms in terms of the LC/LAC concept. This consideration allows one to find analytical expressions for a wide magnetic field range, where several different mechanisms are operative; furthermore, the LAC description gives a way to determine CIDNP sign

  6. Development of an area monitor for neutrons using solid state nuclear track detector; Desenvolvimento de um monitor de area para neutrons utilizando detector solido de tracos nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahn, G.S.

    1994-12-31

    An area monitor for neutrons composed of the solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) Makrofol DE, together with a (n,{alpha}) converter, in the center of a 25 cm diameter polyethylene sphere, is developed. The optimal electrochemical etching conditions for the detection of thermal neutrons by the Makrofol DE using the BN converter are studied, leading to the choice of 55 min, at 30{sup 0} C, under a 44,2 kV.cm{sup -1} electric field with oscillation frequency of 2,0 khz. The response of this system to thermal neutrons, in the optimal conditions, is of 2,76(10)x 10{sup -3} tr/n. Changing from the BN converter to a 2,73(3)g compressed boric acid tablet this value lowers to 3,88(17)x 10{sup -4} tr/n. The performance of the whole monitor in the detection of fast neutrons is examined using the BN converter and neutrons from a {sup 241} Am Be source, with a response of 4,4(2)x 10{sup 3} tr.mSv{sup -1}.cm{sup -2} and operational limits between 7(3){mu}Sv and 5,6(2)mSv. The result of the monitoring of the control room of the IPEN Cyclotron accelerator are also presented as a final test for the viability of the practical use of the monitor. (author). 34 refs, 15 figs, 6 tabs, 1 app.

  7. "Securing our survival (SOS": non-state actors and the campaign for a nuclear weapons convention through the prism of securitisation theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata H. Dalaqua

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the security practices of the anti-nuclear movement in the post-Cold War period through the prism of securitisation theory. By exploring Buzan and Wæver's conceptual developments on macrosecuritisations, the practices involved in the struggle against the Bomb are interpreted as securitising moves, in which the anti-nuclear movement is the leading securitiser. In the capacity of securitising actors, nuclear abolition activists argue that nuclear disarmament, under a Nuclear Weapons Convention (NWC, would be the only way to protect humankind from the threat posed by the existence of nuclear weapons. The empirical analysis of these non-state actors and their campaign for a NWC shows that, despite uttering security, the anti-nuclear movement has so far failed to achieve the proposed security measure, that is, nuclear disarmament. Nonetheless, securitisation has been instrumental for these non-state actors as a way of raising an issue on the agenda of decision-makers and urging them to take action.

  8. Review, Analyses and Recommendations Related to Modern International Use of Nuclear Space Technologies with Focus on United States and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T.

    The current Administration under President Barack Obama has given NASA a new directive in manned spaceflight. Instead of building a fleet of Ares rockets with various load specifications to deliver astronauts to the International Space Station (ISS) and return them to the Moon, the 2011 NASA Strategic Plan [1] states that NASA will develop ``integrated architecture and capabilities for safe crewed and cargo missions beyond Low Earth Orbit.'' The technologies developed within this architecture will take astronauts beyond the Moon, to destinations such as Mars or asteroids and will most likely require the use of Nuclear Space Technologies (NSTs).While there are other proposals for novel power generation and propulsion, such as fusion technology, these technologies are immature and it may be decades before they have demonstrated feasibility; in contrast NSTs are readily available, proven to work in space, and flight qualified. However, NSTs such as nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) may or may not reach completion - especially with the lack of a mission in which they may be developed. Prospects and progress in current NST projects, ranging from power sources to propulsion units, are explored within this study, mainly in the United States, with an overview of projects occurring in other countries. At the end of the study, recommendations are made in order to address budget and political realities, aerospace export control and nuclear non-proliferation programs, and international issues and potentials as related to NSTs. While this report is not fully comprehensive, the selection of chosen projects illustrates a range of issues for NSTs. Secondly, the reader would be keen to make a distinction between technologies that have flown in the past, projects that have been tested and developed yet not flown, and concepts that have not yet reached the bench for testing.

  9. Investigation of bacterial spore structure by high resolution solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuschner, R G; Lillford, P J

    2001-01-22

    High resolution solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) in combination with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of spores of Bacillus cereus, an outer coatless mutant B. subtilis 322, an inner coatless mutant B. subtilis 325 and of germinated spores of B. subtilis CMCC 604 were carried out. Structural differences in the coats, mainly protein of spores were reflected by NMR spectra which indicated also differences in molecular mobility of carbohydrates which was partially attributed to the cortex. Dipicolinic acid (DPA) of spores of B. cereus displayed a high degree of solid state order and may be crystalline. Heat activation was studied on spores of B. subtilis 357 lux + and revealed a structural change when analysed by TEM but this was not associated with increases in molecular mobility since no effects were measured by NMR.

  10. Solid-State Thermionic Nuclear Power for Megawatt Propulsion, Planetary Surface and Commercial Power Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Thermionic (TI) power conversion is a promising technology first investigated for power conversion in the 1960's, and of renewed interest due to modern advances in nanotechnology, MEMS, materials and manufacturing. Benefits include high conversion efficiency (20%), static operation with no moving parts and potential for high reliability, greatly reduced plant complexity, and the potential for reduced development costs. Thermionic emission, credited to Edison in 1880, forms the basis of vacuum tubes and much of 20th century electronics. Heat can be converted into electricity when electrons emitted from a hot surface are collected across a small gap. For example, two "small" (6 kWe) Thermionic Space Reactors were flown by the USSR in 1987-88 for ocean radar reconnaissance. Higher powered Nuclear-Thermionic power systems driving Electric Propulsion (Q-thruster, VASIMR, etc.) may offer the breakthrough necessary for human Mars missions of < 1 yr round trip. Power generation on Earth could benefit from simpler, moe economical nuclear plants, and "topping" of more fuel and emission efficient fossil-fuel plants.

  11. Nuclear Waste State of the Art Report 2010 - challenges for the final repository programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    In this year's report the Council calls for that SKB makes more studies of how the copper corrosion affects the long-term safety. SKB is criticized for not sufficiently set clear requirements for the bentonite clay, which should surround the copper canisters. Internationally possibility to take back spent fuel from the repository is one highly topical issue. Retrieval of waste for transmutation and future reuse of spent nuclear fuel should be discussed also in Sweden. It is estimated that SKB submit an application within one year to dispose of spent nuclear fuel in the 500 meter deep repository in the bedrock at Oesthammar. The mountain is the natural barrier between the nuclear fuel and the environment, and in addition to this, spent fuel is surrounded by two technical barriers: copper canisters and bentonite clay. The corrosion resistance of the copper canisters has recently been challenged by research from the Royal Institute of Technology, and this has created uncertainty over copper canister as a suitable barrier. The Council believes that SKB should actively contribute to investigate the issue of corrosion of copper in pure, oxygen-free water in a scientifically unassailable way, and that its potential effect is determined. Bentonite clay is the subject of intensive development work in SKB's new bentonite-laboratory, but the Council believes that SKB must set clearer requirements for bentonite clay quality, particularly with regard to thresholds for the contaminants that may occur. The question of what is possible and desirable in order retrieve the spent fuel from the repository is international discussed. Retrievability before closure is part of the safety requirements and is not controversial. Retrievability after sealing on the other hand, is both a controversial and complex issue, especially from a civil law perspective. New technology can make high-level waste as an interesting energy source, or use of the Partitioning and Transmutation can

  12. Detection of accelerated particles from pulsed plasma discharge using solid state nuclear track detector

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G M El-Aragi; U Seddik; A Abd El-Haliem

    2007-04-01

    The ion beam of a Mather-type 23.25 J plasma focus device operated with air filling at 10 Torr was registered using CR-39 nuclear track detector. The irradiated samples were etched in NaOH solution at 70°C for 1 h. It is found here that plasma beam contains multi-components of microbeams. The individual track density of microbeams is estimated and the total current density of the plasma stream is measured to be 1.2 mA/cm2. A model for counting the track density of individual microbeams is proposed here. Faraday cup measurements showed the ion pulse with energy ranging from 5.8 keV to 3.3 keV.

  13. 13C Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and µ-Raman Spectroscopic Characterization of Sicilian Amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Germana; Capitani, Donatella; Mazzoleni, Paolo; Proietti, Noemi; Raneri, Simona; Longobardo, Ugo; Di Tullio, Valeria

    2016-08-01

    (13)C cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and µ-Raman spectroscopy were applied to characterize Sicilian amber samples. The main goal of this work was to supply a complete study of simetite, highlighting discriminating criteria useful to distinguish Sicilian amber from fossil resins from other regions and laying the foundations for building a spectroscopic database of Sicilian amber. With this aim, a private collection of unrefined simetite samples and fossil resins from the Baltic region and Dominican Republic was analyzed. Overall, the obtained spectra permitted simetite to be distinguished from the other resins. In addition, principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the spectroscopic data, allowing the clustering of simetite samples with respect to the Baltic and Dominican samples and to group the simetite samples in two sets, depending on their maturity. Finally, the analysis of loadings allowed for a better understanding of the spectral features that mainly influenced the discriminating characteristics of the investigated ambers.

  14. Iran’s Nuclear Program: An Assessment of the Threat to the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    directly carry out attacks against victims selected by the state itself normally for political reasons. Hannah Arendt highlights such state terrorism...Terrorism. 156 Hannah Arendt , The Origins of Totalitarianism (New York: Harcourt, 1976). 157 Bale, NS3801: Introduction to Terrorism. 59 nd turn on...Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy 1831-1896. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997. Arendt , Hannah . The Origins of Totalitarianism. New

  15. Masses, Deformations and Charge Radii--Nuclear Ground-State Properties in the Relativistic Mean Field Model

    CERN Document Server

    Geng, L S; Meng, J

    2005-01-01

    We perform a systematic study of the ground-state properties of all the nuclei from the proton drip line to the neutron drip line throughout the periodic table employing the relativistic mean field model. The TMA parameter set is used for the mean-field Lagrangian density, and a state-dependent BCS method is adopted to describe the pairing correlation. The ground-state properties of a total of 6969 nuclei with $Z,N\\ge 8$ and $Z\\le 100$ from the proton drip line to the neutron drip line, including the binding energies, the separation energies, the deformations, and the rms charge radii, are calculated and compared with existing experimental data and those of the FRDM and HFB-2 mass formulae. This study provides the first complete picture of the current status of the descriptions of nuclear ground-state properties in the relativistic mean field model. The deviations from existing experimental data indicate either that new degrees of freedom are needed, such as triaxial deformations, or that serious effort is ne...

  16. Progress in spin dynamics solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance with the application of Floquet-Magnus expansion to chemical shift anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mananga, Eugene Stephane

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present an historical overview of theoretical approaches used for describing spin dynamics under static or rotating experiments in solid state nuclear magnetic resonance. The article gives a brief historical overview for major theories in nuclear magnetic resonance and the promising theories. We present the first application of Floquet-Magnus expansion to chemical shift anisotropy when irradiated by BABA pulse sequence.

  17. SON68 nuclear glass dissolution kinetics: Current state of knowledge and basis of the new GRAAL model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frugier, P. [CEA Marcoule, DTCD/SECM/LCLT, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze cedex (France)], E-mail: pierre.frugier@cea.fr; Gin, S.; Minet, Y.; Chave, T. [CEA Marcoule, DTCD/SECM/LCLT, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze cedex (France); Bonin, B. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DIR/DS, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Godon, N.; Lartigue, J.-E.; Jollivet, P. [CEA Marcoule, DTCD/SECM/LCLT, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze cedex (France); Ayral, A. [IEM/CNRS-ENSCM Universite Montpellier 2, CC 047, Place Eugene Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier cedex 5 (France); De Windt, L. [ENSMP, CG, 35 rue St Honore, 77305 Fontainebleau cedex (France); Santarini, G. [CEA Saclay HC/CAB, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)

    2008-10-15

    This article summarizes the present state of knowledge concerning aqueous alteration of R7T7-type nuclear containment glasses, represented mainly by the inactive reference glass designated SON68. Based on this review, we propose to describe the glass alteration kinetics up to and including the final residual rate regime by means of a new mechanistic model known as GRAAL (glassreactivitywithallowanceforthealterationlayer). Phenomenological analysis findings are reviewed for the various glass alteration regimes: interdiffusion, initial rate, rate drop, residual rate and, under very particular circumstances, resumption of alteration. These alteration regimes are associated with predominant mechanisms. Published work interpreting and modeling these mechanisms was examined in detail. There is a broad consensus on the general mechanisms of the initial rate and even the interdiffusion regime, whereas the mechanisms controlling the rate drop remain a subject of dispute not only with regard to nuclear glasses but also for the dissolution of silicate minerals. The reaction affinity responsible for the rate drop is expressed differently by different authors and depending on the underlying theories. The disagreement concerns the nature of the phase (glass or gel) or the activated complex controlling the rate drop, which in turn determines the elements that must be taken into account in the overall affinity term. Progress in recent years, especially in identifying the mechanisms responsible for the residual rate, has shed new light on these issues, allowing us to propose new theoretical foundations for modeling the different kinetic regimes of SON68 nuclear glass dissolution. The GRAAL model considers that water diffusion in the passivating reaction zone (the gel formed under saturation conditions) is a rate-limiting step in the overall glass dissolution kinetics. Moreover, this passivation zone is a soluble phase whose stability is directly dependent on the nature of the

  18. Pharmaceutical polymorphism. An investigation using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, S C

    1998-01-01

    evaluated through the course of this Ph.D. and solid-state NMR spectral editing techniques have been developed and applied to identify these phenomena. Recrystallisation studies have produced two samples that appear to exist in an intermediate state between the rigid and mobile structural limits. Temperature variation causes interesting changes in the relaxation characteristics and natural abundance sup 1 sup 5 N and sup 1 sup 3 C CP/MAS spectra. Residual dipolar coupling effects vary in their manifestation within the sup 1 sup 3 C CP/MAS spectra of the polymorphic systems studied and comparison with the literature yields important information regarding molecular conformation. Nitrogen-15 enrichment and operation at higher magnetic field have been applied to reduce these second order effects. Finally, some distance has been travelled along the path towards decoupling sup 1 sup 4 N. Future development of this technique holds potential for resolution enhancement in the solid state spectra of most naturally occu...

  19. Constraining nuclear photon strength functions by the decay properties of photo-excited states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaak, J., E-mail: j.isaak@gsi.de [ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI and Research Division, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies FIAS, 60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Savran, D. [ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI and Research Division, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies FIAS, 60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Krtička, M. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Ahmed, M.W. [Department of Mathematics and Physics, North Carolina Central University, Durham, NC 27707 (United States); Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Beller, J. [Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Fiori, E. [ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI and Research Division, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies FIAS, 60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Glorius, J. [Institut für Angewandte Physik, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, 60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Kelley, J.H. [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Löher, B. [ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI and Research Division, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies FIAS, 60438 Frankfurt (Germany); and others

    2013-12-18

    A new approach for constraining the low-energy part of the electric dipole Photon Strength Function (E1-PSF) is presented. Experiments at the Darmstadt High-Intensity Photon Setup and the High Intensity γ{sup →}-Ray Source have been performed to investigate the decay properties of {sup 130}Te between 5.50 and 8.15 MeV excitation energy. In particular, the average γ-ray branching ratio to the ground state and the population intensity of low-lying excited states have been studied. A comparison to the statistical model shows that the latter is sensitive to the low-energy behavior of the E1-PSF, while the average ground state branching ratio cannot be described by the statistical model in the energy range between 5.5 and 6.5 MeV.

  20. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Nuclear quasi-molecular states in ternary fission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poenaru, D. N.; Dobrescu, B.; Greiner, W.; Hamilton, J. H.; Ramayya, A. V.

    2000-06-01

    A three-centre phenomenological model, able to explain qualitatively the recently obtained experimental results concerning the quasimolecular stage of a light-particle accompanied fission process, was developed. A new minimum of a short-lived molecular state appears in the deformation energy at a separation distance very close to the touching point. The influence of the shell effects is discussed. The half-lives of some quasimolecular states which could be formed in the 10Be and 12C accompanied fission of 252Cf are roughly estimated to be the order of 1 ns, and 1 ms, respectively.

  1. Application of the nuclear equation of state obtained by the variational method to core-collapse supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Togashi, H; Sumiyoshi, K; Nakazato, K

    2014-01-01

    The equation of state (EOS) for hot asymmetric nuclear matter which is constructed with the variational method starting from the Argonne v18 and Urbana IX nuclear forces is applied to spherically symmetric core-collapse supernovae (SNe). We first investigate the EOS of isentropic beta-stable SN matter, and find that the matter with the variational EOS is more neutron-rich than that with the Shen EOS. Using the variational EOS for uniform matter supplemented by the Shen EOS of non-uniform matter at low densities, we perform general-relativistic spherically symmetric simulations of core-collapse SNe with and without neutrino transfer, starting from a presupernova model of 15 solar mass. In the adiabatic simulation without neutrino transfer, the explosion is successful, and the explosion energy with the variational EOS is larger than that with the Shen EOS. In the case of the simulation with neutrino transfer, the shock wave stalls and then the explosion fails, as in other spherically symmetric simulations. The ...

  2. [Morphofunctional state of hepatocytes nuclear apparatus in Mongolian herbils after the flight on space apparatus Foton-M3].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiakshin, D A; Il'in, E A; Pashkov, A N

    2010-01-01

    Morphofunctional state of hepatocytes nuclear apparatus was analyzed in the liver of Mongolian gerbils Meriones unguiculatus returned from 12-d space flight of Foton-M3 (SF) and their vivarium and ground synchronous controls. Volume, ploidy and number of hepatocyte nuclei, nucleolus dimensions and number as well as contacts with karyolemma were determined in the central, intermediate and peripheral areas of the liver classical lobe. Also, total number of mitoses and amitoses was determined in the liver parenchyma. The vivarium control animals displayed specifics of the nucleus apparatus structure that depended on intralobe topography. Based on the selected criteria, high functional activity was characteristic of cells in the intermediate area. According to the criteria, nuclear apparatus in the synchronous control tended to down the functional activity The adaptive adjustment of nuclei in SF seemed to have been initiated by changes in the hepatic blood flow: volumes of hepatocyte nuclei and nucleoli increased as did the number of nuclei in cell, whereas ploidy made a decrease, especially in the intermediate area. Under the SF conditions, particularly important compensatory mechanism for the liver function was intensification of amitosis and consequent increase of the population of dinuclear hepatocytes.

  3. Preliminary Experimental Results using a Steady State ICP Flow Reactor to Investigate Condensation Chemistry for Nuclear Forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroglu, Batikan; Armstrong, Mike; Cappelli, Mark; Chernov, Alex; Crowhurst, Jonathan; Mehl, Marco; Radousky, Harry; Rose, Timothy; Zaug, Joe

    2016-10-01

    The high temperature chemistry of rapidly condensing matter is under investigation using a steady state inductively coupled plasma (ICP) flow reactor. The objective is to study chemical processes on cooling time scales similar to that of a low yield nuclear fireball. The reactor has a nested set of gas flow rings that provide flexibility in the control of hydrodynamic conditions and mixing of chemical components. Initial tests were run using two different aqueous solutions (ferric nitrate and uranyl nitrate). Chemical reactants passing through the plasma torch undergo non-linear cooling from 10,000K to 1,000K on time scales of <0.1 to 0.5s depending on flow conditions. Optical spectroscopy measurements were taken at different positions along the flow axis to observe the in situ spatial and temporal evolution of chemical species at different temperatures. The current data offer insights into the changes in oxide chemistry as a function of oxygen fugacity. The time resolved measurements will also serve as a validation target for the development of kinetic models that will be used to describe chemical fractionation during nuclear fireball condensation. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  4. A New Open-Source Nuclear Equation of State Framework based on the Liquid-Drop Model with Skyrme Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Schneider, Andre; Roberts, Luke; Ott, Christian

    2017-01-01

    The equation of state (EOS) of dense matter is an essential ingredient for numerical simulations of many astrophysical phenomena. We implement a modular open-source Fortran 90 code to construct the EOS of hot dense matter for astrophysical applications. For high density matter we use a non-relativistic liquid-drop description of nuclei that includes surface effects in a single nucleus approximation (SNA). The model is based on the work of Lattimer and Swesty and has been generalized to accommodate most Skyrme parametrizations available in the literature. Low density matter is described as an ensemble of nuclei in nuclear statistical equilibrium (NSE). The transition between the SNA and NSE regimes is performed via a continuous function that smoothly blends their Helmholtz free energy. To account for the existence of 2 solar mass neutron stars, we extend the formalism to allow for a stiffening of the EOS at densities above 3 times nuclear saturation density, where the properties of matter are presently poorly constrained. We study how different Skyrme parametrizations affect the EOS, neutron star mass-radius relationships, and the spherically symmetric collapse and post-bounce supernova evolution of massive stars.

  5. Implementation of the monitoring Plan of the State and behavior of the systems in the Central Nuclear Almaraz; Implantacion del Plan de Seguimiento del Estado y Comportamiento de Sistemas en la Central Nuclear Almaraz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montero Puertas, I.; Gonzalez Redondo, R.; Lopez Pozo, A.

    2013-07-01

    This work aims to present the implementation process of the Monitoring of the State and behavior of the systems in the Nuclear plan Almaraz. Will define the scope, process, frequencies and criteria of evaluation of the State and behavior of the systems included in the Plan of reliability, as well as the documentary requirements of this evaluation. Cases will also be collected practical real phenomena detected during monitoring degradation made and will explain the actions taken prior to the failure.

  6. Direct observation of an isomeric state in {sup 98}Rb and nuclear properties of exotic rubidium isotopes measured by laser spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Procter, T.J.; Garnsworthy, A.B.; Levy, C.D.P.; Pearson, M.R. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Behr, J.A.; Dilling, J. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); University of British Columbia, Department of Physics, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Billowes, J. [The University of Manchester, School of Physics and Astronomy, Manchester (United Kingdom); Buchinger, F.; Crawford, J.E.; Leary, A.; Shelbaya, O.; Al Tamimi, W. [McGill University, Physics Department, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Cheal, B. [University of Liverpool, Department of Physics, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Mane, E. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Ministry of External Relations, Rio Bianco Institute, Brasilia (Brazil); Stolz, M. [Technische Universitaet Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Voss, A. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2015-02-01

    Fast-beam collinear laser spectroscopy experiments on rubidium have been performed at the ISAC radioactive ion beam facility at TRIUMF. Most recently, the neutron-rich {sup 98}Rb isotope has been studied for the investigation of shape coexistence. Two long-lived nuclear states in {sup 98}Rb have been clearly observed for the first time: a low-spin state, assigned a spin of I = 0, and a high-spin state. The high-spin state is tentatively assigned a spin of I = 3 based on this analysis in combination with gamma decay results. The measured nuclear properties of the two states are presented, alongside unpublished values of the neutron-deficient isotopes investigated previously. The mean-square charge radii of both states in {sup 98}Rb are observed to continue along the isodeformation line present after the N = 60 onset of deformation. (orig.)

  7. A solid state nuclear magnetic resonance study of industrial inorganic pigments

    CERN Document Server

    Dajda, N

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance has been used to look at a number of colourful ceramic pigment systems, most of which are sold commercially in large quantities. Doped zircon (ZrSiO sub 4) pigments were examined using sup 1 sup 9 F, sup 2 sup 3 Na, sup 2 sup 9 Si, sup 5 sup 1 V and sup 9 sup 1 Zr NMR. In these systems, paramagnetic species are incorporated into the sample in small quantities creating the colourful pigment. The impurity dopants in the systems studied either dope directly into lattice sites in the zircon, or form an extra chemical phase. NMR was able to distinguish between these two doping mechanisms in a number of doped zircon pigments. Most spectra showed effects which were due to the magnetic influence of paramagnetic colouring species, and the strength of the interaction depended on the magnetic moment of the ion containing the unpaired electron. In the case of vanadium doped zircon, the moment was small enough that it allowed extra contact shifted peaks to be resolved in the spectra which indica...

  8. Gas vesicles across kingdoms: a comparative solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daviso, Eugenio; Belenky, Marina; Griffin, Robert G; Herzfeld, Judith

    2013-01-01

    The buoyancy organelles of aquatic microorganisms have to meet stringent specifications: allowing gases to equilibrate freely across the proteinaceous shell, preventing the condensation of water vapor inside the hollow cavity and resisting collapse under hydrostatic pressures that vary with column depth. These properties are provided by the 7- to 8-kDa gas vesicle protein A (GvpA), repeats of which form all but small, specialized portions of the shell. Magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance is uniquely capable of providing high-resolution information on the fold and assembly of GvpA. Here we compare results for the gas vesicles of the haloarchaea Halobacterium salinarum with those obtained previously for the cyanobacterium Anabaena flos-aquae. The data suggest that the two organisms follow similar strategies for avoiding water condensation. On the other hand, in its relatively shallow habitat, H. salinarum is able to avoid collapse with a less costly GvpA fold than is adopted by A. flos-aquae.

  9. Insights into partially folded or unfolded States of metalloproteins from nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turano, Paola

    2004-12-13

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) provides detailed insights into the conformational features of unfolded and partially folded proteins. In the case of metalloproteins, special attention should be devoted to the characterization of the properties of the metal binding sites, and specific approaches need to be developed depending on the nature of the metal ion and its coordination environment. At the same time, metal-based NMR parameters may help in getting a better picture of the average structural properties of the metalloprotein. A critical evaluation of the limits of applicability of paramagnetic effects for solution structure determination in partially folded or unfolded proteins is presented. The coupling between NMR characterization of structure and dynamic of the polypeptide chain and of the metal environment provides insights into the stabilizing role of metal ions in metalloproteins. The overall approach is illustrated for some case examples of increasing flexibility obtained far from native conditions for cytochrome c and superoxide dismutase, two metalloproteins that have been extensively studied in our lab and whose misfolded forms may be relevant for important biological processes.

  10. Finite element analysis of ion transport in solid state nuclear waste form materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbi, F.; Brinkman, K.; Amoroso, J.; Reifsnider, K.

    2017-09-01

    Release of nuclear species from spent fuel ceramic waste form storage depends on the individual constituent properties as well as their internal morphology, heterogeneity and boundary conditions. Predicting the release rate is essential for designing a ceramic waste form, which is capable of effectively storing the spent fuel without contaminating the surrounding environment for a longer period of time. To predict the release rate, in the present work a conformal finite element model is developed based on the Nernst Planck Equation. The equation describes charged species transport through different media by convection, diffusion, or migration. And the transport can be driven by chemical/electrical potentials or velocity fields. The model calculates species flux in the waste form with different diffusion coefficient for each species in each constituent phase. In the work reported, a 2D approach is taken to investigate the contributions of different basic parameters in a waste form design, i.e., volume fraction, phase dispersion, phase surface area variation, phase diffusion co-efficient, boundary concentration etc. The analytical approach with preliminary results is discussed. The method is postulated to be a foundation for conformal analysis based design of heterogeneous waste form materials.

  11. Nuclear Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHARLES; K.; EBINGER; JOHN; P.; BANKS

    2010-01-01

    The United States needs a comprehensive policy and market-based solutions to address the challenges and demands of energy provision in President Barack Obama’s State of the Union address in January 2009, he called for the building of "a new generation of safe, clean nuclear power plants." This was followed by his high- profile speech in Prague in April 2009,

  12. The experimental study of exotic nuclear states using multi-detector arrays

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D L Watson

    2001-07-01

    This contribution outlines the work of the CHARISSA collaboration in the investigation of exotic states in nuclei. It outlines the background to the work, the techniques involved and discusses in detail an experiment to study the cluster stucture of 12Be.

  13. Partonic Equations of State in High-Energy Nuclear Collisions atRHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Nu

    2006-10-01

    The authors discuss the recent results on equation of state for partonic matter created at RHIC. Issues of partonic collectivity for multi-strange hadrons and J/{psi} from Au + Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV are the focus of this paper.

  14. Short-range correlations in low-lying nuclear excited states

    CERN Document Server

    Mokhtar, S R; Lallena, A M; Mokhtar, Sherif R.; Co', Giampaolo; Lallena, Antonio M.

    2000-01-01

    The electromagnetic transitions to various low-lying excited states of 16O, 48Ca and 208Pb are calculated within a model which considers the short-range correlations. In general the effects of the correlations are small and do not explain the required quenching to describe the data.

  15. Effect of atom chemical state on a probability of /sup 73/As nuclear decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makaryunas, K.V.; Ker hulis, V.I.; Makaryunene, Eh.K. (AN Litovskoj SSR, Vilnyus. Inst. Fiziki)

    1981-10-01

    The effect of atom chemical state on a probability of /sup 73/As nucleus electron capture has been found. In gallium arsenide the capture probability is higher than in the elemental metallic arsenic. The relative variation of the capture probability ..delta..lambda/lambda) = (3.9+-0.6)x10/sup -4/.

  16. Molecular interactions between green tea catechins and cheese fat studied by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidinejad, Ali; Birch, Edward J; Hindmarsh, Jason; Everett, David W

    2017-01-15

    Molecular integrations between green tea catechins and milk fat globules in a cheese matrix were investigated using solid-state magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Full-fat cheeses were manufactured containing free catechin or free green tea extract (GTE), and liposomal encapsulated catechin or liposomal encapsulated GTE. Molecular mobility of the carbon species in the cheeses was measured by a wide-line separation technique. The (1)H evolution frequency profile of the (13)C peak at 16ppm obtained for the control cheese and cheeses containing encapsulated polyphenols (catechin or GTE) were similar, however, the spectrum was narrower for cheeses containing free polyphenols. Differences in spectral width indicates changes in the molecular mobility of --CH3- or -C-C-PO4- species through hydrophobic and/or cation-π associations between green tea catechins and cheese fat components. However, the similar spectral profile suggests that encapsulation protects cheese fat from interaction with catechins.

  17. Application of Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors in TEXTOR Experiment for Measurements of Fusion-Reaction Protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szydlowski, A.; Malinowska, A.; Jaskola, M.; Korman, A.; Sadowski, M. J.; Van Wassenhove, G.; Schweer, B.; Galkowski, A.

    2008-03-01

    The paper reports on measurements of the space distribution of fusion protons of energy equal to about 3-MeV, originating from the D(d, p)T reactions. The measurements were carried out on the TEXTOR facility by means of a small ion pinhole camera, which was equipped with a solid-state nuclear track detector of the PM-355 type. The results obtained in two series of successive discharges are compared. The first series was performed with an additional heating of TEXTOR plasmas with NBI of fast deuterons, whereas in the second series plasma was heated by ICRF and NBI of hydrogen neutrals. Computer simulations of different trajectories of charged particles have been performed with the Gourdon code and the detection efficiency has been calculated for various orientations of the measuring assembly.

  18. Dynamical ejecta from precessing neutron star-black hole mergers with a hot, nuclear-theory based equation of state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucart, F.; Desai, D.; Brege, W.; Duez, M. D.; Kasen, D.; Hemberger, D. A.; Kidder, L. E.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Scheel, M. A.

    2017-02-01

    Neutron star-black hole binaries are among the strongest sources of gravitational waves detectable by current observatories. They can also power bright electromagnetic signals (gamma-ray bursts, kilonovae), and may be a significant source of production of r-process nuclei. A misalignment of the black hole spin with respect to the orbital angular momentum leads to precession of that spin and of the orbital plane, and has a significant effect on the properties of the post-merger remnant and of the material ejected by the merger. We present a first set of simulations of precessing neutron star-black hole mergers using a hot, composition dependent, nuclear-theory based equation of state (DD2). We show that the mass of the remnant and of the dynamical ejecta are broadly consistent with the result of simulations using simpler equations of state, while differences arise when considering the dynamics of the merger and the velocity of the ejecta. We show that the latter can easily be understood from assumptions about the composition of low-density, cold material in the different equations of state, and propose an updated estimate for the ejecta velocity which takes those effects into account. We also present an updated mesh-refinement algorithm which allows us to improve the numerical resolution used to evolve neutron star-black hole mergers.

  19. Tests of the nuclear equation of state and superfluid and superconducting gaps using the Cassiopeia A neutron star

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Wynn C G; Heinke, Craig O; Potekhin, Alexander Y

    2014-01-01

    The observed rapid cooling of the Cassiopeia A neutron star can be interpreted as being caused by neutron and proton transitions from normal to superfluid and superconducting states in the stellar core. Here we present two new Chandra ACIS-S Graded observations of this neutron star and measurements of the neutron star mass M and radius R found from consistent fitting of both the X-ray spectra and cooling behavior. This comparison is only possible for individual nuclear equations of state. We test phenomenological superfluid and superconducting gap models which mimic many of the known theoretical models against the cooling behavior. Our best-fit solution to the Cassiopeia A data is one in which the (M,R) = (1.43 Msun,12.6 km) neutron star is built with the BSk21 equation of state, strong proton superconductor and moderate neutron triplet superfluid gap models, and a pure iron envelope or a thin carbon layer on top of an iron envelope, although there are still large observational and theoretical uncertainties.

  20. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaloud, D.J.; Dicey, B.B.; Mullen, A.A.; Neale, A.C.; Sparks, A.R.; Fontana, C.A.; Carroll, L.D.; Phillips, W.G.; Smith, D.D.; Thome, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1991 by the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas. This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ion chambers (PICs); and by biological monitoring of animals, food crops, and humans. Personnel with mobile monitoring equipment are placed in areas downwind from the test site prior to each nuclear weapons test to implement protective actions, provide immediate radiation monitoring, and obtain environmental samples rapidly after any occurrence of radioactivity release. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no radioactivity detected offsite by the various EPA monitoring networks and no exposure above natural background to the population living in the vicinity of the NTS that could be attributed to current NTS activities. Annual and long-term trends were evaluated in the Noble Gas, Tritium, Milk Surveillance, Biomonitoring, TLD, PIC networks, and the Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program.

  1. Nuclear structure and high-spin states of [sup 137]Pr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragulescu, E.; Ivascu, M.; Petrache, C.; Popescu, D.; Semenescu, G.; Gurgu, I.; Ionescu-Bujor, M.; Iordachescu, A.; Pascovici, G. (Inst. of Atomic Physics, Bucharest (Romania)); Meyer, R.A. (Montgomery Coll., Takoma Park, MD (United States)); Lopac, V. (Zagreb Univ. (Croatia). Faculty of Technology); Brant, S.; Paar, V.; Vorkapic, D.; Vretenar, D. (Zagreb Univ. (Croatia). Dept. of Physics)

    1992-10-19

    Levels in [sup 137]Pr were populated in the [sup 126]Te([sup 14]N, 3n) and [sup 122]Sn([sup 19]F, 4n) reactions and the subsequent radiation was studied using in-beam [gamma]-ray spectroscopy methods including [gamma]-ray excitation-function, angular-distribution, [gamma][gamma](t) coincidence and [gamma](t) measurements. A level scheme with new states up to spin 35/2 belonging to [sup 137]Pr is given. The lifetime of the 11/2[sup -][sub 1] state at 563.4 keV has been determined as T[sub 1/2] = 2.66 [+-] 0.07 [mu]s. The calculation of low-lying levels in [sup 137]Pr performed in IBFM has been compared to experimental data. (orig.).

  2. Sensitizing solid state nuclear magnetic resonance of dilute nuclei by spin-diffusion assisted polarization transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupulescu, Adonis; Frydman, Lucio

    2011-10-01

    Recent years have witnessed efforts geared at increasing the sensitivity of NMR experiments, by relying on the suitable tailoring and exploitation of relaxation phenomena. These efforts have included the use of paramagnetic agents, enhanced (1)H-(1)H incoherent and coherent transfers processes in 2D liquid state spectroscopy, and homonuclear (13)C-(13)C spin diffusion effects in labeled solids. The present study examines some of the opportunities that could open when exploiting spontaneous (1)H-(1)H spin-diffusion processes, to enhance relaxation and to improve the sensitivity of dilute nuclei in solid state NMR measurements. It is shown that polarization transfer experiments executed under sufficiently fast magic-angle-spinning conditions, enable a selective polarization of the dilute low-γ spins by their immediate neighboring protons. Repolarization of the latter can then occur during the time involved in monitoring the signal emitted by the low-γ nuclei. The basic features involved in the resulting approach, and its potential to improve the effective sensitivity of solid state NMR measurements on dilute nuclei, are analyzed. Experimental tests witness the advantages that could reside from utilizing this kind of approach over conventional cross-polarization processes. These measurements also highlight a number of limitations that will have to be overcome for transforming selective polarization transfers of this kind into analytical methods of choice.

  3. Theoretical direct WIMP detection rates for transitions to nuclear excited states

    CERN Document Server

    Vergados, J D; Pirinen, P; Srivastava, P C; Kortelainen, M; Suhonen, J

    2015-01-01

    The recent WMAP and Planck data have confirmed that exotic dark matter together with the vacuum energy (cosmological constant) dominate in the flat Universe. Many extensions of the standard model provide dark matter candidates, in particular Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). Thus the direct dark matter detection is central to particle physics and cosmology. Most of the research on this issue has hitherto focused on the detection of the recoiling nucleus. In this paper we study transitions to the excited states, possible in some nuclei, which have sufficiently low lying excited states. Examples considered previously were the first excited states of $^{127}$I and $^{129}$Xe. We examine here $^{83}$Kr, which offers some kinematical advantages and is currently considered as a possible target. We find appreciable branching ratios for the inelastic scattering mediated by the spin cross sections, with an inelastic event rate of $4.4\\times 10^{-4}$kg$^{-1}$d$^{-1}$. So, the extra signature of the gamma ra...

  4. The state of the art on zinc addition effect in the nuclear reactor coolant system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, U. C.; Sung, K. W.; Kim, K. R.; Paek, S.; Maeng, W. Y

    1999-12-01

    Zinc addition to the primary coolant appears promising with regard to reducing radiation dose rate, and is being used in several plants. Zinc acts to inhibit the corrosion of stainless steel by forming a thin protective film. This oxide film, with no associated increase in cobalt concentration within the film, thereby lowers the dose rate. This report on the state of art presents an overview of the zinc addition to the reactor coolant to reduce the primary system dose rate. This report discusses the effect of zinc addition for BWRs and PWRs, the thermodynamic of zinc chemistry, and the effect of zinc addition on material corrosion. (author)

  5. Investigation of reflective electrochromic all-solid-state devices by Nuclear Reaction Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bange, Klaus; Ottermann, Clemens R.; Wagner, Wolfgang; Rauch, Friedrich

    1990-08-01

    Electrochromic all-solid-state devices (ASSD) produced by reactive evaporation have been investigated by iaeans of reflectance measurements in the VIS/NIR range and cyclovoltammetry. Hydrogen depth proil were then by a NRA-technique employing the resonant reaction H( N, ar) C. Two different types of designs have been characterized. The electrochromic behaviour of ASSD's can not be described by models based on H transport for devices containing only W03 layers as active materials. Using NiOXH films as electrochromic substances, the injected/ejected charge corelates with changes in the H content.

  6. Two Paradigmatic Waves of Public Discourse on Nuclear Waste in the United States, 1945-2009: Understanding a Magnitudinal and Longitudinal Phenomenon in Anthropological Terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajo, Judi

    2016-01-01

    This project set out to illuminate the discursive existence of nuclear waste in American culture. Given the significant temporal dimension of the phenomenon as well as the challenging size of the United States setting, the project adapted key methodological elements of the sociocultural anthropology tradition and produced proxies for ethnographic fieldnotes and key informant interviews through sampling the digital archives of the New York Times over a 64-year period that starts with the first recorded occurrence of the notion of nuclear waste and ends with the conclusion of the presidency of George W. Bush. Two paradigmatic waves of American public discourse on nuclear waste come to light when subjecting this empirical data to quantitative inventorying and interpretive analysis: between 1945 and 1969 nuclear waste was generally framed in light of the beneficial utilizations of nuclear reactions and with optimistic expectations for a scientific/technological solution; by contrast, between 1969 and 2009 nuclear waste was conceptualized as inherited harm that could not be undone and contestation that required political/legal management. Besides this key finding and the empirical timing of the two paradigms, the study's value lies also with its detailed empirical documentation of nuclear waste in its sociocultural existence.

  7. Two Paradigmatic Waves of Public Discourse on Nuclear Waste in the United States, 1945-2009: Understanding a Magnitudinal and Longitudinal Phenomenon in Anthropological Terms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judi Pajo

    Full Text Available This project set out to illuminate the discursive existence of nuclear waste in American culture. Given the significant temporal dimension of the phenomenon as well as the challenging size of the United States setting, the project adapted key methodological elements of the sociocultural anthropology tradition and produced proxies for ethnographic fieldnotes and key informant interviews through sampling the digital archives of the New York Times over a 64-year period that starts with the first recorded occurrence of the notion of nuclear waste and ends with the conclusion of the presidency of George W. Bush. Two paradigmatic waves of American public discourse on nuclear waste come to light when subjecting this empirical data to quantitative inventorying and interpretive analysis: between 1945 and 1969 nuclear waste was generally framed in light of the beneficial utilizations of nuclear reactions and with optimistic expectations for a scientific/technological solution; by contrast, between 1969 and 2009 nuclear waste was conceptualized as inherited harm that could not be undone and contestation that required political/legal management. Besides this key finding and the empirical timing of the two paradigms, the study's value lies also with its detailed empirical documentation of nuclear waste in its sociocultural existence.

  8. High-resolution liquid- and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance of nanoliter sample volumes using microcoil detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentgens, A. P. M.; Bart, J.; van Bentum, P. J. M.; Brinkmann, A.; van Eck, E. R. H.; Gardeniers, J. G. E.; Janssen, J. W. G.; Knijn, P.; Vasa, S.; Verkuijlen, M. H. W.

    2008-02-01

    The predominant means to detect nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is to monitor the voltage induced in a radiofrequency coil by the precessing magnetization. To address the sensitivity of NMR for mass-limited samples it is worthwhile to miniaturize this detector coil. Although making smaller coils seems a trivial step, the challenges in the design of microcoil probeheads are to get the highest possible sensitivity while maintaining high resolution and keeping the versatility to apply all known NMR experiments. This means that the coils have to be optimized for a given sample geometry, circuit losses should be avoided, susceptibility broadening due to probe materials has to be minimized, and finally the B1-fields generated by the rf coils should be homogeneous over the sample volume. This contribution compares three designs that have been miniaturized for NMR detection: solenoid coils, flat helical coils, and the novel stripline and microslot designs. So far most emphasis in microcoil research was in liquid-state NMR. This contribution gives an overview of the state of the art of microcoil solid-state NMR by reviewing literature data and showing the latest results in the development of static and micro magic angle spinning (microMAS) solenoid-based probeheads. Besides their mass sensitivity, microcoils can also generate tremendously high rf fields which are very useful in various solid-state NMR experiments. The benefits of the stripline geometry for studying thin films are shown. This geometry also proves to be a superior solution for microfluidic NMR implementations in terms of sensitivity and resolution.

  9. Hartree-Fock Many-Body Perturbation Theory for Nuclear Ground-States

    CERN Document Server

    Tichai, Alexander; Binder, Sven; Roth, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the order-by-order convergence behavior of many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) as a simple and efficient tool to approximate the ground-state energy of closed-shell nuclei. To address the convergence properties directly, we explore perturbative corrections up to 30th order and highlight the role of the partitioning for convergence. The use of a simple Hartree-Fock solution to construct the unperturbed basis leads to a convergent MBPT series for soft interactions, in contrast to, e.g., a harmonic oscillator basis. For larger model spaces and heavier nuclei, where a direct high-order MBPT calculation in not feasible, we perform third-order calculation and compare to advanced ab initio coupled-cluster calculations for the same interactions and model spaces. We demonstrate that third-order MBPT provides ground-state energies for nuclei up into tin isotopic chain that are in excellent agreement with the best available coupled-cluster results at a fraction of the computational cost.

  10. [Nuclear-cytoplasmic compatibility and the state of mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA regions in alloplasmic recombinant and introgressive lines (H. vulgare)-T. aestivum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pershina, L A; Trubacheva, N V; Sinyavskaya, M G; Devyatkina, E P; Kravtsova, L A

    2014-10-01

    Alloplasmic lines combining alien nuclear and cytoplasmic genomes are convenient models for studying the mechanisms of nuclear-cytoplasmic compatibility/incompatibility. In the.present study, we have investigated the correlation between the characters and state of mitochondrial (mt) and chloroplast (cp) DNA regions in alloplasmic recombinant common wheat lines with barley cytoplasm characterized by partial or total fertility. Fertility restoration in the studied lines (Hordeum vulgare)-Triticum aestivum is determined by different ratios of the genetic material of common wheat variety Pyrotrix 28, which is a fertility restorer in the cytoplasm of barley, and varietySaratovskaya 29, which is a fixer of sterility. In partially fertile lines with nuclear genomes dominated by the genetic material of Saratovskaya 29, plant growth and development are suppressed. In these lines we have identified the barley homoplasmy of cpDNA regions infA and rpoB and the heteroplasmy of the 18S/5S mt repeat and the cpDNA ycf5 region. Nuclear-cytoplasmic compatibility in lines with reduced fertility (the genetic material of Pyrotrix 28 predominates in their nuclear genomes) is associated with restoration of normal plant growth and development and the changes in thestate of the studied cpDNA and mtDNA regions towards the wheat type. Thus, in fertile lines, the cpDNA regions (infA, rpoB) and the 18S/5S mt repeat were identified in the homoplasmic wheat state; though the cpDNAycf5 region was in the heteroplasmic state, it was dominated by the wheat type of the copies. The nuclearicytoplasmic compatibility is not broken as a result of introgression of the alien genetic material into the nuclear genome of one of the fertile lines; the plants of introgressive lines are fertile and normally developed, and the states of the cpDNA and mtDNA regions correspond to their states in fertile recombinant lines.

  11. Analytical nuclear excited-state gradients for the Tamm-Dancoff approximation using uncoupled frozen-density embedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuser, Johannes; Höfener, Sebastian

    2017-10-15

    We report the derivation and implementation of analytical nuclear gradients for excited states using time-dependent density functional theory using the Tamm-Dancoff approximation combined with uncoupled frozen-density embedding using density fitting. Explicit equations are presented and discussed. The implementation is able to treat singlet as well as triplet states and functionals using the local density approximation, the generalized gradient approximation, combinations with Hartree-Fock exchange (hybrids), and range-separated functionals such as CAM-B3LYP. The new method is benchmarked against supermolecule calculations in two case studies: The solvatochromic shift of the (vertical) fluorescence energy of 4-aminophthalimide on solvation, and the first local excitation of the benzonitrile dimer. Whereas for the 4-aminophthalimide-water complex deviations of about 0.2 eV are obtained to supermolecular calculations, for the benzonitrile dimer the maximum error for adiabatic excitation energies is below 0.01 eV due to a weak coupling of the subsystems. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Dynamical ejecta from precessing neutron star-black hole mergers with a hot, nuclear-theory based equation of state

    CERN Document Server

    Foucart, Francois; Brege, Wyatt; Duez, Matthew D; Kasen, Daniel; Hemberger, Daniel A; Kidder, Lawrence E; Pfeiffer, Harald P; Scheel, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    Neutron star-black hole binaries are among the strongest sources of gravitational waves detectable by current observatories. They can also power bright electromagnetic signals (gamma-ray bursts, kilonovae), and may be a significant source of production of r-process nuclei. A misalignment of the black hole spin with respect to the orbital angular momentum leads to precession of that spin and of the orbital plane, and has a significant effect on the properties of the post-merger remnant and of the material ejected by the merger. We present a first set of simulations of precessing neutron star-black hole mergers using a hot, composition dependent, nuclear-theory based equation of state (DD2). We show that the mass of the remnant and of the dynamical ejecta are broadly consistent with the result of simulations using simpler equations of state, while differences arise when considering the dynamics of the merger and the velocity of the ejecta. We show that the latter can easily be understood from assumptions about ...

  13. State of the Art Assessment of NDE Techniques for Aging Cable Management in Nuclear Power Plants FY2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, Samuel W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fifield, Leonard S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dib, Gerges [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tedeschi, Jonathan R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jones, Anthony M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hartman, Trenton S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-08

    This milestone report presents an update on the state-of-the-art review and research being conducted to identify key indicators of in-containment cable aging at nuclear power plants (NPPs), and devise in-situ measurement techniques that are sensitive to these key indicators. The motivation for this study stems from the need to address open questions related to nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of aging cables for degradation detection and estimation of condition-based remaining service life. These questions arise within the context of a second round of license extension for NPPs that would extend the operating license to 60 and 80 years. Within the introduction, a review of recently published U.S. and international research and guidance for cable aging management programs including NDE technologies is provided. As with any “state-of-the-art” report, the observations are deemed accurate as of the publication date but cannot anticipate evolution of the technology. Moreover, readers are advised that research and development of cable NDE technology is an ongoing issue of global concern.

  14. Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopy of alkali feldspars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周玲棣; 郭九皋; 杨年华; 李丽云

    1997-01-01

    29Si, 27Al MAS NMR and IR spectra of monophase K-feldspars (sanidine, orthoclase and micro-cline) and Na-feldspars (monalbite, anorthoclase and low albite) in different structural states have been studied. The NMR and IR spectra of K-feldspars and Na-feldspars vary regularly along with their degrees of Si/Al ordering evolution. Si in orthoclase occupies T2m, T2o and T1m, and the high-temperature Na-feldspar (monalbite and anorthoclase) coincides in 29Si, 27Al NMR and IR spectra. Moreover, all the high-temperature Na-feldspars and sanidine have the same 27Al NMR and IR spectra.

  15. How to Probe for Dynamical Structure in the Collapse of Entangled States Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Fivel, D I

    1998-01-01

    The spin state of two magnetically inequivalent protons in contiguous atoms of a molecule becomes entangeled by the indirect spin-spin interaction (j-coupling). The degree of entanglement oscillates at the beat frequency resulting from the splitting of a degeneracy. This beating is manifest in NMR spectroscopy as an envelope of the transverse magnetization and should be visible in the free induction decay signal. The period (approximately 1 sec) is long enough for interference between the linear dynamics and collapse of the wave-function induced by a Stern-Gerlach inhomogeneity to significantly alter the shape of that envelope. Various dynamical collapse theories can be distinguished by their observably different predictions with respect to this alteration. Adverse effects of detuning due to the Stern-Gerlach inhomogeneity can be reduced to an acceptable level by having a sufficiently thin sample or a strong rf field.

  16. Nuclear orientation of 144Pm in the electronic singlet ground state system PrIn 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, G. A.; Greidanus, F. J. A. M.; Hunik, R.; Huiskamp, W. J.

    1980-04-01

    The gamma-ray anisotropy of 144Pm in the Van Vleck paramagnet PrIn 3 is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. A simple model, which accounts for the essential experimental features is proposed. The purpose of this model is to extract the exchange interaction between the Pm ion and its nearest Pr neighbours and the crystal field splitting of the Pm ions. Both, the Pr and Pm ions have non-magnetic ground states in which magnetism is induced by external magnetic fields. Therefore, the interaction between the external magnetic field and the Pm nuclei is enhanced. We find an enhancement factor, к = 220. This enhancement is mainly induced by exchange interactions and for fields larger than 0.5 T there are already strong non-linear effects.

  17. Transient Testing of Nuclear Fuels and Materials in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachs, Daniel M.

    2012-12-01

    The United States has established that transient irradiation testing is needed to support advanced light water reactors fuel development. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated an effort to reestablish this capability. Restart of the Transient Testing Reactor (TREAT) facility located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is being considered for this purpose. This effort would also include the development of specialized test vehicles to support stagnant capsule and flowing loop tests as well as the enhancement of postirradiation examination capabilities and remote device assembly capabilities at the Hot Fuel Examination Facility. It is anticipated that the capability will be available to support testing by 2018, as required to meet the DOE goals for the development of accident-tolerant LWR fuel designs.

  18. State of the art of the welding method for sealing spent nuclear fuel canister made of copper. Part 1 - FSW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purhonen, T.

    2014-05-15

    The purpose of this report is to gather together comprehensive information concerning FSW as an optional welding method for welding the nuclear waste copper canister at the disposal facility. This report discusses the current situation, knowledge of the process and information concerning results of the development and research work related to welding thick copper and the special needs of the disposal environment. Most of the research work and development work has been done by Posiva's Swedish partner SKB, Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. SKB chose FSW as their reference welding method in 2005. FSW (friction stir welding) is a solid-state welding method, invented in 1991, in which frictional heat is generated between the tool and the weld metal, causing the metal to soften, normally without reaching the melting point, and allowing the tool to traverse the joint line. Friction stir welding can be used for joining many types of materials and material combinations, if the tool materials and designs can be found which operate at the forging temperature of the workpiece. The general requirements for the copper canister weld and base material are presented in Posiva's VAHA-system, which sets the most critical values or demands concerning the short- and long-term properties or other needs. The sections in this report are set out in a similar way as in the VAHA-system. Concerning the results from the research and development work, it can be said that FS weld material fulfils the values set by VAHA. The quality of the welds fulfils the set demands for intact weld material and the welding process is robust using an automatic control system. There still remains work concerning the acceptance procedure for the welding process and other open issues which are described in this report. (orig.)

  19. Nuclear Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHARLES K.EBINGER; JOHN P.BANKS

    2010-01-01

    @@ In President Barack Obama's State of the Union address in January 2009,he called for the building of "a new generation of safe,clean nuclear power plants" This was followed by his highprofile speech in Prague in April 2009,in which he noted the need "to harness the power of nuclear energy on behalf of our efforts to combat climate change."In December 2009 in Copenhagen,he pledged the United States will reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions 17 percent from 2005 levels by 2020.

  20. Theory for cross effect dynamic nuclear polarization under magic-angle spinning in solid state nuclear magnetic resonance: the importance of level crossings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Kent R; Tycko, Robert

    2012-08-28

    We present theoretical calculations of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) due to the cross effect in nuclear magnetic resonance under magic-angle spinning (MAS). Using a three-spin model (two electrons and one nucleus), cross effect DNP with MAS for electron spins with a large g-anisotropy can be seen as a series of spin transitions at avoided crossings of the energy levels, with varying degrees of adiabaticity. If the electron spin-lattice relaxation time T(1e) is large relative to the MAS rotation period, the cross effect can happen as two separate events: (i) partial saturation of one electron spin by the applied microwaves as one electron spin resonance (ESR) frequency crosses the microwave frequency and (ii) flip of all three spins, when the difference of the two ESR frequencies crosses the nuclear frequency, which transfers polarization to the nuclear spin if the two electron spins have different polarizations. In addition, adiabatic level crossings at which the two ESR frequencies become equal serve to maintain non-uniform saturation across the ESR line. We present analytical results based on the Landau-Zener theory of adiabatic transitions, as well as numerical quantum mechanical calculations for the evolution of the time-dependent three-spin system. These calculations provide insight into the dependence of cross effect DNP on various experimental parameters, including MAS frequency, microwave field strength, spin relaxation rates, hyperfine and electron-electron dipole coupling strengths, and the nature of the biradical dopants.

  1. Quantum mechanics and experimental solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of strained molecular systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halling, Merrill David

    In this work 13C solid-state NMR and quantum mechanical studies of strained molecular systems are discussed. The chemical shift tensor values reported in this document were obtained using the FIREMAT method. Theoretical analyses of chemical shielding tensors were performed through the computer nodes operated by the Utah Center for High Performance Computing. Analyses were performed on sumanene, indenofluoranthene, tetrathiafulvalene, tetrathiafulvalene dimer, [2,2]paracyclophane, and 1,8-dioxa[8](2,7)pyrenophane. The FIREMAT data were fit using the TIGER data processing technique. TIGER provides a means to fit the FIREMAT data, accommodating its unique phase and relaxation characteristics. The details of the FIREMAT experiment are discussed in Chapter 1. The experimentally obtained chemical shift data were compared with calculated chemical shielding data. For these molecular systems, density functional theory was used along with the B3LYP exchange and correlation functionals. Multiple basis sets were used and relatively low errors are reported, between 2.0 ppm and 4.2 ppm. The errors reflect the difference between experimental and theoretical results. The relatively small errors are consistent with those of other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and similar molecular systems. Chapter 2 discusses the three-dimensional aspect of tensor error analysis and how it is used in determining the errors associated with comparing two chemical shift tensors, i.e., theoretically derived and experimentally determined tensors. All error values reported and discussed in this dissertation are determined using this error analysis method. Molecular conformation may be explored by variation in chemical shift tensor principal values. The ring strain in curved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons can be associated with downfield shifts in the delta33 component of the chemical shift tensor. This is discussed in Chapters 3 and 5, as it relates to sumanene, indenofluoranthene, [2

  2. Effective equation of state of hot and dense matter in nuclear collisions around FAIR energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bravina L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical and thermal equilibration in the central zone of heavy-ion collisions at energies around FAIR is studied within two microscopic models. Two systems are utilized for the analysis: (i central cubic cell of fixed volume V = 125 fm3 and (ii expanding central area of uniformly distributed energy density. It is found that kinetic, thermal, and chemical equilibration of the expanding hadronic matter are nearly approached in both systems for the period of 10–18 fm/c. The expansion proceeds almost isentropically. The extracted equation of state (EOS in P − ɛ plane has a linear dependence P = aɛ, where a ≡ c2s slightly increases with the collision energy from 0.12 to 0.145. Linear dependencies for the EOS are found also in T − μB and T − μS planes. The characteristic kinks observed in the last two phase diagrams are linked to inelastic freeze-out in the expanding fireball.

  3. Theory of nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avakyan, R.M.; Sarkisyan, A.V.

    1987-07-01

    The properties of degenerate stellar matter in the region of nuclear densities are considered. The threshold of the transition of the electron-nucleus phase to the state of continuous nuclear matter is found.

  4. Waste is a Terrible Thing to Mind: Perspectives on the Cleanup of the United States Nuclear Weapons Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodde, David

    1997-03-01

    For the 50 years of the Cold War, the United States nuclear arsenal was the cornerstone of our national security. These weapons were designed, manufactured, and armed with fissionable materials in an industrial complex that, at its peak, included about 16 major facilities and vast tracts of land in Nevada, Idaho, Washington, and South Carolina. Included among these are such well-known sites as the Savannah River Plant, the Hanford, Oak Ridge, and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The Cold War, that "long twilight struggle" in the evocative phrase of John Kennedy, left little time and few resources for understanding and managing the environmental consequences of nuclear weapons production. At the same time, perceptions of the special nature of the atom led to a concentration of governance in the Atomic Energy Commission and the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy. Thus, external feedback for the managers of the complex was heavily filtered. But the imperatives of the Cold War have waned, and our understanding of the implications for the environment and the health and safety of workers has grown. By 1995 the Department of Energy (DoE) had spent about 23 billion in identifying and characterizing its waste, managing it, and assessing the actions needed to clean up the 120 sites in 36 states. Yet the majority of the task appeared ahead. Estimates made in 1995 suggested a total cost ranging from 200-350 billion and a time to complete of 75 years. If these were true, the cleanup of the weapons complex would become the largest civil works project in the history of humankind. Over the past year or so, the DoE program has shifted its focus from studies to actual cleanup. A strategic plan has been proposed that would accomplish most of the needed work over ten years at a cost of about $85 billion. At the same time, the Department is proposing to transfer oversight to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the states. This Invited

  5. Applications of solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) for fast ion and fusion reaction product measurements in TEXTOR experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szydlowski, A.; Malinowski, K.; Malinowska, A. [Association EURTOM-IPPLM Warsaw, The Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Wassenhove, G. Van [EURATOM-Belgium State Association, LPP, ERM/KMS, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Schweer, B. [Association EURATOM-FZJ, Institutte of Plasma Physicx, Juelich (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The paper reports on measurements of fusion reaction protons which were performed on TEXTOR facility in January 2009. The basic experimental scheme was similar to that applied in the previous measurements [1, 2]. The main experimental tool equipment was a small ion pinhole camera which was equipped with a PM-355 detector sample and was attached to a water cooled manipulator. The camera was placed below the plasma ring in the direction of ion drifts, at a distance of 4.4 cm from LCFS. However, in the described experiment it was aligned at an angle to the mayor TEXTOR radius (contrary to previous experiments), so that the input pinhole was oriented first at {gamma} = 45 degrees (shots 108799 - 108818) and then {gamma} = 600 (shots 108832 - 108847). The discharges were executed with one neutral beam of the total power 0.6 - 1.0 MW. In the first series (Nos 108799 - 108818) the plasma was additionally heated by ICRH of frequency 38 MHz. The irradiated detector samples were subjected to the same interrupted etching procedure as the samples used in the CR-39/PM-355 detector calibration measurements [1, 2]. After that, track density distributions and track diameter histograms were measured under an optical microscope. By the use of the calibration curves, it was possible to distinguish craters produced by protons from other craters and to convert the obtained histograms into proton energy spectra. The craters induced by lower energy ions appeared to be concentrated in narrower areas, whereas higher energy ions were registered in a more diffused detector fields. The paper shows again that the CR-39/PM-355 detector is an useful diagnostic tool for tokamak experiments, for measurement of charged ions. References: [1] A. Szydlowski, A. Malinowska, M. Jaskola, A. Korman, M.J. Sadowski, G. Van Wassenhove, B. Schweer and the TEXTOR team, A. Galkowski, 'Application of Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors in TEXTOR Experiment for Measurements

  6. [Chilean nuclear policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobadilla, E

    1996-06-01

    This official document is statement of the President of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, Dr. Eduardo Bobadilla, about the nuclear policy of the Chilean State, Thanks to the international policy adopted by presidents Aylwin (1990-1994) and his successor Frei Ruiz Tagle (1994-), a nuclear development plan, protected by the Chilean entrance to the nuclear weapons non proliferation treaty and Tlatelolco Denuclearization treaty, has started. Chile will be able to develop without interference, an autonomous nuclear electrical system and other pacific uses of nuclear energy. Chile also supports a new international treaty to ban nuclear weapon tests.

  7. Initial-state cold nuclear matter energy loss effects on inclusive jet production in p+A collisions at RHIC and LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Zhong-Bo; Xing, Hongxi

    2015-01-01

    Recent measurements of the centrality and rapidity dependence of single inclusive jet production in p+Pb collisions at the LHC have revealed large and non-trivial nuclear modification of the production cross section for this process. In this paper, we explore to what extent such nuclear modification can be understood by the framework of standard cold nuclear matter effects, in particular initial-state cold nuclear matter energy loss. We demonstrate quantitatively that theoretical calculations which include medium-induced radiative corrections can describe rather reasonably the attenuation of the jet production yields in the large transverse momentum region in d+Au collisions at RHIC and p+Pb collisions at the LHC for central to semi-central collisions. We further show that the observed scaling behavior of the nuclear modification factor as a function of the total jet energy $p_T\\, {\\cosh} (y)$ for various rapidity intervals has a natural explanation in the picture of cold nuclear matter energy loss. On the ot...

  8. The state and prospect of nuclear energetics supply in fuel; Stan i perspektywy zaopatrzenia energetyki jadrowej w paliwo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dembinski, W. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    The worldwide demand on nuclear fuel for energetics has been analysed on the base of data from the period 1988-1994. Production of nuclear fuels in different countries has been shown and compared for 1992, 1993 and 1994. The increasing deficit of uranium has been noticed from 1986. Alternative sources of nuclear fuels utilization, e.g. military origin uranium and plutonium recycling, have been also discussed. 4 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs.

  9. Excitation of the isomeric ^{229m}Th nuclear state via an electronic bridge process in ^{229}Th^+

    CERN Document Server

    Porsev, S G; Peik, E; Tamm, Chr

    2010-01-01

    We consider the excitation of the nuclear transition ^{229g}Th - ^{229m}Th near 7.6 eV in singly ionized thorium via an electronic bridge process. The process relies on the excitation of the electron shell by two laser photons whose sum frequency is equal to the nuclear transition frequency. This scheme allows to determine the nuclear transition frequency with high accuracy. Based on calculations of the electronic level structure of Th^+ which combine the configuration-interaction method and many-body perturbation theory, we estimate that a nuclear excitation rate in the range of 10 s^{-1} can be obtained using conventional laser sources.

  10. New State of Nuclear Matter: Nearly Perfect Fluid of Quarks and Gluons in Heavy Ion Collisions at RHIC Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Nouicer, Rachid

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews several important results from RHIC experiments and discusses their implications. They were obtained in a unique environment for studying QCD matter at temperatures and densities that exceed the limits wherein hadrons can exist as individual entities and raises to prominence the quark-gluon degrees of freedom. These findings are supported by major experimental observations via measuring of the bulk properties of particle production, particle ratios and chemical freeze-out conditions, and elliptic flow; followed by hard probe measurements. The results reveal that a dense, strongly-interacting medium is created in central Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV at RHIC. This revelation of a new state of nuclear matter has also been observed in measurements at the LHC. Further, the IP-Glasma model coupled with viscous hydrodynamic models, which assumes the formation of a QGP, reproduces well the experimental flow results from Au+Au at 200 GeV. This implies that the fluctuations in the initial geometry s...

  11. Structural and dynamic properties of amorphous solid dispersions: the role of solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and relaxometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Amrit; Geppi, Marco; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2014-09-01

    Amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) are one of the frontier strategies to improve solubility and dissolution rate of poorly soluble drugs and hence tackling the growing challenges in oral bioavailability. Pharmaceutical performance, physicochemical stability, and downstream processability of ASD largely rely on the physical structure of the product. This necessitates in-depth characterization of ASD microstructure. Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SS-NMR) techniques bear the ultimate analytical capabilities to provide the molecular level information on the dynamics and phase compositions of amorphous dispersions. SS-NMR spectroscopy/relaxometry, as a single and nondestructive technique, can reveal diverse and critical structural information of complex ASD formulations that are barely amenable from any other existing technique. The purpose of the current article is to review the recent most important studies on various sophisticated and information-rich one-dimensional and two-dimensional SS-NMR spectroscopy/relaxometry for the analysis of molecular mobility, miscibility, drug-carrier interactions, crystallinity, and crystallization in ASD. Some specific examples on microstructural elucidations of challenging ASD using multidimensional and multinuclear SS-NMR are presented. Additionally, some relevant examples on the utility of solution-NMR and NMR-imaging techniques for the investigation of the dissolution behavior of ASD are gathered.

  12. Nuclear Equation of State, Yukawa-type Non-Newtonian Gravity and Pulsating Frequencies of Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Weikang; Chen, Lie-Wen; Wen, De-Hua; Xu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    A thorough understanding of many astrophysical phenomena and objects requires reliable knowledge about both the equation of state (EOS) of super-dense nuclear matter and the theory of ultra-strong gravity simultaneously because of the EOS-gravity degeneracy. Currently, deviations of the neutron star (NS) mass-radius correlation predicted by various gravity theories are larger than its uncertainties due to the poorly known NS matter content and its EOS. At least two independent observables are required to break the EOS-gravity degeneracy. Using model EOSs for hybrid stars and a Yukawa-type non-Newtonian gravity, we investigate both the mass-radius correlation and pulsating frequencies of NSs. While the maximum mass of NSs increases with increasing strength of the Yukawa-type non-Newtonian gravity, the frequencies of the $f$, $p_1$, $p_2$, and $w_I$ pulsating modes are found to decrease with it, providing a useful reference for future determination simultaneously of both the gravitational theory and the supranu...

  13. Calibration of solid state nuclear track detectors at high energy ion beams for cosmic radiation measurements: HAMLET results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabo, J., E-mail: julianna.szabo@energia.mta.hu [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Centre for Energy Research, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33, 1525 Budapest 114, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary); Palfalvi, J.K. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Centre for Energy Research, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33, 1525 Budapest 114, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary)

    2012-12-01

    The MATROSHKA experiments and the related HAMLET project funded by the European Commission aimed to study the dose burden of the crew working on the International Space Station (ISS). During these experiments a human phantom equipped with several thousands of radiation detectors was exposed to cosmic rays inside and outside the ISS. Besides the measurements realized in Earth orbit, the HAMLET project included also a ground-based program of calibration and intercomparison of the different detectors applied by the participating groups using high-energy ion beams. The Space Dosimetry Group of the Centre for Energy Research (formerly Atomic Energy Research Institute) participated in these experiments with passive solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). The paper presents the results of the calibration experiments performed in the years 2008-2011 at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (HIMAC) of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba, Japan. The data obtained serve as update and improvement for the previous calibration curves which are necessary for the evaluation of the SSNTDs exposed in unknown space radiation fields.

  14. Colloid-Facilitated Radionuclide Transport: Current State of Knowledge from a Nuclear Waste Repository Risk Assessment Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimus, Paul William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zavarin, Mavrik [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wang, Yifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-25

    This report provides an overview of the current state of knowledge of colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport from a nuclear waste repository risk assessment perspective. It draws on work that has been conducted over the past 3 decades, although there is considerable emphasis given to work that has been performed over the past 3-5 years as part of the DOE Used Fuel Disposition Campaign. The timing of this report coincides with the completion of a 3-year DOE membership in the Colloids Formation and Migration (CFM) partnership, an international collaboration of scientists studying colloid-facilitated transport of radionuclides at both the laboratory and field-scales in a fractured crystalline granodiorite at the Grimsel Test Site in Switzerland. This Underground Research Laboratory has hosted the most extensive and carefully-controlled set of colloid-facilitated solute transport experiments that have ever been conducted in an in-situ setting, and a summary of the results to date from these efforts, as they relate to transport over long time and distance scales, is provided in Chapter 3 of this report.

  15. Membranes, peptides, and disease: unraveling the mechanisms of viral proteins with solid state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Matthew T; Yu, Tsyr-Yan

    2014-01-01

    The interplay between peptides and lipid bilayers drives crucial biological processes. For example, a critical step in the replication cycle of enveloped viruses is the fusion of the viral membrane and host cell endosomal membrane, and these fusion events are controlled by viral fusion peptides. Thus such membrane-interacting peptides are of considerable interest as potential pharmacological targets. Deeper insight is needed into the mechanisms by which fusion peptides and other viral peptides modulate their surrounding membrane environment, and also how the particular membrane environment modulates the structure and activity of these peptides. An important step toward understanding these processes is to characterize the structure of viral peptides in environments that are as biologically relevant as possible. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR) is uniquely well suited to provide atomic level information on the structure and dynamics of both membrane-associated peptides as well as the lipid bilayer itself; further ssNMR can delineate the contribution of specific membrane components, such as cholesterol, or changing cellular conditions, such as a decrease in pH on membrane-associating peptides. This paper highlights recent advances in the study of three types of membrane associated viral peptides by ssNMR to illustrate the more general power of ssNMR in addressing important biological questions involving membrane proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. NUCLEAR PHYSICS Resonances-Excitation Calculation Studies Investigation of Δ(3, 3) in Ground State of 90Zr Cold Finite Heavy Nucleus at Equilibrium and Under Large Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, H. E. Abu-Sei'leek

    2011-01-01

    A non-relativistic microscopic mean field theory of finite nuclei is investigated where the nucleus is described as a collection of nucleons and delta resonances. The ground state properties of 90Zr nucleus have been investigated at equilibrium and large amplitude compression using a realistic effective baryon-baryon Hamiltonian based on Reid Soft Core (RSC) potential. The sensitivity of the ground state properties is studied, such as binding energy, nuclear radius, radial density distribution, and single particle energies to the degree of compression. It is found that the most of increasing in the nuclear energy generated under compression is used to create the massive Δ particles. For 90Zr nucleus under compression at 2.5 times density of the normal nuclear density, the excited nucleons to Δ's are increased sharply up to 14% of the total number of constituents. This result is consistent with the values extracted from relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The single particle energy levels are calculated and their behaviors under compression are examined too. A good agreement between results with effective Hamiltonian and the phenomenological shell model for the low lying single-particle spectra is obtained. A considerable reduction in compressibility for the nucleus, and softening of the equation of state with the inclusion of the Δ's in the nuclear dynamics are suggested by the results.

  17. Quantum mechanical simulation of solid effect dynamic nuclear polarisation using Krylov-Bogolyubov time averaging and a restricted state-space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabanov, Alexander; van der Drift, Anniek; Edwards, Luke J; Kuprov, Ilya; Köckenberger, Walter

    2012-02-28

    A strategy is described for simulations of solid effect dynamic nuclear polarisation that reduces substantially the dimension of the quantum mechanical problem. Averaging the Hamiltonian in the doubly rotating frame is used to confine the active space to the zero quantum coherence subspace. A further restriction of the Liouville space is made by truncating higher spin order states, which are weakly populated due to the presence of relaxation processes. Based on a dissipative transport equation, which is used to estimate the transport of the magnetisation starting from single spin order to higher spin order states, a minimal spin order for the states is calculated that needs to be taken into account for the spin dynamics simulation. The strategy accelerates individual spin calculations by orders of magnitude, thus making it possible to simulate the polarisation dynamics of systems with up to 25 nuclear spins.

  18. Comparison of Codes and Neutronics Data Used in the United States and Russia for the TOPAZ-2 Nuclear Safety Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushkov, Y. S.; Ponomarov-Stepnoy, N. N.; Kompaniets, G. V.; Gomin, Y. A.; Mayorov, L. V.; Lobyntsev, V. A.; Polyakov, D. N.; Sapir, Joe; Pelowitz, Denise; Streetman, J. Robert

    1994-07-01

    The TOPAZ-2 reactor system is a heterogeneous epithermal system fueled with highly-enriched fuel based on uranium oxide, cooled by a sodium-potassium liquid metal (NaK), using a zirconium hydride moderator, with 37 thermionic fuel elements (TFEs) built into the core. The core is surrounded by a radial beryllium reflector which contains rotating regulating drums with moderating segments. An important problem is the guaranteeing of nuclear safety upon the accidental falling of the TOPAZ-2 reactor into water, which leads to the growth of the reactivity of the reactor. It has turned out that it is necessary to use the Monte-Carlo method for the conduct of neutronics calculations of such a complex reactor. In the United States (U.S.) and Russia, different codes based on the Monte-Carlo method are used for calculations - the MCNP code in the U.S., and the MCU-2 code in Russia. The goal of this work is the comparison of the codes and neutronics data used in the U.S. and Russia for the basis of the TOPAZ-2 nuclear safety. With this goal, a joint computer model benchmark of the TOPAZ-2 reactor was developed and the calculations of a series of variants, differing by the presence and absence of water in the reactor cavities and behind the radial reflector, in the position of the regulating drums, in the presence of the radial reflector, etc. were done independently by specialists in both the U.S. and Russia. Along with the reactor calculations, calculations were also done of the nuclei of the core using the MCNP code (U.S.) and the MCU-2 code (Russia). The work done allowed one to obtain results comparing the MCNP code to the MCU-2 code which gave somewhat different results both for the absolute values of Keff and for reactivity effects. In the future it remains to conduct a detailed analysis of the reasons for the discrepancies. For this it is necessary to exchange neutronics data used for TOPAZ-2 reactor calculations in the U.S. and Russia.

  19. SON68 nuclear glass dissolution kinetics: Current state of knowledge and basis of the new GRAAL model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frugier, P.; Gin, S.; Minet, Y.; Chave, T. [CEA Marcoule, DTCD SECM LCLT, 30 (France)

    2009-06-15

    Complete text of publication follows: Based on a review of the current state of knowledge concerning the aqueous alteration of SON68 nuclear glass GRAAL (Glass Reactivity with Allowance for the Alteration Layer) mechanistic model has been proposed [1]: An amorphous layer at the glass/solution interface gradually reorganized by hydrolysis and condensation mechanisms constitutes a barrier against the transport of water toward the glass and of solvated glass ions into solution [2]. The existence of this transport-inhibiting effect rapidly causes this layer to control glass alteration. The reaction affinity responsible for the glass alteration rate drop is expressed with respect to this passivating reactive interphase (PRI). Some glass constituent elements precipitate as crystallized secondary phases on the external surface and can sustain glass alteration. Correctly modeling the seat of recondensation (PRI or secondary crystallized phases) of elements is a key point for understanding their effect on glass alteration. Describing not only (1) solution chemistry but also ion transport (2) in solution by at a macroscopic scale and (3) by reactive interdiffusion in the PRI at a nanometer scale by means of a single model at each point in space and time is a complex task. Most existing models describe only one or two of these aspects. GRAAL describes a simple and still effective manner of coupling theses three phenomena using a calculation code coupling chemistry and transport HYTEC [3]. The model results are compared with experimental data for SON68 glass leached in initially pure water both in a closed system and in renewed media. The comparison shows the model very satisfactorily accounts for variations in the pH and the element concentrations in solution as a function of time, glass surface area in contact with solution, and solution renewal rate. Interdiffusion through the PRI cannot be disregarded under most experimental conditions - if only to predict the solution p

  20. Report on preliminary analysis of state of nuclear criticality accident at JCO at Tokaimura, Ibaraki, Japan (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, J.J.; Park, J.H.; Chang, J.H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-10-01

    This preliminary report was prepared by the Special Task Force Team of KAERI in order to analysis status of nuclear criticality accident broken out at 10:35 September 30, 1999 at JCO nuclear conversion test facility located at Tokaimura, Ibaraki, Japan. The report was consisted of accident summary of cause of accident summary of cause of accident and response by relevant organizations, and preliminary technical analysis of radiation exposure of JCO workers, analysis of cause of accident, and accident assessment and preventive actions against criticality accident. It is expected that JCO accident, Japan's first nuclear criticality accident, would make significant effects to Japan nuclear policy and would be also a good example to Korea future actions to be taken in use and development of nuclear energy. 63 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  1. Constraining the equation of state of nuclear matter from competition of fusion and quasi-fission in the reactions leading to production of the superheavy elements

    CERN Document Server

    Veselsky, Martin; Ma, Yu-Gang; Souliotis, Georgios A

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism of fusion hindrance, an effect preventing the synthesis of superheavy elements in the reactions of cold and hot fusion, is investigated using the Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck equation, where Coulomb interaction is introduced. A strong sensitivity is observed both to the modulus of incompressibility of symmetric nuclear matter, controlling the competition of surface tension and Coulomb repulsion, and to the stiffness of the density-dependence of symmetry energy, influencing the formation of the neck prior to scission. The experimental fusion probabilities were for the first time used to derive constraints on the nuclear equation of state. A strict constraint on the modulus of incompressibility of nuclear matter $K_0 = 240 - 260$ MeV is obtained while the stiff density-dependences of the symmetry energy ($\\gamma>1.$) are rejected.

  2. Nuclear astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnould, M. [Institut d' Astronomie et d' Astrophysique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Bruxelles (Belgium); Takahashi, K. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Garching (Germany)

    1999-03-01

    Nuclear astrophysics is that branch of astrophysics which helps understanding of the Universe, or at least some of its many faces, through the knowledge of the microcosm of the atomic nucleus. It attempts to find as many nuclear physics imprints as possible in the macrocosm, and to decipher what those messages are telling us about the varied constituent objects in the Universe at present and in the past. In the last decades much advance has been made in nuclear astrophysics thanks to the sometimes spectacular progress made in the modelling of the structure and evolution of the stars, in the quality and diversity of the astronomical observations, as well as in the experimental and theoretical understanding of the atomic nucleus and of its spontaneous or induced transformations. Developments in other subfields of physics and chemistry have also contributed to that advance. Notwithstanding the accomplishment, many long-standing problems remain to be solved, and the theoretical understanding of a large variety of observational facts needs to be put on safer grounds. In addition, new questions are continuously emerging, and new facts endangering old ideas. This review shows that astrophysics has been, and still is, highly demanding to nuclear physics in both its experimental and theoretical components. On top of the fact that large varieties of nuclei have to be dealt with, these nuclei are immersed in highly unusual environments which may have a significant impact on their static properties, the diversity of their transmutation modes, and on the probabilities of these modes. In order to have a chance of solving some of the problems nuclear astrophysics is facing, the astrophysicists and nuclear physicists are obviously bound to put their competence in common, and have sometimes to benefit from the help of other fields of physics, like particle physics, plasma physics or solid-state physics. Given the highly varied and complex aspects, we pick here some specific nuclear

  3. Nuclear astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnould, M.; Takahashi, K.

    1999-03-01

    Nuclear astrophysics is that branch of astrophysics which helps understanding of the Universe, or at least some of its many faces, through the knowledge of the microcosm of the atomic nucleus. It attempts to find as many nuclear physics imprints as possible in the macrocosm, and to decipher what those messages are telling us about the varied constituent objects in the Universe at present and in the past. In the last decades much advance has been made in nuclear astrophysics thanks to the sometimes spectacular progress made in the modelling of the structure and evolution of the stars, in the quality and diversity of the astronomical observations, as well as in the experimental and theoretical understanding of the atomic nucleus and of its spontaneous or induced transformations. Developments in other subfields of physics and chemistry have also contributed to that advance. Notwithstanding the accomplishment, many long-standing problems remain to be solved, and the theoretical understanding of a large variety of observational facts needs to be put on safer grounds. In addition, new questions are continuously emerging, and new facts endangering old ideas. This review shows that astrophysics has been, and still is, highly demanding to nuclear physics in both its experimental and theoretical components. On top of the fact that large varieties of nuclei have to be dealt with, these nuclei are immersed in highly unusual environments which may have a significant impact on their static properties, the diversity of their transmutation modes, and on the probabilities of these modes. In order to have a chance of solving some of the problems nuclear astrophysics is facing, the astrophysicists and nuclear physicists are obviously bound to put their competence in common, and have sometimes to benefit from the help of other fields of physics, like particle physics, plasma physics or solid-state physics. Given the highly varied and complex aspects, we pick here some specific nuclear

  4. Radiological protection regulation during spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management in the western branch of the Federal State Unitary Enterprise 'SevRAO'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simakov, A V; Sneve, M K; Abramov, Yu V; Kochetkov, O A; Smith, G M; Tsovianov, A G; Romanov, V V

    2008-12-01

    The site of temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste, situated at Andreeva Bay in Northwest Russia, was developed in the 1960s, and it has carried out receipt and storage of fresh and spent nuclear fuel, and solid and liquid radioactive waste generated during the operation of nuclear submarines and nuclear-powered icebreakers. The site is now operated as the western branch of the Federal State Unitary Enterprise, SevRAO. In the course of operation over several decades, the containment barriers in the Spent Nuclear Fuel and Radioactive Waste storage facilities partially lost their containment effectiveness, so workshop facilities and parts of the site became contaminated with radioactive substances. This paper describes work being undertaken to provide an updated regulatory basis for the protection of workers during especially hazardous remediation activities, necessary because of the unusual radiation conditions at the site. It describes the results of recent survey work carried out by the Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Centre, within a programme of regulatory cooperation between the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority and the Federal Medical-Biological Agency of Russia. The survey work and subsequent analyses have contributed to the development of special regulations setting out radiological protection requirements for operations planned at the site. Within these requirements, and taking account of a variety of other factors, a continuing need arises for the implementation of optimisation of remediation at Andreeva Bay.

  5. Perturbation of nuclear spin polarizations in solid state NMR of nitroxide-doped samples by magic-angle spinning without microwaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Kent R; Tycko, Robert

    2014-05-14

    We report solid state (13)C and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments with magic-angle spinning (MAS) on frozen solutions containing nitroxide-based paramagnetic dopants that indicate significant perturbations of nuclear spin polarizations without microwave irradiation. At temperatures near 25 K, (1)H and cross-polarized (13)C NMR signals from (15)N,(13)C-labeled L-alanine in trinitroxide-doped glycerol/water are reduced by factors as large as six compared to signals from samples without nitroxide doping. Without MAS or at temperatures near 100 K, differences between signals with and without nitroxide doping are much smaller. We attribute most of the reduction of NMR signals under MAS near 25 K to nuclear spin depolarization through the cross-effect dynamic nuclear polarization mechanism, in which three-spin flips drive nuclear polarizations toward equilibrium with spin polarization differences between electron pairs. When T1e is sufficiently long relative to the MAS rotation period, the distribution of electron spin polarization across the nitroxide electron paramagnetic resonance lineshape can be very different from the corresponding distribution in a static sample at thermal equilibrium, leading to the observed effects. We describe three-spin and 3000-spin calculations that qualitatively reproduce the experimental observations.

  6. Radiologic and nuclear medicine studies in the United States and worldwide: frequency, radiation dose, and comparison with other radiation sources--1950-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettler, Fred A; Bhargavan, Mythreyi; Faulkner, Keith; Gilley, Debbie B; Gray, Joel E; Ibbott, Geoffrey S; Lipoti, Jill A; Mahesh, Mahadevappa; McCrohan, John L; Stabin, Michael G; Thomadsen, Bruce R; Yoshizumi, Terry T

    2009-11-01

    The U.S. National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements and United Nations Scientific Committee on Effects of Atomic Radiation each conducted respective assessments of all radiation sources in the United States and worldwide. The goal of this article is to summarize and combine the results of these two publicly available surveys and to compare the results with historical information. In the United States in 2006, about 377 million diagnostic and interventional radiologic examinations and 18 million nuclear medicine examinations were performed. The United States accounts for about 12% of radiologic procedures and about one-half of nuclear medicine procedures performed worldwide. In the United States, the frequency of diagnostic radiologic examinations has increased almost 10-fold (1950-2006). The U.S. per-capita annual effective dose from medical procedures has increased about sixfold (0.5 mSv [1980] to 3.0 mSv [2006]). Worldwide estimates for 2000-2007 indicate that 3.6 billion medical procedures with ionizing radiation (3.1 billion diagnostic radiologic, 0.5 billion dental, and 37 million nuclear medicine examinations) are performed annually. Worldwide, the average annual per-capita effective dose from medicine (about 0.6 mSv of the total 3.0 mSv received from all sources) has approximately doubled in the past 10-15 years.

  7. Sound velocities of bridgmanite from density of states determined by nuclear inelastic scattering and first-principles calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCammon, Catherine; Caracas, Razvan; Glazyrin, Konstantin; Potapkin, Vasily; Kantor, Anastasia; Sinmyo, Ryosuke; Prescher, Clemens; Kupenko, Ilya; Chumakov, Aleksandr; Dubrovinsky, Leonid

    2016-12-01

    Sound velocities of bridgmanite measured in the laboratory are a key to deciphering the composition of the lower mantle. Here, we report Debye sound velocities determined using nuclear inelastic scattering (NIS) for one majorite composition (Mg0.82Fe0.18SiO3) and five bridgmanite compositions (Mg0.82Fe0.18SiO3, Mg0.86Fe0.14Si0.98Al0.02O3, Mg0.88Fe0.12SiO3, Mg0.6Fe0.4Si0.63Al0.37O3, Mg0.83Fe0.15Si0.98Al0.04O3) measured in a diamond anvil cell at pressures up to 89 GPa at room temperature. Debye sound velocities for majorite determined from NIS are consistent with literature data from Brillouin scattering and ultrasonics, while Debye sound velocities for bridgmanite are significantly lower than literature values from the same methods. We calculated partial and total density of states (DOS) for MgSiO3 and FeSiO3 bridgmanite using density functional theory and demonstrate that Debye sound velocities calculated from the reduced DOS using the same approach as for the experimental data (i.e., the limit of D(E)/E2 as energy goes to zero) give the same sound velocities for each phase irrespective of which partial DOS is used. In addition, we show that Debye sound velocities calculated using this approach are consistent with values obtained from the calculation of the full elastic tensor. Comparison of the calculated DOS with the one obtained from NIS indicates that the experimental DOS has enhanced intensity at low energies that leads to a different slope of the DOS and hence a lower sound velocity. This effect is present in all of the bridgmanite samples examined in this study.

  8. Surface chemistry of group 11 atomic layer deposition precursors on silica using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallister, Peter J.; Barry, Seán T.

    2017-02-01

    The use of chemical vapour deposition (CVD) and atomic layer deposition (ALD) as thin film deposition techniques has had a major impact on a number of fields. The deposition of pure, uniform, conformal thin films requires very specific vapour-solid reactivity that is largely unknown for the majority of ALD and CVD precursors. This work examines the initial chemisorption of several thin film vapour deposition precursors on high surface area silica (HSAS) using 13C, 31P, and quantitative 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Two copper metal precursors, 1,3-diisopropyl-imidazolin-2-ylidene copper (I) hexamethyldisilazide (1) and 1,3-diethyl-imidazolin-2-ylidene copper(I) hexamethyldisilazide (2), and one gold metal precursor, trimethylphosphine gold(III) trimethyl (3), are examined. Compounds 1 and 2 were found to chemisorb at the hydroxyl surface-reactive sites to form a ||-O-Cu-NHC surface species and fully methylated silicon (||-SiMe3, due to reactivity of the hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) ligand on the precursor) at 150 °C and 250 °C. From quantitative 29Si solid-state NMR (SS-NMR) spectroscopy measurements, it was found that HMDS preferentially reacts at geminal disilanol surface sites while the copper surface species preferentially chemisorbed to lone silanol surface species. Additionally, the overall coverage was strongly dependent on temperature, with higher overall coverage of 1 at higher temperature but lower overall coverage of 2 at higher temperature. The chemisorption of 3 was found to produce a number of interesting surface species on HSAS. Gold(III) trimethylphosphine, reduced gold phosphine, methylated phosphoxides, and graphitic carbon were all observed as surface species. The overall coverage of 3 on HSAS was only about 10% at 100 °C and, like the copper compounds, had a preference for lone silanol surface reactive sites. The overall coverage and chemisorbed surface species have implications to the overall growth rate and purity of

  9. Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive ... NIBIB-funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that ...

  10. Characterization of polymorphism in pharmaceuticals by solid state nuclear magnetic resonance; Caracterizacao de polimorfismo em farmacos por ressonancia magnetica nuclear no estado solido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, Monica Regina Marques Palermo de [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Organica; Gemal, Andre Luis; San Gil, Rosane Aguiar da Silva [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Organica

    1999-08-01

    This review aims to present some features about solid state NMR and its application in the field of pharmaceutical chemistry, for the characterization of polymorphism of pharmaceutical molecules. (author)

  11. Nuclear electromagnetic moments of the ground states of /sup 148/Pm and /sup 210/Bi calculated with phenomenological wave functions derived from analyses of. beta. -decay experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosso, O.A.; Szybisz, L.

    1983-12-01

    The magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments of the ground states of /sup 148/Pm and /sup 210/Bi are evaluated with phenomenological wave functions derived from ..beta..-decay studies published in previous works. It is found that these wave functions account satisfactorily for the experimental data of both nuclear moments of the /sup 210/Bi ground state. In the case of /sup 148/Pm, while the calculated value of the electric quadrupole moment is not inconsistent with the experimental data, a strong disagreement between theory and experiment is found for the magnetic dipole moment. We attribute this failure to the use of a too small configuration space for the expansion of the nuclear wave function of /sup 148/Pm.

  12. Nuclear electromagnetic moments of the ground states of148Pm and210Bi calculated with phenomenological wave functions derived from analyses of β-decay experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, O. A.; Szybisz, L.

    1983-10-01

    The magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments of the ground states of148Pm and210Bi are evaluated with phenomenological wave functions derived from β-decay studies published in previous works. It is found that these wave functions account satisfactorily for the experimental data of both nuclear moments of the210Bi ground state. In the case of148Pm, while the calculated value of the electric quadrupole moment is not inconsistent with the experimental data, a strong disagreement between theory and experiment is found for the magnetic dipole moment. We attribute this failure to the use of a too small configuration space for the expansion of the nuclear wave function of148Pm.

  13. Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems: State-of-the Art Survey on Evaluation and Aggregation Judgment Measures Applied to Performance Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Kuznetsov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the experience gained in the application of multi-criteria decision making and uncertainty treatment methods to a comparative assessment of nuclear energy systems and related nuclear fuel cycles. These judgment measures provide a means for comprehensive evaluation according to different conflicting criteria, such as costs, benefits and risks, which are inevitably associated with the deployment of advanced technologies. Major findings and recommendations elaborated in international and national projects and studies are reviewed and discussed. A careful analysis is performed for multi-criteria comparative assessment of nuclear energy systems and nuclear fuel cycles on the basis of various evaluation and screening results. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the lessons learned, to share the identified solutions, and indicate promising future directions.

  14. Paul Scherrer Institut annual report 1996. Annex I. PSI-F1-Newsletter 1996 nuclear and particle physics. Muons in solid-state physics and chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herlach, D.; Kettle, P.R.; Buechli, C. [eds.] [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-02-01

    This newsletter contains reports from the F1-Department and its Divisions. The contributions are categorized as follows: - activities of the F1-Department of PSI, - nuclear and particle physics supported by the Department, -applications of muons in solid-state physics and chemistry. Groups were asked to present new, preliminary or final results obtained in 1996, as well as a publication list, related to F1-supported work which had appeared in scientific journals during 1996. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  15. The future of the nuclear wastes and the spent fuels at the United States; Le devenir des dechets nucleaires et des combustibles uses aux Etats-Unis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The USA regulation distinguishes three classes of nuclear wastes: the low activity wastes under the federal states control, the wastes contaminated by long life radionuclides (transuranic elements) and the high activity wastes. The two last classes are controlled by the DOE (Department of energy). The different classes management are discussed as the DOE obligations towards the operators, the storage project of Yucca Mountain and Private fuel storage of Skull Valley. (A.L.B.)

  16. Paul Scherrer Institut annual report 1995. Annex I: PSI-F1-Newsletter 1995. Nuclear and particle physics. Muons in solid-state physics and chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herlach, D.; Kettle, P.R. [eds.

    1996-09-01

    This newsletter contains reports from the F1-Department and its Divisions. The contributions are categorized as follows: - activities of the F1-Department of PSI, - nuclear and particle physics supported by the Department, - applications of muons in solid-state physics and chemistry. Groups were asked to present new, preliminary or final results obtained in 1995, as well as a publication list, related to F1-supported work which had appeared in scientific journals during 1995. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  17. Detection of tannins in modern and fossil barks and in plant residues by high-resolution solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M.A.; Hatcher, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    Bark samples isolated from brown coal deposits in Victoria, Australia, and buried wood from Rhizophora mangle have been studies by high-resolution solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. Dipolar dephasing 13C NMR appears to be a useful method of detecting the presence of tannins in geochemical samples including barks, buried woods, peats and leaf litter. It is shown that tannins are selectively preserved in bark during coalification to the brown coal stage. ?? 1988.

  18. Determination of refractory organic matter in marine sediments by chemical oxidation, analytical pyrolysis and solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Arranz, José M. de la; González-Pérez, José Antonio; Hatcher, Patrick G.; Knicker, Heike; González-Vila, Francisco Javier

    2008-01-01

    Seeking to quantify the amount of refractory organic matter (ROM), which includes black carbon-like material (BC), in marine sediments, we have applied a two-step procedure that consists of a chemical oxidation with sodium chlorite of the demineralized sediments followed by integration of the aromatic C region in the remaining residues by solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The efficacy for lignin removal was tested by analytical pyrolysis in the presence of tetrame...

  19. Nuclear equation of state in a relativistic independent quark model with chiral symmetry and dependence on quark masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, N.; Mishra, R. N.; Mohanty, D. K.; Panda, P. K.; Frederico, T.

    2013-07-01

    We have calculated the properties of nuclear matter in a self-consistent manner with a quark-meson coupling mechanism incorporating the structure of nucleons in vacuum through a relativistic potential model; where the dominant confining interaction for the free independent quarks inside a nucleon is represented by a phenomenologically average potential in equally mixed scalar-vector harmonic form. Corrections due to spurious center of mass motion as well as those due to other residual interactions, such as the one gluon exchange at short distances and quark-pion coupling arising out of chiral symmetry restoration, have been considered in a perturbative manner to obtain the nucleon mass in vacuum. The nucleon-nucleon interaction in nuclear matter is then realized by introducing additional quark couplings to σ and ω mesons through mean field approximations. The relevant parameters of the interaction are obtained self-consistently while realizing the saturation properties such as the binding energy, pressure, and compressibility of the nuclear matter. We also discuss some implications of chiral symmetry in nuclear matter along with the nucleon and nuclear σ term and the sensitivity of nuclear matter binding energy with variations in the light quark mass.

  20. Nuclear air cushion vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    This paper serves several functions. It identifies the 'state-of-the-art' of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant. Using mission studies and cost estimates, the report describes some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles. The paper also summarizes the technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies that have been performed at NASA Lewis Research Center.

  1. Folding model study of the charge-exchange scattering to the isobaric analog state and implication for the nuclear symmetry energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoa, Dao T.; Thang, Dang Ngoc [VINATOM, Institute for Nuclear Science and Technique, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Loc, Bui Minh [VINATOM, Institute for Nuclear Science and Technique, Hanoi (Viet Nam); University of Pedagogy, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)

    2014-02-15

    The Fermi transition (ΔL = ΔS = 0 and ΔT = 1) between the nuclear isobaric analog states (IAS), induced by the charge-exchange (p, n) or ({sup 3}He, t) reaction, can be considered as ''elastic'' scattering of proton or {sup 3}He by the isovector term of the optical potential (OP) that flips the projectile isospin. The accurately measured (p, n) or ({sup 3}He, t) scattering cross section to the IAS can be used, therefore, to probe the isospin dependence of the proton or {sup 3}He optical potential. Within the folding model, the isovector part of the OP is determined exclusively by the neutron-proton difference in the nuclear densities and the isospin dependence of the effective nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction. Because the isovector coupling explicitly links the isovector part of the proton or {sup 3}He optical potential to the cross section of the charge-exchange (p, n) or ({sup 3}He, t) scattering to the IAS, the isospin dependence of the effective (in-medium) NN interaction can be well tested in the folding model analysis of these charge-exchange reactions. On the other hand, the same isospin- and density-dependent NN interaction can also be used in a Hartree-Fock calculation of asymmetric nuclear matter, to estimate the nuclear matter energy and its asymmetry part (the nuclear symmetry energy). As a result, the fine-tuning of the isospin dependence of the effective NN interaction against the measured (p, n) or ({sup 3}He, t) cross sections should allow us to make some realistic prediction of the nuclear symmetry energy and its density dependence. (orig.)

  2. Nuclear-Pumped Lasers. [efficient conversion of energy liberated in nuclear reactions to coherent radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The state of the art in nuclear pumped lasers is reviewed. Nuclear pumped laser modeling, nuclear volume and foil excitation of laser plasmas, proton beam simulations, nuclear flashlamp excitation, and reactor laser systems studies are covered.

  3. Impact of the neutron and nuclear matter equations of state on neutron skin and neutron drip lines in chiral effective field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sammarruca, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    We present predictions of the binding energy per nucleon and the neutron skin thickness in highly neutron-rich isotopes of Oxygen, Magnesium, and Aluminum. The calculations are carried out at and below the neutron drip line. The nuclear properties are obtained via an energy functional whose input is the equation of state of isospin-asymmetric in?finite matter. The latter is based on a microscopic derivation applying chiral few-nucleon forces. We highlight the impact of the equation of state at diff?erent orders of chiral effective fi?eld theory and discuss the role of three-neutron forces.

  4. Primary system fission product release and transport: A state-of-the-art report to the committee on the safety of nuclear installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, A.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-06-01

    This report presents a summary of the status of research activities associated with fission product behavior (release and transport) under severe accident conditions within the primary systems of water-moderated and water-cooled nuclear reactors. For each of the areas of fission product release and fission product transport, the report summarizes relevant information on important phenomena, major experiments performed, relevant computer models and codes, comparisons of computer code calculations with experimental results, and general conclusions on the overall state of the art. Finally, the report provides an assessment of the overall importance and knowledge of primary system release and transport phenomena and presents major conclusions on the state of the art.

  5. Unifying the rotational and permutation symmetry of nuclear spin states: Schur-Weyl duality in molecular physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiedt, Hanno; Jensen, Per; Schlemmer, Stephan

    2016-08-01

    In modern physics and chemistry concerned with many-body systems, one of the mainstays is identical-particle-permutation symmetry. In particular, both the intra-molecular dynamics of a single molecule and the inter-molecular dynamics associated, for example, with reactive molecular collisions are strongly affected by selection rules originating in nuclear-permutation symmetry operations being applied to the total internal wavefunctions, including nuclear spin, of the molecules involved. We propose here a general tool to determine coherently the permutation symmetry and the rotational symmetry (associated with the group of arbitrary rotations of the entire molecule in space) of molecular wavefunctions, in particular the nuclear-spin functions. Thus far, these two symmetries were believed to be mutually independent and it has even been argued that under certain circumstances, it is impossible to establish a one-to-one correspondence between them. However, using the Schur-Weyl duality theorem we show that the two types of symmetry are inherently coupled. In addition, we use the ingenious representation-theory technique of Young tableaus to represent the molecular nuclear-spin degrees of freedom in terms of well-defined mathematical objects. This simplifies the symmetry classification of the nuclear wavefunction even for large molecules. Also, the application to reactive collisions is very straightforward and provides a much simplified approach to obtaining selection rules.

  6. Proposed rulemaking on the storage and disposal of nuclear waste. Cross-statement of the United States Department of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-05

    The US DOE cross-statement in the matter of proposed rulemaking in the storage and disposal of nuclear wastes is presented. It is concluded from evidence contained in the document that: (1) spent fuel can be disposed of in a manner that is safe and environmentally acceptable; (2) present plans for establishing geological repositories are an effective and reasonable means of disposal; (3) spent nuclear fuel from licensed facilities can be stored in a safe and environmentally acceptable manner on-site or off-site until disposal facilities are ready; (4) sufficient additional storage capacity for spent fuel will be established; and (5) the disposal and interim storage systems for spent nuclear fuel will be integrated into an acceptable operating system. It was recommended that the commission should promulgate a rule providing that the safety and environmental implications of spent nuclear fuel remaining on site after the anticipated expiration of the facility licenses involved need not be considered in individual facility licensing proceedings. A prompt finding of confidence in the nuclear waste disposal and storage area by the commission is also recommeded. (DMC)

  7. Unifying the rotational and permutation symmetry of nuclear spin states: Schur-Weyl duality in molecular physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiedt, Hanno; Jensen, Per; Schlemmer, Stephan

    2016-08-21

    In modern physics and chemistry concerned with many-body systems, one of the mainstays is identical-particle-permutation symmetry. In particular, both the intra-molecular dynamics of a single molecule and the inter-molecular dynamics associated, for example, with reactive molecular collisions are strongly affected by selection rules originating in nuclear-permutation symmetry operations being applied to the total internal wavefunctions, including nuclear spin, of the molecules involved. We propose here a general tool to determine coherently the permutation symmetry and the rotational symmetry (associated with the group of arbitrary rotations of the entire molecule in space) of molecular wavefunctions, in particular the nuclear-spin functions. Thus far, these two symmetries were believed to be mutually independent and it has even been argued that under certain circumstances, it is impossible to establish a one-to-one correspondence between them. However, using the Schur-Weyl duality theorem we show that the two types of symmetry are inherently coupled. In addition, we use the ingenious representation-theory technique of Young tableaus to represent the molecular nuclear-spin degrees of freedom in terms of well-defined mathematical objects. This simplifies the symmetry classification of the nuclear wavefunction even for large molecules. Also, the application to reactive collisions is very straightforward and provides a much simplified approach to obtaining selection rules.

  8. NUCLEAR PHYSICS: Δ-Resonances in Ground State Properties of 2040Ca Spherical Cold Finite Nucleus at Equilibrium and under Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Sei'leek, Mohammed H. E.; Hasan, Mahmoud A.

    2010-08-01

    The ground state properties of the spherical nucleus 40Ca have been investigated by using constrained spherical Hartree-Fock (CSHF) approximation at equilibrium and under high radial compression in a six major shells. The effective baryon-baryon interaction that includes the Δ(1236) resonance freedom degrees to calculate nuclear properties is used. The nucleon-nucleon (N-N) interaction is based on Reid soft core (RSC) potential. The results of calculations show that much of increase in the nuclear energy generated under compression is used to create the massive Δ particles. The number of Δ's can be increased to about 2.1% of constituents of nucleus when nuclear density reaches about 1.34 times of normal density. The single particle energy levels are calculated and their behavior under compression is also examined. A good agreement has been found between current calculations and phenomenological shell model for low lying single-particle spectra. The gap between shells is very clear and L-S coupling become stronger as increasing the static load on the nucleus. The results show a considerable reduction in compressibility when freedom degrees of Δ's are taken into account. It has been found that the total nuclear radial density becomes denser in the interior and less dense in the exterior region of nucleus. The surface of nucleus becomes more and more responsive to compression than outer region.

  9. Nuclear Power Plants. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell, Walter, III

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Why Use Nuclear Power?; From Atoms to Electricity; Reactor Types; Typical Plant Design Features; The Cost of Nuclear Power; Plants in the United States; Developments in Foreign…

  10. Nuclear Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossión, Rubén

    2010-09-01

    The atomic nucleus is a typical example of a many-body problem. On the one hand, the number of nucleons (protons and neutrons) that constitute the nucleus is too large to allow for exact calculations. On the other hand, the number of constituent particles is too small for the individual nuclear excitation states to be explained by statistical methods. Another problem, particular for the atomic nucleus, is that the nucleon-nucleon (n-n) interaction is not one of the fundamental forces of Nature, and is hard to put in a single closed equation. The nucleon-nucleon interaction also behaves differently between two free nucleons (bare interaction) and between two nucleons in the nuclear medium (dressed interaction). Because of the above reasons, specific nuclear many-body models have been devised of which each one sheds light on some selected aspects of nuclear structure. Only combining the viewpoints of different models, a global insight of the atomic nucleus can be gained. In this chapter, we revise the the Nuclear Shell Model as an example of the microscopic approach, and the Collective Model as an example of the geometric approach. Finally, we study the statistical properties of nuclear spectra, basing on symmetry principles, to find out whether there is quantum chaos in the atomic nucleus. All three major approaches have been rewarded with the Nobel Prize of Physics. In the text, we will stress how each approach introduces its own series of approximations to reduce the prohibitingly large number of degrees of freedom of the full many-body problem to a smaller manageable number of effective degrees of freedom.

  11. The State-of-the-Art of Materials Technology Used for Fossil and Nuclear Power Plants in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yuqing

    Combined with the development of energy in China during the past 30 years, this paper clarified that high steam parameters ultra-supercritical (USC) coal-fired power plants and 1000MW nuclear power plants are the most important method to optimize energy structure and achieve national goals of energy saving and CO2 emission in China. Additionally, requirement of materials technology in high steam parameters USC coal-fired power plants and 1000MW nuclear power plants, current research and major development of relevant materials technology in China were briefly described in this paper.

  12. Draft Convention on the Exemption from Taxes of the European Organization for Nuclear Research, The Representatives of Member States on the Council of the Organization, the Director-General and the Members of the Staff of the European Organization for Nuclear Research

    CERN Document Server

    European Organization for Nuclear Research

    1955-01-01

    Draft Convention on the Exemption from Taxes of the European Organization for Nuclear Research, The Representatives of Member States on the Council of the Organization, the Director-General and the Members of the Staff of the European Organization for Nuclear Research

  13. Updates of the nuclear equation of state for core-collapse supernovae and neutron Stars: effects of 3-body forces, QCD, and magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Mathews, G J; Olson, J P; Suh, I-S; Kajino, T; Maruyama, T; Hidaka, J; Ryu, C-Y; Cheoun, M-K; Lan, N Q

    2013-01-01

    We summarize several new developments in the nuclear equation of state for supernova simulations and neutron stars. We discuss an updated and improved Notre-Dame-Livermore Equation of State (NDL EoS) for use in supernovae simulations. This Eos contains many updates. Among them are the effects of 3- body nuclear forces at high densities and the possible transition to a QCD chiral and/or super-conducting color phase at densities. We also consider the neutron star equation of state and neutrino transport in the presence of strong magnetic fields. We study a new quantum hadrodynamic (QHD) equation of state for neutron stars (with and without hyperons) in the presence of strong magnetic fields. The parameters are constrained by deduced masses and radii. The calculated adiabatic index for these magnetized neutron stars exhibit rapid changes with density. This may provide a mechanism for star-quakes and flares in magnetars. We also investigate the strong magnetic field effects on the moments of inertia and spin down...

  14. A quantum-classical simulation of a multi-surface multi-mode nuclear dynamics on C6H$^{+}_{6}$ incorporating degeneracy among electronic states

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subhankar Sardar; Satrajit Adhikari

    2012-01-01

    We have performed a nuclear dynamics simulation to calculate photoelectron spectra and population profiles of benzene radical cation (C6H$^{+}_{6}$) employing the parallelized Time Dependent Discrete Variable Representation (TDDVR) approach. For this purpose, we have considered two multi-state multi-mode model Hamiltonians of C6H$^{+}_{6}$ with degeneracy among the electronic states: (a) One consists of three states and eight modes, which in turn leads to a five state thirteen mode Hamiltonian (2E1-2E2-2A2) due to the degeneracy; and (b) The other is constituted of three states and thirteen modes which is basically a five state twenty mode Hamiltonian (2E2-2E1-2B2) for the same reason. Since these electronic states are interconnected by several conical intersections in the vicinity of the Franck Condon region, it will be challenging to pursue such large dynamical calculation in the presence of nonadiabaticity among the electronic states. The spectral as well as population profiles calculated with the advent of TDDVR approach show reasonably good agreement with the results obtained by the Multi Configuration Time Dependent Hartree (MCTDH) methodology.

  15. Nuclear disarmament verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVolpi, A.

    1993-12-31

    Arms control treaties, unilateral actions, and cooperative activities -- reflecting the defusing of East-West tensions -- are causing nuclear weapons to be disarmed and dismantled worldwide. In order to provide for future reductions and to build confidence in the permanency of this disarmament, verification procedures and technologies would play an important role. This paper outlines arms-control objectives, treaty organization, and actions that could be undertaken. For the purposes of this Workshop on Verification, nuclear disarmament has been divided into five topical subareas: Converting nuclear-weapons production complexes, Eliminating and monitoring nuclear-weapons delivery systems, Disabling and destroying nuclear warheads, Demilitarizing or non-military utilization of special nuclear materials, and Inhibiting nuclear arms in non-nuclear-weapons states. This paper concludes with an overview of potential methods for verification.

  16. THE POTENTIAL MID-TERM ROLE OF NUCLEAR POWER IN THE UNITED STATES: A SCENARIO ANALYSIS USING MARKAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    With all nations facing enormous challenges related to energy security, sustainability and environmental quality, nuclear power is likely to play an increasingly important role in the future. In particular, the life-cycle emissions of criteria pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHG...

  17. Program's method of VB to carry out nuclear data collection The VB is stated for Visual Basic

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao Yan Hui; Zou Qi Hong; Xu Yin

    2002-01-01

    The authors expatiate Program's methods of VB to carry out nuclear data collection in the case of that VB can not directly call on hardware, and had to using C or assemble language to compile DLL function of call on hardware, and then, using by VB main routine to realize to call on and control I/O port in VB environment

  18. 75 FR 76051 - Northern States Power Company-Minnesota, Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ..., ``Acceptance criteria for emergency core cooling systems for light-water nuclear power reactors,'' and appendix...\\TM\\ fuel rod cladding. Thus, an exemption from the requirements of 10 CFR 50.46 and Appendix K is needed to support the ] use of different fuel rod cladding material. Therefore, the licensee requested...

  19. High-resolution liquid- and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance of nanoliter sample volumes using microcoil detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kentgens, A.P.M.; Bart, J.; Bentum, van P.J.M.; Brinkmann, A.; Eck, van E.R.H.; Gardeniers, J.G.E.; Janssen, J.W.G.; Knijn, P.J.; Vasa, S.; Verkuijlen, M.H.W.

    2008-01-01

    The predominant means to detect nuclear magnetic resonance(NMR) is to monitor the voltage induced in a radiofrequency coil by the precessing magnetization. To address the sensitivity of NMR for mass-limited samples it is worthwhile to miniaturize this detector coil. Although making smaller coils see

  20. Electromagnetic radiation as a probe of the initial state and of viscous dynamics in relativistic nuclear collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Vujanovic, Gojko; Denicol, Gabriel S; Luzum, Matthew; Jeon, Sangyong; Gale, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The penetrating nature of electromagnetic signals makes them suitable probes to explore the properties of the strongly-interacting medium created in relativistic nuclear collisions. We examine the effects of the initial conditions and shear relaxation time on the spectra and flow coefficients of electromagnetic probes, using an event-by-event 3+1D viscous hydrodynamic simulation (MUSIC).

  1. Hematology, micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in fishes from São Francisco river, Minas Gerais state, Brazil = Hematologia, micronúcleos e anomalias nucleares em peixes do rio São Francisco, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Seriani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the variables leukocytary, erythrocytary, frequency of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in peripheral erythrocytes of Prochilodus argenteus, Pimelodus maculatus and Myleus micans from São Francisco river basin, Minas Gerais State, during the summer and winter. Thrombocytes, hematocrit and leukocyte of P.argenteus series, was influenced by climatic conditions. In P. maculatus, not were significant differences for all leukocytes and thrombocytes. In M. micans, values are unprecedented in the literature, with MCV and absolute number of leukocytes found superior to other species of the family Characidae. The frequency of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in erythrocytes, the three species not showed seasonal differences between the sites. However, the highest values were found in summer. Furthermore, we observed a positive correlation between the increase in the percentage of micronuclei with nuclear abnormalities.O presente estudo teve como objetivo, determinar as variáveis leucocitárias, eritrocíticas, freqüência de micronúcleos e anomaliasnucleares nos eritrócitos do sangue periférico de Prochilodus argenteus, Pimelodus maculatus e Myleus micans de um trecho da bacia do rio São Francisco, Minas Gerais, no verão e inverno. Trombóctios, hematócrito e a serie leucocítária de P.argenteus, foi influenciado pela sazonalidade. Em P. maculatus, não ocorreram diferenças significativas para todos os leucócitos e trombócitos. Em M. micans, os valores são inéditos na literatura, apresentando VCM e número absoluto de leucócitos superior ao encontrados para outras espécies dafamília Characidae. A freqüência de micronúcleos e de anomalias nucleares nos eritrócitos, nas três espécies não apresentou diferenças sazonais e entre os pontos amostrais. No entanto, os valores mais altos foram encontrados no verão. Além disso, foi possível observar correlação positiva entre o aumento da

  2. Nuclear Confidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident provides valuable lessons for China national nuclear Corp.as it continues to expand its operations AS Japan’s Fukushima nuclear crisis sparks a global debate over nuclear safety,China National Nuclear Corp. (CNNC),the country’s largest nuclear plant operator, comes under the spotlight.

  3. Mechanism of Solid-State Thermolysis of Ammonia Boraine: 15N NMR Study Using Fast Magic-Angle Spinning and Dynamic Nuclear Polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Takeshi [Ames Laboratory; Gupta, Shalabh [Ames Laboratory; Caporini, Marc A [Bruker BioSpin Corporation; Pecharsky, Vitalij K [Ames Laboratory; Pruski, Marek [Ames Laboratory

    2014-08-28

    The solid-state thermolysis of ammonia borane (NH3BH3, AB) was explored using state-of-the-art 15N solid-state NMR spectroscopy, including 2D indirectly detected 1H{15N} heteronuclear correlation and dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP)-enhanced 15N{1H} cross-polarization experiments as well as 11B NMR. The complementary use of 15N and 11B NMR experiments, supported by density functional theory calculations of the chemical shift tensors, provided insights into the dehydrogenation mechanism of AB—insights that have not been available by 11B NMR alone. Specifically, highly branched polyaminoborane derivatives were shown to form from AB via oligomerization in the “head-to-tail” manner, which then transform directly into hexagonal boron nitride analog through the dehydrocyclization reaction, bypassing the formation of polyiminoborane.

  4. Nuclear equation of state in a relativistic independent quark model with chiral symmetry and variation with quark masses

    CERN Document Server

    Barik, N; Mohanty, D K; Panda, P K; Frederico, T

    2013-01-01

    We have calculated the properties of nuclear matter in a self-consistent manner with quark-meson coupling mechanism incorporating structure of nucleons in vacuum through a relativistic potential model; where the dominant confining interaction for the free independent quarks inside a nucleon, is represented by a phenomenologically average potential in equally mixed scalar-vector harmonic form. Corrections due to spurious centre of mass motion as well as those due to other residual interactions such as the one gluon exchange at short distances and quark-pion coupling arising out of chiral symmetry restoration; have been considered in a perturbation manner to obtain the nucleon mass in vacuum. The nucleon-nucleon interaction in nuclear matter is then realized by introducing additional quark couplings to sigma and omega mesons through mean field approximations. The relevant parameters of the interaction are obtained self consistently while realizing the saturation properties such as the binding energy, pressure a...

  5. STATE OF THE ART OF DRILLING LARGE DIAMETER BOREHOLES FOR DEPOSITION OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE AND SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trpimir Kujundžić

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Deep geological disposal is internationally recognized as the safest and most sustainable option for the long-term management of high-level radioactive waste. Mainly, clay rock, salt rock and crystalline rock are being considered as possible host rocks. Different geological environment in different countries led to the various repository concepts. Main feature of the most matured repository concept is that canisters with spent nuclear fuel are emplaced in vertical or horizontal large diameter deposition holes. Drilling technology of the deposition holes depends on repository concept and geological and geomechanical characteristics of the rock. The deposition holes are mechanically excavated since drill & blast is not a possible method due to requirements on final geometry like surface roughness etc. Different methods of drilling large diameter boreholes for deposition of high-level waste and spent nuclear fuel are described. Comparison of methods is made considering performance and particularities in technology.

  6. Influence of the density of states on the odd-even staggering in the charge distribution of the emitted fragments in nuclear heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleya, N. L.; Souza, S. R.; Carlson, B. V.; Donangelo, R.; Lynch, W. G.; Tsang, M. B.; Winkelbauer, J. R.

    2014-11-01

    The fragmentation of thermalized sources is studied using a version of the Statistical Multifragmentation Model which employs state densities that take the pairing gap in the nuclear levels into account. Attention is focused on the properties of the charge distributions observed in the breakup of the source. Since the microcanonical version of the model used in this study provides the primary fragment excitation energy distribution, one may correlate the reduction of the odd-even staggering in the charge distribution with the increasing occupation of high-energy states. Thus, in the framework of this model, such staggering tends to disappear as a function of the total excitation energy of the source, although the energy per particle may be small for large systems. We also find that, although the deexcitation of the primary fragments should, in principle, blur these odd-even effects as the fragments follow their decay chains, the consistent treatment of pairing may significantly enhance these staggering effects on the final yields. In the framework of this model, we find that odd-even effects in the charge distributions should be observed in the fragmentation of relatively light systems at very low excitation energies. Our results also suggest that the odd-even staggering may provide useful information on the nuclear state density.

  7. 7th International Workshop on Application of Lasers in Atomic Nuclei Research “Nuclear Ground and Isometric State Properties”

    CERN Document Server

    Błaszczak, Z; Marinova, K; LASER 2006

    2007-01-01

    7th International Workshop on Application of Lasers in Atomic Nuclei Research, LASER 2004, held in Poznan, Poland, May 29-June 01, 2006 Researchers and PhD students interested in recent results in the nuclear structure investigation by laser spectroscopy, the progress of the experimental technique and the future developments in the field will find this volume indispensable. Reprinted from Hyperfine Interactions (HYPE) Volume ???

  8. Particle number scale invariant feature of the states around the critical point of the first order nuclear shape phase transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    We study systematically the evolutive behaviors of some energy ratios,E2 transition rate ratios and isomer shift in the nuclear shape phase transitions.We find that the quantities sensitive to the phase transition and independent of free parameter(s) are approximately particle number N scale invariant around the critical point of the first order phase transition,similar to that in the second order phase transition.

  9. Particle number scale invariant feature of the states around the critical point of the first order nuclear shape phase transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu; HOU ZhanFeng; LIU YuXin

    2009-01-01

    We study systematically the evolutive behaviors of some energy ratios,E2 transition rate ratios and Isomer shift in the nuclear shape phase transitions.We find that the quantities sensitive to the phase transition and independent of free parameter(s) are approximately particle number N scale invariant around the critical point of the first order phase transition,similar to that in the second order phase transition.

  10. Screening evaluation of radionuclide groundwater concentrations for the end state basement fill model Zion Nuclear Power Station decommissioning project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan T.

    2014-06-09

    ZionSolutions is in the process of decommissioning the Zion Nuclear Power Plant. The site contains two reactor Containment Buildings, a Fuel Building, an Auxiliary Building, and a Turbine Building that may be contaminated. The current decommissioning plan involves removing all above grade structures to a depth of 3 feet below grade. The remaining underground structures will be backfilled with clean material. The final selection of fill material has not been made.

  11. Condition assessment of concrete structures at nuclear power plants by state of the art non-destructive testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rydén N.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The approach combining Non Destructive Examination (NDE with Finite Element Analysis (FEA methods is both workable and necessary in order to accurately determine and predict the condition of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP containment structures. This approach was introduced in the European 5th Framework Project with acronym CONMOD [1]. The current paper presents some of the work performed after the CONMOD project combining the on-site investigation at nuclear power plant (NPP stations in Sweden and Finland. Several non-destructive techniques were chosen for the investigations described in this paper. The MASW (Multi Channel Analysis of Surface Waves and Impact Echo (IE techniques have been used for evaluation of thickness and stiffness of concrete and also for location of possible defects. The above-mentioned techniques have been applied under investigations of concrete containments. Additionally reinforcement corrosion was investigated in cooling water channels by means of the Galvanostatic Pulse technique allowing determination of corrosion rate. Further, following the CONMOD concept, the coupling between the non-destructive measurements on site and finite element method is established. As the result of this coupling, the information about the status of concrete structures in nuclear power plants is obtained. In the ongoing research & development project CONSAFESYS (Concrete Containment Condition Status & Ageing Examination System the qualification and validation of investigative methods and diagnostic tools and analysis for reactor containments are further developed. One unique benefit with the CONSAFESYS project is the possibility of introducing artificial defects and anomalies into a decommissioned reactor containment structure.

  12. The NRC staff evaluation of shutdown and low-power operation at nuclear power plants in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holahan, G.M.; Caruso, M.A. (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The results of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff's recent evaluation of shutdown and low-power operations at US commercial nuclear power plants are summarized in this paper. The NRC staff's evaluation was initiated following their investigation of the loss during shutdown of all vital alternating current power on March 20, 1990, at the Alvin W. Vogtle nuclear plant. The objective of the evaluation has been to assess risk broadly during shutdown, refueling, and startup, addressing not only issues raised by the Vogtle event, but also a number of other shutdown-related issues that had been identified by foreign regulatory organizations as well as the NRC and any new issues uncovered in the evaluation process. The key issues concerning shutdown risk identified in the integration process described earlier and subsequently addressed by the staff include the following: (1) outage planning and control; (2) stress on personnel and programs; (3) the need to improve training and procedures; (4) technical specifications; and (5) PWR safety during midloop operation. Other technical topics identified for further study by the staff included loss of RHR, containment capability, rapid boron dilution, fire protection, instrumentation, emergency core cooling system recirculation capability, effect of PWR upper internals, on-site emergency planning, fuel handling and heavy loads, potential for draining the BWR reactor vessel, reporting requirements for shutdown events, and need to strengthen inspection program.

  13. (13C-(13c homonuclear recoupling in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance at a moderately high magic-angle-spinning frequency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venus Singh Mithu

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional (13C-(13C correlation experiments are widely employed in structure determination of protein assemblies using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance. Here, we investigate the process of (13C-(13C magnetisation transfer at a moderate magic-angle-spinning frequency of 30 kHz using some of the prominent second-order dipolar recoupling schemes. The effect of isotropic chemical-shift difference and spatial distance between two carbons and amplitude of radio frequency on (1H channel on the magnetisation transfer efficiency of these schemes is discussed in detail.

  14. United States Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration Sandia Field Office NESHAP Annual Report CY2014 for Sandia National Laboratories New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    evelo, stacie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, Mark L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This report provides a summary of the radionuclide releases from the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration facilities at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) during Calendar Year (CY) 2014, including the data, calculations, and supporting documentation for demonstrating compliance with 40 Code of Federal Regulation (CFR) 61, Subpart H--NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR EMISSIONS OF RADIONUCLIDES OTHER THAN RADON FROM DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY FACILITIES. A description is given of the sources and their contributions to the overall dose assessment. In addition, the maximally exposed individual (MEI) radiological dose calculation and the population dose to local and regional residents are discussed.

  15. Modeling of hydrogen/deuterium dynamics and heat generation on palladium nanoparticles for hydrogen storage and solid-state nuclear fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuaki Tanabe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We modeled the dynamics of hydrogen and deuterium adsorbed on palladium nanoparticles including the heat generation induced by the chemical adsorption and desorption, as well as palladium-catalyzed reactions. Our calculations based on the proposed model reproduce the experimental time-evolution of pressure and temperature with a single set of fitting parameters for hydrogen and deuterium injection. The model we generated with a highly generalized set of formulations can be applied for any combination of a gas species and a catalytic adsorbent/absorbent. Our model can be used as a basis for future research into hydrogen storage and solid-state nuclear fusion technologies.

  16. Radiative nonrecoil nuclear finite size corrections of order α(Zα)5 to the hyperfine splitting of S-states in muonic hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faustov, R. N.; Martynenko, A. P.; Martynenko, G. A.; Sorokin, V. V.

    2014-06-01

    On the basis of quasipotential method in quantum electrodynamics we calculate nuclear finite size radiative corrections of order α(Zα)5 to the hyperfine structure of S-wave energy levels in muonic hydrogen and muonic deuterium. For the construction of the particle interaction operator we employ the projection operators on the particle bound states with definite spins. The calculation is performed in the infrared safe Fried-Yennie gauge. Modern experimental data on the electromagnetic form factors of the proton and deuteron are used.

  17. Radiative nonrecoil nuclear finite size corrections of order $\\alpha(Z\\alpha)^5$ to the hyperfine splitting of S-states in muonic hydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Faustov, R N; Martynenko, G A; Sorokin, V V

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of quasipotential method in quantum electrodynamics we calculate nuclear finite size radiative corrections of order $\\alpha(Z\\alpha)^5$ to the hyperfine structure of S-wave energy levels in muonic hydrogen and muonic deuterium. For the construction of the particle interaction operator we employ the projection operators on the particle bound states with definite spins. The calculation is performed in the infrared safe Fried-Yennie gauge. Modern experimental data on the electromagnetic form factors of the proton and deuteron are used.

  18. Modeling of hydrogen/deuterium dynamics and heat generation on palladium nanoparticles for hydrogen storage and solid-state nuclear fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Katsuaki

    2016-01-01

    We modeled the dynamics of hydrogen and deuterium adsorbed on palladium nanoparticles including the heat generation induced by the chemical adsorption and desorption, as well as palladium-catalyzed reactions. Our calculations based on the proposed model reproduce the experimental time-evolution of pressure and temperature with a single set of fitting parameters for hydrogen and deuterium injection. The model we generated with a highly generalized set of formulations can be applied for any combination of a gas species and a catalytic adsorbent/absorbent. Our model can be used as a basis for future research into hydrogen storage and solid-state nuclear fusion technologies.

  19. 13C-13C Homonuclear Recoupling in Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance at a Moderately High Magic-Angle-Spinning Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithu, Venus Singh; Bakthavatsalam, Subha; Madhu, Perunthiruthy K.

    2013-01-01

    Two-dimensional 13C-13C correlation experiments are widely employed in structure determination of protein assemblies using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance. Here, we investigate the process of 13C-13C magnetisation transfer at a moderate magic-angle-spinning frequency of 30 kHz using some of the prominent second-order dipolar recoupling schemes. The effect of isotropic chemical-shift difference and spatial distance between two carbons and amplitude of radio frequency on 1H channel on the magnetisation transfer efficiency of these schemes is discussed in detail. PMID:23326308

  20. (13)C-(13)c homonuclear recoupling in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance at a moderately high magic-angle-spinning frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithu, Venus Singh; Bakthavatsalam, Subha; Madhu, Perunthiruthy K

    2013-01-01

    Two-dimensional (13)C-(13)C correlation experiments are widely employed in structure determination of protein assemblies using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance. Here, we investigate the process of (13)C-(13)C magnetisation transfer at a moderate magic-angle-spinning frequency of 30 kHz using some of the prominent second-order dipolar recoupling schemes. The effect of isotropic chemical-shift difference and spatial distance between two carbons and amplitude of radio frequency on (1)H channel on the magnetisation transfer efficiency of these schemes is discussed in detail.

  1. Study of hydrogen in coals, polymers, oxides, and muscle water by nuclear magnetic resonance; extension of solid-state high-resolution techniques. [Hydrogen molybdenum bronze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, L.M.

    1981-10-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been an important analytical and physical research tool for several decades. One area of NMR which has undergone considerable development in recent years is high resolution NMR of solids. In particular, high resolution solid state /sup 13/C NMR spectra exhibiting features similar to those observed in liquids are currently achievable using sophisticated pulse techniques. The work described in this thesis develops analogous methods for high resolution /sup 1/H NMR of rigid solids. Applications include characterization of hydrogen aromaticities in fossil fuels, and studies of hydrogen in oxides and bound water in muscle.

  2. Nuclear charge and neutron radii and nuclear matter: trend analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhard, P -G

    2016-01-01

    Radii of charge and neutron distributions are fundamental nuclear properties. They depend on both nuclear interaction parameters related to the equation of state of infinite nuclear matter and on quantal shell effects, which are strongly impacted by the presence of nuclear surface. In this work, by studying the dependence of charge and neutron radii, and neutron skin, on nuclear matter parameters, we assess different mechanisms that drive nuclear sizes. We apply nuclear density functional theory using a family of Skyrme functionals obtained by means of different optimization protocols targeting specific nuclear properties. By performing the Monte-Carlo sampling of reasonable functionals around the optimal parametrization, we study correlations between nuclear matter paramaters and observables characterizing charge and neutron distributions. We demonstrate the existence of the strong converse relation between the nuclear charge radii and the saturation density of symmetric nuclear matter and also between the n...

  3. Polyunsaturated fatty acid deficiency during neurodevelopment in mice models the prodromal state of schizophrenia through epigenetic changes in nuclear receptor genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, M; Watanabe, A; Iwayama, Y; Kimura, T; Hamazaki, K; Balan, S; Ohba, H; Hisano, Y; Nozaki, Y; Ohnishi, T; Toyoshima, M; Shimamoto, C; Iwamoto, K; Bundo, M; Osumi, N; Takahashi, E; Takashima, A; Yoshikawa, T

    2017-09-05

    The risk of schizophrenia is increased in offspring whose mothers experience malnutrition during pregnancy. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are dietary components that are crucial for the structural and functional integrity of neural cells, and PUFA deficiency has been shown to be a risk factor for schizophrenia. Here, we show that gestational and early postnatal dietary deprivation of two PUFAs-arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-elicited schizophrenia-like phenotypes in mouse offspring at adulthood. In the PUFA-deprived mouse group, we observed lower motivation and higher sensitivity to a hallucinogenic drug resembling the prodromal symptoms in schizophrenia. Furthermore, a working-memory task-evoked hyper-neuronal activity in the medial prefrontal cortex was also observed, along with the downregulation of genes in the prefrontal cortex involved in oligodendrocyte integrity and the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic system. Regulation of these genes was mediated by the nuclear receptor genes Rxr and Ppar, whose promoters were hyper-methylated by the deprivation of dietary AA and DHA. In addition, the RXR agonist bexarotene upregulated oligodendrocyte- and GABA-related gene expression and suppressed the sensitivity of mice to the hallucinogenic drug. Notably, the expression of these nuclear receptor genes were also downregulated in hair-follicle cells from schizophrenia patients. These results suggest that PUFA deficiency during the early neurodevelopmental period in mice could model the prodromal state of schizophrenia through changes in the epigenetic regulation of nuclear receptor genes.

  4. Development of the national report of the Mexican United States for the Convention on Nuclear Safety of the IAEA; Desarrollo del informe nacional de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos para la Convencion sobre seguridad nuclear del OIEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz L, P. [Jefe del Area de Ingenieria, Departamento de Evaluacion, Gerencia de Seguridad Nuclear, Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Barragan 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    In this work the content of the National Report of the Mexican United States in it revision 2 is presented, which was presented for it exam by the member countries of the Convention on Nuclear Safety, in April, 2005. The conclusion of this Report, with base in the existent objective evidence, is that the Laguna Verde Central continues maintaining a level of similar safety to that of other nuclear power plants of its type, not existing conditions at the moment that they can be identified as adverse for a sure operation and that, therefore, plans don't exist to advance the closing of this installation, before the end of its useful life. The questions that the member countries formulated to the Report of Mexico, the answers that were provided to these questions, as well as the conclusions of the 3 Exam Meeting of April, 2005 are also included. The next National Report, in it revision 3, it will cover the period from the January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2006, it was developed from January to August, 2007, it delivered to the IAEA on September of the same year and it was presented in the IAEA Headquarters (IAEA) in the 4 Exam Meeting on April, 2008. (Author)

  5. The nuclear research and technology development in the GDR from 1945 to 1965. Framework conditions, policy of the State party and implementation; Die Kernforschung und Kerntechnologieentwicklung in der DDR 1945-1965. Rahmenbedingungen, Politik der Staatspartei und Umsetzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Olaf

    2012-06-07

    The study follows the development of the nuclear research and nuclear technology in the GDR between 1945 and 1965. The GDR as an industrial country was highly dependent on brown coal, which was the only available primal energy source in the former GDR. Therefore the civil use of nuclear power called the attention of the executive and party leadership. This consideration was supported by the fact of large uranium deposits on the territory of former East Germany. After the foundation of the GDR, a first attempt to establish an independent nuclear power industry had failed. From 1955 on, the efforts in this direction have been stepped up. Despite the enormous effort of material and human resources the development of an independent East German nuclear industry never got off the ground. In 1965 it was decided to continue the buildup of an East German nuclear industry on base of the nuclear technology of the former Soviet Union. This decision marked a turning point in the East German energy policy and the end to ambitious plans of an independent nuclear industry. The research shows the frame, the preconditions and objectives of the development of the East German nuclear industry on the base of relevant documents from the government of the former GDR, the political machine of the Communist Party (SED) and the Academy of Science Berlin. The research is implementing the context of international nuclear research and technical progress against the background of the Cold War and the international nuclear euphoria as well as within the range of global politics. The discussion focusses on two points. Along with high expectations to an independent energy production and an exporting nuclear industry, the Communist party aimed for clear political results. The author will show the connection between plans of the executive and party leadership of the SED for an ambitious nuclear energy development and the international acceptance of the East German State in the German-German rivalry.

  6. Nuclear safeguards; Salvaguardias nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurron, O.

    2015-07-01

    Safeguards control at the Juzbado Plant is implemented through the joint IAEA/EURATOM partnership approach in force within the European Union for all nuclear facilities. this verification agreement is designed to minimize burden on the operators whilst ensuring that both inspectorate achieve the objectives related to their respective safeguards regimes. This paper outlines the safeguards approaches followed by the inspectorate and the particularities of the Juzbado Plants nuclear material accountancy and control system. (Authors)

  7. Cooperation in the nuclear field among the states of Eastern Europe; Die kerntechnische Zusammenarbeit der Staaten Osteuropas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, H. [Tetra Energie Technologie Transfer GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Kraemer, J. [Tetra Energie Technologie Transfer GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    Since the re-orientation of the societies of Central and Eastern Europe on the basis of a free and democratic order, the West has launched a number of support programs for safe operation of the nuclear power plants run in these countries. It should not be overlooked, however, that a traditionally close cooperation in all areas of the military and peaceful uses of nuclear power had existed among the Socialist countries, mostly dominated by the Soviet Union, i.e. Russia. After the initiation of the process of democratization, the turnaround to the West was overemphasized initially, but in the meantime the old ties of cooperation have been strengthened again, though with more sovereignty of the participating nations. Russia is striving to maintain her hegemony and exploit the findings of recent nuclear research in order to boost her balance of trade by exports. (orig.) [Deutsch] Seit sich die Gesellschaften der Staaten Mittel- und Osteuropas neu orientieren, und das auf der Basis einer freiheitlich-demokratischen Grundordnung, wurden im Westen unterschiedlichste Unterstuetzungsprogramme fuer einen sicheren Betrieb der in diesen Laendern betriebenen Kernkraftwerke aufgelegt. Dabei darf nicht ausser acht gelassen werden, dass traditionell eine enge Zusammenarbeit auf allen Gebieten der militaerischen und friedlichen Nutzung der Kernenergie in den sozialistischen Staaten existierte, zumeist unter Dominanz der Sowjetunion, und hier Russlands. Nach Einleitung des Demokratisierungsprozesses wurde die Hinwendung zum Westen zunaechst ueberbetont; inzwischen aber wurden die gewachsenen Kooperationen wieder gefestigt, allerdings unter groesserer Souveraenitaet der beteiligten Nationen. Russland ist bestrebt, seine Hegemonie zu behaupten und die Ergebnisse neuerer kerntechnischer Forschung zu nutzen, um durch Exporte seine Handelsbilanz zu verbessern. (orig.)

  8. Nuclear South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    nuclear equation in South Asia, the geopolitical and geoeconomic realities will keep China out of the South Asian nuclear picture. As Pakistan...remain unipolar for quite some time with the United States as the global superpower. There is predominance of geoeconomics as against geopolitical...to drag China into the nuclear equation in South Asia, the geopolitical and geoeconomic realities will likely keep China out of the South Asian

  9. Facilitating Global Nuclear Disarmament

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu; Junr

    2014-01-01

    <正>I.Introduction Since the advent of nuclear weapons,especially after the United States dropped atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki,the capacity of massive and indiscriminate annihilation of nuclear weapons have made people of insight across the world realize that such weapons cannot be used arbitrarily.In the 1960s,the then Chinese leader Mao Zedong said that to throw them(nuclear weapons)about at will is committing a

  10. Fabrication and testing of a 4-node micro-pocket fission detector array for the Kansas State University TRIGA Mk. II research nuclear reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenberger, Michael A.; Nichols, Daniel M.; Stevenson, Sarah R.; Swope, Tanner M.; Hilger, Caden W.; Unruh, Troy C.; McGregor, Douglas S.; Roberts, Jeremy A.

    2017-08-01

    Advancements in nuclear reactor core modeling and computational capability have encouraged further development of in-core neutron sensors. Micro-Pocket Fission Detectors (MPFDs) have been fabricated and tested previously, but successful testing of these prior detectors was limited to single-node operation with specialized designs. Described in this work is a modular, four-node MPFD array fabricated and tested at Kansas State University (KSU). The four sensor nodes were equally spaced to span the length of the fuel-region of the KSU TRIGA Mk. II research nuclear reactor core. The encapsulated array was filled with argon gas, serving as an ionization medium in the small cavities of the MPFDs. The unified design improved device ruggedness and simplified construction over previous designs. A 0.315-in. (8-mm) penetration in the upper grid plate of the KSU TRIGA Mk. II research nuclear reactor was used to deploy the array between fuel elements in the core. The MPFD array was coupled to an electronic support system which has been developed to support pulse-mode operation. Neutron-induced pulses were observed on all four sensor channels. Stable device operation was confirmed by testing under steady-state reactor conditions. Each of the four sensors in the array responded to changes in reactor power between 10 kWth and full power (750 kWth). Reactor power transients were observed in real-time including positive transients with periods of 5, 15, and 30 s. Finally, manual reactor power oscillations were observed in real-time.

  11. Coherent-states dynamics of the H + + HF reaction at ELab = 30 eV: A complete electron nuclear dynamics investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Buddhadev; Sadeghi, Raymond; Austin, Anthony; Morales, Jorge A.

    2007-11-01

    Results of a complete investigation of the H + + HF reaction at ELab = 30 eV with the electron nuclear dynamics (END) and the coherent-states dynamics (CSD) theories are herein presented. Current END-CSD methodology employs frozen Gaussian wave packet in the semiclassical limit of ℏ → 0 for the nuclei, and a single-determinantal Thouless coherent state (CS) for the electrons. The simulated 400 CS trajectories from five independent HF target orientations provide a complete description of the reactive processes in this system, including: non-charge-transfer scattering (NCTS), charge-transfer scattering (CTS), hydrogen fluoride dissociation (H-F D), and hydrogen rearrangement (HR). Several aspects of the reactions dynamics, such as mechanistic details and rainbow angles effects, are discussed. Differential and integral cross sections are evaluated via a novel CS formulation of those properties in conjunction with semiclassical techniques. The calculated total differential cross section shows an excellent agreement with available experimental results.

  12. Site-dependent cobalt electronic state in La-Co co-substituted magnetoplumbite-type ferrite: (59)Co nuclear magnetic resonance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Shimoda, Aiko; Waki, Takeshi; Tabata, Yoshikazu; Mény, Christian

    2016-09-01

    The nuclear magnetic resonance of (59)Co was measured over a wide frequency range in a powder sample crushed from a well-characterized single crystal of La-Co co-substituted magnetoplumbite-type strontium ferrite (SrFe12O19), a familiar base material for the ferrite permanent magnet. The simultaneous observation of both high- and low-frequency resonances suggests the coexistence of both high- and low-spin states of the substituted Co or the presence of Co orbital moment at a particular site. The possible presence of trivalent Co was also investigated. The results suggest that the Co atoms are distributed across different crystallographic sites with different local environments, and that the electronic state of Co is much more subtle than the conventional understanding.

  13. "Spectral implementation" for creating a labeled pseudo-pure state and the Bernstein-Vazirani algorithm in a four-qubit nuclear magnetic resonance quantum processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xinhua; Zhu, Xiwen; Fang, Ximing; Feng, Mang; Liu, Maili; Gao, Kelin

    2004-02-22

    A quantum circuit is introduced to describe the preparation of a labeled pseudo-pure state by multiplet-component excitation scheme which has been experimentally implemented on a 4-qubit nuclear magnetic resonance quantum processor. Meanwhile, we theoretically analyze and numerically investigate the low-power selective single-pulse implementation of a controlled-rotation gate, which manifests its validity in our experiment. Based on the labeled pseudo-pure state prepared, a 3-qubit Bernstein-Vazirani algorithm has been experimentally demonstrated by spectral implementation. The "answers" of the computations are identified from the split peak positions in the spectra of the observer spin, which are equivalent to projective measurements required by the algorithms.

  14. Solid-state Marx based two-switch voltage modulator for the On-Line Isotope Mass Separator accelerator at the European Organization for Nuclear Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo, L M; Silva, J Fernando; Canacsinh, H; Ferrão, N; Mendes, C; Soares, R; Schipper, J; Fowler, A

    2010-07-01

    A new circuit topology is proposed to replace the actual pulse transformer and thyratron based resonant modulator that supplies the 60 kV target potential for the ion acceleration of the On-Line Isotope Mass Separator accelerator, the stability of which is critical for the mass resolution downstream separator, at the European Organization for Nuclear Research. The improved modulator uses two solid-state switches working together, each one based on the Marx generator concept, operating as series and parallel switches, reducing the stress on the series stacked semiconductors, and also as auxiliary pulse generator in order to fulfill the target requirements. Preliminary results of a 10 kV prototype, using 1200 V insulated gate bipolar transistors and capacitors in the solid-state Marx circuits, ten stages each, with an electrical equivalent circuit of the target, are presented, demonstrating both the improved voltage stability and pulse flexibility potential wanted for this new modulator.

  15. Direct observation of electronic and nuclear ground state splitting in external magnetic field by inelastic neutron scattering on oxidized ferrocene and ferrocene containing polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Appel Markus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The quantum mechanical splitting of states by interaction of a magnetic moment with an external magnetic field is well known, e.g., as Zeeman effect in optical transitions, and is also often seen in magnetic neutron scattering. We report excitations observed in inelastic neutron spectroscopy on the redox-responsive polymer poly(vinylferrocene. They are interpreted as splitting of the electronic ground state in the organometallic ferrocene units attached to the polymer chain where a magnetic moment is created by oxidation. In a second experiment using high resolution neutron backscattering spectroscopy we observe the hyperfine splitting, i.e., interaction of nuclear magnetic moments with external magnetic fields leading to sub-μeV excitations observable in incoherent neutron spin-flip scattering on hydrogen and vanadium nuclei.

  16. Analysis of a nuclear accident: fission and activation product releases from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear facility as remote indicators of source identification, extent of release, and state of damaged spent nuclear fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwantes, Jon M; Orton, Christopher R; Clark, Richard A

    2012-08-21

    Researchers evaluated radionuclide measurements of environmental samples taken from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear facility and reported on the Tokyo Electric Power Co. Website following the 2011 tsunami-initiated catastrophe. This effort identified Units 1 and 3 as the major source of radioactive contamination to the surface soil near the facility. Radionuclide trends identified in the soils suggested that: (1) chemical volatility driven by temperature and reduction potential within the vented reactors' primary containment vessels dictated the extent of release of radiation; (2) all coolant had likely evaporated by the time of venting; and (3) physical migration through the fuel matrix and across the cladding wall were minimally effective at containing volatile species, suggesting damage to fuel bundles was extensive. Plutonium isotopic ratios and their distance from the source indicated that the damaged reactors were the major contributor of plutonium to surface soil at the source, decreasing rapidly with distance from the facility. Two independent evaluations estimated the fraction of the total plutonium inventory released to the environment relative to cesium from venting Units 1 and 3 to be ∼0.002-0.004%. This study suggests significant volatile radionuclides within the spent fuel at the time of venting, but not as yet observed and reported within environmental samples, as potential analytes of concern for future environmental surveys around the site. The majority of the reactor inventories of isotopes of less volatile elements like Pu, Nb, and Sr were likely contained within the damaged reactors during venting.

  17. Nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sang, David (Bishop Luffa Comprehensive School, Chichester (UK))

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear Physics covers the aspects of radioactivity and nuclear physics dealt with in the syllabuses of all the A-level examination boards; in particular, it provides detailed coverage of the Joint Matriculation Board option in nuclear physics. It deals with the discovery of the atomic nucleus, the physics of nuclear processes, and nuclear technology. (author).

  18. 76 FR 40945 - Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 2, LLC, Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 3, LLC, Entergy Nuclear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY...] Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 2, LLC, Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 3, LLC, Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.... Schneiderman, Attorney General for the State of New York, the petitioner, has asked the U.S. Nuclear...

  19. Zero-quantum frequency-selective recoupling of homonuclear dipole-dipole interactions in solid state nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kan-Nian; Tycko, Robert

    2009-07-28

    We describe a method for measuring magnetic dipole-dipole interactions, and hence distances, between pairs of like nuclear spins in a many-spin system under magic-angle spinning (MAS). This method employs a homonuclear dipolar recoupling sequence that creates an average dipole-dipole coupling Hamiltonian under MAS with full zero-quantum symmetry, including both secular and flip-flop terms. Flip-flop terms are then attenuated by inserting rotor-synchronized periods of chemical shift evolution between recoupling blocks, leaving an effective Hamiltonian that contains only secular terms to a good approximation. Couplings between specific pairs of nuclear spins can then be selected with frequency-selective pi pulses. We demonstrate this technique, which we call zero-quantum shift evolution assisted homonuclear recoupling, in a series of one-dimensional and two-dimensional (13)C NMR experiments at 17.6 T and 40.00 kHz MAS frequency on uniformly (13)C-labeled L-threonine powder and on the helix-forming peptide MB(i+4)EK, synthesized with a pair of uniformly (13)C-labeled L-alanine residues. Experimental demonstrations include measurements of distances between (13)C sites that are separated by three bonds, placing quantitative constraints on both sidechain and backbone torsion angles in polypeptides.

  20. History of Nuclear India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Ram

    2000-04-01

    India emerged as a free and democratic country in 1947, and entered into the nuclear age in 1948 by establishing the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), with Homi Bhabha as the chairman. Later on the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) was created under the Office of the Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru. Initially the AEC and DAE received international cooperation, and by 1963 India had two research reactors and four nuclear power reactors. In spite of the humiliating defeat in the border war by China in 1962 and China's nuclear testing in 1964, India continued to adhere to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. On May 18, 1974 India performed a 15 kt Peaceful Nuclear Explosion (PNE). The western powers considered it nuclear weapons proliferation and cut off all financial and technical help, even for the production of nuclear power. However, India used existing infrastructure to build nuclear power reactors and exploded both fission and fusion devices on May 11 and 13, 1998. The international community viewed the later activity as a serious road block for the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty; both deemed essential to stop the spread of nuclear weapons. India considers these treaties favoring nuclear states and is prepared to sign if genuine nuclear disarmament is included as an integral part of these treaties.