WorldWideScience

Sample records for kaolin particle film

  1. Side effects of kaolin particle films on apple orchard bug, beetle and spider communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marko, V.; Bogya, S.; Kondorosy, E.; Blommers, L.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of multiple applications of hydrophobic kaolin particle film on apple orchard bug (Heteroptera), beetle (Coleoptera) and spider (Araneae) assemblages were studied in the Netherlands. Insecticide-free orchard plots served as a control. The kaolin applications significantly reduced the abu

  2. Side effects of kaolin particle films on apple orchard bug, beetle and spider communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marko, V.; Bogya, S.; Kondorosy, E.; Blommers, L.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of multiple applications of hydrophobic kaolin particle film on apple orchard bug (Heteroptera), beetle (Coleoptera) and spider (Araneae) assemblages were studied in the Netherlands. Insecticide-free orchard plots served as a control. The kaolin applications significantly reduced the abu

  3. Side effects of kaolin particle films on apple orchard bug, beetle and spider communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marko, V.; Bogya, S.; Kondorosy, E.; Blommers, L.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of multiple applications of hydrophobic kaolin particle film on apple orchard bug (Heteroptera), beetle (Coleoptera) and spider (Araneae) assemblages were studied in the Netherlands. Insecticide-free orchard plots served as a control. The kaolin applications significantly reduced the

  4. Kaolin particle films suppress many apple pests, disrupt natural enemies and promote woolly apple aphid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markó, V.; Blommers, L.H.M.; Bogya, S.; Helsen, H.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Multiple applications of hydrophobic kaolin particle film in apple orchards suppressed numbers of blossom weevil (Anthonomus pomorum), brown leaf weevil (Phyllobius oblongus), attelabid weevil (Caenorhinus pauxillus), leafhoppers (Empoasca vitis and Zygina flammigera) and green apple aphid (Aphis

  5. Potential of Kaolin-based Particle Film Barriers for Formosan Subterranean Termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of three particle film products on Formosan subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were evaluated in feeding, tunneling, and contact assays. The particle films, hydrophobic M96-018 and hydrophilic Surround and Surround WP are based on the inert clay mineral kaolin. In 2-week ...

  6. Repellency of a kaolin particle film to potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), on tomato under laboratory and field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Linian; Trumble, John T; Munyaneza, Joseph E; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2011-07-01

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli, is a vector of Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum, causing several diseases in solanaceous crops. Laboratory and field no-choice and choice experiments were conducted to evaluate the repellency of kaolin particle film on adults of B. cockerelli on tomato plants that had been sprayed with kaolin particle film on the upper surface only, on the lower surface only and on both leaf surfaces. In no-choice tests in the laboratory, the numbers of adults on leaves were not different between the kaolin particle film and the water control, regardless of which leaf surface(s) were treated, but numbers of eggs were lower on the leaves treated with kaolin particle film than on those treated with water. In choice tests on plants treated with water/plants treated with kaolin particle film at ratios of 1:1, 6:3 or 8:1, fewer adults and eggs were found on the leaves treated with kaolin particle film than on leaves treated with water. Under field conditions, in caged no-choice or choice tests, fewer adults, eggs and nymphs were found on plants treated with kaolin particle film than on plants treated with water. In an uncaged test under field conditions, plants sprayed with kaolin particle film had fewer psyllids than those sprayed with water. Even though potato psyllid adults could land on plants treated with kaolin particle film when no choice was given, fewer eggs were laid. When given a choice, the psyllids avoided plants treated with kaolin particle film under laboratory and field conditions. Kaolin particle film treatment may be a useful alternative for management of potato psyllids under field conditions. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Evaluation of hydrophobic and hydrophilic kaolin particle films for peach crop, arthropod and disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalancette, Norman; Belding, Robert D; Shearer, Peter W; Frecon, Jerome L; Tietjen, William H

    2005-01-01

    Hydrophobic and/or hydrophilic kaolin particle film treatments to peach (Prunus persica (L) Batsch) trees were evaluated for crop and pest management capabilities in six studies from 1997 to 2000. Unsprayed control and standard treatments, the latter consisting of a commercial pesticide program, were included for comparison. Treatments in initial studies were applied via handgun, which resulted in a uniform and heavy deposit of kaolin after the first application. In contrast, treatments in subsequent studies used airblast equipment, which provided a uniform but less dense coverage, even after multiple applications. Results showed that both formulations of kaolin provided control of oriental fruit moth (Grapholita molesta (Busck)), plum curculio (Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst)) and Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica Newman) that was comparable with or better than the standard pesticide program. Effective management of late season catfacing insects (tarnished plant bugs Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) and stinkbugs Acrosternum hilare (Say), Euschistus servus (Say), and E tristigmus (Say)) and leafrollers (undetermined species) was also observed, although kaolin applications significantly increased phytophagous mite (Panonychus ulmi (Koch)) levels. In contrast to arthropod management, kaolin failed to control either peach scab (Cladosporium carpophilum (Von Thumen)) or rusty spot (Podosphaera leucotricha (Ell and Ev) ES Salmon) in any of the 4 years of the study. However, hydrophobic kaolin provided effective brown rot (Monilinia fructicola (G Winter) Honey) control when applied via handgun, and partial control when applied via airblast; hydrophilic kaolin failed to provide any control. These results suggest that hydrophobicity and deposit density may be important factors for effective disease management. The application of kaolin significantly delayed fruit maturation, increased fruit size and increased soluble solids relative to the standard. This effect

  8. The mechanisms of plant stress mitigation by kaolin-based particle films and its applications in horticultural and agricultural crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaolin-based particle films have utility in reducing insect, heat, light, and uv stress in plants due to the reflective nature of the particles. Particle films with a residue density of 1 to 3 g/ square meter have been evaluated in a range of crops and agricultural environments. The particle film ...

  9. Repellency of a kaolin particle film to potato payllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) on tomato under laboratory and field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli, is a vector of “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum,” the bacterium causing several diseases in solanaceous crops. Laboratory and field no-choice and choice experiments were conducted to evaluate repellency of kaolin particle film on adults of B. cockerel...

  10. Kaolin particle film and water deficit influence red winegrape color under high solar radiation in an arid climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main and interactive effects of a kaolin-based particle film and water deficit severity on vine and berry attributes were evaluated in the warm, semi-arid climate of southwestern Idaho over three growing seasons in the cultivars Cabernet Sauvignon and Malbec. Berry concentrations of total anthocyan...

  11. Effect of Deficit Irrigation and Kaolin-based Foliar Reflectant Particle Film on Aroma of cv. Merlot (Vitis vinifera L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water deficit during development of red-skinned wine grape enhances berry composition for wine production but increases risk of fruit exposure to deleterious levels of heat and/or solar radiation. Foliar application of a kaolin-based particle film has been shown in many crops to alleviate stress sym...

  12. Influence of mixtures of kaolin particle film and synthetic insecticides on mortality of larval obliquebanded leafrollers (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from resistant and susceptible populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirle, Michael J; Lowery, D Thomas; Zurowski, Cheryl L

    2007-12-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine potential interactions between kaolin particle film and three insecticides on neonate larvae of the obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Kaolin did not significantly affect the toxicity of azinphosmethyl or indoxacarb to an insecticide-susceptible population when applied simultaneously with either insecticide in a 7-d leaf disk bioassay. Methoxyfenozide was slightly more toxic to the same leafroller population when coapplied with kaolin. When these bioassays were repeated on a multiresistant laboratory strain of C. rosaceana, mixtures of kaolin with either azinphosmethyl or indoxacarb were significantly more toxic than the insecticides alone, 3.1- and 7.7-fold more toxic for azinphosmethyl:kaolin and indoxacarb:kaolin, respectively. Mixtures of kaolin and methoxyfenozide did not differ in toxicity to the resistant leafroller population from the toxicity of methoxyfenozide alone. Kaolin alone had no effect on leafroller mortality over the 7-d duration of the bioassay. Although the toxicities of mixtures of kaolin with azinphosmethyl or indoxacarb are only moderately higher than those of the insecticides alone, they may be high enough to provide control of leafroller populations that have become difficult to manage due to the development of insecticide resistance.

  13. The efficacy of kaolin particle film on oil quality indices of olive trees (Olea europaea L.) cv 'Zard' grown under warm and semi-arid region of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleghi, Esmaeil; Arzani, Kazem; Moallemi, Norollah; Barzegar, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Kaolin particle film (0%, 3% and 6%; w/v), as an antitranspirant treatment, was applied to mature 'Zard' olive trees (Olea europaea L.). Olive oil was extracted from harvested fruit and fatty acid composition and other oil quality indices of the fruit assessed over crop seasons. Kaolin increased chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, but decreased peroxide and iodine values, and UV absorbance extinction coefficients, of the oil. The highest palmitic acid was observed in the oil obtained from untreated trees (17%). Kaolin increased oleic acid up to 65% and 64% in the first and second crop seasons, respectively, but decreased linoleic and linolenic acid contents. Monounsaturated acids (65%) and oleic acid/linoleic acid ratios (4) were higher in oil obtained from kaolin treated than untreated trees. Therefore it can be expected that extracted olive oil from kaolin treated trees has a higher oxidative stability and shelf life than untreated trees. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of deficit irrigation and kaolin particle film on grape composition and volatile compounds in Merlot grape (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jianqiang; Shellie, Krista C; Wang, Hua; Qian, Michael C

    2012-09-15

    The effect of deficit irrigation and a kaolin-based, foliar reflectant particle film (PF) on grape composition and volatile compounds in Merlot grapes was investigated over two growing seasons in semi-arid, south-western Idaho. Vines were provided with differential amounts of water based on their estimated crop evapotranspiration (ET(c)) throughout berry development, and particle film was applied to half of the vines in each irrigation main plot. Free and bound volatile compounds in grapes were analyzed using stir bar sorptive extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SBSE-GC-MS). The concentrations of free C(6) compounds (hexanal, trans-2-hexenal, and 1-hexanol) decreased, and bound terpene alcohols (nerol and geraniol) and C(13)-norisoprenoids (β-damascenone, 3-hydroxy-β-damascenone, 1,1,6-trimethyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalene, and 3-oxo-α-ionol) increased in berries each year in response to severity of vine water stress. Concentrations of C(13)-norisoprenoids and bound forms of nerol and geraniol were positively correlated with their concentrations in the corresponding wines. Particle film application had minimum effect on free and bound volatile composition in the grapes, and there was no interactive effect between particle film and deficit irrigation. However, particle film application enhanced the total amount of berry anthocyanins. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Wine Grape Response to Foliar Kaolin Particle Film under Differential Deficit Irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deficit irrigation improves grape quality for wine production. However, under arid production regions with high solar radiation, water stress may render the vine more susceptible to solar injury and inhibit fruit ripening. This is the first year of a multiyear study to examine the impact of kaolin...

  16. Volatile compounds and sensory attributes of wine from cv. Merlot (Vitis vinifera L.) grown under differential levels of water deficit with or without a kaolin-based, foliar reflectant particle film

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influences on wine volatile composition and wine sensory attributes from a foliar application of a kaolin-based particle film on vines under differing levels of water deficit were evaluated over three consecutive seasons for the cultivar Merlot grown in the high desert region of southwestern Ida...

  17. Effectiveness of kaolin clay particle film in managing Helopeltis collaris (Hemiptera: Miridae), a major pest of cacao in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helopeltis collaris Stal, commonly known as cacao mirid or capsid bug is one of the major pests of cacao in Southeast Asia. Recent survey of cacao pests in the Philippines showed that cacao mirid bug is causing significant yield loss particularly in cacao growing areas in Luzon. Kaolin is a naturall...

  18. Kaolin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virta, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    The article reports on the market performance of kaolin in the U.S. in 2009 and presents an outlook for its 2010 performance. There was a decline in the domestic sales of kaolin from 6.74 measurement ton (Mt) to 5.2 Mt. Companies in the country engaged in kaolin production include Advanced Primary Minerals Corp., Applied Minerals Inc., and Daleco Resources Corp. The decline in world production of kaolin from 2008 to 2009 is also noted.

  19. Effect of kaolin particle size and loading on the characteristics of kaolin ceramic support prepared via phase inversion technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Khadijah Hubadillah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, low cost ceramic supports were prepared from kaolin via phase inversion technique with two kaolin particle sizes, which are 0.04–0.6 μm (denoted as type A and 10–15 μm (denoted as type B, at different kaolin contents ranging from 14 to 39 wt.%, sintered at 1200 °C. The effect of kaolin particle sizes as well as kaolin contents on membrane structure, pore size distribution, porosity, mechanical strength, surface roughness and gas permeation of the support were investigated. The support was prepared using kaolin type A induced asymmetric structure by combining macroporous voids and sponge-like structure in the support with pore size of 0.38 μm and 1.05 μm, respectively, and exhibited ideal porosity (27.7%, great mechanical strength (98.9 MPa and excellent gas permeation. Preliminary study shows that the kaolin ceramic support in this work is potential to gas separation application at lower cost.

  20. Thinning of kaolin slurry

    OpenAIRE

    Vlasák, Pavel

    2002-01-01

    After mixing kaolin with water attractive and repulsive forces between kaolin particles initiate process of coagulation and peptisation, respectively. The coagulation process in the kaolin slurry gives rise to voluminous aggregates of kaolin particles, where a great deal of water is fixed.

  1. Effects of humic acid on physical and hydrodynamic properties of kaolin flocs by particle image velocimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Runsheng; Zhang, Xihui; Xiao, Feng; Li, Xiaoyan; Cai, Zhonghua

    2011-07-01

    The physical and hydrodynamic properties of kaolin flocs including floc size, strength, regrowth, fractal structure and settling velocity were investigated by in situ particle image velocimetry technique at different humic acid concentration. Jar-test experimental results showed that the adsorbed humic acid had a significant influence on the coagulation process for alum and ferric chloride. Kaolin flocs formed with the ferric chloride were larger and stronger than those for alum at same humic acid concentration. Floc strength and regrowth were estimated by strength factor and recovery factor at different humic acid concentration. It was found that the increased humic acid concentration had a slight influence on the strength of kaolin flocs and resulted in much worse floc regrowth. In addition, the floc regrowth after breakage depended on the shear history and coagulants under investigation. The changes in fractal structure recorded continuously by in situ particle image velocimetry technique during the growth-breakage-regrowth processes provided a supporting information that the kaolin flocs exhibited a multilevel structure. It was proved that the increased humic acid concentration resulted in decrease in mass fractal dimension of kaolin flocs and consequently worse sedimentation performance through free-settling and microbalance techniques. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fire performance of fiber board coated with nano kaolin-clay film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhijia Liu; John F. Hunt; Zhiyong Cai

    2013-01-01

    Fiberboard is a common interior material used both in China and the United States of America. The increase in demand for interior materials has raised concerns regarding combustibility of the materials. The pyrolysis characteristics of fiber, phenolic resin (PF), and nano kaolin-clay (NK) were investigated using thermogravimetry. The fire performances of samples coated...

  3. Particle film affects black pecan aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) on pecan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Ted E; Wood, Bruce W; Reilly, Charles C

    2002-08-01

    Three species of aphids attack pecan foliage, Carya illinoensis (Wang.) K. Koch, and cause economic damage. We tested a kaolin-based particle film against one of these aphid species, black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae (Davis). Effect of particle film on host selection, adult mortality, and production of nymphs by M. caryaefoliae was tested on seedling pecans in the laboratory. Fewer M. caryaefoliae adults selected treated foliage compared with untreated foliage. A higher percentage of adults that did select treated foliage were recovered from upper leaf surfaces compared with the percentage of adults recovered from upper leaf surfaces of untreated leaves. Observations with a microscope revealed an accumulation of particle film on aphid body parts, especially on tarsi, and strongly suggests that aphid mobility was restricted. Adult mortality was higher on treated foliage and led to an overall decrease in production of nymphs on those seedlings. In addition, we measured spectral properties of treated seedling pecan foliage. Light reflectance by treated foliage was increased and absorptance decreased compared with control foliage whereas transmittance of light through control and particle film-treated leaves was similar. We did not detect any phytotoxic effect on pecan due to application of particle film.

  4. 纳米高岭土/PE的制备及其在食品包装膜中的应用%Preparation of Nano-kaolin/PE and Its Application to Food Packaging Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国喜; 宋海南; 章于川; 刘言顺

    2011-01-01

    The nano-kaolin was modified by a new kind of macromolecular surface treatment The results of FTIR and XPS spectra show that the macromolecules are bound on the surface of nano-kaolin particles through chemical bond. Nano-kaolin/PE composites were prepared by melt-mixing process, and the composites were characterized. The composites were applied to food packaging film with three layers as middle and outer layers. The detection results show that the mechanical properties, heat sealing performance and friction coefficient of the food packaging film are better than those of PE film, the amount of steam and oxygen permeation decrease by 46.4%, 31.7%, respectively.%采用新型大分子表面处理剂对纳米高岭土进行表面处理,红外光谱仪(FTIR)和光电子能谱仪(XPS)分析表明,大分子表面处理剂和纳米高岭土的表面发生化学键合.将处理后的高岭土与聚乙烯(PE)熔融共混,制备纳米高岭土/PE复合材料,并对复合材料进行表征.将复合材料作为3层共挤出膜的中间层及外层,制备食品包装膜.检测结果显示:用复合材料制备的食品包装膜的力学性能、热封性能、摩擦因数均优于PE膜;复合膜的水蒸气透过量降低46.4%,氧气透过量降低31.7%.

  5. Viscosity of particle laden films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timounay, Yousra; Rouyer, Florence

    2017-06-01

    We perform retraction experiments on soap films where large particles bridge the two interfaces. Local velocities are measured by PIV during the unstationnary regime. The velocity variation in time and space can be described by a continuous fluid model from which effective viscosity (shear and dilatational) of particulate films is measured. The 2D effective viscosity of particulate films η2D increases with particle surface fraction ϕ: at low ϕ, it tends to the interfacial dilatational viscosity of the liquid/air interfaces and it diverges at the critical particle surface fraction ϕc ≃ 0.84. Experimental data agree with classical viscosity laws of hard spheres suspensions adapted to the 2D geometry, assuming viscous dissipation resulting from the squeeze of the liquid/air interfaces between the particles. Finally, we show that the observed viscous dissipation in particulate films has to be considered to describe the edge velocity during a retraction experiment at large particle coverage.

  6. RHEOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR OF KAOLIN TOUGHENED POLYPROPYLENE COMPOSITES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OU Yuchun; FANG Xiaoping; FENG Yupeng

    1997-01-01

    The relation between the rheological behavior and various interfacial properties of Kaolin rigid particle toughened polypropylene(PP/Kaolin) composites were studied by means of parallel-plate rheometer, melt flow rate apparatus, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and other testing methods. The results show that addition of interfacial modifier to PP/Kaolin composites is advantageous to homogeneous dispersion of filler in PP matrix,formation of flexible interlayer between Kaolin particles and PP matrix and improvement of the melt processibility of the composites.

  7. Kaolin-based foliar reflectant alleviates heat stress in deficit-irrigated Malbec

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the interaction effects of a kaolin-based particle film and water deficit on leaf and berry surface temperature, light reflectance, gas exchange characteristics, berry composition and yield of Malbec vines under field conditions over three growing seasons to test the hypothesis that the...

  8. Integrating Plant Essential Oils and Kaolin for the Sustainable Management of Thrips and Tomato Spotted Wilt on Tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrips-vectored Tomato spotted wilt virus is one of the most devastating pest complexes affecting tomato in the southern USA and elsewhere. Field trials were conducted over two years to determine the effects of volatile plant essential oils and kaolin based particle films on the incidence of Tomato...

  9. Nitrate Adsorption on Clay Kaolin: Batch Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Mohsenipour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soils possessing kaolin, gibbsite, goethite, and hematite particles have been found to have a natural capacity to attenuate pollution in aqueous phase. On the other hand, the hydroxyl group in soil increases anion exchange capacity under a low pH condition. The main objective of this paper was to evaluate effects of kaolin on nitrate reduction under acidic condition. In order to analyze the kaolin adsorption behaviour under various conditions, four different concentrations of nitrate, 45, 112.5, 225, and 450 mgNO3-/L, with a constant pH equal to 2, constant temperature equal to 25°C, and exposure period varying from 0 to 150 minutes were considered. The capacity of nitrate adsorption on kaolin has also been studied involving two well-known adsorption isotherm models, namely, Freundlich and Longmuir. The results revealed that approximately 25% of the nitrate present in the solution was adsorbed on clay kaolin. The laboratory experimental data revealed that Freundlich adsorption isotherm model was more accurate than Longmuir adsorption model in predicting of nitrate adsorption. Furthermore, the retardation factor of nitrate pollution in saturated zone has been found to be approximately 4 in presence of kaolin, which indicated that kaolin can be used for natural scavenger of pollution in the environment.

  10. Comparison of the topical haemostatic efficacy of nano-micro particles of clinoptilolite and kaolin in a rat model of haemorrhagic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayır, A; Eryılmaz, M; Demirbilek, M; Denkbaş, E B; Arzıman, I; Durusu, M

    2016-02-01

    This study was designed to investigate if the potential haemostatic efficacy of gauze-impregnated clinoptilolite created with nano-technology is as strong as the widely used kaolin to control pulsatile arterial bleeding due to major vascular injury. 42 rats were separated into three groups of kaolin, clinoptilolite and control groups. The femoral artery was isolated and active arterial haemorrhage was performed. After 30 s of free arterial haemorrhage, compression was applied with a standard 100 g scale and haemostasis was assessed at the 1st, 3rd and 5th minutes. All groups were observed throughout 60 min for survival without any fluid resuscitation and the mean arterial pressure, pulse, body/surface temperature and arterial blood gas values were measured. In the control group, haemostasis did not develop in any of the 12 rats and the survival rate was 5/12 (41.66 %). In the kaolin group, haemostasis developed in seven rats and of these, bleeding reoccurred in four. The survival rate was 10/13 (76.92 %). In the clinoptilolite group, haemostasis developed in eight rats and bleeding recurred in only one. The survival rate was 100 %. In terms of survival, the clinoptilolite and kaolin groups showed superiority to the control group (p = 0.002, p = 0.082). In the evaluation of recurrent haemorrhaging in the rats with haemostasis, clinoptilolite was observed to provide better coagulation than kaolin. A statistically significant difference was determined in clinoptilolite and kaolin group, when they are separately compared with the control group in respect of the effect on MAP, HCO3 (-), lactate, base excess, haemostasis duration and survival rates. The effect of clinoptilolite on haemostasis and survival time was observed to be at least as good as that of kaolin; therefore, clinoptilolite can be used as an active ingredient in a topical haemostat.

  11. Chemical treatment of kaolin. Case study of kaolin from the Tamazert– Jijel mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Chouafa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tamazert-Jijel kaolin deposit is located in eastern Algeria, It was formed during a process of hydro-thermal alteration of feldspars rich in potassium. Kaolin, obtained at the mine, mainly contains varying amounts of impurities such as iron oxide (Fe2O3 and anatase (TiO2. These components negatively affect the quality of the commercial product. This research was performed to improve the quality of kaolin to be used in the paper industry with the goal of reducing the impurities of iron and titanium oxides. Different sized fractions of the original sample were analyzed by XRD. The results obtained showed that the mineralogical composition is: quartz, muscovite, kaolinite, dolomite, albite and orthoclase. Kaolin, like all clays, has a thin dissemination of minerals throughout it. After processing kaolin, the particle size fraction of less than 45μm, corresponding to the liberation mesh size, was retained for purification by chemical treatment with different acids of different concentrations (hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, acetic acid, heated to boiling point temperatures. The kaolin samples treated with the various acids above were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence and by XRD. The results obtained from the sample treated with hydrochloric acid show that the iron oxide content of acid is reduced by 1.65% to 0.88%. Meanwhile, the brightness of the sample reached 90% under the effect of the treatment with hydrochloric acid at concentration of 2 mole/dm3.

  12. Characterization of Kaolin as Nano Material for High Quality Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadzil M. A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At the moment utilisation of nano technology in every aspect in human life were growing rapidly. In this research, a new nano material was produce from kaolin clay and compare to OPC in terms of surface analysis, particle sizing and micrograph image on new modification of kaolin clay particles. Kaolin clay was established in two processes which are before and after heat treatment. Apart from that, transformation of kaolin clay to nano material was monitor by using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM and new nano materials were formed. Those images were supported by X Ray Diffraction analysis (XRD, X Ray Fluorescence (XRF and laser particle analyser to see the chemical composition and particle size for all specimens. A combination of rough, smooth and long section can be analysed. From this analysis a new develops nano materials can be achieved and can be utilised especially for construction purposes.

  13. Fluoride retention by kaolin clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kau, P. M. H.; Smith, D. W.; Binning, Philip John

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the potential effectiveness of kaolin clay liners in storage of fluoride contaminated waste, an experimental study of the sorption and desorption behaviour of fluoride in kaolin clay was conducted. The degree of fluoride sorption by kaolin was found to depend on solution p...

  14. Comparing Kaolin and Pinolene to Improve Sustainable Grapevine Production during Drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brillante, Luca; Belfiore, Nicola; Gaiotti, Federica; Lovat, Lorenzo; Sansone, Luigi; Poni, Stefano; Tomasi, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Viticulture is widely practiced in dry regions, where the grapevine is greatly exposed to water stress. Optimizing plant water use efficiency (WUE) without affecting crop yield, grape and wine quality is crucial to limiting use of water for irrigation and to significantly improving viticulture sustainability. This study examines the use in vineyards of particle film technology (engineered kaolin) and compares it to a film-forming antitranspirant (pinolene), traditionally used to limit leaf water loss, and to an untreated control. The trial was carried out under field conditions over three growing seasons, during which moderate to very severe plant water stress (down to -1.9 MPa) was measured through stem water potential. Leaf stomatal conductance (gs) and photosynthesis rate (An) were measured during the seasons and used to compute intrinsic WUE (WUEi, defined as An/gs ratio). Leaf temperature was also recorded and compared between treatments. Bunch quantity, bunch and berry weight, sugar accumulation, anthocyanin and flavonoid contents were measured. Finally, microvinifications were performed and resultant wines subjected to sensory evaluation.Results showed that the use of kaolin increased grapevine intrinsic WUE (+18% on average as compared to unsprayed vines) without affecting berry and bunch weight and quantity, or sugar level. Anthocyanin content increased (+35%) in kaolin treatment, and the wine was judged more attractive (p-value <0.05) and slightly more appreciated (p-value < 0.1) than control. Pinolene did not increase WUEi, limiting An more than gs; grapes with this treatment contained lower sugar and anthocyanin content than control, and the obtained wine was the least appreciated. This study demonstrates that particle film technology can improve vine WUEi and wine quality at the same time, while traditional antitranspirants were not as effective for these purposes. This positive effect can be used in interaction with other already-demonstrated uses of

  15. Comparing Kaolin and Pinolene to Improve Sustainable Grapevine Production during Drought.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Brillante

    Full Text Available Viticulture is widely practiced in dry regions, where the grapevine is greatly exposed to water stress. Optimizing plant water use efficiency (WUE without affecting crop yield, grape and wine quality is crucial to limiting use of water for irrigation and to significantly improving viticulture sustainability. This study examines the use in vineyards of particle film technology (engineered kaolin and compares it to a film-forming antitranspirant (pinolene, traditionally used to limit leaf water loss, and to an untreated control. The trial was carried out under field conditions over three growing seasons, during which moderate to very severe plant water stress (down to -1.9 MPa was measured through stem water potential. Leaf stomatal conductance (gs and photosynthesis rate (An were measured during the seasons and used to compute intrinsic WUE (WUEi, defined as An/gs ratio. Leaf temperature was also recorded and compared between treatments. Bunch quantity, bunch and berry weight, sugar accumulation, anthocyanin and flavonoid contents were measured. Finally, microvinifications were performed and resultant wines subjected to sensory evaluation.Results showed that the use of kaolin increased grapevine intrinsic WUE (+18% on average as compared to unsprayed vines without affecting berry and bunch weight and quantity, or sugar level. Anthocyanin content increased (+35% in kaolin treatment, and the wine was judged more attractive (p-value <0.05 and slightly more appreciated (p-value < 0.1 than control. Pinolene did not increase WUEi, limiting An more than gs; grapes with this treatment contained lower sugar and anthocyanin content than control, and the obtained wine was the least appreciated. This study demonstrates that particle film technology can improve vine WUEi and wine quality at the same time, while traditional antitranspirants were not as effective for these purposes. This positive effect can be used in interaction with other already

  16. Engineering Characteristics of Chemically Treated Water-Repellent Kaolin

    OpenAIRE

    Youngmin Choi; Hyunwook Choo; Tae Sup Yun; Changho Lee; Woojin Lee

    2016-01-01

    Water-repellent soils have a potential as alternative construction materials that will improve conventional geotechnical structures. In this study, the potential of chemically treated water-repellent kaolin clay as a landfill cover material is explored by examining its characteristics including hydraulic and mechanical properties. In order to provide water repellency to the kaolin clay, the surface of clay particle is modified with organosilanes in concentrations (CO) ranging from 0.5% to 10%...

  17. Heteroaggregation of engineered nanoparticles and kaolin clays in aqueous environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongtao; Dong, Ya-nan; Zhu, Miao; Li, Xiang; Keller, Arturo A; Wang, Tao; Li, Fengting

    2015-09-01

    The increasing and wide use of nanoparticles (NPs), including TiO2 and Ag NPs, have raised concerns due to their potential toxicity and environmental impacts. Kaolin is a very common mineral in aquatic systems, and there is a very high probability that nanoparticles (NPs) will interact with these clay minerals. We studied the effect of kaolin particles on the aggregation of NPs under different conditions, including the role of pH, ionic strength (IS), and humic acid (HA). We show that kaolin reduces the energy barrier and the Critical Coagulation Concentration (CCC) at pH 4. At pH 8, even though the energy barrier of the system without kaolin increases, kaolin promotes NP aggregation via heteroaggregation. When IS is equal to or greater than the CCC, on the one hand HA promotes aggregation of TiO2 NPs, but on the other hand HA decreases the rate of Ag NP aggregation because the existence of a surface coating may limit the adsorption of HA on these Ag NPs. In addition, the presence of HA increases the energy barrier and the CCC of the binary system (kaolin + NPs). Thus, the complex interactions of clay, NPs, IS, pH, and HA concentration determine the colloidal stability of the NPs. We find that kaolin is a potential coagulant for removal of NPs that behave like Ag and TiO2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Kaolin clotting time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Kottayam

    2013-01-01

    The kaolin clotting time (KCT) is a sensitive test used in the laboratory detection of lupus anticoagulants (LA) (Derksen and de Groot, Thromb Res 114:521-526, 2004). It is essentially an activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) test with no added phospholipid. Kaolin acts as the activator in the KCT. In the absence of additional phospholipid reagent, the quality of the test sample is extremely important since the generation of thrombin completely depends on the presence of residual cell membranes and plasma lipids (Derksen and de Groot, Thromb Res 114:521-526, 2004). Since the test contains no exogenous phospholipid, a confirmatory test using excess phospholipid is required to confirm the presence of lupus anticoagulant in the sample (Court, Br J Biomed Sci 54:287-298, 1997).

  19. Bacterial cellulose-kaolin nanocomposites for application as biomedical wound healing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanna, Dwi; Alam, Catharina; Toivola, Diana M.; Alam, Parvez

    2013-12-01

    This short communication provides preliminary experimental details on the structure-property relationships of novel biomedical kaolin-bacterial cellulose nanocomposites. Bacterial cellulose is an effective binding agent for kaolin particles forming reticulated structures at kaolin-cellulose interfaces and entanglements when the cellulose fraction is sufficiently high. The mechanical performance of these materials hence improves with an increased fraction of bacterial cellulose, though this also causes the rate of blood clotting to decrease. These composites have combined potential as both short-term (kaolin) and long-term (bacterial cellulose) wound healing materials.

  20. ensile and Compressive Properties of Kaolin Rienforced Epoxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabbar Hussein Mohmmed

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The toughening of epoxy resins with the addition of organic or inorganic compounds is of great interest nowadays, considering their large scale of applications. In the present work, composites of epoxy are synthesized with kaolin particles having different particle sizes as reinforcement. Composites of epoxy with varying concentration (0 to 40 weight % of kaolin was prepared by using hand lay method. The variation of mechanical properties such as modulus of elasticity, yield, tensile, and compressive strength with filler content was evaluated. The composite showed improved modulus of elasticity and compressive properties on addition of filler. In contrast, the tensile and yield strength of the composites decreases with rising kaolin content. It is also observed that mechanical properties increase with decrease in particle size in all cases.

  1. Self-standing particle-binding ZnO film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Yoshitake; Kato, Kazumi

    2009-01-01

    Self-standing particle-binding ZnO film was fabricated by combination of crystallization in aqueous solution and annealing on FTO (SnO2:F) coated glass substrate. Multi-needle ZnO particles crystallized in a solution of zinc nitrate hexahydrate and ethylenediamine at 60 degrees C. Crystalline particles having an ultrafine surface relief structure were gradually deposited on the substrate to form thick particulate film. The film was then annealed at 950 degrees C for 1 h in air. The ZnO particles formed necks to connect to each other. The glass substrate deformed into a dome shape generating stress between the ZnO film and substrate; on the other hand, FTO layers retained their uneven surface during annealing. ZnO particulate film was successfully peeled off from the substrate as self-standing film. Deformation of glass substrate and FTO joint-insulating layer supported peeling-off of the film. The connected ZnO particles formed continuous white porous film having many spaces and continuous open pores surrounded by multi-needle ZnO particles. The film can be used as self-standing film and be pasted on substrate such as polymer film, metal or paper for application to flexible lightweight devices.

  2. Effect of surface modified kaolin on properties of polypropylene grafted maleic anhydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ni; Zhang, Zuo-Cai; Ma, Ning; Liu, Huan-Li; Zhan, Xue-Qing; Li, Bing; Gao, Wei; Tsai, Fang-Chang; Jiang, Tao; Chang, Chang-Jung; Chiang, Tai-Chin; Shi, Dean

    To achieve reinforcement of mechanical and thermal performances of polypropylene (PP) product, this work aimed at fabrication of surface modified kaolin (M-kaolin) filled polypropylene grafted maleic anhydride (PP-g-MAH) composites with varying contents of fillers and investigation of their mechanical and thermal properties. And the prepared PP-g-MAH/M-kaolin composites were characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Fracture analysis by SEM showed M-kaolin particles were well dispersed in the PP-g-MAH matrix. Mechanical behaviors were determined by tensile strength, tensile strain at break and impact strength analysis. Impact strength of PP-g-MAH/2 wt% M-kaolin composites was improved up to 30% comparing with unfilled composites. Thermostability had been found enhanced when M-kaolin added. The results revealed PP-g-MAH/M-kaolin composites showed the optimal thermal and mechanical properties when 2 wt% of M-kaolin was added.

  3. Kaolin dust concentrations and pneumoconiosis at a kaolin mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altekruse, E B; Chaudhary, B A; Pearson, M G; Morgan, W K

    1984-01-01

    Kaolin is removed from underground seams in the mining area to a processing area, where it is sliced, dried, and pulverised to make the finished product. A study was undertaken to determine the dust concentrations in various work areas and to assess the prevalence of radiographic and pulmonary function abnormalities in 65 workers at a Georgia kaolin mine. Respirable dust concentrations were higher in the processing area than in the mine or maintenance areas for all determinations from 1977 to 1981. The mean respirable dust level in the processing area in 1981 was 1.74 mg/m3 and 0.14 mg/m3 in the mine area. Five workers, all of whom had worked at the processing area, had radiographic evidence of kaolin pneumoconiosis. The mean values of forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1 of the entire group were within the normal range. When the spirometric values were expressed as a percentage of the predicted values, the FVC and FEV1 were significantly lower in the workers with kaolinosis than in other workers in the processing area. The FVC and FEV1 also declined significantly with increasing years of work in the processing area. The FEV1/FVC%, however, was not significantly altered either by the presence of kaolinosis or by an increasing number of years of work, indicating that the impairment was restrictive and hence likely to be a consequence of dust inhalation rather than smoking. In this study the highest dust concentrations occurred in the processing area, and kaolin pneumoconiosis was limited to those who had worked there. Kaolin exposure appeared to have a small but significant effect on ventilatory capacity in those with kaolin pneumoconiosis and in workers with a longer exposure. There was no association between the radiographic appearances of kaolinosis and cigarette smoking or between the presence of radiographic abnormalities and reduced arterial blood gas tensions. Images PMID:6463912

  4. 21 CFR 186.1256 - Clay (kaolin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Clay (kaolin). 186.1256 Section 186.1256 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1256 Clay (kaolin). (a) Clay (kaolin) Al2O3.2SiO2.nH2O, Cas Reg. No. 1332-58-7) consists of hydrated aluminum silicate. The commercial products of clay (kaolin) contain...

  5. Cracking in thin films of colloidal particles on elastomeric substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael; Sharp, James

    2012-02-01

    The drying of thin colloidal films of particles is a common industrial problem (e.g paint drying, ceramic coatings). An often undesirable side effect is the appearance of cracks. As the liquid in a suspension evaporates, particles are forced into contact both with each other and the substrate, forming a fully wetted film. Under carefully controlled conditions the observed cracks grow orthogonal to the drying front, spaced at regular intervals along it. In this work we investigated the role of the substrate in constraining the film. Atomic force microscopy, was used to image the particle arrangements on the top and bottom surfaces of films, dried on liquid and glass substrates. We present convincing evidence that the interface prevents particle rearrangements at the bottom of the film, leading to a mismatch strain between upper and lower surfaces of the film which appears to drive cracking. We show that when the modulus of the substrate becomes comparable to the stresses measured in the films, the crack spacing is significantly altered. We also show that cracks do not form on liquid substrates. These combined experiments highlight the importance of substrate constraint in the crack formation mechanism.[4pt] [1] M.I. Smith, J.S. Sharp, Langmuir 27, 8009 (2011)

  6. EDR-2 film response to charged particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyers, M F

    2008-05-21

    A useful tool for verifying segmental or dynamic treatments with multiple multi-leaf collimator positions, spinning range modulator propellors or magnetically scanned beams would be a film with a linear dose response up to several hundred centiGray, as typical for delivered treatments. Kodak has released an extended range film (EDR-2) that may satisfy this desire. In this study, dose response curves were obtained for several electron, proton, carbon ion and iron ion beams of different energies to determine the utility of this film.

  7. Adsorption characteristics of brilliant green dye on kaolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, B K; Goswami, A; Purkait, M K

    2009-01-15

    Experimental investigations were carried out to adsorb toxic brilliant green dye from aqueous medium using kaolin as an adsorbent. Characterization of kaolin is done by measuring: (i) particle size distribution using particle size analyzer, (ii) BET surface area using BET surface analyzer, and (iii) structural analysis using X-ray diffractometer. The effects of initial dye concentration, contact time, kaolin dose, stirring speed, pH and temperature were studied for the adsorption of brilliant green in batch mode. Adsorption experiments indicate that the extent of adsorption is strongly dependent on pH of solution. Free energy of adsorption (DeltaG0), enthalpy (DeltaH0) and entropy (DeltaS0) changes are calculated to know the nature of adsorption. The calculated values of DeltaG0 at 299K and 323K indicate that the adsorption process is spontaneous. The estimated values of DeltaH0 and DeltaS0 both show the negative sign, which indicate that the adsorption process is exothermic and the dye molecules are organized on the kaolin surface in less randomly fashion than in solution. The adsorption kinetic has been described by first-order, pseudo-second-order and intra-particle-diffusion models. It was observed that the rate of dye adsorption follows pseudo-second-order model for the dye concentration range studied in the present case. Standard adsorption isotherms were used to fit the experimental equilibrium data. It was found that the adsorption of brilliant green on kaolin follows the Langmuir adsorption isotherm.

  8. Kaolin Geopolymer as Precursor to Ceramic Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya Nur Ain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduced the potential application of kaolin geopolymer as ceramic precursor. This is one of the alternatives to produce high strength ceramic at a slightly lower temperature. Upon sintering the conversion of geopolymer to ceramic occur. The kaolin used were characterized using XRF and has plate-like structure upon investigating through microstructural analysis. Geopolymer mixture is produced using 12 M NaOH molarity with the Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio of 0.24. The sintering temperature used were ranging from 900 °C to 1200 °C. The flexural strength showed the highest value of 88.47 MPa when sintered at 1200 °C. The combination of geopolymerization and sintering has attributed to the strength increment as temperature increased. The density is observed to increase with increasing sintering temperature due to the appearance of the close pores in the structure. Sintering of the geopolymer resulted in the formation of liquid phase, which enables the joining of particles to produce dense microstructure.

  9. Nanostructured films of metal particles obtained by laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muniz-Miranda, M., E-mail: muniz@unifi.it [Dipartimento di Chimica “U. Schiff”, Università di Firenze, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Gellini, C. [Dipartimento di Chimica “U. Schiff”, Università di Firenze, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Giorgetti, E.; Margheri, G.; Marsili, P. [Istituto Sistemi Complessi (CNR), Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Lascialfari, L.; Becucci, L. [Dipartimento di Chimica “U. Schiff”, Università di Firenze, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Trigari, S. [Istituto Sistemi Complessi (CNR), Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Giammanco, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica “E. Fermi”, Università di Pisa, Largo Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2013-09-30

    Colloidal dispersions of silver and gold nanoparticles were obtained in pure water by ablation with nanosecond pulsed laser. Then, by filtration of the metal particles on alumina, we fabricated nanostructured films, whose surface morphology was examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and related to surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) after adsorption of adenine. - Highlights: • Ag and Au colloidal nanoparticles were obtained by laser ablation. • Nanostructured Ag and Au films were fabricated by filtration of metal nanoparticles. • Surface morphology of metal films was investigated by atomic force microscopy. • Surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) of adenine on metal films were obtained. • SERS enhancements were related to the surface roughness of the metal films.

  10. Thermally reduced kaolin-graphene oxide nanocomposites for gas sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Renyun; Alecrim, Viviane; Hummelgård, Magnus; Andres, Britta; Forsberg, Sven; Andersson, Mattias; Olin, Håkan

    2015-01-01

    Highly sensitive graphene-based gas sensors can be made using large-area single layer graphene, but the cost of large-area pure graphene is high, making the simpler reduced graphene oxide (rGO) an attractive alternative. To use rGO for gas sensing, however, require a high active surface area and slightly different approach is needed. Here, we report on a simple method to produce kaolin-graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposites and an application of this nanocomposite as a gas sensor. The nanocomposite was made by binding the GO flakes to kaolin with the help of 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES). The GO flakes in the nanocomposite were contacting neighboring GO flakes as observed by electron microscopy. After thermal annealing, the nanocomposite become conductive as showed by sheet resistance measurements. Based on the conductance changes of the nanocomposite films, electrical gas sensing devices were made for detecting NH3 and HNO3. These devices had a higher sensitivity than thermally annealed multilayer GO films. This kaolin-GO nanocomposite might be useful in applications that require a low-cost material with large conductive surface area including the demonstrated gas sensors.

  11. Evaporation of Particle-Stabilized Emulsion Sunscreen Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Bernard P; Fletcher, Paul D I; Johnson, Andrew J; Marinopoulos, Ioannis; Crowther, Jonathan M; Thompson, Michael A

    2016-08-24

    We recently showed (Binks et al., ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 2016, DOI: 10.1021/acsami.6b02696) how evaporation of sunscreen films consisting of solutions of molecular UV filters leads to loss of UV light absorption and derived sun protection factor (SPF). In the present work, we investigate evaporation-induced effects for sunscreen films consisting of particle-stabilized emulsions containing a dissolved UV filter. The emulsions contained either droplets of propylene glycol (PG) in squalane (SQ), droplets of SQ in PG or droplets of decane in PG. In these different emulsion types, the SQ is involatile and shows no evaporation, the PG is volatile and evaporates relatively slowly, whereas the decane is relatively very volatile and evaporates quickly. We have measured the film mass and area, optical micrographs of the film structure, and the UV absorbance spectra during evaporation. For emulsion films containing the involatile SQ, evaporation of the PG causes collapse of the emulsion structure with some loss of specular UV absorbance due to light scattering. However, for these emulsions with droplets much larger than the wavelength of light, the light is scattered only at small forward angles so does not contribute to the diffuse absorbance and the film SPF. The UV filter remains soluble throughout the evaporation and thus the UV absorption by the filter and the SPF remain approximately constant. Both PG-in-SQ and SQ-in-PG films behave similarly and do not show area shrinkage by dewetting. In contrast, the decane-in-PG film shows rapid evaporative loss of the decane, followed by slower loss of the PG resulting in precipitation of the UV filter and film area shrinkage by dewetting which cause the UV absorbance and derived SPF to decrease. Measured UV spectra during evaporation are in reasonable agreement with spectra calculated using models discussed here.

  12. Dry Separation of Iron Minerals from Low-Grade Coal-series Kaolin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Teng; LEI Shaomin; LIU Mochou; JI Mengjiao; LIU Yuanyuan; YIN Xudong; PENG Yongjun

    2015-01-01

    Dry separation of iron mineral from low-grade coal-series kaolin in Hubei Province of China was investigated. The structure and chemical composition of the kaolin ore were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) analyses. The narrow particle size range classiifcation, dry magnetic separation and calcination were carried out to evaluate the particle size distribution, and the relation between the content of iron and the whiteness. Experimental results revealed that the highest content of iron (3.70%) in kaolin ore was in the particle size range from 60 to 74 μm, and pyrite was the main occurrence of iron in the kaolin ore. Dry magnetic separation showed that the removal rate of iron in kaolin ore could be increased obviously after calcination, and the rate of iron removal was 60% in the particle size range from 60 to 74 μm. As pyrite can be transformed into hematite through calcination, thermodynamic studies and XRD analysis showed that the maximum content of hematite was obtained at 900℃, which would be more beneifcial to magnetic separation.

  13. Effect of pH on the flocculation behaviors of kaolin using a pH-sensitive copolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shulei; Gao, Lihui; Cao, Yijun; Gui, Xiahui; Li, Zhen

    pH-sensitive copolymers have been widely introduced to achieve rapid dewatering and consolidation of solids in mining and oil sands processing wastes. But no more attention has been given to the flocculation efficiency of solid suspensions as a function of pH using pH-sensitive copolymer. In this study, a pH-sensitive copolymer was synthesized and employed to investigate the flocculation behaviors of kaolin by focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM). A titration test was introduced to characterize the copolymer conformation transition. The results demonstrated that at pH ranging from 3 to 6, with the pH increase, the zeta potential magnitude of kaolin particles increased, resulting in the repulsive forces between particles increasing. However, the hydrophobicity of kaolin increased as the pH increased. Thus, the hydrophobic forces could neutralize a part of the repulsive forces between particles and result in good and similar flocculation performances. At the pH greater than 6, the zeta potential magnitude of kaolin particles and copolymer molecules increased significantly, and the repulsive force between kaolin particles increased after copolymer addition due to the kaolin particles being more negatively charged, which resulted in poor flocculation efficiency and cloudy supernatant. It was concluded that the pH-sensitive copolymer could achieve both perfect flocculation efficiency and low moisture of filter cake at the isoelectric point of copolymer.

  14. Kaolin gegen den Gemeinen Birnenblattsauger C. pyri

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel, Claudia; Wyss, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Durch Vorblüteapplikationen mit Kaolin kann der Gemeine Birnenblattsauger das ganze Jahr unter der Schadensschwelle gehalten werden.Da Kaolin für nützliche Insekten nicht toxisch ist und eine vergleichbar gute Wirkung wie die herkömmlichen Insektizide hat, stellt es eine Alternative für den integrierten und den ökologischen Anbau dar.

  15. Scintillation of thin tetraphenyl butadiene films under alpha particle excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollmann, Tina, E-mail: tina@owl.phy.queensu.c [Department of Physics, Engineering Physics, and Astronomy, Queens University, Kingston, Ontario, K7L 3N6 (Canada); Boulay, Mark; Kuzniak, Marcin [Department of Physics, Engineering Physics, and Astronomy, Queens University, Kingston, Ontario, K7L 3N6 (Canada)

    2011-04-11

    The alpha induced scintillation of the wavelength shifter 1,1,4,4-tetraphenyl-1,3-butadiene (TPB) was studied to improve the understanding of possible surface alpha backgrounds in the DEAP dark matter search experiment. We found that vacuum deposited thin TPB films emit 882{+-}210 photons per MeV under alpha particle excitation. The scintillation pulse shape consists of a double exponential decay with lifetimes of 11{+-}5 and 275{+-}10ns.

  16. Engineering Characteristics of Chemically Treated Water-Repellent Kaolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Youngmin; Choo, Hyunwook; Yun, Tae Sup; Lee, Changho; Lee, Woojin

    2016-12-02

    Water-repellent soils have a potential as alternative construction materials that will improve conventional geotechnical structures. In this study, the potential of chemically treated water-repellent kaolin clay as a landfill cover material is explored by examining its characteristics including hydraulic and mechanical properties. In order to provide water repellency to the kaolin clay, the surface of clay particle is modified with organosilanes in concentrations (CO) ranging from 0.5% to 10% by weight. As the CO increases, the specific gravity of treated clay tends to decrease, whereas the total organic carbon content of the treated clay tends to increase. The soil-water contact angle increases with an increase in CO until CO = 2.5%, and then maintains an almost constant value (≈134.0°). Resistance to water infiltration is improved by organosilane treatment under low hydrostatic pressure. However, water infiltration resistance under high hydrostatic pressure is reduced or exacerbated to the level of untreated clay. The maximum compacted dry weight density decreases with increasing CO. As the CO increases, the small strain shear modulus increases, whereas the effect of organosilane treatment on the constrained modulus is minimal. The results indicate that water-repellent kaolin clay possesses excellent engineering characteristics for a landfill cover material.

  17. Engineering Characteristics of Chemically Treated Water-Repellent Kaolin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngmin Choi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Water-repellent soils have a potential as alternative construction materials that will improve conventional geotechnical structures. In this study, the potential of chemically treated water-repellent kaolin clay as a landfill cover material is explored by examining its characteristics including hydraulic and mechanical properties. In order to provide water repellency to the kaolin clay, the surface of clay particle is modified with organosilanes in concentrations (CO ranging from 0.5% to 10% by weight. As the CO increases, the specific gravity of treated clay tends to decrease, whereas the total organic carbon content of the treated clay tends to increase. The soil-water contact angle increases with an increase in CO until CO = 2.5%, and then maintains an almost constant value (≈134.0°. Resistance to water infiltration is improved by organosilane treatment under low hydrostatic pressure. However, water infiltration resistance under high hydrostatic pressure is reduced or exacerbated to the level of untreated clay. The maximum compacted dry weight density decreases with increasing CO. As the CO increases, the small strain shear modulus increases, whereas the effect of organosilane treatment on the constrained modulus is minimal. The results indicate that water-repellent kaolin clay possesses excellent engineering characteristics for a landfill cover material.

  18. EKSTRAK SECANG BERUKURAN NANO DENGAN KAOLIN SEBAGAI PEMBAWA

    OpenAIRE

    Irmanida Batubara; Zaenal Abidin; Min Rahminiwati

    2011-01-01

    Sappanwood extracts reported had antiacne activity with brazilin as active component. To develop anti-acne formula from sappanwood extract, nanoparticle sappanwood with kaolin nanosize as carrier was developed. Carrier used was montmorillonite yellow, brown montmorillonite, yellow kaolin from Cicalengka, white kaolin from Cicalengka, kaolin from Bangka Belitung, and kaolin from Wonosari. The best carrier for active components of Sappanwood was selected based on UV-Vis spectroscopy, thin layer...

  19. Thinning of a vertical free-draining aqueous film incorporating colloidal particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Su N; Yang, Yujie; Horn, Roger G

    2010-01-01

    The drainage under gravity of a vertical foam film formed on a wire frame has been investigated. Dual-wavelength optical interferometry was used so that unambiguous fringe order assignments could be made, enabling absolute film thicknesses to be calculated with confidence. Films were stabilized by nonionic polypropylene glycol surfactant. Half-micrometer silica particles with varying degrees of hydrophobicity were added to the film-forming liquid to investigate their effect on film drainage rate and stability. Hydrophilic particles had little or no effect, while hydrophobic particles slowed the drainage of the film and caused a minor increase in film lifetime, from approximately 10 to approximately 30 s. In both the hydrophilic and hydrophobic cases the films ruptured when they reached a thickness of approximately 2 particle diameters. Particles of intermediate hydrophobicity had the most significant effect, increasing film lifetime by an order of magnitude over that for hydrophilic particles. The intermediate particles allowed films to thin down to a thickness less than the particle diameter, indicating that particles bridge across the entire film. This did not occur with more hydrophobic particles even though they were embedded in each of the two film surfaces. These results correlate well with previous literature on particle-laden foams. The film thickness and drainage measurements allow drainage mechanisms for the different particles to be identified, thus providing a mechanistic explanation for the observation by several previous authors that foams formed in the presence of particles, for example during mineral processing, have the greatest stability when the particles are of intermediate hydrophobicity.

  20. The effect of kaolin on the combustion of demolition wood under well-controlled conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Roger A; Todorovic, Dusan; Skreiberg, Oyvind; Becidan, Michael; Backman, Rainer; Goile, Franziska; Skreiberg, Alexandra; Sørum, Lars

    2012-07-01

    In an attempt to look at means for reduction of corrosion in boilers, combustion experiments are performed on demolition wood with kaolin as additive. The experiments were performed in a multi-fuel reactor with continuous feed of pellets and by applying staged air combustion. A total characterization of the elemental composition of the fuel, the bottom ash and some particle size stages of fly ash was performed. This was done in order to follow the fate of some of the problematic compounds in demolition wood as a function of kaolin addition and other combustion-related parameters. In particular chlorine and potassium distribution between the gas phase, the bottom ash and the fly ash is reported as a function of increased kaolin addition, reactor temperature and air staging. Kaolin addition of 5 and 10% were found to give the least aerosol load in the fly ash. In addition, the chlorine concentration in aerosol particles was at its lowest levels for the same addition of kaolin, although the difference between 5 and 10% addition was minimal. The reactor temperature was found to have a minimal effect on both the fly ash and bottom ash properties.

  1. High collection efficiency thin film diamond particle detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergonzo, P.; Foulon, F.; Marshall, R.D.; Jany, C.; Brambilla, A. [CEA/Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); McKeag, R.D.; Jackman, R.B. [University College, London (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    Diamond is a resilient material with rather extreme electronic properties. As such it is an interesting candidate for the fabrication of high performance solid state particle detectors. However, the commercially accessible form of diamond, grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods, is polycrystalline in nature and often displays rather poor electrical characteristics. This paper considers ways in which this material may be used to form alpha particle detectors with useful performance levels. One approach adopted has been to reduce the impurity levels within the feed-stock gases that are used to grow the diamond films. This has enabled significant improvements to be achieved in the mean carrier drift distance within the films leading to alpha detectors with up to 40% collection efficiencies. An alternative approach explored is the use of planar device geometries whereby charge collection is limited to the top surface of the diamond which comprises higher quality material than the bulk of the film. This has lead to collection efficiencies of 70%, the highest yet reported for polycrystalline CVD diamond based detectors. Techniques for improving the characteristics of these devices further are discussed.

  2. Magnetic coupling mechanisms in particle/thin film composite systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni A. Badini Confalonieri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 20 nm and size distribution of 7% were chemically synthesized and spin-coated on top of a Si-substrate. As a result, the particles self-assembled into a monolayer with hexagonal close-packed order. Subsequently, the nanoparticle array was coated with a Co layer of 20 nm thickness. The magnetic properties of this composite nanoparticle/thin film system were investigated by magnetometry and related to high-resolution transmission electron microscopy studies. Herein three systems were compared: i.e. a reference sample with only the particle monolayer, a composite system where the particle array was ion-milled prior to the deposition of a thin Co film on top, and a similar composite system but without ion-milling. The nanoparticle array showed a collective super-spin behavior due to dipolar interparticle coupling. In the composite system, we observed a decoupling into two nanoparticle subsystems. In the ion-milled system, the nanoparticle layer served as a magnetic flux guide as observed by magnetic force microscopy. Moreover, an exchange bias effect was found, which is likely to be due to oxygen exchange between the iron oxide and the Co layer, and thus forming of an antiferromagnetic CoO layer at the γ-Fe2O3/Co interface.

  3. Evaluation of the Dustiness of Different Kaolin Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Lilao, Ana; Bruzi, Marine; Sanfélix, Vicenta; Gozalbo, Ana; Mallol, Gustavo; Monfort, Eliseo

    2015-01-01

    Several samples of kaolin with different mean particle size were prepared and tested using the continuous drop method, one of the reference test methods according to standard EN 15051:2006 "Workplace atmospheres - Measurement of the dustiness of bulk materials - Requirements and reference test methods." On the other hand, with a view to relating the dustiness of the materials to their properties, particle size distribution, specific surface area, and Hausner ratio of these samples were determined. This article presents a characterization of these samples and an assessment of the influence of some material parameters on dustiness. The results show that dustiness may significantly be affected by mean particle size, specific surface area, and Hausner ratio. Moreover, it is highlighted that a detailed study of the influence of fine particles content on the dustiness was carried out. This information is deemed essential for establishing the most efficient preventive and/or corrective measures to reduce the generation of fugitive emissions of particulate matter during kaolin processing, both into the outside atmosphere (air pollution) and inside the facilities (occupational health).

  4. Phase equilibria in stratified thin liquid films stabilized by colloidal particles

    OpenAIRE

    Blawzdziewicz, J.; Wajnryb, E.

    2005-01-01

    Phase equilibria between regions of different thickness in thin liquid films stabilized by colloidal particles are investigated using a quasi-two-dimensional thermodynamic formalism. Appropriate equilibrium conditions for the film tension, normal pressure, and chemical potential of the particles in the film are formulated, and it is shown that the relaxation of these parameters occurs consecutively on three distinct time scales. Film stratification is described quantitatively for a hard-spher...

  5. Size effect on solid solid reaction growth between Cu film and Se particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaito, Chihiro; Nonaka, Akira; Kimura, Seiji; Suzuki, Nobuhiko; Saito, Yoshio

    1998-03-01

    A recently developed experimental method of producing a compound by making use of the reaction between thin film and ultrafine particles has been used for copper selenide crystal formation to elucidate the particle size effect on the reaction process. In the case of reaction between Cu film Se particles with size of μm order, CuSe crystals were grown on Se particles by the diffusion of predominantly Cu atoms. In the case of Se particles of the order of 100 nm, amorphous Se particles changed into copper selenide particles by the mutual diffusion of Cu and Se atoms. If the size of Se particles was less than 20 nm, a part of the Cu film changed to copper selenide crystal due to the diffusion of Se atoms to the Cu film. Morphological differences have also been shown and discussed to be the result of the particle size effect.

  6. Effect of the rate of calcination of kaolin on the properties of metakaolin-based geopolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.B. Kenne Diffo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Kaolin samples of the same mass were treated at 700 °C for the same duration of 30 min by varying the rate of calcination (1, 2.5, 5, 10, 15 and 20 °C/min in order to obtain metakaolins which were used to produce geopolymers. Depending on the nature of each type of material, kaolin, metakaolins and geopolymers were characterized using thermal analysis, chemical analysis, XRD, FTIR, particle size distribution, specific surface area, bulk density, setting time and compressive strength. FTIR and XRD analyses showed that metakaolins except at 1 °C/min contained residual kaolinite whose quantity increased with the rate of calcination of kaolin and which influenced the characteristics of geopolymers. Thus as the rate of calcination of kaolin increased, the setting time increased (226 min (rate of 1 °C/min–773 min (rate of 20 °C/min while the compressive strength reduced (49.4 MPa (rate of 1 °C/min–20.8 MPa (rate of 20 °C/min. From the obtained results the production of geopolymers having high compressive strength along with low setting time requires that the calcination of kaolin be carried out at a low rate.

  7. Thermal Annealing-Induced Self-Stretching: Fabrication of Anisotropic Polymer Particles on Polymer Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yu-Ching; Chiu, Yu-Jing; Tseng, Hsiao-Fan; Chen, Jiun-Tai

    2017-10-06

    Designing anisotropic particles of various shapes draws great attention to scientists nowadays. In this work, we develop a facile and simple method to fabricate anisotropic polymer particles from spherical polymer particles. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) films spin-coated with polystyrene (PS) microspheres are confined on both sides using binder clips and are heated above the glass transition temperatures of the polymers. During the thermal annealing process, the PS particles sink into the PVA films and transform to anisotropic particles. Depending on the distances to the bound regions, oblate spheroid PS particles or prolate spheroid particles with different aspect ratios can be obtained. The transformation of the particles is mainly driven by the stretching forces and the squeezing forces. The main advantage of this method is that anisotropic particles with different shapes can be fabricated simultaneously on a single film. We expect this novel method can be helpful to various fields including colloids science, suspension rheology, and drug delivery.

  8. Interrelationship of Kaolin, Alkaline Liquid Ratio and Strength of Kaolin Geopolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Shamala; Hussin, Kamarudin; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al; Mohd Ruzaidi Ghazali, Che; Binhussain, Mohammed; Sandu, Andrei Victor

    2016-06-01

    Geopolymer is an incredible alternative green cementitious material which has ceramic-like properties, but does not require calcining that leads to reduction in processing energy usage. The purpose of this research is to study the correlation between kaolin: liquid ratio with the performance of kaolin geopolymer. Kaolin, a prominent raw geopolymer material was used to prepare enhanced geopolymer paste by mixing with alkaline activator solution. Interrelationship of kaolin to alkaline liquid ratio with hardness and flexural strength was the focus of this work. Therefore kaolin geopolymer paste with varying solid to liquid ratio ranging from 0.7 to 1.1 was prepared. Geopolymer paste was coated on low grade wood substrate prior to Vickers hardness and flexural strength. X-ray diffraction was conducted on geopolymer paste itself after 7 days to analyze the change in phase identification at early age. Kaolin geopolymer coating on wood with solid/liquid(S/L) ratio of 0.7 shows the most promising hardness and flexural strength of 15.3 Hv and 94.73MPa. X-ray diffraction test showed high existence of kaolinite on higher S/L ratio where as sodalite was observed in S/L ratio of 0.7. Microstructural studies also compliments our finding which further proves the positive dependency of S/L ratio and kaolin geopolymer strength.

  9. Determination of the area density and composition of alloy film using dual alpha particle energy loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaojun; Li, Bo; Gao, Dangzhong; Xu, Jiayun; Tang, Yongjian

    2017-02-01

    A novel method based on dual α-particles energy loss (DAEL) is proposed for measuring the area density and composition of binary alloy films. In order to obtain a dual-energy α-particles source, an ingenious design that utilizes the transmitted α-particles traveling the thin film as a new α-particles source is presented. Using the DAEL technique, the area density and composition of Au/Cu film are determined accurately with an uncertainty of better than 10%. Finally, some measures for improving the combined uncertainty are discussed.

  10. Zn(II) adsorption from synthetic solution and kaolin wastewater onto vermicompost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordão, Cláudio Pereira; Fernandes, Raphael Bragança Alves; de Lima Ribeiro, Kamilla; de Souza Nascimento, Bruna; de Barros, Priscila Martins

    2009-03-15

    The adsorption of Zn(II) from both synthetic solution and kaolin industry wastewater by cattle manure vermicompost was studied. The adsorption process was dependent on the various operating variables, viz., solution pH, particle size of the vermicompost, mass of vermicompost/volume of the Zn(II) solution ratio, contact time and temperature. The optimum conditions for Zn adsorption were pH 6.0, particle size of kaolin wastewater have shown the maximum adsorption capacity was 2.49 mg g(-1) at pH 2 (natural pH of the wastewater). The small values of the constant related to the energy of adsorption (from 0.07 to 0.163 L mg(-1)) indicated that Zn(2+) ions were binded strongly to vermicompost. The values of the separation factor, R(L), which has been used to predict affinity between adsorbate and adsorbent were between 0 and 1, indicating that sorption was very favorable for Zn(II) in synthetic solution and kaolin wastewater. The thermodynamic parameter, the Gibbs free energy, was calculated for each system and the negative values obtained confirm that the adsorption processes are spontaneous. The DeltaG degrees values were -19.656 kJ mol(-1) and -16.849 kJ mol(-1) for Zn(II) adsorption on vermicompost in synthetic solution at pH 6 and 2, respectively, and -13.275 kJ mol(-1) in kaolin wastewater at pH 2.

  11. Effects of porous films on the light reflectivity of pigmentary titanium dioxide particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yong; Qiao, Bing; Wang, Tig-Jie; Gao, Han; Yu, Keyi

    2016-11-01

    The light reflectivity of the film-coated titanium dioxide particles (TiO2) as a function of the film refractive index was derived and calculated using a plane film model. For the refractive index in the range of 1.00-2.15, the lower the film refractive index is, the higher is the light reflectivity of the film. It is inferred that the lower apparent refractive index of the porous film resulted in the higher reflectivity of light, i.e., the higher hiding power of the titanium dioxide particles. A dense film coating on TiO2 particles with different types of oxides, i.e., SiO2, Al2O3, MgO, ZnO, ZrO2, TiO2, corresponding to different refractive indices of the film from 1.46 to 2.50, was achieved, and the effects of refractive index on the hiding power from the model prediction were confirmed. Porous film coating of TiO2 particles was achieved by adding the organic template agent triethanolamine (TEA). The hiding power of the coated TiO2 particles was increased from 88.3 to 90.8 by adding the TEA template to the film coating (5-20 wt%). In other words, the amount of titanium dioxide needed was reduced by approximately 10% without a change in the hiding power. It is concluded that the film structure coated on TiO2 particle surface affects the light reflectivity significantly, namely, the porous film exhibits excellent performance for pigmentary titanium dioxide particles with high hiding power.

  12. STUDY ON HIGH ACID LEACHING REACTIVE CALCINED KAOLIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Leaching experiments on metakaolin show that the final Al extraction ratio reached in a batch reaction is strikingly influenced by the inferior pore structure geometry of the metakaolin pellets. By calcining kaolin particles adhered in low humidity state,a variety of metakaolin pellet,inside which a large openings structure developed,has been prepared. The structure remarkably benefits leachant ion transference,so,the variety has high acid leaching reactivity,even coarse as the pellets are,its aluminum extracted ratio still has a linear relationship with leaching time,and the leaching kinetics is maintained zero order up to a significant conversion degree. A revised Pellet-Particle Model has been developed to interpret the structure influence on Al extraction ratio.

  13. Garnet composite films with Au particles fabricated by repetitive formation for enhancement of Faraday effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, H; Nakai, Y [Department of Electronics and Intelligent Systems, Tohoku Institute of Technology, 35-1 Yagiyama-Kasumi, Taihaku, Sendai, Miyagi 982-8577 (Japan); Mizutani, Y; Inoue, M [Department of Electrical and Electronic Information Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, Tempaku, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Fedyanin, A A, E-mail: uchida_hn@tohtech.ac.jp [Faculty of Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation)

    2011-02-16

    To prepare garnet (Bi : YIG) composite films with Au particles, we used a repetitive formation method to increase the number density of particles. On increasing the number of repetitions, the diameter distribution of the particles changed. After five repetitions using 5 nm Au films, the diameter distribution separated into two size groups. Shift of wavelength-excited localized surface plasmon resonance is discussed relative to the diameter distribution. In the composite films, enhancement of Faraday rotation associated with surface plasmons was observed. With six repetitions, a maximum enhanced rotation of -1.2{sup 0} was obtained, which is 20 times larger than that of a single Bi : YIG film. The figures of merit for the composite films are discussed. The thickness of a Bi : YIG composite film working for enhanced Faraday rotation was examined using an ion milling method.

  14. Immobilization of horseradish peroxidase onto kaolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šekuljica, Nataša Ž; Prlainović, Nevena Ž; Jovanović, Jelena R; Stefanović, Andrea B; Djokić, Veljko R; Mijin, Dušan Ž; Knežević-Jugović, Zorica D

    2016-03-01

    Kaolin showed as a very perspective carrier for the enzyme immobilization and it was used for the adsorption of horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The effects of the enzyme concentration and pH on the immobilization efficiency were studied in the reaction with pyrogallol and anthraquinone dye C.I. Acid Violet 109 (AV 109). In addition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and analysis by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller were performed for kaolin, thermally activated kaolin and the immobilized enzyme. It has been shown that 0.1 IU of HRP-kaolin decolorized 87 % of dye solution, under the optimal conditions (pH 5.0, temperature 24 °C, dye concentration 40 mg/L and 0.2 mM of H2O2) within 40 min. The immobilized HRP decolorization follows the Ping Pong Bi-Bi mechanism with dead-end inhibition by the dye. The biocatalyst retained 35 ± 0.9 % of the initial activity after seven cycles of reuse in the decolorization reaction of AV 109 under optimal conditions in a batch reactor. The obtained kinetic parameters and reusability study confirmed improvement in performances of k-HRP compared to free, indicating that k-HRP has a great potential for environmental purposes.

  15. Sample size clay kaolin of primary in pegmatites regions Junco Serido - PB and Equador - RN; Granulometria de argila caulim primario dos pegmatitos nas regioes do Junco do Serido - PB e Equador - RN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, M.F.; Sousa, J.B.M.; Sales, L.R.; Silva, P.A.S.; Lima, A.D.D., E-mail: mauro.meyer@ifrn.edu.br [Instituto Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (IFRN), RN (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Kaolin is a clay formed mainly of kaolinite resulting from feldspar weathering or hydrothermal. This study aims to investigate the way of occurrence, kaolin particle size of the pegmatites of the Borborema Province Pegmatitic in the regions of Junco do Serido-PB and Ecuador-RN. These variables were analyzed considering granulometric intervals obtained from wet sieving of samples of pegmatite mines in the region. Kaolin was received using sieves of 200, 325, 400 and 500 mesh and the sieve fractions retained by generating statistical parameters histograms. kaolin particles are extremely fine and pass in its entirety through 500 mesh sieve. The characterization of minerals in fine fractions by diffraction of X-rays showed that the relative amount of sericite in fractions retained in sieves 400 and 500 mesh impairing the whiteness and mineralogical texture kaolin production. (author)

  16. Effects of humic acid on recoverability and fractal structure of alum-kaolin flocs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Runsheng; Zhang, Xihui; Xiao, Feng; Li, Xiaoyan

    2011-01-01

    Particle surface characteristics, floc recoverability and fractal structure of alum-kaolin flocs were investigated using in situ particle image velocimetry (PIV) and microbalance with or without humic acid. Experimental results indicated that the zeta potential of kaolin particle surface after adsorption of humic acid was related with humic acid concentration and its acid-base buffering capacity. Adsorption of humic acid resulted in more negative electrophoresis on the particle surface. Coagulant dosages for particles to form flocs would increase with increasing humic concentration. PIV was used to evaluate floc structural fragmentation, floc surface erosion as well as recoverability after high shear. It was found that the floc size during the steady phase of growth was small, while the regrowing capability decreased in the presence of humic acid. The recoverability was closely related with floc breakage modes including floc structural fragmentation and floc surface erosion. The fractal dimensions of alum-kaolin flocs by mass-size method based on microbalance would decrease with increasing humic concentration. This study proved that humic acid had adverse influences on the performance of coagulation process.

  17. Effects of humic acid on recoverability and fractal structure of alum-kaolin flocs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Runsheng Zhong; Xihui Zhang; Feng Xiao; Xiaoyan Li

    2011-01-01

    Particle surface characteristics, floc recoverability and fractal structure of alum-kaolin flocs were investigated using in situ particle image velocimetry (PIV) and microbalance with or without humic acid. Experimental results indicated that the zeta potential of kaolin particle surface after adsorption of humic acid was related with humic acid concentration and its acid-base buffering capacity. Adsorption of humic acid resulted in more negative electrophoresis on the particle surface. Coagulant dosages for particles to form flocs would increase with increasing humic concentration. PIV was used to evaluate floc structural fragmentation, floc surface erosion as well as recoverability after high shear. It was found that the floc size during the steady phase of growth was small, while the regrowing capability decreased in the presence of humic acid. The recoverability was closely related with floc breakage modes including floc structural fragmentation and floc surface erosion. The fractal dimensions of alum-kaolin flocs by mass-size method based on microbalance would decrease with increasing humic concentration. This study proved that humic acid had adverse influences on the performance of coagulation process.

  18. MODIFIKASI KAOLIN DENGAN SURFAKTAN BENZALKONIUM KLORIDA DAN KARAKTERISASINYA MENGGUNAKAN SPEKTROFOTOMETER INFRA MERAH

    OpenAIRE

    Nelly Wahyuni

    2010-01-01

    Modifikasi kaolin Capkala dengan surfaktan benzalkonium klorida telah dilakukan dengan mereaksikan kaolin dalam surfaktan selama 8 jam dengan pengadukan pada kecepatan 150 rpm. Modifikasi dilakukan dalam berbagai variasi konsentrasi surfaktan dan suhu aktivasi. Kaolin termodifikasi dikarakterisasi menggunakan Spektrometer Infra Merah. Kaolin termodifikasi menunjukkan adanya serapan C-H simetri dari gugus CH2 yang merupakan indikasi adanya surfaktan pada kaolin. Berdasarkan uji adsorpsi terhad...

  19. Effects of kaolin particle film and imidacloprid on glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca vitripennis) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)populations and the prevention of spread of Xylella fastidiosa in grape

    Science.gov (United States)

    The glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), Homalodisca coagulata (Say), was introduced into California and soon became a major pest of important agronomic, horticultural, landscape, ornamental crops and native trees in California. This pest feeds readily on grape and, in doing so, transmits X. fastidio...

  20. Electrophoretic deposition of PTFE particles on porous anodic aluminum oxide film and its tribological properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Dongya; Dong, Guangneng, E-mail: donggn@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Chen, Yinjuan; Zeng, Qunfeng

    2014-01-30

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) composite film was successfully fabricated by depositing PTFE particles into porous anodic aluminum oxide film using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) process. Firstly, porous anodic aluminum oxide film was synthesized by anodic oxidation process in sulphuric acid electrolyte. Then, PTFE particles in suspension were directionally deposited into the porous substrate. Finally, a heat treatment at 300 °C for 1 h was utilized to enhance PTFE particles adhesion to the substrate. The influence of anodic oxidation parameters on the morphology and micro-hardness of the porous anodic aluminum oxide film was studied and the PTFE particles deposited into the pores were authenticated using energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Tribological properties of the PTFE composite film were investigated under dry sliding. The experimental results showed that the composite film exhibit remarkable low friction. The composite film had friction coefficient of 0.20 which deposited in 15% PTFE emulsion at temperature of 15 °C and current density of 3 A/dm{sup 2} for 35 min. In addition, a control specimen of porous anodic aluminum oxide film and the PTFE composite film were carried out under the same test condition, friction coefficient of the PTFE composite film was reduced by 60% comparing with the control specimen at 380 MPa and 100 mm/s. The lubricating mechanism was that PTFE particles embedded in porous anodic aluminum oxide film smeared a transfer film on the sliding path and the micro-pores could support the supplement of solid lubricant during the sliding, which prolonged the lubrication life of the aluminum alloys.

  1. Electrophoretic deposition of PTFE particles on porous anodic aluminum oxide film and its tribological properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongya; Dong, Guangneng; Chen, Yinjuan; Zeng, Qunfeng

    2014-01-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) composite film was successfully fabricated by depositing PTFE particles into porous anodic aluminum oxide film using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) process. Firstly, porous anodic aluminum oxide film was synthesized by anodic oxidation process in sulphuric acid electrolyte. Then, PTFE particles in suspension were directionally deposited into the porous substrate. Finally, a heat treatment at 300 °C for 1 h was utilized to enhance PTFE particles adhesion to the substrate. The influence of anodic oxidation parameters on the morphology and micro-hardness of the porous anodic aluminum oxide film was studied and the PTFE particles deposited into the pores were authenticated using energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Tribological properties of the PTFE composite film were investigated under dry sliding. The experimental results showed that the composite film exhibit remarkable low friction. The composite film had friction coefficient of 0.20 which deposited in 15% PTFE emulsion at temperature of 15 °C and current density of 3 A/dm2 for 35 min. In addition, a control specimen of porous anodic aluminum oxide film and the PTFE composite film were carried out under the same test condition, friction coefficient of the PTFE composite film was reduced by 60% comparing with the control specimen at 380 MPa and 100 mm/s. The lubricating mechanism was that PTFE particles embedded in porous anodic aluminum oxide film smeared a transfer film on the sliding path and the micro-pores could support the supplement of solid lubricant during the sliding, which prolonged the lubrication life of the aluminum alloys.

  2. Predicting the film and lens water volume between soil particles using particle size distribution data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, M. H.; Meskini-Vishkaee, F.

    2012-12-01

    SummaryWe develop four conceptual approaches to quantify the volume of water lenses between soil particles (ɛi) and adsorbed water films (δi) coating soil particles based on soil Particle Size Distribution (PSD) data. Method 1 is based on expression of the ɛi as matric suction independent pendular rings and method 2 is based on expression of the ɛi as function of matric suction. Methods 3 and 4 are based on the coupling of δi estimated with van der Waals and electrostatic forces, with ɛi estimated with methods 1 and 2 respectively. We show that the filling angle of the lens water is independent of surface tension but increases with the porosity. The four methods are applied to predict effects of ɛi and δi on Soil Moisture Characteristics (SMC) in eighty soil samples selected from UNSODA database. The total component of the ɛi in soil water content ranged from 0.0111 (L3 L-3) to 0.1604 (L3 L-3), with the average of 0.0703 (L3 L-3) for method 1 and from 0.0082 (L3 L-3) to 0.0523 (L3 L-3), with the average of 0.0237 (L3 L-3) for method 2. The component of δi is less than 0.0121 of each pore water content. Results showed that for methods 1 and 2, the component of the ɛi in the soil water content was partially relevant for the prediction of SMC, especially in dry range. Moreover, the accuracy of the method 1 was slightly greater than that of the method 2. We attribute the methods error to the roughness of soil particles, high surface energy content of clay particles and, to the simplified pore geometric concepts that does not effectively reflect the pore geometry. We conclude that the main advantage of the present approaches is developing two different methods for estimation of the volume of the lens water by using only the PSD data and bulk density which are measured easily.

  3. Pulsed laser deposition of metallic films on the surface of diamond particles for diamond saw blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Chao [State Key Laboratory of Laser Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, WuHan, Hubei 430074 (China); Luo Fei [State Key Laboratory of Laser Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, WuHan, HuBei 430074 (China); Long Hua [State Key Laboratory of Laser Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Hu Shaoliu [State Key Laboratory of Laser Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Li Bo [State Key Laboratory of Laser Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Wang Youqing [State Key Laboratory of Laser Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)]. E-mail: lchwan@hust.edu.cn

    2005-06-15

    Ti or Ni films have been deposited on the diamond particle surfaces by pulsed laser deposition. Compressive resistance of the uncoated and coated diamond particles was measured, respectively, in the experiments. The compressive resistance of the Ti-coated diamonds particles was found much higher than that of the uncoated ones. It increased by 39%. The surface morphology is observed by the metallography microscope. The surface of the uncoated diamonds particles had many hollows and flaws, while the surface of Ni-coated diamond particles was flat and smooth, and the surface of Ti-coated diamond particles had some metal masses that stood out of the surface of the Ti-coated film. The components of the metallic films of diamond particles were examined by X-ray diffractometry (XRD). TiC was found formed on the Ti-coated diamond surface, which resulted in increased surface bonding strength between the diamond particles and the Ti films. Meanwhile, TiC also favored improving the bonding strength between the coated diamond particles and the binding materials. Moreover, the bending resistance of the diamond saw blade made of Ti-coated diamond was drastically higher than that of other diamond saw blades, which also played an important role in improving the blade's cutting ability and lifetime. Therefore, it was most appropriate that the diamond saw blade was made of Ti-coated diamond particles rather than other materials.

  4. Determination of the solvation film thickness of dispersed particles with the method of Einstein viscosity equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The dispersion of a solid particle in a liquid may lead to the formation of solvation film onthe particle surface, which can strongly increase the repulsive force between particles and thus strongly affect the stability of dispersions. The solvation film thickness, which varies with the variation of the property of suspension particles and solutions, is one of the most important parameters of the solvation film, and is also one of the most difficult parameters that can be measured accurately. In this paper, a method, based on the Einstein viscosity equation of dispersions, for determining the solvation film thickness of particles is developed. This method was tested on two kinds of silica spherical powders (namely M1 and M2) dispersed in ethyl alcohol, in water, and in a water-ethyl alcohol mixture (1:1 by volume) through measuring the relative viscosity of dispersions of the particles as a function of the volume fraction of the dry particles in the dispersion, and of the specific surface area and the density of the particles. The calculated solvation film thicknesses on M1 are 7.48, 18.65 and 23.74 nm in alcohol, water and the water-ethyl alcohol mixture, 12.41, 12.71 and 13.13 nm on M2 in alcohol, water and the water-ethyl alcohol mixture, respectively.

  5. Characterization of Solidified Gas Thin Film Targets via $\\alpha$ Particle Energy Loss

    CERN Document Server

    Fujiwara, M C; Beveridge, J L; Douglas, J L; Huber, T M; Jacot-Guillarmod, R; Kim, S K; Knowles, P E; Kunselman, A R; Maier, M; Marshall, G M; Mason, G R; Mulhauser, F; Olin, A; Petitjean, C; Porcelli, T A; Zmeskal, J

    1996-01-01

    A method is reported for measuring the thickness and uniformity of thin films of solidified gas targets. The energy of alpha particles traversing the film is measured and the energy loss is converted to thickness using the stopping power. The uniformity is determined by measuring the thickness at different positions with an array of sources. Monte Carlo simulations have been performed to study the film deposition mechanism. Thickness calibrations for a TRIUMF solid hydrogen target system are presented.

  6. Facile Fabrication of a Hierarchical Superhydrophobic Coating with Aluminate Coupling Agent Modified Kaolin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A superhydrophobic coating was fabricated from the dispersion of unmodified kaolin particles and aluminate coupling agent in anhydrous ethanol. Through surface modification, water contact angle of the coating prepared by modified kaolin particles increased dramatically from 0° to 152°, and the sliding angle decreased from 90° to 3°. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the surface morphology. A structure composed of micro-nano hierarchical component, combined with the surface modification by aluminate coupling agent which reduced the surface energy greatly, was found to be responsible for the superhydrophobicity. The method adopted is relatively simple, facile, and cost-effective and can potentially be applied to large water-repellent surface coatings.

  7. Optical properties of multilayer bimetallic films obtained by laser deposition of colloidal particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipov, A.; Arakelian, S.; Vartanyan, T.; Gerke, M.; Istratov, A.; Kutrovskaya, S.; Kucherik, A.; Osipov, A.

    2016-11-01

    The optical properties of multilayer bimetallic films composed of silver and gold nanoparticles have been investigated. The dependence of the transmission spectra of the films on their morphology is demonstrated. A finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation has confirmed that there is a dependence of the transmission spectra on the average distance between particles and the number of deposited layers.

  8. Fabrication of a pure, uniform electroless silver film using ultrafine silver aerosol particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Jeong Hoon; Kim, Jang-Woo

    2010-07-20

    To obtain evenly distributed pure Ag particles with a narrow size distribution on a polymer membrane, a novel activation procedure with an environmentally friendly, cost-effective method was utilized as a pretreatment before electroless Ag deposition. The pretreatment was first performed on an untreated membrane surface by collecting ultrafine ambient spark-generated Ag aerosol particles. After annealing, the electroless Ag film was fabricated on the collected aerosol particles in the Ag electroless bath. Experimental characterizations showed that the ultrafine Ag particles were uniformly anchored onto the membrane surface through pretreatment, resulting in a pure Ag film of closely packed particles with a narrow size distribution on the membrane, and the properties were comparable to those of an Ag film on wet Sn-Ag-activated membranes.

  9. Effects of Kaolin Application on Light Absorption and Distribution, Radiation Use Efficiency and Photosynthesis of Almond and Walnut Canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Adolfo; Metcalf, Samuel G.; Buchner, Richard P.; Fulton, Allan E.; Lampinen, Bruce D.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Kaolin applied as a suspension to plant canopies forms a film on leaves that increases reflection and reduces absorption of light. Photosynthesis of individual leaves is decreased while the photosynthesis of the whole canopy remains unaffected or even increases. This may result from a better distribution of light within the canopy following kaolin application, but this explanation has not been tested. The objective of this work was to study the effects of kaolin application on light distribution and absorption within tree canopies and, ultimately, on canopy photosynthesis and radiation use efficiency. Methods Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) incident on individual leaves within the canopy of almond (Prunus dulcis) and walnut (Juglans regia) trees was measured before and after kaolin application in order to study PAR distribution within the canopy. The PAR incident on, and reflected and transmitted by, the canopy was measured on the same day for kaolin-sprayed and control trees in order to calculate canopy PAR absorption. These data were then used to model canopy photosynthesis and radiation use efficiency by a simple method proposed in previous work, based on the photosynthetic response to incident PAR of a top-canopy leaf. Key Results Kaolin increased incident PAR on surfaces of inner-canopy leaves, although there was an estimated 20 % loss in PAR reaching the photosynthetic apparatus, due to increased reflection. Assuming a 20 % loss of PAR, modelled photosynthesis and photosynthetic radiation use efficiency (PRUE) of kaolin-coated leaves decreased by only 6·3 %. This was due to (1) more beneficial PAR distribution within the kaolin-sprayed canopy, and (2) with decreasing PAR, leaf photosynthesis decreases less than proportionally, due to the curvature of the photosynthesis response-curve to PAR. The relatively small loss in canopy PRUE (per unit of incident PAR), coupled with the increased incident PAR on the leaf surface on

  10. Methanol electrooxidation on Pt particles dispersed into PANI/SWNT composite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Gang; Li, Li; Li, Jing-Hong; Xu, Bo-Qing [Innovative Catalysis Program, Key Laboratory of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering, Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2006-04-21

    Conducting polymer composite films comprised of polyaniline (PANI) and single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) was prepared by electrochemical codeposition during the electropolymerization in an aniline solution with suspending SWNT. The fabricated composite films are assessed with respect to their potential application as support materials in Pt electrocatalyst for electrochemical oxidation of methanol. The PANI/SWNT composite film incorporated with SWNT has a higher polymeric degree and lower defect density in PANI structure than PANI film. Furthermore, the incorporation of SWNT also leads to higher electrochemically accessible surface areas (S{sub a}), electronic conductivity and easier charge-transfer at polymer/electrolyte interfaces, which make higher dispersion and utilization for deposited Pt. Therefore, the Pt particles electrodeposited on PANI/SWNT composite polymer film exhibits excellent catalytic activity and stability for the electrooxidation of methanol in comparison to Pt supported on PANI film, which reveals that the composite film is more promising for application in electrocatalyst as a support material. (author)

  11. Electrokinetic removal of caesium from kaolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shahrani, S S; Roberts, E P L

    2005-06-30

    Soil, in the form of kaolin and a sample of natural soil from an industrial site, was artificially contaminated with caesium and subjected to electrokinetic treatment. The effect of catholyte pH control on the process was investigated using different acids to control the catholyte pH. During treatment the in situ pH distribution, the current flow, and the potential distribution were monitored. At the end of the treatment the pore fluid conductivity and the caesium concentration distribution was measured. The results of these experiments showed that for caesium contamination, catholyte pH control is essential in order to create a suitable environment throughout the soil to enable contaminant removal. It was found that the type of acid used to control the catholyte pH affected the rate of caesium removal (nitric, sulphuric, acetic and citric acids were tested). All of the acids tested were effective, but the highest caesium extraction was achieved when nitric acid was used to control the catholyte pH. The relatively high adsorption capacity of the soil for caesium was found to significantly reduce the rate of removal. After 240 h of treatment at 1 Vcm(-1) (using sulphuric acid to control the catholyte pH), less than 80% of the caesium was removed from a 30 cm long sample of kaolin. Electrokinetic treatment of the industrial soil sample was slower than for the kaolin, but a significant extraction rate for caesium was achieved.

  12. Entrained Flow Reactor Test of Potassium Capture by Kaolin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Guoliang; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Wu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    In the present study a method to simulate the reaction between gaseous KCl and kaolin at suspension fired condition was developed using a pilot-scale entrained flow reactor (EFR). Kaolin was injected into the EFR for primary test of this method. By adding kaolin, KCl can effectively be captured......, forming water-insoluble K-aluminosilicate. The amount of K captured by 1 g kaolin rose when increasing the molar ratio of K/Si in the reactant. Changing of reaction temperature from 1100 °C to 1300 °C did not influence the extent of reaction, which is different from the results observed in previous fixed...

  13. Influence of Third Particle on the Tribological Behaviors of Diamond-like Carbon Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Lichun; Srikanth, Narasimalu; Kang, Guozheng; Zhou, Kun

    2016-12-01

    Tribological mechanisms of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films in a sand-dust environment are commonly unclear due to the complicated three-body abrasion caused by sand particles. This study investigates the three-body abrasion of the DLC film via molecular dynamics simulations. The influence factors such as the load, velocity, shape of the particle and its size are considered. It has been found that the friction and wear of the DLC film are determined by adhesion at a small load but dominated by both adhesion and plowing at a large load. A high velocity can increase the friction of the DLC film but decrease its wear, due to the response of its networks to a high strain rate indicated by such velocity. The shape of the particle highly affects its movement mode and thus changes the friction and wear of the DLC film. It is found that a small-sized particle can increase the friction and wear of the DLC film by enhancing plowing. These unique tribological mechanisms of the DLC film can help to promote its wide applications in a sand-dust environment.

  14. ARTICLES: Dissipative Particle Dynamics Simulation of Microscopic Properties in Diblock Copolymer Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi; Song, Xiao-yu; Zhang, Zhang; Wang, Yong; Chen, Jie; Zhu, Xian

    2010-06-01

    Mean-square bond length, root-mean-square end-to-end distance and gyration radius in diblock copolymer films have been studied by dissipative particle dynamics simulations. Results show evident linear trends of any property separately with the thickness of film, the interaction between particles of different types, the repulsion between particle and boundary, except for the dependence of the variations of mean-square bond length on the thickness of film, which exhibits as a wave trend. What's more, the varying trends of mean-square bond length and root-mean-square end-to-end distance can correspond to each other. The density distribution of either component in diblock copolymer film can be controlled and adjusted effectively through its interaction with boundary.

  15. Effects of mineral tourmaline particles on the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Junping; Liang, Jinsheng; Ou, Xiuqin; Ding, Yan; Liang, Guangchuan

    2008-03-01

    Titania composite thin films (T/TiO2) containing tourmaline particles were prepared by a sol-gel method, using alkoxide solutions as precursor. The tourmaline particles and thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and so on. The effects of tourmaline on the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 were measured with methyl orange as an objective photodegradation substance. The results showed that the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange conformed to the first-order kinetic equation and the composite thin films had better photocatalytic activity due to the cooperation of polarity and the far infrared emission of tourmaline. The T/TiO2 thin films including 0.5 wt% tourmaline exhibited better photocatalytic activity when heat-treated at 250 degrees C for 3 h, than pure TiO2 thin films under the ultraviolet irradiation.

  16. EDR-2 (registered) film response to charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyers, M F [Department of Radiation Medicine, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA 92354 (United States)], E-mail: MFMoyers@roadrunner.com

    2008-05-21

    A useful tool for verifying segmental or dynamic treatments with multiple multi-leaf collimator positions, spinning range modulator propellors or magnetically scanned beams would be a film with a linear dose response up to several hundred centiGray, as typical for delivered treatments. Kodak has released an extended range film (EDR-2) that may satisfy this desire. In this study, dose response curves were obtained for several electron, proton, carbon ion and iron ion beams of different energies to determine the utility of this film. (note)

  17. Study of a Particle Based Films Cure Process by High-Frequency Eddy Current Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Patsora

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Particle-based films are today an important part of various designs and they are implemented in structures as conductive parts, i.e., conductive paste printing in the manufacture of Li-ion batteries, solar cells or resistive paste printing in IC. Recently, particle based films were also implemented in the 3D printing technique, and are particularly important for use in aircraft, wind power, and the automotive industry when incorporated onto the surface of composite structures for protection against damages caused by a lightning strike. A crucial issue for the lightning protection area is to realize films with high homogeneity of electrical resistance where an in-situ noninvasive method has to be elaborated for quality monitoring to avoid undesirable financial and time costs. In this work the drying process of particle based films was investigated by high-frequency eddy current (HFEC spectroscopy in order to work out an automated in-situ quality monitoring method with a focus on the electrical resistance of the films. Different types of particle based films deposited on dielectric and carbon fiber reinforced plastic substrates were investigated in the present study and results show that the HFEC method offers a good opportunity to monitor the overall drying process of particle based films. Based on that, an algorithm was developed, allowing prediction of the final electrical resistance of the particle based films throughout the drying process, and was successfully implemented in a prototype system based on the EddyCus® HFEC device platform presented in this work. This prototype is the first solution for a portable system allowing HFEC measurement on huge and uneven surfaces.

  18. Experimental Investigations into the Use of Piezoelectric Film Transducers to Determine Particle Size through Impact Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Coombes, James Robert; Yan, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Sensors are required to determine the particle size of granular materials in a variety of industries such as energy, chemical manufacturing and food processing. The importance of accurately monitoring the particle size is essential in quality control in these industrial sectors. This paper presents the use of a custom made piezoelectric PVDF film transducer that is capable of determining the particle size of granular material through impact analysis. Experiments were carried out using a purpo...

  19. Study on the effect of subcooling on vapor film collapse on high temperature particle surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Yutaka; Tochio, Daisuke; Yanagida, Hiroshi [Department of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Yamagata Univ., Yonezawa, Yamagata (Japan)

    2000-11-01

    Thermal detonation model is proposed to describe vapor explosion. According to this model, vapor film on pre-mixed high temperature droplet surface is needed to be collapsed for the trigger of the vapor explosion. It is pointed out that the vapor film collapse behavior is significantly affected by the subcooling of low temperature liquid. However, the effect of subcooling on micro-mechanism of vapor film collapse behavior is not experimentally well identified. The objective of the present research is to experimentally investigate the effect of subcooling on micro-mechanism of film boiling collapse behavior. As the results, it is experimentally clarified that the vapor film collapse behavior in low subcooling condition is qualitatively different from the vapor film collapse behavior in high subcooling condition. In case of vapor film collapse by pressure pulse, homogeneous vapor generation occurred all over the surface of steel particle in low subcooling condition. On the other hand, heterogeneous vapor generation was observed for higher subcooling condition. In case of vapor film collapse spontaneously, fluctuation of the gas-liquid interface after quenching propagated from bottom to top of the steel particle heterogeneously in low subcooling condition. On the other hand, simultaneous vapor generation occurred for higher subcooling condition. And the time transient of pressure, particle surface temperature, water temperature and visual information were simultaneously measured in the vapor film collapse experiment by external pressure pulse. Film thickness was estimated by visual data processing technique with the pictures taken by the high-speed video camera. Temperature and heat flux at the vapor-liquid interface were estimated by solving the heat condition equation with the measured pressure, liquid temperature and vapor film thickness as boundary conditions. Movement of the vapor-liquid interface were estimated with the PIV technique with the visual observation

  20. Effect of temperature on the stability of diamond particles and continuous thin films by Raman imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumaran, C. R.; Tiwari, Brajesh; Chandran, Maneesh; Bhattacharya, S. S.; Ramachandra Rao, M. S., E-mail: msrrao@iitm.ac.in [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Nano Functional Materials Technology Centre (India)

    2013-03-15

    The stability of diamond thin films grown by hot filament CVD (HFCVD) upon thermal treatment was studied using Raman imaging. By adapting two different surface pretreatments, continuous microcrystalline diamond (MCD) thin films (grain size: 100-400 nm; cross-sectional thickness: {approx}300 nm) as well as thin film with isolated and coalesced diamond particles (particle size: 400-600 nm; cross-sectional thickness: {approx}200-300 nm) were grown. The thermal stability of isolated diamond particles and continuous MCD films annealed in air at atmospheric pressure was analyzed by Raman imaging. For Raman imaging, Raman spectra were collected over an area of 85 Multiplication-Sign 85 {mu}m using 532 nm laser (Nd:YAG) before and after thermal treatment. It was observed that the isolated diamond particles were stable for 1 h at {approx}750 Degree-Sign C, whereas for the same annealing duration, continuous MCD films grown under the same HFCVD condition were completely oxidized at 700 Degree-Sign C. From these results and analysis, the reason for the higher oxidation rates in the case of MCD and nanocrystalline diamond films is discussed.

  1. HIGH STIFFNESS SURFACE COATING OPTIMIZATION THROUGH STARCH ENCAPSULATION OF PLATY KAOLIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Popil

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Modified fillers consisting of kaolin particles encapsulated by starch have recently been demonstrated in mill trials to achieve significant filler loading levels without accompanying strength losses. In this work, laboratory experiments were conducted to explore the potential advantages of using starch-treated pigment for strength increases by application of surface coating. It is found that a platy clay coating will produce a higher increase in strength per unit weight of application compared to a fine clay, and more-so if the clay is encapsulated in starch. Starch encapsulation of clay produces a greater increase in strength than an equivalent weight proportion addition of starch to a kaolin formulation blend. The observations and measurements of changes in various physical properties of the coated samples are explained by a proportionate loss of void volume in the coating from the encapsulation process and the increase of stress transfer through introduction of higher platelet aspect ratio.

  2. Self-assembly of monolayer-thick alumina particle-epoxy composite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Bryan R; Liu, Xiangyuan; McCandlish, Elizabeth F; Riman, Richard E

    2007-11-06

    Monolayer-thick composite films composed of alpha-alumina and Spurr's epoxy were prepared via a self-assembly process known as fluid forming. The process makes use of a high-spreading-tension fluid composed of volatile and nonvolatile components to propel particles across the air-water interface within a water bath. Continuous addition of the particle suspension builds a 2D particle film at the air-water interface. The spreading fluid compresses the film into a densely packed array against a submerged substrate. The assembled monolayer is deposited onto the substrate by removing the substrate from the bath. A dispersion containing a narrow size distribution, 10 microm alpha-alumina particles, light mineral oil, and 2-propanol was spread at the air-water interface and the alumina particles were assembled into densely packed arrays with an aerial packing fraction (APF) of 0.88. However, when mineral oil was replaced by Spurr's epoxy nonuniform films with low packing density resulted. It was found that replacing 2-propanol with a mixture of 2-propanol and 1-butanol with a volume ratio of 4:1 produced uniform, densely packed alumina/epoxy composite films. The role of the solvent mixture will be discussed.

  3. Engineering property test of kaolin clay contaminated by diesel oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志彬; 刘松玉; 蔡奕

    2015-01-01

    Engineering property of kaolin clay contaminated by diesel oil was studied through a series of laboratory experiments. Oil contents (mass fraction) of 4%, 8%, 12%, 16% and 20% were selected to represent different contamination degrees, and the soil specimens were manually prepared through mixing and static compaction method. Initial water content and dry density of the test kaolin clay were controlled at 10% and 1.58 g/cm3, respectively. Test results indicate that since part of the diesel oil will be released from soil by evaporation, the real water content should be derived through calibration of the quasi water content obtained by traditional test method. As contamination degree of the kaolin clay increases, both liquid limit and plastic limit decrease, but there’s only a slight increase for plasticity index. Swelling pressure of contaminated kaolin clay under confined condition will be lowered when oil-content gets higher. Unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of the oil-contaminated kaolin clay is influenced by not only oil content but also curing period. Increase of contamination degree will continually lower UCS of the kaolin clay specimen. In addition, electrical resistivity of the contaminated kaolin clay with given water content decreases with the increase of oil content. However, soil resistivity is in good relationship with oil content and UCS. Finally, oil content of 8% is found to be a critical value for engineering property of kaolin clay to transit from water-dominated towards oil-dominated characteristics.

  4. Kaolin-based geopolymers with various NaOH concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heah, C. Y.; Kamarudin, H.; Mustafa Al Bakri, A. M.; Bnhussain, M.; Luqman, M.; Khairul Nizar, I.; Ruzaidi, C. M.; Liew, Y. M.

    2013-03-01

    Kaolin geopolymers were produced by the alkali-activation of kaolin with an activator solution (a mixture of NaOH and sodium silicate solutions). The NaOH solution was prepared at a concentration of 6-14 mol/L and was mixed with the sodium silicate solution at a Na2SiO3/NaOH mass ratio of 0.24 to prepare an activator solution. The kaolin-to-activator solution mass ratio used was 0.80. This paper aimed to analyze the effect of NaOH concentration on the compressive strength of kaolin geopolymers at 80°C for 1, 2, and 3 d. Kaolin geopolymers were stable in water, and strength results showed that the kaolin binder had adequate compressive strength with 12 mol/L of NaOH concentration. When the NaOH concentration increased, the SiO2/Na2O decreased. The increased Na2O content enhanced the dissolution of kaolin as shown in X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses. However, excess in this content was not beneficial for the strength development of kaolin geopolymers. In addition, there was the formation of more geopolymeric gel in 12 mol/L samples. The XRD pattern of the samples showed a higher amorphous content and a more geopolymer bonding existed as proved by FTIR analysis.

  5. The dissolution of kaolin by acidic fluoride wastes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kau, P. M. H.; Smith, D. W.; Binning, Philip John

    1997-01-01

    The potential use of kaolin as a lining material for the storage of acidic and acidic fluoride wastes is investigated, No significant changes are observed gravimetrically or structurally for kaolin soaked under acidic conditions down to pH 2 for periods up to 90 days, Some release of aluminium...... was noted with decreasing pH, Severe kaolin dissolution was apparent, however, when soaked in solutions less than pH 3 to 4 with a fluoride concentration of 0.05 M. Aluminium-oxygen bonding in kaolin appears to be substantially more prone to hydrofluoric acid attack than does silicon-oxygen bonding......, resulting in a preferential release of aluminium over silicon into solution. The solution pH was found to decrease with the dissolution reaction as fluorosilicic acid was produced during the kaolin breakdown....

  6. FIB-SEM investigation of trapped intermetallic particles in anodic oxide films on AA1050 aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jariyaboon, Manthana; Møller, Per; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    2011-01-01

    -containing intermetallic particles incorporated into the anodic oxide films on industrially pure aluminium (AA1050, 99.5 per cent) has been investigated. AA1050 aluminium was anodized in a 100?ml/l sulphuric acid bath with an applied voltage of 14?V at 20°C ±2°C for 10 or 120?min. The anodic film subsequently was analyzed...

  7. Effects of kaolin-additions in combustion of wood fuels on hardening and leaching properties of ash; Paaverkan av kaolintillsats vid foerbraenning av biobraensle paa askans haerdnings- och lakningsegenskaper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steenari, Britt-Marie; Karlfeldt, Karin (Dept. of Chemical And Biological Engineering, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)). e-mail: bms@chalmers.se

    2007-06-15

    In several investigations it has been shown that kaolin works well as an anti-agglomerating and anti-ash sintering agent in combustion of bio-fuels with a potassium rich ash in fluidised bed boilers. Combustion tests have shown that the kaolin addition may result in an ash melting temperature that is a couple of hundred degrees centigrade higher than for the original ash. This way the kaolin hinders the fouling of super heater surfaces by sticky ash. Many boiler owners treat their wood fuel ash with the aim to recycle it to forest soil as a nutrient source and acid neutralising agent. Therefore it was considered important to investigate if an addition of kaolin in the boiler would have a negative influence on the ash leaching properties. Thus, the aim of the project was to investigate the hardening reactions and leaching properties of normal wood ash and wood ash produced with addition of kaolin. The ash samples were produced in the same boiler and in similar combustion conditions. It was especially interesting to study if the ash would contain soluble aluminium due to the kaolin addition since aluminium in solution may have negative effects on the eco system. The results showed that an important difference between the normal fly ash and the fly ash with kaolin was that the release of potassium i leaching was decreased due to the kaolin addition, especially at high pH levels. This is positive, since potassium normally is released very fast in the forest. In addition, the kaolin containing ash has a faster initial setting/hardening process than the normal ash. The structure of the hardened ash particles is also more durable than that of the normal ash. This is also a positive effect since it indicates that it could be possible to handle the hardened ash after a shorter storage period. However, it has not been investigated if this effect remains in large scale operation and in a longer time perspective. The acid neutralising capacity of fly ash with kaolin is

  8. Preparation and photocatalytic activity of composite films containing clustered TiO2 particles and mineral tourmaline powders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Jin-sheng; MENG Jun-ping; LIANG Guang-chuan; FENG Yan-wen; DING Yan

    2006-01-01

    The novel composite films containing clustered TiO2 particles and fine tourmaline particles on the surface of copper webs were prepared by the sol-gel method. The microstructures of the composite films were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM),and the photocatalytic activity of the films was evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange,respectively. The results indicate that tourmaline particles can obviously influence the microstructures of TiO2 films and enhance the photocatalytic activity due to their spontaneous permanent polarity and high radiotechnology of far infrared. During preparing the composite films,the clustered TiO2 particles with lots of nano-sized ladder layers can grow on the surface of fine tourmaline particles,the thickness of ladder layer is 10 nm,and the average diameter of nano-sized TiO2 particles is 15 nm.

  9. Synthesis of NaY Zeolite Using Mixed Calcined Kaolins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subagjo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Kaolin is one of several types of clay minerals. The most common crystalline phase constituting kaolin minerals is kaolinite, with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH4. Kaolin is mostly used for manufacturing traditional ceramics and also to synthesize zeolites or molecular sieves. The Si-O and Al-O structures in kaolin are inactive and inert, so activation by calcination is required. This work studies the conversion of kaolin originating from Bangka island in Indonesia into calcined kaolin phase as precursor in NaY zeolite synthesis. In the calcination process, the kaolinite undergoes phase transformations from metakaolin to mullite. The Bangka kaolin is 74.3% crystalline, predominantly composed of kaolinite, and 25.7% amorphous, with an SiO2/Al2O3 mass ratio of 1.64. Thermal characterization using simultaneous DSC/TGA identified an endothermic peak at 527°C and an exothermic peak at 1013°C. Thus, three calcination temperatures (700, 1013, and 1050 °C were selected to produce calcined kaolins with different phase distributions. The best product, with 87.8% NaY zeolite in the 54.7% crystalline product and an SiO2/Al2O3 molar ratio of 5.35, was obtained through hydrothermal synthesis using mixed calcined kaolins with a composition of K700C : K1013C : K1050C = 10 : 85 : 5 in %-mass, with seed addition, at a temperature of 93 °Cand a reaction time of 15 hours.

  10. Convective polymer assembly for the deposition of nanostructures and polymer thin films on immobilized particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Joseph J.; Björnmalm, Mattias; Gunawan, Sylvia T.; Guo, Junling; LiangPresent Address: Csiro Process Science; Engineering, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia, Kang; Tardy, Blaise; SekiguchiPresent Address: Graduate School Of Chemical Sciences; Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan, Shota; Noi, Ka Fung; Cui, Jiwei; EjimaPresent Address: Institute Of Industrial Science, The University Of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan, Hirotaka; Caruso, Frank

    2014-10-01

    We report the preparation of polymer particles via convective polymer assembly (CPA). Convection is used to move polymer solutions and cargo through an agarose gel that contains immobilized template particles. This method both coats and washes the particles in a process that is amenable to automation, and does not depend on passive diffusion or electrical currents, thus facilitating incorporation of fragile and nanoscale objects, such as liposomes and gold nanoparticles, into the thin polymer films. Template dissolution leads to the formation of stable polymer particles and capsules.We report the preparation of polymer particles via convective polymer assembly (CPA). Convection is used to move polymer solutions and cargo through an agarose gel that contains immobilized template particles. This method both coats and washes the particles in a process that is amenable to automation, and does not depend on passive diffusion or electrical currents, thus facilitating incorporation of fragile and nanoscale objects, such as liposomes and gold nanoparticles, into the thin polymer films. Template dissolution leads to the formation of stable polymer particles and capsules. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed experimental/instrumental information and supporting figures. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04348k

  11. Lipid particle size effect on water vapor permeability and mechanical properties of whey protein/beeswax emulsion films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Gago, M B; Krochta, J M

    2001-02-01

    Lipid particle size effects on water vapor permeability (WVP) and mechanical properties of whey protein isolate (WPI)/beeswax (BW) emulsion films were investigated. Emulsion films containing 20 and 60% BW (dry basis) and mean lipid particle sizes ranging from 0.5 to 2.0 microm were prepared. BW particle size effects on WVP and mechanical properties were observed only in films containing 60% BW. WVP of these films decreased as lipid particle size decreased. As drying temperature increased, film WVPs decreased significantly. Meanwhile, tensile strength and elongation increased as BW particle size decreased. However, for 20% BW emulsion films, properties were not affected by lipid particle size. Results suggest that increased protein-lipid interactions at the BW particle interfaces, as particle size decreased and resulting interfacial area increased, result in stronger films with lower WVPs. Observing this effect depends on a large lipid content within the protein matrix. At low lipid content, the effect of interactions at the protein-lipid interfaces is not observed, due to the presence of large protein-matrix regions of the film without lipid, which are not influenced by protein-lipid interactions.

  12. The binding of bovine factor XII to kaolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, E P; McDevitt, P J

    1983-04-01

    Purified bovine factor XII was radiolabeled with iodine-125 and its binding to kaolin studied. Binding was rapid and was not readily reversible upon adding unlabeled factor XII. The optimum pH for binding was in the region of pH 5-7. The isoelectric point of factor XII was pH 5.7. High concentrations of urea or increasing the ionic strength of the medium did not inhibit binding. Polyvalent macromolecules, such as Polybrene and polylysine, were effective inhibitors of factor XII binding to kaolin. Polylysine caused the release of factor XII that had bound to the kaolin surface.

  13. Rapid fitting of particle cascade development data from X-ray film densitometry measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, E.; Benson, Carl M.; Fountain, Walter F.

    1989-01-01

    A semiautomatic method of fitting transition curves to X-ray film optical density measurements of electromagnetic particle cascades is described. Several hundred singly and multiple interacting cosmic ray events from the JACEE 8 balloon flights were analyzed using this procedure. In addition to greatly increased speed compared to the previous manual method, the semiautomatic method offers increased accuracy through maximum likelihood fitting.

  14. Thin film cadmium telluride charged particle sensors for large area neutron detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, J. W.; Smith, L.; Calkins, J.; Mejia, I.; Cantley, K. D.; Chapman, R. A.; Quevedo-Lopez, M.; Gnade, B., E-mail: gnade@utdallas.edu [Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Kunnen, G. R.; Allee, D. R. [Flexible Display Center, Arizona State University, Phoenix, Arizona 85284 (United States); Sastré-Hernández, J.; Contreras-Puente, G. [Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Mexico City 07738 (Mexico); Mendoza-Pérez, R. [Universidad Autónoma de la Ciudad de México, Mexico City 09790 (Mexico)

    2014-09-15

    Thin film semiconductor neutron detectors are an attractive candidate to replace {sup 3}He neutron detectors, due to the possibility of low cost manufacturing and the potential for large areas. Polycrystalline CdTe is found to be an excellent material for thin film charged particle detectors—an integral component of a thin film neutron detector. The devices presented here are characterized in terms of their response to alpha and gamma radiation. Individual alpha particles are detected with an intrinsic efficiency of >80%, while the devices are largely insensitive to gamma rays, which is desirable so that the detector does not give false positive counts from gamma rays. The capacitance-voltage behavior of the devices is studied and correlated to the response due to alpha radiation. When coupled with a boron-based neutron converting material, the CdTe detectors are capable of detecting thermal neutrons.

  15. Screening of Particle Fever film and Comedy Night

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2014-01-01

    This documentary brings to life the start-up of the world’s most powerful particle accelerator, the LHC, and the two-year-long global effort that led to the discovery of the Higgs boson. The screening will be followed by a discussion with director Mark Levinson, editor Walter Munch and the scientists featured in the documentary. The second part of the evening will see scientists take to the stage as comedians for the Comedy Night.

  16. Refractory Behaviors of Magnetite-Kaolin Bricks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeosun, S. O.; Akpan, E. I.; Gbenebor, O. P.; Taiwo, O. O.; Eke, I. J.

    2016-11-01

    In this work, the suitability of using kaolin-magnetite-plastic clay to produce refractory bricks has been experimentally explored. Thirty bricks of different compositions were produced and fired at 1200°C. The density, shrinkage moisture content, loss on ignition, porosity and permeability of the bricks were examined. Results show that the bricks remained stable during firing and thus possess good insulating characteristics. The highest (2.23 g/cm3) and lowest (2.00 g/cm3) bulk densities obtained in this study are higher than the highest bulk density reported for Al dross-filled refractories (1.23 g/cm3). The bricks also possessed very low effective moisture content (10-23%) and very high compression modulus (16-100 MPa) desirable in insulating refractory bricks with high resistance to abrasion.

  17. Submicron writing by laser irradiation on metal nano-particle dispersed films toward flexible electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Akira; Aminuzzaman, Mohammod; Miyashita, Tokuji

    2009-02-01

    The requirement for microwiring technology by a wet process has significantly increased recently toward the achievement of printable and flexible electronics. We have developed the metal microwiring with a resolution higher than 1 μm by the laser direct writing technique using Ag and Cu nano-particle-dispersed films as precursors. The technique was applied to the microwiring on a flexible and transparent polymer film. The metallization is caused in a micro-region by focused laser beam, which reduces the thermal damage of the flexible polymer substrate during the metallization process. The laser direct writing technique is based on the efficient and fast conversion of photon energy to thermal energy by direct excitation of the plasmon absorption of a metal nano-particle, which provides Cu microwiring with a low resistivity owing to the inhibition of the surface oxidation of the Cu nano-particle.

  18. Particle-Film Plasmons on Periodic Silver Film over Nanosphere (AgFON): A Hybrid Plasmonic Nanoarchitecture for Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiwon; Zhang, Qianpeng; Park, Seungyoung; Choe, Ayoung; Fan, Zhiyong; Ko, Hyunhyub

    2016-01-13

    Plasmonic systems based on particle-film plasmonic couplings have recently attracted great attention because of the significantly enhanced electric field at the particle-film gaps. Here, we introduce a hybrid plasmonic architecture utilizing combined plasmonic effects of particle-film gap plasmons and silver film over nanosphere (AgFON) substrates. When gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are assembled on AgFON substrates with controllable particle-film gap distances, the AuNP-AgFON system supports multiple plasmonic couplings from interparticle, particle-film, and crevice gaps, resulting in a huge surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) effect. We show that the periodicity of AgFON substrates and the particle-film gaps greatly affects the surface plasmon resonances, and thus, the SERS effects due to the interplay between multiple plasmonic couplings. The optimally designed AuNP-AgFON substrate shows a SERS enhancement of 233 times compared to the bare AgFON substrate. The ultrasensitive SERS sensing capability is also demonstrated by detecting glutathione, a neurochemical molecule that is an important antioxidant, down to the 10 pM level.

  19. Development of Biopolymer Composite Films Using a Microfluidization Technique for Carboxymethylcellulose and Apple Skin Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inyoung Choi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Biopolymer films based on apple skin powder (ASP and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC were developed with the addition of apple skin extract (ASE and tartaric acid (TA. ASP/CMC composite films were prepared by mixing CMC with ASP solution using a microfluidization technique to reduce particle size. Then, various concentrations of ASE and TA were incorporated into the film solution as an antioxidant and an antimicrobial agent, respectively. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR, optical, mechanical, water barrier, and solubility properties of the developed films were then evaluated to determine the effects of ASE and TA on physicochemical properties. The films were also analyzed for antioxidant effect on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and antimicrobial activities against Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica, and Shigella flexneri. From the results, the ASP/CMC film containing ASE and TA was revealed to enhance the mechanical, water barrier, and solubility properties. Moreover, it showed the additional antioxidant and antimicrobial properties for application as an active packaging film.

  20. Flocculation of kaolin and lignin by bovine blood and hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polymeric flocculants are used extensively for water purification, inhibition of soil erosion, and reduction in water leakage from unlined canals. Production of highly active, renewable polymeric flocculants to replace synthetic flocculants is a priority. Using suspensions of kaolin, flocculation ...

  1. Polarized polymer films as electronic pulse detectors of cosmic dust particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, J. A.; Tuzzolino, A. J.

    1985-01-01

    A new type of dust particle detector has been developed which consists of a polarized film of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) having conducting electrons on its surface and operating with no bias voltage. Here, the response characteristics of PVDF detectors with areas in the range 4-150 sq cm and thickness in the range 2-28 microns to iron particles accelerated to velocities in the range 1-12 km/s are reported. The discussion also covers the mechanism of detection, fast pulse response, noise characteristics, and the dependence of the detector signal amplitude on particle mass and velocity. The detectors exhibit long-term stability and can be operated for extended periods of time over the temperature range -50 to +50 C; their response to dust particle impacts is unaffected by high background fluxes of charged particles.

  2. Theory for particle settling and shear-induced migration in thin-film liquid flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin P

    2008-10-01

    Particles suspended in a film flow can either settle out of the flow, remain well mixed, or even advance faster than the fluid, accumulating at the moving contact line. Recent experiments by Zhou et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 117803 (2005)] have demonstrated that these three settling behaviors can be achieved by control of the average particle concentration phi and inclination angle theta . This work presents a theory for determining the settling behavior in the Stokes regime by calculating the depth profile of phi and the depth-averaged velocities of the liquid and particle phases. It is found that shear-induced particle fluxes can lead to an inversely stratified flow, in which the particles move on average faster than the liquid. The theory is directly compared to Zhou et al.'s experimental data, and the implications of stratification for lubrication-type models are also discussed.

  3. On the asymmetric adsorption of phenylalanine enantiomers by kaolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, W. A.; Flores, J.

    1973-01-01

    The attempt is described to verify a recent report that kaolin adsorbs D- and L-phenylalanine enantiomers to different extents from aqueous solutions at both pH 5.8 and pH 2. No evidence whatsoever could be found for the differential adsorption of D- versus L-phenylalanine by kaolin from either pH 6 or pH 2 solutions.

  4. On the asymmetric adsorption of phenylalanine enantiomers by kaolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, W. A.; Flores, J.

    1973-01-01

    The attempt is described to verify a recent report that kaolin adsorbs D- and L-phenylalanine enantiomers to different extents from aqueous solutions at both pH 5.8 and pH 2. No evidence whatsoever could be found for the differential adsorption of D- versus L-phenylalanine by kaolin from either pH 6 or pH 2 solutions.

  5. The influence of thermal treatment on properties of kaolin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erasmus Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of dehydroxylation of South African kaolin revealed that both the inner and the surface hydroxyl groups disappear according to first order kinetics, however, the surface group disappeared faster than the inner groups, showing that diffusion control kinetics is also important. The temperature dependent transformations of the kaolin was measure by means of fractional conversion of the ratios between AlO6:AlO4 and Si-O-Al:Si-O-Si, which showed kobs values 0.0168 s-1 and 0.0089 s-1 for the transformation to the spinel phase and values of 0.0165 s-1 and 0.0156 s-1 for the transformation to mullite respectively. The pozzolanic activities of the kaolin calcined at different temperatures showed a maximum pozzolanic activity when the kaolin is calcined at 650°C and the pozzolanic activity for mullite is even less than for the uncalcined kaolin. XPS revealed that the atomic ratio between Si and Al did not change from kaolin to metakaolin (Si:Al = ca. 1.2 however the mullite showed a atomic ratio of Si:Al = 1.52, implying that some deallumination occurred during calcination at high temperatures.

  6. Shear Strength of Stabilized Kaolin Soil Using Liquid Polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, A. T. S.; Fazlina, M. I. S.; Nizam, Z. M.; Fairus, Y. M.; Hakimi, M. N. A.; Riduan, Y.; Faizal, P.

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the suitability of polymer in soil stabilization by examining its strength to withstand compressive strength. Throughout this research study, manufactured polymer was used as a chemical liquid soil stabilizer. The liquid polymer was diluted using a proposed dilution factor of 1 : 3 (1 part polymer: 3 parts distilled water) to preserve the workability of the polymer in kaolin mixture. A mold with a diameter of 50 mm and a height of 100 mm was prepared. Kaolin soil was mixed with different percentages of polymer from 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30% and 35% of the mass of the kaolin clay sample. Kaolin mixtures were tested after a curing period of 3 days, 7 days, 14 days and 28 days respectively. The physical properties were determined by conducting a moisture content test and Atterberg limit test which comprise of liquid limit, plastic limit and shrinkage limit. Meanwhile, the mechanical properties of the soil shear strength were identified through an unconfined compressive strength (UCS) test. Stabilized kaolin soil showed the highest compressive strength value when it was mixed with 35% of polymer compared to other percentages that marked an increment in strength which are 45.72% (3 days), 67.57% (7 days), 81.73% (14 days) and 77.84% (28 days). Hence, the most effective percentage of liquid polymer which should be used to increase the strength of kaolin soil is 35%.

  7. Rheological properties of kaolin and chemically simulated waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selby, C.L.

    1981-12-01

    The Savannah River Laboratory is conducting tests to determine the best operating conditions of pumps used to transfer insoluble radioactive sludges from old to new waste tanks. Because it is not feasible to conduct these tests with real or chemically simulated sludges, kaolin clay is being used as a stand-in for the solid waste. The rheology tests described herein were conducted to determine whether the properties of kaolin were sufficiently similar to those of real sludge to permit meaningful pump tests. The rheology study showed that kaolin can be substituted for real waste to accurately determine pump performance. Once adequately sheared, kaolin properties were found to remain constant. Test results determined that kaolin should not be allowed to settle more than two weeks between pump tests. Water or supernate from the waste tanks can be used to dilute sludge on an equal volume basis because they identically affect the rheological properties of sludge. It was further found that the fluid properties of kaolin and waste are insensitive to temperature.

  8. An Observation of Diamond-Shaped Particle Structure in a Soya Phosphatidylcohline and Bacteriorhodopsin Composite Langmuir Blodgett Film Fabricated by Multilayer Molecular Thin Film Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujiuchi, Y.; Makino, Y.

    A composite film of soya phosphatidylcohline (soya PC) and bacteriorhodopsin (BR) was fabricated by the multilayer molecular thin film method using fatty acid and lipid on a quartz substrate. Direct Force Microscopy (DFM), UV absorption spectra and IR absorption spectra of the film were characterized on the detail of surface structure of the film. The DFM data revealed that many rhombus (diamond-shaped) particles were observed in the film. The spectroscopic data exhibited the yield of M-intermediate of BR in the film. On our modelling of molecular configuration indicate that the coexistence of the strong inter-molecular interaction and the strong inter-molecular interaction between BR trimmers attributed to form the particles.

  9. Elastic Properties of Natural Sea Surface Films Incorporated with Solid Dust Particles: Model Baltic Sea Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Z. Mazurek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Floating dust-originated solid particles at air-water interfaces will interact with one another and disturb the smoothness of such a composite surface affecting its dilational elasticity. To quantify the effect, surface pressure (Π versus film area (A isotherm, and stress-relaxation (Π-time measurements were performed for monoparticulate layers of the model hydrophobic material (of μm-diameter and differentiated hydrophobicity corresponding to the water contact angles (CA ranging from 60 to 140° deposited at surfaces of surfactant-containing original seawater and were studied with a Langmuir trough system. The composite surface dilational modulus predicted from the theoretical approach, in which natural dust load signatures (particle number flux, daily deposition rate, and diameter spectra originated from in situ field studies performed along Baltic Sea near-shore line stations, agreed well with the direct experimentally derived data. The presence of seawater surfactants affected wettability of the solid material which was evaluated with different CA techniques applicable to powdered samples. Surface energetics of the particle-subphase interactions was expressed in terms of the particle removal energy, contact cross-sectional areas, collapse energies, and so forth. The hydrophobic particles incorporation at a sea surface film structure increased the elasticity modulus by a factor K (1.29–1.58. The particle-covered seawater revealed a viscoelastic behavior with the characteristic relaxation times ranging from 2.6 to 68.5 sec.

  10. Measurements of Submicron Particle Adsorption and Particle Film Elasticity at Oil-Water Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manga, Mohamed S; Hunter, Timothy N; Cayre, Olivier J; York, David W; Reichert, Matthew D; Anna, Shelly L; Walker, Lynn M; Williams, Richard A; Biggs, Simon R

    2016-05-01

    The influence of particle adsorption on liquid/liquid interfacial tension is not well understood, and much previous research has suggested conflicting behaviors. In this paper we investigate the surface activity and adsorption kinetics of charge stabilized and pH-responsive polymer stabilized colloids at oil/water interfaces using two tensiometry techniques: (i) pendant drop and (ii) microtensiometer. We found, using both techniques, that charge stabilized particles had little or no influence on the (dynamic) interfacial tension, although dense silica particles affected the "apparent" measured tension in the pendent drop, due to gravity driven elongation of the droplet profile. Nevertheless, this apparent change additionally allowed the study of adsorption kinetics, which was related qualitatively between particle systems by estimated diffusion coefficients. Significant and real interfacial tension responses were measured using ∼53 nm core-shell latex particles with a pH-responsive polymer stabilizer of poly(methyl methacrylate)-b-poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (pMMA-b-pDMAEMA) diblock copolymer. At pH 2, where the polymer is strongly charged, behavior was similar to that of the bare charge-stabilized particles, showing little change in the interfacial tension. At pH 10, where the polymer is discharged and poorly soluble in water, a significant decrease in the measured interfacial tension commensurate with strong adsorption at the oil-water interface was seen, which was similar in magnitude to the surface activity of the free polymer. These results were both confirmed through droplet profile and microtensiometry experiments. Dilational elasticity measurements were also performed by oscillation of the droplet; again, changes in interfacial tension with droplet oscillation were only seen with the responsive particles at pH 10. Frequency sweeps were performed to ascertain the dilational elasticity modulus, with measured values being significantly higher

  11. An evaluation of soluble cations and anions on the conductivity and rate of flocculation of kaolins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Deborah Lee

    1998-10-01

    The focus of this project was to learn how ionic concentrations and their contributions to electric conductivity influence the flocculation behavior of kaolin/water suspensions. Sodium silicate, calcium chloride, and magnesium sulfate were used as chemical additives. The specific surface areas, particle size distributions, and methylene blue indices for two kaolins were measured. The SSA and MBI for these kaolins indicated that they possessed inherent differences in SSA and flocculation behaviors. Rheological studies were also performed. Testing included simultaneous gelation, deflocculation, and pH tests. Viscosity, pH, temperature, and chemical additive concentrations were monitored at each point. Testing was performed at 45/55 wt% solids. Effects of additions of various levels of deflocculant and flocculant to each of the kaolin/water suspensions were studied by making several suspensions from each kaolin. The concentrations of dispersant, and flocculant levels and types were varied to produce suspensions with different chemical additive "histories," but all with similar final apparent viscosities. Slurry filtrates were analyzed for conductivity, pH, temperature, and ion concentrations of (Al3+, Fe2+,3+, Ca 2+, Mg+, Na+, SO4 2--, and Cl--). Plastic properties were calculated to determine how variations in suspension histories affected conductivities, pH, and detectable ion contents of the suspensions. These analyses were performed on starting slurries which were under-, completely-, and over-deflocculated before further additions of flocculants and deflocculant were added to tune the slurries to the final, constant, target viscosity. Results showed that rates of flocculation and conductivities increased as concentrations of ions increased. By increasing conductivity correlations with increases in flocculation occurs, which yields higher rates of buildup, or RBU [1]. This is the single most important slip control property in the whitewares industry. Shear

  12. The use of radiochromic films to measure and analyze the beam profile of charged particle accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila-Rodriguez, M.A. [Edmonton PET Centre, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Ave, Edmonton, AB T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Unidad PET/CT-Ciclotron, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)], E-mail: avilarod@uwalumni.com; Wilson, J.S.; McQuarrie, S.A. [Edmonton PET Centre, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Ave, Edmonton, AB T6G 1Z2 (Canada)

    2009-11-15

    The use of radiochromic films as a simple and inexpensive tool to accurately measure and analyze the beam profile of charged particle accelerators is described. In this study, metallic foils of different materials and thicknesses were irradiated with 17.8 MeV protons and autoradiographic images of the beam strike were acquired by exposing pieces of RCF in direct contact with the irradiated foils. The films were digitalized using a conventional scanner and images were analyzed using DoseLab. Beam intensity distributions, isodose curves and linear beam profiles of the digitalized images were acquired.

  13. The use of radiochromic films to measure and analyze the beam profile of charged particle accelerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Rodriguez, M A; Wilson, J S; McQuarrie, S A

    2009-11-01

    The use of radiochromic films as a simple and inexpensive tool to accurately measure and analyze the beam profile of charged particle accelerators is described. In this study, metallic foils of different materials and thicknesses were irradiated with 17.8MeV protons and autoradiographic images of the beam strike were acquired by exposing pieces of RCF in direct contact with the irradiated foils. The films were digitalized using a conventional scanner and images were analyzed using DoseLab. Beam intensity distributions, isodose curves and linear beam profiles of the digitalized images were acquired.

  14. Bio-beneficiation of kaolin and feldspar and its effect on fired characteristics of triaxial porcelain

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anandita Roy; Samarendra K Singh; P C Banerjee; Kausik Dana; Swapan Kumar Das

    2010-06-01

    Presence of iron compounds as impurities in kaolin and feldspar, impart reddish colour to ceramic products manufactured using these minerals. The quality of kaolin and feldspar was enriched mainly through iron removal by biological methods. Bacteria isolated from kaolin of Indian origin were used for bioleaching. Biotreatment of kaolin and feldspar using indigenous bacteria not only lowered the iron content of the minerals but also improved their whiteness. The porcelain prepared with these biobeneficiated minerals was compared to that prepared with non-beneficiated one. Physico-mechanical properties of porcelain were distinctly improved by using biobeneficiated kaolin and feldspar, without affecting the individual mineralogical compositions of kaolin and feldspar.

  15. Preparation and Characterization of Ceramizable Kaolin/VMQ and Kaolin/ZB/VMQ Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Qin, Y.; Pei, Y.; Huang, Z. X.

    Ceramizable silicone-based composite was prepared by using methyl vinyl silicone rubber (VMQ) as matrix, calcined Kaolin and zinc borate (ZB) as additives. This composition can form interpenetrating network structures after crosslinking, and then improve heat-resistant properties by firing in air. The results of different formulations were investigated by FTIR. TG-DTG SEM and XRD. It showed that when the temperature above 600°C. the fillers and silicon rubber started to transform from organic to inorganic and internal microstructure became denser.

  16. Electrical four-point probing of spherical metallic thin films coated onto micron sized polymer particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersen, Sigurd R., E-mail: sigurd.r.pettersen@ntnu.no, E-mail: jianying.he@ntnu.no; Stokkeland, August Emil; Zhang, Zhiliang; He, Jianying, E-mail: sigurd.r.pettersen@ntnu.no, E-mail: jianying.he@ntnu.no [NTNU Nanomechanical Lab, Department of Structural Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Kristiansen, Helge [NTNU Nanomechanical Lab, Department of Structural Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Conpart AS, Dragonveien 54, NO-2013 Skjetten (Norway); Njagi, John; Goia, Dan V. [Center for Advanced Materials Processing, Clarkson University, Potsdam, New York 13699-5814 (United States); Redford, Keith [Conpart AS, Dragonveien 54, NO-2013 Skjetten (Norway)

    2016-07-25

    Micron-sized metal-coated polymer spheres are frequently used as filler particles in conductive composites for electronic interconnects. However, the intrinsic electrical resistivity of the spherical thin films has not been attainable due to deficiency in methods that eliminate the effect of contact resistance. In this work, a four-point probing method using vacuum compatible piezo-actuated micro robots was developed to directly investigate the electric properties of individual silver-coated spheres under real-time observation in a scanning electron microscope. Poly(methyl methacrylate) spheres with a diameter of 30 μm and four different film thicknesses (270 nm, 150 nm, 100 nm, and 60 nm) were investigated. By multiplying the experimental results with geometrical correction factors obtained using finite element models, the resistivities of the thin films were estimated for the four thicknesses. These were higher than the resistivity of bulk silver.

  17. Rhodium particles supported by thin vanadia films as model systems for catalysis: An electron microscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penner, S. [Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie, Universitaet Innsbruck, Innrain 52a, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Wang, D. [Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Faradayweg, 4-6, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Schloegl, R. [Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Faradayweg, 4-6, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Hayek, K. [Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie, Universitaet Innsbruck, Innrain 52a, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)]. E-mail: konrad.hayek@uibk.ac.at

    2005-07-22

    Well-shaped Rh particles grown epitaxially on NaCl surfaces were coated with a 25 nm layer of crystalline vanadium oxide by reactive deposition in 10{sup -4} mbar oxygen. The Rh/VO{sub x} film was subjected to consecutive heat treatments in 1 bar oxygen and in 1 bar hydrogen up to 673 K. The structural and morphological changes were monitored by (high-resolution) transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction and electron energy-loss spectroscopy and compared to the alterations of a bare vanadium oxide film treated under equal conditions. The stoichiometry and structure of the VO{sub x} support depend on the temperature of the NaCl template and on the deposition rate. Low deposition rates and high substrate temperatures favour the generation of a pure V{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase, with both V{sub 2}O{sub 3} and the Rh particles in epitaxial relation to NaCl (001). A treatment in 1 bar O{sub 2} between 300 and 573 K converts the supporting oxide into mixed V{sub 2}O{sub 3}, VO{sub 2} and V{sub 2}O{sub 5} phases. Oxidation at 673 K induces a complete reconstruction into a single V{sub 2}O{sub 5} phase, while an oxygen treatment at 723 K transforms also the Rh particles into ({beta})Rh{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Reduction of the bare V{sub 2}O{sub 5} film in 1 bar hydrogen yields cubic VO at 673 K, but reduction of the Rh/V{sub 2}O{sub 5} film leads to VO formation already at 473 K. Finally, a reduction of vanadia-supported Rh particles at and above 573 K results in the formation of Rh/V alloy structures.

  18. Colloidal interactions between Langmuir-Blodgett bitumen films and fine solid particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jun; Zhang, Liyan; Xu, Zhenghe; Masliyah, Jacob H

    2006-10-10

    In oil sand processing, accumulation of surface-active compounds at various interfaces imposes a significant impact on bitumen recovery and bitumen froth cleaning (i.e., froth treatment) by altering the interfacial properties and colloidal interactions among various oil sand components. In the present study, bitumen films were prepared at toluene/water interfaces using a Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) upstroke deposition technique. The surface of the prepared LB bitumen films was found to be hydrophobic, comprised of wormlike aggregates containing a relatively high content of oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen, indicating an accumulation of surface-active compounds in the films. Using an atomic force microscope, colloidal interactions between the LB bitumen films and fine solids (model silica particles and clay particles chosen directly from an oil sand tailing stream) were measured in industrial plant process water and compared with those measured in simple electrolyte solutions of controlled pH and divalent cation concentrations. The results show a stronger long-range repulsive force and weaker adhesion force in solutions of higher pH and lower divalent cation concentration. In plant process water, a moderate long-range repulsive force and weak adhesion were measured despite its high electrolyte content. These findings provide more insight into the mechanisms of bitumen extraction and froth treatment.

  19. Multi-Stimuli-Responsive Polymer Materials: Particles, Films, and Bulk Gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zi-Quan; Wang, Guo-Jie

    2016-06-01

    Stimuli-responsive polymers have received tremendous attention from scientists and engineers for several decades due to the wide applications of these smart materials in biotechnology and nanotechnology. Driven by the complex functions of living systems, multi-stimuli-responsive polymer materials have been designed and developed in recent years. Compared with conventional single- or dual-stimuli-based polymer materials, multi-stimuli-responsive polymer materials would be more intriguing since more functions and finer modulations can be achieved through more parameters. This critical review highlights the recent advances in this area and focuses on three types of multi-stimuli-responsive polymer materials, namely, multi-stimuli-responsive particles (micelles, micro/nanogels, vesicles, and hybrid particles), multi-stimuli-responsive films (polymer brushes, layer-by-layer polymer films, and porous membranes), and multi-stimuli-responsive bulk gels (hydrogels, organogels, and metallogels) from recent publications. Various stimuli, such as light, temperature, pH, reduction/oxidation, enzymes, ions, glucose, ultrasound, magnetic fields, mechanical stress, solvent, voltage, and electrochemistry, have been combined to switch the functions of polymers. The polymer design, preparation, and function of multi-stimuli-responsive particles, films, and bulk gels are comprehensively discussed here.

  20. Carrot fiber (CF) composite films for antioxidant preservation: Particle size effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrovo Encalada, Alondra M; Basanta, Maria F; Fissore, Eliana N; De'Nobili, Maria D; Rojas, Ana M

    2016-01-20

    The effect of particle size (53, 105 and 210 μm) of carrot fiber (CF) on their hydration properties and antioxidant capacity as well as on the performance of the CF-composite films developed with commercial low methoxyl pectin (LMP) was studied. It was determined that CF contained carotenoids and phenolics co-extracted with polysaccharides (80%), rich in pectins (15%). CF showed antioxidant activity and produced homogeneous calcium-LMP-based composites. The 53-μm-CF showed the lowest hydration capability and produced the least elastic and deformable composite film due probably to CF bridged by calcium-crosslinked LMP chains. Antioxidant activity associated to the loaded CF was found in composites. When L-(+)-ascorbic acid (AA) was also loaded, its hydrolytic stability increased with the decrease in CF-particle size, showing the lowest stability in the 0%-CF- and 210 μm-CF-LMP films. Below ≈ 250 μm, the particle size determined the hydration properties of pectin-containing CF, affecting the microstructure and water mobility in composites.

  1. Partial thromboplastin time test with kaolin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchett, Myrtle O.; Ingram, G. I. C.

    1965-01-01

    The partial thromboplastin time test provides a convenient and sensitive screening procedure for deficiencies of thromboplastic factors, especially factors VIII and IX. The test is carried out after preincubating the plasma for 10 minutes with kaolin, and Inosithin is used as a platelet substitute. The `normal range' of the test has been estimated in terms of the differences encountered between random normal plasmas tested in pairs, because individual patients are usually tested against single control subjects. A patient's partial thromboplastin time should be regarded as abnormal if it is more than six seconds longer than the control time. In the diagnosis of haemophilia, patients' plasmas with concentrations of factor VIII as low as about 20% might be regarded as being within the range of normal, if the selected control subject's factor VIII happened to lie near the lower end of the normal range. When mild haemophilia is suspected, discrimination may be improved by diluting both the patient's and the control plasmas 1 in 20 in haemophilic plasma. With the test modified in this way the clotting time is prolonged, though the range of differences among normal subjects is unaltered, and plasmas with factor VIII concentrations below about 30%, i.e., in undiluted plasma, would be unlikely to be regarded as normal. The partial thromboplastin time may be similarly modified as a screening test for factor IX deficiency. Some clinical examples are reported. PMID:14318702

  2. Incorporation of ovalbumin into ISCOMs and related colloidal particles prepared by the lipid film hydration method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demana, Patrick H; Davies, Nigel M; Berger, Bianca; Rades, Thomas

    2004-07-08

    The aim of this study was to investigate the incorporation of a model antigen, fluorescently labelled ovalbumin (FITC-OVA), into various colloidal particles including immune stimulating complexes (ISCOMs), liposomes, ring and worm-like micelles, lamellae and lipidic/layered structures that are formed from various combinations of the triterpene saponin Quil A, cholesterol and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) following hydration of PE/cholesterol lipid films with aqueous solutions of Quil A. Colloidal dispersions of these three components were also prepared by the dialysis method for comparison. FITC-OVA was conjugated with palmitic acid (P) and PE to produce P-FITC-OVA and PE-FITC-OVA, respectively. Both P-FITC-OVA and PE-FITC-OVA could be incorporated in all colloidal structures whereas FITC-OVA was incorporated only into liposomes. The incorporation of PE-FITC-OVA into all colloidal structures was significantly higher than P-FITC-OVA (P < 0.05). The degree of incorporation of protein was in the order: ring and worm-like micelles < liposomes and lipidic/layered structures < ISCOMs and lamellae. The incorporation of protein into the various particles prepared by the lipid film hydration method was similar to those for colloidal particles prepared by the dialysis method (provided both methods lead to the formation of the same colloidal structures). In the case of different colloidal structures arising due to the preparation method, differences in encapsulation efficiency were found (P < 0.05) for formulations with the same polar lipid composition. This study demonstrates that the various colloidal particles formed as a result of hydrating PE/cholesterol lipid films with different amounts of Quil A are capable of incorporating antigen, provided it is amphipathic. Some of these colloidal particles may be used as effective vaccine delivery systems.

  3. Direct solvent induced microphase separation, ordering and nano-particles infusion of block copolymer thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Arvind; Sharma, Ashutosh; Karim, Alamgir

    2013-03-01

    Kinetics of block copolymer (BCP) microphase separation by thermal annealing is often a challenge to low-cost and faster fabrication of devices because of the slow ordering. Towards the objective of rapid processing and accessing desired nanostructures, we are developing methods that enable a high degree of mobility of BCP phases while maintaining phase separation conditions via control of effective interaction parameter between the blocks in BCP thin films. We study the self-assembly of PS-P2VP thin films in various solvent mixtures. While non-solvent prevents dissolution of film into the bulk solution, the good solvent penetrates the film and makes polymer chains mobile. As a result of controlled swelling and mobility of BCP blocks, solvent annealing of pre-cast BCP thin films in liquid mixture of good solvent and non-solvent is a promising method for rapid patterning of nanostructures. Interestingly, we demonstrate simultaneous BCP microphase separation and infusion of gold nano-particles into selective phase offering a wide range of application from plasmonics to nanoelectronics. University of Akron Research Foundation (UARF)

  4. Hydrocephalus induced via intraventricular kaolin injection in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaolin, Z; Zhanxiang, W; Hao, X; Feifei, Z; Caiquan, H; Donghan, C; Jianfeng, B; Feng, L; Shanghang, S

    2015-01-01

    Hydrocephalus is a common neurological disease in humans, but a uniform and particularly effective hydrocephalic animal model amenable to proper appraisal and deep study has not yet been established. In this study, we attempted to construct a high-efficiency model of hydrocephalus via intraventricular kaolin injection. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: the control group (n = 15) and the experimental group (n = 30). Kaolin was injected into the lateral ventricle of experimental animals. Control rats underwent the same procedure but received sterile saline injection instead of kaolin. All animals with kaolin injection into the lateral ventricle developed hydrocephalus according to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results (success rate up to 100%). Also, the Morris water maze (MWM) test demonstrated disturbed spatial learning and memory. Furthermore, there were significant differences between groups with respect to the histological changes in the periventricular tissue. Our results indicate that experimental hydrocephalus induced by lateral ventricle injection of kaolin in adult rats is feasible and may be widely used.

  5. Non-isothermal Crystallization Kinetics of Kaolin Modified Polyester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ruixin; GU Mingbo; CHEN Guoqiang

    2011-01-01

    Fiber-class modified kaolin and PET have been blended in the twin-screw and granulated to chips containing 4 wt% of kaolin.Non-isothermal crystallization process of kaolin modified polyester was investigated using a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC),and the addition of kaolin enhances either the melting temperature (Tm) or the crystallization temperature (Tc).The morphology of kaolin modified polyester,the melt of which is cooled at different cooling rate,was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM).The relationship between Tc and cooling rate F was studied.Semi-crystalline phase t1/2 makes an exponential decline with increasing F,and the higher the cooling rate,the shorter the time of crystallization completion.Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics parameters and the activation energy were calculated,indicating that the higher rate of cooling needs the higher relative crystallinity in the unit crystallization time,the crystallization rate increased while speeding up the temperature reduction,and the activation energy AE was calculated to be -204.1566 kJ/mol for the non-isothermal crystallization processes by the Kissinger's methods.

  6. KAJIAN PENGARUH KONSENTRASI NaOH TERHADAP KARAKTER ZEOLIT SINTETIK DARI KAOLIN LOKAL KALIMANTAN SELATAN

    OpenAIRE

    Tety Wahyuningsih Manurung; Sunardi; Utami Irawati

    2011-01-01

    Telah dilakukan penelitian pemanfaatan kaolin Tatakan, Kalimantan Selatan dengan mentransformasi kaolin menjadi zeolit. Zeolit disintesis dari kaolin dengan proses hidrotermal. Sebelum dilakukan sintesis, kaolin terlebih dahulu diubah struktur berlapisnya menjadi amorf dengan proses metakaolinisasi pada temperatur 800 ºC selama 3 jam. Proses hidrotermal menggunakan autoclave dilakukan pada temperatur 100 ºC selama 24 jam dengan variasi konsentrasi NaOH yaitu 3, 5 dan 7M. Hasil analisis XRD, F...

  7. Dissociation of carbon dioxide and creation of carbon particles and films at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Takahiro [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, 2100 Kujirai, Kawagoe Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Maekawa, Toru [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, 2100 Kujirai, Kawagoe Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Hasumura, Takashi [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, 2100 Kujirai, Kawagoe Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Rantonen, Nyrki [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, 2100 Kujirai, Kawagoe Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Ishii, Koji [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, 2100 Kujirai, Kawagoe Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Nakajima, Yoshikata [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, 2100 Kujirai, Kawagoe Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Hanajiri, Tatsuro [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, 2100 Kujirai, Kawagoe Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Yoshida, Yoshikazu [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, 2100 Kujirai, Kawagoe Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Whitby, Raymond [School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Brighton, Cockroft Building, Lewes Road, Brighton BN2 4GJ (United Kingdom); Mikhalovsky, Sergey [School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Brighton, Cockroft Building, Lewes Road, Brighton BN2 4GJ (United Kingdom)

    2007-09-15

    As fluids approach their gas-liquid critical points, the physical properties such as the specific heat and compressibility diverge due to the formation of large molecular clusters. Incident light cannot penetrate near-critical fluids because of the large clusters, a phenomenon known as critical opalescence. In this paper, we irradiate near-critical carbon dioxide (ncCO{sub 2}), the critical temperature and pressure of which are 31.0{sup 0}C and 7.38 MPa, with a laser beam of 213, 266, 355 and 532 nm wavelength and show that CO{sub 2} is dissociated and particles are produced when the system is set so close to the critical point that critical opalescence occurs in the case of 213 and 266 nm wavelength, whereas no particles are produced when the temperature is made to deviate from the critical value. We also apply a dc electric field to ncCO{sub 2} during irradiation with a laser beam of 213 and 266 nm wavelength and find that particles are formed on both anode and cathode. As the intensity of the electric field increases, films are formed on the electrodes. Electron diffraction patterns and energy-dispersive x-ray, Auger electron, x-ray photoelectron and Raman spectroscopic analyses show that the particles and films are composed of amorphous carbon.

  8. Dissociation of carbon dioxide and creation of carbon particles and films at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Takahiro; Maekawa, Toru; Hasumura, Takashi; Rantonen, Nyrki; Ishii, Koji; Nakajima, Yoshikata; Hanajiri, Tatsuro; Yoshida, Yoshikazu; Whitby, Raymond; Mikhalovsky, Sergey

    2007-09-01

    As fluids approach their gas-liquid critical points, the physical properties such as the specific heat and compressibility diverge due to the formation of large molecular clusters. Incident light cannot penetrate near-critical fluids because of the large clusters, a phenomenon known as critical opalescence. In this paper, we irradiate near-critical carbon dioxide (ncCO2), the critical temperature and pressure of which are 31.0°C and 7.38 MPa, with a laser beam of 213, 266, 355 and 532 nm wavelength and show that CO2 is dissociated and particles are produced when the system is set so close to the critical point that critical opalescence occurs in the case of 213 and 266 nm wavelength, whereas no particles are produced when the temperature is made to deviate from the critical value. We also apply a dc electric field to ncCO2 during irradiation with a laser beam of 213 and 266 nm wavelength and find that particles are formed on both anode and cathode. As the intensity of the electric field increases, films are formed on the electrodes. Electron diffraction patterns and energy-dispersive x-ray, Auger electron, x-ray photoelectron and Raman spectroscopic analyses show that the particles and films are composed of amorphous carbon.

  9. Zn(II) adsorption from synthetic solution and kaolin wastewater onto vermicompost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira Jordao, Claudio [Departamento de Solos, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, 36570-000 Vicosa, Minas Gerais (Brazil)], E-mail: jordao@ufv.br; Braganca Alves Fernandes, Raphael; Lima Ribeiro, Kamilla de; Souza Nascimento, Bruna de; Martins de Barros, Priscila [Departamento de Solos, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, 36570-000 Vicosa, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2009-03-15

    The adsorption of Zn(II) from both synthetic solution and kaolin industry wastewater by cattle manure vermicompost was studied. The adsorption process was dependent on the various operating variables, viz., solution pH, particle size of the vermicompost, mass of vermicompost/volume of the Zn(II) solution ratio, contact time and temperature. The optimum conditions for Zn adsorption were pH 6.0, particle size of {<=}250 {mu}m, 1 g per 10 mL adsorbent dose, contact time of 4 h and temperature of 25 deg. C. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms fit well in the experimental data and their constants were evaluated, with R{sup 2} values from 0.95 to 0.99. In synthetic solution, the maximum adsorption capacity of the vermicompost for Zn{sup 2+} ions was 20.48 mg g{sup -1} at 25 deg. C when the vermicompost dose was 1 g 10 mL{sup -1} and the initial adjusted pH was 2. The batch adsorption studies of Zn(II) on vermicompost using kaolin wastewater have shown the maximum adsorption capacity was 2.49 mg g{sup -1} at pH 2 (natural pH of the wastewater). The small values of the constant related to the energy of adsorption (from 0.07 to 0.163 L mg{sup -1}) indicated that Zn{sup 2+} ions were binded strongly to vermicompost. The values of the separation factor, R{sub L}, which has been used to predict affinity between adsorbate and adsorbent were between 0 and 1, indicating that sorption was very favorable for Zn(II) in synthetic solution and kaolin wastewater. The thermodynamic parameter, the Gibbs free energy, was calculated for each system and the negative values obtained confirm that the adsorption processes are spontaneous. The {delta}G{sup o} values were -19.656 kJ mol{sup -1} and -16.849 kJ mol{sup -1} for Zn(II) adsorption on vermicompost in synthetic solution at pH 6 and 2, respectively, and -13.275 kJ mol{sup -1} in kaolin wastewater at pH 2.

  10. FePt films on self-assembled SiO2 particle arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, D.; Brombacher, C.; Liscio, F.; Maret, M.; Parlinska, M.; Meier, S.; Kappenberger, P.; Albrecht, M.

    2008-03-01

    Chemically L10 ordered (001) textured FePt thin films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy can be grown on amorphous planar SiO2 substrate with an underlayer stack of [Pt (3nm )/Cr (50nm)] adopting a [002] orientation when deposited at 350°C. This knowledge of optimum layer stack was transferred to self-assembled SiO2 particle arrays. While 330nm SiO2 particle arrays reveal perpendicular magnetic anisotropy with a remanence of almost one and a coercivity of 370mT, on 160nm particles, the FePt caps show a (111) texturing, leading to the random orientation of the easy axis of the magnetization.

  11. Using Kaolin in Reduction of Arsenic in Rice Grains: Effect of Different Types of Kaolin, pH and Arsenic Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnamwong, Suteera; Suksabye, Parinda; Thiravetyan, Paitip

    2016-04-01

    Kaolin was used as a soil amendment to study the effect of different types of kaolin, pH and arsenic complex on arsenic accumulation in rice grains from arsenic (As) contaminated soil. It was found that kaolin released soluble aluminium (Al) and silicon at a pH value of 3. As adsorption by crude kaolin was higher than by washed kaolin and treated kaolin due to the higher Al content found in crude kaolin. Furthermore, the addition of 5 % (w/w) crude kaolin in the solution of As-contaminated soil was able to reduce water-soluble As in the solution. In mesocosm experiments, As accumulation in rice grain was not found under the addition of kaolin conditions. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy study found the crystallinity of Al-As complex in plant roots. This implies that while kaolin adsorbs As from As-contaminated soil, rice plants also simultaneously take up As and Al into their cells. This caused the decrease in As accumulation in rice grain.

  12. 40 CFR 180.1180 - Kaolin; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Kaolin; exemption from the requirement... From Tolerances § 180.1180 Kaolin; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. (a) The biochemical pesticide kaolin is temporarily exempted from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of the insecticide...

  13. Apatite formation on calcined kaolin-white Portland cement geopolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangdaeng, S; Sata, V; Aguiar, J B; Pacheco-Torgal, F; Chindaprasirt, P

    2015-06-01

    In this study, calcined kaolin-white Portland cement geopolymer was investigated for use as biomaterial. Sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate were used as activators. In vitro test was performed with simulated body fluid (SBF) for bioactivity characterization. The formation of hydroxyapatite bio-layer on the 28-day soaked samples surface was tested using SEM, EDS and XRD analyses. The results showed that the morphology of hydroxyapatite was affected by the source material composition, alkali concentration and curing temperature. The calcined kaolin-white Portland cement geopolymer with relatively high compressive strength could be fabricated for use as biomaterial. The mix with 50% white Portland cement and 50% calcined kaolin had 28-day compressive strength of 59.0MPa and the hydroxyapatite bio-layer on the 28-day soaked sample surface was clearly evident. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Degradable polymeric nano-films and particles as delivery platforms for vaccines and immunotherapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xingfang

    Degradable polymeric materials provide opportunities for the development of improved vaccines and immunotherapies by acting as platforms that facilitate the delivery of molecules to appropriate tissue and cellular locations to achieve therapeutic outcomes. To this end, we have designed and characterized nano-films and particles employing a hydrolytically degradable polymer for the delivery of vaccine antigens and immunotherapeutics. We first describe protein- and oligonucleotide-loaded layer-by-layer (LbL)-assembled multilayer thin films constructed based on electrostatic interactions between a cationic poly(beta-amino ester) (PBAE, denoted Poly-1) with a model protein antigen, ovalbumin (OVA), and/or immunostimulatory CpG oligonucleotides for transcutaneous delivery. Linear growth of nanoscale Poly-I/OVA bilayers was observed. Dried OVA protein-loaded films rapidly deconstructed when rehydrated in saline solutions, releasing OVA as non-aggregated/non-degraded protein, suggesting that the structure of biomolecules integrated into these multilayer films are preserved during release. Using confocal fluorescence microscopy and an in vivo murine ear skin model, we demonstrated delivery of OVA from LbL films into barrier-disrupted skin, uptake of the protein by skin-resident antigen-presenting cells (Langerhans cells), and transport of the antigen to the skin-draining lymph nodes. Dual incorporation of OVA and CpG oligonucleotides into the nanolayers of LbL films enabled dual release of the antigen and adjuvant with distinct kinetics for each component; OVA was rapidly released while CpG was released in a relatively sustained manner. Applied as skin patches, these films delivered OVA and CpG to Langerhans Cells in the skin. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of LbL films applied for the delivery of biomolecules into skin. This approach provides a new route for storage of vaccines and other immunotherapeutics in a solid-state thin film for subsequent

  15. Comparison of kaolin and tissue factor activated thromboelastography in haemophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, G; Zhang, R; Miller, R; Yassin, D; Nugent, D J

    2010-05-01

    A limitation of bypassing agent therapy for haemophilia patients with inhibitors is the absence of a laboratory assay, which predicts the clinical response to treatment. Recent investigations have demonstrated the potential for thromboelastography to assess the effects of bypassing agent therapy in this patient population. While tissue factor activation has been used in several prior studies, a recent multicentre study failed to demonstrate an expected concentration-response effect of rFVIIa and called into question the tissue factor activation methods that have been employed. A comparison of kaolin to two concentrations of tissue factor as the activation method for thromboelastography was investigated in patients with haemophilia. We performed kaolin and tissue factor activated thromboelastography on blood from inhibitor and non-inhibitor patients with and without addition of rFVIIa and rFVIII. The results demonstrate that kaolin leads to a longer R, K and angle than the higher dilution of tissue factor (1:17 000) at baseline (no factor) and after addition of rFVIIa for both the inhibitor and non-inhibitor patients. Kaolin led to a longer R and K in comparison to a low dilution of tissue factor (1:42 000) following the addition of rFVIIa in the inhibitor patients. The longer R and K allows for better discrimination of the effects of rFVIIa thus making kaolin the most sensitive activation method in this setting. Thus kaolin activated thromboelastography should be considered an effective, perhaps the most effective, activator when utilizing thromboelastography to assess the effects of rFVIIa in haemophilia patients with inhibitors.

  16. Pemirolast reduces cisplatin-induced kaolin intake in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsushima, Yoko; Egashira, Nobuaki; Matsushita, Naohiro; Kurobe, Kentaro; Kawashiri, Takehiro; Yano, Takahisa; Oishi, Ryozo

    2011-07-01

    Emesis is the most feared side effect in patients who are undergoing cancer chemotherapy. In particular, cisplatin causes severe acute and delayed emesis. Although early vomiting is well controlled by 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 (5-HT(3)) receptor antagonists, delayed-phase vomiting is not sufficiently controlled. Substance P is thought to be involved in the development of emesis, and tachykinin NK(1) receptor antagonists can inhibit delayed vomiting. We previously have reported that substance P is involved in the paclitaxel-induced hypersensitivity reaction in rats, and anti-allergic agent pemirolast reduces these reactions via inhibition of substance P release. In the present study, we investigated the effect of pemirolast on cisplatin-induced kaolin intake, which is an index of nausea/vomiting in the rat. Cisplatin (5 mg/kg, i.p.) induced kaolin intake and reduced normal feed intake from days 1 to 5 after injection. Cisplatin-induced kaolin intake was significantly reduced by co-administration of ondansetron (2 mg/kg, i.p.), a 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist, and dexamethasone (2 mg/kg, i.p.) from days 1 to 5. Similarly, pemirolast (10 mg/kg, p.o.) and the tachykinin NK(1) receptor antagonist aprepitant (10 and 30 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reduced cisplatin-induced kaolin intake on days 3 and 4. Moreover, pemirolast at the same dose significantly reversed the cisplatin-induced increase in the cerebrospinal fluid level of substance P in rats. These results suggest that substance P is involved in cisplatin-induced kaolin intake in rats, and pemirolast reduces kaolin intake by inhibition of substance P release. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Properties of the FCC Catalyst Additive Prepared from Guizhou Kaoline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianlun Xu

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The properties of a FCC catalyst additive prepared from Guizhou kaoline were extensively investigated. The samples were characterized by N2 adsorption, X-ray diffraction, IR spectrometry, and scanning electron microscope (SEM. The results showed that the crystallinity of NaY zeolite synthesized from this kaoline was 25% and the silica alumina ratio was rk/s ˇ m = 5.05. The catalyst additive prepared from above crystallization product exhibited excellent performance of nickel and vanadium passivation, offered 21% lower coke versus base catalyst, while maintaining high bottoms upgrading selectivity.

  18. The role of jet and film drops in controlling the mixing state of submicron sea spray aerosol particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaofei; Deane, Grant B.; Moore, Kathryn A.; Ryder, Olivia S.; Stokes, M. Dale; Beall, Charlotte M.; Collins, Douglas B.; Santander, Mitchell V.; Burrows, Susannah M.; Sultana, Camille M.; Prather, Kimberly

    2017-07-03

    Covering 71% of the Earth’s surface, oceans represent a significant global source of atmospheric aerosols. The size and composition of sea spray aerosols (SSA) affect their ability to serve as cloud seeds and thus understanding the factors controlling their composition is critical to predicting their impact on clouds and climate. SSA particles have been shown to be an external mixture of particles with different compositions. Film and jet drop production mechanisms ultimately determine the individual particle compositions which are comprised of an array of salt/organic mixtures ranging from pure sea salt to nearly pure organic particles. It is often assumed that the majority of submicron SSA are formed by film drops produced from bursting hydrophobic organic-rich bubble film caps at the sea surface, and in contrast, jet drops are postulated to produce larger supermicron particles from underlying seawater comprised largely of salts and water soluble organic species. However, here we show that jet drops produced by bursting sub-100 m bubbles account for up to 40 % of all submicron particles. They have distinct chemical compositions, organic volume fractions and ice nucleating activities from submicron film drops. Thus a substantial fraction of submicron particles will not necessarily be controlled by the composition of the sea surface microlayer as has been assumed in many studies. This finding has significant ramifications for the size-resolved mixing states of SSA particles which must be taken into consideration when accessing SSA impacts on clouds.

  19. Preparation of Nano-Particles (Pb,La)TiO3 Thin Films by Liquid Source Misted Chemical Deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张之圣; 曾建平; 李小图

    2004-01-01

    Nano-particles lanthanum-modified lead titanate (PLT) thin films are grown on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrate by liquid source misted chemical deposition (LSMCD). PLT films are deposited for 4-8 times, and then annealed at various temperature. XRD and SEM show that the prepared films have good crystallization behavior and perovskite structure. The crystallite is about 60 nm. The deposition speed is 3 nm/min. This deposition method can exactly control stoichiometry ratios, doping concentration ratio and thickness of PLT thin films. The best annealing process is to bake at 300 ℃ for 10 min and anneal at 600 ℃ for 1 h.

  20. Electric filed induced self-assembly of monolayers of sub-micron sized particles on flexible thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, K.; Hossain, M.; Janjua, M.; Aubry, N.; Fischer, I. S.; Singh, P.

    2013-11-01

    We present a technique that uses an electric field in the direction normal to the interface for self-assembling particle monolayers of sub-micron sized particles on fluid-liquid interfaces and freezing these monolayers onto the surface of a flexible thin film. The electric field gives rise to dipole-dipole and capillary forces which cause the particles to arrange in a triangular pattern. The technique involves assembling the monolayer on the interface between a UV-curable resin and another fluid by applying an electric field, and then curing the resin by applying UV light. The monolayer becomes embedded on the surface of the solidified resin film.

  1. Simulation Investigation on Particle Transmission Characteristics of Two Different Ion Barrier Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ye; FU Shen-cheng; XIANG Rong; WANG Guo-zheng; DUANMU Qing-duo; TIAN Jing-quan

    2008-01-01

    The simulation calculation and analysis of electron transmittance and ion stopping power for ion barrier films (IBFs) of AI2O3 and SiO2 are performed by Monte Carlo methods. The interaction model between particles and solids are described. It is found that at the same conditions, the electron transmittance for SiOz IBF is relatively higher than that of A12O3 IBF, and the ion stopping power of SiO2 IBF is relatively lower than that of A1203 by Monte Carlo simulations. It is also indicated that SiO2 is one of the ideal materials for fabricating IBFs.

  2. Potential of Thin Films for use in Charged Particle Tracking Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Metcalfe, J; Murphy, J; Quevedo, M; Smith, L; Alvarado, J; Gnade, B; Takai, H

    2014-01-01

    Thin Film technology has widespread applications in everyday electronics, notably Liquid Crystal Display screens, solar cells, and organic light emitting diodes. We explore the potential of this technology as charged particle radiation tracking detectors for use in High Energy Physics experiments such as those at the Large Hadron Collider or the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. Through modern fabrication techniques, a host of semiconductor materials are available to construct thin, flexible detectors with integrated electronics with pixel sizes on the order of a few microns. We review the material properties of promising candidates, discuss the potential benefits and challenges associated with this technology, and review previously demonstrated applicability as a neutron detector.

  3. Micro-particle manipulation by single beam acoustic tweezers based on hydrothermal PZT thick film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benpeng Zhu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Single-beam acoustic tweezers (SBAT, used in laboratory-on-a-chip (LOC device has promising implications for an individual micro-particle contactless manipulation. In this study, a freestanding hydrothermal PZT thick film with excellent piezoelectric property (d33 = 270pC/N and kt = 0.51 was employed for SBAT applications and a press-focusing technology was introduced. The obtained SBAT, acting at an operational frequency of 50MHz, a low f-number (∼0.9, demonstrated the capability to trap and manipulate a micro-particle sized 10μm in the distilled water. These results suggest that such a device has great potential as a manipulator for a wide range of biomedical and chemical science applications.

  4. Micro-particle manipulation by single beam acoustic tweezers based on hydrothermal PZT thick film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Benpeng; Xu, Jiong; Li, Ying; Wang, Tian; Xiong, Ke; Lee, Changyang; Yang, Xiaofei; Shiiba, Michihisa; Takeuchi, Shinichi; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk

    2016-01-01

    Single-beam acoustic tweezers (SBAT), used in laboratory-on-a-chip (LOC) device has promising implications for an individual micro-particle contactless manipulation. In this study, a freestanding hydrothermal PZT thick film with excellent piezoelectric property (d33 = 270pC/N and kt = 0.51) was employed for SBAT applications and a press-focusing technology was introduced. The obtained SBAT, acting at an operational frequency of 50MHz, a low f-number (∼0.9), demonstrated the capability to trap and manipulate a micro-particle sized 10μm in the distilled water. These results suggest that such a device has great potential as a manipulator for a wide range of biomedical and chemical science applications. PMID:27014504

  5. Parallel nanostructuring of GeSbTe film with particle mask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Z.B.; Hong, M.H.; Wang, Q.F.; Chong, T.C. [Data Storage Institute, DSI Building, 5 Engineering Drive 1, 117608, Singapore (Singapore); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 119260, Singapore (Singapore); Luk' yanchuk, B.S.; Huang, S.M.; Shi, L.P. [Data Storage Institute, DSI Building, 5 Engineering Drive 1, 117608, Singapore (Singapore)

    2004-09-01

    Parallel nanostructuring of a GeSbTe film may significantly improve the recording performance in data storage. In this paper, a method that permits direct and massively parallel nanopatterning of the substrate surface by laser irradiation is investigated. Polystyrene spherical particles were deposited on the surface in a monolayer array by self-assembly. The array was then irradiated with a 248-nm KrF laser. A sub-micron nanodent array can be obtained after single-pulse irradiation. These nanodents change their shapes at different laser energies. The optical near-field distribution around the particles was calculated according to the exact solution of the light-scattering problem. The influence of the presence of the substrate on the optical near field was also studied. The mechanisms for the generation of the nanodent structures are discussed. (orig.)

  6. Micro-particle manipulation by single beam acoustic tweezers based on hydrothermal PZT thick film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Benpeng, E-mail: benpengzhu@hust.edu.cn [School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Xu, Jiong; Yang, Xiaofei [School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Li, Ying; Lee, Changyang; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk [Department of Biomedical Engineering and NIH Transducer Resource Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-1111 (United States); Wang, Tian; Xiong, Ke [Department of Physics and Key Laboratory of Acoustic and Photonic Materials and Devices of Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Shiiba, Michihisa; Takeuchi, Shinichi [Medical Engineering Course, Graduate School of Engineering, Toin University of Yokohama, Yokohama 225-8501 (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    Single-beam acoustic tweezers (SBAT), used in laboratory-on-a-chip (LOC) device has promising implications for an individual micro-particle contactless manipulation. In this study, a freestanding hydrothermal PZT thick film with excellent piezoelectric property (d{sub 33} = 270 pC/N and k{sub t} = 0.51) was employed for SBAT applications and a press-focusing technology was introduced. The obtained SBAT, acting at an operational frequency of 50 MHz, a low f-number (∼0.9), demonstrated the capability to trap and manipulate a micro-particle sized 10μm in the distilled water. These results suggest that such a device has great potential as a manipulator for a wide range of biomedical and chemical science applications.

  7. Mechanochemical treatment of Serbian kaolin clay to obtain high reactive pozzolana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Aleksandra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanochemical treatment of Serbian kaolin clay was carried out in a planetary ball mill using two different milling media, hardened steel or zirconia vials and balls. The samples obtained with various milling times were characterized by the particle size laser diffraction (PSLD, X-ray diffraction (XRD, differential scanning calorimetry/thermogravimetry (DTA/TGA and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR analyses. Mechanochemical treatment induced amorphization of the kaolinite phase accompanied by dehydroxylation. It was found that for the given milling parameters, amorphization mainly took place in the milling period up to 15 min, and was completed after about 30 min of milling for both milling media used. The pozzolanic activities were determined by the Chapelle method. Milling in the hardened steel milling medium had no significant influence on pozzolanic activity, even though there was accumulated iron contamination. For both milling media, pozzolanic activity of 0.79 was obtained for the samples milled for 15 min and it remained almost unchanged with prolonged milling. The determined pozzolanic activity values are close to these of commercial metakaolinite or metakaolinite obtained by the calcination of the same clay, therefore, indicating possibility for obtaining high reactive pozzolana by mechanochemical treatment of Serbian kaoline clay. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 36017 and 45001

  8. Optical and electrical characterization of tin(II) 2,3-naphthalocyanine thin films containing agglomerated spherical particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panicker, Nisha S. [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, Kerala 686560 (India); Gopinathan, T.G. [KE College, Mannanam, Kottayam, Kerala (India); Dhanya, I. [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, Kerala 686560 (India); Menon, C.S., E-mail: prof.menoncs@gmail.co [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, Kerala 686560 (India)

    2010-11-01

    Vacuum deposited tin(II)2,3-naphthalocyanine (SnNc) crystalline thin films were produced. The structural properties of the thin films were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), which reveals traces of organic compounds within the as-deposited films. Surface morphological studies by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were done and the films were found to be grainy in nature, comprising of small agglomerated spherical particles. Heat treatment decreased the optical band gap of the films due to the dependence of dilatation of the lattice and/or electron-lattice interaction. The electrical conductivity of the films at various heat treated stages shows that SnNc has a better conductivity by 10-50 times that of its earlier reported phthalocyanine counterpart and the activation energy was found to increase with annealing temperature.

  9. Dioxins in primary kaolin and secondary kaolinitic clays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Martin; Scheeder, Georg; Bernau, Sarah; Dohrmann, Reiner; Germann, Klaus

    2011-01-15

    Since 1996 dioxins have been repeatedly detected worldwide in Tertiary ball clays used as anticaking agent in the production of animal feed and a variety of other applications. The dioxins of these natural clays are very unlikely of anthropogenic source, but no model of dioxin enrichment has been established. A hypothetical model is presented which explains the highly variable dioxin loadings of the Tertiary kaolinitic clays by natural addition during clay-sedimentation. To prove this hypothesis, Tertiary primary nonsedimentary kaolin and sedimentary kaolinitic clays were collected at three profiles in Europe and analyzed for mineralogy, chemistry, organic carbon, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/-furans (PCDD/F). Primary kaolin, kaolinitic, and lignitic clays contained almost no PCDFs. PCDD concentration differed markedly between primary kaolin (3-91 pg/g) and secondary kaolinitic clay (711-45935 pg/g), respectively, lignitic clays (13513-1191120 pg/g). The dioxin loading of secondary kaolinitic and lignitic clays is approximately 10 to a few thousand times higher than in the primary kaolin or recent environmental settings. The dioxin concentrations decrease from octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin to the tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins and exhibit the "natural formation pattern". No correlation between PCDD/F concentration and bulk composition of clays was found. These findings support the hypothesis of the enrichment of dioxin in clays during sedimentation.

  10. Evaluation of kaolin clay as natural material for

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ashraf I. Hafez; Naser S. Gerges; Heba N. Ibrahim; Wael S.I. Abou El-magd; Ahmed I. Hashem

    2017-01-01

    ... °C for 3 h indicated that copper sulfide was formed on the copper strip surface. The reclaimed oil by using kaolin clay reduced the sulfur content of all tested aged oils reducing the corrosion on copper strips in all samples investigated...

  11. Electrical Properties of Zinc-Kaolin Composites below its Percolation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    In this paper, we present some electrical properties of the zinc-kaolin cermet resistors with zinc ... Most of the research works involving cermets have been on their electrical .... Where, Ea is the Activation energy of conductivity, k is the Boltzmann's constant, T is the ..... resources such as hydro, solar, wind and geothermal.

  12. Influence of heat treatment temperature on bonding and oxidation resistance of diamond particles coated with TiO2 film

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xiao-Pan Liu; Dong-Dong Song; Long Wan; Xian-Bing Pang; Zheng Li

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, TiO2 films were coated on the surface of diamond particles using a sol–gel method. The effects of heat treatment temperature on the morphology, composition, chemical bonds, oxidation resistance and compressive strength of diamond particles coated with TiO2 films were characterized through scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermogravimetric–differential scanning calorimetry and compressive strength test. The results showed that when the temperature reached 600°C, the amorphous TiO2 on the diamond particles surface exhibited as a dense anatase film and the Ti–O–C bond formed between TiO2 and the diamond substrates. When temperature reached 800°C, TiO2 films were still in anatase phase and part of the diamond carbon began to graphitize. The graphitizated carbon can also form the Ti–O–C bond with TiO2 film, although TiO2 film would tend to crack in this condition. Meanwhile, the temperature had a serious influence on the oxidation resistance of diamond particles coated with TiO2 films in air. When the heat treatment temperature reached 600°C, the initial oxidation temperature of the coated diamond particles reached the maximum value of 754°C. When the diamond particles were oxidized at 800°C for 0.5 h in air, the weight loss rate reached the minimum value of 6.7 wt% and the compressive strength reached the maximum value of 15.7 N.

  13. Novel sintering behavior of polystyrene nano-latex particles in filming process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Filming process of polystyrene nano-latex (NPS) particles was studied by a combination of various methods. For a constant annealing time of 1 h, the AFM images showed that the deformation and sintering temperatures for NPS particles were ca. 90℃ and 100℃ respectively. In spin-lattice relaxation measurements of solid state NMR, it is found that T1L, T1S and I1L/I0 increased significantly after annealing at 90℃ and above. DSC results showed that there was an exothermic peak near Tg after annealing for 1 h at the selected temperatures below 95℃; otherwise, the exothermic peak disappeared after annealing at 100℃ or above. The apparent density of NPS increased suddenly in the tempera-ture range. The results implied that the macromolecules in NPS particles are in a confined state with higher conforma-tional energy and less cohensional interactions which are the drive force for the sintering at a lower temperature com-pared with the multichain PS particles and the bulk polymer.

  14. Characterisation of poly(methyl methacrylate) film deposited on iron powder particles by electropolymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriňák, Andrej; Oriňáková, Renáta; Heile, Andreas; Talian, Ivan; Terhorst, Markus; Arlinghaus, Heinrich F.

    2007-09-01

    Iron powder microparticles were coated with a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) film by electropolymerization in a fluidised bed reactor. The formation of a PMMA coating on the microparticles' surface was studied with pyrolysis gas chromatography (Py-GC) fingerprinting as well as time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). While Py-GC can provide information about PMMA bulk formation and quick information about PMMA deposition on iron microparticles, TOF-SIMS can give detailed information about particle surface PMMA coatings. A TOF-SIMS study was performed in both, positive and negative ion modes with Bi + and Bi3+ primary ions. Static TOF-SIMS macroscans of powder microparticle surface resulted in the identification of the regions with species related to the PMMA fragments in the negative ion region (Bi3+). TOF-SIMS results confirmed that PMMA coating on the iron powder microparticle surface formed an incoherent and inhomogeneous film. PMMA coating was somewhere very thin to supply a sufficient positive charged secondary ion signal. Plating of metallic powder particles by polymeric coating enables the modification of surface and structural properties of materials used in powder metallurgy. PMMA coated iron powder microparticles can be innovative as lubricants in such a way that, when they are subjected to pressure, they burst and release carbon to metal powder. The main aim of this research work is to characterise PMMA coatings deposited by electropolymerization on the surface of iron powder microparticles.

  15. Response of radiochromic dye films to low energy heavy charged particles

    CERN Document Server

    Buenfil, A E; Gamboa-Debuen, I; Aviles, P; Avila, O; Olvera, C; Robledo, R; Rodriguez-Ponce, M; Mercado-Uribe, H; Rodriguez-Villafuerte, M; Brandan, M E

    2002-01-01

    We have studied the possible use of radiochromic dye films (RCF) as heavy charged particle dosemeters. We present the results of irradiating two commercial RCF (GafChromic HD-810 and MD-55-1) with 1.5, 2.9 and 4.4 MeV protons, 1.4, 2.8, 4.7, 5.9, 6.8 MeV sup 4 He ions and 8.5 and 12.4 MeV sup 1 sup 2 C ions, at proton doses from about 1 Gy up to 3 kGy, helium ions doses from 3 Gy to 5 kGy and carbon ion doses from 30 Gy to 20 kGy. The films were scanned and digitized using commercial equipment. For a given particle, the response per unit dose at different energies indicates an energy dependence of the sensitivity, which is discussed. Comparison was made for the use of a standard spectrophotometer to obtain optical density readings versus a white light scanner.

  16. Development of a model to describe organic films on aerosol particles and cloud droplets. Final report; Entwicklung eines Modells zur Beschreibung organischer Filme auf Aerosolteilchen und Wolkentropfen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forkel, R. (ed.); Seidl, W.

    2000-12-01

    Organic substances with polar groups are enriched on water surfaces and can form monomolecular surface films which can reduce the surface tension. A new model to describe surface films is presented, which describes in detail the film forming properties of fatty acids with up to 22 carbon atoms. The model is applied to measured concentrations of fatty acids (from the literature) in rain water and on aerosol particles and cloud droplets. An investigation of the sources of fatty acids has shown, that abrasion of the wax layer on leaves and needles is the main sources for surface film material in the western USA. Anthropogenic sources in urban areas are meat preparation and cigarette smoke. The agreement between model results and measurements when the model was applied to rain water confirms the original assumption that fatty acids are a main compound of surface films in rain water. For humid aerosol particles the application of the model on measured concentrations of fatty acids only showed strongly diluted films. Only for remote forest areas in western USA concentrated films were found, with the surface tension reduced by 20 to 30%. On cloud droplets the surface films is still more diluted than on aerosol particles. For all investigated cases the films was too much diluted to have an effect on the activation process of cloud droplets. (orig.) [German] Organische Substanzen mit polaren Gruppen reichern sich an der Wasseroberflaeche an und koennen monomolekulare Oberflaechenfilme bilden, die zu einer Verringerung der Oberflaechenspannung fuehren. Es wird ein neues Modell zur Beschreibung eines Oberflaechenfilms beschrieben, das detailliert die filmbildenden Eigenschaften der Fettsaeuren mit bis zu 22 Kohlenstoffatomen erfasst. Dieses Modell ist auf gemessene Konzentrationen von Fettsaeuren (Literaturdaten) in Regenwasser und auf atmosphaerischen Aerosolteilchen und Wolkentropfen angewandt worden. Eine Betrachtung der Quellen der Fettsaeuren zeigte, dass der Abrieb der

  17. Effects of neutral particle beam on nano-crystalline silicon thin films, with application to thin film transistor backplane for flexible active matrix organic light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jin Nyoung; Song, Byoung Chul; Lee, Dong Hyeok [Dept. of Display and Semiconductor Physics, Korea University, Chungnam (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Suk Jae; Lee, Bonju [National Fusion Research Institute, 52, Yuseong-Gu, Deajeon, 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, MunPyo, E-mail: goodmoon@korea.ac.kr [Dept. of Display and Semiconductor Physics, Korea University, Chungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-01

    A novel deposition process for nano-crystalline silicon (nc-Si) thin films was developed using neutral beam assisted chemical vapor deposition (NBaCVD) technology for the application of the thin film transistor (TFT) backplane of flexible active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED). During the formation of a nc-Si thin film, the energetic particles enhance nano-sized crystalline rather microcrystalline Si in thin films. Neutral Particle Beam (NPB) affects the crystallinity in two ways: (1) NPB energy enhances nano-crystallinity through kinetic energy transfer and chemical annealing, and (2) heavier NPB (such as Ar) induces damage and amorphization through energetic particle impinging. Nc-Si thin film properties effectively can be changed by the reflector bias. As increase of NPB energy limits growing the crystalline, the performance of TFT supports this NPB behavior. The results of nc-Si TFT by NBaCVD demonstrate the technical potentials of neutral beam based processes for achieving high stability and reduced leakage in TFT backplanes for AMOLEDs.

  18. Surface scanning inspection system particle detection dependence on aluminum film morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, Walter; Tran, Natalie; McGarvey, Steve

    2012-03-01

    Physical vapor deposition (PVD) aluminum films present unique challenges when detecting particulate defects with a Surface Scanning Inspection System (SSIS). Aluminum (Al) films 4500Å thick were deposited on 300mm particle grade bare Si wafers at two temperatures using a Novellus Systems INOVA® NExT,.. Film surface roughness and morphology measurements were performed using a Veeco Vx310® atomic force microscope (AFM). AFM characterization found the high deposition temperature (TD) Al roughness (Root Mean Square 16.5 nm) to be five-times rougher than the low-TD Al roughness (rms 3.7 nm). High-TD Al had grooves at the grain boundaries that were measured to be 20 to 80 nm deep. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination, with a Hitachi RS6000 defect review SEM, confirmed the presence of pronounced grain grooves. SEM images established that the low-TD filmed wafers have fine grains (0.1 to 0.3 um diameter) and the high-TD film wafers have fifty-times larger equiaxed plateletshape grains (5 to 15 um diameter). Calibrated Poly-Styrene Latex (PSL) spheres ranging in size from 90 nm to 1 μm were deposited in circular patterns on the wafers using an aerosol deposition chamber. PSL sphere depositions at each spot were controlled to yield 2000 to 5000 counts. A Hitachi LS9100® dark field full wafer SSIS was used to experimentally determine the relationship of the PSL sphere scattered light intensity with S-polarized light, a measure of scattering cross-section, with respect to the calibrated PSL sphere diameter. Comparison of the SSIS scattered light versus PSL spot size calibration curves shows two distinct differences. Scattering cross-section (intensity) of the PSL spheres increased on the low-TD Al film with smooth surface roughness and the low-TD Al film defect detection sensitivity was 126 nm compared to 200 nm for the rougher high- TD Al film. This can be explained by the higher signal to noise attributed to the smooth low-TD Al. Dark field defect detection on

  19. Cu and Cu{sub 2}O films with semi-spherical particles grown by electrochemical deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jin You; Jadhav, Abhijit P.; Song, Guang; Kim, Chang Woo; Kang, Young Soo, E-mail: yskang@sogang.ac.kr

    2012-12-01

    Cu and Cu{sub 2}O films can be prepared on indium-doped tin oxide glass substrates by simple electrodeposition in a solution containing 0.1 M Cu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} and 3 M lactic acid at different pH values. At low pH (pH = 1.2), the uniform Cu films were obtained; when pH {>=} 7, the pure Cu{sub 2}O films can be deposited. Especially, at pH = 11, the deposited Cu{sub 2}O films exhibited cubic surface morphology exposing mainly {l_brace}100{r_brace} plane; in contrast, the films consisting of semi-spherical particles were obtained when the solution was being stirred for 2 weeks prior to use. The possible growth process and mechanism were comparatively discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cu and Cu{sub 2}O films were prepared by facile electrodeposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electrodeposition was preformed in electrolyte at different pH values. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dendritic Cu films were obtained at 1.2 pH with relatively high deposition potential. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Semi-spherical Cu{sub 2}O films were obtained with solution at 11 pH and stirred for 2 weeks. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The possible growth mechanism of semi-spherical Cu{sub 2}O films was discussed.

  20. A Mexican kaolin deposit: XANES characterization, mineralogical phase analysis and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez, A.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A kaolin obtained from Villa de Reyes, a region near to San Luis Potosí (México was characterized by means of X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, optical microscopy (OM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray fluorescence (XRF, X-Ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES, thermal analysis (DTA/TGA, dilatometry (DIL, and chemical analysis. Mineralogical and morphological characteristics of the mineral are presented. The kaolin sample was formed mainly by kaolinite, but other minor phases were also detected such as quartz, cristobalite, tridymite, and dolomite. The high content of volcanic glass detected, by optical microscopy, revealed an incomplete kaolinization process of the raw material. The reddish color of the kaolin was associated with the free iron content in the form of limonite [FeO(OH], which was determined by XANES. The influence of the particle size on the whiteness of kaolin was evaluated. Dilatometric analysis revealed a strong thermal expansion between 110 y 240 °C, which would difficult the use of this material in traditional ceramic applications. On the other hand the presence of glass and high temperature phases of SiO2, such as cristobalite and tridymite will favor its use in the cement industry.El caolín obtenido de Villa de Reyes, una región cercana a San Luis Potosí, México, fue caracterizado por las siguientes técnicas: difracción de rayos-X en polvos (DRX, microscopía óptica (MO, microscopía electrónica de barrido (MEB, fluorescencia de rayos-X (FRX, espectroscopía de absorción de rayos-X (XANES, análisis térmico (DTA/TGA, dilatometría (DIL y análisis químico. Los resultados del análisis mineralógico mediante DRX mostraron un mineral constituido principalmente de caolinita, con una contribución minoritaria de cuarzo, cristobalita, tridimita y dolomita. El análisis por microscopía óptica reveló un alto contenido de material amorfo volcánico, indicando una caolinización incompleta del material v

  1. Removal of copper ions from aqueous solution by calcium alginate immobilized kaolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanhui; Xia, Bing; Zhao, Quansheng; Liu, Fuqiang; Zhang, Pan; Du, Qiuju; Wang, Dechang; Li, Da; Wang, Zonghua; Xia, Yanzhi

    2011-01-01

    Kaolin has been widely used as an adsorbent to remove heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. However, the lower heavy metal adsorption capacity of kaolin limits its practical application. A novel environmental friendly material, calcium alginate immobilized kaolin (kaolin/CA), was prepared using a sol-gel method. The effects of contact time, pH, adsorbent dose, and temperature on Cu2+ adsorption by kaolin/CA were investigated. The Langmuir isotherm was used to describe the experimental adsorption, the maximum Cu2+ adsorption capacity of the kaolin/CA reached up to 53.63 mg/g. The thermodynamic studies showed that the adsorption reaction was a spontaneous and endothermic process.

  2. PCR-DGGE analysis of the bacterial composition of a kaolin slurry showing altered rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Ildikó; Balázs, Margit; Tombácz, Etelka; Babcsán, Norbert; Kesserű, Péter; Kiss, István; Szvetnik, Attila

    2012-04-01

    Kaolin is an important industrial raw material and a basis of a range of different products. Microbial spoilage is a detrimental process observed especially in kaolin slurries, leading to low quality products and economic loss. Although the alteration of kaolin slurries in ceramic industry was observed, the process and the microbial background have not been analyzed in details. This study provides the first data using a cultivation independent molecular biological approach (PCR-DGGE) regarding the bacterial composition of an altered kaolin slurry. The results show that potential exopolymer (EPS) producer bacteria (e.g. Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas) appear in the altered kaolin slurry, which may have an important role in the modification of kaolin slurries.

  3. Removal of copper ions from aqueous solution by calcium alginate immobilized kaolin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanhui Li; Yanzhi Xia; Bing Xia; Quansheng Zhao; Fuqiang Liu; Pan Zhang; Qiuju Du; Dechang Wang; Da Li; Zonghua Wang

    2011-01-01

    Kaolin has been widely used as an adsorbent to remove heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. However, the lower heavy metal adsorption capacity of kaolin limits its practical application. A novel environmental friendly material, calcium alginate immobilized kaolin (kaolin/CA), was prepared using a sol-gel method. The effects of contact time, pH, adsorbent dose, and temperature on Cu2+ adsorption by kaolin/CA were investigated. The Langmuir isotherm was used to describe the experimental adsorption, the maximum Cu2+ adsorption capacity of the kaolin/CA reached up to 53.63 mg/g. The thermodynamic studies showed that the adsorption reaction was a spontaneous and endothermic process.

  4. Investigation on Behavior of Macro-Particles in TiN Film by Arc Ion Plating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, W C; Gao, B; Du, H; Xiao, J O; Li, M X; Wang, X H

    2015-09-01

    Macroparticle contamination deteriorates the qualities and performances of protective coatings by arc ion plating, resulting in a limitation in their applications. In this work, the effects of transverse magnetic field (TMF), pulsed bias, gas pressure, and substrate position on behavior of the macro-particles (MPs) in TiN films are quantitatively investigated. It is demonstrated that the key factor of the deposition process on the MPs behavior is magnetic field, which controls the movement of arc spot significantly. At relatively low magnetic field intensity, the MPs behavior is greatly influenced by the other three process parameters. The sensibilities of the three parameters on MPs behavior are decreased with the increasing magnetic field intensity. At high magnetic field intensity, the MPs distribution keeps almost the same even when the other parameters are varied.

  5. Formation of stable submicron peptide or protein particles by thin film freezing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, Keith P.; Engstrom, Joshua; Williams, III, Robert O.

    2017-04-18

    The present invention includes compositions and methods for preparing micron-sized or submicron-sized particles by dissolving a water soluble effective ingredient in one or more solvents; spraying or dripping droplets solvent such that the effective ingredient is exposed to a vapor-liquid interface of less than 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 200, 400 or 500 cm.sup.-1 area/volume to, e.g., increase protein stability; and contacting the droplet with a freezing surface that has a temperature differential of at least 30.degree. C. between the droplet and the surface, wherein the surface freezes the droplet into a thin film with a thickness of less than 500 micrometers and a surface area to volume between 25 to 500 cm.sup.-1.

  6. Kaolin-activated thromboelastography in echocardiographically normal cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Daniel J; Rush, John E; deLaforcade, Armelle M; Shaw, Scott P

    2012-06-01

    To determine reference values for kaolin-activated thromboelastography in echocardiographically normal cats. 30 healthy cats without evidence of cardiomyopathy on echocardiographic examination. All cats underwent echocardiographic examination, the findings of which were reviewed by a board-certified cardiologist. Cats that struggled (n = 10) received mild sedation with butorphanol and midazolam IM to permit phlebotomy without interruption in jugular venous blood flow. Blood samples were collected for analysis of thromboelastography variables, PCV, total solids concentration, platelet count, activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, fibrinogen concentration, and antithrombin concentration. All 4 thromboelastography variables had Kaolin-activated thromboelastography was a reliable test with unremarkable intra-assay variability in echocardiographically normal cats. Sedation may affect certain thromboelastography variables, but the effect is unlikely to be clinically important. It remains unknown whether subclinical cardiomyopathy has a significant effect on thromboelastography variables in cats.

  7. Refractory Characteristics of Aluminum Dross-Kaolin Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeosun, S. O.; Akpan, E. I.; Dada, M. O.

    2014-11-01

    The suitability of using aluminum dross waste and kaolin to produce refractory bricks is experimentally studied. Thirty brick samples of different blends are produced, dried at 30°C, dried further at 110°C, and fired at 1200°C. The firing temperature point, bulk density, apparent porosity, thermal conductivity, thermal shock, loss on ignition, permeability, shatter index, and shrinkage of the bricks blends are determined. The results show that some blend samples have good refractory characteristics with mixing ratio 4:1:2 (representing weight in grams of aluminum dross, plastic clay, and kaolin, respectively). The evaluations of studied properties reveal the possibility for aluminum dross waste to be used as matrix in refractory bricks.

  8. Antimicrobial films obtained from latex particles functionalized with quaternized block copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Paino, Marta; Juan-Rodríguez, Rafael; Cuervo-Rodríguez, Rocío; Tejero, Rubén; López, Daniel; López-Fabal, Fátima; Gómez-Garcés, José L; Muñoz-Bonilla, Alexandra; Fernández-García, Marta

    2016-04-01

    New amphiphilic block copolymers with antimicrobial properties were obtained by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and copper catalyzed cycloaddition following two approaches, a simultaneous strategy or a two-step synthesis, which were proven to be very effective methods. These copolymers were subsequently quaternized using two alkyl chains, methyl and butyl, to amplify their antimicrobial properties and to investigate the effect of alkyl length. Antimicrobial experiments in solution were performed with three types of bacteria, two gram-positive and one gram-negative, and a fungus. Those copolymers quaternized with methyl iodide showed better selectivities on gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, against red blood cells, demonstrating the importance of the quaternizing agent chosen. Once the solution studies were performed, we prepared poly(butyl methacrylate) latex particles functionalized with the antimicrobial copolymers by emulsion polymerization of butyl methacrylate using such copolymers as surfactants. The characterization by various techniques served to test their effectiveness as surfactants. Finally, films were prepared from these emulsions, and their antimicrobial activity was studied against the gram-positive bacteria. The results indicate that the antimicrobial efficiency of the films depends not only on the copolymer activity but also on other factors such as the surface segregation of the antimicrobial agent to the interface.

  9. A method for sizing submicrometer particles in air collected on formvar films and imaged by scanning electron microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Hamacher-Barth

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Here we present a method to systematically investigate single aerosol particles collected on formvar film supported by a copper grid, with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM operating at low accelerating voltage. The method enabled us to observe the surface of the sample grid at high resolution. Subsequent processing of the images with digital image analysis provided a statistically and quantitative size resolved information on the particle population including their morphology on the film. The quality of the presented method was established using polystyrene nanospheres as standards in the size range expected for ambient aerosol particles over remote marine areas (20–900 nm in diameter. The sizing was found to be critically dependent on the contrasting properties of the particles towards the collection substrate. The relative standard deviation of the diameters of polystyrene nanospheres was better than 10% for sizes larger than 40 nm and 18% for 21 nm particles compared with the manufacturer's certificate. The size distributions derived from the microscope images of airborne aerosols collected during a research expedition to north of 80° N in the summer of 2008 were compared with simultaneously collected number particle size distributions seen by a Twin Differential Mobility Particle Sizer. We captured a representative fraction of the aerosol particles with SEM and were able to causally relate the determined morphological properties of the aerosol under investigation to aerosol transformation processes in air being advected from the marginal ice edge/open sea south of 80° N.

  10. Preparation and Characterization of Acid and Alkaline Treated Kaolin Clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Kaolin was refluxed with HNO3, HCl, H3PO4, CH3COOH, and NaOH of 3M concentration at 110 °C for 4 hours followed by calcination at 550 °C for 2 hours. The physico-chemical characteristics of resulted leached kaolinite clay were studied by XRF, XRD, FTIR, TGA, DTA, SEM and N2 adsorption techniques. XRF and FTIR study indicate that acid treatment under reflux conditions lead to the removal of the octahedral Al3+ cations along with other impurities. XRD of acid treated clay shows that, the peak intensity was found to decrease. Extent of leaching of Al3+ ions is different for different acid/base treatment. The acid treatment increased the Si/Al ratio, surface area and pore volume of the clay. Thus, the treated kaolin clay can be used as promising adsorbent and catalyst supports. © 2013 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 1st March 2013; Revised: 9th April 2013; Accepted: 19th April 2013[How to Cite: Kumar, S., Panda, A. K., Singh, R.K. (2013. Preparation and Characterization of Acids and Alkali Treated Kaolin Clay. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 8 (1: 61-69. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4530.61-69][Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4530.61-69] |View in  |

  11. Statistical treatment of bleaching kaolin by iron removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez H, R. A.; Legorreta G, F.; Hernandez C, L. E. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Area Academica de Ciencias de la Tierra y Materiales, Carretera Pachuca-Tulancingo Km 4.5, Mineral de la Reforma, 42184 Hidalgo (Mexico); Martinez L, A., E-mail: angelitofox3@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Coahuila, Blvd. V. Carranza y Gonzalez Lobo s/n, 25280 Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico)

    2013-07-01

    In the present study, oxalic acid was used as a leaching reagent to remove iron from a kaolin mineral. Statistical analysis was conducted to determine the most influential factors in the dissolution of iron from the kaolin mineral. Our goal was ferric iron solubilization and its reduction to ferrous iron to improve the iron removal in the acid medium. Leaching experiments were conducted at atmospheric pressure. A two-level factorial design of the type 2{sup 4} was utilized. The dependent variable was the percentage of dissolved iron, and the dependent variables in this study were acid concentration (0.35 and 0.50 M), temperature (75 C and 100 C), leaching time (2 and 4 h), and ph (1.5 and 2.5). An analysis of variance revealed that the effects of the factors temperature (b), ph (d), and the combined effects of temperature and time (b c) resulted in the maximum dissolution of iron of 88% at 100 C, giving a kaolin mineral with a whiteness index 93.50. For the mineralogical analysis the X-ray diffraction technique was used. (Author)

  12. Size Control of Nanoscale Silicon Particles Formed in Thermally Annealed A- Si: H Films and Its Photoluminescence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Qing

    2005-01-01

    A method to control the size of nanoscale silicon grown in thermally annealed hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si : H) films is reported. Using the characterizing techniques of micro-Raman scattering,X-ray diffraction and computer simulation, it is found that the sizes of the formed silicon particles change with the temperature rising rate in thermally annealing the a-Si : H films. When the a-Si: H films have been annealed with high rising rate( ~ 100 C/s), the sizes of nanoscale silicon particles are in the range of 1.6~ 15nm. On the other hand, if the a-Si: H films have been annealed with low temperature rising rate(~1 C/s),the sizes of nanoscale silicon particles are in the range of 23~46 nm. Based on the theory of crystal nucleation and growth, the effect of temperature rising rate on the sizes of the formed silicon particles is discussed. Under high power laser irradiation, in situ nanocrystallization and subsequent nc-Si clusters are small enough for visible light emission, authors have not detected any visible photoluminescence(PL) from these nc-Si clusters before surface passivation. After electrochemical oxidization in hydrofluoric acid, however, intense red PL has been detected. Cyclic hydrofluoric oxidization and air exposure can cause subsequent blue shift in the red emission. The importance of surface passivation and quantum confinement in the visible emissions has been discussed.

  13. Effect of physicochemical character differences on the genotoxic potency of kaolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Tatsuya; Toyooka, Tatsushi; Ibuki, Yuko; Masuda, Shuichi; Watanabe, Masatoshi; Totsuka, Yukari

    2017-01-01

    Kaolin is white clay mineral with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4, and many varieties of kaolins having different crystal structures are utilized in industrial, cosmetic and medical fields. To evaluate the effect of physicochemical character differences on the genotoxicity of kaolin, two types of kaolin, kaolin-S with smooth, sphere-shaped crystals, and kaolin-P with clusters of thin pseudohexagonal plates, were used in the study. ICR mice were intratracheally instilled with the kaolins (0.05 and 0.2 mg/mouse), and comet assay was performed on their lungs. Both kaolins showed DNA damage in the lungs of the mice, however the DNA damaging potency was much higher with kaolin-P than that with kaolin-S. In order to clarify the mechanisms for the different genotoxic potency, we examined the incorporation rate and ROS generation of these two types of kaolin in alveolar epithelial A549 and macrophage-like RAW264 cells, using flow cytometric (FCM) analysis. Kaolin-P showed a higher incorporation rate into the mammalian cells and ROS generation than that of kaolin-S. Especially, RAW264 cells aggressively incorporated kaolins, and generated ROS, whereas almost no ROS generation was observed in A549 cells. In addition, inflammatory cytokines were quantified, using the ELISA method, to understand further genotoxic potency differences of kaolins. Concentrations of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the media were increased by exposure to both kaolins, but in the case of kaolin-P, these inflammatory cytokines were significantly elevated. Based on these findings, differences of genotoxic potency may contribute to incorporation rates into immune cells. Furthermore, it is likely that immune cells and epithelial cells might closely interact with each other for the appearance of genotoxocity in vivo. In order to clarify the interaction between epithelial and immune cells, A549 and RAW264 were co-cultured and RAW264 cells only were exposed to

  14. Heat transfer partitioning model of film boiling of particle cluster in a liquid pool: implementation in a CFD code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Pallab S.; Ghosh, Koushik; Manna, Nirmal K.

    2015-08-01

    In the present work an effective heat transfer partitioning model of three phase (particles, liquid and vapour) flow and thermal interaction have been developed by a multi-fluid approach under film boiling condition. The in-house multiphase flow code is based on finite volume method of discretization and SIMPLE-based pressure correction algorithm. From consideration of mass, momentum and energy balance across the liquid-vapour interface, the vapour bubble generated from the vapour film have been modeled and incorporated in the code. Different interaction terms between each phase are incorporated depending upon the flow regime. The code is validated with in-house and available experimental results. Finally the effect of relevant parameters on void generation under film boiling condition of particles is estimated.

  15. Influence of Sulfonated-Kaolin On Cationic Exchange Capacity Swelling Degree and Morphology of Chitosan/Kaolin Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozi Adi Saputra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of sulfonated-kaolin (sKao has been conducted and used as filler on chitosan matrix via solution casting method, namely chitosan/sKao (Cs/sKao. Swelling degree, cationic exchange capacity and thermal stability were evaluated to determine chitosan/sKao membranes performance as proton exchange membrane in fuel cell. Functional group analysis of chitosan, sKao and synthesized products were studied using Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR spectroscopy. In this study, swelling degree and swelling area of Cs/sKao are also studied to determine of membrane ability to swelling which compare to unmodified chitosan/kaolin (Cs/Kao. The presence of sKao in chitosan matrix was able to improve cationic exchange capacity (CEC which proved by morphological study of membrane surface after CEC test. Moreover, Thermal stability of Cs/sKao showed the membrane has meet requirement for PEM application.

  16. Effects of Mineral Tourmaline Particles on Photocatalytic Activities of RE/TiO2 Composite Thin Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Junping; Liang Jinsheng; Ding Yan; Xu Gangke

    2004-01-01

    The composite TiO2 films containing the mineral tourmaline particles and rare earth elements (T/RE/TiO2 )were prepared by a sol-gel method using Ti( OC4H9 )4 as raw material. The microstructure and forming mechanism of T/RE/TiO2 films were studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Effects of tourmaline on the photocatalytic activities of RE/TiO2 were determined by photocatalytic degradation of formaldehyde. The results show that the photocatalytic degradation ratio of formaldehyde increases by 44.2% with the composite films of Ce/TiO2 containing 0.04%tourmaline, more than that with the thin films of Ce/TiO2 under UV irradiation.

  17. Global Skin-Friction Measurements Using Particle Image Surface FLow Visualization and a Luminescent Oil-Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husen, Nicholas; Roozeboom, Nettie; Liu, Tianshu; Sullivan, John P.

    2015-01-01

    A quantitative global skin-friction measurement technique is proposed. An oil-film is doped with a luminescent molecule and thereby made to fluoresce in order to resolve oil-film thickness, and Particle Image Surface Flow Visualization is used to resolve the velocity field of the surface of the oil-film. Skin-friction is then calculated at location x as (x )xh, where x is the displacement of the surface of the oil-film and is the dynamic viscosity of the oil. The data collection procedure and data analysis procedures are explained, and preliminary experimental skin-friction results for flow over the wing of the CRM are presented.

  18. Heat Dissipation of Resonant Absorption in Metal Nanoparticle-Polymer Films Described at Particle Separation Near Resonant Wavelength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy R. Dunklin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer films containing plasmonic nanostructures are of increasing interest for development of responsive energy, sensing, and therapeutic systems. The present work evaluates heat dissipated from power absorbed by resonant gold (Au nanoparticles (NP with negligible Rayleigh scattering cross sections randomly dispersed in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS films. Finite element analysis (FEA of heat transport was coordinated with characterization of resonant absorption by Mie theory and coupled dipole approximation (CDA. At AuNP particle separation greater than resonant wavelength, correspondence was observed between measured and CDA-predicted optical absorption and FEA-derived power dissipation. At AuNP particle separation less than resonant wavelength, measured extinction increased relative to predicted values, while FEA-derived power dissipation remained comparable to CDA-predicted power absorption before lagging observed extinguished power at higher AuNP content and resulting particle separation. Effects of isolated particles, for example, scattering, and particle-particle interactions, for example, multiple scattering, aggregation on observed optothermal activity were evaluated. These complementary approaches to distinguish contributions to resonant heat dissipation from isolated particle absorption and interparticle interactions support design and adaptive control of thermoplasmonic materials for a variety of implementations.

  19. Amino-functionalized breath-figure cavities in polystyrene-alumina hybrid films: effect of particle concentration and dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    V, Lakshmi; Raju, Annu; V G, Resmi; Pancrecious, Jerin K; T P D, Rajan; C, Pavithran

    2016-03-14

    We report the formation of breath-figure (BF) patterns with amino-functionalized cavities in a BF incompatible polystyrene (PS) by incorporating functionalized alumina nanoparticles. The particles were amphiphilic-modified and the modifier ratio was regulated to achieve a specific hydrophobic/hydrophilic balance of the particles. The influence of the physical and chemical properties of the particles like particle concentration, the hydrophobic/hydrophilic balance, etc., on particle dispersion in solvents having different polarity and the corresponding changes in the BF patterns have been studied. The amphiphilic-modified alumina particles could successfully assist the BF mechanism, generating uniform patterns in polystyrene films with the cavity walls decorated with the functionalized alumina particles, even from water-miscible solvents like THF. The possibility of fabricating free-standing micropatterned films by casting and drying the suspension under ambient conditions was also demonstrated. The present method opens up a simple route for producing functionalized BF cavities, which can be post-modified by a chemical route for various biological applications.

  20. Effect of Sample Configuration on Droplet-Particles of TiN Films Deposited by Pulse Biased Arc Ion Plating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanhui Zhao; Guoqiang Lin; Jinquan Xiao; Chuang Dong; Lishi Wen

    2009-01-01

    Orthogonal experiments are used to design the pulsed bias related parameters, including bias magnitude, duty cycle and pulse frequency, during arc ion deposition of TiN films on stainless steel substrates in the case of samples placing normal to the plasma flux. The effect of these parameters on the amount and the size distribution of droplet-particles are investigated, and the results have provided sufficient evidence for the physical model, in which particles reduction is due to the case that the particles are negatively charged and repulsed from negative pulse electric field. The effect of sample configuration on amount and size distribution of the particles are analyzed. The results of the amount and size distribution of the particles are compared to those in the case of samples placing parallel to the plasma flux.

  1. Unified Understanding of Giant Magnetoresistance Effect and Magnetization in Granular Films with Two-Particle Size Distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Qing WANG; Jordan Peck; Finnobarr O'Grady; Nam Kim

    2004-01-01

    @@ The giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect and magnetization curves of Cu80 Co20 granular thin films are studied and measured in a superparamagnetism temperature (180K). The correlation between the GMR effect and the magnetization is analysed in a unified framework. These two independent properties are fitted by assuming that there are two size distributions in the Co nano-particle population. Under an assumption, good fittings are achieved for both the GMR and the magnetization, using the minimal number of parameters. The obtained average particle sizes for the smaller and larger particles are 1.0nm and 2.8nm, respectively. In fitting the magneto-transport, a power scaling relationship with the particle size for each size population is proposed, and the fitted results reveal that a certain degree of magnetic bulk scattering is present in larger particles.

  2. A review of induction and attachment times of wetting thin films between air bubbles and particles and its relevance in the separation of particles by flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albijanic, Boris; Ozdemir, Orhan; Nguyen, Anh V; Bradshaw, Dee

    2010-08-11

    Bubble-particle attachment in water is critical to the separation of particles by flotation which is widely used in the recovery of valuable minerals, the deinking of wastepaper, the water treatment and the oil recovery from tar sands. It involves the thinning and rupture of wetting thin films, and the expansion and relaxation of the gas-liquid-solid contact lines. The time scale of the first two processes is referred to as the induction time, whereas the time scale of the attachment involving all the processes is called the attachment time. This paper reviews the experimental studies into the induction and attachment times between minerals and air bubbles, and between oil droplets and air bubbles. It also focuses on the experimental investigations and mathematical modelling of elementary processes of the wetting film thinning and rupture, and the three-phase contact line expansion relevant to flotation. It was confirmed that the time parameters, obtained by various authors, are sensitive enough to show changes in both flotation surface chemistry and physical properties of solid surfaces of pure minerals. These findings should be extended to other systems. It is proposed that measurements of the bubble-particle attachment can be used to interpret changes in flotation behaviour or, in conjunction with other factors, such as particle size and gas dispersion, to predict flotation performance.

  3. Development of Antibacterial Composite Films Based on Isotactic Polypropylene and Coated ZnO Particles for Active Food Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Silvestre

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at developing new films based on isotactic polypropylene (iPP for food packaging applications using zinc oxide (ZnO with submicron dimension particles obtained by spray pyrolysis. To improve compatibility with iPP, the ZnO particles were coated with stearic acid (ZnOc. Composites based on iPP with 2 wt % and 5 wt % of ZnOc were prepared in a twin-screw extruder and then filmed by a calender. The effect of ZnOc on the properties of iPP were assessed and compared with those obtained in previous study on iPP/ZnO and iPP/iPPgMA/ZnO. For all composites, a homogeneous distribution and dispersion of ZnOc was obtained indicating that the coating with stearic acid of the ZnO particles reduces the surface polarity mismatch between iPP and ZnO. The iPP/ZnOc composite films have relevant zinc oxide with respect to E. coli, higher thermal stability and improved mechanical and impact properties than the pure polymer and the composites iPP/ZnO and iPP/iPPgMA/ZnO. This study demonstrated that iPP/ZnOc films are suitable materials for potential application in the active packaging field.

  4. Characterization of the effects of lignin and lignin complex particles as filler on a polystyrene film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Zawawy, Waleed K., E-mail: wkzawawy@yahoo.com [Cellulose and Paper Department, National Research Center, El-Tahrir St., Giza (Egypt); Ibrahim, Maha M. [Cellulose and Paper Department, National Research Center, El-Tahrir St., Giza (Egypt); Belgacem, Mohamed Naceur; Dufresne, Alain [Grenoble Institute of Technology (INP) - The International School of Paper, Print Media and Biomaterials (PAGORA), BP 65, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres cedex, Grenoble (France)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have studied the use of Co(II) to form a complex with the lignin. We use first vanillin as the lignin model and we observed a change in color for the produced complex depending on the light wavelength. The use of other transition metals does not give the same observation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The use of the transition metal with the lignin precipitated from the black liquor after pulping of agricultural residues, gave a fluorescent color under fluorescent microscope. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We applied the resulted lignin complex to prepare polymer film that can be used as special polymer packaging which can be color changed under different wavelengths. - Abstract: The work in this research outlines the use of lignin precipitated from lignocellulosic substrate as fillers after modified with transition metal cations, Fe(III), Ni(II) and Co(II), in the production of a polystyrene based composite for polymer packaging applications. Virgin polystyrene was compared with lignin and lignin complex filled composites with loading of 5% by weight prepared using twin screw extrusion. The lignin complexes were first characterized by the UV spectra to identify the new absorption bands occurred due to the complex formation. Moreover, lignin model, namely vanillin, was used to notify the geometric structure of the resulting complexes applying the GC mass spectra. Scanning electron microscopy was used to indicate the change in the morphological structure of the filler particles. On the other hand, the mechanical and thermal analysis for the resulting polymer composites was studied and it was noticed that the type of lignin or lignin complex plays a roll in the results. The inclusion of the Co(II)-lignin complex was observed to increase the tensile strength of the resulting polymer composite and a decrease of the glass transition temperature. Furthermore, light wave lengths and UV fluorescent microscope were used to identify

  5. Infrared Spectroscopic Study on Structural Change and Interfacial Interaction in Rubber Composites Filled with Silica-Kaolin Hybrid Fillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Guan, J.; Hu, H.; Gao, H.; Zhang, L.

    2016-07-01

    A series of natural rubber/styrene butadiene rubber/polybutadiene rubber composites was prepared with nanometer silica and micron kaolin by a dry modification process, mechanical compounding, and mold vulcanization. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and a scanning electron microscope were used to investigate the structural changes and interfacial interactions in composites. The results showed that the "seesaw" structure was formed particularly with the incorporation of silica particles in the preparation process, which would be beneficial to the dispersibility of fillers in the rubber matrix. The kaolinite platelets were generally arranged in directional alignment. Kaolinite with smaller particle size and low-defect structure was more stable in preparation, but kaolinite with larger particle size and high defect structure tended to change the crystal structure. The composite prepared in this research exhibited excellent mechanical and thermal properties.

  6. Preparation and properties of films cast from mixtures of poly(vinyl alcohol) and submicron particles prepared from amylose-palmitic acid inclusion complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanta, George F; Selling, Gordon W; Felker, Frederick C; Kenar, James A

    2015-05-05

    The use of starch in polymer composites for film production has been studied for increasing biodegradability, improving film properties and reducing cost. In this study, submicron particles were prepared from amylose-sodium palmitate complexes both by rapidly cooling jet-cooked starch-palmitic acid mixtures and by acidifying solutions of starch-sodium palmitate complexes. Films were cast containing poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH) with up to 50% starch particles. Tensile strength decreased and Young's modulus increased with starch concentration, but percent elongations remained similar to controls regardless of preparation method or starch content. Microscopy showed particulate starch distribution in films made with rapidly cooled starch-palmitic acid particles but smooth, diffuse starch staining with acidified sodium palmitate complexes. The mild effects on tensile properties suggest that submicron starch particles prepared from amylose-palmitic acid complexes provide a useful, commercially viable approach for PVOH film modification.

  7. The mechanism of kaolin clay flocculation by a cation-independent bioflocculant produced by Chryseobacterium daeguense W6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijie Liu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several novel cation-independent bioflocculants have been reported, which can avoid the secondary contamination caused by addition of cations. However, compared with cation-dependent bioflocculants, the flocculating mechanism of cation-independent bioflocculants is largely unknown. In this study, a cation-independent bioflocculant MBF-W6 produced by Chryseobacterium daeguense W6 was used as a model to investigate the flocculating mechanism. The results showed that the major flocculating component of MBF-W6 is a complex of proteins and polysaccharides. The zeta potential results indicated that kaolin clay particles were not precipitated due to charge neutralization and the bridging mediated by cations did not play a major role in the flocculating process. These results are consistent with the fact that MBF-W6 is a cation-independent bioflocculant. Further scanning electron microscopic observation showed that MBF-W6 induced flocs formed tight packed structure, suggesting that the kaolin clay particles maybe directly attached and bridged by bioflocculant MBF-W6. In addition, we also found out that Fe3+ ions inhibit the flocculating activity of MBF-W6 by affecting –COO− and –NH groups. Therefore this study can improve our understanding on flocculating mechanism of cation-independent bioflocculants.

  8. Influence of TiO2 particles on PVB foils used in silicon based thin film photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinicco, Ivan; Gossla, Mario; Krull, Stefan; Rakusa, Fabia; Roth, Florian

    2010-08-01

    Transparent PVB lamination foils are widely used in thin-film solar modules. The application of a pigmented load composed by TiO2 particles in the foil formulation does not only influence the reflectance properties of this material, it has also a remarkable impact on other material parameters like resistivity and adhesion. The main objective of this study is to illustrate the properties of white lamination films based on polyvinyl butyral materials. A special insight will be on adhesion, foil resistivity and activation energies. Some performance results on modules will be also presented.

  9. Absorption enhancement in thin film a-Si solar cells with double-sided SiO2 particle layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈乐; 王庆康; 沈向前; 陈文; 黄堃; 刘代明

    2015-01-01

    Light absorption enhancement is very important for improving the power conversion efficiency of a thin film a-Si solar cell. In this paper, a thin-film a-Si solar cell model with double-sided SiO2 particle layers is designed, and then the underlying mechanism of absorption enhancement is investigated by finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulation;finally the feasible experimental scheme for preparing the SiO2 particle layer is discussed. It is found that the top and bottom SiO2 particle layers play an important role in anti-reflection and light trapping, respectively. The light absorption of the cell with double-sided SiO2 layers greatly increases in a wavelength range of 300 nm–800 nm, and the ultimate efficiency increases more than 22%compared with that of the flat device. The cell model with double-sided SiO2 particle layers reported here can be used in varieties of thin film solar cells to further improve their performances.

  10. Landing and Oviposition Responses of Rhagoletis indifferens (Dipt., Tephritidae) on Sweet Cherry Treated with Kaolin- and Limestone-Based Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaolin- and limestone-based products were compared for their effects on landing and oviposition on sweet cherry by Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Dipt., Tephritidae). Surround (95% calcined kaolin), Cocoon (100% hydrous kaolin), Eclipse (>97% limestone), and Purshade (62.5% limestone) were studied....

  11. High residue amounts of kaolin further increase photosynthesis and fruit color in 'Empire' apple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaolin (Surround WP, NovaSource, Phoenix, AZ, USA) is commonly used to reduce sunburn damage in fruit crops and to reduce heat stress on foliage. It is typically applied at rates of 3% to 6%, resulting in leaf and fruit residue levels of 1-3 g/m2. Crop modeling of the effect of kaolin on leaf/cano...

  12. Preparation of Modified Kaolin Filler with Cesium and Its Application in Security Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houssni El-Saied

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, cesium was added intentionally during paper manufacture for protecting the papers against forgery and counterfeiting by sorbing cesium ions (Cs+ on kaolin, used as special filler in papermaking. The sorption of cesium from aqueous solution by kaolin was studied as a function of pH, shaking time, cesium initial concentration, and mass of kaolin using batch technique. The results showed that a solution containing 10 mg/L Cs+ and 250 mg of kaolin at pH 6 can be used to modify the kaolin. Paper handsheets were prepared containing various percentages of the modified kaolin. The mechanical and optical properties of paper handsheets were studied. The prepared paper handsheets were irradiated by gamma irradiation using different doses. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy was used to study the effect of kaolin modification by cesium and gamma irradiation on paper handsheets properties. The results indicated that modified kaolin enhanced the mechanical and optical properties of paper handsheets. Electron spin resonance (ESR spectroscopy and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS were also used. They provided rapid, sensitive and nondestructive techniques in differentiating between different questioned documents. This study presents a new concept in manufacturing security papers and anticounterfeiting applications.

  13. EFFECTS OF COUPLING AGENTS ON THE RHEOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR OF KAOLIN FILLED POLYAMIDE 6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Zhongzhen; OU Yuchun; FENG Yupeng

    1993-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to investigate the effects of coupling agents on the rheological properties of kaolin filled polyamide 6(PA6). We have investigated the state of dispersion and interfacial interaction of the filled systems, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Molau test, respectively. It is found that the addition of the couplingagents to the PA6/ kaolin (20 wtpercent) significantly decreases the melt viscosity and the melt elasticity (first normal stress difference). Moreover, the states of dispersion and the polymer/filler interactions have significant influences on the rheological properties of kaolin/PA6 systems. The rheological behavior of KH550 kaolin /PA6 system is different from that of KH560 kaolin/PA6 system, although chemical reactions have taken place between the surface of KH550 kaolin (or KH560 kaolin) and PA6 matrix during melt processing. This is attributable, in part, to the differences in the state of dispersion of kaolins in PA6 matrix and, to a great extent, to the differences in the extent of chemical reactions that have taken place between the filler and polymer matrix.

  14. Fabrication of Poly-(DL-Lactic Acid)--Wollastonite Composite Films with Surface Modified {beta}-CaSiO3 Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingzhi Ye; Jiang Chang; Congqin Ning; Kaili Lin

    2008-03-01

    Bioactive poly-(DL-lactic acid) (PDLLA)-wollastonite composite films are successfully fabricated using surface modified wollastonite (m beta-CaSiO 3) particles through solvent casting-evaporation method. The surface modification of beta-CaSiO3 particles are conducted by reaction of the ceramic particles with dodecyl alcohol. Surface morphology, tensile strength, and bioactivity of the composite films are investigated. The results show that the particle distribution and tensile strength of the composite films with modified beta-CaSiO3 particles are significantly improved while the bioactivity is retained. As a result, the maximum tensile strength is enhanced 52.2% when compared with the PDLLA-beta-CaSiO3 composite films prepared using unmodified beta-CaSiO3 particles when the inorganic filler content is 15 wt%. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation suggests that the modified m beta-CaSiO3 particles are homogeneously dispersed in the PDLLA matrix. The bioactivity of the composite films is evaluated by soaking in a simulated body fluid (SBF) and the result suggests that the modified composite film is still bioactive and can induce the formation of HAp on its surface after the immersion in SBF, despite the bonded dodecyl alkyl on the surface of the inorganic particles. All these results imply that the surface modification of beta-CaSiO3 with dodecyl alcohol is an effective approach to prepare PDLLA-beta-CaSiO3 composite with improved properties.

  15. Wear Resistances of CO2 Corrosion Product Films in the Presence of Sand Particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jinling; ZHU Shidong; LIU Luzhen; QU Chengtun; YAN Yongli; YANG Bo

    2015-01-01

    Wear resistances of CO2 corrosion product iflms formed on P110 carbon steel at different CO2 partial pressures were investigated in water sand two-phase lfow by weight loss method, and the microstructures and compositions of corrosion product iflms were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The results showed that the wear rate of CO2 corrosion product iflms increased until a maximum and then decreased with the increasing of the film-forming pressure, and the maximum occurred at 2 MPa. However, the maximal corrosion rate and the loose and porous CO2 corrosion product iflms were obtained at 4 MPa. And the wear rate decreased and then went to be lfat with increasing test time. Furthermore, the microstructures and compositions of corrosion product iflms and the impact and wear of sand particles played an important role on wear resistances. In addition, the wear rate and corrosion rate were iftted by cubic polynomial, respectively, which were well in accordance with the measured results.

  16. Properties of kaolin and its effect on properties of taphole clay%高岭土性能研究及其对炮泥性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏欣鹏; 甘菲芳; 唐莉

    2011-01-01

    对宝钢炮泥用过的两种不同产地的200目(≤0.074 mm)高岭土SZ和SX进行了化学分析、XRD物相分析、SEM显微结构观察和粒度分布测定,以了解两种高岭土的性能差异;并对添加15%(质量分数)的两种高岭土所制备的炮泥进行了马夏值和不同温度处理后常温耐压强度的测定,以研究选用不同高岭土的炮泥的性能差异.结果表明:与SZ高岭土相比,SX高岭土的纯度更高,粒度更细,含有叶蜡石相,且其片状晶层解理完整.因此,在同样条件下,含叶蜡石相的SX高岭土可以赋予炮泥更好的可塑性,并提高炮泥的烧结强度.%Kaolin SZ and kaolin SX from two producing areas used for taphole clay of Baosteel( ≤0.074 mm) were researched by chemical analysis,XRD,SEM,and particle size distribution test to study their property differences. The Marshall value and CCS after heat treatment at different temperatures of the taphole clay added with 15% kaolin in mass were tested, respectively. The results show that compared with kaolin SZ, kaolin SX has higher purity, smaller granularity, and pyrophyllite phase and its platy crystal layer cleavages fully;thus,kaolin SX with pyrophyllite phase can endow taphole clay plasticity and higher sintering strength after fired.

  17. Modelling of nodular particle growth in a liquid-solid film during condensation experiments of copper-silver alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leroux, S.; Ny, J. le; Gueneau, C.; Goldstein, S. [DCC/DPE/SPCP/LEPCA, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Camel, D. [DTA/CEREM/DEM/SPCM, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble, Grenoble (France)

    2001-07-01

    Silver-copper alloys are condensed in a liquid-solid domain of the phase diagram on a tilted molybdenum substrate regulated in temperature. After a droplets regime, a film which contains a monolayer of nodular solid crystals forms. The size distribution and density of the particles in the film are measured after different condensation times. Results show that in our experimental conditions a ripening process occurs which is evidenced by a decrease of the number of particles with time, and a broad particle size distribution. However, the decrease rate is smaller than expected without a condensation flux. A model is then developed to interpret and generalize these results. This model results from the modification of the Lifshitz-Slyosov model to take into account the supply from the vapour phase. It is shown that the higher the flux of material to solidify from the vapour phase is, the more the growth from the vapour phase overcomes the ripening process. Once the particle density reaches a characteristic value which is simply proportional to the incoming flux, no more particles are dissolved. The system then tends towards a monomodal distribution with a radius which grows in t{sup 1/3}. (orig.)

  18. Analysis of Electrodeposited Nickel-Iron Alloy Film Composition Using Particle-Induced X-Ray Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa A. Frey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The elemental composition of electrodeposited NiFe thin films was analyzed with particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE. The thin films were electrodeposited on polycrystalline Au substrates from a 100 mM NiSO4, 10 mM FeSO4, 0.5 M H3BO3, and 1 M Na2SO4 solution. PIXE spectra of these films were analyzed to obtain relative amounts of Ni and Fe as a function of deposition potential and deposition time. The results show that PIXE can measure the total deposited metal in a sample over at least four orders of magnitude with similar fractional uncertainties. The technique is also sensitive enough to observe the variations in alloy composition due to sample nonuniformity or variations in deposition parameters.

  19. Particle morphology as a control of permeation in polymer films obtained from MMA/nBA colloidal dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestage, David J; Urban, Marek W

    2004-07-20

    The combination of precision-controlled weight loss measurements and spectroscopic surface FT-IR analysis allowed us to identify unique behaviors of poly(methyl methacrylate) (p-MMA). When MMA and n-butyl acrylate (nBA) are polymerized into p-MMA and p-nBA homopolymer blends, MMA/nBA random copolymers, and p-MMA/p-nBA core-shell morphologies, a controlled mobility and stratification of low molecular weight components occurs in films formed from coalesced colloidal dispersions. Due to different affinities toward water, p-MMA and p-nBA are capable of releasing water at different rates, depending upon particle morphological features of initial dispersions. As coalescence progresses, water molecules are released from the high free volume p-nBA particles, whereas p-MMA retains water molecules for the longest time due to its hydrophilic nature. As a result, water losses at extended coalescence times are relatively small for p-MMA. MMA/nBA copolymer and p-MMA/p-nBA blends follow the same trends, although the magnitudes of changes are not as pronounced. The p-MMA/p-nBA core-shell behavior resembles that of p-nBA homopolymer, which is attributed to significantly lower content of the p-MMA component in particles. Annealing of coalesced colloidal films at elevated temperatures causes migration of SDOSS to the F-A interface, but for films containing primarily p-nBA, reverse diffusion back into the bulk is observed. These studies illustrate that the combination of different particle morphologies and temperatures leads to controllable permeation processes through polymeric films. Copyright 2004 American Chemical Society

  20. Investigation of thickness uniformity of thin metal films by using α-particle energy loss method and successive scanning measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Xu, Jiayun; Bai, Lixin

    2017-03-01

    The metal films are widely used in the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments to obtain the radiation opacity, and the accuracy of the measuring results mainly depends on the accuracy of the film thickness and thickness uniformity. The traditional used measuring methods all have various disadvantages, the optical method and stylus method cannot provide mass thickness which reflects the internal density distribution of the films, and the weighing method cannot provide the uniformity of the thickness distribution. This paper describes a new method which combines the α-particle energy loss (AEL) method and the successive scanning measurements to obtain the film thickness and thickness uniformity. The measuring system was partly installed in the vacuum chamber, and the relationship of chamber pressure and energy loss caused by the residual air in the vacuum chamber was studied for the source-to-detector distance ranging from 1 to 5 cm. The results show that the chamber pressure should be less than 10 Pa for the present measuring system. In the process of measurement, the energy spectrum of α-particles transmitted through each different measuring point were obtained, and then recorded automatically by a self-developed multi-channel analysis software. At the same time, the central channel numbers of the spectrum (CH) were also saved in a text form document. In order to realize the automation of data processing and represent the thickness uniformity visually in a graphic 3D plot, a software package was developed to convert the CH values into film thickness and thickness uniformity. The results obtained in this paper make the film thickness uniformity measurements more accurate and efficient in the ICF experiments.

  1. Structural and magnetic characterization of FePt films deposited onto SiO{sub 2} spherical particle arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brombacher, Christoph; Makarov, Denys; Schatz, Guenter; Albrecht, Manfred [University of Konstanz, Department of Physics, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Maret, Mireille; Liscio, Fabiola [Laboratoire de Thermodynamique et Physico-Chimie Metallurgiques, ENSEEG, Saint Martin d' Heres (France)

    2007-07-01

    The growth of FePt films at 450 C on a Pt/Cr buffer layer deposited onto SiO{sub 2} spherical particle arrays and for comparison on flat thermally oxidized Si(001) substrates has been studied. The structural properties of the FePt films, such as the orientation and size of the crystalline grains and the degree of L1{sub 0}-type chemical ordering, were investigated by in-situ RHEED and ex-situ XRD. Magnetic characterization was performed by MFM, polar MOKE and SQUID. Increasing the Cr buffer underlayer thickness favors the formation of the FePt chemically ordered L1{sub 0} phase. An out-of-plane coercivity of the FePt alloy about 4 kOe was thus obtained for a Cr thickness of 50 nm. While the continuous films on oxidized Si(001) substrates show magnetic domain patterns with domain sizes in the range of 50-100 nm, multi-domain states are observed for the FePt alloy grown on the particle arrays. The influence of the Cr underlayer thickness and Pt buffer layer on the magnetic properties of FePt are discussed for various particle arrays and compared to micromagnetic simulations, providing a description of magnetization reversal.

  2. Switching and memory effects in composite films of semiconducting polymers with particles of graphene and graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylov, P. S.; Berestennikov, A. S.; Aleshin, A. N.; Komolov, A. S.; Shcherbakov, I. P.; Petrov, V. N.; Trapeznikova, I. N.

    2015-08-01

    The effects of switching were investigated in composite films based on multifunctional polymers. i.e., derivatives of carbazole (PVK) and fluorene (PFD), as well as based on particles of graphene (Gr) and graphene oxide (GO). The concentration of Gr and GO particles in the PVK(PFD) matrix was varied in the range of 2-3 wt %, which corresponded to the percolation threshold in these systems. The atomic composition of the composite films PVK: GO was examined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was found that the effect of switching in structures of the form Al/PVK(PFD): GO(Gr)/ITO/PET manifests itself in a sharp change of the electrical resistance of the composite film from a low-conducting state to a relatively high-conducting state when applying a bias to Al-ITO electrodes of ˜0.1-0.3 V ( E ˜ 3-5 × 104 V/cm), which is below the threshold switching voltages for similar composites. The mechanism of resistance switching, which is associated with the processes of capture and accumulation of charge carriers by Gr (GO) particles introduced into the matrices of the high-molecular-weight (PVK) and relatively low-molecular-weight (PFD) polymers, was discussed.

  3. Mussel inspired preparation of amine-functionalized Kaolin for effective removal of heavy metal ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Qiang; Liu, Meiying; Deng, Fengjie [Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang, 330031 (China); Wang, Ke [Department of Chemistry and the Tsinghua Center for Frontier Polymer Research, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Huang, Hongye; Xu, Dazhuang; Zeng, Guangjian [Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang, 330031 (China); Zhang, Xiaoyong, E-mail: xiaoyongzhang1980@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang, 330031 (China); Wei, Yen [Department of Chemistry and the Tsinghua Center for Frontier Polymer Research, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China)

    2016-09-15

    Adsorption has been well regarded as a promising and efficient method for the removal of low concentration heavy metal ions in aqueous solutions. And kaolin has been considered as a kind of low cost and environment-friendly adsorbent for its abundant in nature. But the low adsorption capacity to heavy metal ions and severe aggregation in solution restrains its application. In this work, an environment-friendly adsorbent (denoted as Kaolin-PDA-PEI) was prepared based on mussel inspired chemistry and Michael addition reaction between high reaction activity of polydopamine (PDA) and polyethyleneimine (PEI), which was possesses a number of amine groups. The amine groups have displayed strong adsorption affinity towards copper ions. The successful modification of Kaolin by PDA and PEI was confirmed by a series of analyses, such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, thermal gravimetry analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The effects of various parameters such as contact time, pH, initial concentrations of copper ions and temperature on copper ion adsorption by Kaolin-PDA-PEI were investigated. Kaolin-PDA-PEI shows higher adsorption capacity as compared with the raw Kaolin. The kinetic adsorption data were analyzed using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion model. The Langmuir isotherm and Freundlich isotherm equilibrium model were applied to adsorption isotherm data to find the better fit isotherm. The results showed that adsorption process was well fitted by Langmuir isotherm model. The values of thermodynamics constants such as entropy change (ΔS{sup 0}), enthalpy change (ΔH{sup 0}) and Gibbs free energy (ΔG{sup 0}) were also calculated. The results indicated that the adsorption process of Kaolin-PDA-PEI were endothermic and spontaneous. - Graphical abstract: Amino groups functionalized Kaolin was facilely prepared via mussel inspired chemistry. The modified Kaolin exhibited much

  4. Loss of Rubella Antibody from Immune Globulin Treated with Kaolin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabasso, V. J.; Louie, R. E.; Hok, K. A.; Robinson, C. T.; Davis, P. C.; Miner, R. C.

    1969-01-01

    Sera and immune globulin (IG) preparations are customarily treated with kaolin before titration of their rubella hemagglutination-inhibiting (HI) antibody in order to rid them of nonspecific inhibitors of hemagglutination. The treatment was shown in this investigation to have no adverse effect on the antibody level of the sera but was found to remove considerable amounts of gamma-globulin from IG preparations. Evidence of this removal was obtained by serological tests, by spectrophotometric determination of protein concentration and by disc electrophoresis. In contrast to kaolin, heparin-manganese chloride (MnCl2) treatment of IG preparations had essentially no effect on the level of antibody globulin by all the criteria used. Heparin-MnCl2-treated IG lots were in these respects similar, if not identical, to their untreated counterparts. Since nonspecific inhibitors associated with the β-lipoprotein fraction of serum are removed by the method employed to fractionate the IG samples, it seems unnecessary to treat the latter in any way for the HI test. No difficulty was encountered in this investigation with several untreated IG lots. Images PMID:4190525

  5. Property Optimization of Kaolin-Rice Husk Insulating Fire Bricks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E.O.Onche; B.I.Ugheoke; G.A.Asikpo

    2006-01-01

    In this work, the suitability of using Kaolin-Rice husk-plastic clay to produce insulating firebrick was experimentally investigated and the optimal ratio of these constituents determined. Ten brick samples of different compositions were fired at 1200℃. Three of the samples(samples 6, 7, and 8) crumbled during firing. The surviving samples gave the following limits of results:shrinkage: 9.7% - 13.6%; effective moisture content:28. 34% -32.52%; modulus of rupture: 4.26kgf/cm2 - 19. 10kgf/cm2; apparent porosity: 56%-95. 93%;water absorption: 42.27% - 92. 12%; bulk density:1.04g/cm3 - 1.41g/cm3; apparent density: 2. 56g/cm3 -5. 77g/cm3 ; and thermal conductivity: 0. 005 W/mK 0. 134W/mK. The results showed that they all had good insulating characteristics. Samples 1 -5 and 10 showed good level of refractoriness, while mixing ratio of 4∶1∶2 ( representing weight in grams of Kaolin, plastic clay and rice husk respectively) for sample 4 gave the optimum performance values in terms of refractoriness,thermal conductivity, modulus of rupture, shrinkage and bulk density and the effective moisture content.

  6. The Study on the Conductivity Performance and Shielding Effectiveness of Electro-magnetic Radiation of Polyethylene Film with Different Content of Carbon Black Particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Run-jun; LAI Kan; ZHANG Jian-chun; HUO Yan

    2004-01-01

    With the help of the testing apparatus made by ourselves for shielding electromagnetic radiation, the electric conductivity and shielding effectiveness of electromagnetic radiation of polyethylene film contained different content of carbon particles was systematically studied in this paper. The results indicate that the electric conductivity and shielding effectiveness of electromagnetic radiation of polyethylene /carbon film have closely relations with content of carbon black particles, which exists a critical content value as 14%~30% and its properties will have a tremendous change.

  7. Films, Needles, and Particles: A Comparative Study on the Ferroic Properties of Complex Oxides Nano-Structured in One, Two, and Three Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    complex oxides have been observed to possess the properties of insulators , semiconductors, semimetals, metals, and superconductors (3). Ferroic and...are varied independently. To study the film-to- nano-needle and film-to-nano-particle transitions , we have designed Metal- Insulator -Metal (MIM...9 4. Conclusions 11 5. References 12 6. Transitions 14 6.1 Patent Disclosure

  8. Formation of physically stable amorphous phase of ibuprofen by solid state milling with kaolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Subrata; Pattnaik, Satyanarayan; Swain, Kalpana; De, Pintu K; Saha, Arindam; Ghoshal, Gaurisankar; Mondal, Arijit

    2008-02-01

    Ibuprofen was milled in the solid state with kaolin (hydrated aluminium silicate) in different ratio to examine the extent of transformation from crystalline to amorphous state. The physical stability of the resultant drug was also investigated. X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD) and birefringence by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) studies indicated almost complete amorphization of the drug on ball milling with kaolin at 1:2 ratio. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) data showed a reduction in the absorbance of the free and the hydrogen-bonded acid carbonyl peak of carboxylic acid group accompanied by a corresponding increase in the absorbance of the carboxylate peak, indicating an acid-base reaction between the carboxylic acid containing ibuprofen and kaolin on milling. The extent of amorphization and reduction in the carbonyl peak and increase in carboxylate peak was a function of kaolin concentration in the milled powder. On storage of milled powder (at 40 degrees C and 75% RH for 10 weeks), XRD and birefringence of SEM study showed the absence of reversion to the crystalline state and FTIR data revealed continued reduction of carbonyl peak, whereas, ibuprofen converted from its crystalline acid form to amorphous salt form on milling with kaolin. Kaolin-bound state of ibuprofen was physically stable during storage. In-vitro dissolution studies revealed that percent release of ibuprofen from the kaolin co-milled powder is in the order: 1:2>1:1>1:0.5>1:0.1>milled alone ibuprofen>crystalline ibuprofen.

  9. A comparison of kaolin-activated versus nonkaolin-activated thromboelastography in native and citrated blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalheimer, Ulrich; Triantos, Christos K; Samonakis, Dimitrios N; Zambruni, Andrea; Senzolo, Marco; Leandro, Gioacchino; Patch, David; Burroughs, Andrew K

    2008-09-01

    Thromboelastography can be performed with native or citrated blood (a surrogate to native blood in healthy controls, surgical and cirrhotic patients). Activators such as kaolin are increasingly used to reduce the time to trace generation. To compare kaolin-activated thromboelastography with nonkaolin-activated thromboelastography of native and citrated blood in patients with liver disease, patients undergoing treatment with warfarin or low-molecular weight heparin and healthy volunteers. We studied thromboelastography parameters in 21 healthy volunteers (group 1) and 50 patients, including 20 patients with liver cirrhosis with a nonbiliary aetiology (group 2), 10 patients with primary biliary cirrhosis or primary sclerosing cholangitis (group 3), 10 patients on warfarin treatment (group 4) and 10 patients with enoxaparin prophylaxis (group 5). Thromboelastography was performed using four methods: native blood (kaolin-activated and nonkaolin-activated) and citrated blood (kaolin-activated and nonkaolin-activated). For all thromboelastography parameters, correlation was poor (Spearman correlation coefficient kaolin-activated thromboelastography, for both citrated and native blood. In healthy volunteers, in patients with liver disease and in those receiving anticoagulant treatment, there was a poor correlation between nonkaolin-activated and kaolin-activated thromboelastography. Kaolin-activated thromboelastography needs further validation before routine clinical use in these settings, and the specific methodology must be considered in comparing published studies.

  10. Experience Using Kaolin-Impregnated Sponge to Minimize Perioperative Bleeding in Norwood Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinkawa, Takeshi; Holloway, Jessica; Tang, Xinyu; Gossett, Jeffrey M; Imamura, Michiaki

    2017-07-01

    A kaolin-impregnated hemostatic sponge (QuikClot) is reported to reduce intraoperative blood loss in trauma and noncardiac surgery. The purpose of this study was to assess if this sponge was effective for hemostasis during Norwood operation. We conducted a retrospective review of patients undergoing Norwood operation in infancy between 2011 and 2016 at our institution. Of 31 identified Norwood operations, a kaolin-impregnated sponge was used intraoperatively in 15 (48%) patients. The preoperative profiles and cardiopulmonary bypass status were similar between the operations with or without kaolin-impregnated sponge. The comparison on each operative outcome between operations with or without kaolin-impregnated sponge showed that the intraoperative platelets, cryoprecipitate, and factor VII dosage were significantly less in the operations with kaolin-impregnated sponge (55 mL, 10 mL, 0 µg/kg vs 72 mL, 15 mL, 45 µg/kg; P = .03, .021, .019), as well as the incidence of perioperative bleeding complications (second cardiopulmonary bypass for hemostasis or postoperative mediastinal exploration, 0% vs 31%, P = .043). A logistic regression model showed that the nonuse of kaolin-impregnated sponge and longer aortic cross clamp time were associated with perioperative bleeding complication in univariable model ( P = .02 and .005). Use of kaolin-impregnated hemostatic sponge was associated with reduced blood product use and perioperative bleeding complications in Norwood operation at a single institution.

  11. Effects of kaolin on Ophelimus maskelli (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in laboratory and nursery experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Verde, G; Rizzo, R; Barraco, G; Lombardo, A

    2011-02-01

    Although recent research has demonstrated that clays provide satisfactory control of some agricultural insect pests, the effect of clays on gall wasps that damage forest trees has not been previously reported. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the clay kaolin in the laboratory and in the field in reducing the damage caused by the eulophid Ophelimus maskelli (Ashmead) on seedlings of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus L'Hér.) species. In the laboratory, kaolin + wetting agent significantly reduced the percentage of infested leaves and the number of galls per leaf. In the nursery, gall number per leaf was not correlated with leaf area with kaolin + wetting agent but was related to leaf area for all other treatments (wetting agent alone, imidacloprid, and untreated control). In the nursery, gall number per leaf was lower with kaolin + wetting agent and with imidacloprid than with the other two treatments. Overall, kaolin effectively reduced eulophid infestations, and its effect was more persistent than that of imidacloprid. Although application of kaolin might not be feasible on large forested areas, kaolin could represent a valuable control method in nurseries, where the repeated application with more toxic chemicals can result in high concentrations of residual pesticides in the soil.

  12. Temperature effects on solute diffusion and adsorption in differently compacted kaolin clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mon, Ei Ei; Hamamoto, Shoichiro; Kawamoto, Ken

    2016-01-01

    diffusion process in soils has been poorly understood and rarely documented. In this study, solute diffusion experiments as well as equilibrium adsorption experiments using pure kaolin clay were conducted under different temperature conditions. The experiments of K+ adsorption on kaolin clay showed more...... enhanced adsorption of K+ at elevated temperature likely because surface charge characteristics were affected at different temperature conditions for the kaolin clay. The temperature dependent solute diffusion showed that the solute diffusion coefficient at 40 °C was around two times higher than that at 6...

  13. [THE COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTIC OF KAOLIN-ACTIVATED THROMBOELASTOGRAPHY IN HEALTHY NEWBORNS AND NEWBORNS WITH HEART AILMENTS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonov, N P; Karas'kov, A M; Litasova, E E; Strunin, O V; Karmadonova, N A; Akopov, G D; Vishegorodtseva, L I

    2016-02-01

    The study was carried out to diferentiate reference values for kaolin-activated thromboelastography in newborns with congenital heart disease. The study included two groups ofpatients. The first one consisted of 62 newborns with congenital heart disease and the second one consisted of 35 healthy newborns. The results of kaolin-activated thromboelastography implemented in groups are evaluated as condition of normal coagulation. The valuable diferences of homeostasis system in healthy newborns and newborns with congenital heart disease (without severe concomitant pathology) are not established. They have similar indicators of kaolin-activated thromboelastography. The derived results can be applied as standards in full-term newborns with congenital heart disease.

  14. Synthesis of Acrylic Acid/Kaoline Powder Superabsorbent Composite by Inverse-suspending Polymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Jin-feng; XUE Yi-ming; WU Ji-huai; LIN Jian-ming; WEI Yue-lin

    2004-01-01

    An acrylic acid/kaoline powder superabsorbent composite with a water absorbency of the superabsorbent composite about 1/800 was synthesized by inverse-suspending polymerization reaction between acrylic acid monomer and kaoline ultrafine powder. The influence of the dispersant agent on the configuration of the products in the inverse suspension polymerization is investigated. The influences of the kaoline powder, cross-linker, initiator, neutralization degree and the volume ratio of oil to water phase on the water absorbency of the superabsorbent composites are discussed in the paper.

  15. Heterogeneous oxidation of the insecticide cypermethrin as thin film and airborne particles by hydroxyl radicals and ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal-Rosenheimer, M; Linker, R; Dubowski, Y

    2011-01-14

    Evaluation of pesticides' fate in the atmosphere is important in terms of environmental effects on non-target areas and risk assessments analysis. This evaluation is usually done in the laboratory using analytical grade materials and is then extrapolated to more realistic conditions. To assess the effect of the pesticide purity level (i.e. analytical vs. technical) and state (i.e. sorbed film vs. airborne particles), we have investigated the oxidation rates and products of technical grade cypermethrin as thin film and in its airborne form, and compared it with our former results for analytical grade material. Technical grade thin film kinetics for both ozone and OH radicals revealed reaction rates similar to the analytical material, implying that for these processes, the analytical grade can be used as a good proxy. Oxidation products, however, were slightly different with two additional condensed phase products: formanilide, N-phenyl and 2-biphenyl carboxylic acid, which were seen with the technical grade material only. OH experiments revealed spectral changes that suggest the immediate formation of surface products containing OH functionalities. For the ozonolysis studies of airborne material, a novel set-up was used, which included a long-path FTIR cell in conjugation with a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) system. This set-up allowed monitoring of real-time reaction kinetics and product formation (gas and condensed phases) together with aerosol size distribution measurements. Similar condensed phase products were observed for airborne and thin film technical grade cypermethrin after ozonolysis. Additionally, CO, CO(2) and possibly acetaldehyde were identified as gaseous oxidation products in the aerosols experiments only. A kinetic model fitted to our experimental system enabled the identification of both primary and secondary products as well as extraction of a formation rate constant. Kinetic calculations (based on gaseous products formation rate) have

  16. WATER SORPTION PROPERTIES AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTION OF ZINC OXIDE NANO PARTICLES LOADED SAGO STARCH FILM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Bajpai

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, sago starch based films have been loaded with ZnO nanoparticles prepared insitu via using an unique equilibration-cum-hydrothermal approach. The films have been characterized by XRD, DSC,SPR ,FTIR and SEM analysis. The moisture absorption behavior of plain and ZnO nanoparticles loaded films have been studied at 23, 31 and 37o C.The equilibrium moisture uptake data was found to fit well on GAB isotherm model and the monolayer sorption capacity Mo for the plain and ZnO nanoparticles loaded films was 0.089, 0.039 ,0.021 g/g and 0.042, 0.012, 0.007 g/g at 23,31 and 37 oC respectively. Moreover, the water vapor transmission rates (WVTR for plain and ZnO nanoparticles loaded films at 23,31,37 oC were 11.19x10-4, 48.9x10-4, 62.1x10-4 and 3.73 x10-4, 6.21x10-4, 24.8x10-4 respectively. These films have shown excellent antibacterial action against model bacteria E.coli when investigated qualitatively by zone inhibition method. Films exhibit great potential to be used as packaging films to protect food stuff against microbial contaminents.

  17. Mechanochemical synthesis of finite particle of layered double hydroxide-acetate intercalation compound: Swelling, thin film and ion exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramoto, Kyoko; Intasa-Ard, Soontaree (Grace); Bureekaew, Sareeya; Ogawa, Makoto

    2017-09-01

    Acetate intercalated Mg-Al layered double hydroxide was successfully synthesized by the solid-state reactions between magnesium acetate and aluminum hydroxide as the starting materials using a planetary mil. The acetate intercalated Mg-Al layered double hydroxide prepared by the present solid-state reaction was finite particle and was processed into stable aqueous suspension with variable transparency and viscosity depending on the concentration. By drying the suspension on a substrate under nitrogen atmosphere, thin film (with the thickness of several micrometers) of the acetate intercalated Mg-Al layered double hydroxide with the basal plane oriented parallel to the substrate was obtained. The ion exchange ability of the film, which is as an advantage of the acetate form of layered double hydroxide, was shown by the ion exchange with coumarin-3-carboxylate to give a photoluminescent film. The solid-solid reaction is advantageous for the preparation of layered double hydroxides due to the simple and eco-friendly nature (no solvent) of the operation, lower possibility of carbonate contamination and finite particles of the products.

  18. Optical and thermoelectric properties of nano-particles based Bi2(Te1-xSex)3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, A. M.; Lilov, E.; Petkov, P.

    2017-01-01

    Nano-particles of Bi2Te3 and Bi2(Te1-xSex)3 films were deposited using vacuum thermal evaporation technique from previously prepared bulk alloys synthesized by melting method. Optical and thermoelectric properties were studied in the temperature range of 300-473K. The formation of none- and Se-doped Bi2Te3 nano-particles was verified by EDX and XRD analysis. TEM, SEM and AFM analysis showed the prepared films are polycrystalline in nature. The measurements of electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient, alongside with thermal conductivity calculations, resulted in the highest values of thermoelectric power at high temperature to be reported. The maximum value of power factor was calculated at 62.82917 μWK-2cm-1 for (Bi2Se0.3Te1.7) sample at 463 K. On the addition of Se to Bi2Te3 film, a significant decrease of the electronic thermal conductivity (Kel) from 2.181 × 10-2 to 0.598 × 10-2 (μW/cm.K) could be achieved. Figure of merit (ZT) calculations showed a maximum value of 0.85 at room temperature, for Bi2Te3. Besides the increase of ZT value for all samples at higher temperature, surprisingly, a value of 2.75 for (Bi2Se1.2Te1.8) was obtained. We believe our results could open avenues for new applications.

  19. INTERFACIAL MOLECULAR DESIGN OF A RIGID- PARTICLE TOUGHENED POLYAMIDE 6 COMPOSITE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OU Yuchun; YU Zhongzhen; FENG Yupeng; FANG Xiaoping

    1993-01-01

    The effects of interfacial modifier on the mechanical properties of kaolin- filled polyamide 6 (PA6) have been studied. The interfacial interaction between polyamide 6 and kaolin has been characterized by means of infrared spectroscopy (IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the role of the interfacial modifier lies in forming an elastic interlayer with good adhesion between kaolin and PA 6. A composite with high impact strength, high tensile strength and high elastic modulus can be obtained by inserting the elastic interfacial modifier into the rigid-particle-filled polymer system.

  20. Gallium nitride based thin films for photon and particle radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstetter, Markus

    2012-07-23

    Ionization chambers have been used since the beginning of the 20th century for measuring ionizing radiation and still represent the ''gold standard'' in dosimetry. However, since the sensitivity of the devices is proportional to the detection volume, ionization chambers are not common in numerous medical applications, such as imaging. In these fields, spatially resolved dose information is, beside film-systems, usually measured with scintillators and photo-multipliers, which is a relatively complex and expensive technique. For thus much effort has been focused on the development of novel detection systems in the last decades and especially in the last few years. Examples include germanium or silicon photoconductive detectors, MOSFETs, and PIN-diodes. Although for these systems, miniaturization for spatially resolved detection is possible, they suffer from a range of disadvantages. Characteristics such as poor measurement stability, material degradation, and/or a limited measurement range prevent routine application of these techniques in medical diagnostic devices. This work presents the development and evaluation of gallium nitride (GaN) thin films and heterostructures to validate their application in x-ray detection in the medical regime. Furthermore, the impact of particle radiation on device response was investigated. Although previous publications revealed relatively low energy absorption of GaN, it is possible to achieve very high signal amplification factors inside the material due to an appropriate sensor configuration, which, in turn, compensates the low energy absorption. Thus, gallium nitride can be used as a photo-conductor with ohmic contacts. The conductive volume of the sensor changes in the presence of external radiation, which results in an amplified measurement signal after applying a bias voltage to the device. Experiments revealed a sensitivity of the device between air kerma rates of 1 {mu}Gy/s and 20 mGy/s. In this range

  1. Influence of particles on the loading capacity and the temperature rise of water film in Ultra-high speed hybrid bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Aibin; Li, Pei; Zhang, Yefan; Chen, Wei; Yuan, Xiaoyang

    2015-04-01

    Ultra-high speed machining technology enables high efficiency, high precision and high integrity of machined surface. Previous researches of hybrid bearing rarely consider influences of solid particles in lubricant and ultra-high speed of hybrid bearing, which cannot be ignored under the high speed and micro-space conditions of ultra-high speed water-lubricated hybrid bearing. Considering the impact of solid particles in lubricant, turbulence and temperature viscosity effects of lubricant, the influences of particles on pressure distribution, loading capacity and the temperature rise of the lubricant film with four-step-cavity ultra-high speed water-lubricated hybrid bearing are presented in the paper. The results show that loading capacity of the hybrid bearing can be affected by changing the viscosity of the lubricant, and large particles can improve the bearing loading capacity higher. The impact of water film temperature rise produced by solid particles in lubricant is related with particle diameter and minimum film thickness. Compared with the soft particles, hard particles cause the more increasing of water film temperature rise and loading capacity. When the speed of hybrid bearing increases, the impact of solid particles on hybrid bearing becomes increasingly apparent, especially for ultra-high speed water-lubricated hybrid bearing. This research presents influences of solid particles on the loading capacity and the temperature rise of water film in ultra-high speed hybrid bearings, the research conclusions provide a new method to evaluate the influence of solid particles in lubricant of ultra-high speed water-lubricated hybrid bearing, which is important to performance calculation of ultra-high speed hybrid bearings, design of filtration system, and safe operation of ultra-high speed hybrid bearings.

  2. Influence of Particles on the Loading Capacity and the Temperature Rise of Water Film in Ultra-high Speed Hybrid Bearing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Aibin; LI Pei; ZHANG Yefan; CHEN Wei; YUAN Xiaoyang

    2015-01-01

    Ultra-high speed machining technology enables high efficiency, high precision and high integrity of machined surface. Previous researches of hybrid bearing rarely consider influences of solid particles in lubricant and ultra-high speed of hybrid bearing, which cannot be ignored under the high speed and micro-space conditions of ultra-high speed water-lubricated hybrid bearing. Considering the impact of solid particles in lubricant, turbulence and temperature viscosity effects of lubricant, the influences of particles on pressure distribution, loading capacity and the temperature rise of the lubricant film with four-step-cavity ultra-high speed water-lubricated hybrid bearing are presented in the paper. The results show that loading capacity of the hybrid bearing can be affected by changing the viscosity of the lubricant, and large particles can improve the bearing loading capacity higher. The impact of water film temperature rise produced by solid particles in lubricant is related with particle diameter and minimum film thickness. Compared with the soft particles, hard particles cause the more increasing of water film temperature rise and loading capacity. When the speed of hybrid bearing increases, the impact of solid particles on hybrid bearing becomes increasingly apparent, especially for ultra-high speed water-lubricated hybrid bearing. This research presents influences of solid particles on the loading capacity and the temperature rise of water film in ultra-high speed hybrid bearings, the research conclusions provide a new method to evaluate the influence of solid particles in lubricant of ultra-high speed water-lubricated hybrid bearing, which is important to performance calculation of ultra-high speed hybrid bearings, design of filtration system, and safe operation of ultra-high speed hybrid bearings.

  3. Morphology and film formation of poly(butyl methacrylate)-polypyrrole core-shell latex particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijs, F; Lang, J

    2000-01-01

    Core-shell latex particles made of a poly(butyl methacrylate) (PBMA) core and a thin polypyrrole (PPy) shell were synthesized by two-stage polymerization. In the first stage, PBMA latex particles were synthesized in a semicontinuous process by free-radical polymerization. PBMA latex particles were l

  4. Calculation of Clay Permeability Using a Rectangular Particle-Water Film Model by the Double-Scale Asymptotic Expansion Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowu Tang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Permeability of soil plays an important role in geotechnical engineering and is commonly determined by methods combining measurements with theory. Using the double-scale asymptotic expansion method, the Navier-Stokes equation is numerically solved to calculate the permeability, based on the homogenization method and the assumption that the homogeneous microstructure of the relevant porous media is represented accurately as the Representative Elemental Volume (REV. In this study, the commonly used square model is tested in the calculation of sea clay permeability. The results show large deviations. It is suspected that the square model could not represent the flattened shape of the clay particles and the bound water film wrapping around them. Hence, the Rectangle Particle-Water Film Model (i.e., the R-W model is proposed. After determining the horizontal and vertical characteristic length of the unit cell using two pairs of initial data, the permeabilities of other different void ratios could be inversely calculated. The results of three types of clay obtained using the R-W model agree well with the experimental data. This shows the efficient feasibility and accuracy of the R-W model by providing a good representation of the clay particles when using the double-scale asymptotic expansion method to calculate clay permeability.

  5. Sedimentation Characteristics of Kaolin and Bentonite in Concentrated Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulah Obut

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The sedimentation characteristics of two clays, namely kaolinite and bentonite, were determinated at high clay (5 % wt/vol and electrolyte (1 N concentrations using various inorganic-organic compounds. It was observed that the settling behaviour of kaolinite (1:1 clay and montmorillonite (2:1 clay is quite different due to the structural differences between these minerals. Although, similar initial settling rates and final sediment volumes were obtained after 24 hours of settling time for kaolin suspensions, the corresponding rates and volumes for bentonite suspensions varied greatly with the used chemical compound. According to the experimental results, a further intensive theoretical and experimental investigation is needed to reveal the mechanism underlying the sedimentation characteristics of clay minerals at high clay and electrolyte concentrations.

  6. Effects of α-particle beam irradiation on superconducting properties of thin film MgB2 superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Bum; Duong, Pham van; Ha, Dong Hyup; Oh, Young Hoon; Kang, Won Nam; Chai, Jong Seo [Sungkunkwan Univeversity, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Seung Pyo; Kim, Ran Young [Kore Institute of Radiological and Medical Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Superconducting properties of thin film MgB2 superconductors irradiated with 45 MeV α-particle beam were studied. After the irradiation, enhancement of the critical current density and pinning force was observed, scaling close to strong pinning formula. Double logarithmic plots of the maximum pinning force density with irreversible magnetic field show a power law behavior close to carbon-doped MgB2 film or polycrystals. Variation of normalized pinning force density in the reduced magnetic field suggests scaling formulas for strong pinning mechanism like planar defects. We also observed a rapid decay of critical current density as the vortex lattice constant decreases, due to the strong interaction between vortices and increasing magnetic field.

  7. Physico-Chemical Properties of Kaolin-Organic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeo S.W.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil with more than 20% of organic content is classified as organic soil in Malaysia. Contents of organic soil consist of different types of organic and inorganic matter. Each type of organic matter has its own characteristic and its effect on the properties of the soil is different. Hence, a good understanding on the effect of specific organic and inorganic matter on the physico-chemical characteristic of organic soils can serve as a guide for predicting the properties of organic soils. The main objective is to unveil the effect of organic acid on the physico-chemical properties of soil. Artificial organic soil (kaolin mixed with organic acid was utilized in order to minimize the geochemical variability of studied soil. The organic acid which consists of humic acid and fulvic acid was extracted from highly humificated plant–based compost. The effect of organic acid on the physico-chemical properties of soil was determined by varying the concentration of organic acid. The specific gravity, Atterberg limits, pH, bulk chemical composition and the functional group of kaolin-organic acid were determined. It was found that the plasticity index, specific gravity and pH value were decreased with lowered concentration of organic acid. However, the liquid limits and plastic limits were found to be increased with the concentration decrement of organic acid. The analysis of XRF on the bulk chemical composition and analysis of FTIR spectra on the functional group of artificial organic soils with different concentration have confirmed little geochemical variability between samples.

  8. A Mexican kaolin deposit: XANES characterization, mineralogical phase analysis and applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martínez, A; Garza, L. L; Torres, L. M; Vázquez, F; López, W

    2009-01-01

    .... Mineralogical and morphological characteristics of the mineral are presented. The kaolin sample was formed mainly by kaolinite, but other minor phases were also detected such as quartz, cristobalite, tridymite, and dolomite...

  9. A novel electrochemical alkylation of aniline with methanol over Zn/Cu salts modified kaolin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Hongzhu [Institute of Energy-Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' An 710062 (China); Wang Bo [Institute of Energy-Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' An 710062 (China)], E-mail: wangbo@snnu.edu.cn; Zhao, Jun [Institute of Energy-Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' An 710062 (China)

    2008-04-01

    A novel liquid phase alkylation of aniline with methanol over Zn/Cu salts modified kaolin assisted with a pair of porous carbon electrode in slurry-bed reactor under constant current intensity, room temperature and atmospheric pressure was reported. The Zn/Cu salts modified kaolin catalysts were synthesized and characterized by infrared spectrometer (IR), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which showed that the transition metals were completely supported on kaolin's structure and formed a pored one. The effect parameters, such as initial pH, electrolysis time, metal ratio with kaolin and salts composition in this electrochemical catalytic system, were studied. The procedure was inspected by ultraviolet-visible spectrum (UV-vis), and the product distribution was detected by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). In addition, a possible reaction mechanism was also proposed.

  10. Preparation and characterization of poly(styrene/maleic anhydride)/kaolin nanocomposites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xuening; ZHANG Hongtao; YANG Zhizhong; HA Chengyong

    2005-01-01

    The direct exfoliation of in situ intercalative copolymerized styrene/maleic anhydride charge-transfercomplex (PSMA) into the inter lamellar spaces of modified kaolin (Kao-DMSO), which was intercalated and surface modified by dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), was reported. The nano structure of the composites was investigated by wide-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The interaction between kaolin surface and PSMA chain was conformed by FTIR analysis. The XRD results showed that the intercalated polystyrene-maleic anhydride units were arranged in the flattened monolayer arrangements, and the 001 diffraction peak of the original kaolin disappeared. The TEM image showed that the kaolin was exfoliated into nanometer size and dispersed in the polymer matrix. Additionally the thermal stability of the nanocomposites was studied by thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), and the resulting thermogram indicated that the thermal stability of the nanocomposites was significantly increased.

  11. Effect of kaolin addition on ash characteristics of palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) upon combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konsomboon, Supatchaya; Pipatmanomai, Suneerat [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Prachauthit Road, Bangmod, Tungkru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Madhiyanon, Thanid [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Mahanakorn University of Technology, 51 Cheum-Sampan Road, Nong-Chok, Bangkok 10530 (Thailand); Tia, Suvit [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Prachauthit Road, Bangmod, Tungkru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2011-01-15

    Palm empty fruit bunch (EFB), a by-product of the palm oil industry, is being recognized as one of the most potential kinds of biomass for energy production in Thailand. However, it has been reported that, in combusting EFB in boilers, some compounds evolving from abundant alkali metals in EFB into gas-phase condense and deposit on low-temperature surfaces of heat exchange equipment, causing fouling and corrosion problems. To come up with a solution to impede the deposition, kaolin, which is abundant in kaolinite (Al{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5}(OH){sub 4}), is employed to capture the alkali metal vapours eluding from the combustion region. The experiments were designed to simulate the combustion situations that may take place when kaolin is utilized in two different approaches: premixing of kaolin with EFB prior to combustion and gas-phase reaction of volatiles from EFB with kaolin. The amounts of kaolin used were 8% and 16% by weight based on dry weight of EFB, which were equivalent to one and two times of the theoretical kaolin requirement to capture all potassium originally present in the EFB. The furnace temperatures used for EFB combustion were 700-900 C and ashes were analyzed by XRF and XRD. The results revealed that, under the kaolin premixing condition, 8% kaolin addition was sufficient to capture the potassium compounds at low temperature, i.e. 700 and 800 C. However, when the temperature was increased to 900 C, 16% kaolin addition was needed to completely capture the potassium compounds. The results from gas-phase experiments showed that kaolin can capture volatile potassium at maximum 25% at 900 C. The XRD results showed, for both experimental cases, the evidence of formation of the high melting temperature potassium-alumino-silicates, which confirmed the reaction of potassium compounds with kaolin. The study also suggests that the premixing method is better than the other because of its higher overall capture efficiency. (author)

  12. Distribution, characteristics, and worldwide inventory of dioxins in kaolin ball clays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, Yuichi; Ohtsuka, Nobutoshi; Minomo, Kotaro; Nojiri, Kiyoshi; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Lam, Paul K S; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi

    2011-09-01

    Distribution, characteristics, and global inventory of dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins [PCDDs] and dibenzofurans [PCDFs] and dioxin like polychlorinated biphenyls) in kaolin clays collected from 10 countries were investigated. Dioxins were found in all kaolin clay samples analyzed, at total concentrations ranging from 1.2 pg/g (Brazil) to 520,000 pg/g (USA). Dioxin concentrations in kaolin clays from a few countries (e.g., Brazil and UK) were lower than those reported for background soils in Japan. Dioxin profiles in kaolin clays were characterized by the domination of the congener octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD), and the concentrations of other congeners decreased in the order of reduction in the levels of chlorination. Furthermore, specific distribution of congeners, with predominant proportions of 1,4,6,9-substituted PCDDs within each homologue group, was found in most clay samples. The ratios of concentrations of PCDD to PCDF and 1,2,3,7,8,9-HxCDD to 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD indicated differences in the profiles found for anthropogenic sources (including pentachlorophenol) and kaolin clays. Concentrations of PCDD/Fs in kaolin clays, except for American ball clays, did not exceed the environmental criteria set by the Law Concerning Special Measures against Dioxins in Japan. Based on the average concentrations measured in our study, inventories of PCDD/Fs from the production/usage of ball clays on a global scale were estimated to be 650 kg/yr; the corresponding value on a TEQ basis is 2400 g-TEQ/yr. More than 480 kg of OCDD is estimated to be released annually from the production of kaolin clays worldwide, suggesting that kaolin clays can be a major contributor for additional source of dioxins, especially OCDD, in the environment.

  13. Pengaruh Penambahan Alkanolamida Terhadap Karakteristik Pematangan Dan Kekerasan Vulkanisat Karet Alam Berpengisi Kaolin

    OpenAIRE

    Sitorus, Indah Maulina Syafitri

    2014-01-01

    By using a semi-efficient sulphur accelerated vulcanization system, an investigation of the effect of alkanolamide on cure characteristics and hardness properties of kaolin-filled natural rubber compounds was carried out. Alkanolamide was synthesized from Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Stearin (RBDPS) and diethanolamine. Alkanolamide was incorporated into the kaolin filled-natural rubber compound at 1.0; 3.0; 5.0 and 7.0 Parts per-Hundred Rubber (phr). It was found that alkanolamide gave...

  14. A Mexican kaolin deposit: XANES characterization, mineralogical phase analysis and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, A.; Garza, L. L.; L. M. Torres; Vázquez, F.; López, W.

    2009-01-01

    A kaolin obtained from Villa de Reyes, a region near to San Luis Potosí (México) was characterized by means of X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-Ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES), thermal analysis (DTA/TGA), dilatometry (DIL), and chemical analysis. Mineralogical and morphological characteristics of the mineral are presented. The kaolin sample was formed mainly by kaolinite, but other minor phase...

  15. Research on the Occurrence of Titanium in Coal-Measure Kaoline in Songyi, Hubei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ran Songlin; Shen Shangyue; Cheng Xianzhong

    2004-01-01

    Using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and an electron-probe microanalyser (EPMA), this research found that the main independent mineral of titanium (Ti) in the kaoline of Songyi is anatase. The granularity of anatase is from 0.5 μm to 1.5 μm, and some exceed 10 μm. This research provides important scientific evidence for the exploitation of the coal-measure kaoline in the South China.

  16. Mechanism of dissolution of different species of iron contained in kaolin Bycitrate-Bisulphite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia N. Olvera Venegas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of dissolution of iron species contained in kaolinitic clay from the Guadalupe mine in Huayacocotla ejido El Carbonero, Veracruz, Mexico was investigated, using the synergistic effect of bisulfite as the reducing agent and citrate as complexing agent. The clay was dry screened, yielding particle sizes of -100 +250 mesh. Kaolin was characterized by X-ray diffraction (DRX and atomic absorption (AA, identifying magnetite, ilmenite and greigite as the prevalent iron phases. Dissolution experiments were carried out in solutions of 0.5 M of sodium thiosulfate, 0.9 M of citric acid, at 90 ° C and pH 3, controlling the latter parameter with sodium hydroxide. The reactions involved in the dissolution of the different iron species were proposed. Since the iron in magnetite and greigite is present as Fe(III, a reducing agent (bisulfite is required to liberate it from these phases, whereas in ilmenite, iron is present as Fe(II and is dissolved employing a complexing ligand.

  17. Conversion of waste polypropylene to liquid fuel using acid-activated kaolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Achyut K; Singh, R K

    2014-10-01

    Waste polypropylene was subjected to thermal degradation in the presence of kaolin and acid-treated kaolin, with different catalyst-to-plastics ratios, in a semi-batch reactor at a temperature range of 400-550°C to obtain optimized process conditions for the production of liquid fuels. The effects of process temperature, catalyst and feed composition on yield and quality of the oil were determined. For a thermal decomposition reaction at up to 450°C, the major product is volatile oil; and the major products at a higher temperature (475-550°C) are either viscous liquid or wax. The highest yield of condensed fraction in the thermal reaction is 82.85% by weight at 500°C. Use of kaolin and acid-treated kaolin as a catalyst decreased the reaction time and increased the yield of liquid fraction. The major product of catalysed degradation at all temperatures is highly volatile liquid oil. The maximum oil yield using kaolin and acid-treated kaolin is 87.5% and 92%, respectively, at 500°C. The oil obtained was characterized using GC-MS for its composition and different fuel properties by IS methods. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Assembling strategy to synthesize palladium modified kaolin nanocomposites with different morphologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyu; Ouyang, Jing; Zhou, Yonghua; Yang, Huaming

    2015-01-01

    Nanocomposites of aluminosilicate minerals, kaolins (kaolinite and halloysite) with natural different morphologies assembling with palladium (Pd) nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized through strong electrostatic adsorption and chemical bonding after surface modification with 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES). Meanwhile, the influence of different morphologies supports on catalytic hydrogenation properties was explored. The surface concentration of amino groups on the kaolins was related to the morphology and surface nature. Electronmicroscopy revealed that the monodisperse Pd nanoparticles were uniformly deposited onto the surface of kaolins, ranging in diameter from 0.5 nm to 5.5 nm. The functional groups could not only improve the dispersion of kaolins with different morphologies in solution, but also enhance the interaction between Pd precursors and kaolins, thus preventing small Pd nanoparticles from agglomerating and leading to high activity for the catalytic hydrogenation of styrene. Pd-FK@APTES was more active compared to other samples. Selecting the kaolin morphology with a different surface nature allows the selective surface modification of a larger fraction of the reactive facets on which the active sites can be enriched and tuned. This desirable surface coordination of catalytically active atoms could substantially improve catalytic activity. PMID:26333629

  19. Ultrasmall semiconductor particles sandwiched between surfactant headgroups in Langmuir-Blodgett films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuqian Xu; Xiao Kang Zhao, Fendler, J.H. (Syracuse Univ., NY (United States))

    1990-04-01

    Successful sandwiching of size-quantized hexametaphosphate-stabilized CdS particles between monomolecular layers of dioctadecyldimethylammonium chloride (DODAC) surfactants, deposited on solid substrates, was accomplished. Electrostatic forces are responsible for attracting the negatively charged CdS particles onto the cationic headgroups of the substrate-supported DODAC monolayer, immersed in the aqueous subphase. These forces also ensure that, during withdrawal of the DODAC-monolayer-coated substrate, the CdS particles remain in place, attract a second monolayer of DODAC, and thereby form a DODAC-CdS particle-DODAC sandwich.

  20. Evolution of insoluble eutectic Si particles in anodic oxidation films during adipic-sulfuric acid anodizing processes of ZL114A aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Lei; Liu, Jian-hua; Li, Song-mei; Yu, Mei; Wang, Lei; Cui, Yong-xin

    2015-03-01

    The effects of insoluble eutectic Si particles on the growth of anodic oxide films on ZL114A aluminum alloy substrates were investigated by optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The anodic oxidation was performed at 25°C and a constant voltage of 15 V in a solution containing 50 g/L sulfuric acid and 10 g/L adipic acid. The thickness of the formed anodic oxidation film was approximately 7.13 μm. The interpore distance and the diameters of the major pores in the porous layer of the film were within the approximate ranges of 10-20 nm and 5-10 nm, respectively. Insoluble eutectic Si particles strongly influenced the morphology of the anodic oxidation films. The anodic oxidation films exhibited minimal defects and a uniform thickness on the ZL114A substrates; in contrast, when the front of the oxide oxidation films encountered eutectic Si particles, defects such as pits and non-uniform thickness were observed, and pits were observed in the films.

  1. Size-dependent structures and properties of metallic particles and thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenyuan

    Fundamental aspects of metallic nanoparticles, especially size-dependent properties and their interaction with their surrounding have been investigated. Several conclusions were reached as follows, (1) Au and Pt particles form dense SAMs on glass. Interparticle resonance is absent for 15 nm Au particles, but present for 30 nm ones. A new strategy was developed to deposit silica insulation layers in between Au particle monolayers. (2) Au particles, 1.5--20 nm in size, were encapsulated in silica shells. Their melting point was determined and we show that it decreases significantly as particle size decreases, leading to increased self-diffusion coefficient of the Au atoms. (3) Au core particles of different sizes were synthesized and Ag shells of different thickness were deposited on them. XAFS measurements show that Au/Ag alloy is spontaneously formed for the particles with small core size (2.5 nm). The alloy formation is size-dependent and molecular dynamics calculations demonstrate that vacancies at the bimetallic boundary dramatically enhance the rate of mixing. (4) EPR spectroscopy was used to study the interactions between stable free radicals and gold nanoparticles. The EPR signal is reduced upon adsorption of the radicals onto Au particle surface. We propose that the reduction in signal intensity arises from exchange interactions between the unpaired electrons of the adsorbed radicals and conduction-band electrons of the metallic particles. Catalytic autoxidation of TEMPAMINE to TEMPO was also observed and a mechanism for this unexpected reaction is proposed. (5) Redox/galvanic exchange reactions between Au and Pt nanoparticles and Ag(CN)2- were investigated. For Au particles, the exchange reaction is size dependent. 2.5 nm Au particles form an alloy with Ag and the extinction coefficient of the alloy particle linearly depends on the Au/Ag mole fraction. The full exchange for both 2 and 8 nm Pt particles indicates that the atom diffusion rate within particles

  2. Waste characterization emanated from kaolin submitted the improvement to process hydrocycloning; Caracterizacao do residuo provindo do beneficiamento do caulim submetido ao processo de hidrociclonagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa Neto, M.C.; Nunes, A.S.; Caetano, A.L.A.; Marques, V.C.; Macedo, D.A.; Ferreira, H.S.; Dutra, R.P.S., E-mail: netobarbosa.2@gmail.com [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais

    2016-07-01

    The hydrocyclones are equipment commonly used for separation of particles by size. The resulting material of this process usually presents different characteristics of the material, which was not subjected to treatment. Therefore, a study of the waste characteristics derived from kaolin processing submitted to hydrocycloning process compared to the same residue without going through the process was executed. The different samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, particle size analysis and thermal analysis. The results indicate that the hydrocycloning not modify the mineralogical structure nor chemical material. The particle size analysis identified that the fine fraction, resulting from the process, presented particle size lower than the reference material. (author)

  3. CineGlobe Film Festival presents Particle Fever in celebration of CERN's 60th anniversary | 20 September

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    The film Particle Fever follows six brilliant scientists during the launch of the Large Hadron Collider, which marked the start-up of the biggest and most expensive experiment in the history of the planet, pushing the boundaries of human innovation.    Seeking to unravel the mysteries of the universe, 10,000 scientists from over 100 countries joined forces in pursuit of a single goal: to recreate the conditions that existed just moments after the Big Bang and find the Higgs boson, potentially explaining the origin of all matter. But our heroes face an even bigger challenge: have we reached the limit of our capacity to understand why we exist? Directed by Mark Levinson, a physicist turned filmmaker, and masterfully edited by Walter Murch (Apocalypse Now, The English Patient), Particle Fever is a celebration of discovery, revealing the very human stories behind this epic machine. The film will be followed by a panel discussion with director Mark Levinson, Academy Award-winning editor Wal...

  4. CineGlobe Film Festival presents Particle Fever in celebration of CERN's 60th anniversary | 20 September

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    The film Particle Fever follows six brilliant scientists during the launch of the Large Hadron Collider, which marked the start-up of the biggest and most expensive experiment in the history of the planet, pushing the boundaries of human innovation.    Seeking to unravel the mysteries of the universe, 10,000 scientists from over 100 countries joined forces in pursuit of a single goal: to recreate the conditions that existed just moments after the Big Bang and find the Higgs boson, potentially explaining the origin of all matter. But our heroes face an even bigger challenge: have we reached the limit of our capacity to understand why we exist? Directed by Mark Levinson, a physicist turned filmmaker, and masterfully edited by Walter Murch (Apocalypse Now, The English Patient), Particle Fever is a celebration of discovery, revealing the very human stories behind this epic machine. The film will be followed by a panel discussion with director Mark Levinson, Academy Award-winning editor Walt...

  5. Chitosan-kaolin coprecipitate as disintegrant in microcrystalline cellulose-based pellets elaborated by extrusion-spheronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyanes, Alvaro; Souto, Consuelo; Martínez-Pacheco, Ramón

    2013-02-01

    The usefulness of a coprecipitate of chitosan and kaolin as disintegrant in the pellets of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) (as a model of poorly water-soluble drug) produced by extrusion-spheronization was evaluated in this study. The effectiveness of chitosan-kaolin coprecipitate to increase the dissolution rate was compared with that of kaolin and chitosan. A possible synergy effect was also evaluated between the coprecipitate, kaolin or chitosan and sorbitol, added to the pellets as a very water-soluble diluent. The chitosan-kaolin coprecipitate, the kaolin or the chitosan allowed pellets to be obtained of adequate size, roundness, mechanical strength and flow properties. Furthermore, the incorporation of chitosan-kaolin coprecipitate or chitosan significantly increased the dissolution rate of HCT independently of the sorbitol content. The effects on the dissolution of HCT derived from the incorporation of coprecipitate to the pellets can be attributed to its content of chitosan. However, the addition of kaolin into the pellets did not significantly affect the HCT dissolution process. The pellets incorporating coprecipitated chitosan-kaolin or chitosan and the maximum proportion of sorbitol (50%) led to the highest HCT dissolution rate and experienced a rapid and complete disintegration in the dissolution medium.

  6. Electrical conductivity modification using silver nano particles of Jatropha Multifida L. and Pterocarpus Indicus w. extracts films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diantoro, Markus; Hidayati, Nisfi Nahari Sani; Latifah, Rodatul; Fuad, Abdulloh; Nasikhudin, Sujito, Hidayat, Arif

    2016-03-01

    Natural polymers can be extracted from leaf or stem of plants. Pterocarpus Indicus W. (PIW) and Jatropha Multifida L. (JIL) plants are good candidate as natural polymer sources. PIW and JIW polymers contain chemical compound so-called flavonoids which has C6-C3-C6 carbons conjugated configuration. The renewable type of polymer as well as their abundancy of flavonoid provide us to explore their physical properties. A number of research have been reported related to broad synthesis method and mechanical properties. So far there is no specific report of electrical conductivity associated to PIW and JIL natural polymers. In order to obtain electrical conductivity and its crystallinity of the extracted polymer films, it was induced on them a various fraction of silver nano particles. The film has been prepared by means of spin coating method on nickel substrate. It was revealed that FTIR spectra confirm the existing of rutine flavonoid. The crystallinity of the samples increase from 0.66%, to 4.11% associated to the respective various of silver fractions of 0.1 M to 0.5 M. SEM images show that there are some grains of silver in the film. The nature of electric conductivity increases a long with the addition of silver. The electrical conductivity increase significantly from 3.22 S/cm, to 542.85 S/cm. On the other hand, PIW films also shows similar trends that increase of Ag induce the increase its crystallinity as well as its electrical conductivity at semiconducting level. This result opens a prospective research and application of the green renewable polymer as optoelectronic materials.

  7. Electrical conductivity modification using silver nano particles of Jatropha Multifida L. and Pterocarpus Indicus w. extracts films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diantoro, Markus, E-mail: markus.diantoro.fmipa@um.ac.id; Hidayati, Nisfi Nahari Sani; Latifah, Rodatul; Fuad, Abdulloh; Nasikhudin,; Sujito,; Hidayat, Arif [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Universitas Negeri Malang, Jl. Semarang 5 Malang 65145 (Indonesia)

    2016-03-11

    Natural polymers can be extracted from leaf or stem of plants. Pterocarpus Indicus W. (PIW) and Jatropha Multifida L. (JIL) plants are good candidate as natural polymer sources. PIW and JIW polymers contain chemical compound so-called flavonoids which has C{sub 6}-C{sub 3}-C{sub 6} carbons conjugated configuration. The renewable type of polymer as well as their abundancy of flavonoid provide us to explore their physical properties. A number of research have been reported related to broad synthesis method and mechanical properties. So far there is no specific report of electrical conductivity associated to PIW and JIL natural polymers. In order to obtain electrical conductivity and its crystallinity of the extracted polymer films, it was induced on them a various fraction of silver nano particles. The film has been prepared by means of spin coating method on nickel substrate. It was revealed that FTIR spectra confirm the existing of rutine flavonoid. The crystallinity of the samples increase from 0.66%, to 4.11% associated to the respective various of silver fractions of 0.1 M to 0.5 M. SEM images show that there are some grains of silver in the film. The nature of electric conductivity increases a long with the addition of silver. The electrical conductivity increase significantly from 3.22 S/cm, to 542.85 S/cm. On the other hand, PIW films also shows similar trends that increase of Ag induce the increase its crystallinity as well as its electrical conductivity at semiconducting level. This result opens a prospective research and application of the green renewable polymer as optoelectronic materials.

  8. Electrocatalytic Activity of Platinum Particles Electrodeposited onto Poly(vinylpyridine) Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The electrocatalytic properties of platinum microparticles incorporated into poly- (vinylpyridine) (PVP) films, a conducting polymer with good conductivity and stability, were investigated for hydrogen evolution and formic acid electrooxidation in acidic media. It was found that the catalytic effects depend mainly on the size and amounts of the platinum microparticles dispersed in the polymer layer.

  9. [Forming mechanism of humic acid-kaolin complexes and the adsorption of trichloroethylene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao-jing; He, Jiang-tao; Su, Si-hui

    2015-01-01

    The interaction between soil organic components and mineral components was explored in this study. Humic acid and kaolin were used for the preparation of organic-mineral complexes with different contents of organic matter, for experimental study of the adsorption of trichloroethylene. The results showed that the adsorption of trichlorethylene fitted the Freundlich isotherm model. The existence of interaction between humic acid and kaolin was indicated by the significant difference between the actual value and the theoretically overlaid value of the adsorption capacity. With various characterizations, such as FTIR and surface area & pore analysis, the mechanism of interaction between humic acid and kaolin was suggested as follows. When their contents were low, humic acid molecules firstly loaded on the surface binding sites of kaolin. Then with the content increased, as O/M( organic-mineral mass ratio) was 0.02-0.04, some surface pores of kaolin were filled by part of the molecules. After reaching a relatively stable stage, as O/M was 0.04-0.08, humic molecules continued to load on the surface of kaolin and formed the first humic molecule-layer. With humic acid content continued increasing, as O/M was 0.08-0.10, more humic molecules attached to kaolin surface through the interaction with the first layer of molecules and then formed the second layer. O/M was 0.10-0.16 as the whole second layer stage, meanwhile the first layer was compressed. Then when O/M was 0.16-0.4, there were still some humic loadings onto the second layer as the third layer, and further compressed the inner humic acid layers. Besides, some humic acid molecules or aggregates might go on attaching to form as further outer layer.

  10. Contact activation of blood coagulation on a defined kaolin/collagen surface in a microfluidic assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shu; Diamond, Scott L

    2014-12-01

    Generation of active Factor XII (FXIIa) triggers blood clotting on artificial surfaces and may also enhance intravascular thrombosis. We developed a patterned kaolin (0 to 0.3 pg/μm(2))/type 1 collagen fibril surface for controlled microfluidic clotting assays. Perfusion of whole blood (treated only with a low level of 4 μg/mL of the XIIa inhibitor, corn trypsin inhibitor) drove platelet deposition followed by fibrin formation. At venous wall shear rate (100 s(-1)), kaolin accelerated onset of fibrin formation by ~100 sec when compared to collagen alone (250 sec vs. 350 sec), with little effect on platelet deposition. Even with kaolin present, arterial wall shear rate (1000 s(-1)) delayed and suppressed fibrin formation compared to venous wall shear rate. A comparison of surfaces for extrinsic activation (tissue factor TF/collagen) versus contact activation (kaolin/collagen) that each generated equal platelet deposition at 100 s(-1) revealed: (1) TF surfaces promoted much faster fibrin onset (at 100 sec) and more endpoint fibrin at 600 sec at either 100 s(-1) or 1000 s(-1), and (2) kaolin and TF surfaces had a similar sensitivity for reduced fibrin deposition at 1000 s(-1) (compared to fibrin formed at 100 s(-1)) despite differing coagulation triggers. Anti-platelet drugs inhibiting P2Y1, P2Y12, cyclooxygenase-1 or activating IP-receptor or guanylate cyclase reduced platelet and fibrin deposition on kaolin/collagen. Since FXIIa or FXIa inhibition may offer safe antithrombotic therapy, especially for biomaterial thrombosis, these defined collagen/kaolin surfaces may prove useful in drug screening tests or in clinical diagnostic assays of blood under flow conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Peripheral neurokinin-1 receptors contribute to kaolin-induced acute monoarthritis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Livia L; Denadai-Souza, Alexandre; Yshii, Lidia M; Mesquita, Filiphe P N; Soares, Antonio G; Lima, Carla; Schenka, André; Grant, Andrew; Fernandes, Elizabeth; Muscará, Marcelo N; Costa, Soraia K P

    2015-01-01

    intra-articular co-injection of kaolin with carrageenan (CGN) in rodents is widely used as an experimental model of arthritis. However, the ability of kaolin to cause arthritis and related immune responses when administered alone is unclear. We evaluated the contribution of prostanoids and sensory C-fibres (and their neuropeptide substance P) to kaolin-induced inflammation in the rat knee. Wistar rats, 8-10 weeks old, received an intra-articular injection of kaolin (1-10 μg/joint) or saline into the knee joint. Knee inflammation, proinflammatory cytokines, pain behaviour and secondary tactile allodynia were assessed over 5 h, when synovial leukocyte counts, histopathological changes and proinflammatory cytokine levels were evaluated. The intra-articular injection of kaolin caused a dose- and time-dependent knee swelling and impairment of motion that were associated with secondary tactile allodynia, elevated concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNFα, leukocyte infiltration, and histopathological changes in the ipsilateral hindpaw. The neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor antagonist SR140333 or neonatal treatment with capsaicin markedly reduced the inflammatory parameters, cytokines and allodynia but failed to significantly inhibit the impaired motion. The cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor indomethacin partially inhibited knee oedema and allodynia but did not affect the leukocyte influx, myeloperoxidase activity or impaired motion in the kaolin-injected rat. We show the first evidence that intra-articular injection of kaolin without CGN produced severe acute monoarthritis. This was highly dependent on substance P (released from C-fibres) and NK1 receptor activation, which stimulated local production of proinflammatory cytokines. This model may be of critical importance for mechanistic studies and screening new anti-inflammatory/analgesic drugs. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Tranexamic acid induces kaolin intake stimulating a pathway involving tachykinin neurokinin 1 receptors in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakiuchi, Hitoshi; Kawarai-Shimamura, Asako; Kuwagata, Makiko; Orito, Kensuke

    2014-01-15

    Tranexamic acid suppresses post-partum haemorrhage and idiopathic menorrhagia through its anti-fibrinolytic action. Although it is clinically useful, it is associated with high risks of side effects such as emesis. Understanding the mechanisms underlying tranexamic acid-induced emesis is very important to explore appropriate anti-emetic drugs for the prevention and/or suppression of emesis. In this study, we examined the receptors involved in tranexamic acid-induced kaolin intake in rats, which reflects the drug's clinical emetogenic potential in humans. Further, we examined the brain regions activated by administration of tranexamic acid and elucidated pivotal pathways of tranexamic acid-induced kaolin intake. We examined the effects of ondansetron, a 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 receptor antagonist, domperidone, a dopamine 2 receptor antagonist, and aprepitant, a tachykinin neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor antagonist, on tranexamic acid-induced kaolin intake in rats. Then, we determined the brain regions that showed increased numbers of c-Fos immunoreactive cells. Finally, we examined the effects of an antagonist(s) that reduced tranexamic acid-induced kaolin intake on the increase in c-Fos immunoreactive cells. Aprepitant significantly decreased tranexamic acid-induced kaolin intake. However, neither ondansetron nor domperidone decreased kaolin intake. Tranexamic acid significantly increased c-Fos immunoreactive cells by approximately 5.5-fold and 22-fold in the area postrema and nucleus of solitary tract, respectively. Aprepitant decreased the number of c-Fos immunoreactive cells in both areas. Tranexamic acid induced kaolin intake possibly via stimulation of tachykinin NK1 receptors in rats. The tachykinin NK1 receptor could be targeted to prevent and/or suppress emesis in patients receiving tranexamic acid. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Synthesis of glass ceramics from kaolin and dolomite mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudchicha, Mohamed Reda; Rubio, Fausto; Achour, Slimane

    2017-02-01

    Cordierite- and anorthite-based binary glass ceramics of the CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 (CMAS) system were synthesized by mixing local and abundant raw minerals (kaolin and doloma by mass ratio of 82/18). A kinetics study reveals that the activation energy of crystallization ( E a) calculated by the methods of Kissinger and Marotta are 438 kJ·mol-1 and 459 kJ·mol-1, respectively. The Avrami parameter ( n) is estimated to be approximately equal to 1, corresponding to the surface crystallization mechanism. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis shows that the anorthite and cordierite crystals are precipitated from the parent glass as major phases. Anorthite crystals first form at 850°C, whereas the μ-cordierite phase appears after heat treatment at 950°C. Thereafter, the cordierite allotropically transforms to α-cordierite at 1000°C. Complete densification is achieved at 950°C; however, the density slightly decreases at higher temperatures, reaching a stable value of 2.63 kg·m-3 between 1000°C and 1100°C. The highest Vickers hardness of 6 GPa is also obtained at 950°C. However, a substantial decrease in hardness is recorded at 1000°C; at higher sintering temperatures, it slightly increases with increasing temperature as the α-cordierite crystallizes.

  14. Adsorption of Some Drugs onto Surface of Iraqi Kaolin Clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *S. A. Hassan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Drugs overdose poses a serious threat on human health and may be occur with (ciprofloxacin, chloroquin, piperazine, phyllocontin, digoxin and diazepam.The objective of this study was to examine the adsorption of these drugs onto the Iraqi kaolin clay surface,which used for the temporary treatment of these drugs overdose when this occur.In this work a UV-Visible spectrophotometer has been used to determine the adsorption isotherms which were of type (S3,S4 according to Giles classification and these isotherms were analyzed by the Freundlich and Langmuir equations using linearized correlation coefficient,the characteristic parameters for each isotherm have been determined.The effect of temperature, acid function and initial drug concentration were chosen as an experimental parameters. The results showed that the adsorption process attained equilibrium within seventy minutes. Thermodynamic parameters such as ΔH, ΔG and ΔS were calculated.The adsorption process was found to be exothermic and non-spontaneous for (ciprofloxacin, chloroquin, piperazine, phyllocontin and diazepam while for digoxin was endothermic and non-spontaneous.

  15. Microstructure controlling of Ti/N particles dissipated energy to superficial layer of titanium nitride film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Zhongquan; ZHANG Qin

    2004-01-01

    The titanium nitride (TiNx) thin film with a controllable surface structure was fabricated by the dc-reactive magnetron sputtering technique, and the variation of microstructure in the surface layer with the energy of condensed adatom was investigated through X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern and transmission electron microscope (TEM). It was found that the lattice parameters and the full width at half maximum (fwhm) of XRD peak on the top layers in the preferred orientation of (111) and (002) were closely correlated to the impacting induced phase composition, compressive strain, crystallite size and the fault density of the thin films. In the theory, a new means was used to model the atomistic process of per condensed adatom. The average energy at least in the minimum energy state of the incorporate adatom on TiN surface layer was statistically formulized through a careful consideration of dynamical process, which properly interpreted the experimental observations.

  16. Testing of the structure of macromolecular polymer films containing solid active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boelcskei, E. [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Eoetvoes u. 6 (Hungary); Suevegh, K. [Laboratory of Nuclear Chemistry, Eoetvoes Lorand University, H-1518 Budapest 112, P.O. Box 32 (Hungary); Marek, T. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Research Group for Nuclear Techniques in Structural Chemistry, Eoetvoes Lorand University, H-1518 Budapest 112, P.O. Box 32 (Hungary); Regdon, G. [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Eoetvoes u. 6 (Hungary); Pintye-Hodi, K., E-mail: klara.hodi@pharm.u-szeged.h [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Eoetvoes u. 6 (Hungary)

    2011-07-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the structure of free films of Eudragit{sup L} 30D-55 containing different concentrations (0%, 1% or 5%) of diclofenac sodium by positron annihilation spectroscopy. The data revealed that the size of the free-volume holes and the lifetimes of ortho-positronium atoms decreased with increase of the API concentration. Films containing 5% of the API exhibited a different behavior during storage (17 {sup o}C, 65% relative humidity (RH)) in consequence of the uptake of water from the air. -- Highlights: {yields} The aim of the present study was to investigate the structure of free films of Eudragit{sup L} 30D-55 containing different concentrations (0%, 1% or 5%) of diclofenac sodium by positron annihilation spectroscopy. {yields} The data revealed that the size of the free-volume holes and the lifetimes of ortho-positronium atoms decreased with increase of the API concentration (). {yields} The API distorts the original polymer structure, but as time goes by, the metastable structure relaxes and it is almost totally restored after 3 weeks of storage (17 {sup o}C, 65% RH).

  17. Time impact on non-activated and kaolin-activated blood samples in thromboelastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durila, Miroslav; Lukáš, Pavel; Bronský, Jiří; Cvachovec, Karel

    2015-04-15

    The correct methodology of thrombelastography might be influenced by elapsing time. In our study we investigated kaolin activated citrated samples together with non-activated citrated samples in relation to the elapsed times of 0, 15 and 30 minutes to compare both methods and to find out if there is an impact of time on results of thrombelastography. Blood samples obtained from 10 healthy volunteers were analyzed after 0, 15 and 30 minutes from sampling with kaolin activation and without activation. Then the results were analysed and compared between the non-activated and the kaolin-activated method. All blood samples became more hypercoagulable with the time elapsing, both in non-activated and kaolin-activated samples and differences between both groups were found statistically and clinically significant after only 0 minutes. The non-activated citrated method seems to be reliable and suitable for thrombelastography in non-emergency cases (planned surgical procedures) when we have time to wait 15-30 minutes to get results. In urgent situations a rapid thrombelastography test should be preferred. Although the kaolin-activated method can also be used, results must be interpreted with caution.

  18. Kaolin and copper-based products applications: ecotoxicology on four natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengochea, P; Amor, F; Saelices, R; Hernando, S; Budia, F; Adán, A; Medina, P

    2013-05-01

    Lethal and sublethal effects of kaolin clays and two copper-based products on four natural enemies found in olive orchards Anthocoris nemoralis (F.) (Hem. Anthocoridae), Chelonus inanitus (L.) (Hym. Braconidae), Chilocorus nigritus (F.) (Col. Coccinellidae) and Scutellysta cyanea Motschulsky (Hym. Pteromalidae) are described. Both kaolin and copper can be applied for controlling the olive fruit fly and the olive moth, two important pests of this crop. The products did not increase the mortality of any of the insects studied, with the exception of A. nemoralis. The sublethal effects, however, differed depending on the parameter evaluated and the insect studied. Both kaolin and coppers slightly, but significantly, reduced the life span of C. inanitus and S. cyanea. Number of eggs laid by A. nemoralis females were reduced, but not significantly compared to the controls. In the behavioural experiments, clear preference for remaining on kaolin-untreated surfaces when insects were able to choose was observed. Despite having some negative effects, the negative impact on natural enemies was lower than the impact caused by products commonly applied in this crop against the pests stated above. Therefore, both kaolin and copper can be considered as alternative products to be applied in olive orchards if an effective resistance management programme is to be developed. Furthermore, both of them are allowed in organic farming, in which the number of products that can be applied is more restricted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. High temperature calcining process of coal series kaolin preparing single crystal mullite%煤系高岭土高温煅烧单晶相莫来石产品的工艺条件

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔等

    2011-01-01

    研究了煤系高岭土高温煅烧生成单晶相莫来石产品的工艺条件-煅烧温度、保温时间和物料粒度.结果表明:煤系高岭土经1 530℃保温8 h或者1 550℃保温0.5~3 h煅烧后均可以获得单晶相莫来石产品,且粒度对单晶相产品的获得没有大的影响;在1 550℃煅烧时,随保温时间的延长,莫来石晶粒长大,玻璃相从连续的网络结构变成不连续的网络结构.%High temperature calcining process of coal series kaolin preparing single crystal mullite was researched,such as calcining temperature, soaking time, and particle size of starting material. The results show that single crystal mullite can be obtained after calcining coal series kaolin at 1 530 ℃ for 8 h or 1 550 ℃ for 0.53 h,and the particle size of kaolin has no obviously influence on the product;when calcining at 1 550 ℃,as soaking time prolongs, the crystal grain grows, glass phase turns from continuous network to discrete network.

  20. Cationic polyelectrolyte induced separation of some inorganic contaminants and their mixture (zirconium silicate, kaolin, K-feldspar, zinc oxide) as well as of the paraffin oil from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimici, Luminita

    2016-03-15

    The flocculation efficiency of a cationic polyelectrolyte with quaternary ammonium salt groups in the backbone, namely PCA5 was evaluated on zirconium silicate (kreutzonit), kaolin, K- feldspar and zinc oxide (ZnO) suspensions prepared either with each pollutant or with their mixture. The effect of several parameters such as settling time, polymer dose and the pollutant type on the separation efficacy was evaluated and followed by optical density and zeta potential measurements. Except for ZnO, the interactions between PCA5 and suspended particles led to low residual turbidity values (around 4% for kreutzonit, 5% for kaolin and 8% for K-feldspar) as well as to the reduction of flocs settling time (from 1200 min to 30 min and 120 min in case of kaolinit and K-feldspar, respectively), that meant a high efficiency in their separation. The negative value of the zeta potential and flocs size measurements, at the optimum polymer dose, point to contribution from charge patch mechanism for the particles flocculation. A good efficiency of PCA5 in separation of paraffin oil (a minimum residual turbidity of 9.8%) has been also found. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of ZSM-5 and calcined kaolin evaluation using the content of structure-directing; Sintese e caracterizacao da zeolita ZSM-5 utilizando caulim calcinado e avaliacao do teor de direcionador de estrutura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, J.J.; Silva, V.J. da; Rodrigues, M.G.F., E-mail: jocielys@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (LABNOV/UAEQ/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Quimica. Lab. de Desenvolvimento de Novos Materiais

    2012-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of the structure-directing content, tetrapropylammonium bromide, on the structural and morphological characteristics of ZSM-5 zeolite obtained using calcined kaolin as silicon and aluminum. The samples were characterized by XRD, EDX, SEM and Physics Adsorption N{sub 2}. Trough X ray diffraction patterns was possible to observed the formation of the structure of ZSM-5 with intense peaks and well-defined characteristic of crystalline. The micrographs showed that the samples consist of agglomerates and/or aggregates of particles characteristic of the MFI structure typical of ZSM-5 zeolite. And through the adsorption-desorption isotherms physical N2 was possible to observe that the samples show hysteresis type I typical of microporous materials with specific surface areas of 218 and 222 m{sup 2}/g. Therefore, the use of calcined kaolin to obtain ZSM-5 zeolite was effective. (author)

  2. Defining an exposure-response relationship for suspended kaolin clay particulates and aquatic organisms: work toward defining a water quality guideline for suspended solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Andrew K; Palmer, Carolyn G

    2015-04-01

    Water quality guidelines for suspended solids generally rely on the percentage departure from reference condition, an approach that has been criticized. Attempts to develop a biological effects-base guideline have, however, been confounded by low data availability. Furthermore, the high biological response variability to suspended solids exposure suggests that organisms are responding not only to exposure concentration and duration but also to other mechanisms of effect associated with suspended particles (e.g., size, shape, and geochemical composition). An alternative option is to develop more situation and site specific guidelines by generating biological effects data to suspended particles of a particular geochemistry and restricted size range. With this in mind, aquatic organism responses to kaolin clay particle exposure were collated from the literature and incorporated into 2 exposure-response relationship approaches. The species sensitivity distribution approach produced a hazardous concentration affecting 5% of species estimate of 58 mg/L for mortality responses, and 36 mg/L for sublethal data. The severity-of-ill-effect approach produced similar estimates for lethal and sublethal data. These results suggest that aquatic organisms are slightly more tolerant of kaolin clay particles than particles from barite or bentonite clays, based on results from previous studies on these clay types. This type of information can enable better estimates of the risk faced by aquatic organisms exposed to suspended solids. For example, when the sediments of a particular water body are dominated by a particular type of clay particle, then the most appropriate exposure-response relationship can be applied. © 2015 SETAC.

  3. Hydrophobic perfluoro-silane functionalization of porous silicon photoluminescent films and particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, C.; Laplace, P.; Gallach-Pérez, D.; Pellacani, P.; Martín-Palma, R.J. [Departamento de Física Aplicada e Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales Nicolás Cabrera, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Torres-Costa, V. [Departamento de Física Aplicada e Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales Nicolás Cabrera, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Centro de Microanálisis de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Ceccone, G. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, 21020, Ispra (Italy); Manso Silván, M., E-mail: miguel.manso@uam.es [Departamento de Física Aplicada e Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales Nicolás Cabrera, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-09-01

    Highlights: • Hydrophobic functionalization of porous silicon structures. • Perfluorooctyl group binding confirmed by XPS. • Improved stability face to extreme oxidation conditions. • Perfluorooctyl functionalization compatible with photoluminescence of porous silicon particles. - Abstract: Luminescent structures based on semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are increasingly used in biomolecular assays, cell tracking systems, and in-vivo diagnostics devices. In this work we have carried out the functionalization of porous silicon (PSi) luminescent structures by a perfluorosilane (Perfluoro-octyltriethoxysilane, PFOS) self assembly. The PFOS surface binding (traced by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and photoluminescence efficiency were analyzed on flat model PSi. Maximal photoluminescence intensity was obtained from PSi layers anodized at 110 mA/cm{sup 2}. Resistance to hydroxylation was assayed in H{sub 2}O{sub 2}:ethanol solutions and evidenced by water contact angle (WCA) measurements. PFOS-functionalized PSi presented systematically higher WCA than untreated PSi. The PFOS functionalization was found to slightly improve the aging of the PSi particles in water giving rise to particles with longer luminescent life. Confirmation of PFOS binding to PSi particles was derived from FTIR spectra and the preservation of luminescence was observed by fluorescence microscopy. Such functionalization opens the possibility of promoting hydrophobic-hydrophobic interactions between biomolecules and fluorescent QD structures, which may enlarge their biomedical applications catalogue.

  4. Effect of particle size on the flux pinning properties of YBa2Cu3O7-δ thin films containing fine Y2O3 nanoprecipitates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, H.

    2016-06-01

    The magnetic-field angle dependence of the critical current density, J c(H, θ), was measured at various temperatures in co-evaporated YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) thin films. The YBCO films showed volcano-shaped J c(θ) peaks around H//ab, and J c(θ) peaks around H//c were not observed. Film A, deposited at a lower temperature than the commercial standard film B, showed lower J c values at high temperatures (T ≥ 60 K) compared with film B, although film A showed higher J c at T = 20 K. Plan-view transmission electron microscope observations revealed that films A and B contained a high density of fine Y2O3 nanoprecipitates. The modes in the distribution of their cross-sectional areas are 10-20 nm2 in film A and 20-30 nm2 in film B. Because of the smaller particle size, film A showed lower J c at high temperatures owing to the smaller elementary pinning force, f p, but showed higher J c at 20 K where the temperature-dependent coherence length ξ ab (T) was short (˜2 nm) and comparable with the radius of Y2O3 nanoparticles. Film A showed anisotropic scaling behavior at T = 70-80 K, and the T dependence of J c followed ˜(1 - T/T c) m (1 + T/T c)2 (m ≈ 2.5), which was expected from a simple flux-pinning model.

  5. An inhibitor to rubella hemagglutination present in bovine albumin preparations: its removal by treatment with kaolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J B; Ellins, M L; Tasios, C

    1977-07-18

    Certain commercial preparations of bovine albumin, fraction V, show inhibitory activity in the rubella hemagglutination (HA) and hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) tests. This does not appear to be due to albumin per se, but instead to a contaminant (or contaminants) with the properties of a lipoprotein. All inhibitory activity can be removed from albumin preparations by treatment with kaolin, gel filtration, or flotation ultracentrifugation. We have found that, even when there was no inhibition of HA titers, kaolin treatment of the albumins prior to their incorporation into the test diluent resulted in more clearly defined agglutination patterns. Reasons for and against including albumin in the test diluent are discussed. It is concluded that, although not essential, it is a worthwhile additive. Our data suggest, however, that each batch of albumin used for this purpose should be checked for the presence of inhibitor, and that treatment with kaolin might be considered as a routine step prior to its incorporation into the test diluent.

  6. Effects of Kaolin Surface Treatments on the Thermomechanical Properties and on the Degradation of Polypropylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melia Guessoum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of kaolin content and treatments on the thermal and mechanical properties and on the degradation of polypropylene were examined using mechanical tests, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and thermogravimetry (TGA. The weak interactions filler/matrix have been reinforced using a modification with urea then with an ammonium salt and a surface treatment with a silane coupling agent. The XRD results showed that the peak at the d-value of 10.7 Å increases in urea/kaolin complex, but the treatment with the ammonium salt caused the return to the initial state of the clay. FTIR results showed the appearance of new bands characteristic of the interactions between urea and kaolinite and the alkylammonium and kaolinite. The mechanical properties of the composites exhibited important variations while the DSC results showed the decrease of the crystallization temperature as a function of kaolin content. TGA thermograms pointed out the improvement of the composites' thermal stability.

  7. Pica as an adaptive response: Kaolin consumption helps rats recover from chemotherapy-induced illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jonghe, Bart C.; Lawler, Maureen P.; Horn, Charles C.; Tordoff, Michael G.

    2009-01-01

    Clay consumption can occur during illness but there has been little work to understand why. To investigate whether consuming clay confers an advantage to the sick animal, we compared the recovery from illness of adult male rats with or without access to kaolin. Illness was induced by injection of 6 mg/kg, ip, cisplatin, a toxic chemotherapy agent, and recovery was assessed by changes in daily food intake, water intake, and body weight. Relative to saline-injected controls, cisplatin-injected rats reduced food and water intake and lost weight. However, those with access to kaolin ate more food and lost less body weight than did those without access to kaolin. Thus, clay consumption appeared beneficial in that it either protected the rats from illness or enhanced recovery and might prove useful as an adjunct therapy for other animals, including humans, experiencing visceral malaise. PMID:19419663

  8. SO2 gas adsorption by modified kaolin clays: influence of previous heating and time acid treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volzone, Cristina; Ortiga, Jose

    2011-10-01

    Modified kaolin clays were used as adsorbents for SO(2) gas adsorptions. The clays were heated up to 900 °C previous to acid treatments with 0.5 N sulfuric acid solutions at boiling temperature during different times up to 1440 min. Equilibrium adsorption at 25 °C and 0.1 MPa was carried out by using a volumetric apparatus. The samples were characterized by chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction and infrared analysis. The heating of the clays followed by acid treatment improved the adsorption capacity of the kaolin clays. The presence of amorphous silica and hydroxyl in the final products improved SO(2) adsorption capacity. Better properties for SO(2) adsorption were found in kaolin rich in not well ordered kaolinite clay mineral. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Recent development of high gradient superconducting magnetic separator for kaolin in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Zian; Wang, Meifen; Ning, Fei Peng; Yang, Huan; Zhang, Guoqing; Hou, Zhi Long; Liu, Zhaong Xiu; Dai, Zhong [Institute of High Energy Physics and University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Li, Pei Yong; Zhang, Yiting; Wang, Zhaolian [Weifang Xinli Superconducting Technology Co.,Ltd., Weifang (China)

    2017-03-15

    A series of high gradient superconducting magnetic separator (HGMS) for kaolin has been developed. It is used for processing kaolin to increase the brightness or whiteness whether it is for paper or ceramic applications. The HGMS system mainly consists of a solenoid magnet with a zero boil-off helium cryostat, a double reciprocating canisters system, and a PLC (Process Logic Controller) fully automatic control system based on SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) system. We have successfully developed CGC-5.5/300 and CGC-5.0/500 HGMS systems in the recent years, and now three sets of them are on-site operation in different customers. This paper will present recent progress of the HGMS system, the results of some experiments on processing kaolin clay used HGMS, and the on-site operation.

  10. On the non-linear attachment characteristics of blood to bacterial cellulose/kaolin biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Véliz, Diosángeles Soto; Alam, Catharina; Toivola, Diana M; Toivakka, Martti; Alam, Parvez

    2014-04-01

    In this communication, we report a non-linear variation in the strength of blood attachment to bacterial cellulose/kaolin biomaterials as the fractions of bacterial cellulose to kaolin are increased. The changes observed for attachment strength are elucidated following both experimental and numerical investigations on both the biomaterial and the blood-biomaterial interface. Our research reveals that the non-linear strength of attachment of blood is related to topographical characteristics on the surface of the biomaterial, the maleability of the biomaterial and the intermolecular strength of attraction between clotted blood proteins (fibrinogen) with the cellulose/kaolin components of the biomaterial. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. In Situ Synthesis of NaY Zeolite with Coal-Based Kaolin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinmei Liu; Zifeng Yan; Huaiping Wang; Yantuo Luo

    2003-01-01

    NaY zeolites were in-situ synthesized from coal-based kaolin via the hydrothermal method.The effects of various factors on the structure of the samples were extensively investigated. The sampleswere characterized by N2 adsorption, XRD, IR and DTG-DTA methods, and the results show that thecrystallization temperature and amount of added water play an important role in the formation of the zeo-lite structure. The 4A and P zeolites are the competitive phase present in the resulting product. However,NaY zeolites with a higher relative crystallinity, excluding impure crystals and the well hydrothermal sta-bility, can be synthesized from coal-based kaolin. These zeolites possess a larger surface area and a narrowpore size distribution, and this means that optimization of this process might result in a commercial routeto synthesize NaY zeolites from coal-based kaolin.

  12. Pengaruh Penambahan Kaolin Terhadap Reduksi Logam Pb pada Proses Pembakaran Batubara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isdawani Is

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Adsorpsi emisi pembakaran briket batubara dengan menggunakan adsorben kaolin telah dilakukan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melihat pengaruh rasio adsorben terhadap performa penyerapan SO2 dan logam berat plumbum (Pb. Kaolin dicampur dalam briket batubara dengan variasi massa 2, 4, 6, 8, dan 10%. Briket dibakar pada electrically stainless steel reaction tube pada kondisi temperatur pembakaran yaitu 600, 700, dan 800oC. Analisis kadar pb dilakukan dengan menggunakan atomic absorbtion spectroscopy (AAS Perkin Elmer. Konsentrasi emisi SO2 dalam gas buang dianalisis menggunakan industrial gas combustion and emission analyzer (E4400i. Hasil percobaan dan analisis menunjukkan, bahwa tingginya rasio adsorben dapat menurunkan trend emisi SO2 yang dihasilkan. Pada emisi logam tingkat kejenuhan penyerapan oleh kaolin berada pada rasio adsorben 6%-10%. Kapasitas adsorpsi yang dihasilkan cenderung tinggi pada suhu pembakaran 600oC.

  13. Effect of kaolin treatment temperature on mortar chloride permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puertas, F.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper discusses the results of chloride resistance tests conducted on ordinary Portland cement (OPC mortars containing a Colombian kaolin pre-treated at temperatures of from 600 to 800 ºC. The resulting metakaolin (MK was added to OPC mortar mixes in proportions of 10 and 20% by cement weight. The mortars were compared for physical and chemical properties, including capillary absorption, chloride permeability and pore microstructure as assessed by mercury porosimetry. The best performance was recorded for the samples containing 20% of the material treated at 800 ºC.En el presente trabajo se incluyen los resultados de la resistencia a la penetración de cloruros de morteros de Cemento Portland Ordinario (OPC adicionados con un caolín colombiano sometido a tratamiento térmico en un rango de temperaturas entre 600 y 800 °C. Los productos del tratamiento térmico, metacaolín (MK, son incorporados en mezclas de morteros de OPC en proporciones del 10 y 20% en relación al peso del cemento. Se comparan sus características físico-químicas, entre las cuales se incluye la microestructura de poros evaluada por la técnica de porosimetría de mercurio, con la absorción capilar y la permeabilidad a cloruros. Se concluye que las muestras adicionadas con un 20% del material tratado térmicamente a 800 °C presentan el mejor desempeño en sus propiedades finales.

  14. Comparison of citrated native and kaolin-activated samples for thrombelastographic analysis in healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Sarah K; Wood, R Darren; Abrams-Ogg, Anthony C G; Kruth, Stephen A; Bersenas, Alexa

    2012-06-01

    Thrombelastographic (TEG) analysis is a test of global hemostasis in veterinary medicine; however, there have been limited comparisons of analysis of citrated native and kaolin-activated samples. The purpose of this study was to determine the variation in TEG variables between citrated native and kaolin-activated whole blood samples and to establish reference intervals for both sample types. Citrated whole blood samples were obtained from 40 healthy dogs. Thirty minutes after collection, TEG analysis was performed simultaneously on samples with and without kaolin-activation. Reaction time (R), clotting time (K), angle (α), maximum amplitude (MA), global clot strength (G), and clot lysis at 30 minutes (LY30) were recorded, and the concordance correlation coefficient (ρ(c)) was calculated for each sample type. Significant differences between results obtained for kaolin-activated and native samples were obtained for R (mean difference -1.3 minute, P = .0009), K (-0.7 minute, P = .0003), α (+5.1º, P = .002), MA (+2.4 mm, P = .002), and G (+568 dyn/cm(2), P = .0009). LY30 was not different between methods. There was substantial agreement between methods for G (ρ(c) = .69) and MA (ρ(c) = .65), moderate agreement for R (ρ(c) = .45) and α (ρ(c) = .44), fair agreement for K (ρ(c) = .29), and slight agreement for LY30 (ρ(c) = .04). The TEG variables were significantly altered by kaolin activation; however, some agreement between sample types suggests a consistent bias. In citrated whole blood activated with kaolin, clot formation time is shortened and the amplitude of the tracing is increased, resulting in a TEG tracing that appears to indicate relative hypercoagulability compared with that obtained using native citrated whole blood samples. © 2012 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  15. Biogeochemistry of an Amazonian podzol-ferralsol soil system with white kaolin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Y.; Montes, C. R.; Mounier, S.; Loustau Cazalet, M.; Ishida, D.; Achard, R.; Garnier, C.; Coulomb, B.; Melfi, A. J.

    2012-09-01

    The podzol-ferralsol soil systems, which cover great areas of Amazonia and other equatorial regions, are frequently associated with kaolin deposits and store and export large amounts of carbon. Although natural organic matter (NOM) plays a key role in their dynamics, little is known about their biogeochemistry. In order to assess the specific role of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on NOM storage in deep horizons and to determine possible relationships between kaolin formation and DOM properties, we studied the groundwater composition of a typical podzol-ferralsol soil catena from the Alto Rio Negro region, Brazil. Groundwater was sampled using tension-free lysimeters placed according to soil morphology. DOC, EH, pH, and dissolved Si, Al3+, Fe2+, and Fe3+ were analyzed for all samples and values are given in a database. Quantification of other dissolved ions, small carboxylic acids and SUVA254 index and acid-base microtitration was achieved on selected samples. Part of the DOM produced by the hydromorphic podzols is directly exported to the blackwater streams; another part percolates at greater depth, and more than 90% of it adsorbs in the Bh-Bhs horizons, allowing carbon storage at depth. Humic substances are preferentially adsorbed with regard to small carboxylic compounds. With regard to kaolin genesis, kaolinite precipitation is favored by Al release from NOM mineralization within the Bh-Bhs and kaolin bleaching is ensured by iron reduction due to acidity and relatively low EH. Fe2+ mobility can be related to small EH variations and enhanced by the significant concentration of small carboxylic acids. The long-term result of these processes is the thickening of the kaolin, and it can be inferred that kaolin is likely to occur where active, giant podzols are close to a slope gradient sufficient enough to lower the deep water table.

  16. Influence of the near-surface water film thickness on the characteristics and conditions of water-coal fuel particles inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syrodoy Samen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of experimental studies of thermal pretreatment processes complex and inflammation of water coal fuel’s particles (WCF, which surface is covered with water film, have been presented there. The research has been carried out with using of three fuel types (cannel coal, coal B and filter cake: they have essentially different thermo physical characteristics. The results of our studies have been shown that the dynamics of the near-surface water film evaporation and fuel inflammation depends significantly on coal type. It has also been analyzed the influence of water layer thickness on the conditions of WCF particles inflammation. It has been established the time of water film evaporation is about 70% due to the whole induction period.

  17. Fabrication of substrates with curvature for cell cultivation by alpha-particle irradiation and chemical etching of PADC films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, C.K.M.; Tjhin, V.T. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Lin, A.C.C.; Cheng, J.P.; Cheng, S.H. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Yu, K.N., E-mail: peter.yu@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)

    2012-05-01

    In the present paper, we developed a microfabrication technology to generate cell-culture substrates with identical chemistry and well-defined curvature. Micrometer-sized pits with curved surfaces were created on a two-dimensional surface of a polymer known as polyallyldiglycol carbonate (PADC). A PADC film was first irradiated by alpha particles and then chemically etched under specific conditions to generate pits with well-defined curvature at the incident positions of the alpha particles. The surface with these pits was employed as a model system for studying the effects of substrate curvature on cell behavior. As an application, the present work studied mechanosensing of substrate curvature by epithelial cells (HeLa cells) through regulation of microtubule (MT) dynamics. We used end-binding protein 3-green fluorescent protein (EB3-GFP) as a marker of MT growth to show that epithelial cells having migrated into the pits with curved surfaces had significantly smaller MT growth speeds than those having stayed on flat surfaces without the pits.

  18. S-shaped current-voltage characteristics of polymer composite films containing graphene and graphene oxide particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylov, P. S.; Berestennikov, A. S.; Fefelov, S. A.; Komolov, A. S.; Aleshin, A. N.

    2016-12-01

    The resistive switching effects in composite films containing polyfunctional polymers, such as derivatives of carbazole (PVK), fluorene (PFD), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and also graphene particles (Gr) and graphene oxide (GO), the concentration of which in the polymer matrices varied in the range from 1 to 3 wt % corresponding to the percolation threshold in such systems, have been studied. The analysis of the elemental composition of the investigated composites by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy have shown that the oxidation degree of Gr in GO is about 9 to 10%. It has been established that a sharp conductivity jump characterized by S-shaped current-voltage curves and the presence of their hysteresis occurs upon applying a voltage pulse to the Au/PVK (PFD; PVC): Gr (GO)/ITO/PET structures, where ITO is indium tin oxide, and PET is poly(ethylene terephthalate), with the switching time, t, in the range from 1 to 30 μs. The observed effects are attributed to the influence of redox reactions taking place on the Gr and GO particles enclosed in the polymer matrix, and the additional influence of thermomechanical properties of the polymer constituent of the matrix.

  19. Synthesis of organic-inorganic hybrid sols with nano silica particles and organoalkoxysilanes for transparent and high-thermal-resistance coating films using sol-gel reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Moonkyong; Park, Hoyyul; Ahn, Myeongsang; Lee, Hyeonhwa; Chung, Ildoo

    2010-10-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid sols were synthesized from nano silica particles dispersed in water and from organoalkoxysilanes, using the sol-gel reaction. This work focuses on the effects of the three multifunctional organoalkoxysilanes dimethyldimethoxysilane (DMDMS), methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS), and tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) to form a transparent and high-thermal-resistance coating film. The stability of the hybrid sol was evaluated as a function of the reaction time for 10 d through the variation of the viscosity. The viscosity of the silica/DMDMS and silica/MTMS sol was slightly increased for 10 d. The multifunctional organoalkoxysilanes formed dense silica networks through hydrolysis and condensation reaction, which enhanced the thermal resistance of the coating films. No thermal degradation of the silica/DMDMS sample occurred up to 600 degrees C, and none of the silica/MTMS and silica/TMOS samples occurred either up to 700 degrees C. The organic-inorganic hybrid sols were coated on the glass substrate using a spin-coating procedure. The organic-inorganic hybrid sols formed flat coating films without cracks. The transmittance of the hybrid sol coating films using MTMS and DMDMS was shown to be over 90%. The transmittance of the silica/TMOS sol coating film reacted for 10 d abruptly decreased due to faster gelation. The silica/DMDMS and silica/MTMS hybrid sols formed smooth coating films while the surface roughness of the silica/TMOS coating film markedly increased when the hybrid sol reacted for 10 d. The increase of the surface roughness of the silica/TMOS coating film can be attributed to the degradation of the stability of the hybrid sol and to the loss of transmittance of the coating film. It was confirmed in this study that the use of organic-inorganic hybrid sol can yield transparent and high-thermal-resistance coating films.

  20. Effect of decomposition and organic residues on resistivity of copper films fabricated via low-temperature sintering of complex particle mixed dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Yingqiong; Nguyen, Mai Thanh; Tsukamoto, Hiroki; Matsubara, Masaki; Liao, Ying-Chih; Yonezawa, Tetsu

    2017-03-24

    Mixtures of a copper complex and copper fine particles as copper-based metal-organic decomposition (MOD) dispersions have been demonstrated to be effective for low-temperature sintering of conductive copper film. However, the copper particle size effect on decomposition process of the dispersion during heating and the effect of organic residues on the resistivity have not been studied. In this study, the decomposition process of dispersions containing mixtures of a copper complex and copper particles with various sizes was studied. The effect of organic residues on the resistivity was also studied using thermogravimetric analysis. In addition, the choice of copper salts in the copper complex was also discussed. In this work, a low-resistivity sintered copper film (7 × 10(-6) Ω·m) at a temperature as low as 100 °C was achieved without using any reductive gas.

  1. Argamassas mistas para alvenaria utilizando resíduo de caulim - Parte I: comportamento mecânico Masonry mortars using kaolin processing waste -Part I: mechanical property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aretuza K. A. da Rocha

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O caulim é um material com vasta gama de aplicações nos mais diversos setores industriais, como a indústria de papel e a cerâmica. No entanto, sua extração e beneficiamento provocam a geração de enorme quantidade de resíduos. Assim, esse trabalho tem por objetivo analisar a utilização do resíduo do beneficiamento do caulim como matéria-prima alternativa em argamassas para a construção civil. O resíduo foi caracterizado através da determinação de sua composição química, difração de raios X e determinação da distribuição granulométrica. Foram formuladas argamassas substituindo parcialmente a cal hidratada por resíduo. Em seguida, foram confeccionados corpos-de-prova e determinada sua resistência à compressão simples e à tração indireta. A substituição da cal por adições de até 20% de resíduo de caulim possibilitou o aumento da resistência das argamassas estudadas em até 80%. Com base nos resultados, pode-se concluir que o resíduo de caulim pode ser utilizado para a produção de argamassas para construção civil com propriedades mecânicas de acordo com a normalização e que a adição do resíduo pode melhorar a resistência mecânica das argamassas convencionais.Kaolin is a material used in a wide range of applications in many industrial sectors, as the paper and the ceramic industry. However, the kaolin processing industry generates large amounts of waste. Thus, the aim of this work is to evaluate the kaolin processing waste suitability as an alternative raw material for the production of mortars. The waste was characterized by determining its chemical composition, particle size distribution, and X-ray diffraction. Mortars were prepared by partially substituting kaolin waste for hydrated lime. Test specimens were prepared and their compression and indirect tension strength determined. The substitution of the lime by additions of up to 20% of kaolin waste improved the mechanical strength of masonry

  2. Nanobubble and nanodroplet template growth of particle nanorings versus nanoholes in drying nanofluids and polymer films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwich, S; Mougin, K; Vidal, L; Gnecco, E; Haidara, H

    2011-03-01

    Here we demonstrate how confined nanobubbles and nanodroplets, which can either form spontaneously at the suspension/substrate interface, or can more interestingly be purposely introduced in the system, allow assembly of nanoparticles (NPs) into nanoring-like structures with a flexible control of both the size and distribution. As with most wetting-mediated nanopatterning methods, this approach provides an alternative to direct replication from templates. The formation of two-dimensional ring-shaped nanostructures was obtained by drying a nanocolloidal gold (Au) suspension drop confining nanobubbles (or nanodroplets) that are settled at a solid substrate. AFM investigation of the dry nanostructures showed the formation of isolated Au NPs rings having diameters ranging from 200 nm to 500 nm along the dewetting-drying path of the suspension drop. The flexibility of these wetting processes for the variation of the spatial features of the nanoring (size and shape resolution) essentially depends on physical parameters such as the nanobubble/nanodroplet size and concentration, the wettability, and the evaporation rate of the nanofluid drop on the substrate. Furthermore, we show that the underpinning mechanism of this evaporation-assisted assembly of Au NPs into supported functional nanoring patterns is fairly similar to that at work in the spontaneous formation of nanoholes in drying polymer thin films. Finally, the method proves to be a simple and flexible nanofabrication tool to be extended to various nanosize objects, towards specific optical and sensing applications.

  3. Characterization of kaolin and granite waste for formulation of porcelain stoneware tiles; Caracterizacao de caulim e de residuo de granito para formulacao de gres porcelanato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna da Silveira, G.C. [Instituto Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (IFRN), RN (Brazil); Acchar, W.; Gomes, U.U.; Silva, B.K.O.; Luna da Silveira, R.V. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil); Labrincha, J.A.; Costa, M.C.P., E-mail: glebacoelli@hotmail.com [Universidade de Aveiro (Portugal)

    2016-07-01

    To produce a stoneware tiles is necessary develop a formulation that satisfies their structural characteristics, micro-structural, physical and mechanical properties. Thus, in order to create a formulation for porcelain stoneware tiles that give use to kaolin and granite waste used in the production of ceramic materials were asked the following characterizations: chemical analysis, mineralogical, thermal and particle size. We found that in the kaolin sample it presents a rate of silicon oxide and aluminum oxide similar to those found in the work of other investigators, about 45.23% SiO2 and 37.39% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. In the granite waste, the percentage of silicon oxide and aluminum oxide are also similar to those observed in other studies, with about 74.89% SiO2 and 10.54% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Both the percentage of SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} founded in these two samples satisfy the percentage required in the manufacturing of porcelain stoneware tiles. (author)

  4. Moisture expansion of ceramic tiles produced using kaolin and granite wastes; Expansao por umidade de revestimentos ceramicos incorporados com residuos de granito e caulim

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonca, A.M.G.D.; Cartaxo, J.M.; Santana, L.N.L; Neves, G.A.; Ferreira, H.C., E-mail: ana.duartemendonca@gmail.com, E-mail: gelmires@dema.ufcg.edu.br, E-mail: lisiane@dema.ufcg.edu.br [Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande,Campina Grande, PB (Brazil); Menezes, R.R. [Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais, Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    Moisture expansion (ME) is the term used to describe the expansion of ceramic materials due to the adsorption of water. ME usually occurs slowly and is relatively small, but, it can damage the ceramic tiles adhesion to the underlayment, craze the glaze and lead to the development of cracks on ceramics bricks. In this work kaolin and granite wastes were incorporated in ceramic compositions aiming study their influence on the ME of ceramic tiles. Raw materials were processed and submitted to characterization: physical and mineralogical by laser diffraction particle size analysis, chemical analysis, thermo differential and thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray diffraction. Results showed that kaolin and granite wastes can be incorporated in ceramic composition because display characteristics similar to conventional not plastic ceramic materials, providing satisfactory ME results when compared to the ME limit value of 0.6 mm/m (0.06%) indicated by the ABNT for ceramic tiles. Compositions containing up to 20% of waste can be produced when firing above 1000 deg C. (author)

  5. Leachability and strength of kaolin stabilized with cement and rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meei-Hoan Ho

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Yearly, the disposal of used tyres is a major environmental problem for countries all over the world. This causes environmental hazards such as uncontrolled fire, consume landfill space, breeding ground for mosquitoes and contaminating the soil and vegetation. Hence, urgent steps were identified to produce new methods of recycling the waste tyres to solve this hazard. This study reviews the feasibility of using waste tyres in the form of rubber chips with cement to stabilize soft clay and the effect to the environment. The focus of this study was mainly the strength and leachability characteristics of kaolin as base clay, admixed with cement as the binder and rubber chips as an additive. Leaching test is used to evaluate the performance of cementitious materials for stabilization and solidification (S & S of hazardous materials such as waste or contaminated soil. In this study, cylindrical stabilized clay specimens were prepared with various rubber chips contents and cement, and then aged for 28 days. Cylindrical specimens were then subjected to unconfined compressive strength test (using Geocomp LoadTrac II and the specimens were later dried in oven at 105° before tested for leaching tests. These leaching methods are Acid Neutralization Capacity Test (ANC and Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure (SPLP. The solidified samples were checked on six different heavy metals, namely copper, chromium, cadmium, arsenic, zinc and plumbum. Analysis was carried out by relating the effects of 0, 2 or 4 % cement as well as 0, 5, 10 and 15 % rubber chips addition to the base clay and its leachability. As observed, the curing of specimen for 28 days was in a range of 66.24 to 249.4 kPa. Specimen with 4 % cement is able to produce ANC9 of about 0.13 meq HNO3/g specimen. However specimen with 0 % and 2 % cement for different rubberchips content shows that the specimen do not have the capacity to neutralize acid at pH 9. Therefore, more cement (> 4 % is

  6. Effects of Surface Modification of Nanodiamond Particles for Nucleation Enhancement during Its Film Growth by Microwave Plasma Jet Chemical Vapour Deposition Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chii-Ruey Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The seedings of the substrate with a suspension of nanodiamond particles (NDPs were widely used as nucleation seeds to enhance the growth of nanostructured diamond films. The formation of agglomerates in the suspension of NDPs, however, may have adverse impact on the initial growth period. Therefore, this paper was aimed at the surface modification of the NDPs to enhance the diamond nucleation for the growth of nanocrystalline diamond films which could be used in photovoltaic applications. Hydrogen plasma, thermal, and surfactant treatment techniques were employed to improve the dispersion characteristics of detonation nanodiamond particles in aqueous media. The seeding of silicon substrate was then carried out with an optimized spin-coating method. The results of both Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering measurements demonstrated that plasma treated diamond nanoparticles possessed polar surface functional groups and attained high dispersion in methanol. The nanocrystalline diamond films deposited by microwave plasma jet chemical vapour deposition exhibited extremely fine grain and high smooth surfaces (~6.4 nm rms on the whole film. These results indeed open up a prospect of nanocrystalline diamond films in solar cell applications.

  7. Bilayer film electrode of brookite TiO2 particles with different morphology to improve the performance of pure brookite-based dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinlei; Wu, Shufang; Ri, Jin Hyok; Jin, Jingpeng; Peng, Tianyou

    2016-09-01

    A novel bilayer brookite TiO2 film photoanode consisting of quasi nanocube film as underlayer and rice-like submicrometer particle film as overlayer are fabricated for improving the photovoltaic properties of the pure brookite-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The brookite TiO2 nanocubes have a mean size of ∼50 nm, and the brookite TiO2 rice-like particles have diameter of ∼600 nm and length of ∼1100 nm. An optimal photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 5.51% is obtained from the bilayer brookite-based solar cell, with ∼41% improvement in the efficiency as compared to the single brookite nanocube film-based one (3.91%) under AM 1.5G one sun irradiation. The bilayer brookite-based solar cell shows not only reduced charge recombination and dark current, but also prolonged electron lifetime compared to the single brookite nanocube film-based one. All these lead to a higher photocurrent and voltage, and then to the improved efficiency of the brookite-based solar cell. The present results demonstrate a clear advance towards efficient improvement of the photovoltaic performance of pure brookite-based solar cells.

  8. Periodic nanotemplating by selective deposition of electroless gold island films on particle-lithographed dimethyldichlorosilane layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Wonmi; Roper, D Keith

    2010-07-27

    Uniform hexagonal arrays of diverse nanotemplated metal structures were formed via selective electroless gold plating on particle-lithographed dimethyldichlorosilane layers. Surface-associated water at silica bead interstices was shown to correlate with the formation of silane rings with outer ring diameters ranging from 522.5+/-29.7 to 1116.9+/-52.6 nm and/or spherical gold nanoparticles with diameters from 145.5+/-20.2 to 389.1+/-51.1 nm in the array. Reproducibility and millimeter-size scalability of the array were achieved without the need for expensive and sophisticated lithography or metal deposition equipment. The formation of each structure was explained on the basis of the silanization mechanism and microscopic characterization, as well as dimensional analysis of the nanostructures. This new, facile, and versatile method enables fine fabrication of regular metal nanoparticle array platforms to improve optical and plasmonic features in nanoelectronics and nanophotonic devices.

  9. Thin film depth profiling using simultaneous particle backscattering and nuclear resonance profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barradas, N. P.; Mateus, R.; Fonseca, M.; Reis, M. A.; Lorenz, K.; Vickridge, I.

    2010-06-01

    We report an important extension to the DataFurnace code for Ion Beam Analysis which allows users to simultaneously and self-consistently analyse Rutherford (RBS) or non-Rutherford (EBS) elastic backscattering together with particle-induced gamma-ray (PIGE) spectra. We show that the code works correctly with a well-known sample. Previously it has not been feasible to self-consistently treat PIGE and RBS/EBS data to extract the depth profiles. The PIGE data can be supplied to the code in the usual way as counts versus beam energy, but the differential cross-sections for the PIGE reaction are required. We also compared the results obtained by the new routine with high resolution narrow resonance profiling (NRP) simulations obtained with the stochastic model of energy loss.

  10. Efficacy and Mode of Action of Kaolin in the Control of Empoasca vitis and Zygina rhamni (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacoli, Federico; Pavan, Francesco; Cargnus, Elena; Tilatti, Elisabetta; Pozzebon, Alberto; Zandigiacomo, Pietro

    2017-06-01

    During 2015, the influence of kaolin applications and bunch-zone leaf removal on the grapevine leafhoppers, Empoasca vitis (Göthe) and Zygina rhamni Ferrari, and their egg parasitoids (Anagrus spp.) was tested in four vineyards of northeastern Italy. The mode of action of kaolin on E. vitis nymphs was also investigated in the laboratory. In the treated plots, kaolin was applied at a rate of 2% w/v on two occasions separated by 5-6 d. In two vineyards, it was applied either on the whole canopy or the bunch zone at the beginning of the E. vitis second generation (preventive criterion), and in the other two vineyards, it was applied to the whole canopy at the peak of the E. vitis third generation (curative criterion). Both the preventive and curative kaolin applications caused a significant decrease in the populations of E. vitis and Z. rhamni nymphs. The effect of the preventive applications was persistent and was associated with reduced E. vitis leaf symptoms. Kaolin did not influence the activity of Anagrus spp. Bunch-zone leaf removal did not affect leafhopper populations. Laboratory experiments showed that inhibition of feeding was the main mode of action through which kaolin affected nymph populations. Based on these outcomes, kaolin could be a valuable alternative to synthetic insecticides in controlling grapevine leafhoppers. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Regulation of food intake by brown Leghorn cockerels in response to dietary dilution with kaolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savory, C J

    1984-04-01

    The ability of adult Brown Leghorn cockerels to regulate food intake precisely was tested by measuring their responses to dietary dilutions with 100, 200, 300 and 400 g kaolin per kg diet. When changed from their original undiluted mash diet, cockerels continued gaining body weight with 100 and 200 g kaolin/kg dilutions, maintained weight with 300 g/kg and lost weight continuously with 400 g/kg. With all dilutions, the birds eventually adjusted weights of dry matter digested per day to the same levels as with the original basal diet. This took a few days with 100 g kaolin/kg, a week or more with 200 and 300 g/kg, and about three weeks with 400 g/kg. They achieved this mainly by increasing consumption of diluted food to maintain their original intake of basal diet. With 400 g kaolin/kg they were unable to compensate fully in amount eaten, but digestibility of the basal diet increased significantly. It is suggested that, given the right conditions, fowls may be able to compensate accurately when challenged with a range of dietary dilutions, the upper limit depending on the density of filler used.

  12. Preparation, characterization and antibacterial properties of ZnO/kaoline nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dědková, Kateřina; Janíková, Barbora; Matějová, Kateřina; Peikertová, Pavlína; Neuwirthová, Lucie; Holešinský, Jan; Kukutschová, Jana

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes laboratory preparation, characterization and antibacterial activity testing of ZnO/kaoline composites. ZnO/kaoline composites with 50 wt.% of ZnO were laboratory prepared, dried at 105 °C and calcined at 500 °C. XRPD analysis revealed that thermal treatment caused the phase transformation of Zn containing precursor into ZnO. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy techniques were used for characterization of morphology of the prepared samples. A standard microdilution test was used for evaluation of antibacterial activity using four common human pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Daylight was used for induction photocatalytically based antibacterial activity. Second possible explanation of antibacterial activity of ZnO/kaoline could be the presence of biologically available forms of zinc. During the antibacterial activity assays the ZnO/kaoline composites exhibited antibacterial activity, where differences in an onset of the antibacterial activity and activity against bacterial strains were observed. The highest antibacterial activity was observed against S. aureus, where the lowest value of minimum inhibitory concentration was determined equal to 0.41 mg/ml. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Changes caused by hydrocephalus, induced by kaolin, in the corpus callosum of adult dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Edvaldo José Rodrigues; Lachat, João José; Lopes, Luiza Silva; Santos, Antonio Carlos dos; Colli, Benedicto Oscar

    2011-01-01

    To analyze the ventricular enlargement and myelination of the corpus callosum in adult dogs after four and eight weeks of kaolin-induction of hydrocephalus. 36 dogs were randomly divided into 3 groups: 1 - without hydrocephalus, 2 - kaolin-induction of hydrocephalus until the fourth week, and 3 - kaolin-induction of hydrocephalus until the eighth week. Ventricular ratios and volumes were calculated using magnetic resonance images, and myelination of the corpus callosum were histologically evaluated using solocromo-cianin stain. Radiological hydrocephalus was observed in 93.75% and overall mortality was 38.4%. Ventricular volumes and ratios were higher in groups 2 and 3 compared to group 1 and similar when measures in the fourth and eighth weeks were compared in the group 3. Indices of luminescence in the knee and in the splenium of the corpus callosum were higher in group 2 than in group 1 indicating that there was loss of myelin in group 2, and similar in groups 1 and 3, showing a tendency to remyelination after 8 weeks. The corpus callosum of dogs with kaolin-induced hydrocephalus responds with demyelination of the knee and splenium by the fourth week with a tendency to remyelination by the eighth week.

  14. Characterization of juvenile and young adult mice following induction of hydrocephalus with kaolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Luiza da Silva; Slobodian, Ili; Del Bigio, Marc R

    2009-09-01

    Hydrocephalus is a common neurological problem in humans, usually caused by an impairment of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow or absorption. A reliable induced model of chronic hydrocephalus in mice would be useful to test hypotheses using genetic mutants. Our goal was to characterize behavioral and histological changes in juvenile and young adult mice with kaolin (aluminum silicate)-induced hydrocephalus. Seven-day old and 7-8 week old mice received injection of kaolin into the cisterna magna. Behavior was assessed repeatedly. Seven or 14 days following kaolin, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was used to assess ventricle size. In hydrocephalic mice, body weight was significantly lower than in age-matched saline-injected sham controls and the gait and posture score were impaired. Juvenile mice developed severe ventriculomegaly and had reduced corpus callosum thickness with gross white matter destruction by 14 days. Reactive astroglial change in white matter and cortex and reduced cellular proliferation in the subependymal zone were also apparent. Young adult mice developed only moderate ventricular enlargement without overt white matter destruction, although there was corpus callosum atrophy and mild astroglial reaction in white matter. Glial fibrillary acidic protein content was significantly higher in juvenile and young adult hydrocephalic mice at 7 and 14 days, but myelin basic protein content was not significantly altered. In conclusion, hydrocephalus induced by percutaneous injection of kaolin in juvenile and young adult mice is feasible. The associated periventricular alterations are essentially the same as those reported in rats of comparable ages.

  15. Properties and Microstructural Characteristic of Kaolin Geopolymer Ceramics with Addition of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Romisuhani; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al; Hussin, Kamarudin; Sandu, Andrei Victor; Binhussain, Mohammed; Ain Jaya, Nur

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the mechanical properties and microstructure of kaolin geopolymer ceramics with addition of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene were studied. Inorganic polymers based on alumina and silica polysialate units were synthesized at room temperature from kaolin and sodium silicate in a highly alkaline medium, followed by curing and drying at 80 °C. Alkaline activator was formed by mixing the 12 M NaOH solution with sodium silicate at a ratio of 0.24. Addition of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene to the kaolin geopolymer are fabricated with Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene content of 2, 4, 6 and 8 (wt. %) by using powder metallurgy method. The samples were heated at 1200 °C and the strength and morphological were tested. It was found that the flexural strength for the kaolin geopolymer ceramics with addition of UHMWPE were improved and generally increased with the increasing of UHMWPE loading. The result revealed that the optimum flexural strength was obtained at UHMWPE loading of 4 wt. % (92.1 MPa) and the flexural strength started to decrease. Microstructural analysis showed the samples appeared to have more number of pores and connected of pores increased with the increasing of UHMWPE content.

  16. The activated clotting time in cardiac surgery : Should Celite or kaolin be used?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, Adrianus J.; Lansink-Hartgring, Annemieke Oude; Fernhout, Freek-Jan; Huet, Rolf C. G.; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.

    OBJECTIVES: Both kaolin- and Celite-activated clotting times (ACT) are used to guide anticoagulation during cardiopulmonary bypass. It is unknown whether these methods lead to similar management procedures for anticoagulation in patients and are thus interchangeable in terms of bias, precision and

  17. THE MECHANISM STUDY OF EFFECT OF CALCIUM AND ALUMINIUM IONS ON FLOCCULATING PROCESS OF KAOLIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何绪文; 狄平宽; 单忠健

    1995-01-01

    The effects of Ca2+and Al3+ious on flocculating process of kaolin using ployacrylamide as flocculant was studied. Mechanism of the effects was investigated and discussed through molecularorbit (MO) theory, solution chemistry calculation and electronic probe examination in this article.

  18. Influence of acid leaching and calcination on iron removal of coal kaolin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei-wang Zhu; Wei-qiang Zeng; Xiu-lin Xu; Le-ming Cheng; Xiao Jiang; Zheng-lun Shi

    2014-01-01

    Calcination and acid leaching of coal kaolin were studied to determine an effective and economical preparation method of calcined kaolin. Thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) demonstrated that 900°C was the suitable temperature for the calcination. Leaching tests showed that hydrochloric acid was more effective for iron dissolution from raw coal kaolin (RCK), whereas oxalic acid was more effective on iron dissolution from calcined coal kaolin (CCK). The iron dissolution from CCK was 28.78wt%, which is far less effective than the 54.86wt% of RCK under their respective optimal conditions. Through analysis by using Mössbauer spectroscopy, it is detected that nearly all of the structural ferrous ions in RCK were removed by hydrochloric acid. However, iron sites in CCK changed slightly by oxalic acid leaching because nearly all ferrous ions were transformed into ferric species after firing at 900°C. It can be concluded that it is difficult to remove the structural ferric ions and ferric oxides evolved from the structural ferrous ions. Thus, iron removal by acids should be conducted prior to calcination.

  19. Catalytic performances of kaoline and silica alumina in the thermal degradation of polypropylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Achyut K Panda; R K Singh

    2011-01-01

    Polypropylene was cracked thermally and catalytically in the presence of kaoline and silica alumina in a semi batch reactor in the temperature range 400 ℃ ~ 550 ℃ in order to obtain suitable liquid fuels. The dependencies between process temperatures, types of catalyst, feed compositions and product yields of the obtained fuel fractions were found. It was observed that up to 450 ℃ thermal cracking temperature, the major product of pyrolysis was liquid oil and the major product at other higher temperatures (475 ℃ ~550 ℃2 ) are viscous liquid or wax and the highest yield of pyrolysis product is 82.85% by weight at 500 ℃. Use of kaoline and silica alumina decreased the reaction time and increased the yield of liquid fraction. Again the major pyrolysis product in catalytic pyrolysis at all temperatures was low viscous liquid oil. Silica alumina was found better as compared to kaoline in liquid yield and in reducing the reaction temperature. The maximum oil yield using silica alumina and kaoline catalyst are 91% and 89.5% respectively. On the basis of the obtained results hypothetical continuous process of waste polypropylene plastics processing for engine fuel production can be presented.

  20. One-pot three-component synthesis of spirooxindoles catalyzed by nano Ag/kaolin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Sadeghi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nano Ag/kaolin has been used as an effective heterogeneous catalyst for one-pot synthesis of spiro[4H-pyran-3,3'-oxindoles] via reaction of isatin derivatives, malononitrile and cyclic 1,3-diketones under mild reaction conditions in excellent yields.

  1. Infrared detection of the mineralogical aspects that influence the processing of calcined kaolin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenheide, Stefan; Guatame-Garcia, Adriana; Buxton, Mike; van der Werff, Harald

    2017-04-01

    Calcined kaolin is an industrial minerals product used in the production of paper, paint, rubber and other specialty applications. It is produced from kaolinite through a series of refinement steps and final calcination at temperatures of above 900°C, with the aim of generating a whiter and more abrasive material. The raw kaolin ore is a mixture of clay minerals, quartz and feldspars, where kaolinite is the main constituent. The optimal kaolin ores to feed the processing plant should ideally have high kaolinite abundance, be free in Fe-bearing mineralogy (to avoid influence in the colour of the product), and the kaolinite itself should be of high crystallinity (to ensure the correct abrasiveness after calcination). This work presents a case study from the kaolin deposits in the St. Austell Granite (South-West England), which are known for their high quality and world-class size. In this area, the kaolin is of primary-hydrothermal origin, with mineral associations that are related to the genetic history. The eventual depletion of the high-quality reserves is bringing now the attention to the lower grade zones, where the amount of impurities increases. As a consequence, it is critical to developing strategies that ensure the supply of high-quality ore to the processing plant. For this, it is necessary to acquire a thorough knowledge of the ore, including relative abundance of the minerals and their textural relationships. Hyperspectral images in the visible-near infrared (VNIR) and short-wave infrared (SWIR) ranges were collected from drill cores and run-off-mine (ROM) samples, obtained from one of the kaolin pits in the St. Austell area, where the kaolin quality is known to be lower than in the rest of the deposit. A series of mineral maps were generated to assess the distribution, texture and abundance of the Fe-bearing mineralogy and the other kaolin-associated minerals, as well as the variations in the crystallinity of kaolinite. The mineral maps enabled the

  2. Diagnostic performance and therapeutic consequence of thromboelastometry activated by kaolin versus a panel of specific reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Ole Halfdan; Fenger-Eriksen, Christian; Christiansen, Kirsten; Ingerslev, Jørgen; Sørensen, Benny

    2011-08-01

    Thromboelastography/metry (TEG®; Haemoscope, Niles, IL/ROTEM®; Tem International GmbH, Munich, Germany) is increasingly used to guide transfusion therapy. This study investigated the diagnostic performance and therapeutic consequence of using kaolin-activated whole blood compared with a panel of specific TEM®-reagents to distinguish: dilutional coagulopathy, thrombocytopenia, hyperfibrinolysis, and heparinization. Blood was drawn from 11 healthy volunteers. Dilutional coagulopathy was generated by 50% dilution with hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 whereas thrombocytopenia (mean platelet count 20 ×10⁹/l) was induced using a validated model. Hyperfibrinolysis and heparin contamination were generated by tissue plasminogen activator 2 nM and unfractionated heparin 0.1U/ml, respectively. Coagulation tests were run on ROTEM® delta. Kaolin-activated whole blood showed no differences between dilutional coagulopathy and thrombocytopenia (mean clotting time 450 s vs. 516 s, α-angle 47.1° vs. 41.5°, maximum clot firmness 35.0 mm vs. 34.2 mm, all P values ≥0.14). Hyperfibrinolysis specifically disclosed an increased maximum lysis (median: 100%, all P values less than 0.001), and heparin induced a distinctly prolonged clotting time (2283 s, all P values less than 0.02). The coagulopathies were readily distinguishable using a panel of TEM-reagents. In particular, dilutional coagulopathy was separated from thrombocytopenia using FIBTEM (maximum clot firmness 1.9 mm vs. 11.2 mm, P kaolin suggested platelets in case of dilutional coagulopathy, whereas an algorithm applying TEM-reagents suggested fibrinogen. Monoanalysis with kaolin was unable to distinguish coagulopathies caused by dilution from that of thrombocytopenia. Algorithms based on the use of kaolin may lead to unnecessary transfusion with platelets, whereas the application of TEM-reagents may result in goal-directed fibrinogen substitution.

  3. Inhibitory effect of kaolin minerals compound against hepatitis C virus in Huh-7 cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Liaqat; Idrees, Muhammad; Ali, Muhammad; Hussain, Abrar; Ur Rehman, Irshad; Ali, Amjad; Iqbal, Syed Abbas; Kamel, Eyad Hassan

    2014-04-17

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is estimated to infect 200 million individuals in the globe, including approximately 10 million in Pakistan causing both acute and chronic hepatitis. The standard treatment against HCV is pegylated interferon therapy in combination with a nucleoside analogue ribavirin. In addition, several herbal extracts and phytochemicals derivatives are used traditionally in the treatment of liver diseases as well as HCV infection. The present study determines the inhibitory effect of kaolin minerals compound against hepatitis C virus in Huh-7 cell lines. Huh-7 cell lines were used for the in vitro HCV replication by using HCV positive sera from different patients with known HCV genotypes and viral titer/load. Total RNA was extracted from these infected cells and was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR). The viral titer was compared with the control samples to determine the anti-HCV activity of kaolin derived compounds. Kaolin is a group of clay minerals, with the chemical composition Al2 Si2O5 (OH)4. The results showed promising effectiveness of local kaolin derived anti-HCV compounds by causing 28% to 77% decrease in the HCV titer, when applied to infected Huh-7 cell lines. This study provides the basis for future work on these compounds especially to determine the specific pathway and mechanism for inhibitory action in the replicon systems of viral hepatitis. Kaolin mineral derivatives show promising inhibitory effects against HCV genotypes 3a and 1a infection, which suggests its possible use as complementary and alternative medicine for HCV viral infection.

  4. The activated clotting time in cardiac surgery: should Celite or kaolin be used?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vries, Adrianus J; Lansink-Hartgring, Annemieke Oude; Fernhout, Freek-Jan; Huet, Rolf C G; van den Heuvel, Edwin R

    2017-04-01

    Both kaolin- and Celite-activated clotting times (ACT) are used to guide anticoagulation during cardiopulmonary bypass. It is unknown whether these methods lead to similar management procedures for anticoagulation in patients and are thus interchangeable in terms of bias, precision and variability. We randomized 97 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting or aortic valve replacement to either kaolin- or Celite-guided anticoagulation. The ACT was measured simultaneously with the other method. We administered 300 IU/kg heparin to obtain initial ACT values greater than 400 s and additional heparin in each group using the minimum value of duplicate measurements according to a predefined protocol. The primary end point was the total heparin dose and the number of heparin supplements. The total heparin dose per patient in the 48 Celite-guided patients was 35 271 ± 12 406 IU with 51 supplements and in the 49 kaolin-guided patients, 35 997 ± 11 540 IU ( P  = 0.77) with 56 supplements ( P  = 0.53). Postoperative thrombin generation time, fibrinolytic response time, chest tube loss and transfusion requirements were not different between the two groups. However, the methods differed in individual patients with regard to supplemental heparin ( P  = 0.002). Bias between methods at baseline was +10.3%, Celite being higher, and changed to a value of -12.9% at 2 h bypass. The coefficient of variation at baseline for individual patients was 2.6 times larger with kaolin than with Celite ( P  Kaolin- and Celite-guided management of anticoagulation is clinically not different, but the methods are not interchangeable. www.trialregister.nl identifier 1738.

  5. Size-dependent photodegradation of CdS particles deposited onto TiO{sub 2} mesoporous films by SILAR method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Rasin; Will, Geoffrey; Bell, John; Wang Hongxia, E-mail: hx.wang@qut.edu.au [Queensland University of Technology, School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering (Australia)

    2012-09-15

    The particle size, size distribution and photostability of CdS nanoparticles incorporated onto mesoporous TiO{sub 2} films by a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method were investigated by Raman spectroscopy, UV-Visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). High-resolution TEM indicated that the synthesized CdS particles were hexagonal phase and the particle sizes were less than 5 nm for up to nine SILAR deposition cycles. Quantum size effect was found with the CdS-sensitized TiO{sub 2} films prepared with up to nine SILAR cycles. The band gap of CdS nanoparticles decreased from 2.65 to 2.37 eV with the increase of the SILAR cycles from 1 to 11. The investigation of the stability of the CdS/TiO{sub 2} films in air under illumination (440.6 {mu}W/cm{sup 2}) showed that the photodegradation rate was up to 85 % per day for the sample prepared with three SILAR cycles. XPS analysis indicated that the photodegradation was due to the oxidation of CdS, leading to the transformation from sulphide to sulphate (CdSO{sub 4}). Furthermore, the degradation rate was strongly dependent upon the particle size of CdS. Smaller particles showed faster degradation rate. The size-dependent photo-induced oxidization was rationalized with the variation of size-dependent distribution of surface atoms of CdS particles. Molecular dynamics-based theoretical calculation has indicated that the surface sulphide anion of a large CdS particle such as CdS made with 11 cycles (CdS Multiplication-Sign 11, average particle size = 5.6 nm) accounts for 9.6 % of the material whereas this value is increased to 19.2 % for (CdS Multiplication-Sign 3)-based smaller particles (average particle size = 2.7 nm). The photostability of CdS nanoparticles was significantly enhanced when coated with ZnS particles deposited with four SILAR cycles. The growth mechanism of ZnS upon CdS nanoparticles was discussed.

  6. Comparative studies on physico-mechanical properties of composite materials of low density polyethylene and raw/calcined kaolin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Mallik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the preparation of the composite materials of low density polyethylene (LDPE as the base mixed separately with raw kaolin and the same calcined at 800 °C under the same variation in weight percentage using single-screw extruder and a mixing machine operated at a temperature between 190 and 200 °C. Some of the mechanical and physical properties such as Young's modulus, elongation at break, shore hardness and water absorption were determined at different weight fractions of filler (0, 2, 7, 10 and 15%. It was found that the addition of filler increases the mechanical properties. Absorption test was done in water at different immersion times for different composites. The degree of water absorption of composite materials was found to decrease with increasing wt% of kaolin filler (0–15% according to Fick's law. Calcined kaolin produces better mechanical properties than raw kaolin.

  7. Adsorption studies of ciprofloxacin: evaluation of magnesium trisilicate, kaolin and starch as alternatives for the management of ciprofloxacin poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofoefule, S I; Okonta, M

    1999-06-01

    In vitro experiments were performed to investigated the extend of adsorption of ciprofloxacin to kaolin, magnesium trislilicate and to a starch obtained from the tubers of Tacca involucrata (Tacca starch) and to explore the effect of varying pH on this adsorption. Activated charcoal, a standard adsorbent and antidote in the management of poisoning due to a variety of chemical agents was employed as a comparing standard. The results of the study indicate that kaolin and magnesium trisilicate adsorbed ciprofloxacin effectively while the adsorption of the drug on the starch was relatively low. Adsorption was dependent upon the quantity of the adsorbed used. Kaolin or magnesium trisilicate could serve as an effective antidotal alternative to activated charcoal in the management of ciprofloxacin poisoning. Except in cases of poisoning due to ciprofloxacin, the concurrent administration of the drug with kaolin or magnesium trisilicate may be contraindicated. Tacca starch, however, may not really be recommended for the management of ciprofloxacin poisoning.

  8. Concept model of the formation process of humic acid-kaolin complexes deduced by trichloroethylene sorption experiments and various characterizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaojing; He, Jiangtao; Su, Sihui; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Wang, Fei

    2016-05-01

    To explore the interactions between soil organic matter and minerals, humic acid (HA, as organic matter), kaolin (as a mineral component) and Ca(2+) (as metal ions) were used to prepare HA-kaolin and Ca-HA-kaolin complexes. These complexes were used in trichloroethylene (TCE) sorption experiments and various characterizations. Interactions between HA and kaolin during the formation of their complexes were confirmed by the obvious differences between the Qe (experimental sorbed TCE) and Qe_p (predicted sorbed TCE) values of all detected samples. The partition coefficient kd obtained for the different samples indicated that both the organic content (fom) and Ca(2+) could significantly impact the interactions. Based on experimental results and various characterizations, a concept model was developed. In the absence of Ca(2+), HA molecules first patched onto charged sites of kaolin surfaces, filling the pores. Subsequently, as the HA content increased and the first HA layer reached saturation, an outer layer of HA began to form, compressing the inner HA layer. As HA loading continued, the second layer reached saturation, such that an outer-third layer began to form, compressing the inner layers. In the presence of Ca(2+), which not only can promote kaolin self-aggregation but can also boost HA attachment to kaolin, HA molecules were first surrounded by kaolin. Subsequently, first and second layers formed (with inner layer compression) via the same process as described above in the absence of Ca(2+), except that the second layer continued to load rather than reach saturation, within the investigated conditions, because of enhanced HA aggregation caused by Ca(2+).

  9. Kaolin Foliar Application Has a Stimulatory Effect on Phenylpropanoid and Flavonoid Pathways in Grape Berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Artur; Pimentel, Diana; Neves, Andreia; Dinis, Lia-Tânia; Bernardo, Sara; Correia, Carlos M.; Gerós, Hernâni; Moutinho-Pereira, José

    2016-01-01

    Drought, elevated air temperature, and high evaporative demand are increasingly frequent during summer in grape growing areas like the Mediterranean basin, limiting grapevine productivity and berry quality. The foliar exogenous application of kaolin, a radiation-reflecting inert mineral, has proven effective in mitigating the negative impacts of these abiotic stresses in grapevine and other fruit crops, however, little is known about its influence on the composition of the grape berry and on key molecular mechanisms and metabolic pathways notably important for grape berry quality parameters. Here, we performed a thorough molecular and biochemical analysis to assess how foliar application of kaolin influences major secondary metabolism pathways associated with berry quality-traits, leading to biosynthesis of phenolics and anthocyanins, with a focus on the phenylpropanoid, flavonoid (both flavonol- and anthocyanin-biosynthetic) and stilbenoid pathways. In grape berries from different ripening stages, targeted transcriptional analysis by qPCR revealed that several genes involved in these pathways—VvPAL1, VvC4H1, VvSTSs, VvCHS1, VvFLS1, VvDFR, and VvUFGT—were more expressed in response to the foliar kaolin treatment, particularly in the latter maturation phases. In agreement, enzymatic activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), flavonol synthase (FLS), and UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT) were about two-fold higher in mature or fully mature berries from kaolin-treated plants, suggesting regulation also at a transcriptional level. The expression of the glutathione S-transferase VvGST4, and of the tonoplast anthocyanin transporters VvMATE1 and VvABCC1 were also all significantly increased at véraison and in mature berries, thus, when anthocyanins start to accumulate in the vacuole, in agreement with previously observed higher total concentrations of phenolics and anthocyanins in berries from kaolin-treated plants, especially at full

  10. Effects of Kaolin on Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Its Compatibility With the Natural Enemy, Trichogramma cacoeciae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pease, Christina E; López-Olguín, Jesús F; Pérez-Moreno, Ignacio; Marco-Mancebón, Vicente

    2016-04-01

    Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is an important grapevine pest in Europe recently encountered in America. Trichogramma cacoeciae Marchal (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) is amongst the most effective parasitoids for Lepidopteran species. Studies to evaluate the effect of kaolin, an inert, nontoxic mineral, on oviposition, egg hatch, and neonate mortality of these species were carried out. Efficacy on L. botrana neonate larvae, oviposition, and egg hatch was evaluated. Effects of kaolin on parasitism and emergence of T. cacoeciae from L. botrana and Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs were also evaluated. Lobesia botrana egg hatch and oviposition rates were reduced, and neonate larvae mortality was significantly greater in kaolin-treated arenas and when included in synthetic neonate larvae diet. Kaolin had no effect on T. cacoeciae parasitism in both hosts. There was only a slight but statistically insignificant effect on T. cacoeciae progeny emergence from L. botrana eggs and no effect from E. kuehniella. The results involving reductions in L. botrana oviposition and egg hatch and increase in larval mortality with kaolin suggest this compound may contribute to reduction in population densities and can be considered in rational integrated pest management strategies for L. botrana. Due to the laboratory results presented on parasitoid emergence, even though field bioassays would give a more exhaustive evaluation, it appears kaolin can be compatible with T. cacoeciae in L. botrana management.

  11. Biodegradation of crystal violet using Burkholderia vietnamiensis C09V immobilized on PVA-sodium alginate-kaolin gel beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ying; Lin, HongYan; Chen, Zuliang; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2012-09-01

    The strain, Burkholderia vietnamiensis C09V was immobilized on PVA-alginate-kaolin gel beads as a biomaterial to improve the degradation of crystal violet from aqueous solution. The results show that 98.6% (30 mg L(-1)) crystal violet was removed from aqueous solution using immobilized cells on PVA-alginate-kaolin gel beads, while 94.0% crystal violet was removed by free cells after degradation at the pH 5 and 30°C for 30 h. Kinetics studies show that the pseudo-second-order kinetics well described the adsorption of crystal violet on the PVA-alginate-kaolin beads. Biodegradation of crystal violet on immobilized cells was fitted well by first-order reaction kinetics, indicating that CV was adsorbed onto kaolin and followed their degradation by immobilized cells onto the the PVA-alginate-kaolin beads. Characterization with SEM shows that cells attached well to the surface of PVA-alginate-kaolin beads, leading to improved crystal violet transfer from aqueous solution to immobilized cells. In addition, UV-vis show that the absorption peak at 588 nm was reduced by the degraded N-bond linkages, as well as the formation of degrading products were observed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). These results suggest that crystal violet was biodegraded to N,N-dimethylaminophenol and Michler's Ketone prior to these intermediates being further degraded. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Rapid hemostasis at the femoral venous access site using a novel hemostatic pad containing kaolin after atrial fibrillation ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sairaku, Akinori; Nakano, Yukiko; Oda, Noboru; Makita, Yuko; Kajihara, Kenta; Tokuyama, Takehito; Kihara, Yasuki

    2011-08-01

    Hemostasis at the femoral venous access site after atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation is often prolonged because of aggressive anticoagulation and the use of several large-sized sheaths. A newly developed hemostatic pad containing a natural mineral called kaolin causes blood to clot quickly. We evaluated the efficacy of this pad for hemostasis at the venous access site after AF ablation. Patients who were scheduled to undergo AF ablation were randomized to be treated with manual compression with (n = 59) or without kaolin-impregnated pads (n = 59) as hemostatic approaches at the femoral venous access site following sheath removal. Hemostasis time, rebleeding frequency, massive hematoma, device-related complications, and deep venous thrombosis (DVT) were compared between the two groups. Hemostasis time in the patients treated with kaolin-impregnated pads was significantly shorter than in those treated without (6.1 ± 2.3 vs. 14.5 ± 4.0 min; p kaolin-impregnated pads was the only independent variable reducing hemostasis time (β = -0.78; p kaolin-impregnated pads; p = 0.35). Only one patient had a massive groin hematoma, and no patient had device-related complications or DVT. Kaolin-impregnated hemostatic pads safely and effectively decreased hemostasis time for the femoral venous access site in patients undergoing AF ablation. However, whether its use allows earlier postprocedural ambulation is difficult to predict.

  13. Preliminary Evaluation of a Base-Extraction Gamma-Al2O3 Synthesis Route from Indonesian Kaolin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjokorde Walmiki Samadhi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Kaolin has been identified as a potential raw material for the production of g-Al2O3 for hydrotreating catalyst support. This work explores the technical feasibility of applying the potassium hydroxide (KOH extraction synthesis route on kaolin from the Belitung Island in Indonesia. The application of a published synthesis method to Belitung kaolin requires an approximately twofold increase in kaolin calcination time, an increase in kaolin calcination temperature from 950 to 1000oC, and a tenfold increase in metakaolin extraction time, to obtain a specific surface area higher than 200 m2/g. The highest specific surface area of 233 m2/g was obtained when the kaolin was calcined at 1000oC for 24 hours, and the metakaolin was extracted by concentrated KOH solution for 12 hours. Phase characterization of the final product confirmed the formation of g-Al2O3, but with the inclusion of low-surface area a-Al2O3 phase.

  14. For production of ceramic plates coating using waste kaolin, granite and marble; Caracterizacao de residuos de caulim, granito e marmore para uso em massas ceramicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sales, J.L.; Morais, C.R.S.; Lima, L.M.R.; Altidis, M.E.D., E-mail: josyanne27@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The objective is to benefit and characterize waste from kaolin, marble and granite studying their thermal properties and spectroscopic in employment perspective on ceramic production of flooring boards. The residues were benefited through the process of dry grinding mill in greyhounds and passed through sieve 0.074 mm (ABNT No. 200), observing their suitability for the formulation of ceramic pastes. Tests were performed physicochemical characterization (particle size analysis, X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction) and thermal (differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetry). The results showed that these residues showed satisfactory properties for the purpose for which it proposes, and contribute to reducing environmental impacts, allowing the reuse of the production of ceramic plates (author)

  15. A mechanism for enhanced photocatalytic activity of nano-size silver particle modified titanium dioxide thin films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Ag-TiO2 nanostructured thin films with silver volume fraction of 0–20% were deposited on silicon and quartz substrates by RF magnetron sputtering and annealed in ambient air at 950°C for 1 h. The phase structure and surface topography of the films were characterized by X-ray diffractometer and transmission electron microscope. Photocatalytic activity of the films was evaluated by light induced degradation of methyl orange (C14H14N3NaO3S) solution using a high pressure mercury lamp as lamp-house. The relation of photocatalytic activity and silver content was studied in detail. It was found that silver content influences phase structure of TiO2 thin films, and silver in the films is metallic Ag (Ag0). With increasing silver content from 0 to 20 vol%, photocatalytic activity of the films increases first and then decreases. A suitable amount (2.5–5 vol%) silver addition can significantly enhance the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 films. The enhanced photocatalytic activity was mainly attributed to the extension of visible light absorption region of the films, the presence of anatase phase, the increase of oxy-gen anion radicals O2? and reactive center of surface Ti3+, and the better separation between electrons and holes on the films surface.

  16. New organophilic kaolin clays based on single-point grafted 3-aminopropyl dimethylethoxysilane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharia, A; Perrin, F-X; Teodorescu, M; Radu, A-L; Iordache, T-V; Florea, A-M; Donescu, D; Sarbu, A

    2015-10-14

    In this study, the organophilization procedure of kaolin rocks with a monofunctional ethoxysilane- 3 aminopropyl dimethyl ethoxysilane (APMS) is depicted for the first time. The two-step organophilization procedure, including dimethyl sulfoxide intercalation and APMS grafting onto the inner hydroxyl surface of kaolinite (the mineral) layers was tested for three sources of kaolin rocks (KR, KC and KD) with various morphologies and kaolinite compositions. The load of APMS in the kaolinite interlayer space was higher than that of 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTS) due to the single-point grafting nature of the organophilization reaction. A higher long-distance order of kaolinite layers with low staking was obtained for the APMS, due to a more controllable organiphilization reaction. Last but not least, the solid state (29)Si-NMR tests confirmed the single-point grafting mechanism of APMS, corroborating monodentate fixation on the kaolinite hydroxyl facets, with no contribution to the bidentate or tridentate fixation as observed for APTS.

  17. Myelin Sheath Injury in Kaolin-Induced Hydrocephalus: A Light and Electron Microscopy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayannuga, Olugbenga A; Shokunbi, M Temitayo; Naicker, T A

    2016-01-01

    In hydrocephalus, the impairment of cognitive and motor functions is thought to be partly due to injury to the myelin sheath of axons in the central nervous system. The exact nature of this injury is not completely understood. We induced hydrocephalus in 3-week-old rats with an intracisternal injection of kaolin suspension (0.04 ml of 200 mg/ml) and examined paraffin and ultrathin sections of the subcortical white matter from coronal slices of the cerebrum obtained at the level of the optic chiasm after sacrifice at weekly intervals for 4 weeks. Over time, there was a progression of injury to the myelin sheath consisting of attenuation, lamella separation and accumulation of myelin debris, focal degeneration, and the appearance of casts and loops. The results suggest that myelin injury in kaolin-induced hydrocephalus progresses with the duration and severity of ventriculomegaly. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of zeolite A by hydrothermal transformation of natural Jordanian kaolin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa Gougazeh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of zeolite materials by hydrothermal transformation of natural Jordanian kaolin in NaOH solutions of various concentrations was investigated at 100 °C for 20 h. A mixture of zeolite A, quartz and hydroxysodalite (HS was obtained. Zeolite A was the main product with the NaOH concentrations of 1.50–3.50 M, which was confirmed by XRD, IR and SEM. Zeolite A can be obtained from natural kaolin under the conditions applied showing that metakaolinization can be observed at 650 °C which is much lower than the temperatures given in the previous works, 700–950 °C. The products obtained from the experiments were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM.

  19. SYNTHESIS OF CANCRINITE ZEOLITE DERIVATED FROM KAOLIN:A Viable Alternative to Reduce Environmetal Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Joel Schwanke

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of cancrinite zeolite was accomplished by three types of kaolins called AD44, Mina and Reagen. These materials were used as aluminium and silicon sources in substitution of expensive reactants. The first two types are natural kaolin and the last one is a commercial. These clays were used in natural and calcinated (900ºC forms. The clays and the obtained materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD specific superficial area (BET and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM. The results showed that calcinated clays lead to cancrinite phases with higher cristallinity when compared with the natural clays. Different phases such as sodalite and mesophases between sodalite and cancrinite were formed too.

  20. Utilization of kaolin processing waste for the production of porous ceramic bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Romualdo R; Brasileiro, Maria I; Santana, Lisiane N L; Neves, Gelmires A; Lira, Helio L; Ferreira, Heber C

    2008-08-01

    The kaolin processing industry generates large amounts of waste in producing countries such as Brazil. The aim of this study was to characterize kaolin processing waste and evaluate its suitability as an alternative ceramic raw material for the production of porous technical ceramic bodies. The waste material was physically and chemically characterized and its thermal behaviour is described. Several formulations were prepared and sintered at different temperatures. The sintered samples were characterized to determine their porosity, water absorption, firing shrinkage and mechanical strength. Fired samples were microstructurally analysed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that the waste consisted of quartz, kaolinite, and mica, and that ceramic formulations containing up to 66% of waste can be used for the production of ceramics with porosities higher than 40% and strength of about 70 MPa.

  1. Anxiety responses and neurochemical changes in a kaolin-induced rat model of hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yong Sup; Shim, Insop; Chang, Jin Woo

    2011-04-01

    Hydrocephalus is a pathological enlargement of the ventricles of the brain, which can result from various diseases of the central nervous system. Patients with hydrocephalus frequently show motor abnormalities, such as abnormal gait and posture, as well as intellectual and emotional impairment. The present study was designed to investigate anxiety responses in rats with kaolin-induced hydrocephalus. A total of 26 Sprague-Dawley rats were used for this study. Hydrocephalus was induced in 14 Sprague-Dawley rats by injecting 0.1 ml of 20% kaolin solution into the cisterna magna; 12 rats were administered the same volume of saline in the same fashion and served as controls. Seven of the rats that were injected with kaolin and 6 of the rats injected with saline were killed 3 days after injection (Group 1); the remaining rats were killed 4 weeks after injection (Group 2) to evaluate effects related to acute and chronic hydrocephalus. The rats were tested in an elevated plus maze after induction of hydrocephalus by kaolin injection. After the animals were killed, brain sections were immunostained for cholecystokinin and neuropeptide Y. In addition, tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the ventral tegmental area was evaluated by immunohistological staining. The rats with acute hydrocephalus showed decreased entry into and spent less time in the open arms of the elevated plus maze as compared with the control rats. The hydrocephalic rats had significantly more cholecystokinin-immunoreactive neurons and fewer neuropeptide Y-immunoreactive neurons in their brains. In addition, hydrocephalus progress in this model was positively correlated with the anxiety response. The numbers of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons were decreased significantly in the hydrocephalic rats as compared with the control rats. These results suggest that the rat model of hydrocephalus is characterized by increased anxiety response and is associated with the functional impairment of the

  2. Low-dose kaolin-induced feline hydrocephalus and feline ventriculostomy: an updated model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lollis, S. Scott; Hoopes, P. Jack; Kane, Susan; Paulsen, Keith; Weaver, John; Roberts, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Object Intracisternal injection of kaolin is a well-described model of feline hydrocephalus. Its principal disadvantage is a high rate of procedure-related morbidity and mortality. The authors describe a series of modifications to a commonly used protocol, intended to ameliorate animal welfare concerns without compromising the degree of ventricular enlargement. Methods In 11 adult cats, hydrocephalus was induced by injection of kaolin into the cisterna magna. Kaolin doses were reduced to 10 mg, compared with historical doses of ~ 200 mg, and high-dose dexamethasone was used to reduce the severity of meningeal irritation. A control cohort of 6 additional animals received injections of isotonic saline into the cisterna magna. Results The mean ventricular volume increased from a baseline of 0.183 ± 0.068 ml to 1.43 ± 0.184 ml. Two animals were killed prior to completion of the study. Of the remaining animals, all were ambulatory by postinjection Day 1, and all had resumed normal oral intake by postinjection Day 3. Two animals required subcutaneous fluid supplementation. Ventriculostomy using anatomical landmarks was performed to ascertain intraventricular pressure. The mean intraventricular pressure after hydrocephalus was 15 cm H2O above the ear (range 11–20 cm H2O). Conclusions Reduction in kaolin dosage and the postoperative administration of high-dose corticosteroid therapy appear to reduce morbidity and mortality rates compared with historical experiences. Hydrocephalus is radiographically evident as soon as 3 days after injection, but it does not substantially interfere with feeding and basic self-care. To the extent that animal welfare concerns may have limited the use of this model in recent years, the procedures described in the present study may offer some guidance for its future use. PMID:19834994

  3. Organic template free synthesis of ZSM-5 from calcinated Indonesian kaolin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartati, Widati, Alfa Akustia; Kristanti, Alfinda Novi; Purwaningsih, Aning; Alfiani

    2017-09-01

    A pure ZSM-5 has been synthesized from calcinated kaolin without organic template. The synthesized samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption/desorption technique, and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The results showed that microporous ZSM-5 obtained by silica adding through three-step crystallization at 100-120-150 °C for 24 h respectively.

  4. Preparation and characteristics of P(MMA-EA)/kaolin powder coating for dry coat of paper%P(MMA-EA)/高岭土粉末涂料的制备及表征∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨仁党; 程峥; 陈国伟; 杨飞

    2014-01-01

    Particles of powder coating mingled poly(methyl methacrylate-ethyl acrylate)resin and kaolin as pig-ment were obtained in the media of supercritical carbon dioxide(sc-CO2).The effects of the EA concentration and other process factors on the copolymerization were discussed,then the powder coating was characterized by GPC,FT-IR,TG,DTG and DSC methods.The experimental results showed that the relative molecular weight of copolymer decreased and its distribution became wide with the increase of the EA monomer concentration. when the reaction temperature 75 ℃,reaction time 10 h,and the mass ratio of MMA/EA between 0.6/0.4 and 0.7/0.3,the molecular weight of copolymer can be reached to (4.87-5.07)×10 4 and its distribution was relative-ly narrow,which was suiable for dry surface treatment of paper.The glass-transition temperature (Tg)of the copolymer MMA/EA became lower when the increase of EA monomer concentration,therefore,an ideal glass-transition temperature of the powery coatings could be achieved by adjusting the mass ratio of MMA to EA,and the suitable Tgof MMA/EA was between 60 and 66 ℃.With the increase of kaolin,the maximum thermal deg-radation temperature of powder coatings increased,it made the power coating possess good film-forming prop-erty,and improve the performance of thermal-stability requirments.%为了调控粉末涂料的玻璃化转变温度和热稳定性,利用超临界流体法制备了 P (MMA-EA)-聚(甲基丙烯酸甲酯-丙烯酸乙酯)/高岭土粉末涂料.实验研究了丙烯酸乙酯单体浓度等过程因素对共聚反应的影响,并利用 GPC、FT-IR、TG、DTG、DSC 等分析方法表征了粉末涂料的性能.实验表明,随着丙烯酸乙酯(EA)单体浓度的增加,共聚物的相对分子量降低而其分子量分布变宽;当反应温度为75℃、时间为10 h、单体 MMA/EA 比值在0.6/0.4与0.7/0.3之间时,共聚物的相对分子量为(4.87~5.07)×104,且分子量分布相对较窄;随着丙烯

  5. Effects of cyclophosphamide on the kaolin consumption (pica behavior) in five strains of adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohei, Atsushi; Kojima, Shu-ichi; Ikeda, Masashi; Hokao, Ryoji; Shinoda, Motoo

    2011-07-01

    It is known that pica, the consumption of non-nutritive substances such as kaolin, can be induced by administration of toxins or emetic agents in rats. In the present study, we examined the effects of intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of cyclophosphamide on pica behavior and on the concentration of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acids (5HIAA) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the following five strains of adult male rats: Sprague Dawley (SD), Wistar, Fischer 344 (F344), Wistar-Imamichi (WI) and Long Evans (LE). Cyclophosphamide (25 mg or 50 mg/kg) was injected (i.p.) into the rats and kaolin and food intake were measured at 24 hr after injection. The animals were anesthetized with urethane (1 g/kg) at 3 hr after injection of cyclophosphamide, and CSF was collected from the cisterna magna. WI and LE rats clearly showed pica behavior as compared with the other strains. In LE rats, the concentration of 5HIAA in CSF also increased in a dose-dependent manner of cyclophosphamide. The pretreatment with ondansetron (5-HT(3) antagonist) restored both changes (kaolin consumption and 5HIAA levels) induced by cyclophosphamide. These results suggest that the LE rat is sensitive to cyclophosphamide, that pica induced by cyclophosphamide mimics many aspects of emesis including the serotonergic response in the central nervous system and that use of the pica model would be a practical method for evaluating the effects of antiemetic drugs in addition to the mechanism of emesis.

  6. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic effects of meloxicam in piglets subjected to a kaolin inflammation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosse, T K; Spadavecchia, C; Horsberg, T E; Haga, H A; Ranheim, B

    2011-08-01

    The pharmacokinetics and the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of meloxicam were investigated in a placebo controlled study in 2-week-old piglets. Inflammation was induced by a subcutaneous injection of kaolin in the left metacarpus, and 16 h later, meloxicam (0.6 mg/kg) or saline was administered intramuscularly. The absorption half-life was relatively short (0.19 h) and the elimination half-life was 2.6 h. Mechanical nociceptive threshold testing was used to evaluate the analgesic effect, but no significant effect of the meloxicam treatment was found. The skin temperature of the inflamed area increased after the kaolin injection, but no significant decrease in temperature was found after administration of meloxicam. Only limited pyresis was observed after the kaolin injection, and no significant antipyretic effect of meloxicam was found. The results indicated that this dose of meloxicam had very limited anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects in piglets. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Arthritic disease is more severe in older rats in a kaolin/carrageenan-induced arthritis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung Soo; Kim, Myung-Hwan; Yeom, Mijung; Choi, Hyun Mi; Yang, Hyung-In; Yoo, Myung Chul; Hahm, Dae-Hyun

    2012-12-01

    This study examined in an arthritis animal model whether elderly onset rheumatoid arthritis (EORA) is a more severe disease than younger onset rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis was induced by injecting 5% kaolin/carrageenan into the left tibiotarsal ankles of 18-month-old and 4-week-old rats. Various parameters were measured to evaluate the arthritic progression of kaolin/carrageenan-induced arthritis in the rats. Immunohistochemical staining of arthritic joints was performed to determine the degree of inflammation in old and young rats. Measurements of ankle volume and thickness, arthritic index, number of squeaks, and the paw pressure test showed the 18-month-old rats had more severe disease than the young rats in a kaolin/carrageenan-induced arthritis model. The degree of inflammation and MMP-1 expression of arthritic joints in old rats was significantly higher than that of young rats based on histological evaluation with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and immunochemistry. More severe disease symptoms were found in old rats with EORA, but the molecular mechanisms still remain to be elucidated. Understanding the molecular mechanisms will be helpful to develop clinical protocols to efficiently treat patients with EORA, which is difficult to control with current protocols.

  8. Composition Analysis of Kaolin from Meizhou%梅州高岭土成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林艳

    2011-01-01

    高岭土有着独特的物理性质和良好的可塑性,成为造纸、陶瓷、橡胶、耐火材料等几十个行业所必需的矿物原材料。文章阐述了以广东梅州兴宁高岭土为分析对象,采用化学分析法测定高岭土中SiO2、Al2O3这2种化学成分的含量。结果表明,此高岭土纯度高,能满足市场需求,具有开发利用前景,适用于造纸、搪瓷、陶瓷和涂料工业用矿物原料。%Kaolin is a necessary raw material for paper,ceramics,rubber and refractory industries because of its unique physical properties and good plasticity.In the paper,kaolin from Xingning was analyzed with chemical titrimetry for the content of SiO2,Al2O3.The results showed that kaolin from Meizhou was of high purity,and it possesses high utilization prospect in many markets such as paper,enamel,ceramics and coatings industries.

  9. Kaolin processing waste applied in the manufacturing of ceramic tiles and mullite bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Romualdo R; Farias, Felipe F; Oliveira, Maurício F; Santana, Lisiane N L; Neves, Gelmires A; Lira, Helio L; Ferreira, Heber C

    2009-02-01

    In the last few years, mineral extraction and processing industries have been identified as sources of environmental contamination and pollution. The kaolin processing industry around the world generates large amounts of waste materials. The present study evaluated the suitability of kaolin processing waste as an alternative source of ceramic raw material for the production of ceramic tiles and dense mullite bodies. Several formulations were prepared and sintered at different temperatures. The sintered samples were characterized to determine their porosity, water absorption, firing shrinkage and mechanical strength. The fired samples were microstructurally analysed by X-ray diffraction. The results indicated that ceramic tile formulations containing up to 60% of waste could be used for the production of tiles with low water absorption (approximately 0.5%) and low sintering temperature (1150 degrees C). Mullite formulations with more than 40% of kaolin waste could be used in the production of bodies with high strength, of about 75 MPa, which can be used as refractory materials.

  10. The effects of kaolin, bentonite and zeolite dietary supplementation on broiler chickens meat quality during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Safaei

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to determine the effects of broiler chickens dietary kaolin, bentonite and zeolite supplementations on broiler thigh meat water holding capacity (WHC, lipid oxidation (TBARS, pH, and meat color during frozen storage. A total of 448-dayold sexed broiler cockerels were randomly assigned into 28 experimental units. A cornsoybean meal basal diet with 0, 15 and 30 g/kg kaolin, bentonite and zeolite as feed additive were added to control and 6 dietary treatments. Chickens were slaughtered and the left thighs kept at −20°C and analyzed after 1 and 150 days of storage. Experimental treatments had no effect on meat WHC, pH and color. Freezing at −20°C for 150 days impaired meat quality and caused chicken rancidity; however, lipid oxidation measured by TBARS value was significantly lower in chickens received diets including 15 g/kg bentonite and kaolin comparing to control diet after 150 days of frozen storage (P<0.05. It was concluded that though adding silicate minerals did not significantly influence WHC, pH and color in experimental treatments, they had influenced lipid oxidation and decreased chicken meat rancidity during frozen storage period

  11. Enriching particles on a bubble through drainage: Measuring and modeling the concentration of microbial particles in a bubble film at rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter L. L. Walls

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of microbes and other particulates is frequently enriched in the droplets produced by bursting bubbles. As a bubble rises to the ocean surface, particulates in the bulk liquid can be transported to the sea surface microlayer by attaching to the bubble’s interface. When the bubble eventually ruptures, a fraction of these particulates is often ejected into the surroundings in film droplets with a particulate concentration that is higher than in the liquid from which they formed. The precise mechanisms responsible for this enrichment are unclear, yet such enrichment at the ocean surface influences important exchange processes with the atmosphere. Here we provide evidence that drainage, coupled with scavenging, is responsible for the enrichment. By simultaneously recording the drainage and rupture effects with high-speed and standard photography, we directly measured the particulate concentrations in the thin film of a bubble cap at the moment before it ruptures. We observed that the enrichment factor strongly depends on the film thickness at rupture, and developed a physical model, based on scavenging and drainage, that is consistent with our observations. We have also demonstrated that this model is quantitatively consistent with prior observations of film drop enrichment, indicating its potential for a broader range of applications in the study of the sea surface microlayer and related phenomena.

  12. Silver release and antimicrobial properties of PMMA films doped with silver ions, nano-particles and complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyutakov, O., E-mail: lyutakoo@vscht.cz [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czech Republic); Goncharova, I. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czech Republic); Rimpelova, S. [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czech Republic); Kolarova, K.; Svanda, J.; Svorcik, V. [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-04-01

    Materials prepared on the base of bioactive silver compounds have become more and more popular due to low microbial resistance to silver. In the present work, the efficiency of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) thin films doped with silver ions, nanoparticles and silver–imidazole polymer complex was studied by a combination of AAS, XPS and AFM techniques. The biological activities of the proposed materials were discussed in view of the rate of silver releasing from the polymer matrix. Concentrations of Ag active form were estimated by its ability to interact with L-cysteine using electronic circular dichroism spectroscopy. Rates of the released silver were compared with the biological activity in dependence on the form of embedded silver. Antimicrobial properties of doped polymer films were studied using two bacterial strains: Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli. It was found that PMMA films doped with Ag{sup +} had greater activity than those doped with nanoparticles and silver–imidazole polymeric complexes. However, the antimicrobial efficiency of Ag{sup +} doped films was only short-term. Contrary, the antimicrobial activity of silver–imidazole/PMMA films increased in time of sample soaking. - Highlights: • PMMA thin films doped with silver ions, nanoparticles (AgNPs) and silver–imidazole helical complexes (AgIm) were studied. • Silver release from doped polymer films and its biological activity were estimated. • Antimicrobial properties of doped polymer films were also studied. • Ag ions doped films showed the strongest antimicrobial activity, which quickly disappeared. • AgIm and AgNPs doped films showed more stable antimicrobial properties. • AgIm complexes conserve their structure after addition into polymer and after leaching.

  13. Effect of pH on film structure and electrical property of PMMA–Au composite particles prepared by redox transmetalation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hong-Mao; Lin, Kuan-Ju [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Yu, Yi-Hsiuan; Ho, Chan-Yuan; Wei, Ming-Hsiung [Chemical System Research Division, Chung-Shan Institute of Science and Technology, Long-Tan, Tao-Yuan 325, Taiwan (China); Lu, Fu-Hsing [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Tseng, Wenjea J., E-mail: wenjea@dragon.nchu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-15

    Surface-selective deposition of gold (Au) on electroless plated poly(methyl methacrylate)–nickel (PMMA–Ni) beads was prepared chemically by a facile redox-transmetalation route in which the Ni atoms on the PMMA surface were reacted with Au precursors, i.e., chloroauric acid (HAuCl{sub 4}), in water to form predominately core-shell PMMA–Au composite particles without the need of reducing agent. The Ni layer acted as a sacrificial template to facilitate the selective transmetalation deposition of a metallic Au film. When pH of the precursor solution was adjusted from 6 to 9, morphology of the Au film changed from a uniform particulate film consisting of assemblies of Au nanoparticles, to densely packed, continuous film with platelet Au crystals, and finally to isolated Au islands on the PMMA surface with a raspberry-like core–shell morphology. Uniformly dense Au coating with a thickness of about 200 nm was formed on the PMMA beads at pH of 7 to 8, which gave rise to an electrical resistivity as low as 3 × 10{sup −2} Ω cm.

  14. Fabrication of anode-supported zirconia thin film electrolyte based core-shell particle structure for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Li; John T.S.Irvinen

    2013-01-01

    With a view to produce intermediate temperature SOFCs, yttria and scandia doped zirconia with a core-shell structure was prepared, then an anode supported fuel cell was fabricated by a spray method. The influences of the scandia content in the electrolyte and atmosphere conditions used in the testing experiments on phase composition, microstructure and fuel cell performance were investigated. The electrolyte was composed of cubic and tetragonal phases and SEM pictures revealed very fine grain sizes and a smooth surface of the electrolyte film, though some defects were observed in samples with high Scandia content. Coating scandia on partially stabilized zirconium particles improves both ionic conductivity of the electrolyte and power density of the fuel cell distinctly below 750 1C. Anodes were pre-sintered at 1200 1C before co-sintering with the electrolyte film to ensure that the shrinkage percentage was close to that of the electrolyte during co-sintering, avoiding warping of cell.

  15. XRD and FTIR study of the effect of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) as binder on kaolin geopolymer ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, R.; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri; Hussin, K.; Sandu, A. V.

    2017-04-01

    The effect of addition of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) as binder on Kaolin Geopolymer Ceramics was study using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. UHMWPE is added to the optimum kaolin geopolymer ceramics that obtained by mechanical performance, phase and microstructure analysis with the concentration of NaOH, solid/liquid and Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio of 12 M, 1.0 and 0.24 respectively. Kaolin geopolymer powders with addition of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene content of 2, 4, 6 and 8 (wt. %) were pressed into pellets followed by sintering at 1200 °C. At this temperature, the amorphous phase of geopolymer were fully crystallized. The results obtained by the XRD testing confirm that amorphous geopolymer transform to crystalline nepheline ceramics upon heating. The phase analysis for Kaolin geopolymer ceramics with addition of UHMWPE are similar to the kaolin geopolymer ceramics without UHMWPE indicates that the incorporation of a little amount of UHMWPE does not affect the structure feature of geopolymer. The increasing in intensity of nepheline peak contribute to high strength. The FTIR spectra showed the disappearance of water band after sinter at high temperature.

  16. Preparation of Activated Nano-sized Kaolin Clay as Styrene Butadiene Rubber Filler%应用于橡胶补强的活性纳米高岭土制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜艳艳; 王燕民; 潘志东

    2013-01-01

    An activated nano-sized kaolin clay was prepared via an effective process with various methods such as chemical pre-intercalation, ultra-fine grinding, acid etching, drying and surface modification with cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and hydrogen silicone. The results show that the micron-sized kaolin clay that is pre-intercalated with urea is ground in a high-eneigy density stirred bead mill to prepare the nano-sized particles with the fineness of 70% < 100 nm and the lamella thickness of 10-30 nm effectively. This hybrid method could reduce the energy consumption in the preparation of the nano-sized kaolin clay, compared to the single ultra-fine grinding method. The acid etching treatment increased the specific surface area of the activated nano-sized kaolin clay without the destruction of the layered structure. The particles coated with CTAB and hydrogen silicone oil appeared a superior hydrophobicity. The azeotropic distillation drying could produce the well-dispersive activated nano-sized kaolin clay, compared to the spray drying. In addition, the as-prepared activated nano-sized kaolin clay could be used as a styrene butadiene rubber filler to improve the tensile strength and rate, and reduce the vulcanizing time.%采用化学插层-超细研磨-酸侵渍活化-干燥-表面改性的方法有效地制备了活性纳米高岭土.结果表明:通过化学插层与超细研磨的复合方法可制备70%的颗粒小于100 nm的高岭土,其片厚为10~30 nm.与单纯采用机械研磨的方法相比,该复合方法可以降低超细研磨所需的能耗.经酸侵渍活化处理可增大活性纳米高岭土的比表面积,但未破坏高岭土特有的层状结构.在活性纳米高岭土表面包覆十六烷基三甲基溴化铵和含氢硅油,可使其具有良好的亲油疏水性能.另外,对比喷雾干燥方法,经共沸蒸馏干燥的活性纳米高岭土粉体具有更好的分散性,制得的活性纳米高岭土作

  17. Change of the ash melting behaviour of biomass-mix-pellets by addition of kaolin; Veraenderung des Ascheschmelzverhaltens von Biomasse-Mischpellets durch Zudosierung von Kaolin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappler, Uta [RWE Power AG, Koeln (Germany). Forschung und Entwicklung; Wenghoefer, Volker; Pude, Ralf [Bonn Univ., Landwirtschaftliche Fakultaet, Rheinbach (Germany). Forschungsbereich Nachwachsende Rohstoffe

    2013-06-01

    In the last few years, the design of solid biofuels for small combustion plants < 50 kW has become an important topic of biomass research. The European Union, for example, is sponsoring the European 'MixBioPells' project that is mainly supported by the German Biomass Research Center (DBFZ) in Leipzig. From 2010 until late 2012, the Agency of Renewable Resources (FNR) sponsored the 'C4-Kompakt' project in Germany. The aim of the project, which was executed by the University of Bonn/Center for Renewable Resources, was the development of mixed pellets with a minimum miscanthus content of 50%wt. First combustion tests showed increased fouling and slagging of pellet combustion. This problem, however, can be overcome by deliberate adding of inorganic additives (kaolin). (orig.)

  18. A simple route to morphology-controlled polydimethylsiloxane films based on particle-embedded elastomeric masters for enhanced superhydrophobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Dong-Wook; Kim, Seung-Jun; Park, Jong-Kweon; Kim, Soo-Hyung; Lee, Deug-Woo; Kim, Jong-Man

    2014-02-26

    We present a simple route for controlling the surface morphology of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) films based on a standard replica molding technique incorporating a microparticle-embedded elastomeric master for enhancing surface wetting properties. The elastomeric masters are simply prepared by embedding microparticles (MPs) firmly into a surface of PDMS substrates using an abrasive air-jetting (AAJ) that can be potentially scaled up to large-area fabrication. The surface geometries of the PDMS masters can be easily controlled by using MPs with different shape and size in the AAJ process, resulting in easy control of the surface morphologies and resultant wetting and optical properties of the PDMS films after replicating. The PDMS masters are found to be highly durable, enabling repeated use to produce superhydrophobic PDMS films with similar characteristics. In addition, the fabricated PDMS films retain almost constant properties even under repetitive compressing and stretching deformations thanks to the mechanical robustness enabled by their all-elastomeric architectures. We show that the fabricated PDMS surfaces can be potentially employed as self-cleaning films in glass-based applications, even with complex surfaces, owing to their enhanced wetting properties, fairly good optical transparency, and superior mechanical stability.

  19. Preparation of thin {alpha}-particle sources using poly-pyrrole films functionalized by a chelating agent; Preparation de sources minces d'emetteurs alpha a l'aide de films de polypyrrole fonctionnalises par un ligand chelatant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariet, C. [CEA Saclay, INSTN, Institut National des Sciences et Techniques Nucleaires, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-07-01

    This work takes place in the scope of analysis of the {alpha}-particle emitting elements U, Pu and Am present in compound environmental matrix like sols and sediments. The samples diversity and above all the {alpha}-ray characteristics require the analyst to implement a sequence of chemical steps in which the more restricting is the actinides concentration in a uniform and thin layer en allowing an accurately measure of alpha activity. On this account, we studied a new technique for radioactive sources preparation based on tow steps: preparation of a thin film as source support; incorporation of radioactive elements by a chelating extraction mechanism. The thin films were obtained through electro-polymerization of pyrrole monomer functionalized by an chelating ligand able to extract actinides from concentrated acidic solutions. Polymerization conditions of this monomer were perfected, then obtained films were characterized from a physico-chemical point of view. We point out their extracting properties were comparable to (retention capacity, distribution coefficient) to those of usual ion-exchange resins. The underscore of uranyl and americium nitrate complexes formed in the thin layer allowed to calculate the extraction constants in case acid extraction is negligible. Thanks to this results, the values of the coefficients distribution D{sub U} and D{sub Am} could be provided for all nitric solutions in which acid extraction is negligible. Optimal actinides retention conditions in the polymer were defined and used to settle a protocol for plutonium analysis in environmental samples. (author)

  20. Research progress of particle electro-deposition and functional film within the anodic oxide film of aluminum%铝基氧化膜内粒子电沉积及其功能膜的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王梅丰; 倪磊; 陈东初; 常萌蕾; 叶秀芳; 魏红阳

    2015-01-01

    由于铝阳极氧化膜的特殊结构,再加上其制备的功能膜具有一系列独特性能。因此,近年来受到国内外广大科研工作者的广泛关注。本文从溶液组成综述铝基膜内单一粒子和复合粒子电沉积工艺,从电源波形介绍直流、交流和脉冲电沉积工艺,另外也叙述了溶胶凝胶和超声波电沉积工艺。列举了用电沉积方法制备功能性薄膜在催化、光学、太阳能吸收膜以及磁学领域的应用,并对制备功能性氧化膜存在问题与发展方向进行阐述。%Recent years has witnessed worldwide researchers’great attention to Al alloys,due to their excellent properties of anodic oxide film,such as unique properties in functional film as well as special structure. The anodic oxide film of alumi-num within a single particles electro-deposion and composite particles electro-deposion were comprehensively reviewed from the components of the electro-deposion. In addition,the electro-deposition methods were also discussed based on the power supply,such as direct current,alternating current,pulse,sol-gel solution,and ultrasonic. The application of the func-tional film prepared by the electro-deposition method in catalysis,optics,solar energy absorbing coating and magnetic field was introduced. Moreover,the existing problem and the future directions of further study on preparing functional oxide film by the electro-deposition method are also suggested.

  1. Effect of Coal Gangue with Different Kaolin Contents on Compressive Strength and Pore Size of Blended Cement Paste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yimin; ZHOU Shuangxi; ZHANG Wensheng

    2008-01-01

    The effects of activated coal gangue on compressive strength,porosity and pore size distribution of hardened cement pastes were investigated.Activated coal gangue with two different kaolin contents,one higher and one lower,were used to partially replace Portland cement at 0%,10%,and 30% by weight.The water to binder ratio(w/b)of 0.5 was used for all the blended cement paste mixes.Experimental results indicate that the blended cement of activated coal gangue mortar with higher kaolin mineral content has a higher compressive strength than that with lower kaolin mineral content.The porosity and pore size of blended cement mortar were significantly affected by the replacement of activated coal gangue.

  2. Flexible Lamination-Fabricated Ultra-High Frequency Diodes Based on Self-Supporting Semiconducting Composite Film of Silicon Micro-Particles and Nano-Fibrillated Cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, Negar; Wang, Xin; Granberg, Hjalmar; Andersson Ersman, Peter; Crispin, Xavier; Dyreklev, Peter; Engquist, Isak; Gustafsson, Göran; Berggren, Magnus

    2016-06-01

    Low cost and flexible devices such as wearable electronics, e-labels and distributed sensors will make the future “internet of things” viable. To power and communicate with such systems, high frequency rectifiers are crucial components. We present a simple method to manufacture flexible diodes, operating at GHz frequencies, based on self-adhesive composite films of silicon micro-particles (Si-μPs) and glycerol dispersed in nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC). NFC, Si-μPs and glycerol are mixed in a water suspension, forming a self-supporting nanocellulose-silicon composite film after drying. This film is cut and laminated between a flexible pre-patterned Al bottom electrode and a conductive Ni-coated carbon tape top contact. A Schottky junction is established between the Al electrode and the Si-μPs. The resulting flexible diodes show current levels on the order of mA for an area of 2 mm2, a current rectification ratio up to 4 × 103 between 1 and 2 V bias and a cut-off frequency of 1.8 GHz. Energy harvesting experiments have been demonstrated using resistors as the load at 900 MHz and 1.8 GHz. The diode stack can be delaminated away from the Al electrode and then later on be transferred and reconfigured to another substrate. This provides us with reconfigurable GHz-operating diode circuits.

  3. Flexible Lamination-Fabricated Ultra-High Frequency Diodes Based on Self-Supporting Semiconducting Composite Film of Silicon Micro-Particles and Nano-Fibrillated Cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, Negar; Wang, Xin; Granberg, Hjalmar; Andersson Ersman, Peter; Crispin, Xavier; Dyreklev, Peter; Engquist, Isak; Gustafsson, Göran; Berggren, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    Low cost and flexible devices such as wearable electronics, e-labels and distributed sensors will make the future "internet of things" viable. To power and communicate with such systems, high frequency rectifiers are crucial components. We present a simple method to manufacture flexible diodes, operating at GHz frequencies, based on self-adhesive composite films of silicon micro-particles (Si-μPs) and glycerol dispersed in nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC). NFC, Si-μPs and glycerol are mixed in a water suspension, forming a self-supporting nanocellulose-silicon composite film after drying. This film is cut and laminated between a flexible pre-patterned Al bottom electrode and a conductive Ni-coated carbon tape top contact. A Schottky junction is established between the Al electrode and the Si-μPs. The resulting flexible diodes show current levels on the order of mA for an area of 2 mm(2), a current rectification ratio up to 4 × 10(3) between 1 and 2 V bias and a cut-off frequency of 1.8 GHz. Energy harvesting experiments have been demonstrated using resistors as the load at 900 MHz and 1.8 GHz. The diode stack can be delaminated away from the Al electrode and then later on be transferred and reconfigured to another substrate. This provides us with reconfigurable GHz-operating diode circuits.

  4. Enzymatic hydrolysis of gelatin layers of X-Ray films and release of silver particles using keratinolytic serine proteases from Purpureocillium lilacinum LPS # 876.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavello, Ivana Alejandra; Hours, Roque Alberto; Cavalitto, Sebastián Fernando

    2013-08-01

    Enzymatic decomposition of gelatin layers on used X-ray films and repeated utilization of the enzyme for potential application in silver recovery were investigated using keratinolytic serine proteases from Purpureocillium lilacinum LPS # 876. At pH 9.0, the enzymatic reaction was enhanced by the increase of enzyme concentration or by the increase of the temperature up to 60℃. Under the conditions of 6.9 U/ml, 60℃, and pH 9.0, hydrolysis of the gelatin layers and the resulting release of silver particles were achieved within 6 min. The protective effect of polyols against thermal denaturation was investigated. The presence of glycerol and propylene glycol increased enzyme stability. When the reusability of the enzyme for gelatin hydrolysis was tested, it could be seen that it could be effectively reused for more cycles when glycerol was added, compared with the enzyme without protective agents. The results of these repeated treatments suggested that a continuous process of recycling silver from used X-ray is feasible. Keeping in mind that recycling is (at the present time) needed and imperative, it can be remarked that, in this research, three wastes were successfully used: hair waste in order to produce serine proteases; glycerol in order to enhance enzyme thermal stability; and used Xray films in order to recover silver and PET films.

  5. Freestanding single crystal chemical vapor deposited diamond films produced using a lift-off method: Response to {alpha}-particles from {sup 241}Am and crystallinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsubouchi, Nobuteru, E-mail: nobu-tsubouchi@aist.go.jp [Diamond Research Laboratory, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-8-31 Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka 563-8577 (Japan); Mokuno, Y. [Diamond Research Laboratory, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-8-31 Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka 563-8577 (Japan); Kakimoto, A.; Fujita, F.; Kaneko, J.H. [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Yamada, H.; Chayahara, A.; Shikata, S. [Diamond Research Laboratory, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-8-31 Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka 563-8577 (Japan)

    2012-09-01

    Thick ({approx}100 {mu}m) undoped diamond films were grown homoepitaxially on single crystal (SC) diamond substrates by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (CVD). To form a freestanding SC diamond film (plate), the substrate was pre-ion-implanted with high-energy ion beams before the film growth, and after the thick-film deposition, the substrate was eliminated using a lift-off method, resulting in fabrication of a SC CVD diamond plate. Two samples were prepared; sample 1 was grown on a (0 0 1) oriented, nitrogen doped CVD SC diamond at {approx}900 Degree-Sign C with the input microwave power of 1.7 kW, while sample 2 was grown on a (0 0 1) oriented, high-pressure high-temperature synthesized type-Ib SC diamond at {approx}900 Degree-Sign C with the input microwave power of 1.25 kW. The formed SC plates have high optical transparencies, indicating no remarkable optical absorptions seen in the wavelength from ultraviolet to near infrared. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of both samples show strong free exciton FE peaks, while in sample 2 relatively strong optical emissions corresponding to nitrogen related centers were observed in the visible region. After the metal electrodes were formed on both faces of the SC diamond plate to fabricate a sandwich-type diamond particle detector, the energy spectra of 5.486 MeV {alpha}-particles from {sup 241}Am were measured. The charge collection efficiencies (CCEs) of sample 1 were CCE = 98% for a hole transport and CCE = 89% for an electron transport, respectively, while CCEs of sample 2 were CCE = 80% for a hole transport and CCE = 78% for an electron transport, respectively. These results indicate that both holes and electrons in sample 2 were trapped much more than those in sample 1. Possible candidates of carrier capture centers are nitrogen and/or nitrogen-vacancy centers observed in PL, nonradiative defect (complex) centers, extended defects such as threading dislocations observed in micrographs taken with

  6. Coupling effect between film boiling heat transfer and evaporation drag around a hot-particle in cold liquid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-Yan; YANG Yan-Hua; XU Ji-Jun

    2003-01-01

    Extremely rapid evaporation could occur when high-temperature particles contact withlow-temperature liquid. This kind of phenomenon is associated with the engineering safety and the problems inhigh-transient multi-phase fluid and heat transfer. The aim of our study was to design and build an observable ex-periment facility. The first series of experiments were performed by pouring one or six high-temperature particles intoa low saturated temperature liquid pool. The particle's falling-down speed was recorded by a high-speed camera, thuswe can find the special resistant feature of the moving high-temperature particles, which is induced by the high-speedevaporation surrounding the particles. The study has experimentally verified the theory of evaporation drag model.

  7. Geochemical aspects of Kejal kaolin deposit, northwest of Hashtjin, Ardebil province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abedini

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Kajal kaolin deposit is located ~20 km northwest of Hashtjin, Ardebil province. Field evidence and laboratory investigations show that the deposit is an alteration product of ignimbrites, tuffs, and trachy-andesites of Eocene age. According to mineralogical data, the major rock-forming minerals include kaolinite, montmorillonite, polygorskite, orthoclase, zeolite (stilbite, quartz, and chalcedony. Mass change calculations of elements, with assumption of Ti as immobile monitor element, indicate that leaching and fixation are two prominent regulators for concentration of major, minor, trace, and rare earth elements in the deposit. The distribution pattern of REEs, normalized to ignimbrite, in kaolin samples illustrates a weak fractionation of LREEs from HREEs coupled with strong negative Eu anomaly during the evolution of the deposit. Calculations of correlation coefficients among elements show that there is a high intrinsic correlation between HREEs in the studied samples. According to geochemical indices, it can be inferred that the hypogene alterations are superimposed by supergene ones in the course of evolution of the deposit. In accordance with the mode of distribution of elements in the deposit, it appears that the behavior of elements during kaolinization of ignimbrites was affected by the function of factors such as pH, redox potential, temperature variations, high fluid to rock ratio, preferential adsorption by clays and iron oxides, discrepancies in the stability rate of minerals, abundance of complex-forming ions (CO32-, F־, Cl־, PO43-, and SO42-, and isomorphic substitution. The obtained results indicate that epithermal acid-sulfate solutions along with acidic supergene solutions originated from oxidation of hypogene pyrites played an important role in development of the deposit. Further geochemical considerations show that clay minerals along with secondary phosphates like monazite, rabdophane, and xenotime are the potential hosts

  8. Chemotherapy-induced kaolin intake is increased by lesion of the lateral parabrachial nucleus of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Charles C; De Jonghe, Bart C; Matyas, Kathleen; Norgren, Ralph

    2009-11-01

    Anticancer agents, such as cisplatin, stimulate nausea, vomiting, and behaviors indicative of malaise. Rats and mice do not possess a vomiting response, and, therefore, in these species, the ingestion of kaolin clay (a pica response) has been used as an index of malaise. In the rat, cisplatin-induced kaolin intake is inhibited by antiemetic treatments. In addition, cisplatin activates vagal afferent fibers in the gut, and kaolin intake induced by cisplatin is largely dependent on an intact vagus. Nevertheless, little is known about the brain pathways controlling pica. We investigated the role of the lateral parabrachial nucleus (lPBN), a major visceral afferent link between the hindbrain and forebrain, in cisplatin-induced c-Fos expression and pica. Injection of cisplatin (6 mg/kg ip) produced c-Fos expression in the ventrolateral (external) lPBN, a region receiving viscerosensory input. In rats with bilateral ibotenic acid lPBN lesions, cisplatin treatment substantially increased kaolin intake compared with controls ( approximately 30 g vs. approximately 5 g, respectively, over 24 h). Food intake was reduced by cisplatin treatment and by apomorphine, an emetic agent that acts centrally. Unlike cisplatin, however, apomorphine stimulated kaolin intake to a similar degree in both the lesioned and control rats, suggesting that lPBN damage neither produces nonspecific effects nor enhances malaise in general. These data suggest that lPBN-lesioned animals not only demonstrate pica after cisplatin treatment, but, in fact, show an exaggerated response that is greatly in excess of any treatment known to produce kaolin intake in rats.

  9. Fly ash/Kaolin based geopolymer green concretes and their mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoye, F N; Durgaprasad, J; Singh, N B

    2015-12-01

    Geopolymer concrete mixes were cast using fly ash, kaolin, sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, sodium silicate and aggregates. Portland cement concrete (M30) was used as a reference sample. The effect of silica fume, temperature (40 °C, 60 °C, 80 °C, 100 °C and 120 °C), sodium and potassium hydroxides and different superplasticizers on the compressive strength are reported [1]. Maximum strength was found at 100 °C and 14 M alkali solution [1].

  10. Composition variations in Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} thin films analyzed by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, particle induced X-ray emission, photoluminescence, and Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Dahyun [Department of Physics, Sogang University, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Opanasyuk, A.S.; Koval, P.V.; Ponomarev, A.G. [Department of Electronics and Computer Technology, Sumy State University, Sumy UA-40007 (Ukraine); Jeong, Ah Reum; Kim, Gee Yeong; Jo, William [Department of Physics, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Cheong, Hyeonsik, E-mail: hcheong@sogang.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Sogang University, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Compositional and structural studies of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} (CZTSe) thin films were carried out by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE), photoluminescence, and Raman spectroscopy. CZTSe thin films with different compositions were deposited on sodalime glass by co-evaporation. The composition of the films measured by two different methods, EDS and PIXE, showed significant differences. Generally, the Zn/Sn ratio measured by EDS is larger than that measured by PIXE. Both the micro-PIXE and the micro-Raman imaging results indicated the compositional and structural inhomogeneity of the sample. - Highlights: • Particle induced X-ray emission was used to analyze the composition of CZTSe films. • Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy tends to underestimate the Sn composition. • Local Raman intensity is related with the composition rather than the crystallinity.

  11. Kaolin-induced ventriculomegaly at weaning produces long-term learning, memory, and motor deficits in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michael T; Braun, Amanda A; Amos-Kroohs, Robyn M; McAllister, James P; Lindquist, Diana M; Mangano, Francesco T; Vorhees, Charles V; Yuan, Weihong

    2014-06-01

    Ventriculomegaly occurs when there is imbalance between creation and absorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF); even when treated, long-term behavioral changes occur. Kaolin injection in the cisterna magna of rats produces an obstruction of CSF outflow and models one type of hydrocephalus. Previous research with this model shows that neonatal onset has mixed effects on Morris water maze (MWM) and motoric performance; we hypothesized that this might be because the severity of ventricular enlargement was not taken into consideration. In the present experiment, rats were injected with kaolin or saline on postnatal day (P)21 and analyzed in subgroups based on Evan's ratios (ERs) of the severity of ventricular enlargement at the end of testing to create 4 subgroups from least to most severe: ER0.4-0.5, ER0.51-0.6, ER0.61-0.7, and ER0.71-0.82, respectively. Locomotor activity (dry land and swimming), acoustic startle with prepulse inhibition (PPI), and MWM performance were tested starting on P28 (122cm maze) and again on P42 (244cm maze). Kaolin-treated animals weighed significantly less than controls at all times. Differences in locomotor activity were seen at P42 but not P28. On P28 there was an increase in PPI for all but the least severe kaolin-treated group, but no difference at P42 compared with controls. In the MWM at P28, all kaolin-treated groups had longer path lengths than controls, but comparable swim speeds. With the exception of the least severe group, probe trial performance was worse in the kaolin-treated animals. On P42, only the most severely affected kaolin-treated group showed deficits compared with control animals. This group showed no MWM learning and no memory for the platform position during probe trial testing. Swim speed was unaffected, indicating motor deficits were not responsible for impaired learning and memory. These findings indicate that kaolin-induced ventriculomegaly in rats interferes with cognition regardless of the final enlargement of

  12. Elevated CSF outflow resistance associated with impaired lymphatic CSF absorption in a rat model of kaolin-induced communicating hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jie

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We recently reported a lymphatic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF absorption deficit in a kaolin model of communicating hydrocephalus in rats with ventricular expansion correlating negatively with the magnitude of the impediment to lymphatic function. However, it is possible that CSF drainage was not significantly altered if absorption at other sites compensated for the lymphatic defect. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of the lymphatic absorption deficit on global CSF absorption (CSF outflow resistance. Methods Kaolin was injected into the basal cisterns of Sprague Dawley rats. The development of hydrocephalus was assessed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. In one group of animals at about 3 weeks after injection, the movement of intraventricularly injected iodinated human serum albumin (125I-HSA into the olfactory turbinates provided an estimate of CSF transport through the cribriform plate into nasal lymphatics (n = 18. Control animals received saline in place of kaolin (n = 10. In a second group at about 3.5 weeks after kaolin injection, intraventricular pressure was measured continuously during infusion of saline into the spinal subarachnoid space at various flow rates (n = 9. CSF outflow resistance was calculated as the slope of the steady-state pressure versus flow rate. Control animals for this group either received no injections (intact: n = 11 or received saline in place of kaolin (n = 8. Results Compared to saline injected controls, lateral ventricular volume in the kaolin group was significantly greater (0.087 ± 0.013 ml, n = 27 versus 0.015 ± 0.001 ml, n = 17 and lymphatic function was significantly less (2.14 ± 0.72% injected/g, n = 18 versus 6.38 ± 0.60% injected/g, n = 10. Additionally, the CSF outflow resistance was significantly greater in the kaolin group (0.46 ± 0.04 cm H2O.μL-1.min, n = 9 than in saline injected (0.28 ± 0.03 cm H2O.μL-1.min, n = 8 or intact animals (0.18 ± 0

  13. Synthesis and characterization of zeolite NaP using kaolin waste as a source of silicon and aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrando, Edemarino Araujo, E-mail: edemarino@ufpa.br [Universidae Federal do Para (UFPA), Maraba, PA (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia de Materias. Lab. de Materiais Ceramicos; Andrade, Christiano Gianesi Bastos; Valenzuela-Diaz, Francisco Rolando [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Metalurgia e Engenharia de Materiais; Rocha Junior, Carlos Augusto Ferreira da; Neves, Roberto de Freitas [Universidae Federal do Para (UFPA), Maraba, PA (Brazil). Int. de Tecnologia. Fac. de Engenharia Quimica; Angelica, Romulo Simoes [Universidae Federal do Para (UFPA), Maraba, PA (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Fac. de Geologia

    2014-08-15

    The synthesis of zeolite NaP using kaolin waste, from the Amazon region, as a predominant source of silicon and aluminum has been studied. The zeolitisation process occurred in hydrothermal conditions using static autoclaving and the effects of time, temperature, and the Si/Al ratio were investigated. The starting material and the phases formed as reaction products were characterized by XRD, SEM and FTIR. The results showed that pure zeolite NaP is hydrothermally synthesized, at 100 °C for 20 hours, using meta kaolin waste material in alkaline medium in presence of additional silica. The XRD and SEM analyses indicate that the synthesized zeolite presents good crystallinity. (author)

  14. Incorporation of cobalt and nickel metal nano-particles in nano-grain zirconia film matrix by solution route

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Jana; P K Biswas

    2000-08-01

    Precursor solutions of cobalt/nickel incorporated nano-grain zirconia films were prepared from aquo-organic solutions of zirconium oxychloride octahydrate and corresponding transition metal nitrate. The films were deposited onto silica glass substrate by the dipping technique. Annealing was made at different temperatures from 450°C to 1200°C ± 5°C in air atmosphere. The range of thickness of the films baked at 450°C was 1800–1870 Å. For cobalt system Co3O4 was formed initially at 450°C which gradually transformed to alpha cobalt and next to cubic cobalt along with a non-stoichiometric compound (Zr0.71Co0.23O0.06) with increasing annealing temperature. On the other hand, for nickel system nickel metal of nano-size was observed in the nano-grain zirconia film matrix at 450°C. By increasing annealing temperature to 1200°C, a compound, ZrNi4O, was formed which was found to be stable for ∼ 30 days.

  15. Nano Particles on Aging Characteristics of Polyimide Film%纳米颗粒对聚酰亚胺膜老化特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹开江; 吴广宁; 张依强; 徐慧慧; 罗杨; 王鹏

    2013-01-01

    为了研究高频方波脉冲电压下高速铁路牵引电机绝缘的老化、失效机理,给电机绝缘结构的设计和优化提供理论基础,本文研究了高频方波脉冲下牵引电机定子绝缘的老化特性.在高频方波脉冲下,对普通和纳米复合薄膜进行了老化,通过扫描电镜分析了试样表面形貌的变化情况,并对试样的剩余击穿场强进行了测试分析.研究表明:老化1小时后两种薄膜的表面形貌都发生了明显改变但变化不同,纳米粒子的添加延缓了局部放电对纳米复合薄膜的老化速率,老化2小时后普通薄膜和纳米复合薄膜的击穿场强分别下降了27.55%和12.90%.%To provide theoretical basis for design and optimization of traction motor insulation structure, an investigation of aging and failure mechanism of insulation materials under high frequency impulse voltage was carried out through inspecting aging characteristics of stator insulation under high frequency square impulse voltage. Electrical aging test was performed on the common and corona resistant polyimide (PI) films with different aging time under high frequency square impulse voltage. The dammage instance of polyimide films' surface was observed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the residual insulation strength was measured and analyzed. Results show that after one hour time aging the surface morphology of the two polyimide film are changed distinctly, but the damage instances were completely different. Nano particles in the corona resistant film slow down the aging rate compared with that of common film. Residual dielectric strength of common and corona resistant polyimide films were reduced by 27. 55% and 12. 90% after two hours aging, respectively.

  16. Atividade pozolânica dos resíduos do beneficiamento do caulim para uso em argamassas para alvenaria Pozolanic activity of kaolin processing residues for use in masonry mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romualdo R. Menezes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A indústria do beneficiamento do caulim gera enorme quantidade de resíduos, descartados indiscriminadamente no meio ambiente; assim, este trabalho tem por objetivo analisar a viabilidade técnica e a atividade pozolânica dos resíduos do beneficiamento do caulim para a produção de argamassas. Os resíduos foram caracterizados através da determinação de sua distribuição granulométrica e composição química, difração de raios X e análise térmica diferencial e gravimétrica; em seguida, determinou-se o índice de atividade pozolânica dos resíduos de caulim com a cal e o cimento Portland. Argamassas de cimento:cal:areia foram preparadas e o resíduo, na condição natural e após queima a 600 °C por 2 h, substituiu parcialmente o cimento nas proporções de 5, 10, 15 e 20% em massa. Corpos-de-prova foram moldados e determinada sua resistência a compressão simples. Conclui-se, com base nos resultados, que os resíduos são constituídos de caulinita, mica e quartzo e que a utilização do resíduo calcinado aumenta a resistência das argamassas após 28 dias de cura em até 150%.The kaolin processing industry generates large amounts of waste, which is indiscriminately dumped in open-air sites. This work evaluates the technical suitability and pozolanic activity of kaolin processing wastes for the production of mortars. The wastes were characterized by particle size distribution and chemical composition determination, X-ray diffraction and thermal differential and gravimetric analyses. The pozolanic activity index was determined using lime and Portland cement. Cement:lime:sand mortars were formulated and the kaolin wastes replaced cement by 5, 10, 15 and 20% on weight basis. The kaolin wastes were used in their natural condition and after thermal treatment at 600 °C for 2 h. Test specimens were produced and their compression strength determined. The results indicated that the waste consists of quartz, kaolinite and mica, and

  17. Methods for producing complex films, and films produced thereby

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duty, Chad E.; Bennett, Charlee J. C.; Moon, Ji -Won; Phelps, Tommy J.; Blue, Craig A.; Dai, Quanqin; Hu, Michael Z.; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Jellison, Jr., Gerald E.; Love, Lonnie J.; Ott, Ronald D.; Parish, Chad M.; Walker, Steven

    2015-11-24

    A method for producing a film, the method comprising melting a layer of precursor particles on a substrate until at least a portion of the melted particles are planarized and merged to produce the film. The invention is also directed to a method for producing a photovoltaic film, the method comprising depositing particles having a photovoltaic or other property onto a substrate, and affixing the particles to the substrate, wherein the particles may or may not be subsequently melted. Also described herein are films produced by these methods, methods for producing a patterned film on a substrate, and methods for producing a multilayer structure.

  18. 油粒子体积对扩散的影响及油膜粒子化改进%Impact of Size of Oil-particle on Oil Film and Improved Method of Changing Oil Slick into Particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨红; 王珂; 胡松; 林军; 韩众; 解满俊

    2011-01-01

    In the application of oil-particle method to simulate the oil spill, there are a lot of options for the size of characteristic oil-particle and the method of changing oil slick into particles. Effects by different sizes of characteristic oilparticle were analyzed and compared. Results showed that under the same total volume of oil spills, the simulated area of oil spill increased by 14%~25% as the size of the characteristic oil-particle decreased by 50% and simulated area of oil spill increased by 31%~43% as the size of the characteristic oil-particle decreased by 10 times. Two-stage method was proposed to improve the oil-particle method which has a shortage in calculating oil spill area, however, the two-stage method evenly distributed the changing oil slick into particles in space, while the oil film should be normal distributed in space. The method of changing oil slick into particles has been improved, and results show that the two methods are not much different in calculating the oil spill area, but the method improves the calculation of the slickness of oil film calculation according to the actual instance.%在应用油粒子法模拟溢油运动时,特征油粒子在体积和油膜粒子化方法上可以有多种选择,文章就不同特征体积的油粒子对溢油面积的影响进行了分析和比较,结果显示,溢油量相同时,特征油粒子的体积每减小一倍,溢油扩散面积增加14%-25%,减小10倍时,达到31%-43%.针对溢油扩散面积计算不足的情况,已有学者提出用"两阶段"法进行改进.但"两阶段"法在油膜粒子化时采用的是平均分布,而此时的油膜应为正态分布,即中间厚,向四周逐渐减少.因此,文章应用正态分布法对油膜粒子化进行改进,得到自己的油膜粒子化方法.结果显示,两方法在计算溢油面积时并无太大的差别,但在油膜厚度计算方面,文章方法更接近实际情况.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of mangan oxide coated sand from Capkala kaolin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destiarti, Lia; Wahyuni, Nelly; Prawatya, Yopa Eka; Sasri, Risya

    2017-03-01

    Synthesis and characterization of mangan oxide coated sand from quartz sand fraction of Capkala kaolin has been conducted. There were two methods on synthesis of Mangan Oxide Coated Sand (MOCS) from Capkala Kaolin compared in this research. Characterization of MOCS was done by using Scanning Electron Microscope/Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometer (SEM/EDX) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The MOCS was tested to reduce phosphate in laundry waste. The result showed that the natural sand had bigger agregates and a relatively uniform structural orientation while both MOCS had heterogen structural orientation and manganese oxide formed in cluster. Manganese in first and second methods were 1,93% and 2,63%, respectively. The XRD spectrum showed clear reflections at 22,80°, 36,04°, 37,60° and a broad band at 26,62° (SiO2). Based on XRD spectrum, it can be concluded that mineral constituents of MOCS was verified corresponding to pyrolusite (MnO2). The former MOCS could reduce almost 60% while the later could reduce 70% phosphate in laundry waste.

  20. The effect of dabigatran on the kaolin-activated whole blood thromboelastogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    'Aho, A; Byrne, K

    2016-11-01

    Dabigatran is a direct thrombin inhibitor, which is increasingly likely to be encountered in patients presenting for surgery. This study examines whether there is a consistent effect of dabigatran on the thromboelastogram (TEG) and whether this correlates with the effects of dabigatran on traditional coagulation parameters. Twenty patients taking dabigatran had blood sampled for kaolin-activated whole blood TEG analysis and routine coagulation testing. There was a statistically significant correlation between thrombin clotting time (TCT) and R-time (R=0.77, P=0.0001) and between activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and R-time (R=0.68, P=0.0013), but not between TCT and alpha-angle (R= -0.4232, P=0.071). Despite the moderate to high correlation between the TEG R-time and the TCT and APTT, there appeared to be no consistent effect of dabigatran on the TEG. These findings suggest that use of kaolin-activated whole blood TEG does not add additional benefit to traditional coagulation tests when monitoring the effect of dabigatran.

  1. Biodegradability and swelling capacity of kaolin based chitosan-g-PHEMA nanocomposite hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Arun Kumar; Rana, Pradeep Kumar; Sahoo, Prafulla Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Chitosan, a natural biopolymer, obtained by alkaline deacetylation of chitin, exhibits excellent biological properties such as biodegradability, immunological and antibacterial activity. Recently, there has been a growing interest in the chemical modification of chitosan in order to widen its applications. The chemical modification of chitosan has been achieved via grafting of monomer, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) in the presence of the initiator, ammonium persulfate (APS) and kaolin was added to improve the mechanical strength of the newly developed nanocomposites hydrogel. The so prepared grafted nanocomposites hydrogel was characterized by FTIR, XRD, SEM, TEM and TGA. The equilibrium water content (EWC) of the samples were measured at different pH ranges 6.5-8.0 and found optimum at pH 7.5 for biomedical applications. Further, the biodegradability of the samples was studied at different time intervals from 15 days to 1 year but, the kaolin based nanohydrogels exhibited good biodegradability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Co-cracking of real MSW into bio-oil over natural kaolin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandidi, I. M.; Susila, M. D.; Pambudi, N. A.

    2017-03-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a potential material that can be converted into bio-oil through thermal degradation process or pyrolysis. The efficiency and productivity of pyrolysis can be increased with the use of natural catalyst like kaolin. The addition of catalyst also reduces the overall cost of conversion process. In this study conversion of MSW into Bio Fuel using Pyrolysis in the presence of of natural kaolin as catalyst has been investigated for 60 min at 400°C temperature. During the process 0.5 w/w catalyst to MSW ratio was maintained. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to analyse the chemical composition of bio fuel. It is found that bio-oil production increases substantially with the use of catalyst. It is observed that the production of bio-oil is 23.6 % with the use of catalyst in process, which was only 15.2 % without the use of catalyst. The hydrocarbon range distribution of oil produced through pyrolysis reveals that gasoline and diesel fuel (C5-C20) are its main constituents. The functional group detected in bio-oil by GC-MS analysis is similar to that of diesel-48 in which paraffin and olefin are major mass species.

  3. Effect of Rice Husk and Diatomite on the Insulating Properties of Kaolin - Clay Firebricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Ogo ONCHE

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out to investigate the effect of rice husk and diatomite on the insulating properties of kaolin-clay firebrick. Five firebrick samples of different compositions were fired at 900°C, 1000°C, 1100°C, and 1200°C. Samples A-E are all insulating firebricks that can withstand temperatures ranging from 900°C to 1200°C since none of the samples crumbled during firing. The results showed that they all had good insulating characteristics with their highly porous structure making them suitable for backup insulation. Mixing ratios of 3:2:4:1 representing weight in grams of kaolin, plastic clay, rice husk and diatomite respectively for sample D gave the optimum performance values in terms of modulus of rupture, apparent porosity, apparent density, bulk density, and thermal conductivity at all temperatures. At 1200°C, the values are 22.57kgf/cm2 for modulus of rupture, 98.25% for apparent porosity, 2.38g/cm3 for apparent density, 1.11g/cm3 for bulk density, and 0.038w/mK for thermal conductivity.

  4. Microstructural evolution and phase transformation of different sintered Kaolins powder compacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghorbel, Atidel [Laboratory of Industrial Chemistry (LCI), National School of Engineering, BPW 3038 Sfax (Tunisia)], E-mail: gh_atidel@yahoo.fr; Fourati, Mohieddine; Bouaziz, Jamel [Laboratory of Industrial Chemistry (LCI), National School of Engineering, BPW 3038 Sfax (Tunisia)

    2008-12-20

    Four kinds of Kaolins (K{sub 1}, K{sub 2}, K{sub 3} and K{sub 4}) from various origins were studied using X-ray diffraction, {sup 29}Si and {sup 27}Al MAS-NMR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Mineralogical and morphological characteristics of these samples are given. Kaolinte is the principal mineral but other minerals are present in small quantities: Illite, Muscovite and Quartz. The thermal behaviour of K{sub 1}, K{sub 2}, K{sub 3} and K{sub 4} was studied. The transformation heats during heating were quantified from DTA measurements and phase changes were followed by X-ray diffraction analyses and {sup 29}Si and {sup 27}Al MAS-NMR spectroscopy. Results indicated that a series of phase transformations take place as the Kaolin is fired at elevated temperature. Mullite is first formed at a temperature as low as 1100 deg. C. Microstructural evolution of this specimen and their mechanical properties are investigated.

  5. Spent wash decolourization using nano-Al2O3/kaolin photocatalyst: Taguchi and ANN approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles David

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The intense colour of the spent wash effluent leads to crucial ecological issue when released untreated into the environment. The decolourization of distillery spent wash effluent is known to be a very challenging task. In this study, the degradation of organic pollutants in the form of colour was performed using nano photocatalyst prepared using aluminium oxide (Al2O3 nanoparticle and kaolin clay. As-synthesized nano-Al2O3/kaolin composites were used as photocatalyst for colour degradation of spent wash effluent. The process parameters such as dosage, pH, temperature and agitation were optimized to attain the maximum decolourization efficiency. The structural and the textural characteristics of the photocatalyst were analysed by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET surface area analysis, High Resolution Scanning Electron Microscope (HRSEM and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDAX. Optimization of the process parameters using Taguchi Orthogonal Array (OA design resulted in a maximum of 80% spent wash decolourization. Using Artificial Neural Network (ANN, a two layered feedforward backpropagation model resulted as the best performance and predictive model for spent wash decolourization. The experimental data were found to be in excellent agreement with the predicted results from the ANN model.

  6. Kaolin-based foliar reflectant and water deficit influence Malbec leaf and berry temperature, pigments, and photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of a kaolin-based foliar reflectant on traits of commercial interest in the red-skinned wine grape cultivar Malbec (Vitis vinifera L.) were evaluated over three growing seasons by measuring the surface temperatures of leaves and clusters, leaf-level assimilation, leaf and berry pigment c...

  7. Reduction in toxicity of arsenic(III) to Halobacillus sp. Y35 by kaolin and their related adsorption studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yong; Yao, Jun; He, Minyan; Choi, Martin M F; Feng, Liang; Chen, Huilun; Wang, Fei; Chen, Ke; Zhuang, Rensheng; Maskow, Thomas; Wang, Gejiao; Zaray, Gyula

    2010-04-15

    The growth of Halobacillus sp. Y35 has been investigated in HGM hypersaline medium with different doses of As(III) and kaolin. The metabolic heat flux decreases with the increase in As(III) concentration, indicating that strain Y35 lowers their metabolic activity in order to resist the As(III) toxicity. Carbon dioxide flux, cell growth and protein synthesis rates, and total thermal effect have been, for the first time, successfully employed simultaneously to assess the effect of As(III) on strain Y35 in the absence and presence of kaolin. The relative adsorption capacity and adsorption intensity of kaolin for As(III) are higher with strain Y35 than that without strain Y35, demonstrating that it is possible to reduce the toxicity of As(III) to our environment by both using mineral adsorption and biosorption technology. Our work shows the potential application of kaolin and strain Y35 for the removal of As(III) from contaminated groundwater. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of kaolin addition on the performance of controlled low-strength material using industrial waste incineration bottom ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganathan, Sivakumar; Razak, Hashim Abdul; Hamid, Siti Nadzriah Abdul

    2010-09-01

    Incineration of industrial waste produces large quantities of bottom ash which are normally sent to secured landfill, but is not a sustainable solution. Use of bottom ash in engineering applications will contribute to sustainability and generate revenue. One way of using the industrial waste incineration bottom ash is in controlled low-strength material (CLSM). Use of bottom ash in CLSM has problems related to bleeding and excessive strength development and so an additive has to be used to control bleeding and strength development. The main objective of this research is to study the effect of kaolin addition on the performance of CLSM made using industrial waste incineration bottom ash. CLSM mixes were made with bottom ash, cement, and refined kaolin. Various tests were performed on the CLSM in fresh and hardened states including compressive strength, water absorption, California bearing ratio (CBR) and the tests for concentration of leachable substances on the bleed and leachate. The compressive strength of CLSM tested ranged from 0.11 to 9.86 MPa. CBR values ranged from 6 to 46, and water absorption values from 12 to 36%. It was shown that the addition of kaolin delayed the initial setting time of CLSM mixtures, reduced bleeding, lowered the compressive strength, and increased the values of water absorption, sorption, and initial surface absorption. The CLSM tested did not have corrosivity. It was shown that the hardened CLSM was non hazardous, and the addition of kaolin increased the concentration of heavy metals and salts in the bleed and leachate.

  9. Kaolin exogenous application boosts antioxidant capacity and phenolic content in berries and leaves of grapevine under summer stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinis, L-T; Bernardo, S; Conde, A; Pimentel, D; Ferreira, H; Félix, L; Gerós, H; Correia, C M; Moutinho-Pereira, J

    2016-02-01

    Heat waves, high light intensities and water deficit are becoming important threats in many important viticultural areas worldwide, so the implementation of efficient and cost-effective mitigation strategies is crucial for the production of premium wines while maintaining productivity. In this context, the foliar application of kaolin, a chemically inert mineral with excellent reflective properties, is being developed and experimented as a strategy to reduce the impact of heat and drought in Douro vineyards (Northern Portugal), already revealing promising results. In the present study we investigated if an improved antioxidant capacity is part of the beneficial effects of kaolin, by studying changes in the enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant system in leaves and berries (cv Touriga Nacional). Results showed that mature grape berries contained higher amounts of total phenols (40%), flavonoids (24%), anthocyanins (32%) and vitamin C (12%) than fruits from control vines, and important changes were also measured in leaves. In parallel, kaolin application improved the antioxidant capacity in berries, which was correlated with the observed increased content in secondary metabolites. Kaolin application also regulated secondary metabolism at the transcriptional level through the increase in the transcript abundance of genes encoding phenylalanine ammonia lyase and chalcone synthase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of Grain and Calcinations Kaolin Additives on Some Mechanical and Physical properties on Low DensityPolyethylene Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanaib Y. Shnean

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a composite material was prepared from Low-density polyethylene (LDPE with different weight percent of grain and calcinations kaolin at temperature of (850oC using single screw extruder and a mixing machine operated at a temperature between (190-200oC. Some of mechanical and physical properties such as tensile strength, tensile strength at break, Young modulus, and elongation at break, shore hardness and water absorption were determined at different weight fraction of filler (0, 2, 7, 10 and 15%. It was found that the addition of filler increases the modulus of elasticity, elongation at break, shore hardness and impact strength; on other hand, it decreases the tensile strength and tensile strength at a break. Absorption test was carried out in water at different immersion times and different composite .The results of absorption show that it obeys Fick’s law and after the addition of kaolin the amount of absorption decrease. Calcinations kaolin filler produces better mechanical properties , than grain kaolin fillers.

  11. Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}: Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+} spherical particles based anti-reflection and wavelength conversion bi-functional films: Synthesis and application to solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Hui [School of Physics, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); National Photoelectric Technology and Functional Materials & Application of Science and Technology International Cooperation Base, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Ji, Ruonan [School of Physics, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Hu, Xiaoyun, E-mail: hxy3275@nwu.edu.cn [School of Physics, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); National Photoelectric Technology and Functional Materials & Application of Science and Technology International Cooperation Base, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Han, Linzi; Hao, Yuanyuan; Sun, Qian [School of Physics, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Zhang, Dekai [School of Physics, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); National Photoelectric Technology and Functional Materials & Application of Science and Technology International Cooperation Base, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Fan, Jun [School of Chemical Engineering, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Bai, Jintao [School of Physics, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); National Photoelectric Technology and Functional Materials & Application of Science and Technology International Cooperation Base, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); and others

    2015-04-25

    Highlights: • Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} co-doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles were successfully prepared. The as prepared particles can convert UV region photos to visible photons between 460 nm and 640 nm, which just matched the spectral response of most solar cells. • Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} is not only a good photoluminescence host material, but also it has high corrosion resistivity, thermal stability, and transparency from violet to infrared light. Cooperated with SiO{sub 2} sols, it could realize a better anti-reflection property. • As a proof-of-concept application, the as prepared bi-functional films could effectively improve the photoelectric conversion efficiency by 0.23% compared to pure SiO{sub 2} AR coating film and 0.55% compared to glass. - Abstract: In this study, Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} co-doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles were prepared via the simple, cost-effective urea homogeneous precipitation method without additives. The chosen particles were added in the SiO{sub 2} sols to get anti-reflection (AR) and wavelength conversion bi-functional films. Careful investigations were carried out to find the optimum preparation conditions and proper morphology. SEM images showed that the particle sizes reduced as metal ion/urea ratio decreased. Additionally, the extracted particles turned from sphere to lamellar type when the deionized water, which was used as solvent, reduced to a certain extent. The mechanisms of the morphology formation and diversification were proposed as well. The as prepared materials can convert UV region photos to visible photons between 460 nm and 640 nm, which just matched the spectral response of most solar cells. The spherical sample showed better luminescence performance than the one with lamellar morphology. In addition, the optical transmittance spectra indicated that the films adding spherical particles had better anti-reflective performance, and the best adding amount was 0.08 g. Finally, As a proof-of-concept application

  12. A Novel Conductive Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene-BSA Film for the Construction of a Durable HRP Biosensor Modified with NanoAu Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangcheng Xu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have investigated the contribution of bovine serum albumin (BSA to the durability of the electrochemically synthesized poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT film on a platinum (Pt electrode. The electrode was capable to effectively adsorb the nano Au particles (AuNPs to form a uniform layout, which was then able to immobilize the horseradish peroxidase (HRP to construct a functional HRP/AuNPs/PEDOT(BSA/Pt biosensor. Cyclic voltammetry was employed to evaluate the performance of the biosensor through the measurement of hydrogen peroxide. Our results revealed a satisfied linear correlation between the cathodic current and the concentration of H2O2. Furthermore, the addition of oxidized form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, or NAD+, as the electron transfer mediator in the detection solution could dramatically enhance the sensitivity of detection by about 35.5%. The main advantages of the current biosensor are its durability, sensitivity, reliability, and biocompatibility.

  13. Caulins brasileiros: alguns aspectos da geologia e da mineralogia Brazilian kaolins: some aspects of the geology and mineralogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Richard Wilson

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available A dimensão do Brasil e a diversidade da geologia se reflete em vários meios nos quais montagens de caulinita foram formadas. Os meios geológicos dos caulins brasileiros podem ser divididos nos seguintes grupos - caulins sedimentares, caulins oriundos de pegmatitas, de rochas graníticas, de rochas vulcânicas, e caulins derivados de anortosito. As argilas sedimentares são encontradas principalmente na bacia amazônica e aquelas adjacentes ao rio Jari estão sendo exploradas comercialmente para exportação como argilas para recobrimento de papel. Os caulins amazônicos são caracterizados por alto teor de ferro e titânia (estruturais com baixos níveis de álcalis e exibindo cristais de caulinita euédricos. As pegmatitas do sudeste, quando não recobertas com óxido de ferro, tem extremamente baixos teores de ferro e titânia e uma mistura de caulinita 7Å / haloisita 10Å ocorre em todos depósitos. As pegmatitas do nordeste produzem caulins constituídos somente por caulinitas euédricas com ausência de haloisita. Os caulins de granito tem geralmente maiores teores de ferro quando comparados com pegmatitas e são raros os depósitos constituídos somente por caulinita, sendo comum uma mistura de caulinita 7Å / haloisita. Os caulins obtidos da pegmatita e do granito são utilizados como cobertura de papel e em cerâmica em geral. Argilas de origem vulcânica são utilizadas em cerâmicas na região. Os caulins obtidos de anortosito são semelhantes em níveis de ferro e titânia àqueles obtidos de caulins graníticos. Montagens de caulinita e pequenas quantidades de haloisita 7Å são encontrados. Essas argilas são usadas tanto em cerâmicas de mesa quanto em preenchimentos para papel.The size of Brazil and the diversity of geology is reflected in varying environments in which kaolinite assemblages have been formed. The geological environments of the Brazilian kaolin may be divided into the following groups - sedimentary kaolin

  14. Synthesis of microporous material faujasite-type from kaolin waste; Sintese de material microporoso do tipo faujasita a partir de rejeito de caulim

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrando, E.A.; Valenzuela-Diaz, F.R., E-mail: edemarino@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais. Lab. de Materias-Primas Particuladas e Solidos nao Metalicos; Angelica, R.S. [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Fac. de Geologia; Neves, R.F. [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Inst. de Tecnologia. Fac. de Engenharia Quimica

    2010-07-01

    Zeolite with structure faujasite was synthesized using kaolin waste from kaolin processing industries for paper coating as predominant source of silicon and aluminum; the starting material was characterized by XRF, XRD, DTA/TG, SEM, and products obtained by XRD and SEM. Synthesis in hydrothermal conditions occurred on autoclave and time-temperature effects, as well as the relationship Si/Al were considered. The results show that the methodology developed with the waste of calcined kaolin reacting at 90 deg C for 20 hours in an alkaline medium, in the presence of an additional source of silica was obtained zeolite Y as single phase present in the product. (author)

  15. Effects of Cu(II on the Adsorption Behaviors of Cr(III and Cr(VI onto Kaolin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanjuan Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of Cr(III or Cr(VI in the absence and presence of Cu(II onto kaolin was investigated under pH 2.0–7.0. Results indicated that the adsorption rate was not necessarily proportional to the adsorption capacity. The solutions’ pH values played a key role in kaolin zeta potential (ζ, especially the hydrolysis behavior and saturation index of heavy metal ions. In the presence of Cu(II, qmixCr(III reached the maximum adsorption capacity of 0.73 mg·g−1 at pH 6.0, while the maximum adsorption capacity for the mixed Cr(VI and Cu(II system (qmixCr(VI was observed at pH 2.0 (0.38 mg·g−1. Comparing the adsorption behaviors and mechanisms, we found that kaolin prefers to adsorb hydrolyzed products of Cr(III instead of Cr3+ ion, while adsorption sites of kaolin surface were occupied primarily by Cu(II through surface complexation, leading to Cu(II inhibited Cr(VI adsorption. Moreover, Cr(III and Cr(VI removal efficiency had a positive correlation with distribution coefficient Kd. Cr(III and Cr(VI removal efficiency had a positive correlation with distribution coefficient Kd and that of adsorption affinities of Cr(III or Cr(VI on kaolin was found to be Kd Cr(III Kd Cr(VI-Cu(II.

  16. A comparative study of tissue factor and kaolin on blood coagulation assays using rotational thromboelastometry and thromboelastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Henry T; Grodecki, Richard; Rizoli, Sandro; Shek, Pang N

    2016-01-01

    Rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) and thromboelastography (TEG) have been increasingly used to diagnose acute coagulopathy and guide blood transfusion. The tests are routinely performed using different triggering activators such as tissue factor and kaolin, which activate different pathways yielding different results. To optimize the global blood coagulation assays using ROTEM and TEG, we conducted a comparative study on the activation methods employing tissue factor and kaolin at different concentrations as well as standard reagents as recommended by the manufacturer of each device. Key parameter values were obtained at various assay conditions to evaluate and compare coagulation and fibrinolysis profiles of citrated whole blood collected from healthy volunteers. It was found that tissue factor reduced ROTEM clotting time and TEG R, and increased ROTEM clot formation time and TEG K in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, tissue factor affected ROTEM alpha angle, and maximum clot firmness, especially in the absence of kaolin activation, whereas both ROTEM and TEG clot lysis (LI30, CL30, and LY30) remained unaffected. Moreover, kaolin reduced ROTEM clotting time and TEG R and K, but to a lesser extent than tissue factor, in-tem and ex-tem. Correlations in all corresponding parameters between ROTEM and TEG were observed, when the same activators were used in the assays compared with lesser correlations between standard kaolin TEG and ROTEM (INTEM/EXTEM). The two types of viscoelastic point-of-care devices provide different results, depending on the triggering reagent used to perform the assay. Optimal assay condition was obtained to reduce assay time and improve assay accuracy.

  17. Kaolin-based hemostatic dressing improves hemorrhage control from a penetrating inferior vena cava injury in coagulopathic swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koko, Kiavash R; McCauley, Brian M; Gaughan, John P; Nolan, Ryan S; Fromer, Marc W; Hagaman, Ashleigh L R; Choron, Rachel L; Brown, Spencer A; Hazelton, Joshua P

    2017-07-01

    Retrohepatic inferior vena cava (RIVC) injuries are often lethal due to challenges in obtaining hemorrhage control. We hypothesized that packing with a new kaolin-based hemostatic dressing (Control+; Z-Medica, Wallingford, CT) would improve hemorrhage control from a penetrating RIVC injury compared with packing with standard laparotomy sponges alone. Twelve male Yorkshire pigs received a 25% exchange transfusion of blood for refrigerated normal saline to induce a hypothermic coagulopathy. A laparotomy was performed and a standardized 1.5 cm injury to the RIVC was created which was followed by temporary abdominal closure and a period of uncontrolled hemorrhage. When the mean arterial pressure reached 70% of baseline, demonstrating hemorrhagic shock, the abdomen was re-entered, and the injury was treated with perihepatic packing using standard laparotomy sponges (L; n = 6) or a new kaolin-based hemostatic dressing (K; n = 6). Animals were then resuscitated for 6 hours with crystalloid solution. The two groups were compared using the Wilcoxon rank sum test and Fisher exact test. A p value of 0.05 or less was considered statistically significant. There was no difference in the animal's temperature, heart rate, mean arterial pressure, cardiac output, and blood loss at baseline or before packing was performed (all p > 0.05). In the laparotomy sponge group, five of six pigs survived the entire study period, whereas all six pigs treated with kaolin-based D2 hemostatic dressings survived. Importantly, there was significantly less blood loss after packing with the new hemostatic kaolin-based dressing compared with packing with laparotomy sponge (651 ± 180 mL vs. 1073 ± 342 mL; p ≤ 0.05). These results demonstrate that the use of this new hemostatic kaolin-based dressing improved hemorrhage control and significantly decreased blood loss in this penetrating RIVC model. This is basic science research based on a large animal model, level V.

  18. Effects of Melatonin on the Cerebellum of Infant Rat Following Kaolin-Induced Hydrocephalus: a Histochemical and Immunohistochemical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyanıkgil, Yiğit; Turgut, Mehmet; Baka, Meral

    2017-02-01

    Hydrocephalus is a developmental disorder causing abnormally collected cerebrospinal fluid within the cerebral ventricles. It leads to bigger skulls and many dysfunctions related to the nervous system. Here, we addressed whether exogenous melatonin administration could reverse the clinical features of kaolin-induced hydrocephalus in infantile rats. A controlled double-blinded study was conducted in 2-week-old 45 Wistar albino rats, which were divided into three groups: Group A, the control group, received intracisternal sham injection with solely the needle insertion; group B, the hydrocephalus group, was treated with isotonic NaCl after kaolin injection; and group C, the hydrocephalus + melatonin group, was given i.p. exogenous melatonin at a dose of 0.5 mg/100 g body weight after kaolin injection. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed after the induction of hydrocephalus and melatonin administration. Glial fibrillary acidic protein was stained by immunohistochemical method. TUNEL method was used to define and quantitate apoptosis in the cerebellar tissues. Statistical analysis was performed by nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis H test, and once significance was determined among means, post hoc pairwise comparisons were carried out using Mann-Whitney U test. We found that melatonin administration significantly ameliorated ratio of substantia grisea area/substantia alba area in the cerebellum of infantile rats. Histologically, there was a significant reduction in the number of cerebellar apoptotic cells after the hydrocephalus induced by kaolin (P kaolin-induced hydrocephalus. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to suggest melatonin as a candidate protective drug in children with hydrocephalus.

  19. Alternatif Pembuatan Biodiesel Melalui Transesterifikasi Minyak Castor (Ricinus communis Menggunakan Katalis Campuran Cangkang Telur Ayam dan Kaolin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soni - Setiadji

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel was produced by transesterification of castor oil (Ricinus communis using a catalyst of CaO and kaolin (CaO / kaolin had been performed. CaO was obtained from the calcination of eggshell. Castor oil is selected as biodiesel feedstock because it belongs to non-food oil and easy to cultivate. In general, the research method aims to comprise the CaO / Kaolin catalysts with a ratio of 15 mmol CaO per 1 gram of kaolin activated using impregnation method and biodiesel produced through transesterification of castor oil using the catalyst at 65 ºC for 8 hours with ratio of castor oil: methanol: catalyst (1: 15: 5% w / w. The reaction is carried out on the reflux system. The XRD analysis show the presence of silica and potassium aluminum silicate hydroxide in the catalyst. The EDS results show the catalyst-forming components CaO and silica. The FTIR analysis results show the absorption peak in the functional group forming the methyl ester compound. Based on the characterization of GC-MS, the largest methyl ester components contained in biodiesel are methyl risinoleate, methyl elaidat, methyl stearate, methyl linoleate, and methyl palmitate. The overall conversion of castor oil to methyl ester using CaO / kaolin catalyst is 97.36%. The largest component in castor oil is risinoleic acid, has been successfully converted to methyl risinoleate by 74.75%.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15408/jkv.v0i0.4778

  20. Effect of Aluminum Source on Adsorption Performance of Lithium Orthosilicate Based Adsorbents from Kaolin Clay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE; Hongyan; DING; Tong; LI; Yulong; MA; Zhi; CHEN; Weiqiang

    2015-01-01

    A novel lithium orthosilicate based adsorbent doping with halloysite nanotubes(HNTs) was synthesized with Kaolin clay and SiO2 by an impregnation-precipitation method.The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy,nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm analysis and thermo-gravimetry,respectively.The results indicate that the reactivity of Li4SiO4 for CO2 absorption can be enhanced by doping alumina.Different aluminum sources result in different degrees of the CO2 adsorption performance.It is also found that the CO2 capture amount of the adsorbent doping with Halloysite nanotubes is 15.25 wt.%at 560 ℃,which is better than that of the adsorbent doping with γ-Al2O3(i.e.,10.88 wt.%).

  1. Effect of Aluminum Source on Adsorption Performance of Lithium Orthosilicate Based Adsorbents from Kaolin Clay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Hongyan; DING Tong; LI Yulong; MA Zhi; CHEN Weiqiang

    2015-01-01

    A novel lithium orthosilicate based adsorbent doping with halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) was synthesized with Kaolin clay and SiO2 by an impregnation-precipitation method. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm analysis and thermo-gravimetry, respectively. The results indicate that the reactivity of Li4SiO4 for CO2 absorption can be enhanced by doping alumina. Different alu-minum sources result in different degrees of the CO2 adsorption performance. It is also found that the CO2 capture amount of the adsorbent doping with Halloysite nanotubes is 15.25wt.% at 560℃, which is better than that of the ad-sorbent doping withγ-Al2O3(i.e., 10.88wt.%).

  2. Young's modulus and thermal expansion of ceramic samples made from kaolin and zeolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunitrová, Ivana; Trník, Anton

    2016-07-01

    In this study we investigate the dependence of Young's modulus, mass change, and thermal expansion of ceramic samples made from a varying amount of kaolin (100 - 50 %) and zeolite (0 - 50 %) on the firing temperature. The samples are fired in a furnace at different temperatures from room temperature up to 1100 °C with a heating rate of 5°C.min-1 and 5 min soaking time at the highest temperature. Afterwards, the samples are freely cooled down and their mass, dimensions and resonant frequency are measured at room temperature. The resonant frequency (from which Young's modulus is calculated) is measured using an apparatus based on the impulse excitation technique (IET). Young's modulus of green samples is the highest for the sample containing 10 mass% of zeolite (3.2 GPa). After sintering the sample with 50 mass% of zeolite has the highest value (11.3 GPa).

  3. Unbelievable but true: Partial thromboplastin time, kaolin 120 s and yet no surgical bleed!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shagun Bhatia Shah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Partial thromboplastin time, kaolin (PTTK is a global test sensitive to low levels of all the coagulation factors, except Factor VII and Factor XIII. Patients with extensive cancer have a propensity to develop a shortened PTTK. Our breast cancer patient had a prolonged PTTK result roughly 4 times the normal values. A detailed description of the preoperative workup including the special investigations is required to ascertain the cause of the prolongation and precautions taken, leading to successful breast cancer surgery and postoperative period in this patient follows. Allowing the surgeon to operate a patient with a PTTK >120 s and simultaneously at risk of thrombosis due to lupus anticoagulant is possible with a calculated risk and thorough preoperative evaluation. Prophylactic fresh frozen plasma and deep venous thrombosis prophylaxis have an important role.

  4. The effects of different compaction energy on geotechnical properties of kaolin and laterite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Siti Aimi Nadia Mohd; Bakar, Ismail; Wijeyesekera, D. C.; Zainorabidin, Adnan; Azmi, Mastura; Ramli, Harris

    2017-08-01

    Strength and deformation parameters of compacted soil are known to be related to soil type and moisture. However, little attention has been directed towards understanding the influence of compaction energy on soil type and moisture. This study considers the effect of different compaction energy on certain geotechnical properties of Kaolin and Laterite soil. This paper describes a laboratory study conducted to evaluate the relationship between soil type, soil moisture content with different compaction energy and strength characteristic. Specimens were compacted with impact energy at levels of 596 kg/m3(Standard Proctor) and 2682 kJ/m3 (Modified Proctor) over a wide range of moisture contents to determine dry unit weight, and Unconfined Compression Strength Test (UCS). Result shows that compaction energy is an important factor in determining soil strength that should be considered during the planning phase of any earthwork construction operation.

  5. Sintering of anorthite based ceramics prepared from kaolin DD2 and calcite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaiou, S.; Harabi, A.; Harabi, E.; Guechi, A.; Karboua, N.; Benhassine, M.-T.; Zouai, S.; Guerfa, F., E-mail: Zaiou_21@yahoo.fr, E-mail: harabi52@gmail.com, E-mail: semouni84@gmail.com, E-mail: guechia@yahoo.fr, E-mail: kanour17@yahoo.fr, E-mail: mtb25dz@gmail.com, E-mail: zouaisouheila@yahoo.fr, E-mail: guerfatiha@gmail.com [Ceramics Lab., Faculty of Exact Science, Physics Department, Mentouri University of Constantine (Algeria)

    2016-10-15

    In this work, the preparation of anorthite based ceramics using a modified milling system and 80 wt% kaolin (DD2 type) and 20 wt% calcium oxide extracted from CaCO{sub 3} is shown. The choice of these raw materials was dictated by their natural abundance. Previous studies have shown that a simple and vibratory multidirectional milling system using a bimodal distribution of highly resistant ceramics can be successfully used for obtaining fine powders. The prepared samples were sintered at different temperatures ranging between 800 and 1100 °C. It has been found that the relative density of samples sintered at 900 °C for 1 h with a heating rate of 5 °C/min was about 96% of the theoretical density of anorthite (2.75 g/cm{sup 3} ). Finally, the prepared samples were also characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. (author)

  6. Utilisation of Sand from Kaolin Washing for the Manufacture of Alkali-activated Artificial Sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavro, Martin; Vavro, Leona; Mec, Pavel; Soucek, Kamil; Pticen, Frantisek; Reiterman, Pavel

    2017-04-01

    Sandstones represent a traditional natural stones which are widely used in Czech architecture and sculpture over a long time. Thanks to their relatively easy workability, sandstones provide a wide range of stone products and also represent a popular material for architectural and sculptural purposes. In the field of restoration of artworks, they are therefore often used for manufacturing stone statue copies originally made from the same or similar type of stone. Despite a relatively common and varied occurrence of natural sandstones, the method of the artificial stone facsimiles creation in the form of various cast elements is also often applied in restoration practice. The history of application of artificial stones in civil engineering and architecture goes back to the ancient times, i.e. to Roman antiquity and possibly up to the time of ancient Egypt. The lack of appropriate natural rock, suitable in the view of colour, grain size or texture is the main reason of manufacturing copies based on synthetic mixtures. The other reason is high financial costs to create a sculpture copy from natural materials. Mixtures made from white and/or grey cements, sands, carefully selected crushed stone or well graded natural gravels, and mineral coloring pigments or mixtures with acrylate, polyester, and epoxy resins binder are the most frequently used artificial materials for cast stone manufacturing. This paper aims to bring information about composition and properties of artificial sandstones made from alkali-activated binder mixtures based on metakaolin and granulated blast furnace slag. The filler of this artificial stone is represented by fine-grained sand generated during kaolin wet processing. Used sand is mainly formed by quartz, feldspars, micas (muscovite > biotite), residual kaolin, and to a lesser extent also by Fe oxyhydroxides ("limonite"), titanium dioxide mineral (probably anatase), and carbonate mineral unidentified in detail. Annual Czech production of this

  7. Color and shade parameters of ultramarine zeolitic pigments synthesized from kaolin waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menezes, Raquel Aranha de; Paz, Simone Patricia Aranha da; Angelica, Romulo Simoes; Neves, Roberto de Freitas; Pergher, Sibele Berenice Castella, E-mail: raquel_arn@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Grupo de Mineralogia e Geoquimica Aplicada

    2014-08-15

    Ultramarine pigments were successful synthesized from zeolite A obtained from kaolin waste. This waste has been used as an excellent source of silicon and aluminum for zeolite synthesis because of its high kaolinite concentrations and low contents of other accessory minerals. The cost is naturally less than the industrialized product. Color additives (Sulfur and Sodium Carbonate) were mixed with different proportions of zeolite A and further calcined for 5 h at 500 °C. They were characterized by XRD and XRF in addition to visual classification by color and shade. These products show colors from blue to green at different shades, both influenced by the amount of additives and cooling rate after calcination. Thus, a different quantity of the same additives in the same zeolitic matrix provides an increase in the color intensity. Cooling rate after calcination induces the color change which is substantially important in the pigments production. (author)

  8. Mineralogical and chemical characterization of DD3 kaolin from the east of Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senoussi, H.; Osmani, H.; Courtois, C.; Bourahli, M. H.

    2016-08-01

    The mineralogical and chemical characteristics, based on X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy, of a kaolin known as DD3, from eastern Algeria were examined in the present study. The results showed that kaolin DD3 has an alumina content of 39%. The SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} molar ratio of 2.14 is close to that of a pure halloysite. The hematite concentration is relatively large and the flux oxides ratios remain as acceptable impurities. Microscopic observations showed a predominant tubular halloysite phase, flattened hexagonal platelets corresponding to the presence of kaolinite and its polymorphs (nacrite, dickite), and hydrated alumina. The SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} molar ratio and tubular DD3 suggest possible uses in technical ceramics and nano technology applications. Analysis by XRD revealed the presence of many phases. Thermal treatment at 450 degree centigrade and chemical treatment with HCl confirmed the presence of halloysite. The inclusion in the clay of organic molecules (dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), DMF, and diluted glycerol) showed that the DMSO led to expansion of the inter-planar distance. The intercalation by DMSO molecules resulted in a shift of the basal peak from 10 to 11.02 A and partial displacement of the peak from 3.35 to 3.65 A. These two peaks are characteristic of halloysite. The presence of residual nacrite was also confirmed by the shift of the peak observed at 3.35 A. A full analysis of the XRD patterns using the Match software, based on these results, showed that the DD3 clay consists of >60% halloysite. (Author)

  9. Interpretation of the stiffness and permeability of Sand-Kaolin mixtures in the framework of homogenization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Boutin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the behaviour of mixtures of sand and saturated kaolin paste considered as composite materials made of permeable and deformable (with non-linear behaviour matrix (the kaolin paste with rigid and impervious inclusions (the sand grains. Oedometric and permeability tests conducted on such mixtures highlight the key role of the state of the clay paste, and show the existence of a threshold of sand grain concentration above which a structuring effect influences both modulus and permeability. At the light of these experiments, the usual and tangent homogenization process (with simplifying assumptions to make the problem manageable has been applied to estimate the mixture permeability and tangent compressibility. Qualitative and quantitative comparisons with experimental data point out the domain of interest and the limitations of such approaches.O estudo lida com o comportamento de misturas compostas por areia e uma pasta de caulinita considerada um material composto feito de uma matriz (caulinita permeável e deformável (com comportamento não-linear com inclusões rígidas e impermeáveis (grãos de areia. Testes de permeabilidade e odométricos conduzidos nestas misturas enfatizam o papel chave de estado da pasta argilosa e mostram a existência de uma concentração crítica de grãos de areia com efeito estruturante que influencia o módulo e a permeabilidade. Sob a luz destes experimentos o processo de homogeneização usual e tangente (com hipóteses simplificadoras para tornar o problema tratável foi aplicado para estimar a permeabilidade da mistura e a compressibilidade tangente. Comparações qualitativas e quantitativas com dados experimentais apontam o domínio de interesse bem como a limitação destas abordagens.

  10. Topic usage of kaolin-impregnated gauze as a hemostatic in tonsillectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Delgado, Maria Estela; Kishi-Sutto, Celina Verónica; Albores de la-Riva, Xellic Nallely; Rosales-Cortes, Manuel; Gamboa-Sánchez, Paulino

    2014-12-01

    The main postoperative complications after tonsillectomy are due to bleeding, and effective hemostasis may lead to a reduction of overall postoperative morbidity. This study was undertaken to determine the efficacy and safety of a novel kaolin-based hemostatic dressing in tonsillectomy. A pilot, single-blind, open label study was performed in patients aged 3-20 y with history of chronic or hypertrophic tonsillitis. Cold dissection tonsillectomy (CDT) + ligature was performed by the same surgeon. Hemostasis on each tonsillar fossa was achieved using kaolin-impregnated gauze (KG; study group) or standard surgical cotton gauze (CG; control). Time to complete hemostasis, operative time, intraoperative blood loss, pain score, analgesic use, and return to normal diet and activity were recorded for all children. A total of 230 patients with a mean age of 8.0 y (138 in the study group and 92 in the control group) were included in the study. Both operative time and intraoperative blood loss were significantly reduced in the KG group (P < 0.0001) versus the CG group. At 5 min, 84.8% patients using the KG successfully achieved complete hemostasis versus 34.8% in the CG group where standard gauze controlled bleeding only partially. Results show significantly less pain for the KG group at 6- and 12-h postoperative when compared with the CG group (P < 0.0001). Also, the KG group required less analgesic medications, returned to normal diet and normal activities faster than the CG group (P < 0.01). Preliminary findings show that the KG is effective and safe in managing surgical bleeding after tonsillectomy. In addition to rapid bleeding control, the dressing causes minimal inflammation and pain and allows patients to quickly return to normal activities. This novel dressing is a promising tool for ear, nose and throat surgical hemostasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Investigation of the effect of kaolin and tissue factor-activated citrated whole blood, on clot forming variables, as evaluated by thromboelastograph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Per Ingemar; Bochsen, L.; Andersen, S.

    2008-01-01

    laboratory-based analysis, however, requires validation of the activators employed and the effect of storage of the WB sample in citrate before analysis. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The effect of kaolin, tissue factor (TF) 1:17,000, or TF 1:42,500 on TEG clotting time (R), Angle (velocity of clot formation......), and maximum clot strength (amplitude [MA]) were evaluated, together with day-to-day variation, the coefficient of variance (CV%), and the effect of citrate storage time. RESULTS: Clot formation variables were equally affected by TF 1:17,000 and kaolin activation, whereas R was significantly longer when TF 1...... minutes were evaluated with kaolin as the activator. CONCLUSION: The TEG assays evaluated were reproducible and present with an acceptable CV% for routine clinical practice. Kaolin and TF 1:17,000 equally affected the clot formation variables. Storage of WB for up to 30 minutes in citrate did not, except...

  12. Electrical resistivity characteristics of diesel oil-contaminated kaolin clay and a resistivity-based detection method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhibin; Liu, Songyu; Cai, Yi; Fang, Wei

    2015-06-01

    As the dielectric constant and conductivity of petroleum products are different from those of the pore water in soil, the electrical resistivity characteristics of oil-contaminated soil will be changed by the corresponding oil type and content. The contaminated soil specimens were manually prepared by static compaction method in the laboratory with commercial kaolin clay and diesel oil. The water content and dry density of the first group of soil specimens were controlled at 10 % and 1.58 g/cm(3). Corresponding electrical resistivities of the contaminated specimens were measured at the curing periods of 7, 14, and 28 and 90, 120, and 210 days on a modified oedometer cell with an LCR meter. Then, the electrical resistivity characteristics of diesel oil-contaminated kaolin clay were discussed. In order to realize a resistivity-based oil detection method, the other group of oil-contaminated kaolin clay specimens was also made and tested, but the initial water content, oil content, and dry density were controlled at 0~18 %, 0~18 %, 1.30~1.95 g/cm(3), respectively. Based on the test data, a resistivity-based artificial neural network (ANN) was developed. It was found that the electrical resistivity of kaolin clay decreased with the increase of oil content. Moreover, there was a good nonlinear relationship between electrical resistivity and corresponding oil content when the water content and dry density were kept constant. The decreasing velocity of the electrical resistivity of oil-contaminated kaolin clay was higher before the oil content of 12 % than after 12 %, which indicated a transition of the soil from pore water-controlled into oil-controlled electrical resistivity characteristics. Through microstructural analysis, the decrease of electrical resistivity could be explained by the increase of saturation degree together with the collapse of the electrical double layer. Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) photos indicated that the diesel oil

  13. Communicating hydrocephalus in adult rats with kaolin obstruction of the basal cisterns or the cortical subarachnoid space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; McAllister, James P; Shen, Yimin; Wagshul, Mark E; Miller, Janet M; Egnor, Michael R; Johnston, Miles G; Haacke, E Mark; Walker, Marion L

    2008-06-01

    Communicating hydrocephalus (CH) occurs frequently, but clinically-relevant animal models amenable to diagnostic imaging and cerebrospinal fluid shunting are not available. In order to develop and characterize models of subarachnoid space (SAS) obstruction at the basal cisterns (BC) or cerebral convexities (CX), 25% kaolin was injected in adult female Sprague-Dawley rats following halothane anesthesia; intact- or saline-injected animals served as controls. For BC animals (n=28 hydrocephalics, n=20 controls), an anterior approach to the C1-clivus interval was employed and 30 microl of kaolin or saline was injected. For CX injections (n=13 hydrocephalics, n=3 controls), 50-60 microl of kaolin was injected bilaterally after separating the partitions in the SAS. In BC-injected rats, kaolin was observed grossly in the basal cisterns but not in the cisterna magna or at the foramina of Luschka, indicating that communicating (or extra-ventricular)--not obstructive--hydrocephalus had been induced. Following ketamine/xylazine anesthesia, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of gadolinium injected into the lateral ventricle also demonstrated CSF flow from the foramina of Luschka. MRI also revealed that ventriculomegaly progressed steadily in BC animals and by 2 weeks post-kaolin the mean Evan's ratio (frontal horn) increased significantly (mean 0.45 compared to 0.31 in intact- and 0.34 in saline-injected controls; pkaolin deposits covering approximately 80% of the cerebral hemispheres and developed noticeable ventriculomegaly (mean Evan's ratio 0.40), which was significant relative to intact animals (p=0.011) but not saline-injected controls. Surprisingly, ventriculomegaly following CX injections was less severe and much more protracted, requiring 3-4 months to develop compared to ventriculomegaly produced by BC obstruction. No hydrocephalic animals demonstrated obvious neurological deficits, but BC-injected animals that subsequently developed more severe ventriculomegaly

  14. Cation Dependence, pH Tolerance, and Dosage Requirement of a Bioflocculant Produced by Bacillus spp. UPMB13: Flocculation Performance Optimization through Kaolin Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkeflee, Zufarzaana; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Shamsuddin, Zulkifli H.; Yusoff, Mohd Kamil

    2012-01-01

    A bioflocculant-producing bacterial strain with highly mucoid and ropy colony morphological characteristics identified as Bacillus spp. UPMB13 was found to be a potential bioflocculant-producing bacterium. The effect of cation dependency, pH tolerance and dosage requirement on flocculating ability of the strain was determined by flocculation assay with kaolin as the suspended particle. The flocculating activity was measured as optical density and by flocs formation. A synergistic effect was observed with the addition of monovalent and divalent cations, namely, Na+, Ca2+, and Mg2+, while Fe2+ and Al3+ produced inhibiting effects on flocculating activity. Divalent cations were conclusively demonstrated as the best cation source to enhance flocculation. The bioflocculant works in a wide pH range, from 4.0 to 8.0 with significantly different performances (P < 0.05), respectively. It best performs at pH 5.0 and pH 6.0 with flocculating performance of above 90%. A much lower or higher pH would inhibit flocculation. Low dosage requirements were needed for both the cation and bioflocculant, with only an input of 50 mL/L for 0.1% (w/v) CaCl2 and 5 mL/L for culture broth, respectively. These results are comparable to other bioflocculants produced by various microorganisms with higher dosage requirements. PMID:22997497

  15. Cation Dependence, pH Tolerance, and Dosage Requirement of a Bioflocculant Produced by Bacillus spp. UPMB13: Flocculation Performance Optimization through Kaolin Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zufarzaana Zulkeflee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A bioflocculant-producing bacterial strain with highly mucoid and ropy colony morphological characteristics identified as Bacillus spp. UPMB13 was found to be a potential bioflocculant-producing bacterium. The effect of cation dependency, pH tolerance and dosage requirement on flocculating ability of the strain was determined by flocculation assay with kaolin as the suspended particle. The flocculating activity was measured as optical density and by flocs formation. A synergistic effect was observed with the addition of monovalent and divalent cations, namely, Na+, Ca2+, and Mg2+, while Fe2+ and Al3+ produced inhibiting effects on flocculating activity. Divalent cations were conclusively demonstrated as the best cation source to enhance flocculation. The bioflocculant works in a wide pH range, from 4.0 to 8.0 with significantly different performances (P<0.05, respectively. It best performs at pH 5.0 and pH 6.0 with flocculating performance of above 90%. A much lower or higher pH would inhibit flocculation. Low dosage requirements were needed for both the cation and bioflocculant, with only an input of 50 mL/L for 0.1% (w/v CaCl2 and 5 mL/L for culture broth, respectively. These results are comparable to other bioflocculants produced by various microorganisms with higher dosage requirements.

  16. The photoelectrochemical properties of `Q-state` CdS{sub x} Se{sub (1-x)} particles in Langmuir-Blodgett films deposited onto optically transparent glass electrodes (OTE); Propriedades fotoeletroquimicas de particulas `Q-state`em filmes de Langmuir-Blodgett depositados sobre eletrodos de vidro opticamente transparente (OTE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansur, Herman S.; Vasconcelos, Wander L. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica e Engenharia Metalurgica; Grieser, Franz; Urquhart, Robert S.; Furlong, D. Neil [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Chemistry

    1995-12-31

    CdS `Q-state` particles, with average diameters varying from 2 nm to 10 nm, grown in arachidic acid Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films, deposited onto optically transparent glass electrodes (OTES), were exposed to H{sub 2} Se(g) to form the corresponding Q-state Cd S{sub x} Se{sub (1-x)} particles. Those particles are considered to be made up of a core of CdS and coated with a monolayer of Cd Se. Q-state Cd S-x Se{sub (1-x)} particle formation was verified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and by monitoring a red shift in the UV-visible absorbance spectra relative to that of Cds. XPS results on 5 nm diameter CdS particles that had been grown in an LB film and then extensively exposed to H{sub 2} S (g) revealed a stable average composition of Cd S{sub 0}.{sub 4} Se{sub 06}. A study of the photoelectrochemical behaviour of these systems was conducted through current the open-circuit voltage and a marked increase in the short-circuit current was observed when LB films with Q-state CdS particles were exposed to H{sub 2} Se(g). (author) 4 figs.

  17. The effect on kaolin adsorption of serum on the virus neutralization and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of antibody to bovine herpesvirus 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcel, C L; Kozub, G C

    1984-01-01

    Two procedures have been used for measuring antibody titres to bovine herpes virus 1 (BHV1): the serum neutralization (SN) test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). One hundred and thirty-two sera selected for their low SN titres were tested both unadsorbed and after adsorption with kaolin to determine the effect of kaolin on the titres. With ELISA, the titres of unadsorbed and kaolin adsorbed were not significantly different but with the SN test many treated sera, originally with weak positive titres, became negative after kaolin adsorption. Thus, if the ELISA results are specific for BHV1 antibody then the SN test findings suggest that treatment of sera with kaolin, rather than removing a viral inhibitor, removes a substance from the serum which potentiates SN antibody. This in turn indicates that low SN titres (reciprocal of titre less than or equal to 4, for instance) are probably specific for BHV1 SN antibody whether or not they are abolished by kaolin treatment of the serum.

  18. Photo-Fenton degradation of rhodamine B using Fe2O3-Kaolin as heterogeneous catalyst: characterization, process optimization and mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Sheng; Zhang, Gaoke; Wang, Jiquan

    2014-11-01

    An efficient Fe2O3-Kaolin was synthesized as a heterogeneous catalyst for photo-Fenton degradation of organic contaminants. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis and high-resolution transmission electron microscope analysis confirmed the existence of Fe2O3 nanoparticles in the Fe2O3-Kaolin composite. The specific surface area of the Fe2O3-Kaolin catalyst increased from 19.47 to 39.32m(2)/g compared to kaolin. The catalytic activity of the Fe2O3-Kaolin catalyst was evaluated by the photo-Fenton degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation and the results showed that the catalyst was highly effective for the degradation of RhB in a wide pH range of 2.21-10.13. At optimal conditions, 98% discoloration and 66% mineralization of RhB were achieved in 120min. The catalyst was efficient for the degradation of methylene blue as well. Leaching test indicated that the leached iron from the catalyst was negligible and the catalyst still showed high photocatalytic activity after five reaction cycles, which all showed that the Fe2O3-Kaolin catalyst is a promising heterogeneous photocatalyst for the degradation of various dyes in wastewater. Finally, a possible photocatalytic mechanism was proposed based on photoluminescence measurements and a series of operating conditions.

  19. Preparation and optimization of CdWO4-polymer nano-composite film as an alpha particle counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziluei, Hossein; Azimirad, Rouhollah; Mojtahedzadeh Larijani, Majid; Ziaie, Farhoud

    2017-04-01

    In this research work, CdWO4/polymer composite films with different thicknesses were prepared using Poly-methyl acrylate polymer and synthesized CdWO4 powder. The CdWO4 powder was synthesized by a simple co-precipitation method in the laboratory. X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy proved that the CdWO4 powder was successfully prepared. Moreover, photoluminescence analysis showed that adding polymer does not change the emission peak of CdWO4. Also, the responses of all samples were measured using an 241Am alpha source with 1860 Bq activity. Results showed that the sample having thickness of 177 mg/cm2 has the best counting efficiency (over 2π geometry) among the others. The efficiency measurement was further evaluated using a 230Th source whose activity is 190.7 Bq. It revealed that the counting efficiency of this sample for both 241Am and 230Th was nearly equal.

  20. 高岭土对焚烧烟气中 Pb、Cd 排放的控制特性研究%Control of Pb and Cd emission by kaolin during waste incineration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严玉朋; 黄亚继; 王昕晔; 邵志伟; 张帅毅; 刘长奇; 陈波

    2014-01-01

    The distribution characteristic of lead and cadmium in PM10 was investigated in a fluidized bedincinerator with kaolin as sorbent to control their emissions. The low pressure impactor ( LPI) and atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) were used to detect the size distribution of Pb and Cd in flue gas. Thescanning electron microscope / X-ray diffraction / energy disperse spectroscopy ( SEM/ XRD/ EDS) was used to observe the surface morphology and element distribution, respectively. More than 90% of particulate Pb and 85% of particulate Cd in flue gas are enriched in submicron particles. The volatilization of Pb is significantlyhigher than that of Cd. The reactions of Pb and Cd with kaolin powders can induce the eutectic-melt at high temperature, and its amount increases with the temperature rising. The melted kaolin particles conglutinate tolarger particles which can shift the metals in flue gas from the fine to coarse particles. The addition of kaolin can effectively absorb submicron Pb and Cd. The best absorption efficiencies are up to 80% and 50% respectively.For submicron Pb absorption , the optimum incineration temperature is 950 ℃. For submicron Cd absorption, the reaction temperature is much higher; the obvious absorption process occurs until 1 000 ℃.%采用流化床焚烧炉进行焚烧实验,研究了烟气中颗粒物形态 Pb 和 Cd 的排放规律以及炉内添加高岭土粉末对 Pb、Cd排放的影响。用低压冲击器分级采集颗粒物,原子吸收分光光度计检测 Pb、Cd 浓度,用扫描电镜/ X 射线衍射/能谱仪观察高岭土吸附重金属前后表面形貌和反应物的种类并检测表面元素分布。结果表明,PM10中90%以上的 Pb 和85%以上的 Cd 分布在亚微米颗粒物中;在焚烧炉内,Pb 比 Cd 更易于向 PM10中迁移。高温下高岭土与重金属 Pb、Cd 蒸气反应而产生共晶融化,随温度升高融化量逐渐增加。共晶融化可以促使颗粒相互黏附,促进亚微米重金

  1. Integrated mined-area reclamation and land-use planning. Volume 3C. A case study of surface mining and reclamation planning: Georgia Kaolin Company Clay Mines, Washington County, Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guernsey, J L; Brown, L A; Perry, A O

    1978-02-01

    This case study examines the reclamation practices of the Georgia Kaolin's American Industrial Clay Company Division, a kaolin producer centered in Twiggs, Washington, and Wilkinson Counties, Georgia. The State of Georgia accounts for more than one-fourth of the world's kaolin production and about three-fourths of U.S. kaolin output. The mining of kaolin in Georgia illustrates the effects of mining and reclaiming lands disturbed by area surface mining. The disturbed areas are reclaimed under the rules and regulations of the Georgia Surface Mining Act of 1968. The natural conditions influencing the reclamation methodologies and techniques are markedly unique from those of other mining operations. The environmental disturbances and procedures used in reclaiming the kaolin mined lands are reviewed and implications for planners are noted.

  2. 复合膜中纳米银粒子的光吸收特性研究%The research on optical absorption properties of silver nano-particles in composite film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李贵安

    2001-01-01

    本文通过溶胶凝胶法,制备出金属纳米银粒子复合膜.电镜(TEM)测量结果表明,复合膜中所掺入的银粒子尺寸属纳米量级.实验测出了复合膜中银粒子的吸收光谱,与其在银胶中吸收谱相比,发现其吸收峰红移52.5nm.并对测试结果进行了细致分析.%In the paper ,we reported composite film of silver nano-particles prepared via the Sol-Gel technique and its measurements of the optical absorption. The TEM photograph of composite film showed that silver particles size was nanoscale. The absorption peak of silver nano-particles in composite film yield red-shift as compared with silver nano-particles in colloidal solution. The results were analyzed and discussed in detail.

  3. Electroanalytical method for determination of lead(II) in orange and apple using kaolin modified platinum electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mhammedi, M A; Achak, M; Bakasse, M; Chtaini, A

    2009-08-01

    This paper reports on the use of platinum electrode modified with kaolin (K/Pt) and square wave voltammetry for analytical detection of trace lead(II) in pure water, orange and apple samples. The electroanalytical procedure for determination of the Pb(II) comprises two steps: the chemical accumulation of the analyte under open-circuit conditions followed by the electrochemical detection of the preconcentrated species using square wave voltammetry. The analytical performances of the extraction method has been explored by studying the incubating time, and effect of interferences due to other ions. During the preconcentration step, Pb(II) was accumulated on the surface of the kaolin. The observed detection and quantification limits in pure water were 3.6x10(-9)molL(-1) and 1.2x10(-8)molL(-1), respectively. The precision of the method was also determined; the results was 2.35% (n=5).

  4. Corrosion of Steel Reinforcements in Fly Ash- and Kaolin-based Geopolymer Concrete Immersed in Distilled Water and ASTM Seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astutiningsih S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion behavior of steel bar in fly ash- and kaolin-based geopolymer concrete immersed in aggressive media of distilled water and ASTM seawater was compared to Portland cement concrete having similar mix design. An accelerated corrosion by applying 3 V potential on the steel bar was performed to obtain reasonable test results in a relatively short time. The potential and pH of the immersing media were measured from day 1 to day 10 and then plotted on Pourbaix diagram to predict passivation or corrosion state. At day 10, steel bar in Portland cement concrete were in corroded state both in distilled water and seawater. The best corrosion performance was for kaolin- based geopolymer concrete in which at day-10 the steel bar was passivated in both media. Steel bar in fly ash- based geopolymer concrete was passivated in distilled water but corroded in seawater.

  5. [Effect of Zirconium Modified Kaolin-Based Cap on Migration and Transformation of Phosphorus Between Sediment and Overlying Water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhe; Lin, Jian-wei; Zhan, Yan-hui; Wang, Hong

    2016-04-15

    In this study, microcosm incubation experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of zirconium modified kaolin (ZrMK)-based cap on the migration and transformation of phosphorus (P) between sediments collected from a heavily polluted river and overlying waters under anaerobic conditions. The results showed that a large amount of P was released from the sediments into the overlying water column under anaerobic conditions, and the overwhelming majority of P in the overlying water existed in the form of phosphate. The flux of P from the anaerobic sediments was slightly reduced by the kaolin-based cap, while significantly reduced by the ZrMK-based cap. Sequential extraction of P from the kaolin-based cap at the end of incubation experiments suggested that 29% of P adsorbed by kaolin existed as the bicarbonate-dithionite extracted P (BD-P), and 63% of adsorbed P existed as the residual P (Res-P). Sequential extraction of P from the ZrMK-based cap at the end of incubation experiments suggested that 90% of P adsorbed by ZrMK existed as the NaOH extractable P (NaOH-P) and Res-P, which were unlikely to be released under anaerobic conditions. Compared with no capping, sediments capping with ZrMK did not promote BD-P release from the sediments under anaerobic conditions, but promoted the formation of NaOH-P in the sediments. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and solid state ³¹P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses of ZrMK-based caps before and after sediment incubation experiments indicated that the adsorption of P by the ZrMK-based caps followed the ligand exchange and inner-sphere complexing mechanism. Results of this work indicate that ZrMK is a promising active capping material for controlling P release from sediments in heavily polluted rivers.

  6. Can Thromboelastography performed on kaolin-activated citrated samples from critically ill patients provide stable and consistent parameters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, H; Zollinger, C; Jones, M; Bird, R

    2010-04-01

    Thromboelastography (TEG) is a potentially useful tool but analysis within 4-6 min of collection imposes limitations on its use and access. The use of citrate blood tubes potentially increases the time frame for processing specimens. There is, however, limited research on the stability of citrate specimens, timing of processing and the accuracy of TEG results. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of early and delayed processing on TEG parameters using kaolin-activated citrated blood samples in the intensive care population. TEG analysis was performed on 61 patients. Blood was collected into two 3.2% sodium citrate (0.105 m) tubes. Kaolin-activated samples were analysed at 15, 30 and 120 min postcollection. TEG parameters analysed included reaction time (R), clot formation time (K), alpha angle (alpha), maximum amplitude, LY30, the coagulation index, time to maximum rate of thrombus generation, maximum rate of thrombus generation and total thrombus generation. Sixty-one critically ill patients were included. The results of the anova showed that time from collection was significantly associated with the TEG((R)) results (P kaolin-activated citrate TEG specimens can begin as early as 15 min postvenipuncture. However, delaying processing by more than 30 min leads to a significant change in results.

  7. Use of kaolin as a potential low-cost adsorbent for the removal of malachite green from colored effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foletto, E.L.; Caponi, N.; Collazzo, G.C.; Jahn, S.L.; Dotto, G.L.; Mazutti, M.A. [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: This study investigated the potential of raw kaolin as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal Malachite Green (MG) from colored effluents. The morphology, chemical structure and the surface properties of the adsorbent were investigated by characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. A possible technological application of kaolin is the MG removal from aqueous media, which was investigated by batch adsorption experiments. The adsorption kinetics was studied using the pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and Elovich models. The adsorption isotherms were studied using Langmuir, Freundlich and Sips models. Maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 128 mg g-1, and this satisfactory result may be associated to some properties of adsorbent. Therefore, the results of this investigation revealed that kaolin can be utilized as a promising low-cost adsorbent to remove MG from colored effluents. (author)

  8. Comparing citrated native, kaolin-activated, and tissue factor-activated samples and determining intraindividual variability for feline thromboelastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Amrita; Blois, Shauna L; Wood, R Darren

    2011-11-01

    Thromboelastography (TEG) is a point-of-care whole blood test of hemostasis. While TEG is becoming more widely used in veterinary medicine, few studies describe the use of TEG in cats. The objectives of the current study were to: 1) document the range of TEG variables produced in healthy cats using 3 sample types (citrated native, kaolin-activated, and tissue factor-activated), and 2) determine if there was a significant difference between 2 separate samples obtained from individual healthy cats on the same day. Jugular venipuncture was performed in 20 cats, and citrated blood collected for TEG. TEG analysis was performed on citrated native, kaolin-activated, and tissue factor-activated blood for each sample. Two hours later, the procedure was repeated from the opposite jugular vein, yielding a total of 120 analyses. Reaction time (R), alpha angle (α), kappa value (κ), and maximum amplitude (MA) were recorded from each tracing. No significant differences were found between TEG tracings from the first and second venipuncture samples. Significant differences were found between sample types for R, α, κ, and MA. Means for citrated native/kaolin-activated/tissue factor-activated methods were R = 4.1/3.7/0.6 min; κ = 2.5/1.8/2.2 min; α = 59.9/65.1/70.4 degrees; MA = 47.4/49.9/44.7 mm. A limitation of this study was the small number of cats used. Thromboelastography analysis may be a suitable method of evaluating hemostasis in cats.

  9. Plasma Polymerization of SnOxCy Organic-Like Films and Grafted PNIPAAm Composite Hydrogel with Nanogold Particles for Promotion of Thermal Resistive Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Yen Chou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new type of temperature sensor device was developed. The circular electrode of the thermally sensitive sensor was modified with tetramethyltin (TMT and O2 plasma to form a thin SnOxCy conductive layer on the electrode surface. The nano-Au particles (AuNPs were subjected to O2 plasma pretreatment to form peroxide groups on the surface. The thermally sensitive sensor made by mixing the treated AuNPs with N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm solution and then applying UV-induced grafting polymerization of the NIPAAm-containing solution onto the electrode substrate. The composite hydrogels on the electrode introduce thermo-sensitive polymeric surface films for temperature sensing. Using the ambient environment resistance test to measure the resistance, the lower critical solution temperature (LCST of AuNPs mixed with NIPAAm hydrogel was found to be 32 °C. In common metallic materials, the resistance increased during environmental temperature enhancement. In this study, at ambient temperatures higher than the LCST, the electrode resistance decreases linearly due to the shrinkage structure with AuNPs contacting the circuit electrode.

  10. Reflection of circularly polarized light and the effect of particle distribution on circular dichroism in evaporation induced self-assembled cellulose nanocrystal thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, D.; Vukusic, P.; Eichhorn, S. J.

    2017-06-01

    Evaporation induced self-assembled (EISA) thin films of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) have shown great potential for displaying structural colour across the visible spectrum. They are believed primarily to reflect left handed circularly polarised (LCP) light due to their natural tendency to form structures comprising left handed chirality. Accordingly the fabrication of homogenously coloured CNC thin films is challenging. Deposition of solid material towards the edge of a dried droplet, via the coffee-stain effect, is one such difficulty in achieving homogenous colour across CNC films. These effects are most easily observed in films prepared from droplets where observable reflection of visible light is localised around the edge of the dry film. We report here, the observation of both left and right hand circularly polarised (LCP/RCP) light in reflection from distinct separate regions of CNC EISA thin films and we elucidate how these reflections are dependent on the distribution of CNC material within the EISA thin film. Optical models of reflection are presented which are based on structures revealed using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of film cross sections. We have also employed spectroscopic characterisation techniques to evaluate the distribution of solid CNC material within a selection of CNC EISA thin films and we have correlated this distribution with polarised light spectra collected from each film. We conclude that film regions from which RCP light was reflected were associated with lower CNC concentrations and thicker film regions.

  11. Reflection of circularly polarized light and the effect of particle distribution on circular dichroism in evaporation induced self-assembled cellulose nanocrystal thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Hewson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaporation induced self-assembled (EISA thin films of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs have shown great potential for displaying structural colour across the visible spectrum. They are believed primarily to reflect left handed circularly polarised (LCP light due to their natural tendency to form structures comprising left handed chirality. Accordingly the fabrication of homogenously coloured CNC thin films is challenging. Deposition of solid material towards the edge of a dried droplet, via the coffee-stain effect, is one such difficulty in achieving homogenous colour across CNC films. These effects are most easily observed in films prepared from droplets where observable reflection of visible light is localised around the edge of the dry film. We report here, the observation of both left and right hand circularly polarised (LCP/RCP light in reflection from distinct separate regions of CNC EISA thin films and we elucidate how these reflections are dependent on the distribution of CNC material within the EISA thin film. Optical models of reflection are presented which are based on structures revealed using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM images of film cross sections. We have also employed spectroscopic characterisation techniques to evaluate the distribution of solid CNC material within a selection of CNC EISA thin films and we have correlated this distribution with polarised light spectra collected from each film. We conclude that film regions from which RCP light was reflected were associated with lower CNC concentrations and thicker film regions.

  12. 钛颗粒着火过程氧化膜破裂行为的理论研究%Theoretical Research on Oxide Film Fracture Behavior during Titanium Particle Ignition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    弭光宝; 黄旭; 曹京霞; 曹春晓

    2012-01-01

    在着火热自燃理论基础上,通过分析钛颗粒表面氧化膜与基体之间的应力状态,结合实验事实,提出氧化膜最外层首先发生破裂但不形成贯穿裂纹的观点,基于该观点建立模型理论研究外层氧化膜的破裂行为对钛颗粒着火过程的影响,并对钛的着火过程进行物理模拟实验研究.结果表明:在673 ~1373K范围,当环境温度较低时,钛颗粒发生恒温氧化,氧化膜破裂导致氧化动力学曲线由抛物线向直线转化,当处于高温时,氧化膜的破裂使着火温度降低45K,不会对钛颗粒的着火过程产生强烈影响;当钛颗粒尺寸增大时,钛颗粒的着火温度未出现明显升高,与铝颗粒着火过程氧化膜的完全破裂机制不同;氧化膜内应力的变化使由外而内的裂纹扩展到一定程度后停止,即外层氧化膜不完全破裂,从而加速氧在内层氧化膜内扩散,增大了钛颗粒发生着火的敏感性;非等温氧化实验间接验证了外层氧化膜非贯穿破裂对钛着火过程影响的理论研究.%Based on thermal self-ignition theory, in combination with theoretical analysis of the stress between oxide film and matrix with experiment fact, the viewpoint that outermost oxide film fractured first without penetrating crack was put forward, and based on this viewpoint, the model, studying the effect of outer oxide film fracture behavior on titanium particles ignition was established. Further, the physical analogue experiments about titanium ignition were carried out. Research results showed that in lower temperature during 673 -1373K, titanium particles oxidized thermostatically, and oxidation kinetics curve changed into straight line from parabola due to oxide film fracture. While in higher temperature, ignition temperature was reduced by 45K due to oxide film fracture, which had no obvious effect on ignition process of titanium particles. With increasing in size of titanium particle, there was no obvious

  13. Oil biodegradation: Interactions of artificial marine snow, clay particles, oil and Corexit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahsepar, Shokouh; Langenhoff, Alette A M; Smit, Martijn P J; van Eenennaam, Justine S; Murk, Albertinka J; Rijnaarts, Huub H M

    2017-08-16

    During the Deepwater Horizon (DwH) oil spill, interactions between oil, clay particles and marine snow lead to the formation of aggregates. Interactions between these components play an important, but yet not well understood, role in biodegradation of oil in the ocean water. The aim of this study is to explore the effect of these interactions on biodegradation of oil in the water. Laboratory experiments were performed, analyzing respiration and n-alkane and BTEX biodegradation in multiple conditions containing Corexit, alginate particles as marine snow, and kaolin clay. Two oil degrading bacterial pure cultures were added, Pseudomonas putida F1 and Rhodococcus qingshengii TUHH-12. Results show that the presence of alginate particles enhances oil biodegradation. The presence of Corexit alone or in combination with alginate particles and/or kaolin clay, hampers oil biodegradation. Kaolin clay and Corexit have a synergistic effect in increasing BTEX concentrations in the water and cause delay in oil biodegradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Kinetic studies on surface-mediated activation of bovine factor XII and prekallikrein. Effects of kaolin and high-Mr kininogen on the activation reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugo, T; Kato, H; Iwanaga, S; Takada, K; Sakakibara, S

    1985-01-02

    The kaolin-mediated reciprocal activation of bovine factor XII and prekallikrein was divided into the following two reactions: the activation of factor XII by plasma kallikrein (reaction 1) and the activation of prekallikrein by factor XIIa (reaction 2). The effects of high-Mr kininogen and kaolin surface on the kinetics of these activation reactions were studied. High-Mr kininogen markedly enhanced the rate of reactions 1 and 2 in the presence of kaolin, and the enhancements were highly dependent on the concentrations of the protein cofactor and amount of kaolin surface. For the activation of factor XII by plasma kallikrein (reaction 1), high-Mr kininogen was required when a low concentration of factor XII and kaolin was used. The molar ratio of the protein cofactor to factor XII for optimal activation was found to be approximately 1:1. The apparent Km value and the kcat/Km value for plasma kallikrein on factor XII were calculated to be 4 nM and 5.2 X 10(7) s-1 X M-1, respectively. The activation of prekallikrein by factor XIIa, (reaction 2) proceeded even in the absence of high-Mr kininogen and kaolin. The addition of the protein cofactor and surface to the reaction mixture remarkably accelerated the reaction, and the apparent Km value for factor XIIa on prekallikrein was reduced from 1 microM to 40 nM. Moreover, the kcat/Km value was altered from 7.3 X 10(4) to 1.1 X 10(6) s-1 X M-1). These results suggest that high-Mr kininogen accelerates the surface-mediated activation of factor XII and prekallikrein by enhancing the susceptibility of factor XII to plasma kallikrein, on the one hand, and the affinity of factor XIIa for prekallikrein, on the other hand. Kaolin may play an important role in the concentration and organization of these components on the negatively charged surface.

  15. Application Of Bacterial Iron Reduction For The Removal Of Iron Impurities From Industrial Silica Sand And Kaolin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegeye, A.; Yahaya, S.; Fialips, C. I.; White, M.; Manning, D. A.; Gray, N.

    2008-12-01

    Biogeochemical evidence exists to support the potential importance of crystalline or amorphous Fe minerals as electron acceptor for Fe reducing bacteria in soils and subsurface sediments. This microbial metabolic activity can be exploited as alternative method in different industrial applications. For instance, the removal of ferric iron impurities from minerals for the glass and paper industries currently rely on physical and chemical treatments having substantial economical and environmental disadvantages. The ability to remove iron by other means, such as bacterial iron reduction, may reduce costs, allow lower grade material to be mined, and improve the efficiency of mineral processing. Kaolin clay and silica sand are used in a wide range of industrial applications, particularly in paper, ceramics and glass manufacturing. Depending on the geological conditions of deposition, they are often associated with iron (hydr)oxides that are either adsorbed to the mineral surfaces or admixed as separate iron bearing minerals. In this study, we have examined the Fe(III) removal efficiency from kaolin and silica sand by a series of iron- reducing bacteria from the Shewanella species (S. alga BrY, S. oneidensis MR-1, S. putrefaciens CN32 and S. putrefaciens ATCC 8071) in the presence of anthraquinone 2,6 disulfonate (AQDS). We have also investigated the effectiveness of a natural organic matter, extracted with the silica sand, as a substitute to AQDS for enhancing Fe(III) reduction kinetics. The microbial reduction of Fe(III) was achieved using batch cultures under non-growth conditions. The rate and the extent of Fe(III) reduction was monitored as a function of the initial Fe(III) content, Shewanella species and temperature. The bacterially- treated minerals were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to observe any textural and mineralogical transformation. The whiteness and ISO brightness of the kaolin was also measured by

  16. Edaravone reduces astrogliosis and apoptosis in young rats with kaolin-induced hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Camila Araújo Bernardino; Catalão, Carlos Henrique Rocha; Machado, Hélio Rubens; Júnior, Ivair Matias; Romeiro, Thais Helena; Peixoto-Santos, José Eduardo; Santos, Marcelo Volpon; da Silva Lopes, Luiza

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the possible neuroprotective effects of the free radical scavenger edaravone in experimental hydrocephalus. Seven-day-old Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control group (C), untreated hydrocephalic (H), and hydrocephalic treated with edaravone (EH). The H and EH groups were subjected to hydrocephalus induction by 20% kaolin intracisternal injection. The edaravone (20 mg/kg) was administered daily for 14 days from the induction of hydrocephalus. All animals were daily weighed and submitted to behavioral test and assessment by magnetic resonance imaging. After 14 days, the animals were sacrificed and the brain was removed for histological, immunohistochemical, and biochemical studies. The gain weight was similar between groups from the ninth post-induction day. The open field test performance of EH group was better (p  0.01), germinal matrix (p > 0.05), and cerebral cortex (p > 0.05), as compared to H group. We have demonstrated that administration of edaravone for 14 consecutive days after induction of hydrocephalus reduced astrocyte activity and that it has some beneficial effects over apoptotic cell death.

  17. Smart Natural Fiber Reinforced Plastic (NFRP) Composites Based On Recycled Polypropylene in The Presence Kaolin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suharty, N. S.; Ismail, H.; Diharjo, K.; Handayani, D. S.; Lestari, W. A.

    2017-07-01

    Composites contain double filler material which act as reinforcement and flame retardants of recycled polypropylene (rPP)/kaolin(Kao)/palm oil empty bunch fiber (PEBF) have been succesfully prepared. The composites were synthesized through reactively solution method, using coupling agent PP-g-AA and compatibilizer DVB. The effect of double filler [Kao/PEBF] were investigated flexural strength (FS), inflammability, and morphology. Mechanical testing result in accordance to ASTM D790, the FS of rPP/DVB/PP-g-AA/Kao+ZB/PEBF composite was 48% higher than that of rPP matrix. Moreover, flexural modulus (FM) was significantly improved by 56% as compared to that of rPP matrix. The scanning electron images (SEM) shown good dispersion of [Ka/PEBF] and good filler-matrix interaction. The inflammability testing result which is tested using ASTM D635, showed that the flame resistance of rPP/DVB/PP-g-AA/Kao+ZB/PEBF composite was improve by increasing of time to ignition (TTI) about 857% and burning rate (BR) decreasing to 66% compared to the raw material rPP matrix. In the same time, the addition of 20% (w/w) PEBF as a second filler to form rPP/DVB/PP-g-AA/Kao+ZB/PEBF composites (F5) is able to increase: the FS by 17.5%, the FM by 19%, the TTI by 7.6% and the BR by 3.7% compared to the composite without PEBF (F2).

  18. Strain localization and evolving kinematic efficiency of initiating strike-slip faults within wet kaolin experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatem, Alexandra E.; Cooke, Michele L.; Toeneboehn, Kevin

    2017-08-01

    Using wet kaolin experiments, we document the evolution of strain localization during strike-slip fault maturation under variable boundary conditions (pre-existing fault, depth of and distribution of basal shear). While the nature of the basal shear influences strain localization observed at the clay surface, similarities between experiments reveal a general conceptual model of strain accommodation. First, shear strain is accommodated as distributed shear (Stage 0), then by development of echelon faults (Stage I), then by interaction, lengthening and propagation of those echelon faults (Stage II) and, finally, by slip along through-going fault (Stage III). Stage II serves as a transitory period when the system reorganizes after sufficient strain localization. Here, active fault system complexity is maximized as faults link producing apparent rotation of active fault surfaces without material rotation. As the shear zone narrows, off-fault deformation decreases while fault slip and kinematic efficiency increases. We quantify kinematic efficiency as the ratio of fault slip to applied displacement. All fault systems reach a steady-state efficiency in excess of 80%. Despite reducing off-fault deformation, the through-going fault maintains <1.5 cm structural irregularities (i.e., stepovers), which suggests that small (<3 km) stepovers may persist along mature, efficient faults in the crust.

  19. Mechanochemically induced synthesis of anorthite in MSWI fly ash with kaolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ching-Wei; Sun, Chang-Jung; Gau, Sue-Huai; Hong, Cheng-Lin; Chen, Cheng-Gang

    2013-01-15

    The process of mechanical milling has been found to effectively stabilize heavy metals in municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash, as well as to restrain the evaporation of heavy metals during thermo-treatment. This method is adopted in this study and the composition and degree of amorphization adjusted to improve the efficiency of crystalline anorthite synthesis. Different milling times (1, 5, 10 and 20 h) and different sintering temperatures (900, 950, 1000, 1100, 1200 and 1300 °C) are utilized. The extracted fly ash and kaolin (KEFA) were mixed to simulate an anorthite composite. The experimental results indicate that the degree of amorphization of the KEFA increased as the milling time increased. Furthermore, the synthesis of crystalline anorthite increased as the degree of amorphization increased. The milling process allowed a reduction in the synthesization temperature from 1300 °C to 950 °C. The heavy metals are sealed in during the liquid sintering phase, which reduces the amount of heavy metals released from the sintered specimens. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Mechanical properties of anorthite based ceramics prepared from kaolin DD2 and calcite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Harabi

    Full Text Available Abstract Good quality ceramics costs a lot that has limited their use in developing countries. This work was devoted to prepare low-cost and good quality anorthite based ceramics. The proposed composition was 80 wt% kaolin (DD2 type and 20 wt% calcium oxide (CaO. The choice of these raw materials was dictated by their natural abundance coupled with a modified milling system, as another interesting advantage. Previous studies have shown that a simple vibratory multidirectional milling system using bimodal distribution of highly resistant ceramic milling elements has been successfully applied for obtaining fine powders. The influence of the relatively lower sintering temperature, ranging from 800 to 1100 °C, on the porosity and the average pore size (APS have been investigated. The APS and the porosity values of samples sintered at 950 °C were about 1 μm and 4%, respectively. The best Vickers microhardness and 3-point bending strength values for these sintered samples, using this proposed milling system, were 7.1 GPa and 203 MPa, respectively. Finally, the crystalline phase evolution during heat treatment was investigated by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy techniques.

  1. Effect of temperature on volume change behaviour of statically compacted kaolin clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileme Ogechi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Several soils are subjected to high temperature due to the environment where they are located or activities around them. For instance, upper layer of soils in tropical regions, soils around geothermal structures, clay barriers around nuclear waste repository systems. Numerous studies have pointed out that high temperature affects the hydro-mechanical properties of soils. Notwithstanding already existing studies, the influence of temperature on soils is still a challenge, as most of these studies are soil specific and cannot be inferred as the behaviour of all soils. This paper presents an experimental study on the influence of temperature on the volume change behaviour of statically compacted kaolin clay. Compacted samples were tested at varying temperatures using a suction controlled oedometer cell. The influence of temperature on the magnitude of volumetric strain occurring during mechanical and thermal loading was investigated. The study showed that an increase in temperature increased the magnitude of volumetric strain of the soil on loading. Additionally, the results presented in the light of LC curve showed that an increase in temperature resulted in the contraction and a change in the position of the LC curve.

  2. Magnesium sulfate treatment for juvenile ferrets following induction of hydrocephalus with kaolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Curzio, Domenico L; Turner-Brannen, Emily; Mao, Xiaoyan; Del Bigio, Marc R

    2016-04-27

    Previous work with 3-week hydrocephalic rats showed that white matter damage could be reduced by the calcium channel antagonist magnesium sulfate (MgSO4). We hypothesized that MgSO4 therapy would improve outcomes in ferrets with hydrocephalus induced with kaolin at 15 days. MRI was performed at 29 days to assess ventricle size and stratify ferrets to treatment conditions. Beginning at 31 days age, they were treated daily for 14 days with MgSO4 (9 mM/kg/day) or sham saline therapy, and then imaged again before sacrifice. Behavior was examined thrice weekly. Histological and biochemical ELISA and myelin enzyme activity assays were performed at 46 days age. Hydrocephalic ferrets exhibited some differences in weight and behavior between treatment groups. Those receiving MgSO4 weighed less, were more lethargic, and displayed reduced activity compared to those receiving saline injections. Hydrocephalic ferrets developed ventriculomegaly, which was not modified by MgSO4 treatment. Histological examination showed destruction of periventricular white matter. Glial fibrillary acidic protein content, myelin basic protein content, and myelin enzyme activity did not differ significantly between treatment groups. The hydrocephalus-associated disturbances in juvenile ferret brains are not ameliorated by MgSO4 treatment, and lethargy is a significant side effect.

  3. Effect of extrusion rate on morphology of Kaolin/PolyEtherSulfone (PESf) membrane precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misaran, M. S.; Sarbatly, R.; Bono, A.; Rahman, M. M.

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to investigate the influence of apparent viscosity induced by spinneret geometry and extrusion rate on morphology of Kaolin/PESf hollow fiber membranes. Different extrusion rates at two different rheology properties were introduced on a straight and conical spinneret resulting in various shear rates. The hollow fiber membrane precursors were spun using the wet spinning method to decouple the effect of shear and elongation stress due to gravity stretched drawing. The morphology of the spun hollow fiber was observed under Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and the overall porosity were measured using mercury intrusion porosimeter. Shear rate and apparent viscosity at the tip of the spinneret annulus were simulated using a computational fluid dynamics package; solidworks floworks. Simulation data shows that extrusion rate increment increases the shear rate at the spinneret wall which in turn reduce the apparent viscosity; consistent with a non Newtonian shear thinning fluid behavior. Thus, the outer finger-like region grows as the shear rate increases. Also, overall porosity of hollow fiber membrane decreases with extrusion rate increment which is caused by better molecular orientation; resulting in denser hollow fiber membrane. Thin outer finger-like region is achieved at low shear experience of 109.55 s-1 via a straight spinneret. Increasing the extrusion rate; thus shear rate will cause outer finger-like region growth which is not desirable in a separation process.

  4. Adhesive particle shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott; Rader, Daniel John; Walton, Christopher; Folta, James

    2009-01-06

    An efficient device for capturing fast moving particles has an adhesive particle shield that includes (i) a mounting panel and (ii) a film that is attached to the mounting panel wherein the outer surface of the film has an adhesive coating disposed thereon to capture particles contacting the outer surface. The shield can be employed to maintain a substantially particle free environment such as in photolithographic systems having critical surfaces, such as wafers, masks, and optics and in the tools used to make these components, that are sensitive to particle contamination. The shield can be portable to be positioned in hard-to-reach areas of a photolithography machine. The adhesive particle shield can incorporate cooling means to attract particles via the thermophoresis effect.

  5. Characterization of kaolin wastes from kaolin mining industry from the amazon region as raw material for pozzolans production; Caracterizacao dos residuos cauliniticos das industrias de mineracao de caulim da amazonia como materia-prima para producao de pozolanas de alta reatividade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barata, M.S.; Angelica, R.S., E-mail: msb@amazon.com.br, E-mail: angelica@ufpa.br [Instituto de Geociencias, Universidade Federal do Para, Belem, PA (Brazil)

    2012-01-15

    Capim and Jari are the two most important kaolin mining districts of the Brazilian Amazon region. They encompass the major Brazilian reserves of high quality kaolin for the paper coating industry. The kaolin is mined and processed by three major companies responsible for about 500,000 ton of a residue mainly composed of kaolinite. The wastes come mainly from the centrifugation phase of the kaolin beneficiation process and their final destinations are huge sedimentation basins that occupy large areas. The main purpose of this work is to evaluate the physical, chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the kaolin wastes processed from the Capim and Jari region, in order to obtain meta kaolinite, a high reactive pozzolans for the cement industry. When incorporated to ordinary Portland cement such pozzolans increases the concrete and mortars performance. All the residues studied in this work were characterized by means of: X-ray diffraction analysis, differential thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and laser diffraction. Both residues are mainly constitutes by at least 92% of low granulometry kaolinite with specific surface area above 8 m2 /g and mean diameter below 1 {mu}m. Free silica (quartz) contents are below 3%. The high concentration of kaolinite in these residues dispenses rigid control parameters for removal of impurities usually employed in pozzolans production. The Jari kaolin exhibits high disordered kaolinite in comparison with the high ordered kaolinite of the Capim region and gives rise to higher desidroxilation degree at lower temperatures. It points to energy saving and reducing costs during the production of a pozzolans. The results are satisfactory and reveal that both kaolin wastes are excellent raw material for the production of high reactive meta kaolin. (author)

  6. Final report on the safety assessment of aluminum silicate, calcium silicate, magnesium aluminum silicate, magnesium silicate, magnesium trisilicate, sodium magnesium silicate, zirconium silicate, attapulgite, bentonite, Fuller's earth, hectorite, kaolin, lithium magnesium silicate, lithium magnesium sodium silicate, montmorillonite, pyrophyllite, and zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Amy R

    2003-01-01

    This report reviews the safety of Aluminum, Calcium, Lithium Magnesium, Lithium Magnesium Sodium, Magnesium Aluminum, Magnesium, Sodium Magnesium, and Zirconium Silicates, Magnesium Trisilicate, Attapulgite, Bentonite, Fuller's Earth, Hectorite, Kaolin, Montmorillonite, Pyrophyllite, and Zeolite as used in cosmetic formulations. The common aspect of all these claylike ingredients is that they contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals. Many silicates occur naturally and are mined; yet others are produced synthetically. Typical cosmetic uses of silicates include abrasive, opacifying agent, viscosity-increasing agent, anticaking agent, emulsion stabilizer, binder, and suspending agent. Clay silicates (silicates containing water in their structure) primarily function as adsorbents, opacifiers, and viscosity-increasing agents. Pyrophyllite is also used as a colorant. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has ruled Attapulgite fibers >5 microm as possibly carcinogenic to humans, but fibers mining and processing of Aluminum Silicate, Calcium Silicate, Zirconium Silicate, Fuller's Earth, Kaolin, Montmorillonite, Pyrophyllite, and Zeolite. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel concluded that the extensive pulmonary damage in humans was the result of direct occupational inhalation of the dusts and noted that lesions seen in animals were affected by particle size, fiber length, and concentration. The Panel considers that most of the formulations are not respirable and of the preparations that are respirable, the concentration of the ingredient is very low. Even so, the Panel considered that any spray containing these solids should be formulated to minimize their inhalation. With this admonition to the cosmetics industry, the CIR Expert Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe as currently used in cosmetic formulations. The Panel did note that the cosmetic ingredient, Talc, is a hydrated magnesium silicate

  7. Detection of tPA-Induced Hyperfibrinolysis in Whole Blood by RapidTEG, KaolinTEG, and Functional FibrinogenTEG in Healthy Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genét, Gustav Folmer; Ostrowski, Sisse Rye; Sørensen, Anne Marie

    2012-01-01

    hyperfibrinolysis, as compared to standard KaolinTEG, is unknown. To investigate this, the ability of RapidTEG, KaolinTEG, and functional fibrinogenTEG (FFTEG) to detect tPA-induced (tissue plasminogen activator) lysis in whole blood from healthy individuals was investigated. Our hypothesis was that the initial...... powerful clot formation in the RapidTEG assay would reduce the sensitivity as compared to the normally used KaolinTEG assay. We also evaluated the FFTEG assay. Methods: In vitro comparison of the sensitivity of RapidTEG, KaolinTEG, and FFTEG to 1.8 nmol/L tPA in citrated whole blood (299 ± 23 ng/mL plasma......) induced hyperfibrinolysis in 10 healthy individuals and duplicate titration of the tPA whole blood (WB) concentration from 0.09 to 7.2 nmol/L (14-1144 ng/mL plasma) in 1 healthy donor. Results: At 1.8 nmol/L tPA, KaolinTEG, RapidTEG, and FFTEG all detected fibrinolysis but with different sensitivities...

  8. The photocatalytic application and regeneration of anatase thin films with embedded commercial TiO{sub 2} particles deposited on glass microrods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina-Valtierra, Jorge [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Bioquimica, Tecnologico de Aguascalientes, Av. Adolfo Lopez Mateos No. 182 Ote., Fracc. Bona Gens, Aguascalientes, Ags., 20256 (Mexico)]. E-mail: jormeval@yahoo.com; Garcia-Servin, Josafat [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Bioquimica, Tecnologico de Aguascalientes, Av. Adolfo Lopez Mateos No. 182 Ote., Fracc. Bona Gens, Aguascalientes, Ags., 20256 (Mexico)]. E-mail: josgaser@yahoo.com.mx; Frausto-Reyes, Claudio [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, A.C., Unidad Aguascalientes, Prol. Constitucion No. 607, Reserva de Loma Bonita, Aguascalientes, Ags., 20200 (Mexico)]. E-mail: cfraus@cio.mx; Calixto, Sergio [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, A.C., Loma del Bosque No. 115, Col. Lomas del Campestre, Leon, Gto., 37150 (Mexico)]. E-mail: scalixto@cio.mx

    2006-03-15

    Anatase thin films (<200 nm in thickness) embedding Degussa P25 TiO{sub 2} were prepared by sol-gel method. TiO{sub 2}-anatase thin films were deposited on a fiberglass substrate and then ground to obtain glass microrods containing the composite films. The film structure was characterized using Raman spectroscopy, atomic absorption and UV-vis spectrophotometry, and atomic force microscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the composite films, calcined at 450 deg. C, and the regeneration of the activity under the same experimental conditions, were assessed using gas chromatography to study the photodegradation of phenol, an industrial pollutant, in water under 365 nm irradiation. The film with 15.0 wt.% of P25 TiO{sub 2} was found to be more photoactive (54 ppm of degraded phenol at 6 h of illumination) than the other ones.

  9. Impact of dynamic distribution of floc particles on flocculation effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NAN Jun; HE Weipeng; Song Xinin; LI Guibai

    2009-01-01

    Polyaluminum chloride (PAC) was used as coagulant and suspended particles in kaolin water. Online instruments including turbidimeter and particle counter were used to monitor the flocculation process. An evaluation model for demonstrating the impact on the flocculation effect was established based on the multiple linear regression analysis method. The parameter of the index weight of channels quantitatively described how the variation of floc particle population in different size ranges cause the decrement of turbidity. The study showed that the floc particles in different size ranges contributed differently to the decrement of turbidity and that the index weight of channel could excellently indicate the impact degree of floc particles dynamic distribution on flocculation effect. Therefore, the parameter may significantly benefit the development of coagulation and sedimentation techniques as well as the optimal coagulant selection.

  10. Methods for forming particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Robert V.; Zhang, Fengyan; Rodriguez, Rene G.; Pak, Joshua J.; Sun, Chivin

    2016-06-21

    Single source precursors or pre-copolymers of single source precursors are subjected to microwave radiation to form particles of a I-III-VI.sub.2 material. Such particles may be formed in a wurtzite phase and may be converted to a chalcopyrite phase by, for example, exposure to heat. The particles in the wurtzite phase may have a substantially hexagonal shape that enables stacking into ordered layers. The particles in the wurtzite phase may be mixed with particles in the chalcopyrite phase (i.e., chalcopyrite nanoparticles) that may fill voids within the ordered layers of the particles in the wurtzite phase thus produce films with good coverage. In some embodiments, the methods are used to form layers of semiconductor materials comprising a I-III-VI.sub.2 material. Devices such as, for example, thin-film solar cells may be fabricated using such methods.

  11. Methods for forming particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert V.; Zhang, Fengyan; Rodriguez, Rene G.; Pak, Joshua J.; Sun, Chivin

    2016-06-21

    Single source precursors or pre-copolymers of single source precursors are subjected to microwave radiation to form particles of a I-III-VI.sub.2 material. Such particles may be formed in a wurtzite phase and may be converted to a chalcopyrite phase by, for example, exposure to heat. The particles in the wurtzite phase may have a substantially hexagonal shape that enables stacking into ordered layers. The particles in the wurtzite phase may be mixed with particles in the chalcopyrite phase (i.e., chalcopyrite nanoparticles) that may fill voids within the ordered layers of the particles in the wurtzite phase thus produce films with good coverage. In some embodiments, the methods are used to form layers of semiconductor materials comprising a I-III-VI.sub.2 material. Devices such as, for example, thin-film solar cells may be fabricated using such methods.

  12. Synthesis of kaolin supported nanoscale zero-valent iron and its degradation mechanism of Direct Fast Black G in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Xiaoying; Chen, Zhengxian [Fujian Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007, Fujian Province (China); Zhou, Rongbing [Institute of Environ Sci and Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310018 (China); Chen, Zuliang, E-mail: Zuliang.chen@unisa.edu.au [Fujian Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007, Fujian Province (China); Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia)

    2015-01-15

    Graphical abstract: UV–visible spectra of DFBG solution using K-nZVI (1:1) nanoparticles. (a) Before reaction; (b) during reaction; (c) after reaction. - Highlights: • Kaolin-supported Fe{sup 0} nanoparticle (K-nZVI) was synthesized. • Degradation of Direct Fast Black by K-nZVI was studied. • K-nZVI was characterized by SEM, XRD, UV and FIIR. • Degradation mechanism of Direct Fast Black was proposed. - Abstract: Calcinated kaolin supported nanoscale zero-valent iron (K-nZVI) was synthesized and used for the removal of tetrad azo-group dye-Direct Fast Black G (DFBG) from aqueous solution. The results demonstrated that after reacting for 10 min with an initial concentration of DFBG 100 mg L{sup −1} (pH 9.49), 78.60% of DFBG was removed using K-nZVI, while only 41.39% and 12.56% of DFBG were removed using nZVI and kaolin, respectively. K-nZVI with a mass ratio of nZVI nanoparticles versus kaolin at 1:1 was found to have a high degree of reactivity. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed that nZVI was better dispersed when kaolin was present. XRD patterns indicated that iron oxides were formed after reaction. Fourier transforms infrared spectra (FTIR) and UV–visible demonstrated that the peak in the visible light region of DFBG was degraded and new bands were observed. Kinetics studies showed that the degradation of DFBG fitted well to the pseudo first-order model. The degradation of DFBG by K-nZVI was based on its adsorption onto kaolin and iron oxides, and subsequently reduction using nZVI was proposed. A significant outcome emerged in that 99.84% of DFBG in wastewater was removed using K-nZVI after reacting for 60 min.

  13. Control of the Mexican bean weevil Zabrotes subfasciatus with kaolin Controle do caruncho-do-feijão Zabrotes subfasciatus com caulim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Yatie Mikami

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Mexican bean weevil Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae is an important pest of stored beans in tropical regions. The efficiency of kaolin [with or without neem (Azadirachta indica oil] and diatomaceous earth (DE (standard treatment was studied in laboratory aiming to obtain alternatives for chemical control of this insect. Insects were confined in plastic vials containing beans treated with kaolin (2, 4 and 8g kg-1, kaolin + neem [2g kg-1(5% neem oil], diatomaceous earth (1g kg-1 and control. Mortality of adult insects, number of eggs and F1generation beetles emergency were assessed. Kaolin caused mortality of Z. subfasciatus, however higher periods and doses than DE were necessary to promote high mortality (100% or close. Kaolin treatments also affected female behavior because many eggs were placed in the vials walls. Number of emerged adults (F1 was similar between DE and kaolin; hence, kaolin constitutes a promising tool to the management of Z. subfasciatus. The mixture of kaolin and neem oil was not efficient in the control of Z. subfasciatus.O caruncho-do-feijão Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae é uma importante praga de grãos de feijão armazenado nas regiões tropicais. A eficiência do caulim [com ou sem óleo de nim (Azadirachta indica] e terra diatomácea (TD (tratamento padrão foi estudada em laboratório com o intuito de obter alternativas para o controle químico deste inseto. Insetos foram confinados em frascos de plástico com feijão tratado com caulim (2, 4 e 8g kg-1, caulim + nim [2g kg-1(5% óleo de nim], terra diatomácea (1g kg-1 e controle. Mortalidade de insetos adultos, número de ovos e emergência da geração F1 foram avaliados. Caulim causou a mortalidade de Z. subfasciatus, porém foram necessários maiores períodos e doses que a TD para promover elevada mortalidade (100% ou aproximadamente. Os tratamentos com caulim também afetaram o comportamento da f

  14. Nano-engineering by implanting Al2O3 nano particle as sandwiched scattering centers in between the Lao.5Pr0.2Sr0.3MnO3 thin film layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markna, J H; Vachhani, P S; Kuberkar, D G; Shah, N A; Misra, P; Singh, B N; Kukreja, L M; Rana, D S

    2009-09-01

    We report the use of non-magnetic Al2O3 nano particles deposited between two ferromagnetic La0.5Pr0.2Sr0.3MnO3 (LPSMO) manganite layers with an aim to improve the electronic and magnetotransport properties of the layered supper lattice grown on single crystal STO(100) substrate using Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) technique. We studied the electronic-transport and magnetotransport properties of this system wherein Al2O3 particles are expected to act as insulating scattering centers between two ferromagnetic LPSMO layers. The scattering due to additional scattering centers (insulating Al2O3 nano particles) could be controlled by application of external field, resulting in high magnetoresistance (MR) approximately 72% as compared to pristine LPSMO film (MR approximately 51%) at temperature close to their T(M) values. In addition, incorporation of nanostructured Al2O3 barrier between the two ferromagnetic LPSMO layers results in a 2-3 fold increase in the values of temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) and the field coefficient of resistance (FCR) as compared to pristine LPSMO film, suggesting the use of such nanoengineered manganite layered structure for better device application.

  15. Heterogeneous Fenton oxidation of Direct Black G in dye effluent using functional kaolin-supported nanoscale zero iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinwen; Wang, Feifeng; Chen, Zuliang; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravendra

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated kaolin-supported nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI/K) as a heterogeneous Fenton-like catalyst for the adsorption and oxidation of an azo dye, Direct Black G (DBG). New findings suggest that kaolin as a support material not only reduced the aggregation of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) but also improved the adsorption of DBG. It consequently improved Fenton oxidation by increasing the local concentration of DBG in the vicinity of nZVI. This was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction for the surface morphology of nZVI/K before and after the Fenton-like reaction. Furthermore, nZVI/K proved to be a catalyst for the heterogeneous Fenton-like oxidation of the DBG process in the neutral pH range. More than 87.22 % of DBG was degraded, and 54.60 % of total organic carbon was removed in the optimal conditions: 0.6 g/L dosage of nZVI/K, 33 mM H2O2, 100 mg/L initial DBG concentration, temperature of 303 K and pH of 7.06. Finally, it was demonstrated that nZVI/K removed DBG from dye wastewater through the processes of adsorption and oxidation.

  16. Short communication: Laboratory approach to the use of sulphur and kaolin as preventive control against Drosophila suzukii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez-Guerrero, S.; Molina, J.M.

    2016-11-01

    Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura, 1931) is an invasive pest from South East Asia that was detected for the first time in Southern Europe in 2008. This species can damage a wide range of soft-skinned fruits crops affecting ripening fruits and causing important economic losses. Since the exclusive use of chemical insecticides for controlling D. suzukii may prompt the appearance of resistance and environmental pollution, alternative methods compatible with sustainable management are required. In this study, commercial formulations of powdered sulphur and kaolin were tested as a preventive method applied to blueberry fruits under laboratory conditions. In no-choice assay, powdered sulphur had a significant effect on oviposition and adult emergency with reductions of 76% and 77%, respectively. In addition, sulphur displayed a significant toxicity on males and lethal effect with over 40% adult mortality seven days after exposure. The choice assay confirmed and improved the powdered sulphur effects, with reductions of 98% and 96% in oviposition and adult emergence, respectively. In contrast, kaolin produced no significant reduction in infestation and adult mortality during no-choice and choice assays. These outcomes suggest that preventive use of powdered sulphur could be considered for sustainable control of D. suzukii in some berry crops. (Author)

  17. Application of kaolin-based catalysts in biodiesel production via transesterification of vegetable oils in excess methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Tan Hiep; Chen, Bing-Hung; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2013-10-01

    Biodiesel production from transesterification of vegetable oils in excess methanol was performed by using as-prepared catalyst from low-cost kaolin clay. This effective heterogeneous catalyst was successfully prepared from natural kaolin firstly by dehydroxylation at 800°C for 10h and, subsequently, by NaOH-activation hydrothermally at 90°C for 24h and calcined again at 500°C for 6h. The as-obtained catalytic material was characterized with instruments, including FT-IR, XRD, SEM, and porosimeter (BET/BJH analysis). The as-prepared catalyst was advantageous not only for its easy preparation, but also for its cost-efficiency and superior catalysis in transesterification of vegetable oils in excess methanol to produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). Conversion efficiencies of soybean and palm oils to biodiesel over the as-prepared catalysts reached 97.0±3.0% and 95.4±3.7%, respectively, under optimal conditions. Activation energies of transesterification reactions of soybean and palm oils in excess methanol using these catalysts are 14.09 kJ/mol and 48.87 kJ/mol, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Short communication: Laboratory approach to the use of sulphur and kaolin as preventive control against Drosophila suzukii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Pérez-Guerrero

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura, 1931 is an invasive pest from South East Asia that was detected for the first time in Southern Europe in 2008. This species can damage a wide range of soft-skinned fruits crops affecting ripening fruits and causing important economic losses. Since the exclusive use of chemical insecticides for controlling D. suzukii may prompt the appearance of resistance and environmental pollution, alternative methods compatible with sustainable management are required. In this study, commercial formulations of powdered sulphur and kaolin were tested as a preventive method applied to blueberry fruits under laboratory conditions. In no-choice assay, powdered sulphur had a significant effect on oviposition and adult emergency with reductions of 76% and 77%, respectively. In addition, sulphur displayed a significant toxicity on males and lethal effect with over 40% adult mortality seven days after exposure. The choice assay confirmed and improved the powdered sulphur effects, with reductions of 98% and 96% in oviposition and adult emergence, respectively. In contrast, kaolin produced no significant reduction in infestation and adult mortality during no-choice and choice assays. These outcomes suggest that preventive use of powdered sulphur could be considered for sustainable control of D. suzukii in some berry crops.

  19. Modeling the influence of ethanol on the adsorption and desorption of selected BTEX compounds on bentonite and kaolin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Temesgen Garoma; Lacy Skidmore

    2011-01-01

    The influence of ethanol on the adsorption capacity and desorption kinetics of benzene and toluene on bentonite and kaolin through modeling and experimental study was investigated.The results showed that the adsorption capacity of both soils for the target compounds decreased as ethanol content increased.As ethanol content increased from 0 to 50%,the adsorption capacity for benzene and toluene on bentonite decreased from 3.6 to 0.54 μgn+1/(Ln·g) (by 85%) and 1.91 to 0.01 μgn+1/(Ln·g) (by 99.5%),respectively.For benzene and toluene adsorption on kaolin,the adsorption capacity decreased by 86.5% (from 0.26 to 0.04 μgn+1/(Ln·g) and 98.2% (from 0.13 to 0.002 μgn+1/(Ln·g)),respectively,as ethanol content increased from 0 to 50%.In addition,the desorption rate of benzene and toluene from bentonite decreased by about one order of magnitude as the ethanol increased from 0 to 25% and 0 to 50%,respectively.It can be inferred that ethanol could affect the effectiveness of natural attenuation processes that rely on adsorption to soils as a containment technique for benzene and toluene by retarding the adsorption to soils and remobilizing compounds that had already been adsorbed to soils.

  20. Effect of Kaolin Clay and Alumina on Thermal Performance and Char Morphology of Intumescent fire retardant coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    aziz Hammad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Intumescent fire retardant coating (IFRC have been developed by using ammonium polyphosphate, expandable graphite, melamine, boric acid, kaolin clay and alumina as fillers bound together with epoxy resin and cured with the help of curing agent. Five different formulations were developed with and without using fillers. Cured samples were burned in furnace at 500°C for 2h for char expansion. Bunsen burner test was performed for 1h using UL-94 vertical burning test to investigate the thermal performance of IFRC. The resultant char obtained after burning of coated samples were characterized by using field emission scanning electron microscopy for char morphology. Char composition was analyzed by using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Thermogravimetric analysis was carried out to investigate the residual weight of coating. Results showed that formulation with 0.5 weight % of kaolin clay and 0.5 weight % of alumina provide best thermal performance, uniform and multi-porous char structure with high anti-oxidation property.

  1. Synthesis of type A zeolite from calcinated kaolin; Sintese de zeolita tipo A a partir de caulim calcinado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, E.C.; Neves, R.F.; Souza, J.A.S. [Universidade Federal do Para (PPEQ/UFPA), Abaetetuba, PA (Brazil). Instituto de Engenharia Quimica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao; Moraes, C.G.; Macedo, E.N., E-mail: mersone7@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Para (PRODERNA/UFPA), Abaetetuba, PA (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia de Recursos Naturais da Amazonia

    2011-07-01

    The mineral production has caused great concern in environmental and industrial scenario due to the effects caused to the environment. The industries of processing kaolin for paper are important economically for the state of Para, but produce huge quantities of tailings, which depend on large areas to be stocked. This material is rich in silico-aluminates can be recycled and used as raw material for other industries. The objective is to synthesize zeolite A at different temperatures of calcination and synthesis. The starting materials and synthesis of zeolite A have been identified and characterized through analysis of X-ray diffraction (DRX) and scanning electron microscopy (MEV). The synthesis process of zeolite A, using as source of silica and the aluminum metakaolin, which was calcined at temperatures of 700 ° C and 800 ° C for 2 hours of landing in a burning furnace type muffle. Observed in relation to the calcination of kaolin as the main phase, the metakaolin. This is just a removal of water from its structure, so we opted for the lower temperature, less energy consumption. The synthesis process of zeolite A, produced good results for the formation of zeolites type A, which were characterized with high purities. (author)

  2. 基于格子波兹曼方法研究颗粒对缸套-活塞环油膜压力的影响%Influences of solid particles on oil film pressure in cylinder-piston ring based on lattice-Boltzmann method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩海燕; 张优云; 王凯

    2016-01-01

    Most liquid lubricating systems are inevitably supplied with lubricant containing contaminant particles. It is certain that some of these particles are suspended in the oil, that is, the size of the solid particle is smaller than the oil film thickness. In this paper, the effects of the suspended particles on the oil film pressure of cylinder-piston ring were mainly studied. In recent years, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) has been developed as an alternative to the conventional CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) methods. Unlike conventional numerical schemes based on discretization of macroscopic equations, the LBM is based on the statistical physics and describes the microscopic picture of particles movement in an extremely simplified way, but at the macroscopic level it gives a correct average description of the motion. It has been widely used to simulate the two-phase flow. The paper is aimed to study the influence of solid particles on the oil film pressure of piston ring based on L. The lubricate oil with suspended particles was regarded as the two-phase flow. The movement of the lubricate oil with solid particles is described with kinetic equations of distribution function of particles. A discrete Lattice-Boltzmann model of cylinder-piston ring was built in the domain of piston ring lubrication from the perspective of flow field. The implementation of boundary conditions for LBM is very important and has great effect on the accuracy and the stability of method. The bounce-back scheme was used in fluid-solid boundary and wall boundary treatment. The Reynolds boundary condition in the Lattice-Boltzmann Method was developed for the cracked oil film. By programming simulation, the influence of solid particles on the oil film pressure of piston ring was studied by researching the flow of the lubricant with solid particles based on LBM. The effect of particle location, shape and number on the oil film pressure of piston ring at certain crank angle was analyzed

  3. Influence of nano-particle diameter on superconducting properties in BaMO{sub 3}(M = Sn, Hf)/YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub y} quasi-multilayered films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotaki, T.; Uraguchi, Y.; Makihara, T.; Suenaga, M.; Sueyoshi, T.; Fujiyoshi, T., E-mail: fuji@cs.kumamoto-u.ac.jp; Mitugi, F.; Ikegami, T.

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • BSO nanoparticles which grown at higher temperature have larger diameter. • BSO nanoparticles which have large diameter make a broad peak of J{sub c} around B || c. • BSO/YBCO film which grown at 770 °C shows the improvement of J{sub c} at high temperature. • BHO doped YBCO multilayered film does not show the improvement of J{sub c.} - Abstract: In order to investigate the influence of diameter and spatial distribution of three-dimensional (3D) pinning centers on critical current density J{sub c}, BMO (BaSnO{sub 3} (BSO) or BaHfO{sub 3} (BHO)) doped YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub y} (YBCO) thin films were fabricated by a quasi-multilayering process using a pulsed laser deposition method. The prepared films are referred as BMO(m,n)T{sub s}, where m and n denotes the number of laser pulse on the BMO target and the total number of BMO/YBCO bilayers, respectively and T{sub s} is the growth temperature. BSO(1,100)750 and BSO(1,100)770 show the improvement of J{sub c} in comparison with the pure YBCO sample in wide range of magnetic field directions at 65 K. However, at 77.3 K, improvement of J{sub c} was seen in only BSO(1,100)770. The BSO nano-particles within BSO(1,100)770 are considered to have larger diameter, so that BSO nano-particles can immobilize the flux lines in the high temperature region. In addition, BSO(1,100)770 shows the high peak of J{sub c} centered at θ = 0° in the angular dependence of J{sub c}. On the other hand, the J{sub c} of BHO(1,100)770 falls below that of pure YBCO samples in all magnetic field orientation. In addition, at 65 K, there is no peak of J{sub c} at any angles except for θ = 90°. These results indicates that the diameter of BHO nano-particles in BHO(1,100)770 might be much smaller than that of BSO nano-particle and BHO nanoparticles cannot work as effective pinning center.

  4. Tricarboxylic acid cycle activity measured by 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy in rats subjected to the kaolin model of obstructed hydrocephalus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melø, Torun M; Håberg, Asta K; Risa, Øystein

    2011-01-01

    weeks after rats were subjected to kaolin-induced progressive hydrocephalus. In vivo and ex vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), combined with the infusion of [1,6-(13)C]glucose, was used to monitor the time courses of (13)C label incorporation into the different carbon positions of glutamate...

  5. Influence of post-annealing on the properties of Fe{sub 50}Pt{sub 50} film and submicron size particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, Maj E-mail: maj.hanson@fy.chalmers.se; Kazakova, Olga; Svedberg, E.B

    2004-05-01

    The magnetic properties of a 48 nm thick Fe{sub 50}Pt{sub 50} film and submicron size elements made of the film were investigated. The initial film was grown by DC magnetron sputtering and post-annealed during 30 min at 300 deg. C. Arrays of circular dots with diameters d=200, 300 and 550 nm and a reference sample (diameter 1.7 mm) were made of the film by electron lithography and Ar ion milling. After structural analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and characterization by magnetization measurements and magnetic force microscopy, all samples were further annealed during 30 min at 600 deg. C. The XRD scans show that this led to an improvement of the crystalline quality in all samples, to a degree depending on the size of the dots. Both the structural and magnetic measurements imply that after the second heat treatment all samples have the easy magnetocrystalline direction (c-axis) mainly in the plane of the film, while the initial structures were characterized by a random distribution of c-axes.

  6. Investigation of the effect of kaolin and tissue-factor-activated citrated whole blood, on clot-forming variables, as evaluated by thromboelastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Pär I; Bochsen, Louise; Andersen, Søren; Viuff, Dorthe

    2008-11-01

    The Thrombelastograph (TEG; Haemoscope Corp.) analyzes clot formation in whole blood (WB) and treatment based on this analysis has been shown to reduce transfusion requirements in liver and cardiac surgery when compared to conventional coagulation analysis. Implementing TEG as a routine laboratory-based analysis, however, requires validation of the activators employed and the effect of storage of the WB sample in citrate before analysis. The effect of kaolin, tissue factor (TF) 1:17,000, or TF 1:42,500 on TEG clotting time (R), Angle (velocity of clot formation), and maximum clot strength (amplitude [MA]) were evaluated, together with day-to-day variation, the coefficient of variance (CV%), and the effect of citrate storage time. Clot formation variables were equally affected by TF 1:17,000 and kaolin activation, whereas R was significantly longer when TF 1:42,500 was used. The CV for the different variables varied from 3 to 13 percent with no significant differences between assays. Storage of citrated WB significantly affected the TEG variables in a hypercoagulable direction. Only the R, however, was significantly affected (12%) when samples rested for 0 and 30 minutes were evaluated with kaolin as the activator. The TEG assays evaluated were reproducible and present with an acceptable CV% for routine clinical practice. Kaolin and TF 1:17,000 equally affected the clot formation variables. Storage of WB for up to 30 minutes in citrate did not, except for R, affect clot formation variables when kaolin was used as activator allowing for immediate analysis when the sample arrives in the laboratory.

  7. Deposition of SrTiO{sub 3} films by electrophoresis with thickness and particle size control; Deposicao de filmes de SrTiO{sub 3} por eletroforese com controle de espessura e tamanho de particulas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junior, W.D.M.; Pena, A.F.V. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (DFQB/UNESP), Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil); Souza, A.E.; Santos, G.T.A.; Teixeira, S.R. [Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia dos Materiais em Nanotecnologia (INCTMN), Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Senos, A.M.R. [Universidade de Aveiro (CICECO), Aveiro (Portugal); Longo, E., E-mail: snow_dias@hotmail.com [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (IQ/UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The SrTiO3 (ST) is a material that exhibits semiconducting characteristics and interesting electrical properties. In room temperature has a structure of high cubic symmetry. The size of the crystallites of this material directly influences this symmetry, changing its network parameters. ST nanoparticles are obtained by hydrothermal method assisted by microwave (MAH). ST films are prepared by electrophoretic deposition (EPD). Approximately 1 g of the powder is dissolved in 100 ml of acetone and 1.5 ml of triethanolamine. The stainless steel substrates are arranged horizontally in the solution. The depositions are performed for 1-10 min and subjected to a potential difference of 20-100 V. The films were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The characterizations show that it is possible to control both the thickness and size of the crystallites of the film depending on the deposition parameters adopted. (author)

  8. Síntese e caracterização de hidrogéis compósitos a partir de copolímeros acrilamida-acrilato e caulim: efeito da constituição de diferentes caulins do nordeste brasileiro Synthesis and characterization of poly (acrylamide-co-acrylate and kaolin hydrogel composites: effect of the constitution of different kaolins from northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos W. de Q. Brito

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Superabsorbent hydrogels based on poly (acrylamide-co-acrylate and different kaolins, were prepared by free-radical aqueous copolymerization. FTIR and WAXS techniques were employed for characterization of a series of hydrogels, obtained by varying the percentage of clay, crosslinking and constitution of kaolin. The water absorbency at equilibrium (Weq decreased with increasing clay content and the amount of crosslinking agent. Superabsorbent hydrogel (Weq > 1084 g H2O/g gel was obtained as 10 wt% of white kaolin and 0.05 mol% of crosslinking agent were used. The hydrogel proved sensitive to pH variation and the presence of salts.

  9. PVA-based nanographene film by electrospinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang Jing

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional polyvinyl alcohol based graphene films with the thickness of less than 20 nm were fabricated directly by using polyvinyl alcohol/graphite solution or polyvinyl alcohol/ash solution by electrospinning. It was found that ash particles are good candidate for substitution of graphite particles to fabricate nanographene films. The relationship between the thickness and width of the film is elucidated, and the periodic morphology of the film is explained.

  10. Influence of Air Humidity and Water Particles on Dust Control Using Ultrasonic Atomization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okawa, Hirokazu; Nishi, Kentaro; Shindo, Dai; Kawamura, Youhei

    2012-07-01

    The influence of air humidity and water particles on dust control was examined using ultrasonic atomization at 2.4 MHz, an acrylic box (61 L), and four types of ore dust samples: green tuff (4 µm), green tuff (6 µm), kaolin, and silica. It was clearly demonstrated that ultrasonic atomization was effective in raising humidity rapidly. However, at high relative air humidity, the water particles remained stable in the box without changing to water vapor. Ultrasonic atomization was applied to suppress dust dispersion and 40-95% dust reduction was achieved at 83% relative air humidity. Dust dispersion was more effective with ultrasonic atomization than without.

  11. Compound bioflocculant and polyaluminum chloride in kaolin-humic acid coagulation: factors influencing coagulation performance and floc characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruihua; Gao, Baoyu; Huang, Xin; Dong, Hongyu; Li, Xiaochen; Yue, Qinyan; Wang, Yan; Li, Qian

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of coagulant dosage and pH on coagulation performance and floc properties using polyaluminum chloride (PAC) and compound bioflocculant (CBF) dual-coagulant in kaolin-humic acid (HA) treatment. Results showed that as PAC dosage rose, comparatively better coagulation efficiencies and floc characteristics were achieved due to stronger charge neutralization and sweeping effect. Addition of CBF could enhance coagulation performance and floc properties, including size, strength and recoverability, except fractal dimension. Solution pH had a significant effect on coagulation efficiencies and flocs formation. Under acidic condition, flocs showed higher strength and recoverability but lower fractal dimension, where charge neutralization was the foremost mechanism. More compact flocs were generated under alkaline condition due to the sweeping effect of hydrolyzed Al species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fabrication of recyclable and durable superhydrophobic materials with wear/corrosion-resistance properties from kaolin and polyvinylchloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Mengnan; Liu, Shanshan; He, Jinmei; Feng, Juan; Yao, Yali; Ma, Xuerui; Hou, Lingang; Liu, Xiangrong

    2017-07-01

    In this study, mechanically stable and recyclable superhydrophobic materials were prepared from polyvinylchloride (PVC) and kaolin nanoparticles modified by stearic acid using a simple and low-cost drop-coating. The obtained materials displayed liquid-repellent toward water and several other liquids of daily life (such as orange juice, coffee, milk, coca cola and ink). These superhydrophobic materials showed remarkable robustness against sandpaper abrasion, UV-irradiation and ultrasonication test, while retaining its superhydrophobicity even after 60 abrasion cycles loaded of 500 g with sandpaper, 7 days UV-irradiation or 120 min ultrasonication test. The excellent durability against complex conditions was attributed to the hierarchical structure and strong interfacial adhesion of the materials. More significantly, the materials used in the coating could be recycled and reconstructed without losing its superhydrophobicity. The current superhydrophobic materials tolerate rigorous environment, opening a new avenue to a variety of practical applications.

  13. Novel composite sorbent AAm/MA hydrogels containing starch and kaolin for water sorption and dye uptake

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Erdener Karadağ; Fulya Topaç; Semıha Kundakci; ÖMER Bariş Üzüm

    2014-12-01

    A novel polymer/clay composite sorbent based on acrylamide/maleic acid, starch and clay such as kaolin was synthesized with free radical solution polymerization by using ammonium persulfate/,,','-tetramethylethylenediamine as redox initiating pair in the presence of poly(ethylene glycol)diacrylate as a crosslinker. Surface morphology was characterized by the scanning electron microscopy technique. FT-IR analysis was used to identify the presence of different repeating units in the semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (semi-IPNs). Some swelling and diffusion characteristics were calculated for different semi-IPNs and hydrogels prepared under various formulations. The hydrogels were used in experiments on sorption of water-soluble cationic dye such as toluidine blue. Sorption of toluidine blue into the polymeric systems was studied by the batch sorption technique at 25 °C. Water uptake and dye sorption properties of the crosslinked polymeric systems were investigated as a function of chemical composition of the hydrogels.

  14. A two-stage process using electrokinetic remediation and electrochemical degradation for treating benzo[a]pyrene spiked kaolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, J; Alcántara, M T; Pazos, M; Sanromán, M A

    2009-03-01

    An innovative process that combines soil electrokinetic remediation and liquid electrochemical oxidation for the degradation of organic compounds present in a polluted soil was developed and evaluated by using benzo[a]pyrene spiked kaolin. In order to increase benzo[a]pyrene solubility during electrokinetic treatment, the addition of a co-solvent or surfactant, such as ethanol or Brij 35, as flushing solution was tested. The research carried out demonstrated the influence of the desorption agent employed on benzo[a]pyrene remediation from the kaolin matrix. Thus, if the flushing solution was ethanol at 40%, there was no presence of contaminant in either chamber. On the contrary, when a solution of surfactant Brij 35 was used, benzo[a]pyrene was transported towards the cathode chamber, where it was collected. Moreover, the extent of this recovery depends on the pH profile on the soil. When no pH control was used, around 17% of initial contaminant was detected in the cathode chamber; however, when pH control was applied, the recovery of benzo[a]pyrene could be higher than 76%, when the pH control in the anode chamber was set at 7.0. In order to obtain the total degradation of mobilised benzo[a]pyrene from the contaminated soil, the liquid collected by electrokinetic remediation was oxidised by electrochemical treatment. This oxidation was accomplished via an electrochemical cell with a working volume of 0.4 L, and graphite as electrode material. The benzo[a]pyrene was almost totally degraded in 1d, reaching a degradation of about 73% in 16 h.

  15. Does a kaolin-impregnated hemostatic dressing reduce intraoperative blood loss and blood transfusions in pediatric spinal deformity surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Emily M; Nandyala, Sreeharsha V; Schwend, Richard M

    2014-09-01

    Retrospective case-control study. To evaluate the hemostatic benefits of using a kaolin-impregnated dressing during pediatric spinal deformity correction surgery. Minimizing blood loss and transfusions are clear benefits for patient safety. A technique common in both severe trauma and combat medicine that has not been reported in the spine literature is wound packing with a kaolin-impregnated hemostatic dressing. Estimated blood loss and transfusion amounts were analyzed in a total of 117 retrospectively identified cases. The control group included 65 patients (46 females, 19 males, 12.7±4.5 yr, 10.2±4.8 levels fused) who received standard operative care with gauze packing between June 2007 and March 2010. The treatment group included 52 patients (33 females, 19 males, 13.9±3.2 yr, 10.4±4.3 levels fused) who underwent intraoperative packing with QuikClot Trauma Pads (QCTP, Z-Medica Corporation) for all surgical procedures from July 2010 to August 2011. No other major changes in the use of antifibrinolytics or perioperative, surgical, or anesthesia technique were noted. Statistical differences were analyzed using analysis of covariance in R with P value of less than 0.05. The statistical model included sex, age, weight, scoliosis type, the number of vertebral levels fused, and surgery duration as covariates. The treatment group had 40% less intraoperative estimated blood loss than the control group (974 mL vs. 1620 mL) (Pkaolin-impregnated intraoperative trauma pad seems to be an effective and inexpensive method to reduce intraoperative blood loss and transfusion volume in pediatric spinal deformity surgery. 3.

  16. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the active substances iron powder, activated carbon, calcined kaolin, sodium chloride, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked and calcium chloride, for use as active system in food contact materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF)

    2014-01-01

    ..., calcined kaolin, sodium chloride, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked and calcium chloride, used in mixture which is packed into labels, for absorbing oxygen from the headspace surrounding packed food...

  17. Film Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Larry M.; Atwater, Lynn

    1987-01-01

    Reviews four Human Sexuality films and videos. These are: "Personal Decisions" (Planned Parenthood Federation of America, 1985); "The Touch Film" (Sterling Production, 1986); "Rethinking Rape" (Film Distribution Center, 1985); "Not A Love Story" (National Film Board of Canada, 1981). (AEM)

  18. Granulation of core particles suitable for film coating by agitation fluidized bed III. Effect of scale, agitator rotational speed and blade shape on granule properties and development of a high accuracy scale-up theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamashita, Tomohiro; Ono, Tetsuo; Ono, Masaki; Tsunenari, Yoshinobu; Aketo, Takao; Watano, Satoru

    2009-04-01

    The preparation of core particles suitable for subsequent film coating was examined using different scales of agitation fluidized beds. Specifically, the effects of agitator rotational speed and agitator blade shape in different scales of granulators on granule properties such as mass median diameter, apparent density, friability and shape factor were studied. As the agitator rotational speed was increased or when the agitator blade height and angle were large, the mass median diameter and friability of the granules decreased, while the apparent density and shape factor increased, in a manner independent of the vessel size because the granules were subjected to greater compression, shearing and rolling effects. The same core particles could not be prepared using granulators with different vessel sizes by simply adopting a conventional scale-up theory(1,2)) based on kinetic energy similarity. Here, a novel scale-up theory that takes into account agitator blade shape factors is proposed.(3)) When the two scale-up theories were compared, our new theory was capable of predicting the granule properties more accurately than the conventional theory. By adopting this novel theory, the same core particles could be prepared under different operating conditions in any scale of granulator.

  19. Particle Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Health Particle Pollution Public Health Issues Particle Pollution Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Particle pollution ... see them in the air. Where does particle pollution come from? Particle pollution can come from two ...

  20. Thermoluminescent characterization of thin films of aluminium oxide irradiated with beta particles; Caracterizacion termoluminiscente de peliculas delgadas de oxido de aluminio irradiadas con particulas beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villagran, E.; Escobar A, L.; Camps, E.; Gonzalez, P.R. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    By means of the laser ablation technique has been settled thin films of aluminium oxide on kapton substrates. These films present thermoluminescent response (Tl) when being exposed to beta radiation of a Sr{sup 90} - Y{sup 90} source (E max = 2.28 MeV). The brilliance curves show two peaks, one of them in 112 C degrees and the other one in 180 C degrees. The peak of low temperature is faded in some hours, whereas the high temperature one is more stable, showing a fading in the 15% order after three days of the irradiation. The Tl kinetic parameters were determined using the computerized deconvolution of the brilliance curve (CGDC). The results show that the high temperature peak is composed by four peaks which obey a second order kinetics with their maximum located at 165.7, 188.1, 215.3, and 246.5 C degrees. The depth of the traps (E) has values in the interval between 1.4 and 2.0 eV. The study of the dose response relation, show that the material presents a linear behavior in a dose interval from 150 mGy to 50 Gy. The obtained thin films of aluminium oxide could be a useful tool due to their potential applications in clinical dosimetry, in the determination of distributions of doses produced by penetrating weakly radiation, as well as in interfaces dosimetry. (Author)

  1. Preparação e caracterização de materiais compósitos SiC/caulim/Al via "squeeze-casting" Preparation and characterization of SiC/kaolin/Al composite materials by squeeze- casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Freitas

    2009-09-01

    manufacturing these composites is the process of metal casting infiltration under pressure called squeeze-casting. This process offers some advantages, such as ease of producing the composite, low cost and ability to form network structures. In this work were produced and characterized Al-SiC composites, with concentrations in kaolin ranging between 10 and 50% in place to SiC majority phase. The ceramic pre-forms were produced to controlling the fraction of the size SiC/kaolin for better infiltration. These pre-forms after sintering at 1100 ºC/1 h resulted highly porous, and the porosity increased with the increase of kaolin in place to SiC particles. XRD analysis showed the existence of quartz particles beyond the SiC phase. During the infiltration and heat treatment process, the liquid aluminum reacted preferably with quartz and other aluminosilicates particles of the pre-form reducing them, precipitating alumina and silicon in the microstructure, which also presented aluminum in excess that not reacted in the process. The silica and silicates of pre-form, reacted preferably with the aluminum, preventing the formation of Al4C3 phase, which is highly hygroscopic and causes the composite degradation. Depending on the composition, the SiC - kaolin - Al composite developed in this work, can be used in applications involving high bending mechanical resistance (240 to 300 MPa, low density and hardness surface between 180 and 380 kgf/mm².

  2. Behaviour of major, minor and trace elements (including REEs during kaolinization processes at Zonouz deposit, northeast of Marand, East Azarbaidjan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahideh Alipour

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Zonouz kaolin deposit is located ~15 km northeast of Marand, East-Azarbaidjan province. Based on physical features in field investigations, such as color, five distinct kaolin types including (1 white, (2 lemon, (3 gray, (4 brown, and (5 yellow are distinguished in the deposit. Field evidence and petrographic studies indicate that the deposit is genetically close to trachy-andesite rocks. According to mineralogical data, the deposit contains quartz, kaolinite, montmorillonite, calcite, pyrophyllite, chlorite, muscovite-illite, dolomite, hematite, and anatase minerals. Geochemical data indicate that function of alteration processes on trachy-andesite rocks during development of Zonouz ore deposit was accompanied by leaching of elements such as Al, Na, K, Rb, Ba, V, Hf, Cu, Zr, Tm, Yb, and Lu, enrichment of elements such as U, Nb, and Ta, and leaching-fixation of elements such as Si, Fe, Ca, Mg, Ti, Mn, P, Cs, Sr, Th, Co, Cr, Ni, Y, Ga, LREE, Tb, Dy, Ho, and Er. Incorporation of obtained results from mineralogical and geochemical studies show that physico-chemical conditions of alteration environment, the relative stability of primary minerals, surface adsorption, preferential sorption by metallic oxides, existing of organic matters, scavenging and concentration processes, and fixation in neomorphic mineralogical phases played important role in distribution of elements in the deposit. Geochemical studies show that development of the deposit is relative to two types of processes, (1 hypogene and (2 supergene. The distribution pattern of REEs indicates that differentiation degree of LREEs from HREEs in supergene kaolins is more than hypogene kaolins. Geochemical studies indicate that minerals such as Mn-oxides, zircon, anatase, hematite, cerianite, and secondary phosphates (monazite, rhabdophane, churchite, and zenotime are the potential hosts for rare earth elements in this deposit.

  3. SYNTHESIS OF ZEOLITE AND COMPOSITE OF ZEOLITE/TiO2 FROM KAOLIN AND ITS APLICATION TO ADSORPTION-PHOTODEGRADATION OF METHILEN BLUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Trivana

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, zeolite was synthesized from kaolin which was founded from Bangka Belitung as the starting material. Meanwhile, sodium silicate was used as silica source. Zeolite is material with many benefits, such as become an adsorbent. Kaolin has been used as starting material due to high content of silica and alumina, i.e 35 - 50 %. Zeolite was prepared by hydrothermal synthesis process, by mixing the metakaolin which was produced by calcination of kaolin at 700 °C for 6 hours, with sodium silicate and NaOH. The NaOH was used to activate the major components of Si and Al in the kaolin.The hydrothermal process was conducted at 100 °C for 24 hours with various concentrations of NaOH, i.e 1.5 N and 2.5 N. The NaOH concentration might determine the type of zeolite obtained. To improve the nature as adsorbent, zeolites modified into zeolit/TiO2. The addition of TiO2into the prepared zeolit aimed to produce a material with capability as adsorbent-photocatalyst. The result of research found that the addition of NaOH 1.5 N produced zeolite NaP1. Meanwhile, the addition of NaOH 2.5 N produced the NaP1 zeolite, zeolite X, and faujasite. The composite of zeolit/TiO2has ability on adsorption-photocatalytic as it was proven by methylene blue degradation under ultraviolet light.

  4. Zeolite A synthesized from wastes of kaolin improvement process; Zeolita A sintetizada a partir de rejeitos do processo de beneficiamento de caulim

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, D.L.; Neves, R.F.; Silva, D.L., E-mail: danielaliraeq@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: dasilva@ufpa.br [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Quimica, Universidade Federal do Para - UFPA, Belem, PA (Brazil); Saraiva, A.C.F. [Centro de Tecnologia da Eletronorte, Belem, PA (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    Raw materials were used to synthesize zeolite A as an alternative and more economical source of silica and aluminum, using waste from the kaolin of the paper industry. Zeolites are crystalline substances with a structure characterized by a framework of linked tetrahedra, each one consisting of four oxygen atoms surrounding a cation. The development of processes for the synthesis of zeolites is of great interest for use in the areas of purification, adsorption and catalysis. The starting materials for the synthesis of zeolite A consisted of wastes from kaolin beneficiation of paper companies of Para state, Brazil. The zeolite was obtained after calcination at 85 and 110 deg C during 24 h. The characterization of the starting material was performed by X-ray diffraction, chemical analysis, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. The characterization of zeolite A was done by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The kaolin waste used as starting material showed to be essentially kaolinite mineral. For the temperatures and time used in the synthesis it was possible to form the crystalline phase of zeolite A for the two starting materials. (author)

  5. 紫木节高岭土选矿试验研究%Experimental Research of Mineral Processing on Purple Kibushi Kaolin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凌燕; 张格; 王琪; 陆康

    2015-01-01

    内蒙古鄂尔多斯煤系高岭土,因含有较多腐殖质、炭质而呈紫褐色,又称紫木节高岭土。以鄂尔多斯紫木节高岭土为研究对象,对其进行除铁增白试验研究。采用“捣浆-磁选-漂白”工艺流程,可使高岭土煅烧白度由59.49%提高到85.87%,Fe2O3含量从1.38%降到0.74%,达到搪瓷工业一级高岭土(TT-1)的标准。%Inner Mongolia Erdos coal kaolin, because it contains more humus and carbonaceous which make it show the purple-brown, it also called purple kibushi kaolin. The Erdos purple kibushi kaolin was determined as the object of study, and it’s iron removal and bleaching experiments were studied. The use of “chopped-magnetic-bleaching” process, allows Erdos purple kibushi kaolincalcined whiteness increase from 59.49% to 85.87%, the content of Fe2O3 down from 1.38%to 0.74%, and it reaches the ifrst standard of enamel industry.

  6. Characterization of ceramic masses using raw material of Para, Brazil: kaolin in natura; Caracterizaco de massas ceramicas utilizando materia--prima do Para: caulim in natura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vida, T.A.; Facury Neto, E.; Rabelo, A.A. [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Maraba, PA (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2009-07-01

    The incorporation rejects to the mixtures has if shown viable in the reduction of the environmental liability and for the obtaining of a better quality of the ceramic mass. In the present work, is tried to study the potentiality of the use of ceramic formulations with the addition of kaolin in natura to the clays. Formulations with two clays of the area of the municipal district of Maraba with addition of up to 60% in kaolin weight were prepared and characterized. For the determination of the physical and mechanical properties proof bodies were made by prensagem uniaxial and later burned in temperature from 900 to 1200 deg C with landing of 3 hours. The raw materials were characterized through diffraction of rays X (DRX) and thermogravimetric analysis. The proof bodies prepared were used for determination of the lineal retraction (RL), absorption of water, apparent porosity, apparent density, loss to the fire and rupture module the flexing. The results were satisfactory for the smallest kaolin tenors in the ceramic mass, and the mass with 20% presented rupture module elevated, in the temperature of 1200 deg C. (author)

  7. Influence of buoyant media on particle layer dynamics in microfiltration membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aryal, R.K.; Vigneswaran, S.; Kandasamy, J. [University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Faculty of Engineering & Information Technology

    2010-07-01

    This study forms a part of the physical study of the membrane bioreactor in presence of buoyancy media. Kaolin clay suspension with buoyancy media (anthracite) was used as a suspension and the particle layer development on membrane surface with evolution of time was studied. Presence of buoyancy media reduced the pressure development by almost two folds compared to in absence of the media. The particles deposition on membrane surface was size selective. The mean particle diameter (0.45 {mu} m) deposited on the membrane surface remained almost similar in presence of the media after 7 hrs run where as in its absence the mean diameter finer particles deposition occurred at the beginning followed by coarser particles.

  8. Influence of buoyant media on particle layer dynamics in microfiltration membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, R K; Vigneswaran, S; Kandasamy, Jaya

    2010-01-01

    This study forms a part of the physical study of the membrane bioreactor in prese