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Sample records for kanto region japan

  1. Role of climate variability in the heatstroke death rates of Kanto region in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akihiko, Takaya; Morioka, Yushi; Behera, Swadhin K

    2014-07-10

    The death toll by heatstroke in Japan, especially in Kanto region, has sharply increased since 1994 together with large interannual variability. The surface air temperature and humidity observed during boreal summers of 1980-2010 were examined to understand the role of climate in the death toll. The extremely hot days, when the daily maximum temperature exceeds 35 °C, are more strongly associated with the death toll than the conventional Wet Bulb Globe Temperature index. The extremely hot days tend to be associated with El Niño/Southern Oscillation or the Indian Ocean Dipole, suggesting a potential link with tropical climate variability to the heatstroke related deaths. Also, the influence of these climate modes on the death toll has strengthened since 1994 probably related to global warming. It is possible to develop early warning systems based on seasonal climate predictions since recent climate models show excellent predictability skills for those climate modes.

  2. Effects of Two Subducting Slabs on the Temperature Distribution Along the Subduction Faults in the Kanto Region, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, I.; He, J.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we investigate the thermal effects of subduction of two oceanic plates in the Kanto region of Japan, using a 3-D numerical thermal model. The Kanto region lies in the forearc of a subduction system, where the Pacific (PAC) plate and the Philippine Sea (PHS) plate subduct beneath the North American (NA) plate. In a typical subduction setting with one subducting slab, the motion of the slab drives solid-state mantle flow in the overlying mantle wedge, and the flow brings in hot mantle from the backarc towards the forearc. In the Kanto region, however, the presence of the PHS plate between the overlying NA plate and the subducting PAC plate prevents a typical mantle flow pattern. We developed a 3-D thermal model for the Kanto region to simulate the pattern of mantle wedge flow and to quantify its effect on the thermal structure. The model incorporates realistic slab geometries that were delineated from seismological studies. Mantle wedge flow between the PHS slab and the overlying NA plate is expected to be subdued due to the small space and the relatively slow subduction of the PHS slab. We simplify the model by incorporating the results of a 2-D thermal modeling for the subduction of the PHS slab as part of boundary conditions in the 3-D model to approximate the effect of the subdued mantle wedge flow and the subduction of the PHS slab. We use geophysical observations as constraints for the 3-D thermal model and estimate the temperature distributions along the subduction plate interfaces. The model predicts a particularly cold condition in the central part of the Kanto region where the PAC and PHS slabs are in contact with one another, consistent with the observed deeper extent of seismicity along the subduction faults compared to the neighboring regions.

  3. 3-D simulation for the tectonic evolution around the Kanto Region of Japan using the kinematic plate subduction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashima, A.; Sato, T.; Ito, T.; Miyauchi, T.; Kameo, K.; Yamamoto, S.

    2011-12-01

    In the Kanto region of Japan, we can observe one of the most active crustal deformations on the earth. In the southern part of the Boso peninsula to the south, the uplift rate is estimated to be 5 mm/yr from the height of marine terraces. From geological evidence, the Kanto mountains to the west are considered to uplift at 1mm/yr. In contrast, the center part of the Kanto region is stable or subsiding, covered by the Holocene sediments. The depth of the basement reaches 3 km at the deepest. Vertical deformation in the timescale of 1 Myr is being revealed by the analysis of the recent seismic reflection experiments compared with the heights of the dated sediment layers exposed on land. These crustal deformation occurs in a highly complex tectonic setting with four plates interacting with each other: beneath Kanto, situated on the Eurasian and North American plates, the Philippine sea plate subducts and the Pacific plate further descends beneath the North American and Philippine sea plates, forming the unique trench-trench-trench triple junction on the earth. In addition, the Izu-Bonin (Ogasawara) arc on the Philippine sea plate is colliding with the Japan islands due to the buoyancy of the arc crust. At the plate boundaries near the Izu-Bonin arc, large interplate earthquakes occurred at the Sagami trough in 1703 and 1923 (Kanto earthquake) and at the Nankai trough in 1707, 1854 and 1944. To reveal the crustal deformation under these plate-to-plate interactions, we use the kinematic plate subduction model based on the elastic dislocation theory. This model is based on the idea that mechanical interaction between plates can rationally be represented by the increase of the displacement discontinuity (dislocation) across plate interfaces. Given the 3-D geometry of plate interfaces, the distribution of slip rate vectors for simple plate subduction can be obtained directly from relative plate velocities. In collision zones, the plate with arc crust cannot easily descend

  4. Evaluation of summertime surface ozone in Kanto area of Japan using a semi-regional model and observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trieu, Tran Thi Ngoc; Goto, Daisuke; Yashiro, Hisashi; Murata, Ryo; Sudo, Kengo; Tomita, Hirofumi; Satoh, Masaki; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2017-03-01

    Surface ozone is an air pollutant and harmful to human life. The spatial distribution of the air pollution has been estimated by chemical transport models, but still there are large uncertainties depending on detailed condition of the region. In this study, we extended Goto et al. (2015a) for implementing a chemical transport model to simulate short-lived gases such as ozone over Kanto area (around Tokyo in Japan) for August 2010. Comparison of simulation results with observed data indicated that the model had ability to capture observed ozone diurnal cycles over the target region with high correlation coefficients (0.69-0.81). The simulation result showed a vital role of meteorological conditions in the model performance. The correlation coefficients were much higher (0.78-0.87) and biases were lower (ozone concentrations in the unstable weather conditions. This study helped achieve a better understanding of the chemistry transport model performance under unstable meteorological conditions in the Kanto area. Maximal association between meteorological factors and surface ozone distribution was revealed. In addition, uncertainty of emission inventories of ozone precursors especially the underestimate NOx level certainly contributed to high level surface ozone during nighttime in this study.

  5. Renewable Energy Opportunities at the Kanto Installations, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solana, Amy E.; Horner, Jacob A.; Russo, Bryan J.; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Kora, Angela R.; Weimar, Mark R.; Hand, James R.; Orrell, Alice C.; Williamson, Jennifer L.

    2010-09-24

    This document provides an overview of renewable resource development potential at the U.S. Army installations in the Kanto region in Japan, which includes Camp Zama, Yokohama North Dock, Sagamihara Family Housing Area (SFHA), Sagami General Depot, and Akasaka Press Center. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and also on ground source heat pumps for heating and cooling buildings. The effort was funded by the Huntsville Army Corps of Engineers, and includes the development of a methodology for renewable resource assessment at Army installations located on foreign soil. The methodology is documented in Renewable Energy Assessment Methodology for Japanese OCONUS Army Installations. The site visit to the Kanto installations took place on April 5 and 6, 2010. At the current time, there are some renewable technologies that show economic potential. Because of siting restrictions and the small size of these installations, development of most renewable energy technologies will likely be limited to Camp Zama. Project feasibility is based on installation-specific resource availability and energy costs and projections based on accepted life-cycle cost methods. Development of any renewable energy project will be challenging, as it will require investigation into existing contractual obligations, new contracts that could be developed, the legality of certain partnerships, and available financing avenues, which involves the U.S. Forces Japan (USFJ), the Government of Japan (GOJ), and a number of other parties on both sides. The Army will not be able to implement a project without involvement and approval from the other services and multiple levels of Japanese government. However, implementation of renewable energy projects could be an attractive method for GOJ to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and lower annual utility payments to USFJ. This report recommends projects to pursue and offers approaches to use. The most

  6. Three-dimensional numerical modeling of thermal regime and slab dehydration beneath Kanto and Tohoku, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yingfeng; Yoshioka, Shoichi; Manea, Vlad Constantin; Manea, Marina; Matsumoto, Takumi

    2017-01-01

    Although the thermal regime of the interface between two overlapping subducting plates, such as those beneath Kanto, Japan, is thought to play an important role in affecting the distribution of interplate and intraslab earthquakes, the estimation of the thermal regime remains challenging to date. We constructed a three-dimensional (3-D) thermal convection model to simulate the subduction of the Pacific plate along the Japan Trench and Izu-Bonin Trench, including the subduction of the Philippine Sea beneath Kanto and investigated the slab thermal regime and slab water contents in this complex tectonic setting. Based on the subduction parameters tested in generic models with two flat oceanic plates, a faster or thicker plate subducting in a more trench-normal direction produces a colder slab thermal regime. The interplate temperature of the cold anomaly beneath offshore Kanto was approximately 300°C colder than that beneath offshore Tohoku at a same depth of 40 km and approximately 600°C colder at a depth of 70 km. The convergence between the two subducting plates produces an asymmetric thermal structure in the slab contact zone beneath Kanto, which is characterized by clustered seismicity in the colder southwestern half. The thermo-dehydration state of the mid-ocean ridge basalt near the upper surface of the subducted Pacific plate controls the interplate seismicity beneath the Kanto-Tohoku region according to the spatial concurrence of the thermo-dehydration and seismicity along the megathrust fault zone of the subducted Pacific plate.

  7. 3-D simulation of temporal change in tectonic deformation pattern and evolution of the plate boundary around the Kanto Region of Japan due to the collision of the Izu-Bonin Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashima, A.; Sato, T.; Ito, T.; Miyauchi, T.; Furuya, H.; Tsumura, N.; Kameo, K.; Yamamoto, S.

    2010-12-01

    The Kanto region of Japan is in a highly complex tectonic setting with four plates interacting with each other: beneath Kanto, situated on the Eurasian and North American plates, the Philippine sea plate subducts and the Pacific plate further descends beneath the North American and Philippine sea plates, forming the unique trench-trench-trench triple junction on the earth. In addition, the Izu-Bonin (Ogasawara) arc on the Philippine sea plate is colliding with the Japan islands, which is considered to be a significant effect on the tectonics of Kanto. To reveal the present crustal structure and the present internal stress fields in such a complex tectonic setting, it is essential to comprehend them through the long-term tectonic evolution process. In this study, we estimate the temporal change in tectonic deformation pattern along with the geometry of the plate boundary around Kanto by numerical simulation with a kinematic plate subduction model based on the elastic dislocation theory. This model is based on the idea that mechanical interaction between plates can rationally be represented by the increase of the displacement discontinuity (dislocation) across plate interfaces. Given the 3-D geometry of plate interfaces, the distribution of slip rate vectors for simple plate subduction can be obtained directly from relative plate velocities. In collision zones, the plate with arc crust cannot easily descend because of its buoyancy. This can be represented by giving slip-rate deficit. When crustal deformation occurs, it also causes change in geometry of the plate boundary itself. This geometry change sensitively affects mechanical interaction at the plate boundary. Then the renewed plate-to-plete interaction alters crustal deformation rates. This feedback system has a large effect on collision zones. Indeed, the plate boundary around the Izu peninsula, the northernmost end of the Izu-Bonin arc, intends landward as large as 100 km. Iterating this effect sequentially

  8. Coseismic slip distribution of the 1923 Kanto earthquake, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitz, F.F.; Nyst, M.; Nishimura, T.; Thatcher, W.

    2005-01-01

    The slip distribution associated with the 1923 M = 7.9 Kanto, Japan, earthquake is reexamined in light of new data and modeling. We utilize a combination of first-order triangulation, second-order triangulation, and leveling data in order to constrain the coseismic deformation. The second-order triangulation data, which have not been utilized in previous studies of 1923 coseismic deformation, are associated with only slightly smaller errors than the first-order triangulation data and expand the available triangulation data set by about a factor of 10. Interpretation of these data in terms of uniform-slip models in a companion study by Nyst et al. shows that a model involving uniform coseismic slip on two distinct rupture planes explains the data very well and matches or exceeds the fit obtained by previous studies, even one which involved distributed slip. Using the geometry of the Nyst et al. two-plane slip model, we perform inversions of the same geodetic data set for distributed slip. Our preferred model of distributed slip on the Philippine Sea plate interface has a moment magnitude of 7.86. We find slip maxima of ???8-9 m beneath Odawara and ???7-8 m beneath the Miura peninsula, with a roughly 2:1 ratio of strike-slip to dip-slip motion, in agreement with a previous study. However, the Miura slip maximum is imaged as a more broadly extended feature in our study, with the high-slip region continuing from the Miura peninsula to the southern Boso peninsula region. The second-order triangulation data provide good evidence for ???3 m right-lateral strike slip on a 35-km-long splay structure occupying the volume between the upper surface of the descending Philippine Sea plate and the southern Boso peninsula. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. Array measurements of long-period microtremors in southwestern Kanto plain, Japan; Kanto heiya nanseibu ni okeru yaya choshuki bido no array kansoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanaka, H.; Sato, H.; Kurita, K.; Seo, K. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    Array measurements of long-period microtremors were carried out in the southwestern part of Kanto Plain, Japan, to obtain S-wave velocity structures in sedimentary beds as fundamental data for estimating long-term strong ground motion in Kanto Plain. The major component in a long-term seismic motion observed in Kanto Plain is the surface wave. According to the result of observations on Love wave by Kinoshita et al, the wavelengths of the surface waves of a long-term cycle are 10 to 20 km. Therefore, if an array observation is to be performed at intervals of about two wavelengths, about 40 points will be required to cover the entire Kanto plain. The final phase velocity is decided by averaging phase velocities of each cycle obtained for each data set. The acquired phase velocities are analyzed inversely by using a genetic algorithm to derive the S-wave velocities at each observation point. The present microtremor array observation has used 13 points in the southwestern part of Kanto Plain to acquire S-wave velocity (Vs) distribution in sedimentary beds. It was made clear that beds with Vs of 1.0 km/s and Vs of 1.5 km/s exist in this area between the surface bed and the seismic foundation with Vs of about 3 km/s. 10 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Adjoint tomography of the crust and upper mantle structure beneath the Kanto region using broadband seismograms

    KAUST Repository

    Miyoshi, Takayuki

    2017-10-04

    A three-dimensional seismic wave speed model in the Kanto region of Japan was developed using adjoint tomography for application in the effective reproduction of observed waveforms. Starting with a model based on previous travel time tomographic results, we inverted the waveforms obtained at seismic broadband stations from 140 local earthquakes in the Kanto region to obtain the P- and S-wave speeds Vp and Vs. Additionally, all centroid times of the source solutions were determined before the structural inversion. The synthetic displacements were calculated using the spectral-element method (SEM) in which the Kanto region was parameterized using 16 million grid points. The model parameters Vp and Vs were updated iteratively by Newton’s method using the misfit and Hessian kernels until the misfit between the observed and synthetic waveforms was minimized. Computations of the forward and adjoint simulations were conducted on the K computer in Japan. The optimized SEM code required a total of 6720 simulations using approximately 62,000 node hours to obtain the final model after 16 iterations. The proposed model reveals several anomalous areas with extremely low-Vs values in comparison with those of the initial model. These anomalies were found to correspond to geological features, earthquake sources, and volcanic regions with good data coverage and resolution. The synthetic waveforms obtained using the newly proposed model for the selected earthquakes showed better fit than the initial model to the observed waveforms in different period ranges within 5–30 s. This result indicates that the model can accurately predict actual waveforms.

  11. Groundwater management based on monitoring of land subsidence and groundwater levels in the Kanto Groundwater Basin, Central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuno, K.; Kagawa, A.; Kazaoka, O.; Kusuda, T.; Nirei, H.

    2015-11-01

    Over 40 million people live on and exploit the groundwater resources of the Kanto Plain. The Plain encompasses metropolitan Tokyo and much of Chiba Prefecture. Useable groundwater extends to the base of the Kanto Plain, some 2500 to 3000 m below sea level. Much of the Kanto Plain surface is at sea level. By the early 1970s, with increasing urbanization and industrial expansion, local overdraft of groundwater resources caused major ground subsidence and damage to commercial and residential structures as well as to local and regional infrastructure. Parts of the lowlands around Tokyo subsided to 4.0 m below sea level; particularly affected were the suburbs of Funabashi and Gyotoku in western Chiba. In the southern Kanto Plain, regulations, mainly by local government and later by regional agencies, led to installation of about 500 monitoring wells and almost 5000 bench marks by the 1990's. Many of them are still working with new monitoring system. Long-term monitoring is important. The monitoring systems are costly, but the resulting data provide continuous measurement of the "health" of the Kanto Groundwater Basin, and thus permit sustainable use of the groundwater resource.

  12. Ground uplift related to permeability enhancement following the 2011 Tohoku earthquake in the Kanto Plain, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishitsuka, Kazuya; Matsuoka, Toshifumi; Nishimura, Takuya; Tsuji, Takeshi; ElGharbawi, Tamer

    2017-06-01

    We investigated the post-seismic surface displacement of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake around the Kanto Plain (including the capital area of Japan), which is located approximately 400 km from the epicenter, using a global positioning system network during 2005-2015 and persistent scatterer interferometry of TerraSAR-X data from March 2011 to November 2012. Uniform uplift owing to viscoelastic relaxation and afterslip on the plain has been reported previously. In addition to the general trend, we identified areas where the surface displacement velocity was faster than the surrounding areas, as much as 7 mm/year for 3 years after the earthquake and with a velocity decay over time. Local uplift areas were 30 × 50 km2 and showed a complex spatial distribution with an irregular shape. Based on an observed groundwater level increase, we deduce that the local ground uplift was induced by a permeability enhancement and a pore pressure increase in the aquifer system, which is attributable to mainshock vibration.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  13. Extraction of Flooded Areas due the 2015 Kanto-Tohoku Heavy Rainfall in Japan Using PALSAR-2 Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, F.; Liu, W.

    2016-06-01

    Triggered by two typhoons, heavy rainfall hit Kanto and Tohoku regions of Japan from September 9 to 11, 2015. Increased river water by the continuous rainfall overflowed and destroyed several river banks and caused damaging floods in wide areas. PALSAR-2 onboard ALOS-2 satellite carried out emergency observation for the impacted areas during and after the heavy rainfall. In this study, two pre-event and four co- and post-event PALSAR-2 images were used to extract the inundation area in Joso city, Ibaraki prefecture. First, using the pre-event SAR intensity image and a detailed topographic map, the backscattering coefficient of river water was investigated. Then the flooded areas were extracted by a common threshold value of backscatter for water bodies in the six temporal images. The colour composite of the sigma naught values was also made to visualize pixels that had been converted from ground to water. Finally, the extracted results were compared with those from the visual interpretation of aerial photographs and field survey reports. This comparison revealed that the accuracy of the flood extraction was fairly good for agricultural lands and non-urban land uses. But for built-up urban areas, it was not easy to extract water body since radar illumination did to reach the ground (water) surface.

  14. Influence of blocking effect of mountain and local front on two Asian-dust events observed at Mt. Haruna and Tsukuba in Kanto, Japan, in 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, Yayoi; Igarashi, Yasuhito; Naoe, Hiroaki; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Atsushi; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Tanaka, Taichu Y.

    2011-08-01

    Aerosol number concentrations were continuously measured at sites at Tsukuba and Mt. Haruna on the Kanto region of Japan by using optical particle counters (OPCs) from February to June 2007. Three specific dust events captured at the sites were analyzed by using lidar, backward trajectories, and model simulation in detail. The temporal variations in aerosol concentrations in the two Asian-dust events (K1 event: 31 March-3 April; K2 event: 25-28 May) were similar. Dust particles (≥2.0 μm in diameter) were transported in association with a synoptic-scale cold front, and they arrived at the Tsukuba site about 8 h after they were observed at the Mt. Haruna site, in association with the dissipation of a local front formed ahead of the cold front. However, the inflow patterns of dust particles differed between the K1 and K2 events. The K1 event flowed onto the Kanto Plain, detouring around the mountainous region, whereas the K2 event directly flowed across the mountains. The difference in inflow pattern was probably due to the blocking effects of the mountains and the formation of a stable layer near the surface. Preceding the dust plume arrival, an increase in the number concentration of small-aerosol particles (0.3-1.0 μm in diameter), which are considered to be spherical by lidar, was observed, but only at the Tsukuba site. This increase was possibly due to anthropogenic pollution transported over long distances from the continent and from domestic sources in the Kanto region. The third event was a local dust event, because it was observed only at the Tsukuba site (on 13 and 14 March) under dry conditions (10 m s -1).

  15. Post-seismic displacement around the Kanto plain, Japan after the 2011 Tohoku earthquake: implications for the subsurface structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishitsuka, Kazuya; Matsuoka, Toshifumi; Tsuji, Takeshi

    2017-04-01

    We investigated three-year post-seismic displacement of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake around the Kanto plain using persistent scatterer interferometry and global positioning network. Several ground subsidence areas possibly due to groundwater extraction were observed before the earthquake. On the other hand, post-seismic displacements show overall ground uplift with both uniform and local scale. The global uplift areas were about the northeast of Japan island scale, whereas the local uplift areas were about 30 × 50 km2, and showed complex spatial distribution with irregular shape. Since the groundwater level has increased, we interpreted that the local ground uplift was associated with permeability enhancement and pore pressure increase of the aquifer system, which were induced by the mainshock vibration. The areas of local uplift are characterized by deeper sediment layer than in other areas, and the velocity response spectrum shows that the earthquake caused seismic shear waves of long period ( 1-30 sec), attributable to the thick sedimentary basin beneath the Kanto Plain. Based on the fact that low-frequency seismic wave especially increase permeability, the local structure beneath the Kanto plain would alter permeability of the aquifer structure and induce pore fluid migration.

  16. Shallow seismic section in the central Kanto plain, to the north of Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, K.; Kano, N.; Ohtaki, T.; Yokokura, T.; Ito, S.; Sumita, T.; Makino, M.; Yokota, T.; Kimura, H.

    2008-12-01

    Shallow seismic reflection surveys were carried out in the central part of the Kanto plain, 40 km northwest of Tokyo, Japan. The survey target ranges about from 50 m to 500 m in depth. The final purpose of the surveys is to reveal the relationship between the subsurface structure and the distribution and flow of the underground water in this area. The survey lines were divided into Kawagoe1(length of CMP line: 8km), Okegawa1(5.3km), Shobu1(8.7km) and Kazo1(6.3km). They line up southwest to northeast from the Iruma upland to the Kazo lowland via the Arakawa lowland and Omiya upland. The survey lines cross the Arakawa fault, the Ayasegawa fault and the Kuki fault. They are considered active, but only the Aysegawa fault has fault topography and is confirmed by subsurface structure. The total length of the lines is about 27km and there is a 2 km long opening between the Okegawa1 and the Shobu1, because of dense population and heavy traffic. Survey parameters are as follows. Seismic source: one EnviroVib or MiniVib or Mini Impactor, shot interval: 2.5m or 10m, sweep frequency: 15-120Hz, sweep length: 13s, receiver: UltraMark2, receiver interval: 10m, elements: 6 bunching, recording instrument: DAS-1, number of channel: 144, listening length: 3.3s, spread: shots from the edge to the 48th point of 144 fixed receiver points, maximum offset: between 1440m and 960m. The data were processed to make seismic sections for each survey line by conventional CMP method. Then the sections were cut and pasted into a series of seismic sections. Many continuous reflectors are imaged between several ten meters and 1 km in depth in the whole seismic section. Reflectors are discontinuous below 1 km, probably because of lack of source energy. In the Iruma upland and Arakawa lowland, the Pliocene and Pleistocene units thicken northeastward, indicating that sedimentation has been synchronous with northeastward tilting of the underlying basement rocks. Undulation and bending of reflectors

  17. Structural Analysis of Serpentinite in the Jikkoku Pass Area, Northwestern Kanto Mountains, Central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirauchi, K.; Hisada, K.

    2004-12-01

    Serpentinite is a product made by hydrothermal alteration of ultramafic rocks such as peridotite. It has been understood that serpentinite along a fault or a plate boundary plays a role as a lubricant for rheological properties. However, it is unknown how serpentinite actually acts through its deformation processes. The study area is located on the Jikkoku Pass area, northwestern Kanto Mountains, central Japan. Serpentinite bodies are intermittently distributed along fault boundaries. In this study, we divided serpentinite into four deformation stages (D1-D4) based on meso- and microstructures. 1) D1 stage: It is represented by block-in-matrix structure. Block sizes are various, and their longest axis is about 1 m. Shapes of blocks are almost oblate type and rounded to subangular. The long axes of blocks nearly show a same orientation, and planar structures are nearly parallel to them. Inner structures of blocks are entirely deformed, and mesh texture as a pseudomorph of olivine and euhedral chromian spinels are observed. Serpentines consist mainly of lizardite and chrysotile. Fine-gained serpentines of various sizes are randomly scattered in the matrix. 2) D2 stage: It is represented by alternation in portions of different colors and textures. Colors consist mainly of dark green and yellowish green. Intervals of this alternation vary from 1 to 3 mm. In portions of dark green, needle-shaped antigorites have a preferred orientation. Antigorites are remarkably fine-grained in some cases, and are similar to characteristics of ultramylonite. Portions of yellowish green include opaque minerals such as magnetite, forming planar structures. A chromian spinel occurs as a porphyroclast (rounded shape) together with fine-grained recrystallized antigorites. 3) D3 stage: It is represented by fracture foliation. It is formed by foliation as fracture planes that are penetratively developed with a few hundreds of ƒEm intervals. Besides, intervals of this foliation also vary on

  18. Characterizing the effect of summer temperature on heatstroke-related emergency ambulance dispatches in the Kanto area of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chris Fook Sheng; Ueda, Kayo; Ono, Masaji; Nitta, Hiroshi; Takami, Akinori

    2014-07-01

    Despite rising concern on the impact of heat on human health, the risk of high summer temperature on heatstroke-related emergency dispatches is not well understood in Japan. A time-series study was conducted to examine the association between apparent temperature and daily heatstroke-related ambulance dispatches (HSAD) within the Kanto area of Japan. A total of 12,907 HSAD occurring from 2000 to 2009 in five major cities—Saitama, Chiba, Tokyo, Kawasaki, and Yokohama—were analyzed. Generalized additive models and zero-inflated Poisson regressions were used to estimate the effects of daily maximum three-hour apparent temperature (AT) on dispatch frequency from May to September, with adjustment for seasonality, long-term trend, weekends, and public holidays. Linear and non-linear exposure effects were considered. Effects on days when AT first exceeded its summer median were also investigated. City-specific estimates were combined using random effects meta-analyses. Exposure-response relationship was found to be fairly linear. Significant risk increase began from 21 °C with a combined relative risk (RR) of 1.22 (95 % confidence interval, 1.03-1.44), increasing to 1.49 (1.42-1.57) at peak AT. When linear exposure was assumed, combined RR was 1.43 (1.37-1.50) per degree Celsius increment. Overall association was significant the first few times when median AT was initially exceeded in a particular warm season. More than two-thirds of these initial hot days were in June, implying the harmful effect of initial warming as the season changed. Risk increase that began early at the fairly mild perceived temperature implies the need for early precaution.

  19. A numerical study of summer ozone concentration over the Kanto area of Japan using the MM5/CMAQ model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mai Khiem; Ryozo Ooka; Hong Huang; Hiroshi Hayami

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the ability of the MM5/CMAQ model to predict ozone (O3) air quality over the Kanto area and to investigate the factors that affect simulation of O3. We find that the coupled MM5/CMAQ model is a useful tool for the analysis of urban environmental problems. The simulation results were compared with observational data and were found to accurately replicate most of the important observed characteristics. The initial and boundary conditions were found to have a significant effect on simulated O3 concentrations.The results show that on hot and dry days with high O3 concentration, the CMAQ model provides a poor simulation of O3 maxima when using initial and boundary conditions derived from the CMAQ default data. The simulation of peak O3 concentrations is improved with the JCAP initial and boundary conditions. On mild days, the default CMAQ initial and boundary conditions provide a more realistic simulation. Meteorological conditions also have a strong impact on the simulated distribution and accumulation of O3 concentrations in this area. Low O3 concentrations are simulated during mild weather conditions, and high concentrations are predicted during hot and dry weather. By investigating the effects of different meteorological conditions on each model process, we find that advection and diffusion differ the most between the two meteorological regimes. Thus, differences in the winds that govern the transport of O3 and its precursors are likely the most important meteorological drivers of ozone concentration over the central Kanto area.

  20. [Effects of empathy on fund-raising activities on behalf of victims of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, focusinig on the residents in the South Kanto area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Youichi; Yoo, Seonyoung; Matsui, Yutaka

    2015-02-01

    Fund-raising activities on behalf of victims of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake during the year after the earthquake were investigated in residents of the South Kanto area (N = 749), which is adjacent to the disaster area. The percentage of people that raised funds was 67.4%. We investigated the effects of the following on fundraising activities: demographic variables (sex, age, and educational background), trait empathy (empathic concern, perspective taking, and personal distress), former experience with fund-raising activities, effects of similarity to victims (e.g., experienced inconveniences because of the disaster, or had problems returning home), and psychological closeness to victims (e.g, have family members or acquaintances that suffered from the disaster, or that once lived in the disaster area). The results indicated that fund-raising activities were affected by former experience with fund-raising, similarity to victims, psychological closeness to victims, empathic concern, and being female. The relationship between fund-raising activities for victims and empathy are discussed.

  1. Comparative Study of Population Density in Flat Area between the Pearl River Basin in China and Kanto Basin in Japan%中国珠三角盆地和日本关东盆地平地人口密度对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    匡耀求; 姚志远; 黄宁生; 李国敏

    2014-01-01

    density leads to many problems like cities besieged by garbage, traffic congestion, water shortage, air pollution and climate change etc. These problems set an alarm for people and lead us to think of the following questions:Whether Pearl River Basin could sustain the current amount of population sustainably? Does Pearl River Basin have the potential to sustain more people? In order to find answers to those questions, this paper makes a comparative study of population density in relatively flat area between Pearl River Basin of China and Kanto Basin of Japan as the two regions are similar in geography and development function. Kanto Basin is located in south-central Honshu, Japan. It is famous for advanced economy, but also famous for the high density in population. Kyoto, once was the city with the highest population density, is one prefecture in Kanto Basin. From 1965 to 2005, the growth rate of population in Kanto Basin decreased year by year and dropped to 0.5%at 1995 and fluctuated little around 0.5%till 2010. What is more, at 2012, the growth rate of population in Kanto Basin dropped to 0.03%which means the number of people who migrate to Kanto Basin is nearly zero. This represents people would no longer like to migrate to cities in Kanto Basin maybe for the unsatisfied living condition or working environment. In other words, Kanto Basin could not sustain more people. The number of population and population density in Kanto Basin are at critical points. So this paper compares the population density in flat area between Pearl River Basin and Kanto Basin. And the conclusion is the population density in flat area of Pearl River Basin exceeds that of Kanto Basin in 2010 and the amount of population in Pearl River Basin is reaching its limit of carrying capacity. Pearl River Basin has little capacity to sustain more people.

  2. Simulating 131I pathways from Fukushima to Kanto: a case study for March 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee Zhi Yi, A.; Yoshimura, K.; Oki, T.

    2015-12-01

    An estimated 150PBq of 131I was released from the FDNPP accident, partially deposited into rivers and affected the water treatment plants (WTPs) of Japan. Due to the elevated 131I concentration in tap water, a restriction on drinking water was placed in 15 of 47 prefectures; of those limited, the densely populated Kanto region was significantly affected during this period. In order to better understand the existence of and to investigate the pathways of 131I for future risk and water resource management in the Kanto region, the IsoMATTRIP land surface and river model was developed. Half-life considerations of radiotracers were implemented and a river map of the Kanto region was manually created. Few simulation studies on the pathways of 131I have been conducted due to its short half-life and limited validation data. The development of the IsoMATTRIP model serves as an initial step to address this gap in knowledge. Preliminary runs on the IsoMATTRIP showed that river discharge has a significant effect on 131I concentration found in WTPs. River discharge was underestimated (by average of 55 m3/s) while 131I concentration was overestimated (by 301 Bq/kg). However, the model was able to simulate varying response of 131I concentration for fallout according to basin size. The discrepancy between observed and simulated river discharge is potentially caused by the model's usage of natural land parameters to simulate an urban environment. Effective river velocity, input precipitation, and discharge were calibrated to successfully identify optimized settings for the current model setup. The IsoMATTRIP simulated comparable values of 131I to that from the observed in WTPs of the Kanto region.

  3. Baseline experiment of interferometric PGS at the EDM network in the south Kanto area, Japan. GPS kansho sokuiho ni yoru kisen sokuryo no kiso jikken (Minamikanto koha sokuryomo ni okeru hikaku kansoku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, T.; Murata, I.; Matsumoto, S.; Hirata, Y.; Takahashi, T. (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Earthquake Research Institute); Tsuchiya, A. (National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)); Watada, S. (California Institute of Technology, California (USA)); Iga, A. (Sony Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-11-25

    The first field baseline observation using SONY GTT-4000, a GPS (Global Positioning System) interferometer was conducted at the EDM (Electromagnetic Distance Measurements) network of the Earthquake Research Institute in the southern Kanto Area, Japan. For the experiments, three GTT-4000 receivers of single frequency version were deployed at three sites which compose a triangle with side distances of about 8km, 12km, and 14km. The present paper introduces the receiver briefly, and the distances obtained by this receiver are compared with those obtained by the EDM observations. Consequently, it was shown that the results by GTT-4000 coincided well with those by EDM with less than 2ppm of accuracy. It was also shown that misclosures of the triangle which was obtained by the relative coordinate estimates were smaller than 1ppm. Furthermore, it was revealed that due to introduction of upgraded dual frequency capability, the receiver can reduce the effect of the ionospheric path delays. 5 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Earthquake Source and Ground Motion Characteristics of Great Kanto Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, P. G.; Sato, T.; Wald, D. J.; Graves, R. W.; Dan, K.

    2003-12-01

    This paper describes the derivation of a rupture model of the 1923 Kanto earthquake, and the estimation of ground motions that occurred during that earthquake and that might occur during future great Kanto earthquakes. The rupture model was derived from the joint inversion of geodetic and teleseismic data. The leveling and triangulation data place strong constraints on the distribution and orientation of slip on the fault. The most concentrated slip is in the shallow central and western part of the fault. The location of the hypocenter on the western part of the fault gives rise to strong near fault rupture directivity effects, which are largest toward the east in the Boso Peninsula. To estimate the ground motions caused by this earthquake, we first calibrated 1D and 3D wave propagation path effects using the Odawara earthquake of 5 August 1990 (M 5.1), the first earthquake larger than M 5 in the last 60 years near the hypocenter of the 1923 Kanto earthquake. The simulation of the moderate-sized Odawara earthquake demonstrates that the 3D velocity model works quite well at reproducing the recorded long-period (T > 3.33 sec) strong motions, including basin-generated surface waves, for a number of sites located throughout the Kanto basin region. Using this validated 3D model along with the rupture model described above, we simulated the long-period (T > 4 sec) ground motions in this region for the 1923 Kanto earthquake. The largest ground motions occur east of the epicenter along the central and southern part of the Boso Peninsula. These large motions arise from strong rupture directivity effects and are comprised of relatively simple, source-controlled pulses with a dominant period of about 10 sec. Other rupture models and hypocenter locations generally produce smaller long period ground motion levels in this region that those of the 1923 event. North of the epicentral region, in the Tokyo area, 3D basin-generated phases are quite significant, and these phases

  5. Total-factor energy efficiency of regions in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honma, Satoshi [Faculty of Economics, Kyushu Sangyo University, 2-3-1 Matsukadai, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 813-8503 (Japan); Hu, Jin-Li [Institute of Business and Management, National Chiao Tung University (China)

    2008-02-15

    This study computes the regional total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) in Japan by employing the data envelopment analysis (DEA). A dataset of 47 prefectures in Japan for the period 1993-2003 is constructed. There are 14 inputs, including three production factors (labor employment, private, and public capital stocks) and 11 energy sources (electric power for commercial and industrial use, electric power for residential use, gasoline, kerosene, heavy oil, light oil, city gas, butane gas, propane gas, coal, and coke). GDP is the sole output. Following Fukao and Yue [2000. Regional factor inputs and convergence in Japan - how much can we apply closed economy neoclassical growth models? Economic Review 51, 136-151 (in Japanese)], data on private and public capital stocks are extended. All the nominal variables are transformed into real variables, taking into consideration the 1995 price level. For kerosene, gas oil, heavy oil, butane gas, coal, and coke, there are a few prefectures with TFEEs less than 0.7. The five most inefficient prefectures are Niigata, Wakayama, Hyogo, Chiba, and Yamaguchi. Inland regions and most regions along the Sea of Japan are efficient in energy use. Most of the inefficient prefectures that are developing mainly upon energy-intensive industries are located along the Pacific Belt Zone. A U-shaped relation similar to the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) is discovered between energy efficiency and per capita income for the regions in Japan. (author)

  6. Summed Probability Distribution of 14C Dates Suggests Regional Divergences in the Population Dynamics of the Jomon Period in Eastern Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico R Crema

    Full Text Available Recent advances in the use of summed probability distribution (SPD of calibrated 14C dates have opened new possibilities for studying prehistoric demography. The degree of correlation between climate change and population dynamics can now be accurately quantified, and divergences in the demographic history of distinct geographic areas can be statistically assessed. Here we contribute to this research agenda by reconstructing the prehistoric population change of Jomon hunter-gatherers between 7,000 and 3,000 cal BP. We collected 1,433 14C dates from three different regions in Eastern Japan (Kanto, Aomori and Hokkaido and established that the observed fluctuations in the SPDs were statistically significant. We also introduced a new non-parametric permutation test for comparing multiple sets of SPDs that highlights point of divergences in the population history of different geographic regions. Our analyses indicate a general rise-and-fall pattern shared by the three regions but also some key regional differences during the 6th millennium cal BP. The results confirm some of the patterns suggested by previous archaeological studies based on house and site counts but offer statistical significance and an absolute chronological framework that will enable future studies aiming to establish potential correlation with climatic changes.

  7. Japan's Energy Policy in the Asian Region

    OpenAIRE

    Reiji Takeishi

    2014-01-01

    With encouraged economic activities in the Asian region, energy consumption of Asian countries are substantially increasing. Based on the improved role of Asian countries, the possibility to secure enough energy in the future is becoming a seriously important matter because economic activities basically depend on stable energy supplies.

  8. Regional income inequality and happiness: Evidence from Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Oshio, Takashi; Kobayashi, Miki

    2009-01-01

    We investigated how regional income inequality is associated with the individual assessment of happiness based on micro data from nationwide surveys in Japan. Our multilevel analysis using logit and ordered logit models confirmed that individuals who live in areas of high inequality tend to report themselves as less happy, even after controlling for various individual and regional factors. Notably, the fact that happiness depends on not only income but also income inequality indicates the imp...

  9. Source Process of the 1923 Kanto Earthquake Using New Fault Geometry and 3-D Green's Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, R.; Koketsu, K.

    2005-12-01

    The September 1, 1923, Kanto earthquake caused severe damage and more than 100,000 fatalities in the Tokyo metropolitan area. This earthquake is an interplate event along the Sagami trough where the Philippine Sea plate is subducting beneath a continental plate. We have investigated the source process of this earthquake using the geodetic, teleseismic, and strong motion data (Kobayashi and Koketsu, 2005). The resultant slip distributions show that two asperities (areas of large slips) are located around the base of the Izu peninsula and the Uraga channel. In 2002 and 2003, four seismic surveys were carried out to determine crustal structures and fault locations in the Kanto region (Sato et al., 2005). The seismic reflections from the surface of the Philippine Sea slab suggested that the slab surface should be shallower than the previous models (e.g., Ishida, 1992; Matsu'ura et al., 1980). The fault model of Kobayashi and Koketsu (2005) was also based on Matsu'ura et al. (1980). In this study, we adopt new fault geometry consistent with the result of the reflection surveys and perform another source process inversion. The new slip distribution showed that the western asperity moved from the Uraga channel to the tip of the Miura peninsula, while the western asperity did not move considerably. Green's functions that Kobayashi and Koketsu (2005) used were calculated in a halfspace for geodetic data or in a 1-D model for strong motions. However, the real structure in the Kanto region is three-dimensionally complex as suggested by the geographical setting and seismic surveys. In fact, Kobayashi and Koketsu (2005) showed that the long coda of the observed seismogram at Hongo, Tokyo, was not reproduced in the synthetic one. The forward modeling with a 3-D structure (Sato et al., 1999) suggested that surface waves excited along the boundary between the Kanto mountains and Kanto basin can explain the large coda. Thus we calculate 3-D Green's functions for the strong motion

  10. Inference of postseismic deformation mechanisms of the 1923 Kanto earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitz, F.F.; Nyst, M.; Nishimura, T.; Thatcher, W.

    2006-01-01

    Coseismic slip associated with the M7.9, 1923 Kanto earthquake is fairly well understood, involving slip of up to 8 m along the Philippine Sea-Honshu interplate boundary under Sagami Bay and its onland extension. Postseismic deformation after the 1923 earthquake, however, is relatively poorly understood. We revisit the available deformation data in order to constrain possible mechanisms of postseismic deformation and to examine the consequences for associated stress changes in the surrounding crust. Data from two leveling lines and one tide gage station over the first 7-8 years postseismic period are of much greater amplitude than the corresponding expected interseismic deformation during the same period, making these data suitable for isolating the signal from postseismic deformation. We consider both viscoelastic models of asthenosphere relaxation and afterslip models. A distributed coseismic slip model presented by Pollitz et al. (2005), combined with prescribed parameters of a viscoelastic Earth model, yields predicted postseismic deformation that agrees with observed deformation on mainland Honshu from Tokyo to the Izu peninsula. Elsewhere (southern Miura peninsula; Boso peninsula), the considered viscoelastic models fail to predict observed deformation, and a model of ???1 in shallow afterslip in the offshore region south of the Boso peninsula, with equivalent moment magnitude Mw = 7.0, adequately accounts for the observed deformation. Using the distributed coseismic slip model, layered viscoelastic structure, and a model of interseismic strain accumulation, we evaluate the post-1923 stress evolution, including both the coseismic and accumulated postseismic stress changes and those stresses contributed by interseismic loading. We find that if account is made for the varying tectonic regime in the region, the occurrence of both immediate (first month) post-1923 crustal aftershocks as well as recent regional crustal seismicity is consistent with the predicted

  11. Epidemiological observations on bluetongue in sheep and cattle in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Y; Yamaguchi, O; Kubo, M

    2004-01-01

    Bluetongue (BT) first occurred in Japan between late August and October 1994 in 23 cattle in three prefectures of the northern Kanto region, and between the end of October and mid-November in 23 Suffolk sheep in the same region. The affected cattle had fever, deglutitive difficulty, hyper-salivation, facial oedema, scabbing of the corner of the mouth and dysphagia. The BT virus (BTV) was isolated from blood cells of the affected sheep. Surveillance for BTV antibody conducted by prefectures in the affected region has detected seroconversion to BTV in some prefectures every year thereafter. In the autumn of 2001, again in the northern Kanto region, 45 sheep developed BT, and BTV was isolated. It is considered important that Japan has imported numerous cattle from Australia, the United States of America (USA), and New Zealand every year. In particular, BTV was isolated from cattle imported from the USA during quarantine although some of the serotypes isolated are not present in the USA. Furthermore, BTV is not present in New Zealand. The third RNA segment encoding the serogroup-specific VP3 protein of Japanese BTV isolates and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) positive blood cells was amplified by RT-PCR. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the third RNA segment based on the sequence homology of the PCR products led to the classification of Japanese BTV isolates into two major groups.

  12. Aging effect of 137Cs obtained from 137Cs in the Kanto loam layer from the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident and in the Nishiyama loam layer from the Nagasaki A-bomb explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Tomoko; Mahara, Yasunori; Kubota, Takumi; Igarashi, Toshifumi

    2013-01-01

    We measured (134)Cs and (137)Cs in the surface soil of the Kanto loam in the eastern Tokyo metropolitan area and the Nishiyama loam in Nagasaki, Japan. The observed (137)Cs deposition in the Kanto loam from the Fukushima nuclear power plant (NPP) accident ranged from 4.0 to 77 kBq m(-2), which corresponds to 0.3-5 times of that in the Nishiyama loam. The (137)Cs retardation factor in the Kanto loam obtained seven months after the Fukusima NPP accident and in the Nishiyama loam after 36 and 38 years from the detonation of the Pu atomic bomb (A-bomb) ranged from 180 to 260 and 2000 to 10,000, respectively. This difference in the retardation factors is attributed to an aging effect that corresponds to seven months and 36 to 38 years after the deposition of (137)Cs occurred on the soil minerals.

  13. Regional differences in stroke mortality and alcohol consumption in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueshima, H; Ohsaka, T; Asakura, S

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between alcohol consumption and stroke mortality in 1975 in 46 prefectures of Japan was investigated. This was done by adjusting salt intake and several socio-economic factors, i.e., the annual per capita income, the number of persons who received public aid, the number of tatamis (a Japanese traditional floor unit) per household, the unemployment rate, and the unmarried or divorce rate, using a stepwise multiple regression analysis. As dependent variables, the sex-specific and age-adjusted mortality for the middle-aged (35-59 years) and for all ages due to stroke were used. For men, alcohol consumption was significantly related to age-adjusted stroke mortalities for the middle-aged and for all ages independent of salt intake and several socio-economic factors. Alcohol consumption was more strongly related to age-adjusted stroke mortality for the middle-aged than for all ages. For women alcohol was weakly correlated with the stroke mortality of the middle-aged. Salt intake was significantly correlated with stroke mortality for women but not for men. Furthermore, the male: female ratios of the age-adjusted stroke mortality for the middle aged and for all ages were analyzed as well, because alcohol is mostly consumed by men in Japan, and it was expected that the sex ratios would be well correlated to alcohol consumption. The results were as expected. Therefore, it was suggested that the regional difference in stroke mortality in Japan may be explained in part by that of alcohol consumption.

  14. Japan's response to China's rise : regional engagement, global containment, dangers of collision

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Christopher W.

    2009-01-01

    Japan and China's ability to manage their bilateral relationship is crucial for the stability of the East Asian region. It also has a global impact on the security and economic development of other regions. For just as China's rise has inevitably involved an expansion of its global reach, so Japan's responses to the challenges posed by China have increasingly taken a global form, seeking to incorporate new partners and frameworks outside East Asia. Japan's preferred response to China's region...

  15. Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    Japan consists of 3900 islands and lies off the east coast of Asia. Even though Japan is one of the most densely populated nations in the world, its growth rate has stabilized at .5%. 94% of all children go to senior high school and almost 90% finish. Responsibility for the sick, aged, and infirmed is changing from the family and private sector to government. Japan was founded in 600 BC and its 1st capital was in Nara (710-1867). The Portuguese, the 1st Westerners to make contact with Japan in 1542, opened trade which lasted until the mid 17th century. US Navy Commodore Matthew Perry forced Japan to reopen in 1854. Following wars with China and Russia in the late 1800s and early 1900s respectively, Japan took part in World Wars I and II. In between these wars Japan invaded Manchuria and China. The US dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the Japanese surrendered in September, 1945 ending World War II (WWII). Following, WWII, the Allied Powers guided Japan's establishment as a nonthreatening nation and a democratic parliamentary government (a constitutional monarchy) with a limited defense force. Japan remains one of the most politically stable of all postwar democracies. The Liberal Democratic Party's Noboru Takeshita became prime minister in 1987. Japan has limited natural resources and only 19% of the land is arable. Japanese ingenuity and skill combine to produce one of the highest per hectare crop yields in the world. Japan is a major economic power, and its and the US economies are becoming more interdependent. Its exports, making up only 13% of the gross national product, mainly go to Canada and the US. Many in the US are concerned, however, with the trade deficit with Japan and are seeking ways to make trade more equitable. Japan wishes to maintain good relations with its Asian neighbors and other nations. The US and Japan enjoy a strong, productive relationship.

  16. Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-01

    Japan is composed of 4 main islands and more than 3900 smaller islands and has 317.7 persons/square kilometer. This makes it one of the most densely populated nations in the world. Religion is an important force in the life of the Japanese and most consider themselves Buddhists. Schooling is free through junior high but 90% of Japanese students complete high school. In fact, Japan enjoys one of the highest literacy rates in the world. There are over 178 newspapers and 3500 magazines published in Japan and the number of new book titles issued each year is greater than that in the US. Since WW1, Japan expanded its influence in Asia and its holdings in the Pacific. However, as a direct result of WW2, Japan lost all of its overseas possessions and was able to retain only its own islands. Since 1952, Japan has been ruled by conservative governments which cooperate closely with the West. Great economic growth has come since the post-treaty period. Japan as a constitutional monarchy operates within the framework of a constitution which became effective in May 1947. Executive power is vested in a cabinet which includes the prime minister and the ministers of state. Japan is one of the most politically stable of the postwar democracies and the Liberal Democratic Party is representative of Japanese moderate conservatism. The economy of Japan is strong and growing. With few resources, there is only 19% of Japanese land suitable for cultivation. Its exports earn only about 19% of the country's gross national product. More than 59 million workers comprise Japan's labor force, 40% of whom are women. Japan and the US are strongly linked trading partners and after Canada, Japan is the largest trading partner of the US. Foreign policy since 1952 has fostered close cooperation with the West and Japan is vitally interested in good relations with its neighbors. Relations with the Soviet Union are not close although Japan is attempting to improve the situation. US policy is based on

  17. Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, John N.

    1986-01-01

    Analyzes the intergroup relations in Japanese society and Japan's educational system. Challenges the view that Japan is a homogeneous society by presenting the various forms of discrimination against Koreans, Ainu, and the burakumin. Suggests that despite ostracism and isolation, groups can affect public policy and achieve social advancement. (SA)

  18. Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2013-01-01

    I 1500- og 1600-tallet dannedes tidligt moderne stater i Europa, men samtidig eksisterede der ligeså avancerede statsdannelser uden for Europa, bl.a. i Kina, Indien og Japan. I det følgende ser vi nærmere på dannelsen af den moderne stat i Japan. Hvorfor blev Japan aldrig en europæisk koloni......? Hvordan havde japanske magthavere igennem 300 år forberedt Japan og de mennesker, der boede på de japanske øer, til at kunne udvikle en nation, der skulle blive den stærkeste og rigeste i Asien i mere end 100 år? Hvem bestemte i Japan? Kejseren eller shogunen?...

  19. Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2013-01-01

    I 1500- og 1600-tallet dannedes tidligt moderne stater i Europa, men samtidig eksisterede der ligeså avancerede statsdannelser uden for Europa, bl.a. i Kina, Indien og Japan. I det følgende ser vi nærmere på dannelsen af den moderne stat i Japan. Hvorfor blev Japan aldrig en europæisk koloni......? Hvordan havde japanske magthavere igennem 300 år forberedt Japan og de mennesker, der boede på de japanske øer, til at kunne udvikle en nation, der skulle blive den stærkeste og rigeste i Asien i mere end 100 år? Hvem bestemte i Japan? Kejseren eller shogunen?...

  20. Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Kazujo Suzuki

    2000-01-01

    This contribution aims to introduce the situation of qualitative research in social science in Japan, with an emphasis on qualitative research in psychology. At first, the history of psychology in Japan is briefly discussed and qualitative research in the history of the Japanese psychology is described. Then trends and problems of qualitative research in present-day psychology are mentioned. Finally, qualitative research in the other social sciences are briefly touched on. URN: urn:nbn:de:...

  1. Regional Characterization of Metropolitan Areas in Japan for Strong Ground Motion Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, N.; Sato, H.; Koketsu, K.; Umeda, Y.; Iwata, T.; Kasahara, K.; Okaya, D.

    2002-12-01

    Introduction After the 1995 Kobe earthquake, the Japanese government increased its focus and funding of earthquake hazards evaluation, studies of man-made structures integrity, and emergency response planning in the major urban centers. A new agency, the Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion, was formed to oversee appropriate research in the earth sciences and civil engineering. This agency distributes research funds of \\$130 million per year. Projects include these topics: 1) Densification of seismic and GPS networks, 2) Paleoseismological investigation of major active faults, 3) Research on the geometry and physical properties of basins under the cities, 4) Probablistic strong ground motion estimation, and 5) Regional characterization of faults and physical parameters. Regional Characterization Study A long-term goal is to produce map of reliable estimations of strong ground motion. This requires accurate determination of: Source, Propagation path, Near surface and Ground motion response.A new five year project starts this year to characterize the "source" and "propagation path" in the Kanto (Tokyo) region and Kinki (Osaka) region. The proximity of the Pacific and Philippine Sea subducting plates requires study of the relationship between earthquakes and regional tectonics. This projects focuses on identification and geometry of: 1) Source faults, 2) Subducting plates and mega-thrust faults, 3)Crustal structure, 4) Seismogenic zone, 5) Sedimentary basins, 6) 3D velocity properties Reconstruction of source fault and velocity models allow for more realistic 3D EQ wave simulations. All of these information will be synthesized and provided to communities involved in probablistic hazards analysis, risk assessment and societal response. In 2002, we have started to deploy seismic profiling lines in the Boso Peninsula (112 km) and the Sagami bay area( 75 km) to image the subducting Philippine Sea plate

  2. Modelling psychological responses to the Great East Japan earthquake and nuclear incident.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Goodwin

    Full Text Available The Great East Japan (Tōhoku/Kanto earthquake of March 2011 was followed by a major tsunami and nuclear incident. Several previous studies have suggested a number of psychological responses to such disasters. However, few previous studies have modelled individual differences in the risk perceptions of major events, or the implications of these perceptions for relevant behaviours. We conducted a survey specifically examining responses to the Great Japan earthquake and nuclear incident, with data collected 11-13 weeks following these events. 844 young respondents completed a questionnaire in three regions of Japan; Miyagi (close to the earthquake and leaking nuclear plants, Tokyo/Chiba (approximately 220 km from the nuclear plants, and Western Japan (Yamaguchi and Nagasaki, some 1000 km from the plants. Results indicated significant regional differences in risk perception, with greater concern over earthquake risks in Tokyo than in Miyagi or Western Japan. Structural equation analyses showed that shared normative concerns about earthquake and nuclear risks, conservation values, lack of trust in governmental advice about the nuclear hazard, and poor personal control over the nuclear incident were positively correlated with perceived earthquake and nuclear risks. These risk perceptions further predicted specific outcomes (e.g. modifying homes, avoiding going outside, contemplating leaving Japan. The strength and significance of these pathways varied by region. Mental health and practical implications of these findings are discussed in the light of the continuing uncertainties in Japan following the March 2011 events.

  3. Modelling psychological responses to the Great East Japan earthquake and nuclear incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Robin; Takahashi, Masahito; Sun, Shaojing; Gaines, Stanley O

    2012-01-01

    The Great East Japan (Tōhoku/Kanto) earthquake of March 2011 was followed by a major tsunami and nuclear incident. Several previous studies have suggested a number of psychological responses to such disasters. However, few previous studies have modelled individual differences in the risk perceptions of major events, or the implications of these perceptions for relevant behaviours. We conducted a survey specifically examining responses to the Great Japan earthquake and nuclear incident, with data collected 11-13 weeks following these events. 844 young respondents completed a questionnaire in three regions of Japan; Miyagi (close to the earthquake and leaking nuclear plants), Tokyo/Chiba (approximately 220 km from the nuclear plants), and Western Japan (Yamaguchi and Nagasaki, some 1000 km from the plants). Results indicated significant regional differences in risk perception, with greater concern over earthquake risks in Tokyo than in Miyagi or Western Japan. Structural equation analyses showed that shared normative concerns about earthquake and nuclear risks, conservation values, lack of trust in governmental advice about the nuclear hazard, and poor personal control over the nuclear incident were positively correlated with perceived earthquake and nuclear risks. These risk perceptions further predicted specific outcomes (e.g. modifying homes, avoiding going outside, contemplating leaving Japan). The strength and significance of these pathways varied by region. Mental health and practical implications of these findings are discussed in the light of the continuing uncertainties in Japan following the March 2011 events.

  4. Japan

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2016-01-01

    This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Japan. To allow useful comparison, it also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2017 is the 14th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. Economies are ranked on their ease of doing bus...

  5. Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Kazujo

    2000-01-01

    Mit diesem Beitrag wird das Ziel verfolgt, einen ersten Überblick über die Lage der qualitativen Forschung in den Sozialwissenschaften in Japan zu geben. Dabei werden u.a. folgende Themenbereiche fokussiert: Qualitativ-psychologische Forschung (auch unter einer historischen Perspektive), das japanische Verständnis von Sozialwissenschaften, verwendete qualitative Verfahren, sowie die aktuelle Situation der qualitativen Forschung in der Psychologie und in anderen Sozial- und Humanwissenschaften...

  6. [Toxoplasmosis in Japan. Comparative study of different regions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, N; Kawai, K; Cazaux, M; Seguela, J P

    1985-01-01

    Specificities of Japan by geography, culture, and low incidence for Toxoplasmosis were examined in this epidemiological study. 1 731 human sera were examined by several immunological tests but these results are related with Agglutination-Latex test. The sera came from North (Hokkaido), Middle (Tokyo area) and South (Okinawa). The ratio for the whole Japan towards Toxoplasmosis is 24.7% but the increase of antibodies with age is late: rate of positivity 4.6% up to 17 years old and nearly 30% after 30 years old. Cats, business, climate do not seem to influence the human infection. It is consumption of meat and particularly raw meat which influence the results: 40.8% positive results among eaters of raw meat and 22% among those not eating meat or eating it well cooked.

  7. Simulating river discharge in a snowy region of Japan using output from a regional climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, X.; Kawase, H.; Adachi, S.; Fujita, M.; Takahashi, H. G.; Hara, M.; Ishizaki, N.; Yoshikane, T.; Hatsushika, H.; Wakazuki, Y.; Kimura, F.

    2013-07-01

    Snowfall amounts have fallen sharply along the eastern coast of the Sea of Japan since the mid-1980s. Toyama Prefecture, located approximately in the center of the Japan Sea region, includes high mountains of the northern Japanese Alps on three of its sides. The scarcity of meteorological observation points in mountainous areas limits the accuracy of hydrological analysis. With the development of computing technology, a dynamical downscaling method is widely applied into hydrological analysis. In this study, we numerically modeled river discharge using runoff data derived by a regional climate model (4.5-km spatial resolution) as input data to river networks (30-arcseconds resolution) for the Toyama Prefecture. The five main rivers in Toyama (the Oyabe, Sho, Jinzu, Joganji, and Kurobe rivers) were selected in this study. The river basins range in area from 368 to 2720 km2. A numerical experiment using climate comparable to that at present was conducted for the 1980s and 1990s. The results showed that seasonal river discharge could be represented and that discharge was generally overestimated compared with measurements, except for Oyabe River discharge, which was always underestimated. The average correlation coefficient for 10-year average monthly mean discharge was 0.8, with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.56 to 0.88 for all five rivers, whereas the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient indicated that the simulation accuracy was insufficient. From the water budget analysis, it was possible to speculate that the lack of accuracy of river discharge may be caused by insufficient accuracy of precipitation simulation.

  8. Full Waveform Seismic Inversion for the Japan Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žukauskaitė, Saulė; Steptoe, Hamish; Fichtner, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    We present a seismic tomography model for the Japan archipelago obtained using full waveform inversion and adjoint methods. A high-resolution seismic velocity model is essential for Japan as means to comprehend and characterize the complexity of the tectonic setting, and to further our understanding of earthquake sources and rupture propagation. The study area covers the Japanese islands - an area between 20°-50°N and 130°-160°E - and extends to a maximum depth of 500 km. In virtue of complicated tectonics and resulting high seismicity, dense seismic networks are present in Japan and surrounding countries. We make use of broadband data from three networks - F-net in Japan, BATS in Taiwan, and notably, the National Earthquake Network in South Korea. Due to access difficulties, data from this network had not been used in the preceding tomographic study of the same area. We use >50 carefully selected earthquakes, located within the model area and occurring between 1999 and the present. Magnitudes of the events are restricted to 5≤Mw≤6.9 for a point source approximation to be valid. A spectral-element method is used for forward waveform calculation, which comes with the geometric flexibility of finite-elements method and the accuracy of spectral methods. To quantify differences between the observed and synthetic waveforms, we use time-frequency misfits, which exploit the evolution of the frequency content of the data in time. The sensitivities (Fréchet kernels) are then calculated using adjoint methods. The employed methodology allows us to explain the data of dominant period as low as 10 s. To prevent possible over-fitting of the data, we ensure that final misfits are not lower than those obtained if additional (not yet used) data are incorporated. The final results of this study will contribute to the 'Comprehensive Earth Model' being developed by the Computational Seismology group at ETH, with the aim to represent the snapshot of the current knowledge of

  9. The Great Kanto earthquake and F. Scott Fitzgerald

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakatsu, Hitoshi; Bina, Craig R.

    How many recall the following striking sentence from The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald, which appears on the second page of the novel, where Fitzgerald first introduces Gatsby? “If personality is an unbroken series of successful gestures, then there was something gorgeous about him, some heightened sensitivity to the promises of life, as if he were related to one of those intricate machines that register earthquakes ten thousand miles away.”This line may have failed to focus our attention when we first read the book in our younger days. Now, however, as a Japanese seismologist and an American geophysicist (and student of Japanese culture), we would be greatly remiss for failing to take greater note of this statement. Indeed, as The Great Gatsby was published in 1925, it occurred to us that the earthquake Fitzgerald might have been thinking of was the Great Kanto earthquake, which occurred on September 1, 1923 and devastated the Tokyo metropolitan area.

  10. [Personal resilience and post-traumatic stress symptoms of local government employees: six months after the 2011 magnitude 9.0 East Japan Earthquake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuno, Kanami; Oshima, Kazuki; Kubota, Kazumi; Kawakami, Norito

    2014-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake caused severe infrastructure damage in the Kanto and Tohoku regions, but the psychological stress of public sector employees in the Kanto region where tsunami damage was small has received little attention. This study examined the association between personal resilience and post-traumatic stress symptoms of local government employees in the Kanto region. In this cross-sectional study, all employees (N=2,069) of a single municipality in the Kanto region were recruited in September 2011, six months after the earthquake, and 991 completed the questionnaire (response rate, 47.9%). After excluding respondents who had missing values, the data from 825 respondents (607 males and 218 females) were analyzed. Post-traumatic stress symptoms were measured using the Impact Event Scale-Revised. Resilience was measured using the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale and divided into three groups on the basis of scores; low, moderate, and high. House damage and respondents or their families' experience of injury that were caused by the earthquake were assessed using single-item questions. Participants who reported house damage or injury were defined as being affected. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio of post-traumatic stress symptoms (IES-R score ≥25) was calculated for the upper, middle, and low resilience score groups. Among the respondents, 4.6% experienced injuries within their families, 82.3% reported house damage, and thus 83.3% were affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake. Post-traumatic stress symptoms were significantly higher among the affected group and those with chronic diseases. After adjusting for the demographic and occupational characteristics, the likelihood of post-traumatic stress symptoms was greater in the low resilience group (Odds ratio: 2.10 [95% confidence interval = 1.31-3.37]). A significant negative relationship was observed between resilience and post-traumatic stress symptoms particularly in

  11. Between universalism and regionalism: universal systematics from imperial Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung

    2015-12-01

    Historiographic discussions of the universality and regionality of science have to date focused on European cases for making regional science universal. This paper presents a new perspective by moving beyond European origins and illuminating a non-European scientist's engagement with the universality and regionality of science. It will examine the case of the Japanese botanist Nakai Takenoshin (1882-1952), an internationally recognized authority on Korean flora based at Tokyo Imperial University. Serving on the International Committee on Botanical Nomenclature in 1926, Nakai endorsed and acted upon European claims of universal science, whilst simultaneously unsettling them with his regionally shaped systematics. Eventually he came to promote his own systematics, built regionally on Korean flora, as the new universal. By analysing his shifting claims in relation to those of other European and non-European botanists, this paper makes two arguments. First, universalism and regionalism were not contradictory foundations of scientific practice but useful tools used by this non-European botanist in maintaining his scientific authority as a representative Japanese systematist. Second, his claims to universality and regionalism were both imperially charged. An imperially monopolized study of Korean plants left a regional imprint on Nakai's systematics. In order to maintain his scientific authority beyond its region of origin he had to assert either the expanding regionalism of 'East Asia' or universalism.

  12. Beyond 'Asian Values': Rationales For Australian-Japan Cooperation In Asian Regionalism

    OpenAIRE

    Go Ito

    2010-01-01

    In the past, the experience of the ‘East Asian Miracle’ and the sufferings from the ‘East Asian Meltdown’ were the impetus to generate and develop East Asian regional identity. The situation, however, is changing drastically. The future of East Asia regionalism has become amorphous because of complicated new trends. Japan, one of the important actors that constitute triangular relationships in East Asia, has been encouraging development of East Asian regionalism in the economic arena. Austral...

  13. Long term change in relative contribution of various source regions on the surface ozone over Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, T.; Sudo, K.; Akimoto, H.; Kurokawa, J.; Ohara, T.

    2011-12-01

    Although the concentrations of O3 precursors over Japan have been decreasing in recent decades, long-term monitoring data shows that the surface concentration of O3 in Japan has increased since the mid-1980s until the present time. As the cause of this recent increase in surface O3 over Japan, the trans-boundary transport of O3 from the outside of Japan have been pointed out and discussed. In particular, transport from East Asian countries whose emissions of the O3 precursors have been greatly increasing recently due to their economic growth is likely a major cause of the observed increase in O3 over Japan. However, the long-term change in other factors that also have an influence on the O3 in Japan, such as the domestic emissions or the background O3, should also be evaluated. Here, we performed a long-term (1980-2005) simulation of the Source-Receptor (S-R) relationship for surface O3 in East Asia by utilizing the tagged tracer method with a global chemical transport model. During this period, emissions of O3 precursors in the model from East Asia, especially from China, have increased more than double, while those from North America have not change so much and those from Europe have decreased. The model simulated the long-term increasing trend in the surface O3 over Japan similar to the observation. The long-term changes of contributions from each source region of O3 showed that the largest contributor to the increasing trend of surface O3 in Japan is the increase of O3 created in planetary boundary layer (PBL) of China which accounts for 35% of the trend, and those of O3 created in PBL of Korean Peninsular and Japan account for 13% and 12%, respectively. The O3 created in free troposphere of China also increased, which account for 4% of the trend. Therefore, almost 40% of recent O3 increase in Japan can be attributed to the increase in the O3 created over China.

  14. Genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Tochigi prefecture, a local region of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukoshi, Fuminori; Miyoshi-Akiyama, Tohru; Iwai, Hiroki; Suzuki, Takako; Kiritani, Reiko; Kirikae, Teruo; Funatogawa, Keiji

    2017-05-25

    Foreign-born patients with tuberculosis (TB) may introduce globally disseminated isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis into large cities in Japan. The risk of dissemination of these isolates into local regions, however, has not been determined. This study analyzed the molecular epidemiology of M. tuberculosis isolates obtained from TB patients living in a local region of Japan. Whole genome sequences of 169 M. tuberculosis isolates, obtained from 148 Japanese-born and 21 foreign-born patients living in Tochigi, Japan, were analyzed using the Comprehensive analysis server for the Mycobacterium t u b erculosis complex (CASTB). The 169 isolates were clustered into four clades; Lineage 2 (111 isolates 65.7%), Lineage 4 (43 isolates, 25.4%), Lineage 1 (13 isolates, 7.7%), and Lineage 3 (2 isolates, 1.2%). Of the 111 isolates belonging to Lineage 2, 79 (71.2%) were of the atypical Beijing sub-genotype. Of the 13 Lineage 1 isolates, nine (69.2%) were from foreign-born patients. The isolates belonging to Lineage 4 were further clustered into three clades, two containing isolates shared by both Japanese- and foreign-born patients. The two isolates belonging to Lineage 3 were obtained from foreign-born patients. The genotypic diversity of M. tuberculosis in a local region of Japan is increased primarily by the presence of isolates obtained from foreign-born patients.

  15. Development of heavy mineral and heavy element database of soil sediments in Japan using synchrotron radiation X-ray powder diffraction and high-energy (116 keV) X-ray fluorescence analysis: 1. Case study of Kofu and Chiba region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bong, Willy Shun Kai; Nakai, Izumi; Furuya, Shunsuke; Suzuki, Hiroko; Abe, Yoshinari; Osaka, Keiichi; Matsumoto, Takuya; Itou, Masayoshi; Imai, Noboru; Ninomiya, Toshio

    2012-07-10

    We have started the construction of a nationwide forensic soil sediment database for Japan based on the heavy mineral and trace heavy element compositions of stream sediments collected at 3024 points all over Japan obtained by high-resolution synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction (SR-XRD) and high-energy synchrotron X-ray fluorescence analysis (HE-SR-XRF). In this study, the performance of both techniques was demonstrated by analyzing soil sediments from two different geological regions, the Kofu and Chiba regions in Kanto province, to construct database that can be applied in the future to provenance analysis of soil evidence from a crime scene. The sediments from the quaternary volcanic lithology of the Chiba region were found to be dominated by heavy minerals of volcanic origin - orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, and amphibole, and the REEs (rare earth elements) within the region showed similar geochemical behavior. On the other hand, four distinct heavy mineral groups were identified in the sediments of the Kofu region, where there is a great variety of underlying bedrock, and the geochemical behavior of the REEs in the sediments also varied accordingly to their geological origins. As such, our study shows that high-resolution SR-XRD data can provide information on the spatial distribution patterns of heavy minerals in stream sediments, playing an important role in determining their likely geographical origin. Meanwhile, the highly sensitive HE-SR-XRF data allow us to study the geochemical behavior of trace heavy elements, especially the REEs in the sediments, providing additional support to further constrain the likely geographical origin of the sediments determined by heavy minerals.

  16. Regional difference of infant 25OHD levels in Pilot Study of Japan Environment and Children's Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayabe, Tadayuki; Yamamoto-Hanada, Kiwako; Mezawa, Hidetoshi; Konishi, Mizuho; Ishitsuka, Kazue; Saito, Mayako; Fukami, Maki; Michikawa, Takehiro; Yamazaki, Shin; Senju, Ayako; Kusuhara, Koichi; Kawamoto, Toshihiro; Sanefuji, Masafumi; Kato, Kiyoko; Oda, Masako; Mitsubuchi, Hiroshi; Katoh, Takahiko; Monden, Yukifumi; Mise, Nathan; Kayama, Fujio; Saito, Hirohisa; Ohya, Yukihiro

    2017-08-18

    In recent years, a resurgence in the number of infants with vitamin D deficiency has been noted. In addition to seasonal differences in exposure to ultraviolet (UV) rays, regional differences in dietary habits and lifestyles may affect susceptibility to vitamin D deficiency. However, no studies have been conducted on infants in multiple regions of Japan to determine the extent of differences in vitamin D status. The levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) were measured by radioimmunoassay in 126 infants aged 2 to 4 years, who participated in the Pilot Study of the Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS) by the Ministry of Environment of Japan. A multiple regression model with 25OHD level as the outcome variable, and season and region as explanatory variables was generated. A Wald test revealed that both region and season during which infants participated in this study significantly affected 25OHD levels (p-value = 0.0087 and rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Hierarchical probabilistic regionalization of volcanism for Sengan region in Japan using multivariate statistical techniques and geostatistical interpolation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jinyong [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Balasingham, P [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); McKenna, Sean Andrew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kulatilake, Pinnaduwa H.S.W. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2004-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, under contract to Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO), is performing research on regional classification of given sites in Japan with respect to potential volcanic disruption using multivariate statistics and geo-statistical interpolation techniques. This report provides results obtained for hierarchical probabilistic regionalization of volcanism for the Sengan region in Japan by applying multivariate statistical techniques and geostatistical interpolation techniques on the geologic data provided by NUMO. A workshop report produced in September 2003 by Sandia National Laboratories (Arnold et al., 2003) on volcanism lists a set of most important geologic variables as well as some secondary information related to volcanism. Geologic data extracted for the Sengan region in Japan from the data provided by NUMO revealed that data are not available at the same locations for all the important geologic variables. In other words, the geologic variable vectors were found to be incomplete spatially. However, it is necessary to have complete geologic variable vectors to perform multivariate statistical analyses. As a first step towards constructing complete geologic variable vectors, the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) zone 54 projected coordinate system and a 1 km square regular grid system were selected. The data available for each geologic variable on a geographic coordinate system were transferred to the aforementioned grid system. Also the recorded data on volcanic activity for Sengan region were produced on the same grid system. Each geologic variable map was compared with the recorded volcanic activity map to determine the geologic variables that are most important for volcanism. In the regionalized classification procedure, this step is known as the variable selection step. The following variables were determined as most important for volcanism: geothermal gradient, groundwater temperature, heat discharge, groundwater

  18. Regional electric power demand elasticities of Japan's industrial and commercial sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosoe, Nobuhiro [National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies, 7-22-1 Roppongi, Minato, Tokyo 106-8677 (Japan); Akiyama, Shu-ichi [Kushiro Public University of Economics, 4-1-1 Ashino, Kushiro, Hokkaido 085-8585 (Japan)

    2009-11-15

    In the assessment and review of regulatory reforms in the electric power market, price elasticity is one of the most important parameters that characterize the market. However, price elasticity has seldom been estimated in Japan; instead, it has been assumed to be as small as 0.1 or 0 without proper examination of the empirical validity of such a priori assumptions. We estimated the regional power demand functions for nine regions, in order to quantify the elasticity, and found the short-run price elasticity to be 0.09-0.30 and the long-run price elasticity to be 0.12-0.56. Inter-regional comparison of our estimation results suggests that price elasticity in rural regions is larger than that in urban regions. Popular assumptions of small elasticity of 0.1, for example, could be suitable for examining Japan's aggregate power demand but not power demand functions that focus on respective regions. Furthermore, assumptions about smaller elasticity values such as 0.01 and 0 could not be supported statistically by this study. (author)

  19. [A multicenter trial of regional medical cooperation for cancer chemotherapy after the great East Japan earthquake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Shoko; Seya, Yukiko; Murayama, Motoko; Ogasawara, Kimiyo; Kisara, Shigeki; Ishii, Tadashi; Sugawara, Michie; Chida, Yasunori; Kanbe, Mariko; Kakudo, Yuichi; Mano, Nariyasu; Ishioka, Chikashi

    2013-03-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake was the first disaster we experienced after the administration of oncology care had mostly shifted from hospitals to outpatient departments in Japan. Disaster medical assistance teams(DMATs)were deployed immediately after the disaster, and actively assisted during the acute phase of the catastrophe. After experiencing the earthquake, we realized the necessity of medical support teams, even for chronic disease. Here we report a multicenter trial of regional medical cooperation for cancer chemotherapy. First, soon after the earthquake, representatives from the regional hospitals discussed the proper roles for each institution. As agreed to in the discussion, cancer patients were redistributed from a disaster base hospital to a local general hospital, and oncologists supported the other regional hospitals on a regular basis. This broad regional network functioned well and patients resumed their treatment as soon as the situation allowed. Second, we performed a survey of the patients and found that the most important problem was patients' lack of understanding of their own illnesses. Third, we conducted an opinion survey of medical professionals on regional medical cooperation. Based on the trial, we found it important in disasters to establish regional cooperation and solid communication systems, and to promote patient education.

  20. Earthquake warning system for Japan Railways’ bullet train; implications for disaster prevention in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Y.; Tucker, B. E.

    1988-01-01

    In Japan, the level of public awareness of the dangers of earthquakes is high. The 1923 Kanto earthquake killed about 120,000 people out of a total Japanese population of about 50 million; an equivalent disaster in the U.S would involve 600,000 deaths.

  1. [Human Resource Development for Tohoku Region after Great East Japan Earthquake: Remarks of the Chairperson].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimura, Hiroki

    2016-01-01

    In order to promote further advances of medical systems in the Tohoku region where the Great East Japan Earthquake and the subsequent accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant occurred, the requirement of human resources in clinical laboratory medicine has increased. Therefore, the symposium entitled "Human resource development for Tohoku region after Great East Japan Earthquake" was held in The 47th Tohoku Regional Congress of Japanese Society of Laboratory Medicine. In Fukushima Prefecture, the Thyroid Ultrasound Examination program has been conducted since Oct. 2011. Educational courses and certification programs for thyroid ultrasound examiners were established for medical doctors and technologists in Fukushima. The need for certified sonographers has also increased because deep venous thrombosis is also one of the health problems in the earthquake-hit area. Human resource development of sonographers was discussed in this symposium. In addition, further advances in clinical laboratory medicine are dependent on the development of specified medical technologists and certified physicians. Projects of human resource development currently performed in the Tohoku region were introduced and future actions were discussed.

  2. Operation Strategy for a Power Grid Supplied by 100% Renewable Energy at a Cold Region in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Morel; Shin’ya Obara; Yuta Morizane

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an operation strategy for a power system supplied from 100% renewable energy generation in Kitami City, a cold region in Japan. The main goal of this work is the complete elimination of the CO2 emissions of the city while keeping the power frequency within prescribed limits. Currently, the main energy related issue in Japan is the reduction of CO2 emissions without depending on nuclear generation. Also, there is a need for the adoption of distributed generation architectur...

  3. Temporal and regional variations in accidental deaths of elderly people in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibayashi, Kazuhiko; Shimada, Ryo; Nakao, Ken-Ichiro

    2013-07-01

    To ascertain the characteristics of accidental deaths of elderly people in urban and rural areas, we analyzed the deaths of elderly people over the 10-year period from 2000 to 2009, in three geographic areas: nationwide, in the 23 wards of the metropolis of Tokyo, and in Saga prefecture. In addition, to assess the regional variation in accidental deaths of the elderly, we aggregated the numbers of accidental deaths of elderly people for each of Japan's prefectures in the year 2009 and categorized the deaths by accident type. The results showed that nationwide, deaths due to threats to breathing, falls, and drowning and submersion are increasing, while deaths due to transport accidents are decreasing, indicating a need for measures to prevent deaths from accidents other than transport accidents. In the urban areas of Tokyo's 23 wards, there is an increasing incidence of deaths due to falls, which is likely due to the high number of structures such as buildings and railway stations that elderly people need to negotiate. In urban areas, measures to reduce the incidence of accidental deaths need to focus on improving the physical environment to help prevent falls. In the rural locality of Saga prefecture, increasing numbers of elderly people are dying by drowning and submersion. The results of analysis of accidents in all prefectures of Japan by accident type show that the causes of accidental deaths of elderly people vary regionally, suggesting that accident prevention measures for elderly people need to consider the characteristics of the locality.

  4. Regional differences in hepatitis C treatment with peginterferon and ribavirin in Japan: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ide K

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Kazuki Ide,1 Yohei Kawasaki,1 Hiroshi Yamada,1 Naohiko Masaki2 1Department of Drug Evaluation and Informatics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka, 2The Research Center for Hepatitis and Immunology, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Chiba, JapanPurpose: The aims of this study were to investigate regional differences in hepatitis C virus (HCV infection treatment with peginterferon and ribavirin in Japan and to develop and validate statistical models for analysis of regional differences, using generalized linear mixed models.Methods: Individuals with chronic HCV infection were identified from the Japanese Interferon Database (registered from December 2009 to April 2013. The total sustained virologic response rate and the rate in each prefecture were calculated. In the analysis using generalized linear mixed models, the following four models were constructed: 1 prefecture as a fixed effect, 2 prefecture and other confounding variables as fixed effects, 3 prefecture as a random effect, and 4 prefecture as a random effect and other confounding variables as fixed effects. The quality of the model fit was assessed using the Akaike information criterion and the Bayesian information criterion. All statistical analyses were performed using SAS Version 9.4 for Windows.Results: From 36 prefectures, 16,349 cases were recorded in the study period. Of these, 4,677 were excluded according to certain criteria. The total sustained virologic response rate was 59.9% (range, 43.9%–71.6%. The statistical model including prefecture as a random effect and other confounding variables as fixed effects showed the best fit based on the Akaike information criterion (13,830.92 and Bayesian information criterion (13,845.17.Conclusion: Regional differences may exist in HCV infection treatment in Japan. The model including prefecture as a random effect and other confounding variables as fixed effects was appropriate for

  5. Regional Informatization and Economic Growth in Japan: An Empirical Study Based on Spatial Econometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Sun

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Research opinion on informatization is divided between two opposite poles—that it promotes or inhibits the spillover of regional economies. These conflicting viewpoints are called “the paradoxical geographies of the digital economy”. Information-based investment and diffusion of informatization contribute to breaking the economic space constraints caused by distance, leading to interregional spillover effects, according to the results of the Durbin model of spatial lag applied to Japanese regional data. Clearly, the local direct effects and the perimeter region’s indirect effects of informatization are both positive. This proves the existence of network externality, which causes increasing returns to scale. Extensive diffusion of information technology plays a significant role in the process, in addition to rapid accumulation and infiltration of information resources, which strengthens the information-based investment spillover effect. In this empirical analysis, evidence seems to support the view that informatization promotes economic development in Japan.

  6. White pine blister rust in Korea, Japan and other Asian regions: comparisons and implications for North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.-S. Kim; N. B. Klopfenstein; Y. Ota; S. K. Lee; K.-S. Woo; S. Kaneko

    2010-01-01

    This article briefly reviews the history of white pine blister rust, attributed to Cronartium ribicola, and addresses current research and management issues in South Korea, Japan and other regions of eastern Asia (China, Russia and Himalaya). For each region, the distribution, damage, aecial hosts, telial hosts and management of C. ribicola and other blister rust fungi...

  7. Regional outbreak of CTX-M-2 β-lactamase-producing Proteus mirabilis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Ryuichi; Nakano, Akiyo; Abe, Michiko; Inoue, Matsuhisa; Okamoto, Ryoichi

    2012-12-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a common cause of urinary tract infection. Wild-type P. mirabilis strains are usually susceptible to penicillins and cephalosporins, but occurrences of P. mirabilis producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) have been recently reported. Here, we surveyed the prevalence of cefotaxime resistance among P. mirabilis strains at seven different hospitals in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, and investigated their molecular epidemiology to explain the mechanism of their spread. The prevalence of cefotaxime resistance among P. mirabilis increased annually, from 10.1 % in 1998 to 23.1 % in 2003, and increased drastically in 2004, exceeding 40 %. We collected 105 consecutive and non-duplicate cefotaxime-resistant P. mirabilis isolates (MIC 16 to >256 µg ml(-1)) from these hospitals from June 2004 to May 2005 and characterized their profile. PCR and sequence analysis revealed that all resistant strains produced exclusively CTX-M-2 β-lactamase. PFGE analysis identified 47 banding patterns with 83 % or greater similarity. These results indicated that a regional outbreak of P. mirabilis producing CTX-M-2 β-lactamase has occurred in Japan and suggest that the epidemic spread occurred within and across hospitals and communities by extended clonal strains. Plasmid analysis revealed that 44.8 % of plasmids harboured by bla(CTX-M-2) isolates had common profiles, encoding ISEcp1, IS26 and Int1, and belonged to incompatibility group T. Spread of the resistant isolates in Japan resulted from dissemination of narrow-host-range plasmids of the IncT group encoding bla(CTX-M-2). These findings indicate the rapidly developing problem of treating the species to prevent dissemination of ESBL producers.

  8. Verification of operational solar flare forecast: Case of Regional Warning Center Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Yûki; Den, Mitsue; Ishii, Mamoru

    2017-08-01

    In this article, we discuss a verification study of an operational solar flare forecast in the Regional Warning Center (RWC) Japan. The RWC Japan has been issuing four-categorical deterministic solar flare forecasts for a long time. In this forecast verification study, we used solar flare forecast data accumulated over 16 years (from 2000 to 2015). We compiled the forecast data together with solar flare data obtained with the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES). Using the compiled data sets, we estimated some conventional scalar verification measures with 95% confidence intervals. We also estimated a multi-categorical scalar verification measure. These scalar verification measures were compared with those obtained by the persistence method and recurrence method. As solar activity varied during the 16 years, we also applied verification analyses to four subsets of forecast-observation pair data with different solar activity levels. We cannot conclude definitely that there are significant performance differences between the forecasts of RWC Japan and the persistence method, although a slightly significant difference is found for some event definitions. We propose to use a scalar verification measure to assess the judgment skill of the operational solar flare forecast. Finally, we propose a verification strategy for deterministic operational solar flare forecasting. For dichotomous forecast, a set of proposed verification measures is a frequency bias for bias, proportion correct and critical success index for accuracy, probability of detection for discrimination, false alarm ratio for reliability, Peirce skill score for forecast skill, and symmetric extremal dependence index for association. For multi-categorical forecast, we propose a set of verification measures as marginal distributions of forecast and observation for bias, proportion correct for accuracy, correlation coefficient and joint probability distribution for association, the

  9. The Effects of Japan's Apology for World War II Atrocities on Regional Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cathey, Emily A

    2008-01-01

    This thesis explores the impact of atrocities that Japan committed against its neighbors during and prior to World War II on Japan's relationships with its neighbors, China and the Republic of Korea...

  10. Impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake on Regional Obstetrical Care in Miyagi Prefecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Junichi; Hoshiai, Tetsuro; Sato, Kazuyo; Tokunaga, Hideki; Nishigori, Hidekazu; Arai, Takanari; Okamura, Kunihiro; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2016-06-01

    The authors report the results of surveys on the emergency transport or evacuation status of obstetric patients conducted in Miyagi prefecture, one of the major disaster areas of the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami. The surveys examined the damages to maternity institutions, evacuation status and transport of pregnant women, and prehospital childbirths and were conducted in 50 maternity institutions and 12 fire departments in Miyagi. Two coastal institutions were destroyed completely, and four institutions were destroyed partially by the tsunami, forcing them to stop medical services. In the two-month period after the disaster, 217 pregnant women received hospital transport or gave birth after evacuation. Satisfactory perinatal outcomes were maintained. Emergency obstetric transport increased to approximately 1.4 fold the number before the disaster. Twenty-three women had prehospital childbirths, indicating a marked increase to approximately three times the number of the previous year. In the acute phase of the tsunami disaster, maternity institutions were damaged severely and perinatal transport was not possible; as a result, pregnant women inevitably gave birth in unplanned institutions, and the number of prehospital births was increased extremely. To obtain satisfactory obstetric outcomes, it is necessary to construct a future disaster management system and to re-recognize pregnant women as people with special needs in disaster situations. Sugawara J , Hoshiai T , Sato K , Tokunaga H , Nishigori H , Arai T , Okamura K , Yaegashi N . Impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake on regional obstetrical care in Miyagi Prefecture. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(3):255- 258.

  11. The Rearmament of Japan: Increased Regional Stability in the Western Pacific or Unnecessary Increase in Tensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    forum.apan- info.net/05_special_ed/japan_1.htm. 17 Murakami , Haruki . Underground. New York: Vintage Books, 2000, p. 3. 11 instead participated based on...William. "The Constitution of Japan." September 10, 2010. http://www.solon.org/Constitutions/Japan/English/english-Constitution.html. Murakami , Haruki

  12. Mineral Contents in Seeds of Soybean Cultivars Bred for Warm Region in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    赤木, 功; 西原, 基樹; 上田, 重英; 横山, 明敏; 佐伯, 雄一

    2009-01-01

    From 2003 to 2005, mineral contents in seeds of thirteen soybean (Glycine max) cultivars bred for warm region in Japan were analyzed. The potassium, phosphorus, magnesium and calcium contents (g kg-1) ranged from 11.0 to 19.5 from 5.30 to 8.63, from 2.39 to 3.53, and from 1.24 to 3.25, respectively. The iron, zinc, manganese and copper contents (mg kg-1) ranged from 65 to 125, from 32.3 to 56.8, from 29.0 to 42.9, and from 3.7 to 21.4, respectively. Analysis of valiance for mineral contents s...

  13. Widespread Triggered Tremor In Japan Following the 2012 Mw8.6 Sumatra Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, K.; Obara, K.

    2012-12-01

    earthquake (Obara, 2012, submitted manuscript). These two tremor sources were coincident with the locations of deep low-frequency micro-earthquakes. In the Kyushu region, we identified two triggered tremor sources, one located in central Kyushu, along the western coastline, and the other in the southeast, off the coast of Kyushu, the location of which was coincident with the sources of shallow very low-frequency earthquakes (Obara and Ito, 2005). The last observed triggered tremor source was located in northwest Kanto. Our next step will be to locate more accurate tremor sources and then calculate the amplitude and spectra of the tremor in order to compare the tremor properties in different regions. The most recently observed triggered tremor in Japan will contribute to explaining the physical mechanisms and necessary conditions for tremor generation.

  14. Evaluation of precipitation over an oceanic region of Japan in convection-permitting regional climate model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Akihiko; Sasaki, Hidetaka; Kawase, Hiroaki; Nosaka, Masaya

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the performance of a convection-permitting regional climate model with respect to precipitation in the present climate around the southwestern oceanic region of Japan. The effects of explicit representation of convective processes without cumulus parameterization can be properly estimated by using a model domain without complex topography or convoluted coastlines. The amounts of annual and monthly precipitation and the frequencies of daily and hourly precipitation were well reproduced by the convection-permitting model with a 2-km grid spacing, and its performance was better than that of a model with a coarser mesh. In particular, the frequencies of hourly precipitation in the convection-permitting simulation matched the observed frequencies for precipitation intensities below 20 mm h-1. Above intensities of 20 mm h-1, however, the convection-permitting model tended to overestimate the frequency of hourly precipitation. To explore the mechanism of this overestimation of heavy hourly precipitation, the sensitivity of the frequency distribution of precipitation to the horizontal resolution was tested by changing the horizontal grid spacing of the model from 2 to 4 km and then 1.5 km. The results showed that the overestimation was increased when the horizontal resolution was coarser, owing to spurious grid-scale precipitation, which causes heavy precipitation to be highly concentrated in a single grid. This spurious grid-scale precipitation may be caused by insufficient representation of convective downdrafts in convection-permitting simulations by models with coarser resolutions.

  15. The truth lies somewhere in the middle: Swinging between globalization and regionalization of medical education in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Takuya; Imafuku, Rintaro; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Ban, Nobutaro

    2017-10-01

    Japan is well known as a super-aging society, with a low birth rate, and has been ranked as one of the countries having the highest quality of healthcare system. Japan's society is currently approaching a major turning point with regard to societal and healthcare reforms, which are influenced by international trends and regional needs. Development of Japanese healthcare human resources, including medical students, is now expected to ride the wave of globalization, while resolving regional problems in the training and delivery of healthcare. Terms and global trends in medical education, such as outcome-based education, community-based education, reflective learning, international accreditation of medical education, and professionalization of educators are well translated into the Japanese language and embraced positively among the Japanese medical educators. However, these trends occasionally sit uncomfortably with cultural variations that are often a common approach in Japan; notably, "hansei" (introspection) and "kaizen" (change for the better). In the world facing a new era where people are unsettled between globalism and regionalism, Japan's future mission is to steer a balanced route that recognizes both global and regional influences and produce global health professionals educators.

  16. The Pacific and Philippine Sea slabs in contact beneath Tokyo, central Japan: their roles in defining hazardous interaction earthquakes and in limiting the southern extent of Tohoku-oki aftershocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okaya, D. A.; Sato, H.; Lavier, L. L.; Tan, E.; Wu, F. T.; Hirata, N.

    2011-12-01

    The M9 Tohoku-oki earthquake produced over 11,000 >M3 aftershocks within the first four months after its 2011 March 11 occurrence date. The majority of these aftershocks define the earthquake source region between the subducting Pacific plate (PAC) and its overlying Eurasian plate (EUR) along the Japan Trench. While this portion of the trench boundary extends southward to the Boso triple junction (latitude ~34.3 oN), the Tohoku-oki aftershocks predominantly terminate at ~35.7 oN. Between these two latitudes there is a marked dropoff in aftershocks, most noticably offshore of Boso Peninsula, eastern Kanto, which we refer to as the off-Boso aftershock gap. Inside this gap, aftershocks that have occurred form two narrow-width streaks that radiate from the triple junction and extend into central Kanto. There is a correlation between the location of the off-Boso aftershock gap and the northern extent of the Philippine Sea plate (PHS). The PHS is sandwiched between the PAC-EUR plates beneath Kanto. While the majority of Tohoku-oki aftershocks occur within the one-slab PAC-EUR system to the north, the off-Boso gap is updip of where the PHS slab is resident inside the PAC-EUR mantle wedge. Furthermore, the northern of the two aftershock streaks spatially correlates with the downdip extent of the PHS with many located at the PHS-PAC contact based on published tomographic/seismicity studies. The presence of PHS changes the conditions of PAC-EUR slip. Preliminary finite-source studies from web sources (e.g., Univ Tokyo, Harvard) show that Tohoku-oki rupture terminated just north of the off-Boso gap. Apparently, the presence of the Philippine Sea plate may have been a contributing factor to inhibiting this rupture from propagating further southward. The megathrust source faults beneath Kanto are associated with the tops of Philippine Sea and Pacific plates. These shallow source faults have been the focus of much recent geological and geophysical study including seismicity and

  17. [Survey of Trichophyton tonsurans infection in the Hokuriku and Kinki regions of Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Takashi; Tanabe, Hiroshi; Kawasaki, Masako; Anzawa, Kazushi; Ishizaki, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    In June 2004, information was gathered on Trichophyton tonsurans infections, both past and current, in the Hokuriku and Kinki regions of central-western Honshu island, Japan, by questionnaires sent to 185 dermatologists who were members of the local medical mycologist associations Hokuriku Shinkin Kondan-kai and Kansai Shinkin Kondan-kai. Of the 111 (59.4%) who returned the completed questionnaire, 32 (28.8%) had seen patients infected with T. tonsurans including suspicious cases. The earliest recorded cases were linked to an endemic that occurred in 1994 or 1995 among a high school wrestling team in Toyama. The majority of the dermatologists saw their first case between 2001 and 2003. When the patients were grouped according to contact sports, judo players formed the largest group, followed by wrestlers. When grouped according to age, high school students formed the largest group, but the endemic had also expanded among junior high school students and adults, and there was one nursery school child who was a member of a judo club. Seventy-four of the dermatologists were sent sterilized hairbrushes to collect samples from patients suspected as having tinea capitis during July and September 2004. Trichophyton tonsurans was detected in samples from 6 patients. To investigate the molecular epidemiology, 71 of the clinical strains of T. tonsurans isolated from the Hokuriku and Kinki regions were analyzed using restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the non-transcribed spacer regions of ribosomal RNA genes. With the restriction enzyme Mva I, two molecular types were detected among the strains, indicating that the causative agents of the endemic were derived from different origins.

  18. Oceanic mantle alteration in the trench-outer rise region of the Japan trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujie, G.; Takahashi, T.; Kodaira, S.; Obana, K.; Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Dehydration processes and the expulsion of the water from the subducting oceanic plate affect various subduction-zone processes, including arc volcanism and generation of earthquakes and tremor. Since the amount of chemically bound water in the oceanic plate is highest in serpentinized mantle, it is important to reveal the degree of oceanic mantle serpentinization prior to subduction.In 2009 and 2013, to reveal the structural evolution of the incoming oceanic plate prior to subduction, we conducted wide-angle seismic structural surveys in the trench-outer rise region of the Japan trench. We found P-wave velocity (Vp) within the oceanic crust and mantle gradually decreases toward the trench axis, especially beneath the well-developed horst and grabens. Generally, reduction of Vp suggests two possibilities; one is a fracturing (dry mechanism) and the other is fracturing and water penetration (wet mechanism). The Vp/Vs ratio is a key to distinguish these two possibilities. Using P-to-S converted phases, we successfully modeled Vs within the oceanic crust by the travel-time inversion, and we found the Vp/Vs ratio within the oceanic crust gradually increases toward the trench, suggesting the water infiltration into the oceanic crust. However, it is not straightforward to determine Vs within the oceanic mantle because signal-to-noise ratio of S-wave mantle refraction was too poor to pick arrival times. Therefore, we calculated S-wave mantle refractions by assuming wide variety of Vp/Vs ratio within the oceanic mantle and compared with the observed horizontal data. Although S-wave mantle refraction was observed at only limited number of OBSs, we found that Vp/Vs ratio within the oceanic mantle did not change even in the area where mantle Vp become lower. This implies that the mantle Vp reduction in our seismic profile is mainly governed by the "dry mechanism" or mantle hydration might be confined in only topmost mantle.

  19. Wide-angle seismic survey in the trench-outer rise region of the central Japan Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujie, G.; Kodaira, S.; Iwamaru, H.; Shirai, T.; Dannowski, A.; Thorwart, M.; Grevemeyer, I.; Morgan, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Dehydration process within the subducting oceanic plate and expelled water from there affect various subduction-zone processes, including arc volcanism and generation of earthquakes. This implies that the degree of hydration within the incoming oceanic plate just prior to subduction might be a key control factor on the regional variations in subduction zone processes like interplate earthquakes and arc volcanism. Recent advances in seismic structure studies in the trench-outer rise region of the Japan Trench have revealed that seismic velocities within the incoming oceanic plate become lower owing to the plate bending-related faulting, suggesting the hydration of the oceanic plate. If the degree of the oceanic plate hydration is one of key factors controlling the regional variations of the interplate earthquakes, the degree of the oceanic plate hydration just prior to subduction is expected to show the along-trench variation because the interplate seismicity in the forearc region of the Japan Trench show along-trench variations. However, we cannot discuss the along-trench variation of the incoming plate structure because seismic structure studies have been confined only to the northern Japan Trench so far.In 2014 and 2015, JAMSTEC and GEOMAR conducted wide-angle seismic surveys in the trench-outer rise region of the central Japan Trench to reveal the detailed seismic structure of the incoming oceanic plate. The western extension of our survey line corresponds to the epicenter of the 2011 M9 Tohoku earthquakes. We deployed 88 Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBSs) at intervals of 6 km and shot a tuned air-gun array of R/V Kairei at 200 m spacing. In this presentation, we will show the overview of our seismic survey and present seismic structure models obtained by the data of mainly 2014 seismic survey together with the several OBS data from 2015 survey. The preliminary results show P-wave velocity (Vp) within the oceanic crust and mantle decreases toward the trench axis

  20. Thermal structure of pumpellyite-actinolite facies regions in the Sanbagawa belt, Shikoku, SW Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, M.

    2003-12-01

    On the basis of the mineral assemblages of pelitic rocks, the Sanbagawa belt in Shikoku, SW Japan, has been divided, from low- to high-grade parts, into the chlorite, garnet, albite-biotite and oligoclase-biotite zones (Higashino, 1990). Also, the mineral assemblage of pumpellyite + actinolite + epidote + chlorite or epidote + actinolite + hematite + chlorite, which defines the pumpellyite-actinolite (PA) facies (e.g., Banno, 1998), is widely recognized in metabasites in the chlorite zone (e.g. Banno & Sakai, 1989). However, the detailed study on the PA facies regions has been done only in the Omoiji-Nagasawa area (Nakajima et al., 1977) and Asemigawa-Shirataki area (Nakajima, 1982) in central Shikoku, and thus, it is still hard to solve the regional thermal structure of the PA facies region. This study is aimed to reveal the thermal structure of the PA facies region of the Sanbagawa belt in Shikoku by analyzing the mineral assemblages and mineral chemistries of metabasites from the nine newly studied areas. The studied areas studied belong to the chlorite zone in the Oboke and Besshi units; the Oboke unit structurally underlay the Besshi unit. The mineral assemblages include pumpellyite + epidote + actinolite, epidote + actinolite _ hematite and epidote + Na-amphibole + actinolite + hematite. The metabasites from some areas involve Na-pyroxene-bearing assemblages, but the analyses of the Schreinemakers bundle of Tagiri et al. (1992) show that these assemblages do not define the Na-pyroxene-chlorite subfacies. As the low-grade metamorphic rocks do not have the hematite + pumpellyite paragenesis, its metamorphic temperature is estimated to be higher than the discontinuous reaction temperature of pumpellyite + hematite + quartz = epidote + actinolite + H2O, as shown by Nakajima et al. (1977). It is difficult to detect the difference in temperature in the PA facies regions by analyzing mineral assemblages. To detect the difference in temperature, and then to reveal

  1. MOFCOM Decided to Prolong the Period of Anti-Dumping Measures against Imports of Spandex Originated in Japan, Singapore, ROK, Taiwan Region and the U.S.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Ministry of Commerce released, on October 12, Announcement No. 62 of 2012, deciding to prolong the period of anti-dumping measures against imports of spandex originated in Japan, Singapore, ROK, Taiwan region and the U.S.

  2. Operation Strategy for a Power Grid Supplied by 100% Renewable Energy at a Cold Region in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Morel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an operation strategy for a power system supplied from 100% renewable energy generation in Kitami City, a cold region in Japan. The main goal of this work is the complete elimination of the CO2 emissions of the city while keeping the power frequency within prescribed limits. Currently, the main energy related issue in Japan is the reduction of CO2 emissions without depending on nuclear generation. Also, there is a need for the adoption of distributed generation architecture in order to permit local autonomous operation of the system by the local generation of power. As a solution, this paper proposes a strategy to eliminate CO2 emissions that considers digital simulations using past hourly meteorological data and demand for one year. Results shows that Kitami City can be supplied entirely by renewable generation, reducing its CO2 emission to zero while keeping the quality of its power grid frequency within permitted limits.

  3. The Great East-Japan Earthquake and devastating tsunami: an update and lessons from the past Great Earthquakes in Japan since 1923.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigaki, Akemi; Higashi, Hikari; Sakamoto, Takako; Shibahara, Shigeki

    2013-01-01

    Japan has a long history of fighting against great earthquakes that cause structural damage/collapses, fires and/or tsunami. On March 11, 2011 at 14:46 (Friday), the Great East-Japan Earthquake (magnitude 9.0) attacked the Tohoku region (northeastern Japan), which includes Sendai City. The earthquake generated a devastating tsunami, leading to unprecedented disasters (~18,500 victims) in coastal areas of Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima prefectures, despite the fact that people living in the Tohoku region are well trained for tsunami-evacuation procedures, with the mindset of "Tsunami, ten-den-ko." This code means that each person should evacuate individually upon an earthquake. Sharing this rule, children and parents can escape separately from schools, houses or workplaces, without worrying about each other. The concept of ten-den-ko (individual evacuation) is helpful for people living in coastal areas of earthquake-prone zones around the world. It is also important to construct safe evacuation centers, because the March 11(th) tsunami killed people who had evacuated to evacuation sites. We summarize the current conditions of people living in the disaster-stricken areas, including the consequences of the Fukushima nuclear accident. We also describe the disaster responses as the publisher of the Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine (TJEM), located in Sendai, with online support from Tokyo. In 1923, the Great Kanto Earthquake (magnitude 7.9) evoked a massive fire that destroyed large areas of Tokyo (~105,000 victims), including the print company for TJEM, but the Wistar Institute printed three TJEM issues in 1923 in Philadelphia. Mutual aid relationships should be established between distant cities to survive future disasters.

  4. Regional Mapping and Resource Assessment of Shallow Gas Hydrates of Japan Sea - METI Launched 3 Years Project in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, R.

    2014-12-01

    Agency of Natural Resources and Energy of METI launched a 3 years shallow gas hydrate exploration project in 2013 to make a precise resource assessment of shallow gas hydrates in the eastern margin of Japan Sea and around Hokkaido. Shallow gas hydrates of Japan Sea occur in fine-grained muddy sediments of shallow subsurface of mounds and gas chimneys in the form of massive nodular to platy accumulation. Gas hydrate bearing mounds are often associated with active methane seeps, bacterial mats and carbonate concretions and pavements. Gases of gas hydrates are derived either from deep thermogenic, shallow microbial or from the mixed gases, contrasting with totally microbial deep-seated stratigraphically controlled hydrates. Shallow gas hydrates in Japan Sea have not been considered as energy resource due to its limited distribution in narrow Joetsu basin. However recently academic research surveys have demonstrated regional distribution of gas chimney and hydrate mound in a number of sedimentary basins along the eastern margin of Japan Sea. Regional mapping of gas chimney and hydrate mound by means of MBES and SBP surveys have confirmed that more than 200 gas chimneys exist in 100 km x 100 km area. ROV dives have identified dense accumulation of hydrates on the wall of half collapsed hydrate mound down to 30 mbsf. Sequential LWD and shallow coring campaign in the Summer of 2014, R/V Hakurei, which is equipped with Fugro Seacore R140 drilling rig, drilled through hydrate mounds and gas chimneys down to the BGHS (base of gas hydrate stability) level and successfully recovered massive gas hydrates bearing sediments from several horizons.

  5. Soil carbon stocks and carbon sequestration rates in seminatural grassland in Aso region, Kumamoto, Southern Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, Yo; Clifton-Brown, John; Sugiyama, Shinji; Nakaboh, Makoto; Hatano, Ryusuke; Fernández, Fabián G; Ryan Stewart, J; Nishiwaki, Aya; Yamada, Toshihiko

    2013-06-01

    Global soil carbon (C) stocks account for approximately three times that found in the atmosphere. In the Aso mountain region of Southern Japan, seminatural grasslands have been maintained by annual harvests and/or burning for more than 1000 years. Quantification of soil C stocks and C sequestration rates in Aso mountain ecosystem is needed to make well-informed, land-use decisions to maximize C sinks while minimizing C emissions. Soil cores were collected from six sites within 200 km(2) (767-937 m asl.) from the surface down to the k-Ah layer established 7300 years ago by a volcanic eruption. The biological sources of the C stored in the Aso mountain ecosystem were investigated by combining C content at a number of sampling depths with age (using (14) C dating) and δ(13) C isotopic fractionation. Quantification of plant phytoliths at several depths was used to make basic reconstructions of past vegetation and was linked with C-sequestration rates. The mean total C stock of all six sites was 232 Mg C ha(-1) (28-417 Mg C ha(-1) ), which equates to a soil C sequestration rate of 32 kg C ha(-1)  yr(-1) over 7300 years. Mean soil C sequestration rates over 34, 50 and 100 years were estimated by an equation regressing soil C sequestration rate against soil C accumulation interval, which was modeled to be 618, 483 and 332 kg C ha(-1)  yr(-1) , respectively. Such data allows for a deeper understanding in how much C could be sequestered in Miscanthus grasslands at different time scales. In Aso, tribe Andropogoneae (especially Miscanthus and Schizoachyrium genera) and tribe Paniceae contributed between 64% and 100% of soil C based on δ(13) C abundance. We conclude that the seminatural, C4 -dominated grassland system serves as an important C sink, and worthy of future conservation.

  6. Sustainable groundwater management system based on the regional hydrological cycle in the warm humid country, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, J.; Crest Kumamoto Groundwater Team

    2011-12-01

    water quality turns worse. Following above procedures, this project aims to establish the groundwater management system for sustainable utilization in the view point of water quantity and quality. At first, the evaluation of the local groundwater flow system by using 3D groundwater flow simulation including NO3-N contamination will be applied to the Kumamoto area, the most advanced groundwater utilization area in Japan. This model will be used to estimate the maximum amount of local groundwater pumping for sustainable utilization, to simulate the reduction of nitrate contamination, and to propose the reasonable groundwater management system based on the regional hydrological system. Then, these newly developed research techniques and methodologies will apply to the remote coral islands where stands on the edge of a precipice of groundwater quantity and quality caused by the nitrate contamination and sea level rising with global warming. Finally, this project will plan to propose the policy of sustainable groundwater utilization based on the regional hydrological cycle.

  7. Acoustic profiling and surface imaging of the coastal area near the subduction zone: the eastern coastal area of Boso Peninsula, Central Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuyama, S.; Sato, T.

    2016-12-01

    The plate motion of the Philippine Sea plate and the Pacific plate influences geology of coastal area in the Pacific side in Japan and sometime causes extensive damage of human activity, such as the Great East Japan Earthquake. It is important to understand the geological structures in a coastal area for disaster prevention. Especially, rapid equipment of geoinformations is highly demanded in the Kanto region where covers capital Tokyo area. Geological Survey of Japan investigated the eastern coastal area in Boso Peninsula, eastern part of the Kanto region, Japan within two years from 2014 to 2015. We obtained seismic sections of ca. 1100 km in total length with a boomer and multi-channel streamer (24 channel with 3.125 m spacing) and report the geological significance of the subsurface structures. The survey area is divided into the northern part of Kujukuri area, the southern part of Kujukuri area, the coastal part of Kujukuri area based on topography and geological structures. In these Kujukuri areas, two strata that show distinct stratification bounded by distinct unconformity distribute and we define them as the Kujukuri A Unit and the Kujukuri B Unit, in ascending order. The lower sequence has some folds and normal faults. These folds that deformed the Kujukuri B Unit extend toward north-northeast in the northern part of Kujukuri area. They contributed to development of wide shelf distributed in this area. In the southern part of Kujukuri area, a lot of faults deformed the Kujukuri B Unit and some of them displaced the Kujukuri A Unit over 10 msec (two way travel). Normal faults developed in the Kujukuri B Unit over 10 msec made grabens and half grabens in the coastal part of Kujukuri area and these grabens and half grabens could make the lowland in the Kujukuri coastal area. The combination of these geological structures identified in the Kujukuri areas could reflect the transition of stress field associated with the subduction of the Philippine Sea plate

  8. Radioactive contamination mapping of northeastern and eastern Japan by a car-borne survey system, Radi-Probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shingo; Shinomiya, Takayuki; Kitamura, Hisashi; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Imaseki, Hitoshi; Oikawa, Masakazu; Kodaira, Satoshi; Miyaushiro, Norihiro; Takashima, Yoshio; Uchihori, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    We constructed a new car-borne survey system called Radi-Probe with a portable germanium gamma-ray spectrometer onboard a cargo truck, to identify radionuclides and quantify surface contamination from the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station. The system can quickly survey a large area and obtain ambient dose equivalent rates and gamma-ray energy spectra with good energy resolution. We also developed a new calibration method for the system to deal with an actual nuclear disaster, and quantitative surface deposition densities of radionuclides, such as (134)Cs and (137)Cs, and kerma rates of each radionuclide can be calculated. We carried out car-borne survey over northeastern and eastern Japan (Tohoku and Kanto regions of Honshu) from 25 September through 7 October 2012. We discuss results of the distribution of ambient dose equivalent rate H(∗)(10), (134)Cs and (137)Cs surface deposition densities, spatial variation of (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio, and the relationship between surface deposition densities of (134)Cs/(137)Cs and H(∗)(10). The ratio of (134)Cs/(137)Cs was nearly constant within our measurement precision, with average 1.06 ± 0.04 in northeastern and eastern Japan (decay-corrected to 11 March, 2011), although small variations from the average were observed.

  9. Study of electrical power facilities and measures for planned outages in Japanese hemodialysis clinics after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Kai; Sawa, Manami; Fujiwara, Kousaku; Hirose, Minoru; Tsuruta, Harukazu; Takeuchi, Akihiro; Ikeda, Noriaki

    2013-02-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011 caused major damage in northeastern Japan. The Kanto region experienced a massive electrical power shortage in the summer of 2011. A questionnaire was submitted to 354 hemodialysis clinics in Kanagawa prefecture and the Tokyo metropolitan area, excluding isolated islands, and 176 responses were analyzed (49.7%). The questions included evaluation of the availability of a private electricity generator, countermeasures in case of a planned outage, awareness of saving electricity, and improvement of safety of medical devices or electrical facilities after the earthquake. Only 12% of the clinics had private electricity generators and many clinics had no plans to introduce this facility. However, 96% of the clinics had established countermeasures to deal with a planned outage. Many clinics planned to provide dialysis on a different day or at a different time. All clinics had tried hard to establish procedures to save electricity in the summer of 2011, and 84% of the clinics had reconsidered and improved the safety of medical devices or electricity facilities after the earthquake. These results show that the awareness of crisis management was greatly improved in the wake of the earthquake.

  10. Molecular identification of blood source animals from black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) collected in the alpine regions of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imura, Takayuki; Sato, Yukita; Ejiri, Hiroko; Tamada, Asumi; Isawa, Haruhiko; Sawabe, Kyoko; Omori, Sumie; Murata, Koichi; Yukawa, Masayoshi

    2010-01-01

    One of vector-borne avian protozoa, Leucocytozoon lovati, has been found in the Japanese rock ptarmigans (Lagopus mutus japonicus), the endangered bird species distributed in the alpine regions in Japan. Vector arthropod species of L. lovati has also been estimated as Simuliidae black flies distributed in the same habitat of the host bird, however, possible blood meals of the black flies were not identified yet. To reveal host animals of black flies, we estimated the blood resources by using molecular techniques. Black flies were collected at Mt. Chogatake, one of the alpine regions of Japan in which Japanese rock ptarmigans live in June 2005. The analyzed 144 specimens were morphologically identified into five species including Simulium japonicum (n = 87), Prosimulium hirtipes (n = 48), Prosimulium yezoense (n = 3), Twinnia japonensis (n = 3), and Cnephia mutata (n = 3). Individually extracted DNA from the black flies was subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification targeting the partial mitochondrial cytochrome b gene of birds or mammals to identify the blood meals. Of 144 black flies examined, 34 specimens were PCR positive for avian hosts (23.6%). No mammalian-derived bloods were detected from the samples studied through. Sequences amplified from 11 black flies consist of S. japonicum, P. hirtipes, and C. mutata showed high similarity to that of the Japanese rock ptarmigan. Therefore, present results conclusively suggest that these three species of black flies might suck the bloods of Japanese rock ptarmigans and could be the vector for L. lovati infection among this endangered bird species of Japan.

  11. Offshore double-planed shallow seismic zone in the NE Japan forearc region revealed by sP depth phases recorded by regional networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamage, S.S.N.; Umino, N.; Hasegawa, A.; Kirby, S.H.

    2009-01-01

    We detected the sP depth phase at small epicentral distances of about 150 km or more in the seismograms of shallow earthquakes in the NE Japan forearc region. The focal depths of 1078 M > 3 earthquakes that occurred from 2000 to 2006 were precisely determined using the time delay of the sP phase from the initial P-wave arrival. The distribution of relocated hypocentres clearly shows the configuration of a double-planed shallow seismic zone beneath the Pacific Ocean. The upper plane has a low dip angle near the Japan Trench, increasing gradually to ???30?? at approximately 100 km landward of the Japan Trench. The lower plane is approximately parallel to the upper plane, and appears to be the near-trench counterpart of the lower plane of the double-planed deep seismic zone beneath the land area. The distance between the upper and lower planes is 28-32 km, which is approximately the same as or slightly smaller than that of the double-planed deep seismic zone beneath the land area. Focal mechanism solutions of the relocated earthquakes are determined from P-wave initial motion data. Although P-wave initial motion data for these offshore events are not ideally distributed on the focal sphere, we found that the upper-plane events that occur near the Japan Trench are characterized by normal faulting, whereas lower-plane events are characterized by thrust faulting. This focal mechanism distribution is the opposite to that of the double-planed deep seismic zone beneath the land area. The characteristics of these focal mechanisms for the shallow and deep doubled-planed seismic zones can be explained by a bending-unbending model of the subducting Pacific plate. Some of relocated earthquakes took place in the source area of the 1933 Mw8.4 Sanriku earthquake at depths of 10-23 km. The available focal mechanisms for these events are characterized by normal faulting. Given that the 1933 event was a large normal-fault event that occurred along a fault plane dipping landward, the

  12. National Agendas and Local Realities: Festive Material and Ritual Culture, Nationalism, and Modernity in the Chita Region of Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean McPherson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The reworking of religious space in modern Japan encompassed the reinvention of the spatial, material, and ritual culture of matsuri 祭り(festivals. After a period of relative official disfavor, festivals in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were reinvigorated by changes in ritual process and spatial scope, as well as by shifts in the architecture and sculpture of dashi 山車 (wheeled festival floats. The incorporation of matsuri into broader discourses of national cultural identity was driven by the affective potential of their supposed cultural authenticity. This reinvention of festivity is evident in the Tokoname Matsuri of Tokoname City, Aichi Prefecture, where after the 1905 Russo-Japanese conflict several Edo-period shrine festivals were merged into a shōkonsai 招魂祭 (festival for the war dead. The spatial scope and ritual process, as well as the architecture and sculptural iconography, of the six dashi built for the new Tokoname Matsuri tied this regional city into national discourses of cultural authenticity, racial purity, and martial valor. The ideological resonance in prewar Japan of the Tokoname Matsuri and other festivals with nationalist imagery sprang from their indelibly local origins; matsuri were not controlled entirely from the top down, but rather were mediated at multiple levels.

  13. Reshaping the Sword and Chrysanthemum: Regional Implications of Expanding the Mission of the Japan Self Defense Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    improve Japan-South Korea relations, continuation of South Korea’s “ Sunshine Policy” has undermined this relationship. South Korea’s view of Japan...for Japan–China friendship and eternal peace.”142 Although these speeches were well received in China, relations between Japan and China were severely

  14. [Questionnaire investigation of incidence of Trichophyton tonsurans infection in dermatology clinics in the Kanto area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiruma, Masataro; Shiraki, Yumi; Nihei, Nozomi; Hirose, Nobuyoshi; Suganami, Morio

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a questionnaire investigation to learn the incidence of T. tonsurans infection. Subjects of this investigation were 1,060 dermatologists in 1,060 dermatology clinics in the Kanto area to whom questionnaires were mailed. We asked each dermatologist whether he/she had experienced T. tonsurans infection cases (including suspected cases) and if so, we further asked; a. time of onset, b. number of cases, c. sexuality of the patient, d. club that the subject had joined (judo club, wrestling club or other), e. age of the subject, and f. number of cases suspected of having familial infection, the response rate was 47.5% (504 of the 1060 doctors), and 25.8% (130 of the 504) had handled T. tonsurans infection cases. The total number of patients was 707 (657 males and 50 females), with 400 (56.6%) of those in the 18 high-ranking clinics. The number of cases had increased rapidly from around 2002; 72.9% of the patients were students in high schools and universities and in 8 cases familial infection was suspected. 96.5% of the patients were in a judo or wrestling club. Our investigation revealed that this infectious disease had spread more than we had expected. It is important to develop more reliable infection control measures and to determine the actual conditions of this infection using mycological examinations.

  15. I. The Detectability of High Frequency Energy at Teleseismic and Regional Distances. II. Studies of Radiation from High-Explosive and Nuclear Cratering Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-04

    14, 18, 39, 45, 63, 64, 66, 74, 77)(Figures 5 and 6). -12- SANTIAGO DEL ESTERO, ARGENTINA ARGENTINA WESTERN BRAZIL 08 DEC 62 21:27:18.0 29 SEP 62 15:17...Mean free path of S waves under the Kanto district of Japan, J. Phys. Earth, 26, 185. 82. Sato, R., and A. F. Espinosa (1967). Dissipation in the

  16. Evaluation of Nitrogen Cycling Associated with Agricultural Production and Environmental Load in a Mountain Region, in Hokkaido, Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Lei; JIN Datian; HU Ning

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the nitrogen cycling associated with agricultural production and environmental load in central Hokkaido. The nitrogen (N) budget analysis model offers a new set of tools for evaluating N cycling in agro-ecosystems. The cycling index (CI) is a useful tool for estimating optimal N flows in farmlands. The fertilization index (FI) is a useful indicator for characterizing the N flows related to farms. Using these parameters, we analyzed all farm systems to estimate the optimal N cycling for minimizing N pollution in groundwater and maximizing agricultural production in mountain regions of Japan. The results showed that the critical N application rate (chemical fertilizer + manure) was 143.3 kg N ha-1 y-1. The critical inter-system input (chemical fertilizer N, imported food and feed N, and natural supplied N) was 169.9 kg N ha-1y-1.

  17. Assessment of the caesium-137 flux adsorbed to suspended sediment in a reservoir in the contaminated Fukushima region in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouri, Goro; Golosov, Valentin; Shiiba, Michiharu; Hori, Tomoharu

    2014-04-01

    We estimated the flux of caesium-137 adsorbed to suspended sediment in the Kusaki Dam reservoir in the Fukushima region of eastern Japan, which was contaminated by the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident. The amount and rate of reservoir sedimentation and the caesium-137 concentration were validated based on the mixed-particle distribution and a sediment transport equation. The caesium-137 and sediment flux data suggested that wash load, suspended load sediment, and caesium-137 were deposited and the discharge and transport processes generated acute pollution, especially during extreme rainfall-runoff events. Additionally, we qualitatively assessed future changes in caesium-137 and sediment fluxes in the reservoir. The higher deposition and discharge at the start of the projection compared to the 2090s are most likely explained by the radioactive decay of caesium-137 and the effects of reservoir sedimentation. Predictions of the impacts of future climate on sediment and caesium-137 fluxes are crucial for environmental planning and management.

  18. Constraining the thickness of tectonic tremor source region on the basis of seismological and geological observations in southwest Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, K.; Ito, Y.; Ujiie, K.; Fagereng, A.; Katakami, S.; Kinoshita, T.

    2016-12-01

    Recent progress in seismological observations has revealed that most of tremors and low frequency earthquakes (LFEs) along subduction zones worldwide occur as shear slips on the plate interface of subducting oceanic slab. Although the locations of tremors still have large uncertainties especially in the depth direction, in a seismological view, such tremor region is usually treated as a flat fault with no thickness. On the other hands, the recent geological observation has discovered the records of past tremors and suggested that their deformation zones have several tens of meters thickness [Ujiie et al., this meeting]. Here we try to reconcile these two observations by comparing the accurate hypocenter distribution of tremor sources based on the seismic records with the actual measurements of the thickness of anticipated tremor zones in the geological records.As representatives of tremor sources, we determine the hypocenter locations of LFEs in the Shikoku region, southwest Japan. By using the NCC hypocenter relocation method [Ohta and Ide, 2008, 2011] based on the summed cross-correlation coefficients across the network (network correlation coefficients; NCC), we accurately relocate more than 4,000 LFEs in the catalog of Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) from 2004 to 2011. Relocated hypocenters of LFEs are highly concentrated in the depth direction and separated to several clusters on the basis of the NCC connections. Each cluster is well fitted by a single plane. The thickness of each cluster orthogonal to the plane ranges from 140m to 1.3km.For the geological measurements, we examine the tectonic mélange in the Shimanto accretionary complex in southwest Japan. The mélange shows the coexistence of shear veins and ductile shear zone, which is thought to be the zone of past episodic tremor and slip [Ujiie et al., this meeting]. We measure the distribution of shear veins in the mélange. Within the entire exposure of 100m thickness, shear veins are concentrated

  19. Japan's 'resort archipelago': creating regions of fun, pleasure, relaxation, and recreation

    OpenAIRE

    P J Rimmer

    1992-01-01

    Changes have occurred in Japanese regional development policy to accommodate the decline in production and commercial activities. Initially, the thrust was on using high-tech activities to promote regional development within an emerging information society. Subsequently, this strategy has been complemented by a policy of regional development based on the leisure and construction industries. Before this policy is outlined attention is focused on examining a conceptual framework for tourism urb...

  20. Analysis of Air Activity Concentration Data Collected in the Kanto Plain, Japan, following the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-09

    1 × 10–7 joule (J) kiloton (kT) (TNT equivalent) 4.184 × 1012 joule (J) British thermal unit (Btu) ( thermochemical ) 1.054 350 × 103 joule (J) foot...pound-force (ft lbf) 1.355 818 joule (J) calorie (cal) ( thermochemical ) 4.184 joule (J) Pressure atmosphere (atm) 1.013 250 × 105 pascal (Pa...bases. The successful application of the econometric methods that were presented in the cases discussed herein suggest they may be valuable in other

  1. Pacific Circle Consortium: A Regional Project of OECD/CERI. Report of Annual Conference (6th, Hiroshima, Japan, September 27-October 4, 1982).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

    Pacific region countries reported on their 1982 cooperative activities in education, including exchange and curriculum development projects, aimed at improving intercultural understanding. The first part of the report describes what happened at the sessions; the second part contains the appendices. Various countries--Australia, Canada, Japan, New…

  2. Chlorine isotopic compositions of deep saline fluids in Ibusuki coastal geothermal region, Japan : using B–Cl isotopes to interpret fluid sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musashi, Masaaki; Oi, Takao; Kreulen, Rob

    2015-01-01

    We report chlorine stable isotopic compositions (δ37Cl, expressed in ‰ relative to the standard mean ocean chloride) as well as δ2H and δ18O values of deep saline fluids taken at eight drill-holes reaching from 73 to 780 m below sea level in the Ibusuki coastal geothermal region, Japan. Analytical r

  3. Laboratory surveillance for prospective plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamases in the Kinki region of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Katsutoshi; Komatsu, Masaru; Abe, Noriyuki; Fukuda, Saori; Miyamoto, Yugo; Higuchi, Takeshi; Ono, Tamotsu; Nishio, Hisaaki; Sueyoshi, Noriyuki; Kida, Kaneyuki; Satoh, Kaori; Toyokawa, Masahiro; Nishi, Isao; Sakamoto, Masako; Akagi, Masahiro; Nakai, Isako; Kofuku, Tomomi; Orita, Tamaki; Wada, Yasunao; Jikimoto, Takumi; Kinoshita, Shohiro; Miyamoto, Kazuaki; Hirai, Itaru; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa

    2010-09-01

    Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases, plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamases (PABLs), and plasmid-mediated metallo-beta-lactamases confer resistance to many beta-lactams. In Japan, although several reports exist on the prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and metallo-beta-lactamases, the prevalence and characteristics of PABLs remain unknown. To investigate the production of PABLs, a total of 22,869 strains of 4 enterobacterial species, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Proteus mirabilis, were collected during six 6-month periods from 17 clinical laboratories in the Kinki region of Japan. PABLs were detected in 29 (0.13%) of 22,869 isolates by the 3-dimensional test, PCR analysis, and DNA sequencing analysis. PABL-positive isolates were detected among isolates from 13 laboratories. Seventeen of 13,995 (0.12%) E. coli isolates, 8 of 5,970 (0.13%) K. pneumoniae isolates, 3 of 1,722 (0.17%) K. oxytoca isolates, and 1 of 1,182 (0.08%) P. mirabilis isolates were positive for PABLs. Of these 29 PABL-positive strains, 20 (69.0%), 6 (20.7%), 2 (6.9%), and 1 (3.4%) carried the genes for CMY-2, DHA-1, CMY-8, and MOX-1 PABLs, respectively. Pattern analysis of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA and pulsed-field gel electrophoretic analysis revealed that the prevalence of CMY-2-producing E. coli strains was not due to epidemic strains and that 3 DHA-1-producing K. pneumoniae strains were identical, suggesting their clonal relatedness. In conclusion, the DHA-1 PABLs were predominantly present in K. pneumoniae strains, but CMY-2 PABLs were predominantly present in E. coli strains. The present findings will provide significant information to assist in preventing the emergence and further spread of PABL-producing bacteria.

  4. Seismic velocity structure in the shallower part of the subducting Pacific lithosphere around the Japan Trench axial region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, R.; Hino, R.; Ito, Y.; Yamamoto, Y.; Suzuki, K.

    2010-12-01

    We have revealed that the Vp of the oceanic crust and upper mantle of the Pacific lithosphere is significantly reduced near the axial part of the Japan Trench, from airgun-OBS seismic experiments made at the outer rise and the inner trench regions of the trench (Azuma et al., 2009). From the spatial correlation between the Vp reduction and the development of the horst- graven structure, it is suggested that the Vp reduction is possibly caused by the fracturing and water infiltration accompanying the lithospheric bending. However, in order to thoroughly understand the mechanism of the structural change, we must clarify the Vs structure of the subducting oceanic lithosphere. This study uses two different datasets. One is the data obtained by the seismic experiments described by Azuma et al. (2009). We analyzed converted S waves from the airgun source recorded on the horizontal components of OBS by a 2D ray tracing method (Zelt and Smith, 1992) and determined the Vp/Vs ratio in the Pacific lithosphere before it subducts. Another is the earthquake arrival time data. We observed inter- and intra-plate earthquakes beneath the inner trench slope by an OBS array deployed at the outer rise region and analyzed the P and S wave travel times by using a 3D ray tracing method (Zhao et al., 1992). The latter is the first attempt of estimation of seismic velocity of the slab mantle around trench axis. The results of seismic experiments show that the Vp/Vs ratio of the oceanic crustal layer 2, of the layer 3, and of the uppermost mantle at the outer rise are 2.08-2.11, 1.84-1.87 and 1.71-1.72, respectively. In comparison with the ratio of a normal oceanic lithosphere (Shinohara et al., 2008), Vp/Vs of the layer 2 at the outer rise significantly increases whereas the Vp/Vs does not show significant change either in the layer 3 or in the upper mantle. The travel time analysis of the earthquake data shows that the Vp/Vs ratio of the slab mantle beneath the trench is 1.73-1.74, which

  5. A preliminary experiment for the long-term regional reanalysis over Japan assimilating conventional observations with NHM-LETKF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Shin; Iwasaki, Toshiki; Saito, Kazuo; Seko, Hiromu; Kunii, Masaru

    2016-04-01

    Several long-term global reanalyses have been produced by major operational centres and have contributed to the advance of weather and climate researches considerably. Although the horizontal resolutions of these global reanalyses are getting higher partly due to the development of computing technology, they are still too coarse to reproduce local circulations and precipitation realistically. To solve this problem, dynamical downscaling is often employed. However, the forcing from lateral boundaries only cannot necessarily control the inner fields especially in long-term dynamical downscaling. Regional reanalysis is expected to overcome the difficulty. To maintain the long-term consistency of the analysis quality, it is better to assimilate only the conventional observations that are available in long period. To confirm the effectiveness of the regional reanalysis, some assimilation experiments are performed. In the experiments, only conventional observations (SYNOP, SHIP, BUOY, TEMP, PILOT, TC-Bogus) are assimilated with the NHM-LETKF system, which consists of the nonhydrostatic model (NHM) of the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) and the local ensemble transform Kalman filter (LETKF). The horizontal resolution is 25 km and the domain covers Japan and its surroundings. Japanese 55-year reanalysis (JRA-55) is adopted as the initial and lateral boundary conditions for the NHM-LETKF forecast-analysis cycles. The ensemble size is 10. The experimental period is August 2014 as a representative of warm season for the region. The results are verified against the JMA's operational Meso-scale Analysis, which is produced with assimilating observation data including various remote sensing observations using a 4D-Var scheme, and compared with those of the simple dynamical downscaling experiment without data assimilation. Effects of implementation of lateral boundary perturbations derived from an EOF analysis of JRA-55 over the targeted domain are also examined. The comparison

  6. The United States and Japan: A Broad View to Achieving Economic and Security Interests in the Asia-Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-14

    Rudiger Dornbusch , "U.S. Japan Relations at the Crossroads," Columbia Journalof World Business. 1992, p. 24. 105. Ibid. 106. Makin, p. 144. 107. Ibid...Pacific Rim: Looking towards the 21st Century, 16 may 1990, pp. 1-26. 31. Dornbusch , Rudigen. "US -Japan Relationship at the Crossroads." Columbia Journql

  7. Temporal and spatial variation of groundwater in quantity and quality in sand dune at coastal region, Kamisu city, central Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umei, Yohei; Tsujimura, Maki; Sakakibara, Koichi; Watanabe, Yasuto; Minema, Motomitsu

    2016-04-01

    The role of groundwater in integrated water management has become important in recent 10 years, though the surface water is the major source of drinking water in Japan. Especially, it is remarked that groundwater recharge changed due to land cover change under the anthropogenic and climatic condition factors. Therefore, we need to investigate temporal and spatial variation of groundwater in quantity and quality focusing on the change during recent 10-20 years in specific region. We performed research on groundwater level and quality in sand dune at coastal region facing Pacific Ocean, Kamisu city, Ibaraki Prefecture, which have been facing environmental issues, such as land cover change due to soil mining for construction and urbanization. We compared the present situation of groundwater with that in 2000 using existed data to clarify the change of groundwater from 2000 to 2015. The quality of water is dominantly characterized by Ca2+-HCO3- in both 2000 and 2015, and nitrate was not observed in 2015, though it was detected in some locations in 2000. This may be caused by improvement of the domestic wastewater treatment. The topography of groundwater table was in parallel with that of ground surface in 2015, same as that in 2000. However, a depletion of groundwater table was observed in higher elevation area in 2015 as compared with that in 2000, and this area corresponds to the locations where the land cover has changed due to soil mining and urbanization between 2015 and 2000. In the region of soil mining, the original soil is generally replaced by impermeable soil after mining, and this may cause a decrease of percolation and net groundwater recharge, thus the depletion of groundwater table occurred after the soil mining.

  8. Water resources management in the urban agglomeration of the Lake Biwa region, Japan: An ecosystem services-based sustainability assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaochen; Chen, Yuqing; Shimizu, Toshiyuki; Niu, Jia; Nakagami, Ken'ichi; Qian, Xuepeng; Jia, Baoju; Nakajima, Jun; Han, Ji; Li, Jianhua

    2017-05-15

    An innovative ecosystem services-based sustainability assessment was conducted in the important urban agglomeration of the Lake Biwa region, Japan, covering the time period from 1950 to 2014. A 22-indicator system was established that was based on the major ecosystem services of Lake Biwa and its water courses, i.e., provisioning services regarding aquatic products and water; regulating services regarding floods and water quality; cultural services regarding recreation and tourism, scientific research, and environmental education; and supporting services regarding biodiversity. First, changes in the eight ecosystem services were discussed together with the considerable experience and difficult lessons that can be drawn from the development trajectory. Next, with the indicators rearranged according to sustainability principles, the regional sustainability over the past six-plus decades was assessed. In general, this urban agglomeration has been progressing in terms of its sustainability, although economic and social development was achieved at the cost of environmental degradation in the past, and the current economic downturn is hurting the balanced development and integrated benefits. The results lead directly to recommendations for regional development, especially in terms of economic rejuvenation, from the perspective of improving management of Lake Biwa's water resources. Moreover, the relevant knowledge is educational and inspirational for other places in the world that are facing similar development issues. For example, the effective and even pioneering countermeasures that have been taken against environmental degradation, as well as the participation and collaboration of multiple stakeholders, could be useful as a model. Moreover, the study invites increased understanding of ecosystem vulnerability to anthropogenic devastation and emphasizes the priority of precautionary measures over countermeasures in the context of holistic urban planning and sustainable

  9. A region-based palliative care intervention trial using the mixed-method approach: Japan OPTIM study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morita Tatsuya

    2012-01-01

    populations are a nearly representative sample of advanced cancer patients, bereaved family members, physicians, and nurses in the region. Qualitative process studies consist of 3 studies with each aim: 1 to describe the process in developing regional palliative care in each local context, 2 to understand how and why the regional palliative care program led to changes in the region and to propose a model for shaping regional palliative care, and 3 to systemically collect the barriers of palliative care at a regional level and potential resolutions. The study methodology is a case descriptive study, a grounded theory approach based on interviews, and a content analysis based on systemically collected data, respectively. Discussion This study is, to our knowledge, one of the most comprehensive evaluations of a region-based palliative care intervention program. This study has 3 unique aspects: 1 it measures a wide range of outcomes, including quality of care and quality of life measures specifically designed for palliative care populations, whether patients died where they actually preferred, the changes in physicians and nurses at a regional level; 2 adopts qualitative studies along with quantitative evaluations; and 3 the intervention is without a fundamental change in health care systems. A comprehensive understanding of the findings in this study will contribute to a deeper insight into how to develop community palliative care. Trial Registration UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR, Japan, UMIN000001274.

  10. Japan 2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørstrup, Finn Rude; Hvass, Sven

    2003-01-01

    Kompendium udarbejdet til en studierejse til Japan  2003 Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole, Studieafdeling 10......Kompendium udarbejdet til en studierejse til Japan  2003 Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole, Studieafdeling 10...

  11. Antibacterial activity of carbapenems against clinical isolates of respiratory bacterial pathogens in the northeastern region of Japan in 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomi, Kazunori; Fujimura, Shigeru; Fuse, Katsuhiro; Takane, Hidenari; Nakano, Yoshihisa; Kariya, Yasuko; Kikuchi, Toshiaki; Kurokawa, Iku; Tokue, Yutaka; Watanabe, Akira

    2011-04-01

    As the increasing prevalence of resistant strains of respiratory bacterial pathogens has recently been reported, continuous monitoring of the susceptibility of clinical isolates to antibacterial agents is important. We performed a surveillance study focusing on the susceptibility of major respiratory bacterial pathogens in the northeastern region of Japan to carbapenems and control drugs. A total of 168 bacterial strains isolated from patients with respiratory tract infections in 2007 were collected and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determined. MIC data were subjected to pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis with Monte Carlo simulation to calculate the probability of achieving the target of time above MIC with each carbapenem. All Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus isolates were susceptible to carbapenems. Despite the increasing prevalence of β-lactamase-nonproducing ampicillin-resistant strains, all Haemophilus influenzae isolates were susceptible to meropenem. For Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the susceptibility rates for meropenem and biapenem were 76.7%, and the highest probability of achieving pharmacodynamic target (40% of the time above MIC) was obtained with meropenem 0.5 g three times daily as a 4-h infusion (89.4%), followed by meropenem 0.5 g four times daily as a 1-h infusion (88.4%). Carbapenems have retained their position as key drugs for severe respiratory tract infections.

  12. 40Ar/ 39Ar mineral ages from the Oki metamorphic complex, Oki-Dogo, southwest Japan: implications for regional correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallmeyer, R. D.; Takasu, A.

    1998-08-01

    The Oki metamorphic complex exposed in the Oki-Dogo islands consists predominantly of psammitic and pelitic gneisses with subordinate amphibolite and rare calcareous gneiss. The Oki gneisses were regionally metamorphosed to general amphibolite facies conditions, with local development of granulite facies assemblages. Peak metamorphic conditions of c. 800°C have been suggested. Hornblende concentrates from amphibolites collected within the Oki metamorphic complex record 40Ar/ 39Ar isotope correlation ages of 199-192 Ma. These are interpreted to date the post metamorphic cooling through temperatures required for intracrystalline retention of argon (c. 500°C). Muscovite concentrates record 40Ar/ 39Ar plateau ages of 167-168 Ma. These are interpreted to date post metamorphic cooling through appropriate closure temperature of muscovite (c. 400-375°C). Combined with the previously reported geochronological data, the Oki metamorphic complex appears to have experienced peak metamorphic conditions at c. 250 Ma. Subsequently, it cooled and was exhumed at the earth's surface at c. 90 Ma with cooling rate of c. 5°C/Ma. The Oki metamorphic complex records a similar prograde metamorphic event as the Hida metamorphic complex exposed in central Japan. The cooling and exhumation rates of the Hida metamorphic complex were significantly more rapid compared with the Oki metamorphic complex, and they were exhumed with extensively intruded Jurassic granites (Funatsu granites).

  13. Mechanism of early-summer low-temperature extremes in Japan projected by a nonhydrostatic regional climate model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiko Murata

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the mechanisms associated with projected early-summer low-temperature extremes in Japan at the end of the 21st century by means of a well-developed nonhydrostatic regional climate model under the A1B scenario provided by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change-Special Report on Emission Scenario. The projected surface air temperature reveals that even in a climate warmer than that at present, extremely low daily minimum temperatures in early summer are comparable to those in the present climate at several locations. At locations where future low temperatures are remarkable, the temperature drop at night is larger in the future than at present. This temperature drop results from mainly two heat fluxes: upward longwave radiation and latent heat flux. In the future climate, upward longwave radiation increases owing to high temperature at the surface around the time of the sunset. In addition, the upward flux of latent heat increases owing to low relative humidity just above the surface. These dryer conditions are associated with lower relative humidity at 850 hPa, suggesting the effects of synoptic systems. These two fluxes act to reduce the surface temperature, and hence surface air temperature.

  14. Effect of oxidation state on Bi mineral speciation in oxidized and reduced granitoids from the Uetsu region, NE Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumino, Yuya; Maruoka, Teruyuki; Nakashima, Kazuo

    2016-06-01

    The relationship between bismuth (Bi) mineral speciation and redox state in three types of granitoids from the Uetsu region, northeast Japan is investigated. Electron microprobe analysis of Bi minerals, sphalerite, Mg-Fe-bearing carbonate minerals, and muscovite, as well as sulfur isotope analysis of sulfide minerals and microthermometric study of fluid inclusions reveal that Bi mineral speciation varies according to the redox state of the granitoids. For example, native bismuth and bismuthinite are abundant and Bi sulfosalts are rare in the lowest fS2 and fO2 mineralized zones of the reduced Iwafune granite (S-type, ilmenite-series) while Bi sulfosalts (Bi3+) are abundant and trace amounts of native bismuth (Bi0) and bismuthinite are found in the highest fS2 and fO2 mineralized zones of the oxidized Wasada granodiorite (I-type, magnetite-series). Bismuthinite is a major Bi mineral, and native bismuth and Bi sulfosalts occur in only minor amounts in the mineralized zones of the Nishitagawa granodiorite (I-type, ilmenite-series), which has intermediate fS2 and fO2 to that of the Iwafune and Wasada samples. Our study indicates that Bi mineral speciation related to granitic intrusive activity is controlled by the redox state of the magmatism, such that native bismuth is typical of reducing conditions, whereas Bi sulfosalts are typical of oxidizing conditions.

  15. The slow slip event in the Tokai region, central Japan, since 2013 as seen from GPS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaue, H.; Fukuda, J.; Kato, T.; Nishimura, T.

    2016-12-01

    In the Tokai region, cetral Japan, the previous long-term slow slip event (SSE) occurred on the subducting Philippine Sea plate from 2000 to 2005, the longest SSE ever found. In addition, many short-term SSEs have been observed in the Tokai region since 2004. Ozawa et al. (2016) reported that a slow slip event seems to have started in the similar area of the previous Tokai long term SSE in the beginning of 2013. We analyzed GPS data in the Tokai region to estimate the temporal evolution of the current event. GPS data from 1 Jan. 2008 to 30 Apr. 2015 were used in this study. The GIPSY-OASIS II software was used to estimate daily coordinates of 226 GPS stations from the GEONET in the Tokai district. The 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake (Mw9.0) occurred on 11 Mar. 2011 and post-seismic deformation has also been observed in the Tokai region since then. Therefore, the effects of the post-seismic deformation due to the Tohoku-oki earthquake were removed by fitting the data from 11 Mar. 2011 to 31 Dec. 2012 with simple mathematical functions. We approximate the post-seismic deformations by the sum of exponential and logarithmic functions and subtract the estimated post-seismic deformation from the GPS time series. After removing this compornent, we applied a time-dependent inversion method to the data to obtain the spatio-temporal evolution of slip on the Philippine Sea plate beneath the Tokai region. For this purpose, we used a modified Network Inversion Filter (NIF) (Fukuda et al., 2008). The original NIF (Segall and Matthews, 1997) assumes a constant hyperparameter for the temporal smoothing of slip rate and thus results in oversmoothing of slip rate. The modified NIF assumes a time variable hyperparameter, so that changes in slip rate are effectively extracted from GPS time series. The results indicate that maximum slip for the long-term SSE from 1 Jan. 2013 to 30 Apr. 2015 was estimated to be about 6 cm and the large slip was located in nearly the same area as or slightly

  16. Seismic velocity structure in the source region of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake sequence, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shito, Azusa; Matsumoto, Satoshi; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Ohkura, Takahiro; Takahashi, Hiroaki; Sakai, Shinichi; Okada, Tomomi; Miyamachi, Hiroki; Kosuga, Masahiro; Maeda, Yuta; Yoshimi, Masayuki; Asano, Youichi; Okubo, Makoto

    2017-08-01

    We investigate seismic wave velocity structure and spatial distribution of the seismicity in the source region of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake sequence. A one-dimensional mean velocity shows that the seismogenic zone has a high-velocity and low-Vp/Vs ratio relative to the average velocity structure of Kyushu Island. This indicates that the crust is relatively strong, capable of sustaining sufficiently high strain energy to facilitate two large (Mj > 6.5) earthquakes in close proximity to one another in rapid succession. Three-dimensional tomography of the seismogenic zone around the source of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake sequence yields Vp = 6 km/s and Vs = 3.5 km/s. Most large-displacement areas (asperities) of the Mj 7.3 event overlap with the seismogenic zone and the overlying surface layer. Aftershock seismicity is distributed deeper than the conventional seismogenic zone, which suggests decreased strength due to fluids or increased stress, both caused by coseismic slip.

  17. Numerical modeling of the three-layered hydrothermal system in the Kuju volcanic region, central Kyushu, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araragi, K.; Ehara, S.; Fujimitsu, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Numerical modeling of hydrothermal systems beneath active volcanoes has been conducted. Their purposes were, however, confined to interpret individual geothermal systems. We constructed a numerical model of the Kuju volcanic region, central Kyushu, Japan using 3-D finite-difference code HYDROTHERM ver.2.2 (Hayba and Ingebritsen, 1994). The central part of Kuju volcano is categorized as an active magmatic hydrothermal system. Otake-Hatchobaru geothermal area, where two geothermal power plants are in operation, is known as a typical liquid dominated hydrothermal system. These two types of geothermal systems are closely located in the region. Moreover, subsurface horizontal temperature distributions in the Kuju volcanic region consist of a three-layered structure. A horizontal temperature anomaly at a depth of -2000m separates into two anomalies at depths of about 0m. Five anomalies appear in the horizontal temperature distribution of 80m depth. Geothermal systems or such characteristics of the thermal structure should be related to the influence of the magma chamber in the region. Existence of molten magma was suggested from seismic observations (Yoshikawa et al., 2005). Therefore, we presumed that the geothermal systems in Otake- Hatchobaru geothermal area and in the central part of Kuju volcano can be explained by a common magma chamber. We determined the calculation time as 40000 based on the age of the latest large pyroclastic flow deposit (Kamata, 1997). The temperature of the magma chamber in the model was maintained at a constant value during the calculation. Parameter studies of crustal permeabilities were conducted to reproduce temperature profiles obtained by logging at shallow depths (NEDO, 1987). The calculated results show that temperature anomalies in the basement rock seemed to be directly affected by the magma chamber. The results also indicate that molten materials have been continuously supplied from the bottom of the magma chamber of Kuju volcano

  18. Determination of seasonal and regional variation in the provenance of dissolved cations in rain in Japan based on Sr and Pb isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Takanori; Morohashi, Satomi; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Sakai, Masaharu; Aizawa, Shuhei; Shichi, Koji; Morisawa, Takeshi; Takahashi, Masamichi; Sanada, Masaru; Matsuura, Yojiro; Sakai, Hisao; Akama, Akio; Okada, Naoki

    We determined the elemental and Pb and Sr isotopic compositions of monthly wet precipitation at five sites in Japan (Sapporo, Morioka, Toyama, Tsukuba, and Kumamoto) to elucidate the seasonal and regional variation in the provenance of water-soluble materials. The concentrations of As, Cd, and Pb in the precipitation became high in winter to spring when the prevailing winds are westerly, but those of some metals (Mn, Cu, Ni) did not show distinct seasonal variations. Comparison of Pb isotopic ratios of the precipitation with those of aerosols from the Asian region showed (1) a geographical trend such that precipitation at Sapporo and Morioka in northeastern Japan contained Pb from aerosols from Russia and Mongolia, whereas that at Kumamoto in southwestern Japan contained Pb from aerosols from southern China, and (2) a seasonal variation in that precipitation in winter and spring became enriched in the airborne Pb from northern China, but the degree of the enrichment differed geographically. The sea-salt component (Cl, Na, and Mg) was high in winter and low in summer, particularly at Sapporo and Toyama, which face the Sea of Japan, whereas the non-sea-salt content of Ca and Sr and the 87Sr/ 86Sr tended to become high in spring and low in summer to autumn. The pH was low in winter and became high in spring and summer, except at Tsukuba, which faces the Pacific Ocean. These results show that spring precipitation was partly neutralized by the dissolution of calcium carbonate in the Asian dust with high 87Sr/ 86Sr and Ca/Sr. Summer and autumn precipitation, which was less affected by the Asian aerosols, had distinct Pb and Sr isotopic ratios depending on the site, suggesting that there are several Japanese sources of the base cations and heavy metals in the atmosphere over Japan.

  19. Estimation of Regional Evapotranspiration Using Remotely Sensed Land Surface Temperature. Part 2: Application of Equilibrium Evaporation Model to Estimate Evapotranspiration by Remote Sensing Technique. [Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotoda, K.; Nakagawa, S.; Kai, K.; Yoshino, M. M.; Takeda, K.; Seki, K.

    1985-01-01

    In a humid region like Japan, it seems that the radiation term in the energy balance equation plays a more important role for evapotranspiration then does the vapor pressure difference between the surface and lower atmospheric boundary layer. A Priestley-Taylor type equation (equilibrium evaporation model) is used to estimate evapotranspiration. Net radiation, soil heat flux, and surface temperature data are obtained. Only temperature data obtained by remotely sensed techniques are used.

  20. Geological and historical evidence of irregular recurrent earthquakes in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satake, Kenji

    2015-10-28

    Great (M∼8) earthquakes repeatedly occur along the subduction zones around Japan and cause fault slip of a few to several metres releasing strains accumulated from decades to centuries of plate motions. Assuming a simple 'characteristic earthquake' model that similar earthquakes repeat at regular intervals, probabilities of future earthquake occurrence have been calculated by a government committee. However, recent studies on past earthquakes including geological traces from giant (M∼9) earthquakes indicate a variety of size and recurrence interval of interplate earthquakes. Along the Kuril Trench off Hokkaido, limited historical records indicate that average recurrence interval of great earthquakes is approximately 100 years, but the tsunami deposits show that giant earthquakes occurred at a much longer interval of approximately 400 years. Along the Japan Trench off northern Honshu, recurrence of giant earthquakes similar to the 2011 Tohoku earthquake with an interval of approximately 600 years is inferred from historical records and tsunami deposits. Along the Sagami Trough near Tokyo, two types of Kanto earthquakes with recurrence interval of a few hundred years and a few thousand years had been recognized, but studies show that the recent three Kanto earthquakes had different source extents. Along the Nankai Trough off western Japan, recurrence of great earthquakes with an interval of approximately 100 years has been identified from historical literature, but tsunami deposits indicate that the sizes of the recurrent earthquakes are variable. Such variability makes it difficult to apply a simple 'characteristic earthquake' model for the long-term forecast, and several attempts such as use of geological data for the evaluation of future earthquake probabilities or the estimation of maximum earthquake size in each subduction zone are being conducted by government committees. © 2015 The Author(s).

  1. Evaluation of surface air temperature and urban effects in Japan simulated by non-hydrostatic regional climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, A.; Sasaki, H.; Hanafusa, M.; Kurihara, K.

    2012-12-01

    We evaluated the performance of a well-developed nonhydrostatic regional climate model (NHRCM) with a spatial resolution of 5 km with respect to temperature in the present-day climate of Japan, and estimated urban heat island (UHI) intensity by comparing the model results and observations. The magnitudes of root mean square error (RMSE) and systematic error (bias) for the annual average of daily mean (Ta), maximum (Tx), and minimum (Tn) temperatures are within 1.5 K, demonstrating that the temperatures of the present-day climate are reproduced well by NHRCM. These small errors indicate that temperature variability produced by local-scale phenomena is represented well by the model with a higher spatial resolution. It is also found that the magnitudes of RMSE and bias in the annually-average Tx are relatively large compared with those in Ta and Tn. The horizontal distributions of the error, defined as the difference between simulated and observed temperatures (simulated minus observed), illustrate negative errors in the annually-averaged Tn in three major metropolitan areas: Tokyo, Osaka, and Nagoya. These negative errors in urban areas affect the cold bias in the annually-averaged Tx. The relation between the underestimation of temperature and degree of urbanization is therefore examined quantitatively using National Land Numerical Information provided by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport, and Tourism. The annually-averaged Ta, Tx, and Tn are all underestimated in the areas where the degree of urbanization is relatively high. The underestimations in these areas are attributed to the treatment of urban areas in NHRCM, where the effects of urbanization, such as waste heat and artificial structures, are not included. In contrast, in rural areas, the simulated Tx is underestimated and Tn is overestimated although the errors in Ta are small. This indicates that the simulated diurnal temperature range is underestimated. The reason for the relatively large

  2. Short-term exposure to ambient particulate matter and emergency ambulance dispatch for acute illness in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasmin, Saira; Ueda, Kayo; Stickley, Andrew; Yasumoto, Shinya; Phung, Vera Ling Hui; Oishi, Mizuki; Yasukouchi, Shusuke; Uehara, Yamato; Michikawa, Takehiro; Nitta, Hiroshi

    2016-10-01

    Short-term exposure to air pollution may be linked to negative health outcomes that require an emergency medical response. However, few studies have been undertaken on this phenomenon to date. The aim of this study therefore was to examine the association between short-term exposure to ambient suspended particulate matter (SPM) and emergency ambulance dispatches (EADs) for acute illness in Japan. Daily EAD data, daily mean SPM and meteorological data were obtained for four prefectures in the Kanto region of Japan for the period from 2007 to 2011. The area-specific association between daily EAD for acute illness and SPM was explored using generalized linear models while controlling for ambient temperature, relative humidity, seasonality, long-term trends, day of the week and public holidays. Stratified analyses were conducted to evaluate the modifying effects of age, sex and medical conditions. Area-specific estimates were combined using meta-analyses. For the total study period the mean level of SPM was 23.7μg/m(3). In general, higher SPM was associated with a significant increase in EAD for acute illness [estimated pooled relative risk (RR): 1.008, 95% CI: 1.007 to 1.010 per 10μg/m(3) increase in SPM at lag 0-1]. The effects of SPM on EAD for acute illness were significantly greater for moderate/mild medical conditions (e.g. cases that resulted in 3weeks hospitalization or which resulted in death). Using EAD data, this study has shown the adverse health effects of ambient air pollution. This highlights the importance of reducing the level of air pollution in order to maintain population health and well-being.

  3. Time variation in amplitude-frequency distribution of deep non-volcanic tremors in the Bungo Channel region, southwest Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanakawa, Y.; Suda, N.

    2009-12-01

    Magnitude-frequency distribution of earthquakes follows the Gutenberg-Richter law. The slope of this law, b value, represents the relative occurrence of large and small earthquakes. Since magnitude is defined as corrected logarithmic amplitude, amplitude-frequency distribution of earthquakes is linear on log-log graph. On the other hand, that of non-volcanic tremors is linear on semi-log graph, indicating that it follows the exponential distribution, not the power-law distribution [Hiramatsu et al., 2008]. Thus the slope of amplitude-frequency distribution for tremors is equivalent to b value for earthquakes. In this study, we investigated time variation in the slope of amplitude-frequency distribution from analyses of tremor activities in the Bungo Channel region, where long-term slow slip events occurred in 1997 and 2003. We analyzed vertical-component records from Hi-net and the seismic networks of Japan Meteorological Agency and universities for the five-year period between 2004 and 2008. We also used records from the temporal seismic station in Hiburi Island installed by us in the period after Sept. 2004. In the Bungo Channel region, tremor activity occurs with a recurrence interval of approximately two months. We observed a total of 35 activities including small ones in the analysis period. To detect tremors and determine their hypocenters, we used the same software as Automatic Tremor Monitoring System (ATMOS) [Suda et al., in press]. We obtained frequency distribution of reduced displacements (RDs) for each tremor activity. RD is RMS amplitude of ground displacement corrected with hypocentral distance [Aki and Koyanagi, 1981], and it is proportional to seismic moment rate. The observed slopes of RD-frequency distribution for active swarms were approximately constant in the period between 2004 and 2006, but they declined in 2007. At the end of 2008, the slopes decreased bellow half the values between 2004 and 2006. As well as b value, the slope represents

  4. Validation of precipitation over Japan during 1985-2004 simulated by three regional climate models and two multi-model ensemble means

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishizaki, Yasuhiro [Meteorological Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan); National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan); Nakaegawa, Toshiyuki; Takayabu, Izuru [Meteorological Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2012-07-15

    We dynamically downscaled Japanese reanalysis data (JRA-25) for 60 regions of Japan using three regional climate models (RCMs): the Non-Hydrostatic Regional Climate Model (NHRCM), modified RAMS version 4.3 (NRAMS), and modified Weather Research and Forecasting model (TWRF). We validated their simulations of the precipitation climatology and interannual variations of summer and winter precipitation. We also validated precipitation for two multi-model ensemble means: the arithmetic ensemble mean (AEM) and an ensemble mean weighted according to model reliability. In the 60 regions NRAMS simulated both the winter and summer climatological precipitation better than JRA-25, and NHRCM simulated the wintertime precipitation better than JRA-25. TWRF, however, overestimated precipitation in the 60 regions in both the winter and summer, and NHRCM overestimated precipitation in the summer. The three RCMs simulated interannual variations, particularly summer precipitation, better than JRA-25. AEM simulated both climatological precipitation and interannual variations during the two seasons more realistically than JRA-25 and the three RCMs overall, but the best RCM was often superior to the AEM result. In contrast, the weighted ensemble mean skills were usually superior to those of the best RCM. Thus, both RCMs and multi-model ensemble means, especially multi-model ensemble means weighted according to model reliability, are powerful tools for simulating seasonal and interannual variability of precipitation in Japan under the current climate. (orig.)

  5. Atmospheric fallout of (129)I in Japan before the Fukushima accident: regional and global contributions (1963-2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Chiaki; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Igarashi, Yasuhito; Aoyama, Michio; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki

    2013-08-06

    Atmospheric (129)I deposition was studied in different locations of Japan (Akita, Tsukuba, Tokyo, and Ishigaki Island) with samples collected between 1963 and 2005 in order to understand the distribution and sources of this nuclide and provide a reference deposition level prior to the Fukushima accident. Over this time period, the deposition pattern of (129)I in Tsukuba and Tokyo (on the Pacific side) differed from that of Akita (on the Japan Sea side). The primary source of deposition in Tsukuba and Tokyo is related to the (129)I discharge from domestic reprocessing in Tokai-mura. In contrast, the time-series pattern of deposition in Akita seems to have been influenced by (129)I discharges from reprocessing facilities in Europe and the transport of this radionuclide by westerly winds to coastlines of the Japan Sea. The (129)I deposition in Ishigaki (one of the southernmost islands in Japan) is influenced primarily by oceanic air masses (easterly winds), and deposition was 1 order of magnitude lower than that observed in Tsukuba and Tokyo. Cumulative (129)I deposition in Tokyo before the Fukushima accident was estimated at 13 mBq/m(2). The results of this study on deposition contribute to understanding the deposition levels of (129)I prior to the accident.

  6. Mitochondrial DNA control region diversity and population structure of Pacific herring ( Clupea pallasii) in the Yellow Sea and the Sea of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Gao, Tianxia; Sakurai, Yasunori; Jia, Ning; Zhao, Linlin; Du, Xiao; Jiang, Qun; Lu, Zhichuan

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the genetic variation and population structure of Pacific herring in the Yellow Sea and the genetic differentiation between the Yellow Sea and the Sea of Japan, fragments of 479-bp mitochondrial DNA control region were sequenced for 110 individuals collected from three different periods in the Yellow Sea and one locality in the Sea of Japan. High haplotype diversity and moderate nucleotide diversity were observed in Pacific herring. AMOVA and exact test of population differentiation showed no significant genetic differentiations among the three populations of the Yellow Sea and suggested the populations can be treated as a single panmictic stock in the Yellow Sea. However, a large and significant genetic differentiation ( Φ ST=0.11; P=0.00) was detected between the populations in the Yellow Sea and the Sea of Japan. The high sea water temperature in the Tsushima Strait was thought a barrier to block the gene exchange between populations of the two sea areas. The neutrality tests and mismatch distribution indicated recent population expansion in Pacific herring.

  7. Mitochondrial DNA control region diversity and population structure of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii)in the Yellow Sea and the Sea of Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ming; GAO Tianxiang; SAKURAI Yasunori; JIA Ning; ZHAO Linlin; DU Xiao; JIANG Qun; LU Zhichuang

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the genetic variation and population structure of Pacific herring in the Yellow Sea and the genetic differentiation between the Yellow Sea and the Sea of Japan, fragments of 479-bp mitochondrial DNA control region were sequenced for 110 individuals collected from three different periods in the Yellow Sea and one locality in the Sea of Japan. High haplotype diversity and moderate nucleotide diversity were observed in Pacific herring. AMOVA and exact test of population differentiation showed no significant genetic differentiations among the three populations of the Yellow Sea and suggested the populations can be treated as a single panmictic stock in the Yellow Sea. However, a large and significant genetic differentiation (ΦST=0.11; P=0.00) was detected between the populations in the Yellow Sea and the Sea of Japan. The high sea water temperature in the Tsuslaima Strait was thought a barrier to block the gene exchange between populations of the two sea areas. The neutrality tests and mismatch distribution indicated recent population expansion in Pacific herring.

  8. National survey on school-based fluoride mouth-rinsing programme in Japan: regional spread conditions from preschool to junior high school in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiyama, Karin; Kimoto, Kazunari; Taura, Katsuhiko; Sakai, Osamu

    2014-06-01

    We surveyed the state of implementation of the school-based fluoride mouth-rinsing programme (S-FMR) in schools in Japan from March 2010. Questionnaires on the implementation status of S-FMR in each type of school (including preschool and kindergarten) were sent by post to the oral health administration departments of all 47 prefectures and 89 cities (18 ordinance-designated cities, 23 special wards, 41 core cities and seven public health centres in ordinance-designated cities) with public health centres. The S-FMR implementation rate was low, at only 11% of all schools in Japan and only 6% of all participating school children aged 4-14 years. In many regions, the S-FMR was implemented more widely and received higher participation from children in either elementary schools and junior high schools or preschools and kindergartens. Inter-prefectural disparities were seen in S-FMR implementation, as some prefectures and cities did not include topical fluoride application in their health promotion plans, and some local public bodies did not include targets for fluoride mouth-rinsing. To reduce this disparity in Japan where systemic fluoride application is not performed, each local public body must consider implementing the S-FMR as a public health measure. We propose using the results of this survey as basic data for formulating S-FMR goals (numerical targets) and adopting S-FMR as a concrete measure in the second Healthy Japan 21, to be launched in the fiscal year for 2013, and within the basic matters of the Act Concerning the Promotion of Dental and Oral Health. © 2013 FDI World Dental Federation.

  9. National survey on school-based fluoride mouth-rinsing programme in Japan: regional spread conditions from preschool to junior high school in 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiyama, Karin; Kimoto, Kazunari; Taura, Katsuhiko; Sakai, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    Aims We surveyed the state of implementation of the school-based fluoride mouth-rinsing programme (S-FMR) in schools in Japan from March 2010. Methods Questionnaires on the implementation status of S-FMR in each type of school (including preschool and kindergarten) were sent by post to the oral health administration departments of all 47 prefectures and 89 cities (18 ordinance-designated cities, 23 special wards, 41 core cities and seven public health centres in ordinance-designated cities) with public health centres. Results The S-FMR implementation rate was low, at only 11% of all schools in Japan and only 6% of all participating school children aged 4–14 years. In many regions, the S-FMR was implemented more widely and received higher participation from children in either elementary schools and junior high schools or preschools and kindergartens. Conclusions Inter-prefectural disparities were seen in S-FMR implementation, as some prefectures and cities did not include topical fluoride application in their health promotion plans, and some local public bodies did not include targets for fluoride mouth-rinsing. To reduce this disparity in Japan where systemic fluoride application is not performed, each local public body must consider implementing the S-FMR as a public health measure. We propose using the results of this survey as basic data for formulating S-FMR goals (numerical targets) and adopting S-FMR as a concrete measure in the second Healthy Japan 21, to be launched in the fiscal year for 2013, and within the basic matters of the Act Concerning the Promotion of Dental and Oral Health. PMID:24256345

  10. Kanto Gakuin University communication spotlight : An overview of the incorporated text material for the oral communication program in the College of Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa Gayle Bond

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses Kanto Gakuin University Communication Spotlight's incorporation as the text used for the College of Engineering's Oral Communication course in the compulsory English program for first-year students. This paper examines the changes and enhancements made to the original textbook,Communication Spotlight Speaking Strategies and Listening Skills Starter: Split Version A. At the end of each term,students were randomly selected to complete a questionnaire regarding the text an...

  11. Urban and spatial planning in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Tominaga

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to introduce the urban and spatial planning inJapan. According to the national planning system of Japan, chapter 2, the planning system has 3 administrative levels and each territorial region has its own regulation. This paper introduces especially about planning and regulation system in city region in Japan.

  12. 关东大地震对东京市财政的影响%The Influence of the Great Kanto Earthquake on Public Finance of the City of Tokyo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭小鹏

    2015-01-01

    1923年发生的关东大地震给日本带来惨重损失。作为主要受灾地,东京市1⃝的经济遭到沉重打击,在财政方面体现得尤为明显。地震造成东京市社会财富严重受损,财政收入缩减。而灾后的应急救援和城市重建却需要依靠大量财政资金,财政支出增多。对此,东京市财政力所不逮,只能依靠政府债务完成东京城市复兴事业,但累积债务也成为此后阻碍东京市经济发展的关键因素。%The Great Kanto Earthquake in 1923 was a holocaust for Japan where economy of Tokyo especially the finance of Tokyo suffered a critical hit. The disaster hit numerous social resource and the revenue greatly reduced. The disaster relief and reconstruction relied much on the financial funds and the fiscal expenditure increased. The financial capacity of Tokyo was therefore limited. Taking debt to recover from the disaster was the only way to cope with the Capital Reconstruction Project, and debt was one of the factors to hinder the economic development of Tokyo for the future.

  13. Minimum Cost Estimation of a Baseline Survey for a Molecular Epidemiology Cohort Study: Collecting Participants in a Model Region in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Norie; Iwasaki, Motoki; Ohashi, Kayo; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2016-01-01

    Background Some recent molecular epidemiology studies of the effects of genetic and environmental factors on human health have required the enrollment of more than 100 000 participants and the involvement of regional study offices across the country. Although regional study office investigators play a critical role in these studies, including the acquisition of funds, this role is rarely discussed. Methods We first differentiated the functions of the regional and central study offices. We then investigated the minimum number of items required and approximate cost of a molecular epidemiology study enrolling 7400 participants from a model region with a population of 100 000 for a 4-year baseline survey using a standard protocol developed based on the protocol of Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study for the Next Generation. Results The functions of the regional study office were identified, and individual expenses were itemized. The total cost of the 4-year baseline survey was 153 million yen, excluding consumption tax. Accounting difficulties in conducting the survey were clarified. Conclusions We investigated a standardized example of the tasks and total actual costs of a regional study office. Our approach is easy to utilize and will help improve the management of regional study offices in future molecular epidemiology studies. PMID:27001116

  14. Faszination Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Árokay, Judit

    2014-01-01

    Japan ist ein Ausnahmeland. Nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg stieg Japan rasand schnell zu einer Wirtschaftsmacht auf, heute ist es das westlichste Land im Fernen Osten. Über das Leben im modernen Japan sowie über Einschätzungen und Fehleinschätzungen dieses faszinierenden Landes in Deutschland sprach der Campus-Reporter Nils Birschmann mit der Professorin für Japanologie an der Universität Heidelberg, Frau Prof. Dr. Judit Árokay. Der Beitrag "Faszination Japan" erschien in der Sendereihe "Camp...

  15. Water Resource Development in the Quaternary Ryukyu Limestone Regions of Japan: Application of the GIS to the Site Selection of Underground Dams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the natural and social conditions as well as hydrogeological characteristics of the Ryukyu limestone, a major aquifer in the Ryukyu Islands, a conception of underground dam, was proposed in the early 1970s in order to develop ground water resources in the Quatemary Ryukyu limestone regions of Japan. The practice of nearly thirty years has shown that the underground dam is an environment-friendly and effective way for developing ground water in these regions.``To further improve the technology associated with underground dam, the authors introduced related analytic methods.The application of the geographical information system technology to site selection of the underground dam is reported in this paper.``

  16. Reconstruction of the thermal environment evolution from subsurface temperature distribution in Japan and Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamoto, H.; Yamano, M.; Goto, S.; Hachinohe, S.; Shiraishi, H.; Ishiyama, T.; Miyakoshi, A.; Taniguchi, M.; Arimoto, H.; Kitaoka, K.

    2012-12-01

    Temperature changes at the ground surface propagate into the underground and disturb the subsurface temperature structure. Analyzing disturbances in the subsurface temperature structure, we can reconstruct the past ground surface temperature (GST) change, which is closely related to the past surface air temperature change. This method can be applied to studies of thermal environment evolution in urban areas such as the development of "heat islands". We have been investigating GST histories in three areas, which are located in Japan and Thailand. The three areas are the northern part of Kanto area, Osaka area, and Bangkok area. Kanto area and Osaka area have the greatest and second greatest population in Japan, each other. Bangkok area has the greatest population in Thailand. In the northern part of Kanto area, we conducted measurements of temperature profiles in groundwater monitoring wells at 25 sites in 2009, 2010, and 2011. In Osaka area, temperature profiles were measured at 31 sites in 2011 as the project of the Sumitomo Foundation (M. Taniguchi). In Bangkok area, we measured temperature profiles at 45 sites in 2004, 2006, 2008, and 2010. We examined the shapes of the temperature profiles and selected ones that are not significantly disturbed by groundwater flow. Reconstruction of GST history for the last about 300 hundred years was made at two sites in the northern part of Kanto area, at six sites in Osaka area, and at six sites in Bangkok area. We used a multi-layer model that allows layers with different thermal properties, determining layer boundaries based on lithology of the formations around the wells. All of the reconstructed GST histories show surface warming in the last century. In the northern part of Kanto area, the amount of the temperature increase from 1700 to 2010 is about 2.5 K at both sites. In Osaka area, the amount of the temperature increase from 1700 to 2010 ranges from 2.5 K to 5.0 K and is larger in the city center and the southern part

  17. Fecal carriage of CTX-M β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in nursing homes in the Kinki region of Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luvsansharav UO

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ulzii-Orshikh Luvsansharav,1 Itaru Hirai,1 Marie Niki,1 Arisa Nakata,1 Aya Yoshinaga,1 Akira Yamamoto,2 Mayumi Yamamoto,3 Hiroyuki Toyoshima,4,† Fusao Kawakami,5 Nariaki Matsuura,6 Yoshimasa Yamamoto1,7,8 1Department of Bioinformatics, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, 2Blueberry, Amagasaki Health Care Facilities for the Elderly, Hyogo, 3Health Administration Center, Gifu University, Gifu, 4Nursing home Minoh, Osaka, 5Nursing home Itami, Hyogo, 6Department of Molecular Pathology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, 7Osaka Prefectural Institute of Public Health, Osaka, 8Osaka University Global Collaboration Center, Osaka, Japan†Hiroyuki Toyoshima passed away on February 21, 2013Abstract: The detection rate of CTX-M-type β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Japan has significantly increased. Nursing homes may be a reservoir of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Therefore, we determined the prevalence of, and risk factors associated with, fecal carriage of CTX-M-type β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae among nursing home residents. A total of 225 stool samples were collected for phenotypic and genotypic identification of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify the risk factors associated with fecal carriage of CTX-M producers. The prevalence of CTX-M-type ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, as confirmed by phenotypic and genotypic methods, was 19.6% (44 of 225 samples. Escherichia coli was the predominant CTX-M-type ESBL-producing bacterium among these isolates (41 of 44 isolates. Genotyping of blaCTX-M gene-positive isolates showed that 30 (68.2%, 13 (29.5%, and 1 (2.3% of 44 samples belonged to groups CTX-M-9, CTX-M-1 and CTX-M-2, respectively. Among the CTX-M-type ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae found in nursing homes, 95.5% (42 of 44 isolates were co-resistant to quinolone antibiotics. In multivariate logistic regression

  18. Update Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoopes, Aaron

    This book is a guide intended for persons planning on relocating to Japan. Following a chapter on background information, 13 additional chapters lead the reader step-by-step through the relocation process. These chapters include: before leaving, on arrival, language, culture, doing business in Japan, household pointers and everyday life, schools…

  19. Impacts of the 2011 East Japan tsunami in the Papua region, Indonesia: field observation data and numerical analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diposaptono, Subandono; Muhari, Abdul; Imamura, Fumihiko; Koshimura, Shunichi; Yanagisawa, Hideaki

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents post-tsunami survey results describing the impacts of the 2011 East Japan tsunami in Yos Sudarso Bay, Papua, Indonesia. Although the far-field tsunami had a height of 0.8 m measured at a tide gauge inside the small U-shaped bay, it severely damaged four villages scattered along the bay. Detailed numerical analysis was carried out to explain the damages. We used a well-verified source model in the near- and far-field cases to model the propagation of the tsunami southward in the Pacific until reaching Papua Island, Indonesia. The numerical analyses demonstrate two causes of damage in the bay: the maximum tsunami velocity (3.5 m s-1) floated the houses in the villages of Tobati and Enggros and caused them to collapse, and water trapped by the hook-shaped peninsula amplified the tsunami height at the Holtekamp and Hanurata.

  20. Distribution of virulence markers among Vibrio vulnificus isolates of clinical and environmental origin and regional characteristics in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokochi, Nana; Tanaka, Shigemitsu; Matsumoto, Kouichi; Oishi, Hirotaka; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Yoshikane, Yu; Nakashima, Mikio; Kanda, Kohzo; Kobayashi, Genta

    2013-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus is an opportunistic human pathogen that is widely distributed in estuarine environments and is capable of causing necrotizing fasciitis and sepsis. In Japan, based on epidemiological research, the incidences of V. vulnificus were concentrated in Kyusyu, mainly in coastal areas of the Ariake Sea. To examine the virulence potential, various genotyping methods have recently been developed. This study aimed to investigate the distribution of virulence markers among V. vulnificus isolates of clinical and environmental origin in three coastal areas with different infection incidences and to determine whether these isolates have the siderophore encoding gene viuB. We examined the distribution of genotypes of the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene, vvhA, vcg, and capsular polysaccharide (CPS), and the presence of viuB in 156 isolates collected from patients and environmental samples in Japan. The environmental samples were collected from three coastal areas: the Ariake Sea, Ise & Mikawa Bay, and Karatsu Bay. The results showed disparity in the ratios of genotypes depending on the sample origins. V. vulnificus isolates obtained from patients were classified into the clinical type for all genotypes. In the environmental isolates, the ratios of the clinical type for genotypes of the 16S rRNA gene, vvhA, and vcg were in the order of the Ariake Sea>Ise & Mikawa Bay>Karatsu Bay. Meanwhile, CPS analysis showed no significant difference. Most isolates possessed viuB. Many V. vulnificus belonging to the clinical type existed in the Ariake Sea. Three coastal areas with different infection incidences showed distinct ratios of genotypes. This may indicate that the distribution of clinical isolates correlates with the incidence of V. vulnificus infection.

  1. Distribution of virulence markers among Vibrio vulnificus isolates of clinical and environmental origin and regional characteristics in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Yokochi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vibrio vulnificus is an opportunistic human pathogen that is widely distributed in estuarine environments and is capable of causing necrotizing fasciitis and sepsis. In Japan, based on epidemiological research, the incidences of V. vulnificus were concentrated in Kyusyu, mainly in coastal areas of the Ariake Sea. To examine the virulence potential, various genotyping methods have recently been developed. This study aimed to investigate the distribution of virulence markers among V. vulnificus isolates of clinical and environmental origin in three coastal areas with different infection incidences and to determine whether these isolates have the siderophore encoding gene viuB. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined the distribution of genotypes of the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA gene, vvhA, vcg, and capsular polysaccharide (CPS, and the presence of viuB in 156 isolates collected from patients and environmental samples in Japan. The environmental samples were collected from three coastal areas: the Ariake Sea, Ise & Mikawa Bay, and Karatsu Bay. The results showed disparity in the ratios of genotypes depending on the sample origins. V. vulnificus isolates obtained from patients were classified into the clinical type for all genotypes. In the environmental isolates, the ratios of the clinical type for genotypes of the 16S rRNA gene, vvhA, and vcg were in the order of the Ariake Sea>Ise & Mikawa Bay>Karatsu Bay. Meanwhile, CPS analysis showed no significant difference. Most isolates possessed viuB. CONCLUSIONS: Many V. vulnificus belonging to the clinical type existed in the Ariake Sea. Three coastal areas with different infection incidences showed distinct ratios of genotypes. This may indicate that the distribution of clinical isolates correlates with the incidence of V. vulnificus infection.

  2. Fecal carriage of CTX-M β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in nursing homes in the Kinki region of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvsansharav, Ulzii-Orshikh; Hirai, Itaru; Niki, Marie; Nakata, Arisa; Yoshinaga, Aya; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Mayumi; Toyoshima, Hiroyuki; Kawakami, Fusao; Matsuura, Nariaki; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa

    2013-01-01

    The detection rate of CTX-M-type β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Japan has significantly increased. Nursing homes may be a reservoir of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Therefore, we determined the prevalence of, and risk factors associated with, fecal carriage of CTX-M-type β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae among nursing home residents. A total of 225 stool samples were collected for phenotypic and genotypic identification of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify the risk factors associated with fecal carriage of CTX-M producers. The prevalence of CTX-M-type ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, as confirmed by phenotypic and genotypic methods, was 19.6% (44 of 225 samples). Escherichia coli was the predominant CTX-M-type ESBL-producing bacterium among these isolates (41 of 44 isolates). Genotyping of bla CTX-M gene-positive isolates showed that 30 (68.2%), 13 (29.5%), and 1 (2.3%) of 44 samples belonged to groups CTX-M-9, CTX-M-1 and CTX-M-2, respectively. Among the CTX-M-type ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae found in nursing homes, 95.5% (42 of 44 isolates) were co-resistant to quinolone antibiotics. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, inability to turn over in bed, diabetes, and invasive procedures within the last 2 years were the only variables independently associated with fecal carriage of CTX-M-type ESBL producers. Nursing home residents in Japan exhibit a high prevalence of CTX-M-type ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae carriage, with a high level of co-resistance to quinolones.

  3. The 2011 Great East Japan earthquake: a report of a regional hospital in Fukushima Prefecture coping with the Fukushima nuclear disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irisawa, Atsushi

    2012-05-01

    A catastrophic undersea megathrust earthquake of magnitude 9.0 off the coast of Japan occurred at 14:46 JST on Friday, 11 March 2011. The earthquake triggered powerful tsunami waves, and the tsunami precipitated Fukushima nuclear accidents. After the terrible earthquake, many people fled from the nuclear accident and arrived at places far from the nuclear power plant. In this article, I present a story of one measure devised to deal with the problem of the Fukushima nuclear accident at a regional hospital of Fukushima prefecture, Aizu General Hospital, which is located far from the Fukushima nuclear plant. In addition, I briefly report the current situation of Fukushima prefecture after the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake. In our hospital, the countermeasure headquarters was established to supply medical care for those who had been injured by tsunami waves and the Fukushima nuclear accident. Especially, the screening for radioactive exposure using a dosimeter to take decontamination measures for cases of external exposure was extremely important task. Nevertheless, because the accurate knowledge related to radioactive contamination didn't provide, most medical staff fell into confusion. Fukushima prefecture has been 'shrinking' since the nuclear accident. However, today, although some hot spots remain in residential areas, the radioactive contamination is decreasing little by little. Many people in Fukushima Prefecture advance as one, facing forward. Recently, decontamination projects started. Efforts must be continued over a long period.

  4. Molecular epidemiology of trichophyton tonsurans isolated in Japan using RFLP analysis of non-transcribed spacer regions of ribosomal RNA genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Takashi; Kawasaki, Masako; Tanabe, Hiroshi; Anzawa, Kazushi; Ishizaki, Hiroshi; Choi, Jong Soo

    2007-07-01

    Trichophyton tonsurans has been reported to be the causative agent of an epidemic of tinea corporis and tinea capitis among Japanese judoists and wrestlers. A molecular method using restriction enzyme analysis of PCR-amplified fragments targeting the non-transcribed spacer (NTS) region of ribosomal RNA genes in fungal nuclei was applied to a total of 232 strains of T. tonsurans isolated in Japan. Six molecular types, i.e., NTS types I, II, III, IV, V, and VI, were clearly detected in restriction analysis of fragments digested with MvaI and AvaI together. Of the 232 strains, 199 were classified as NTS I, 21 as NTS II, 7 as NTS III, 3 as NTS IV, 1 as type V, and 1 as type VI. Whereas the NTS I strains were found nationwide, most of the NTS II and NTS III strains were limited to central Japan. Of 164 strains isolated from judoists, 160 were classified as NTS I, which suggests that the majority of the cases were caused by a clonal lineage. On the other hand, the 48 strains isolated from wrestlers showed more variety, with 27 strains classified as NTS I, 17 as NTS II, and 4 as NTS III. We concluded that the epidemic was caused by at least three lineages of T. tonsurans. NTS VI strains, the major molecular type among sporadically isolated strains, were not observed among the epidemic strains, and strains of this type did not contribute to the present epidemic.

  5. Rearming Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    roughly ~’ Ibid., pp. 14-16, 27-30. 12 3.5 percent of their GDP towards defense while Japan spends slightly over 1 percent. Yet, when compared with...runs up huge trade surpluses in its commerce with the United States and Western Europe. Conversely, Japan spends just slightly over one percent of...its GNP on defense indicating to many in the U.S. and Western Europe that Japan is enjoying a free ride and waxing rich under American military

  6. Development of Compact Seafloor Cabled Seismic and Tsunami Observation System Using ICT and Installation Plan to Off-Sanriku Region, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, M.; Yamada, T.; Sakai, S.; Shiobara, H.; Kanazawa, T.

    2014-12-01

    A seismic and tsunami observation system using seafloor optical fiber had been installed off Sanriku, northeastern Japan in 1996. The objectives of the system are to obtain exact seismic activity related to plate subduction and to observe tsunami on seafloor. The continuous real-time observation has been carried out since the installation. In March 2011, the Tohoku earthquake occurred at the plate boundary near the Japan Trench, and the system recorded seismic waves and tsunamis by the mainshock. These data are useful to obtain accurate position of the source faults and source region of tsunami generated by the event. However, the landing station of the system was damaged by huge tsunami, and the observation was suspended. Because the real-time seafloor observation by cabled system is important in this region, we decide to reconstruct a landing station and install newly developed Ocean Bottom Cabled Seismic and Tsunami (OBCST) observation system for additional observation and/or replacement of the existing system. From 2005, we have been developed the new compact Ocean Bottom Cabled Seismometer (OBCS) system using Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Our system is characterized by securement of reliability by using TCP/IP technology and down-sizing of an observation node using up-to-date electronics technology. In 2010, the first OBCS was installed near Awashima-island in the Japan Sea, and is being operated continuously. The new OBCST system is placed as the second generation of our system, and has two types of observation nodes. Both types have accelerometers as seismic sensors. One type of observation nodes equips a crystal oscillator type pressure gauge as tsunami sensor. Another type has an external port for additional observation sensor by using Power over Ethernet technology. Clocks in observation nodes can be synchronized through TCP/IP protocol with an accuracy of 300 ns (IEEE 1588). A simple canister for tele-communication seafloor cable is

  7. Surface ozone and carbon monoxide levels observed at Oki, Japan: regional air pollution trends in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikder, Helena Akhter; Suthawaree, Jeeranut; Kato, Shungo; Kajii, Yoshizumi

    2011-03-01

    Simultaneous ground-based measurements of ozone and carbon monoxide were performed at Oki, Japan, from January 2001 to September 2002 in order to investigate the O(3) and CO characteristics and their distributions. The observations revealed that O(3) and CO concentrations were maximum in springtime and minimum in the summer. The monthly averaged concentrations of O(3) and CO were 60 and 234 ppb in spring and 23 and 106 ppb in summer, respectively. Based on direction, 5-day isentropic backward trajectory analysis was carried out to determine the transport path of air masses, preceding their arrival at Oki. Comparison between classified results from present work and results from the year 1994-1996 was carried out. The O(3) and CO concentration results of classified air masses in our analysis show similar concentration trends to previous findings; highest in the WNW/W, lowest in N/NE and medium levels in NW. Moreover, O(3) levels are higher and CO levels are lower in the present study in all categories. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of regional climate changes on the planktonic ecosystem and water environment in the frozen Notoro Lagoon, northern Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuki, Kota; Seto, Koji; Noguchi, Takuro; Sonoda, Takeshi; Kim, JuYong

    2012-10-01

    Diatom fossils from core sediments and living diatoms from water samples of Notoro Lagoon in northern Japan were examined to evaluate natural climate effects on lagoon environmental changes. In 1974, the artificial inlet was excavated. Immediately after, the anoxic bottom water in Notoro Lagoon began to disappear due to an increasing water exchange rate. However, chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the bottom water of Notoro Lagoon gradually increased, with fluctuations, during the last 30 years. In addition, the dominant diatom assemblages in Notoro Lagoon shifted to ice-related and spring bloom taxa after the excavation. The dominant taxa of each year in the sediment core were also strongly related to the timing of lagoon ice melting. This is because the COD in Notoro Lagoon was affected by the deposited volume of blooming diatoms, which was controlled by the duration of ice cover and the timing of ice discharge to the Okhotsk Sea likely due to an air pressure pattern change over the northern North Pacific like the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO).

  9. Terrestrial heat flow distribution in Japan area based on the temperature logging in the borehole of NIED Hi-net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, T.

    2007-12-01

    Measurements of heat flow and geothermal gradient using boreholes on land are often concentrated in specific areas such as geothermal region, so the measured heat flow data in non-volcanic area is poorly mapped. We newly measured thermal gradients and heat flow all over Japanese Islands by using the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention's (NIED) high-sensitivity seismograph network (Hi-net) boreholes. NIED Hi-net is composed of about 800 borehole stations installed almost homogeneously over the Japanese Islands with an average spacing of 20km. Although majority of the Hi-net stations have the boreholes of 100- 200m in depth, 55 deep (300-1000m) and 29 very deep (1000-3500m) observation wells were constructed at some specific sites if necessary. Because these Hi-net boreholes are designed for a long-term observation, these are structurally stable with using casing pipe. These borehole temperature profiles contain an influence of climate change, so we correct temperature profile for climatic change, the rapid warming of 1950-2000A.D. Comprehensive heat flow distribution in Japan is as follows: low heat flow in forearc region, high heat flow in back-arc region, and there seems to be the correlation between the seismogenic layer thickness in upper crust and terrestrial heat flow. In the volcanic chain area, very high terrestrial heat flow over 200mW/m2 are observed. In the fore-arc area, low heat flow under 50mW/m2 are observed. In the South Kanto area where is metropolitan Tokyo and the Hokkaido Hidaka area, very low heat flow under 40 mW/m2 are observed. In the southern Kii Peninsula, there are many non-volcanic hot springs, so around this area high heat flow over 150mW/m2 are observed. In Shikoku area also high heat flow over 100mW/m2 are observed. Geographical distributions of terrestrial heat flow show that high heat flow stations are observed along the region where non-volcanic long-period tremors occur about 30km deep. In SW Japan

  10. Regional stressing rate appears to control duration and decay of off-fault aftershocks in the 2011 M=9.0 Tohoku-oki, Japan, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, S.; Stein, R. S.

    2013-12-01

    The 11 March 2001 M=9.0 Tohoku-oki, Japan, earthquake brought the unprecedented broad increase in seismicity over inland Japan and far offshore. The seismicity rate increase was observed at distances of up to 425 km from the locus of high seismic slip on the megathrust, which roughly corresponds to the areas over 0.1 bar Coulomb stress increase (e.g., Toda et al., 2011). Such stress perturbation in the entire eastern Honshu island gives us a great opportunity to test one of the hypotheses in rate and state friction of Dieterich (1994): aftershock duration (ta) is inversely proportional to fault stressing rate. The Tohoku-oki mainshock indeed started a stopwatch simultaneously for all the off-fault and on-fault aftershocks in various tectonic situations. We have carefully examined the aftershock decays fitting the Omori-Utsu formula in several activated regions, including on the 2011 source fault, several inland areas of Tohoku (Akita, Iwaki, northern Sendai, and Fukushima), Tokyo metropolitan area, Choshi (east of Tokyo), Izu Peninsula, and areas along the most active Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line (ISTL) central Honshu. Comparing the regional aftershock decays with the background rates of seismicity estimated from the JMA catalog from 2000 to 2010, we measured ta. One of the extreme short duration was measured at the Izu Peninsula where the heightened seismicity was rapidly toned down to the normal in one month. Overall seismicity in the Tohoku mainshock zone has been mostly closing to normal in 2 - 3 years. Both regions are characterized by high loading rate due to plate collision and subduction. Seismicity beneath Tokyo, also characterized by complex plate interfaces and brought average 1 bar closer to failure, has not followed the simple Omori decay but being settled a new higher rate after a rapid decay. In contrast to these highly deformed regions, current seismicity in slowly loading Tohoku inland regions are still much higher than background rate, which

  11. Networking Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    Human Resource Development was the first and remains an important pillar in Japanese foreign aid. I will argue that Japan has access to a global network of alumni who will co-define Japanese foreign aid in the future, because Japan has encouraged alumni societies and networking since 1965. A total...... of more than a million people in more than 100 countries have attended courses in Japan funded fully or partly by Japanese ODA since the inception of the technical assistance programs in 1954 through the Colombo Plan and since 1959 through the Association of Overseas Technical Scholarships (AOTS from 2009...... HIDA). Many of these alumni have and will in the future exchange ideas and keep contact not only to Japan, but also to fellow alumni around the globe and, thereby, practice south-south exchanges, which are made possible and traceable by their established alumni network and the World Network of Friends...

  12. Re-evaluation of the regional tectonic stress fields and faulting regimes in central Kyushu, Japan, behind the 2016 Mw 7.0 Kumamoto Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Masaki

    2017-08-01

    To re-evaluate the regional tectonic stress fields in central Kyushu, Japan, the region in which the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquakes occurred on 14 April 2016 (Mw 6.2) and 16 April (Mw 7.0), the faulting regimes in central Kyushu were analyzed using the focal mechanisms of this earthquake sequence. Results show that almost all of the focal mechanisms of the earthquakes occurring along the active Futagawa-Hinagu fault zone fall into two spatial faulting regimes: a strike-slip (SS) regime along this fault zone and a pure normal faulting (NF) regime without or with minor strike-slip component in the northern part of this fault zone. In terms of the relationship between the two horizontal principal stresses acting on Kyushu Island, these two regimes are regarded as a set of tectonics stress fields. The highly accumulated strain energy along this fault zone and asymmetrically unbalanced stress condition for the maximum horizontal principal stress acting on the east-west sides of the crustal blocks in this area expected from a pair of these two regimes might explain the relatively large number of aftershocks following the Kumamoto Earthquake as compared to other recent inland earthquakes in the Japanese Islands. From the results of the present analyses, it is considered that the regional stress field of Honshu Island could be extended to Kyushu Island and that the kinematics of the Philippine Sea Plate may have been affecting the stress field in Kyushu since the late Miocene.

  13. Consideration of Regional Informatization Practices in Japan: A Case Study on a Civic Organization Operating Community Media

    OpenAIRE

    Togo, Hiroshi; Enomoto, Kosei

    2011-01-01

    [Abstract] The aim of this article is to investigate Japanese regional informatization from the viewpoint of practices with use of a progressive case study. This article focuses attention on a civic organization that has been taking the lead in promoting regional informatization in city A, and elucidates how the civic organization of a community media operator reconsidered its own practices, and then transformed both its own organizational structure and practices. This article starts with a ...

  14. Differences in perception of the WHO International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes between pediatricians and obstetricians in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macnab Iona

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes (WHO Code aims to protect and promote breastfeeding. Japan ratified the WHO Code in 1994, but most hospitals in Japan continue to receive free supplies of infant formula and distribute discharge packs to new mothers provided by infant formula companies. The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge and attitudes of pediatricians and obstetricians in Japan to the WHO Code. Methods A self-completion questionnaire was sent to 132 pediatricians in the 131 NICUs which belonged to the Neonatal Network of Japan, and to 96 chief obstetricians in the general hospitals in the Kanto area of Japan, in 2004. Results Responses were received from 68% of pediatricians and 64% of obstetricians. Sixty-six percent of pediatricians agreed that "Breastmilk is the best", compared to only 13% of obstetricians. Likewise, pediatricians were more likely to be familiar with the WHO Code (51% than obstetricians (18%. Conclusion In Japan, pediatricians and obstetricians, in general, have low levels of support for breastfeeding and low levels of familiarity with the WHO Code. To increase the breastfeeding rates in Japan, both pediatricians and obstetricians need increased knowledge about current infant feeding practices and increased awareness of international policies to promote breastfeeding.

  15. Distribution coefficients (Kd) of strontium and significance of oxides and organic matter in controlling its partitioning in coastal regions of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, Hyoe; Tagami, Keiko; Aono, Tatsuo; Uchida, Shigeo

    2014-08-15

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011 resulted in the release of large quantities of a long-lived radioactive strontium (i.e. (90)Sr; half-life: 28.8 y) into the coastal areas of Japan. (90)Sr release was dispersed and mixed into the water column, and will eventually be deposited into sediment. Because factors controlling seawater-sediment partitioning in the coastal marine environments are not fully understood, we developed seawater-sediment distribution coefficients, Kd (L/kg), for Sr in coastal regions of Japan by means of sediment-water partitioning experiments. (85)Sr was used as a radiotracer and conditions were designed to mimic the environmental systems of the sampling sites as closely as possible. Experimentally determined Kd values (Kd-ex) varied between 0.3 and 3.3 L/kg (mean, 1.4 L/kg), and the variation in Kd-ex was attributed to the percentage of Sr in the exchangeable fraction in the sediment. Kd-ex values were used, along with the measured concentrations of (88)Sr, a stable naturally occurring Sr isotope in seawater and sediment, to estimate the concentrations of exchangeable Sr in the sediment. Estimates ranged from 2.1 to 24.3 μg/kg, or 1.3-15.7% of the total (88)Sr concentration in the sediment. Significant correlations existed between the estimated concentrations of exchangeable Sr, and the organic matter and the oxide/hydrous oxide contents. When organic contents were greater than 0.38%, Sr binds to organic surface sites more strongly than to the other sites. Results indicate that binding of Sr to the surface of sedimentary particles was influenced by grain size, iron and manganese oxides, and organic matter. Furthermore, the information presented here could be useful to estimate Kd values for anthropogenic (90)Sr in sediment in the coastal marine environment.

  16. Climatic Changes and Evaluation of Their Effects on Agriculture in Asian Monsoon Region- A project of GRENE-ei programs in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizoguchi, M.; Matsumoto, J.; Takahashi, H. G.; Tanaka, K.; Kuwagata, T.

    2015-12-01

    It is important to predict climate change correctly in regional scale and to build adaptation measures and mitigation measures in the Asian monsoon region where more than 60 % of the world's population are living. The reliability of climate change prediction model is evaluated by the reproducibility of past climate in general. However, because there are many developing countries in the Asian monsoon region, adequate documentations of past climate which are needed to evaluate the climate reproducibility have not been prepared. In addition, at present it is difficult to get information on wide-area agricultural meteorological data which affect the growth of agricultural crops when considering the impact on agriculture of climate. Therefore, we have started a research project entitled "Climatic changes and evaluation of their effects on agriculture in Asian monsoon region (CAAM)" under the research framework of the Green Network of Excellence (GRENE) for the Japanese fiscal years from 2011 to 2015 supported by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). This project aims to improve the reliability of future climate prediction and to develop the information platform which will be useful to design adaptation and mitigation strategies in agriculture against the predicted climatic changes in Asian monsoon regions. What is GRENE?Based on the new growth strategy which was approved by the Cabinet of Japan in June 2010, Green Network of Excellence program (GRENE) has started under MEXT from FY 2011. The objectives of this program are that the domestic leading universities work together strategically and promote a comprehensive human resource development and research of the highest level in the world while sharing research resources and research goals. In the field of environmental information, it is required that universities and research institutions, which are working on issues such as adaptation to climate change, cooperate to

  17. Possible slip history scenarios for the Hyuga-nada region and Bungo Channel and their relationship with Nankai earthquakes in southwest Japan based on numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Ryoko; Hyodo, Mamoru; Hori, Takane

    2014-06-01

    The Nankai earthquakes are great interplate earthquakes with recurrence intervals of 100-200 years, occurring along the Nankai Trough, southwestern Japan. New geological evidences suggest that the rupture area of the 1707 earthquake (one of the largest) extended farther westward than previously thought, and similar magnitude events may have recurrence intervals of several hundred years. West of the Nankai earthquake segments, in the Bungo Channel region, slow slip events (SSEs) have occurred with recurrence intervals of several years since 1980. Farther westward, no M ≥ 7.5 interplate earthquakes have occurred except for one in 1968 in the northern Hyuga-nada region, near the Bungo Channel. We numerically simulated the generation cycles of Nankai earthquakes, Hyuga-nada earthquakes, and Bungo Channel SSEs to obtain possible slip histories in these regions, particularly during 1707-1980. We showed that the Nankai and Hyuga-nada earthquakes occur mostly independently, with average recurrence intervals of 151 and 117 years, respectively. An SSE patch slipped coseismically during both the Nankai and Hyuga-nada earthquakes. The rupture of the Nankai earthquakes extended to the Hyuga-nada region every ~500-600 years and was followed by quiescence of SSEs for more than 200 years. Subsequently, SSEs occurred repeatedly every 8 years. Current observational findings are generally consistent with the characteristics obtained from our scenarios, except regarding the recurrence intervals of Hyuga-nada earthquakes, for which few observations are available. Further evidence of the slip history in these regions will be required to use information from such simulations to forecast future earthquakes.

  18. Magnitude and location of historical earthquakes in Japan and implications for the 1855 Ansei Edo earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakun, W.H.

    2005-01-01

    Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) intensity assignments IJMA are used to derive intensity attenuation models suitable for estimating the location and an intensity magnitude Mjma for historical earthquakes in Japan. The intensity for shallow crustal earthquakes on Honshu is equal to -1.89 + 1.42MJMA - 0.00887?? h - 1.66log??h, where MJMA is the JMA magnitude, ??h = (??2 + h2)1/2, and ?? and h are epicentral distance and focal depth (km), respectively. Four earthquakes located near the Japan Trench were used to develop a subducting plate intensity attenuation model where intensity is equal to -8.33 + 2.19MJMA -0.00550??h - 1.14 log ?? h. The IJMA assignments for the MJMA7.9 great 1923 Kanto earthquake on the Philippine Sea-Eurasian plate interface are consistent with the subducting plate model; Using the subducting plate model and 226 IJMA IV-VI assignments, the location of the intensity center is 25 km north of the epicenter, Mjma is 7.7, and MJMA is 7.3-8.0 at the 1?? confidence level. Intensity assignments and reported aftershock activity for the enigmatic 11 November 1855 Ansei Edo earthquake are consistent with an MJMA 7.2 Philippine Sea-Eurasian interplate source or Philippine Sea intraslab source at about 30 km depth. If the 1855 earthquake was a Philippine Sea-Eurasian interplate event, the intensity center was adjacent to and downdip of the rupture area of the great 1923 Kanto earthquake, suggesting that the 1855 and 1923 events ruptured adjoining sections of the Philippine Sea-Eurasian plate interface.

  19. The relationship between seismic velocity structure and the seismic coupling in the Hyuga-nada region, southwest Japan, deduced from onshore and offshore seismic observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehira, K.; Yakiwara, H.; Yamada, T.; Umakoshi, K.; Nakao, S.; Kobayashi, R.; Goto, K.; Miyamachi, H.; Mochizuki, K.; Nakahigashi, K.; Shinohara, M.; Kanazawa, T.; Hino, R.; Goda, M.; Shimizu, H.

    2011-12-01

    In Hyuga-nada region, the Philippine Sea (PHS) plate is subducting beneath the Eurasian (EU) plate (the southwest Japan arc) along the Nankai trough at a rate of about 5 cm per year. Big earthquakes (M7 class) have occurred in the north region from latitude 31.6 degrees north, but it has not occurred in the south region from latitude 31.6 degrees north. The largest earthquake ever recorded in Hyuga-nada region is the 1968 Hyuga-nada earthquake (Mw 7.5). And microseismicity varies spatially. There are non-seismic slip events in Hyuga-nada region. For example, the after-slips associated with events for 19 October 1996 and 3 December 1996 were observed (Yagi et al., 2001), and in the same region, the slow-slip events were also observed by GPS measurements (GSI, 2011). We performed extraordinary seismic observations for 75 days from April to July 2006, for 73 days from April to July 2008, and for 77 days from April to July 2009. About 25 pop-up type ocean-bottom seismometers were deployed above hypocentral region in Hyuga-nada using Nagasaki-maru. And three data loggers were deployed on land in order to compensate a regular seismic network. We used these data and permanent stations for this analysis. In order to obtain precise hypocenter distribution, focal mechanisms, and a 3D seismic velocity structure around the Hyuga-nada region, we used Double-Difference (DD) Tomography method developed by Zhang and Thurber (2003). In northern part of Hyuga-nada, Vp/Vs ratio is high along the upper part of PHS slab, and this layer is interpreted as the subducting oceanic crust. On the other hand, Vp/Vs ratio is about 1.73 in southern part of Hyuga-nada, and this is interpreted as the subducted Kyushu-Palau Ridge, old island arc, which is made by granitic rock. More over, there is a difference of Poisson's ratio at mantle wedge. This value is high (> 0.3) in northern part of Hyuga-nada. The high Poisson's mantle wedge is suggesting that the zone probably corresponds to a

  20. Distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) of strontium and significance of oxides and organic matter in controlling its partitioning in coastal regions of Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takata, Hyoe, E-mail: takata@kaiseiken.or.jp; Tagami, Keiko; Aono, Tatsuo; Uchida, Shigeo

    2014-08-15

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011 resulted in the release of large quantities of a long-lived radioactive strontium (i.e. {sup 90}Sr; half-life: 28.8 y) into the coastal areas of Japan. {sup 90}Sr release was dispersed and mixed into the water column, and will eventually be deposited into sediment. Because factors controlling seawater–sediment partitioning in the coastal marine environments are not fully understood, we developed seawater–sediment distribution coefficients, K{sub d} (L/kg), for Sr in coastal regions of Japan by means of sediment–water partitioning experiments. {sup 85}Sr was used as a radiotracer and conditions were designed to mimic the environmental systems of the sampling sites as closely as possible. Experimentally determined K{sub d} values (K{sub d-ex}) varied between 0.3 and 3.3 L/kg (mean, 1.4 L/kg), and the variation in K{sub d-ex} was attributed to the percentage of Sr in the exchangeable fraction in the sediment. K{sub d-ex} values were used, along with the measured concentrations of {sup 88}Sr, a stable naturally occurring Sr isotope in seawater and sediment, to estimate the concentrations of exchangeable Sr in the sediment. Estimates ranged from 2.1 to 24.3 μg/kg, or 1.3–15.7% of the total {sup 88}Sr concentration in the sediment. Significant correlations existed between the estimated concentrations of exchangeable Sr, and the organic matter and the oxide/hydrous oxide contents. When organic contents were greater than 0.38%, Sr binds to organic surface sites more strongly than to the other sites. Results indicate that binding of Sr to the surface of sedimentary particles was influenced by grain size, iron and manganese oxides, and organic matter. Furthermore, the information presented here could be useful to estimate K{sub d} values for anthropogenic {sup 90}Sr in sediment in the coastal marine environment. - Highlights: • K{sub d} for Sr were determined in Japanese coastal regions.

  1. Features of Seismicity in the Northeastern China Region and Their Relation to the Subduction of the Japan Sea Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Wenbin; He Yueshi

    2004-01-01

    Based on the analyses of grouped activity features of deep-focus (M ≥ 6.0) and shallow-focus(Ms ≥ 5.0) earthquakes in the Northeast China region, the time-space correlation betweendeep focus "strong earthquake group" and shallow focus "strong earthquake group" have beenstudied. The study was mainly on the characteristics of earthquake distribution on the collisionzone between the west Pacific plate and the Eurasian plate and on its relations to themorphological feature of the western Pacific subduction zone. Moreover, emphasis was laid onanalysis of the effect of the west Pacific plate on the seismicity of Eurasian plate. It is shownthat in the region where the west Pacific plate subducts at low angles, the seismicity on theplate collision zone is strong, the effect of plate subduction on Eurasian continent is strong too,and the subduction zone is under a state of high compressional stress. However, in the regionwhere the west Pacific plate subducts at high angles, the seismicity along the plate collision zoneis weak, the effect of plate subduction on Eurasian continent is weak too, and the tensile stressproduced by the subduction zone at depth is enhanced. We therefore propose that the seismicityin the northeast China region will enter an active period of shallow "strong earthquake group"in the future 10 years. In the period, six earthquakes of Ms ≥5.0 may occur. Therefore, the work of earthquake monitoring and prediction in this region shall be strengthened.

  2. Effects of interregional agri-food clusters under different competitions on regional economy: Usage of two-regional CGE model for Green Tea Cluster in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Yuko Akune

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate effects of interregional agri-food clusters under different competitions on regional economy by use of two-regional computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. Many foods are in production linkage between farmers who yield in agricultural products as low materials and processed food manufacture who produce final goods, like wine, dairy products and so on. Linkage between agriculture and related food industries service industries has been recognized as ...

  3. Musterland Japan?

    OpenAIRE

    Weidner, Helmut

    1990-01-01

    Im Gegensatz zu Japan ist in den westeuro­päischen Ländern die Umweltpolitik erst seit Beginn der achtziger Jahre in heftige Bewe­gung geraten. Den Anstoß hierzu gaben wie in Japan in den sechziger Jahren vor allem Umweltschadensfälle größeren Ausmaßes, wodurch Regierungen, Verwaltungen und umweltbelastende Betriebe unter starken Handlungsdruck gesetzt wurden. Seitdem gehören Umweltfragen in nahezu allen Indu­strieländern zu den zentralen politischen Themen. Trotz teilweise beeindrucken...

  4. Tropical cyclones-Pacific Asian Research Campaign for Improvement of Intensity estimations/forecasts (T-PARCII): A research plan of typhoon aircraft observations in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboki, Kazuhisa

    2017-04-01

    Typhoons are the most devastating weather system occurring in the western North Pacific and the South China Sea. Violent wind and heavy rainfall associated with a typhoon cause huge disaster in East Asia including Japan. In 2013, Supertyphoon Haiyan struck the Philippines caused a very high storm surge and more than 7000 people were killed. In 2015, two typhoons approached the main islands of Japan and severe flood occurred in the northern Kanto region. Typhoons are still the largest cause of natural disaster in East Asia. Moreover, many researches have projected increase of typhoon intensity with the climate change. This suggests that a typhoon risk is increasing in East Asia. However, the historical data of typhoon include large uncertainty. In particular, intensity data of the most intense typhoon category have larger error after the US aircraft reconnaissance of typhoon was terminated in 1987.The main objective of the present study is improvements of typhoon intensity estimations and of forecasts of intensity and track. We will perform aircraft observation of typhoon and the observed data are assimilated to numerical models to improve intensity estimation. Using radars and balloons, observations of thermodynamical and cloud-microphysical processes of typhoons will be also performed to improve physical processes of numerical model. In typhoon seasons (mostly in August and September), we will perform aircraft observations of typhoons. Using dropsondes from the aircraft, temperature, humidity, pressure, and wind are measured in surroundings of the typhoon inner core region. The dropsonde data are assimilated to a cloud-resolving model which has been developed in Nagoya University and named the Cloud Resolving Storm Simulator (CReSS). Then, more accurate estimations and forecasts of the typhoon intensity will be made as well as typhoon tracks. Furthermore, we will utilize a ground-based balloon with microscope camera, X-band precipitation radar, Ka-band cloud radar

  5. A comparison of fungal endophytic community diversity in tree leaves of rural and urban temperate forests of Kanto district, eastern Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Emi; Fukuda, Kenji

    2013-03-01

    To clarify the effects of forest fragmentation and a change in tree species composition following urbanization on endophytic fungal communities, we isolated fungal endophytes from the foliage of nine tree species in suburban (Kashiwa City, Chiba) and rural (Mt. Wagakuni, Ibaraki; Mt. Takao, Tokyo) forests and compared the fungal communities between sites and host tree species. Host specificity was evaluated using the index of host specificity (Si), and the number of isolated species, total isolation frequency, and the diversity index were calculated. From just one to several host-specific species were recognized in all host tree species at all sites. The total isolation frequency of all fungal species on Quercus myrsinaefolia, Quercus serrata, and Chamaecyparis obtusa and the total isolation frequency of host-specific species on Q. myrsinaefolia, Q. serrata, and Eurya japonica were significantly lower in Kashiwa than in the rural forests. The similarity indices (nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS) and CMH) of endophytic communities among different tree species were higher in Kashiwa, as many tree species shared the same fungal species in the suburban forest. Endophytic fungi with a broad host range were grouped into four clusters suggesting their preference for conifer/broadleaves and evergreen/deciduous trees. Forest fragmentation and isolation by urbanization have been shown to cause the decline of host-specific fungal species and a decrease in β diversity of endophytic communities, i.e., endophytic communities associated with tree leaves in suburban forests were found to be depauperate.

  6. Globalization in Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesgaard, Marie Højlund

    2014-01-01

    Abstract for Nichibunken Copenhagen Symposium August 2012 Globalization in Japan – the case of moral education. 日本とグローバル化 - 道徳教育の件 Marie H. Roesgaard, Department of Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies, University of Copenhagen. This paper attempts to trace the history of global influence on Japan......Abstract for Nichibunken Copenhagen Symposium August 2012 Globalization in Japan – the case of moral education. 日本とグローバル化 - 道徳教育の件 Marie H. Roesgaard, Department of Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies, University of Copenhagen. This paper attempts to trace the history of global influence...... adjusting to those of the global currents that cannot be ignored. Further, I would suggest that global, or at least Western, influence is not a new thing in regard to moral education in Japan. The paper will provide an historical overview of the development of moral education since Meiji times and focus...

  7. Regional evolution of venom-gland phospholipase A2 isoenzymes of Trimeresurus flavoviridis snakes in the southwestern islands of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chijiwa, T; Deshimaru, M; Nobuhisa, I; Nakai, M; Ogawa, T; Oda, N; Nakashima, K; Fukumaki, Y; Shimohigashi, Y; Hattori, S; Ohno, M

    2000-04-15

    Conventional chromatographic analysis showed that phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) isoenzymes of the venom of Trimeresurus flavoviridis (Habu snake) of Okinawa island are profoundly different in composition from those of T. flavoviridis of Amami-Oshima and Tokunoshima islands. The most striking feature was that myotoxic [Lys(49)]PLA(2) isoenzymes, called BPI and BPII, which are expressed abundantly in the venoms of Amami-Oshima and Tokunoshima T. flavoviridis, are missing from the venom of Okinawa T. flavoviridis. Northern blot analysis of Okinawa T. flavoviridis venom-gland mRNA species showed the absence of BPI and BPII mRNA species. Analysis by single-stranded conformational polymorphism-PCR of venom-gland mRNA species of T. flavoviridis from three islands, with reference to five DNA species each encoding different PLA(2) isoenzymes from Tokunoshima T. flavoviridis venom gland, also suggested that BPI and BPII mRNA species are not expressed in Okinawa T. flavoviridis venom gland. In contrast, genomic Southern blot analysis with a variety of probes showed that only the bands corresponding to the upstream and downstream regions of the genes for BPI and/or BPII can be detected in Okinawa T. flavoviridis. These results suggested that the genes for BPI and BPII in Okinawa T. flavoviridis genome had been inactivated to form pseudogenes. Differently from Amami-Oshima and Tokunoshima T. flavovirdis genomic DNAs, PCR amplification of the segments of BPI and BPII genes between the 5' moiety of second exon and the middle portion of second intron failed for Okinawa T. flavoviridis genomic DNAs. In sequence analysis of the two segments involving polymorphism between BPI and BPII genes, which are located in first exon and third exon, respectively, only one base was detected at the polymorphic positions for pseudogene in Okinawa T. flavoviridis genome. Based on these facts, it became evident for pseudogene that the upstream region of BPI gene down to the 5' moiety of second exon

  8. RESIDUAL EFFECTS OF COMPACTED DIGESTED EFFLUENT ON GROWTH OF DWARF NAPIER GRASS IN WARM REGIONS OF JAPAN

    OpenAIRE

    Hasyim, Hadijah; Ishii, Yasuyuki; Wadi, Ahmad; Ako Sunusi, Ambo; fukagawa, Satoru; Idota, Sachiko

    2016-01-01

    - In regional intensive livestock farming, animal waste has a significant dispersal problem. One of the solutions is to process animal wastes to digested effluent of manure (DEM) by the operation of biogas plants. The objectives of the present study were to determine the residual effects of DEM in field application at three levels in the previous two years and the effect of compacted DEM amended with solid manure in a pot trial on production in a dwarf variety of late-heading type Napier g...

  9. Can Trade Help Overcome Economic Crisis? Implications for Northeast Asia Creating Regional FTA between Korea, China, and Japan and Mega FTAs such as RCEP and TPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Chul Park

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Globalization processes have formed a triad of economic and trade systems in terms of GDP and trade volume. These are the European Union (EU, North America Free Trade Association (NAFTA, and Northeast Asia, the major actors in the global economic system and trade since 1990s. However, the global financial crisis in 2008 created a new global economic order and governance that consisted of existing global economic power such as the G7 as well as new emerging economic powers, such as G20 and BRICS. Under such rapidly changing global economic conditions, global trade has contributed to rapid economic growth in the world in the last half-century. Regarding FTAs, the European Union (EU is the frontrunner and has developed the most advanced system for regional economic integration. The EU’s single market provides several implications for Northeast Asian countries trying to build their own regional bilateral and multilateral FTAs and participate in different mega-FTAs such as RCEP and TPP. As a result, their economic interests are rather divided deeply and related to political and security issues in the context of Northeast Asia. Therefore, it is more difficult for Northeast Asian countries to economically integrate in a way that is comparable with the EU. This paper addresses a regional FTA between South Korea, China, and Japan that could be a starting point for their formal economic integration and create a reliable platform to strengthen their trade, boosting further economic growth. It also asks which of the three nations’ economic interests are served by participating in mega FTAs such as RCEP and TPP. Finally, it analyses the best scenario for participating in the multilateral FTA and mega FTAs for each nation.

  10. Spatial heterogeneity of the structure and stress field in Hyuga-nada region, southwest Japan, deduced from onshore and offshore seismic observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehira, K.; Yakiwara, H.; Yamada, T.; Umakoshi, K.; Nakao, S.; Kobayashi, R.; Goto, K.; Miyamachi, H.; Mochizuki, K.; Nakahigashi, K.; Shinohara, M.; Kanazawa, T.; Hino, R.; Goda, M.; Shimizu, H.

    2010-12-01

    In Hyuga-nada region, the Philippine Sea (PHS) plate is subducting beneath the Eurasian (EU) plate (the southwest Japan arc) along the Nankai trough at a rate of about 5 cm per year. The seismic activity in the boundary between the PHS and the Eurasian (EU) plates varies spatially along the Nankai trough. Especially the region from off coast of Shikoku to the Bungo channel and Hyuga-nada has large variation of seismicity. Although usual microearthquake activity is active in Hyuga-nada, it is inactive near Shikoku. On the other hand, although the great earthquake (M>8) has occurred repeatedly in near Shikoku at intervals of about 100 years, in Hyuga-nada, smaller earthquakes (M7 class) has occurred at intervals of about dozens of years, and so plate coupling varies dozens of kilometers specially. Big earthquakes (M7 class) have occurred in the north region from latitude 31.6 degrees north, but it has not occurred in the south region from latitude 31.6 degrees north. The largest earthquake ever recorded in Hyuga-nada region is the 1968 Hyuga-nada earthquake (Mw 7.5). And microseismicity varies spatially. It is important to understand seismic activity, stress field, and structure in such region in order to understand seismic cycle. We performed extraordinary seismic observation in and around Hyuga-nada region. More than 20 pop-up type OBSs were deployed above hypocentral region of Hyuga-nada using Nagasaki-maru and several data loggers were deployed in order to compensate a regular seismic network on land. We detected earthquakes more than 2 times of JMA. Seismic activity in source region of the 1961 Hyuga-nada Earthquake (M7.0) is low, but around its source region, seismic activity is very high. In order to obtain a 3D seismic velocity structure and precise hypocenter distribution and focal mechanisms around the Hyuga-nada region, we used Double-Difference (DD) Tomography method developed by Zhang and Thurber (2003). We could detect the structure of subduction of

  11. 中、日、韩与东盟区域性统一证券市场构建%On the Establishment of a Regional Unified Stock Market in China, Korea, Japan and ASEAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范祚军; 彭红英

    2005-01-01

    Based on the exploration of the real necessity of the regional cooperation in stock market, the article elaborates China's future trend of the globalization in this field and argues that while the international coordination should be intensified in stock supervision, regional financial cooperation should be strengthened and the regional globalization of the market should be developed, thus estabhshing a regional unified stock market within the area of China, Korea , Japan and ASEAN so as to deepen the disposition and raise the efficiency of the resources.

  12. Japan 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Finn

    2014-01-01

    In March 2014 a group of teachers and students from the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts Schools of Architecture, Design and Conservation, School of Architecture, Study Dept. 3 went on a study trip to Japan. This publication collects observations and reflections that the participants of the trip...

  13. Japan 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Finn

    2014-01-01

    In March 2014 a group of teachers and students from the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts Schools of Architecture, Design and Conservation, School of Architecture, Study Dept. 3 went on a study trip to Japan. This publication collects observations and reflections that the participants of the trip...

  14. The Formation of the Indian Entrepreneurial Community in Japan in the End of 19th – Early 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firsova Varvara Sergeevna

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present article is based on Western, Japanese and field-work materials of the author who describes the main stages of formation of the Indian entrepreneurial diaspora in Japan in the period from the late 19th century until the beginning of the World War II. Indian entrepreneurs, being the representatives of trade and usury communities, Sindhis and Parsis in particular, started to arrive here in 1870s under British protection. Their main occupation was the export of Japanese textile which was the main export item of Japan in the mentioned period. Indians maintained the export of the textile goods, silk and cotton, in different countries all over the world through their strong entrepreneurial networks. The majority of Indian firms in Japan were Sindhis firms, and Sindhis network was especially prominent. Indian firms especially prospered in 1920-1930s, when their share of Japanese textile export constituted about 70 %. Thanks to strong ethnic loyalties, Indians in Japan could not only prosper but also successfully adapt to closed Japanese society. The article considers the pattern of settlement of Indians in Japan, and emphasizes two stages of Indian community formation in the pre-War period. The first one lasted from 1870s till 1923 year, when the community was formed basically in Yokohama. And the second stage after Great Kanto Earthquake lasted from 1923 till 1939, when it was constituted mainly in Kobe, which in present days remains the centre of Indian entrepreneurial community in Japan.

  15. Distribution of 36Cl in the Yoro River Basin, Central Japan, and Its Relation to the Residence Time of the Regional Groundwater Flow System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiko Kondoh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the potential of 36Cl in tracing young groundwater with residence times of up to ~50 years. Groundwater samples were obtained from 16 irrigation wells in paddy fields located within an upland–lowland system in the Yoro River basin, Central Japan. The 36Cl/Cl ratios were in the range of 17 to 362 × 10−15. Among the samples with higher Cl− concentrations (>10 mg/L, two samples showed high nitrate concentrations as well (>30 mg/L. Except for these samples, the distribution of 36Cl in groundwater was essentially consistent with previous tritium concentration data measured in 1982 and 1994, considering the time that has elapsed since these earlier measurements were performed. 36Cl/Cl values were less than 30 × 10−15 in lowland areas, with higher values in and around upland areas. The results indicate longer residence times in the regional groundwater flow system (>50 years than those estimated in previous studies, especially in the area west of the Yoro River. The results demonstrate the ability of 36Cl to trace young groundwater flow, particularly because high values of bomb-derived 36Cl/Cl are easily discriminated from pre-bomb water with low 36Cl/Cl values. Because of its very long half-life (3.01 × 105 years, 36Cl remains even after tritium is no longer available.

  16. Variations of VLF/LF signals observed on the ground and satellite during a seismic activity in Japan region in May–June 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rozhnoi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Signals of two Japanese transmitters (22.2 kHz and 40 kHz recorded on the ground VLF/LF station in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky and on board the DEMETER French satellite have been analyzed during a seismic activity in Japan in May–June 2008. The period of analysis was from 18 April to 27 June. During this time two rather large earthquakes occurred in the north part of Honshu Island – 7 May (M=6.8 and 13 June (M=6.9. The ground and satellite data were processed by a method based on the difference between the real signal in nighttime and the model one. For ground observations a clear decrease in both signals has been found several days before the first earthquake. For the second earthquake anomalies were detected only in JJI signal. The epicenters of earthquakes were in reliable reception zone of 40 kHz signal on board the DEMETER. Signal enhancement above the seismic active region and significant signal intensity depletion in the magnetically conjugate area has been found for satellite observation before the first earthquake. Anomalies in satellite data coincide in time with those in the ground-based observation.

  17. [Extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing Proteus mirabilis: laboratory-based surveillance in cooperation with 12 clinical laboratories in the Kinki Region of Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Tatsuya; Komatsu, Masaru; Shimakawa, Kouichi; Sueyoshi, Noriyuki; Satoh, Kaori; Toyokawa, Masahiro; Nishio, Hisaaki; Wada, Yasunao; Orita, Tamaki; Kofuku, Tomomi; Sakamoto, Masako; Okamoto, Kiyotaka; Akagi, Masahiro; Kinoshita, Shohiro

    2006-05-01

    We studied 247 strains of Proteus mirabilis collected during the 6 months from November 2003 to April 2004 from 12 clinical laboratories in the Kinki region of Japan for the production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL). Eighteen strains (7.3%) showed MICs for cefpodoxime of > or = 2 microg/mL and 13 strains (5.2%) were positive for the double-disk synergy test. Susceptibility depended on genotype. MICs for cefepime, cefozopran, and cefpirome were high (> or = 8 microg/mL), and that for ceftazidime was low (0.12-0.5 microg/mL). Meropenem showed the lowest MIC (ESBL genotype by the polymerase chain reaction showed that 12 of 13 strains were CTX-M2 types. CTX-M9 was detected in a single laboratory. The clinical background showed 5 strains in urine samples. Twelve of 13 strains were detected in patients with minimal devices use. No symptoms were found in most cases of established syndrome. Analysis of PCR fingerprint profiles of random amplified polymorphic DNA patterns showed that 6 of 7 strains from hospital 1 showed the same pattern, and 5 of 5 strains from hospital 13 showed the same pattern, suggesting the nosocomial spread of P. mirabilis in each hospital.

  18. Epidemiology of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, and Proteus mirabilis strains producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases from clinical samples in the Kinki Region of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Tatsuya; Komatsu, Masaru; Yamasaki, Katsutoshi; Fukuda, Saori; Miyamoto, Yugo; Higuchi, Takeshi; Ono, Tamotsu; Nishio, Hisaaki; Sueyoshi, Noriyuki; Kida, Kenji; Satoh, Kaori; Toda, Hirofumi; Toyokawa, Masahiro; Nishi, Isao; Sakamoto, Masako; Akagi, Masahiro; Nakai, Isako; Kofuku, Tomomi; Orita, Tamaki; Wada, Yasunao; Zikimoto, Takuya; Koike, Chihiro; Kinoshita, Shohiro; Hirai, Itaru; Takahashi, Hakuo; Matsuura, Nariaki; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa

    2012-04-01

    In the present study, nonduplicate, clinical isolates of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp, and Proteus mirabilis were collected during a 10-year period from 2000 to 2009 at several hospitals in the Kinki region, Japan. The detection rate of E coli markedly increased from 0.24% to 7.25%. The detection rate of Klebsiella pneumoniae increased from 0% to 2.44% and that of P mirabilis from 6.97% to 12.85%. The most frequently detected genotypes were the CTX-M9 group for E coli, the CTX-M2 group for K pneumoniae, and the CTX-M2 group for P mirabilis. E coli clone O25:H4-ST131 producing CTX-M-15, which is spreading worldwide, was first detected in 2007. The most common replicon type of E coli was the IncF type, particularly FIB, detected in 466 strains (69.7%). Of the K pneumoniae strains, 47 (55.3%) were of the IncN type; 77 P mirabilis strains (96.3%) were of the IncT type. In the future, the surveillance of various resistant bacteria, mainly ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, should be expanded to prevent their spread.

  19. Genotyping analysis of Helicobacter pylori using multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeats analysis in five regions of China and Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jinyong

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background H. pylori (Helicobacter pylori is the major causative agent of chronic active gastritis. The population of H. pylori shows a high genomic variability among isolates. And the polymorphism of repeat-units of genomics had participated the important process of evolution. Its long term colonization of the stomach caused different clinical outcomes, which may relate to the high degree of genetic variation of H. pylori. A variety of molecular typing tools have been developed to access genetic relatedness in H. pylori isolates. However, there is still no standard genotyping system of this bacterium. The MLVA (Multi-locus of variable number of tandem repeat analysis method is useful for performing phylogenetic analysis and is widely used in bacteria genotyping; however, there's little application in H. pylori analysis. This article is the first application of the MLVA method to investigate H. pylori from different districts and ethnic groups of China. Results MLVA of 12 VNTR loci with high discrimination power based on 30 candidates were performed on a collection of 202 strains of H. pylori which originated from five regions of China and Japan. Phylogenetic tree was constructed using MLVA profiles. 12 VNTR loci presented with high various polymorphisms, and the results demonstrated very close relationships between genotypes and ethnic groups. Conclusions This study used MLVA methodology providing a new perspective on the ethnic groups and distribution characteristics of H. pylori.

  20. Japan (country/area statements).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    Japan, a country generally successful in solving population problems, now faces the problem of an aging population. It must provide welfare for its aged population and give them a role in society. Recognizing the vital importance to economic and social development of population problems in developing countries, Japan has cooperated through bilateral and multilateral channels in assisting various projects of developing countries concerned about population problems. As for bilateral aid, Japan extends technical cooperation to Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) region countries by providing them with experts, by conducting surveys, by giving equipment, and by organizing training courses, particularly in the field of family planning. Japan also cooperates with some of the developing countries of the ESCAP region by providing them with financial assistance in the form of multilateral cooperation. Japan makes a cash contribution the the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) as the biggest donor country. In fiscal year 1984, the Japanese contribution to UNFPA totaled $US 40.1 million; the contribution will amount of $US 42.9 million in 1985. Aware of the importance of human resource development in the field of population, Japan has organized annual group training courses for the developing countries, namely: the Seminar on Family Planning Administration for Senior Officers; the Seminar on Community-Based Family Planning Strategy; and the Seminar on Health Aspects of Family Planning. Japan generally supports the work of ESCAP with regard to training in the field of population.

  1. Epidemiology of sporadic (non-epidemic) cases of Trichophyton tonsurans infection in Japan based on PCR-RFLP analysis of non-transcribed spacer region of ribosomal RNA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Takashi; Kawasaki, Masako; Anzawa, Kazushi; Fujita, Jun; Ushigami, Tsuyoshi; Takeda, Kiminobu; Sano, Ayako; Takahashi, Yoko; Kamei, Katsuhiko

    2008-05-01

    A number of cases of Trichophyton tonsurans infection have been reported among sportsmen and women participating in wrestling, judo, and sumo wrestling in Japan, but there have also been sporadic reports of cases with no history of contact with these sports. A molecular method using restriction enzyme analysis of PCR-amplified fragments targeting the non-transcribed spacer region (NTS) of ribosomal RNA gene in fungal nuclei was applied to T. tonsurans strains isolated from sporadic cases in Japan. Five of 6 molecular types recorded in Japan, i.e., NTS types I, II, IV, V, and VI, and two new types, designated NTS VII and NTS VIII, were observed among 10 strains isolated from sporadic cases. The NTS IV strains, considered not to be related to the present epidemic, were found to be the most prevalent molecular type accounting for 4 of the 10 strains isolated. NTS I was the most prevalent type in the current epidemic in Japan, but it was cultured from only one patient who was later noted to be the daughter of a retired judo practitioner. Four subjects had histories of living abroad and were considered to have been infected outside Japan. The strains in these cases were NTS II, V, VI, and VII. The results of this study suggested that the NTS IV strains were originally present in Japan at a low incidence, but that there has been a recent influx of NTS I, II, V, VI, and VII from abroad, which has been accompanied by the secondary spread of strains from wrestlers and practitioners of martial arts to the general community.

  2. Strategic trends of global denuclearization and nuclearization : implications for Japan's security policies, regional stability and the TMD-debate in East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Umbach, Frank

    2001-01-01

    "Angesichts der nuklearen Modernisierungsprogramme Russlands, Chinas und Indiens ist Japans Entscheidung für ein Theather Missile Defense (TMD) – Programm gerechtfertigt. Die Implementierung eines solchen Programms bedarf aber sorgfältiger Analysen von Fall zu Fall." (Autorenreferat)

  3. Strategic trends of global denuclearization and nuclearization : implications for Japan's security policies, regional stability and the TMD-debate in East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Umbach, Frank

    2001-01-01

    "Angesichts der nuklearen Modernisierungsprogramme Russlands, Chinas und Indiens ist Japans Entscheidung für ein Theather Missile Defense (TMD) – Programm gerechtfertigt. Die Implementierung eines solchen Programms bedarf aber sorgfältiger Analysen von Fall zu Fall." (Autorenreferat)

  4. Outline of Seafloor Observation Network for Earthquakes and Tsunamis along the Japan Trench (S-net)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehira, Kenji; Kanazawa, Toshihiko; Mochizuki, Masashi; Fujimoto, Hiromi; Noguchi, Shin-ichi; Shinbo, Takashi; Shiomi, Katsuhiko; Kunugi, Takashi; Aoi, Shin; Matsumoto, Takumi; Sekiguchi, Shoji; Okada, Yoshimitsu; Shinohara, Masanao; Yamada, Tomoaki

    2016-04-01

    Seafloor Observation Network for Earthquakes and Tsunamis along the Japan Trench (S-net) project to construct a large-scale seafloor network of cable-linked observatories is in progress around Japan Trench and Kuril Trench in Japan. The main purpose of the S-net project is disaster prevention by providing ground motion and tsunami height data in real time. Such real-time data from the seafloor observatories make it possible to forecast the next-generation early tsunami warning which could precisely predict coastal tsunami height. Also the data may make it possible to forecast an earthquake warning much earlier than the present system. The network consists of 150 ocean bottom observation stations. Ocean bottom fiber optic cables, about 5,700 km in total length, connect the stations to land. Observation stations will be placed on the seafloor off Hokkaido, off Tohoku and off Kanto, in a spacing of about 30 km almost in the direction of East-West (perpendicular to the trench axis) and in a spacing of about 50 - 60 km almost in the direction of North-South (parallel to the trench axis). Each station is equipped with seismometers of three types and two hydro-pressure gauges (tsunami meters) of the same type for redundancy. The digitized data will be transmitted to the data centers, JMA (Japan Meteorological Agency), and so on, using IP network. S-net is supported by MEXT financially.

  5. Japan Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-09

    its warers unless Japan withdraws its objections to the IWC by April i. Abe pointed to the strong American influence on world-wide support of a...squadron of five SH-3 Sea King antisubmarine helicopters which it carries for a squadron of six model H [helicopters] equipped with radar for monitoring ...which appeared in the American newspaper The CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR on 3 May 1983, introduced a statement by Commander (Holcomb) to the effect that

  6. Japan Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    said Monday. In return, Japan has obtained the right to extend its air service beyond Kuala Lumpur to any further point of its choosing, the...System (MAS) and Northwest Orient Airlines will be dropped, the sources said. JAL and MAS will be allowed to begin new services via Kuala Lumpur and...secondary wood manufacturing and tourism , the leader of a state investment mission said Monday. James M. Root, leader of the 19-member mission, said

  7. Japan Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Japan Socialist Party General Secretary Tsuruo Yamaguchi: "The Deceptiveness of Breaking Through the Defense - Spending Limit of 1 Percent of GNP...Agency Budget Proposal 22 Defense Facilities Administration Agency Budget Proposal 41 Breaking of Defense - Spending Limit Criticized (Tsuruo...such as the high yen and decline in the price of oil. (1) Total Amount Fiscal 1987 defense related expenditures are 3,517.4 billion yen, an

  8. A new tomographic image on the Philippine Sea Slab beneath Tokyo - Implication to seismic hazard in the Tokyo metropolitan region -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, N.; Sakai, S.; Nakagawa, S.; Ishikawa, M.; Sato, H.; Kasahara, K.; Kimura, H.; Honda, R.

    2012-12-01

    In central Japan, the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) subducts beneath the Tokyo metropolitan region. Devastating M8-class earthquakes occurred on the upper surface of the Philippine Sea plate (SPS), examples of which are the Genroku earthquake of 1703 (magnitude M=8.0) and the Kanto earthquake of 1923 (M=7.9), which had 105,000 fatalities. A M7 or greater (M7+) earthquake in this region at present has high potential to produce devastating loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions although it is smaller than the megathrust type M8-class earthquakes. This great earthquake is evaluated to occur with a probability of 70 % in 30 years by the Earthquake Research Committee of Japan. The M7+ earthquakes may occur either on the upper surface or intra slab of PSP. The Central Disaster Management Council of Japan estimates the next great M7+ earthquake will cause 11,000 fatalities and 112 trillion yen (1 trillion US$) economic loss at worst case if it occur beneath northern Tokyo bay with M7.3. However, the estimate is based on a source fault model by conventional studies about the PSP geometry. To evaluate seismic hazard due to the great quake we need to clarify the geometry of PSP and also the Pacific palate (PAP) that subducs beneath PSP. We identify those plates with use of seismic tomography and available deep seismic reflection profiling and borehole data in southern Kanto area. We deployed about 300 seismic stations in the greater Tokyo urban region under the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo Metropolitan Area. We obtain clear P- and S- wave velocity (Vp and Vs) tomograms which show a clear image of PSP and PAP. A depth to the top of PSP, 20 to 30 kilometer beneath northern part of Tokyo bay, is about 10 km shallower than previous estimates based on the distribution of seismicity (Ishida, 1992). This shallower plate geometry changes estimations of strong ground motion for seismic hazards analysis within the Tokyo

  9. Regional difference in small-scale heterogeneities in the crust and upper mantle in Japan derived by the analysis of high-frequency P-wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, S.; Furumura, T.

    2010-12-01

    In order to understand distribution properties of small-scale heterogeneities in the crust and upper mantle structure, we analyze three-component seismograms recorded by Hi-net in Japan. We examined relative strength of the P-wave in the transverse (T) component and its change as a function of frequency and propagation distances, which is strongly relating to the strength of seismic wave scattering in the lithosphere. We analyzed 53,220 Hi-net record from 310 shallow (hFDM simulations using stochastic random media. The model covers a zone 204.8 km by 204.8 km by 64.0 km descretized with 0.1 km in horizontal direction and 0.05 km in vertical direction. The small-scale heterogeneity in the lithosphere is constructed by velocity fluctuation from average velocity. The fluctuation is characterized by von Karman-type ACF with the correlation length a, the rms value e and decay order k. We assume average background velocities of P-wave and S-wave are VP = 5.8 km and VS = 3.36 km, respectively. We employ an explosive point source into the model. The FDM simulations were conducted on the Earth Simulator at JAMSTEC. We conducted a number of FDM simulation using different model parameters of stochastic random media for different e (= 0.03, 0.05, 0.07, 0.09) and fixed a and k (a = 5km, k = 0.5). The simulation results confirm EP value increases linearly with increasing e. We also found that larger EP obtained in the back-arc side of Tohoku can be explained by 4% larger e relative to those of other regions.

  10. Field observations, experiments, and modeling of sediment production from freeze and thaw action on a bare, weathered granite slope in a temperate region of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Daizo; Fujita, Masaharu

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, field observations and model simulations were conducted to examine the process of sediment production due to freeze and thaw action in a temperate climate region. Two small areas were designated and observations were conducted to determine the mechanisms of sediment production due to freeze and thaw action on a bare, weathered granite slope in the Tanakami Mountains in the southern part of Shiga Prefecture, Japan. During the cold season from 2004 to 2005, air, surface, and subsurface temperatures were measured at 10-min intervals. The sediment produced on plot 1 was collected and weighed once per week, whereas the sediment produced on plot 2 was left untouched until the end of the cold season. The freeze and thaw cycle occurred repeatedly, with the frozen zone (i.e., temperature Pinus densiflora); plot 2 was covered by no leaves to understand the effects of surface cover on the reduction in sediment production. The results showed that surface leaf cover dramatically decreased sediment production due to freeze and thaw action versus the no-surface cover. A simulation model combining a thermal conductivity analysis and a simple and empirical sediment production model was developed to estimate the amount of sediment produced by the freeze and thaw action. The observation results of temperature change and amount of sediment during the first season, from 2004 to 2005, were simulated with the model. The model assumption, that repeated freezing and thawing events are necessary for the production of sediment from saprolite (14 cycles of the freeze and thaw with a freezing threshold of - 1 °C), is supported by comparisons of the simulated results and the observations. From an engineering viewpoint, a freeze and thaw index that incorporates the freezing depth and the repetition number of freeze and thaw cycles is proposed to estimate total amount of sediment produced from a wide area, such as a catchment scale, over a long period.

  11. Current and future carbon budget at Takayama site, Japan, evaluated by a regional climate model and a process-based terrestrial ecosystem model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuribayashi, Masatoshi; Noh, Nam-Jin; Saitoh, Taku M.; Ito, Akihiko; Wakazuki, Yasutaka; Muraoka, Hiroyuki

    2016-12-01

    Accurate projection of carbon budget in forest ecosystems under future climate and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration is important to evaluate the function of terrestrial ecosystems, which serve as a major sink of atmospheric CO2. In this study, we examined the effects of spatial resolution of meteorological data on the accuracies of ecosystem model simulation for canopy phenology and carbon budget such as gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration (ER), and net ecosystem production (NEP) of a deciduous forest in Japan. Then, we simulated the future (around 2085) changes in canopy phenology and carbon budget of the forest by incorporating high-resolution meteorological data downscaled by a regional climate model. The ecosystem model overestimated GPP and ER when we inputted low-resolution data, which have warming biases over mountainous landscape. But, it reproduced canopy phenology and carbon budget well, when we inputted high-resolution data. Under the future climate, earlier leaf expansion and delayed leaf fall by about 10 days compared with the present state was simulated, and also, GPP, ER and NEP were estimated to increase by 25.2%, 23.7% and 35.4%, respectively. Sensitivity analysis showed that the increase of NEP in June and October would be mainly caused by rising temperature, whereas that in July and August would be largely attributable to CO2 fertilization. This study suggests that the downscaling of future climate data enable us to project more reliable carbon budget of forest ecosystem in mountainous landscape than the low-resolution simulation due to the better predictions of leaf expansion and shedding.

  12. Wind Energy Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsubara, Kazuyo [Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    An overview is given of wind energy in Japan: Background; Wind Energy in Japan; Japanese Wind Energy Industry; Government Supports; Useful Links; Major Japanese Companies; Profiles of Major Japanese Companies; Major Wind Energy Projects in Japan.

  13. Possible scenarios for slip history in Hyuga-nada and Bungo channel regions depending on occurrences of Nankai Earthquakes in southwest Japan, based on numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, R.; Hyodo, M.; Hori, T.

    2013-12-01

    Nankai earthquake is a type of great interplate earthquakes with recurrence intervals of 100-200 years along the Nankai Trough in southwest Japan, and well documented in historical records over a thousand years. The latest Nankai earthquakes occurred on 1946, 1854, and 1707. Geological evidences suggest rupture of Nankai earthquakes on 1707 extended to the Hyuga-nada, and the tsunami was much higher in 1707 than in 1946 or 1854. Other geological evidences also suggest that such larger Nankai earthquakes occurred with recurrence intervals of several hundred years. In the Hyuga-nada region on the west of the source of Nankai earthquakes, a large interplate earthquake (M=7.5) has occurred on 1968. In the same area, no M >= 7.5 earthquakes have reported before 1968. If we take geological evidences mentioned above, the 1707 Nankai earthquake is regarded as simultaneous event to the 1968 type of Hyuga-nada earthquakes. Time interval between them is 261 years. Although historical records are insufficient, recurrence interval of M7.5 Hyuga-nada earthquakes on the 1968 source may be longer than that of M8-class Nankai earthquakes. Slow slip events (SSEs) have occurred with recurrence intervals of several years in the Bungo channel region at least since 1980. The sources of SSEs locate to the deeper part of plate interface between sources of the 1946 Nankai earthquake and the 1968 Hyuga-nada earthquake. Then, coseismic or postseismic slips of these earthquakes could have been propagated to source area of SSE. However, we have no observation knowledge about behavior on the SSE source area during coseismic rupture and interseismic period of these earthquakes. Here, we numerically simulated cycles for occurrences of Nankai earthquakes, Hyuga-nada earthquakes, and SSEs in the Bungo channel to obtain possible scenarios for slip history in these regions by using a model that incorporates realistic plate geometry. We assume a heterogeneous distribution of frictional parameters

  14. Candidates of World Heritage Sites of Astronomy in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Jun-ichi; Nakagiri, Masao

    2015-08-01

    Unfortunately there is no heritage site of astronomy until now in Japan. Here we report several candidates based on the importance from the historical point of view.One is the “Nisshinkan” Astronomical Observatory site of the Edo era. Many observatories were established in the Edo era, including "Asakusa observatory" of a Shogunate Government. However, most of them have been disappeared by the urban development. The only one remained until now is the “Nissshinkan” Astronomical Observatory site of which the basement made of stones is preserved. This was made in 1803 mainly for educational purpose at the “Nisshinkan” which was a local school for the Samurai’s children in Aizu area. Although a wooden building of the school was lost by a war, but this observatory mark exists because large basement of a few meters high remained. This site is now designated as a cultural asset by the local government, and can be recognized even at the present time.Another is the Repsold Meridian Transit which was designated as the Important Cultural Property of Japan in 2011. A Repsold meridian transit instrument is a telescope with a diameter of 13.5 cm and a focal length of 212 cm for meridian transit observations. It was manufactured by A. Repsold & Soehne Co. Ltd. in Hamburg, Germany in 1880, and purchased by the Naval Observatory and imported to Japan in 1881, becoming one of the most important telescopes in the dawning era of modern astronomy in Japan. The telescope escaped being damaged in the Great Kanto Earthquake, and continued to be used as a main telescope for time determination, longitude observation, and astrometry of heavenly bodies till the end of the 1950s. We confirmed that this telescope has retained its original form in 2008, and after restoration and repair, the telescope was widely opened for exhibition to the public. In June, 2011 it was designated as one of the important cultural properties of Japan. The related old instruments which brought modern

  15. Seasonal changes in Fe species and soluble Fe concentration in the atmosphere in the Northwest Pacific region based on the analysis of aerosols collected in Tsukuba, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Takahashi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric iron (Fe can be a significant source of nutrition for phytoplankton inhabiting remote oceans, which in turn has a large influence on the Earth's climate. The bioavailability of Fe in aerosols depends mainly on the fraction of soluble Fe (= [FeSol]/[FeTotal], where [FeSol] and [FeTotal] are the atmospheric concentrations of soluble and total Fe, respectively. However, the numerous factors affecting the soluble Fe fraction have not been fully understood. In this study, the Fe species, chemical composition, and soluble Fe concentrations in aerosols collected in Tsukuba, Japan were investigated over a year (nine samples from December 2002 to October 2003 to identify the factors affecting the amount of soluble Fe supplied into the ocean. The soluble Fe concentration in aerosols is correlated with those of sulfate and oxalate originated from anthropogenic sources, suggesting that soluble Fe is mainly derived from anthropogenic sources. Moreover, the soluble Fe concentration is also correlated with the enrichment factors of vanadium and nickel emitted by fossil fuel combustion. These results suggest that the degree of Fe dissolution is influenced by the magnitude of anthropogenic activity, such as fossil fuel combustion. X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS spectroscopy was performed in order to identify the Fe species in aerosols. Fitting of XAFS spectra coupled with micro X-ray fluorescence analysis (μ-XRF showed the main Fe species in aerosols in Tsukuba to be illite, ferrihydrite, hornblende, and Fe(III sulfate. Moreover, the soluble Fe fraction in each sample measured by leaching experiments is closely correlated with the Fe(III sulfate fraction determined by the XAFS spectrum fitting, suggesting that Fe(III sulfate is the main soluble Fe in the ocean. Another possible factor that can control the amount of soluble Fe supplied into the ocean is the total Fe(III concentration in the atmosphere, which was high in spring due to the high

  16. Seasonal changes in Fe species and soluble Fe concentration in the atmosphere in the Northwest Pacific region based on the analysis of aerosols collected in Tsukuba, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Takahashi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric iron (Fe can be a significant source of nutrition for phytoplankton inhabiting remote oceans, which in turn has a large influence on the Earth's climate. The bioavailability of Fe in aerosols depends mainly on the fraction of soluble Fe (= [FeSol]/[FeTotal], where [FeSol] and [FeTotal] are the atmospheric concentrations of soluble and total Fe, respectively. However, the numerous factors affecting the soluble Fe fraction have not been fully understood. In this study, the Fe species, chemical composition, and soluble Fe concentrations in aerosols collected in Tsukuba, Japan were investigated over a year (nine samples from December 2002 to October 2003 to identify the factors affecting the amount of soluble Fe supplied into the ocean. The soluble Fe concentration in aerosols is correlated with those of sulfate and oxalate originated from anthropogenic sources, suggesting that soluble Fe is mainly derived from anthropogenic sources. Moreover, the soluble Fe concentration is also correlated with the enrichment factors of vanadium and nickel emitted by fossil fuel combustion. These results suggest that the degree of Fe dissolution is influenced by the magnitude of anthropogenic activity, such as fossil fuel combustion. X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS spectroscopy was performed in this study to identify the Fe species in aerosols. The fitting of XAFS spectra coupled with micro X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF determined the main Fe species in aerosols in Tsukuba to be illite, ferrihydrite, hornblende, and Fe(III sulfate. Moreover, the soluble Fe fraction in each sample measured by leaching experiments is closely correlated with the Fe(III sulfate fraction determined by the XAFS spectrum fitting, suggesting that Fe(III sulfate is the main soluble Fe in the ocean. Another possible factor that can control the amount of soluble Fe supplied into the ocean is the total Fe(III concentration in the atmosphere, which was high in spring due to

  17. Long-term trends in dietary intake of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids in relation to their serum concentration in two regions in Japan from 1979 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Yukiko; Harada, Kouji H; Haraguchi, Koichi; Koizumi, Akio

    2017-06-01

    We investigated temporal changes of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) with 8-14 carbon atoms (C8 to C14) in duplicate diet and serum samples in Japan. The sum dietary intakes of PFCAs (C8 to C13) in the Kansai and Tohoku region were highest in the 2010s (mean; 177 ng/day for Kansai, 107 ng/day for Tohoku) followed by the 2000s (77 ng/day for Kansai, 34 ng/day for Tohoku) and the 1990s (53 ng/day for Kansai, 58 ng/day for Tohoku), then the 1980s (19 ng/day for Kansai, 23 ng/day for Tohoku). The sum of the serum concentartions (C8 to C13) was also highest in the 2010s (mean; 17 ng/mL for Kansai, 7.4 ng/mL for Tohoku), followed by the 2000s (12 ng/mL for Kansai, 6.3 ng/mL for Tohoku), then the 1990s (6.8 ng/mL for Kansai, 5.5 mg/mL for Tohoku) and the 1980s (3.8 ng/mL for Kansai, 0.4 ng/mL for Tohoku). A positive correlation was observed between dietary intakes and serum concentration for C8 to C11 (r = 0.94, p < 0.05 for C8; r = 0.80, p < 0.05 for C9; r = 0.98, p < 0.05 for C10; and r = 0.84, p < 0.05 for C11). The levels of C8, C9 and C10 in serum and dietary intake in the 2010s were much higher in Kansai than those in Tohoku, although those of C11 did not show such differences. Kansai has a fluoropolymer manufacture known as a specific source of PFOA (C8), and is more urbanized than Tohoku, which may be attributed to the higher levels of PFCAs (C8 to C10). On the other hand, C11 is common to residents in Kansai and Tohoku.

  18. 基于实物期权理论的日本企业在华地区扩张行为研究%Research on Regional Expansions of Japan's Enterprises in China based on Real Options Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪儒

    2015-01-01

    本文基于实物期权理论分析不确定性、 投资不可逆性、 新地区增长机会、 原投资地区与新投资地区之间的转换机会, 对日本跨国企业在华地区扩张行为的影响, 并探讨行业竞争程度对投资不可逆性、 新地区增长机会、 转换机会与日本跨国企业在华地区扩张行为之间关系的调节作用. 本文的结论有助于跨国企业理性地对待东道国市场的不确定性, 在东道国内部选择合理的扩张地点, 也对我国企业的国内多点布局和海外地区扩张具有借鉴意义.%The focal paper analyzes the effects of uncertainty, irreversibility of investment, growth opportunities of new regions, and the switch opportunities between the original and new regions on the regional expansions of Japan's multina-tional enterprises in China based on real options theory, meanwhile, it explores the moderating effects of industry compe-tition on the relationships of irreversibility of investment, new region-growth opportunities, the switch opportunities be-tween the original and new regions and the regional expansions of Japan's multinational enterprises in China. Results of the paper not only are conducive for multinational enterprises to rationally treat uncertainty and choose the suitable regions to expand in host countries, but also are significant for enterprises' multi-region configurations in home country and their regional expansions overseas.

  19. Impressions of Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su; Fangyuan

    2013-01-01

    <正>The eight-day visit to Japan seemed to be a beautiful dream that ended before I woke up. However, in the dream I saw the future of China-Japan friendship. On March 4, flying to Japan, I thought all the way: "What kind of a country is Japan? Is it really as orderly and

  20. The Elusive China-Japan-South Korea Free Trade Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    institutional underpinning to NEA regionalism.50 Specifically, the GATT/WTO architecture provides China- Japan -South Korea with self-satisfying...normative glue between China and Japan that is instilled by a liberal institutional underpinning.350 Specifically, the WTO architecture provides China... JAPAN -SOUTH KOREA FREE TRADE AGREEMENT by Jonathan D. Greenberg September 2015 Thesis Advisor: Michael Glosny Second Reader: Naazneen

  1. A Rearmed Japan: Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    Japan started its initial rearmament effort. Japan’s defense expenditures have fluctuated from near 3% of GNP to as low...Klein, Donald W. " Japan 1979: The Second Oil Crisis’ Asian Survey, January 1980. Lee, William T. "Soviet Defense Expenditures in an Era of SALT." United...relationship to the options Japan can take. In very general terms, Japan has two options: to solely rely on the D.S.-Japanese Mutual Defense Treaty for

  2. A seismic design of nuclear reactor building structures applying seismic isolation system in a seismicity region-a feasibility case study in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Tetsuo [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Yamamoto, Tomofumi; Sato, Kunihiko [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe (Japan); Jimbo, Masakazu [Toshiba Corporation, Yokohama (Japan); Imaoka, Tetsuo [Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd., Hitachi (Japan); Umeki, Yoshito [Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., Nagoya (Japan)

    2014-10-15

    A feasibility study on the seismic design of nuclear reactor buildings with application of a seismic isolation system is introduced. After the Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake in Japan of 1995, seismic isolation technologies have been widely employed for commercial buildings. Having become a mature technology, seismic isolation systems can be applied to NPP facilities in areas of high seismicity. Two reactor buildings are discussed, representing the PWR and BWR buildings in Japan, and the application of seismic isolation systems is discussed. The isolation system employing rubber bearings with a lead plug positioned (LRB) is examined. Through a series of seismic response analyses using the so-named standard design earthquake motions covering the design basis earthquake motions obtained for NPP sites in Japan, the responses of the seismic isolated reactor buildings are evaluated. It is revealed that for the building structures examined herein: (1) the responses of both isolated buildings and isolating LRBs fulfill the specified design criteria; (2) the responses obtained for the isolating LRBs first reach the ultimate condition when intensity of motion is 2.0 to 2.5 times as large as that of the design-basis; and (3) the responses of isolated reactor building fall below the range of the prescribed criteria.

  3. Genomic characterization of echovirus 6 causing aseptic meningitis in Hokkaido, Japan: a novel cluster in the nonstructural protein coding region of human enterovirus B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Masahiro; Komagome, Rika; Ishida, Setsuko; Nagano, Hideki; Takahashi, Kenichi; Okano, Motohiko

    2013-04-01

    We determined four complete nucleotide sequences of echovirus 6 (E6) isolated from an epidemic of aseptic meningitis (AM) in Hokkaido, Japan, in 2011. Phylogenetic analysis of the genes encoding viral capsid protein 1 revealed that the strains were closely related to E6 strains isolated in China in recent years, but they were distantly related to E6 strains isolated from patients with AM in Osaka Prefecture, Japan, in 2011. The genes encoding the viral protease and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (3CD) were closely related to those of several non-E6 strains of the species Human enterovirus B isolated in China, South Korea, and Australia from 1999 to 2010, resulting in a novel cluster in the phylogenetic tree. These results suggest that the incidence of AM in Japan in 2011 was caused by at least two lineages of E6 strains, and a lineage of the 3CD gene was interspersed among different serotypic strains isolated in Western Pacific countries.

  4. Japan og Singapore i Arktis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonami, Aki; Watters, Stewart

    2013-01-01

    are interested in the Arctic. Looking at the Arctic engagement of Japan and Singapore, this paper finds that their interest in the Polar Regions is not necessarily a new phenomenon and that Arctic policy, as with the development of other foreign policy objectives, is a complex mix of national, bureaucratic...... and group interests. For Greenlandic and Danish policymakers, it may be useful to understand the genesis of Japan and Singapore’s Arctic policies and that their interest is complex and multi-faceted....

  5. Characterization of pollen dispersion in the neighborhood of Tokyo, Japan in the spring of 2005 and 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Yoshinaga; Ohno, Hideki; Oh-ishi, Shuji; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Kizaki, Takako; Yoshizumi, Kunio

    2008-03-01

    The behavior of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) and Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) pollens in an urban area was examined through the measurements of the dispersion characteristics at the various sampling locations in both outdoor and indoor environments. Airborne pollens were counted continuously for three months during the Japanese cedar pollen and Japanese cypress seasons in 2005 and 2006 by the use of Durham's pollen trap method in and around Tokyo, Japan. The dispersion of pollens at the rooftop of Kyoritsu Women's University was observed to be at extremely high levels in 2005 compared with previously reported results during the past two decades. As for Japanese cedar pollen, the maximum level was observed as 440 counts cm(-2) day(-1) on 18 March 2005. Japanese cypress pollen dispersed in that area in the latter period was compared with the Japanese cedar pollen dispersions. The maximum dispersion level was observed to be 351 counts cm(-2) day(-1) on 7 April 2005. Total accumulated dispersions of Japanese cedar and Japanese cypress pollens were 5,552 and 1,552 counts cm(-2) for the three months (Feb., Mar. and Apr.) in 2005, respectively. However, the dispersion of both pollens in 2006 was very low. The total accumulated dispersions of Japanese cedar and Japanese cypress pollens were 421 and 98 counts cm(-2) for three months (Feb., Mar. and Apr.) in 2006, respectively. Moreover, the pollen deposition on a walking person in an urban area showed that the pollen counts on feet were observed to be extremely high compared with the ones on the shoulder, back and legs. These findings suggested that pollen fell on the surface of the paved road at first, rebounded to the ambient air and was deposited on the residents again. Furthermore, the regional distribution of the total pollen dispersion in the South Kanto area was characterized on 15-16 March 2005 and on 14-15 March 2006. Although the pollen levels in 2005 were much higher than in 2006, it was

  6. History of the great Kanto earthquakes inferred from the ages of Holocene marine terraces revealed by a comprehensive drilling survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komori, Junki; Shishikura, Masanobu; Ando, Ryosuke; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Miyairi, Yosuke

    2017-08-01

    We measured the emergence ages of four marine terraces in the Chikura lowland, which lies to the southeast of the Boso Peninsula, in eastern Japan, to reevaluate the history of the great earthquake occurrences along the Sagami Trough over the past 10,000 years. The dates of the marine terraces are measured via radiocarbon dating of shell fossils obtained from the marine deposits. The sampling method employed in this study collects core samples using a dense and systematic drilling survey, which increased the reliability when correlating shell fossils with marine terraces. In addition, radiocarbon dating was performed with accelerator mass spectrometry, which produces more highly accurate measurements than those measured in previous studies. Moreover, we explored the surface profiles of the terraces with detailed digital elevation model (DEM) data obtained using LiDAR. The maximum emergence ages of the marine terraces were dated at 6300 cal yBP, 3000 cal yBP, and 2200 cal yBP from the top terrace excepting the lowest terrace (which was estimated at AD1703). In addition, another previously unrecognized terrace was detected between the highest and the second terrace in both the dating and the geomorphological analyses and was dated at 5800 cal yBP. The newly obtained ages are nearly a thousand of years younger than previously estimated ages; consequently, the intervals of the great earthquakes that occurred along the Sagami Trough are estimated to be much shorter and more varied than those of previous estimations. This result revises the data used in the current assessment of the probabilities of earthquakes along the Sagami Trough, which could devastate the Tokyo metropolitan area. Furthermore, it demonstrates that the current approach could be a powerful tool to increase the accuracy of assessments of the other areas with depositional marine terraces.

  7. Ocean bottom seismic and tsunami network along the Japan Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehira, K.; Kanazawa, T.; Noguchi, S.; Aoi, S.; Kunugi, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Okada, Y.; Sekiguchi, S.; Shiomi, K.; Shinohara, M.; Yamada, T.

    2012-12-01

    Huge tsunami, which was generated by the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake of M9 subduction zone earthquake, attacked the coastal areas in the north-eastern Japan and gave severe casualties (about 20,000 people) and property damages in the areas. The present tsunami warning system, based on land seismic observation data, did not work effectively in the case of the M9 earthquake. For example, real tsunami height was higher than that of forecast by this system. It is strongly acknowledged that marine observation data is necessary to make tsunami height estimation more accurately. Therefore, new ocean bottom observation project has started in 2011 that advances the countermeasures against earthquake and tsunami disaster related to subduction zone earthquake and outer rise earthquake around Japan Trench and Kuril Trench. A large scale ocean bottom cabled observation network is scheduled to be deployed around Japan Trench and Kuril Trench by 2015. The network is consisted of 154 ocean bottom observation stations. Ocean bottom fiber optic cables, about 5100 km in total length, connect the stations to land. Observation stations with tsunami meters and seismometers will be placed on the seafloor off Hokkaido, off Tohoku and off Kanto, in a spacing of about 30 km almost in the direction of East-West (perpendicular to the trench axis) and in a spacing of about 50 - 60 km almost in the direction of North-South (parallel to the trench axis). Two or more sets of tsunami meters and seismometers will be installed in one station for redundancy. Two sets of three component servo accelerometers, a set of three component quartz type accelerometers (frequency outputs), a set of three component velocity seismometers will be installed, and two sets of quartz type depth sensors (frequency outputs) will be installed as tsunami meters. Tsunami data and seismometer data will be digitized at sampling frequency of 10 Hz and 100 Hz, respectively, and will be added clock

  8. Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in The Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey Part2 Yoshiyuki KANEDA Nagoya University Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) Haluk OZENER Boğaziçi University, Earthquake Researches Institute (KOERI) and Members of SATREPS Japan-Turkey project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, Y.; Ozener, H.

    2015-12-01

    The 1999 Izumit Earthquake as the destructive earthquake occurred near the Marmara Sea. The Marmara Sea should be focused on because of a seismic gap in the North Anatolian fault. Istanbul is located around the Marmara Sea, so, if next earthquake will occur near Istanbul, fatal damages will be generated. The Japan and Turkey can share our own experiences during past damaging earthquakes and we can prepare for future large earthquakes in cooperation with each other. In earthquakes in Tokyo area and Istanbul area as the destructive earthquakes near high population cities, there are common disaster researches and measures. For disaster mitigation, we are progressing multidisciplinary researches. Our goals of this SATREPS project are as follows, To develop disaster mitigation policy and strategies based on multidisciplinary research activities. To provide decision makers with newly found knowledge for its implementation to the current regulations. To organize disaster education programs in order to increase disaster awareness in Turkey. To contribute the evaluation of active fault studies in Japan. This project is composed of four research groups. The first group is Marmara Earthquake Source region observationally research group. This group has 4 sub-themes such as Seismicity, Geodesy, Electromagnetics and Trench analyses. The second group focuses on scenario researches of earthquake occurrence along the North Anatolia fault and precise tsunami simulation in the Marmara region. Aims of the third group are improvements and constructions of seismic characterizations and damage predictions based on observation researches and precise simulations. The fourth group is promoting disaster educations using research result visuals. In this SATREPS project, we will integrate these research results for disaster mitigation in Marmara region and .disaster education in Turkey. We will have a presentation of the updated results of this SATREPS project.

  9. Academic Libraries in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Rowena; Nagata, Haruki

    2008-01-01

    Academic libraries in Japan are well resourced by international standards, and support Japan's internationally recognized research capability well, but there are also ways in which they reflect Japan's strong bureaucratic culture. Recent changes to the status of national university libraries have seen a new interest in customer service, and…

  10. Academic Libraries in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Rowena; Nagata, Haruki

    2008-01-01

    Academic libraries in Japan are well resourced by international standards, and support Japan's internationally recognized research capability well, but there are also ways in which they reflect Japan's strong bureaucratic culture. Recent changes to the status of national university libraries have seen a new interest in customer service, and…

  11. Get Oriented: Study Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parramore, Barbara M.

    1981-01-01

    Recommends that students in social studies classes be exposed to a study of Japan because of the wide array of contrasts possible between Japan and the United States. Information is presented on Japan's modernization, global status, language, decision-making processes, and ancient traditions. (DB)

  12. The Relation Between the View on the Language and Educational Ideology in the Early Meiji Period in Japan Through the Discourse of Regionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufuko ICHIMIYA

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the Japanese language situation in early Meiji period will be analysed from the viewpoint of the provinces. In concrete terms, the origin of the idea that "an opaque language yields an unlcear ideology" – we can often find such a discourse through Meiji, Taisho and early Showa period – will be searched for by using primary sources in northern Kyushu, the southern part of Japan. This kind of idea can be seen in the writings of teachers and professors. Consequently, educational theories and teaching methods which had spread over the country in that period will be clues to analyse this subject. Moreover, I will try to compare the concept of "opaque language" in the Taisho period, during which dialects were considered as the representative example of such a language, with what was considered "opaque language" in the early Meiji period, when the definition of dialect and the concrete form of the standard language were still vague.

  13. Mixing state of regionally transported soot particles and the coating effect on their size and shape at a mountain site in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Kouji; Zaizen, Yuji; Kajino, Mizuo; Igarashi, Yasuhito

    2014-05-01

    Soot particles influence the global climate through interactions with sunlight. A coating on soot particles increases their light absorption by increasing their absorption cross section and cloud condensation nuclei activity when mixed with other hygroscopic aerosol components. Therefore, it is important to understand how soot internally mixes with other materials to accurately simulate its effects in climate models. In this study, we used a transmission electron microscope (TEM) with an auto particle analysis system, which enables more particles to be analyzed than a conventional TEM. Using the TEM, soot particle size and shape (shape factor) were determined with and without coating from samples collected at a remote mountain site in Japan. The results indicate that ~10% of aerosol particles between 60 and 350 nm in aerodynamic diameters contain or consist of soot particles and ~75% of soot particles were internally mixed with nonvolatile ammonium sulfate or other materials. In contrast to an assumption that coatings change soot shape, both internally and externally mixed soot particles had similar shape and size distributions. Larger aerosol particles had higher soot mixing ratios, i.e., more than 40% of aerosol particles with diameters >1 µm had soot inclusions, whereas <20% of aerosol particles with diameters <1 µm included soot. Our results suggest that climate models may use the same size distributions and shapes for both internally and externally mixed soot; however, changing the soot mixing ratios in the different aerosol size bins is necessary.

  14. Exploration of underground basement structures in Kanto plain using the spatial autocorrelation method. 1. S-wave velocity structure along the line from Hatoyama, Saitama to Noda, Chiba; Kukan jiko sokanho ni yoru Kanto heiya no kiban kozo tansa. 1. Saitamaken Hatoyama machi - Chibaken Nodashi kan no S ha sokudo kozo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuoka, T.; Umezawa, N.; Shiraishi, H. [Saitama Institute of Environmental Pollution, Saitama (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    The Saitama prefectural government has been conducting basement structure exploration using the spatial autocorrelation method by dividing the entire plain area into meshes, for the purpose of improving the accuracy of estimating large-scale seismic damages. This paper reports the result of explorations on meshes in the east-west direction in the central part of Saitama Prefecture. The present exploration was intended on ten meshes in the east-west direction along the north latitude 36-degree line. The number of exploration points is 13 comprising three points on the hilly area bordering on the eastern edge of the Kanto mountainous area and ten points on the plain area. The arrangement constitutes a traverse line with a total distance of about 33 km from the west edge (Hatoyama-machi in Saitama Prefecture) to the east edge (Noda City in Chiba Prefecture). The phase velocities were estimated from the result of the array microtremor observations using the spatial autocorrelation method applied with the FET. The phase velocities were used to estimate underground structures by using an inverse analysis. As a result, detailed two-dimensional S-wave velocity structures were revealed on the traverse line. The velocity cross section expresses change in the basement structures with sufficient resolution, and at the same time the information is judged highly harmonious with existing deep boring data and the result of artificial earthquake exploration. 15 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Towards Gender Equality in Basic Education: Major Challenges in Meeting Dakar EFA Goals. Regional Seminar in Asia (Kyoto, Japan, November 28-30, 2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    A regional UNESCO seminar aimed to follow up on the goals set at the World Education Forum in Dakar in 2000 and to contribute to the "Ten Year UN Girls' Education Initiative" (UNGEI). The seminar established three primary aims: (1) to develop a regional cooperation mechanism or network of Education for All (EFA) gender focal points, to…

  16. [Mental health care systems and provisions in the immediate and acute phase of the Great East Japan Earthquake: situational and support activities in Miyagi Prefecture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kazunori

    2014-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, which measured 9.0 on the Richter scale, was followed by a huge tsunami that caused catastrophic damage to the area extending from the Tohoku to Kanto regions. It was also accompanied by the meltdown of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. Mental health service provisions were hit equally hard by the disaster, with a wide range of support and relief activities being implemented. This article reviews damage that was inflicted and support activities that were carried out in the mental health field in Miyagi Prefecture in the immediate aftermath and acute phase of the disaster, and also examines future challenges. Almost all mental health institutions in Miyagi Prefecture were affected by the disaster, and experienced difficulties such as feeding inpatients and securing necessary medication. Mental health institutions in the coastal area, in particular, were severely hit. Three hospitals-were seriously damaged by the tsunami, which forced them to make arrangements for the transfer of 300 inpatients. In the aftermath of the earthquake, it became difficult to access medical institutions, and confusion ensued regarding the provision of mental health services. Many municipalities in Miyagi Prefecture were seriously affected by the disaster, and information-gathering was crippled due to the disruption of communication and transport networks. Consequently, the administrative function regarding mental health service provisions was significantly impaired. Through official, private, and academic channels, volunteers in the field of mental health were sent to the affected areas in the immediate aftermath of the disaster. It was very difficult to coordinate these volunteers because of the confusion in gathering-information and in the chain of command for support activities. The number of support teams working in the affected areas peaked one to two months after the earthquake, but it became clear that continuous and long

  17. Who was concerned about radiation, food safety, and natural disasters after the great East Japan earthquake and Fukushima catastrophe? A nationwide cross-sectional survey in 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Sugimoto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Disaster-related concerns by sub-populations have not been clarified after the great East Japan earthquake and the Fukushima nuclear power plant incidents. This paper assesses who was concerned about radiation, food safety, and natural disasters among the general population in order to buffer such concerns effectively. METHODS: The hypothesis that women, parents, and family caregivers were most concerned about radiation, food safety, and natural disaster was tested using a varying-intercept multivariable logistic regression with 5809 responses from a nationwide cross-sectional survey random-sampled in March 2012. RESULTS: Many people were at least occasionally concerned about radiation (53.5%, food safety (47.3%, and about natural disaster (69.5%. Women were more concerned than men about radiation (OR = 1.67; 95% CI = 1.35-2.06, food safety (1.70; 1.38-2.10, and natural disasters (1.74; 1.39-2.19. Parents and family care needs were not significant. Married couples were more concerned about radiation (1.53; 1.33-1.77, food safety (1.38; 1.20-1.59, and natural disasters (1.30; 1.12-1.52. Age, child-cohabitation, college-completion, retirement status, homemaker status, and the house-damage certificate of the last disaster were also associated with at least one concern. Participants from the Kanto region were more concerned about radiation (2.08; 1.58-2.74 and food safety (1.30; 1.07-1.59, which demonstrate similar positive associations to participants from Tohoku where a disaster relief act was invoked (3.36; 2.25-5.01 about radiation, 1.49; 1.08-2.06 about food safety. CONCLUSIONS: Sectioning the populations by gender and other demographics will clarify prospective targets for interventions, allow for a better understanding of post-disaster concerns, and help communicate relevant information effectively.

  18. Surveys on the Prevalence of Pediatric Bronchial Asthma in Japan: A Comparison between the 1982, 1992, and 2002 Surveys Conducted in the Same Region Using the Same Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankei Nishima

    2009-01-01

    Conclusions: BA prevalence in the third survey increased 2.1 and 1.4 times respectively compared to the first survey and second survey, indicating an upward trend in all regions and age groups surveyed.

  19. Levels of mercury and organohalogen compounds in the muscle and liver of kidako moray eels (Gymnothorax kidako) caught off the southern region of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Tetsuya; Minoshima, Yasuhiko; Hisamichi, Yohsuke; Kimura, Osamu; Hayasaka, Moriaki; Ogasawara, Hideki; Haraguchi, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed the levels of total mercury (T-Hg), methylmercury (M-Hg) and Cd in the muscle and liver of kidako moray eels (Gymnothorax kidako) of different body lengths caught off Kochi Prefecture in southern Japan. Furthermore, we analyzed the levels of organohalogen compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p,p'-1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE), trans-nonachlor and 2,3,3',4,4',5,5'-heptachloro-1'-methyl-1-2'-bipyrrole (Q1) and stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) in the muscle of eels. The concentrations of T-Hg and M-Hg in the muscle (edible part) were 0.31±0.08 µg/wet g and 0.25±0.06 µg/wet g (n=26), respectively, and those in large eels exceeded the Japanese legislated levels of T-Hg (0.4 µg/wet g) and M-Hg (0.3 µg/wet g) in fish and shellfish, respectively. The T-Hg and M-Hg concentrations in the liver were markedly higher than those in the muscle, respectively. The ratios of M-Hg to T-Hg in the muscle and liver were about 80 and 60%, respectively, and those ratios tended to decrease with increased body length. The Cd concentrations in the liver tended to increase proportionally with body length, while that in the muscle was trace (around or below 0.03 µg/wet g). The concentrations of PCBs, p,p'-DDE, trans-nonachlor in the muscle tended to increase proportionally with body length, while that of Q1 did not. The δ(13)C and δ(15)N values in the kidako moray eel were markedly higher than those in offshore habit predators reported elsewhere, which may reflect the inshore habitat of this eels.

  20. [The methods selected and the assumption fixed for the population projection by region: the case of Japan since the 1960s (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, H

    1983-01-01

    Like many other countries, a large number of population projections have been undertaken in Japan since the 1960s, by both the central and the local governments and by other institutions. The methods selected and the assumptions fixed in these projections differ from one projection to another. In a review of 20 cases in which a clear description of the assumption is available, it became apparent that the methods selected had altered according to the transformation of the demand for the future population. Namely, the demands for the population projection had mainly been of the whole population during the 1960s but the demands for the population by sex and age have increased since the end of that period. Accordingly, the methods selected in the 1970s changed from the mathematical to the cohort component method (including the estimation by demographic models). It is also apparent that the criticism of the methods selected for the population projection itself and on the assumption fixed for the estimation, especially of migration rates, induce the alternation of the method selected. 1 of the criticisms of the methodology was concerning the mathematical one, in which the future population was projected by use of the mathematical equation which fit past population trends. It was pointed out that the future population should be estimated by use of estimated economic variables since the past population did not necessarily change to fit any mathematical equations. Another criticism of the methodology was of the cohort component method, in which net migration rates are estimated. It was argued that the multiregional demographic models were more suitable for population projections since they consider inmigration and outmigration as separate entities. The criticism of the assumption of migration rates was focused mainly on the cases which select the cohort component method. That is, these assumptions based only on the demographic consideration, neglecting the

  1. A consistent structure of phytoplankton communities across the warm-cold regions of the water mass on a meridional transect in the East/Japan Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Jung Hyun; Han, Eunah; Lee, Sang Heon; Park, Hyun Je; Kim, Kyung-Ryul; Kang, Chang-Keun

    2017-09-01

    Three cruises were undertaken along a meridional transect in the East/Japan Sea (EJS) in spring (May 2007), summer (July 2009), and fall (October 2012) to determine the geographic variations in phytoplankton biomass and community composition. This study revealed a gradient of surface temperature and a fluctuation of hydrographic conditions along the transect. Although a subpolar front (SPF) formed between the warm- and cold-water masses (37-40°N), no significant differences in phytoplankton biomass and community composition were detected between the southern and northern parts of the EJS. These results disprove our initial hypothesis that different water masses may contain differently structured phytoplankton communities. In the present study, isothermal layers (≤ 12 °C) fluctuated over a depth of 50 m in both warm- and cold-water masses, depending on the SPF. In contrast, the nitracline (i.e. 2.5 μM nitrate isopleth) depth was recorded within a limited range of 20-40 m in spring, 30-50 m in summer, and 40-60 m in fall. The chlorophyll a concentrations at the subsurface chlorophyll maxima (SCM) were significantly higher in spring and summer (356 ± 233 and 270 ± 182 ng L-1, respectively) than in fall (117 ± 89 ng L-1). The relative contributions of individual phytoplankton groups to the depth-integrated chlorophyll a concentration conformed to the composition of the phytoplankton community in the SCM layer, showing a dominance of diatoms (58 ± 19% in spring, 48 ± 11% in summer, and 30 ± 20% in fall). Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that the geographic structures of phytoplankton communities were strongly associated with the vertical structures of water temperature and nutrient concentration in the water column rather than with horizontal gradients of hydrographic conditions. Finally, our findings suggest that water column stability and light-nutrient availability in the euphotic zone play a key role in determining geographical consistency of

  2. Lessons From Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI YAFEN

    2010-01-01

    @@ In the mid-to late 1980s, Japan experienced a prolonged bubble economy and entered a decadelong recession after it burst. The economy in China currently has several things in common with Japan's economy before its bubbles burst, such as a large foreign exchange reserve, an international dispute over currency revaluation, excess liquidity, and soaring asset prices.

  3. Mines and mineral processing facilities in the vicinity of the March 11, 2011, earthquake in northern Honshu, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzie, W. David; Baker, Michael S.; Bleiwas, Donald I.; Kuo, Chin

    2011-01-01

    U.S. Geological Survey data indicate that the area affected by the March 11, 2011, magnitude 9.0 earthquake and associated tsunami is home to nine cement plants, eight iodine plants, four iron and steel plants, four limestone mines, three copper refineries, two gold refineries, two lead refineries, two zinc refineries, one titanium dioxide plant, and one titanium sponge processing facility. These facilities have the capacity to produce the following percentages of the world's nonfuel mineral production: 25 percent of iodine, 10 percent of titanium sponge (metal), 3 percent of refined zinc, 2.5 percent of refined copper, and 1.4 percent of steel. In addition, the nine cement plants contribute about one-third of Japan's cement annual production. The iodine is a byproduct from production of natural gas at the Miniami Kanto gas field, east of Tokyo in Chiba Prefecture. Japan is the world's second leading (after Chile) producer of iodine, which is processed in seven nearby facilities.

  4. Retrospective study on temporal and regional variations of methylmercury concentrations in preserved umbilical cords collected from inhabitants of the Minamata area, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Mineshi; Murata, Katsuyuki; Tsuruta, Kazuhito; Miyamoto, Kenichiro; Akagi, Hirokatsu

    2010-09-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the historical time-course changes and regional distribution of methylmercury concentrations in preserved umbilical cords collected from Minamata-area inhabitants born between 1947 and 1989. The data from Miyazaki, Tottori, Akita, Tsushima (Nagasaki), Fukuoka and Tokyo were used as controls. A total of 325 data were analyzed to estimate the temporal and spatial distribution of methylmercury among inhabitants born in the Minamata area. Elevated methylmercury concentrations (>or=1 microg/g) were mainly observed in inhabitants born between 1947 and 1968. That peak coincided with the peak of acetaldehyde production in Minamata. The methylmercury concentrations started to decrease in keeping with the decline of acetaldehyde production, which ceased in 1968, and thereafter the methylmercury levels gradually decreased to the control levels. Elevated methylmercury concentrations were first observed in the districts of Minamata, followed by Izumi, Tsunagi and Ashikita, indicating the time-course-dependent regional distributions of methylmercury pollution.

  5. Residential environmental evaluation of local cities considering regional characteristic and personal residential preference-a case study of Saga City,Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Jian; HOKAO Kazunori

    2004-01-01

    Questionnaire surveys and subjective evaluations on residential environment were performed in order to grasp the main factors of residential environment of small local cities. The suitable evaluation index system was established, and the regional residential environment characteristics and personal residential preference types were analyzed, so that their influence on residential environment evaluation could be grasped. The results can be applied to the residential environment planning, construction and monitoring of local cities.

  6. Progress in infant health in Okinawa, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokama, Tomiko; Binns, Colin

    2012-07-01

    The infant mortality rate (IMR) and neonatal mortality rate (NMR) defined as the number of infant and newborn deaths per 1000 live births, respectively, are widely accepted as population indicators of the level of perinatal and postnatal health. Since the end of World War II, Japan has made substantial progress in reducing its IMR and NMR. This resulted from improving living standards and the provision of universal maternal and child health care (MCH) services. Okinawa, the island prefecture that is the furthest from mainland Japan, had the third highest IMR and the highest low-birth-weight rate (LBW) among all prefectures when its statistics were integrated into Japan in 1973. Even though the LBW rate in Okinawa has remained higher than the all-Japan average, Okinawa has shown a considerable improvement in IMR and NMR. The aim is to review the trends in IMR, NMR, and LBW in Japan and Okinawa and to discuss sociodemographic trends, economics, and the provision of health care services. The IMR and NMR in Okinawa decreased during that time from 14.8 to 2.4 and from 7.5 to 0.8, respectively. The LBW rate decreased until the mid-1980s, but since then it has increased to 11.5 (Okinawa) and 9.6 (Japan) in 2009. Okinawa's public health and primary health care model for infants has been very successful and may be applicable to child health in island nations of the Asia-Pacific region.

  7. Globalization in Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesgaard, Marie Højlund

    2014-01-01

    Abstract for Nichibunken Copenhagen Symposium August 2012 Globalization in Japan – the case of moral education. 日本とグローバル化 - 道徳教育の件 Marie H. Roesgaard, Department of Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies, University of Copenhagen. This paper attempts to trace the history of global influence...... of development and discourse on morality, values and identity. I propose seeing the contents of moral education as a reaction to the challenges of globalization, as a reaction to the risks experienced in modern globalized society and to the anxiety born out of the challenges, ‘real’ or ‘imagined,’ perceived...... to be posed by globalization. I would suggest that a productive point of departure would be to look at initiatives concerning moral education as ‘gate-keeping’, where those in a position of influence try to safeguard what is considered basic and inalienable in Japanese culture and morality, while also...

  8. Effects of aggregating forests, establishing forest road networks, and mechanization on operational efficiency and costs in a mountainous re-gion in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazuhiro Aruga; Gyo Hiyamizu; Chikara Nakahata; Masashi Saito

    2013-01-01

    We investigated forest road networks and forestry operations before and after mechanization on aggregated forestry operation sites. We developed equations to estimate densities of road networks with average slope angles, operational efficiency of bunching operations with road network density, and average forwarding distances with operation site areas. Subsequently, we analyzed the effects of aggregating forests, establishing forest road networks, and mechanization on operational efficiency and costs. Six ha proved to be an appropriate operation site area with minimum operation expenses. The operation site areas of the forest owners’ cooperative in this region aggregated approximately 6 ha and the cooperative conducted forestry operations on aggregated sites. Therefore, 6 ha would be an appropriate operation site area in this region. Regarding road network density, higher-density road networks increased operational expenses due to the higher direct operational expenses of strip road establishment. Therefore, road network density should be reduced to approximately 200 m⋅ha-1 within average pre-yarding dis-tances on which a grapple loader could conduct bunching without winching. With larger stem volumes a larger reduction in operational expenses occurred for the mechanized operation system compared to the conventional operation system. However, with smaller stem volumes, the operational expenses for the mechanized operation system were higher than for the conventional operation system. Therefore, the appropriate operation system and machine sizes should be determined based on stem volumes.

  9. Groundwater contamination in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tase, Norio [Univ. of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1992-07-01

    Problems on groundwater contamination in Japan are briefly summarized in this paper. Although normal physical conditions in Japan restrict the possibilities of groundwater contamination, human activities are threatening groundwater resources. A survey by the Environment Agency of Japan showed nationwide spreading of organic substances, such as trichloroethylene as well as nitrogen compounds. Synthetic detergents have also been detected even in rural areas and in deep confined aquifers, although their concentrations are not as high. Public awareness of agrichemical or pesticides abuse, especially from golf courses, is apparent. Other problems such as nitrate-nitrogen, leachate from landfills, and the leaking of underground storage tanks are also discussed. 9 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Groundwater contamination in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tase, Norio

    1992-07-01

    Problems on groundwater contamination in Japan are briefly summarized in this paper. Although normal physical conditions in Japan restrict the possibilities of groundwater contamination, human activities are threatening groundwater resources. A survey by the Environment Agency of Japan showed nationwide spreading of organic substances, such as trichloroethylene as well as nitrogen compounds. Synthetic detergents have also been detected even in rural areas and in deep confined aquifers, although their concentrations are not as high. Public awareness of agrichemical or pesticides abuse, especially from golf courses, is apparent. Other problems such as nitrate-nitrogen, leachate from landfills, and the leaking of underground storage tanks are also discussed.

  11. 认同与批判:清末留日学生的地域文化观%Identity and Criticism:on the Regional Cultural Viewpoint of Students Studying in Japan in the Late Qing Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱发建; 张晶萍

    2015-01-01

    The space isolation and the changes of reference frame caused by studying in Japan not only inspired the na-tional spirit of students in the late Qing Dynasty,but also make their regional consciousness sublimate.Under the guidance of the idea that one should love and strive for his hometown as the first step of love and strive for his nation,the students all em-phasized that their provinces related to nation closely and hoped their provinces played a leading role in the national move-ment.As they investigated hometown historical geography and culture as the basic of province self-government,a regional culture fan formatted.On one hand,the students studying in Japan approved the regional culture and given it positive value;on the other hand,they reflected and criticized its ingredients which made the regional culture does not adapt the social com-petition and does not meet the required of self-government,alerting compatriots seek innovation.They gave the regional cul-ture a different character by reassessing its value,and redrawing its image.%留学异邦所造成的空间区隔和参照系的变化,不仅激发了清末各省留日学生的民族主义精神,也使他们的地域意识得到升华。在爱国先爱邦、谋国先谋邦的理念指导下,各省留学生们均强调本省对全国关系之重,期望本省在民族建国的运动中发挥领导作用。他们调查研究本省的历史地理文化状况以作为自治的基础,从而形成了一股地域文化热。留学生们一方面认同本省文化、赋予其正面价值,另一方面又对地域文化中不适应社会竞争、不符合自治需要的成份进行反思与批判,警醒同胞谋求革新。留学生们通过重新评价赋予了地域文化不同的品格,并通过创办杂志、传播新学新知等实际行动,在一定程度上改绘了本省地域文化的形象。

  12. A new approach to evaluate factors controlling elemental sediment–seawater distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) in coastal regions, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takata, Hyoe, E-mail: takata@kaiseiken.or.jp [Marine Ecology Research Institute, Central Laboratory, Onjuku, Chiba (Japan); National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba City, Chiba (Japan); Aono, Tatsuo; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba City, Chiba (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    In numerical models to simulate the dispersion of anthropogenic radionuclides in the marine environment, the sediment–seawater distribution coefficient (K{sub d}) for various elements is an important parameter. In coastal regions, K{sub d} values are largely dependent on hydrographic conditions and physicochemical characteristics of sediment. Here we report K{sub d} values for 36 elements (Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Se, Rb, Sr, Y, Mo, Cd, I, Cs, rare earth elements, Pb, {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U) in seawater and sediment samples from 19 Japanese coastal regions, and we examine the factors controlling the variability of these K{sub d} values by investigating their relationships to hydrographic conditions and sediment characteristics. There was large variability in K{sub d} values for Al, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Se, Cd, I, Pb and Th. Variations of K{sub d} for Al, Mn, Fe, Co, Pb and Th appear to be controlled by hydrographic conditions. Although K{sub d} values for Ni, Cu, Se, Cd and I depend mainly on grain size, organic matter content, and the concentrations of hydrous oxides/oxides of Fe and Mn in sediments, heterogeneity in the surface characteristics of sediment particles appears to hamper evaluation of the relative importance of these factors. Thus, we report a new approach to evaluate the factors contributing to variability in K{sub d} for an element. By this approach, we concluded that the K{sub d} values for Cu, Se, Cd and I are controlled by grain size and organic matter in sediments, and the K{sub d} value for Ni is dependent on grain size and on hydrous oxides/oxides of Fe and Mn. - Highlights: • K{sub d}s for 36 elements were determined in 19 Japanese coastal regions. • K{sub d}s for several elements appeared to be controlled by multiple factors in sediments. • We evaluated these factors based on physico-chemical characteristics of sediments.

  13. null Kirishima, Japan Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The shield volcano consists of more than 20 eruptive centers over a 20 x 30 km area that also includes Japan's first national park. Sixty-nine eruptions have been...

  14. Japan's radiant architecture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruairí O'Brien

    2014-01-01

    .... If Japanese architecture in the last century could be seen as an expression of fast growth, destruction, rebirth and expansion, today's Japan promises to deliver a new hybrid of high and low tech...

  15. 日本东北地区双震带高精度重定位研究%Precise earthquake relocation of double seismic zone beneath Tohoku region in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅煜铭; 江国明; 魏衍雯; 周智文; 马潇

    2016-01-01

    日本所在的西太平洋地区是世界上中深源地震发生最为频繁的地区。早期研究已表明,日本东北地区下方的中深源地震呈双层分布。为进一步分析该双震带的空间分布特征,本文通过方法测试证明了采用球坐标系下的三维射线追踪法改进后的双差定位法进行地震重定位的精确性和有效性,对使用该方法进行重定位前、后各方向上的误差进行了分析,并确定了最佳的定位参数。在此基础上,对日本东北地区的中深源地震进行了高精度重定位,并对重定位得到的震源位置进行了空间拟合,其结果表明地震呈明显的双层分布,且与西太平洋俯冲板块几近平行。本文研究结果对揭示双震带中地震的发震机理以及俯冲板块内的精细结构均具有重要意义。%Japan is located in western Pacific,where the intermediate-deep earth-quakes occur frequently.Early researches indicate that the intermediate-deep earthquakes beneath Tohoku region in Japan constitute a double seismic zone. In order to analyze the spatial distribution characteristics of the double seismic zone in Tohoku region,we use a method test to show the precision and validity of the double-difference location algorithm,which has been improved by 3-D ray tracing method in spherical coordinate system.We analyse the errors before and after relocation along different directions,and determine the most suitable parameters for relocation.Then we obtain the precise relocated earthquakes in the double seismic zone beneath Tohoku region,and fit the relocated hypocen-ters in three-dimensional space.The relocation results of intermediate-deep earthquakes in Tohoku region indicate that the earthquakes in the seismic zone are distributed obviously in double layers,which are approximately parallel to the subducting western Pacific Plate.The results of this paper are significant to reveal the mechanisms of earthquakes in double

  16. Occupational asthma in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Dobashi, Kunio

    2012-01-01

    Research into occupational asthma (OA) in Japan has been led by the Japanese Society of Occupational and Environmental Allergy. The first report about allergic OA identified konjac asthma. After that, many kinds of OA have been reported. Cases of some types of OA, such as konjac asthma and sea squirt asthma, have been dramatically reduced by the efforts of medical personnel. Recently, with the development of new technologies, chemical antigen-induced asthma has increased in Japan. Due to adva...

  17. Japan; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2012-01-01

    Japan has a universal public pension system. Social security spending is a key fiscal policy challenge in Japan. The 2004 pension reforms have increased the ratio of the government subsidy to the basic pension benefit. Three reform measures are necessary to improve pension finances: an increase in pension eligibility age, a reduction in the pension benefit, and an increase in contributions. Eliminating the preferential tax treatments of pension income and collecting pension contributions from...

  18. Regional extent of the large coseismic slip zone of the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake delineated by on-fault aftershocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, A.; Igarashi, T.; Fukuda, J.

    2012-12-01

    In order to image the rupture process of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, many fault source models have recently been developed following this giant earthquake by inverting for slip on the fault plane, based on a variety of collected data, strong ground motion, geodetic, and tsunami recordings. Most of these studies suggest that the area of largest coseismic slip (~30-80 m) was located near the mainshock hypocenter, extending eastward to a location near the Japan Trench axis. However, the estimated outer edges of the large-slip zone are substantially different between these models, due to the currently limited spatial resolution of slip along the fault. Consequently, there are insufficient constraints as to how far the large-slip zone extended along the plate interface during the mainshock rupture. Here we delineate the outer edge of this large-slip zone in detail, by applying a spatial correlation between on-fault aftershocks and slip to the Tohoku aftershock sequence. We focus on the sharp density contrast observed for interplate, repeating, and down-dip compressional earthquakes induced by the Tohoku-Oki mainshock. The seismicity rate of interplate earthquakes changed significantly after the mainshock, probably as a result of stress perturbations by the large-slip, and here we use this information as qualitative constraints in constructing our model. The model that we present for the large-slip zone incorporates the main features of previously proposed fault source models, and also the observed fine-scale heterogeneities of fault slip associated with this event. It is important to highlight that the outer edge of this large-slip zone shows a remarkably complex shape. In particular, it is narrow and elongate southward along the ~35 km iso-depth contour of the plate boundary offshore of Fukushima and Ibaraki. This southward elongate slip zone corresponds to down-dip regions that appear to have produced higher relative levels of short-period seismic radiation. We

  19. Japan steel mill perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murase, K. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    The international and Japan's steel industry, the coking coal market, and Japan's expectations from Canada's coal industry are discussed. Japan's steel mills are operating at full capacity. Crude steel production for the first half of 2004 was 55.8 million tons. The steel mills are profitable, but costs are high, and there are difficulties with procuring raw materials. Japan is trying to enhance the quality of coke, in order to achieve higher productivity in the production of pig iron. Economic growth is rising disproportionately in the BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China), with a large increase in coking coal demand from China. On the supply side, there are several projects underway in Australia and Canada to increase production. These include new developments by Elk Valley Coal Corporation, Grande Cache Coal, Western Canadian Coal, and Northern Energy and Mining in Canada. The Elga Mine in the far eastern part of Russia is under development. But the market is expected to remain tight for some time. Japan envisions Canadian coal producers will provide a stable coal supply, expansion of production and infrastructure capabilities, and stabilization of price. 16 slides/overheads are included.

  20. Psychology in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Hiroshi; Tanaka-Matsumi, Junko

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide information about Japan and its psychology in advance of the 31st International Congress of Psychology (ICP), to be held in Yokohama, Japan, in 2016. The article begins with the introduction of the Japanese Psychological Association (JPA), the hosting organization of the ICP 2016, and the Japanese Union of Psychological Associations consisting of 51 associations/societies, of which the JPA is a member. This is followed by a brief description of a history of psychology of Japan, with emphasis on the variation in our approach to psychology in three different periods, that is, the pre- and post-Pacific War periods, and the post-1960 period. Next, the international contributions of Japanese psychology/psychologists are discussed from the point of view of their visibility. Education and training in psychology in Japanese universities is discussed with a final positive remark about the long-awaited enactment of the Accredited Psychologist Law in September, 2015.

  1. Moral Education in Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesgaard, Marie Højlund

    What is a ‘good’ person and how do we educate ‘good’ persons? This question of morality is central to any society and its government and educational system including the Japanese. In many societies it has been customary to teach about morality from a religious standpoint, but not so in Japan, where....... It places moral education within the context of globalization and cosmopolitanism and shows, that moral education in Japan is a useful key to understanding how globalization and cosmopolitanism can work within a specific system, in this case Japanese values education. In recent years various changes...... political focus on moral education in Japan, particularly by the two Abe-administrations. Changes include for example increased emphasis on patriotism, on respect for life and the environment, on individual responsibility, on respecting differences and other countries and on a general strengthening of moral...

  2. Cultural Astronomy in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Steven L.

    While Japan is known more for its contributions to modern astronomy than its archaeoastronomical sites, there is still much about the culture's heritage that is of interest in the study of cultural astronomy. This case study provides an overview of historical considerations necessary to understand the place of astronomy in Japanese society as well as methodological considerations that highlight traditional approaches that have at times been a barrier to interdisciplinary research. Some specific areas of study in the cultural astronomy of Japan are discussed including examples of contemporary research based on interdisciplinary approaches. Japan provides a fascinating background for scholars who are willing to go beyond their curiosity for sites of alignment and approach the culture with a desire to place astronomical iconography in social context.

  3. Megaloblastic anemia in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taguchi,Hirokuni

    1978-08-01

    Full Text Available Since 1903, 744 cases of megaloblastic anemia have been reported in Japan: 490 cases of pernicious anemia; 95 cases associated with pregnancy; 66 cases after gastrectomy; 22 cases of megaloblastic anemia of infants; 21 cases of folic acid deficiency other than pregnancy and 19 cases of vitamin B12 malabsorption after ileal resection. It is generally agreed among hematologists in Japan that pernicious anemia is relatively rare, as in other Asian countries. The diagnosis of pernicious anemia in Japan is usually made by stained marrow films, radioisotopic assay of serum vitamin B12, Schilling test and good response to vitamin B12 therapy. Serum folate level, intrinsic factor or its antibody, methylmalonic acid excretion, formiminoglutamic acid excretion and deoxyuridine suppression test are performed only at a small number of laboratories. The drugs of choice are hydroxocobalamin, deoxyadenosylcobalamin and methylcobalamin. Cyanocobalamin has nearly disappeared from commercial sources in Japan. Vitamin B12 administration is common in patients with neurological disorders. Megaloblastic anemia due to folic acid deficiency is extremely rare in Japan. Low serum folate levels are frequently observed among patients receiving anticonvulsants or in pregnant women, but in such samples megaloblastic anemia is almost never detected. The folic acid content of hospital diets indicates that satisfactory amounts of folate are taken in Japan. The intake of folic acid from rice is well over the minimum daily requirement of folate. Other factors in folic acid deficiency, such as food taboos, severe alcoholism and malabsorption syndrome are not frequently found in Japanese. The inadequate intake of folate was the critical factor in most reported cases.

  4. Divorce in contemporary Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukurai, H; Alston, J

    1990-10-01

    Data from the 1985-86 Japanese census are analysed to explore the determinants of the divorce rates in Japan's forty-seven prefectures, using two theoretical models: (a) the social integration model, which is shown to have a greater utility in predicting Japanese divorce levels than (b), the human capital model. Female emigration patterns play a significant role in affecting the divorce rate. Population increase and net household income are also important predictors of the Japanese divorce rate and urbanization has a great influence in modern Japan. Demographic and aggregate variables such as migration, urbanization, and socioeconomic factors are useful when organized under a social integration model.

  5. Globalization and Education in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkura, Kentaro; Shibata, Masako

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the authors contend that globalization in Japan is the gradual process in which Japan's positioning of "self" within international relations, which had formerly been dominated by the West, has changed. Accordingly, Japan's relationships with the West and the rest of the world, for example, Asia, have also been reviewed and…

  6. Globalization and Education in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkura, Kentaro; Shibata, Masako

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the authors contend that globalization in Japan is the gradual process in which Japan's positioning of "self" within international relations, which had formerly been dominated by the West, has changed. Accordingly, Japan's relationships with the West and the rest of the world, for example, Asia, have also been reviewed and…

  7. Characterization of Pollen Dispersion in the Neighborhood of Tokyo, Japan in the Spring of 2005 and 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio Yoshizumi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica and Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa pollens in an urban area was examined through the measurements of the dispersion characteristics at the various sampling locations in both outdoor and indoor environments. Airborne pollens were counted continuously for three months during the Japanese cedar pollen and Japanese cypress seasons in 2005 and 2006 by the use of Durham’s pollen trap method in and around Tokyo, Japan. The dispersion of pollens at the rooftop of Kyoritsu Women’s University was observed to be at extremely high levels in 2005 compared with previously reported results during the past two decades. As for Japanese cedar pollen, the maximum level was observed as 440 counts cm-2 day-1 on 18 March 2005. Japanese cypress pollen dispersed in that area in the latter period was compared with the Japanese cedar pollen dispersions. The maximum dispersion level was observed to be 351 counts cm-2 day-1 on 7 April 2005. Total accumulated dispersions of Japanese cedar and Japanese cypress pollens were 5,552 and 1,552 counts cm-2 for the three months (Feb., Mar. and Apr. in 2005, respectively. However, the dispersion of both pollens in 2006 was very low. The total accumulated dispersions of Japanese cedar and Japanese cypress pollens were 421 and 98 counts cm-2 for three months (Feb., Mar. and Apr. in 2006, respectively. Moreover, the pollen deposition on a walking person in an urban area showed that the pollen counts on feet were observed to be extremely high compared with the ones on the shoulder, back and legs. These findings suggested that pollen fell on the surface of the paved road at first, rebounded to the ambient air and was deposited on the residents again. Furthermore, the regional distribution of the total pollen dispersion in the South Kanto area was characterized on 15-16 March 2005 and on 14-15 March 2006. Although the pollen levels in 2005 were much

  8. Sapovirus in Water, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Daisuke; Ueki, You; Imai, Takahiro; Oka, Tomoichiro; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Takeda, Naokazu; Omura, Tatsuo

    2007-01-01

    Sapoviruses are etiologic agents of human gastroenteritis. We detected sapovirus in untreated wastewater, treated wastewater, and a river in Japan. A total of 7 of 69 water samples were positive by reverse transcription–PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of the viral capsid gene grouped these strains into 4 genetic clusters. PMID:17370528

  9. 1993 Hokkaido, Japan Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On July 12, 1993, a magnitude 7.6 Ms (7.7 Mw) (HRV) earthquake at 13:17 UT in the Sea of Japan near Hokkaido caused a back-arc tsunami that caused damage in all of...

  10. Liquid hydrogen in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasumi, S. [Iwatani Corp., Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Overseas Business Development

    2009-07-01

    Japan's Iwatani Corporation has focused its attention on hydrogen as the ultimate energy source in future. Unlike the United States, hydrogen use and delivery in liquid form is extremely limited in the European Union and in Japan. Iwatani Corporation broke through industry stereotypes by creating and building Hydro Edge Co. Ltd., Japan's largest liquid hydrogen plant. It was established in 2006 as a joint venture between Iwatani and Kansai Electric Power Group in Osaka. Hydro Edge is Japan's first combined liquid hydrogen and ASU plant, and is fully operational. Liquid oxygen, liquid nitrogen and liquid argon are separated from air using the cryogenic energy of liquefied natural gas fuel that is used for power generation. Liquid hydrogen is produced efficiently and simultaneously using liquid nitrogen. Approximately 12 times as much hydrogen in liquid form can be transported and supplied as pressurized hydrogen gas. This technology is a significant step forward in the dissemination and expansion of hydrogen in a hydrogen-based economy.

  11. Photovoltaics in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, K.

    1985-01-01

    Report surveys status of research and development on photovoltaics in Japan. Report based on literature searches, private communications, and visits by author to Japanese facilities. Included in survey are Sunshine Project, national program to develop energy sources; industrial development at private firms; and work at academic institutions.

  12. [[Interregional marriage in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, T

    1990-07-01

    Patterns in interregional marriage in Japan are examined by prefecture. Data are from the 1977, 1982, and 1987 National Fertility Surveys and are presented for distance between marriage site and birthplace, including the effects of arranged marriage and wife's labor force participation; prior living arrangements; and educational status of the couple. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  13. Moral Education in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Luhmer

    1990-01-01

    Explores how religion is a pervasive influence in moral education in both the home and school in Japan, despite an official secular policy. Points out that after 1945 nationalism was replaced by secular social studies. Finds western thought included with Buddhism and Confucianism in government decrees on the curriculum. Places newly reemerging…

  14. Teacher Education in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimahara, Nobuo

    A discussion is presented on the education of Japanese teachers, their roles in the schools, and proposed reforms in their education. In describing the pre-World War II background of teacher education in Japan, three ideological forces are discussed: Western thought that impacted upon early Meiji reforms, Confucianism, and nationalism. Western…

  15. Japan Hadron Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Hayano, R S

    1999-01-01

    Japan Hadron Facility (JHF) is a high-intensity proton accelerator complex consisting of a 200 MeV linac, a 3 GeV booster and a 50 GeV main ring. Its status and future possibilities of realizing a versatile antiproton facility at JHF are presented.

  16. Technical Communication in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiraku Amemiya

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1.Characteristics of Japanese Technical Communication(TC) The visual orientation of information characterizes Japanese technical communication.Manuals that have won Japan Manual Awards in the past have employed various designs with graphical presentations that evoke the style of popular magazines.

  17. Sapovirus in Water, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Hansman, Grant S.; Sano, Daisuke; Ueki, You; Imai, Takahiro; Oka, Tomoichiro; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Takeda, Naokazu; Omura, Tatsuo

    2007-01-01

    Sapoviruses are etiologic agents of human gastroenteritis. We detected sapovirus in untreated wastewater, treated wastewater, and a river in Japan. A total of 7 of 69 water samples were positive by reverse transcription–PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of the viral capsid gene grouped these strains into 4 genetic clusters.

  18. Political Corruption in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Steven R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Provides an overview of political corruption and its place in Japanese culture and society. Discusses recent scandals and efforts at political reform. These efforts are moving Japan from a "boss-patronage" system to a "civic-culture." Includes a table of post-war Japanese prime ministers and corruption scandals. (MJP)

  19. Recommendations for saving mothers' lives in Japan: Report from the Maternal Death Exploratory Committee (2010-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Junichi; Ikeda, Tomoaki; Sekizawa, Akihiko; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Nakamura, Masamitsu; Katsuragi, Shinji; Osato, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Kayo; Murakoshi, Takeshi; Nakata, Masahiko; Ishiwata, Isamu

    2016-12-01

    To make recommendations for saving mothers' lives, issues related to maternal deaths including diseases, causes, treatments, and hospital and regional systems are analyzed by the Maternal Death Exploratory Committee in Japan. In this report, we present ten clinical important recommendations based on the analysis of maternal deaths between 2010 and 2014 in Japan. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  20. Regional Characterization of the Crust in Metropolitan Areas for Prediction of Strong Ground Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, N.; Sato, H.; Koketsu, K.; Umeda, Y.; Iwata, T.; Kasahara, K.

    2003-12-01

    Introduction: After the 1995 Kobe earthquake, the Japanese government increased its focus and funding of earthquake hazards evaluation, studies of man-made structures integrity, and emergency response planning in the major urban centers. A new agency, the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture (MEXT) has started a five-year program titled as Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Urban Areas (abbreviated to Dai-dai-toku in Japanese) since 2002. The project includes four programs: I. Regional characterization of the crust in metropolitan areas for prediction of strong ground motion. II. Significant improvement of seismic performance of structure. III. Advanced disaster management system. IV. Investigation of earthquake disaster mitigation research results. We will present the results from the first program conducted in 2002 and 2003. Regional Characterization of the Crust in Metropolitan Areas for Prediction of Strong Ground Motion: A long-term goal is to produce map of reliable estimations of strong ground motion. This requires accurate determination of ground motion response, which includes a source process, an effect of propagation path, and near surface response. The new five-year project was aimed to characterize the "source" and "propagation path" in the Kanto (Tokyo) region and Kinki (Osaka) region. The 1923 Kanto Earthquake is one of the important targets to be addressed in the project. The proximity of the Pacific and Philippine Sea subducting plates requires study of the relationship between earthquakes and regional tectonics. This project focuses on identification and geometry of: 1) Source faults, 2) Subducting plates and mega-thrust faults, 3) Crustal structure, 4) Seismogenic zone, 5) Sedimentary basins, 6) 3D velocity properties We have conducted a series of seismic reflection and refraction experiment in the Kanto region. In 2002 we have completed to deploy seismic profiling lines in the Boso peninsula (112 km) and the

  1. Shallow subsurface control on earthquake damage patterns: first results from a 3D geological voxel model study (Tokyo Lowland, Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafleu, Jan; Busschers, Freek; Tanabe, Susumu

    2016-04-01

    comparison of this map with a published map of the damage-ratio of wooden houses that were destroyed during the Kanto earthquake in 1923, shows a remarkable relation between zones of maximum destruction and the occurrence of the so-called 'zero' muds, the latter representing the sediments most sensitive for ground motion amplification. Our results show that the 3D geological voxel modelling approach presented here is able to make a spatial analysis of earth quake damage sensitivity in the Tokyo Lowland. This makes our workflow also is a promising tool for seismic hazard assessments in other areas in Japan were detailed insights in earth quake damage from historical records are absent.

  2. The Japan Medical Association's disaster preparedness: lessons from the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Masami; Nagata, Takashi

    2013-10-01

    A complex disaster, the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011, consisted of a large-scale earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear accident, resulting in more than 15 000 fatalities, injuries, and missing persons and damage over a 500-km area. The entire Japanese public was profoundly affected by "3/11." The risk of radiation exposure initially delayed the medical response, prolonging the recovery efforts. Japan's representative medical organization, the Japan Medical Association (JMA), began dispatching Japan Medical Association Teams (JMATs) to affected areas beginning March 15, 2011. About 1400 JMATs comprising nearly 5500 health workers were launched. The JMA coordinated JMAT operations and cooperated in conducting postmortem examination, transporting large quantities of medical supplies, and establishing a multiorganizational council to provide health assistance to disaster survivors. Importantly, these response efforts contributed to the complete recovery of the health care system in affected areas within 3 months, and by July 15, 2011, JMATs were withdrawn. Subsequently, JMATs II have been providing long-term continuing medical support to disaster-affected areas. However, Japan is at great risk for future natural disasters because of its Pacific Rim location. Also, its rapidly aging population, uneven distribution of and shortage of medical resources in regional communities, and an overburdened public health insurance system highlight the need for a highly prepared and effective disaster response system.

  3. DPAL activities in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Masamori; Wani, Fumio

    2015-02-01

    Activities on diode pumped alkali laser (DPAL) in Japan is reviewed. We have started alkali laser works in 2011, and currently, we are the only players in Japan. Our interests are application oriented, and it is not only defense but also industrial. DPAL is a good candidate as a source of remote laser machining, thanks to its scalability and extremely good beam quality. We are studying on scientific and engineering problems of Cs DPAL with a small-scale apparatus. A commercial diode laser with volume Bragg grating outcoupler is used to pump the gain cell longitudinally. A 6.5 W continuous-wave output with optical to optical efficiency of 56% (based on the absorbed power) has been achieved. Numerical simulation codes are developed to understand the physics of DPAL and to help future developments.

  4. [Gambling disorder in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Hitoshi

    2015-09-01

    Gambling disorder is a psychiatric disorder characterized by persistent and recurrent problematic gambling behavior, associated with impaired functioning, reduced quality of life, and frequent divorce and bankruptcy. Gambling disorder is reclassified in the category Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders in the DSM-5 because its clinical features closely resemble those of substance use disorders, and gambling activates the reward system in brain in much the same way drugs do. Prevalence of gambling disorder in Japan is high rate because of slot machines and pachinko game are very popular in Japan. The author recommend group psychotherapy and self-help group (Gamblers Anonymous), because group dynamics make them accept their wrongdoings related to gambling and believe that they can enjoy their lives without gambling.

  5. In vitro activity of five quinolones and analysis of the quinolone resistance-determining regions of gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE in Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum clinical isolates from perinatal patients in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Yasuhiro; Nakura, Yukiko; Wakimoto, Tetsu; Nomiyama, Makoto; Tokuda, Tsugumichi; Takayanagi, Toshimitsu; Shiraishi, Jun; Wasada, Kenshi; Kitajima, Hiroyuki; Fujita, Tomio; Nakayama, Masahiro; Mitsuda, Nobuaki; Nakanishi, Isao; Takeuchi, Makoto; Yanagihara, Itaru

    2015-04-01

    Ureaplasma spp. cause several disorders, such as nongonococcal urethritis, miscarriage, and preterm delivery with lung infections in neonates, characterized by pathological chorioamnionitis in the placenta. Although reports on antibiotic resistance in Ureaplasma are on the rise, reports on quinolone-resistant Ureaplasma infections in Japan are limited. The purpose of this study was to determine susceptibilities to five quinolones of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum isolated from perinatal samples in Japan and to characterize the quinolone resistance-determining regions in the gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE genes. Out of 28 clinical Ureaplasma strains, we isolated 9 with high MICs of quinolones and found a single parC gene mutation, resulting in the change S83L. Among 158 samples, the ParC S83L mutation was found in 37 samples (23.4%), including 1 sample harboring a ParC S83L-GyrB P462S double mutant. Novel mutations of ureaplasmal ParC (S83W and S84P) were independently found in one of the samples. Homology modeling of the ParC S83W mutant suggested steric hindrance of the quinolone-binding pocket (QBP), and de novo prediction of peptide structures revealed that the ParC S84P may break/kink the formation of the α4 helix in the QBP. Further investigations are required to unravel the extent and mechanism of antibiotic resistance of Ureaplasma spp. in Japan.

  6. Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The city of Sapporo on the northernmost of the Japanese Home Island of Hokkaido (43.5N, 141.5E), host to the 1986 Winter Olympic Games is situated along the margin of a large valley which extends across the island from the Sea of Japan to the Pacific Ocean. The Valley is largely cultivated (the lighter green of the cultivated land distinguishes it from the gray urban development of Sapporo), but much of the island remains heavily forested.

  7. Japan Report No. 173.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Also, when Mr Nikaido visited China, his statements regarding Japan’s present situation and the Nakasone cabinet were filled with polite sarcasm . In...t— o Ov ON OS UJ o cu O OS Q > X eS UJ o a. O ei a >• X cu D OS UJ O a. J < S in fN OS OS n OS < «r z UJ w Z JL1 -J -J J Ou

  8. Marital Dissolution in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    James M. Raymo; Bumpass, Larry L.; Miho Iwasawa

    2004-01-01

    Very little is known about recent trends in divorce in Japan. In this paper, we use Japanese vital statistics and census data to describe trends in the experience of marital dissolution across the life course, and to examine change over time in educational differentials in divorce. Cumulative probabilities of marital dissolution have increased rapidly across successive marriage cohorts over the past twenty years, and synthetic period estimates suggest that roughly one-third of Japanese marria...

  9. PALYNOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE MATTO SUBMERGED FOREST ON THE CONTINENTAL SHELF IN THE JAPAN SEA OFF THE TEDORI-GAWA ALLUVIAL FAN, THE HOKURIKU REGION, CENTRAL JAPAN%日本中部北陆地区大陆架松任市水下森林的孢粉学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    藤则雄

    2003-01-01

    松任市水下森林于1998年发现,位于日本中部北陆地区松任市Hama sogo和Kurabe附近手取河现代冲积扇2-3km外的20-30 m水下,呈树桩、树根或直立的树干保存.这一发现证明在早全新世当地有森林发育,森林的主要成分有Alnus,Quercus,Morus,Fraxinus.14C年代为距今8 000-10 000a.孢粉分析显示沼泽植物,如Alnus,Salix,Cryptomeria,Gramineae,Numphaceae丰富,Lepidobalanus,Castanea,Fraxinus常见,而Fagus cf. crenata,Pinus少见.硅藻表明其在森林发育时期当地为淡水或小湖泊.因此,当时森林生长在古手取河冲积扇边缘的沼泽地区,寒温带的Sasa-Fagetum crenate群丛(Association)的Alnus japonica群落(Community)广泛分布,推测年均温比现代要低几度.水下森林的形成时间和冰期后气候变暖所引起的海平面上升相一致,推测可能由于海水水位上升,古手取河洪水从上游冲下的碎屑物掩埋了当时的森林形成了现在的水下森林.因为日本海沿岸的洋流冲刷而使得这些化石森林显露出来.当前的水下森林和Nyuzen水下森林是目前世界上已知仅有的两处大陆架上的水下森林.%The Matto submerged forest was found in spring of 1998 as stumps, roots and erect trunks from the continentalshelf at depth between 20 and 30 m, and in 2 to 3 km off the recent marginal area of the Tedori-gawa alluvial fan at Hama-sogoand Kurabe, Matto City, the Hokuriku region, Central Japan. This discovery proves the development of ancient forest in theearly Holocene. Main tree remnants of the forest are Alnus, Quercus (Lepidobalanus), Morus and Fraxinus, the most commonlypreserved genera. These trees had grown on the now submerged seaward margin of the old Tedori-gawa alluvial fan. An age ofthe submerged forest determined by the C-14 method is about 10 000 to 8 000 years B.P. According to pollen analyses, suchmarshy plants as Alnus, Salix, Cryptomeria, Gramineae and Nymphaceae are abundant, Lepidobalanus, Castanea

  10. China-Japan Friendship Association Delegation in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Invited by the Shorinji Kem-po Group and the Japan-China Friendship Association (JC-FA), the China-Japan Friendship Association (CJFA) delegation led by Vice President Jing Dun-quan visited Tokyo, Miyazaki and Fukuoka from November 2 to 9, 2007. During its stay in Japan, from November 2 to 4, the delegation attended a series of activities celebrating the 60th

  11. Investing in Japan? Statistics Speak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Liqin

    2009-01-01

    @@ Is investing in Japan a good choice for ambitious Chinese enterprises? Xiong Lin, partner at the Beijing DaDi Law firm, reminded potential investors that understanding Sino-Japan cultural differences, local policies and the procedures concerning investment, as well as protecting intellectual property and prompt communication with local con-sulting finns are the keys to good prepa-ration. She gave this advice at the "2009 Investment in Japan Seminar" on March 5, a seminar co-hosted by CCPIT (China Council for the promotion of International Trade) and JETRO (Japan External Trade Organization) as the follow-up to a session held in 2007.

  12. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    This is Japan Report with Science and Technology. It contains the issues with different topics on biotecnology , defense industry, nuclear engineering, Marine technology, science and technology policy.

  13. Nyheder i Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejrup, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Kan man stole på, hvad folk siger, når man ikke ved, hvem de er? Forholdet mellem kildeanonymitet og troværdighed er forskelligt i mediesystemer rundt om i verden. Troværdighed er ingen universel størrelse, men en retorisk effekt der opstår på baggrund af faktorer som er kulturelt og systemisk in...... indlejret. I Japan har seriøse nyhedsmedier et specielt forhold til udsagn fra anonyme kilder, og udstrakt brug af uidentificerede informanter står ikke i modsætning til journalistisk kvalitet og pålidelighed....

  14. Gems of japanized English

    CERN Document Server

    Kenrick, Miranda

    2011-01-01

    If you've ever had the uneasy feeling that the Japanese do things better, this book may be the ideal antidote. Even the Japanese are quick to admit that despite their enthusiasm for learning it, they still have a certain amount of difficulty with the English language. This is no new phenomenon. Shortly after Japan opened her ports to foreign traders, one doctor advertised himself as ""a Specialist in the Decease of Children""; eggs were sold as ""extract of fowl""; and a notice advised that ""Tomorrow, from midnight to 12 noon, you will receive dirty water."" Fortunately, things are improving,

  15. Safety Concerns of Tourism Business in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina P. Karavaeva

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the current state of tourism industry in Japan after the nuclear disaster of 2011. A focus is made on networking activities of Japan Government aimed at boosting leisure travel flows to Japan.

  16. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Japan wax. 186.1555 Section 186.1555 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1555 Japan wax. (a) Japan wax (CAS Reg. No. 8001-39-6), also known as Japan... fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan...

  17. Toxicokinetics in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HakuH

    2002-01-01

    The word ‘toxicokinetics’ is a comparatively new word,but it was being generally practiced in Japanese pharmaceutical industry over 6 years ago.Note for guidance on toxicokinetics(ICH S3A):the assessment of systemic exposure in toxicity studies was harmonized internationally and was essential as the data package for the NDA of a new drug in Japan since 1996.Toxicokinetics is a combination of toxicology and pharmacokinetics.It was to develop a tool which could be most helpful in the interpretation of toxicity data.Using “exposure” as indicated by AUC and/or cmax for parent drug or major metabolite in laboratory animals and man,one can calculate a human safety margin.This human safety margin is the ratio of the AUC of the “no effect dose” in animals in the toxicology studies to the AUC to the therapeutic dose in man.I would like to introduce the actual practice of toxicolinetics in Japan.

  18. Nutrition trends in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Y

    2001-01-01

    The National Nutrition Survey (NNS) in Japan has been undertaken annually since 1946. It was originally intended to provide information on the food and nutrient intake of the Japanese people, with a view to acquiring emergency food supplies from other countries when food shortages caused malnutrition in many Japanese. The food balance sheet (FBS) has been drawn up since 1949 to show the food supply available to the Japanese people. The trends and figures shown by both approaches were similar until the mid-1970s. Since then, however, the disparity between the food supply and the intake of foods and nutrients has been getting larger. National food security means that a country has enough food for everyone. This does not mean, however, that every family has enough food, because the food may not be evenly distributed. In fact, marginal deficiencies in iron and calcium are thought to still exist and there is considerable variation among households in energy intake. In Japan, nutrition and diet are now considered to play important roles in the emerging problems of obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension etc., because of excessive energy intake and deficiency or excessive intake of certain nutrients.

  19. Legalized Abortion in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Thomas M.

    1967-01-01

    The enactment of the Eugenic Protection Act in Japan was followed by many changes. The population explosion was stemmed, the birth rate was halved, and while the marriage rate remained steady the divorce rate declined. The annual total of abortions increased until 1955 and then slowly declined. The highest incidence of abortions in families is in the 30 to 34 age group when there are four children in the family. As elsewhere abortion in advanced stages of pregnancy is associated with high morbidity and mortality. There is little consensus as to the number of criminal abortions. Reasons for criminal abortions can be found in the legal restrictions concerning abortion: Licensing of the abortionist, certification of hospitals, taxation of operations and the requirement that abortion be reported. Other factors are price competition and the patient's desire for secrecy. Contraception is relatively ineffective as a birth control method in Japan. Oral contraceptives are not yet government approved. In 1958 alone 1.1 per cent of married women were sterilized and the incidence of sterilization was increasing. PMID:6062283

  20. Teaching Elementary Students about Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzhugh, William P.

    This paper presents a study unit on Japan for elementary students which can be adapted for any level. Lessons include: (1) "Video Traveling Activities To Accompany Students on Their Journey to Japan"; (2) "Travel Brochure"; (3) "Discovering Culture by Using a Realia Kit"; (4) "Comparative Geography Using the Five Fundamental Themes of Geography";…

  1. Studying Japan: The Cooperative Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilke, Eileen

    1990-01-01

    Designs an elementary level social studies unit with the focus on Japan. Provides sample units of cooperative learning group projects. Suggests integrating mathematics, language arts, economics, fine arts, and science. Lists resources for obtaining more information and materials about Japan. (NL)

  2. Higher Education Studies in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Motohisa

    2010-01-01

    The rapid development of higher education in the postwar period has given rise to various problems, and higher education studies in Japan have developed in response to them. What have been the major issues, and how did academic research respond to them, in postwar Japan? This article delineates an outline of higher education studies in general,…

  3. Deoxygenation of Lake Ikeda, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, R.; Hasegawa, N.

    2010-12-01

    Lake Ikeda (Kagoshima prefecture, Japan) is a deep lake with a maximum depth of 233 m. Monitoring data of lake Ikeda exist since 1975. We have analyzed the long-term variability in the water conditions of Lake Ikeda. Recently, Lake Ikeda has exhibited the phenomenon of incomplete overturning because of climate warming. The concentrations of DO (dissolved oxygen) in the deepest parts of the lake have reduced. This phenomenon was observed to have started in the 1980s, and gradually, the deepest parts of the lake became anoxic. Later, the anoxic layer became thicker. Currently, winter mixing in Lake Ikeda reaches to depths of only 100 m. According to our simple estimation, the total volume of oxygen in Lake Ikeda will reduce from approximately 70% in the mid-1980s to 40% by the end of 2010. In addition to this phenomenon, the oxygen concentration appears to vary with several years oscillations. The depths to which mixing occurs depends on the severity of the winter, such as the air temperature during the winter season. The mixing period generally occurs in February; hence, the limnological year is considered to start in February. During our analysis period, the total DO mass showed high values in 1996, 2001, and 2003. Air temperature data obtained for regions near Lake Ikeda (the station name is Ibusuki) are used to clarify the cause of the high DO mass values in the three abovementioned years. During the period prior to the occurrence of the high DO mass in February 1996, i.e., in December 1995 and January 1996, the air temperature was low. Similarly, in 2001 and 2003, the air temperature was low in January (one month before the high DO mass was observed). In January 2001 and 2003, the AO (Atlantic Oscillation) index was negative. When the AO index is negative, there tends to be a greater movement of cold polar air into mid-latitudinal regions including Japan (Yamakawa, 2005). This movement induced a low air temperature in Ibusuki, and consequently, a high DO mass

  4. Impact of inpatient caseload, emergency department duties, and online learning resource on General Medicine In-Training Examination scores in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinoshita K

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Kensuke Kinoshita,1 Yusuke Tsugawa,2 Taro Shimizu,3 Yusuke Tanoue,4 Ryota Konishi,5 Yuji Nishizaki,6 Toshiaki Shiojiri,7 Yasuharu Tokuda8 1Department of Medicine, Mito Kyodo General Hospital, University of Tsukuba, Mito City, Ibaraki, Japan; 2Department of Health Policy and Management, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA; 3Tokyo Joto Hospital, Koto-ku, Tokyo, 4Good Medicine Japan, Miyagi, 5Department of General Internal Medicine, Kanto Rosai Hospital, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, 6Department of Cardiology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, 7Department of General Internal Medicine, Asahi General Hospital, Asahi, Chiba, 8Japan Community Healthcare Organization, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan Background: Both clinical workload and access to learning resource are important components of educational environment and may have effects on clinical knowledge of residents. Methods: We conducted a survey with a clinical knowledge evaluation involving postgraduate year (PGY-1 and -2 resident physicians at teaching hospitals offering 2-year postgraduate training programs required for residents in Japan, using the General Medicine In-Training Examination (GM-ITE. An individual-level analysis was conducted to examine the impact of the number of assigned patients and emergency department (ED duty on the residents' GM-ITE scores by fitting a multivariable generalized estimating equations. In hospital-level analysis, we evaluated the relationship between for the number of UpToDate reviews for each hospital and for the hospitals' mean GM-ITE score. Results: A total of 431 PGY-1 and 618 PGY-2 residents participated. Residents with four or five times per month of the ED duties exhibited the highest mean scores compared to those with greater or fewer ED duties. Those with largest number of inpatients in charge exhibited the highest mean scores compared to the residents with fewer inpatients in charge. Hospitals with the greater Up

  5. Japan's BSE program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, N.; Matsushita, M.; Kajikawa, M.

    1982-12-01

    An overview of the program for Japan's Medium-scale Broadcasting Satellite for Experimental Purpose (BSE), placed in orbit in 1978, is presented. The BSE was developed in order to provide useful technical data for establishing the fundamental technology of satellite broadcasting systems, the controlling and operational techniques of the broadcasting satellite, and the reception of broadcasting satellite radio waves. The satellite system and the ground facilities are discussed, and tables are included which list the system parameters and subsystems of the BSE. In addition, an outline is presented of the various experiments conducted utilizing the BSE, including the evaluation of the broadcasting service area, the transmission methods and their characteristics, controlling technique of the satellite, multiple access from different stations, and the improvement of receiving systems

  6. Radiation processing in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makuuchi, Keizo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Economic scale of radiation application in the field of industry, agriculture and medicine in Japan in 1997 was investigated to compare its economic impacts with that of nuclear energy industry. Total production value of radiation application accounted for 54% of nuclear industry including nuclear energy industry and radiation applications in three fields above. Industrial radiation applications were further divided into five groups, namely nondestructive test, RI instruments, radiation facilities, radiation processing and ion beam processing. More than 70% of the total production value was brought about by ion beam processing for use with IC and semiconductors. Future economic prospect of radiation processing of polymers, for example cross-linking, EB curing, graft polymerization and degradation, is reviewed. Particular attention was paid to radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex and also to degradation of natural polymers. (S. Ohno)

  7. From the Jura to Japan...

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Fifty years ago, a week-long school for physicists took place in Saint Cergue, in the Jura mountains not far from CERN. Its focus was on using emulsion techniques, but its legacy was much more far reaching. Last week I was in Fukuoka, Japan, on the last day of a direct descendent – the first Asia–Europe–Pacific School of High-Energy Physics (AEPSHEP).   That first small school in 1962 was the precursor to the annual European Schools of High-Energy Physics, which are organised jointly by CERN and the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in countries that are a member state of either (or both) of the organisations. They led in turn to the CERN–Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics, first held in Brazil in 2001. The aim of these schools is not only to give young particle physicists the opportunity to learn from leading experts in the field, but also to nurture from the start communication among researchers from different regions. CERN and JI...

  8. Seismicity and volcanic activity in Japan based on crustal thermal activity . 2; Chikaku no netsukatsudo ni motozuku Nippon no Jishin kazan katsudo. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, M. [Tokai Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Marine Science and Technology

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes the following matters about seismic and volcanic activities in Japan. The previous paper has reported a view that energy is transported from deep portions of the earth`s crust toward outer portions, and the stored energy thrusts up collectively in a certain time period (a rising period). A fact may be accounted for as one of the endorsements thereof that earthquakes and volcanic eruptions take place successively over a wide area from Okinawa to Hokkaido in a short period of time (included in the rising period). When viewed by limiting the time period and areas, a great earthquake would not occur suddenly, but stored energy is released wholly at a certain time while it has been released little by little. Referring to the Kanto Great Earthquake (1923) and the Tokai and Nankai Earthquakes (1944 and 1946), it is found that earthquakes had been occurring successively in the surrounding areas since about 20 years before the occurrence of these great earthquakes. Similar phenomena may be seen in the great earthquakes of Ansei (1854) and An-ei (1707). 5 figs.

  9. Multiple personality disorder in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Y; Suzuki, K; Sato, T; Murakami, Y; Takahashi, T

    1998-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the features of multiple personality disorder (MPD) in Japan are similar to those in North America, although a wide disparity exists in the prevalence of MPD between the two areas. In order to describe the features of MPD in Japan, we obtained clinical data from MPD case reports, including two of our own cases, published in Japanese academic journals and compared it with the data from other countries. The cases in Japan differed significantly from those in North America in the mean number of personalities and prevalence of sexual and/or physical abuse.

  10. Can wolves help save Japan's mountain forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber-meyer, Shannon

    2017-01-01

    Japan’s wolves were extinct by 1905. Today Japan's mountain forests are being killed by overabundant sika deer and wild boars. Since the early 1990s, the Japan Wolf Association has proposed wolf reintroduction to Japan to restore rural ecology and to return a culturally important animal. In this article I discuss whether the return of wolves could help save Japan's mountain forests.

  11. Teaching about Japan in the Elementary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, John J.

    1981-01-01

    Focuses on ideas for teaching about Japan which elementary school classroom teachers can use to supplement a textbook unit on Japan. Suggestions are intended to allow for reflection by students on their own culture, as well as the culture of Japan. Topics are children's perceptions of Japan and the Japanese, developing a geographical perspective,…

  12. Positioning Indian Emigration to Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Costa, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    as other IT-strong developing countries, are to supply technical talent, whose availability in Japan is constrained by the secular demographic crisis and changing educational and occupational preferences. The challenges for India are the institutional barriers, in particular, Japanese business practices...... that act as significant barriers to the entry of foreign skilled professionals. The paper brings out the source and pattern of foreign professionals and students in Japan as a proxy for talent. Though India’s presence in Japan is currently limited, its share of technical professionals to the total number...... of Indians in Japan is the highest. Also, the preconditions in the Japanese economy suggest a historic opportunity to forge a long-term, mutually beneficial, bilateral partnership between the two countries. For India, this means reducing its dependence on the US market and availing new learning opportunities...

  13. 1983 Akita, Honshu, Japan Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The tsunami generated by a magnitude 7.9 (Mw) earthquake destroyed 700 boats and 59 houses for a total of $800 million in property damage in Japan (1983 dollars)....

  14. Helicobacter pylori infection in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Seiji; Murakawi, Kazunari; Suzuki, Rumiko; Fujioka, Toshio; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection is gradually decreasing in Japan. On the main island of Japan, nearly all H. pylori isolates possess cagA and vacA with strong virulence. However, less virulent H. pylori strains are frequently found in Okinawa where cases of gastric cancer are the lowest in Japan. Eradication therapy for peptic ulcer, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and early gastric cancer after endoscopic resection has been approved by the Japanese national health insurance system. However, the Japanese Society for Helicobacter Research recently stated that all ‘H. pylori infection’ was considered as the indication for eradication irrespective of the background diseases. To eliminate H. pylori in Japan, the Japanese health insurance system should approve the eradication of all H. pylori infections. PMID:23265147

  15. The Social Sciences in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanuki, Joji

    1975-01-01

    This article relates a brief historical background of social sciences in Japan, the institutional framework of social science education and research, and major issues and perspectives for the development of the social scinces. (ND)

  16. The Japan disaster and U.S. hay exports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarantine control of Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say), by agricultural systems used to produce export quality hay for the Japan market was studied in the laboratory and field. Survival of Hessian fly puparia was evaluated under simulated seasonal weather conditions in incubators, regional o...

  17. Teaching about Japan in the 1990s: An Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, John J.; Grossman, David L.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the influence of Japan on educational reform in the United States. Identifies economic self-interest and global competitiveness as the motivations for increased U.S. instruction about Asia and the Pacific region. Expresses concern that such a competitive outlook is unlikely to produce a global perspective. (DK)

  18. WILL FERTILITY REBOUND IN JAPAN

    OpenAIRE

    Creina Day

    2012-01-01

    Fertility and per capita income are now positively associated across most high income OECD countries. Low fertility and a gender wage gap persist in Japan. This paper presents an original model where endogenous increases in childcare prices and gender equity in capital allocation play important roles in the effect of per capita income growth and rising female relative wages on fertility. Results suggest Japan has cause for optimism. Economic growth will raise female relative wages where capit...

  19. Japan Sports Arbitration Agency (JSAA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina P. Rusakova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article author analyzes the activities of Japan Sports Arbitration Agency. Author considers the goals, objectives and procedure for dealing with disputes relating to the use of performance-enhancing drugs by athletes. Author study the regulation of Japan Sports Arbitration Agency, to resolve disputes relating to the use of doping, as well as the procedure for application and acceptance of its agency, the choice of arbitrators, counterclaim, protection of evidence.

  20. Japan Report, Science and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    include water temperature, water quality, ocean currents, sea ice, wave conditions, coastal conditions, and marine resources. Environmental polution ... air , and food supplies (procured in Japan) to the station for use by its crew. It is also a real possibility that Japan’s data relay satellite (DRTS...the pressurized unit via a mechanical manipulator and an air lock to permit the exchange of equipment and samples and the assembly of space

  1. Study on the priority of coronary arteriography or therapeutic hypothermia after return of spontaneous circulation in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: results from the SOS-KANTO 2012 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Shuichi

    2016-06-01

    Many emergency physicians struggle with the clinical question of whether to perform therapeutic hypothermia (TH) or coronary angiography (CAG) first after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). We analyzed the results of the SOS-KANTO 2012 study, which is a prospective, multicenter (67 emergency hospitals), observational study about OHCA conducted between January 2012 and March 2013 (n = 16,452). We compared two groups: the group in which TH was first performed (TH group), and the group in which CAG was performed first (CAG group) within 24 h after arrival. Two hundred and twenty-one patients were treated TH and CAG (TH group, 76 patients; CAG group, 145 patients). In addition, we selected patients who underwent coronary treatment. 164 patients underwent coronary treatment after CAG (TH group, 52 patients; CAG group, 112 patients). In patients in whom TH and CAG and coronary artery treatment were done, 42 patients (55.3 %) in the TH group and 86 patients (59.3 %) in the CAG group survived at 90 days. The cerebral performance category (CPC) 1 and 2 were 26.3 % (20 patients) in TH group, and 31.0 % (45 patients) in CAG group. In patients in whom TH and CAG with coronary artery treatment were performed, 29 patients (55.8 %) in the TH group and 64 patients (57.1 %) in the CAG group survived at 90 days. The rates of CPC 1 and 2 were 26.9 % (14 patients) in TH group, and 23.2 % (26 patients) in CAG group. There was no significant difference in 90-day survival between the two groups although it tended to be better in the CAG group than in the TH group. Whether TH or CAG was performed first did not affect the 90-day survival and 30-day neurological situation among patients with ROSC after OHCA.

  2. [Canine histoplasmosis in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Ayako; Miyaji, Makoto

    2003-01-01

    Histoplasmosis is a fungal infection caused by Histoplasma capsulatum and is distributed a worldwide. Although the disease has been treated as an imported mycosis, some autochthonous human, 1 equine and 4 canine cases suggested that the disease is endemic. Histoplasmosis is classified depending on the variety of causative agent. Histoplasmosis farciminosi known as pseudofarcy, is manifested only in Perissodactyla where it invades lymph nodes and lymph ducts, and is recognized by isolation from horses. Historically, Japan was one of the endemic areas of pseudofarcy before World War II, and more than 20,000 cases were recorded in horses used by the military. Interestingly, Japanese canine histoplasmosis uniformly showed skin ulcers and granulomatous lesions on the skin without pulmonary or gastrointestinal involvement, both of which were very similar to pseudofarcy. It was diagnosed as histoplasmosis by the detection of internal transcribed spacer legions of rRNA gene of H. capsulatum from paraffin embedded tissue samples. Furthermore, the fungal isolate from the human case with no history of going abroad or immigrating was identified as H. capsulatum var. farciminosum by a gene sequence. These facts indicated that pseudofarcy is not only an infectious disease in horses, but also a zoonotic fungal infection. Japanese autochthonous canine histoplasmosis might be a heteroecism of pseudofarcy because of its likeness to the human case, the similarity of clinical manifestations and the historical background at this stage.

  3. Fusion Studies in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yuichi

    2016-05-01

    A new strategic energy plan decided by the Japanese Cabinet in 2014 strongly supports the steady promotion of nuclear fusion development activities, including the ITER project and the Broader Approach activities from the long-term viewpoint. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in Japan formulated the Third Phase Basic Program so as to promote an experimental fusion reactor project. In 2005 AEC has reviewed this Program, and discussed on selection and concentration among many projects of fusion reactor development. In addition to the promotion of ITER project, advanced tokamak research by JT-60SA, helical plasma experiment by LHD, FIREX project in laser fusion research and fusion engineering by IFMIF were highly prioritized. Although the basic concept is quite different between tokamak, helical and laser fusion researches, there exist a lot of common features such as plasma physics on 3-D magnetic geometry, high power heat load on plasma facing component and so on. Therefore, a synergetic scenario on fusion reactor development among various plasma confinement concepts would be important.

  4. Global update: Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipp, Doug

    2011-11-01

    Japan continues to be a major player in stem cell biology and related fields, boasting multiple world-class programs in a broad spectrum of stem cell studies, a permissive regulatory framework, an active society for regenerative medicine and a growing industry involvement. The most noted work in recent years has of course originated in the laboratory of Shinya Yamanaka, with the first report of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) in 2006, and numerous technical advancements since, which prompted the government to establish a Center for iPS Cell Research and Application in 2010 (see below). Additional concentrations of stem cell research excellence can be found in Tokyo, Osaka, Kobe and Kumamoto. In 2011, Yoshiki Sasai's laboratory in the RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, Kobe, achieved another remarkable result in inducing optic cup-like structures from embryonic stem cells using 4D tissue culture techniques, building on previous work in which the group had generated stratified cerebral cortex-like tissue from embryonic stem cells in vitro.

  5. Dysphagia Rehabilitation in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    In Japan, one of the most common causes of death in elderly people is aspiration pneumonia. Maintenance of oral hygiene and feeding functions are important elements, especially in patients with dysphagia caused by stroke, neurological diseases, and after operations on the head and neck cancer, as well as in the elderly to prevent aspiration pneumonia. It should also be noted that not only oral health care and physical therapy related to feeding functions but also dental treatment is included in the clinical management during interventions whenever needed. On the other hand, for the patients and/or elderly in need of assistance in maintaining a safe diet, it is recommended that a specialized team comprising physicians, dentists, and speech therapists in functional rehabilitation observes meal conditions of the subjects and evaluates such factors as meal contents, posture during meals, usage of dishes and cutlery, meal times, status of consciousness, perception, and motivation. First, I will present the clinical interventions to those patients, which include oral health care, dental treatment, physical therapy and meal assistance, as well as team approaches in those circumstances. In addition, clinical and basic research results will be introduced, which are expected to foster the understanding of physiology in chewing and swallowing. These results are also expected to develop the clinical technology to maintain or recover the feeding functions.

  6. ETS-5, ETS-6, and COMETS projects in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Takashi; Wakana, Hiromitsu; Obara, Noriaki

    1992-01-01

    Three satellite communication projects now in progress in Japan are described. The first is a project to establish a telecommunication network for tele-education, TV conference, and tele-medicine in the Asia-Pacific region by using the Japan's Engineering Test Satellite-5 (ETS-5). The second is a project of the ETS-6 satellite, to be launched in 1993, for inter-satellite communication, mobile and fixed communication, and millimeter wave personal communication experiments. The third is a project of the Communications and Broadcasting Engineering Test Satellite (COMETS), to be launched in 1997, for advanced mobile satellite communication, inter-satellite link, and advanced broadcasting experiments at higher frequencies.

  7. A detrended cross correlation analysis for stock markets of the United States, Japan, and the Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Taro

    2017-10-01

    This paper investigates the long range cross covariances among the stock price returns for the United States, Japan, and the Europe. Empirical results suggest that the stock price returns of these regions have cross covariances of slow moving fluctuations.

  8. Production of CTX-M-3 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase and IMP-1 metallo beta-lactamase by five Gram-negative bacilli: survey of clinical isolates from seven laboratories collected in 1998 and 2000, in the Kinki region of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Katsutoshi; Komatsu, Masaru; Yamashita, Tomonari; Shimakawa, Koichi; Ura, Toshiro; Nishio, Hisaaki; Satoh, Kaori; Washidu, Ryoudou; Kinoshita, Shohiro; Aihara, Masanori

    2003-03-01

    The aim of this study was to research the distribution in the Kinki region of Japan of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa that produce extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and metallo beta-lactamase (MBL). One thousand isolates, 200 of each of four enterobacterial species (i.e. Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae and Serratia marcescens) and 200 of P. aeruginosa, were collected from seven different laboratories during two 2 month periods, one in 1998 and one in 2000. A double-disc synergy test (DDST) and 2-mercaptopropionic acid inhibition test (2-MPAT) were used to confirm beta-lactamase-producing isolates. The DDST was positive for one isolate of E. coli, five of K. pneumoniae, two of E. cloacae and 14 of S. marcescens. The 2-MPAT was positive for five isolates of S. marcescens and two of P. aeruginosa. We identified the beta-lactamase type of each isolate by molecular confirmatory tests (isoelectric focusing, PCR and DNA sequencing): CTX-M-3 ESBLs (three isolates of K. pneumoniae, two of E. cloacae and 13 of S. marcescens), CTX-M-2 ESBL (one isolate of K. pneumoniae), SHV-12 ESBLs (one isolate of E. coli and one of S. marcescens), CTX-M-3 and SHV-12 combination ESBL (one isolate of K. pneumoniae) and IMP-1 MBLs (five isolates of S. marcescens and two of P. aeruginosa). In conclusion, many species of Gram-negative bacilli that produce CTX-M-3 ESBLs and IMP-1 MBLs were disseminated widely in different hospitals of the Kinki region of Japan. Therefore, monitoring of laboratory bacterial ecology seems important to stop the spread of these strains through nosocomial outbreaks.

  9. Learning From the Experience of Bank of Japan and Maintaining the Regional Financial Stability%借鉴日本银行经验维护区域金融稳定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王钢

    2012-01-01

    The break out of the international financial crisis has posed a new challenge for the central bank to maintain the finan- cial stability. In the new situation, learning from the financial institution assessing pattern carried out by Bank of Japan, taking some new measures like sound on-spot assessment and diversifying working approach of maintaining financial stability of grassroots branch- es of central bank in China will be beneficial to the preemptive detection, report and disposition of systemic risk factors and reduce the aggregate cost of maintaining financial stability to the maximum.%国际金融危机的爆发,为中央银行维护金融稳定提出了新的挑战。在新的形势下,充分借鉴日本银行对金融机构实施考核的方式,采用稳健性现场评估等新的措施,拓展我国基层央行维护金融稳定的工作方式,将有利于对系统性风险因素的早发现、早报告、早处置,最大限度降低国家维护金融稳定的总体成本。

  10. Japan and China in Southeast Asia: Political Dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E S Martynova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the research of the policy of Japan and China in Southeast Asia at the present stage. The paper analyses the process of establishment and subsequent development of the “ASEAN Plus Three” (APT framework, which includes ten countries of ASEAN and the three Northeast Asian states of China, Japan and South Korea. “ASEAN Plus Three” might serve as catalyst for the processes of economic and political integration in East Asia. The rivalry of China and Japan is a major constraint to the development of integration structures. Our analysis suggests that China is the regional leader in East and Southeast Asia at the moment.

  11. Both China and Japan Are Winners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Di

    2010-01-01

    @@ In recent years, there have been comments or predictions from ,both official and folk circles in Japan about when Chinas GDP will surpass that of Japan. In the middle of August, Japans official statistics showed that in the second quarter this year, Japan fell behind China in GDP, which was reported by Japan's major media. This is not a novel topic, so the media did not show any sign of shock. Even so, we can still sense different and completed reactions from Japan's public opinion on its "being surpassed".

  12. Emergence of intragenotype recombinant sapovirus in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Tung Gia; Khamrin, Pattara; Quang, Trinh Duy; Dey, Shuvra Kanti; Takanashi, Sayaka; Okitsu, Shoko; Maneekarn, Niwat; Ushijima, Hiroshi

    2007-07-01

    Sapovirus is an important causative agent of sporadic cases as well as of outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. A total of 603 fecal specimens collected from July 2005 to June 2006 from children with acute gastroenteritis in five localities in Japan (Maizuru, Tokyo, Sapporo, Saga, and Osaka) were screened for sapovirus by RT-PCR. It was found that 17 specimens were positive for sapovirus and it represented 2.8%. Interestingly, intragenotype recombinant sapovirus GI/1 emerged with 76.4% (13 of 17) and rapidly became the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in Japan for the first time. The lower frequency of sapovirus GI/2 and GI/4 (each of 11.8%), which were the second prevailing genotypes, was also detected. A novel nomenclature of sapovirus was proposed, in which worldwide sapovirus strains were classified into seven genogroups. Of these, novel sapovirus genogroups VI and VII demonstrated the very low homologies, only 32.8-41.6% at the amino acid level and 43.6-49.9% at the nucleotide level, to those of sapovirus genogroups I-V. Of note, two distinct clusters of sapovirus were co-circulating in porcine. Interestingly, the worldwide sapovirus strains shared the 25 nucleotide-conserved region, covering the polymerase-capsid junction which differed according to each species due to multiple nucleotide substitutions. The finding suggests that the sapovirus recombination between human and animal hardly takes place in nature. This is also the first, to our best knowledge, demonstrating the emergence of the intragenotype recombinant sapovirus with its causing diarrheal illness in Japan.

  13. Conceptions of CSR in Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to advance an analysis of different conceptions of CSR in Japan after the Fukushima accident. The literature on CSR suggests that CSR is a complex term that has been open to a variety of interpretations. Until recently, CSR was mainly incorporated into Japanese...... concerns have raised crucial questions about environmental issues with regards to CSR. How do Japanese companies incorporate environmental issues into their CSR aims and achievements? What is the next strategic challenge for CSR in Japan? This paper will analyze the conceptualization of CSR in TEPCO...... used to understand CSR and the strategic challenges for CSR in Japan. Such a conceptual analysis provides important insight into how Japanese companies conceive of environmental issues and incorporate these into their CSR aims and achievements. As such, this paper will argue, part of the next strategic...

  14. Japan's role as an Asian observer state within and outside the Arctic Council's framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeshima, Taisaku

    2016-09-01

    After the recent publication of Japan's Arctic policy, the world is carefully considering the kind of role Japan will play in the future. As an economic power, Japan will certainly seek to pursue its national interest, particularly in the development of the Northern Sea Route (NSR) and in the offshore drilling of natural resources in the Arctic region. However, as an Asian observer state, Japan will hopefully play a role of a catalyst and watcher in the Arctic Council (AC) and monitor and report the process and conversation of the forum not only for its own benefit but also in the interest of the international community. This aspect should be reflected in the implementation of the new Arctic policy of Japan in near future.

  15. Takotsubo Syndrome: Insights from Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akashi, Yoshihiro J; Ishihara, Masaharu

    2016-10-01

    We report the history and new insights of takotsubo syndrome based on the achievements that Japanese researchers have contributed and summarize the evidence originally presented from Japan. Takotsubo syndrome is a newly described heart failure characterized by transient left ventricular dysfunction. We should be aware of this entity as a syndrome, not actual cardiomyopathy. Japanese researchers focus on the experimental approaches for clinical diagnosis and treatment of takotsubo syndrome. As representatives from a country originally naming this syndrome takotsubo, a global registry for takotsubo syndrome including Japan should be established. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Geothermal Field Developments in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirakawa, Seiichi

    1983-12-15

    The present situation of the geothermal field developments in Japan is such that eight geothermal power stations are being operated, while there are sill many geothermal areas to be explored. Up to this day, the target of geothermal exploration has mainly been the areas by surface geological survey and the existing geothermal reservoirs are located not deeper than 1,500m depth. Recent geothermal energy development shows a trend from the study on vapor dominated of liquid dominated hydrothermal resources in shallow zones to that on hydrothermal resources in deeper zones. Exploration wells of 3,000m depth class have been drilled in Japan.

  17. 75 FR 57980 - Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... whether revocation of the antidumping duty finding on polychloroprene rubber from Japan would be likely to...

  18. Trends in the Prevalence of Dementia in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko H. Dodge

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a paucity of data regarding trends in dementia and its subtype prevalence in Japan. Our aims in the current paper are to: (1 summarize epidemiological studies of dementia in Japan including relevant details of study protocol and diagnostic criteria, (2 compare the age-specific prevalence of all-cause dementia among studies, and (3 assess the trends in Alzheimer's disease (AD versus vascular dementia (VaD over time. We reviewed diagnostic criteria, all-cause dementia prevalence, and the AD/VaD ratio from 8 large population studies of dementia in Japan. Compared with the Okinawa 1992 study, studies conducted in 1994, 1998, 2005, and 2008 had a higher prevalence of all-cause dementia using Poisson regression models, after controlling for age and sex. In contrast to the US and some European countries, all-cause dementia prevalence is increasing in Japan. The prevalence of AD as opposed to VaD seems to be increasing over time, but large variability in diagnostic criteria, possible regional variability, and differences in prevalence of subtypes of dementia between men and women make it difficult to draw a conclusion about this trend at the national level. Further studies, for example, comparing the population attributable risk of vascular diseases to the prevalence and incidence of dementia could help to clarify the regional variations in etiological subtypes.

  19. Trends in the prevalence of dementia in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Hiroko H; Buracchio, Teresa J; Fisher, Gwenith G; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Meguro, Kenichi; Tanizaki, Yumihiro; Kaye, Jeffrey A

    2012-01-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding trends in dementia and its subtype prevalence in Japan. Our aims in the current paper are to: (1) summarize epidemiological studies of dementia in Japan including relevant details of study protocol and diagnostic criteria, (2) compare the age-specific prevalence of all-cause dementia among studies, and (3) assess the trends in Alzheimer's disease (AD) versus vascular dementia (VaD) over time. We reviewed diagnostic criteria, all-cause dementia prevalence, and the AD/VaD ratio from 8 large population studies of dementia in Japan. Compared with the Okinawa 1992 study, studies conducted in 1994, 1998, 2005, and 2008 had a higher prevalence of all-cause dementia using Poisson regression models, after controlling for age and sex. In contrast to the US and some European countries, all-cause dementia prevalence is increasing in Japan. The prevalence of AD as opposed to VaD seems to be increasing over time, but large variability in diagnostic criteria, possible regional variability, and differences in prevalence of subtypes of dementia between men and women make it difficult to draw a conclusion about this trend at the national level. Further studies, for example, comparing the population attributable risk of vascular diseases to the prevalence and incidence of dementia could help to clarify the regional variations in etiological subtypes.

  20. Japan's lost decade: Lessons for other economies

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshino, Naoyuki; Taghizadeh-Hesary, Farhad

    2015-01-01

    Japan has suffered from sluggish economic growth and recession since the 1990s, a phenomenon dubbed "Japan's Lost Decade." The People's Republic of China, many countries in the eurozone, and the United States may face similar problems in future and they have been concerned by Japan's long-term recession. This paper will address why Japan's economy has stagnated since the bursting of its economic bubble. Our empirical analysis challenges the beliefs of some western economists, such as Paul Kru...

  1. Premature mortality in Japan due to ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawahda, Amin; Yamashita, Ken; Ohara, Toshimasa; Kurokawa, Junichi; Ohizumi, Tsuyoshi; Chen, Fang; Akimoto, Hajime

    2013-12-01

    In Japan, all 47 prefectures conduct routine air quality monitoring at 1145 stations throughout the country to assess environmental effects. This study aims to provide a better understanding of possible estimations of premature mortality in Japan caused by exposure to monitored and modeled concentrations of tropospheric ozone during the period from January to December, 2005. The spatial distribution and temporal variation of ozone concentrations were modeled using the Models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system coupled with the Regional Emission Inventory in Asia (CMAQ/REAS). Premature mortality caused by exposure to ozone was calculated assuming a relative risk (RR) value of 1.003 [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.001-1.004] for concentrations above 35 ppb according to the SOMO35 index (annual Sum of daily maximum 8-h Ozone Means Over 35 ppb) recommended by WHO (2008). Based on CMAQ/REAS simulations, the estimated all-cause premature mortality in 2005 is about 13,000 (95% CI: 4320-17,300) cases. This value is 2.5 times greater than the estimated premature mortality based on monitored ozone concentrations, which is 5220 (95% CI: 1740-6960) cases.

  2. 旅顺日俄监狱旧址博物馆藏旅顺要塞地带标刻石考略%Study of Collections on Lvshun Fortified Zone Marked Stone of Lvshun Japanese-and Russian Prison Museum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔再尚

    2016-01-01

    After the Russo-Japanese War , Japan through the "Treaty of Portsmouth"occupied Dalian , colo-nial rule .Japan established government of Kanto state on September 1 , 1906 , which was responsible for managing the Kanto state region , and the establishment of Lushun fortress headquarters and Lushun port section , it is Japan's colonial rule authorities in the military aspects of the Kanto state to implement direct actuator colonial rule .To strengthen the management of the Port fortress zone area , government of Kanto state promulgated” the Kanto state defense order", and set Lushun fortified zone marked stone fortress in the heart of Port zone , which is the powerful evidence of Japanese aggression in Dalian .%日俄战争后,日本通过《朴茨茅斯条约》侵占大连地区,实行殖民统治。1906年9月1日,日本在旅顺成立关东都督府,负责管理“关东州”地区,并设立旅顺要塞司令部和旅顺要港部,它是日本殖民统治当局在军事方面对“关东州”实行殖民统治的直接执行机构。为加强对旅顺要塞地带区域的管理,关东都督府颁布《关东州防御营造物地带令》,并在旅顺要塞地带内树立旅顺要塞地带标刻石,旅顺要塞地带标刻石是日本侵略大连地区的有力物证。

  3. From sword to chrysanthemum: Japan's culture of anti-miltarism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, T.U.

    The end of the Cold War and the phenomenal increase in Japan's economic and technological power put Japan today in the position to become, if it chooses, a military as well as economic superpower. The diminution of the Soviet threat and the increasing US preoccupation with domestic problems give Japan a latitude for independent action it has not had since the end of World War II. At the same time the US-Japanese security alliance, which has enabled Japan to adopt a minimalist approach to defense and national security, is being weakened by ideologically charged trade and other economic frictions and a growing American perception of Japan as a threat to its interests. Moreover, in the long run Japan faces the prospect of having to deal with other rising regional powers, most notably the People's Republic of China. This changing international security environment thus raises question whether Japan, having become an economic rival of the United States, may not in the future become a military competitor as well; whether, after having adopted a pacifist stance for half a century, Japan may choose to unsheathe its sword once again.

  4. Textile Exports to Japan Witnessing a Downturn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China textile and apparel exports to Japan was witnessing a downturn in all statistics of China Customs and Japan METI in the Jan.-Apr. 2010 period. Exports to Japan this year later will face more pressure as gains in Japan’s consumption could moderate due to a lackluster jobs market and debt crisis.

  5. 75 FR 38119 - Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COMMISSION Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty finding on polychloroprene rubber from Japan... antidumping duty finding on polychloroprene rubber from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  6. The US Occupation and Japan's New Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumano, Ruriko

    2007-01-01

    During the US Occupation of Japan (1945-1952), a victorious America attempted to reform Japanese education by replacing Japan's tradition system of values with one that promoted American democratic values. The United States had considered the source of Japan's militarism to lie in the selfless loyalty and love of country that many older Japanese…

  7. Legislative Basis of Pedagogical Education in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchai, Tetiana

    2014-01-01

    Legal framework policy of Japan in the field of education has been analyzed. The problem of influence of legislative materials on the development of education in Japan, its legislative support has been considered. It has been defined that directive materials affect the development of education system in Japan. Legislation policy of the country is…

  8. The great East Japan earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fluke, R.

    2011-06-15

    'Full text:' More formally called the Tohoku-Chihou-Taiheiyo-Oki Earthquake of March 11, 2011, it was the ensuing tsunami that caused the most death and destruction to the north-east coastal region of Japan. It is also what caused the multiple meltdowns at Fukushima Dai-ichi. Reactor Unit 1, ironically, was scheduled to be permanently shut down for decommissioning just two weeks later. The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant has a tsunami protection barrier designed for the worst recorded tsunami in that area since 1896 - to a height of 5.7 m. The plant itself is on an elevated grade of about 10 m. The tsunami, reported to be 14-15 m, caused inundation of the entire site with at least four metres of seawater. The seawater flooded the turbine building and damaged electrical equipment including the emergency diesel generators, leaving the entire six-unit nuclear power plan without any source of AC power, known as the 'station blackout scenario'. There are numerous reports available on-line at various sites. The Japanese Government report is frank and forthcoming on the causes and the lessons learned, and the lAEA Mission report is in-depth and well presented, not only as a factual account of the events but as a unified source of the conclusions and lessons learned. Photos of the catastrophe are available at the TEPCO web site: http://www.tepco.co.jp/en/index-e.html. In this edition of the Bulletin there is a 'layman's' description of CANDU and BWR design in terms of the fundamental safety principles - Control, Cool and Contain as well as a description of how these principles were met, or not met at Fukushima Dai-ichi. Also, an excerpt from the IAEA Expert Mission is included. We 'technocrats' sometimes forget about the human aspects of a nuclear disaster. An essay by Dr. Michael Edwards is included entitled 'Psychology, Philosophy and Nuclear Science'. Other references to the events appear throughout this

  9. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    8 MOX to Undergo Post-Irradiation Test for Plutonium Thermal Use [GENSHIR YOKU SANGYO SHIMB UN, I Mar 90...Irradiation Testing of MOX Fuel Rods for Water Reactors: Thermal Behavior of IFA-529 Fuel Rods [K. Kamimura, et al; ATOMIC ENERGY SOCIETY OF JAPAN, 2...Apr 90] ........................................... 16 Irradiation Testing of MOX Fuel Rods for Water Reactors: Mechanical Behavior of IFA-529 Fuel

  10. Modernization of Education in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. for Educational Research, Tokyo (Japan).

    The document traces the development of education in Japan from the 17th century to the present. It is presented in four chapters. Chapter one discusses the Tokugawa Period (1603-1867). Principal forms of schooling were hanko for the Samurai class and terakoya for the commoners. The hanko were established for the benefit of the fiefs; objectives of…

  11. JPRS Report, East Asia, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    three-dimensional mensuration engineering, and with Charmilles Technologies S.A. (Switzerland) in electronic discharging machines. This international...RATE MOVEMENT IN A DAY Spot rate; March 31, 1987; Japan time Citibank hikes prime rats Baker worries about Dollar drop Baldridge sayi market

  12. Small store presence in Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Carree (Martin); J.C.A. Potjes; A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThe determinants of the development of small store presence in Japan are investigated using a fixed effects multinomial logit market share model. Large stores tend to have higher market shares in shop-types with increasing shares in consumer expenditures, increasing inventory turnover,

  13. Exploring Home Education in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher, Bozek

    2015-01-01

    Homeschooling is very unusual in Japan and therefore many Japanese people are not familiar with the idea at all. This paper presents the definition of homeschooling and some basic principles such as why parents decide to teach at home and what group of people homeschool the most. It also explores the advantages of teaching children at home instead of sending them to school.

  14. Human sapovirus in clams, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansman, Grant S; Oka, Tomoichiro; Okamoto, Reiko; Nishida, Tomoko; Toda, Schoichi; Noda, Mamoru; Sano, Daisuke; Ueki, You; Imai, Takahiro; Omura, Tatsuo; Nishio, Osamu; Kimura, Hirokazu; Takeda, Naokazu

    2007-04-01

    Human sapovirus was detected in 4 of 57 clam packages by reverse transcription-PCR and sequence analysis. This represents the first finding of sapovirus contamination in food. Closely matching sequences have been detected in stool specimens from patients with gastroenteritis in Japan, which indicates a possible food-to-human transmission link.

  15. Japan and America: Culture Counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Barry D.

    1989-01-01

    Cultural distinctions in the approach to social relationships, access to information, personal motivation, and hierarchy make Japan an effective economic power. U.S. business can learn from the Japanese ways to create more information-based organizations, think in global terms, foster links between business and education, and develop internal…

  16. Entrepreneurship and unemployment in Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Stel, A.; Thurik, R.; Verheul, I.; Baljeu, L.

    2008-01-01

    We examine the relationship between entrepreneurship (as measured by fluctuations in the business ownership rate) and unemployment in Japan for the period between 1972 and 2002. We find that, although Japan’s unemployment rate has been influenced by specific exogenous shocks, the effects of entrepre

  17. How Japan Supports Novice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    When U.S. educators first hear that Japanese teacher preparation programs require only four weeks of formal student teaching at the end of the credential program, they're appalled: How can this be? More surprising still, few new teachers in Japan (1.35 percent) leave the profession during their first year. So where are these beginning teachers…

  18. The Japan of Today, 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Tokyo (Japan).

    Following an introduction which discusses the history and geography of Japan, this book focuses on topics related to this country's government, economy, social conditions, and cultural life. Topics related to government include: constitution and emperor; legislature; executive power; judiciary system; foreign relations; and defense. Topics related…

  19. Japan's Eco-School Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    Since 1997, several ministries in Japan have collaborated on an eco-school programme, which applies to both newly constructed and renovated school buildings, in an effort to make its schools more environmentally friendly. The programme equips school buildings with ecological features such as photovoltaic cells, solar thermal collectors, other new…

  20. Small store presence in Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Carree (Martin); J.C.A. Potjes; A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThe determinants of the development of small store presence in Japan are investigated using a fixed effects multinomial logit market share model. Large stores tend to have higher market shares in shop-types with increasing shares in consumer expenditures, increasing inventory turnover, a

  1. [Marriage and divorce in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haderka, J

    1986-01-01

    Marriage patterns in Japan are analyzed using data from secondary sources. The author notes that although legislation affecting marriage and the family is derived from European models, traditional Japanese attitudes concerning the subservient role of women have a significant impact. The problems faced by women experiencing divorce are noted. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS)

  2. Susceptibility of Aedes flavopictus miyarai and Aedes galloisi mosquito species in Japan to dengue type 2 virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raweewan Srisawat

    2016-05-01

    Conclusions: Ae. albopictus is a well-known candidate for dengue transmission in Japan. However, our data suggest that Ae. f. miyarai from Ishigaki Island (near Okinawa Island and Ae. galloisi from Hokkaido (Northern Japan should also be regarded as potential vectors for dengue transmission in these regions. Further studies on these mosquitoes should be conducted.

  3. Training the Technical Trainer: Issues and Strategies. Papers Presented at a Workshop (Chiba City, Japan, May 13-23, 1987).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asian Development Bank, Manila (Philippines).

    In May 1987 a regional workshop was organized in Japan under the technical assistance program of the Asian Development Bank with the collaboration of the Asian and Pacific Skill Development Programme of the International Labour Organisation and the support of the Ministry of Labor of the government of Japan. The workshop addressed the major issues…

  4. How To Establish Effective Book Marketing and Distribution Systems in Asia/Pacific. Report of the Regional Training Course on Book Production in Asia/Pacific (Tokyo, Japan, September 21-October 9, 1994).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asian Cultural Centre for UNESCO, Tokyo (Japan).

    The participants in this 1994 regional training course examined the issue of book distribution and marketing. They focused on book marketing together with the development of distribution in order to prepare practical action plans for improvement. Twenty-three experts from 20 countries in Asia/Pacific and Africa analyzed problems, exchanged…

  5. Ensuring Opportunities for the Professional Development of Teachers. Innovation and Reform in Teacher Education for the 21st Century in the Asia-Pacific Region. Seminar Report (Hiroshima, Japan, September 1998).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Yoshinori, Ed.; Griek, Lyckle, Ed.

    This is the second seminar report in the sixth cycle of the UNESCO-APEID (Asia-Pacific Program of Educational Innovation for Development) Program on Innovation and Reform in Teacher Education for the 21st Century in the Asia-Pacific Region. The seminar focused on ensuring opportunities for the professional development of teachers. Experts from 10…

  6. Policy review: Japan-Philippines Economic Partnership Agreement (JPEPA)--analysis of a failed nurse migration policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Nozomi; Mackey, Tim K; Liang, Bryan A; Gerlt, Lorna

    2014-02-01

    In 2008, the bilateral Japan-Philippines Economic Partnership Agreement took effect. Contained within this regional free trade agreement are unique provisions allowing exchange of Filipino nurses and healthcare workers to work abroad in Japan. Japan's increasing need for healthcare workers due to its aging demographic and the Philippines need for economic development could have led to shared benefits under the Japan-Philippines Economic Partnership Agreement. However, 4 years following program implementation, results have been disappointing, e.g., only 7% of candidates passing the programs requirements since 2009. These disappointing results represent a policy failure within the current Japan-Philippines Economic Partnership Agreement framework, and point to the need for reform. Hence, amending the current Japan-Philippines Economic Partnership Agreement structure by potentially adopting a USA based approach to licensure examinations and implementing necessary institutional and governance reform measures may be necessary to ensure beneficial healthcare worker migration for both countries.

  7. Seasonal pattern and genotype distribution of sapovirus infection in Japan, 2003-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, S K; Phathammavong, O; Nguyen, T D; Thongprachum, A; Chan-It, W; Okitsu, S; Mizuguchi, M; Ushijima, H

    2012-01-01

    Sapovirus, a member of the family Caliciviridae, is one of the major causative agents of viral gastroenteritis affecting all age groups. A total of 3232 faecal specimens collected from infants and children with gastroenteritis in five different regions of Japan during 2003-2009 were examined for sapovirus by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Sapoviruses were detected in 131 (4·05%) patients with the peak observed mainly in the cold season (November-March) in Japan during 2003-2009. During the last 6 years, sapovirus GI/1 was the predominant strain in Japan followed by GIV, GII/3, GII/6, GII/2, GII/12 and GI, respectively.

  8. Image of Ramsar sites in Japan : results of an Internet survey

    OpenAIRE

    淺野, 敏久; 金, 枓哲; 伊藤, 達也; 平井, 幸弘; 香川, 雄一

    2013-01-01

    Japan has joined the Ramsar Convention since 1980. Up to now 46 wetland sites in Japan have been registered as the Ramsar sites as of the September 2013. Though the Ramsar Convention aims at not only conserving wetlands but also "wise-use" of wetlands, discourses on Ramsar sites seem to be focused on conservation rather than "wise-use". Particularly in Japan, registering a wetland to the Ramsar Convention hardly contributes to regional economies and/or tourism as a model of "wise-use". This p...

  9. Online database of archaeomagnetism in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, T.

    2013-12-01

    We are now reconstructing the archaeomagnetic database and the geomagnetic secular variation model for the past 2000 years in Japan. Here we introduce a new online database of archaeomagnetism. There are several thousands of archaeomagnetic data mainly obtained from buried kilns and baked earths. Our goal is collecting and compiling these data and publishing to the geoscientists, the archaeologist, the people involved in education, students and citizens interested in geomagnetism and archaeology. Now we support a search engine of the archaeomagnetic data of direction and intensity, links to the references and sites outside, the site locations on a map and the educational documents (only in Japanese). We have a future plan to provide database improved and secular variation model reduced to given location in the Far East region.

  10. Japan-Indo collaboration on balloon observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Fumiyoshi

    Japan-Indo collaboration on balloon observations of cosmic X-ray sources was started in 1969 by the late S. Hayakawa of Nagoya Univ. and B. V. Sreekantan of TIFR. Cosmic background X-ray and soft gamma-ray spectra, simultaneous X-ray and optical flux variation, and size of X-ray emitting region of Crab Nebula were observed successfully by balloon flights at Hyderabad in 1969-1975. H. Shibai of Nagoya Univ. and T. N. Rengarajan of TIFR have organized collaboration on far infrared sky survey at wavlength of 150 micron emitted from CII. By employing improved detectors, CII distribution of Orion Nebula has been obtained in good accuracy by more than ten balloon flights in 1999-2008.

  11. Japan's China Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    TAKAHASHI, Sugio

    2012-01-01

    Structural change in the international order will have the greatest effect in East Asia with the ascendancy of China as a world economic power. A two-pillar post- Cold War policy of “shaping†China into a model country while “hedging†against its potential as a strategic rival has had to give way under the reality that China is not only an actor “to be shaped†but also an actor “to shape†the region. A new China strategy of “integration, balancing, and deterrence†has been...

  12. Avoiding downward security spirals in Northeast Asia the gradual transition to a militarily "normalized" Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Warren D.

    2006-01-01

    The world is on the verge of a dramatic shift in security relations in Northeast Asia. With a "rising China" and a Japan emerging as a "normal" military power by revising the pacifist clause of its constitution (Article 9), many analysts argue that the new century may bring with it increased instability to the region. With this forecast in mind, this thesis explores how the United States should approach a militarily "normalizing" Japan. The primary questions that will be analyzed are: 1) Will...

  13. A retrospective case-control study of hepatitis C virus infection and oral lichen planus in Japan: association study with mutations in the core and NS5A region of hepatitis C virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagao Yumiko

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection in Japanese patients with oral lichen planus and identify the impact of amino acid (aa substitutions in the HCV core region and IFN-sensitivity-determining region (ISDR of nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A associated with lichen planus. Methods In this retrospective study, 59 patients (group 1-A with oral lichen planus among 226 consecutive patients who visited our hospital and 85 individuals (group 1-B, controls with normal oral mucosa were investigated for the presence of liver disease and HCV infection. Risk factors for the presence of oral lichen planus were assessed by logistic regression analysis. We compared aa substitutions in the HCV core region (70 and/or 91 and ISDR of NS5A of 12 patients with oral lichen planus (group 2-A and 7 patients who did not have oral lichen planus (group 2-B among patients (high viral loads, genotype 1b who received interferon (IFN therapy in group1-A. Results The prevalence of anti-HCV and HCV RNA was 67.80% (40/59 and 59.32% (35/59, respectively, in group 1-A and 31.76% (27/85 and 16.47% (14/85, respectively, in group 1-B. The prevalence of anti-HCV (P P Conclusion We observed a high prevalence of HCV infection in patients with oral lichen planus. Longstanding HCV infection, hypoalbuminemia, and smoking were significant risk factors for the presence of oral lichen planus in patients. It is advisable for Japanese patients with lichen planus to be tested for HCV infection during medical examination.

  14. Earthquake generation cycles and tsunami simulations providing possible scenarios for Turkey (Marmara sea) and Japan (Nankai trough and Japan trench)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Takane; Yalciner, Ahmet; Ozel, Nurcan; Kilic, Irfan; Miyazaki, Shin'ichi; Hyodo, Mamoru

    2015-04-01

    In order to obtain comprehensive earthquake and tsunami scenarios for disaster assessment, numerical simulations of earthquake generation cycles and resultant tsunami generations have been performed in Japan. The occurrence of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake has realized us the necessity to consider all the possible scenarios without preconceptions. We have performed large-scale numerical simulations using Earth Simulator and K-computer for earthquake generation cycles along the Nankai trough, southwest Japan, where megathrust earthquakes with some segments have sequentially occurred. We have succeeded to reproduce various rupture pattern seen in historical data and geological evidences (such as tsunami deposit) being consistent with GEONET data during interseismic period. Using the results of such earthquake generation cycle simulations, we performed tsunami generation, propagation and inundation simulation. In Turkey, tsunami simulation methods and tsunami scenario database have been developed. In the research project of SATREPS -Earthquake and tsunami disaster mitigation in the Marmara region and disaster education in Turkey, we are applying such earthquake generation cycle and tsunami simulations to the North Anatolian fault system to obtain possible earthquake scenarios and to improve tsunami scenario data base for Sea of Marmara. For the modeling of the fault system, we will use observation results by the earthquake source modeling group in this project to improve the existing models. The earthquake scenarios will be used also for strong motion predictions by the group of seismic characterization and damage prediction. We will visualize the simulation results for disaster education. Furthermore, we will contribute to improve semi-realtime earthquake analyses and tsunami forecasting. In the presentation, we will show some recent simulation results of earthquake generation cycles and tsunamis for Turkey (Marmara sea) and Japan (Nankai trough and Japan trench

  15. Epidemiological Survey of Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration in Tottori Prefecture, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Wada-Isoe

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD in Japan is unknown. An epidemiological survey study of FTLD was undertaken in Tottori Prefecture, a district in the western region of Japan. Methods: Hospitals in Tottori Prefecture were surveyed by a two-step questionnaire in 2010, and the prevalence of FTLD per 100,000 inhabitants was calculated using the actual number of patients and inhabitants in Tottori Prefecture on the prevalence day of October 1, 2010. Results: In this survey, 66 patients were diagnosed with FTLD. The subtypes of FTLD were as follows: 62 cases of frontotemporal dementia (FTD, 3 cases of progressive nonfluent aphasia, and 1 case of semantic dementia. Among the FTD cases, 5 cases were FTD with motor neuron disease and 1 case was FTD with parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17. The prevalence of FTD in the total population of Tottori Prefecture was 11.2 per 100,000 inhabitants. Based on these results, the prevalence of FTLD in Japan in 2008 was estimated to be 9.5 per 100,000 individuals. Conclusions: Our epidemiological survey results suggest that there are at least 12,000 FTLD patients in Japan, indicating that FTLD is not a rare disease.

  16. International Comparative Study on Similarities of Manufacturing and Changes in Income--Comparison based on the Yangtze River Delta region of China and the East Sea region of Japan%制造业同构现象与收入变动的国际比较研究--基于中国长三角地区与日本东海地区的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴迎新

    2013-01-01

    运用产业同构系数、人均GDP、人均工资等指标,比较研究了20年来中国沪苏浙地区和日本东海地区产业分工与收入差距的现状和特征,研究结果显示:产业同构系数与收入差距变化间的关系并不确定。调节产业同构现象的措施对于缩小收入差距未必有确定的、显著的作用,解决收入差距应主要运用收入分配政策。%By using industry similar coefficient, per capita GDP and per capita wage index, this paper studies the status and characteristics of the industrial division and income gap between Shanghai, Jiangsu, Zhejiang and East Sea region of Japan in the past 20 years. The results show that the relationship between the changes in the industry similar coefficient and the income gap is uncertain. The measures of adjusting the similar industrial structure may not play a determined and significant role in narrowing the income gap. The income distribution policy should be the principal means of solving the income gap.

  17. Fruit harvesting robots in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, N.; Monta, M.; Fujiura, T.

    We have developed harvesting robots for tomato /1/, petty-tomato, cucumber /2/ and grape /3/ in Japan. These robots mainly consist of manipulators, end-effectors, visual sensors and traveling devices. These mechanisms of the robot components were developed based on the physical properties of the work objects. The robots must work automatically by themselves in greenhouses or fields, since we are considering for one operator to tend several robots in the production system. The system is modeled after Japanese agriculture which is commonly seen to produce many kinds of crops in greenhouses and in many small fields intensively. Bioproduction in space is somewhat similar to the agricultural system in Japan, because few operators have to work in a small space. Employing robots for bioproduction in space is considered desirable in near future. The following is a description of the harvesting robots.

  18. Toshiba viste os Japans svaghed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    2015-01-01

    Corporate governance (selskabsledelse, red.) er blevet moderne i Japan som led i Shinzo Abe-regeringens forsøg på at revitalisere landets økonomi. Krav om øget rentabilitet gjorde det endnu sværere at indrømme problemerne. Direktøren tager skyldenI en dansk eller amerikansk virksomhed ville en ny...... direktør givetvis straks have afskrevet så meget som muligt af forgængernes fejltagelser, men den går ikke i Japan, hvor den afgåede direktør sidder med ved bordet, og den tiltrædende direktør måske har været med i beslutningerne. Umiddelbart virker de japanske corporate governance-reformer utilstræk...

  19. Japan reforms its nuclear safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2013-11-15

    The Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident deeply questioned the bases of nuclear safety and nuclear safety regulation in Japan. It also resulted in a considerable loss of public confidence in the safety of nuclear power across the world. Although the accident was caused by natural phenomena, institutional and human factors also largely contributed to its devastating consequences, as shown by the Japanese Diet's and Government's investigation reports. 'Both regulators and licensees were held responsible and decided to fully reconsider the existing approaches to nuclear safety. Consequently, the regulatory system underwent extensive reform based on the lessons learned from the accident,' Yoshihiro Nakagome, the President of Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organisation, an ETSON member TSO, explains. (orig.)

  20. WDC Activities in Japan, 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Watanabe

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper briefly reviews the activities of the International Council for Science (ICSU World Data Centers (WDCs in Japan at a time of great change in the data and information structures of the ICSU ? the creation of the World Data System (WDS in 2009. Seven WDCs are currently operating in Japan: the WDC for Airglow, the WDC for Cosmic Rays, the WDC for Geomagnetism, Kyoto, the WDC for Ionosphere, the WDC for Solar Radio Emission, and the WDC for Space Science Satellites. Although these WDCs are highly active, along-term support system must be established to ensure the stewardship and provision of quality-assessed data and data services to the international science community.

  1. Clandestine migrant workers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, T

    1992-01-01

    The author assesses the problem of illegal labor migration to Japan. "Labor policies, regulations, types of immigration violations, and the role of the recruitment industry are described. Most of the estimated 200,000 illegal workers are employed in small and medium sized enterprises, especially construction and manufacturing, which pay them wages well below the normal rate. A key issue is the infringement of human rights of these illegal workers, who lack the protection of labor laws and the social security system."

  2. JPRS Report. East Asia: Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    made abroad, are being imported into the United States. In other words, the United States has thoroughly become an " information society ." It is...to an Information Society Sekimoto: It will be difficult for the United States to revert to the industrial structure by bucking the tide of...history running from an agrarian society to an industrial society and then to an information society . For its part, Japan should figure out how it can

  3. Japan Report - Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-17

    Stock of Bacillus Subtilis Bacillus subtilis is a relative of bacillus natto that has been in use in Japan from the ancient times. It is safe and...secretes a large volume of pro- tein. Thus it is used industrially. By using this bacillus subtilis as a base, an ambitious research concerning (1...the said secretion vector were tried. Follow- ing results were obtained. (1) Neutral proteazoa genes of bacillus subtilis were processed to suit the

  4. Psychological distress during pregnancy in Miyagi after the Great East Japan Earthquake: The Japan Environment and Children's Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Zen; Iwama, Noriyuki; Nishigori, Hidekazu; Nishigori, Toshie; Mizuno, Satoshi; Sakurai, Kasumi; Ishikuro, Mami; Obara, Taku; Tatsuta, Nozomi; Nishijima, Ichiko; Fujiwara, Ikuma; Nakai, Kunihiko; Arima, Takahiro; Takeda, Takashi; Sugawara, Junichi; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Metoki, Hirohito; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2016-01-15

    To examine psychological distress among pregnant women in Miyagi prefecture which was directly affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami and compare other areas of Japan that were less damaged. This study was conducted in conjunction with the Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS). We examined 10,129 Japanese women using the primary fixed data of the JECS. The Kessler 6-item psychological distress scale (K6) was administered to 7473 eligible women including 998 in Miyagi unit center ('Miyagi UC') and 6475 in the other unit centers ('13UCs'). We compared the prevalence and the risk of distress (K6 ≥ 13) during pregnancy in 'Miyagi UC' and '13UCs'. More women in 'Miyagi UC' (4.9%) suffered psychological distress, compared with '13UCs' (3.1%) (pearthquake and the extent of damage was not investigated. Possible regional representativeness is also a limitation. After the Great East Japan Earthquake, the prevalence of pregnant women with psychological distress (K6 ≥ 13) were high in Miyagi prefecture. Especially in the coastal area directly affected by tsunami, it is high with or without negative life events experienced. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Dermatological legal claims in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Sachiko; Isogawa, Naoyuki; Ushiro, Shin; Ayuzawa, Junko; Furue, Masutaka

    2008-07-01

    Health-care safety management has recently been highlighted for patient safety. However, specialist-based risks in clinical settings have hardly been discussed in Japan so far. A review of dermatological legal claims may delineate these risks. This study examined court precedents from the databases "Courts in Japan" and LEX/DB. Thirty-four dermatology-related civil cases were found from 1968-2006. Of the 34 cases, 32 (94%) were judged and two (6%) were retried. Of these 32 cases, 11 (34%) were appealed to higher courts. Among the 34 litigations, the defendants of eight (23%) were dermatology specialists, 20 (59%) were non-dermatologists and six (18%) of unknown specialty. The defendants' negligence was determined at either level in court in 25 of the 34 cases. The negligence in these 25 cases was categorized into five groups: (i) delayed diagnosis (none); (ii) complication during diagnosis procedure (one, 4%); (iii) inappropriate treatment (nine, 36%); (iv) complication during treatment procedure (10, 40%); and (v) insufficient informed consent (five, 20%). The present study may help to improve strategies for health-care safety management in the dermatological field in Japan.

  6. Nuclear catastrophe in Japan. Health consequences resulting from Fukushima; Atomkatastrophe in Japan. Gesundheitliche Folgen von Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulitz, Henrik; Eisenberg, Winfrid; Thiel, Reinhold

    2013-03-06

    caused by cancer (0.1/Sv) and the incidence of cancer (0.2/Sv), these figures translate into 18,950, 41,303, and 28,418 expected cases of cancer due to external radiation exposure in Japan. 133,832 measurement results published by the Japanese Ministry of Health were used to estimate the number of expected cases of cancer due to the consumption of contaminated food. However, a large part of the data could not be used, because instead of exact values it was only mentioned ''below the maximum permitted levels''. 17,000 measurement readings could be assigned to certain prefectures, with the Fukushima region (Fukushima, Miyagi, Tochigi, and Ibaraki prefectures) showing an average total cesium contamination of 180.8 Bq/kg in the food. Calculations indicated total cesium levels of 108.1 Bq/kg for the rest of eastern Japan, and 71.8 Bq/kg for western Japan. Due to the nature of the data it remains unclear to what extent these values are representative. Therefore it has conservatively been assumed that, in the first year following the disaster, food was on average contaminated by only half this amount of cesium. The annual consumption of foodstuffs produced in Japan was estimated at 30,753,745 tons, and the corresponding amounts for the three defined Japanese regions was determined on the basis of their percentage of the total population. In addition, an ecological half-life period of 5 years was assumed. According to the calculations of IPPNW, the collective lifetime dose amounted to 93,166 manSv. Correspondingly, 18,633 cases of cancer must be expected due to contaminated food intake. The applied risk factor of 0.1/Sv, which has by now also been accepted by the World Health Organization (WHO), indicates a probable underestimation of the true risk. Recent studies point to a risk factor that is approximately twice as great, thereby resulting in a doubling of the calculated disease figures. Assuming a risk factor of 0.2/Sv, the expected incidence of cancer due

  7. Historical Change of Equilibrium Water Temperature in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, H.

    2015-12-01

    Changes in freshwater ecosystems due to a climate change have been great concern for sustainable river basin management both for water resources utilization and ecological conservation. However, their impact seems to be difficult to evaluate because of wide variety of basin characteristics along a river network both in nature and social environment. This presentation uses equilibrium water temperature as a simple criterion index for evaluating the long-term changes of stream thermal environment due to the historical climate change in Japan. It examines, at first, the relationship between the equilibrium water temperature and the stream temperature observed for 7 years at a lower reach in the Ibo River, Japan. It analyzes, then, the seasonal and regional trends of the equilibrium water temperature change for the last 50 years at 133 meteorological station sites throughout Japan, discussing their rising or falling characteristics. The correlation analysis at the local reach of the Ibo River shows that the equilibrium water temperature has similar trend of change as the stream temperature. However, its value tends to be higher than the stream temperature in summer, while lower in winter. The onset of the higher equilibrium water temperature fluctuates annually from mid February to early April. This onset fluctuation at each spring could be influenced by the different amount of snow at the antecedent winter. The rising or falling trends of the equilibrium water temperature are analyzed both annually and seasonally through the regression analysis of the 133 sites in Japan. Consequently, the trends of the temperature change could be categorized by 12 patterns. As for the seasonal analysis, the results shows that there are many sites indicating the falling trend in spring and summer, and rising trends in autumn and winter. In particular, winter has the strong rising tendency throughout Japan. As for the regional analysis, the result illustrates the precise rationality; e

  8. The Imminent Healthcare and Emergency Care Crisis in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki, Tetsuji

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Japan has a universal healthcare system, and this paper describes the reality of the healthcare services provided, as well as current issues with the system.Methods: Academic, government, and press reports on Japanese healthcare systems and healthcare guidelines were reviewed.Results: The universal healthcare system of Japan is considered internationally to be both low-cost and effective because the Japanese population enjoys good health status with a long life expectancy, while healthcare spending in Japan is below the average given by the Organization for Economic Corporation and Development (OECD. However, in many regions of Japan the existing healthcare resources are seriously inadequate, especially with regard to the number of physicians and other health professionals. Because healthcare is traditionally viewed as “sacred” work in Japan, healthcare professionals are expected to make large personal sacrifices. Also, public attitudes toward medical malpractice have changed in recent decades, and medical professionals are facing legal issues without experienced support of the government or legal professionals. Administrative response to the lack of resources and collaboration among communities are beginning, and more efficient control and management of the healthcare system is under consideration.Conclusion: The Japanese healthcare system needs to adopt an efficient medical control organization to ease the strain on existing healthcare professionals and to increase the number of physicians and other healthcare resources. Rather than continuing to depend on healthcare professionals being able and willing to make personal sacrifices, the government, the public and medical societies must cooperate and support changes in the healthcare system.

  9. Long-term change in the source contribution to surface ozone over Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Tatsuya; Sudo, Kengo; Akimoto, Hajime; Kurokawa, Junichi; Ohara, Toshimasa

    2017-07-01

    The relative contributions of various source regions to the long-term (1980-2005) increasing trend in surface ozone (O3) over Japan were estimated by a series of tracer-tagging simulations using a global chemical transport model. The model simulated the observed increasing trend in surface O3, including its seasonal variation and geographical features, in Japan well and demonstrated the relative roles of different source regions in forming this trend. Most of the increasing trend in surface O3 over Japan ( ˜ 97 %) that was simulated was explained as the sum of trends in contributions of different regions to photochemical O3 production. The increasing trend in O3 produced in China accounted for 36 % of the total increasing trend and those in the other northeast Asian regions (the Korean Peninsula, coastal regions in East Asia, and Japan) each accounted for about 12-15 %. Furthermore, the contributions of O3 created in the entire free troposphere and in western, southern, and southeastern Asian regions also increased, and their increasing trends accounted for 16 and 7 % of the total trend, respectively. The impact of interannual variations in climate, in methane concentration, and in emission of O3 precursors from different source regions on the relative contributions of O3 created in each region estimated above was also investigated. The variation of climate and the increase in methane concentration together caused the increase of photochemical O3 production in several regions, and represented about 19 % of the total increasing trend in surface O3 over Japan. The increase in emission of O3 precursors in China caused an increase of photochemical O3 production not only in China itself but also in the other northeast Asian regions and accounted for about 46 % of the total increase in surface O3 over Japan. Similarly, the relative impact of O3 precursor emission changes in the Korean Peninsula and Japan were estimated as about 16 and 4 % of the total increasing trend

  10. Chinese University Students’ Impressions of Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Editor’s Note: At the invitation of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan and the Japan-China Friendship Center, a 77-member delegation of Chinese university students led by Wang Xiuyun, Vice President of the China-Japan Friendship Association, visited Tokyo, Miyagi and Kyoto from March 4 to 11, 2013. Members of the delegation consisted of students from Peking University, Renmin University of China, Beijing Foreign Studies University, Beijing Normal University, Beijing International Studies

  11. Green Cooperation Underway between China and Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Zijun

    2011-01-01

    @@ The China-Japan Green Expo 2011, held in early June, marks the first large-scale cooperation between the two countries, after Japan's devastating earthquake and tsunami. Companies based in China and Japan, Chinese government ministries and other organizations attended the expo to exhibit products and technologies that promote environmental conservation.In addition, experts from industry, government and academia hosted seminars to introduce environment-related technologies.

  12. Us-Japan cooperation on safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beddingfield, David H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menlove, Howard O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hori, Masato [JAEA; Kawakubo, Yoko [JAEA; Mcclelland - Kerr, J [NNSA

    2009-01-01

    There is a long history of collaborative safeguards development between the United States and Japan. Japan has built, and continues to expand, the largest civil nuclear fuel cycle under full-scope IAEA safeguards in world. This development has posed unique challenges to the international safeguards system. Safeguards developments made through the US-Japan cooperation to address these unique challenges have significantly impacted the technologies deployed for international safeguards applications around the world.

  13. Neurosurgeons in Japan Are Exclusively Brain Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asamoto, Shunji

    2017-03-01

    In Japan, neurosurgeons have traditionally mainly treated brain diseases, with most cases involving the spine and spinal diseases historically being treated by orthopedists. Nowadays, spinal surgery is 1 of the many subspecialties in the neurosurgical field in Japan. Most patients with neurological deficits or suspected neurological diseases see board-certified neurosurgeons directly in Japan, not through referrals from family physicians or specialists in other fields. Problems originating in the spine and spinal cord have been overlooked or misdiagnosed in these situations. Neurosurgeons in Japan must rethink the educational program to include advanced trauma life support and spinal surgery. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Fitness and health promotion in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, B R; Wagner, D I

    1990-01-01

    Health promotion efforts in Japan are progressing much as they are in the United States. However, as Japan has different health problems and a different business culture, health promotion efforts in Japan differ from those in the United States. This paper will examine the major causes of death in Japan, prevalent lifestyle problems, cultural differences, types of health promotion programs which are offered, and program effectiveness. By making comparisons between two culturally different countries health promotion professionals will be able to understand their own programs better and develop new ideas for future programming efforts.

  15. Profile of China-Japan Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Yong

    2008-01-01

    @@ There are many important changes in the China-Japan economic relation since 2000.Generally speaking,the economic relation between China and Japan is becoming closer and more interdependent than ever.China trade to Japan has increased at the rate of 16.2%,31.1% and 25.7% in the year of 2002,2003 and 2004.In 2006,the sum of the bilateral trade between China and Japan reached US$210 billion with the increasing rate of 11.5%.

  16. Research on Winter Lightning in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Masaru

    Winter lightning in Japan is known for such characteristics as frequent occurrence of upward lightning and of positive ground flashes. On the engineering side, higher frequencies of troubles at transmission lines or wind turbines in winter due to lightning than those in summer have been experienced in the winter thunderstorm area of Japan, despite the much smaller number of lightning strokes in winter observed by lightning location systems (LLS). Such frequent troubles by lightning in the cold season are unique in Japan, which have promoted intensive research on winter lightning in Japan since 1980s.

  17. Dunhuang Friendship Delegation Visits Japan and ROK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>A friendship delegation of Dunhuang City, Gansu Province paid a visit to Japan and the ROK from January 12 to 25, 2007. During its visit to Japan and the ROK, the delegation signed agreements on establishing friendship-city ties between Dunhuang and Nikko City of Japan and between Dunhuang and Namhae County of the ROK, and visited Kamakura and Usuki, Dunhuang’ s two friendship cities in Japan, and held meetings in Tokyo and Seoul to advertise Dunhuang’s tourist products.

  18. Educational Differences in Divorce in Japan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    James M. Raymo; Setsuya Fukuda; Miho Iwasawa

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Evidence of a negative relationship between educational attainment and divorce in Japan is not consistent with predictions derived from standard theoretical emphases on the costs of divorce...

  19. Nuclear catastrophe in Japan. Health consequences resulting from Fukushima; Atomkatastrophe in Japan. Gesundheitliche Folgen von Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulitz, Henrik; Eisenberg, Winfrid; Thiel, Reinhold

    2013-03-06

    caused by cancer (0.1/Sv) and the incidence of cancer (0.2/Sv), these figures translate into 18,950, 41,303, and 28,418 expected cases of cancer due to external radiation exposure in Japan. 133,832 measurement results published by the Japanese Ministry of Health were used to estimate the number of expected cases of cancer due to the consumption of contaminated food. However, a large part of the data could not be used, because instead of exact values it was only mentioned ''below the maximum permitted levels''. 17,000 measurement readings could be assigned to certain prefectures, with the Fukushima region (Fukushima, Miyagi, Tochigi, and Ibaraki prefectures) showing an average total cesium contamination of 180.8 Bq/kg in the food. Calculations indicated total cesium levels of 108.1 Bq/kg for the rest of eastern Japan, and 71.8 Bq/kg for western Japan. Due to the nature of the data it remains unclear to what extent these values are representative. Therefore it has conservatively been assumed that, in the first year following the disaster, food was on average contaminated by only half this amount of cesium. The annual consumption of foodstuffs produced in Japan was estimated at 30,753,745 tons, and the corresponding amounts for the three defined Japanese regions was determined on the basis of their percentage of the total population. In addition, an ecological half-life period of 5 years was assumed. According to the calculations of IPPNW, the collective lifetime dose amounted to 93,166 manSv. Correspondingly, 18,633 cases of cancer must be expected due to contaminated food intake. The applied risk factor of 0.1/Sv, which has by now also been accepted by the World Health Organization (WHO), indicates a probable underestimation of the true risk. Recent studies point to a risk factor that is approximately twice as great, thereby resulting in a doubling of the calculated disease figures. Assuming a risk factor of 0.2/Sv, the expected incidence of cancer due

  20. Molecular epidemiology of bovine leukemia virus associated with enzootic bovine leukosis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Keiko; Inoue, Emi; Osawa, Yoshiaki; Okazaki, Katsunori

    2011-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection of cattle has been increasing yearly in Japan although several European countries have successfully eradicated the infection. In the present study, phylogenetic analysis on the env gene obtained from 64 tumor samples found in different regions in Japan was carried out in order to define the genetic background of BLV strains prevailing in the country. Most of the Japanese isolates were found to reside in the consensus cluster or genotype 1 of BLV strains (Rodriguez et al., 2009). Out of them, 21 isolates and 10 isolates exhibited the identical sequences, respectively. Only one isolate was classified into the different genotype related to the US isolates. Analysis on the deduced amino acids of gp51 demonstrated the sequence diversity in the neutralizing domain. These data may indicate that two major populations of BLV prevailed throughout Japan, whereas antigenic variants also exist. It was further proved that multiple invasion of the genetically different BLV strains have occurred in Japan.

  1. On Modern Fruit Production in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lanhua; ZHAO; Yilong; PIAO

    2015-01-01

    Japan’s fruit tree production technology is in the world leading level. In order to understand Japan’s fruit tree production,by through visits to Japan and data collection,this paper analyzes the changes in Japan’s fruit tree cultivation area,regional distribution of fruit tree cultivation,main cultivars and market circulation in recent years. The results show that Japan’s fruit tree cultivation area underwent great volatility in the 1980 s and 1990 s and it has been stabilized in recent years; the cultivation area of principal fruit tree is reduced,while the cultivation area of new fruit trees and characteristic fruit tree varieties is increased; the regionalization of fruit tree is obvious and the main cultivars are clear. Japan’s principal fruit price goes through slight fluctuations during the year while the price of cherries and peaches goes through great fluctuations. It is concluded that Japan’s fruit tree industry is stably developed.

  2. [The Fukushima nuclear accident: consequences for Japan and for us].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosche, B

    2013-04-01

    The Fukushima accident was the consequence of a preceding 2-fold natural catastrophe: the earth quake of 11 March 2011 and the subsequent tsunami. Due to favourable winds and to evacuation measures the radiation exposure to the general population in Japan as a whole and with some exceptions in the region outside the evacuation zone, too, was low. In this article the attempt is made to give an estimate of health consequences to the public. This is based upon WHO's dose estimates, knowledge of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, of the atmospheric nuclear bomb testing in Kazakhstan and on the risk of childhood leukaemia after low dose radiation exposure. For Germany, there was no radiation threat due to the accident. Nonetheless, the events in Japan made clear that the rules and standards that were developed for the case of a reactor accident need to be revised.

  3. Eosinophilic Chronic Rhinosinusitis in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichi Ishitoya

    2010-01-01

    ECRS is different from non-ECRS in terms of many clinical features: symptom appearance, occurrence site of nasal polyps, CT scan findings, the histology of nasal polyps, blood examination findings, clinical course after surgery, and co-morbid asthma, etc. In this review, we describe these clinical features and mention how to make a clinical diagnosis of ECRS as well as how to treat it. Finally, we discuss the pathophysiology of ECRS. The concept of ECRS in Japan would be applicable for CRSwNP in other countries including Europe and the United States.

  4. Recent cryocooler progress in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Y.

    1985-05-01

    The progress of cryocoolers and related devices in Japan is reviewed. The Japanese National Railways has developed the light weight 4 K on-board refrigerators since 1977 as part of the MAGLEV train program. Superconducting and cryogenic fundamental technology was examined which included high performance cryocooler, magnetic refrigerator and superfluid refrigeration. Space cryogenics such as the cooling systems of IR-detectors was studied. Cryocooler for special applications such as cryopump, NMR-CT and JJ devices was investigated. Compact heat exchangers, high performance regenerators and reliable compressors are investigated as a critical component technology.

  5. High Technology Ceramics in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-14

    of evolutionary charoge T’LE i a Markt She of tlh-T o Japan. 1m (in 4min t4 dolkla)" Japaman Percer""g Sector Appkhi DoamiC Sale" of Total Etcvo... segments populated by buyers willing to acquire products embodying the new technology, even though the cost ma, he somewhat grcmterthan that of...looking for new ways to segment the market in order ,o rekindle consumer interest. New technology like ceramics may well be onewa, to do this. for there is

  6. Japanese History, Post-Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Lazopoulos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Jason Ānanda Josephson, The Invention of Religion in Japan. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2012. 408 pp. $90 (cloth, $30 (paper. Hwansoo Ilmee Kim, Empire of the Dharma: Korean and Japanese Buddhism, 1877–1912. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2012. 444 pp. $50 (cloth. Jung-Sun N. Han, An Imperial Path to Modernity: Yoshino Sakuzō and a New Liberal Order in East Asia, 1905–1937. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2012. 244 pp. $40 (cloth.

  7. Japan between tradition and renewal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Anni

    architecture had on the outcome of the congress. In conversation with Viktoria Diemer Bennetzen, the sociologist Professor Anni Greve will take a closer look ‘beyond metabolism’ - the last architectural avantgarde from Japan. They will examine the transition from Metabolism to contemporary architecture and ask....... What is the status and function of tradition in today’s Japanese society? How does it manifest in architecture and urban life? And what specific role does it play in the differences between rural and urban architecture?"...

  8. 3.11: disaster and change in Japan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Samuels, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    .... Japan, 2011-Political aspects. 3. Fukushima Nuclear Disaster, Japan, 2011-Political aspects. 4. Japan-Politics and government-21st century. I. Title. II. Title: Three eleven. HV555.J3S26 2013 363.34'9...

  9. Conference on International Standards of Acupuncture and Acupoint Held from October 31 to November 2,2006, in Tsukuba, Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WFAS Secretariat

    2006-01-01

    @@ Conference on International Standards of Acupuncture and Acupoint was held from October 31 to November 2,2006, in the international conference center of Tsukuba, Japan. It is sponsored by West Pacific Region of WHO and co-organized by the second Acupuncture Standards Committee of Japan, Japan Tsukuba Science and Technology University. Nearly 20 delegates and 5 observers from 9 countries (Japan, China, South Korea, United Kingdom, Australia, Mongolia, Vietnam, and Singapore) of the world participate in the conference. The document and chart of International Standards of Acupuncture and Acupoint is formally issued through this conference, other disputed issues are voted by the participants. On the day of the conference, Japan Daily News and NHK TV reported it.

  10. Correlation Between the Great East Japan Earthquake and Postpartum Depression: A Study in Miyako, Iwate, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishigori, Hidekazu; Sasaki, Michiho; Obara, Taku; Nishigori, Toshie; Ishikuro, Mami; Metoki, Hirohito; Sugawara, Junichi; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Hosoyachi, Akira; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Kobayashi, Takashi; Yoshizumi, Noboru

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to explore the correlation between the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and postpartum depression among perinatal subjects in the Miyako region of Iwate, an area damaged by earthquakes and tsunamis. We retrospectively compared the percentages of women with scores ≥9 on the Japanese version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) among 3 groups of women who gave birth prior to the disaster (before-disaster group: n=141), within 3 months after the disaster (within-3-months group: n=70), and 4-6 months after the disaster (4-6-months group: n=89) at the Iwate Prefectural Miyako Hospital. The risk factors for EPDS scores ≥9 were estimated with multivariate logistic regression analyses. Compared with the before-disaster group, a significantly greater number of women in the within-3-months group had EPDS scores ≥9 at hospital discharge (31.4% versus 9.9%, PJapan Earthquake among perinatal women.

  11. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

    2012-08-01

    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  12. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

    2012-05-01

    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  13. Great East Japan Earthquake Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Y.; Minoura, K.; Hirano, S.; Yamada, T.

    2011-12-01

    The 11 March 2011, Mw 9.0 Great East Japan Earthquake, already among the most destructive earthquakes in modern history, emanated from a fault rupture that extended an estimated 500 km along the Pacific coast of Honshu. This earthquake is the fourth among five of the strongest temblors since AD 1900 and the largest in Japan since modern instrumental recordings began 130 years ago. The earthquake triggered a huge tsunami, which invaded the seaside areas of the Pacific coast of East Japan, causing devastating damages on the coast. Artificial structures were destroyed and planted forests were thoroughly eroded. Inrush of turbulent flows washed backshore areas and dunes. Coastal materials including beach sand were transported onto inland areas by going-up currents. Just after the occurrence of the tsunami, we started field investigation of measuring thickness and distribution of sediment layers by the tsunami and the inundation depth of water in Sendai plain. Ripple marks showing direction of sediment transport were the important object of observation. We used a soil auger for collecting sediments in the field, and sediment samples were submitted for analyzing grain size and interstitial water chemistry. Satellite images and aerial photographs are very useful for estimating the hydrogeological effects of tsunami inundation. We checked the correspondence of micro-topography, vegetation and sediment covering between before and after the tsunami. The most conspicuous phenomenon is the damage of pine forests planted in the purpose of preventing sand shifting. About ninety-five percent of vegetation coverage was lost during the period of rapid currents changed from first wave. The landward slopes of seawalls were mostly damaged and destroyed. Some aerial photographs leave detailed records of wave destruction just behind seawalls, which shows the occurrence of supercritical flows. The large-scale erosion of backshore behind seawalls is interpreted to have been caused by

  14. The Role of German in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Juergen

    This historical overview of German studies in Japan, dating from the birth of modern Japan in the 1870's to the present time, includes commentary on the nature and scope of existing language programs. The importance of German idealism--reflected in the philosophy of Kant, Hegel, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, and Marx--on Japanese culture is noted.…

  15. Development of clean coal technologies in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, M. [Electric Power Research Industry, Yokosuka (Japan). Central Research Inst.

    2013-07-01

    In Japan, we have to import almost of primary energy resources from all over the world. We depend on foreign countries for 96% of our primary energy supply. Following the two oil crises in the 1970s, Japan has diversified its energy resources through increased use of nuclear energy, natural gas and coal as well as the promotion of energy efficiency and conservation.

  16. Japan mellem øst og vest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted; Ipsen, Lene

    Skildrer Japans historie gennem de sidste 200 år inklusiv et kapitel om historiebrug ift. Nanjingmassakren i 1937-1938.......Skildrer Japans historie gennem de sidste 200 år inklusiv et kapitel om historiebrug ift. Nanjingmassakren i 1937-1938....

  17. Learning from Disaster Simulation Drills in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale natural disasters are a frequent and common occurrence in Japan. Over the years, Japan has evolved its disaster management system to address all phases of a disaster: from disaster prevention, mitigation, and preparedness, to emergency response, recovery, and rehabilitation. This report consists of four parts: Introduction (Chapter 1, 2, 3), Simulation drills (Chapter 4, 5, 6, ...

  18. Japan mellem øst og vest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted; Ipsen, Lene

    Skildrer Japans historie gennem de sidste 200 år inklusiv et kapitel om historiebrug ift. Nanjingmassakren i 1937-1938.......Skildrer Japans historie gennem de sidste 200 år inklusiv et kapitel om historiebrug ift. Nanjingmassakren i 1937-1938....

  19. Marine Geography of the Sea of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1951-01-01

    Reconnaissance Geography of Japan," University of Wisconsin Studies in the Social Sciences and History, No. 22, 283 pp., 1934. , "Japan, A Physical...Vol. 2. pp 2 Inlleiol dMoine Obsetvotory0 Kobe, (&r, Japone ’). RESTRICTED 3 Ref erences: Korea, Fishery Experimental Station, "Report on the Drift

  20. Should Japan Become a Normal Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    Katzenstein and Tsujinaka, 80. 139 Chalmers Johnson, “Japan in Search of a ‘Normal’ Role,” IGCC Policy paper 3, July 1992. 48...Chalmers. “Japan in Search of a ‘Normal’ Role,” IGCC Policy paper, 3 July 1992. Johnson, Chalmers. MITI and The Japanese Miracle: The Growth of

  1. CPAFFC President Chen Haosu Visits Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>To further exchanges and cooperation between the people of China and Japan and enhance ties between the CPAFFC and Japanese non-governmental friendly organizations, President Chen Haosu visited Japan at the head of a CPAFFC delegation from February 7 to 12.

  2. Japan Seeks Balance in Global Bioscience Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jocelyn Kaiser

    1997-01-01

    ... five times its $4 million contribution. "There is a tendency for other governments to see Japan's support as a small return on their trade imbalance with Japan," says Michel Cuenod, secretary-general of the Strasbourg, France-based program. But Japanese officials, he says, "are growing impatient with continuing the program" if the funding issue is n...

  3. China's Crude Exports to Japan Suspended

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ The stalemate of the trade negotiation between China and Japan has recently aroused extensive attention in the two nations. China has suspended oil exports to Japan due to the divergences arising from in the sales negotiation, risking the future of a three-decade long oil shipment program.

  4. Teaching about Japan in Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Helen W.

    1981-01-01

    Suggests that a good starting point for social studies curriculum units on Japan at the secondary school level is an analysis of the interrelationships between Japan and the United States. Information is presented on population figures, industrialization, standard of living indicators, consumer price indexes, and crude birth and death rates for…

  5. Perspectives on Japan: A Guide for Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, John J., Ed.; Schneider, Donald O., Ed.

    Provided are some perspectives, ideas, and resources for teaching about Japan and the Japanese. A major objective is to provide an opportunity for K-12 students to study a culture that can be both compared and contrasted to their own. Following an introduction, which provides a rationale for teaching about Japan, there are three major parts.…

  6. Tachinidae Parasitic on the Lymantriidae in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Paul W., Schaefer; Hiroshi, SHIMA; Asian Parasite Laboratory, Agricultural Research, Science and Education Administration, U.S. Department of Agriculture:(Present address)Beneficial Insects Research Laboratory; Biological Laboratory, College of General Education, Kyushu University

    1981-01-01

    Recorded tachinid parasites and 23 new host records are listed for 15 lymantriid species in Japan. A parasite-host list is included and a new species of Carcelia parasitic on Leucoma candida in Hokkaido is described and illustrated. A key to adult tachinid parasites of the Lymantriidae in Japan is provided.

  7. On the homogeneous structure found in the system of the population of cities in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, K

    1982-05-01

    The author applies Auerbach and Zipf's rank-size rule for the population of cities to data for the nine regions of Japan for 1960, 1965, 1970, and 1975. The rule is successfully applied, and the author concludes that "the system of population of cities in Japan was so homogeneous that the distribution of the population in cities in each of the regions of this country could be described by this same rank-size rule." Some theoretical considerations concerning the rank-size rule are also discussed. (summary in JPN) excerpt

  8. Regionalism, Regionalization and Regional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu C. Andrei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustained development is a concept associating other concepts, in its turn, in the EU practice, e.g. regionalism, regionalizing and afferent policies, here including structural policies. This below text, dedicated to integration concepts, will limit on the other hand to regionalizing, otherwise an aspect typical to Europe and to the EU. On the other hand, two aspects come up to strengthen this field of ideas, i.e. the region (al-regionalism-(regional development triplet has either its own history or precise individual outline of terms.

  9. Research on the societal impacts of nanotechnology: a preliminary comparison of USA, Europe and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Masami; Hunt, Geoffrey

    2009-01-01

    We initiate some comparisons between Japan, Europe and USA on how far there is governmental support for the ethical, legal, social and environmental dimensions of nanotechnology development. It is evident that in the USA and Europe nanotechnology is now firmly embedded in the consideration of ELSI. Yet Japan has not yet adequately recognized the importance of these dimensions. The history of bioethics in Japan is short. In Europe, as early as 2004, a nanotechnology report by the UK's Royal Society referred to the possibility of some nanotubes and fibres having asbestos-like toxicity. The negative history of asbestos in Europe and USA is not yet fully identified as a Japanese problem. Japan is therefore in the process of seeking how best to address societal aspects of nanotechnology. Should the precautionary principle be applied to Japan's nanotechnology initiative as in Europe? Should 5-10% of the government's nanotechnology budget be allocated to ELSI research and measures? We propose that the government and industrial sector in Japan play a much more proactive part in the regional and international growth of research into the wider risk assessment, social, health and environmental context of nanotechnologies, not simply try to borrow lessons from the West at a later date.

  10. Geostationary Atmospheric Observation Satellite Plan in Japan (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimoto, H.; Kasai, Y.; Kita, K.; Irie, H.; Sagi, K.; Hayashida, S.

    2009-12-01

    As emissions of air pollutants in Asia have increased in the past decades accompanying with rapid economic growth of developing countries, Asian regional air pollution has attracted concern from the view of inter-continental and intra-continental long-range transport as well as domestic air quality. Particularly in Japan, transboundary transport of ozone is of recent social concern as one of a cause of increasing trend of near surface ozone concentration. In order to elucidate the transport and chemical transformation processes of air pollution in East Asia, and to attain internationally common understanding on this issue, geostationary atmospheric observation satellite has been proposed in Japan. In 2006, the Japan Society of Atmospheric Chemistry (JSAC) formed Commission on the Atmospheric Environmental Observation Satellite to initiate the discussion. In 2009, Committee on Geostationary Atmospheric Observation Satellite has been formed within JAXA to promote the plan. The proposed satellite consists of a UV/VIS sensor for O3, NO2, HCHO and AOT, and a MIR sensor for O3, CO, HNO3, NO2, H2O and temperature. Targeted spatial and temporal resolutions are ca.10 km and 1-2 hrs, respectively, and focused observation area is northeast Asia potentially covering the southeast and south Asia. Sensitivity analysis and simulation have been made for both the UV/VIS and MIR sensors. Overview of user requirement and the sensitivity analysis for each species will be presented in this talk.

  11. Long-Period Ground Motion Prediction Equations for Relative, Pseudo-Relative and Absolute Velocity Response Spectra in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Y. P.; Kunugi, T.; Suzuki, W.; Aoi, S.

    2014-12-01

    Many of the empirical ground motion prediction equations (GMPE) also known as attenuation relations have been developed for absolute acceleration or pseudo relative velocity response spectra. For a small damping, pseudo and absolute acceleration response spectra are nearly identical and hence interchangeable. It is generally known that the relative and pseudo relative velocity response spectra differ considerably at very short or very long periods, and the two are often considered similar at intermediate periods. However, observations show that the period range at which the two spectra become comparable is different from site to site. Also, the relationship of the above two types of velocity response spectra with absolute velocity response spectra are not discussed well in literature. The absolute velocity response spectra are the peak values of time histories obtained by adding the ground velocities to relative velocity response time histories at individual natural periods. There exists many tall buildings on huge and deep sedimentary basins such as the Kanto basin, and the number of such buildings is growing. Recently, Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) has proposed four classes of long-period ground motion intensity (http://www.data.jma.go.jp/svd/eew/data/ltpgm/) based on absolute velocity response spectra, which correlate to the difficulty of movement of people in tall buildings. As the researchers are using various types of response spectra for long-period ground motions, it is important to understand the relationships between them to take appropriate measures for disaster prevention applications. In this paper, we, therefore, obtain and discuss the empirical attenuation relationships using the same functional forms for the three types of velocity response spectra computed from observed strong motion records from moderate to large earthquakes in relation to JMA magnitude, hypocentral distance, sediment depths, and AVS30 as predictor variables at periods between

  12. National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

    CERN Document Server

    Haubold, Hans J; UN/ESA/NASA Workshop on the International Heliophysical Year 2007 and Basic Space Science, hosted by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

    2010-01-01

    This book represents Volume II of the Proceedings of the UN/ESA/NASA Workshop on the International Heliophysical Year 2007 and Basic Space Science, hosted by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Tokyo, 18 - 22 June, 2007. It covers two programme topics explored in this and past workshops of this nature: (i) non-extensive statistical mechanics as applicable to astrophysics, addressing q-distribution, fractional reaction and diffusion, and the reaction coefficient, as well as the Mittag-Leffler function and (ii) the TRIPOD concept, developed for astronomical telescope facilities. The companion publication, Volume I of the proceedings of this workshop, is a special issue in the journal Earth, Moon, and Planets, Volume 104, Numbers 1-4, April 2009.

  13. History of neurophysiology in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oomura, Y

    1991-01-01

    The progress of the neurophysiological research in Japan during the past 45 years is related. Modern Japanese neurophysiology started immediately after the end of World War 2. The introduction of microelectrode techniques contributed greatly to most fields of Japanese neurophysiology. These techniques were used to study most neurophysiological phenomena: sensory physiology including vision, audition, chemical sensitivity, and other modalities; learning and memory. These techniques plus lesions, transplants, and behavioral physiology were used to study circadian rhythm, posture and motor control, and sex. These and other techniques were used to study neural plasticity, immunity, membrane excitability, pain and other psychophysiological functions. The disciplines advanced quickly into multidiscipline approaches into not only electrophysiological, but biophysical, biochemical and immunological research fields. From the past research results our neurophysiologists can be expected to advance rapidly toward further development in the future of Japanese neurophysiology.

  14. Japan. Superconductivity for Smart Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, K.

    2012-11-15

    Currently, many smart grid projects are running or planned worldwide. These aim at controlling the electricity supply more efficiently and more stably in a new power network system. In Japan, especially superconductivity technology development projects are carried out to contribute to the future smart grid. Japanese cable makers such as Sumitomo Electric and Furukawa Electric are leading in the production of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) power cables. The world's largest electric current and highest voltage superconductivity proving tests have been started this year. Big cities such as Tokyo will be expected to introduce the HTS power cables to reduce transport losses and to meet the increased electricity demand in the near future. Superconducting devices, HTS power cables, Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) and flywheels are the focus of new developments in cooperations between companies, universities and research institutes, funded by the Japanese research and development funding organization New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO)

  15. Application of EB in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunaga, Hiromi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2003-02-01

    Radiation processing using electron beam (EB) facilities other than gamma-ray facilities in Japan is introduced. After briefly presented the features of EB compared with gamma ray, present status of EB application is described. Polymerized materials for use of wire, cable, radial tire, heat shrinkable tube, foam polyethylene, PTFE, battery separator, and adsorbent material are known to be resulting from cross-linking, decomposition, and graft polymerization reactions. Environmental preservation includes electron flue gas treatment in the coal- or oil-fired power plants, research for volatile organic compounds (VOC) and dioxins, as well as wastewater and sludge treatment. Finally activity of JAERI in the related fields is overviewed with the authors prospects for utilization of low energy EB with low cost for surface treatment and functional materials. (S. Ohno)

  16. Japan in the 21st Century Geopolitics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pío García

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1853, Japan was forced to come out of its feudal isolation and become a part of the worldwide business network. Its opening up did not mean surrendering to external powers, but rather becoming immersed in an imperialist struggle, from which it would come out defeated in 1945. Nevertheless, Japan’s prostration was temporary, given that in the post-war period it became an unconditional ally of the same super power that had blocked its military aspirations with two atomic bombs. The strategic agreement with the USA remained intact even after the Cold War had ended. Moreover, the verbal struggle and show of frce in the Senkaku / Diaoyutai Islands, in 2012, facilitated a return to power which was more akin to the dictates of Washington and its security plan in the Pacific political wing. Today, the confrontation in Northeast Asia presents the Korean-American-Japanese block, on one side, and the Sino-Russian-North Korean, on the other, on a fork which must be seen as a new bipolar scheme which will guarantee the regional strategic equilibrium. However, progressive changes are expected in the balance of power in both the Asian sector and the rest of the world, due to the impact of growing Chinese economic, political and military power on geopolitical agreements, including the Japanese-American one.

  17. Economic Valuation of the Damage to Tourism Benefits by Eastern Japan Great Earthquake Disaster

    OpenAIRE

    Nohara, Katsuhito

    2014-01-01

    Main purpose of this study is to evaluate the lost benefits of tourism by harmful rumors or misinformation proceeded from Higashi Nihon Daishinsai, literally Eastern Japan Great Earthquake Disaster on 11 March 2011. Its great earthquake disaster has done a lot of damages to many people, buildings, key infrastructures, and regional economy. Most regions have recovered from a devastating earthquake, but tourism industry of Tohoku region which include Aomori, Akita Iwate, Yamagata, Miyagi and Fu...

  18. Variations of tropospheric methane over Japan during 1988–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taku Umezawa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We present observations of CH4 concentrations from the lower to upper troposphere (LT and UT over Japan during 1988–2010 based on aircraft measurements from the Tohoku University (TU. The analysis is aided by simulation results using an atmospheric chemistry transport model (i.e. ACTM. Tropospheric CH4 over Japan shows interannual and seasonal variations that are dependent on altitudes, primarily reflecting differences in air mass origins at different altitudes. The long-term trend and interannual variation of CH4 in the LT are consistent with previous reports of measurements at surface baseline stations in the northern hemisphere. However, those in the UT show slightly different features from those in the LT. In the UT, CH4 concentrations show a seasonal maximum in August due to efficient transport of air masses influenced by continental CH4 sources, while LT CH4 reaches its seasonal minimum during summer due to enhanced chemical loss. Vertical profiles of the CH4 concentrations also vary with season, reflecting the seasonal cycles at the respective altitudes. In summer, transport of CH4-rich air from Asian regions elevates UT CH4 levels, forming a uniform vertical profile above the mid-troposphere. On the other hand, CH4 decreases nearly monotonically with altitude in winter–spring. The ACTM simulations with different emission scenarios reproduce general features of the tropospheric CH4 variations over Japan. Tagged tracer simulations using the ACTM indicate substantial contributions of CH4 sources in South Asia and East Asia to the summertime high CH4 values observed in the UT. This suggests that our observations over Japan are highly sensitive to CH4 emission signals particularly from Asia.

  19. Disaster resilience and population ageing: the 1995 Kobe and 2004 Chuetsu earthquakes in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haili; Maki, Norio; Hayashi, Haruo

    2014-04-01

    This paper provides a framework for evaluating the effects of population ageing on disaster resilience. In so doing, it focuses on the 1995 Kobe and 2004 Chuetsu earthquakes, two major disasters that affected Japan before the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake. It analyses regional population recovery on the basis of pre-disaster and post-recovery demographic characteristics using defined transition patterns of population ageing. The evaluation framework demonstrates that various recovery measures make different contributions to disaster resilience for each transition pattern of population ageing. With reference to regional population ageing, the framework allows for a prediction of disaster resilience, facilitating place vulnerability assessments and potentially informing policy-making strategies for Japan and other countries with ageing populations.

  20. Development of cancer cooperative groups in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Haruhiko

    2010-09-01

    Investigator-initiated clinical trials are essential for improving the standard of care for cancer patients, because pharmaceutical companies do not conduct trials that evaluate combination chemotherapy using drugs from different companies, surgery, radiotherapy or multimodal treatments. Government-sponsored cooperative groups have played a vital role in developing cancer therapeutics since the 1950s in the USA; however, the establishment of these groups in Japan did not take place until 30 years later. Methodological standards for multicenter cancer clinical trials were established in the 1980s by the National Cancer Institute and cooperative groups. The Japan Clinical Oncology Group, one of the largest cooperative groups in the country, was instituted in 1990. Its data center and operations office, formed during the 1990s, applied the standard methods of US cooperative groups. At present, the Japan Clinical Oncology Group consists of 14 subgroups, a Data Center, an Operations Office, nine standing committees and an Executive Committee represented by the Japan Clinical Oncology Group Chair. Quality control and quality assurance at the Japan Clinical Oncology Group, including regular central monitoring, statistical methods, interim analyses, adverse event reporting and site visit audit, have complied with international standards. Other cooperative groups have also been established in Japan since the 1980s; however, nobody figures out all of them. A project involving the restructuring of US cooperative groups has been ongoing since 2005. Learning from the success of this project will permit further progress of the cancer clinical trials enterprise in Japan.

  1. New stage of clean coal technology in Japan; Clean coal technology no aratana tenkai ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, Y. [Agency of Natural Resources and Energy, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    The paper described the positioning and new development of clean coal technology. Coal is an important resource which supplies approximately 30% of the energy consumed in all the world. In the Asian/Pacific region, especially, a share of coal in energy is high, around 60% of the world, and it is indispensable to continue using coal which is abundantly reserved. Japan continues using coal as an important energy among petroleum substituting energies taking consideration of the global environment, and is making efforts for development and promotion of clean coal technology aiming at further reduction of environmental loads. Moreover, in the Asian region where petroleum depends greatly upon outside the region, it is extremely important for stabilization of Japan`s energy supply that coal producing countries in the region promote development/utilization of their coal resources. For this, it is a requirement for Japan to further a coal policy having an outlook of securing stable coal supply/demand in the Asian region. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Anaplasma species of veterinary importance in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Patalinghug Ybañez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma species of the family Anaplasmataceae, order Rickettsiales are tick-borne organisms that can cause disease in animals and humans. In Japan, all recognized species of Anaplasma (except for Anaplasma ovis and a potentially novel Anaplasma sp. closely related to Anaplasma phagocytophilum have been reported. Most of these detected tick-borne pathogens are believed to be lowly pathogenic in animals in Japan although the zoonotic A. phagocytophilum has recently been reported to cause clinical signs in a dog and in humans. This review documents the studies and reports about Anaplasma spp. in Japan.

  3. Anaplasma species of veterinary importance in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybañez, Adrian Patalinghug; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    Anaplasma species of the family Anaplasmataceae, order Rickettsiales are tick-borne organisms that can cause disease in animals and humans. In Japan, all recognized species of Anaplasma (except for Anaplasma ovis) and a potentially novel Anaplasma sp. closely related to Anaplasma phagocytophilum have been reported. Most of these detected tick-borne pathogens are believed to be lowly pathogenic in animals in Japan although the zoonotic A. phagocytophilum has recently been reported to cause clinical signs in a dog and in humans. This review documents the studies and reports about Anaplasma spp. in Japan. PMID:27956767

  4. Infection control in healthcare settings in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikane, Keita

    2012-01-01

    In Japan, the practice of infection control in healthcare settings has a short history of less than 3 decades. Before that, infection control practices were far from perfect and even ignored. This review summarizes changes in infection control in Japan since the 1980s and offers some comparisons with practices in foreign countries, especially the United States. Infection control is far better now than 25 years ago, but there remain fundamental issues that limit the development of better infection control practices. These problems include insufficient funding and human resources due to the socialized healthcare insurance system in Japan and the lack of interest in infection control research.

  5. Winners of the Japan Chinese Speech Contest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yui Tanaka; Yuka Goto

    2012-01-01

    <正>Editor’s Note:This year marks the 40th anniversary of the normalization of China-Japan diplomatic relations. The final of the 29th Japan Chinese Speech Contest sponsored by the Japan-China Friendship Association (JCFA) was held in Tokyo on January 8. The 28 contestants came from 17 Japanese prefectures. They spoke about their experience in learning Chinese language, their contacts with Chinese people and their views on removing misunderstanding and enhancing mutual understanding and friendship between the two countries.

  6. Layered anisotropy within the crust and lithospheric mantle beneath the Sea of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legendre, C. P.; Zhao, L.; Deschamps, F.; Chen, Q.-F.

    2016-10-01

    Continental rifting during the Oligocene to mid-Miocene caused the opening of the Sea of Japan and the separation between the Japanese Islands and the Eurasian Plate. The tectonic evolution in the Sea of Japan is important for understanding the evolution of back-arc regions in active convergent margins. Here, we use data from the seismic stations surrounding the Sea of Japan to map the Rayleigh-wave azimuthal anisotropy in the crust and lithospheric mantle beneath the Sea of Japan. We explore the variations of Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity beneath the Sea of Japan in a broad period range (30-80 s). Rayleigh-wave dispersion curves are measured by the two-station technique for a total of 231 interstation paths using vertical-component broad-band waveforms at 22 seismic stations around the Sea of Japan from 1411 global earthquakes. The resulting maps of Rayleigh-wave phase velocity and azimuthal anisotropy allow the examination of azimuthal anisotropy at specific periods. They exhibit several regions with different isotropic and anisotropic patterns: the Japan Basin displays fast velocities at shorter periods (30 and 40 s) with NNE-SSW anisotropy, whereas at 60 s and longer, the velocities become slow even if the anisotropy remains NE-SW; the East China Sea shows fast velocities at all periods (30-80 s) with constant NW-SE anisotropy. Trench-normal anisotropy beneath the Japanese Islands is found at short periods (30-40 s) and become trench-parallel at periods of 60 s and longer. Overall, our model resolves two layers of anisotropy, the shallowest and deepest layers being potentially related to frozen deformation due to recent geodynamic events, and asthenospheric flow, respectively.

  7. Network of Recurrent events - A case study of Japan

    CERN Document Server

    Revathi, P G

    2010-01-01

    A recently proposed method of constructing seismic networks from 'record breaking events' from the earthquake catalog of California (Phy. Rev. E, 77 6,066104, 2008) was successfull in establishing causal features to seismicity and arrive at estimates for rupture length and its scaling with magnitude. The results of our implementation of this procedure on the earthquake catalog of Japan establishes the robustness of the procedure. Additionally, we find that the temporal distributions are able to detect heterogeneties in the seismicity of the region.

  8. Suicide in Japan: present condition and prevention measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiho, Yamashita; Tohru, Takizawa; Shinji, Sakamoto; Manabu, Taguchi; Yuka, Takenoshita; Eriko, Tanaka; Ikuko, Sugawara; Naoki, Watanabe

    2005-01-01

    This article introduces the reader to present conditions and suicide prevention measures in Japan. The suicide rate has increased gradually since the early 1990s, reaching a postwar peak in 1998. The number of suicides has remained at about 30,000 every year since 1998. Middle-aged (55-59 years) and elderly men have especially high suicide rates. In 2002, The Council of Learned People on Measures Against Suicides (organized by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare) released its report on national suicide prevention strategies. Although national suicide prevention strategies have just begun to be established, some prefectures or regions have undertaken unique suicide prevention measures.

  9. Faster and more efficient [maritime technology in Japan]; Hoe sneller hoe zuiniger [maritieme technologie in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroeks, R.

    2010-01-15

    By means of technological innovations marine superpower Japan anticipates a growing market for sea ships that are both fast and efficient. The combinations of fast and efficient offers Japan large benefits. Next to political motives for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, fuel savings also mean lower costs and smaller dependency on foreign energy sources. Moreover, the maritime transport sector is positioning itself as a better alternative for road and air transport and the international competitive position of Japan on the maritime market is strengthened. [Dutch] Met technologische vernieuwingen anticipeert marinegrootmacht Japan op een groeiende markt voor zeeschepen die tegelijkertijd snel en zuinig zijn. Voor Japan levert de combinatie van snel en zuinig grote voordelen op. Naast politieke motieven om de emissie van broeikasgassen terug te dringen, betekent brandstofbesparing lagere kosten en minder afhankelijkheid van buitenlandse energiebronnen. Daarnaast positioneert de maritieme transportsector zich beter als alternatief voor weg- en luchttransport en versterkt de internationale concurrentiepositie van Japan op de maritieme markt.

  10. Recent damaging earthquakes in Japan, 2003-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayen, Robert E

    2008-01-01

    During the last six years, from 2003-2008, Japan has been struck by three significant and damaging earthquakes: The most recent M6.6 Niigata Chuetsu Oki earthquake of July 16, 2007 off the coast of Kashiwazaki City, Japan; The M6.6 Niigata Chuetsu earthquake of October 23, 2004, located in Niigata Prefecture in the central Uonuma Hills; and the M8.0 Tokachi Oki Earthquake of September 26, 2003 effecting southeastern Hokkaido Prefecture. These earthquakes stand out among many in a very active period of seismicity in Japan. Within the upper 100 km of the crust during this period, Japan experienced 472 earthquakes of magnitude 6, or greater. Both Niigata events affected the south-central region of Tohoku Japan, and the Tokachi-Oki earthquake affected a broad region of the continental shelf and slope southeast of the Island of Hokkaido. This report is synthesized from the work of scores of Japanese and US researchers who led and participated in post-earthquake reconnaissance of these earthquakes: their noteworthy and valuable contributions are listed in an extended acknowledgements section at the end of the paper. During the Niigata Chuetsu Oki event of 2007, damage to the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power plant, structures, infrastructure, and ground were primarily the product of two factors: (1) high intensity motions from this moderate-sized shallow event, and (2) soft, poor performing, or liquefiable soils in the coastal region of southwestern Niigata Prefecture. Structural and geotechnical damage along the slopes of dunes was ubiquitous in the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa region. The 2004 Niigata Chuetsu Earthquake was the most significant to affect Japan since the 1995 Kobe earthquake. Forty people were killed, almost 3,000 were injured, and many hundreds of landslides destroyed entire upland villages. Landslides were of all types; some dammed streams, temporarily creating lakes threatening to overtop their new embankments and cause flash floods and mudslides. The numerous

  11. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis prevalence and haplotypes in domestic and imported pet amphibians in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamukai, Kenichi; Une, Yumi; Tominaga, Atsushi; Suzuki, Kazutaka; Goka, Koichi

    2014-05-13

    The international trade in amphibians is believed to have increased the spread of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), the fungal pathogen responsible for chytridiomycosis, which has caused a rapid decline in amphibian populations worldwide. We surveyed amphibians imported into Japan and those held in captivity for a long period or bred in Japan to clarify the Bd infection status. Samples were taken from 820 individuals of 109 amphibian species between 2008 and 2011 and were analyzed by a nested-PCR assay. Bd prevalence in imported amphibians was 10.3% (58/561), while it was 6.9% (18/259) in those in private collections and commercially bred amphibians in Japan. We identified the genotypes of this fungus using partial DNA sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Sequencing of PCR products of all 76 Bd-positive samples revealed 11 haplotypes of the Bd ITS region. Haplotype A (DNA Data Bank of Japan accession number AB435211) was found in 90% (52/58) of imported amphibians. The results show that Bd is currently entering Japan via the international trade in exotic amphibians as pets, suggesting that the trade has indeed played a major role in the spread of Bd.

  12. [Distribution of Clostridium tetani in topsoil from Sagamihara, central Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haneda, Jun; Shiobara, Yasumasa; Inui, Masami; Sekiguchi, Tomoko; Sato, Yoshinori; Takayama, Yoko; Kikuno, Ritsuko; Okuda, Shunji; Inoue, Matsuhisa; Sasahara, Takeshi

    2006-11-01

    Despite reports of Clostridium tetani being isolated from soil in Kanazawa, Okinawa, and Tokyo, Japan, little has been studied about C. tetani distribution in other regions. We studied C. tetani in topsoil samples collected from private gardens, public road shoulders, a university campus, mountains, and fields in Sagamihara. C. tetani occurred in 8 of 35 soil samples (22.9%) and tetanus toxin in 7 of the 8 C. tetani-positive samples (87.5%). Contamination was clearly higher in soils from mountains near Tsukui-gun (Kanagawa Prefecture), Minamitsuru-gun, and Uenohara and Koshu cities (Yamanashi Prefecture) than in other regions. These findings suggest that tetanus toxin-producing strains of C. tetani tend to inhabit the topsoil of western Sagaminaha region, as a geographical feature.

  13. JAPAN RISKS MISSING EU DEADLINE ON ACCOUNTSJ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Japanese companies face being shut out of European Union capital markets owing to difficulties in harmonizing Japan's accounting standards with EU rules in time to meet a Brussels deadline,the Japanese regulator has warned.

  14. History of Nuclear Fusion Research in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iguchi, Harukazu; Matsuoka, Keisuke; Kimura, Kazue; Namba, Chusei; Matsuda, Shinzaburo

    In the late 1950s just after the atomic energy research was opened worldwide, there was a lively discussion among scientists on the strategy of nuclear fusion research in Japan. Finally, decision was made that fusion research should be started from the basic, namely, research on plasma physics and from cultivation of human resources at universities under the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture (MOE). However, an endorsement was given that construction of an experimental device for fusion research would be approved sooner or later. Studies on toroidal plasma confinement started at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) under the Science and Technology Agency (STA) in the mid-1960s. Dualistic fusion research framework in Japan was established. This structure has lasted until now. Fusion research activities over the last 50 years are described by the use of a flowchart, which is convenient to glance the historical development of fusion research in Japan.

  15. Exotic freshwater planarians currently known from Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluys, R.; Kawakatsu, M.; Yamamoto, K.

    2010-01-01

    Biogeographical and taxonomic information on the four non-indigenous freshwater planarians of Japan is reviewed, viz. Dugesia austroasiatica Kawakatsu, 1985, Girardia tigrina (Girard, 1850), G. dorotocephala (Woodworth, 1897), and Rhodax evelinae? Marcus, 1947. The occurrence of Girardia dorotocepha

  16. [[Nuptiality and divorce in Japan: 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, C; Kojima, K

    1994-04-01

    Trends in marriage and divorce in Japan in 1992 are analyzed. Topics covered include marriage by nationality of bride and groom, marriage rates by age, first marriage and remarriage rates, and divorces and divorce rates by age.

  17. Japan’s Rearmament Dilemma: Obstacles to Rearmament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    world, surely Japan could afford to spend more for her defense if she needed to, but the fact remains Japan has chosen not to rearm massively. The last...upon the military power of the U.S., relieved Japan of costly military expenditures . Zbigniew Brezezinski has pointed out that Japan’s low defense ...first" policy, which has been supported in a large measure by the minimal defense spendings , is under severe strain. As Japan saw a continuing U.S

  18. The hospital educational environment and performance of residents in the General Medicine In-Training Examination: a multicenter study in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimizu T

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Taro Shimizu,1 Yusuke Tsugawa,2,3 Yusuke Tanoue,4 Ryota Konishi,5 Yuji Nishizaki,6 Mitsumasa Kishimoto,7 Toshiaki Shiojiri,8 Yasuharu Tokuda9 1Hospitalist Division, Department of Medicine, Nerima Hikarigaoka Hospital, Tokyo, Japan; 2Division of General Medicine and Primary Care, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 3Center for Clinical Epidemiology, St Luke's Life Science Institute, 4Department of Vascular and Oncological Surgery, Hospital of Tokyo University, 5Department of General Internal Medicine, Kanto Rousai Hospital, 6Department of Cardiology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, 7Division of Rheumatology, St Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo, Japan; 8Asahi Chuo Hospital, Chiba, Japan; 9Department of Medicine, Tsukuba University Mito Kyodo General Hospital, Mito City, Ibaraki, Japan Background: It is believed that the type of educational environment in teaching hospitals may affect the performance of medical knowledge base among residents, but this has not yet been proven. Objective: We aimed to investigate the association between the hospital educational environment and the performance of the medical knowledge base among resident physicians in Japanese teaching hospitals. Methods: To assess the knowledge base of medicine, we conducted the General Medicine In-Training Examination (GM-ITE for second-year residents in the last month of their residency. The items of the exam were developed based on the outcomes designated by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare. The educational environment was evaluated using the Postgraduate Hospital Educational Environment Measure (PHEEM score, which was assessed by a mailed survey 2 years prior to the exam. A mixed-effects linear regression model was employed for the analysis of variables associated with a higher score. Results: Twenty-one teaching hospitals participated in the study and a total of 206 residents (67 women participated and

  19. Consequences of a Recent Campaign of Criticism against School Sex Education in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to provide insights into recent events concerning school sex education in Japan. A campaign of criticism against school sex education emerged in 2002 at both national and regional levels, and included a court case in Tokyo. Despite leaving a depressing atmosphere regarding sex education teaching practices, this campaign also…

  20. Consequences of a Recent Campaign of Criticism against School Sex Education in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to provide insights into recent events concerning school sex education in Japan. A campaign of criticism against school sex education emerged in 2002 at both national and regional levels, and included a court case in Tokyo. Despite leaving a depressing atmosphere regarding sex education teaching practices, this campaign also…

  1. The Great Eastern Japan Earthquake and Tsunami: Facts and implications for flood risk management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsimopoulou, V.

    2012-01-01

    The Great Eastern Japan Earthquake and Tsunami of March 11, 2011 can be characterized as a catastrophe. It inundated over 560 km2 of land, devastating a large number of coastal communities, causing over 19,000 casualties and huge economic damage in the Tohoku region. Due to the relatively high frequ

  2. Heavy metals and zooplankton with special reference to Minamata (Japan) mercury pollution - A case study

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gajbhiye, S.N.; Hirota, R.

    Zooplankton samples were collected from nine stations in the three inland sea regions (Minamata Bay, Yatsushiro-Kai, and Ariake-Kal) along the western coast of Japan Between September 1980 to December 1986 and were analysed for total mercury. Some...

  3. Theorizing School Bullying: Insights from Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Shoko Yoneyama

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies a lacuna in the existing paradigms of bullying: a gap caused by the frame of reference being largely limited to the highly industrialized societies of the 'west': Europe, North America and Oceania. The paper attempts to address this gap by presenting research developed in Japan. In Japan, sociological discourse on school bullying, i.e. the analysis of institutional factors relevant to understanding bullying was established relatively early, as was the epistemology now re...

  4. Revitalizing US electronics lessons from Japan

    CERN Document Server

    Sprague, John

    1993-01-01

    Written by one of the few executives who have extensive experience in the electronics industry in both the US and Japan, this book compares market research, design, and manufacturing techniques as used in both countries. Unlike other books on theJapanese business culture, Sprague gives specific advice and recommendations about what companies can do now to compete with Japan, clearly pointing out what is and what is not adaptable from the Japanese approach to business.

  5. ICT Productivity in Japan: Another Puzzle?

    OpenAIRE

    Shinozaki, Akihiko

    2004-01-01

    This study is intended to examine whether information and communications technology (ICT) has contributed to aggregate productivity growth in Japan over the last two decades. Growth accounting analysis yields two observations. First, investment in ICT accelerated in Japan in the 1980s and slowed down in the 1990s. Second, the periodical changes of multifactor productivity growth and the contribution of ICT capital assets have always run in a parallel direction since the 1980s. Therefore, the ...

  6. Influence of Japan Earthquake Upon Shipbuilding Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Jianmiao

    2011-01-01

    On March 11,the strong earthquake of 9.0 magnitude and the tsunami in Japan made its entire social life,production and communication systems into chaos.As the world third largest economy.Japan is also a large trade,shipbuilding and marine equipment manufacturing country.The earthquake has not only greatly affected the Japanese shipbuilding industry,but also the international shipping industry and Chinese shipbuilding industry.

  7. Japan's Fiscal Policy and Fiscal Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Ihori, Toshihiro; Nakamoto, Atsushi

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the macroeconomic effects of fiscal policy and the fiscal reconstruction movement in Japan. We first summarize Japan's fiscal policy in recent years and discuss advantages and disadvantages of government deficits. Next, we investigate the macroeconomic effects of Japanese fiscal policy and evaluate the plausibility of non-Keynesian effects. We also analyze the possibility of the crowding-in effect of fiscal policy and investigate the spillover effects of deregulation. ...

  8. Anaplasma species of veterinary importance in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian Patalinghug Ybañez; Hisashi Inokuma

    2016-01-01

    Anaplasma species of the family Anaplasmataceae, order Rickettsiales are tick-borne organisms that can cause disease in animals and humans. In Japan, all recognized species of Anaplasma (except for Anaplasma ovis) and a potentially novel Anaplasma sp. closely related to Anaplasma phagocytophilum have been reported. Most of these detected tick-borne pathogens are believed to be lowly pathogenic in animals in Japan although the zoonotic A. phagocytophilum has recently been reported to cause cli...

  9. Observations on Japan's New Security Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Jiping

    2005-01-01

    @@ On December 10, 2004, Japan's Security Council (also called Defense Council before 1986, which is composed of Prime Minister and several important Cabinet members) and Cabinet approved and published a new National Defense Program Guideline ("Defense Guideline" in short), which elaborated not only Japan's defense force construction objectives and its detailed development program in the coming 10 years, but also great changes in its basic defense principles, concept of security threats, security objectives and their corresponding measure.

  10. Notes on a Trip to Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    "WHAT’S your impression of Japan? How has it advanced?" I was repeatedly asked the same questions by my friends and colleagues after I returned to Beijing. As a neighboring country of China and a world economic superpower, Japan is still a remote and unfamiliar place to most Chinese. In November of 1996, I was invited by the Japanese government to participate in the Asian-Pacific Journalist’s Seminar on Women and Media. My one-week schedule

  11. Pawaa Appu! Women Only Unions in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    BROADBENT, Kaye

    2005-01-01

    Women-only unions in Japan organise women workers in a variety of ways, including across enterprises and employment status boundaries. As their appearance is recent an analysis of their development is also a new area of research. The formation of autonomous women-only unions in Japan continues a tradition of women's activism which has challenged both management and the male domination of the union movement. This article argues that the formation of women-only unions is a positive development ...

  12. [[Demographic characteristics of "business bachelors" in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, C

    1987-01-01

    The demographic characteristics of those obliged to live away from their families because of the distance between their normal homes and places of work or education in Japan are described. Data are from a variety of official and other sources. The author notes that such persons are generally male. Factors affecting the growth of this phenomenon in Japan are the concept of lifetime employment with the same company and the popularity of sending children away to school.

  13. Epidemiology of diabetes mellitus in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackard, W.G.; Omori, Yoshiaki; Freedman, L.R.

    1964-03-12

    The clinical and epidemiological features of diabetes mellitus in Japan have been compiled and compared with data from other countries. Diabetes is basically the same in Japan as elsewhere: however, consideration of important differences has led to the following conclusions: The rarity of ketoacidosis in Japan is due to the mild carbohydrate defect present in most diabetics. The mild carbohydrate intolerance in diabetics is probably in part due to a high carbohydrate intake. Diabetic retinopathy is more common in women than in men in Japan; there are limited and conflicting data from the West on this point, but retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy occur about as frequently in Japan as in the West. Because of marked dietary differences between Japan and Western countries, these findings suggest that dietary fat has no significance in the pathogenesis of these lesions. Peripheral gangrene is distinctly unusual in Japanese diabetics. This suggests that either: the responsible vascular lesions are different from those responsible for nephropathy and retinopathy; or that small vessel lesions are the same but the lack of large vessel atherosclerosis in the population accounts for the decreased incidence of gangrene. Men have diabetes 2 or 3 times as commonly as women in Japan. If sex-limited inheritance is discarded as a possible reason, it is likely that adult-onset diabetes is more common in men than women except in those countries (the West) where women gain relatively large amounts of weight. The rarity of juvenile diabetes in Japan is best explained by the infrequency of responsible genetic factors. As a consequence, it is likely that juvenile diabetes is caused by different or additional genetic factors which are not significant in adult-onset diabetes. Diabetes prevalance varies sufficiently between different localities in the same country to render the concept of national prevalance of doubtful usefulness. 55 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  14. THE IMPACT OF 2011 TOHOKU-OKI EARTHQUAKE IN JAPAN ON CRUSTAL DEFORMATION OF NORTHEASTERN REGION IN CHINA%3·11日本大地震对中国东北部地区地壳形变态势的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈为涛; 甘卫军; 肖根如; 梁诗明; 盛传贞

    2012-01-01

    coseismic and interseismic strain field. The Japan earthquake mainly affects the level of strain accumulation in northeastern China. The coseismic strain accumulation is equivalent to about 12. 7-years long-term background strain accumulation. In other regions,the impact of coseismic strain on the background strain rate isn't obvious. Based on the coseismic strain and background strain rate, we select 4 major active faults for the analysis by using the relative movement time sequence of end-points of GPS baselines which cross the Tanlu Fault ,Zhangjiakou-Penglai Fault and Taihangshan piedmont fault, respectively. We find that the earthquake produced obvious left-lateral slip and extensional slip on the north segment of Tanlu Fault, and there is a tendency of slight continuous left-lateral movement and extension after the earthquake. But on the middle segment of Tanlu Fault,there is no obvious evidence of coseismic movement,but a slight increase of the right-lateral slip rate after the earthquake. As for Zhangjiakou-Penglai Fault located in North China, the fault was characterized by obvious right-lateral movement and extrusion in about one year after the earthquake, then resumed quickly to the original left-lateral movement and extension. This means that the fault's accumulated stress was released temporarily by the earthquake, then the regional stress resumed to its original level. The movement of Taihangshan piedmont fault isn't affected by this earthquake, therefore we infer that the earthquake affected areas did not spread to the Shanxi Rift System. In one word,the crustal strain accumulation and stress level of northeastern region in China is released by Tohoku-Oki earthquake, so we believe that the earthquake risk is reduced to a certain extent.

  15. Universal varicella vaccine immunization in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Tetsushi; Kawamura, Yoshiki; Ohashi, Masahiro

    2016-04-07

    In 1974, Japanese scientists developed a live attenuated varicella vaccine based on the Oka strain. The efficacy of the vaccine for the prevention of varicella has been primarily demonstrated in studies conducted in the United States following the adoption of universal immunization using the Oka strain varicella vaccine in 1996. Although the vaccine was developed by Japanese scientists, until recently, the vaccine has been administered on a voluntary basis in Japan resulting in a vaccine coverage rate of approximately 40%. Therefore, Japan initiated universal immunization using the Oka strain varicella vaccine in November 2014. Given the transition from voluntary to universal immunization in Japan, it will also be important to monitor the epidemiology of varicella and herpes zoster. The efficacy and safety of co-administration of the varicella vaccine and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine have been demonstrated in many countries; however, there was no data from Japan. In order to adopt the practice of universal immunization using the Oka strain varicella vaccine in Japan, data demonstrating the efficacy and safety of co-administration of varicella vaccine and measles and rubella (MR) vaccine were required. Additionally, we needed to elucidate the appropriate time interval between the first and second administrations of the vaccine. It is also important to differentiate between wild type and Oka vaccine type strains in herpes zoster patient with past history of varicella vaccine. Thus, there are many factors to consider regarding the adoption of universal immunization in Japan to control varicella zoster virus (VZV) infections.

  16. Monitoring Obesity Trends in Health Japan 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    Prevention of non-communicable diseases is more important than ever especially for the elderly to live a healthy life in the super-aged society of Japan. In 2000, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan started Health Japan 21 as goal-oriented health promotion plan like Healthy People in the US and the Health of the Nation in the UK. Its second term started in 2013 with the aim of prolonging healthy life expectancy and reducing health inequalities. Improvement in both individuals' lifestyle and their social environment will help achieve the goal of the 2nd Health Japan 21. The National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHNS) is conducted every year to monitor the health and nutritional situation of the Japanese using a representative population. The NHNS data are useful for target setting and evaluation of the 2nd Health Japan 21, and the NHNS has shown an increasing trend of overweight (BMI≥25) only for male adults in the most recent 10 y. In contrast, the dietary intake survey of the NHNS shows a decreasing trend of total energy intake both in male and female adults aged 69 y old or younger, and the trend for physical activity is not well known. Thus, we need further investigations on the causes of the obesity trend in Japan.

  17. Romanticising Shinsengumi in Contemporary Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Shinsengumi, a group of young men recruited by the Bakufu to protect Kyoto from radical Imperial House loyalists in the tumultuous Bakumatsu period, is romanticised and idolised in Japan despite its limited place in history. This article attempts to comprehend this phenomenon by locating the closest crystallisation of popularly imagined Shinsengumi in Moeyo ken, a popular historical fiction by Shiba Ryōtarō. Antonio Gramsci explains readers are attracted to popular literature because it reflects their ‘philosophies of the age’, which may be discovered by examining popular heroes with their subsequent replications. This article will identify why Shinsengumi is appealing by comparing Shiba’s hero in Moeyo ken with its twenty-first century reincarnation in Gintama, a popular manga series, and by discerning reader response to Moeyo ken from customer reviews on Amazon.co.jp. It will be demonstrated from these studies that a likely reason for the Japanese public’s romanticisation of Shinsengumi in recent years could be their attraction to autonomous, self-determining heroes who also appreciate the value of community.

  18. Psychological trauma after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kazunori; Sakuma, Atsushi; Ueda, Ikki; Nagao, Ayami; Takahashi, Yoko

    2016-08-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE) struck the northeastern part of Japan on 11 March 2011 and triggered a devastating tsunami, causing widespread destruction along the coast of northeastern Japan. The tsunami also led to an accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Incidents occurring in such major disasters are known to lead to psychological trauma. This paper has summarized English-language documentation regarding GEJE-related psychological trauma or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Research thus far has reported the possibility of higher probable PTSD prevalence among residents of the GEJE areas than in the average Japanese population during normal times. At the very least, many people have experienced trauma symptoms at self-recognition levels 1 year or longer after the disaster. It appears that the percentage of persons with high PTSD risk was higher in regions with radiation-related impacts than in regions where the main damage was caused by the earthquake and tsunami. Results have not been limited to showing relations between severe exposure to a traumatic event and PTSD symptoms but also show that a variety of factors, including social factors, has been shown to interact with PTSD symptoms. The fact that Japanese society as a whole united against the trauma of the GEJE may have worked to minimize the effects of trauma. To grasp a full picture of the effects of psychological trauma due to the GEJE, further surveys and research are necessary. It will be necessary to continue engagements related to these problems and issues into the future.

  19. Radiological Consequence Analyses Following a Hypothetical Severe Accident in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Juyub; Kim, Juyoul [FNC Technology Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In order to reflect the lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, a simulator which is named NANAS (Northeast Asia Nuclear Accident Simulator) for overseas nuclear accident has been developed. It is composed of three modules: source-term estimation, atmospheric dispersion prediction and dose assessment. For the source-term estimation module, the representative reactor types were selected as CPR1000, BWR5 and BWR6 for China, Japan and Taiwan, respectively. Considering the design characteristics of each reactor type, the source-term estimation module simulates the transient of design basis accident and severe accident. The atmospheric dispersion prediction module analyzes the transport and dispersion of radioactive materials and prints out the air and ground concentration. Using the concentration result, the dose assessment module calculates effective dose and thyroid dose in the Korean Peninsula region. In this study, a hypothetical severe accident in Japan was simulated to demonstrate the function of NANAS. As a result, the radiological consequence to Korea was estimated from the accident. PC-based nuclear accident simulator, NANAS, has been developed. NANAS contains three modules: source-term estimation, atmospheric dispersion prediction and dose assessment. The source-term estimation module simulates a nuclear accident for the representative reactor types in China, Japan and Taiwan. Since the maximum calculation speed is 16 times than real time, it is possible to estimate the source-term release swiftly in case of the emergency. The atmospheric dispersion prediction module analyzes the transport and dispersion of radioactive materials in wide range including the Northeast Asia. Final results of the dose assessment module are a map projection and time chart of effective dose and thyroid dose. A hypothetical accident in Japan was simulated by NANAS. The radioactive materials were released during the first 24 hours and the source

  20. New Ceftriaxone- and Multidrug-Resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae Strain with a Novel Mosaic penA Gene Isolated in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Shu-Ichi; Shimuta, Ken; Furubayashi, Kei-Ichi; Kawahata, Takuya; Unemo, Magnus; Ohnishi, Makoto

    2016-07-01

    We have characterized in detail a new ceftriaxone- and multidrug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae strain (FC428) isolated in Japan in 2015. FC428 differed from previous ceftriaxone-resistant strains and contained a novel mosaic penA allele encoding a new mosaic penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP 2). However, the resistance-determining 3'-terminal region of penA was almost identical to the regions of two previously reported ceftriaxone-resistant strains from Australia and Japan, indicating that both ceftriaxone-resistant strains and conserved ceftriaxone resistance-determining PBP 2 regions might spread.

  1. Teaching The History of Women in China and Japan: Challenges and Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danke Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Studying the history of Chinese and Japanese women provides American students with a thematic approach to Asian Studies.This paper reflects on the challenges I face in teaching women’s histories in China and Japan.It also discusses the pedagogy and sources I use in teaching the course.The paper argues that teaching the history of women in China and Japan will allow us to move beyond the conventionally regional or national focused approach to Asian Studies and enable us to re-imagine old narratives and to introduce students to new methods of understanding both the universality and diversity within Asian history.

  2. The 'Honne-Tatemae' Dimension in Japan's Foreign Aid Policy: Overseas Development Aid Allocations in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FURUOKA, Fumitaka, and KATO, Iwao

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper employs the socio-psychological concept of 'honne-tatemae' to analyse Japanese foreign aid policy. Tatemae refers to the 'façade' or 'appearances' while honne signifies the 'real intention'. The Japanese government has pledged to use foreign aid to promote economic development and political stability in developing countries. On the other hand, Japan's official development assistance (ODA program has been repeatedly criticised for being employed as a tool to promote Japan's own commercial interests. In this context, altruism could be a superficial principle of Japanese foreign aid policy which forms the 'tatemae' dimension while selfishness could represent a true hidden motive for the aid giving and form the 'honne' dimension. The present paper uses panel data analysis to examine which element – honne or tatemae – has influenced the decision-making process of allocation of Japan's ODA to Southeast Asia. The findings indicate that the volumes of Japan's exports to and income levels in the aid recipient countries had a significant influence on foreign aid distribution. The Japanese government tended to allocate bigger amounts of money to Japan's major trade partners in ASEAN. At the same time, the poorer nations in the region received more of Japan's ODA compared to the comparatively well-off nations. In other words, both altruism (tatemae dimension and selfishness (honne dimension characterise Japan's ODA flows.

  3. Trans Pacific Stategic Economic Partnership With Japan, South Korea and China Integrate: General Equilibrium Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todsadee Areerat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement (TPP is a high standard and broad based Free Trade Agreement that aims to integrate the economies of the Asia-Pacific region. Recently, the US is pressing Japan to join the group. Japan is considering joining the TPP because of the dual considerations of its own economy and the political situation in East Asia. While, South Korea has yet to agree to join the TPP over concerns that their agriculture will be seriously affected. In addition, Japan and the US are employing both military and economic strategies to isolate China. However, China has contacted those already participating in TPP negotiations and shares some common views with Japan and South Korea on agricultural issues. Therefore, in this study, we attempt to assess the possibility of reaching full trade liberalization or trade creation through the TPP with the addition of new member countries including Japan, Korea and China. Approach: A Computable General Equilibrium (CGE or Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP model is used to evaluate the economic effects of a TPP agreement among TPP countries with trade creation. In this study, seven cases were created to distinguish the welfare and trade effects of policy changes. Results: We found that the new member countries among TPP countries with East Asia countries including Japan, South Korea and China would benefit from the FTA among member countries. They gain much more from the real GDP and welfare than the TPP agreement, particularly Vietnam and Korea. This is particularly a fact for trade in the meat product sectors between TPP with Japan, Korea and China, which most of them gain benefit. Conclusion: Therefore, the TPP would benefit both economies and welfare with the eliminate tariff rate.

  4. Japan and Georgia: Economic Partners. For Students in Grade Eight. Instructional Materials about Japan (IMAJ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, Jane; Morgan, Nancy

    This manual provides suggestions and materials for teaching about Japan. Designed as a supplement to typical textbook treatments, the lessons provide a range of readings, visuals, and activities to enrich and deepen student learning about Japan. Organized around topics dealing with history, geography, government, economics, and culture, the…

  5. Monitoring of radioactive substances in foods distributed in Kyoto, Japan (1991-2011). - Comparison of detection rates and concentrations before and after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident - .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banno, Yukinori; Namikawa, Mikio; Miwa, Mariko; Ban, Soichirou; Orito, Taichi; Semura, Shunsuke; Kawakami, Masahiro; Doi, Naoya; Miyake, Shiro; Ishikawa, Yasuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Since the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, radioactive substances have been continually monitored in foods collected in the city of Kyoto, Japan. The importance of the monitoring was increased by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011. Here, the detection rates and concentrations of radioactive substances were compared among food samples collected before and after the accident in Fukushima prefecture. Before the accident, (137)Cs was the only radioactive substance detected in foods. The detection rate was 70% for fish and shellfish samples and the highest concentration was 1.7 Bq/kg. It was also 83% for fresh mushroom samples and the highest concentration was 7.5 Bq/kg. In contrast, the detection rate was low for vegetables and the concentrations were also lower than those of the above samples. On the other hand, after the accident, (131)I was detected in food produced in the Tohoku and Kanto areas. Actually, (131)I (3,400 Bq/kg), (134)Cs (280 Bq/kg), and (137)Cs (280 Bq/kg) were detected in mizuna, a leaf vegetable, on March 23, 2011. These radioactive substances were detected in all leaf vegetable samples examined in March and April 2011, but they were not detected in samples examined in November 2011. (131)I was not detected in any food sample examined after May 2011. However, (137)Cs (average=7.9 Bq/kg) was consistently detected in fish and shellfish samples until November, although the concentrations were less than the regulatory limits. It appears unlikely that foods containing radioactive substances over the regulatory limits are currently being distributed in Kyoto.

  6. Ocean Science Communication in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, H.

    2011-12-01

    Ocean literacy and education panel (OLEP) of the Oceanographic Society of Japan (JOS) has been established in 2003 for sharing the ocean literacy with the public and promoting the ocean science education in school and college. Its activities include publishing reference books and electronic teaching materials for primary school teachers and students, conducting surveys on the people's consciousness on the ocean, and supporting the events such as 'Ocean Science Cafe' for the public, oceanographer's talks in class room and sea side, and seminars on board of research vessel for high-school teachers and students. Its activities are announced to the public in its website and through Twitter. The records are available to the public in the websites. Some JOS members including me are telling the public the basic knowledge of ocean science, additional explanations to scientific topics in mass media, their thoughts on the ocean, the science, and STEM education, and their daily life such as travels, meetings and cruises through their own private websites, blogs, and accounts in Twitter and Facebook. In this presentation, as a coordinator of the 'Ocean Science Cafe', I will indicate how well it has worked as a good method for promoting mutual communication between non-professional citizens and oceanographers, and changed a scientist to a better citizen. Also, as an ocean science blogger, I will mention a good effect of the mutual communication with the public from my experience. It is concluded that the science communication by new media should not be one-way but really two-way to understand well what people wish to know and have difficulties to understand, and where they stop learning.

  7. [Different uses of Fagopyrum esculentum Moench (buckwheat) in Japan and China: what ancient medical documents reveal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumi, Nami; Marui, Eiji

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to demonstrate that buckwheat has been recognized, both in Japan and China, as a crop that is useful in many ways: as an agricultural crop, and for the healing powers and properties that, according to traditional Chinese medicine, it has. A comparative study of ancient documents pertaining to medicine in these countries has made it clear that this is the case. Buckwheat, however, has been used quite differently in each country. As is shown in some ancient Chinese documents pertaining to medicine, China has treated buckwheat primarily as a medicine for clinical use rather than as an edible crop. Nowadays, buckwheat is eaten only in some regions of China. Although it came to Japan from China as a medicine, in Japan buckwheat gradually became a popular food crop. It has become an important component of traditional Japanese cuisine thanks in part to government support and the strong demand that developed in Japanese society.

  8. The complete mitochondrial genome of the marbled rockfish Sebastiscus marmoratus (Scorpaeniformes, Scorpaenidae) from Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dianrong; Zhang, Hui; Yanagimoto, Takashi; Yin, Lina; Gao, Tianxiang

    2015-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of marbled rockfish Sebastiscus marmoratus collected from Japan was determined by next-generation sequencing. The mitogenome is a circular molecule 17,301 bp in length, including the typical structure of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a control region. The ETAS, central CSB and CSB were detected in the control region. The gene contents of the mitogenome are identical to those observed in most bony fishes.

  9. The Centralization and Decentralization of Telemedicine Networks in Korea and Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Soo-kyung Park

    2013-01-01

    This study scrutinizes telemedicine networks with regard to regionalization and the propensities and determinants of core telemedicine users (doctors and patients) by employing two case areas, Choongbook in Korea and Kagawa in Japan. According to the results, telemedicine networks in Choongbook are dominated by an inter-regional level (in particular, a national level), and most of the telemedicine networks are observed between clinical sites in Choongbook and tertiary care centers in Kyunggi....

  10. The studies of consumer behaviour in japan and their geographical interpretations

    OpenAIRE

    Ikuta, Masato

    1984-01-01

    The studies of marketing, home economics, and economics related to consumer behaviour were reviewed in order to make a different framework of current studies. Family budget is an important object of analysis in the study of consumer behaviour in Japan. Income is a major factor which caused the differences in consumer behaviour. Income distribution is analyzed sufficiently in economics at the highly aggregated level of regions. Many regional analyses are conducted in home economics. Some of th...

  11. An ongoing large submarine landslide at the Japan trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, S.; Kasaya, T.; Miura, S.; Kawamura, K.

    2013-12-01

    This paper deals with an active submarine landslide on a landward trench slope in the Japan trench. Studied area is located on the upper terrace ranging from 400 to 1200 m in water depth, off Sendai, northeast Japan. We have surveyed in detail the seabed topography using a multi narrow beam (hereafter MBES) and a subbottom profiler (hereafter SBP) during the cruise MR12-E02 of R/V Mirai. The survey lines were 12 lines in N-S, and 3 lines in E-W, and situated in the region from 141°45'E, 37°40'N to 142°33'E, 38°32'N. Moreover, we used multi-channel seismic profile by the cruise KR04-10 of R/V Kairei in the interpretation of the SBP results. In general, horseshoe-shaped depressions of about 100 km wide along the trench slope are arrayed along the Japan trench. It has thought that they were formed by large submarine landslides, but we could not understand critically the relationship between the depressions and the submarine landslides. Based on the survey results, we found signals of an active submarine landslide in the depression as follows. 1) We observed arcuate-shaped lineaments, which are sub-parallel to a horseshoe-shaped depression. The lineaments concentrate in the south region from 38°N at about 20 km wide. These lineaments are formed by deformation structures as anticlines, synclines and normal fault sense displacements. 2) Most of the synclines and anticlines are not buried to form the lineaments. 3) Normal faults cutting about 1 km deep are observed in a multi-channel seismic profile. The normal faults are located just below the arcuate-shaped lineaments, and are tilted eastward being the downslope direction. It indicates a large submarine landslide. We concluded that the arcuate-shaped lineaments were generated by surface sediment movement with the submarine landsliding. We think that the submarine landslide of about 20 km wide and about 1 km thick move continuously down the landward trench slope. This would be the formation process of the horseshoe

  12. Detection of earthquake swarms in subduction zones around Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, T.; Ide, S.

    2015-12-01

    Earthquake swarms in subduction zones are likely to be related with slow slip events (SSEs) and locking on the plate interface. In the Boso-Oki region in central Japan, swarms repeatedly occur accompanying SSEs (e.g, Hirose et al., 2012). It is pointed out that ruptures of great earthquakes tend to terminate in regions with recurring swarm activity because of reduced and heterogeneous locking there (Holtkamp and Brudzinsiki, 2014). Given these observations, we may be able to infer aseismic slips and spatial variations in locking on the plate interface by investigating swarm activity in subduction zones. It is known that swarms do not follow Omori's law and have much higher seismicity rates than predicted by the ETAS model (e.g., Llenos et al., 2009). Here, we devised a statistical method to detect unexpectedly frequent earthquakes using the space-time ETAS model (Zhuang et al., 2002). We applied this method to subduction zones around Japan (Tohoku, Ibaraki-Boso-oki, Hokkaido, Izu, Tonankai, Nankai, and Kyushu) and detected swarms in JMA catalog (M ≥ 3) from 2001 to 2010. We detected recurring swarm activities as expected in the Boso-Oki region and also in the Ibaraki-Oki region (see Figures), where intensive foreshock activity was found by Maeda and Hirose (2011). In Tohoku, regions with intensive foreshock activity also appear to roughly correspond to regions with recurring swarm activity. Given that both foreshocks and swarms are triggered by SSEs (e.g., Bouchon et al., 2013), these results suggest that the regions with foreshock activity and swarm activity such as the Ibaraki-Oki region are characterized by extensive occurrences of SSEs just like the Boso-Oki region. Besides Ibaraki-Oki and Boso-Oki, we detected many swarms in Tohoku, Hokkaido, Izu, and Kyushu. On the other hand, swarms are rare in the rupture areas of the 1944 Tonankai and 1946 Nankai earthquakes. These variations in swarm activity may reflect variations in SSE activity among subduction zones

  13. Distribution of acidic groundwater around quaternary volcanoes in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asamori, Koichi; Ishimaru, Tsuneari; Iwatsuki, Teruki [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Toki, Gifu (Japan). Tono Geoscience Center

    2002-06-01

    One important key issue in the understanding of the long-term stability of the geological environment is the influence of magmatism. In this study, we examined the general spatial distribution of acidic groundwater around Quaternary volcanoes in Japan using a database of groundwater geochemistry. The results may be summarized as follows: Acidic groundwater with pH < 4.8 mainly occur in present volcanic regions and are distributed from several kilometers to about 20 km from Quaternary volcanoes. The pH value of groundwater tends to decrease with increasing distance from a volcano. However, these results may be affected by inhomogeneity of groundwater data distribution and the characteristic activity of each volcano. In order to assess a specific volcanic region, a detailed analysis that considers volcanic activity, using a data set with high spatial density is necessary. (author)

  14. Population support a priority for Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-01

    The Japanese government has approved an increase in both financial and technical assistance for family planning in developing countries for FY1991. Japan's contribution to the United National Population FUnd (UNFPA) will total US$56.8 million, a 1.83% increase from the previous year, and it will be the largest donation by any country. Japanese support of UNFPA has skyrocketed from an initial contribution of US$1.5 million to today's level. Besides its multilateral assistance through UNFPA, the country will also provide bilateral technical assistance through the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). Increasing by 7.8% from 1990, technical assistance will total US$8.54 million, and it will go to the following countries: Colombia, Egypt, Indonesia, Kenya, Mexico, Nepal, Peru, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Turkey. Japan will provide the equipment and supplies needed for transferring technical expertise from Japanese experts to personnel from the recipient countries. Japan will also host an international family planning seminar for developing countries. Japan's pledge of assistance reflects the country's desire to improve the social conditions and quality of life for people living in developing countries, and it indicated the growing awareness of the Japanese public concerning population and family planning issues.

  15. Origins of molecular biology in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obayashi, M

    1986-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the origins of molecular biology in Japan. Japanese molecular biology does not have a long history since it started only after World War II. Especially, molecular genetics which uses "bacteriophage" had hardly been studied before the war and only a few scientists were interested in it immediately after the war. This is one of the origins of molecular biology in Japan. But there are other origins, one of which is the group formed by biologists, biochemists and physicists interested in nucleic acids. This group also started just after the war. Still another origin is the group of enzymologists. Enzymology was one of the main subjects of biochemistry from before the war. In Japan, biochemistry developed in conjunction with the medical and agricultural sciences from the pre-war era. These played an important role in introducing molecular biology from Europe and the United States after the war. A historical study of the development of molecular biology in Japan, comparing it with the history of molecular biology in Europe and the United States, should contribute to the elucidation of the features of the history of molecular biology in Japan.

  16. Strontium isotopic ratios of the volcanic rocks from Dogo of the Oki Islands, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurasawa, Hajime

    1984-12-01

    The isotopic composition of strontium and the abundances of rubidium and strontium in volcanic rocks from Dogo of the Oki Islands and Takashima in the northwest Kyushu, West Japan, and Ulrungdo of Korea, have been determined. The rubidium and strontium contents for alkakine basalts range from 27.6 to 51.2 ppm and 444 to 723 ppm, and 148 to 208 ppm and 3.7 to 205 ppm for intermediate to felsic suites, respectively. The alkaline basalts are divided into two groups with /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios of the restricted ranges of 0.70481 - 0.70496 and 0.70540 - 0.70575, respectively. However, the /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios of intermediate to felsic rocks of Dogo are relatively high and variable ranging from 0.70706 to 0.71019, which probably reflect the contamination and/or produced by body or partial melting of the basement rocks in this area without crustal assimilation of basaltic magma. In addition, the lead isotopic results indicate that the melting of Precambrian basement rocks possibly yields less radiogenic lead. In the southwest Japan, the /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios of Cenozoic basaltic rocks are clearly different between the San-in and the northwest Kyushu regions, which includes Jeju island. The higher /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios of basalts from the San-in region than that of basalts from the northwest Kyushu region also reflect the different properties of the upper mantle, which means there is regional heterogeneity of Sr isotopic ratios under the southwest Japan arcs. Furthermore, the relatively high and variable /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios of volcanic rocks are particularly concentrated in the southwestern Japan arcs which has probably more continental properties than northeastern Japan arcs.

  17. Regional Classification of Traditional Japanese Folk Songs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, Akihiro; Tokosumi, Akifumi

    In this study, we focus on the melodies of Japanese folk songs, and examine the basic structures of Japanese folk songs that represent the characteristics of different regions. We sample the five largest song genres within the music corpora of the Nihon Min-yo Taikan (Anthology of Japanese Folk Songs), consisting of 202,246 tones from 1,794 song pieces from 45 prefectures in Japan. Then, we calculate the probabilities of 24 transition patterns that fill the interval of the perfect fourth pitch, which is the interval that maintains most of the frequency for one-step and two-step pitch transitions within 11 regions, in order to determine the parameters for cluster analysis. As a result, we successively classify the regions into two basic groups, eastern Japan and western Japan, which corresponds to geographical factors and cultural backgrounds, and also match accent distributions in the Japanese language.

  18. Consensus of primary care in acute pancreatitis in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Makoto Otsuki; Tetsuhide Ito; Kazuo Inui; Tooru Shimosegawa; Shigeki Tanaka; Keisho Kataoka; Hiromitsu Saisho; Kazuichi Okazaki; Yosikazu Kuroda; Norio Sawabu; Yoshifumi Takeyama; Masahiko Hirota; Shinju Arata; Masaru Koizumi; Shigeyuki Kawa; Terumi Kamisawa; Kazunori Takeda; Toshihiko Mayumi; Motoji Kitagawa

    2006-01-01

    The incidence of acute pancreatitis in Japan is increasing and ranges from 187 to 347 cases per million populations. Case fatality was 0.2% for mild to moderate, and 9.0% for severe acute pancreatitis in Japan in 2003. Experts in pancreatitis in Japan made this document focusing on the practical aspects in the early management of patients with acute pancreatitis.The correct diagnosis of acute pancreatitis and severity stratification should be made in all patients using the criteria for the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis and the multifactor scoring system proposed by the Research Committee of Intractable Diseases of the Pancreas as early as possible. All patients diagnosed with acute pancreatitis should be managed in the hospital.Monitoring of blood pressure, pulse and respiratory rate,body temperature, hourly urinary volume, and blood oxygen saturation level is essential in the management of such patients. Early vigorous intravenous hydration is of foremost importance to stabilize circulatory dynamics. Adequate pain relief with opiates is also important. In severe acute pancreatitis, prophylactic intravenous administration of antibiotics at an early stage is recommended. Administration of protease inhibitors should be initiated as soon as thediagnosis of acute pancreatitis is confirmed. A combination of enteral feeding with parenteral nutrition from early stage is recommended if there are no clear signs and symptoms of ileus and gastrointestinal bleeding. Patients with severe acute pancreatitis should be transferred to ICU as early as possible to perform special measures such as continuous regional arterial infusion of protease inhibitors and antibiotics, and continuous hemodiafiltration. The Japanese Government covers medical care expense for severe acute pancreatitis as one of the projects of Research on Measures for Intractable Diseases.

  19. [Therapy of dystonia in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezaki, Takahiro; Hayashi, Akito; Nakase, Hirofumi; Hasegawa, Kazuko

    2005-09-01

    A questionnaire about the treatment of dystonia was sent out to 585 councilors of Societas Neurologica Japonica. One hundred and sixty-eight replies (28.7%) were collected, although some of them were excluded from the analysis because of inappropriateness. 1) The number of patients previously experienced was 100; 17 (10.4%). 2) Oral medication was most often the first line treatment in either of generalized dystonia, blapharospasm, cervical dystonia, and writer's cramp. Botulinum toxin injection was the first or the second line treatment in 147 (87.5%) and 116 (69.0%) respondents for blepharospasm and cervical dystonia, respectively. In these two conditions, the more experienced doctors tended to prefer botulinum toxin injection to the other treatments as the first choice (Cochran-Armitage analysis; p = 0.003 for blepharospasm and p = 0.002 for cervical dystonia). 3) Among the oral drugs, anticholinergics, especially trihexyphenidyl, were the most frequent choice in generalized dystonia, cervical dystonia, and writer's cramp. For blepharospasm, clonazepam was most favored. Sedatives, especially diazepam, were also often the drug of choice in either of these disorders. The favored drugs were not related to the respondent's experience. 4) The success rate of treatment, designated as the percentage of patients who improved through any treatment so much that the respondent was satisfied with it, was the highest in blepharospasm (65.4 +/- 24.1; mean +/- SD), followed by cervical dystonia (41.2 +/- 23.4), writer's cramp (32.9 +/- 22.5), and generalized dystonia (20.4 +/- 19.8). Only in cervical dystonia, the rate was significantly higher in more experienced respondents (regression analysis; p = 0.008). In blepharospasm (p dystonia (p = 0.002), regression analysis indicated that the success rate was higher in the group who preferred botulinum toxin injection to oral medication as the first line treatment. These results indicate that in Japan the treatment of choice for

  20. Advanced USC technology in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Masafumi [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). High Temperature Materials Center

    2010-07-01

    The 600deg-C class Ultra Super-Critical(USC) steam condition technology was mainly developed through projects led by J-Power in the '80s and 90s'. In 2001, the project was successfully finished with newly developed 9-12% chromium steels. These materials were selected for the major parts of the USC power plants in Japan and almost half of the coal power plants have the USC steam condition today. However, aged plants, which were built in the '70s and early '80s will reach the point where they will need to be rebuilt or refurbished in the near future. The steam temperatures of the older plants are 538 deg-C or 566deg-C. We did a case study, retrofitting these plants with the USC and an advanced USC technology that takes a 700deg-C class steam temperature to increase thermal efficiency and to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. The study showed that the advanced USC Technology(A-USC) is suitable for the retrofitting of aged plants and can reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by about 15%. The Japanese government launched the ''Cool Earth-Innovative Energy Technology Program'' in 2008 March to promote international cooperation and actively contribute to substantial global greenhouse gas emissions reductions. 21 technologies that will contribute to substantial reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions by efficiency improvement and low carbonization were selected. The A-USC that aims at 46% (net, HHV) thermal efficiency of coal power generation is included in the technologies. We started a large-scale development project of the A-USC technology in 2008 August. 700deg-C class boiler, turbine and valve technologies, which include high temperature material technology, will be developed. Some candidate materials for boilers are being tested. Turbine rotor and casing materials are being developed and tested, as well. Two years from the beginning of the project, we have obtained some useful test results regarding the candidate materials. (orig.)

  1. Marital Adjustment and Psychological Distress in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Angela; Robustelli, Briana L; Whisman, Mark A

    2016-11-01

    This study was conducted to examine the association between marital adjustment and psychological distress in a large, probability sample of married adults in Japan (N = 710) from the Midlife Development in Japan (MIDJA) study. Results indicate that positive and negative dimensions of marital adjustment were significantly associated with dimensional and categorical measures of psychological distress. Furthermore, the associations between marital adjustment and psychological distress remained significant when statistically controlling for neuroticism, quality of friend and family relationships, and demographic variables. These results demonstrate that the well-established association between marital adjustment and psychological distress found in European-American countries is also found in Japan. Findings support continued research on marital functioning and psychological distress in East Asian countries.

  2. Introduction of nuclear medicine research in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inubushi, Masayuki; Higashi, Tatsuya; Kuji, Ichiei; Sakamoto, Setsu; Tashiro, Manabu; Momose, Mitsuru

    2016-12-01

    There were many interesting presentations of unique studies at the Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine, although there were fewer attendees from Europe than expected. These presentations included research on diseases that are more frequent in Japan and Asia than in Europe, synthesis of original radiopharmaceuticals, and development of imaging devices and methods with novel ideas especially by Japanese manufacturers. In this review, we introduce recent nuclear medicine research conducted in Japan in the five categories of Oncology, Neurology, Cardiology, Radiopharmaceuticals and Technology. It is our hope that this article will encourage the participation of researchers from all over the world, in particular from Europe, in scientific meetings on nuclear medicine held in Japan.

  3. The Arctic policy of China and Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonami, Aki

    2014-01-01

    At the May 2013 Arctic Council Ministerial Meeting, five Asian states, namely China, Japan, India, Singapore and South Korea, were accepted to become new Permanent Observers at the Arctic Council. Nonetheless, little attention has been paid to the Asian states and their interest in the Arctic. Most...... discussions have focused on China and the assessment of China’s interest in the Arctic is divided. This paper attempts to fill this gap by presenting and comparing the various components of the Arctic policies of China and Japan. Referring to Putnam’s model of the “two-level game” and Young’s categorization...... of Arctic stakeholders’ interests, data from policy documents and interviews with relevant stakeholders were analysed. This analysis shows the Chinese and Japanese governments are in the gradual process of consolidating their Arctic policies, but both China and Japan see the Arctic less as a strategically...

  4. The Arctic policy of China and Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonami, Aki

    2014-01-01

    At the May 2013 Arctic Council Ministerial Meeting, five Asian states, namely China, Japan, India, Singapore and South Korea, were accepted to become new Permanent Observers at the Arctic Council. Nonetheless, little attention has been paid to the Asian states and their interest in the Arctic. Most...... discussions have focused on China and the assessment of China’s interest in the Arctic is divided. This paper attempts to fill this gap by presenting and comparing the various components of the Arctic policies of China and Japan. Referring to Putnam’s model of the “two-level game” and Young’s categorization...... of Arctic stakeholders’ interests, data from policy documents and interviews with relevant stakeholders were analysed. This analysis shows the Chinese and Japanese governments are in the gradual process of consolidating their Arctic policies, but both China and Japan see the Arctic less as a strategically...

  5. [Update on Cancer Epidemiology in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Motoki

    2016-01-01

    Accumulated epidemiological evidence has revealed several risk and preventive factors for cancer. Thus, cancer prevention guidelines for the Japanese population have been developed on the basis of scientific evidence from mainly studies conducted in Japan. In Japan, tobacco smoking and infections are the major causes of cancer. Further control of these factors will contribute to substantial reductions in cancer incidence and mortality in Japan. Concurrently, large-scale molecular epidemiologic studies are ongoing in order to obtain epidemiological evidence for personalized prevention strategies. In particular, evidence from omics analyses and investigation of gene-environment interactions may contribute to the further understanding of the biological mechanism underlying cancer occurrence. In addition, the establishment of preventive measures according to individual disease risk, on the basis of risk prediction models including omics data, is necessary.

  6. Insights into software development in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvall, Lorraine M.

    1992-01-01

    The interdependence of the U.S.-Japanese economies makes it imperative that we in the United States understand how business and technology developments take place in Japan. We can gain insight into these developments in software engineering by studying the context in which Japanese software is developed, the practices that are used, the problems encountered, the setting surrounding these problems, and the resolution of these problems. Context includes the technological and sociological characteristics of the software development environment, the software processes applied, personnel involved in the development process, and the corporate and social culture surrounding the development. Presented in this paper is a summary of results of a study that addresses these issues. Data for this study was collected during a three month visit to Japan where the author interviewed 20 software managers representing nine companies involved in developing software in Japan. These data are compared to similar data from the United States in which 12 managers from five companies were interviewed.

  7. Introduction of nuclear medicine research in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inubushi, Masayuki [Kawasaki Medical School, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan); Higashi, Tatsuya [National Institutes of Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, Chiba (Japan); Kuji, Ichiei [Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hidaka-shi, Saitama (Japan); Sakamoto, Setsu [Dokkyo University School of Medicine, PET Center, Mibu, Tochigi (Japan); Tashiro, Manabu [Tohoku University, Division of Cyclotron Nuclear Medicine, Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan); Momose, Mitsuru [Tokyo Women' s Medical University, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    There were many interesting presentations of unique studies at the Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine, although there were fewer attendees from Europe than expected. These presentations included research on diseases that are more frequent in Japan and Asia than in Europe, synthesis of original radiopharmaceuticals, and development of imaging devices and methods with novel ideas especially by Japanese manufacturers. In this review, we introduce recent nuclear medicine research conducted in Japan in the five categories of Oncology, Neurology, Cardiology, Radiopharmaceuticals and Technology. It is our hope that this article will encourage the participation of researchers from all over the world, in particular from Europe, in scientific meetings on nuclear medicine held in Japan. (orig.)

  8. Pawaa Appu! Women Only Unions in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BROADBENT, Kaye

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Women-only unions in Japan organise women workers in a variety of ways, including across enterprises and employment status boundaries. As their appearance is recent an analysis of their development is also a new area of research. The formation of autonomous women-only unions in Japan continues a tradition of women's activism which has challenged both management and the male domination of the union movement. This article argues that the formation of women-only unions is a positive development for women workers and the broader workers' movement.

  9. Identity Politics in Women's Performance in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In Japan, it was in the mid-1970s when women artists started to create their own professional theatre companies. This period also saw the development of the women's liberation movement in Japan, but there was no exchange between women theatre artists and activists. While the women artists explored a variety of issues in their work, with some few exceptions feminism was not their primary concern. This trend continues to this day, and accounts for why Tadashi Uchino argues that there has been n...

  10. Introductory Overview of Stone Heritages in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hirokazu; Oikawa, Teruki; Fujita, Masayo; Yokoyama, Shunji

    2013-04-01

    As one contribution to 'Global Heritage Stone Resources' (GHSR), some stone heritages in Japan, which are nominated in the interim list, are briefly introduced. The geology of Japanese Islands where are the one of the most active areas in the history of the Earth, is very complicated. Therefore Japanese Islands consist of various kinds of minerals and rocks. Some of them were used to make stone implements and accessories. Japanese people also used to the best possible advantage to built tombstone, gate, pavement ,and the basement and wall of the large building such as temples, shrines, castles and modern buildings. 1. Stone Heritages of Pre-historical age: In the late Pleistocene and the early Holocene, ancient Japanese used obsidian cooled rapidly from rhyolitic magma.to make small implements and accessories. For example, Shirataki, Hokkaido (north island) is the largest place producing obsidian in Japan where Paleolithic people made arrowhead, knives and so on. Another example, Jade yielded in Itoigawa City, Japan Sea coast of central Japan, was made in the metamorphic rock about five hundred million years ago. Itoigawa area is only one place where jade is abundantly produced in Japan. Ancient people had been already collected and processed to ornaments although it is very hard and traded in wide area more than several thousand years ago. 2. Stone Heritages of Historical age: 2.1 Archaeological remains: In the Kofun (old mound) period (250 to 538 AD), stone burial chambers were used for old mounds to preserve against the putrefaction and to protect from the theft. For example, Ishibutai Kofun ("ishi" means "stone" and "butai" means "stage") in Nara old capital city, southwest Japan, is the largest known megalithic structure made of granite in Japan. 2.2 Stone walls of some typical castles Stones used is because of not only the rich reserves of rocks but also restriction of transportation. Osaka (second biggest city) castle, are composed of Cretaceous granite

  11. Recent status of Legionella issues in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Akira; Hisamatsu, Takaya; Uchida, Takahiko [Kurita Water Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2007-06-15

    The ''Japanese Guideline for the Prevention of Legionellosis'' is introduced and the status of Legionella inhibition in cooling water systems in Japan is reviewed. About 9,000 sampling data on Legionella in cooling water systems are discussed. A seasonal trend has been observed based on cooling water sample numbers and positive Legionella findings. Moreover, the percentage of positive findings with a registered chemical treatment program at the Japanese Association of Air Conditioning Water Treatment Chemicals for Legionella is about half that without chemical treatment. It is concluded that the registered chemical treatment program is successful in Japan. (orig.)

  12. Plans for super-beams in Japan

    CERN Document Server

    Hasegawa, Takuya

    2010-01-01

    In Japan, as the first experiment utilizes J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex) neutrino facility, T2K (Tokai to Kamioka Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment) starts operation. T2K is supposed to give critical information, which guides the future direction of the neutrino physics. Possible new generation discovery experiment based on T2K outcome is discussed. Especially, description of J-PARC neutrino beam upgrade plan and discussion on far detector options to maximize potential of the research are focused. European participation and CERN commitment on Japanese accelerator based neutrino experiment is also reported.

  13. Experimental DML over digital repositories in Japan

    CERN Document Server

    Namiki, Takao; Naruse, Shunsuke

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the authors show an overview of Virtual Digital Mathematics Library in Japan (DML-JP), contents of which consist of metadata harvested from institutional repositories in Japan and digital repositories in the world. DML-JP is, in a sense, a subject specific repository which collaborate with various digital repositories. Beyond portal website, DML-JP provides subject-specific metadata through OAI-ORE. By the schema it is enabled that digital repositories can load the rich metadata which were added by mathematicians.

  14. Microwave filters and circuits contributions from Japan

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, Akio

    1970-01-01

    Microwave Filters and Circuits: Contributions from Japan covers ideas and novel circuits used to design microwave filter that have been developed in Japan, as well as network theory into the field of microwave transmission networks. The book discusses the general properties and synthesis of transmission-line networks; transmission-line filters on the image-parameter basis; and experimental results on a class of transmission-line filter constructed only with commensurate TEM lossless transmission lines. The text describes lines constants, approximation problems in transmission-line networks, as

  15. The emperor of Japan and the aurora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akasofu, S. I.

    On October 3, 1985, I gave a special lecture on the aurora for the Emperor of Japan in his palace in Tokyo. It seems the Emperor, a marine biologist, has an unusual interest in the aurora. After my slide presentation, he asked how we confirm ancient sighting reports of the aurora in Japan. He was not satisfied with my response that anomalous events in the sky were well documented in an ancient publication entitled Japanese Meteorological Data and asked further how one could confirm such sightings as auroral events. He was visibly pleased to learn that the dates of these sightings coincided with those recorded elsewhere in the world.

  16. Human rights in Japan: progress and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Muñoz González

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present an overview of the improvements and challenges that Japan has been facing between 1983 and 2007. The paper explores the interaction among the different stakeholders –i.e. the Japanese Government, international organizations and civil society- to advance full access to citizenship regarding gender equality, the elimination of social and physical barriers for the inclusion of people with disabilities and elderly persons; ethnic minorities –specifically the situation of the Ainu people and the Buraku community – and the persons considered as “foreigners” living in Japan.

  17. 76 FR 8774 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade... polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury....

  18. History Textbook Reform in Allied Occupation Japan, 1945-52.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Yoko H.

    1995-01-01

    Observes that, although textbook reform in occupied Japan originally supported democratic principles of openness and competition, it later became a mechanism for anticommunist censorship. Maintains that interpretations of Japan's military conduct remain highly politicized and controversial. (MJP)

  19. 77 FR 64487 - Renewable Energy Policy Business Roundtable in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy Policy Business Roundtable in Japan AGENCY: International... Commerce's International Trade Administration (ITA) is coordinating a Renewable Energy Policy Business... regulatory landscape for renewable energy developing in Japan at this time. Following the Roundtable,...

  20. Electrical properties of lightning over northern part of Japan by using ELF and LLP observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobara, Yasuhide; Yamashita, Junpei; Narita, Tomomi; Mitsuzuka, Hiroaki

    2016-04-01

    Cloud-to-ground strokes with a large charge transfer are known to often generate the fascinating Transient Luminous Events (TLEs) in the mesosphere, while those intensive strokes damage the overhead ground wire in various locations in Japan. Despite requirement to identify promptly the possible damages after lightning strokes, remote estimation of the charge amount lowers to the ground is technically difficult in general. In this study electrical properties of Cloud to Ground Flashes (CGFs) such as Charge Moment Change (CMC) as well as peak current (Ip) and polarity information over northern part of mainland Japan are studied. Lightning geolocations are obtained from the conventional lightning detection system LLP operated by TEPCO, while corresponding lightning CMCs are calculated by using ELF transients observed in Moshiri, Japan. Based on the statistical results for two years, spatial distributions of CGFs with their CMCs and peak currents with different polarities were obtained in detail first time. Significant differences in the spatial distributions of CGFs are seen between CMC and Ip. Negative CGs with a large CMC are superior to those for +CGs and are predominantly distributed over inland. Negative CGFs with a large Ip are distributed more over the coastal waters. Seasonal dependence of CMCs clearly indicates the characteristics of a famous winter thunderstorm activity in Hokuriku region with many large CMC events with a positive polarity around the northern costal region of Japan.