WorldWideScience

Sample records for kanji chinese characters

  1. Brain Activity while Reading Sentences with Kanji Characters Expressing Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Masahide; Saito, Keiichi; Mukawa, Naoki

    In this paper, we describe the brain activity associated with kanji characters expressing emotion, which are places at the end of a sentence. Japanese people use a special kanji character in brackets at the end of sentences in text messages such as those sent through e-mail and messenger tools. Such kanji characters plays a role to expresses the sender's emotion (such as fun, laughter, sadness, tears), like emoticons. It is a very simple and effective way to convey the senders' emotions and his/her thoughts to the receiver. In this research, we investigate the effects of emotional kanji characters by using an fMRI study. The experimental results show that both the right and left inferior frontal gyrus, which have been implicated on verbal and nonverbal information, were activated. We found that we detect a sentence with an emotional kanji character as the verbal and nonverval information, and a sentence with emotional kanji characters enrich communication between the sender and the reciever.

  2. MENINGKATKAN KEMAMPUAN KANJI MAHASISWA MELALUI MEDIA KARTU HURUF KANJI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Prasetiani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Japanese character Kanji is difficult for the students who learn Japanese as a foreign language. Bacause Kanji has stroke order, and also Chinese and Japanese ways of reading. Moreover one character of kanji is presenting one meaning, thus the amount of kanji is massive. The informal interview conduct in some students on Semarang State University, Japanese Department, 2nd semester, reveal that students got problems in memorizing the meaning and also the ways of reading and writing kanji. They often find difficulties while combining two kanji characters become a word (jukugo. Some words they didn’t familiar with will cause any further problems such as they didn’t know how to apply it into the sentence. Actually, the text book they use has reading and writing practice sections which is enough and proper to learn by themselves. But sometimes students need to make they own sentences in order to make their memory of kanji more lasting. Since the students admitted that they lacks of practice making sentences, therefore, we conducted an experiment in a class, using kanji card in order to overcome the student’s problems mentioned above. The result shows that this technique is effective and encourages students to: produce jukugo, produce sentences which using the kanji, students feel fun in learning kanji. But, not quite suitable if we conduct it in a large class.

  3. 关于中国古文字与日语汉字词词义关联的研究%Research on the Correlation of Word Meanings between Ancient Chinese Characters and Japanese Kanjis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付怡

    2015-01-01

    Throughout history, people with a profound knowledge of history all know that Japanese culture is evolved from the cul-tural essence of the Chinese nation to a great extent. From Xu Fu's navigation to Liuqiu in the Qin period, to Wang Jing's mis-sionary work in Japan during the Three Kingdoms period, and then to the period when the five nomadic nations invaded China, many craftsmen travelledl eastward on the sea to work in Japan, resulting in the rapid progress of Japanese culture in the Sheng-wen period when the Chinese etiquette rose in Japan, which is still reflected in Japanese cultural tradition even in today. Up un-til late Tang Dynasty, through long-term and continuous learning and absorption of Chinese culture and tradition, Japanese invent-ed their own characters—hiraganas and katakanas, which are early Japanese characters constituted by Chinese cursive hand-writing and radicals. Chinese chaacters, introduced into Japanese in this period, are still in use today with their original meanings in ancient Chinese. Hence, it can be judged that Chinese characters in Japanese are generally all referred from ancient Chinese, so though belonging to different language families respectively, Japanese and Chinese, as elaborated above, are fundamentally consanguineous and homologous. However, with the gradual weakening and elimination of ancient meanings of some Chinese characters in contemporary Chinese, new Japanese learners will probably make mistakes if they learn or guess on the basis of modern Chinese meanings. Through investigating the birth and changes of ancient Chinese characters, this paper explores the evolution of ancient Chinese and Japanese characters from a his-torical perspective, analyzes Japanese absorption and re-creation of Chinese characters, and on this basis, explores the correla-tion-based mutual translation of word meanings between Japanese kanjis and Chinese characters, hoping to benefit Japanese language learning and researches in the field

  4. Topographic changes in event-related potentials because of learning of meaningful Kanji characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Haruo; Skrandies, Wolfgang

    2013-07-10

    Japanese Kanji constitutes meaningful logograms, and its processing shows interhemispheric features. In the present study, human semantic learning of Kanji characters in 18 healthy native German adults was examined. Twenty Kanji characters were presented before and after a learning phase of about 20 min, and the electroencephalographic activity was recorded from 30 electrodes and averaged for each condition. Twenty different Kanji characters served as control stimuli. Successful learning was observed in all participants. The evoked potential maps showed the largest component occurring over occipital areas at latencies between 100 and 130 ms. Significant differences in the field strength (global field power) were observed for this component before and after learning. After learning, the distribution between the left and the right hemispheres significantly changed the negative centroid location from the left to the right hemisphere and from the posterior to the anterior area in each hemisphere. These effects were observed only after successful learning, and our findings suggest that the acquisition of meaning of Kanji characters following intensive short-term learning is related to neurophysiological changes at an early stage of processing. The topographical changes in electrical brain activity reflect plasticity presumably in primary sensory areas during learning of meaningful materials that is related to top-down information processing.

  5. A Visual Training Tool for Teaching Kanji to Children with Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeshita-Yamazoe, Hanae; Miyao, Masutomo

    2016-01-01

    We developed a visual training tool to assist children with developmental dyslexia in learning to recognize and understand Chinese characters (kanji). The visual training tool presents the strokes of a kanji character as separate shapes and requires students to use these fragments to construct the character. Two types of experiments were conducted…

  6. A Visual Training Tool for Teaching Kanji to Children with Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeshita-Yamazoe, Hanae; Miyao, Masutomo

    2016-01-01

    We developed a visual training tool to assist children with developmental dyslexia in learning to recognize and understand Chinese characters (kanji). The visual training tool presents the strokes of a kanji character as separate shapes and requires students to use these fragments to construct the character. Two types of experiments were conducted…

  7. How to learn Japanese Kanji by Chinese students%中国的学生如何学好日语汉字

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹小平

    2011-01-01

    阐述日本汉字与中国汉字形体、语感、文法等方面的差异,指出学习日文要注意的问题。%The differences of form, sense of language, grammar and other aspects between Japanese Kanji and Chinese characters were elaborated, and the noted problems of learning Japanese were pointed out,

  8. The Effects of Graphic Similarity on Japanese Recognition of Simplified Chinese Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Xiaochun; Yamada, Jun

    2017-01-01

    The pedagogical and theoretical questions addressed in this study relate to the extent to which native Japanese readers with little or no knowledge of Chinese characters recognize Chinese characters that are viewed as abbreviations of the kanji they already know. Three graphic similarity functions (i.e., an orthographically acceptable similarity,…

  9. On Chinese Character

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文娟

    2016-01-01

    Just as the long history of our country, Chinese characters also have their long histories through thousands of years. There have been many great scientific works or documents studying on the origin of Chinese characters. From them, it can easily be found that each Chinese character has its own history. If we study on the history of a specific Chinese character, its motivation will be found.

  10. Knowing Chinese character grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, James

    2016-02-01

    Chinese character structure has often been described as representing a kind of grammar, but the notion of character grammar has hardly been explored. Patterns in character element reduplication are particularly grammar-like, displaying discrete combinatoriality, binarity, phonology-like final prominence, and potentially the need for symbolic rules (X→XX). To test knowledge of these patterns, Chinese readers were asked to judge the acceptability of fake characters varying both in grammaticality (obeying or violating reduplication constraints) and in lexicality (of the reduplicative configurations). While lexical knowledge was important (lexicality improved acceptability and grammatical configurations were accepted more quickly when also lexical), grammatical knowledge was important as well, with grammaticality improving acceptability equally for lexical and nonlexical configurations. Acceptability was also higher for more frequent reduplicative elements, suggesting that the reduplicative configurations were decomposed. Chinese characters present an as-yet untapped resource for exploring fundamental questions about the nature of the human capacity for grammar.

  11. Neural Strategies for Reading Japanese and Chinese Sentences: A Cross-Linguistic fMRI Study of Character-Decoding and Morphosyntax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Koongliang; Itoh, Kosuke; Kwee, Ingrid L.; Nakada, Tsutomu

    2012-01-01

    Japanese and Chinese share virtually identical morphographic characters invented in ancient China. Whereas modern Chinese retained the original morphographic functionality of these characters (hanzi), modern Japanese utilizes these characters (kanji) as complex syllabograms. This divergence provides a unique opportunity to systematically…

  12. The Role of Phonology and Phonetics in L2 Kanji Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Akiko

    2016-01-01

    This study explores whether emphasizing the phonetic components of "kanji," Chinese characters used in Japanese, facilitates second language (L2) learners' novel character learning. Previous L2 studies on Chinese characters indicate that phonology plays a major part in word identification. However, this view remains controversial,…

  13. The Role of Phonology and Phonetics in L2 Kanji Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Akiko

    2016-01-01

    This study explores whether emphasizing the phonetic components of "kanji," Chinese characters used in Japanese, facilitates second language (L2) learners' novel character learning. Previous L2 studies on Chinese characters indicate that phonology plays a major part in word identification. However, this view remains controversial,…

  14. Korean and Japanese as Chinese-Characters Cultural Spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya OKIMORI

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Korea and Japan belong to Chinese-characters cultural spheres. In the time of Han Dynasty and thereafter, tributary states connected with the monarchy of Chinese Kingdom and its surrounding countries. They imported Chinese state regulations, accepted and developed many thoughts and cultures by bringing in Chinese characters of Chinese classics. However, there have been some different points in the treatment of Chinese characters in each nation. The Korean modern writing system does not use Chinese characters in general, while on the contrary in Japanese, there is a tendency to increase the number of regularly-used Chinese characters, for example in the official list of jōyō kanji 常用漢字 announced by the Ministry of Education, with the latest increase in 2010. Therefore, it is necessary to observe more about some aspects of the languages to know why this different treatment occurred. The oldest Korean document is the History of the Three Kingdoms, Samguk Sagi 『三国史記』 that contains geographical proper names. The Buyeo-Kingdom languages were recorded there, including place names. It is no doubt that the use of Chinese characters of Silla have significantly affected Goguryeo and Paekche. The Silla and Buyeo-Kingdom languages have closed syllables with a consonant at the end of each syllable, while in Japanese, the syllables end with vowels as open syllables. There are further phonological characteristics as well. This article discusses how each language encountered Chinese characters, and how they related to their specific languages, and also how Chinese characters particularly reflected syllable structures of different languages. It can be said that the use of Chinese characters in proper names estranged the futures of Korean and Japanese in history. Focus is laid on the history of Korean and Japanese through Chinese characters, with their falsely similar language dispositions.

  15. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Some Chinese characters refer to natural phenomena andsubstances, such as "雨" yu (rain), "云" yun (clouds), "雪" xue (snow),"电" dian (lightning) and "雷" lei (thunder). The original form of "雨"was"(?)," in which"(?)" represents the cloud layer, and"(?)"symbolizes rain drops.

  16. How Iconic Are Chinese Characters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Gigi; Bialystok, Ellen

    2005-01-01

    The study explores the notion that some Chinese characters contain pictorial indications of meanings that can be used to help retrieve the referent. Thirty adults with no prior knowledge of Chinese guessed the meanings of twenty Chinese characters by choosing between one of two photographs. Half of the characters were considered to be iconic and…

  17. A network of two-Chinese-character compound words in the Japanese language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Ken; Yamazaki, Yoshihiro

    2009-06-01

    Some statistical properties of a network of two-Chinese-character compound words in the Japanese language are reported. In this network, a node represents a Chinese character and an edge represents a two-Chinese-character compound word. It is found that this network has properties of being “small-world” and “scale-free”. A network formed by only Chinese characters for common use ( joyo-kanji in Japanese), which is regarded as a subclass of the original network, also has the small-world property. However, a degree distribution of the network exhibits no clear power law. In order to reproduce the disappearance of the power-law property, a model for a selecting process of the Chinese characters for common use is proposed.

  18. The Origin of Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    女 (nü) is a pictograph. InChinese it means female, theopposite of male. In ancientChinese, women had low socialstatus which is reflected in theshape of the character. 女 in theOracle-Bone Script looks like a

  19. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The character "力" li (strength) was originally written "(?)" The curving " (?) " indicates bulging muscles, while the "(?)" component represents skin. Despite its evolution over the centuries, "力" still symbolizes a strong arm.In combination with other characters "力" conveys the meaning "力量" liliang (strength), "力气"liqi (strength), "力求" liqiu (pursue) and "力争" lizheng (strive).

  20. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Chinese pictographs for 土 tǔ (earth) are "(?)", "(?)" and "(?)", reflecting the Chinese people of remote antiquity’s understanding of earth. They divided it into two layers, upper and subterranean, and used the "二" in "土" to represent both layers, the central "(?)" representing the plants that

  1. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    It is perhaps a facet of human nature that makes a person want to beking, and to control others. The character "王" was originally"王",symbolizing the emerald prayer beads worn exclusively by the king. Inthe course of this character’s evolution, however, new connotations were

  2. Computer-Mediated Materials for Chinese Character Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hui-Mei; Gao, Liwei

    2002-01-01

    Reviews four sets of computer-mediated materials for Chinese character learning. These include the following: Write Chinese, Chinese Characters Primer, Animated Chinese Characters, and USC Chinese Character Page. (Author/VWL)

  3. The Origin of Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    IN ancient Chinese characters,母(pronounced mu)depicts a womanbending on her knees and crossingher hands in front with two points onher chest symbolizing her breasts.The original meaning of 母 is anadult woman who has given birth tochildren,i.e.a mother It was later

  4. CONFUCIANISM AND CHARACTER EDUCATION: A CHINESE VIEW

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mei-Ju Chou; Yi-Chan Tu; Kai-Ping Huang

    2013-01-01

    .... Also, the relationship between Confucianism and character education is discussed. Character education is based on the transmission of values and within Chinese society and most of these values have been founded on the teachings of Confucius...

  5. Examining the Use of Computers in Writing by Learners of Japanese as a Foreign Language: Analysis of Kanji in the Handwritten and Typed Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This study compares second-year Japanese university students' strategies to write kanji by hand with their strategies to produce the kanji characters on a computer, taking into account factors such as accuracy in writing, the amount of kanji used, the complexity of the kanji used, as well as how the characters used compare with the sequence…

  6. Structural recognition of ancient Chinese ideographic characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ning; Chen Dan

    2014-01-01

    Ancient Chinese characters, typically the ideographic characters on bones and bronze before Shang Dynasty (16th—11th century B.C.), are valuable culture legacy of history. However the recognition of Ancient Chinese characters has been the task of paleography experts for long. With the help of modern computer technique, everyone can expect to be able to recognize the characters and understand the ancient inscriptions. This research is aimed to help people recognize and understand those ancient Chinese characters by combining Chinese paleography theory and computer information processing technology. Based on the analysis of ancient character features, a method for structural character recognition is proposed. The important characteristics of strokes and basic components or radicals used in recognition are introduced in detail. A system was implemented based on above method to show the effectiveness of the method.

  7. Rapid Naming Speed and Chinese Character Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chen-Huei; Georgiou, George K.; Parrila, Rauno

    2008-01-01

    We examined the relationship between rapid naming speed (RAN) and Chinese character recognition accuracy and fluency. Sixty-three grade 2 and 54 grade 4 Taiwanese children were administered four RAN tasks (colors, digits, Zhu-Yin-Fu-Hao, characters), and two character recognition tasks. RAN tasks accounted for more reading variance in grade 4 than…

  8. Cognitive Predictors of Literacy Acquisition in Syllabic Hiragana and Morphographic Kanji

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Tomohiro; Georgiou, George K.; Muroya, Naoko; Maekawa, Hisao; Parrila, Rauno

    2017-01-01

    We examined the role of different cognitive skills in word reading (accuracy and fluency) and spelling accuracy in syllabic Hiragana and morphographic Kanji. Japanese Hiragana and Kanji are strikingly contrastive orthographies: Hiragana has consistent character-sound correspondences with a limited symbol set, whereas Kanji has inconsistent…

  9. The Sensitivity of Native Japanese Speakers to "On" and "Kun" Kanji Readings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaoka, Katsuo; Taft, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    Japanese kanji reading can be divided into two types: "On"-readings, derived from the original Chinese pronunciation and "Kun"-readings, originating from the Japanese pronunciation. Kanji that are normally given an "On"-reading around 50% of the time were presented in a context of other kanji that had either a highly dominant "On"-reading or a…

  10. Chinese character recognition :history ,status and prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Ruwei; LIU Chenglin; XIAO Baihua

    2007-01-01

    Chinese character recognition (CCR) is an important branch of pattern recognition.It was considered as an extremely difficult problem due to the very large number of categories,complicated structures,similarity between characters,and the variability of fonts or writing styles.Because of its unique technical challenges and great social needs,the last four decades witnessed the intensive research in this field and a rapid increase of successful applications.However,higher recognition performance is continuously needed to improve the existing applications and to exploit new applications.This paper first provides an overview of Chinese character recognition and the properties of Chinese characters.Some important methods and successful results in the history of Chinese character recognition are then summarized.As for classification methods,this article pays special attention to the syntactic-semantic approach for online Chinese character recognition,as well as the metasynthesis approach for discipline crossing.Finally,the remaining problems and the possible solutions are discussed.

  11. The Origin of Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    IN oracle-bone inscription, 面 (mian) depictsthe outline of a face with a large eye at its center.To this end its original meaning was the humanface. However, in ancient Chinese 面 referred tothe front of the head and another characterdenoted the cheek, specifically the area between

  12. CONFUCIANISM AND CHARACTER EDUCATION: A CHINESE VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Ju Chou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The principles of Confucianism are founded on humaneness, righteousness, propriety, knowledge, integrity and filial piety. These principles have found their way to the Chinese culture since the days of Confucius. The study reviews the concept of Confucianism and its influence in Chinese context. Also, the relationship between Confucianism and character education is discussed. Character education is based on the transmission of values and within Chinese society and most of these values have been founded on the teachings of Confucius. Filial piety has strongly been conditioned within the principles of Confucianism and the respect of one’s elders. Character education has been promoted by teachers and elders who focus on the transmission of values from one generation to the next. Character education is supported by the theories and teachings set out by Confucius, mostly in relation to humaneness and integrity, as well as collectivism. The individualistic trends are discarded within character education, as the welfare of the society and the collective is prioritized.

  13. Rank-frequency relation for Chinese characters

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, W B; Li, B; Wang, Q A

    2013-01-01

    The Zipf's law states that the ordered frequencies $f_1>f_2> ...$ of different words in a text hold $f_r\\propto r^{-\\gamma}$ with $\\gamma\\approx 1$ and rank $r$. The law applies to many languages with alphabetical writing systems, but was so far found to be absent for the rank-frequency relation of the Chinese characters, the main (and oldest) example of the logographic writing system. Here we show that the Zipf's law for Chinese characters perfectly holds for sufficiently short texts (few thousand different characters). The scenario of its validity is similar to the Zipf's law for words in short English texts. We focus on short texts, since for the sake of the rank-frequency analysis, long texts are just mixtures of shorter, thematically homogenous pieces. For long texts (or for mixtures of short texts), the Zipf's law holds for a relatively small range of ranks, but it is still important, since for all Chinese texts (we studied) it carries out $simeq 40%$ of the overall frequency. The previous results on th...

  14. Font generation of personal handwritten Chinese characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jeng-Wei; Wang, Chih-Yin; Ting, Chao-Lung; Chang, Ray-I.

    2014-01-01

    Today, digital multimedia messages have drawn more and more attention due to the great achievement of computer and network techniques. Nevertheless, text is still the most popular media for people to communicate with others. Many fonts have been developed so that product designers can choose unique fonts to demonstrate their idea gracefully. It is commonly believed that handwritings can reflect one's personality, emotion, feeling, education level, and so on. This is especially true in Chinese calligraphy. However, it is not easy for ordinary users to customize a font of their personal handwritings. In this study, we performed a process reengineering in font generation. We present a new method to create font in a batch mode. Rather than to create glyphs of characters one by one according to their codepoints, people create glyphs incrementally in an on-demand manner. A Java Implementation is developed to read a document image of user handwritten Chinese characters, and make a vector font of these handwritten Chinese characters. Preliminary experiment result shows that the proposed method can help ordinary users create their personal handwritten fonts easily and quickly.

  15. Chinese Character Acquisition and Visual Skills in Two Chinese Scripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcbride-Chang, Catherine; Chow, Bonnie W. Y.; Zhong, Yiping; Burgess, Stephen; Hayward, William G.

    2005-01-01

    Three different visual skills, along with Chinese character recognition, vocabulary, speeded naming, and syllable deletion skills were tested twice over one school year among 118 Hong Kong and 96 Xiangtan, China kindergartners. Results revealed that a task of Visual Spatial Relationships [Gardner, M. F. (1996). "Test of visual-perceptual skills…

  16. Post processing for offline Chinese handwritten character string recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, YanWei; Ding, XiaoQing; Liu, ChangSong

    2012-01-01

    Offline Chinese handwritten character string recognition is one of the most important research fields in pattern recognition. Due to the free writing style, large variability in character shapes and different geometric characteristics, Chinese handwritten character string recognition is a challenging problem to deal with. However, among the current methods over-segmentation and merging method which integrates geometric information, character recognition information and contextual information, shows a promising result. It is found experimentally that a large part of errors are segmentation error and mainly occur around non-Chinese characters. In a Chinese character string, there are not only wide characters namely Chinese characters, but also narrow characters like digits and letters of the alphabet. The segmentation error is mainly caused by uniform geometric model imposed on all segmented candidate characters. To solve this problem, post processing is employed to improve recognition accuracy of narrow characters. On one hand, multi-geometric models are established for wide characters and narrow characters respectively. Under multi-geometric models narrow characters are not prone to be merged. On the other hand, top rank recognition results of candidate paths are integrated to boost final recognition of narrow characters. The post processing method is investigated on two datasets, in total 1405 handwritten address strings. The wide character recognition accuracy has been improved lightly and narrow character recognition accuracy has been increased up by 10.41% and 10.03% respectively. It indicates that the post processing method is effective to improve recognition accuracy of narrow characters.

  17. Efficient learning strategy of Chinese characters based on network approach

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Xiao-Yong; Di, Zengru; Havlin, Shlomo; Wu, Jinshan

    2013-01-01

    Based on network analysis of hierarchical structural relations among Chinese characters, we develop an efficient learning strategy of Chinese characters. We regard a more efficient learning method if one learns the same number of useful Chinese characters in less effort or time. We construct a node-weighted network of Chinese characters, where character usage frequencies are used as node weights. Using this hierarchical node-weighted network, we propose a new learning method, the distributed node weight (DNW) strategy, which is based on a new measure of nodes' importance that takes into account both the weight of the nodes and the hierarchical structure of the network. Chinese character learning strategies, particularly their learning order, are analyzed as dynamical processes over the network. We compare the efficiency of three theoretical learning methods and two commonly used methods from mainstream Chinese textbooks, one for Chinese elementary school students and the other for students learning Chinese as...

  18. Self-Regulation in Second Language Learning: An Investigation of the "Kanji"-Learning Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Heath; Harbon, Lesley

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates how students of the Japanese language regulate the learning of "kanji" (Japanese written characters). Skill in reading "kanji" has an important effect on learners' progress in interpretive reading. Data collected over one year were drawn from interviews with 12 students. The study highlighted an…

  19. A Developmental Study of Chinese Children's Word and Character Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; Wang, Ying; Tong, Xiuhong; McBride, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between Chinese children's character and word reading, 62 third and 50 fifth grade children in Hong Kong were asked to read single characters and words that were comprised of these characters. Results showed that words helped children to recognize characters for both grades of children. Compared to older children,…

  20. Remarks on different reviews of Chinese character recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Yuanyan

    2007-01-01

    This paper gives an introduction and remarks on two review papers for Chinese character recognition.One review is made by Chinese authors,another is from American scientists.They investigate Chinese character from different language environments;they do the research from different points of view.Thus,a more comprehensive view on Chinese character recognition,which is an important branch of pattern recognition,can be provided to the readers.Meantime,one article pays attention to online process,and other paper deals with offiine recognition,which complement each other.

  1. ON THE STRUCTURES OF RAM-BASED CHINESE CHARACTER LIBRARIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱培德

    1991-01-01

    The Chinese character library is one of the important data structures in the Chinese information Processing system.The behavior of the whole system depends directly on the reasonableness of design for its structure.This paper expounds the structures of RAM-based Chinese character libraries,static and dynamic ,The paper offers a descriptive method for this behavior and inquires into some algorithms related to the structures mentioned above.

  2. A tutoring package to teach pronunciation of Mandarin Chinese characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hang; Miller, L Keith

    2007-01-01

    We examined the effects of a tutoring package (verbal modeling, prompts, and contingent praise/ Chinese conversations with the tutor) on the performance of a college student's Mandarin Chinese pronunciation. The effects of the tutoring package were analyzed using a multiple baseline design across two sets of 50 Chinese characters. The tutoring package produced improvement in the student's correct pronunciation of Chinese characters from 48% (pretutoring) to 90% (posttutoring). Results suggested that the tutoring package produced mastery pronunciation of targeted Mandarin Chinese vocalizations by a nonnative speaker.

  3. Hierarchical Approximate Matching for Retrieval of Chinese Historical Calligraphy Character

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia-Fen Zhang; Yue-Ting Zhuang; Jiang-Qin Wu; Fei Wu

    2007-01-01

    As historical Chinese calligraphy works are being digitized, the problem of retrieval becomes a new challenge. But, currently no OCR technique can convert calligraphy character images into text, nor can the existing Handwriting Character Recognition approach does not work for it. This paper proposes a novel approach to efficiently retrieving Chinese calligraphy characters on the basis of similarity: calligraphy character image is represented by a collection of discriminative features, and high retrieval speed with reasonable effectiveness is achieved. First, calligraphy characters that have no possibility similar to the query are filtered out step by step by comparing the character complexity, stroke density and stroke protrusion. Then, similar calligraphy characters are retrieved and ranked according to their matching cost produced by approximate shape match. In order to speed up the retrieval, we employed high dimensional data structure-PK-tree. Finally, the efficiency of the algorithm is demonstrated by a preliminary experiment with 3012 calligraphy character images.

  4. Chinese character recognition using simulated phosphene maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ying; Lu, Yanyu; Zhou, Chuanqing; Chen, Yao; Ren, Qiushi; Chai, Xinyu

    2011-05-01

    A visual prosthetic device may produce phosphene maps in which individual phosphene characteristics can be altered. This study was an investigation of the ability of normally sighted subjects to recognize Chinese characters (CCs) after altering simulated phosphene maps. Thirty volunteers with normal or corrected visual acuity of 20/20 were recruited. CC recognition accuracy and response time were investigated while one parameter was changed (distortion, pixel dropout percentage, pixel size variability, or pixel gray level) or different combinations of three parameters were used. Five hundred CCs consisting of 1 to 16 strokes were used for the character sets. CC recognition accuracy and response times respectively decreased and increased when distortion, dropout, and pixel size variability increased. Gray levels did not significantly affect the results, except when eight levels were used. To maintain an 80% accuracy rate, there should be a distortion index (k) of no more than 0.2 (irregularity), a pixel dropout of 20%, and a pixel size range of 1 to 16 mm (7-112 min arc). Only a combination of a k=0.1 distortion index, a dropout of 10%, and a pixel size range of 1.33 to 12 mm (9.3-84 min arc) achieved a goal of ≥80% accuracy. Distortion, dropout percentage, and pixel size variability have a significant impact on pixelated CC recognition. Although at present the visual ability of prosthesis users is limited, it should be possible to extend this to CC recognition and reading in the future. The results will help visual prosthesis researchers determine the effects of altering phosphene maps and improve outcomes for patients.

  5. Efficient learning strategy of Chinese characters based on network approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaoyong; Fan, Ying; Di, Zengru; Havlin, Shlomo; Wu, Jinshan

    2013-01-01

    We develop an efficient learning strategy of Chinese characters based on the network of the hierarchical structural relations between Chinese characters. A more efficient strategy is that of learning the same number of useful Chinese characters in less effort or time. We construct a node-weighted network of Chinese characters, where character usage frequencies are used as node weights. Using this hierarchical node-weighted network, we propose a new learning method, the distributed node weight (DNW) strategy, which is based on a new measure of nodes' importance that considers both the weight of the nodes and its location in the network hierarchical structure. Chinese character learning strategies, particularly their learning order, are analyzed as dynamical processes over the network. We compare the efficiency of three theoretical learning methods and two commonly used methods from mainstream Chinese textbooks, one for Chinese elementary school students and the other for students learning Chinese as a second language. We find that the DNW method significantly outperforms the others, implying that the efficiency of current learning methods of major textbooks can be greatly improved.

  6. Reading pixelized paragraphs of Chinese characters using simulated prosthetic vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ying; Lu, Yanyu; Zhao, Ji; Wang, Kaihu; Ren, Qiushi; Wu, Kaijie; Chai, Xinyu

    2011-07-29

    Visual prostheses offer a possibility of restoring useful reading ability to the blind. The psychophysics of simulating reading with a prosthesis using pixelized text has attracted attention recently. This study was an examination of the reading accuracy and efficiency of pixelized Chinese paragraphs after different parameters were altered. Forty native Chinese speakers with normal or corrected visual acuity (20/20) participated in four experiments. Reading accuracy and efficiency were measured after changing the character resolution, character size, pixel dropout percentage, number of gray levels, and luminance. A 5° × 5° character appeared to be the optimal size necessary for accurate pixelized reading. Reading accuracy close to 100% could be achieved with 10 × 10 pixels/character and ∼60% with a 6 × 6 pixel resolution. Pixel dropout adversely affected accuracy, and paragraphs with a 50% dropout were unreadable. Luminance had little effect; however, the number of gray levels significantly affected reading performance. Paragraph reading was at least 5% more accurate at each resolution than was the accuracy of Chinese character recognition. Character size and resolution, pixel dropout, and the number of gray levels clearly affected the reading performance of pixelized Chinese paragraphs. Compared with pixelized character recognition, pixelized Chinese paragraph reading achieved higher accuracy; thus, optimal Chinese reading performance may require prostheses with more electrodes (1000) than are required to read paragraphs in the Latin alphabet (500).

  7. Kanji Recognition by Second Language Learners: Exploring Effects of First Language Writing Systems and Second Language Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kazumi

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether learners of Japanese with different first language (L1) writing systems use different recognition strategies and whether second language (L2) exposure affects L2 kanji recognition. The study used a computerized lexical judgment task with 3 types of kanji characters to investigate these questions: (a)…

  8. Chinese Brush Calligraphy Character Retrieval and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yueting; Zhang, Xiafen; Lu, Weiming; Wu, Fei

    2007-01-01

    Chinese brush calligraphy is a valuable civilization legacy and a high art of scholarship. It is still popular in Chinese banners, newspaper mastheads, university names, and celebration gifts. There are Web sites that try to help people enjoy and learn Chinese calligraphy. However, there lacks advanced services such as content-based retrieval or…

  9. Character feature integration of Chinese calligraphy and font

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Cao; Xiao, Jianguo; Jia, Wenhua; Xu, Canhui

    2013-01-01

    A framework is proposed in this paper to effectively generate a new hybrid character type by means of integrating local contour feature of Chinese calligraphy with structural feature of font in computer system. To explore traditional art manifestation of calligraphy, multi-directional spatial filter is applied for local contour feature extraction. Then the contour of character image is divided into sub-images. The sub-images in the identical position from various characters are estimated by Gaussian distribution. According to its probability distribution, the dilation operator and erosion operator are designed to adjust the boundary of font image. And then new Chinese character images are generated which possess both contour feature of artistical calligraphy and elaborate structural feature of font. Experimental results demonstrate the new characters are visually acceptable, and the proposed framework is an effective and efficient strategy to automatically generate the new hybrid character of calligraphy and font.

  10. Acquisition of Chinese characters: the effects of character properties and individual differences among second language learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Li-Jen; Kim, Tae-Jin; Yang, Xinyuan; Li, Huiwen; Liu, Yan; Wang, Haixia; Hyun Park, Jeong; Li, Ying

    2015-01-01

    In light of the dramatic growth of Chinese learners worldwide and a need for cross-linguistic research on Chinese literacy development, this study drew upon theories of visual complexity effect (Su and Samuels, 2010) and dual-coding processing (Sadoski and Paivio, 2013) and investigated (a) the effects of character properties (i.e., visual complexity and radical presence) on character acquisition and (b) the relationship between individual learner differences in radical awareness and character acquisition. Participants included adolescent English-speaking beginning learners of Chinese in the U.S. Following Kuo et al. (2014), a novel character acquisition task was used to investigate the process of acquiring the meaning of new characters. Results showed that (a) characters with radicals and with less visual complexity were easier to acquire than characters without radicals and with greater visual complexity; and (b) individual differences in radical awareness were associated with the acquisition of all types of characters, but the association was more pronounced with the acquisition of characters with radicals. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings were discussed.

  11. Acquisition of Chinese characters: The effects of character properties and individual differences among second language learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Jen eKuo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In light of the dramatic growth of Chinese learners worldwide and a need for cross-linguistic research on Chinese literacy development, this study drew upon theories of visual complexity effect (Su & Samuels, 2010 and dual-coding processing (Sadoski & Paivio, 2013 and investigated a the effects of character properties (i.e., visual complexity and radical presence on character acquisition and b the relationship between individual learner differences in radical awareness and character acquisition. Participants included adolescent English-speaking beginning learners of Chinese in the U.S. Following Kuo et al. (2014, a novel character acquisition task was used to investigate the process of acquiring the meaning of new characters. Results showed that a characters with radicals and with less visual complexity were easier to acquire than characters without radicals and with greater visual complexity; and b individual differences in radical awareness were associated with the acquisition of all types of characters, but the association was more pronounced with the acquisition of characters with radicals. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings were discussed.

  12. Morphological Awareness Uniquely Predicts Young Children's Chinese Character Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride-Chang, Catherine; Shu, Hua; Zhou, Aibao; Wat, Chun Pong; Wagner, Richard K.

    2003-01-01

    Two unique measures of morphological awareness were orally administered to kindergarten and 2nd-grade Hong Kong Chinese children. Both tasks of morphological awareness predicted unique variance in Chinese character recognition in these children, after controlling for age, phonological awareness, speeded naming, speed of processing, and vocabulary.…

  13. Beginning Students' Perceptions of Effective Activities for Chinese Character Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Leland, Christine H.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates what beginning learners of Chinese perceive as helpful in learning to recognize characters. Thirteen English-speaking participants in a beginning Chinese class answered journal questions and completed a survey over one semester at a large Midwestern university. Findings suggest that participants perceived the usefulness of…

  14. A brief Analysis on the Beauty of Chinese Characters in Poster Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雅萌

    2016-01-01

    In poster design, Chinese characters are the carrier of information transmission. It is a special form of symbols to convey people information. Through the creation method of Chinese characters, this paper studies the relationship between'form'and'meaning'of Chinese characters, and uses design technique combined with the characteristics of modern poster design to discuss how to use Chinese characters to design poster.

  15. Alexia with agraphia of kanji (Japanese morphograms).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, M; Hirayama, K; Hasegawa, K; Takahashi, N; Yamaura, A

    1987-01-01

    The case of the right-handed young Japanese woman with alexia with agraphia of kanji (the Japanese morphograms) due to a small circumscribed haematoma in the left posterior inferior temporal gyrus is described. Her chief complaint was the inability to read and write kanji. Detailed examination showed that her alexia with agraphia was much more predominant for kanji than kana (the Japanese syllabograms). These facts suggest that the processing of kanji and kana involves different intrahemispheric mechanisms. Images PMID:3668562

  16. Japanese Chinese character%日本汉字文化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫志章

    2011-01-01

    The Japanese absorbed Chinese character from our nation, and also created ideographs which originated in Japan and Japanese Chinese. Chinese character widely used in daily life has become an important means of writing Japanese. And closely linked to the Japanese daily life, reflecting the spiritual life and the Japanese national character reflect the Chinese culture in Japan.%日本民族在吸收我国汉字的基础上创造了国字和和制汉语,在日常生活中广泛使用,成为表记日语的重要手段,与日本人的日常生活密切相连,反映了日本人的精神生活和民族性格,折射出日本汉字文化。

  17. Major achievements in relation to dyslexia in Chinese characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Gui-feng; JING Jin

    2008-01-01

    Objective To review the major achievements in dyslexia in Chinese characters,hoping to give some clues for future studies.Data sources Both Chinese and English language literature search using PUBMED,and original articles published in main Chinese and international journals.Study selection After reviewing the literature,54 articles were selected that specifically addressed the stated purpose.Results The results of studies about the subtypes,cerebral basis,reading processing model,event-related potential (ERP) and saccadic features between English and Chinese dyslexia are different.Conclusions In the last ten years,great progress has been made in the study of dyslexia in Chinese characters.However,there are still many problems and shortcomings which need to be investigated.

  18. The Influence of Chinese Character Handwriting Diagnosis and Remedial Instruction System on Learners of Chinese as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Hsien-Sheng; Chang, Cheng-Sian; Chen, Chiao-Jia; Wu, Chia-Hou; Lin, Chien-Yu

    2015-01-01

    This study designed and developed a Chinese character handwriting diagnosis and remedial instruction (CHDRI) system to improve Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) learners' ability to write Chinese characters. The CFL learners were given two tests based on the CHDRI system. One test focused on Chinese character handwriting to diagnose the CFL…

  19. Maximum entropy, word-frequency, Chinese characters, and multiple meanings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaoyong; Minnhagen, Petter

    2015-01-01

    The word-frequency distribution of a text written by an author is well accounted for by a maximum entropy distribution, the RGF (random group formation)-prediction. The RGF-distribution is completely determined by the a priori values of the total number of words in the text (M), the number of distinct words (N) and the number of repetitions of the most common word (k(max)). It is here shown that this maximum entropy prediction also describes a text written in Chinese characters. In particular it is shown that although the same Chinese text written in words and Chinese characters have quite differently shaped distributions, they are nevertheless both well predicted by their respective three a priori characteristic values. It is pointed out that this is analogous to the change in the shape of the distribution when translating a given text to another language. Another consequence of the RGF-prediction is that taking a part of a long text will change the input parameters (M, N, k(max)) and consequently also the shape of the frequency distribution. This is explicitly confirmed for texts written in Chinese characters. Since the RGF-prediction has no system-specific information beyond the three a priori values (M, N, k(max)), any specific language characteristic has to be sought in systematic deviations from the RGF-prediction and the measured frequencies. One such systematic deviation is identified and, through a statistical information theoretical argument and an extended RGF-model, it is proposed that this deviation is caused by multiple meanings of Chinese characters. The effect is stronger for Chinese characters than for Chinese words. The relation between Zipf's law, the Simon-model for texts and the present results are discussed.

  20. Plausibility Effects when Reading One- and Two-Character Words in Chinese: Evidence from Eye Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinmian; Staub, Adrian; Li, Nan; Wang, Suiping; Rayner, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Eye movements of Chinese readers were monitored as they read sentences containing a critical character that was either a 1-character word or the initial character of a 2-character word. Due to manipulation of the verb prior to the target word, the 1-character target word (or the first character of the 2-character target word) was either plausible…

  1. Chinese Readers Can Perceive a Word Even When It's Composed of Noncontiguous Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guojie; Pollatsek, Alexander; Li, Yugang; Li, Xingshan

    2017-01-01

    This study explored whether readers could recognize a word composed of noncontiguous characters (a "cross-character word") in Chinese reading. All 3 experiments employed Chinese 4-character strings ABCD, where both AB and CD were 2-character words. In the cross-character word condition, AC was a word but in the control condition, AC was…

  2. Chinese Readers Can Perceive a Word Even When It's Composed of Noncontiguous Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guojie; Pollatsek, Alexander; Li, Yugang; Li, Xingshan

    2017-01-01

    This study explored whether readers could recognize a word composed of noncontiguous characters (a "cross-character word") in Chinese reading. All 3 experiments employed Chinese 4-character strings ABCD, where both AB and CD were 2-character words. In the cross-character word condition, AC was a word but in the control condition, AC was…

  3. Gaussian process style transfer mapping for historical Chinese character recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jixiong; Peng, Liangrui; Lebourgeois, Franck

    2015-01-01

    Historical Chinese character recognition is very important to larger scale historical document digitalization, but is a very challenging problem due to lack of labeled training samples. This paper proposes a novel non-linear transfer learning method, namely Gaussian Process Style Transfer Mapping (GP-STM). The GP-STM extends traditional linear Style Transfer Mapping (STM) by using Gaussian process and kernel methods. With GP-STM, existing printed Chinese character samples are used to help the recognition of historical Chinese characters. To demonstrate this framework, we compare feature extraction methods, train a modified quadratic discriminant function (MQDF) classifier on printed Chinese character samples, and implement the GP-STM model on Dunhuang historical documents. Various kernels and parameters are explored, and the impact of the number of training samples is evaluated. Experimental results show that accuracy increases by nearly 15 percentage points (from 42.8% to 57.5%) using GP-STM, with an improvement of more than 8 percentage points (from 49.2% to 57.5%) compared to the STM approach.

  4. High School Chinese: Second Year Text, Vocabulary, and Character Lists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Isabella Y.

    This second year volume of a 3-year course in Chinese includes a textbook, vocabulary, and character lists. A student workbook has also been designed (see FL 002 777 ). The text provided dialogues and practice in vocabulary, translation, questions, writing, and language patterns. Ideas for homework are also included. The book is divided into…

  5. Exhibition of Origin of Ancient Chinese Characters Held in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>It was rainy season in Kanazawa, the seat of the government of Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan in the latter half of June. The flowers on both sides of the street were blossoming brightly in the drizzling rain. The exhibition "Origin of Ancient Chinese Characters" was mounted in the Ishikawa Pre-fectural Museum of Art in downtown Kanazawa on June 25.

  6. Distributional Similarity for Chinese: Exploiting Characters and Radicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Jin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Distributional Similarity has attracted considerable attention in the field of natural language processing as an automatic means of countering the ubiquitous problem of sparse data. As a logographic language, Chinese words consist of characters and each of them is composed of one or more radicals. The meanings of characters are usually highly related to the words which contain them. Likewise, radicals often make a predictable contribution to the meaning of a character: characters that have the same components tend to have similar or related meanings. In this paper, we utilize these properties of the Chinese language to improve Chinese word similarity computation. Given a content word, we first extract similar words based on a large corpus and a similarity score for ranking. This rank is then adjusted according to the characters and components shared between the similar word and the target word. Experiments on two gold standard datasets show that the adjusted rank is superior and closer to human judgments than the original rank. In addition to quantitative evaluation, we examine the reasons behind errors drawing on linguistic phenomena for our explanations.

  7. Using a Radical-Derived Character E-Learning Platform to Increase Learner Knowledge of Chinese Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsueh-Chih; Hsu, Chih-Chun; Chang, Li-Yun; Lin, Yu-Chi; Chang, Kuo-En; Sung, Yao-Ting

    2013-01-01

    The present study is aimed at investigating the effect of a radical-derived Chinese character teaching strategy on enhancing Chinese as a Foreign Language (CFL) learners' Chinese orthographic awareness. An e-learning teaching platform, based on statistical data from the Chinese Orthography Database Explorer (Chen, Chang, Chou, Sung, & Chang,…

  8. The Proximate Unit in Chinese Handwritten Character Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenn-Yeu eChen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In spoken word production, a proximate unit is the first phonological unit at the sublexical level that is selectable for production (O’Seaghdha, Chen, & Chen, 2010. The present study investigated whether the proximate unit in Chinese handwritten word production is the stroke, the radical, or something in between. A written version of the form preparation task was adopted. Chinese participants learned sets of two-character words, later were cued with the first character of each word, and had to write down the second character (the target. Response times were measured from the onset of a cue character to the onset of a written response. In Experiment 1, the target characters within a block shared (homogeneous or did not share (heterogeneous the first stroke. In Experiment 2, the first two strokes were shared in the homogeneous blocks. Response times in the homogeneous blocks and in the heterogeneous blocks were comparable in both experiments (Exp. 1: 687 ms vs. 684 ms, Exp. 2: 717 vs. 716. In Experiment 3 and 4, the target characters within a block shared or did not share the first radical. Response times in the homogeneous blocks were significantly faster than those in the heterogeneous blocks (Exp. 3: 685 vs. 704, Exp. 4: 594 vs. 650. In Experiment 5 and 6, the shared component was a Gestalt-like form that is more than a stroke, constitutes a portion of the target character, can be a stand-alone character itself, can be a radical of another character but is not a radical of the target character (e.g., 士in聲, 鼓, 穀, 款; called a logographeme. Response times in the homogeneous blocks were significantly faster than those in the heterogeneous blocks (Exp. 5: 576 vs. 625, Exp. 6: 586 vs. 620. These results suggest a model of Chinese handwritten character production in which the stroke is not a functional unit, the radical plays the role of a morpheme, and the logographeme is the proximate unit.

  9. ERPs reveal sub-lexical processing in Chinese character recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Mo, Deyuan; Tsang, Yiu-Kei; Chen, Hsuan-Chih

    2012-04-18

    The present study used ERPs and a lexical decision task to explore the roles of position-general and position-specific radicals and their relative time courses in processing Chinese characters. Two types of radical frequency were manipulated: the number of characters containing a specific radical irrespective of position (i.e., radical frequency or RF) and the number of characters containing a specific radical at a particular position (i.e., position-specific radical frequency or PRF). The PRF effect was found to be associated with P150, P200, and N400, whereas the RF effect was associated with P200. These results suggest that both position-general and position-specific radicals could influence character processing, but the effect of position-specific radicals appeared earlier and lasted longer than that of position-general radicals. These findings are interpreted in terms of the specific orthographic properties of the sub-lexical components of Chinese characters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Radical Sensitivity Is the Key to Understanding Chinese Character Acquisition in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiuhong; Tong, Xiuli; McBride, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated Chinese children's development of sensitivity to positional (orthographic), phonological, and semantic cues of radicals in encoding novel Chinese characters. A newly designed picture-novel character mapping task, along with nonverbal reasoning ability, vocabulary, and Chinese character recognition were administered to 198…

  11. Temporal Dynamics of the Modulation of Character Structure and Phonetic Radical in Chinese Character Processing—an ERP Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet H. Hsiao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinese orthography, with semantic and phonetic radicals configured in different character structures, provides a unique opportunity to examine visual word processing. Previous ERP research showed that when participants silently named centrally presented characters, there was greater left hemisphere lateralization in N170 amplitude for sP characters (right-heavy, with a semantic radical on the left and a phonetic radical on the right than Ps characters (the opposite configuration, suggesting that characters with different structures are processed differently in the brain. Here we utilize four additional character types, sS (right-heavy, no phonetic radical; Ss (the opposite configuration; Syp and Sys characters (symmetric structure, with and without phonetic radical respectively to further examine how phonetic radical and character structure influence Chinese character processing. A significant interaction was found between character structure and hemisphere in P120 latency, suggesting that the modulation of character structure happens as early as 120 ms after the stimulus onset. Furthermore, the hemispheric asymmetry effects in N170 and P200 were found to be influenced by both phonetic radical and character structure, while N350 appeared to be modulated by phonetic radical only. These findings demonstrate that the modulation of character structure and phonetic radical have different time courses in Chinese character processing.

  12. Maximum Entropy, Word-Frequency, Chinese Characters, and Multiple Meanings

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Xiao-Yong

    2014-01-01

    The word-frequency distribution of a text written by an author is well accounted for by a maximum entropy distribution, the RGF (random group formation)-prediction. The RGF-distribution is completely determined by the a priori values of the total number of words in the text (M), the number of distinct words (N) and the number of repetitions of the most common word (k_max). It is here shown that this maximum entropy prediction also describes a text written in Chinese characters. In particular it is shown that although the same Chinese text written in words and Chinese characters have quite differently shaped distributions, they are nevertheless both well predicted by their respective three a priori characteristic values. It is pointed out that this is analogous to the change in the shape of the distribution when translating a given text to another language. Another consequence of the RGF-prediction is that taking a part of a long text will change the input parameters (M, N, k_max) and consequently also the sha...

  13. 从《和名类聚抄》看中古汉语对日本汉字文化的影响%On the Influence of Medieval Times Chinese upon the Kanji Culture From the Perspective of WAMYOURUIJYUSYOU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秀云; 黄亮

    2015-01-01

    WAMYOURUIJYUSYOU is the first Japanese dictionary with its own national language characteristics, which was compiled in plain language by the famous Sinologist Yuan Shun on the basis of various kinds of Chinese and Japanese ancient books and records and popular saying in the society in the fourth year of Cheng Ping of Japan’s Heian Period (AD 934). This dictionary was produced after Japan abolished its missions to the Tang Dynasty so as to develop its own national culture. But while it targeted developing the Japanese culture, it could not escape the shadow of Medieval Times Chinese because its author Yuan Shun who had strong Chinese language skills had been long-term exposed to the culture of Sui and Tang dynasties. This paper, based on the analysis of the background information and the relevant research into this dictionary, probes into the influence of Medieval Times Chinese upon the Kanji culture to form a scientific understanding of Medieval Times Chinese and the cultural exchange between China and Japan.%《和名类聚抄》是著名汉学家源顺在日本平安时期的承平四年(公元934年)参照中日各类典籍及社会上的各种流行说法,采用通俗易懂的方式编繤的日本第一部具有国语特色的辞书。这部辞书产生于日本废除遣唐使,欲以独立发展属于自己的民族文化的时期。它虽然在努力发展日本文化,但由于长期受隋唐文化的影响,具有较深汉文功底的源顺在《和名类聚抄》中处处留着中古汉语的影子。本文在分析《和名类聚抄》的产生背景及相关研究现状的基础上分析中古汉语对日本汉字文化的影响,从而形成对中日文化交流及中古汉语的科学认识。

  14. A Form Evaluation System and Its Data Structure for Brosh—Written Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾建超; HidehikoSanada; 等

    1995-01-01

    A form evaluation system for brush-written Chinese characters is developed.Calligraphic knowledge used in the system is represented in the form of rules with the help of a data structure proposed in this paper.Reflecting the specific hierarchical relations among radicals and strokes of Chinese characters,the proposed data structure is based upon a character model that can generate brush-written Chinese characters on a computer.Through evaluation experiments using the developed system,it is shown that representation of calligraphic knowledge and form evaluation of Chinese characters can be smoothly realized if the data structure is utilized.

  15. A Chinese Character Teaching System Using Structure Theory and Morphing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Linjia; Liu, Min; Hu, Jiajia; Liang, Xiaohui

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a Chinese character teaching system by using the Chinese character structure theory and the 2D contour morphing technology. This system, including the offline phase and the online phase, automatically generates animation for the same Chinese character from different writing stages to intuitively show the evolution of shape and topology in the process of Chinese characters teaching. The offline phase builds the component models database for the same script and the components correspondence database for different scripts. Given two or several different scripts of the same Chinese character, the online phase firstly divides the Chinese characters into components by using the process of Chinese character parsing, and then generates the evolution animation by using the process of Chinese character morphing. Finally, two writing stages of Chinese characters, i.e., seal script and clerical script, are used in experiment to show the ability of the system. The result of the user experience study shows that the system can successfully guide students to improve the learning of Chinese characters. And the users agree that the system is interesting and can motivate them to learn. PMID:24978171

  16. Chinese license plate character segmentation using multiscale template matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jiangmin; Wang, Guoyou; Liu, Jianguo; Xia, Yuanchun

    2016-09-01

    Character segmentation (CS) plays an important role in automatic license plate recognition and has been studied for decades. A method using multiscale template matching is proposed to settle the problem of CS for Chinese license plates. It is carried out on a binary image integrated from maximally stable extremal region detection and Otsu thresholding. Afterward, a uniform harrow-shaped template with variable length is designed, by virtue of which a three-dimensional matching space is constructed for searching of candidate segmentations. These segmentations are detected at matches with local minimum responses. Finally, the vertical boundaries of each single character are located for subsequent recognition. Experiments on a data set including 2349 license plate images of different quality levels show that the proposed method can achieve a higher accuracy at comparable time cost and is robust to images in poor conditions.

  17. Visual and Phonological Similarity Effects in Verbal Immediate Serial Recall: A Test with Kanji Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Satoru; Logie, Robert H.; Morita, Aiko; Law, Anna

    2008-01-01

    In a series of three experiments, native speakers of Japanese performed serial ordered written recall of visually presented Japanese kanji characters that varied systematically in visual and phonological similarity. Overall effects of phonological similarity were observed for retention of serial order under silent reading in Experiments 1 and 3…

  18. A Knowledge-based Multimedia System to Support the Teaching and Learning of Chinese Characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ki, W.; And Others

    A current project is underway to develop a multimedia system that would support the teaching and learning of Chinese characters, as well as provide a platform for conducting research into the cognitive aspects of Chinese language acquisition. Although the number of commonly used Chinese characters amounts to thousands, there are many structural…

  19. On the Translation of Chinese Four-character Idioms Loaded with Color Words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jing-yao

    2016-01-01

    Chinese four-character idioms loaded with color words are the typical symbol of the Chinese culture and their transi-tion is important to Chinese-English dictionaries. The quality of the dictionary and users’understanding are affected by the cor-rectness and appropriateness of their translation. This paper mainly focuses on the translation of four-character Chinese idioms with color words in New Century Chinese-English Dictionary.The research shows that there are three strategies for Chinese four-character idioms loaded with color words in the dictionaries:literal translation, free translation and the integration of literal trans-lation and annotative translation.

  20. A Brief Analysis of Errors and Their Causes of Indonesian Students Learning Chinese Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Anggreani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chinese characters are symbols of written notation system. It is the carrier of heritage and development of Chinese cultural. Teaching Chinese as a foreign language is a new discipline that has rapidly developed, but Chinese characters are difficult to be taught and write. For bahasa Indonesia doesn't have any relation with Mandarin, it is easy to make mistake in learning Mandarin. When Indonesian students learned Chinese characters, they found that Chinese characters were one of the difficulties. Some of the students realized the importance of Chinese characters. They had learned every day, but the results were not ideal. Because some of the students did not learn very well in Chinese word, it affected their improvement in their listening, speaking, reading, and writing skill, also it affected their interest in learning Chinese. Nevertheless, some students found that Chinese characters were very hard so it pushed them to try harder in learning Mandarin and this kind of effort made them get good result; hence, it actually had some psychology effect. Research was done on Indonesian born Chinese that study abroad. Data collection was gathered from students exercises, homeworks, and exams. The result of the research is that Indonesian born Chinese usually didn't follow the right stroke in when learning Chinese characters.

  1. Transfer of Perceptual Expertise: The Case of Simplified and Traditional Chinese Character Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianyin; Chuk, Tin Yim; Yeh, Su-Ling; Hsiao, Janet H

    2016-11-01

    Expertise in Chinese character recognition is marked by reduced holistic processing (HP), which depends mainly on writing rather than reading experience. Here we show that, while simplified and traditional Chinese readers demonstrated a similar level of HP when processing characters shared between the simplified and traditional scripts, simplified Chinese readers were less holistic than traditional Chinese readers in perceiving simplified characters; this effect depended mainly on their writing rather than reading performance. However, the two groups did not differ in HP of traditional characters, regardless of their difference in reading and writing performances. Our image analysis showed high visual similarity between the two character types, with a larger variance among simplified characters; this may allow simplified Chinese readers to interpolate and generalize their skills to traditional characters. Thus, transfer of perceptual expertise may be constrained by both the similarity in feature and the difference in exemplar variance between the categories. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  2. Recognizing Chinese characters in digital ink from non-native language writers using hierarchical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Hao; Zhang, Xi-wen

    2017-06-01

    While Chinese is learned as a second language, its characters are taught step by step from their strokes to components, radicals to components, and their complex relations. Chinese Characters in digital ink from non-native language writers are deformed seriously, thus the global recognition approaches are poorer. So a progressive approach from bottom to top is presented based on hierarchical models. Hierarchical information includes strokes and hierarchical components. Each Chinese character is modeled as a hierarchical tree. Strokes in one Chinese characters in digital ink are classified with Hidden Markov Models and concatenated to the stroke symbol sequence. And then the structure of components in one ink character is extracted. According to the extraction result and the stroke symbol sequence, candidate characters are traversed and scored. Finally, the recognition candidate results are listed by descending. The method of this paper is validated by testing 19815 copies of the handwriting Chinese characters written by foreign students.

  3. The Involvement of Occipital and Inferior Frontal Cortex in the Phonological Learning of Chinese Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yuan; Chou, Tai-li; Ding, Guo-sheng; Peng, Dan-ling; Booth, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Neural changes related to the learning of the pronunciation of Chinese characters in English speakers were examined using fMRI. We examined the item-specific learning effects for trained characters and the generalization of phonetic knowledge to novel transfer characters that shared a phonetic radical (part of a character that gives a clue to the…

  4. N170 Changes Show Identifiable Chinese Characters Compete Primarily with Faces Rather than Houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Cong; He, Weiqi; He, Huamin; Ren, Guofang; Luo, Yuejia; Li, Hong; Luo, Wenbo

    2015-01-01

    Character processing is a crucial cognitive skill that is highly emphasized and industriously cultivated in contemporary society. In the present study, using a competition paradigm, we examined the electrophysiological correlates of different relationships between Chinese characters and faces and between Chinese characters and houses during early visual processing. We observed that identifiable Chinese characters compete primarily with faces rather than houses at an early visual processing stage, with a significantly reduced N170 for faces but not for houses, when they were viewed concurrently with identifiable characters relative to when they were viewed concurrently with unidentifiable characters. Consistent with our previous study, there was a significant increase in N170 after characters have been learned, indicating a modulatory effect of Chinese character identification level on N170 amplitude. Furthermore, we found an enlarged N170 in response to faces compared to houses, indicating that the neural mechanisms for processing faces and houses are different at an early visual processing stage.

  5. Dynamic Generation and Editing System for Wrongly Written Chinese Characters Font

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingsheng Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The uniqueness of Chinese makes Chinese language a hotspot in language learning. In view of the problem of wrongly written character teaching in Chinese language teaching, it provides a simple, convenient, and efficient input method of wrongly written characters and realizes a dynamic generation and editing system for wrongly written Chinese character font, which solves the problems of real-time edit, coding, and input of wrongly written character in editing process using dynamic editing technology, and provides a convenient input method of wrongly written character in editing, printing, typesetting, and the research of digital Chinese language teaching. This method can also be used in dynamic editing, generation and processing of ancient variants, Oracle bone inscriptions, Bronze inscription, folk combined characters, and other fonts.

  6. Japanese Language Students' Attitudes toward "Kanji" and Their Perceptions on "Kanji" Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Yoshiko; Shimizu, Hideko

    2007-01-01

    This study aims at identifying interpretable factors underlying Japanese language learners' attitudes toward "kanji" and their self-reported "kanji" learning strategies. It also examines the relationship between the two sets of belief factors. A questionnaire survey was conducted among Japanese language students at nine universities in the United…

  7. The visual magnocellular-dorsal dysfunction in Chinese children with developmental dyslexia impedes Chinese character recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Qian, Yi; Bi, Hong-Yan; Coltheart, Max

    2014-11-20

    The visual magnocellular-dorsal (M-D) deficit theory of developmental dyslexia (DD) is still highly debated. Many researchers have made great efforts to investigate the relationship between M-D dysfunction and reading disability. Given that visual analysis plays an important role in Chinese reading, the present study tried to examine how the M-D dysfunction affected Chinese character recognition in Chinese children with DD. Sixteen DD children with M-D deficit, fifteen DD children with normal M-D function and twenty-seven age-matched typically developing children participated in this study. A global/local decision task was adopted, in which we manipulated the spatial frequency of target characters to separate an M-D condition from an unfiltered condition. Results of reaction times and error rates showed that in the M-D condition both M-D normal dyslexics and controls exhibited a significant global precedence effect, with faster responses and lower error rates in global decision than in local decision. In contrast, this global advantage was absent for the M-D impaired dyslexics. Accordingly, we propose that the M-D impairment present in some but not all dyslexics might influence global recognition of Chinese characters in this subgroup of children with DD, which might be implicated in their difficulties in learning to read.

  8. The Effect of Radical-Based Grouping in Character Learning in Chinese as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi; Chang, Li-Yun; Perfetti, Charles A.

    2014-01-01

    The logographic nature of the Chinese writing system creates a huge hurdle for Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) learners. Existing literature (e.g., Shen, [Shen, H. H., 2010]; Taft & Chung, [Taft, M., 1999]) suggests that radical knowledge facilitates character learning. In this project, we selected 48 compound characters in eight radical…

  9. Teaching Receptive Naming of Chinese Characters to Children with Autism by Incorporating Echolalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Jin-Pang; Wu, Kit-I

    1997-01-01

    The facilitative effect of incorporating echolalia on teaching receptive naming of Chinese characters to four Hong Kong children (ages 8-10) with autism was assessed. Results from two experiments indicated echolalia was the active component contributing to the successful acquisition and maintenance of receptive naming of Chinese characters.…

  10. The Impact of E-Book Interactivity Design on Children's Chinese Character Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei-Yu; Yang, Hui-Chun

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the impact of e-book interactivity design on the learning of Chinese characters by fourth graders (10-year-old children). This study was guided by two main questions: (1) Are there any differences in achievements (Chinese character writing, lexical comprehension, and lexical usage) between groups of young learners who read…

  11. INTEGRASI PEMBELAJARAN KANJI DENGAN PEMBELAJARAN SAKUBUN UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KEMAMPUAN MENULIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timur Sri Astami

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Research aims to find the influence of strategies used in intermediate kanji learning, i.e. in a more applicative class using kanji, on middle kanji and composition class (sakubun. Research viewed and compared the influence of students’ mark in Intermediate Kanji with their mark in Sakubun. The questionnaire used in this research was the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL consisting of 50 questions associated with types of strategy to learn kanji. The result obtained using T-test and correlation test was the students’ mark in kanji affected their mark in Sakubun. The relationship is the higher mark in kanji, the higher mark in Sakubun. As a conclusion, student essay writing ability is affected by the numbers of kanji remembered and used by students.

  12. Using Stroke Removal to Investigate Chinese Character Identification during Reading: Evidence from Eye Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Guoli; Bai, Xuejun; Zang, Chuanli; Bian, Qian; Cui, Lei; Qi, Wei; Rayner, Keith; Liversedge, Simon P.

    2012-01-01

    We explored the effect of stroke removal from Chinese characters on eye movements during reading to examine the role of stroke encoding in character identification. Experimental sentences were comprised of characters with different proportions of strokes removed (15, 30, and 50%), and different types of strokes removed (beginning, ending, and…

  13. The characteristics of event related potential in the cognitive course of individual Chinese characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingshi, Wang; Hongqiang, Yu; Huisheng, Lu

    2005-01-01

    The difference between the Chinese and English character recognition process and the characteristics of Chinese character recognition process are investigated by analyzing the ERP difference between the matched and mismatched ending strokes of a single Chinese character. First, the P300 are observed in the mismatched ERP waveforms, which don't exist in the matched ERP waveforms (Ppictograph Chinese characters are not only affected by the semanteme, but also closely related to its image of the figure. Secondly, the amplitude of the N400 in the mismatched ending strokes of Chinese character is obviously higher than that in the matched groups (P<0.05). The N400 is distributed in the other areas except the right side of temporal lobe and is higher in the left side. However, the amplitude of N400 in the waveforms has no obvious distinction between the cerebral hemispheres, where the amplitude of N400 are obtained by distracting the ERP of the mismatched individual Chinese character by the ERP of the matched group. These results show that the difference between cerebral hemispheres is attributed to the formal and phonic processing, not due to the semantic processing, which verify that the left and right cerebral hemisphere are both used in the Chinese character recognition, which is very different from the English character recognition, where the left side cerebral hemisphere is used with high percentage.

  14. An approach to offline handwritten Chinese character recognition based on segment evaluation of adaptive duration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国宏; 施鹏飞

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for off-line handwritten Chinese character recognition based on mergence of consecutive segments of adaptive duration. The handwritten Chinese character string is partitioned into a sequence of consecutive segments, which are combined to implement dissimilarity evaluation within a sliding window whose durations are determined adaptively by the integration of shapes and context of evaluations. The average stroke width is estimated for the handwritten Chinese character string, and a set of candidate character segmentation boundaries is found by using the integration of pixel and stroke features. The final decisions on segmentation and recognition are made under minimal arithmetical mean dissimilarities. Experiments proved that the proposed approach of adaptive duration outperforms the method of fixed duration, and is very effective for the recognition of overlapped, broken, touched, loosely configured Chinese characters.

  15. An approach to offline handwritten Chinese character recognition based on segment evaluation of adaptive duration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国宏; 施鹏飞

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for off-line handwritten Chinese character recognition based on mergence of consecutive segments of adaptive duration. The handwritten Chinese character string is partitioned into a sequence of consecutive segments,which are combined to implement dissimilarity evaluation within a sliding window whose durations are determined adaptively by the integration of shapes and context of evaluations. The average stroke width is estimated for the handwritten Chinese character string,and a set of candidate character segmentation boundaries is found by using the integration of pixel and stroke features. The final decisions on segmentation and recognition are made under minimal arithmetical mean dissimilarities. Experiments proved that the proposed approach of adaptive duration outperforms the method of fixed duration,and is very effective for the recognition of overlapped,broken,touched,loosely configured Chinese characters.

  16. Structure and modeling of the network of two-Chinese-character compound words in the Japanese language

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, Ken

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a numerical model of the network of two-Chinese-character compound words (two-character network, for short). In this network, a Chinese character is a node and a two-Chinese-character compound word links two nodes. The basic framework of the model is that an important character gets many edges. As the importance of a character, we use the frequency of each character appearing in publications. The direction of edge is given according to a random number assigned to nodes. The network generated by the model is small-world and scale-free, and reproduces statistical properties in the actual two-character network quantitatively.

  17. Structure and modeling of the network of two-Chinese-character compound words in the Japanese language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Ken; Yamazaki, Yoshihiro

    2014-10-01

    This paper proposes a numerical model of the network of two-Chinese-character compound words (two-character network, for short). In this network, a Chinese character is a node and a two-Chinese-character compound word links two nodes. The basic framework of the model is that an important character gets many edges. As the importance of a character, we use the frequency of each character appearing in publications. The direction of edge is given according to a random number assigned to nodes. The network generated by the model is small-world and scale-free, and reproduces statistical properties in the actual two-character network quantitatively.

  18. Font Effects of Chinese Characters and Pseudo-Characters on the N400: Evidence for an Orthographic Processing View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Caixia; Wang, Quanhong

    2012-01-01

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded during a Chinese character decision task to examine whether N400 amplitude is modulated by stimulus font. Results revealed large negative-going ERPs in an N400 time window of 300-500 ms to stimuli presented in degraded Xing Kai Ti (XKT) font compared with more intact Song Ti (ST) font regardless…

  19. 韩语汉字词考释%Examination and Interpretation of Korean Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈立中

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the ortografia of 20 Korean Chinese characters, searches ancient Chinese literature for examples and explores the origins of these words and the difference and relationship between the meaning of Chinese characters and that of Korean characters%本文考察了20个韩语汉字词的汉字写法,并从历代汉语文献中搜罗例证,探讨这些词语的渊源及汉韩词义的区别与联系。

  20. Radical Knowledge and Character Learning among Learners of Chinese as a Foreign Languag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Helen H. Shen

    2000-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship of radical knowledge to recognition and production of novel phonetic-semantic compound characters among learners of Chinese as a foreign language. The subjects are 40 first- and second-year college students in Chinese classes. The result indicates that students' knowledge of radicals played an important role in their recognition of novel morphologically transparent compound characters, but not in morphologically opaque characters. The result also shows that students with good radical knowledge perform significantly better in production of novel morphological transparent characters than do students with poor radical knowledge.

  1. Holistic neural coding of Chinese character forms in bilateral ventral visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Ce; Yu, Mengxia; Seger, Carol; Mo, Lei

    2015-02-01

    How are Chinese characters recognized and represented in the brain of skilled readers? Functional MRI fast adaptation technique was used to address this question. We found that neural adaptation effects were limited to identical characters in bilateral ventral visual system while no activation reduction was observed for partially overlapping characters regardless of the spatial location of the shared sub-character components, suggesting highly selective neuronal tuning to whole characters. The consistent neural profile across the entire ventral visual cortex indicates that Chinese characters are represented as mutually distinctive wholes rather than combinations of sub-character components, which presents a salient contrast to the left-lateralized, simple-to-complex neural representations of alphabetic words. Our findings thus revealed the cultural modulation effect on both local neuronal activity patterns and functional anatomical regions associated with written symbol recognition. Moreover, the cross-language discrepancy in written symbol recognition mechanism might stem from the language-specific early-stage learning experience.

  2. The Chinese Lexicon Project: a repository of lexical decision behavioral responses for 2,500 Chinese characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, Wei Ping; Rickard Liow, Susan J; Yap, Melvin J

    2014-03-01

    The Chinese language has more native speakers than any other language, but research on the reading of Chinese characters is still not as well-developed as it is for the reading of words in alphabetic languages. Two areas notably lacking are the paucity of megastudies in Chinese and the relatively infrequent use of the lexical decision paradigm to investigate single-character recognition. The Chinese Lexicon Project, described in this article, is a database of lexical decision latencies for 2,500 Chinese single characters in simplified script, collected from a sample of native mainland Chinese (Mandarin) speakers (N = 35). This resource will provide a valuable adjunct to influential mega-databases, such as the English, French, and Dutch Lexicon Projects. Using two separate analyses, some advantages associated with megastudies are exemplified. These include the selection of the strongest measure to represent Chinese character frequency (Cai & Brysbaert's (PLoS ONE 5(6): e10729, 2010) subtitle contextual diversity frequency count), and the conducting of virtual studies to replicate and clarify existing findings. The unique morpho-syllabic nature of the Chinese writing system makes it a valuable case study for functional language contrasts. Moreover, this is the first publicly available large-scale repository of behavioral responses pertaining to Chinese language processing (the behavioral dataset is attached to this article, as a supplemental file available for download). For these reasons, the data should be of substantial interest to psychologists, linguists, and other researchers.

  3. Inhibitory stroke neighbour priming in character recognition and reading in Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingxin; Tian, Jing; Han, Weijin; Liversedge, Simon P; Paterson, Kevin B

    2014-01-01

    In alphabetic languages, prior exposure to a target word's orthographic neighbour influences word recognition in masked priming experiments and the process of word identification that occurs during normal reading. We investigated whether similar neighbour priming effects are observed in Chinese in 4 masked priming experiments (employing a forward mask and 33-ms, 50-ms, and 67-ms prime durations) and in an experiment that measured eye movements while reading. In these experiments, the stroke neighbour of a Chinese character was defined as any character that differed by the addition, deletion, or substitution of one or two strokes. Prime characters were either stroke neighbours or stroke non-neighbours of the target character, and each prime character had either a higher or a lower frequency of occurrence in the language than its corresponding target character. Frequency effects were observed in all experiments, demonstrating that the manipulation of character frequency was successful. In addition, a robust inhibitory priming effect was observed in response times for target characters in the masked priming experiments and in eye fixation durations for target characters in the reading experiment. This stroke neighbour priming was not modulated by the relative frequency of the prime and target characters. The present findings therefore provide a novel demonstration that inhibitory neighbour priming shown previously for alphabetic languages is also observed for nonalphabetic languages, and that neighbour priming (based on stroke overlap) occurs at the level of the character in Chinese.

  4. The Effects of Visual Complexity for Japanese Kanji Processing with High and Low Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaoka, Katsuo; Kiyama, Sachiko

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of visual complexity for kanji processing by selecting target kanji from different stroke ranges of visually simple (2-6 strokes), medium (8-12 strokes), and complex (14-20 strokes) kanji with high and low frequencies. A kanji lexical decision task in Experiment 1 and a kanji naming task in Experiment 2…

  5. Age of acquisition affects early orthographic processing during Chinese character recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baoguo; Dent, Kevin; You, Wenping; Wu, Guolai

    2009-03-01

    Three experiments investigated age of acquisition (AoA) effects on early orthographic processing during Chinese character recognition. In Experiment 1, we measured the accuracy of identification of brief masked characters, accuracy was higher for early compared to late acquired characters. In Experiment 2, the visual duration threshold (VDT) was measured for both early and late acquired Chinese characters. The results showed that early acquired characters were successfully identified at shorter display durations than late acquired characters. Significant AoA effects were also found in Experiment 3, using a lexical decision task requiring mainly orthographic processing (discriminating real Chinese characters from orthographically illegal and unpronounceable characters). In summary, three experiments provide converging empirical evidence, for AoA effects on the early orthographic processing stages of Chinese character recognition. These results suggest that AoA effects during word identification go beyond the phonological or semantic processing stages. These results aslo provide cross-linguistic evidence for an AoA effect on early perceptual processing during identification.

  6. The Influence of Writing Experiences on Holistic Processing in Chinese Character Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tso, Ricky Van Yip; Au, Terry Kit-Fong; Hsiao, Janet Hui-Wen

    2011-01-01

    Holistic processing has been shown to be a behavioral marker of face recognition and object recognition in experts. In contrast, Hsiao and Cottrell (2009) showed that reduced holistic processing is a marker of visual expertise in Chinese character recognition. Here we tested Chinese-literates who can read and write Chinese characters (Writers) and literates whose reading performance far exceeded their writing ability (Limited-writers). We found that Writers perceived Chinese characters less holistically than Limited-writers. In addition to Hsiao and Cottrell's (2009) findings, our study further showed that such reduction in holistic processing can be explained by writing experience in Chinese. This result may be because Chinese Writers exhibit a better awareness of the orthographic components of Chinese characters than Limited-writers due to their writing experience. This study also showed that Limited-writers are better at recognizing a character embedded in a word of a familiar font than when it is alone or of an unfamiliar font, suggesting that their reading performances depend on both the context and font familiarity. This study is also the first to report on the Chinese reading population that has far poorer writing performance than reading performance.

  7. The Influence of Writing Experiences on Holistic Processing in Chinese Character Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricky Van Yip Tso

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Holistic processing has been shown to be a behavioral marker of face recognition and object recognition in experts. In contrast, Hsiao and Cottrell (2009 showed that reduced holistic processing is a marker of visual expertise in Chinese character recognition. Here we tested Chinese-literates who can read and write Chinese characters (Writers and literates whose reading performance far exceeded their writing ability (Limited-writers. We found that Writers perceived Chinese characters less holistically than Limited-writers. In addition to Hsiao and Cottrell's (2009 findings, our study further showed that such reduction in holistic processing can be explained by writing experience in Chinese. This result may be because Chinese Writers exhibit a better awareness of the orthographic components of Chinese characters than Limited-writers due to their writing experience. This study also showed that Limited-writers are better at recognizing a character embedded in a word of a familiar font than when it is alone or of an unfamiliar font, suggesting that their reading performances depend on both the context and font familiarity. This study is also the first to report on the Chinese reading population that has far poorer writing performance than reading performance.

  8. Visual Similarity of Words Alone Can Modulate Hemispheric Lateralization in Visual Word Recognition: Evidence from Modeling Chinese Character Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Janet H.; Cheung, Kit

    2016-01-01

    In Chinese orthography, the most common character structure consists of a semantic radical on the left and a phonetic radical on the right (SP characters); the minority, opposite arrangement also exists (PS characters). Recent studies showed that SP character processing is more left hemisphere (LH) lateralized than PS character processing.…

  9. Visual Similarity of Words Alone Can Modulate Hemispheric Lateralization in Visual Word Recognition: Evidence from Modeling Chinese Character Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Janet H.; Cheung, Kit

    2016-01-01

    In Chinese orthography, the most common character structure consists of a semantic radical on the left and a phonetic radical on the right (SP characters); the minority, opposite arrangement also exists (PS characters). Recent studies showed that SP character processing is more left hemisphere (LH) lateralized than PS character processing.…

  10. Segmentation of Handwritten Chinese Character Strings Based on improved Algorithm Liu

    OpenAIRE

    Zhihua Cai; Jiangqing Wang; Yangguang Sun

    2014-01-01

    Algorithm Liu attracts high attention because of its high accuracy in segmentation of Japanese postal address. But the disadvantages, such as complexity and difficult implementation of algorithm, etc. have an adverse effect on its popularization and application. In this paper, the author applies the principles of algorithm Liu to handwritten Chinese character segmentation according to the characteristics of the handwritten Chinese characters, based on deeply study on algorithm Liu.In the same...

  11. Rapid extraction of lexical tone phonology in Chinese characters: a visual mismatch negativity study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Dong Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In alphabetic languages, emerging evidence from behavioral and neuroimaging studies shows the rapid and automatic activation of phonological information in visual word recognition. In the mapping from orthography to phonology, unlike most alphabetic languages in which there is a natural correspondence between the visual and phonological forms, in logographic Chinese, the mapping between visual and phonological forms is rather arbitrary and depends on learning and experience. The issue of whether the phonological information is rapidly and automatically extracted in Chinese characters by the brain has not yet been thoroughly addressed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We continuously presented Chinese characters differing in orthography and meaning to adult native Mandarin Chinese speakers to construct a constant varying visual stream. In the stream, most stimuli were homophones of Chinese characters: The phonological features embedded in these visual characters were the same, including consonants, vowels and the lexical tone. Occasionally, the rule of phonology was randomly violated by characters whose phonological features differed in the lexical tone. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We showed that the violation of the lexical tone phonology evoked an early, robust visual response, as revealed by whole-head electrical recordings of the visual mismatch negativity (vMMN, indicating the rapid extraction of phonological information embedded in Chinese characters. Source analysis revealed that the vMMN was involved in neural activations of the visual cortex, suggesting that the visual sensory memory is sensitive to phonological information embedded in visual words at an early processing stage.

  12. The Stroop Effect in Kana and Kanji Scripts in Native Japanese Speakers: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coderre, Emily L.; Filippi, Christopher G.; Newhouse, Paul A.; Dumas, Julie A.

    2008-01-01

    Prior research has shown that the two writing systems of the Japanese orthography are processed differently: kana (syllabic symbols) are processed like other phonetic languages such as English, while kanji (a logographic writing system) are processed like other logographic languages such as Chinese. Previous work done with the Stroop task in…

  13. The N2- and N400-like effects of radicals on complex Chinese characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quanhong; Dong, Yunzhu

    2013-08-26

    Participants were asked to complete a delayed character-matching task, while their event-related brain potentials (ERPs) elicited by Chinese character fragments were recorded. This task required participants to match probe characters with their preceding fragments, which were randomly assigned to be either radical or stroke-deleted. However, the same number of strokes was retained in either case. The stroke-deleted fragments, which contained fewer intact radicals, elicited larger N2- and N400-like components compared with the radical-deleted fragments. Stroke-deleted fragments displayed lower response accuracy than the radical-deleted fragments. These results indicate that simple radicals have an intermediate or sub-character function in Chinese character recognition. The processing of characters with more destroyed radicals is impeded within a multilayer interactive-activation model. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Using Singular Value Decomposition to Investigate Degraded Chinese Character Recognition: Evidence from Eye Movements during Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsueh-Cheng; Schotter, Elizabeth R.; Angele, Bernhard; Yang, Jinmian; Simovici, Dan; Pomplun, Marc; Rayner, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Previous research indicates that removing initial strokes from Chinese characters makes them harder to read than removing final or internal ones. In the present study, we examined the contribution of important components to character configuration via singular value decomposition. The results indicated that when the least important segments, which…

  15. Character Learning Strategies Among Danish and Swedish Beginners of Chinese as a Foreign Language (CFL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chun; Chen, Yi-ting

    Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) by Oxford (1990), we adapted Shen’ (2005) questionnaire into two online surveys. The first survey was done in February 2016 aiming to discover some Chinese character learning strategies employed by Danish and Swedish learners. Based on the 1st survey, the second survey...... writing +rote learning). Finally, pedagogical implication of teaching character is discussed and future research is suggested....

  16. Electrophysiological evidence of sublexical phonological access in character processing by L2 Chinese learners of L1 alphabetic scripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yum, Yen Na; Law, Sam-Po; Mo, Kwan Nok; Lau, Dustin; Su, I-Fan; Shum, Mark S K

    2016-04-01

    While Chinese character reading relies more on addressed phonology relative to alphabetic scripts, skilled Chinese readers also access sublexical phonological units during recognition of phonograms. However, sublexical orthography-to-phonology mapping has not been found among beginning second language (L2) Chinese learners. This study investigated character reading in more advanced Chinese learners whose native writing system is alphabetic. Phonological regularity and consistency were examined in behavioral responses and event-related potentials (ERPs) in lexical decision and delayed naming tasks. Participants were 18 native English speakers who acquired written Chinese after age 5 years and reached grade 4 Chinese reading level. Behaviorally, regular characters were named more accurately than irregular characters, but consistency had no effect. Similar to native Chinese readers, regularity effects emerged early with regular characters eliciting a greater N170 than irregular characters. Regular characters also elicited greater frontal P200 and smaller N400 than irregular characters in phonograms of low consistency. Additionally, regular-consistent characters and irregular-inconsistent characters had more negative amplitudes than irregular-consistent characters in the N400 and LPC time windows. The overall pattern of brain activities revealed distinct regularity and consistency effects in both tasks. Although orthographic neighbors are activated in character processing of L2 Chinese readers, the timing of their impact seems delayed compared with native Chinese readers. The time courses of regularity and consistency effects across ERP components suggest both assimilation and accommodation of the reading network in learning to read a typologically distinct second orthographic system.

  17. Teaching receptive naming of Chinese characters to children with autism by incorporating echolalia.

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, J. P.; Wu, K I

    1997-01-01

    The facilitative effect of incorporating echolalia on teaching receptive naming of Chinese characters to children with autism was assessed. In Experiment 1, echoing the requested character name prior to the receptive naming task facilitated matching a character to its name. In addition, task performance was consistently maintained only when echolalia preceded the receptive manual response. Positive results from generalization tests suggested that learned responses occurred across various nove...

  18. Limited Top-Down Influence from Recognition to Same-Different Matching of Chinese Characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jennifer; Zhou, Yifeng; Liu, Zili

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the extent to which recognition of Chinese characters influenced same-different matching performance that did not require recognition. In each experimental trial, two partially occluded characters were shown sequentially, and participants decided whether or not they were the same. The two characters were either both upright or both inverted and mirror-reflected. The participants' Chinese reading fluency spanned the full range, from not knowing any characters to native speakers. The participants who could recognize some characters (defined as readers) were subsequently tested with character recognition in a naming task. Interestingly, although the readers' recognition accuracies well correlated with their years of Chinese language schooling, they were uncorrelated with the matching accuracies in the same-different task with upright characters. The only indication of top-down influence was the readers' higher accuracy in matching upright than inverted and reflected characters. However, the magnitude of this effect was small, to the extent that the average same-different accuracies were comparable for readers and non-readers alike. This small effect was further confirmed with native speakers in China, who should give rise to the largest possible effect. We conclude that top-down influence from character recognition was present but very limited, at least with the task and stimuli used.

  19. Effects of Time Lag in the Introduction of Characters into the Chinese Language Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, Jerome L.

    1990-01-01

    Examines the effects of a time lag before introducing Chinese characters into the elementary Chinese language curriculum. Results found that college students who were provided a three-week time lag were better able to discriminate phonetically and transcribe unfamiliar Mandarin syllables and were more fluent in spoken Mandarin than students who…

  20. Reforming Chinese Characters in the PRC and Japan: New Directions in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premaratne, Dilhara D.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a comparative evaluation of Chinese character reform in the People's Republic of China and Japan, with a particular focus on the latest changes announced in 2009 to the existing script policies in the two countries. The first Chinese script reform took place in 1956 and the first Japanese script reform in 1946, both for the…

  1. Toward a Dynamic Interactive Model of Non-Native Chinese Character Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiuli; Kwan, Joyce Lok Yin; Wong, Denise Wai Man; Lee, Stephen Man Kit; Yip, Joanna Hew Yan

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that word processing in English as a second language (L2) is affected by first language (L1) orthographic features. However, little is known about what affects L2 Chinese character processing in adult Chinese learners with different L1 orthographies such as Japanese, Korean, and English. With a picture-character…

  2. The Inversion Effect for Chinese Characters Is Modulated by Radical Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Canhuang; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Ye

    2017-01-01

    In studies of visual object recognition, strong inversion effects accompany the acquisition of expertise and imply the involvement of configural processing. Chinese literacy results in sensitivity to the orthography of Chinese characters. While there is some evidence that this orthographic sensitivity results in an inversion effect, and thus…

  3. Priming effects in Chinese character recognition for Chinese children with developmental dyslexia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuliang Zou; Jing Wang; Hanrong Wu

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Dyslexic children exhibit reading ability unmatched to age,although they possess normal intelligence and are well educated.OBJECTIVE:To examine the performance of dyslexic children in Chinese characters visual recognition tasks and to investigate the relationship between priming effect in character recognition and dyslexia.DESIGN,TIME AND SETTING:A case-control study was performed at the Department of Children and Adolescent Health and Maternal Care,School of Public Health,Tongji Medical College,Huazhong University of Science and Technology between March and June 2007.PARTICIPANTS:A total of 75 primary school students in grades 3 and 5 were selected from two primary schools in Wuhan City,Hubei province,China,and were assigned to three groups.(1) Reading disability (RD,n=25);(2) chronological age (CA) group (n=25 normal readers that were intelligence quotient and age-matched to the RD group);(3) reading level (RL) group (n=25 normal readers that were intelligence quotient and RL-matched to the RD group).All children were right-handed and had normal or corrected-to-normal vision.METHODS:Recognition of target characters was performed in each child using a masked prime paradigm.Recognition speed and accuracy of graphic,phonological,and semantic characters were examined.Simultaneously,data,with respect to response time for each target character and error rate,were recorded to calculate facilitation values (unrelated RT-related RT).MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Response time,facilitation,and error rate in Chinese character recognition task were calculated.RESULTS:The baseline-adjusted facilitation of graphic,phonological,and semantic priming for dyslexic children was -0.010,-0.010,and 0.001,respectively.Dyslexic children displayed inhibition in graphic and phonological prime conditions.Facilitations under the three prime conditions were 0.026,0.026,and 0.022 for the CA group.In the RL group,results were 0.062,0.058,and 0.031 respectively.The differences of baseline

  4. 2—D EAG Method for the Reognition of Hand—Printed Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵明

    1990-01-01

    A method,called Two-Dimensional Extended Attribute Grammars(2-D EAGs) for the recognition of hand-printed Chinese characters is presented.This method uses directly two dimensional information,and provides a scheme for dealing with various kinds of specific cases in a uniform way.In this method,components are drawn in guided and redundant way and reductions are made level by leve just in accordance with the component combination relations of Chinese characters.The method provids also polysemous grammars,coexisting grammars and structure inferrings whih constrain redundant recognition by comparison among similar characters of components and greatly increase the tolerance ability to distortion.

  5. A New Linguistic Decoding Method for Online Handwritten Chinese Character Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐志明; 王晓龙

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a new linguistic decoding method for online handwritten Chinese character recognition. The method employs a hybrid language model which combines N-gram and linguistic rules by rule quantification technique.The linguistic decoding algorithm consists of three stages: word lattice construction,the optimal sentence hypothesis search and self-adaptive learning mechanism. The technique has been applied to palmtop computer's online handwritten Chinese character recognition. Samples containing millions of characters were used to test the linguistic decoder. In the open experiment, accuracy rate up to 92% is achieved, and the error rate is reduced by 68%.

  6. Comparison of brain mechanisms underlying the processing of Chinese characters and pseudo-characters: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Li, Hong; Zhang, Qinglin; Tu, Shen; Yu, Caiyun; Qiu, Jiang

    2010-04-01

    Most Chinese characters are composed of a semantic radical on the left and a phonetic radical on the right. The semantic radical provides the semantic information; the phonetic radical provides information concerning the pronunciation of the whole character. The pseudo-characters in the study consisted of different sub-lexical parts of real Chinese characters and consequently they also had the semantic radical and the phonetic radical. But they were not readable and had no actual meaning. In order to investigate the spatiotemporal cortical activation patterns underlying the orthographic, phonological and semantic processing of Chinese characters, we used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to explore the processing of Chinese characters and pseudo-characters when 14 healthy Chinese college students viewed the characters passively. Results showed that both Chinese characters and pseudo-characters elicited an evident negative potential peaking around 120 ms (N120), which appeared to reflect initial orthographic distinction and evaluation. Then, Chinese pseudo-characters elicited a more positive ERP deflection (P220) than did Chinese characters 200-250 ms after onset of the stimuli. It was similar to the recognition potential (RP) and might reflect the integration processes of phonological and semantic processing on the basis of early orthographic information. Dipole source analysis of the difference wave (pseudo-characters minus characters) indicated that a generator localized in the left temporal-occipital junction contributed to this effect, which was possibly related to phonological and perceptual-semantic information integration. Between 350-450 ms, a greater negativity (N360) in pseudo-characters as compared to characters was found over midline fronto-central scalp regions. Dipole analysis localized the generator of N360 in the right parahippocampal cortex. Therefore, the N360 might be an N400 component and reflect the higher-level semantic activation on the

  7. 对外汉字教学略论%The Study of Teaching Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋春淑

    2012-01-01

      Chinese character teaching is a difficult part in the lecture of teaching Chinese as a foreign language. Now there are three main current teaching models: teaching spoken language before character teaching, teaching character in the teaching of spoken language and solely teaching Chinese characters. Four models have their advantages and disadvantages. Generally speaking, the four different models’ teaching effects are not so good. So it is necessary to study the features of Chinese characters and the learning difficulties of the oversea students in order to discuss the strategies of Chinese character learning.%  汉字教学历来是对外汉语教学的一个难点,目前通行的教学模式主要有:“先语后文”、“语文穿插”、“语文并进”和单独开设汉字课等。四种模式各有利弊,总体来说,教学效果并不理想。因此,有必要从汉字特点和留学生学习难点出发,来探讨汉字教学的应对策略,即调整指导思想,明确教学阶段,开展有针对性的教学

  8. Automatic generation of Chinese character using features fusion from calligraphy and font

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Cao; Xiao, Jianguo; Xu, Canhui; Jia, Wenhua

    2014-02-01

    A spatial statistic based contour feature representation is proposed to achieve extraction of local contour feature from Chinese calligraphy character, and a features fusion strategy is designed to automatically generate new hybrid character, making well use of contour feature of calligraphy and structural feature of font. The features fusion strategy employs dilation and erosion operations iteratively to inject the extracted contour feature from Chinese calligraphy into font, which are similar to "pad" and "cut" in a sculpture progress. Experimental results demonstrate that the generated new hybrid character hold both contour feature of calligraphy and structural feature of font. Especially, two kinds of Chinese calligraphy skills called "Fei Bai" and "Zhang Mo" are imitated in the hybrid character. "Fei Bai" depicts a phenomenon that part of a stroke fade out due to the fast movement of hair brush or the lack of ink, and "Zhang Mo" describes a condition that hair brush holds so much ink that strokes overlap.

  9. Effect of Pixel’s Spatial Characteristics on Recognition of Isolated Pixelized Chinese Character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kun; Liu, Shuang; Wang, Hong; Liu, Wei; Wu, Yaowei

    2015-01-01

    The influence of pixel’s spatial characteristics on recognition of isolated Chinese character was investigated using simulated prosthestic vision. The accuracy of Chinese character recognition with 4 kinds of pixel number (6*6, 8*8, 10*10, and 12*12 pixel array) and 3 kinds of pixel shape (Square, Dot and Gaussian) and different pixel spacing were tested through head-mounted display (HMD). A captured image of Chinese characters in font style of Hei were pixelized with Square, Dot and Gaussian pixel. Results showed that pixel number was the most important factor which could affect the recognition of isolated pixelized Chinese Chartars and the accuracy of recognition increased with the addition of pixel number. 10*10 pixel array could provide enough information for people to recognize an isolated Chinese character. At low resolution (6*6 and 8*8 pixel array), there were little difference of recognition accuracy between different pixel shape and different pixel spacing. While as for high resolution (10*10 and 12*12 pixel array), the fluctuation of pixel shape and pixel spacing could not affect the performance of recognition of isolated pixelized Chinese Character. PMID:26628934

  10. Effect of Pixel's Spatial Characteristics on Recognition of Isolated Pixelized Chinese Character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kun; Liu, Shuang; Wang, Hong; Liu, Wei; Wu, Yaowei

    2015-01-01

    The influence of pixel's spatial characteristics on recognition of isolated Chinese character was investigated using simulated prosthestic vision. The accuracy of Chinese character recognition with 4 kinds of pixel number (6*6, 8*8, 10*10, and 12*12 pixel array) and 3 kinds of pixel shape (Square, Dot and Gaussian) and different pixel spacing were tested through head-mounted display (HMD). A captured image of Chinese characters in font style of Hei were pixelized with Square, Dot and Gaussian pixel. Results showed that pixel number was the most important factor which could affect the recognition of isolated pixelized Chinese Chartars and the accuracy of recognition increased with the addition of pixel number. 10*10 pixel array could provide enough information for people to recognize an isolated Chinese character. At low resolution (6*6 and 8*8 pixel array), there were little difference of recognition accuracy between different pixel shape and different pixel spacing. While as for high resolution (10*10 and 12*12 pixel array), the fluctuation of pixel shape and pixel spacing could not affect the performance of recognition of isolated pixelized Chinese Character.

  11. The effect of character contextual diversity on eye movements in Chinese sentence reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qingrong; Zhao, Guoxia; Huang, Xin; Yang, Yiming; Tanenhaus, Michael K

    2017-03-30

    Chen, Huang, et al. (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 2017) found that when reading two-character Chinese words embedded in sentence contexts, contextual diversity (CD), a measure of the proportion of texts in which a word appears, affected fixation times to words. When CD is controlled, however, frequency did not affect reading times. Two experiments used the same experimental designs to examine whether there are frequency effects of the first character of two-character words when CD is controlled. In Experiment 1, yoked triples of characters from a control group, a group matched for character CD that is lower in frequency, and a group matched in frequency with the control group, but higher in character CD, were rotated through the same sentence frame. In Experiment 2 each character from a larger set was embedded in a separate sentence frame, allowing for a larger difference in log frequency compared to Experiment 1 (0.8 and 0.4, respectively). In both experiments, early and later eye movement measures were significantly shorter for characters with higher CD than for characters with lower CD, with no effects of character frequency. These results place constraints on models of visual word recognition and suggest ways in which Chinese can be used to tease apart the nature of context effects in word recognition and language processing in general.

  12. The Contributions of Segmental and Suprasegmental Information in Reading Chinese Characters Aloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Li, Chuchu; Lin, Candise Y.

    2015-01-01

    The Chinese writing system provides an excellent case for testing the contribution of segmental and suprasegmental information in reading words aloud within the same language. In logographic Chinese characters, neither segmental nor tonal information is explicitly represented, whereas in Pinyin, an alphabetic transcription of the character, both are explicitly represented. Two primed naming experiments were conducted in which the targets were always written characters. When logographic characters served as the primes (Experiment 1), syllable segmental and tonal information appeared to be represented and encoded as an integral unit which in turn facilitated target character naming. When Pinyin served as the primes (Experiment 2), the explicit phonetic representation facilitated encoding of both segmental and suprasegmental information, but with later access to suprasegmental information. In addition, Chinese speakers were faster to name characters than Pinyin in a simple naming task (Experiment 3), suggesting that Pinyin may be read via a phonological assembly route, whereas characters may be read via a lexical route. Taken together, our findings point to the need to consider the contributions of both segmental and suprasegmental information and the time course in the well-established models for reading aloud, as well as the cognitive mechanisms underlying the reading aloud of logographic characters versus alphabetic Pinyin script. PMID:26551251

  13. The Contributions of Segmental and Suprasegmental Information in Reading Chinese Characters Aloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Li, Chuchu; Lin, Candise Y

    2015-01-01

    The Chinese writing system provides an excellent case for testing the contribution of segmental and suprasegmental information in reading words aloud within the same language. In logographic Chinese characters, neither segmental nor tonal information is explicitly represented, whereas in Pinyin, an alphabetic transcription of the character, both are explicitly represented. Two primed naming experiments were conducted in which the targets were always written characters. When logographic characters served as the primes (Experiment 1), syllable segmental and tonal information appeared to be represented and encoded as an integral unit which in turn facilitated target character naming. When Pinyin served as the primes (Experiment 2), the explicit phonetic representation facilitated encoding of both segmental and suprasegmental information, but with later access to suprasegmental information. In addition, Chinese speakers were faster to name characters than Pinyin in a simple naming task (Experiment 3), suggesting that Pinyin may be read via a phonological assembly route, whereas characters may be read via a lexical route. Taken together, our findings point to the need to consider the contributions of both segmental and suprasegmental information and the time course in the well-established models for reading aloud, as well as the cognitive mechanisms underlying the reading aloud of logographic characters versus alphabetic Pinyin script.

  14. The Contributions of Segmental and Suprasegmental Information in Reading Chinese Characters Aloud.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wang

    Full Text Available The Chinese writing system provides an excellent case for testing the contribution of segmental and suprasegmental information in reading words aloud within the same language. In logographic Chinese characters, neither segmental nor tonal information is explicitly represented, whereas in Pinyin, an alphabetic transcription of the character, both are explicitly represented. Two primed naming experiments were conducted in which the targets were always written characters. When logographic characters served as the primes (Experiment 1, syllable segmental and tonal information appeared to be represented and encoded as an integral unit which in turn facilitated target character naming. When Pinyin served as the primes (Experiment 2, the explicit phonetic representation facilitated encoding of both segmental and suprasegmental information, but with later access to suprasegmental information. In addition, Chinese speakers were faster to name characters than Pinyin in a simple naming task (Experiment 3, suggesting that Pinyin may be read via a phonological assembly route, whereas characters may be read via a lexical route. Taken together, our findings point to the need to consider the contributions of both segmental and suprasegmental information and the time course in the well-established models for reading aloud, as well as the cognitive mechanisms underlying the reading aloud of logographic characters versus alphabetic Pinyin script.

  15. A TMS examination of semantic radical combinability effects in Chinese character recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Janet Hui-Wen; Shillcock, Richard; Lavidor, Michal

    2006-03-17

    The proposal of human foveal splitting assumes a vertical meridian split in the foveal representation and the consequent contralateral projection of information in the two hemifields to the two hemispheres and has been shown to have important implications for visual word recognition. According to this assumption, in Chinese character recognition, the two halves of a centrally fixated character may be initially projected to and processed in different hemispheres. Here, we describe a repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) investigation of hemispheric processing in Chinese character recognition, through examining semantic radical combinability effects in a character semantic judgment task. The materials used were a dominant type of Chinese character which consists of a semantic radical on the left and a phonetic radical on the right. Thus, according to the split fovea assumption, the semantic and phonetic radicals are initially projected to and processed in the right hemisphere and the left hemisphere, respectively. We show that rTMS over the left occipital cortex impaired the facilitation of semantic radicals with large combinability, whereas right occipital rTMS did not. This interaction between stimulation site and radical combinability reveals a flexible division of labor between the hemispheres in Chinese character recognition, with each hemisphere responding optimally to the information in the contralateral visual hemifield to which it has direct access. The results are also consistent with the split fovea claim, suggesting functional foveal splitting as a universal processing constraint in reading.

  16. Visual Field Differences in Visual Word Recognition Can Emerge Purely from Perceptual Learning: Evidence from Modeling Chinese Character Pronunciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Janet Hui-wen

    2011-01-01

    In Chinese orthography, a dominant character structure exists in which a semantic radical appears on the left and a phonetic radical on the right (SP characters); a minority opposite arrangement also exists (PS characters). As the number of phonetic radical types is much greater than semantic radical types, in SP characters the information is…

  17. Visual Field Differences in Visual Word Recognition Can Emerge Purely from Perceptual Learning: Evidence from Modeling Chinese Character Pronunciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Janet Hui-wen

    2011-01-01

    In Chinese orthography, a dominant character structure exists in which a semantic radical appears on the left and a phonetic radical on the right (SP characters); a minority opposite arrangement also exists (PS characters). As the number of phonetic radical types is much greater than semantic radical types, in SP characters the information is…

  18. Modality effect in false recognition: evidence from Chinese characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Wei Bin; Yang, Zhi Liang; Wang, Lin Song

    2010-02-01

    Using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false memory method, Smith and Hunt ( 1998 ) first reported the modality effect on false memory and showed that false recall from DRM lists was lower following visual study than following auditory study, which led to numerous studies on the mechanism of modality effect on false memory and provided many competing explanations. In the present experiment, the authors tested the modality effect in false recognition by using a blocked presentation condition and a random presentation condition. The present experiment found a modality effect different from the results of the previous research; namely, false recognition was shown to be greater following visual study than following auditory study, especially in the blocked presentation condition rather than in the random presentation condition. The authors argued that this reversed modality effect may be due to different encoding and processing characteristics between Chinese characters and English words. Compared with English words, visual graphemes of critical lures in Chinese lists are likely to be activated and encoded in participants' minds, thus it is more difficult for participants to discriminate later inner graphemes from those items presented in visual modality. Hence visual presentation could lead to more false recognition than auditory presentation in Chinese lists. The results in the present experiment demonstrated that semantic activation occurring during the encoding and retrieve phases played an important role in modality effect in false recognition, and our findings might be explained by the activation-monitoring account. Utilisant la méthode de fausse mémoire de Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM), Smith et Hunt ( 1998 ) ont d'abord rendu compte de l'effet de modalité sur la fausse mémoire et ils ont montré que le faux rappel à partir des listes de DRM était plus faible suivant une étude visuelle plutôt qu'une étude auditive. Ceci a mené à plusieurs

  19. The different time courses of reading different levels of Chinese characters: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qilin; Tang, Yi-Yuan; Zhou, Li; Yu, Qingbao

    2011-07-12

    The dual route processing was generally accepted in the reading of alphabetic languages, which suggests alphabetic words can be read by either addressed pathway or assembled pathway. However, it was still unclear whether there was a particular 'dual route mechanism' during reading Chinese characters. In our previous fMRI study, the result showed that there might be a particular 'dual route mechanism', and its addressed pathway was similar between Chinese and English, whereas for the need of spatial analysis, the assembled pathway of Chinese was different from that of English which involved grapheme-to-phoneme correspondences. The present study, using event-related potential, which provide more temporal information, aimed to further support our previous view, and peered inside the different time courses of reading different types of Chinese characters. It was found that reading high frequency Chinese characters increased the N170 component which was believed to enhance attention to the addressed pathway in the left occipital-temporal area. Pseudo Chinese characters could be read by a particular assembled pathway, which caused the largest amplitude of P320 component in the right occipital-temporal area, which considered as a key brain area for radical analysis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Character Decomposition and Transposition Processes of Chinese Compound Words in Rapid Serial Visual Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hong-Wen; Yang, Ke-Yu; Yan, Hong-Mei

    2017-01-01

    Character order information is encoded at the initial stage of Chinese word processing, however, its time course remains underspecified. In this study, we assess the exact time course of the character decomposition and transposition processes of two-character Chinese compound words (canonical, transposed, or reversible words) compared with pseudowords using dual-target rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of stimuli appearing at 30 ms per character with no inter-stimulus interval. The results indicate that Chinese readers can identify words with character transpositions in rapid succession; however, a transposition cost is involved in identifying transposed words compared to canonical words. In RSVP reading, character order of words is more likely to be reversed during the period from 30 to 180 ms for canonical and reversible words, but the period from 30 to 240 ms for transposed words. Taken together, the findings demonstrate that the holistic representation of the base word is activated, however, the order of the two constituent characters is not strictly processed during the very early stage of visual word processing.

  1. An analysis of various scholarly approaches to the acquisition of Chinese characters by students of Chinese as a foreign language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ptaszynski, Signe Overgaard

    2007-01-01

    Wang Bixia et al. (1997) and Jiang Liping (1998) investigated what learning strategies students of Chinese as a foreign language employ when learning Chinese characters. On the basis of their research they suggest what pedagogical methods the teacher should apply in order to make the task easier...... are that the studies by Wang et al. and Jiang do not offer an exhaustive answer to the question of which teaching strategies should be employed to make the learning of Chinese easier. They do, however, contribute to a better understanding of the subject matter....... for the students. In the present study, Wang Bixia et al.'s and Jiang Liping's research is analysed in order to find out whether the methodology of their investigations can provide an exhaustive answer to the question of what pedagogical methods should be applied in teaching Chinese characters. My conclusions...

  2. An analysis of various scholarly approaches to the acquisition of Chinese characters by students of Chinese as a foreign language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ptaszynski, Signe Overgaard

    2007-01-01

    Wang Bixia et al. (1997) and Jiang Liping (1998) investigated what learning strategies students of Chinese as a foreign language employ when learning Chinese characters. On the basis of their research they suggest what pedagogical methods the teacher should apply in order to make the task easier...... for the students. In the present study, Wang Bixia et al.'s and Jiang Liping's research is analysed in order to find out whether the methodology of their investigations can provide an exhaustive answer to the question of what pedagogical methods should be applied in teaching Chinese characters. My conclusions...... are that the studies by Wang et al. and Jiang do not offer an exhaustive answer to the question of which teaching strategies should be employed to make the learning of Chinese easier. They do, however, contribute to a better understanding of the subject matter....

  3. How Orthography Modulates Morphological Priming: Subliminal Kanji Activation in Japanese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Yoko; Ikemoto, Yu; Jacob, Gunnar; Clahsen, Harald

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigates to what extent masked morphological priming is modulated by language-particular properties, specifically by its writing system. We present results from two masked priming experiments investigating the processing of complex Japanese words written in less common (moraic) scripts. In Experiment 1, participants performed lexical decisions on target verbs; these were preceded by primes which were either (i) a past-tense form of the same verb, (ii) a stem-related form with the epenthetic vowel -i, (iii) a semantically-related form, and (iv) a phonologically-related form. Significant priming effects were obtained for prime types (i), (ii), and (iii), but not for (iv). This pattern of results differs from previous findings on languages with alphabetic scripts, which found reliable masked priming effects for morphologically related prime/target pairs of type (i), but not for non-affixal and semantically-related primes of types (ii), and (iii). In Experiment 2, we measured priming effects for prime/target pairs which are neither morphologically, semantically, phonologically nor - as presented in their moraic scripts—orthographically related, but which—in their commonly written form—share the same kanji, which are logograms adopted from Chinese. The results showed a significant priming effect, with faster lexical-decision times for kanji-related prime/target pairs relative to unrelated ones. We conclude that affix-stripping is insufficient to account for masked morphological priming effects across languages, but that language-particular properties (in the case of Japanese, the writing system) affect the processing of (morphologically) complex words. PMID:27065895

  4. How Orthography Modulates Morphological Priming: Subliminal Kanji Activation in Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Yoko; Ikemoto, Yu; Jacob, Gunnar; Clahsen, Harald

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigates to what extent masked morphological priming is modulated by language-particular properties, specifically by its writing system. We present results from two masked priming experiments investigating the processing of complex Japanese words written in less common (moraic) scripts. In Experiment 1, participants performed lexical decisions on target verbs; these were preceded by primes which were either (i) a past-tense form of the same verb, (ii) a stem-related form with the epenthetic vowel -i, (iii) a semantically-related form, and (iv) a phonologically-related form. Significant priming effects were obtained for prime types (i), (ii), and (iii), but not for (iv). This pattern of results differs from previous findings on languages with alphabetic scripts, which found reliable masked priming effects for morphologically related prime/target pairs of type (i), but not for non-affixal and semantically-related primes of types (ii), and (iii). In Experiment 2, we measured priming effects for prime/target pairs which are neither morphologically, semantically, phonologically nor - as presented in their moraic scripts-orthographically related, but which-in their commonly written form-share the same kanji, which are logograms adopted from Chinese. The results showed a significant priming effect, with faster lexical-decision times for kanji-related prime/target pairs relative to unrelated ones. We conclude that affix-stripping is insufficient to account for masked morphological priming effects across languages, but that language-particular properties (in the case of Japanese, the writing system) affect the processing of (morphologically) complex words.

  5. How Orthography Modulates Morphological Priming: Subliminal Kanji Activation in Japanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko eNakano

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigates to what extent masked morphological priming is modulated by language-particular properties, specifically by its writing system. We present results from two masked priming experiments investigating the processing of complex Japanese words written in less common (moraic scripts. In Experiment 1, participants performed lexical decisions on target verbs; these were preceded by primes which were either (i a past-tense form of the same verb, (ii a stem-related form with the epenthetic vowel -i, (iii a semantically-related form, and (iv a phonologically-related form. Significant priming effects were obtained for prime types (i, (ii and (iii, but not for (iv. This pattern of results differs from previous findings on languages with alphabetic scripts, which found reliable masked priming effects for morphologically related prime/target pairs of type (i, but not for non-affixal and semantically-related primes of types (ii and (iii. In Experiment 2, we measured priming effects for prime/target pairs which are neither morphologically, semantically, phonologically nor - as presented in their moraic scripts – orthographically related, but which - in their commonly written form - share the same kanji, which are logograms adopted from Chinese. The results showed a significant priming effect, with faster lexical-decision times for kanji-related prime/target pairs relative to unrelated ones. We conclude that affix-stripping is insufficient to account for masked morphological priming effects across languages, but that language-particular properties (in the case of Japanese, the writing system affect the processing of (morphologically complex words.

  6. 日本学生书写汉语汉字的讹误及其产生原因%Errors of Japanese learners in writing Chinese characters and sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈绂

    2001-01-01

    The author identifies three types of errors committed by Japanese Chinese learners in writing Chinese characters: 1. Substituting Japanese characters for Chinese characters, 2.Misused characters, and 3. Incorrectly written characters. She explains that the main source ofthe character errors is none other than the lack of knowledge about Chinese characters while negative transfer constitutes only a secondary source. Finally the author points out that by improvingthe teaching of Chinese characters to Japanese learners, the errors in writing characters can be avoided.

  7. Differential Effects of Phonological Priming on Chinese Character Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weekes, B. S.; Chen, M. J.; Lin, Y-B.

    1998-01-01

    Finds phonological priming effects on compound targets (characters containing separate radical components); no evidence of phonological priming on integrated targets (those not containing separate radicals); semantic priming effects on both compound and integrated target recognition, suggesting that phonological and semantic activation are…

  8. Cracking the Chinese Character: Radical Sensitivity in Learners of Chinese as a Foreign Language and Its Relationship to Chinese Word Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiuli; Yip, Joanna Hew Yan

    2015-01-01

    Radicals are building blocks of Chinese complex characters and exhibit certain positional, phonological and semantic regularities. This study investigated whether adult non-native learners of Mandarin Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) were aware of the positional (orthographic), phonological and semantic information of radicals, and whether such…

  9. The role of lexical variables in the visual recognition of Chinese characters: A megastudy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, Wei Ping; Yap, Melvin J; Rickard Liow, Susan J

    2015-01-01

    Logographic Chinese orthography partially represents both phonology and semantics. By capturing the online processing of a large pool of Chinese characters, we were able to examine the relative salience of specific lexical variables when this nonalphabetic script is read. Using a sample of native mainland Chinese speakers (N = 35), lexical decision latencies for 1560 single characters were collated into a database, before the effects of a comprehensive range of variables were explored. Hierarchical regression analyses determined the unique item-level variance explained by orthographic (frequency, stroke count), semantic (age of learning, imageability, number of meanings), and phonological (consistency, phonological frequency) factors. Orthographic and semantic variables, respectively, accounted for more collective variance than the phonological variables. Significant main effects were further observed for the individual orthographic and semantic predictors. These results are consistent with the idea that skilled readers tend to rely on orthographic and semantic information when processing visually presented characters. This megastudy approach marks an important extension to existing work on Chinese character recognition, which hitherto has relied on factorial designs. Collectively, the findings reported here represent a useful set of empirical constraints for future computational models of character recognition.

  10. Synaesthesia in a logographic language: the colouring of Chinese characters and Pinyin/Bopomo spellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simner, Julia; Hung, Wan-Yu; Shillcock, Richard

    2011-12-01

    Studies of linguistic synaesthesias in English have shown a range of fine-grained language mechanisms governing the associations between colours on the one hand, and graphemes, phonemes and words on the other. However, virtually nothing is known about how synaesthetic colouring might operate in non-alphabetic systems. The current study shows how synaesthetic speakers of Mandarin Chinese come to colour the logographic units of their language. Both native and non-native Chinese speakers experienced synaesthetic colours for characters, and for words spelled in the Chinese spelling systems of Pinyin and Bopomo. We assessed the influences of lexical tone and Pinyin/Bopomo spelling and showed that synaesthetic colours are assigned to Chinese words in a non-random fashion. Our data show that Chinese-speaking synaesthetes with very different native languages can exhibit both differences and similarities in the ways in which they come to colour their Chinese words.

  11. Identification of the Patterns of Chinese Character Recognition in Students with Learning Disabilities Requiring Tier-2 Support: A Rasch Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Fuk-chuen; Yan, Zi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the Chinese reading patterns of students with learning disabilities (LD). The performances of students with LD in reading the three categories of Chinese characters were particularly analysed: regular, irregular, and pseudo-characters. Fifty-three students with LD in reading and 44 students without LD of Year 4 were…

  12. Identification of the Patterns of Chinese Character Recognition in Students with Learning Disabilities Requiring Tier-2 Support: A Rasch Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Fuk-chuen; Yan, Zi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the Chinese reading patterns of students with learning disabilities (LD). The performances of students with LD in reading the three categories of Chinese characters were particularly analysed: regular, irregular, and pseudo-characters. Fifty-three students with LD in reading and 44 students without LD of Year 4 were…

  13. Seeing Chinese Characters in Action: An fMRI Study of the Perception of Writing Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongbo; Gong, Lanyun; Qiu, Yinchen; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2011-01-01

    The Chinese character is composed of a finite set of strokes whose order in writing follows consensual principles and is learnt through school education. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), this study investigates the neural activity associated with the perception of writing sequences by asking participants to observe…

  14. Reading, Writing, and Animation in Character Learning in Chinese as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi; Chang, Li-Yun; Zhang, Juan; Perfetti, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that writing helps reading development in Chinese in both first and second language settings by enabling higher-quality orthographic representation of the characters. This study investigated the comparative effectiveness of reading, animation, and writing in developing foreign language learners' orthographic knowledge…

  15. Chinese Children's Character Recognition: Visuo-Orthographic, Phonological Processing and Morphological Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Shu, Hua; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Liu, Hongyun; Peng, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Tasks tapping visual skills, orthographic knowledge, phonological awareness, speeded naming, morphological awareness and Chinese character recognition were administered to 184 kindergarteners and 273 primary school students from Beijing. Regression analyses indicated that only syllable deletion, morphological construction and speeded number naming…

  16. The Effect of Computer-Based Multimedia Instruction with Chinese Character Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Hui-Ya; Ku, Heng-Yu

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine second language learners' learning achievement and attitudes toward two different types of dual coding designs (text group: image plus on-screen text versus narration group: image plus narration) in Chinese character acquisition. A total of 66 college students who did not have prior knowledge of the Chinese…

  17. Reading, Writing, and Animation in Character Learning in Chinese as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi; Chang, Li-Yun; Zhang, Juan; Perfetti, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that writing helps reading development in Chinese in both first and second language settings by enabling higher-quality orthographic representation of the characters. This study investigated the comparative effectiveness of reading, animation, and writing in developing foreign language learners' orthographic knowledge…

  18. The Neural Correlates of the Interaction between Semantic and Phonological Processing for Chinese Character Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhao, Rong; Zevin, Jason D.; Yang, Jianfeng

    2016-01-01

    Visual word recognition involves mappings among orthographic, phonological, and semantic codes. In alphabetic languages, it is hard to disentangle the effects of these codes, because orthographically well-formed words are typically pronounceable, confounding orthographic and phonological processes, and orthographic cues to meaning are rare, and where they occur are morphological, confounding orthographic and semantic processes. In Chinese character recognition, it is possible to explore orthography to phonology (O-P) and orthography to semantics (O-S) processes independently by taking advantage of the distinct phonetic and semantic components in Chinese phonograms. We analyzed data from an fMRI experiment using lexical decision for Chinese characters to explore the sensitivity of areas associated with character recognition to orthographic, phonological, and semantic processing. First, a correlation approach was used to identify regions associated with reaction time, frequency, consistency and visual complexity. Then, these ROIs were examined for their responses to stimuli with different types of information available. These results revealed two neural pathways, one for O-S processing relying on left middle temporal gyrus and angular gyrus, and the other for O-P processing relying on inferior frontal gyrus and insula. The two neural routes form a shared neural network both for real and pseudo-characters, and their cooperative division of labor reflects the neural basis for processing different types of characters. Results are broadly consistent with findings from alphabetic languages, as predicted by reading models that assume the same general architecture for logographic and alphabetic scripts. PMID:27445914

  19. A Form—Correcting System of Chinese Characters Using a Model of Correcting Procedures of Calligraphists

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾建超; HidehikoSanada; 等

    1995-01-01

    A support system for form-correction of Chinese Characters is developed based upon a generation model SAM,and its feasibility is evaluated.SAM is excellent as a model for generating Chinese characters,but it is difficult to determine appropriate parameters because the use of calligraphic knowledge is needed.by noticing that calligraphic knowledge of calligraphists is included in their corrective actions, we adopt a strategy to acquire calligraphic knowledge by monitoring,recording and analyzing corrective actions of calligraphists,and try to realize an environment under which calligraphists can easily make corrections to character forms and which can record corrective actions of calligraphists without interfering with them.In this paper,we first construct a model of correcting procedures of calligraphists,which is composed of typical correcting procedures that are acquired by extensively observing their corrective actions and interviewing them,and develop a form-correcting system for brush-written Chinese characters by using the model.Secondly,through actual correcting experiments,we demonstrate that parameters within SAM can be easily corrected at the level of character patterns by our system,and show that it is effective and easy for calligraphists to be used by evaluating effectiveness of the correcting model,sufficiency of its functions and execution speed.

  20. Feature Selection Method Based on Neighborhood Relationships: Applications in EEG Signal Identification and Chinese Character Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Xiang Zhao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new feature selection algorithm, the neighborhood-relationship feature selection (NRFS algorithm, is proposed for identifying rat electroencephalogram signals and recognizing Chinese characters. In these two applications, dependent relationships exist among the feature vectors and their neighboring feature vectors. Therefore, the proposed NRFS algorithm was designed for solving this problem. By applying the NRFS algorithm, unselected feature vectors have a high priority of being added into the feature subset if the neighboring feature vectors have been selected. In addition, selected feature vectors have a high priority of being eliminated if the neighboring feature vectors are not selected. In the experiments conducted in this study, the NRFS algorithm was compared with two feature algorithms. The experimental results indicated that the NRFS algorithm can extract the crucial frequency bands for identifying rat vigilance states and identifying crucial character regions for recognizing Chinese characters.

  1. Feature Selection Method Based on Neighborhood Relationships: Applications in EEG Signal Identification and Chinese Character Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu-Xiang; Chou, Chien-Hsing

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a new feature selection algorithm, the neighborhood-relationship feature selection (NRFS) algorithm, is proposed for identifying rat electroencephalogram signals and recognizing Chinese characters. In these two applications, dependent relationships exist among the feature vectors and their neighboring feature vectors. Therefore, the proposed NRFS algorithm was designed for solving this problem. By applying the NRFS algorithm, unselected feature vectors have a high priority of being added into the feature subset if the neighboring feature vectors have been selected. In addition, selected feature vectors have a high priority of being eliminated if the neighboring feature vectors are not selected. In the experiments conducted in this study, the NRFS algorithm was compared with two feature algorithms. The experimental results indicated that the NRFS algorithm can extract the crucial frequency bands for identifying rat vigilance states and identifying crucial character regions for recognizing Chinese characters. PMID:27314346

  2. Feature Selection Method Based on Neighborhood Relationships: Applications in EEG Signal Identification and Chinese Character Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu-Xiang; Chou, Chien-Hsing

    2016-06-14

    In this study, a new feature selection algorithm, the neighborhood-relationship feature selection (NRFS) algorithm, is proposed for identifying rat electroencephalogram signals and recognizing Chinese characters. In these two applications, dependent relationships exist among the feature vectors and their neighboring feature vectors. Therefore, the proposed NRFS algorithm was designed for solving this problem. By applying the NRFS algorithm, unselected feature vectors have a high priority of being added into the feature subset if the neighboring feature vectors have been selected. In addition, selected feature vectors have a high priority of being eliminated if the neighboring feature vectors are not selected. In the experiments conducted in this study, the NRFS algorithm was compared with two feature algorithms. The experimental results indicated that the NRFS algorithm can extract the crucial frequency bands for identifying rat vigilance states and identifying crucial character regions for recognizing Chinese characters.

  3. Chinese character recognition in mirror reading: evidence from event-related potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Qiu, Jiang; Huang, He; Zhang, Qinglin; Bao, Baier

    2009-10-01

    As is well known, mirror reading in language requires recognition of words and letters in mirror-reversed pattern compared with normal reading, and the cognitive mechanism underlying the mirror reading may involve two critical processes: visuospatial transformation and linguistic regulation. Chinese characters, different from English, are characterized by some unique features in orthography and spelling. Using ERP techniques, the present study investigated neural correlates underlying the mirror reading of Chinese characters, and whether the cognitive processes underlying the recognition of mirrored Chinese characters is different from those of alphabetic words. Twelve native Chinese speakers participated in the experiment, during which they were instructed to make an animal/nonanimal distinction. The stimuli varied with the word category (animal vs nonanimal) and presentation format (normal vs mirror-reversed). The data analyses focused on three aspects: the reaction times (RT) for Chinese words of normal and mirror-reversed formats, peak latencies, and peak amplitudes of ERP components elicited by mirror-reversed and normal Chinese words. The results from implicit reading provide evidence for a mirror-reversed effect. The behavioural data showed that mirror-reversed words were more difficult to identify than normal words, with RTs delayed for mirror-reversed words over normal words. Moreover, a clear N2 component, with maximal activity occurring at 200-250ms interval (N2), was more negative for mirror-reversed words than for normal words at posterior regions. However, there were no latency differences between normal and mirror-reversed words. The occipital N2 might be closely related to abstract word form representation. Larger N2 amplitude in response to mirror-reversed Chinese words is interpreted as reflecting visuospatial transformation in order to compensate for impaired word form analysis. The result of no N2 latency delay indicated that word form analysis

  4. Segmentation of Handwritten Chinese Character Strings Based on improved Algorithm Liu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Cai

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Algorithm Liu attracts high attention because of its high accuracy in segmentation of Japanese postal address. But the disadvantages, such as complexity and difficult implementation of algorithm, etc. have an adverse effect on its popularization and application. In this paper, the author applies the principles of algorithm Liu to handwritten Chinese character segmentation according to the characteristics of the handwritten Chinese characters, based on deeply study on algorithm Liu.In the same time, the author put forward the judgment criterion of Segmentation block classification and adhering mode of the handwritten Chinese characters.In the process of segmentation, text images are seen as the sequence made up of Connected Components (CCs, while the connected components are made up of several horizontal itinerary set of black pixels in image. The author determines whether these parts will be merged into segmentation through analyzing connected components. And then the author does image segmentation through adhering mode based on the analysis of outline edges. Finally cut the text images into character segmentation. Experimental results show that the improved Algorithm Liu obtains high segmentation accuracy and produces a satisfactory segmentation result.

  5. An examination of semantic radical combinability effects with lateralized cues in Chinese character recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Janet Hui-Wen; Shillcock, Richard; Lavidor, Michal

    2007-04-01

    Auclair and Siéroff examined lateralized cuing effects in the identification of centrally presented letter strings and reported no cuing effects for short word stimuli. They argued for a redistribution of attention over the entire word for short familiar words. We explored cuing effects with Chinese phonetic compounds, which can be considered extreme examples of short words, in a character-level semantic judgment task. When the semantic radical position was placed on the left of the characters, strong radical combinability and semantic transparency effects were observed. There was also a significant interaction between cue position (left vs. right) and radical combinability: A left cue facilitated semantic judgment of characters with small radical combinability more than did a right cue. This behavior reflects the information profile of Chinese phonetic compounds. Semantic radicals with small combinability are more informative than those with large combinability in determining the meaning of the whole character; they therefore benefit more from a left than a right cue. A mechanism redistributing attention over the whole of the character was not in evidence at the level of semantic processing.

  6. Orthographic neighborhood size effect in Chinese character naming: orthographic and phonological activations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing-Lin; Bi, Hong-Yan; Wei, Tong-Qi; Chen, Bao-Guo

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of orthographic neighborhood (N) size on the cognitive processes underlying Chinese character reading. Previous research has shown increasing N size facilitates word naming and recognition performance in alphabetic languages. Experiment 1 revealed that a large N size was associated with a general inhibition of processes underlying character reading, in contrast to previous findings with alphabetic languages. This inhibitory effect was influenced by regularity and consistency. Experiment 2 sought to assess the effects of higher-frequency neighbors on character naming performance. The results revealed that higher-frequency neighbors with different pronunciation to the target interfered with the phonological retrieval of targets. We propose that this type of interference may have caused the N size effect observed in Experiment 1. The results of Experiment 3 revealed that a large N size facilitated target naming in the absence of higher-frequency neighbors. The current results shed light on the processes underlying character naming, and we propose possible cognitive mechanisms of the N size effect on Chinese character naming. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. 评曹石珠的《汉字修辞研究》%Comment on Chinese Character Rhetoric Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李火森

    2016-01-01

    曹石珠所著的《汉字修辞研究》,分析了汉字修辞的物质形式、思维特点,阐述了离合的发展变化、特点以及与拆字、并字的关系,探讨了汉字辞格与借代、双关的兼用现象、字谜中的汉字修辞,材料丰富,分析透彻;观点新颖,见解独到,是汉字修辞研究的新成果、新突破。%The book Chinese Character Rhetoric Study by Cao shi-zhu analyzes Chinese character rhet-oric's physical form and thinking features, illustrates developing changes, natures of Chinese characters' on-off and relationship between words diving and combination, probes into Chinese character figure of speech and metonymy, dual purpose of puns, Chinese character rhetoric in riddles. Chinese Character Rhetoric Study is rich in materials and intensive in analysis, novelty in views and original in understanding, is also the new achievement and breakthrough in the study of Chinese Character Rhetoric.

  8. Not all visual expertise is holistic, but it may be leftist: the case of Chinese character recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Janet H; Cottrell, Garrison W

    2009-04-01

    We examined whether two purportedly face-specific effects, holistic processing and the left-side bias, can also be observed in expert-level processing of Chinese characters, which are logographic and share many properties with faces. Non-Chinese readers (novices) perceived these characters more holistically than Chinese readers (experts). Chinese readers had a better awareness of the components of characters, which were not clearly separable to novices. This finding suggests that holistic processing is not a marker of general visual expertise; rather, holistic processing depends on the features of the stimuli and the tasks typically performed on them. In contrast, results for the left-side bias were similar to those obtained in studies of face perception. Chinese readers exhibited a left-side bias in the perception of mirror-symmetric characters, whereas novices did not; this effect was also reflected in eye fixations. Thus, the left-side bias may be a marker of visual expertise.

  9. Temporal lobe epilepsy manifesting as alexia with agraphia for kanji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Kengo; Ogawa, Nobuhiro

    2011-11-01

    Alexia with agraphia results from lesions of the left angular gyrus or the left posteroinferior temporal lobe. In Japanese or Korean persons, lesions of the latter cause alexia with agraphia for ideograms. We describe a case of alexia with agraphia for kanji (Japanese ideograms) caused by temporal lobe epilepsy. After generalized convulsions, a 32-year-old man noticed that he had difficulty in reading and writing kanji, although he could read and write kana (Japanese syllabograms). His EEG showed frequent sharp waves on the left occipitotemporal region. MRI of the brain revealed a hyperintense lesion on the left hippocampus. Single-photon-emission computed tomography revealed marked hyperperfusion at the left hippocampus and the left posteroinferior temporal cortex. Antiepileptic drugs improved his alexia with agraphia for kanji. This is the first report describing alexia with agraphia for kanji caused by temporal lobe epilepsy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Neural correlates of foveal splitting in reading: evidence from an ERP study of Chinese character recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Janet Hui-wen; Shillcock, Richard; Lee, Chia-ying

    2007-03-25

    Recent research on foveal structure and reading suggests that the two halves of a centrally fixated word seem to be initially projected to, and processed in, different hemispheres. In the current study, we utilize two contrasting structures in Chinese orthography, "SP" (the semantic radical on the left and the phonetic radical on the right) and "PS" characters (the opposite structure), to examine foveal splitting effects in event-related potential (ERP) recordings. We showed that when participants silently named centrally presented characters, there was a significant interaction between character type and hemisphere in N1 amplitude: SP characters elicited larger N1 compared with PS characters in the left hemisphere, whereas the right hemisphere had the opposite pattern. This effect is consistent with the split fovea claim, suggesting that the two halves of a character may be initially projected to and processed in different hemispheres. There was no such interaction observed in an earlier component P1. Also, there was an interaction between character type and sex of the reader in N350 amplitude. This result is consistent with Hsiao and Shillcock's [Hsiao, J. H., & Shillcock, R. (2005b). Foveal splitting causes differential processing of Chinese orthography in the male and female brain. Cognitive Brain Research, 25, 531-536] behavioural study, which showed a similar interaction in naming response time. They argued that this effect was due to a more left-lateralized network for phonological processing in the male brain compared with the female brain. The results hence showed that foveal splitting effects in visual word recognition were observed in N1 the earliest, and could extend far enough to interact with the sex of the reader as revealed in N350.

  11. On Chinese Characters for Foreign-related Teaching%浅谈对外汉字教学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋欢

    2012-01-01

    对外汉字教学是汉语作为第二语言教学中的一个重要组成部分,其发展与研究将对整个教学活动产生重要影响,由于汉字具有区别于拼音文字的自身特点,对外汉字教学历来被认为是对外汉语教学中的一大难点。拟从学习对象和汉字自身特点两方面来分析汉字"难"在何处,并在总结对外汉字教学法的基础上,提出了对外汉字课堂教学中一些可实际操作的具体方法,以期拓展对外汉语教学,化解"汉字难学"问题。%Chinese characters for foreign-related teaching as the second language teaching in Chinese language is an important part,its development and research of the whole teaching activities will have an important impact on,due to the difference in the alphabet writing Chinese characters has its own characteristics,teaching foreign Chinese characters has long been considered one of teaching Chinese as a foreign language with difficulty.From learning objects and characters to their own characteristics,and even to the analysis of the two aspects of Chinese characters "difficult" in where,on a summary of the Chinese character teaching method and foreign was put forward on the basis of foreign Chinese characters in the classroom teaching in some specific methods of operation can be practical,in order to expand foreign Chinese teaching,dissolve the Chinese characters with "difficult to learn" problem.

  12. Brain dynamic mechanisms on the visual attention scale with Chinese characters cues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The temporal dynamics in brain evoked by the scale of visual attention with the cues of Chinese characters were studied by recording event-related potentials (ERPs). With the fixed orientation of visual attention, 14 healthy young participants performed a search task in which the search array was preceded by Chinese characters cues, "大, 中, 小" (large, medium, small). 128 channels scalp ERPs were recorded to study the role of visual attention scale played in the visual spatial attention. The results showed that there was no significant difference in the ERP components evoked by the three Chinese characters cues except the inferoposterior N2 latency. The targets evoked P2, N2 amplitudes and latency have significant differences with the different cues of large, middle and small, while P1 and N1 components had no significant difference. The results suggested that the processing of scale of visual attention was mainly concerned with P2, N2 components, while the P1, N1 components were mainly related with the processing of visual orientation information.

  13. Selective transfer of visual working memory training on Chinese character learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, Bertram; Schneiders, Julia A; Krick, Christoph M; Mecklinger, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown a systematic relationship between phonological working memory capacity and second language proficiency for alphabetic languages. However, little is known about the impact of working memory processes on second language learning in a non-alphabetic language such as Mandarin Chinese. Due to the greater complexity of the Chinese writing system we expect that visual working memory rather than phonological working memory exerts a unique influence on learning Chinese characters. This issue was explored in the present experiment by comparing visual working memory training with an active (auditory working memory training) control condition and a passive, no training control condition. Training induced modulations in language-related brain networks were additionally examined using functional magnetic resonance imaging in a pretest-training-posttest design. As revealed by pre- to posttest comparisons and analyses of individual differences in working memory training gains, visual working memory training led to positive transfer effects on visual Chinese vocabulary learning compared to both control conditions. In addition, we found sustained activation after visual working memory training in the (predominantly visual) left infero-temporal cortex that was associated with behavioral transfer. In the control conditions, activation either increased (active control condition) or decreased (passive control condition) without reliable behavioral transfer effects. This suggests that visual working memory training leads to more efficient processing and more refined responses in brain regions involved in visual processing. Furthermore, visual working memory training boosted additional activation in the precuneus, presumably reflecting mental image generation of the learned characters. We, therefore, suggest that the conjoint activity of the mid-fusiform gyrus and the precuneus after visual working memory training reflects an interaction of working memory and

  14. The Effects of Temperament and Character on Symptoms of Depression in a Chinese Nonclinical Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the relations between personality traits and syndromes of depression in a nonclinical Chinese population. Method. We recruited 469 nonclinical participants in China. They completed the Chinese version temperament and character inventory (TCI and self-rating depression scale (SDS. A structural equation model was used to rate the relation between seven TCI scales and the three SDS subscale scores (based on Shafer's meta-analysis of the SDS items factor analyses. This was based on the assumption that the three depression subscales would be predicted by the temperament and character subscales, whereas the character subscales would be predicted by the temperament subscales. Results. The positive symptoms scores were predicted by low self-directedness (SD, cooperativeness (C, reward dependence (RD, and persistence (P as well as older age. The negative symptoms scores were predicted only by an older age. The somatic symptoms scores were predicted by high SD. Conclusion. Syndromes of depression are differentially associated with temperament and character patterns. It was mainly the positive symptoms scores that were predicted by the TCI scores. The effects of harm avoidance (HA on the positive symptoms scores could be mediated by low SD and C.

  15. How perceptual processes help to generate new meaning: An EEG study of chunk decomposition in Chinese characters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, L.L.; Knoblich, G.K.; Wei, G.X.; Luo, J.

    2009-01-01

    Chunk decomposition has been regarded as an important process in problem solving that helps problem solvers to generate new solution paths through changing inappropriate problem representations. We studied the neural bases of chunk decomposition in Chinese characters using the electroencephalogram

  16. An Improved Character Segmentation Algorithm Based on Local Adaptive Thresholding Technique for Chinese NvShu Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangguang Sun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available For the structural characteristics of Chinese NvShu character, by combining the basic idea in LLT local threshold algorithm and introducing the maximal between-class variance algorithm into local windows, an improved character segmentation algorithm based on local adaptive thresholding technique for Chinese NvShu documents was presented in this paper. Because of designing the corresponding correction parameters for the threshold and using secondary search mechanism, our proposed method could not only automatically obtain local threshold, but also avoid the loss of the character image information and improve the accuracy of the character image segmentation. Experimental results demonstrated its capability to reduce the effect of background noise, especially for Chinese NvShu character images with uneven illumination and low contrast

  17. The modulation of semantic transparency on the recognition memory for two-character Chinese words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yi-Jhong; Huang, Shuo-Chieh; Lee, Chia-Ying; Kuo, Wen-Jui; Cheng, Shih-Kuen

    2014-11-01

    This study demonstrated that semantic transparency as a linguistic property modulates the recognition memory for two-character Chinese words, with opaque words (i.e., words whose meanings cannot be derived from constituent characters-e.g., "[/guang/, light][/gun/, stick]", bachelor) remembered better than transparent words (i.e., words whose meanings can be derived from constituent characters-e.g., "[/cha/, tea][/bei/, cup]", teacup). In Experiment 1, the participants made lexical decisions on transparent words, opaque words, and nonwords in the study and then engaged in an old/new recognition test. Experiment 2 employed a concreteness judgment as the encoding task to ensure equivalent semantic processing for opaque and transparent words. In Experiment 3, the neighborhood size of the two-character words was manipulated together with their semantic transparency. In all three experiments, opaque words were found to be better remembered than transparent words. We concluded that the conceptual incongruence between the meanings of a whole word and its constituent characters made opaque words more distinctive and, hence, better remembered than transparent words.

  18. P2-36: Spatial Frequency Characteristics of Chinese Character Recognition in Different Complexity Categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    On-Ting Lo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Human visual system is able to recognize objects in large complexity variation. Despite such capability, little is known about the effects of complexity on object recognition. Here we studied the spatial frequency (SF characteristics in identifying Chinese characters (CCs of different complexity levels. Method: Stimuli were 150 frequently used CCs categorized into 3 complexity groups. Each character was digitally band-passed by 11 cosine log filters (bandwidth = 2 octaves, center frequency = 1.27 to 12.8 cycles/character in 0.1 log step. We measured contrast sensitivity for recognizing CCs of sizes 0.5°, 1°, and 2°. Peak SF (cycles/deg and bandwidth (octaves were plotted against character size in nominal character frequency (cycles/deg. A CSF ideal observer model (Chung et al., 2002 Vision Research 42 2137–2152 was formulated to examine whether early CSF filtering followed by template matching could explain human performance. Results: Log-log slopes of peak SF vs. size functions were 0.60±0.04 (M±SD, 0.67±0.02, and 0.72±0.05 for the low, medium, and high complexity groups. Bandwidth of the tuning functions was approximately 2 octaves for all complexity groups. Preliminary results from the CSF ideal observer analysis showed shallower slopes for the peak SF vs. size functions, but a similar trend for the bandwidth data compared with human performance. Conclusions: Peak SF of the tuning function did not scale perfectly with character size (log-log slopes < 1. The SF characteristics of CC recognition exhibited size-dependence, which differed across complexity groups. The ideal observer model utilizing human CSF and character-identity information failed to explain our data.

  19. Crowding of Upright Chinese Character is Stronger with Inverted than Upright Flankers: An Exception of the Similarity Rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siu-Fung Lau

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Upright flanking faces have stronger detrimental effects on the recognition of upright target face, than inverted flanking faces. One possible explanation for this “flanker- inversion effect” was that the more holistically processed upright flanking faces allowed for more erroneous feature integration. Alternatively, crowding was known to be stronger when target and flankers were more similar. Here we investigate flanker-inversion effect on crowding in Chinese character identification. Five normally-sighted young adults participated. Targets of size 1.2° were presented at 5° in the lower visual field. Four flankers with center-to-center distance of 1.8° were presented in the crowded condition. Three types of flankers were used, upright or inverted Chinese and upright Korean characters. The identification contrast thresholds were estimated by QUEST and crowding strength was measured through threshold elevation (TE. Crowding on upright Chinese target was significantly stronger with inverted Chinese flankers (TE = 1.59±0.32 than with upright Chinese flankers (TE = 1.47±0.29. No inversion effect was observed for inverted Chinese target. Korean flankers produced similar crowding as upright Chinese flankers. Our results go against the similarity rule that predicts upright Chinese flankers would produce stronger crowding for upright Chinese target. Holistic processing preferred for inverted Chinese characters may account for the findings.

  20. Similar alterations in brain function for phonological and semantic processing to visual characters in Chinese dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Wang, Wenjing; You, Wenping; Li, Yi; Awati, Neha; Zhao, Xu; Booth, James R.; Peng, Danling

    2014-01-01

    Dyslexia in alphabetic languages has been extensively investigated and suggests a central deficit in orthography to phonology mapping in the left hemisphere. Compared to dyslexia in alphabetic languages, the central deficit for Chinese dyslexia is still unclear. Because of the logographic nature of Chinese characters, some have suggested that Chinese dyslexia should have larger deficits in the semantic system. To investigate this, Chinese children with reading disability (RD) were compared to typically developing (TD) children using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) on a rhyming judgment task and on a semantic association judgment task. RD children showed less activation for both tasks in right visual (BA18, 19) and left occipito-temporal cortex (BA 37), suggesting a deficit in visuo-orthographic processing. RD children also showed less activation for both tasks in left inferior frontal gyrus (BA44), which additionally showed significant correlations with activation of bilateral visuo-orthographic regions in the RD group, suggesting that the abnormalities in frontal cortex and in posterior visuo-orthographic regions may reflect a deficit in the connection between brain regions. Analyses failed to reveal larger differences between groups for the semantic compared to the rhyming task, suggesting that Chinese dyslexia is similarly impaired in the access to phonology and to semantics from the visual orthography. PMID:22698991

  1. Morphological Structure Processing during Word Recognition and Its Relationship to Character Reading among Third-Grade Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Duo; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we explored the characteristics of morphological structure processing during word recognition among third grade Chinese children and its possible relationship with Chinese character reading. By using the modified priming lexical decision paradigm, a significant morphological structure priming effect was found in the subject…

  2. Preliminary Study of the Effect of Incremental Rehearsal with a Morphological Component for Teaching Chinese Character Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Elena; Burns, Matthew K.

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the effectiveness of Incremental Rehearsal (IR) for teaching Chinese character recognition using a single-case experimental design. In addition, a morphological component was added to standard IR procedures (IRM) to take into account the role of morphological awareness in Chinese reading. Three kindergarten students in…

  3. Emerging Development of Semantic and Phonological Routes to Character Decoding in Chinese as a Foreign Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Clay

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the effects of semantic and phonetic radicals on Chinese character decoding by high-intermediate level Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) learners. The results of the study suggest that the CFL learners tested have a well-developed semantic pathway to recognition; however, their phonological pathway is not yet a reliable means…

  4. Optimized Motor Imagery Paradigm Based on Imagining Chinese Characters Writing Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhaoyang; Allison, Brendan Z; Jin, Jing; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Xingyu; Li, Wei; Cichocki, Andrzej

    2017-07-01

    motor imagery (MI) is a mental representation of motor behavior. The MI-based brain computer interfaces (BCIs) can provide communication for the physically impaired. The performance of MI-based BCI mainly depends on the subject's ability to self-modulate electroencephalogram signals. Proper training can help naive subjects learn to modulate brain activity proficiently. However, training subjects typically involve abstract motor tasks and are time-consuming. to improve the performance of naive subjects during motor imagery, a novel paradigm was presented that would guide naive subjects to modulate brain activity effectively. In this new paradigm, pictures of the left or right hand were used as cues for subjects to finish the motor imagery task. Fourteen healthy subjects (11 male, aged 22-25 years, and mean 23.6±1.16) participated in this study. The task was to imagine writing a Chinese character. Specifically, subjects could imagine hand movements corresponding to the sequence of writing strokes in the Chinese character. This paradigm was meant to find an effective and familiar action for most Chinese people, to provide them with a specific, extensively practiced task and help them modulate brain activity. results showed that the writing task paradigm yielded significantly better performance than the traditional arrow paradigm (p paradigm was easier. the proposed new motor imagery paradigm could guide subjects to help them modulate brain activity effectively. Results showed that there were significant improvements using new paradigm, both in classification accuracy and usability.

  5. The modulation of stimulus structure on visual field asymmetry effects: the case of Chinese character recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Janet H; Cheng, Liao

    2013-09-01

    Recent research suggests that visual field (VF) asymmetry effects in visual recognition may be influenced by information distribution within the stimuli for the recognition task in addition to hemispheric processing differences: Stimuli with more information on the left have a right VF (RVF) advantage because the left part is closer to the centre, where the highest visual acuity is obtained. It remains unclear whether visual complexity distribution of the stimuli also has similar modulation effects. Here we used Chinese characters with contrasting structures-left-heavy, symmetric, and right-heavy, in terms of either visual complexity of components or information distribution defined by location of the phonetic component-and examined participants' naming performance. We found that left-heavy characters had the largest RVF advantage, followed by symmetric and right-heavy characters; this effect was only observed in characters that contrasted in information distribution, in which information for pronunciation was skewed to the phonetic component, but not in those that contrasted only in visual complexity distribution and had no phonetic component. This result provides strong evidence for the influence of information distribution within the stimuli on VF asymmetry effects; in contrast, visual complexity distribution within the stimuli does not have similar modulation effects.

  6. [Effects of serum of Bushen Huoxue prescription (Chinese characters) on classic Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways of osteoblasts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bing; Jin, Hong-ting; Wang, Xiao-feng; Xia, Lu-wei; Tong, Pei-jian

    2015-06-01

    To observe effects of serum Bushen Huoxue prescription(Chinese characters) on classic Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways of osteoblasts, and explore mechanism of Bushen Huoxue prescription (Chinese characters) for preventing osteoporosis. Twenty health female rats were randomly divided into two groups, including Bushen Huoxue (Chinese characters) group and saline group,10 in each group. Bushen Huoxue (Chinese characters) group and Saline group were gavaged Bushen Huoxue and saline every day for 1 week. Bushenhuoxue containing serum and saline containing serum were got according to methods of serum preparation of drug-containing. The osteoblasts was cultured with neonatal rat skull according to Enzyme Consumer Law, and was identified by Wright-Giemsa staining (R-J) and alkaline phosphatase staining (ALP). The third generation of osteoblasts was divided into three groups, including saline group, normal group,Bushen Huoxue (Chinese characters) group. Each group were added to 15% appropriate medium. ALP activity of osteoblasts and osteoblasts proliferation rate were tested, mineralized nodules were observed, the expression of β-catenin, Runx2, Osx mRNA of osteoblasts were tested by RT-PCR. There was blue granules in cytoplasm, cell nucleus was flint with 1 to 3 nucleoli showed by R-J staining, morphology of osteoblasts were cultured. ALP staining showed cytoplasm with purple granules, the results showed that the cultured cell was osteoblasts. The content of ALP in Bushen Huoxue (Chinese characters)group was (6.272±0.131) ,appreciation rate was (0.81? 0.172), and could significantly improve differentiation and proliferation activity of osteoblasts compared with Saline group (P0.05). Bushen Huoxue (Chinese characters)group could obviously promote differentiation, proliferation and mineralization of osteoblasts through activation of Wnt, β-catenin signaling pathway. It suggested that the mechanism of action of Bushen Huoxue (O'f f Il.t)particle clould prevent

  7. A method of neighbor classes based SVM classification for optical printed Chinese character recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Wu, Xiaohong; Yu, Yanmei; Luo, Daisheng

    2013-01-01

    In optical printed Chinese character recognition (OPCCR), many classifiers have been proposed for the recognition. Among the classifiers, support vector machine (SVM) might be the best classifier. However, SVM is a classifier for two classes. When it is used for multi-classes in OPCCR, its computation is time-consuming. Thus, we propose a neighbor classes based SVM (NC-SVM) to reduce the computation consumption of SVM. Experiments of NC-SVM classification for OPCCR have been done. The results of the experiments have shown that the NC-SVM we proposed can effectively reduce the computation time in OPCCR.

  8. A method of neighbor classes based SVM classification for optical printed Chinese character recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhang

    Full Text Available In optical printed Chinese character recognition (OPCCR, many classifiers have been proposed for the recognition. Among the classifiers, support vector machine (SVM might be the best classifier. However, SVM is a classifier for two classes. When it is used for multi-classes in OPCCR, its computation is time-consuming. Thus, we propose a neighbor classes based SVM (NC-SVM to reduce the computation consumption of SVM. Experiments of NC-SVM classification for OPCCR have been done. The results of the experiments have shown that the NC-SVM we proposed can effectively reduce the computation time in OPCCR.

  9. Cognitive-Neural Effects of Brush Writing of Chinese Characters: Cortical Excitation of Theta Rhythm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chinese calligraphy has been scientifically investigated within the contexts and principles of psychology, cognitive science, and the cognitive neuroscience. On the basis of vast amount of research in the last 30 years, we have developed a cybernetic theory of handwriting and calligraphy to account for the intricate interactions of several psychological dimensions involved in the dynamic act of graphic production. Central to this system of writing are the role of sensory, bio-, cognitive, and neurofeedback mechanisms for the initiation, guidance, and regulation of the writing motions vis-a-vis visual-geometric variations of Chinese characters. This experiment provided the first evidence of cortical excitation in EEG theta wave as a neural hub that integrates information coming from changes in the practitioner’s body, emotions, and cognition. In addition, it has also confirmed neurofeedback as an essential component of the cybernetic theory of handwriting and calligraphy.

  10. Incorporating Linguistic Rules in Statistical Chinese Language Model for Pinyin-to-character Conversion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    An N-gram Chinese language model incorporating linguistic rules is presented. By constructing elements lattice, rules information is incorporated in statistical frame. To facilitate the hybrid modeling, novel methods such as MI-based rule evaluating, weighted rule quantification and element-based n-gram probability approximation are presented. Dynamic Viterbi algorithm is adopted to search the best path in lattice. To strengthen the model, transformation-based error-driven rules learning is adopted. Applying proposed model to Chinese Pinyin-to-character conversion, high performance has been achieved in accuracy, flexibility and robustness simultaneously. Tests show correct rate achieves 94.81% instead of 90.53% using bi-gram Markov model alone. Many long-distance dependency and recursion in language can be processed effectively.

  11. Cognitive-neural effects of brush writing of chinese characters: cortical excitation of theta rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min; Kao, Henry S R; Zhang, Manlin; Lam, Stewart P W; Wang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Chinese calligraphy has been scientifically investigated within the contexts and principles of psychology, cognitive science, and the cognitive neuroscience. On the basis of vast amount of research in the last 30 years, we have developed a cybernetic theory of handwriting and calligraphy to account for the intricate interactions of several psychological dimensions involved in the dynamic act of graphic production. Central to this system of writing are the role of sensory, bio-, cognitive, and neurofeedback mechanisms for the initiation, guidance, and regulation of the writing motions vis-a-vis visual-geometric variations of Chinese characters. This experiment provided the first evidence of cortical excitation in EEG theta wave as a neural hub that integrates information coming from changes in the practitioner's body, emotions, and cognition. In addition, it has also confirmed neurofeedback as an essential component of the cybernetic theory of handwriting and calligraphy.

  12. Is handwriting constrained by phonology? Evidence from Stroop tasks with written responses and Chinese characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus eDamian

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available To what extent is handwritten word production based on phonological codes? A few studies conducted in Western languages have recently provided evidence showing that phonology contributes to the retrieval of graphemic properties in written output tasks. Less is known about how orthographic production works in languages with non-alphabetic scripts such as written Chinese. We report a Stroop study in which Chinese participants wrote the colour of characters on a digital graphic tablet; characters were either neutral, or homophonic to the target (congruent, or homophonic to an alternative (incongruent. Facilitation was found from congruent homophonic distractors, but only when the homophone shared the same tone with the target. This finding suggests a contribution of phonology to written word production. A second experiment served as a control experiment to exclude the possibility that the effect in Experiment 1 had an exclusively semantic locus. Overall, the findings offer new insight into the relative contribution of phonology to handwriting, particularly in non-Western languages.

  13. PENERAPAN STUDENT CENTERED LEARNING (SCL MELALUI METODE MNEMONIK DENGAN TEKNIK ASOSIASI PADA MATA KULIAH KANJI DASAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linna Meilia Rasiban

    2013-10-01

    Abstract Application of student centered learning (SCL through mnemonics method and associated technique in basic Kanji (Shokyu Hyouki. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of instructional media and its influence in improving students' ability in learning basic kanji. Kanji is one important element in studying the Japanese language, but at the same time, it is the most difficult by Japanese learners. So far, in most of the kanji taught using lecture method with media-centered teaching (teacher center.  This research concerns about student difficulties in memorizing kanji meaning with emphasis on the improvement of instructional media that had been done.  The research method used was experimental method. Based on the results of this study concluded that sufficient media interactive CD helps students to memorize kanji meaning, especially when working on the exam. Keywords: SCL, mnemonics method,associated technique,basic kanji.

  14. Tracing Origin of Chinese Characters, Reasonable and Self-Cultivation:Review on Ren Huo’s Complex of Chinese Characters%品字明理修身任火先生《汉字百味》读后

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳

    2016-01-01

    Inspired byRen Huo’s Complex of Chinese Characters,six rules of the formation of Chinese characters are expounded;three genres of the research on Chinese characters are analyzed. Combining with Complexof Chinese Characters,the connotations of loyalty,filial piety,humanity, j ustice,propriety,wisdom and faith are studied.Taking Zhuge Liang,Yu Qian and Zheng Xie as examples,the character of corruption is dissected,to search for the true essence of incorruption from the angle of self-cultivation.%以任火先生《汉字百味》为启发,阐述了汉字造字用字的六个条例,分析了汉字研究的三个取向;结合《汉字百味》,研究了“忠”“孝”“仁”“義”“禮”“智”“信”的内涵;剖析了“腐”字,以诸葛亮、于谦和郑燮为例,从修身角度寻找为官不腐的真谛。

  15. Six categories of Chinese characters Pictographic configuration method%汉字六书象形构形法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张泽渡

    2011-01-01

    IStudy Chinese character configuration theory "six categories of Chinese characters" ancient book and record is overabundant, pictographic characters among them a lot of branches such as studying relatively relatively mature, are sufficient, but educational circles still has province shape , deformation . increasing a shape , highly valuing a shape , attaching a shape says. Various definition or different reality of same reality different, or name is same , every family theory alternating each other makes person mimic theory coming into being to six categories of Chinese characters feeling uncertain. We set off from the principle explaining the pictographic character configuration , pictographic character in htinging forward six categories of Chinese characters systematically has the differ- ence resembling the configuration and the imago configuration. And point out the utensil elephant configuration being able to satisfy " statement " only, imago configuration ability comes true "express". Significance sees our language character from the angle of to analysing a Chinese character with culture , substitutes the province , unexpected turn of events , dynamiting, various different ver- sions , practice value and theory significance affirming Chinese character pictographic characters or pictographs formbuilding on this account attaching with the concept uniting body pictographic characters or pictographs.%研究汉字构形理论“六书”的典籍汗牛充栋,其中象形字的研究相对比较成熟充分,但学界仍有省形、变形、增形、重形、附形等诸多歧说。各种解说或名同实异、或名异实同,互相交叉的各家学说使人对六书学理论产生疑惑。我们从说明象形字的构形原理出发,指出六书系统中的象形字具有具象构形与意象构形的区别。具象构形仅仅能满足“陈述”,意象构形才能实现“表达”。从分析汉字的语言性质和文化意义着眼

  16. 汉字六书象形构形法%Six categories of Chinese characters Pictographic configuration method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张泽渡

    2011-01-01

    Study Chinese character configuration theory "six categories of Chinese characters" ancient book and record is overabundant, pictographic characters among them a lot of branches such as studying relatively relatively mature, are sufficient, but educational circles still has province shape , deformation , increasing a shape , highly valuing a shape , attaching a shape says. Various definition or different reality of same reality different, or name is same , every family theory alternating each other makes person mimic theory coming into being to six categories of Chinese characters feeling uncertain. We set off from the principle explaining the pictographic character configuration , pictographic character in bringing forward six categories of Chinese characters systematically has the difference resembling the configuration and the imago configuration. And point out the utensil elephant configuration being able to satisfy " statement " only, imago configuration ability comes true "express". Significance sees our language character from the angle of to analysing a Chinese character with culture , substitutes the province , unexpected turn of events , dynamiting, various different versions , practice value and theory significance affirming Chinese character pictographic characters or pictographs formbuilding on this account attaching with the concept uniting body pictographic characters or pictographs.%研究汉字构形理论“六书”的典籍汗牛充栋,其中象形字的研究相对比较成熟充分,但学界仍有省形、变形、增形、重形、附形等诸多歧说。各种解说或名同实异、或名异实同,互相交叉的各家学说使人对六书学理论产生疑惑。我们从说明象形字的构形原理出发,指出六书系统中的象形字具有具象构形与意象构形的区别。具象构形仅仅能满足“陈述”,意象构形才能实现“表达”。从分析汉字的语言性质和文化意义着眼,以

  17. Development of Adaptive Kanji Learning System for Mobile Phone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengmeng; Ogata, Hiroaki; Hou, Bin; Hashimoto, Satoshi; Liu, Yuqin; Uosaki, Noriko; Yano, Yoneo

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an adaptive learning system based on mobile phone email to support the study of Japanese Kanji. In this study, the main emphasis is on using the adaptive learning to resolve one common problem of the mobile-based email or SMS language learning systems. To achieve this goal, the authors main efforts focus on three aspects:…

  18. A Comparison of Typeface Design between Chinese and Western Characters%中西文字体设计比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐雪松; 杨钊

    2014-01-01

    随着中西方文化交流增多和数字化技术的发展,汉字的研究和字体设计开发方兴未艾。由于中西文字发展历史和东西方文化的不同,汉字与拉丁文字在字体造型设计和审美等方面存在诸多差异。文章从分析中西文字体的演进入手,探究中西文字体设计的不同特征和共同点,阐述了现代汉字字体设计的发展趋向,旨在通过对中西文字体设计的系统比较,对汉字字体设计形成有效借鉴,促进汉字设计艺术的创新发展。%With the increasing communication between Chinese and western culture and the development of digital technology, the Chinese character typeface design is growing rapidly. Because of the different history of Chinese character and Latin alphabet, also the differences between eastern and western culture, there are many differences in their typography and aesthetic. From the analysis of the evolution of Chinese and western characters, this paper explored the similarities and differences between typeface design of these two characters, and analyzed the development trend of modern Chinese typeface design. It systematically compared the typeface design characteristics between Chinese and western characters , aiming to give effective reference and promote the innovation and development of Chinese typography.

  19. Characterizing Ranked Chinese Syllable-to-Character Mapping Spectrum: A Bridge Between the Spoken and Written Chinese Language

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Wentian

    2012-01-01

    One important aspect of the relationship between spoken and written Chinese is the ranked syllable-to-character mapping spectrum, which is the ranked list of syllables by the number of characters that map to the syllable. Previously, this spectrum is analyzed for more than 400 syllables without distinguishing the four intonations. In the current study, the spectrum with 1280 toned syllables is analyzed by logarithmic function, Beta rank function, and piecewise logarithmic function. Out of the three fitting functions, the two-piece logarithmic function fits the data the best, both by the smallest sum of squared errors (SSE) and by the lowest Akaike information criterion (AIC) value. The Beta rank function is the close second. By sampling from a Poisson distribution whose parameter value is chosen from the observed data, we empirically estimate the $p$-value for testing the two-piece-logarithmic-function being better than the Beta rank function hypothesis, to be 0.16. For practical purposes, the piecewise logar...

  20. 日本“国字”的汉读研究%Chinese “pinyin” for Japanese Native Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何华珍

    2012-01-01

      日本在承用中国传统汉字的同时,创制了不少日本独有的“国字”。随着中日文化交流的不断深入,许多“国字”已被汉语辞书所收录,甚至成为现代汉字的正式成员。鉴别日本“国字”资格,梳理“国字”逆输入之历史,确认日语音训,推荐汉语读音,这对于辞书编纂及国际化背景下汉字研究具有重要意义%  While inheriting traditional Chinese characters, Japanese have formulated some characters of their own, which, with the cultural exchanges between China and Japan, have been collected in Chinese dictionaries, becoming formal members of the modern Chinese language. For the compilation of dictionaries and the study of Chinese characters under the current international background, it is of great significance to identify the Japanese native characters (Japanese Kokuji), to study the history of their spread in China, to confirm the pronunciation in Japanese, and to recommend their pronunciation in Chinese.

  1. The SNARC Effect in Chinese Numerals: Do Visual Properties of Characters and Hand Signs Influence Number Processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwenkamp, Christian; Eloka, Owino; Schiller, Florian; Kao, Chung-Shan; Wu, Chaohua; Gao, Xiaorong; Franz, Volker H.

    2016-01-01

    The SNARC effect refers to an association of numbers and spatial properties of responses that is commonly thought to be amodal and independent of stimulus notation. We tested for a horizontal SNARC effect using Arabic digits, simple-form Chinese characters and Chinese hand signs in participants from Mainland China. We found a horizontal SNARC effect in all notations. This is the first time that a horizontal SNARC effect has been demonstrated in Chinese characters and Chinese hand signs. We tested for the SNARC effect in two experiments (parity judgement and magnitude judgement). The parity judgement task yielded clear, consistent SNARC effects in all notations, whereas results were more mixed in magnitude judgement. Both Chinese characters and Chinese hand signs are represented non-symbolically for low numbers and symbolically for higher numbers, allowing us to contrast within the same notation the effects of heavily learned non-symbolic vs. symbolic representation on the processing of numbers. In addition to finding a horizontal SNARC effect, we also found a robust numerical distance effect in all notations. This is particularly interesting as it persisted when participants reported using purely visual features to solve the task, thereby suggesting that numbers were processed semantically even when the task could be solved without the semantic information. PMID:27684956

  2. Differential Hemispheric Processing in the Recognition of Chinese Characters with Different Structures in Foveal and Parafoveal Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet H. Hsiao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Whether foveal representation in reading is initially split and contralaterally projected to different hemispheres or bilaterally projected remains a controversial issue. Here we examine visual field asymmetry effects in naming Chinese characters with different structures, with characters presented either to the left visual field or the right visual field (RVF, and either within or outside foveal vision (eccentricity. We show that overall the RVF advantage in naming characters was significant in both eccentricity conditions (fovea vs. parafovea, with a stronger effect in parafoveal vision. This suggests that foveal splitting may not be an all-or-none phenomenon but has a graded effect. When examining characters with different structures separately, this interaction between visual field and eccentricity was significant only in the dominant, right-heavy character structure type, but not in the minority left-heavy or symmetric structure types, suggesting a modulation of character structure or type frequency on the eccentricity effect. In addition, existence of a phonetic radical modulated the visual field asymmetry effect differentially in different character structure types; however this effect did not interact with eccentricity. This result thus suggests that character structure and existence of a phonetic radical have differential modulation on character processing in the foveal and parafoveal vision.

  3. 浅谈韩国语汉字的发展与汉字教育的重要性%A Brief History of Chinese Characters in Korean Language and the Significance of Chinese characters Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵亮

    2012-01-01

    汉字在韩国语中非常重要,汉字词占总词汇量半数以上,文化传承乃至日常生活都离不开汉字。作为韩国语教学工作者,了解汉字在韩国语中发展的同时,更应明确教学中汉字教育的重要性。%Chinese characters(which named 'Hanja' ) is very important in modern Korean language, more than half of total vocabulry are Sino- Korean words, which means cultural inheritance and daily life can not be done well without the helping of Chinese characters. As a Korean language teacher, we need to fully realize the significance of Chinese characters learning in Korean language.

  4. Optimizing Chinese character displays improves recognition and reading performance of simulated irregular phosphene maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanyu; Kan, Han; Liu, Jie; Wang, Jing; Tao, Chen; Chen, Yao; Ren, Qiushi; Hu, Jie; Chai, Xinyu

    2013-04-26

    A visual prosthesis may elicit an irregular phosphene map relative to a regular electrode array. This study used simulated irregular phosphene maps as a way of optimizing the display methods of Chinese characters (CCs) to improve recognition and reading performance. TWENTY SUBJECTS WITH NORMAL OR CORRECTED SIGHT PARTICIPATED IN TWO EXPERIMENTS (9 FEMALES, 11 MALES, 2030 YEARS OF AGE). EXPERIMENT 1: two character display methods were proposed: selecting phosphenes covered by character strokes on a simulated phosphene array (projection method) and finding the phosphene closest to the expected location in some range of an irregular phosphene array as a substitute (nearest neighbor search [NNS] method). The recognition accuracy of CCs was investigated using six levels for the coverage ratio of stroke and phosphene area and for search range, respectively, for two methods, for several irregularity levels. Experiment 2: reading accuracy (RA) and reading efficiency (RE) were measured using the regular array correspondence and NNS methods. EXPERIMENT 1: projection and NNS methods were significantly affected by coverage ratio or search range. NNS significantly improved CC recognition accuracy to the highest at 81.3 ± 2.7% and 59.1 ± 5.2%, respectively, for different irregularity levels, compared with the projection method. Experiment 2: RA and RE significantly decreased as the distortion level increased; NNS significantly improved RA (from approximately 40% to >80%) and RE (from approximately 13 char/min to >40 char/min) when reading more irregular paragraphs. The performance of CC recognition and paragraph reading when using an irregular phosphene array can be improved through optimizing the display method.

  5. Event-related potentials study on cross-modal discrimination of Chinese characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗跃嘉; 魏景汉

    1999-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were measured in 15 normal young subjects (18—22 years old) using the "cross-modal and delayed response" paradigm, which is able to improve inattention purity. The stimuli consisted of written and spoken single Chinese characters. The presentation probability of standard stimuli was 82.5% and that of deviant stimuli was 17.5%. The attention components were obtained by subtracting the ERPs of inattention condition from those of attention condition. The results of the N1 scalp distribution demonstrated a cross-modal difference. This result is in contrast to studies with non-verbal as well as with English verbal stimuli. This probably reflected the brain mechanism feature of Chinese language processing. The processing location of attention was varied along with verbal/non-verbal stimuli, auditory/visual modalities and standard/deviant stimuli, and thus it has plasticity. The early attention effects occurred before the exogenous components, and thus provided evidence support

  6. Representing word context effect in Chinese character perception--an application of information theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, K W; Lua, K T

    1991-01-01

    The perception of a letter in the context of a word is easier than in the context of a random letter sequence. It appears that our knowledge about words can influence our perception process. McClelland and Rumelhart (1981) propose an interactive activation model to account for the interaction between our knowledge about words and our visual input. They use their model to explain how these interactions facilitate perception. In their account, word context effect is a constant independent of the identity of the words. In this paper, we propose the use of information theory to quantify word context effect. In this way, the strength of word context effect will depend on the identity of the words. We apply the method to quantify word context effect in Chinese words. This knowledge is encoded in an artificial neural network using the interactive activation and competition model. The network is used to recognize Chinese characters and we are able to achieve a high recognition rate.

  7. Talking about Primary Students Chinese Characters Writing Teaching%浅谈小学生汉字书写教学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽

    2014-01-01

    The use of Chinese characters, is a big progress of human civilization. Characterized in hieroglyphic characters in the forest of human language is unique, it is the text on the advantages of language in, also for the use of phonetic awareness and acceptance of people. In primary school is the foundation for learning Chinese characters are also very important. Writing and teaching is particularly important, especially in primary school. How to get students interested in characters, how to train well. This article discusses on how to teach students to write Chinese characters.%汉字的使用,是人类文明的一大进步。汉字以象形文字为特征而在人类语林中独树一帜,它在文字、语言上的优点,也正在为使用表音文字的人们所认识和接受。在小学的时候对汉字的学习是基础也非常重要。书写和教学尤为重要,特别是在小学阶段。如何让学生对字产生兴趣,如何练好。本文就如何对小学生汉字书写的教学展开讨论研究。

  8. 从汉字看中国古代婚俗%On Chinese Ancient Marriage Customs from the Perspective of Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜礼立

    2015-01-01

    语言是文化的载体,而汉字又是记录语言的符号系统,可见汉字与文化之间有着密切的关系。通过对“姓、姜、姬、姚、家、婚、妻、姑、嫁、媒、妁”等字字形、结构、意义演变的分析,探讨这些汉字背后蕴含的古代婚俗文化。%Language is the carrier of culture, and Chinese characters are the record of the language symbol system, showing that it has a close relationship between Chinese characters and culture. This paper, based on the Chinese characters such as Xing(姓), Jiang(姜), Ji(姬), Yao(姚), Jia(家), Hun(婚), Qi(妻), Gu(姑), Jia (嫁), Mei (媒), Shuo (妁), analyses the word shape, structure, and meaning evolution to explore the ancient marriage customs and culture contained by Chinese characters.

  9. Word Type Frequency Alone Can Modulate Hemispheric Asymmetry in Visual Word Recognition: Evidence from Modeling Chinese Character Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet H. Hsiao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In Chinese orthography, a dominant structure exists in which a semantic radical appears on the left and a phonetic radical on the right (SP characters; the minority, opposite arrangement also exists (PS characters. Recent studies showed that SP character processing is more left hemisphere (LH lateralized than PS character processing; nevertheless, it remains unclear whether this is due to phonetic radical position or character type frequency. Through computational modeling with artificial lexicons, in which we implement a theory of hemispheric asymmetry in perception that posits differential frequency bias in the two hemispheres (i.e., the DFF theory; Ivry & Robertson, 1998, but do not assume phonological processing being LH lateralized, we show that although phonetic radical position, visual complexity of the radicals, and character information structure may all modulate lateralization effects, the difference in character type frequency alone is sufficient to exhibit the effect that the dominant type has a stronger LH lateralization than the minority type. Further analysis suggests that this effect is due to higher visual similarity among characters in the dominant type as compared with those in the minority type. This result demonstrates that word type frequency alone can modulate hemispheric lateralization effects in visual word recognition.

  10. Word Type Frequency Alone Can Modulate Hemispheric Asymmetry in Visual Word Recognition: Evidence from Modeling Chinese Character Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Janet H.; Cheung, Kit

    2011-01-01

    In Chinese orthography, a dominant structure exists in which a semantic radical appears on the left and a phonetic radical on the right (SP characters); the minority, opposite arrangement also exists (PS characters). Recent studies showed that SP character processing is more left hemisphere (LH) lateralized than PS character processing; nevertheless, it remains unclear whether this is due to phonetic radical position or character type frequency. Through computational modeling with artificial lexicons, in which we implement a theory of hemispheric asymmetry in perception that posits differential frequency bias in the two hemispheres (i.e., the DFF theory; Ivry & Robertson, 1998), but do not assume phonological processing being LH lateralized, we show that although phonetic radical position, visual complexity of the radicals, and character information structure may all modulate lateralization effects, the difference in character type frequency alone is sufficient to exhibit the effect that the dominant type has a stronger LH lateralization than the minority type. Further analysis suggests that this effect is due to higher visual similarity among characters in the dominant type as compared with those in the minority type. This result demonstrates that word type frequency alone can modulate hemispheric lateralization effects in visual word recognition.

  11. The constitutes art of Chinese characters and Chinese native writing%汉字的构成艺术与汉语母语写作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄卫星; 张玉能

    2016-01-01

    The constitutes art of Chinese characters not only formulates the way of Chinese thinking, but also formulates characteristics of Chinese aesthetic spirit. Liushu, as a Constitutes art of Chinese characters, formulates the imagery features of Chinese native writing. Chinese traditional poetic imagery contributes to the highly development of Chinese lyrical literatures , and it has made China a Kingdom of poetry. Specifically, Liushu as a Constitutes art of Chinese characters formulates mainly Imagism discipline of Chinese native writing. The Imagism develops gradually and become Artistic conception on the Tang and Song Dynasties, which promotes highly development of the poetic arts. After Song Dynasty, Artistic conception become gradually into Novels and Typical theory under the promotion of public economy. The deep reason of this development process is that Chinese character constitutes of Liushu changed from Xiangxing and Zhishi to Huiyi and Xingsheng to Zhuanzhu and Jiajie. This causes the development from Imagism discipline to Artistic conception to Typical theory, and restricts historical developing evolution of Chinese native writing directly.%文字的构成艺术不仅规定了中华民族的思维方式特征,也规定了中华美学精神的特征。汉字构成艺术的六书规定了汉语母语写作的意象特征,中国传统诗学的意象论促进了中华民族抒情文学的高度发达,使中国成为诗的王国。具体说来,汉字的六书构成主要规定了汉语母语写作的意象论规律,意象论在唐宋时代逐步发展成为意境论,促进了诗歌艺术的高度发展。宋代以后意象论在市民经济的推动下逐步发展成为小说论、典型论。这种发展过程的深层原因就在于,汉字的六书构成由象形、指事到会意、形声,再到转注、假借的转换,形成了意象论到意境论再到典型论的发展,直接规制了汉语母语写作的历史发展进程。

  12. [Experimental study on the effects of pharmaco-serum of diabetic rats fed with Chinese herbs qianggubao decoction ([Chinese characters: see text]) on osteoblast culture in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, You-xin; Zheng, Liang-pu; Chen, Zhi-neng; Yang, Lian-zi; Wang, He-ming

    2008-03-01

    To investigate the optimum phase and dose of pharmaco-serum of diabetic rats fed with Qianggubao decoction ([Chinese characters: see text]) on the differentiation and mineralization of osteoblast (OB). METHODS (OB) was isolated from the skull of 10 newly born SD rats aged 1 to 2 days by means of Trypsin-collagenase digestion. After the OB was identified, different kinds of pharmaco-serum of diabetic rats fed with inactive Qianggubao decoction ([Chinese characters: see text]) of different phase (rats were fed with medicine three days or five days after last fed with medicine one hour or three hours) and concentration (5%, 10%, 20%) were added to the OB and incubated. After 7 days and 18 days of culture,the effects of the differentiation and mineralization of osteoblast were detected. The secretion of ALP and formation of mineralized nodules of osteoblast in the different doses of pharmaco-serum groups were almost the same as that of normal control group, but were superior to that in the model control group. And the group with concentration of 20% pharmaco-serum was the best in the secretion of ALP and formation of mineralized nodules of osteoblast. As to the phases of pharmaco-serum, the best one on the differentiation and mineralization of osteoblast was the serums from diabetic rat-model fed with Qianggubao decoction ([Chinese characters: see text]) three days or five days, after one hour of last fed with medicine. The pharmaco-serum of diabetic rats fed with Qianggubao decoction ([Chinese characters: see text]) can promote the differentiation and mineralization of osteoblast. Allow for time and the cost of experiment,we presume that pharmaco-serum of diabetic rats fed with Qianggubao decoction ([Chinese characters: see text]) three days, after one hour of last fed, with concentration of 20% and not-inactivation is the optimum on the differentiation and mineralization of osteoblast.

  13. Positron emission tomography scans on kanji and kana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, Yasuhisa [Mitsui Memorial Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    We reanalyzed our positron emission tomography (PET) study on reading of Japanese kanji (morphogram) words, kana (phonogram) words and kana nonwords, using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM). The basal occipital and occipito-temporal areas were activated in common, among which activity was most pronounced in the fusiform/inferior temporal gyri with kanji and in the inferior occipital gyrus with kana. The results were consistent with the clinical observations that damage to the posterior inferior temporal cortex including the fusiform/inferior temporal gyri causes alexia with agraphia for kanji, whereas damage to the posterior occipital area including the inferior occipital gyrus causes pure alexia for kana. Bases on the present results and the lesion studies, a dual-route hypothesis that modifies Iwata's model of reading about the Japanese language was proposed. That is, the middle occipital gyrus, deep perisylvian temporoparietal cortex and posterior temporal gyrus constitute a dorsal route for reading and process phonology for words, whereas the inferior occipital, fusiform and posterior inferior temporal gyri constitute a ventral route for reading and process orthography and lexico-semantics for words. The ventral route may gain dominance in reading, according as a word is repeatedly presented. (author)

  14. Chinese Character Recognition Based on ART Neural Network%基于ART神经网络的汉字识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李龙; 戴凤智; 于春雨; 李玢瑶; 张峻霞

    2013-01-01

    针对汉字的多样性和相似性不同于西方字母,识别相对困难的问题,提出了基于 ART 神经网络的汉字识别方法。在识别前,利用 OpenCV(开源计算机视觉库)将汉字进行图像处理,为后续识别提供输入数据;然后经 ART 神经网络对输入数据进行训练识别。采用8组相似度较高的汉字作为样本进行实验,证明了方法的有效性。%Ouring to the differences between Chinese and western words and the difficulty in recognition,a Chinese charac-ter recognition model based on the ART neural network is proposed. Before recognition,the Chinese characters are processed by OpenCV(open source computer vision library),which provides input data for the following recognition procedure. Then, the input data are trained and recognized by ART neural network. In the experiment,eight groups of similar Chinese charac-ters were used as samples for the sake of making the results universal. The results show that the recognition of the shape-changed Chinese characters among the provided samples is reliable and accurate.

  15. Denoising of Chinese calligraphy tablet images based on run-length statistics and structure characteristic of character strokes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jun-song; YU Jin-hui; MAO Guo-hong; YE Xiu-zi

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a novel approach is proposed for denoising of Chinese calligraphy tablet documents. The method includes two phases: First, a partial differential equations (PDE) based the total variation model and Otsu thresholding method are used to preprocess the calligraphy document image. Second, a new method based on on-length statistics and structure characteristics of Chinese characters is proposed to remove some random and ant-like noises. This includes the optimal threshold selection from histogram of run-length probability density, and improved Hough transform algorithm for line shape noise detection and removal. Examples are given in the paper to demonstrate the proposed method.

  16. Visual language and handwriting movement: functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3 tesla during generation of ideographic characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, K; Kato, C; Tanaka, S; Sugio, T; Matsuzawa, M; Inui, T; Moriya, T; Glover, G H; Nakai, T

    2001-07-01

    A functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment at 3 tesla was performed to investigate the collaborative mechanism between visuospatial processing and motor execution in performing visual language generation tasks. Japanese Kanji, ideographic characters, were utilized to design tasks. The bilateral border portions between the inferior parietal lobule and the occipital lobe were involved during a Kanji puzzle task, which required subjects to combine several parts into a Kanji. The higher motor areas, such as the premotor areas and the pre-supplementary motor areas, were also activated bilaterally during the puzzle task. The parieto-occipital activation may be related to analysis of configuration or segmentation/integration of Kanji figures. Activation in the higher motor areas may be induced by cognitive components related to motor function to perform the visuospatial language task, such as intense reference for displayed characters and finding a proper character for puzzle solution. A collaborative mechanism in these areas may explain the effectiveness of tactile reading in letter recognition by patients with pure alexia or kinesthetic facilitation by Kanji users when recalling difficult Kanji.

  17. 论中日汉字词汇的异同%On the similarities and differences of characters vocabulary between Chinese and Japanese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王运丽; 张敏伶

    2013-01-01

    汉字传入日本后,日本人就使用汉字来记载日语。因此,在日语中有着大量的汉字词汇,并且这些汉字词汇大多与现代汉语的词汇字形相同。对于这些汉语和日语中所共有的汉字词汇,从字形和词义两方面统合来分析的话,可以把其分为同形同义词、同形异义词、同形义岐词以及日本人独创的汉字这样几类。本文试从汉日语言对比的角度,从词汇的意义方面,分析探讨日语汉字词汇中的同形异义词和同形义岐词。%After Chinese characters introduced in Japan, Japanese used Chinese characters to record Japanese. Therefore, there are a large number of Chinese characters vocabularies in Japanese, these Chinese characters and vocabulary are the same with shape of modern Chinese. The common Chinese characters vocabulary of Chinese and Japanese, analyzes from two aspects of grapheme and meaning of the integration of words, can be divided into the Japanese original Chinese characters. This paper tries to compare Chinese and Japanese language point of view, from the lexical meaning, analyzes the homographs in Japanese Chinese characters vocabulary.

  18. The Chinese Lexicon Project: A megastudy of lexical decision performance for 25,000+ traditional Chinese two-character compound words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Chi-Shing; Yap, Melvin J; Chan, Yuen-Lai; Sze, Wei Ping; Shaoul, Cyrus; Lin, Dan

    2017-08-01

    Using a megastudy approach, we developed a database of lexical variables and lexical decision reaction times and accuracy rates for more than 25,000 traditional Chinese two-character compound words. Each word was responded to by about 33 native Cantonese speakers in Hong Kong. This resource provides a valuable adjunct to influential mega-databases, such as the Chinese single-character, English, French, and Dutch Lexicon Projects. Three analyses were conducted to illustrate the potential uses of the database. First, we compared the proportion of variance in lexical decision performance accounted for by six word frequency measures and established that the best predictor was Cai and Brysbaert's (PLoS One, 5, e10729, 2010) contextual diversity subtitle frequency. Second, we ran virtual replications of three previously published lexical decision experiments and found convergence between the original experiments and the present megastudy. Finally, we conducted item-level regression analyses to examine the effects of theoretically important lexical variables in our normative data. This is the first publicly available large-scale repository of behavioral responses pertaining to Chinese two-character compound word processing, which should be of substantial interest to psychologists, linguists, and other researchers.

  19. 中国手语与中国古文字的比较%A Comparison of Chinese Sign Language and Chinese Ancient Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓梅; 谭中华

    2014-01-01

    Sign language originated from primitive society and it had a close relation with original language;Ancient Chinese characters recorded the original language and they are expressions of written original language. This paper, by comparing Chinese sign language with Chinese ancient characters, shows the similarities and differences between them and discusses the problems between the two and the original language and primitive thought, providing a new perspective for the research on sign language and ancient characters.%手语起源于原始社会,与原始语言有着密切的关系;古文字记录着原始语言,是原始语言书面化的体现者。通过中国手语与中国古文字比较,突出展现了二者的异同点,进而探讨了二者与原始语言、原始思维等方面的问题,为手语研究和古文字研究提供了一个新的角度。

  20. The Women Characters of the1930s in the Chinese TV Serials%The Women Characters of the 1930s in the Chinese TV Serials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周时娥; 张雯

    2011-01-01

    The women of the 1930s in the Chinese TV serials deduct inspiring stories.They play different roles in the big wealthy families such as mothers-in-law,daughters-in-law,and maidservants.There are unceasing conflicts between these women,because of their struggle for men's love,wealth or social position.The theme of their stories is always about fertility,love,kindness and evil,with the ending being either comic or tragic.The stories of various kinds of women of the 1930s in the Chinese TV serials decorate and enrich the lives of many of us latecomers and their names are passed on from generation to generation.

  1. 对外汉字教学中易混字形教学策略%Teaching strategies for Chinese characters similar in forms in TCFL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘湘涛

    2012-01-01

    非汉字文化圈学生缺乏汉字的笔画与部件意识,对汉字字形的认知尤其是对形近字的辨析是汉字学习的难点。根据他们对汉字的认知特点,应严格笔画、笔顺教学,通过溯本究源,分辨易混独体字形,在此基础上,应注重偏旁教学的理据性,并在教学中强化部件意识,帮助初学者形成从汉字字形和结构上正确审视汉字的思维模式,提高对易混合体字的识别能力。%Foreign students from non-Chinese-character countries lack awareness of strokes and compo- nents typical of Chinese characters. Therefore, cognition of Chinese characters forms, especially the dis- crimination of Chinese characters similar in form is one of the most important aspects of Chinese char- acter learning. Based on foreign students' cognitive characteristics, great importance should be attached to the teaching of strokes and their orders and the discrimination of easily-mixed indivisible characters by tracing back to their origins. Then much attention should be paid to the motivation of radicals of Chinese characters and to the reinforcement of the consciousness of components. These methods will help beginners to form the thought model which enables them to correctly recognize Chinese characters from their shapes and strnctures, and to improve their ability to identify easily-mixed compound Chi- nese characters .

  2. Inter- and Intrahemispheric Connectivity Differences When Reading Japanese Kanji and Hiragana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata Duncan, Keith J.; Twomey, Tae; Parker Jones, ‘Ōiwi; Seghier, Mohamed L.; Haji, Tomoki; Sakai, Katsuyuki; Price, Cathy J.; Devlin, Joseph T.

    2014-01-01

    Unlike most languages that are written using a single script, Japanese uses multiple scripts including morphographic Kanji and syllabographic Hiragana and Katakana. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging with dynamic causal modeling to investigate competing theories regarding the neural processing of Kanji and Hiragana during a visual lexical decision task. First, a bilateral model investigated interhemispheric connectivity between ventral occipito–temporal (vOT) cortex and Broca's area (“pars opercularis”). We found that Kanji significantly increased the connection strength from right-to-left vOT. This is interpreted in terms of increased right vOT activity for visually complex Kanji being integrated into the left (i.e. language dominant) hemisphere. Secondly, we used a unilateral left hemisphere model to test whether Kanji and Hiragana rely preferentially on ventral and dorsal paths, respectively, that is, they have different intrahemispheric functional connectivity profiles. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found that Kanji increased connectivity within the ventral path (V1 ↔ vOT ↔ Broca's area), and that Hiragana increased connectivity within the dorsal path (V1 ↔ supramarginal gyrus ↔ Broca's area). Overall, the results illustrate how the differential processing demands of Kanji and Hiragana influence both inter- and intrahemispheric interactions. PMID:23382515

  3. The Anatomy of the Role of Morphological Awareness in Chinese Character Learning: The Mediation of Vocabulary and Semantic Radical Knowledge and the Moderation of Morpheme Family Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Duo; Li, Hong; Wong, Kwok Shing Richard

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, the mediating roles of syllable awareness, orthographic knowledge, and vocabulary skills and the moderating role of morpheme family size in the association between morphological awareness and Chinese character reading were investigated with 176 second-grade Hong Kong Chinese children. In the path analyses, the results…

  4. Discussion on the design of Chinese character"Tai"%浅谈汉字体设计之“态”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹艺

    2013-01-01

    As we all know, the use of Chinese characters language has the world's largest population, about 1600000000, accounting for the total global population 4/1. The use of Chinese in countries and regions are also a lot, Chinese language and culture including:China, Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Malaysia and other countries, wide coverage, high utilization rate, beneficiary population. The Chinese language is the language with strong expressive force, not only to pay attention to the form and structure of words, but also require to have the form beauty of word, the two should be phase, can highlight the integrity of Chinese characters.%众所周之,使用汉字语言的人口占世界第一,约16亿,占全球总人口的4/1。使用汉语的国家和地区也很多,汉语言文化圈包括:中国、日本、韩国、新加坡、马来西亚等国家,覆盖面广,使用率较高,受惠人口众多。汉语言文字是表现力非常强的语言文字,不仅要注重字的形体结构,还要求要有字的形态之美,两者应相得应彰,才能突出汉字体应有的完整性。

  5. Sublexical Processing in Visual Recognition of Chinese Characters: Evidence from Repetition Blindness for Subcharacter Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Su-Ling; Li, Jing-Ling

    2004-01-01

    Repetition blindness (RB) refers to the failure to detect the second occurrence of a repeated item in rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP). In two experiments using RSVP, the ability to report two critical characters was found to be impaired when these two characters were identical (Experiment 1) or similar by sharing one repeated component…

  6. Taking a radical position: Evidence for position specific radical representations in Chinese character recognition using masked priming ERP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Fan eSu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the investigation of orthographic representation of Chinese characters, one question that has stimulated much research is whether radicals (character components are specified for spatial position in a character (e.g. Ding, Peng, & Taft, 2004; Tsang & Chen, 2009. Differing from previous work, component or radical position information in this study is conceived in terms of relative frequency across different positions of characters containing it. A lexical decision task in a masked priming paradigm focusing on radicals with preferred position of occurrence was conducted. A radical position that encompasses more characters than other positions was identified to be the preferred position of a particular radical. The prime that was exposed for 96ms might share a radical with the target in the same or different positions. Moreover, the shared radical appeared either in its preferred or non-preferred position in the target. While response latencies only revealed the effect of graphical similarity, both effects of graphical similarity and radical position preference were found in the ERP results. The former effect was reflected in greater positivity in occipital P1 and greater negativity in N400 for radicals in different positions in prime and target characters. The latter effect manifested as greater negativity in occipital N170 and greater positivity in frontal P200 in the same time window elicited by radicals in their non-preferred position. Equally interesting was the reversal of the effect of radical position preference in N400 with greater negativity associated with radicals in preferred position. These findings identify the early ERP components associated with activation of position-specific radical representations in the orthographic lexicon, and reveal the change in the nature of competition from processing at the radical level to the lexical level.

  7. Taking a Radical Position: Evidence for Position-Specific Radical Representations in Chinese Character Recognition Using Masked Priming ERP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, I-Fan; Mak, Sin-Ching Cassie; Cheung, Lai-Ying Milly; Law, Sam-Po

    2012-01-01

    In the investigation of orthographic representation of Chinese characters, one question that has stimulated much research is whether radicals (character components) are specified for spatial position in a character (e.g., Ding et al., 2004; Tsang and Chen, 2009). Differing from previous work, component or radical position information in this study is conceived in terms of relative frequency across different positions of characters containing it. A lexical decision task in a masked priming paradigm focusing on radicals with preferred position of occurrence was conducted. A radical position that encompasses more characters than other positions was identified to be the preferred position of a particular radical. The prime that was exposed for 96 ms might share a radical with the target in the same or different positions. Moreover, the shared radical appeared either in its preferred or non-preferred position in the target. While response latencies only revealed the effect of graphical similarity, both effects of graphical similarity and radical position preference were found in the event-related potential (ERP) results. The former effect was reflected in greater positivity in occipital P1 and greater negativity in N400 for radicals in different positions in prime and target characters. The latter effect manifested as greater negativity in occipital N170 and greater positivity in frontal P200 in the same time window elicited by radicals in their non-preferred position. Equally interesting was the reversal of the effect of radical position preference in N400 with greater negativity associated with radicals in preferred position. These findings identify the early ERP components associated with activation of position-specific radical representations in the orthographic lexicon, and reveal the change in the nature of competition from processing at the radical level to the lexical level.

  8. 论儿童汉字习得的美育功能%The Function of Aesthetic Education in Children's Acquisition of Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章辉

    2012-01-01

    Traditional aesthetic education for children neglects the aesthetic function in the acquisition of mother tongue. The structure of Chinese characters has artistic and poetic features, which dovetails with the "law of aesthetics" proposed by Karl Marx (1818 -1883 ). Chinese characters possess quite a few traditional Chinese aesthetic categories, such as simplicity, naturalness, miraculousness, vitality and vigor, which can inspire children's aesthetic consciousness. Chinese characters also convey moral concents, which can cuhivate children' s moral feelings and inspire their ethical awareness. The writing of Chinese characters is good for cultivation of children' s creative native power. thinking , and the images of Chinese characters can inspire children' s imaginative power.%传统儿童美育忽略了母语习得中的美育功能。汉字构造与马克思的“美的规律”相吻合,具有高度的审美特质。汉字系统具有简约、中和、神妙、气韵等审美形态,能给儿童以美的启迪。汉字传达的伦理观念,有助于启思儿童的道德情怀。汉字书写有利于培养儿童创造性思维,汉字意象则能激发其想象能力。

  9. Valence, arousal, familiarity, concreteness, and imageability ratings for 292 two-character Chinese nouns in Cantonese speakers in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Lydia T S

    2017-01-01

    Words are frequently used as stimuli in cognitive psychology experiments, for example, in recognition memory studies. In these experiments, it is often desirable to control for the words' psycholinguistic properties because differences in such properties across experimental conditions might introduce undesirable confounds. In order to avoid confounds, studies typically check to see if various affective and lexico-semantic properties are matched across experimental conditions, and so databases that contain values for these properties are needed. While word ratings for these variables exist in English and other European languages, ratings for Chinese words are not comprehensive. In particular, while ratings for single characters exist, ratings for two-character words-which often have different meanings than their constituent characters, are scarce. In this study, ratings for 292 two-character Chinese nouns were obtained from Cantonese speakers in Hong Kong. Affective variables, including valence and arousal, and lexico-semantic variables, including familiarity, concreteness, and imageability, were rated in the study. The words were selected from a film subtitle database containing word frequency information that could be extracted and listed alongside the resulting ratings. Overall, the subjective ratings showed good reliability across all rated dimensions, as well as good reliability within and between the different groups of participants who each rated a subset of the words. Moreover, several well-established relationships between the variables found consistently in other languages were also observed in this study, demonstrating that the ratings are valid. The resulting word database can be used in studies where control for the above psycholinguistic variables is critical to the research design.

  10. The Cost of Switching between Kanji and Kana While Reading Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiullah, Mohammed; Monsell, Stephen

    1999-01-01

    In four experiments, Japanese readers were required to switch between reading words in Kanji and Kana. In every case, performance was significantly slower and less accurate on the trials following a change of script. (Author/VWL)

  11. The writing of arabic numerals, kanji, and kana in brain-damaged patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Itaru; Kikuchi, Seiji; Otsuki, Mika; Tashiro, Kunio

    2003-05-06

    This study investigated the neural mechanisms involved in the writing of Arabic numerals, kanji, and kana. Tasks involving writing numerals in Arabic, kanji, and, kana were administered to four patients with Gerstmann's syndrome and to five Wernicke aphasics. The results indicated that the ability to write Arabic numerals was well preserved in the Wernicke aphasics despite their serious phonological disturbances. The patients with Gerstmann's syndrome, who have a deficit with the concept of number, could write kanji numerals better than Arabic and kana numerals. Unlike Arabic numerals (ideogram) and kana (syllabogram), kanji (morphogram) have both semantic and phonetic values. The results suggested that Arabic numerals may be somesthetic and linked directly to the concept of number bypassing phonological analysis.

  12. Effective Learning Strategies for the Recognition of Characters and Words by Learners of Chinese with Varying Proficiency in Different Learning Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study gauges effective strategies for recognizing characters and words by learners of Chinese as a foreign language. Besides answering background questions, 203 participants completed a questionnaire, a vocabulary recognition test, and a vocabulary checklist. The vocabulary test was found to be valid and reliable, and six categories of learning strategies were generated from the questionnaire. With the two background variables of language proficiency and language environment (studying abroad versus studying at home, the six strategy categories explained 48% of the variance in vocabulary recognition. Specifically, “frequent meaningful interaction with characters and words” positively predicted vocabulary recognition, whereas “focusing on character orthography” and “focusing on character pronunciation” negatively predicted it. The individual strategy of typing characters positively predicted vocabulary recognition, whereas using Pinyin to help remember pronunciation negatively predicted it. Pinyin can facilitate vocabulary recognition through typing characters yet may hinder it if excessively relying on Pinyin for pronunciation.

  13. Chinese Character and English Word processing in children's ventral occipitotemporal cortex: fMRI evidence for script invariance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krafnick, Anthony J; Tan, Li-Hai; Flowers, D Lynn; Luetje, Megan M; Napoliello, Eileen M; Siok, Wai-Ting; Perfetti, Charles; Eden, Guinevere F

    2016-06-01

    Learning to read is thought to involve the recruitment of left hemisphere ventral occipitotemporal cortex (OTC) by a process of "neuronal recycling", whereby object processing mechanisms are co-opted for reading. Under the same theoretical framework, it has been proposed that the visual word form area (VWFA) within OTC processes orthographic stimuli independent of culture and writing systems, suggesting that it is universally involved in written language. However, this "script invariance" has yet to be demonstrated in monolingual readers of two different writing systems studied under the same experimental conditions. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined activity in response to English Words and Chinese Characters in 1st graders in the United States and China, respectively. We examined each group separately and found the readers of English as well as the readers of Chinese to activate the left ventral OTC for their respective native writing systems (using both a whole-brain and a bilateral OTC-restricted analysis). Critically, a conjunction analysis of the two groups revealed significant overlap between them for native writing system processing, located in the VWFA and therefore supporting the hypothesis of script invariance. In the second part of the study, we further examined the left OTC region responsive to each group's native writing system and found that it responded equally to Object stimuli (line drawings) in the Chinese-reading children. In English-reading children, the OTC responded much more to Objects than to English Words. Together, these results support the script invariant role of the VWFA and also support the idea that the areas recruited for character or word processing are rooted in object processing mechanisms of the left OTC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Chinese Character and English Word processing in children’s ventral occipitotemporal cortex: fMRI evidence for script invariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krafnick, Anthony J.; Tan, Li-Hai; Flowers, D. Lynn; Luetje, Megan M.; Napoliello, Eileen M.; Siok, Wai-Ting; Perfetti, Charles; Eden, Guinevere F.

    2016-01-01

    Learning to read is thought to involve the recruitment of left hemisphere ventral occipitotemporal cortex (OTC) by a process of “neuronal recycling”, whereby object processing mechanisms are co-opted for reading. Under the same theoretical framework, it has been proposed that the visual word form area (VWFA) within the OTC processes orthographic stimuli independent of culture and writing systems, suggesting that it is universally involved in written language. However, this “script invariance” has yet to be demonstrated in monolingual readers of two different writing systems studied under the same experimental conditions. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined activity in response to English Words and Chinese Characters in 1st graders in the United States and China, respectively. We examined each group separately and found the readers of English as well as the readers of Chinese to activate the left ventral OTC for their respective native writing systems (using both a whole-brain and a bilateral OTC-restricted analysis). Critically, a conjunction analysis of the two groups revealed significant overlap between them for native writing system processing, located in the VWFA and therefore supporting the hypothesis of script invariance. In the second part of the study, we further examined the left OTC region responsive to each group’s native writing system and found it responded equally to Object stimuli (line drawings) in the Chinese-reading children. In English-reading children, the OTC responded much more to Objects than to English Words. Together, these results support the script invariant role of the VWFA and also support the idea that the areas recruited for character or word processing are rooted in object processing mechanisms of the left OTC. PMID:27012502

  15. The role of Chinese character in commercial design%汉字在商业设计中的表现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘梦茹

    2014-01-01

    It's an incomparably important proposition to deeply understand the usage of Chinese character in commercial design as unique language and to explore the rule and more extensive expressiveness of Chinese character figure at the moment when China is now greatly advocating the inheritance of Intangible Cultural Heritage and bringing Chinese design culture to the world.What a commercial graphic design work needs to communicate is more than just graphical layout,the expression of its literal content is an even more important communicative element .Intuitive and recognizable text not only can precisely communicate the product,but also advertise and enhance it.%在中国大力提倡继承非物质文化遗产,设计文化走向世界之时,深刻认识汉字在商业设计中的个性语言,摸索汉字造型的客观规律与更广泛的表现力,是一个重要课题。一个商业平面设计作品所需传达的内容不仅仅是图形的展现,其文字内容的展现更是一个重要的传达因素,直观而易识的文字不仅能够准确地传达商品的信息,还能起到宣传商品、美化商品的作用。

  16. Oracle Bone Script and Teaching of Chinese Characters%甲骨文与汉字教学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏丽; 陈明富

    2011-01-01

    Using oracle bone script in teaching Chinese characters will help to enhance the fun,knowledge,and help to enhance understanding of the meaning of Chinese characters and variant forms,which could make teaching more scientific.The following aspects must be noticed when using oracle bone script in teaching Chinese characters: to arrange the explanation of the shape of oracle bone script appropriately,according to the nature of teaching and teaching objects;to select the representative shapes to explain;to analyze by supplement of inscriptions on bronze,pottery,silk,lute and other text;to be realistic and discreet for some scholars disputed grapheme of oracle bone script.%将甲骨文运用于汉字教学中,有助于增强趣味性、知识性,有助于增强对汉字字义的理解及对异体字的了解,使教学更具有科学性。利用甲骨文进行汉字教学时必须注意:要根据教学性质和教学对象,适度安排甲骨文字形讲解;注意选择有代表性的字形进行讲解;可适当辅以金文、陶文、简帛及封泥等文字进行分析;对于某些学界有争议的甲骨文字形,要实事求是,慎重对待。

  17. 编码和提取过程中日语汉字和假名的差异比较%Differences Between Kanji and Kana During Encoding and Retrieval

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米丽萍; 任福继

    2012-01-01

    In the modern Japanese logographic writing system, both Kanji and Kana are used. Since they have quite different characteristics, quite different speech processes in the two hemispheres of the brain are involved. Some previous studies show that there are different neural mechanisms linked to the memorization of Kanji and Kana when Japanese native speakers are concerned. In order to illustrate the neural mechanisms related to the process in which the Chinese Japanese learners memorize Kanji and Kana, this paper investigates the differences between encoding and retrieval of Kanji and Kana during the memory process, by comparing the Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) components which are elicited by Kanji and Kana during the process of memorizing and recollecting them by Chinese Japanese learners. In the study phase, significant differences are found in considering the amplitude and the latency of the ERPs components elicited by Kanji and Kana condition, and the scalp distributions are different, too, which indicates the different aspects of the memory storage after Kanji and Kana are encoded. The encoding of Kanji is faster and deeper than that of Kana. In the test phase, the old items of Kanji elicit lower amplitude and shorter duration of FN400 and higher amplitude and shorter duration of the Late Positive Component (LPC) than the old items of Kana. The old items of Kanji are easier and quicker to be recalled than the old items of Kana. In addition to this, there are obvious hemisphere advantages for encoding and retrieval of old items of Kanji, which demonstrates that the neural mechanism related to Kanji is different from that related to Kana. It is believed that because the Kana's memory processing is more complicated than Kanji, which increases the memory load, leading to inferior effects than Kanji. In this way, the illustration of the memory feature of Kanji and Kana is instructive to Japanese learning.%为了解明中国人日语学习者记忆日语汉字和

  18. Cultural Connotations of Chinese Character “Nv”%“女”字文化内涵探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹琪; 余晓强

    2012-01-01

      象形字“女”字产生于母系氏族社会时期,表达了先民对于女性的朴素审美,是对女性形体的客观描摹。语言的创造和使用反映了特定时期的思维和文化情况。在对“女”字构形中存在的文化内涵考察时发现,在造字之初并没有歧视女性的观念存在。认为“女”字反映了造字之初对女性的歧视是后人的主观臆断,缺乏考古凭证,更是父权思想的体现。%  The pictographic character “nv”(woman) was produced during the period of matriarchal society , expressing the simplest aesthetic feelings of ancestors and it is an objective description of female body .When inspecting the structure of the Chinese character “nv” and its cultural connotations ,it is found that women played a very important role in the social living at that time they created characters.The character “nv” dose not mean discrimination against women at the beginning and it is only a subjective judgment for women .The idea of the word means discrimination against women is an absurd supposition of lat -er generations.

  19. Interpretation of Chinese Character Culture in Modern Graphic Design%现代平面设计中汉字文化解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘岩妍

    2012-01-01

    Based on the law of development and structural characteristics of the Chinese characters, and rich cultural connotations, unique forms of visual expression, from the perspective of graphic design it analyzed the beauty of form and shape features of Chinese characters. Combined with design elements as the main character graphics design work, it further discussed the visual form of expression and creative thinking of the Chinese characters in modern graphic design. On this basis, it proposed new semantics to build a modem Chinese characters design in the local culture, new life.%基于汉字的发展规律和结构特点以及丰富的文化内涵,独特的视觉表现形式,从平面设计角度分析了汉字体现出的形式美和造型特征,并结合以汉字图形作为主要设计元素的设计作品,进一步论述了汉字在现代平面设计中的视觉表现形式和创意思维。在此基础上,提出了在本土文化中构建现代汉字设计的新语义、新生命。

  20. 古代识字教材的创新之作——古歙州胡氏《两得心知》%A Creative Textbook of Learning Chinese Characters —— Learning Chinese Characters with Ease written by Hu Weizhi in Shezhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴元枝

    2012-01-01

    新发现的《两得心知》是歙州塾师胡为治于1849年左右编成、后经多人修订且曾在徽州被广泛传抄的一种全新的识字教材。其基于汉字特点、儿童心理和生活实用等原则,对传统识字教材的弊端做了纠正,确立了口语化、常用性的选字标准,采用了情境化、归类式的识字方式,对当前基础教育改革中小学识字教材的编写及识字教学实施来说,都有很大的借鉴价值。%A textbook concerning an easy way of learning Chinese characters entitled Learning Chinese Character with Ease was recently discovered. Compiled by Hu Weizhi in 1849, who worked as a family teacher in Shezhou (an ancient name for Huizhou), it was revised many times and widely copied as a new textbook for teaching Chinese characters. This textbook takes the features of Chinese character, children's psychology and practical value into consideration, and provides many improvements to traditional textbooks on character teaching. This textbook selects colloquial and often-used characters as its content, and characters are classified and taught under a certain context. Learning Chinese Characters with Ease, to some extent, can bring great value to the compilation of textbook on teaching and learning Chinese characters needed in the contemporary reform of fundamental education.

  1. Learning Chinese Characters via Mobile Technology in a Primary School Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jie; Meng, Sue; Tam, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a project, including the design, development, and use of a mobile application (referred to as application hereafter) for learning Chinese as a second language in a bilingual primary school. The application was designed for iPod Touch Apple technology with the purpose to facilitate learning of a fundamental set of 200 Chinese…

  2. “辰”字文化信息考辩%On the Cultural Connotation of the Chinese Character “Chen”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋泽计

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese characters teaching in China has attracted our attention since the earlier period of the great master Xushen over 1800 years ago . The importance of the examining of culture source has been overlooked in teaching , thus failing to observe the Chinese characters rules formed in three dimensions :the sound , the form and the meaning . It is found by the author that they are inherently connected and visually symbolized in Chinese language recording , which plays an important part in the current Chinese teaching around the world . If we base our teaching of Chinese characters on the sound , the form and the meaning of a Chinese character which is examined through the pattern of Chinese thinking and cognition as well as the rich connotation of Chinese culture , we can greatly Chinese character teaching .The author of this paper makes a case study of the Chinese character “Chen”.%从汉代许慎以降1800多年来,汉语汉字的教学一直存在很大误区:即脱离了汉语语词确立的理据和文化背景,脱离了汉字音、形、义结合的规律。笔者研究发现,汉语语词的音义结合是具有内在的逻辑理据的,而作为记录汉语语词的可视符号,汉字不仅能够反映中华民族的认知、思维模式,而且蕴含着丰富的中华文化信息。本文结合“辰”字的古音、古形、古义,将辰字蕴涵的认知、思维模式,以及文化信息和文化哲学意蕴揭示了出来,对于今天汉语汉字教学方式的转变有着十分重要的启发意义。

  3. Postprocessing for character recognition using pattern features and linguistic information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Takatoshi; Okamoto, Masayosi; Horii, Hiroshi

    1993-04-01

    We propose a new method of post-processing for character recognition using pattern features and linguistic information. This method corrects errors in the recognition of handwritten Japanese sentences containing Kanji characters. This post-process method is characterized by having two types of character recognition. Improving the accuracy of the character recognition rate of Japanese characters is made difficult by the large number of characters, and the existence of characters with similar patterns. Therefore, it is not practical for a character recognition system to recognize all characters in detail. First, this post-processing method generates a candidate character table by recognizing the simplest features of characters. Then, it selects words corresponding to the character from the candidate character table by referring to a word and grammar dictionary before selecting suitable words. If the correct character is included in the candidate character table, this process can correct an error, however, if the character is not included, it cannot correct an error. Therefore, if this method can presume a character does not exist in a candidate character table by using linguistic information (word and grammar dictionary). It then can verify a presumed character by character recognition using complex features. When this method is applied to an online character recognition system, the accuracy of character recognition improves 93.5% to 94.7%. This proved to be the case when it was used for the editorials of a Japanese newspaper (Asahi Shinbun).

  4. Analysis of spatial distribution and transmission characters for highly pathogenic avian influenza in Chinese mainland in 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y. L.; Wei, C. J.; Yan, L.; Chi, T. H.; Wu, X. B.; Xiao, C. S.

    2006-03-01

    After the outbreak of highly pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) in South Korea in the end of year 2003, estimates of the impact of HPAI in affected countries vary greatly, the total direct losses are about 3 billion US dollars, and it caused 15 million birds and poultry flocks death. It is significant to understand the spatial distribution and transmission characters of HPAI for its prevention and control. According to 50 outbreak cases for HPAI in Chinese mainland during 2004, this paper introduces the approach of spatial distribution and transmission characters for HPAI and its results. Its approach is based on remote sensing and GIS techniques. Its supporting data set involves normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and land surface temperature (Ts) derived from a time-series of remote sensing data of 1 kilometer-resolution NOAA/AVHRR, birds' migration routes, topology geographic map, lake and wetland maps, and meteorological observation data. In order to analyze synthetically using these data, a supporting platform for analysis Avian Influenza epidemic situation (SPAS/AI) was developed. Supporting by SPAS/AI, the integrated information from multi-sources can be easily used to the analysis of the spatial distribution and transmission character of HPAI. The results show that the range of spatial distribution and transmission of HPAI in China during 2004 connected to environment factors NDVI, Ts and the distributions of lake and wetland, and especially to bird migration routes. To some extent, the results provide some suggestions for the macro-decision making for the prevention and control of HPAI in the areas of potential risk and reoccurrence.

  5. Design of Chinese Characters Display System Based on FPGA%基于FPGA的汉字显示系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董莹

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces the basic principles and design method of displaying Chinese characters by Chinese characters display system based on FPCA in 16x16 dot matrix display; expounds design principle of Chinese characters display system based on FPCA, analyzes ways of designing cycle display of Chinese characters with simpler method, combining with an example; finally the Block Diagram / Schematic File and part VHDL source file are given.%文章介绍了FPGA构建的汉字显示系统在16×16点阵显示器上显示汉字的基本原理和系统设计方法;阐述了基于FPGA的汉字显示系统设计的原理,并结合实例分析如何用较为简单的方法设计循环汉字显示;最后给出了Block Diagram/Schematic File和部分VHDL源文件.

  6. 一种振镜扫描汉字激光打标优化算法%Optimization algorithm of galvanometer scanning laser marking for Chinese characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高世一; 许超; 杨永强; 陈和兴

    2014-01-01

    为了提高汉字激光打标效率,结合笔画跟踪算法和贪心算法,给出了一种振镜式汉字激光打标优化算法。该算法首先提取出汉字的连续笔画,然后运用贪心算法获得汉字笔画最优输出路径,最后按最优路径实现激光打标。结果表明,该算法减少了激光大跳跃次数,提高了汉字激光打标效率。%In order to improve the laser marking efficiency , based on the stroke tracking algorithm and the greedy algorithm, an optimum algorithm of galvanometer scanning laser marking for Chinese characters was put forward .Firstly, the continuous strokes of Chinese characters were extracted .Then, the optimal output path of Chinese character strokes was obtained by means of greedy algorithm . Finally laser marking was realized according to the optimal output path . Experimental results show that this algorithm makes the laser jump times decrease and improves the efficiency of Chinese characters laser marking significantly .

  7. Native-Language Phonological Interference in Early Hakka-Mandarin Bilinguals' Visual Recognition of Chinese Two-Character Compounds: Evidence from the Semantic-Relatedness Decision Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shiyu; Ma, Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that, in viewing a visual word, the activated phonological representation in turn activates its homophone, causing semantic interference. Using this mechanism of phonological mediation, this study investigated native-language phonological interference in visual recognition of Chinese two-character compounds by early…

  8. Native-Language Phonological Interference in Early Hakka-Mandarin Bilinguals' Visual Recognition of Chinese Two-Character Compounds: Evidence from the Semantic-Relatedness Decision Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shiyu; Ma, Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that, in viewing a visual word, the activated phonological representation in turn activates its homophone, causing semantic interference. Using this mechanism of phonological mediation, this study investigated native-language phonological interference in visual recognition of Chinese two-character compounds by early…

  9. Kanji Learning Attitudes and Self-Directed Learning by Learners of Japanese as a Foreign Language: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamage, Gayathri Haththotuwa

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal qualitative study investigates how cultural experiences of staying in Japan may affect attitudes and self-directed learning of kanji among learners of Japanese as a foreign language. Six beginner learners pursued semester-long weekly kanji learning sessions and their diachronic behaviours were observed and recorded for attitudes…

  10. Effects of age of acquisition on brain activation during Chinese character recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weekes, Brendan Stuart; Chan, Alice H D; Tan, Li Hai

    2008-01-01

    The age of acquisition of a word (AoA) has a specific effect on brain activation during word identification in English and German. However, the neural locus of AoA effects differs across studies. According to Hernandez and Fiebach [Hernandez, A., & Fiebach, C. (2006). The brain bases of reading late-learned words: Evidence from functional MRI. Visual Cognition, 13(8), 1027-1043], the effects of AoA on brain activation depend on the predictability of the connections between input (orthography) and output (phonology) in a lexical network. We tested this hypothesis by examining AoA effects in a non-alphabetic script with relatively arbitrary mappings between orthography and phonology--Chinese. Our results showed that the effects of AoA in Chinese speakers are located in brain regions that are spatially distinctive including the bilateral middle temporal gyrus and the left inferior parietal cortex. An additional finding was that word frequency had an independent effect on brain activation in the right middle occipital gyrus only. We conclude that spatially distinctive effects of AoA on neural activity depend on the predictability of the mappings between orthography and phonology and reflect a division of labour towards greater lexical-semantic retrieval in non-alphabetic scripts.

  11. 古今文字形体的装饰与美化%The Ornamentation and Beautiifcation of the Forms of Ancient and Modern Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁燕

    2015-01-01

    Compared with alphabetic writing,Chinese traditional character have been pay more attention to the decoration and beautification. Although the means of decoration or degree is differ in different fonts and text at different stages of development, the Chinese people stick to have the most passion for beautifying the Chinese character.%中国传统文字较之拼音文字,更加注重装饰与美化。不同的字体和文字发展的不同阶段,装饰的手段或程度不一,但中国人对文字进行美化的热情却是始终如一的。

  12. Right-sided neglect influences the writing of Kanji: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Meiko; Morii, Sakae; Uesaka, Yoshikazu; Takeda, Katsuhiko

    2009-12-01

    Neglect is the failure to report, respond, or orient to novel or meaningful stimuli presented to the side opposite a brain lesion. Here we describe the case of a 73-year-old woman who experienced a writing deficit in the right-sided component of Kanji letters (morphograms) of the Japanese language. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed an infarction in the left middle temporal and occipital gyrus. The patient wrote recognizable, well-formed but paragraphic Kanji letters in both spontaneous and dictated writing. Most letters are composed of two elements: "hen" (left) and "tsukuri" (right). Neographism in tsukuri was her most frequent error. When she was instructed to answer orally hen and tsukuri, she made more mistakes related to tsukuri than to hen. Unilateral spatial neglect in memory or imagery was reported. We concluded that unilaterally disrupted processing of internal representations affected the writing of Kanji letters in this patient.

  13. A Case of Anoxic Brain Injury Presenting with Agraphia of kanji in the Foreground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasutaka Kobayashi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A 63-year-old woman was hospitalized for rehabilitation from the aftereffects of an anoxic brain injury. In addition to a general cognitive decline, agraphia of kana and kanji was noted at the time of admission, which had advanced to agraphia which is dominant in kanji at the time of hospital discharge. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed no stroke lesions, and brain perfusion scintigraphy found a decreased blood flow in the bilateral parietal lobes. We hereby report on this case because case reports on agraphia caused by anoxic brain injury are extremely rare.

  14. 论形声字的来源及其产生的层次性%On the Source and the Levels of the Chinese Pictophonetic Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭霞

    2012-01-01

    形声字是汉字系统中能产性最强的一种字形结构,从甲骨丈的27%、两汉时期的82.3%到唐宋以后的94%以上,其比例不断增加。之所以有这么大的比例,是由于形声字经历了四个阶段和以象形字、指事字、会意字、旧形声字、假借字和通假字为源头发展来的。绝大多数形声字并不是同时组合形符和声符而形成的,往往是先有形符后加声符或者先有声符后加形符构成,这说明形声字内部形符和声符的产生过程具有明显的层次性。汉字发展的历史证明,汉字形声化过程从先秦就开始了,并非传统认为的从秦汉开始。汉字形声化就是制造形声字的过程,用了加形符、加声符、替换形符、替换声符、改变造字法、同时组合形符和声符以及组合原来同一对异体形声字七种方法。%The Chinese pictophonetic characters are the most productive in Chinese characters system, with an increasing rate from 27% in the oracle-bone characters to 82. 3% in the Han Dynasty and to the more than 94% in the Song dynasty. The reason why such a large proportion is due to the pictophonetic characters gone through four stages, and developed from the pietophonetie characters, the self-explanatory characters, the associative eharaeters, the old pictophonetic characters, the phonetic loan eharacters and the interchangeability of Chinese characters. The most pietophonetic characters are not the same combination of the pictogram and the phonetic element, but often the formation of a Chinese eharaeter is done by adding a phonetic element on a pietogram or adding a pietogram on a phonetic element, which indicates that the productive progress of the pictogram and phonetic element has an obvious hierarchy. The development of Chinese characters proves that the process of Chinese pietophonetic characters started from the pre-Qin days (before 221 BC), not from the Qin and Han Dynasty that is a

  15. Theoretical Errors and Evidence Defects of the Viewpoint of "Learning Chinese-character is Easy"%“汉字易学”论的理论偏差与证据缺陷

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨烈祥

    2012-01-01

    Properly treating and understanding characters and Chinese is of great theoretical sense to literacy teaching.The view of learning Chinese-character easily,which criticizes the view of learning Chinese-character difficultly,and remains its foundation of Chinese-character in national language,is extremeness in theory.The view of "Learning Chinese-character is easy",based on the theory of Chinese-character-oriented,obliterates the differences between Chinese-character and Chinese,confuses the concepts of language and writing system,and ignores the fact that character is the sign of Chinese in nature.The view of equating language acquisition and literacy teaching and learning violates the fundamental theories of language acquisition,hindering both Chinese recognition and Chinese teaching.%正确对待和认识汉语和汉字在语文教学中有重要理论意义。"汉字易学"论批评了"汉字难学"谬论,维持了汉字在民族语言中的基础地位,但在理论上又走向了另一个极端。"汉字易学"论以字本位为理论基础,抹杀了汉字和汉语的区别,混淆了语言系统和文字系统两个概念,否定了汉字本质上是记录语言的符号。"汉字易学"论缺乏必要的理论基础,将语言习得等同于语文教学,违背了语言习得基本理论,既不利于汉字和汉语本身的认识,也不利于语文教学。

  16. Influence of Chinese Character Learning Combined with Dongba Pictograph on Children's Chinese Orthographic Acquisition%结合东巴文学习汉字对幼儿汉字字形记忆的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娟; 张积家; 谢书书; 袁爱玲

    2011-01-01

    采用任务分离范式考察汉字学习的三种方式一只学习汉字、结合图画学习汉字、结合东巴文学习汉字对幼儿汉字字形记忆的影响.实验1采用再认任务考察学习方式对汉字字形外显记忆的影响,分为学习、干扰、即时测试和延迟测试4个阶段.80名幼儿被分配进汉字组、东巴文组、东巴文-汉字组和图画-汉字组,并接受统一的教学指导语.结果表明,无论是即时测试还是延迟测试,东巴文-汉字组的再认成绩均显著好于图画-汉字组和汉字组;即时测试的再认成绩均好于延迟测试;名词的再认成绩均好于动词.实验2采用偏好判断任务考察学习方式对汉字字形内隐记忆的影响.结果表明,无论是即时测试还是延时测试,东巴文-汉字组的内隐启动量均显著大于其他各组;即时测试与延迟测试的内隐启动量无显著差异;名词的内隐启动量显著大于动词.整个研究表明,东巴文对幼儿的汉字字形记忆具有明显的促进作用.所以如此,既与东巴文的象形和表意性质有关,也与东巴文与汉字的结构相似有关,还与幼儿的认知特点有关.%A lot of achievements have been made in the field of young children's Chinese character learning. Most research focused on the perspective of cognition and empirical approaches, while little research has highlighted the perspective of application. Research has indicated that recognition of the orthographies of Chinese characters is the key to learn Chinese. But the abstract Chinese's orthographic knowledge can't be directly taught because of children's undeveloped cognitive ability. Chinese learning combined with pictures is one of the most popular methods to be used. However, it is not quite clear how strong the auxiliary function is. Dongba pictograph has similar characteristics of Chinese characters and pictures to some extent. It is suggested that Dongba pictograph may contribute to children

  17. Empirical study of Kanji as archetypal images: understanding the collective unconscious as part of the Japanese language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotirova-Kohli, Milena; Rosen, David H; Smith, Steven M; Henderson, Patti; Taki-Reece, Sachiko

    2011-02-01

    Chinese characters originated as a semiotic system independent from spoken language and in the Japanese language they function non-phonetically with speakers exhibiting right-hemispheric advantage in their processing. We tested the hypothesis that Chinese characters are archetypal images and therefore part of our collective unconscious memory. Our study builds on the first empirical study of archetypal memory of Rosen et al. (1991) which demonstrated that archetypal symbols presented matched with their correct meaning were better learned and recalled. In a series of three experiments we used 40 Chinese characters instead of the archetypal symbols used by Rosen, et al. (1991). The results provided empirical evidence that Chinese characters matched with their correct meaning were significantly better recalled than the ones that were mismatched. Thus, we demonstrated that there appears to be unconscious knowledge of the meaning of the Chinese characters which was triggered as a result of priming when the characters were correctly matched with their meaning. On this basis, we suggest that Chinese characters exhibit the same cognitive qualities as archetypal symbols. Thus, in the Japanese language an archetypal image is integrated non-phonetically into the system of language and signifies the concept independent from the phonetic signifier and is equal to it.

  18. Rebounding Activation Caused by Lexical Homophony in the Processing of Japanese Two-Kanji Compound Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaoka, Katsuo

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of lexical homophony on the processing of Japanese two-kanji compound words. Experiment 1 showed that participants took longer to perform lexical decisions for words with a high degree of lexical homophony than those with no homophony. Interestingly, the same inhibitory trend was found in the naming task…

  19. Bit-Vector Search Filtering with Application to a Kanji Dictionary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skala, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    dimensionality in geometric problems also causes their query languages to become expressive and inefficient. The IDSgrep kanji dictionary software approaches a highly expressive tree-matching query problem with a filtering technique set in 128-bit Hamming space. It can be a model for other highly expressive...

  20. An Analysis of the Efficiency of Existing Kanji Indexes and Development of a Coding-based Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina N. VOROBEVA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the problems faced by learners of Japanese from non-kanji background, the present paper discusses the characteristics of 15 existing kanji dictionary indexes. In order to compare the relative efficiency of these indexes, the concept of selectivity is defined, and the selectivity coefficient of the kanji indexes is computed and compared. Furthermore, new indexes developed by the present authors and based on an alphabetical code, a symbol code, a semantic code, and a radical and stroke number code are presented and their use and efficiency are explained.

  1. DYNAMIC GENERATION AND EDITING SYSTEM FOR WRONGLY WRITTEN CHINESE CHARACTER FONT%汉字错字字形动态生成和编辑系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓; 栗青生

    2015-01-01

    The uniqueness of Chinese makes the Chinese language become a hot topic in language learning at present.In view of the teaching problem of wrongly written characters in Chinese language teaching,we provide a simple,convenient and efficient typewriting of wrongly written character,design and realise a dynamic generation and editing system for wrongly written Chinese character font,which solves the problems of real-time editing,coding and inputting of wrongly written character in editing process using dynamic editing technology,and provides a convenient input method of wrongly written character for editing,printing,typesetting and the research of digital Chinese language teaching.This method can also be used in dynamic editing,generation and processing of the fonts including ancient books’variants,oracle bone script,bronze inscriptions and folk combined characters,etc.%汉语的独特性使得汉语成为当今语言学习的一大热点。针对当前汉语教学中出现的汉字错字方面的教学问题,提供一种简单、方便、高效的错字输入法并设计实现了汉字错字字形动态生成与编辑系统,该系统使用动态编辑技术解决了编辑过程中错字的实时编辑、编码和输入的问题,为错字的编辑、印刷和排版及数字化汉语教学研究提供了一种方便的错字输入方法。此方法还可用于古籍异体字、甲骨文、金文、民俗拼合字等字形的动态编辑、生成与处理。

  2. The Application Analysis of Chinese Characters in Modern Logo Design%汉字在现代标志设计中的应用性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关晓琳

    2011-01-01

    中国的汉字延续了几千年,历经许多阶段,具有独特的视觉魅力。汉字作为造型元素运用在标志设计中,可以利用图形的意向性来传达丰富的信息,突显感人的艺术魅力。随着时代的发展,汉字必将以其独特的魅力,在标志设计中充当重要角色。%Chinese characters have developed for thousands of years,through many stages,and have a unique visual appeal.Chinese characters can be used as form elements in logo design,graphics intention can be used to convey a lot of information,to highlight the impressive artistic charm.As time goes,the unique charm of Chinese characters is bound to play an important role in logo design.

  3. On Chinese Characters in Meiji Japanese and Japanese Self-recognition%明治日本的汉字观与日本人的自我认识

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩冰

    2012-01-01

    汉字最初传到日本之时作为象征神圣与权威的事物被日本人民所崇拜。然而到了近代特别是明治时期以来众多的知识分子却提出了以废除汉字为主的汉字观,并开展了盛极一时的汉字废除运动。明治知识分子的这种汉字观是受国学者及水户学者的影响而发展起来的自国优越思想。明治时期的汉字认识过程实际上就是自我身份构建的过程,既自我认识的过程。%The Chinese character was considered as holy and authoritative thing worshipped by Japanese people when it was originally introduced into Japan. However, since modern times, especially Meiji Time, numerous Japanese intellectuals put forward a viewpoint on Chinese characters which focused on abolishing Chinese characters in Japanese and developed Chinese abolishment movement which prevailed for a long time. Influenced by Kokugaku scholars and Mito scholars, the intellectuals developed the viewpoint from the thoughts that Japan was superior to other countries. The process of Chinese recognition in Meiji Time was actually the process of identity construction, namely, the process of self-recognition.

  4. Inquiry on Chinese and Japanese isomorph synonyms, homonyms--With diversity of semantic deviation and Chinese characters meaning relevance of Chinese characters meaning change as the center%汉日同形类义词、同形异义词探究--以语义偏差与汉字字义的多样性、汉字意义变迁的关联性为中心

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张腾飞

    2014-01-01

    China and Japan are neighbors. Ancient Japanese culture is largely due to the Chinese cultural absorption and fusion. Chinese characters, law system, Buddhism are the main contents of China Japanese learning. China and Japan are two countries belong to the Chinese characters cultural circle, there are a lot of Chinese characters of homographs in both languages. The same form of synonyms, homographs for China Japanese learners both Chinese characters of intimacy, also because of the interference of mother tongue, make wrong judgment. This article mainly from the diversity of semantic deviation and Chinese characters meaning relevance of Chinese characters meaning change, provides the reference for the teaching and learning of homographs in China and Japan.%中日两国是一衣带水的邻邦。古代日本文化很大程度上得益于对中国文化的吸收和融合。汉字、律令制度、佛教等是日本学习中国的主要内容。中日两国均属于汉字文化圈,两国语言中存在大量的汉字同形词。同形词中的同形类义词、同形异义词对于中国的日语学习者来说既有汉字的亲切感,又会因为母语的干扰,做出错误的判断。本文主要从语义偏差与汉字字义的多样性、汉字意义变迁的关联性出发探究汉日同形词,为汉日同形词的学习与教学提供参考。

  5. Functional and anatomical dissociation between the orthographic lexicon and the orthographic buffer revealed in reading and writing Chinese characters by fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiang-Yu; Chang, Erik C; Chen, Sinead H Y; Lin, Yi-Chen; Wu, Denise H

    2016-04-01

    The contribution of orthographic representations to reading and writing has been intensively investigated in the literature. However, the distinction between neuronal correlates of the orthographic lexicon and the orthographic (graphemic) buffer has rarely been examined in alphabetic languages and never been explored in non-alphabetic languages. To determine whether the neural networks associated with the orthographic lexicon and buffer of logographic materials are comparable to those reported in the literature, the present fMRI experiment manipulated frequency and the stroke number of Chinese characters in the tasks of form judgment and stroke judgment, which emphasized the processing of character recognition and writing, respectively. It was found that the left fusiform gyrus exhibited higher activation when encountering low-frequency than high-frequency characters in both tasks, which suggested this region to be the locus of the orthographic lexicon that represents the knowledge of character forms. On the other hand, the activations in the posterior part of the left middle frontal gyrus and in the left angular gyrus were parametrically modulated by the stroke number of target characters only in the stroke judgment task, which suggested these regions to be the locus of the orthographic buffer that represents the processing of stroke sequence in writing. These results provide the first evidence for the functional and anatomical dissociation between the orthographic lexicon and buffer in reading and writing Chinese characters. They also demonstrate the critical roles of the left fusiform area and the frontoparietal network to the long-term and short-term representations of orthographic knowledge, respectively, across different orthographies.

  6. The Visual Display of the Evolution Processof the Chinese Characters for Bilingual Teachingin Ethnic Minorities%少数民族双语教学中汉字字形演变过程的可视化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵慧臣; 曹亚辉; 李彦奇; 唐名洋

    2015-01-01

    In the bilingual teaching for minority, the students grasp the way of writing Chinese characters, after watching the shape evolution of Chinese characters’s font; experience the word meaning in context by analyzing the shape evolution of Chinese characters; promote the life application of characters by judging the shape evolution of Chinese characters; appreciate cultural implications of Chinese characters by exchanging the shape evolution of Chinese characters. In the current study, the multimedia technology applied in Chinese characters teaching can provide theoretical guidance; computer graphics technology can provide technical support for Chinese characters research; visualization techniques for teaching Chinese characters can provide reference cases. The visual display of the evolution process of the Chinese characters for bilingual teaching in ethnic minorities includes: select the appropriate characters which are suitable for visual presentations; decompose the evolution process of Chinese characters to reflect the transformation and development of Chinese characters; show the evolution process of Chinese characters through using appropriate visualization techniques, conduct visual teaching to make the evolution of Chinese characters’ font exert largest effect. Flash has advantages in the visual display of the evolution process of Chinese characters for bilingual teaching in ethnic minorities, which can process visual effects of the shape evolution of the taking an example of historical shaped evolution of the Chinese characters horse.%少数民族双语教学中,学生通过观看汉字的字形演变过程,把握汉字的写作方式;通过分析汉字的字形演变过程,体验字意的来龙去脉;通过判断汉字的字形演变过程,促进汉字的生活应用;通过交流汉字的字形演变过程,感悟汉字的文化意蕴。在现有研究中,多媒体技术应用于汉字教学研究提供了理论指导,计算机图

  7. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    “木” mu (wood) has been variously represented as “■ ”“■,” “木 ” and “木 ” throughout history.“ - ” symbolizes branches, “(?) ” a tree trunk, and “(?)” its roots, all three forming a tree. In China, talent is often likened to a tree. There is an old saying, “It takes ten years to grow a tree, but one hundred years to establish a people.” “木” is a component of constructions such as “木材” mucai(timber) “木工” mu gong(woodworker) and “木匠” mujiang (carpenter).

  8. Functional Anatomy of Recognition of Chinese Multi-Character Words: Convergent Evidence from Effects of Transposable Nonwords, Lexicality, and Word Frequency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Lin

    Full Text Available This fMRI study aimed to identify the neural mechanisms underlying the recognition of Chinese multi-character words by partialling out the confounding effect of reaction time (RT. For this purpose, a special type of nonword-transposable nonword-was created by reversing the character orders of real words. These nonwords were included in a lexical decision task along with regular (non-transposable nonwords and real words. Through conjunction analysis on the contrasts of transposable nonwords versus regular nonwords and words versus regular nonwords, the confounding effect of RT was eliminated, and the regions involved in word recognition were reliably identified. The word-frequency effect was also examined in emerged regions to further assess their functional roles in word processing. Results showed significant conjunctional effect and positive word-frequency effect in the bilateral inferior parietal lobules and posterior cingulate cortex, whereas only conjunctional effect was found in the anterior cingulate cortex. The roles of these brain regions in recognition of Chinese multi-character words were discussed.

  9. Functional Anatomy of Recognition of Chinese Multi-Character Words: Convergent Evidence from Effects of Transposable Nonwords, Lexicality, and Word Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Nan; Yu, Xi; Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Mingxia

    2016-01-01

    This fMRI study aimed to identify the neural mechanisms underlying the recognition of Chinese multi-character words by partialling out the confounding effect of reaction time (RT). For this purpose, a special type of nonword-transposable nonword-was created by reversing the character orders of real words. These nonwords were included in a lexical decision task along with regular (non-transposable) nonwords and real words. Through conjunction analysis on the contrasts of transposable nonwords versus regular nonwords and words versus regular nonwords, the confounding effect of RT was eliminated, and the regions involved in word recognition were reliably identified. The word-frequency effect was also examined in emerged regions to further assess their functional roles in word processing. Results showed significant conjunctional effect and positive word-frequency effect in the bilateral inferior parietal lobules and posterior cingulate cortex, whereas only conjunctional effect was found in the anterior cingulate cortex. The roles of these brain regions in recognition of Chinese multi-character words were discussed.

  10. 从语言学多维度解析中国汉字%From the linguistics multidimensional analyze Chinese characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周圆

    2014-01-01

    汉字发展历史悠久,构词方法多样,分为象形、指事、会意、形声、假借、转注六类。针对于这六类汉字,本文从认知语言学、社会语言学、语用学、形态语言学多维度展开语言研究,对汉字所体现的语言文化进行剖析,探寻不同语种的相通性。%Chinese has a long history of development, diversity of word-formation methods, divided into pictographic, self-explanatory, knowing, echoism, under the guise of, transfer six classes. In these six kinds of Chinese characters, from the cognitive linguistics, sociolinguistics, pragmatics, multi-dimensional form linguistics, this paper studies the language, to analyzes the language and culture of embodied in the Chinese characters, explore the many differences of different languages.

  11. 浅论庞德《诗章》中的汉字%The Chinese Characters in Ezra Pound’s The Cantos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙宇

    2015-01-01

    Pound was greatly influenced by oriental cultures, including the Chinese culture, so some Chinese characters with their profound connotations are found in many places in his The Cantos. The paper seeks to expound the role of these Chinese characters in helping to form Pound’s poetics and in presenting the Confucian ideas to the West.%诗人庞德深受东方文化的影响,他的《诗章》中随处可见中国汉字。在庞德眼中,汉字是诗化的语言,在诗歌创作方面给了他许多启示。从意象说到漩涡说,再到意符方法,无不反映出庞德对中国汉字和古诗的发掘与吸收。庞德还借助汉字独有感染力,以期达到向西方世界传达儒家思想的目的。

  12. Application of Chinese Character in Signage System Design%浅谈汉字在导向设计中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋艳

    2015-01-01

    随着社会的飞速发展,城市的规模越来越大,人们的生活环境变得复合化,导向设计的重要性也就更受到社会的关注。汉字作为中国的应用文字,在导向设计中的应用越来越广泛,设计师应在迅速发展的社会背景下科学地把文字应用到导向设计中去。%With the rapid expansion of modern city, people′s living environment becomes more and more com-plex.Therefore the signage system design attracts social attention gradually.As the format of Chinese language, Chi-nese characters are more widely used in the signage system design.But how to scientifically apply Chinese characters into design is a question worthy of designers′consideration.

  13. Insights of Chinese Character "Touch" Charm from the Mind View%从物象思维中感悟汉字的“触觉”魅力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王汀

    2012-01-01

    It analyzed the construction principle of Chinese character and the real meaning of human culture.In the view of mind views to find Chinese character "touch",the feasibility of "real" character in Chinese character design was further investigated.In addition,it studied the close relationship between Chinese character construction,natural environments and human culture and happy life,in purpose of leading more Chinese characters to have feasibility and "touch".%分析了汉字的构字原理与人文内涵的实质意义,从物象思维中发现汉字的"可触性"为切入点,进而分析了汉字在"实体"创意设计中的汉字造型设计的可行性。并论述了汉字造型与自然环境、人文因素以及快乐生活之间存在着不可分割的密切联系,目的是让更多的汉字具备设计活性与"可触性"。

  14. Penelitian Keefektivitasan Pembelajaran Kanji Bahasa Jepang menggunakan Mobile Phone Berbasis Android dan Ios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adithya Pratama

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to explore the effectiveness in learning Japanese Kanji by mobile phone, compared with learning by books. The research is conducted on two groups given same learning materials on different instructional media. The research methodology is literature study, data analysis, system design, and implementation. The test result shos that there is no significant difference in learning performance between the group using mobile phone and the group using book. 

  15. 追溯汉字文化 提升识字品味%Tracing Back to the Culture of Chinese Characters to Improve Students Taste of Recognizing Words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡美珍

    2012-01-01

    Chinese characters are the very perfection of the wisdom of the Chinese nation. They bear a heavy history and a rich cultural heritage. Tracing back to the origin of Chinese characters allows students to know about them, interpret them, and enjoy them in the rich culture of Chinese characters. It also allows students to feel the bril- liant language, culture and civilization of our country%汉字,是中华民族智慧的结晶。它承载着厚重的历史,蕴含着深厚的文化积淀。追溯汉字文化渊源,可以让学生在丰厚的汉字文化气场中认识汉字、理解汉字、享受汉字,近距离地感受祖国灿烂的文字、文化、文明。

  16. Energy and environmental assessments of bioethanol production from Sri Kanji 1 cassava in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hanif

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the Malaysia’s biofuel policy, renewable fuels are crucial for energy sustainability in the transportation sector in the future. This study was aimed to evaluate the potential of bioethanol production from Sri Kanji 1 cassava in Malaysia in terms of energy efficiency and renewability, as well to estimate the potential greenhouse gas (GHG emissions reduction in CO2 equivalent. Bioethanol production process from cassava includes cassava farming, ethanol production, and transportation in which the primary energy consumption was considered. The Net Energy Balance (NEB and Net Energy Ratio (NER of 25.68 MJ/L and 3.98, respectively, indicated that bioethanol production from Sri Kanji 1 cassava in Malaysia was energy efficient. From the environmental perspective, the GHG balance results revealed that the production and distribution of 1 L of Cassava Fuel Ethanol (CFE could reduce GHG emissions by 73.2%. Although found promising in the present study, Sri Kanji 1 cassava as bioethanol feedstock should be further investigated by constructing an actual ethanol plant to obtain real life data.

  17. 汉字文化圈与辞书编纂%The Cultural Circle of Chinese Characters and the Compilation of Dictionaries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐时仪

    2015-01-01

    汉字曾是东亚地区的通用文字,形成汉字文化圈,汉语辞书也在汉字文化圈流传,传播到东亚各国甚至欧美。朝鲜辞书往往以《玉篇》、《字林》和《字典》命名,日本辞书也往往以《尔雅》、《释名》、《玉篇》、《字林》命名。文明间的交流常常是双向的,甚至是多向度的,日本辞书对我国辞书的编纂也有影响。汉字文化圈中各地区受不同文化背景和政治实体的影响,存在着一些词语的地域变体。编纂旨在描写各地区汉语使用情况的语文辞书有裨于汉字文化圈的交流,体现汉语的凝聚力和向心力。%Chinese characters were the common language in East Asia, which formed the cultural circle of Chinese characters. The Chinese dictionaries were also spread in the circle and East Asian countries and even to Europe and the United States. Korean dictionaries tend to name dictionaries as"玉篇","字林"or"字典", while Japanese dictionaries tend to name dictionaries as"尔雅","释名", "玉篇", or "字林". Cultural exchange is often bidirectional, and even multidimensional. Japanese dictionaries also have an impact on Chinese dictionary compilation. The various regions in the cultural circle are affected by different cultural backgrounds and political entities, and there are also local variants of some words. The compilation of Chinese dictionaries intended to describe the language usage of Chinese in various areas should benefit communication in the cultural circle, reflecting the Chinese cohesion and centripetal force.

  18. 文化与对外汉语教学中汉字的教学%Culture and the Teaching of Chinese Characters in Teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温可佳

    2016-01-01

    传统的以语言技能为重心的对外汉语教学已经不能适应新形势的需要,对外汉语教学的目的是培养学习者的交际能力,而不同文化圈的交际活动便形成了跨文化交际行为,因此文化教学成为了对外汉语教学中必不可少的一部分。文化参与汉字教学的方式:字形文化结合,培养兴趣;汉字结构讲解,文化引导;讲述汉字故事,寓教于乐;多种方式练习,预防枯燥。%In the traditional way of Chinese teaching method focusing on language skills cannot meet the needs of the new situation. The aim of teaching Chinese as the second language is to cultivate students' communicative competence. The communication in different cultural circles lead to intercultural communication, so culture teaching has become an essential part of teaching Chinese as the second language. The ways of culture participation in Chinese character teaching are: combining font and culture to cultivate interest; interpreting Chinese characters’ structure to lead in culture; telling the story of Chinese characters to teach through entertainment and practicing in different ways to prevent boredom.

  19. We Have It too: A Strategy Which Helps to Grasp the Japanese Writing System for Students from Outside of the Chinese Character Cultural Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej BEKEŠ

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available For beginner learners with non-Chinese character background complexities of Japanese writing system often represent an insurmountable obstacle. Yet closer look at different types of writing systems reveals that differences between them are more of a degree than of a kind. Present paper, based on this perception, argues for the employment of strategies based on a transfer of analogies between alphabet based writing systems such as English, to Japanese writing system. This would help beginner learners overcome cognitive and affective blockade, when beginning to learn Japanese writing.

  20. 基于字序列标注的中文关键词抽取研究%Research on Chinese Keywords Extraction Based on Characters Sequence Annotation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昊; 邓三鸿; 苏新宁

    2011-01-01

    以某大学图书馆的所有馆藏书目为研究对象,在对图书关键词标引信息进行分析的基础上,总结中文关键词的基本特点及其抽取规律,构建一个基于字序列标注的中文关键词抽取模型,提出中文关键词抽取的基础思路和实现方案,并通过实验论证模型的合理性、正确性和实用性,认为字序列标注方法优于词序列标注,基本上可以解决不分词情况下的中文关键词抽取问题。%Based on the whole Chinese booklist of a certain university library as well as the analysis of its book indexing information, the paper summarizes the features and extracting laws of Chinese keywords, and establishes a Chinese key- words extraction model based on characters sequence annotation, which proposes the basic idea and implementation scheme for extracting keywords. It verifies the feasibility, rationality and practicality of the model by large - scale experiments, and basically solves the problems of Chinese keywords extraction without executing words segmentation, which shows that characters sequence annotation is better than words sequence annotation.

  1. Effect of Word Segmentation Cues on Japanese-Chinese Bilingual's Chinese Reading:Evidence from Eye Movements%词切分对日-汉双语者汉语阅读影响的眼动研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白学军; 郭志英; 顾俊娟; 曹玉肖; 闫国利

    2011-01-01

    Unlike alphabetic scripts, such as English, the vast majority of written languages have no space information to delimit words, for example Chinese and Japanese. Chinese text is written without spaces between successive characters or words. There is no obvious visual cue to demarcate words except punctuation marks. Given this, it is intriguing how readers target their saccades and how words are recognized during Chinese reading for Chinese people and Chinese language learners.Bai et al. (2009) investigated how American international students read Chinese sentences with or without spaces. English, which was the participants' mother's language, has interword spaces in the text. Four spacing conditions were included in the experiment: normal unspaced condition; single character spaced condition (text with spaces between every character); word spaced condition (text with spaces between words); and nonword spaced condition (text with spaces between characters that yielded nonwords). The results suggested that American readers' Chinese reading was facilitated under the word segmentation condition compared to the normal condition because they have no unspaced text reading experience, thus the spaces could help with word segmentation during Chinese reading. Therefore, it is considered that the experience of reading text with visual segmentation cues plays an important role during Chinese reading for people who learn Chinese as a second language as Li et al. (2010) suggested.Typical Japanese text is a mixture of Kanji, Hiragana & Katakana. There is no interword spacing in ordinary Japanese script. However, Japanese readers are, to some extent, used to interword spacing, as children are initially taught to read spaced Hiragana to aid learning. Sainio, Hyona, Bingushi, & Bertram (2007) investigated the role of interword spacing in pure Hiragana and mixed Kanji-Hiragana text. The results indicated that interword spacing served as an effective segmentation cue during Hiragana

  2. 汉字形声字声旁的语义加工%Semantic Processing of Phonetic Radicals in Reading Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓林; WilliamMarslen-Wilson

    2002-01-01

    Most complex Chinese characters are composed of a semantic radical on the left and a phonetic radical on the right, which may provide information concerning the pronunciation of the whole character. A semantic judgement task was used to investigate whether sublexical processing of phonetic radicals embedded in complex characters is purely a phonological event, involving activation of phonological information associated with the phonetic radicals, or whether it is also a semantic event, involving activation of semantic properties related to the radicals, which are meaningful characters on their own. Significant inhibitory effects was found for complex characters whose phonetic radicals were semantically related to the other member of the consecutively presented pair of characters. The magnitude of the inhibitory effects was generally not influenced by the regularity of phonetic radicals in providing phonological information for the whole characters, nor by the presentation order of complex characters and semantic associates of the phonetic radicals. It is argued that, in reading Chinese, phonetic radicals embedded in complex characters are decomposed from visual input and used to activate their own phonological and semantic properties, in parallel to the processing of whole characters.%作为汉字书写系统和意义表达基本单位的汉字可分为独体字(占5%)和合体字(占95%)两大类.绝大多数合体字由两部分组成:义旁(通常在左边)和声旁(通常在右边).声旁能够为这些合体字提供语音信息.根据声旁的读音与整字的读音是否一致,可把合体字分为规则字和不规则字.本研究的目的在于考察合体字声旁的亚词汇加工是否仅仅是一个纯粹的语音事件,只涉及声旁的语音加工,还是同时也是一个语义事件,涉及到声旁语义信息的激活.要求被试对屏幕上先后呈现的合体字(如"冯")和与其声旁语义相关的字("牛")作语义相关判断.整字之

  3. PHONOLOGICAL ACTIVATION AND REPRESENTATION OF CHINESE CHARACTERS (Ⅰ)--THE CHARACTER-LEVEL AND SUB-CHARACTER-LEVEL PHONOLOGIES AND THEIR INTERACTION%汉字阅读中语音的通达与表征(Ⅰ)——字水平与亚字水平的语音及其交互作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    该文探讨了汉字语音激活的多层次性、普遍性、整字与声旁语音激活资源之间的交互作用等问题。以启动-命名为实验范式,结果表明:在汉字加工早期,汉字的语音得到了显著激活,而且这一激活发生在整字和声旁两个水平、高频和低频两种汉字中;整字与声旁的语音激活存在交互作用,而该交互作用受到整字与声旁的相对频率的影响。根据实验结果,该文提出:汉字整字和声旁的语音激活之间遵循“整字优先”和“高频优先”的原则交互作用。%One experiment was conducted to probe the following issues: (1). Is the phonological processing in Chinese character identification a multi-level (character level and sub-character level) activation processing? (2). Whether the multi-level phonological processing is general in both high and low frequency character identification; (3). How is the interaction of phonological activation of character level and sub-character level? Using W+, W+ C+, W+ C-, W-C+ and W-C- as primes and naming as task, at 3 kinds of SOA (57ms, 85ms & 143ms), the experiment results showed that, at the early stage of character identification, both high and low frequency primes showed priming effect. At 57ms SOA, the primes showed significant priming effect on target identification, and both the whole characters and their phonetics contributed to the priming effects. The interaction between whole characters and their phonetics was determined by their related frequency, and we assumed that the interaction was run by the principles of “whole characters dominating” and “high frequency dominating”.

  4. 高师古汉语象形会意构形特征教学新探索%On Chinese Character Building Features of Pictograph and Combined Meaning in Semiotic Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李振中

    2014-01-01

    象形和会意是汉字符号的两种基本构形方法。象形法的构形结果是具象符号,通称象形字;会意法的构形结果是意合符号,通称会意字。两种方法的构形特征既有内在联系又有本质区别。构形特征主要体现在符号构形的结构特点、符号构形的思维特点以及符号构形的文化特点等方面。%Pictograph and combined meaning are two ways of the six categories of Chinese character formation.Pictographic characters are results of the figurative symbols and combined meaning characters are the results of the combined meaning sym-bols.The two ways to Chinese character building have some intrinsic relations,while at the same time,they have some intrin-sic differences.The Chinese character building features are embodied in the structure,thinking and culture of Chinese character building.All this has been studied in this article in a modern semiotic perspective.

  5. 从语源学的角度看日语中的汉字词汇%Chinese Characters in JapaneseFrom the Perspective of Etymology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚越

    2015-01-01

    中国的古典文化对日本文化产生了深刻的影响,日语中存在着大量的汉字词汇。近年来,日语学习者的数量不断增加,在日语学习中,语源学习法变得越来越重要。所谓语源学习法就是探索词源,将单词包含的意义和词源结合在一起进行学习的方法,这种学习方法在日语学习特别是在汉字词汇的学习方面十分有效。%China's classical culture had a profound impacton Japanese culture, there are a lot of Chinese characters vocabulary in Japanese. In recent years, the number of Japanese language learners is increasing, etymologylearninghas become increasingly important. The so-called learning is to explore the etymology, learning methodcontained in the combination ofthe meaning and etymology of words, this method of learning is very effective in Japanese language learning, especially in Chinese characters vocabularylearning.

  6. Exploration on the Feasibility of Children's Chinese Character Education as the Medium of Pictographic%以象形字为媒介的幼儿汉字教育可行性之探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘洋

    2012-01-01

    Thousands of years, Chinese children's character education has been limited to the traditional literacy education. To young children, it ignores the influence of Chinese culture and the guidelines of the national spirit. This paper discusses the Chinese characters into words rules and characteristics of the development of children's body and mind, sums up to pie- tographic as the medium to children on Chinese character education is feasible, strengthen the public education of young children to the attention of the Chinese characters, so that to species the seed of love to Chinese nation and traditional culture in the children's heart.%千百年来,中国幼儿的汉字教育一直囿于传统的识字教育之中,忽视了对幼儿进行中国文化的熏陶、民族精神的指引。文章通过探讨汉字的成字规律和儿童身心发展的特点、总结以象形字为媒介对儿童进行汉字教育的可行性,强化大众对幼儿汉字教育的重视,在儿童心中种下热爱中华民族传统文化的种子。

  7. Chinese Calligraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This unit is designed to introduce secondary or post-secondary students to the ancient art of Chinese calligraphy through step-by-step instructions on writing Chinese characters. Because each character is made up of a series of single brush strokes, it is believed that if students learn to recognize these as components of completed characters, the…

  8. AN INPUT AND DISPLAY METHOD FOR OUT-OF-FONT CHINESE CHARACTERS BASED ON DYNAMIC DESCRIPTION LIBRARY%一种基于动态描述库的集外汉字输入和显示方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴琴霞; 栗青生

    2014-01-01

    We present a method to input and display the out-of-font Chinese characters supernumerary to computer system font in order to meet the need of informatisation development in Chinese language characters.The method first makes the vector description on some of the character glyphs to generate a dynamic description library, in the process of inputting the out-of-font Chinese characters the dynamic descrip-tion library is used as a bridge, through the operation of dynamic description library the users can design and output various kinds of Chinese characters according to their own intention, including the ancient writings, variant characters, wrongly written characters and compound char-acters, etc.This method also effectively solves the difficulties in dynamic glyphs editing and character glyphs transformation existed due to using the outline glyphs description.%提出一种计算机系统字库中没有的集外字输入和显示的方法,以解决汉语言文字信息化发展的需要。该方法首先对一些字形进行矢量描述生成动态描述库,在集外字的输入过程中以动态描述库为桥梁,通过对动态描述库的操作,用户可以按照自己的意愿来设计和输出各种汉字,包括古文字、异体字,和错别字以及合体字等。该方法还有效地解决了由于使用轮廓字形描述而存在的字形动态编辑和字形变换的困难。

  9. UTILIZING PHONOLOGICAL CUES IN CHINESE CHARACTERS: A DEVELOPMENTAL STUDY%儿童汉字读音声旁一致性意识的发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒华; 武宁宁; 周晓林

    2000-01-01

    Phonetic radicals in Chinese characters can provide cues for the pronunciation of whole characters. These cues can be consistent, making all the characters containing a particular radical to be pronounced in the same way. They can also be inconsistent, allowing characters containing the same radical to be pronounced in different ways. This study investigated school children's awareness of orthographic structure and the use of phonological cues of phonetic radicals. Subjects were asked to judge whether two characters having the same phonetic radical were homophones. In each pair, the first character was a familiar character while the second one was a new character. In guessing the pronunciation of the second character and making judgement, children had to be aware of the orthographic structure of the familiar and new characters and use their knowledge about the phonological value of the phonetic radical. It was found that children's judgement was influenced by the consistency of phonetic radicals in providing phonological cues to the whole characters. Pairs containing consistent radicals were less likely to be judged as non-homophones than pairs containing inconsistent radicals. This effect was more pronounced as children were getting older.%采用同音判断的方法,考察儿童对汉字读音声旁一致性意识的发展。一个熟悉字和一个不熟悉字共用同一个声旁,该声旁在提示整字发音时可以是一致的,即包含此声旁的所有汉字都发音相同,也可以是不一致的。要求儿童猜测不熟悉字的读音,作出它与熟悉字“是”、“否”同音的判断。结果发现,儿童很早就意识到汉字的结构以及声旁和形旁在表音、表义功能上的分工。随着年级的升高,声旁一致性对猜测不熟悉汉字读音的影响增强。小学四年级语文能力较高的儿童已经开始意识到声旁的一致性;六年级儿童总体上说来已发展了一致性意识。

  10. 古文字发展义化原因浅析%On the Reasons of Meaning Development of Ancient Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娴

    2014-01-01

    义化是古文字形体结构发展演变过程中的一种重要现象。文字是记录语言的符号,导致义化的一个重要原因是文字为了更好地记录语言。文字除受语言的制约之外,它自己本身就是一套成系统的符号,古文字阶段的字符为了融入汉字系统就必然会发生义化。%The justice is a Very important phenomenon in the body structure deVelopment of ancient writing. The character is a symbol to record language. An important cause of justice is to record language better. In addition to restrict from the language,the character itself is a set of systematic symbol. The ancient writing stage character will ineVitably occur justice in order to integrate into the Chinese system.

  11. A study on the Statement of Duality of the Origin of Chinese Characters from Xu and Shi of Things and Symbols%从事物和符号的虚实论汉字起源二元说

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋瑞

    2016-01-01

    As things have xu and shi situations,the symbols to reflect things also have xu and shi. The dichotomy of early Chinese characters between pictographs and ideographs which signify xu and shi respectively proves that Chinese characters originated from duality.The dichotomous practice of xu and shi of prehistoric pictographic and ideographic symbols have prepared for the origin of Chinese characters in methods.%由于事物有虚实,则反映事物的符号也有虚实。早期汉字象形和指事一实一虚的二分,证明了汉字起源于二元。史前象形性符号和指事性符号一实一虚的二分实践,则从方法上为汉字起源于二元做好了铺垫。

  12. Pride and loathing in history : the national character discourse and the Chinese search for a cultural identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shu, Chunyan

    2013-01-01

    This research examines three intellectual approaches in contemporary China to the question of cultural identity by focusing on the discourse of national character, which has been employed by cultural critics to attribute China's “lack of modernity” to the perseverance of Confucian tradition and the

  13. 汉字的结构布局对现代版式设计的影响与启示%Influence and Inspiration of Chinese Character Structure and Layout to the Modern Layout Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏淑娟

    2012-01-01

    In order to carry forward the traditional culture,the laws of art from the art of calligraphy in the search for modern design,layout regularity in the layout structure of Chinese characters with the modern version of the grid design rules,the layout of text and images in the form of the similarities and differences point analysis,and try to do some layout arrangement of semi-surrounded structure according to the configuration level of deduction of the structure of Chinese characters published design layout and Chinese characters,it drawn from the words of Chinese characters by the basic strokes out different meaning,according to the layout of the rule of Chinese characters must also be able to design a unique layout,which could be seen that the Chinese character of the structure and layout rules can guide modern layout design.%为弘扬传统文化,从书法艺术中寻找适合现代设计的艺术规律,通过对汉字的结构布局图中的布局规律与现代版式设计中的网格设计规律、文字与图片的布局形式的异同点的分析,并根据汉字结构的构形层级推演出版式设计布局图和汉字的半包围结构进行一些版式编排尝试,得出汉字由基本笔画可以组合出不同含义的字,根据汉字的布局规律也一定能设计出独特的版面,由此看出汉字的结构布局规律可以指导现代版式设计。

  14. A Concept of Utilizing Montessori Method to the Teaching of Chinese Characters for Childhood%运用蒙台梭利教学法进行婴幼儿汉字教学的构想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄红英

    2016-01-01

    国内蒙台梭利早期教育课程在引进时,语言课程方面存在很大缺失。通过长期的教育教学实践,笔者发现中国汉字特有的形义功能对婴幼儿语言及大脑发育具有独特的优势。本文尝试利用蒙台梭利教育法,设计一套符合儿童发展心理学、教育学及文字学的幼儿汉字学习教具,通过具体感知、形象记忆汉字的造字理据及音形义关系,使汉字及“六书”成为孩子心目中可触摸、有温度且亲切可爱的伙伴,不再是枯燥的点划工具,达到对汉字文化的真正传承。%In the introduction of Montessori Early Child Education to China ,deficiencies exist in language course .With rich experience in teaching practice ,the author finds that the form and meaning of Chinese characters have a positive influence on the development of Children’s mind and language ability .Based on Montessori Early Education Method ,an early education toolkit for the teaching of Chinese characters is established ,which conforms to the psychology of children’s development , pedagogy ,and philology .By perceiving and understanding the formation of Chinese character and the relationship of Chinese characters form and meaning ,Children would find Chinese characters and the six categories of Chinese characters a touchable , warm and friendly partner .

  15. The Three Character Primer in Classical Chinese Learning%文言文学习的“三字经”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐爱平

    2014-01-01

    文言文是中华民族的瑰宝,是传统文化的结晶与沉淀,学习文言文有益于培养学生深厚的文化底蕴、审美情趣,提高学生的文学鉴赏能力。%classical Chinese is our nation’s treasures,is the crystallization and precipitation of traditional culture,learning Chinese is beneficial to cultivate students’ profound cultural background,aesthetic sentiment,improve our ability to appreciate literature.

  16. Designing the Chinese Character Library in Liquid Crystal Application with the 24Cxxx Memory%用24CXXX存储器设计液晶应用中的字库

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏小龙; 施亿平; 戴祥

    2002-01-01

    介绍一种使用串行IIC方式的EEPROM 24CXXX的汉字库解决方案.%With the dropping of cost of crystal display module, its application becomes broader and broader. It can provide users with a considerably user-friendly interface. However, the design of the Chinese character library is a quite annoying problem in the mass application of liquid crystal. This article presents a solution to design the Chinese character library by using EEPROM 24CXXX of serial IIC.

  17. 失写症背景下汉字创意课程群的建设%CONSTRUCTION OF THE CURRICULUM CLUSTER OF CHINESE CHARACTERS CREATIONS IN THE BACKGROUND OF AGRAPHIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李帆

    2015-01-01

    People have tended to write less because of the long-term use of keyboarding. As a result, the symptoms of agraphia ---- forgetting Chinese characters while writing, may occur. Students generaly are lacking of a good comprehension of the rules of Chinese characters writing, which hinders them from opening mind to design creative Chinese characters. Facing the difficulties in teaching, this paper provides a“three more to one” method to construct the curriculum cluster in Chinese characters creations. Write more, practice more and think more to improve the students’ cultural taste in design and promote the Chinese culture.%由于长期使用键盘输入法,人们写字的机会减少,导致出现“提笔忘字”的失写症症状。学生们对汉字书写规律习惯都理解不够,汉字创意设计思路拓展不开。本文针对目前教学面对的困境,提出“三多对一失”的汉字创意课程群创新建设方法。多写、多练、多思,来提升学生设计作品的文化品位,弘扬汉文化。

  18. Antimicrobial Activity Studies of Bactoriocin Produced by Lactobacilli Isolates from Carrot Kanji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshada M. Sowani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In the present study, Staphylococcus aureus a causative agent of food poisoning is selected as a test organism to study the antimicrobial effect of bacteriocin. S. aureus produces number of exotoxins and enterotoxins which enters the body via contaminated food causing illness. Approach: In this case the use of antibiotics is one of the ways of treatment, but in addition to this if we advise such patients to consume the carrot kanji then it will cause better effect because carrot kanji is the naturally fermented food beverage consisting of microflora mainly the Lactobacilli. Results: The Lactobacilli have ability to produce antimicrobial compounds called bacteriocin. Isolation of bacteriocin was carried out from the naturally fermented carrot kanji. The bacteriocin produced by Lactobacilli was dialysed and used for the further studies. The well diffusion method is used to study the antimicrobial activity, effect of temperature, pH, enzymes on bacteriocin. From the diameter of zone of inhibition the activity of bacteriocin was determined. The sensitivity of bacteriocin at different pH range showed that at neutral pH the diameter of inhibition zone was greater than that at alkaline as well as acidic pH. Upto 100°C the bacteriocin activity was 80% but as temperature range increased upto 121°C it reduced sharply to 28%. Conclusion/Recommendations: In addition to this the effect of alpha amylase, trypsin, catalase enzyme on bacteriocin activity was also studied which shows positive results with alpha amylase, reduced activity with trypsin and catalase remained unaffected.

  19. 谈汉字图形化的设计手段表达%STUDY OF GRAPHICAL DESIGN EXPRESSION OF CHINESE CHARACTERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李刚; 李唯羽

    2015-01-01

    Graphical design of Chinese characters is an important part of the font design, which can quickly establish links between information and the audience and instantly simulates their interests in reading. By analyzing the methods of Chinese graphical design and studying classic design works, the connotation of Chinese graphic is expressed in the paper accurately and intuitively. It is hoped that the optimal integration of Chinese with figures could wel express contents and feelings and serve for the graphic design.%汉字的图形化设计是字体设计的一个重要组成部分,对于汉字图形化的设计可以迅速建立信息与受众之间的联系,瞬间产生对于阅读的兴趣,从而减轻阅读记忆的负担,增强信息传播效果。本文通过对汉字图形化设计的方法手段进行解析,并通过对经典的设计作品进行解读,更为准确、直观地展现了汉字图形化的意蕴。希望可以使汉字与图形以最佳的形式,共同承担内容表达和情感抒发的任务,并共同服务于平面设计之中。

  20. Data Analysis of Chinese Characters in Primary School Corpora of Hong Kong and Mainland China: Preliminary Theoretical Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Flora Hoi-Ki; Leung, Man-Tak

    2008-01-01

    Metalinguistic awareness (an awareness about the structure of orthography) had been considered vital for reading acquisition. The awareness of phonological regularity and consistency had been found in advanced readers in recent research. Evidence based on simplified Chinese suggested the effect of semantic transparency on reading in school…

  1. ANALISIS MAKNA KANYOUKU YANG MENGGUNAKAN KANJI KOSHI DALAM KODANSHA’S DICTIONARY OF BASIC JAPANESE IDIOMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Felicia

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Idiom is quite interesting to discuss since it contains a lot of connotations. This study examined the meaning of kanyouku (idiom which used koshi (eye kanji in Kodansha’s Dictionary of Basic Japanese Idioms. The method used in this study was library research by collecting data from Kodansha’s Dictionary of Basic Japanese Idioms. The purpose of this study was to determine to what extent the use of koshi (hips in the Japanese idiom was. After analyzing the idiom that uses koshi (hips,the research concludes that the meaning contained in the idiom was connotations.

  2. Analisis Makna Kanyouku yang Menggunakan Kanji Koshi dalam Kodanshas Dictionary of Basic Japanese Idioms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Idiom is quite interesting to discuss since it contains a lot of connotations. This study examined the meaning of kanyouku (idiom which used koshi (eye kanji in Kodanshas Dictionary of Basic Japanese Idioms. The method used in this study was library research by collecting data from Kodanshas Dictionary of Basic Japanese Idioms. The purpose of this study was to determine to what extent the use of koshi (hips in the Japanese idiom was. After analyzing the idiom that uses koshi (hips,the research concludes that the meaning contained in the idiom was connotations.

  3. ERP Effect of Twirled Chinese Characters in Low Frequency Word Recognition%畸变汉字语义启动的ERP效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒德华; 王权红

    2012-01-01

    运用事件相关电位技术,采用词汇判断作业,考察字形畸变和语境对低频汉字识别的影响.行为结果显示,启动效应的主效应显著,启动条件和字形畸变的交互作用显著.脑电结果显示,150-300ms窗口,字形畸变的主效应显著.300-450ms时间窗口,启动效应的主效应显著.靶字畸变和靶字清晰条件下,均得到了语义相关和语义无关条件的显著差异.得出结论,汉字通透性是影响汉字加工的重要因素.RP与视知觉分析有关,N400和语义的自动加工有关.%In use of ERP technique, the present study invstigated the effects of twirled Chinese characters and semantic priming in low frequency word recognition. Twenty native Chinese undergraduates from Southwest University participated in the experiment during which they were instructed to make a yes\

  4. Hemodynamic and electrophysiological signals of conflict processing in the Chinese-character Stroop task: a simultaneous near-infrared spectroscopy and event-related potential study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Jiahuan; Li, Ting; Zhang, Zhongxing; Gong, Hui

    2009-09-01

    A dual-modality method combining continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and event-related potentials (ERPs) was developed for the Chinese-character color-word Stroop task, which included congruent, incongruent, and neutral stimuli. Sixteen native Chinese speakers participated in this study. Hemodynamic and electrophysiological signals in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) were monitored simultaneously by NIRS and ERP. The hemodynamic signals were represented by relative changes in oxy-, deoxy-, and total hemoglobin concentration, whereas the electrophysiological signals were characterized by the parameters P450, N500, and P600. Both types of signals measured at four regions of the PFC were analyzed and compared spatially and temporally among the three different stimuli. We found that P600 signals correlated significantly with the hemodynamic parameters, suggesting that the PFC executes conflict-solving function. Additionally, we observed that the change in deoxy-Hb concentration showed higher sensitivity in response to the Stroop task than other hemodynamic signals. Correlation between NIRS and ERP signals revealed that the vascular response reflects the cumulative effect of neural activities. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that this new dual-modality method is a useful approach to obtaining more information during cognitive and physiological studies.

  5. The Application of image design in deconstruction and reconstruction of Chinese characters%意象设计在汉字解构与重组中的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢强

    2014-01-01

    中国汉字独具的“表象”性和“会意”性,汉字笔划与偏旁以及整字都有本身独特的“意象”标准。当我们对汉字进行解构与重组时就要把握汉字本身构造特性以及一直以来演变的习惯与文化特征,才能让新的汉字设计形式具有审美性,从而使信息传达得到共鸣。%There are pictographic characters and associative characters in Chinese. The stokes and the radicals of a Chinese character, even including its whole structure, have the specific images. The deconstruction and reconstruction of Chinese character should be based on its structure and cultural evolution. This way, the new design of the character can have a high aesthetic value to strike a sympathetic chord in information transmission.

  6. When Eastern Oriental Meets Western Occidental Language System: Crossing the English Vocabulary Threshold versus Breaking the Kanji Barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucky, John Paul

    2001-01-01

    What lessons can be learned from relevant research in vocabulary- and language-learning strategy training as well as from comparative studies on learning Oriental languages, which could have helpful applications to language learners from Kanji-background countries? Could both mnemonic and semantic field keyword approaches help these learners by…

  7. Analysis of kanji and kana word reading process by H[sub 2][sup 15]O-PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, Yasuhisa; Momose, Toshimitsu (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1994-04-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow was measured during kanji or kana word reading with the intravenous H[sub 2][sup 15]O bolus injection technique by positron emission tomography. Reading aloud tasks of kana non-word, kana word and kanji word were given to five subject each. Three times intra-subject averaging and region of interest(ROI) - based regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) change analyses revealed as follows. Both kana non-word and kana word tasks activated widespread regions including bilaterally the medial and lateral occipital gyri and the left posterior inferior temporal area (PIT), while the kanji word task only activated the PIT of both hemispheres. The medial and lateral occipita gyri were activated almost equally by both kana non-word and kana word tasks, but the PIT was activated left-side dominantly by the kana word task. In addition, there were significantly more rCBF increases in the left PIT in the kana word task than in the kana non-word task. The parietal lobe was not activated at all, on the contrary, the left angular gyrus was significantly deactivated by all the tasks. For language output, the left or both posterior inferior frontal gyri were activated together with the supplementary motor area, the left or both basal ganglia, and the left or both thalamus and cerebellum. The left-side dominant activation of Broca's area was obtained only in the kanji word task. (author) 59 refs.

  8. Activation of writing-specific brain regions when reading Chinese as a second language. Effects of training modality and transfer to novel characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagarrigue, Aurélie; Longcamp, Marieke; Anton, Jean Luc; Nazarian, Bruno; Prévot, Laurent; Velay, Jean-Luc; Cao, Fan; Frenck-Mestre, Cheryl

    2017-03-01

    We examined the implication of training modality on the cortical representation of Chinese words in adult second language learners of Chinese. In particular, we tested the implication of the neural substrates of writing in a reading task. The brain network sustaining finger writing was defined neuroanatomically based on an independent functional localizer. We examined the brain activations elicited by Chinese words learned via writing vs. pronunciation, and by novel untrained words, within regions of interest (ROIs) defined according to the position of the activation peaks in the localizer, and at the whole brain level. We revealed activations in the reading task that overlapped with several parts of the finger writing network. In addition, our results provide evidence that the neural substrates of writing are differentially involved in reading depending on the stored knowledge for words, as revealed by the fine-grained response of several regions including the left superior parietal lobule and left precentral gyrus / superior frontal sulcus to the experimental manipulations. Training modality and the linguistic properties of the characters also impacted the response of the left mid-fusiform gyrus, confirming its involvement as the brain region where linguistic, visual and sensorimotor information converge during orthographic processing. At the behavioral level, global handwriting quality during the training sessions was positively correlated to the final translation performance. Our results demonstrate substantial overlap in the neural substrates of reading and writing, and indicate that some regions sustaining handwriting are differentially involved in reading depending on the type of knowledge associated with words. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Implications Based on Incidental Vocabulary Learning of Chinese Characters%儿童伴随学习研究对汉字学习的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    信忠义

    2013-01-01

    Incidental vocabulary learning is an important way for children learning new characters .The current re-search gives some implications for children characters learning .First ,we should pay attention to the importance of in-cidental vocabulary learning process .And therefore we can improve the Chinese characters learning efficiency by taking full advantage of incidental words learning;Secondly ,we should prepare well-organized learning material for inciden-tal character learning .For example ,selecting the appropriate phonetic way ,and getting rid of several vocabulary pho-netic symbols by using full text phonetic way to promote children a good learning habit;At last ,setting a reasonable environmental density of new vocabularies ,creating a good language environment ,promoting the oral language prac-tice are the best ways to establish a stable foundation to get the correct pronunciation ,spells and meaning .%伴随学习是儿童学习生字的重要方式之一。伴随学习相关研究对儿童汉字学习具有一定的启示:首先,应重视伴随学习生字在儿童汉字学习中的重要作用,充分利用伴随学习促进儿童生字学习;其次,应注意设置良好的学习材料为伴随学习服务。选择恰当的注音方式,摒弃生字注音方式,采用全文注音,为学习材料设置良好的语境,促进儿童利用多种线索学习生字;再次,合理的设置学习材料的生字密度,为儿童创造良好的生活语言环境,促进其标准口语的掌握,为书面语言中音、形、义的通达打下基础。

  10. Language Service Should Popularize Knowledge of Chinese Characters --Reflections on Cellphone Messages about Simplified Characters%语言服务应考虑着力普及汉字知识——由关涉简化字问题的手机短信引发的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈双新

    2012-01-01

    近些年来,不少知名人士时常发表对繁体字和简化字的看法,并以此为依托,讨论与传统文化、书法甚至两岸统一等有关的重要社会问题。然而这些言论几乎都显示出人们汉字基础知识的欠缺,有的甚至是对汉字学的一无所知。为此,作者认为要考虑以大众喜爱和方便的形式大力普及汉字基础知识,这既是规范使用汉语汉字,做好语言服务的需要,也是珍爱和弘扬中华语言文化的需要。%In recent years, quite a few celebrities often state their views on the original complex form and simplified form of Chinese characters, on the basis of which, they further discuss some important related social issues, concerning traditional culture, calligraphy, even the unification of Liangan. However, nearly all these views indicate their lack of basic knowledge of Chinese characters, and even illiteracy of Chinese philology. Therefore ,the author insists that we should devote major efforts to popularizing basic knowledge of Chinese characters in some convenient ways people like, which is not only the need of standardizing the use of the Chinese language and characters, but the need of cherishing and developing the Chinese language and culture as well.

  11. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Sheep generally have a cute and docile appearance, which isrepresented by the Chinese character "羊" yang (sheep). The originalform of "羊" was "(?)" , representing a sheep’s head. Later, combinedwith other parts representing sheep’s horns, ears, legs, and tail, it evolvedinto "(?)"、"(?)"、"(?)" and "羊".

  12. Bilingual Point Reading Learning System Based on 581 Chinese Characters%基于常用581个汉字的双语点读学习系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿不都克里木?玉素甫; 王亮亮; 覃其益

    2016-01-01

    This paper mainly introduces the research and implementation of the Chinese characters reading learning system based on 581 Chinese characters most commonly used .Firstly, the paper introduces the research and results of statistical analysis of coverage of 581 Chinese characters in basic Chinese textbooks .Secondly , the learning resources are construted and the localiza-tion technology of the minority languages are studied , namely the technology solutions of Chinese , Uighur, Kazakh languages in the Web page to show normal , are created.Finally, combined with the previous two basic researches , the paper introduces a cross platform reading learning system based on 581 Chinese characters learning resource library .%介绍以常用581个汉字作为基础的汉字学习系统的研究与实现. 首先,介绍常用581个汉字在基础汉语教材中的覆盖率统计分析研究及统计结果. 其次,建设学习资源库研究少数民族文字双语本地化技术,即制定汉语、维吾尔文、哈萨克文3种文字在Web页面中同时正常显示的技术解决方案. 最后,实现基于常用581个汉字学习资源库,构建一种跨平台双语点读学习系统.

  13. Student Evaluation of CALL Tools during the Design Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbitt, Dallas

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the comparative effectiveness of student input at different times during the design of CALL tools for learning kanji, the Japanese characters of Chinese origin. The CALL software "package" consisted of tools to facilitate the writing, reading and practising of kanji characters in context. A pre-design questionnaire…

  14. Changes of regional cerebral blood oxygenation in recognizing Chinese characters in children with Chinese dyslexia%汉语阅读障碍儿童汉字识别过程中脑血氧的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋然然; 吴汉荣

    2006-01-01

    化量明显高于对照组(0.073 0,-0.072 1,F=15.59,P<0.01).结论:汉字认知过程阅读障碍儿童左前额叶皮层虽然激活,但相对正常儿童,激活的程度和激活模式均有差异,提示特定脑区功能异常可能是阅读障碍发生的生物学基础.%BACKGROUND: Dyslexia is the most common in the study of learning disabilities, it can affect various aspects of children, including behaviors,cognition, emotion, social adaptation, etc., and seriously block their obtaining of knowledge and improvement of ability in children.OBJECTIVE: To study the changing law of regional cerebral blood oxygenation in children with Chinese dyslexia in the process of recognizing Chinese characters, and investigate the neurophysiological basis of dyslexia in children.DESIGN: A case-control study.SETTING: Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Maternal Care, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology.PARTICIPANTS: The study was carried out in Huazhong University of Science and Technology from June to September in 2003. Forty-five primary students of 8 to 12 years old, who were grade 3 to 5 in Wuhan city,were enrolled in this study, including 26 dyslexic children (dyslexia group)and 19 normal readers (control group). All the enrolled children were righthanded. Informed consents were obtained from all the participants and their parents (guardians) after explanation of aims and steps of this study.METHODS: The functional near-infrared imager (fNIRI) was applied to detect the changes of cerebral blood oxygenation in left prefrontal lobe of dyslexic children and normal children in the primary processing (viewing passively, reading aloud, producing an action word) and secondary processing of Chinese characters (outputting task, action words association) of Chinese characters.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The changes of cerebral blood oxygenation in the primary processing and secondary processing of Chinese characters were observed in both

  15. The development and discussion of computerized visual perception assessment tool for Chinese characters structures - Concurrent estimation of the overall ability and the domain ability in item response theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huey-Min; Lin, Chin-Kai; Yang, Yu-Mao; Kuo, Bor-Chen

    2014-11-12

    Visual perception is the fundamental skill required for a child to recognize words, and to read and write. There was no visual perception assessment tool developed for preschool children based on Chinese characters in Taiwan. The purposes were to develop the computerized visual perception assessment tool for Chinese Characters Structures and to explore the psychometrical characteristic of assessment tool. This study adopted purposive sampling. The study evaluated 551 kindergarten-age children (293 boys, 258 girls) ranging from 46 to 81 months of age. The test instrument used in this study consisted of three subtests and 58 items, including tests of basic strokes, single-component characters, and compound characters. Based on the results of model fit analysis, the higher-order item response theory was used to estimate the performance in visual perception, basic strokes, single-component characters, and compound characters simultaneously. Analyses of variance were used to detect significant difference in age groups and gender groups. The difficulty of identifying items in a visual perception test ranged from -2 to 1. The visual perception ability of 4- to 6-year-old children ranged from -1.66 to 2.19. Gender did not have significant effects on performance. However, there were significant differences among the different age groups. The performance of 6-year-olds was better than that of 5-year-olds, which was better than that of 4-year-olds. This study obtained detailed diagnostic scores by using a higher-order item response theory model to understand the visual perception of basic strokes, single-component characters, and compound characters. Further statistical analysis showed that, for basic strokes and compound characters, girls performed better than did boys; there also were differences within each age group. For single-component characters, there was no difference in performance between boys and girls. However, again the performance of 6-year-olds was better than

  16. Exploring Japanese Language and Culture by Comparing Japanese and Chinese Characters%通过日中熟语的对比解读日本语言文化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张一帆

    2014-01-01

    日语语言文化受中国的影响较大。现代日语中有很多四个汉字组成的词,一般被称为四字熟语,四字熟语中大部分是从中文成语中引进过来的,但意义却不一定和中文相同,日语赋予了这些成语新的含义。中国人在学习日语时不但要注意区分这些形式相同或相近但意思不同的熟语,更要进行对比分析,从中了解和领悟日本语言文化的渊源和内涵。%Japanese language and culture have been greatly influenced by China. Phrases made of four Chinese characters frequently appear in modern Japanese, and are usually called four-character idioms. Most four-character idioms came from Chinese idioms, but may have different meanings, since Japanese had giv-en them new meanings. When Chinese people learn Japanese, they should not only distinguish idioms that have similar forms and different meanings in Chinese and Japanese, but also understand the origin and inner meaning of Japanese language and culture.

  17. Effects of the Tolerance of Ambiguity on Chinese Character Learning by Central-Asian Overseas Students%歧义容忍度对中亚留学生汉字学习效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张全生; 刘欢

    2013-01-01

    The correlation analysis between the tolerance of ambiguity for learning Chinese characters and the character test scores of the CSL (Chinese as a Second Language) beginners show the follow-ing :1)the tolerance of ambiguity has little correlation with the character test scores ;2)the types of er-rors in the Chinese characters writing are partly different between the students with high tolerance of ambiguity and those with low tolerance of ambiguity ;3)the Chinese Character Recognition ability is correlated positively with the tolerance of ambiguity .%  文章调查了中亚留学生的歧义容忍度与汉字学习效果的关系,发现高、低歧义容忍度学生的汉字识别能力有显著差异,高、低歧义容忍度学生在汉字书写时出现的偏误类型也有显著差异。高歧义容忍度学生更能够容忍汉字学习中的歧义现象,对待汉字笔画的细微差别具有较大的随意性,容易写出错字和不规范字;低歧义容忍度学生更加注意事物间的差别,在汉字书写时往往能写出正确的字,要么写成别字、或者索性不写。

  18. Cluster Analysis on Yield and Quality Characters of Different Chinese Kale Varieties%不同芥蓝品种产量及品质性状聚类分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋世威; 廖国秀; 刘厚诚; 孙光闻; 陈日远

    2011-01-01

    采用系统聚类法对27个芥蓝商品品种的形态、产量及品质性状进行聚类分析.结果表明,27个芥蓝品种在形态和产量性状上分为4个类群,第Ⅱ类群又可分为3个亚群,其中Ⅱ-1亚群的3个品种的株型和产量表现优良.27个芥蓝品种在品质性状上分为4个类群,第Ⅰ类群又可分为2个亚群,其中Ⅰ-1亚群的10个品种的品质综合表现优良.芥蓝各品种在熟性、形态、产量和品质等方面差异明显,在实际中需根据生产目标选择适宜的品种.%Cluster analysis on plant morphology, yield and quality characters of 27 commercial Chinese kale varieties was made. The results showed that, 27 Chinese kale varieties were divided into 4 groups according to morphology and yield characters. Croup II could further be divided into 3 subgroups, among which 3 varieties in II -1 subgroup performed well on plant morphology and yield characters. 27 Chinese kale varieties were divided into 4 groups.according to quality characters. Croup I could further be divided into 2 subgroups, among which 10 varieties in I -1 subgroup performed well on integrated quality characters. The maturity, morphology, yield and quab'ty of Chinese kale varieties were obviously different, thus suitable varieties should be chosen according to production aims in practice.

  19. CHINESE CHARACTERS AND ARCHITECTURE:THE ANALYSIS OF ELEMENT GALLERY IN CHINESE TRADITIONAL ARCHITECTURE FROM THE CHINESE CHARACTER“LANG”%汉字与建筑*--从“廊”字解析中国传统建筑元素廊

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冮明鸣; 汪江; 姜涛

    2016-01-01

    The ancient Chinese characters originated from pictographs, these graphics can be viewed as the simple transfer of things at that time, ancient people used these rules to record the history.The building as a unique cultural phenomenon, some of the ancient Chinese characters graphical meaning also can reflect the historical facts of the architectures.Taking the traditional building element gallery for example, through the analysis of the relevant ancient Chinese characters another level of content:form and space of the architecture gallery could be revealed.%中国古文字缘起于象形,这些图形可视为是对当时事物的简单摹写,古代人们利用这些条条框框记录下了历史。而建筑作为一种独特的文化现象,有些古汉字的图形化含义同样能够反映出建筑的史实。以传统建筑元素廊为例,通过对与其相关的古汉字的分析来揭示建筑廊的另一个层面的内容———形制和空间。

  20. 自动船舶识别系统的汉字传输技术研究%Resaerch on transmission of chinese character between AIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建华; 周鹏

    2009-01-01

    为解决AIS设备之间的汉字传输问题,从AIS的通信机制着手,对AIS设备传输汉字的设计思想进行了分析,探讨了在两台AIS设备之间传输汉字的方法,并通过实验的方式论证了所使用的AIS设备之间传输汉字技术的正确性.该设计方式对AIS相关设备的研发具有一定的借鉴价值.%For solving the problem of only the chars can be tranmissited between two AIS . Begin with analysing AIS communication mechanism ,discussing the method of chinese character tranmission between AIS,and demonstrate the correctness of the method by the way of experiment that using AIS equipments.The mode of design may have much value for the researching of AIS correlative equipment.

  1. Tactile Recognition of Chinese Character and Two-finger Pattern%汉字触觉辨认与触觉双指模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱秀莹; 朱华军

    2003-01-01

    We tried to find the tactile identifying differences between Roman alphabet letter and Chinese character.Ten native Chinese speakers and ten native English speakers participated the visual-tactile matching experiment as subjects to see whether Chinese Character could be identified tactually or not.The result that showed no difference between two group of subjects inspired us to be one of forthgoers to study the tactile identifying of two tactile finger pattern,and further more the result supported the point that there is very similar interference effect associated with processes of identify single finger pattern or two finger pattern.%大量的以往研究涉及到字词识别,其中又有相当一部分是对字词或字母的触觉辨认研究,但未见汉字模式的触觉辨认研究.为了探讨汉字模式与英文字母或词模式触觉辨认的异同,我们先做简单汉字的视触匹配实验以确定此类实验是否可行.把10个高频且笔画少的汉字在6×24的触觉振动仪上转换成振动的触觉模式,由于汉字比以往触觉模式辨认实验中所用的单指振动模式要复杂,所以我们不得不把汉字转换成双指模式,即用了两片振动显示仪来呈现一个模式,被试用双指接触振动片.汉语母语被试与从没学过汉字的英语母语被试各10名对这些汉字触觉模式作了触觉与视觉模式匹配实验,结果表明两类被试的匹配成绩都很低而且无显著差异,结果可能是由于双指模式所致,从而不能完全说明汉字模式太难不适合触觉辨认,于是我们用单指模式的通常结构构建双指模式,使单双指模式的复杂度差异只表现在量上,检验了单双指模式的辨认效果,结果表明双指模式辨认成绩虽比单指辨认差但辨认中的认知特征如干扰中的反应竞争与知觉竞争效应相同.

  2. [A case of left posterior inferior temporal infarction with right homonymous upper quadrantanopsia and alexia with agraphia for Kanji].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Yoshikazu; Takanashi, Taiji; Mihara, Etsuko; Shoji, Takuro; Kinoshita, Kaori; Shimizu, Yasutaka

    2011-06-01

    Alexia with agraphia usually represents damage in angular gyrus. We report an unusual case of alexia with agraphia caused by a posterior inferior temporal lesion. A 82-year-old, right-handed man was admitted because of reading disorder. Visual acuity was 0.7 OD and 0.7 OS. Goldmann perimetry revealed right homonymous upper quadrantanopsia. Standard Language Test of Aphasia revealed mild anomia and severe alexia with agraphia for kanji. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated left temporal and posterior infarction in the posterior cerebral artery region. Single photon emission computed tomography revealed decreased blood flow in the left inferior temporal, parahippocampal, fusiform, lingual and inferior occipital gyri. There were no significant lesions nor any decreased of blood flow in the angular gyrus. It is suggested that reading and writing of ideograms such as Kanji is related not only to the angular gyrus but also to the posterior inferior temporal lobe and medial posterior lobe of the visual cortex.

  3. 大学生汉字自由联想的性别差异的实验研究%Experimental Study on Differences in the Free Association of Chinese Characters between Male and Female College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建英; 姚本先

    2012-01-01

    目的:了解大学生汉字自由联想的性别差异.方法:运用实验法对110名大学生的汉字自由联想进行分析.结果:(1)男女大学生对音联和字联的回忆率存在差异;(2)男女大学生对感觉情绪词的回忆率存在差异;(3)男女大学生对反映心理的关键字的回忆率存在差异;(4)男女大学生自由联想汉字的偏旁部首存在差异.结论:汉字自由联想法可以用来分析大学生的思维、个性和心理健康状况.%Aim: to probe the differences in the free association of Chinese characters between male and female college students. Method: analyzing the free association of Chinese characters among 110 college students by an experimental study. Results: (l)There is difference in recall rale of thyme association and word association between male and female college students; (2)There is difference in recall rate of identifying emotional words between male and female college students; (3)There is difference in recall rate of key words reflecting psychological world between male and female college students; (4)There is difference in free association of radicals of Chinese characters between male and female college students. Conclusion: the free association of Chinese characters can be applied to analyze the college students' thoughts, personalities and psychological health status.

  4. An Analysis of the Efficiency of Existing Kanji Indexes and Development of a Coding-based Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VOROBEVA, Galina N.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the problems faced by learners of Japanese from non-kanji background, the present paper discusses the characteristics of 15 existing kanji dictionary indexes. In order to compare the relative efficiency of these indexes, the concept of selectivity is defined, and the selectivity coefficient of the kanji indexes is computed and compared. Furthermore, new indexes developed by the present authors and based on an alphabetical code, a symbol code, a semantic code, and a radical-and-stroke-number code are presented and their use and efficiency are explained.-----Pričujoči članek obravnava lastnosti 15 obstoječih kazal v slovarjih kitajskih pismenk z vidika težav učencev japonščine kot tujega jezika in kitajskih pismenk kot tujega sistema pisave. Da bi primerjali relativno učinkovitost teh kazal, definiramo koncept izbirnosti ter izračunamo in primerjamo koeficient izbirnosti teh kazal. Nadalje predlagamo in predstavljamo rabo in učinkovitost novih kazal, ki smo jih osnovali na kodiranju z latiničnimi črkami, simbolnem kodiranju, semantičnem kodiranju in kodiranju na osnovi pomenskega ključa in števila potez.

  5. A Study on E-C Translation with Chinese Four-Character Expressions in Teaching and Learning of College English%英译四字格与大学英语翻译教学探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶斯源

    2015-01-01

    The examples in college English texts not only offer students materials for language learning, but also help them grasp many skills for English-Chinese translation. Chinese language boasts many unique linguistic features and four-character expres⁃sion is one of them. As a matter of fact, translating with four-character expressions is a frequently-used technique. This paper tries to put forward some techniques for use of Chinese four-character expressions in E-C translation teaching and learning in college English through case analysis on the basis of college English textbooks.%大学英语教材中的鲜活例子可以给学生们提供语言学习的素材,学生们亦能从中学习领会英汉翻译的诸多技能。由于汉语语言特色,大量使用四字格成为中文一大特点,四字格翻译是众多英汉翻译技能中相当常见的一大技能之一。该文通过对大学英语教材分析实例,总结大学英语翻译教学中英译四字格的用法。

  6. 试论汉语言文字演变中的“繁化”和“简化”%Discussion on Complication and Simplification in the Evolution of Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈征

    2015-01-01

    Complication and simplification of Chinese characters are interdependent and contradic‐tory to each other throughout the development of language .When summarizing the complication and simplification of Chinese language characters ,the research on language and characters should also note that complication and simplification have dialectical relationship of opposition and unification . They have identity and contradiction ;they are mutually exclusive ,interrelated and interpenetrated ,thus pro‐moting the development and evolution of language and characters .%繁化和简化之间相互矛盾又相互依存,贯穿于语言文字发展中。在总结汉语和文字中的繁简化现象的同时,语言和文字研究既要注意到简化现象还要关注繁化现象,繁化和简化是对立统一的辩证关系,既同一又斗争,相互排斥、相互联系、相互贯通,并由此来推动语言、文字的发展演变。

  7. Differential characters

    CERN Document Server

    Bär, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Providing a systematic introduction to differential characters as introduced by Cheeger and Simons, this text describes important concepts such as fiber integration, higher dimensional holonomy, transgression, and the product structure in a geometric manner. Differential characters form a model of what is nowadays called differential cohomology, which is the mathematical structure behind the higher gauge theories in physics.  

  8. Discovery of Anti-inflammatory Ingredients in Chinese Herbal Formula Kouyanqing Granule based on Relevance Analysis between Chemical Characters and Biological Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Zheng, Yan-fang; Li, Chu-yuan; Zheng, Yu-ying; Wang, De-qin; Wu, Zhong; Huang, Lin; Wang, Yong-gang; Li, Pei-bo; Peng, Wei; Su, Wei-wei

    2015-12-10

    Kouyanqing Granule (KYQG) is a traditional Chinese herbal formula composed of Flos lonicerae (FL), Radix scrophulariae (RS), Radix ophiopogonis (RO), Radix asparagi (RA), and Radix et rhizoma glycyrrhizae (RG). In contrast with the typical method of separating and then biologicalily testing the components individually, this study was designed to establish an approach in order to define the core bioactive ingredients of the anti-inflammatory effects of KYQG based on the relevance analysis between chemical characters and biological effects. Eleven KYQG samples with different ingredients were prepared by changing the ratios of the 5 herbs. Thirty-eight ingredients in KYQG were identified using Ultra-fast liquid chromatography-Diode array detector-Quadrupole-Time-of-flight-Tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-DAD-Q-TOF-MS/MS) technology. Human oral keratinocytes (HOK) were cultured for 24 hours with 5% of Cigarette smoke extract (CSE) to induce inflammation stress. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were evaluated after treatment with the eleven KYQG samples. Grey relational analysis(GRA), Pearson's correlations (PCC), and partial least-squares (PLS) were utilized to evaluate the contribution of each ingredient. The results indicated that KYQG significantly reduced interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and tumour necrosis factor-α levels, in which lysine, γ-aminobutyric acid, chelidonic acid, tyrosine, harpagide, neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, isoquercitrin, luteolin-7-o-glucoside, 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, angoroside C, harpagoside, cinnamic acid, and ruscogenin play a vital role.

  9. “新三字习语”的认知解读%A Cognitive Study on "New Chinese Triple-character Phrase"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚云龙

    2012-01-01

    With the embodiment opinion as its principle, Cognitive linguistics holds that cognitive concepts' shaping base on situated embodiment; at the same time, it also believes that the perception of situation is bidirectional, namely, the building of utterance and the understanding of utterance. During this procession, the activation of encyclopedic knowledge in langnage user makes utterances various. The cognitive analysis on "New Chinese Triple - character Phrase" under the perspective of cognitive grammar proves the interpretation power of this theory, hoping that it will bring enlightenment to the embodiment study on cognitive linguistics.%认知语言学主张认知概念等的形成是建立在人的体验经验基础之上的,也即奉行认知的体验观;同时还认为认知是双向的,包括话语的建构和话语的理解。在此过程中人们心智中储存的百科知识的参与使此过程充满了乐趣与挑战。从认知语言学的角度对“新三字习语”进行分析,揭示其语义建构和理解的过程,以期为新的认知体验观的提出和认知语言学研究机制的完善起到启.示作用。

  10. 印刷体汉字识别后处理方法的研究%Post-Processing Approach for Printed Chinese Character Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏涛; 龙翀; 朱小燕; 孙俊

    2009-01-01

    高阶N-gram语言模型在OCR后处理方面有着广泛的应用,但也面临着因模型复杂度大导致的数据稀疏,以及耗费较多的时空资源等问题.该文针对印刷体汉字识别的后处理,提出了一种基于字节的语言模型的后处理算法.通过采用字节作为语言模型的基本表示单位,模型的复杂度大大降低,从而数据稀疏问题得到很大程度上缓解.实验证明,采用基于字节的语言模型的后处理系统能够以极少的时空开销获取很好的识别性能.在有部分分割错误的测试集上,正确率从88.67%提高到了98.32%,错误率下降了85.18%,运行速度较基于字以及基于词的系统有了大幅的提升,提高了后处理系统的综合性能;与目前常用的基于词的语言模型后处理系统相比,新系统能够节省95%的运行时间和98%的内存资源,但系统识别率仅降低了1.11%.%In Chinese OCR post-processing, the high-order Chinese n-gram language models, such as word based tri-gram and four-gram is still a challenging issue because of the data sparseness issue and large memory cost led by big model size. In this paper, we focus on the post-processing of printed Chinese character recognition and propose a byte-based language model. By choosing byte as the representing unit of language model, we achieve a remarkable reduction of model size which overcomes the sparseness problem to a great extent. The experimental results show that the new language model based on byte works very well with higher performance and lowest time and space costs. For the test set with segmentation errors, the recognition accuracy increases from 88. 67% to 98. 32% , which means 85. 18% error reduction. Compared with the system using traditional word based tri-gram, the new system saves 95% time cost and nearly 98% memory cost at almost no cost in the accuracy performance.

  11. Chinese Characters in Korean Modern Literature:Take Potato and Farmer for Example%韩国现代文学中的华人形象:以《土豆》和《农民》为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林大根

    2012-01-01

    金东仁的《土豆》(1925)和李泰俊的《农民》(1939)是韩国现代文学中描绘华人形象的代表作品。《土豆》中的“王掌柜”是首次出现在韩国现代文学作品中的华人形象,也是当时朝鲜社会剧增的华人的典型代表。然而,该形象被描写成非道德的、反社会的人物,而促使这一形象生成的中心媒介就是“金钱”。透过该人物形象,可以窥视到20世纪二十年代中期朝鲜社会对华人的看法。《农民》中的华人形象是聚集韩中矛盾焦点的主人公。但是,评价以万宝山事件为背景出现的这些华人形象时,需要了解当时韩中之间的民族矛盾是由日本的殖民政策和舆论炒作所造成的,只有对这些深层次的原因进行分析,才能以正确的逻辑进行思考。但是,以万宝山事件为背景进行叙述的小说《农民》并没有抓住这点,只以朝鲜人取得水路开垦的胜利而收尾,并把与朝鲜人对峙的华人集团塑造成暴力团体,可以说,这是创作过于疏懒的结果。这种试图将超越意识形态的问题集中在民族层面的文学形象化,对后来朝鲜对华(人)的认识产生了不小的影响。因此,有必要从批判的视角来解读这部作品。%This paper aims to analyze Potato(1925) by Kim Dong In and Farmer(1939) by Lee Tae Jun as the representatives of describing Chinese characters in Korean modern literature. "Wangseobang" in Potato is a representative of Chinese, who had sharply increased in number at that time of Joseon society and also the first Chinese figure in Korean modern literature. This mod- el of Chinese was often described as being immoral as well as antisocial, and the money is the root of the character. We can see the public perception of Chinese from 1920 to the middle of 1930 through the character. The Chinese figures in Farmer intensively show conflicts between Korean and Chinese. However

  12. 论汉字认知在促进儿童大脑两半球均衡发展中的作用%Role of Chinese characters cognition in promoting balanced development of both brain hemispheres in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘景钊

    2013-01-01

    凝聚了汉民族高度智慧的汉字是一种“复脑文字”,它不仅内涵了丰富的民族文化基因,而且以其既能以形达意、又能以形表音的双向多重联想的表意性功能和极具视觉意象性的方块形特征,显示出在促进儿童大脑左右两半球均衡发展中的重要价值。%Chinese characters, which condense the wisdom of Chinese people, are a kind of “complex brain words” . Chinese characters bear the abundant connotations of national culture gene, possess the bi-directional associations between ideography and highly visualized squared shape, and play an important role in promoting the balanced develop-ment of both brain hemispheres in children.

  13. 人文、社會科學類圖書館、博物館之電子計算機所使用漢字問題─Unicode 的漢字字數及其周邊 | Chinese Characters on Computers used for Chinese Humanities and Social Sciences Libraries and Museums--Chinese Characters Codeset and Its Relevant Problems on the Unicode Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    李柏如

    2000-04-01

    -fareast; mso-hansi-theme-font: minor-fareast; mso-bidi-font-family: 細明體;">說明從事中國人文、社會科學者所需要的漢字系統及目前Unicode或多國、多種語言系統的若干問題。

    Chinese characters have been used in China and in Chinese character culture areas for centuries, and their glyphs and scripts have changed through the history, and their ideographs were newly created as those areas needed. In order to develop digital database for recording their written cultures, students who engage in Humanities and Social Sciences, and engineers who develop effective and efficient communication systems, are trying to do research on code, script, glyph, character set, and the tool for computers and languages approach in various ways. Even though the Unicode needs to retain control code for the purpose of holding every language to create a world-wide character encoding standard, the unification of Chinese / Japanese / Korean character sets still bring to the Chinese character problems on script and glyph. This paper is trying to provide such the problems of the Unicode with explaining partial characteristics of Chinese characters in digital world as a future recording tool.

  14. Aproximación a los estudios de la lengua japonesa : métodos de aprendizaje de kanji japoneses de nivel intermedio

    OpenAIRE

    Català Perelló, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Para los alumnos de japonés, llega un punto en el que deben superar unos niveles de aprendizaje en todos los ámbitos de la lengua japonesa. Los kanji forman una parte importante del aprendizaje del idioma pero la búsqueda de materiales adecuados a su nivel y a sus necesidades puede ser difícil. Con este estudio, los alumnos castellanohablantes de kanji japoneses de nivel intermedio pueden encontrar un punto de vista de usuario tal y como tendrían ellos mismos a la hora de la búsqueda de mater...

  15. “Inverted”Translation of New Testament in Chinese:On Translation Strategies and Concepts of Greek New Testament in Chinese Character Symbol Representing System%新约圣经汉语“逆”翻译研究--论中文代表字原文新约圣经翻译策略与思想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林红

    2014-01-01

    传统意义上的圣经汉译是将圣经原文语言信息转换成汉语来表达,让读者在汉语语境下以汉语思维模式领悟圣经原文的语言信息。而中文代表字原文新约圣经与此相反,它是以汉语符号系统展现新约圣经希腊原文的“原貌”,目的是让读者通过汉语进入希腊语原文语境,以希腊文的思维模式来体验经文原文信息,在翻译思想及翻译理念上具有很大程度的相“逆”性。试采用描述性翻译研究方法能够较好地阐释中文代表字原文新约圣经的翻译策略及其所体现的翻译思想与理念。%Traditionally,Chinese version of Bible is done by converting the source language information into Chinese to help readers to apprehend Bible’s source language information in Chinese context.And Greek New Testament in Chinese character symbol representing system is the opposite,the “original appearance”of Greek New Testament is shown in Chinese character symbol system,its purpose is to help readers to enter the source language context and learn source language information in Greek thinking mode,which is “inverted”to traditional translation ideas and concepts to a large degree.This paper tries to illustrate translation strategies and concepts embodied in Greek New Testament in Chinese character symbol representing system.

  16. The Dissemination and Transition of the Chinese Character "Yun" in Japanese%汉专“于韵”在日本的流布与意义变迁

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈韵

    2012-01-01

    汉字是中华文化的瑰宝之一,其历史悠久,并深刻地影响着周边各国。在汉字广泛传播的过程中,“韵”字也在日本传播开来。以日本岩波书店出版的《日本古典文学大系》以及中日词典等为参考资料,针对“韵”在日本的流布与意义变迁情况展开研究。研究发现,“韵”流人日本后,其表示“风雅、情趣、气韵”等美学意义被淡化,而表示“韵脚或押韵的字;韵母;押韵”等语音学含义被保留和发挥。%The Chinese character enjoys a long history and profoundly influences its neighboring countries. In the widely spreading process of the Chinese character, the character of "yun" has also spread in Japanese. This thesis focuses on the study of the dissemination and transition of "yun" in Japanese. The author cites "Systematic Collection of Japanese Classical Literature", which is published by Japanese Iwanami Bookstore and the Sino- Japanese dictionary as references. According to these refer- ences, it is not hard to find that after the character of "yun" flowed into Japanese, its aesthetic concepts, which includes "grace, temperament and artistic conception", is gradually faded, but the phonetic mean- ings of words expressing rhymes and the final of a syllable are retained and developed.

  17. 广义哈夫曼树及其在汉字编码中的应用%GENERALIZED HUFFMAN TREE AND ITS APPLICATION IN CHINESE CHARACTER cODING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游洪跃; 汪建武; 陶郁

    2000-01-01

    提出了广义哈夫曼树的概念,证明了有关的定理和结论,构造了广义哈夫曼树的算法,最后在汉字编码方面进行了应用.%Authors present a concept-generalized Huffman tree(GHT) and prove some pertinent theorems. Meanwhile, authors design the GHTs algorithm. In particular, authors give its application in Chinese character coding.

  18. An Optical Character Recognition for Handwritten Devanagari Script

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trupti R. Zalke

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical Character Recognition is process of recognition of character from scanned document and lots of OCR now available in the market. But most of these systems work for Roman, Chinese, Japanese and Arabic characters . There are no sufficient number of work on Indian language script like Devanagari so this paper present a review on optical character recognition on handwritten Devanagari script.

  19. Believable Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nasr, Magy Seif; Bishko, Leslie; Zammitto, Veronica; Nixon, Michael; Vasiliakos, Athanasios V.; Wei, Huaxin

    The interactive entertainment industry is one of the fastest growing industries in the world. In 1996, the U.S. entertainment software industry reported 2.6 billion in sales revenue, this figure has more than tripled in 2007 yielding 9.5 billion in revenues [1]. In addition, gamers, the target market for interactive entertainment products, are now reaching beyond the traditional 8-34 year old male to include women, Hispanics, and African Americans [2]. This trend has been observed in several markets, including Japan, China, Korea, and India, who has just published their first international AAA title (defined as high quality games with high budget), a 3D third person action game: Ghajini - The Game [3]. The topic of believable characters is becoming a central issue when designing and developing games for today's game industry. While narrative and character were considered secondary to game mechanics, games are currently evolving to integrate characters, narrative, and drama as part of their design. One can see this pattern through the emergence of games like Assassin's Creed (published by Ubisoft 2008), Hotel Dusk (published by Nintendo 2007), and Prince of Persia series (published by Ubisoft), which emphasized character and narrative as part of their design.

  20. Four-character Loanwords from Japanese in the Chinese Newspaper QingYiBao(1898-1901)%《清议报》中的四字日语借词

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱京伟

    2013-01-01

    The period around which QingYiBao began to boom coincides with the increase of unidiomatic four-character words in Chinese. For this reason, the importance of QingYiBao as a source for research into historical lexicology cannot be ignored. In addition, former studies of loanwords from Japanese mainly focused on distinguishing and sorting out two-character Japanese loanwords, while three-character and four-character Japanese loanwords were paid little attention, and related disquisitions are also rare. In the view of the above-mentioned facts, this article takes the four-character words in QingYiBaoas the object of study, distinguishes loanwords from the Japanese origin, and summarizes related study methods.%《清议报》(1898-1901)前后正是汉语中非熟语类四字词开始增多的时段,其作为词汇史研究资料的重要性不容忽视。同时,以往在研究日语借词时,总是把重点放在辨别与整理二字日语借词方面,而对三字、四字形式的日语借词则关注不多,很少有人对此进行专题讨论。有鉴于此,本文将以《清议报》中四字词为研究对象,在辨别日语借词的同时,也对相关的研究方法进行归纳。

  1. Towards an Ancient Chinese-Inspired Theory of Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    In this philosophical paper, I propose a theory of music education inspired by ancient Chinese philosophy. In particular, I draw on five classical Chinese philosophical texts: the Analects (lunyu [Chinese characters omitted]), the Mencius (Mengzi [Chinese characters omitted]), the Zhuangzi ([Chinese characters omitted]), the Xunzi ([Chinese…

  2. Research on Pictograph Influencing Children’s Chinese Characters Memory with Implicit Learning%内隐学习中象形文字促进幼儿汉字字形记忆的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娟; 许姗姗; 袁杰; 张积家; 焦杰

    2014-01-01

    In this study, task dissociation paradigm was adopted to explore the effect of simulative functions of Dongba pictograph and the Oracle on Chinese character orthographic learning in implicit learning. A total of 100 (4-5 years old) kindergarten children were tested in this study,50 children took part in Experiment 1 and other 50 children took part in Experiment 2 . Color judgment tasks were used in learning period. Using recognition task, Experiment 1 was to investigate the impact of learning style on the explicit memory of Chinese orthographic learning. Using preference tasks, Experiment 2 was to investigate the influence of learning style on the implicit memory of Chinese orthographic learning. Results showed that Chinese learning combined with the Oracle yielded better results than learning Chinese combined Dongba pictograph in explicit memory. Pictograph can become better auxiliary learning tool to promote young children’s Chinese character learning.%以100名4-5岁中班幼儿为研究对象,采用任务分离范式考察内隐学习条件下象形文字(东巴文、甲骨文)对幼儿汉字字形记忆的影响。该篇研究包括两个实验,幼儿均通过颜色判断任务进行学习,实验1采用再认任务考察象形文字对幼儿汉字字形外显记忆的影响,实验2采用偏好判断任务考察象形文字对幼儿汉字字形内隐记忆的影响。研究发现,在内隐学习条件下,甲骨文比东巴文更能够促进汉字字形的外显记忆,象形文字可以成为幼儿汉字学习的良好辅助材料。

  3. The neural mechanism of left hemiparalexia and left hemialexia in reading Chinese characters%汉字左半错读、左视野失读的神经机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单春雷; 王彤; 于美霞; 翁旭初; 罗本燕; 张志强; 赵晓瑜; 吕志宿

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究汉字左半错读和左视野失读的神经机制.方法 对1例左腹内侧枕颞区和左胼胝体压部脑梗死致阅读障碍的患者进行一系列神经心理学检查,包括注视汉字中点的速视朗读、左右分视野速视朗读,同时采用高分辨率三维稳态毁损梯度回返采集序列(3D-SPGR)磁共振成像(MRI)、弥散张量纤维束示踪成像(DTT),观察患者大脑皮质和神经通路受损细节.结果 受试患者表现出汉字左半错读和左视野失读.高分辨率脑结构像显示病灶累及左腹内侧枕颞皮质,但左中部梭状回的"视觉词形区"保留.DTT显示胼胝体压部-枕大钳纤维束通路中断.结论 胼胝体压部通路损害导致汉字视觉信息传递中断从而出现汉字左半错读、左视野失读.%Objective To investigate the underlying neural mechanism of left hemiparalexia and left hemialexia in reading Chinese characters. Methods A patient with reading disorders caused by brain infarctions at the left ventralis medialis occipitotemporal lobe and the splenium of the corpus callosum was studied. A series of neuropsychological tests, such as reading Chinese characters presented in the central foveal field or in the left and right half of the foveal field, were conducted with the patient, and neuroimaging techniques including high spatial resolution 3D-MRI and diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) were used to examine whether or not there were lesions of the neural pathway. Results The patient showed left hemiparalexia, which was characterized by making substitution or omission mistakes, mostly in the left parts of Chinese characters, and also left hemialexia(alexia for characters presented in left visual field). 3D-MRI demonstrated infarctions in the left ventral mesial occipitotemporal area and in the left side of the splenium of the corpus callosum. The left lateral mid-fusiform cortex, which has been identified as the visual word form area(VWFA), was almost intact

  4. 论《广韵》异读字在上古音研究中的地位——《广韵》异读字研究之一(增订本)%Discussion on the Status of Polyphonic Characters in Guangyun (广韵) in the Study of Old Chinese Sounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张渭毅

    2011-01-01

    The polyphonic characters in Guangyun (广韵) are an important basis for confirming the variant pronunciation of polyphonic characters in Old Chinese and play a crucial role in the study of Old Chinese phonetic sounds. This paper presents the principles and methods of how to confirm the variant pronunciation of polyphonic characters in Old Chinese phonetic system. It is held that the variant pronunciation of polyphonic characters in Guangyun (广韵), a Chinese rime dictionary that reflected the phonological content, sound features and phonetic laws of Old Chinese, should be traced to the source of Old Chinese phonetic sounds. Whereas, the variant pronunciation of polyphonic Chinese Characters which emerged from the middle ages to the Song Dynasty should not be regarded as the basis tracing to the source of Old Chinese phonetic sounds.%《广韵》异读字是确定上古异读字的重要依据,在上古音研究中占有重要的地位。文章论证了依据《广韵》异读字确定上古异读字收字的原则、制约上古异读字收字方案的因素和确定上古异读的方法。认为那些体现上古音的音韵内容、音类特征和语音规律的《广韵》异读,应该推源到上古,并确定其上古音韵地位;《广韵》中还有一批中古时期乃至宋代新产生的异读,不反映上古音的音韵内容和音类特征,不能作为上推上古音的依据。

  5. Effect of Earthquake Experience on the Perceptual Interference with Unfilled Intervals in Chinese Characters%地震经历对插入空白间隔的汉字知觉干扰效应的影响*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨昕岳; 王权红; 陆其林

    2013-01-01

      以插入空白间隔的汉字知觉干扰效应为实验范式,探讨了不同长短的空白间隔对地震相关字和无关字的影响。结果发现:(1)在实验组中,与地震无关字相比,被试对地震相关字有更高的识别率;而在对照组中,被试对地震相关字和无关字的识别率差异不显著。(2)450 ms的间隔能导致地震无关字干扰效应的消失,却不会对地震相关字的识别造成干扰。本研究支持竞争激活假说,并为情绪驱动知觉加工的观点提供证据。%The perceptual interference effect states that a moderately degraded stimulus is less readily identified when depicted in a sequence of exposures from a highly degraded form than when presented all at once (standard condition). Thirty-two middle-school students from Mianzhu City (an earthquake-prone area), Sichuan province, China, were selected as major (experimental) participants, while thirty-two middle-school students from Beibei, Chongqing were chosen as control participants. This study, which consisted of two experiments (major and control), explored the effect of earthquake experience on the identification of Chinese characters with a paradigm of perceptual interference with unfilled interval (blank screen between exposures). The participants in each experiment were required to identify fragmented target characters in eight conditions by typing down the identity of each target. These conditions resulted from a within-participant design of 2 (material conditions:earthquake-related and unrelated characters) × 4 (presentation conditions, namely, three incremental conditions with interval durations of 0, 450, 900 ms, and the standard condition). These two experiments were combined into a dummy experiment of a mixed design for further analyses. Repeated measures analyses of variance were first conducted on percentages of the correct completion of target fragments. The major experiment indicated a significant

  6. A Comparative Study on the Automatic Extraction of Two-character Word from Ancient Chinese%古汉语双字词自动获取方法的比较与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段磊; 韩芳; 宋继华

    2012-01-01

    Word extraction is of great importance in the research fields of natural language generation, computational lexicography, parsing, corpus linguistic, etc. To address the issue of automatic extraction of two-character word from ancient Chinese, this paper takes the "Records of the Grand Historian" corpus as an example, and uses the statistical methods that based on frequency, mutual information and hypothesis testing to extract two-character word, respectively. Then it compares and analyzes the results according to the manual marked result in detail. It paves the way for the scheme design for the two-character word extraction from ancient Chinese in different applications.%词汇的自动获取在自然语言生成、计算词典编纂、句法分析以及语料库语言学等领域均有着重要的研究价值.该文针对古汉语双字词的自动获取问题,以《史记》全文语料为例,分别应用基于频率、互信息、假设检验的统计方法获取古汉语双字词,并结合人工标注结果进行了详细的比较和分析,评价了各方法的优缺点及可靠性,为不同应用背景下的古汉语双字词自动获取提供了相应的解决方案.

  7. 《现代汉语通用字表》“一”部字构形笔意分析%A Morphemicological Approach to Characters with Radical “—” in the List of Commonly Used Characters in Modern Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃觅

    2012-01-01

    汉字“以形示义”的功能和汉民族“据形识义”的文化心理,使得人们总是试图对发展后的字形和字义做出新的诠释,以其使新的形义关系得到统一。然而,《现代汉语通用字表》中的“一”部字的大部分形体与原始的构已经不能吻合,其构形笔意主要表现为实物之象、自然景貌、行为动作、人体部位、抽象符号等。其构型笔意相当多变,很难按照一个统一的义群去归类,作为一个部首,它仅仅起着检字之作用,在现行汉字体系中,它已失去了“以形示义”的功能。%Being aware of the function of Chinese characters' displaying meaning with the shape and influenced by the cultural tendency of basing meaning on the shape, one is inclined to reinterpret the relationship be- tween the form and the meaning of an evolved character, hoping to identify the form with the meaning. However, for a great majority of characters with Radical "~", their shapes are no longer identical to their original forms, with the strokes generally signifying images, natural objects, behaviors, parts of the human body and abstract symbols, etc. In light of this, it is hardly possible to categorize the characters according to a meaningoriented criterion. As a radical,“—” functions only as an index, for it has lost the function of displaying meaning.

  8. Vehicle License Plate Character Segmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei-Sen Pan; Jun-Biao Yan; Zheng-Hong Xiao

    2008-01-01

    Vehicle license plate (VLP) character segmentation is an important part of the vehicle license plate recognition system (VLPRS). This paper proposes a least square method (LSM) to treat horizontal tilt and vertical tilt in VLP images. Auxiliary lines are added into the image (or the tilt-corrected image) to make the separated parts of each Chinese character to be an interconnected region. The noise regions will be eliminated after two fusing images are merged according to the minimum principle of gray values.Then, the characters are segmented by projection method (PM) and the final character images are obtained. The experimental results show that this method features fast processing and good performance in segmentation.

  9. 触觉与视觉的碰撞--论盲文与汉字的一体性设计%THE COLLISION BETWEEN TACTILE AND VISUAL--THEORY OF BRAILLE AND CHINESE CHARACTERS OF ONENESS DESIGN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季荣; 孙新泉

    2015-01-01

    近年来,很多国家都在积极努力地在景观设计、导向设计及包装设计等领域尝试融入盲文元素,体现人文关怀。本文从盲文的起源出发,探讨盲文这一特殊语种的元素在视觉表达上的应用和拓展,并尝试将中国现行盲文与汉字进行视觉一体化设计,以此达到汉字的“无障碍”识别。%In recent years, many countries are keeping the positive efforts in areas such as landscape design, guidance design and packaging design to try to use Braile elements to embody humanistic care. The article starts from the origin of Braile, discusses Braile on this particular element in the visual expression of the application and development, and tries to current Chinese Braile visual integration design with Chinese characters, to achieve the recognition of the Chinese character“barrier-free ".

  10. 基于中文人名用字特征的性别判定方法%A method of gender discrimination based on character feature of Chinese names

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于江德; 赵红丹; 郑勃举; 余正涛

    2014-01-01

    Based on the strong gender discrimination of Chinese names, a method of gender discrimination based on character feature of Chinese names using naïve Bayes classifier was presented.In this method, the first character of each Chinese name ( Zi1 ) , the second character ( Zi2 ) , the first and the second characters ( Zi1 Zi2 ) were regarded as distin-guishing features.The naïve Bayes classification method was used for gender discrimination of Chinese names.Training and testing were done on 412 775 Chinese names corpus using 10 fold cross validation method, and comparative experi-ments were done according to the different feature combinations, they were Zi1 , Zi2 , Zi1 +Zi2 , Zi1 +Zi1 Zi2 , Zi2 +Zi1 Zi2 , Zi1 +Zi2 +Zi1 Zi2 ( all the distinguishing features) .The average accuracy were as followings in turn, 72.75%, 86.92%, 88.84%, 87.37%, 89.35%, 90.06%, of which the best average accuracy was 90.06%.%基于中文人名用字具有的较强的性别区分性,提出一种利用朴素贝叶斯分类器对中文人名性别进行判定的方法,该方法将每个中文人名中的第一个字(字1)、第二个字(字2)、第一和第二个字组合(字1字2)作为区分特征,利用朴素贝叶斯分类方法对该人名所属性别进行判定。在412775个中文人名语料上采用10重交叉验证法进行训练和测试,对比了依据不同区分特征组合进行性别判定的准确率,分别采用字1,字2,字1+字2,字1+字1字2,字2+字1字2,字1+字2+字1字2(全部区分特征)构成的特征组合进行性别判定,平均判定准确率分别为72.75%,86.92%,88.84%,87.37%,89.35%,90.06%,取得的最好平均判定准确率为90.06%。

  11. 任务与字频对汉字阅读中情绪价效应的影晌%Effects of Different Tasks and Frequencies on the Emotional Valence Effect of Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范宁; 宋耀武; 彭聃龄

    2012-01-01

    The affective ( positive or negative) information of emotion words can accelerate the words processing compared with the neutral words Some research revealed that the emotional valence effect occurred under either conscious or subliminal conditions How- ever, whether the emotional valence effect is an automatic procedure or an interactive outcome between the task paradigm and the stimu- lus property is still unclear. The present study used semantic and phonological tasks to explore the influence of frequency on the emo- tional valence effect when people read Chinese characters. After normalization, two experiments applied the same stimuli sets of Chinese characters, which had been strictly matched in terms of their frequency, stroke number, radical number, concrete level, and emotional arousal level in all six conditions. Experiment 1 used the semantic category decision task, 2 (high frequency vs. low frequency) 3 (negative/neutral/positive) within-subjects design. The participants were 30 college students with one subject excluded because his total error rate was too high ( 〉 10% ). They were asked to decide whether the target Chinese character was a hying being ( e. g. tiger, horse, grass) or not by pressing a keyboard button. Different from the semantic processing, Experiment 2 applied the rhyming decision task. Another 30 college students participated in this task. They made responses according to the target characters' pronunciation. If the syllable contained/ong/ ( e. g. /song4/,/qiong2/, /nong2/), they were to press the "yes" button, otherwise press "no". The two experiments shared the same design, stimuli and pro- gram. A computer automatically recorded the subject's reaction time and error rate with E-prime 1.1. The multivariate analysis of variance results showed that when the participants were asked to perform the semantic task, the nega- tive valence accelerated the characters' semantic access in both high and low frequency conditions (ps 〈 . 05

  12. Applicability of Game Character Attachment Questionnaire in Chinese College Students%游戏角色依恋问卷在中国大学生中的适用性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏华; 周宗奎; 田媛; 罗青; 吴姝欣

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the reliability and validity of Game Character Attachment Questionnaire applied in Chinese college students. Methods: A sample of 481 college students was administered Came Character Attachment Questionnaire and Online Game Addiction Questionnaire. Results: There were four-factor model of Game Character Attachment, i.e., Identification/Friendship ^Suspension of Disbelief .Control and Responsibility, and the four-factor model had a high coefficiency of internal consistency; The indexes of confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated the four-factor model had a good structure validity. Game character attachment questionnaire score and the online game addiction score had a high correlation, indicating that the questionnaire had good criterion-related validity. Conclusion: Game Character Attachment Questionnaire is a reliable and valid instrument. It can be used to assess the relationship between the game player and character.%目的:将游戏角色依恋问卷应用于我国大学生人群,通过对其信度和效度的研究,考察其适用性.方法:使用游戏角色依恋问卷和网络游戏成瘾问卷对481名在校大学生网络游戏玩家进行测量.结果:网络游戏角色依恋有4个维度,分别是认同和友谊、关注矛盾、责任和控制,且4个维度的内部一致性系数较高;验证性因素分析结果表明4个维度模型有较好的拟合度.游戏角色依恋问卷得分与网络游戏成瘾得分具有较高的相关.结论:游戏角色依恋问卷符合心理测量性要求,可用于测量我国大学生网络游戏玩家与其角色的关系.

  13. On the Chinese Character Calligraphy-Additional Analysis of Yu Jie’s Book:“As a Culture of Ecstasy Calligraphy”%汉字书法衡镜--兼评余杰《作为“文化摇头丸”的书法》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅晏风

    2015-01-01

    There are seven chapters in the paper, in which the long history of Chinese character calligraphy, the profound reasons and historical necessaries of prosperous Chinese character writing in the Chinese national culture were illustrated. From the per-spective of aesthetic education, the different measures and positive effects of Chinese character calligraphy in the ancient educa-tion system of China were explained. The historical facts and examples were cited to criticize the ridicules idea of negation of Chinese character calligraphy and viewing it as “culture ecstasy”which is popular on the Internet.%本文分七章。分别论述了汉字书法的悠久历史及其在汉民族文化中长盛不衰的深层原因和历史必然。并从美育的角度,论述了汉字书法在中国古代教育体系中的各种举措和积极成效。文章用毋庸置疑的历史事实批驳了当今流传于网络间否定书法,视书法为“摇头丸”的荒谬言论。

  14. The Choice of Traditional vs. Simplified Characters in US Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shi-zhong

    2009-01-01

    Which form of Chinese characters should be taught in Chinese language classes: traditional or simplified? The results of a questionnaire distributed to sections at the University of Florida show the reasons for students' preferences for one or the other form. In view of the students' awareness that traditional characters are more beneficial to…

  15. 从中文文学期刊的特色谈其风格演变及发展变化%On the Style Changing and Development from Analyzing the Characters on Chinese Literature Periodicals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗振津

    2012-01-01

    在图书馆的藏书中,中文期刊占有很大比重,其中中文文学期刊又占据期刊榜首。探究其发展规律,为到馆的读者更好服务有着很深的意义。中文文学期刊在动乱结束后,曾迎来繁荣发展的大时代,满足了当时人们对其的渴望,中文文学期刊在当时为数不多的大众文化产品的中占有相当的地位。而今社会是信息产业的多样化,数字化,视觉化的多元时代,中文文学期刊受到不小冲击,为了寻求出路,必须走出低谷。从自身改变中寻求新的发展.探求发展变化中的规律,这些发展主要表现在多元化的包装,文学期刊与影视互动。为影视作品提供创作蓝本等等.为中文文学期刊适应当今社会发展奠定了基础。%Of the library storage, Chinese journal has a large proportion, while, Chinese literature periodicals is the top of the list. Studying its developing trend will significantly help service readers. After ten years of turmoil, Chinese lit journal faced an era of growing fruitfully, satisfying people's desire. Among the few public cultural products, Chinese lit journal played an important role. However, nowadays, there is an era of information industry with diversified, digital and visualized characters, Chinese lit journal suffers strikes, in order to find way out of trouble, literature periodicals must explore the developing trend and look for new development from self-changing. The new developments includes diversified package, interaction between literature periodicals and movie and providing chief source to films and television programs, making basis for Chinese literature periodicals adapting to social development today.

  16. Role of Familiarity of Semantic Radicals in the Recognition of Lowly Familiar Chinese Characters%义符熟悉性对低频形声字词汇通达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈新葵; 张积家

    2012-01-01

    Chinese characters are logograms, with semantic radicals playing the dominating role in conveying meaning through form. Though fruitful results have been achieved in semantic radical's studies, providing evidence to support that semantic radical embodies the pictographic, ideographic and grammar function. The tasks applied in those studies are mostly outline, much less inline. The latter method mainly regards frequency as a balance-matching factor, while the matching method is likely to hide the difference in processing characters with different frequencies; this is probably one important reason why no concordant conclusion has been made in current semantic radical's studies. This study, referring to the Chen Xinkui and Zhang Jijias' research on the influence of the familiarity of semantic radicals on the recognition of high frequency Chinese characters, and applying the same research paradigm, I.e., by matching components of high frequency words and low frequency words like word frequency, number of strokes, details, contextual requisitions, probed into the impact of low frequency phonograms as initiate words on target words under three different SOA conditions, thus analyze systematically and thoroughly the impact of familiarity of semantic radicals on the understanding of phonograms. The results showed that when SOA = 43ms, the target latencies following R+S-primes were slower than the R - S - controls under the highly familiar semantic radical condition; however, this was not the case under the less familiar condition. When SOA = 72ms, the target latencies following R+S- primes were slowed relative to R - S - controls under both highly familiar and less familiar semantic radical conditions. Further, when SOA= 243ms, facilitation effects of R-S+ and inhibition effects of R+S- Primes were observed under both highly and lowly familiar semantic radicals conditions, with a inhibition effects found in the highly familiar one. The results indicated a dynamic

  17. Digital Animation Character Creation Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘锋

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the proper method for Chinese digital animation character design on the foundation of certain cultural elements. The method used in this study is known as comparative analysis of Disney and Japanese animation styles in action, appearance, facial expression and voice design. These dynamic factors are the best carrier of the animation spirit and native culture, so it is important to take the dynamic factors into account when producing the digital animation, and it will be an excellent starting point to innovate Chinese digital animation.

  18. Recognition of Similar Handwritten Chinese Characters Based on CNN and Random Elastic Deformation%基于CNN和随机弹性形变的相似手写汉字识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高学; 王有旺

    2014-01-01

    In order to recognize similar handwritten Chinese characters effectively,a convolutional neural network (CNN)model is proposed,and the topology of the network model is presented.Then,the sample set is extended by introducing a stochastic elastic deformation to enhance the generalization performance of the model.Experimen-tal results indicate that the recognition accuracy of the proposed CNN model is 1.66%higher than that of the tradi-tional CNN model,especially,for distorted handwritten Chinese characters,the recognition accuracy increases by 12.85%;moreover,as compared with the traditional recognition methods,the proposed CNN model reduces the recognition error rate by 36.47%.It is thus concluded that the proposed method is effective.%针对手写汉字中相似汉字的识别问题,构建了一种卷积神经网络(CNN)模型,并给出了其网络拓扑结构,通过随机弹性形变对样本集进行扩展,以提高模型的泛化性能.相似手写汉字的识别实验结果表明:相对于常规的CNN模型,文中CNN模型的手写汉字识别正确率提高1.66%,特别是对于变形的手写汉字,识别正确率提高12.85%;相对于传统的手写汉字识别方法,文中方法的识别错误率降低36.47%,从而验证了文中识别方法的有效性.

  19. Application of 3 D Printing Technology in Chinese Character Design%3D打印技术在汉字创意设计实践中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许力

    2016-01-01

    近年来,3 D 打印技术在全球范围内飞速发展,已应用到医疗、建筑、设计等多个领域。在创意设计产业中,3D打印技术的应用虽然尚处起步阶段,但其市场前景十分巨大。因此,3 D 打印技术在创意设计实践中的具体运用成为大家关注的焦点。本文将以相关汉字作品为例,并结合笔者自身的设计实践经验,探讨如何利用3D打印技术实现汉字创意从二维空间向三维空间的拓展。%With the rapid development in recent years, 3d printing technology has been applied to medical, architecture, design and other fields. In creative design industry, although the application of 3d printing technology is still in infancy, its market prospect is very big. Therefore, 3d printing technology in the concrete application of creative design practice has become the focus of attention. Taking the related work of Chinese characters forexample and combining with the author’s own design practical experience, this paper explores the appliction of 3d printing in Chinese characters creative from 2d to 3d space.

  20. 美国中小学汉字教学的建构主义特色∗%Constructivist features in the teaching of Chinese characters in American K-1 2 schools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林秀琴

    2016-01-01

    According to constructivism,acquiring knowledge is a kind of constructivist activity, whose subj ect is the learners,and therefore,the construction of the teaching environment should cen-ter on the learners themselves to ensure the construction of knowledge.The teaching of Chinese char-acters in American K-1 2 schools reflects the fundamental teaching theories of constructivism in two aspects.First,it abides by the cognitive law and emphasizes the construction of the knowledge schema of a Chinese character.Second,it creates a teaching environment good for knowledge construction by encouraging peer communication and coordination and guiding the learners to fulfill knowledge con-struction during their active studies.If clearer teaching obj ectives could be made and more proper measurement and feedback involved,the teaching effect would be even better.%建构主义认为,知识的获得是一种建构活动,其活动主体是学习者,因此教学环境的设计应以学习者为中心,应有利于知识建构活动。美国中小学汉字教学体现了建构主义教学的基本理念,它遵循认知规律,重视汉字知识图示的构建;它创设利于知识建构的良好环境,重视学生间的交流与协作,引导学生在积极主动的探究中完成汉字的知识建构。如果能更加重视教学目标的分析,建立适当的反馈检测机制,教学效果将更上层楼。

  1. The Custom of Cherishing Papers with Words in Taiwan’s Hakka Area and the Cultural Heritage of Chinese Characters%台湾客家惜字民俗与汉字文化传承

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李孟舜

    2015-01-01

    惜字民俗曾经是中国古代社会流传甚广的民俗活动,表达了人们对文字的敬重与崇拜。及至现代,随着印刷技术的普及,这一民俗在大部分地区已经渐趋衰落,踪迹难觅,而在台湾客家地区却一直保留延续。台湾客家的惜字民俗反映了古代中国民间社会对文字的禁忌与信仰,其根源可追溯至汉字文化的源头。惜字民俗的发展轨迹与历史演变体现了中原汉字文化的有序传承,印证了客家人“根在中原”的祖源论述。台湾客家地区惜字民俗活动得以流传至今,与客家人延续千年“崇文重教”的文化精神密不可分。这一民俗活动所反映的不仅是儒家思想影响下的传统社会礼俗互动的文化特征,而且呈现了整个汉字文化圈对知识与文化的崇拜与敬重。%The custom of Cherishing Papers with Words which spread widely in ancient Chinese society represents the people's respect and worship for the Chinese characters. With the popularization of modern printing technology, this custom in most areas disappeared gradually, but have been retained in Taiwan’s Hakka area. The custom of cherishing papers with words whose source can be retrospected to the origin of Chinese character culture, reflects the taboo and worship for the words in the ancient folk society. The development trajectory and historical evolution of this custom reflect the orderly succession of Chinese characters culture in Central Plains and confirm the view that the root of Hakka people is in the Central Plains. The reason why this custom has been circulated so far has a close relationship with Hakka cultural spirits which contain the worship of culture and the emphasis on education. The custom of cherishing papers with words reflects the interaction between ritual and customs in traditional society under the influence of Confucianism and presents the worship and respect for knowledge and culture in the Chinese

  2. 试析中医思维模式的本质特点和多元复杂性%Analysis of the essential character and multiple dimension complex of the traditional Chinese medicine thinking pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王强

    2013-01-01

    The nature, diversity, multilevel nature and limitation of 'Xiang' thought, union of 'Xing' and 'Shen', 'Qi' monism were discussed in this article. There should be some image formation of 'Xiang' thought. The nature of 'Xiang' in TCM is a kind of message that can be transferred between the subjective and objective. So the called 'the body and the spirit union' and 'constitution' theory is misunderstanding of the relationship between the body and the spirit. And it lead to the wrong concept of '9 kind of constitution' that confused the constitution and the psychology. 'Qi' has the non-material character, complementary and coexisting character of 'Qi'monism and 'Qi'pluralism is the whole character of Chinese traditional thought.%文章讨论了象思维、形神合一、气一元论等思维方式的本质及其多元性、多层次性和局限性.象思维必须有意象的形成与联想,中医“象”的本质是可以发生主、客观转化的信息.所谓“形神一体”的“构成”说,是对“形神合一”关系论的错误理解,导致了混淆体质与心理素质的“九种体质说”的错误.气具有非物质性,气一元论与气多元论的互补共存,是中国传统思维的完整方式.

  3. DUAN’s Notes of Shuo Wen Jie Ziand Collation of Original Meanings of Chinese Characters%析《段注》所正《说文》各本字本义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭晓红

    2012-01-01

    段玉裁自正或依《说文》旧本、音义书、经传文赋及其注等正《说文》各本字本义;以正释字字形、字序为主,另补、删字本义;他的整理正本清源,体现出研究主见和博大精深的语言功底,为中国语言学的发展做出了不可磨灭的贡献。%"Notes of Shuo Wen Jie Zi "written by Duan Yucai Collated various versions for their notes on the grapheme meaning of Chinese Characters,by way of correcting,supplementing or deleting words,with direct correcting font,word order,or according to different versions of Shuowen,his arrangement had the role of the radical reform and demonstrated the broad and profound language skills and was of great significance in the field of Chinese linguistics.

  4. 三字经 Quotes from the Three Character Classic%三字经 Quotes from the Three Character Classic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Three Character Classic is one of the Chinese classic texts, probably written in the 13th century during the Song Dynasty and attributed to Wang Yinglin (王应麟1223-1296).It's the embodiment of Confucian thought suit- able for teaching young children. With the short and simple text arranged in three-character verses, children learned many common characters, grammar structures, elements of Chinese history and the basis of Confucian morality.

  5. Combining Character-Based and Substring-Based Tagging for Chinese Word Segmentation%一种基于字和子串联合标注的汉语分词方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于江德; 谷川; 葛文英; 樊孝忠

    2011-01-01

    近年来基于字的词位标注的方法极大地提高了汉语分词的性能,该方法将汉语分词转化为字的词位标注问题,借助于优秀的序列数据标注模型,基于字的词位标注汉语分词方法逐渐成为汉语分词的主要技术路线.针对一些领域文本中含有较多的英文词汇、缩写、数字等非汉字子串,提出了一种基于字和子串联合标注的汉语分词方法,该方法将子串看作和汉字等同的一个整体,采用四词位标注集,使用条件随机场模型深入研究了基于字和子串联合标注的汉语分词技术.在CIPS-SIGHAN2010汉语分词评测所提供的文学、计算机、医药、金融四个领域语料上进行了封闭测试,实验结果表明此方法比传统的字标注分词方法性能更好.%The performance of Chinese word segmentation has been greatly improved by word-position-based approaches in recent years. This approach treats Chinese word segmentation as a word-position tagging problem. With the help of powerful sequence tagging model, word-position-based method quickly rose as a mainstream technique in this field. Considering plenty of abbreviations, numeric and other non-Chinese strings,our segmentation system adopted a method combining character-based and substring-based tagging. Substring is considered a whole in this method. We further studied this technique by using four word-positions and conditional random fields. Closed evaluations are performed on four corpuses from the CIPS-SIGHAN 2010,namely Literary,Computer,Medicine and Finance. And comparative experiments are performed. Experimental results show that the method is much better performance than the traditional character-based tagging method.

  6. Language Planning, Naming and Character Use in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shouhui; Baldauf, Richard B., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    As Chinese characters ("hanzi") have three aspects--as a technical writing system, an aesthetic visual art (Chinese calligraphy), and a highly-charged cultural symbolic system--changing them is a complex process. In the 1950s when language planning campaigns were launched to modernise Chinese through "hanzi" standardisation,…

  7. An Analysis of Chinese Four-character Idiom Errors by Indonesian Advanced Chinese Learners%印尼高级水平华人学生汉语成语学习偏误分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗宇

    2015-01-01

    成语是汉语作为第二语言教学中高级阶段的重点和难点。印尼本科四年级华人学生成语学习的偏误类型分为误代、误加、遗漏和杂糅四类;产生偏误的原因主要有词汇知识前摄干扰、教材和教学误导、成语认知难度高、句法竞争等。%Chinese idiom is one of the key issues as well as difficult items at advanced stage of teaching Chinese as a second language. The idiom errors that the Indonesian Chinese undergraduate students produce can be categorized into four types: replacement, addition, omission and blending. The main error sources are in the following:interfering of existing vocabulary knowledge, misguiding from textbook(s) or teacher’ s explanation, high cognitive difficulty of Chinese idioms, construction competition in sentence production and so on.

  8. The time-course of lexical activation in Japanese morphographic word recognition: evidence for a character-driven processing model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Koji; Libben, Gary; Dijkstra, Ton; Baayen, Harald

    2014-01-01

    This lexical decision study with eye tracking of Japanese two-kanji-character words investigated the order in which a whole two-character word and its morphographic constituents are activated in the course of lexical access, the relative contributions of the left and the right characters in lexical decision, the depth to which semantic radicals are processed, and how nonlinguistic factors affect lexical processes. Mixed-effects regression analyses of response times and subgaze durations (i.e., first-pass fixation time spent on each of the two characters) revealed joint contributions of morphographic units at all levels of the linguistic structure with the magnitude and the direction of the lexical effects modulated by readers' locus of attention in a left-to-right preferred processing path. During the early time frame, character effects were larger in magnitude and more robust than radical and whole-word effects, regardless of the font size and the type of nonwords. Extending previous radical-based and character-based models, we propose a task/decision-sensitive character-driven processing model with a level-skipping assumption: Connections from the feature level bypass the lower radical level and link up directly to the higher character level.

  9. Robust recognition of degraded machine-printed characters using complementary similarity measure and error-correction learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagita, Norihiro; Sawaki, Minako

    1995-03-01

    Most conventional methods in character recognition extract geometrical features such as stroke direction, connectivity of strokes, etc., and compare them with reference patterns in a stored dictionary. Unfortunately, geometrical features are easily degraded by blurs, stains and the graphical background designs used in Japanese newspaper headlines. This noise must be removed before recognition commences, but no preprocessing method is completely accurate. This paper proposes a method for recognizing degraded characters and characters printed on graphical background designs. This method is based on the binary image feature method and uses binary images as features. A new similarity measure, called the complementary similarity measure, is used as a discriminant function. It compares the similarity and dissimilarity of binary patterns with reference dictionary patterns. Experiments are conducted using the standard character database ETL-2 which consists of machine-printed Kanji, Hiragana, Katakana, alphanumeric, an special characters. The results show that this method is much more robust against noise than the conventional geometrical feature method. It also achieves high recognition rates of over 92% for characters with textured foregrounds, over 98% for characters with textured backgrounds, over 98% for outline fonts, and over 99% for reverse contrast characters.

  10. Analysis of the Character of Chinese People in Lu Xun’ s Works%鲁迅笔下的国民性问题解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荆煜君

    2016-01-01

    从贫穷愚昧、精神胜利法、尊崇势利、麻木冷漠、自私俭啬贪便宜五个方面分析了鲁迅作品中的国民性弊病,其不仅具有“老中国”的时代特征,而且具有跨越时空的普遍的人性特征。%This paper analyzes the defects of Chinese people in Lu Xun ’ s works from five aspects:poverty and illiteracy, spirit-satisfied method, snobbery, numbness, parsimony and selfishness , which not only represent the characteristics of “Old China” but also reflect the seamy side of humanity .

  11. 副中央凹中字N+2的预视对汉语阅读眼跳目标选择影响的眼动研究%The influence of parafoveal processing of character N+2 on saccade targeting in Chinese reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永胜; 白学军; 臧传丽; 高晓雷; 郭志英; 闫国利

    2016-01-01

    Although some researches have found that the word is the basic processing unit in Chinese reading, there is little if any evidence to show that Chinese readers select upcoming words as the next saccade target. Research has shown that parafoveal processing affects saccade targeting in reading of word-based alphabetic languages like English. However, it is less clear whether it is the case in reading of character-based languges like Chinese, in which word boundaries are not clearly demarcated and there is often ambiguity about which characters form a word. Opinions differ about whether Chinese readers select a specific position within a word to fixate during reading. Several studies have shown that Chinese readers do not target saccades to a specific position within a word. However, others have argued that saccade targeting is based on ongoing word segmentation that occurs in parafoveal vision, and only if segmentation is successful, do Chinese readers select the center of the word as the next fixation location. Conversely, if segmentation fails, readers will move their eyes to the beginning of the word. If Chinese readers select the next word as a target, there should be difference in the fixation location when characters in parafovea do, or do not, comprise a word. In this experiment, we selected a high-frequency character as character N+1. In the “two-character word” condition, the characters N+1 and N+2 formed a word, but in the “two single character words” condition, the two characters did not form a word. Using the boundary pradigm (Rayner, 1975), we also manipulated the preview of character N+2, such that it was either an identical or a pseudocharacter preview. The results showed that fixation durations on character N+2 were significantly shorter when the preview of character N+2 was identical than when it was a pseudocharacter. There was no significant difference in the length of the outgoing saccade from the pretarget to the target region between

  12. 深度学习在手写汉字识别中的应用综述%Applications of Deep Learning for Handwritten Chinese Character Recognition:A Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金连文; 钟卓耀; 杨钊; 杨维信; 谢泽澄; 孙俊

    2016-01-01

    手写汉字识别(Handwritten Chinese character recognition, HCCR)是模式识别的一个重要研究领域,最近几十年来得到了广泛的研究与关注,随着深度学习新技术的出现,近年来基于深度学习的手写汉字识别在方法和性能上得到了突破性的进展。本文综述了深度学习在手写汉字识别领域的研究进展及具体应用。首先介绍了手写汉字识别的研究背景与现状。其次简要概述了深度学习的几种典型结构模型并介绍了一些主流的开源工具,在此基础上详细综述了基于深度学习的联机和脱机手写汉字识别的方法,阐述了相关方法的原理、技术细节、性能指标等现状情况,最后进行了分析与总结,指出了手写汉字识别领域仍需要解决的问题及未来的研究方向。%Handwritten Chinese character recognition (HCCR) is an important research filed of pattern recognition, which has attracted extensive studies during the past decades. With the emergence of deep learning, new breakthrough progresses of HCCR have been obtained in recent years. In this paper, we review the applications of deep learning models in the field of HCCR. First, the research background and current state-of-the-art HCCR technologies are introduced. Then, we provide a brief overview of several typical deep learning models, and introduce some widely used open source tools for deep learning. The approaches of online HCCR and offline HCCR based on deep learning are surveyed, with the summaries of the related methods, technical details, and performance analysis. Finally, further research directions are discussed.

  13. 聋人与听力正常人汉语字词加工认知途径的比较%Cognitive processing of Chinese characters between hearing-disabled and normal people

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张朝

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: At present, there are some researches on the cognitive identification of Chinese characters at home or abroad, however, most of them are based on the normal and healthy people.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the processing styles of optical information on phonemic code, graphic code and semantic code of Chinese haracters between hearing-disabled and normal people.DESIGN: Retrospective, observational and compared analysis based on the hearing-disabled as research subjects and the normal as the controlled group.SETTING: Department of education in a university.PARTICIPANTS: This study was completed in Xi' an between October 2001 and April 2002. With the mean age of 17 years and half in gender, 20hearing-disabled people, who were in grade 6 to grade 8, were selected from the Second School for the Deaf and Dumb in Xi' an. Inclusion criteria: The hearing loss of people was more than or equal to 92 dB. Exclusion criteria:People with acquired hearing-disabled were excluded. At the beginning of study in primary school, they were accepted oral training and taught Chinese pinyi, but gesture was the main communicated style in their daily life. With the mean age of 15 years and half in gender, 28 normal people, who were in grade 3, were selected from the No. 99 Middle School in Xi'an.METHODS: This study showed with serial opticum. The diagnostic method was compared with the cognitive identification of the three kinds of Chinese characters between the hearing-disabled and the normal respectively.phonemic code, graphic code and semantic code between hearing-disabled characters between hearing-disabled and normal people.RESULTS: The results showed that the function of graphic code in visual processing was strongly correlated with recognition of words of Chinese characters than the phoneme code and semantic code in both the hearing-disabled and hearing children. For hearing-disabled children, the alternative was the direct access that a semantic code was produced directly

  14. The Three Stages and Related Topics in Modern Chinese Character Research and Standardization:from 1955 to 2015%60年来现代汉字研究与规范的三个阶段及相关问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈双新

    2016-01-01

    1955年12月文化部和文改会发布新中国成立以后的第一个汉字规范《第一批异体字整理表》,至今已60年。根据所针对的领域和侧重点的不同,60年来现代汉字的理论研究与规范实践可分为面向扫盲和人际交流、面向汉字规范化标准化信息化、面向人机交流和虚拟空间三个发展阶段。文章还专门论述了繁简字问题、异体字问题、人名用字问题等几个焦点问题。%It has been sixty years since the Ministry of Culture and the Committee for Language Reform of China published The First Batch of Chinese Variants(《第一批异体字整理表》) in the December of 1955, soon after the founding of P. R. China. According to focus differences, the research and practice in this field can be classified into three stages: for eliminating illiteracy & promoting interpersonal communication, for the standardization & informationization of Chinese characters, and for man-machine communication & virtual space. This article specifically discusses the issues on traditional / simplified Chinese character, variant Chinese character, and character use in Chinese names.

  15. 中国葡萄属植物形态学聚类分组研究%Cluster Analysis of Chinese Wild Grape Species Based on Morphological Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘崇怀; 冯建灿; 姜建福

    2011-01-01

    Based on Descriptors and Data Standard for Grape( Vitis L. ) .eighteen descriptors were selected to ? make cluster analysis for 38 Chinese wild grape species and Vitis vinifera from Chinese Ampelography. The results showed that 39 species had been clustered into 8 sections and 5 subsections according to the similarity o f morphology. The first section had 5 species, which included V. heyneana, V. adenoclada, V. longquanensis, V. bellula and V. hut,the second section had V. bashanica and V. sinocinerea,the third section had 21 species and consisted of 5 subsections , the first subsection contained V. amurensis, V. shenxiensis, V. zhejiang-adstricta, V. bryoniaefolia and V. sil-vestrii, the second subsection had V. retordiiund V. menghaiensis, the third subsection had V. balanseana, V. yun-nanensis and V. flexuosa, the fourth subsection had V. piloso-nerva, V. pseudoreticulata, V. wuhanensis and V. jing-gangensis, the fifth subsection contained 7 species, such as V. davidii, V. romaneti, V. betulifolia, V. wilsonae, V. mengziensis, V. fengqinensis and V. hekouensh, the fourth section had only V. vinifera, the fifth section had V. wen-chouensis, V. erythrophylla, V. piasezkii, V. ruyuanensis and V. tsoii, the sixth section had V. chunganensis, V. lu-ochengensis and V. chungii, the seventh section had only V. hancockii, the eighth section had only V. lanceolatifoliosa.%对《中国葡萄志》描述的38个中国葡萄属野生种和1个栽培种,按照《葡萄种质资源描述规范和数据标准》的要求,对18个描述符用代码数量化并进行聚类分析,根据形态特征的相似程度,将我国葡萄属野生种和欧亚种划分为8个组和5个亚组.第1组包含毛葡萄、腺枝葡萄、龙泉葡萄、美丽葡萄和庐山葡萄;第2组包含麦黄葡萄和小叶葡萄;第3组包含5个亚组21个种类,其中亚组1包含山葡萄、陕西葡萄、浙江蘡薁、蘡薁和湖北葡萄,亚组2包含绵毛葡萄和勐海葡萄,亚组3包含小

  16. Expertise with characters in alphabetic and nonalphabetic writing systems engage overlapping occipito-temporal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alan C-N; Jobard, Gael; James, Karin H; James, Thomas W; Gauthier, Isabel

    2009-02-01

    Parts of the left ventral visual pathway are engaged selectively during the perception of words, letter strings, and even single letters. While studies have shown overlap between activations for letters and characters across writing systems, they adopted group analyses with very limited spatial resolution, or used words and letter strings that have been shown to activate different regions from those activated by single characters. The current study compared activity within individual participants for the perception of single characters from different writing systems. Roman letters, Chinese characters, objects, and faces were presented to Chinese-English bilinguals and English readers with no Chinese reading experience. Individual subject analyses revealed a large overlap between Roman- and Chinese-selective areas in the bilinguals. In general, the activity in the Roman-selective area of the left hemisphere is associated with experience with the script, as non-Chinese readers showed lower activations to Chinese characters than to Roman letters. Further analyses found considerable variation within non-Chinese readers in the activation for Chinese characters: while the majority had no selectivity for Chinese characters at all, some showed activations for Chinese characters at locations similar to those selective for Roman letters. The results suggest that both stimulus properties and experience are important factors in determining the response to single characters across writing systems.

  17. Micromorphological characters of achene epidermis of Chinese Fimbristylis (Cyperaceae) and their systematic evaluation%中国飘拂草属植物果皮微形态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘剑秋

    2001-01-01

    :In the present work the micromorphological character of acheneepidermis were studied with forty-two species and one variety belonging to eighteen series and four sections of China Fimbristylis.The results had showed that surface features including the cell shape of exocarp and ornamentation of fruit epidermis may provide new proof for classification between species and subspecies.But,we found variability both at sectional and serial level too high to for delimitation.In addtion,the morphology of sculptures also support the view of Fimbristylis nigrobrunnea and F.eragrostis were regarded as independent species respectively. The fruit coat sculpture of Fimbristylis were divided into four types.as follows;(1) Tuberculate-reticulate type;(2) reticulate type;(3) tuberculate type;(4) ridge-tuberculate type.The first and third types respectively consists of two subtypes according to muri curve or straight%:利用扫描电子显微镜对国产莎草科飘拂草属4组18系42种1变种植物果皮微形态特征进行观察,并作了系统描述。研究表明,飘拂草属植物在纹饰类型,超微结构等方面存在着明显的种间差异,具有分类学意义。根据纹饰及微形态特征的不同,支持将褐鳞飘拂草和知风飘拂草各自作为独立的种。依照果皮纹饰的差异,飘拂草属可分为4种类型:(1)瘤(疣)-网状复合纹饰;(2)瘤(疣)状纹饰;(3)网状纹饰;(4)脊-疣状复合纹饰。其中(1)和(3)类型的纹饰根据网脊曲直不同各自又可分为2个亚型。

  18. Characters with personality!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, K. van den; Brandenburgh, A.; Muller, T.J.; Heuvelink, A.

    2012-01-01

    Serious games offer an opportunity for learning communication skills by practicing conversations with one or more virtual characters, provided that the character(s) behave in accordance with their assigned properties and strate-gies. This paper presents an approach for developing virtual characters

  19. Economic Characters of Thirty-three Chinese Rice Cultivars in Angola%33个中国水稻品种在安哥拉种植的经济性状表现研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨前进; 张显春; 邱康健; 刘广辉

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to research economic characters of thirty-three Chinese rice cultivars in Angola.[Method] In the research,twenty-eight hybrid mid-indica rice cultivars and five conventional Japonica rice cultivars were classified into three groups and then grown in Luanda to analyze adaptability,fertility and major economic characters of the rice in rainy season.[Result] The research showed that of twenty-eight hybrid mid-indica rice cultivars,ten cultivars were of better adaptability and fertility,which are suitable to be grown in Luanda in Angola;productive ear number,total grain per ear,thousand-seed weight and ratio of grain to straw of the rice cultivars performed normally,but the whole developmental period shortened and seedling setting rate improved significantly.In addition,hybrid indica Teyou 721,Quanxiangyou 512,II you 128 and 102S/4HZ021 were of fertility potential at 11.5 t/hm2,which were all proved excellent in related characters in rainy season in Luanda of Angola.For conventional mid-season rice indica cultivars,Wandao 51 and Huanghuazhan were of better adaptability and fertility.In contrast,5 Japonica rice cultivars were of poor adaptability.[Conclusion] The research provided technical references for Chinese rice growing in Angola.%[目的]研究33个中国水稻品种在安哥拉种植的经济性状表现。[方法]以中国的28个中籼稻和5个常规粳稻品种为试验材料,将其分成3组并种植在罗安达地区,分析其在罗安达地区雨季种植的适应性、丰产性和主要经济性状。[结果]10个中籼水稻品种具有较好的适应性和丰产性;中籼品种的有效穗数、每穗总粒数、千粒重和谷草比表现正常,但全生育期明显变短,结实率明显提高;杂交中籼特优721、荃香优512、Ⅱ优128和102S/4HZ021四个组合综合性状优良,具有约11.5t/hm^2的丰产潜力;常规中籼皖稻51(糯)和黄花占具有较好的适应性和丰产性;粳稻品种适应性较差。[

  20. 稻与汉字和艺术:从物质到精神--中国精神的探讨%Rethinking on Rice Culture (12):Rice and Chinese Character & Art:From Matter to Spirit-Discussion on Chinese Spirit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞乾林; 王磊; 林海; 王志刚; 钱前; 方军

    2015-01-01

    简要概述了对丰富中华文化内容的水稻及相关的主要的字、词及其衍生和反映的物质、精神文化方面的内容,介绍了稻的生产、消费及在国计民生中有意义的一些主要的艺术和文化,包括草创的中国水稻之歌--东方的文明、中国的精神,探讨了水稻和水稻人及所代表的中国精神的概念。我们体会的中国精神是:自立自强开放合作、尊老爱幼开拓创新、互信互利科学民主、助弱济困舍身取义的精神。中国精神是继承着历史、伴随着开放、正视着现实、面向着未来形成的。%The authors reviewed some important Chinese words — rice and related Chinese characters and their derivations— and their reflected art, culture and spirit, which enriched the culture of China, then introduced some chief art and culture in rice produc-tion and consumption, including “song of China Rice– East Civilization, Spirit of China” created by the authors, and lastly briefly discussed the concept of Chinese Spirit, which was represented by rice, rice culture and its domain. The Chinese Spirit that we are ex-periencing is: self-support and self-promotion, open-door policy and cooperation; respecting the elder and loving the youth, pioneer-ing and innovation;mutual confidence and mutual benefit, being science and democracy; helping the weak and assisting the poor, and sacrifice life for justice. The Chinese Spirit evolved from the combined contributions of the Chinese history, open-door policy, striving in reality, and future orientation.

  1. Foreign Developments in Information Processing and Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    on developments in the following fields of language data processing: Machine translation studies; questions on structural linguistics, phonological ...34katakana" or in phonetic syllables without the use of any "kanji" or Chinese characters, the "kun"- pronunciation of Chinese characters was adopted as

  2. Further Study on the Relationship between Writer's Character and His Writing Based on Chinese Cultural Context%作家性格与作家创作关系新探——从该问题所涉的相关中国文化语境出发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伏飞雄

    2011-01-01

    作家性格单线、直线决定创作表征的认识,与“性格决定命运”之庸俗的中国“大众日常意识”共谋。中国社会语境往往铸就了国人机械、被动顺应社会的性格。粗俗的唯物主义哲学、中国文化结构特有的“身体化”特性,进一步强化了我们从生理、遗传之浅见来理解性格。事实上,中国人性格极具“面具化”特征。它们是生活环境起常挤压的创伤之果。根本还在于,作家可以虚拟创作性格,其思想、价值观念往往影响了艺术取向。另外,现代人格学说较之传统性格论有更合理的知识谱系。%It is Chinese vulgar mass daily consciousness that character is destiny bringing about such understanding and writer's character directly leads to his writing feature. Obviously, Chinese social context shapes people' s mechanical and adaptive character. Furthermore, coarse materialism philosophy and embodiment characteristic of Chinese cultural structure intensify the tendency that we understand the character from the point of physiology' and genetics. In fact, Chinese people are characterized by disguising. And it is the trauma result that Chinese living condition unusually oppressing its people. Basically, a writer could invent writing's character. Actually, his thought and beliefs always affect his arts approach. In addition, modern personality theory is more reasonable than traditional character doctrine in genealogy.

  3. Retroactive Effects of Irrelevant Sound on Serial Recall from Short-Term Memory of Chinese Characters%无关言语对汉字短时记忆系列回忆的影响*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    慕德芳; 宋耀武; 高江峰

    2013-01-01

      采用视觉呈现字表和听觉呈现无关言语方式,探讨在字表项目保持期间阻止被试复述情况下,不同呈现位置的无关言语对汉字短时记忆系列回忆的影响。在字表保持期间,采用计算任务进行分心作业。实验结果发现:(1)无关言语对汉字短时记忆系列回忆成绩存在显著影响;(2)在字表保持期间阻止被试进行复述消除了字表呈现期间呈现无关言语对回忆成绩产生的干扰效应;(3)汉字短时记忆系列回忆成绩表现出系列位置效应。实验结果没有完全支持客体情节记忆模型。%  Even when stimuli are presented visually, the presence of irrelevant sound (IS) significantly impairs performance on immediate serial recall. Theoretical models provide conflicting accounts of the origins of irrelevant sound effects. The detailed pattern of interaction between IS and other factors influencing memory performance has been seen as placing important constraints on the development of models of short-term memory such as the working memory model and object-oriented episodic record model, but the fundamental question of the locus and mechanism of the IS effect has still not been satisfactorily resolved.   To explore whether irrelevant sound has a significant influence on serial recall from short-term memory of Chinese characters, and to adjudicate between conflicting accounts, one experiment with varying levels of IS was conducted by 40 participants with Chinese characters. In the experiment, participants performed an arithmetic task follow the visually presence of Chinese characters list. This prevented them from memorizing the characters during the retention interval. The arithmetic task was three single digits drawn from 1 to 9. Participants were instructed to be as accurate as possible in calculating the sum of the digits. There were four IS conditions: in one condition participants heard no speech during the trial (no IS); in a

  4. On the Segmentation of Chinese Words during Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingshan; Rayner, Keith; Cave, Kyle R.

    2009-01-01

    Given that there are no spaces between words in Chinese, how words are segmented when reading is something of a mystery. Four Chinese characters, which either constituted one 4-character word or two 2-character words, were shown briefly to subjects. Subjects were quite accurate in reporting the 4-character word, but could usually only report the…

  5. The Chinese Olympic Committee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余信波

    2008-01-01

    The Chinese Olympic Committee (COC) is a non-governmental,non-profit national sports organization of a mass character,with the objective of developing sports and promoting the Olympic Movement in the country.

  6. Character Recognition (Devanagari Script

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Karia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Character Recognition is has found major interest in field of research and practical application to analyze and study characters in different languages using image as their input. In this paper the user writes the Devanagari character using mouse as a plotter and then the corresponding character is saved in the form of image. This image is processed using Optical Character Recognition in which location, segmentation, pre-processing of image is done. Later Neural Networks is used to identify all the characters by the further process of OCR i.e. by using feature extraction and post-processing of image. This entire process is done using MATLAB.

  7. Research on the processingof Chinese character tone meaning by transcranial direct current stimulation%经颅直流电刺激促进汉字音形义加工探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米久永; 魏强; 童曼; 高天娇

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of transcranial electric stimulation on Chinese characters pronunciation,form and meaning processing.Methods 15 subjects of the frontal gyrus region of transcranial direct current stimulation(transcranial direct current stimulation,tDCS),the completion of the shape, pronunciation,word is pseudo judgment task,the difference between before and after the test between the measured and the shape,pronunciation,word of pseudo.Results(1)after the stimulation of pronunciation judgment accuracy group(87.27+10.31%),a decision group correct rate (95.31+5.54%) and pseudo word group judgment accuracy rate (92.16+7.12%) were better than those before stimulation with sound judgment accuracy rate(85.23+6.48%),group decision based group(91.29+7.39%),the correct rate of pseudo word judgment accuracy (88.63+8.15% group),the difference was significant(P<0.05);(2)on the reaction time,after stimulation group (819.17+74.44),sound judgment(634.22+53.84),group decision based pseudo word judgment group (646.56+49.32) were faster than before stimulation pronunciation judgment group(916.00+119.80),(709.58+88.85),group decision based pseudo word judgment group(738.27+168.59),the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05).Conclusion tDCS can promote the cognitive process of music,form and meaning of Chinese characters to a certain extent.%目的 探讨经颅直流电刺激对汉字字音、字形、字义加工的影响.方法 通过对15名被试的额中回区域进行经颅直流电刺激(transcranial direct current stimulation,tDCS),完成对字音、字形、伪字是与否的判断任务,检验前后测之间和字音、字形、伪字之间的差异性.结果 (1)刺激后字音判断组正确率(87.27+10.31%)、字形判断组正确率(95.31+5.54%)、伪字判断组正确率(92.16+7.12%)均优于刺激前同字音判断组正确率(85.23+6.48%)、字形判断组正确率(91.29+7.39%)、伪字判断组正确率(88.63+8.15%),

  8. Writing Quality Predicts Chinese Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Connie Qun; Perfetti, Charles A.; Meng, Wanjin

    2015-01-01

    To examine the importance of manual character writing to reading in a new writing system, 48 adult Chinese-as-a-foreign-language students were taught characters in either a character writing-to-read or an alphabet typing-to-read condition, and engaged in corresponding handwriting or typing training for five consecutive days. Prior knowledge of…

  9. Actor/Character Dualism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Our perception of agency may be inherently fallible, and this may explain not only our general awareness of actors when engaged in fictional characters but also the specific case of paradoxical characters...

  10. A Study on the Affective Priming Effect of Network Emoticons, Cartoon Emoticons and Chinese Two-character Words%网络表情符号、卡通表情图片和汉语双字词的情绪启动效应探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄琼

    2015-01-01

    采用3(启动刺激:卡通表情图片、网络表情符号、汉语双字词)×2(启动刺激的情绪类型:积极、消极)×2(目标刺激的情绪类型:积极、消极)完全被试内设计,比较卡通表情图片、网络表情符号和汉语双字词这三种启动材料之间的情绪启动效果。结果发现,卡通表情图片、网络表情符号、汉语双字词都存在情绪启动效应,且卡通表情图片的情绪启动效果好于网络表情符号和汉语双字词,网络表情符号和汉语双字词之间的启动效果没有显著差异。他们间的差异主要体现在负启动的抑制作用上,即对与启动材料情绪效价不一致的目标刺激的反应时上存在显著差异,在正启动的促进作用上不存在显著差异。%Adopt complete within‐subjects design of 3 (prime stimulus :cartoon emoticons ,network emoticons or Chinese two‐character words) × 2 (emotional types of prime stimulus :positive or negative) × 2 (emotional types of target stimulus :positive or negative) ,and compare the affective priming effects of cartoon emoticons ,network emoticons and Chinese two‐character words these three priming materials .The result shows that there exist affective priming effects in cartoon emoti‐cons ,network emoticons and Chinese two‐character words ,the affective priming effects of cartoon emoticons are better than those of network emoticons and Chinese two‐character words ,and there are no significant differences between the priming effects of network emoticons and Chinese two‐character words .The differences are mainly embodied in the inhibitory action on the negative priming ,i .e .there are significant differences in their reaction to the target stimulus which are not inconform‐ity with the emotional valence of priming materials but no significant differences in the promoting action on the positive prim‐ing .

  11. Kannada Character Recognition System A Review

    CERN Document Server

    Indira, K

    2010-01-01

    Intensive research has been done on optical character recognition ocr and a large number of articles have been published on this topic during the last few decades. Many commercial OCR systems are now available in the market, but most of these systems work for Roman, Chinese, Japanese and Arabic characters. There are no sufficient number of works on Indian language character recognition especially Kannada script among 12 major scripts in India. This paper presents a review of existing work on printed Kannada script and their results. The characteristics of Kannada script and Kannada Character Recognition System kcr are discussed in detail. Finally fusion at the classifier level is proposed to increase the recognition accuracy.

  12. Not Your Father's Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The government's first annual report on the evolution of the Chinese language contains some surprisesThe Chinese people are proud of their language, which they consider the most essential part of their civilization of 5,000 years. The charm of the language includes its ideographic writing system, in which the structure of the characters is directly related

  13. Chinese Weddings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    ACCORDING to the Marriage Law of the People’s Republic of China, marital kinship is established and protected by law when a couple registers at tile local marriage registration office. The newly-weds usually hold a wedding feast in celebration at home or in a restaurant. The big red Chinese character, "Double Happiness," would be pasted on walls at the ceremonial hall to

  14. 认知脑电测谎中汉字和图片刺激材料的研究%Research of Chinese Characters and Picture as Stimulus in the Cognitive EEG Lie Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫祥东; 刘洪广; 乔辉

    2012-01-01

    Picture stimulus or words with specific meaning are generally used to study cognitive EEG lie detecting.Chinese characters and pictures in the study of ERP have been found that they are both old and new,and they are also different in the ERPs evoked in the specificity in the incubation period,amplitude and frequency.There is "picture superiority effect",which may be caused by the different cognitive processing of the brain to stimulating materials with different natures.In the paper,two kinds of stimulus materials are explored in order to discuss that which stimulus material should be chosen to release response of target stimulus better,extract and identify the specific target EEG effectively and improve the accuracy in testing whether there is information cases involved in the measured man's brain in civil and criminal cases.%认知脑电测谎一般采用案件图片刺激或者是具有特定意义的字词句来研究。对汉字和图片的ERP相关研究发现了二者都存在新旧效应,但也发现了二者诱发的特异性ERPs成分在潜伏期、波幅、频率等上不同,存在"图片优势效应"。这可能是由于大脑对两种性质不同的刺激材料的认知加工过程差异造成的。本文通过对二种刺激材料的差异研究探讨了在民事和刑事案件中面对不同情况下选择何种刺激材料才能更好地引发目标刺激的反应,有效地提取、识别出特异性目标脑电特征,从而提高检测被测人大脑中是否具有案件相关信息的准确率。

  15. Recognition without cued recall (RWCR) phenomenon in Chinese characters: Effects of restudying and testing%汉字的无线索回忆再认效应:重复学习和重复测验的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾永萍; 周楚; 李林; 郭秀艳

    2016-01-01

    characters learning, and used RWCR to examine the effectiveness of testing and restudying in recognition. In Experiment 1, the final recognition test was taken immediately after the learning phase. A total of 60 college students were engaged in a 2 (Study Status: studied vs. nonstudied) × 2 (Study Strategy Type: testing vs. repeated study) mixed design experiment, to study different influences of testing and restudying on effectiveness of recollection and familiarity. In Experiment 2, 41 college students participated in a mixed design experiment. The procedure was identical to that of experiment 1, except that the final recognition test was taken one week after learning. The results showed that (1) when the final test was taken immediately after the study phase, both restudying and testing lead to better recollection performance than the studying-once encoding did, and there was an advantage of restudy encoding over test encoding. (2) Restudy encoding led to better familiarity performance relative to testing and study-once encoding, and there was no difference between test encoding and studying-once encoding. (3) When the final test was delayed for one week, there was no difference in the recollection performance after either restudy encoding or test encoding. (4) Familiarity performance in restudy encoding condition declined faster than that in the test encoding condition. (5) The semantics of Chinese could elicit the RWCR effect. The results demonstrated that the initial testing increased recollection relative to studying words once, whereas it did not affect familiarity. In addition, recognition tasks showed better familiarity on restudied words than on tested words, and test could enhance long-term retention of the tested material. Further, the semantics of word would also elicit the RWCR effect in logographically scripted language (i.e., Chinese).

  16. Handwritten Character Recognition of South Indian Scripts: A Review

    CERN Document Server

    Jomy, John; Kannan, Balakrishnan

    2011-01-01

    Handwritten character recognition is always a frontier area of research in the field of pattern recognition and image processing and there is a large demand for OCR on hand written documents. Even though, sufficient studies have performed in foreign scripts like Chinese, Japanese and Arabic characters, only a very few work can be traced for handwritten character recognition of Indian scripts especially for the South Indian scripts. This paper provides an overview of offline handwritten character recognition in South Indian Scripts, namely Malayalam, Tamil, Kannada and Telungu.

  17. The study on normalization algorithm applied to the character recognition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingzhong; Xu, Xiaoqing; Hu, Beibei

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, it's research hard on the normalization algorithm of image preprocessing. It proposes that normalize the size of a single character at first, and then thin this character, make an amendment to the framework image at last. Experimental results indicate that this method is validate and lays a solid foundation for consequence processing of the Chinese character recognition.

  18. Schizophrenic neologism versus aphasic neologism: characteristics in writings of Japanese schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, N; Nakao, H

    1989-06-01

    Three cases of schizophrenia with ideographic neologisms in Japanese are presented and compared with aphasic neologisms reported in Japanese literature. Schizophrenic neologisms are different from aphasic neologisms in nature. The contrast becomes obvious when both are compared in Japanese writing based on the dual writing system of kanji (Chinese characters, ideogram) and kana (phonetic characters, syllabogram).

  19. 弗吉尼亚·伍尔夫笔下莉莉·布里斯柯的中国意识%An analysis on Chinese Consciousness in Lily Briscoe's ;Eyes:The Character in Virginia Woolf’s Artwork

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰心

    2013-01-01

      弗吉尼亚·伍尔夫在《到灯塔去》中塑造了一位带有“中国式的小眼睛”的人物莉莉·布里斯柯。透过这双“中国眼睛”探讨在伍尔夫笔下,中国形象的意识来源以及对其创作的影响,可以看出莉莉·布里斯柯的中国意识,来自于伍尔夫所生活的英国社会,反映了一个时代,个人与社会对中国文化的文化利用。%  In the novel "To the Lighthouse", Virginia Woolf por-trays a character with Chinese style small eyes———Lily Briscoe. After discussing the consciousness sources of the image of China in Virginia Woolf`s artwork and the effects to her writing, what can we see through the small Chinese eyes is that Lily Briscoe's Chinese consciousness was come from British social environment where Virginia Woolf lives in. It reflects the actual use of Chinese culture by individual and society of an era.

  20. CHR -- Character Handling Routines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, A. C.; Rees, P. C. T.; Chipperfield, A. J.; Jenness, T.

    This document describes the Character Handling Routine library, CHR, and its use. The CHR library augments the limited character handling facilities provided by the Fortran 77 standard. It offers a range of character handling facilities: from formatting Fortran data types into text strings and the reverse, to higher level functions such as wild card matching, string sorting, paragraph reformatting and justification. The library may be used simply for building text strings for interactive applications or as a basis for more complex text processing applications.

  1. Introduction to Chinese natural language processing

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Kam-Fai; Xu, Ruifeng; Zhang, Zheng-sheng

    2009-01-01

    This book introduces Chinese language-processing issues and techniques to readers who already have a basic background in natural language processing (NLP). Since the major difference between Chinese and Western languages is at the word level, the book primarily focuses on Chinese morphological analysis and introduces the concept, structure, and interword semantics of Chinese words.The following topics are covered: a general introduction to Chinese NLP; Chinese characters, morphemes, and words and the characteristics of Chinese words that have to be considered in NLP applications; Chinese word

  2. A cognitive network for oracle bone characters related to animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dress, Andreas; Grünewald, Stefan; Zeng, Zhenbing

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present an analysis of oracle bone characters for animals from a “cognitive” point of view. After some general remarks on oracle-bone characters presented in Sec. 1 and a short outline of the paper in Sec. 2, we collect various oracle-bone characters for animals from published resources in Sec. 3. In the next section, we begin analyzing a group of 60 ancient animal characters from www.zdic.net, a highly acclaimed internet dictionary of Chinese characters that is strictly based on historical sources, and introduce five categories of specific features regarding their (graphical) structure that will be used in Sec. 5 to associate corresponding feature vectors to these characters. In Sec. 6, these feature vectors will be used to investigate their dissimilarity in terms of a family of parameterized distance measures. And in the last section, we apply the SplitsTree method as encoded in the NeighborNet algorithms to construct a corresponding family of dissimilarity-based networks with the intention of elucidating how the ancient Chinese might have perceived the “animal world” in the late bronze age and to demonstrate that these pictographs reflect an intuitive understanding of this world and its inherent structure that predates its classification in the oldest surviving Chinese encyclopedia from approximately the third century BC, the Er Ya, as well as similar classification systems in the West by one to two millennia. We also present an English dictionary of 70 oracle bone characters for animals in Appendix A. In Appendix B, we list various variants of animal characters that were published in the Jia Gu Wen Bian (cf. 甲骨文编, A Complete Collection of Oracle Bone Characters, edited by the Institute of Archaeology of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, published by the Zhonghua Book Company in 1965). We recall the frequencies of the 521 most frequent oracle bone characters in Appendix C as reported in [T. Chen, Yin-Shang Jiaguwen Zixing

  3. 意大利汉语初学者汉字基本笔顺书写规律及其相关因素研究∗%A study of the writing rule of the Chinese-character stroke order and its related factors:A study of Italian Chinese-learning beginners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晨; 冯丽萍

    2016-01-01

    Stroke order is an important part of the Chinese-character writing.This paper gives a case study of Italian Chinese-learning beginners in their native country and analyzes the development of their basic stroke-order writing with investigations,interviews and dictations.It concludes that al-though the rule “left-falling strokes before right-falling strokes”can be fairly well handled at the be-ginning,some mistakes still remain at the end of the semester.The mastery of the rule “horizontal strokes before vertical strokes”reveals in its development a linear relationship between the beginning and the end of the semester.The first stoke also plays a significant role in their stroke-order writing. Moreover,the accuracy of strokes exerts some influence on the accuracy of their dictation.%笔画顺序是汉字书写的重要组成部分。文章以在母语环境下初学汉语的意大利学习者为研究对象,通过纵向的笔顺书写情况调查、访谈、听写等方法,探究意大利汉语初学者汉字基本笔顺书写的规律与发展情况。研究结果显示:学习者对“先撇后捺”笔顺规则的掌握在初期即较好,但是到学期末的汉字书写中仍存在错误;“先横后竖”规则的正确性从学期初到学期末呈线性发展;其基本笔顺规则的使用较大程度地受到“横”“撇”笔画是否为起笔的影响;学生的笔顺正确率影响其汉字听写正确率。

  4. Madness in Shakespeare's Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Borja-Santos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper begins with an introduction where the aims are explained: a psychopathological analysis of a Shakespearean character - Othello – followed by the discussion of the English dramatist’s importance in helping us understand madness in the emergent world of Renaissance. The main characteristics of Othello’s personality, which allowed the development of his jealousy delusion, are described. Finally, the conclusions underline the overlap of the symptoms developed by the character with the DSM-IV classification.

  5. A Case with Probable Herpes Simplex Encephalitis Characterized by Specific Emotional and Behavioral Disorders and Gogi (Word-Meaning Aphasia-Like Syndrome with Neologism and Neologistic Kanji Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Jibiki

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A right-handed male patient with probable herpes simplex encephalitis is presented because of the rarity of the clinicial picture. Brain X-ray CT scans showed lesions located in the bilateral fronto-temporal regions primarily involving the left lower temporal lobe. The clinical picture following the acute phase of the disease was characterized by specific emotional and behavioral disorders, i.e. oral tendency, hyperactivity, thoughtless talkativeness, random speech and exhilaration, which were partly compatible with the Klüver-Bucy syndrome. Furthermore, this case was characterized by Gogi (word-meaning aphasia-like transcortical sensory aphasia and neologism produced saliently when naming objects and peculiar neologistic kanji processing in writing to dictation and oral reading. Both the neologism and neologistic kanji processing varied in quantity in parallel with the specific emotional and behavioral disorders. The relationships of these clinical features to lesional sites demonstrated by X-ray CT are discussed.

  6. A case with probable herpes simplex encephalitis characterized by specific emotional and behavioral disorders and Gogi (word-meaning) aphasia-like syndrome with neologism and neologistic kanji processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jibiki, I; Yamaguchi, N

    1992-01-01

    A right-handed male patient with probable herpes simplex encephalitis is presented because of the rarity of the clinicial picture. Brain X-ray CT scans showed lesions located in the bilateral fronto-temporal regions primarily involving the left lower temporal lobe. The clinical picture following the acute phase of the disease was characterized by specific emotional and behavioral disorders, i.e. oral tendency, hyperactivity, thoughtless talkativeness, random speech and exhilaration, which were partly compatible with the Klüver-Bucy syndrome. Furthermore, this case was characterized by Gogi (word-meaning) aphasia-like transcortical sensory aphasia and neologism produced saliently when naming objects and peculiar neologistic kanji processing in writing to dictation and oral reading. Both the neologism and neologistic kanji processing varied in quantity in parallel with the specific emotional and behavioral disorders. The relationships of these clinical features to lesional sites demonstrated by X-ray CT are discussed.

  7. The Discussion on Sense of Character"Xi"(细) inModern Chinese DictionarySixth Edition%《现代汉语词典》(第6版)"细"字义项商榷

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈波先

    2015-01-01

    The eighth sense of"xi"(细) inModern Chinese Dictionary sixth edition is"younger (in dialect), used as an adjective, as in words: xi mei(细妹); xi wa zi(细娃子)". Actually, the sense of"xi"(细) is not"younger" in this lexical structure of the Chinese dialect, but rather emphasizes"Ranking". It means"rank last" in vast majority of the Chinese dialect.%《现代汉语词典》第6版"细"的第八个义项是:"〈方〉[形]年龄小:细妹|细娃子."实际上,汉语方言中这一词法结构的"细"并不是"年龄小"义,而在于说明"排行".绝大多数方言点是"排行最末"的意义.

  8. Character strengths, social anxiety, and physiological stress reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effects of character strengths on the physiological reactivity to social anxiety induced by the Trier Social Stress Task were reported. On the basis of their scores in the Chinese Virtues Questionnaire, 30 college students were assigned to either high- (n = 15 or low-character-strength (n = 15 groups. Their psychological stress and physiological data across three laboratory stages (namely, baseline, stress exposure, and post-stress were collected. Results indicated that individuals with high character strengths exhibited rapid cardiovascular recovery from baseline to post-stress even if high- and low-character-strength groups showed similar patterns of cardiovascular arousal in response to the stress at baseline and stress exposure. These results prove that character strengths are stress-defense factors that allow for psychological and physiological adaptation to stress.

  9. Constraint-based Word Segmentation for Chinese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Bo, Li

    2014-01-01

    Written Chinese text has no separators between words in the same way as European languages use space characters, and this creates the Chinese Word Segmentation Problem, CWSP: given a text in Chinese, divide it in a correct way into segments corresponding to words. Good solutions are in demand...

  10. Breakthrough Stroke of the Chinese Character Input Shape Code on Double Innovation Bottleneck%突破汉字输入瓶颈的双创新笔形码

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静波; 胡锡全

    2011-01-01

    Shape code is tool of not only inputing but also learning and practicing Chinese.This code names key on keyboard as line and row.%形码既要输入汉字,也应是学习、练习汉字的工具。本码对键盘的键使用行列称呼。

  11. The typeface character

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    Research from the fields of neuroscience and psychology, shows that typefaces can carry different semantic associations. However, to be able to read a text, the reader can no longer focus on the character of the typeface, as the human mind is incapable of simultaneously giving full attention...

  12. Character and Moral Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Johnnie

    1997-01-01

    Reflects on the ways in which children develop character as well as ways to foster moral development in elementary education communities. Includes a brief discussion of Robert Coles' documentation of moral intelligence in children, and lists several ways to aid the moral life of children in Montessori classrooms. (EV)

  13. Character strengths and virtues

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The target of this work is to carry out a critical analysis about some of the underlying epistemological assumptions in Peterson and Seligman’s book Character Strengths and Virtues. A handbook and classifications (2004). This is a theoretical investigation that belongs to the epistemology of psychology field. According to the theory proposed by Serroni Copello (2003), a critic progress rational criterion is methodologically applied. The analysis points out some epistemological weakness that l...

  14. The Roles of Pinyin Skill in English-Chinese Biliteracy Learning: Evidence from Chinese Immersion Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Chan

    2017-01-01

    Pinyin is a sound-annotating system for Chinese characters using Roman letters. Teaching and learning Pinyin has been an important educational practice in Mainland China for native Chinese children, and it is also typically taught to beginning learners of Chinese as a foreign/second language in tertiary-level classrooms. However, whether it should…

  15. How to improve the pronunciation of the Chinese characters in Japanese language of college Japanese major students%如何提高高职日语专业学生记忆汉字发音能力--从音韵学的角度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海燕; 成玉峰

    2013-01-01

      针对高职日语专业学生学习时间短、日语词汇量大的问题,提出首先要引发学生学习日语的兴趣,然后通过记忆汉语拼音和日语的音读、训读的发音规则来记忆单词,这样可以帮助记忆日语汉字的读音,才能学得多、快、好、省。%According to the problem that Japanese major students are lack of vocabulary and short of study time, we suggest to initiate the students' interest in Japanese learning, and to memotize Japanese words and phrases throughout the way of memorizing Chinese phonetic alphabet and the rules of pronunciation in Japanese Kunyomi and Onyomi, which could help to memorize the pronunciation of Chinese characters in the Japanese language and make the students study more efficiently.

  16. 中国先秦与古希腊体育的差异性及美学品格探究%On Differences and Aesthetic Character between Chinese Pre-Qin Sport and the Ancient Greek Sporty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 邹丹

    2014-01-01

    中国体育与西方体育从文化根源上就呈现出巨大的差异性。中国先秦体育具有礼仪性、养生性、实用性的特征,古希腊体育体现出宗教性、军事性、娱乐性的特点。中国春秋时期的体育在“礼、乐”中彰显德性的教化,具中庸和合与顺应自然的审美意趣,体现出重视技巧和谋略,偏重于以柔克刚的阴柔之美;古希腊体育则在娱乐性的竞技活动中重人格的培养,具崇尚崇高与不受文明礼仪束缚的自然天成的审美倾向,表现出强调力量和速度,偏重于竞技取胜的阳刚之美。%Chinese sports and western sports show huge differences in their culture roots. Chinese Pre- Qin sports has characteristics of etiquette , nourishing of life , practicability,while the ancient Greek sports shows characteristics of religiousness, military ,entertainment. In the period of the spring and autumn, Chinese sports reveals moral education through "the ritual and music", with the doctrine of the mean and aesthetic interest going with the nature, which attaches importance to skills and strategy, and prefers to the feminine beauty with its softer approach to power. On the other hand ,the ancient Greek sports gives priorities to personality training in the entertaining competitive activities, with the aesthetics tendency out of the etiquette rules bound ,which emphasizes on strength and speed, preferring the competitive masculinity.

  17. Large even order character sums

    CERN Document Server

    Goldmakher, Leo

    2012-01-01

    A classical theorem of Paley asserts the existence of an infinite family of quadratic characters whose character sums become exceptionally large. In this paper, we establish an analogous result for characters of any fixed even order. Previously our bounds were only known under the assumption of the Generalized Riemann Hypothesis.

  18. Closed surfaces and character varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Chesebro, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The powerful character variety techniques of Culler and Shalen can be used to find essential surfaces in knot manifolds. We show that module structures on the coordinate ring of the character variety can be used to identify detected boundary slopes as well as when closed surfaces are detected. This approach also yields new number theoretic invariants for the character varieties of knot manifolds.

  19. The Impact of Information and Communication Technology on Script Policy in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premaratne, Dilhara D.

    2009-01-01

    Information and communication technology appears to have had a profound impact on language use in Japan. An important issue arising from this is said to be the increase in the use of Chinese characters (kanji) outside the official standard. This development has made a re-appraisal of the existing script policy necessary in order to accommodate the…

  20. Differential Reading, Naming, and Transcribing Speeds of Japanese Romaji and Hiragana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Jun; Leong, Che Kan

    2005-01-01

    The morpho-syllabic Japanese writing system consists of the phonetic scripts of hiragana and katakana, the logographic kanji derived from Chinese characters and the less well researched romaji based on the Roman alphabet. In four experiments we investigated the speed with which Japanese college students read, named, and transcribed romaji as…

  1. Building Hierarchical Representations for Oracle Character and Sketch Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun Guo; Changhu Wang; Roman-Rangel, Edgar; Hongyang Chao; Yong Rui

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study oracle character recognition and general sketch recognition. First, a data set of oracle characters, which are the oldest hieroglyphs in China yet remain a part of modern Chinese characters, is collected for analysis. Second, typical visual representations in shape- and sketch-related works are evaluated. We analyze the problems suffered when addressing these representations and determine several representation design criteria. Based on the analysis, we propose a novel hierarchical representation that combines a Gabor-related low-level representation and a sparse-encoder-related mid-level representation. Extensive experiments show the effectiveness of the proposed representation in both oracle character recognition and general sketch recognition. The proposed representation is also complementary to convolutional neural network (CNN)-based models. We introduce a solution to combine the proposed representation with CNN-based models, and achieve better performances over both approaches. This solution has beaten humans at recognizing general sketches.

  2. Periods of Hecke characters

    CERN Document Server

    Schappacher, Norbert

    1988-01-01

    The starting point of this Lecture Notes volume is Deligne's theorem about absolute Hodge cycles on abelian varieties. Its applications to the theory of motives with complex multiplication are systematically reviewed. In particular, algebraic relations between values of the gamma function, the so-called formula of Chowla and Selberg and its generalization and Shimura's monomial relations among periods of CM abelian varieties are all presented in a unified way, namely as the analytic reflections of arithmetic identities beetween Hecke characters, with gamma values corresponding to Jacobi sums. The last chapter contains a special case in which Deligne's theorem does not apply.

  3. Moment in Peking and Chinese Traditional Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晶金

    2014-01-01

    Lin Yutang’s Moment in Peking was a huge success, because he showed the long history of Chinese traditional culture in the book. The era background, character set and the plot of Moment in Peking reflects the significance of Chinese culture in many aspects. The great English masterpiece is a Chinese culture carrier which painted a grand social and historical picture, created a series of vivid images, especially images of traditional Chinese women character. The philosophy of novel is going through the history of space and time tunnel and becoming the main clue of many events in the book.

  4. Learning to Read Chinese: The Relative Roles of Phonological Awareness and Morphological Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yi-Chih

    2013-01-01

    Phonological awareness and morphological awareness have been shown to affect Chinese children's reading development. Previous studies conducted in Hong Kong, which required children to read two-character words only or a mixture of single-character and two-character words in a Chinese reading test, exclusively found that morphological awareness was…

  5. A Proposed Hybrid Technique for Recognizing Arabic Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S F Bahgat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Optical character recognition systems improve human-machine interaction and are urgently required for many governmental and commercial departments. A considerable progress in the recognition techniques of Latin and Chinese characters has been achieved. By contrast, Arabic Optical Character Recognition (AOCR is still lagging although the interest and research in this area is becoming more intensive than before. This is because the Arabic is a cursive language, written from right to left, each character has two to four different forms according to its position in the word, and most characters are associated with complementary parts above, below, or inside the character. The process of Arabic character recognition passes through several stages; the most serious and error-prone of which are segmentation, and feature extraction & classification. This research focuses on the feature extraction and classification stage, being as important as the segmentation stage. Features can be classified into two categories; Local features, which are usually geometric, and Global features, which are either topological or statistical. Four approaches related to the statistical category are to be investigated, namely: Moment Invariants, Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix, Run Length Matrix, and Statistical Properties of Intensity Histogram. The paper aims at fusing the features of these methods to get the most representative feature vector that maximizes the recognition rate.

  6. Structural Features of Asymmetry Four-character in Modern Chinese Dictionary%《现代汉语词典》中不对称性四字格的结构特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许俊芳

    2012-01-01

    不对称性四字格在结构方面有其特点。首先,从注音形式看,有全部连写的、分两节写的(2+2式、1+3式、3+1式)、分三节写的(2+1+1式、1+1+2式)、分四节写的;节奏是2+2的占97.83%,这种节奏倾向掩盖了结构上的不对称。其次,从语法结构上看,有偏正、主谓、述宾、述补、连动、兼语和其他式,偏正式和主谓式居多,分别占50.96%和21.82%。再次,在内部层次方面,有的可以分析两层或者三层,都不能均衡地分出前后结构关系相同的层次.从而显示出这些四字格的不均衡性。%Asymmetry of four-character has characteristics in terms of structure. First of all, at the phonetic form, they are all ligatures, and divided into two sections to write (2 +2type, 1 +3type,3 + ltype), and divided into three sections to write (2+ 1 + ltype, 1 + 1 +2type), and divided into four sections to write; 2+2 rhythm accounted for 97.83%, and this rhythm tends to hide the structural asymmetry. Secondly, at the grammar structure, there is formal -biased, subject ,predicate, verb -object, linkage, language and other type, formal-biased and subject-predicate form in the majority, and respectively is 50.96% and 21.82%. Once again, at the internal aspect, some asymmetry of four-character lattices can analyze two layers or three layers, but cannot be analyze equally the same level of the structure relationship before and after, thus show their imbalance.

  7. 中国传统伦理道德与当代青少年的人格塑造%Chinese Traditional Ethic and the Establishing of the Characters of Modern Juveniles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永智

    2001-01-01

    To train a well-cultivated generation of juveniles, we can learn from the essence of the country′s traditional ethic. For this purpose, we should adhere to four principles of integration:the training of individual character and social responsibility, the developing of a sense of dignity and a quality of truth-seeking and national integrity, the fostering of a vigorously enterprising spirit and a value of producing achievement in society; pursuing moral perfection and all-round personal development.%如何培育当代青少年的人格,中国传统伦理道德中有关人格培育的精华可资借鉴。在人格培育中,应该坚持个性人格的培育同社会责任感的培育相统一;坚持做人尊严感的培育与追求真理、做有民族气节之人的培育相统一;坚持刚健有为的进取精神的培育与在社会群体中建功立业,实现人生价值的培育相统一;坚持追求道德完善与人的全面发展的培育相统一。

  8. Cultural influences on social feedback processing of character traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph W Korn

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cultural differences are generally explained by how people see themselves in relation to social interaction partners. While Western culture emphasizes independence, East Asian culture emphasizes interdependence. Despite this focus on social interactions, it remains elusive how people from different cultures process feedback on their own (and on others' character traits. Here, participants of either German or Chinese origin engaged in a face-to-face interaction. Consequently, they updated their self- and other-ratings of 80 character traits (e.g., polite, pedantic after receiving feedback from their interaction partners. To exclude potential confounds, we obtained data from German and Chinese participants in Berlin (functional magnetic resonance imaging and in Beijing (behavior. We tested cultural influences on social conformity, positivity biases, and self-related neural activity. First, Chinese conformed more to social feedback than Germans (i.e., Chinese updated their trait ratings more. Second, regardless of culture, participants processed self- and other-related feedback in a positively biased way (i.e., they updated more toward desirable than toward undesirable feedback. Third, changes in self-related medial prefrontal cortex activity were greater in Germans than in Chinese during feedback processing. By investigating conformity, positivity biases, and self-related activity in relation to feedback obtained in a real-life interaction, we provide an essential step towards a unifying framework for understanding the diversity of human culture.

  9. Syllable language models for Mandarin speech recognition: exploiting character language models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xunying; Hieronymus, James L; Gales, Mark J F; Woodland, Philip C

    2013-01-01

    Mandarin Chinese is based on characters which are syllabic in nature and morphological in meaning. All spoken languages have syllabiotactic rules which govern the construction of syllables and their allowed sequences. These constraints are not as restrictive as those learned from word sequences, but they can provide additional useful linguistic information. Hence, it is possible to improve speech recognition performance by appropriately combining these two types of constraints. For the Chinese language considered in this paper, character level language models (LMs) can be used as a first level approximation to allowed syllable sequences. To test this idea, word and character level n-gram LMs were trained on 2.8 billion words (equivalent to 4.3 billion characters) of texts from a wide collection of text sources. Both hypothesis and model based combination techniques were investigated to combine word and character level LMs. Significant character error rate reductions up to 7.3% relative were obtained on a state-of-the-art Mandarin Chinese broadcast audio recognition task using an adapted history dependent multi-level LM that performs a log-linearly combination of character and word level LMs. This supports the hypothesis that character or syllable sequence models are useful for improving Mandarin speech recognition performance.

  10. Seeking Meaning in a Space Made out of Strokes, Radicals, Characters and Compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Haralambous, Yannis

    2011-01-01

    Chinese characters can be compared to a molecular structure: a character is analogous to a molecule, radicals are like atoms, calligraphic strokes correspond to elementary particles, and when characters form compounds, they are like molecular structures. In chemistry the conjunction of all of these structural levels produces what we perceive as matter. In language, the conjunction of strokes, radicals, characters, and compounds produces meaning. But when does meaning arise? We all know that radicals are, in some sense, the basic semantic components of Chinese script, but what about strokes? Considering the fact that many characters are made by adding individual strokes to (combinations of) radicals, we can legitimately ask the question whether strokes carry meaning, or not. In this talk I will present my project of extending traditional NLP techniques to radicals and strokes, aiming to obtain a deeper understanding of the way ideographic languages model the world.

  11. Maya Studio Projects Photorealistic Characters

    CERN Document Server

    Palamar, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Create realistic characters with Maya tools and this project-based book Maya character generation tools are extremely sophisticated, and there's no better way to learn all their capabilities than by working through the projects in this hands-on book. This official guide focuses on understanding and implementing Maya's powerful tools for creating realistic characters for film, games, and TV. Use a variety of tools to create characters from skeleton to clothing, including hairstyles and facial hair, and learn how to use Performance Capture. A DVD includes supplementary videos, project support fi

  12. Bounds for Certain Character Sums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨锦; 郑志勇

    2003-01-01

    This paper shows a connection between exponential sums and character sums. In particular, we introduce a character sum that is an analog of the classical Kloosterman sums and establish the analogous Weil-Estermann's upper bound for it. The paper also analyzes a generalized Hardy-Littlewood example for character sums, which shows that the upper bounds given here are the best possible. The analysis makes use of local bounds for the exponential sums and character sums. The basic theorems have been previously established.

  13. Character strengths and virtues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Gancedo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The target of this work is to carry out a critical analysis about some of the underlying epistemological assumptions in Peterson and Seligman’s book Character Strengths and Virtues. A handbook and classifications (2004. This is a theoretical investigation that belongs to the epistemology of psychology field. According to the theory proposed by Serroni Copello (2003, a critic progress rational criterion is methodologically applied. The analysis points out some epistemological weakness that leads to incongruences in the statements and conclusions of the investigations, such as: the absence of a unified theory, a candid search of objectivity, and the superposition of implicit paradigms. It also takes notice of a causal and elementary logic -which goes against today’s scientific paradigm-, and the strong American culture zeitgeist present in the principles of Positive Psychology. Finally, some ethic problems are displayed, in particular the step taken from a descriptive attitude –characteristic of science- toward a prescriptive attitude –characteristic of moral codes-. 

  14. Research of Chinese Characters Sort in Address Book Based on Android Platform%基于Android平台的通讯录中文汉字的排序研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀华; 霍振鹏; 张庚

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of mobile Internet, the Android platform has also been popularity. On the platform, the application become more and more perfect. Address book as a medium between people have become a essential application. And the display order of the contacts has become a hot topic which attracts developers’attention. The paper presents a new sorting method, with the help of ordering statements in the database, realizing the sorting of Chinese charters according to the pinyin initials with high efficiency. Avoiding the program bloated problem which caused by introducing the third-party Jar package, this method is convenient and efficient .%随着移动互联网的迅速发展,Android平台也得到迅速普及,该移动平台上的应用日臻完善。通讯录作为人们之间联系方式存放的介质,自然成为必不可少的应用。而其中联系人的显示顺序则成为了开发者备受关注的话题,提出了一种新的排序方法,借助数据库的排序语句,方便高效地实现了将汉字按照拼音首字母自增的方式进行排序,该方法使用起来便捷、高效,避免了程序中引入第三方jar包所导致的程序臃肿问题。

  15. Design of a Cloud Service for Learning Chinese Pronunciation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hsueh-Ting Chu; Wei-Shan Tsai; Shao-Yu Lee

    2014-01-01

    With the fast growing of cloud computing infrastructure, learning from cloud services has become more and more convenient for people worldwide. In order to integrate the cloud computing technology and different e-learning platforms including variant mobile apps, Windows and web-based applications, we develop our Chinese learning system “analytic Chinese helper”with a service-oriented architecture (SOA). Based on the new architecture we designed and developed a cloud service for the e-learning of Chinese language on the Internet as a convenient resource for foreign students, especially in the reading of Chinese texts. There are two Chinese phonetic systems:Pinyin and Zhuyin. Pinyin is the official Romanization of Chinese characters, and Zhuyin incorporates additional Bopomofo symbols which transcribe precise sounds of Chinese characters. The proposed analytic Chinese helper provides real-time annotations with Pinyin or Zhuyin symbols, and thereby the annotated articles can be used as e-learning objects in learning Chinese.

  16. The character of gait in patients with knee osteoarthritis after traditional Chinese manipulation combined with functional training therapy%理筋手法结合功能训练治疗膝骨关节炎的步态特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜淑云; 褚立希; 查建林; 朱高峰; 张宏; 杨松滨; 殷磊

    2011-01-01

    目的:对膝骨关节炎患者下肢步行能力进行步态分析评定,探讨理筋手法及功能训练的康复效果.方法:应用三维红外步态分析设备,分析了81例(男36例,女45例)膝骨关节炎患者在理筋手法和功能训练干预前后平衡能力和步行效率的变化情况.结果:理筋手法+功能训练组患者的步长、步速、双支撑相等指标疗后明显改善,与单纯理筋手法组的差异有显著性意义.理筋手法+功能训练组与理筋组患者相比增加了肌肉的功能,在步长指标上得到明显改善.结论:被动与主动相结合的康复手段可以明显改善膝骨关节炎患者的下肢运动功能和膝关节的稳定性,进一步改善膝骨关节炎患者的步行能力,提高了患者的生存质量.%Objective: To assess the character of gait of patients with knee osteoarthritis, and the effect of traditional Chinese manipulation and functional training therapy.Method: Eighty-one patients (36 males and 45 females) with knee osteoarthritis, were treated with traditional Chinese manipulation and functional training therapy. A three dimensional infrared gait analysis equipment was used to assess the gait parameters before and after treatment.Result: After treatment manipulation+functional training group improved in step length,speed,double support phase, significantly, compared with manipulation group. Compared with patients in manipulation group in manipulation+ functional training group patients' muscle function enhanced, step length improved significantly. Conclusion: A combination of passive and active means of rehabilitation for patients with knee osteoarthritis could improve lower extremity motor function and knee stability significantly, and improve walking ability, and patient's quality of life.Author's address Yueyang Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Shanghai, 200437

  17. Study on the Word Variation of Korean Language In Yanbian:A case Study on the Using of Chinese Character Words and Loan Words of Korean Language%延边朝鲜语词汇变异研究--以朝鲜语汉字词和外来词的使用为例*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朴美玉

    2014-01-01

    Language contact is an important factor in Korean word variation in Yanbian,In language contact background,loan words from Chinese and overseas Korean words aggregate and fuse in Yan-bian Korean vocabulary system,form different social distribution in the speech community and show different trends.Using the research methods of micro sociolinguistics,this research investigated the word variation of Korean and the underlying social attribution including socio-demographic character-istics,language activities and language identity in the context of language community of Yanbian.The results show that,Chinese morpheme and order words in Korean language have formed stable social distribution,foreign words of overseas Korean transliteration in Korean language have not yet formed the social distribution orderly,and the social distribution of non Chinese morpheme and order words in Korean language and letter words in Korean language is between the two.%语言接触是延边朝鲜语词汇变异产生的重要因素,在语言接触背景下,源于汉语和境外朝鲜语的词在延边朝鲜语词汇系统中聚集与融合,并在言语社区内形成不同的社会分布,呈现出不同的发展趋势。本文运用微观社会语言学的研究方法,建立具有跨境语言特色的朝鲜语词汇调查表,设定社会人口结构特征、语言活动、语言认同三组变量,在延边地区进行词汇变异调查研究,结果表明,趋向于汉语的朝汉同素同序汉字词已经形成稳定的社会分布,趋向于境外朝鲜语的以朝鲜文字标记的外来词尚未形成有序的社会分布,而朝汉非同素同序汉字词和字母词的社会分布情况介于两者之间。

  18. "THE SITUATION OF CHINESE WOMEN" RELEASED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    ON June 2, the Information Office of the State Council of the People’s Republic of China published the white paper "The Situation of Chinese Women." The white paper, which comprises about 20,000 characters, contains a preface and eight chapters: I. Historic Liberation of Chinese Women; II. Equal legal Status; HI. Equal Rights

  19. Character Education: Christian Education Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Gretchen M.; Firmin, Michael W.

    2008-01-01

    Character is defined broadly by leading authorities, including concepts such as practicing apt behavior and teaching right from wrong. Virtue and moral undertones tend to pervade most experts' use of character, although in secular settings, the notion of ethics is more prominent. Overall, developing in students a desire for the good is how most…

  20. Computer-Assisted Instruction in Chinese: An Interim Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching-Hsiang Chen; Chin-Chuan Cheng

    1976-01-01

    A report is made of a computer based instructional project in Chinese using the system known as PLATO conducted at the University of Illinois that has resulted in the creation of a file of three thousand Chinese characters and a set of Chinese lessons for first year students. (RM)

  1. 西人笔下的中国人物话语翻译研究:以《大地》三部曲为例%Translation Studies of Chinese Characters in Western Writers' Works: A Case Study of the Trilogy of The Good Earth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张威

    2012-01-01

    以《大地》三部曲中文版为例,探讨西人撰写的中国作品中人物话语的翻译问题。翻译不仅要译文正确,还要反映出作品中语者的社会地方特征和时代风貌,以达到真正的“信”。这是翻译的更高境界。%After an examination of the translated version of the trilogy of The Good Earth Pearl Buck, this paper explores the translation problems of the conversations in the Chinese stories by the Westerners, where the identification of the speakers is largely ignored. The paper maintains that while keeping the original meaning, translation must also retain the local social features and the customs of the times in which the characters live so as to reach the faithfulness in the real sense.

  2. Analysis of the Training Practice Character of the Function Training of the Chinese Women Table Tennis Athletes Prepared for the 2013 Paris World Champion%中国女子乒乓球队备战第52届世界乒乓球锦标赛身体功能训练实践特点探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周亢亢; 黄竹杭; 孔令辉; 闫森

    2014-01-01

    This paper ,mainly using the observation and logic analysis method ,makes observa-tion ,statistics and analysis on the functional training of Chinese women table tennis team in the new period .The main purpose is to sum up the character of the functional training .According to this research ,we finds out that whether the guiding concept ,using FMS screening tool to detect special injury prevention ,the design of the warm-up ,regeneration and recovery and the static stretch after the training ,Injury prevention and corrective exercise on the special key points .movement skill on the foundation of movement patterns ,and the pertinence and the va-lidity of the strength training combined with and table tennis ,have certain character .At the same time ,the study also found out that ,at the beginning of the new period the functional training of Chinese women table tennis AP team advocated under the new situation of 2012 preparing for the London Olympic Games function training inheritanced and developed .and also going on continuous exploration and improvement of propulsion .According to the FMS text re-sults and sport special character ,we arranged the prevention exercise of the lumbar and shoul-der ;the warm-up exercise also optimized containing the movement prepartion AP team advoca-ted and changed only including jogging and static stretch in the past ;The soft tissue of regen-eration combined with manual treatment achieved good results ;the arrangement of strength training design incorporated core stability exercise into the training program was innovative . From the competiton results ,the team achieved the expected goals .%本研究主要运用文献调研、观察、逻辑分析法对新周期中国女子乒乓球队备战第52届世界乒乓球锦标赛(2013,法国·巴黎)的所有身体功能训练课进行观察、统计、分析,旨在总结这支队伍在身体功能训练方面的具体实践操作,并对其实践特点进行分析。通过研究

  3. Sunspot drawings handwritten character recognition method based on deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Sheng; Zeng, Xiangyun; Lin, Ganghua; Zhao, Cui; Feng, Yongli; Tao, Jinping; Zhu, Daoyuan; Xiong, Li

    2016-05-01

    High accuracy scanned sunspot drawings handwritten characters recognition is an issue of critical importance to analyze sunspots movement and store them in the database. This paper presents a robust deep learning method for scanned sunspot drawings handwritten characters recognition. The convolution neural network (CNN) is one algorithm of deep learning which is truly successful in training of multi-layer network structure. CNN is used to train recognition model of handwritten character images which are extracted from the original sunspot drawings. We demonstrate the advantages of the proposed method on sunspot drawings provided by Chinese Academy Yunnan Observatory and obtain the daily full-disc sunspot numbers and sunspot areas from the sunspot drawings. The experimental results show that the proposed method achieves a high recognition accurate rate.

  4. Character theory of finite groups

    CERN Document Server

    Isaacs, I Martin

    2006-01-01

    Character theory is a powerful tool for understanding finite groups. In particular, the theory has been a key ingredient in the classification of finite simple groups. Characters are also of interest in their own right, and their properties are closely related to properties of the structure of the underlying group. The book begins by developing the module theory of complex group algebras. After the module-theoretic foundations are laid in the first chapter, the focus is primarily on characters. This enhances the accessibility of the material for students, which was a major consideration in the

  5. Elementary Character Education: Local Perspectives, Echoed Voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickell, Pat; Field, Sherry L.

    2001-01-01

    Presents information based on a yearlong study of character education in an elementary school that was implementing "Kids with Character." Offers an analysis of the responses by students, teachers, and parents about character, development of character, and the program. Indicates that contemporary character education programs are similar to…

  6. Character as the Aim of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, David Light

    2011-01-01

    The aim of education should be developing intellectual character, moral character, civic character, and performance character. That does not mean that schools should ignore teaching content, but that the dispositions and habits of mind that come from developing these four forms of character will remain with students throughout their lives.…

  7. Mining and modeling character networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bonato, Anthony; Elenberg, Ethan R; Gleich, David F; Hou, Yangyang

    2016-01-01

    We investigate social networks of characters found in cultural works such as novels and films. These character networks exhibit many of the properties of complex networks such as skewed degree distribution and community structure, but may be of relatively small order with a high multiplicity of edges. Building on recent work of beveridge, we consider graph extraction, visualization, and network statistics for three novels: Twilight by Stephanie Meyer, Steven King's The Stand, and J.K. Rowling's Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire. Coupling with 800 character networks from films found in the http://moviegalaxies.com/ database, we compare the data sets to simulations from various stochastic complex networks models including random graphs with given expected degrees (also known as the Chung-Lu model), the configuration model, and the preferential attachment model. Using machine learning techniques based on motif (or small subgraph) counts, we determine that the Chung-Lu model best fits character networks and we ...

  8. Character profiles and life satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hwanjin; Suh, Byung Seong; Kim, Won Sool; Lee, Hye-Kyung; Park, Seon-Cheol; Lee, Kounseok

    2015-04-01

    There is a surge of interest in subjective well-being (SWB), which concerns how individuals feel about their happiness. Life satisfaction tends to be influenced by individual psychological traits and external social factors. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between individual character and SWB. Data from 3522 university students were analyzed in this study. Character profiles were evaluated using the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised Short version (TCI-RS). Life satisfaction was assessed using the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). All statistical tests regarding the correlations between each character profile and life satisfaction were conducted using ANOVAs, t-tests, multiple linear regression models and correlation analyses. The creative (SCT) profile was associated with the highest levels of life satisfaction, whereas the depressive (sct) profile was associated with the lowest levels of life satisfaction. Additionally, high self-directedness, self-transcendence and cooperation were associated with high life satisfaction. The results of gender-adjusted multiple regression analysis showed that the effects of self-directedness were the strongest in the assessment of one's quality of life, followed by self-transcendence and cooperativeness, in that order. All of the three-character profiles were significantly correlated with one's quality of life, and the character profiles of TCI-RS explained 27.6% of life satisfaction in total. Among the three-character profiles, the self-directedness profile was most associated with life satisfaction. Our study was cross-sectional, and self-reported data from students at a single university were analyzed. The results of this study showed that, among the character profiles, the effects of self-directedness were the strongest for predicting life satisfaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Studying Characters in "Romeo and Juliet."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinhawa, Wilhelmina

    1994-01-01

    Describes an activity in which high school students who are reading "Romeo and Juliet" compile information on major characters and create a collection of cards similar to sports cards, to help them understand each character and that character's motives. (SR)

  10. Chinese Advertising and Advanced Chinese Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Fan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Chinese advertising has long been inseparable from the Chinese national culture from late Shang Dynasty and early Zhou Dynasty when Jiang Ziya beat sword to spread sound to the 21st century when the badge of Beijing 2008 Olympic Games sweeps the whole world. With cultural trait as one of its fundamental character,advertising naturally becomes one of the most important cultural industries in contemporary era. In recent years because of prevalent theme, "Rediscover the Brilliance of Ancient Cities," promoted by the 39th IAA World Congress and the 12th China Advertising Festival held in China, Beijing and Xi'an, two ancient cities, had been splendidly presented to the whole world.

  11. Text vectorization based on character recognition and character stroke modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhigang; Zhou, Bingfeng; Tse, Francis; Mu, Yadong; He, Tao

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, a text vectorization method is proposed using OCR (Optical Character Recognition) and character stroke modeling. This is based on the observation that for a particular character, its font glyphs may have different shapes, but often share same stroke structures. Like many other methods, the proposed algorithm contains two procedures, dominant point determination and data fitting. The first one partitions the outlines into segments and second one fits a curve to each segment. In the proposed method, the dominant points are classified as "major" (specifying stroke structures) and "minor" (specifying serif shapes). A set of rules (parameters) are determined offline specifying for each character the number of major and minor dominant points and for each dominant point the detection and fitting parameters (projection directions, boundary conditions and smoothness). For minor points, multiple sets of parameters could be used for different fonts. During operation, OCR is performed and the parameters associated with the recognized character are selected. Both major and minor dominant points are detected as a maximization process as specified by the parameter set. For minor points, an additional step could be performed to test the competing hypothesis and detect degenerated cases.

  12. Moral character in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Taya R; Panter, A T; Turan, Nazli; Morse, Lily; Kim, Yeonjeong

    2014-11-01

    Using two 3-month diary studies and a large cross-sectional survey, we identified distinguishing features of adults with low versus high levels of moral character. Adults with high levels of moral character tend to: consider the needs and interests of others and how their actions affect other people (e.g., they have high levels of Honesty-Humility, empathic concern, guilt proneness); regulate their behavior effectively, specifically with reference to behaviors that have positive short-term consequences but negative long-term consequences (e.g., they have high levels of Conscientiousness, self-control, consideration of future consequences); and value being moral (e.g., they have high levels of moral identity-internalization). Cognitive moral development, Emotionality, and social value orientation were found to be relatively undiagnostic of moral character. Studies 1 and 2 revealed that employees with low moral character committed harmful work behaviors more frequently and helpful work behaviors less frequently than did employees with high moral character, according to their own admissions and coworkers' observations. Study 3 revealed that adults with low moral character committed more delinquent behavior and had more lenient attitudes toward unethical negotiation tactics than did adults with high moral character. By showing that individual differences have consistent, meaningful effects on employees' behaviors, after controlling for demographic variables (e.g., gender, age, income) and basic attributes of the work setting (e.g., enforcement of an ethics code), our results contest situationist perspectives that deemphasize the importance of personality. Moral people can be identified by self-reports in surveys, and these self-reports predict consequential behaviors months after the initial assessment.

  13. MOKE "Mark's Own Kanji Editor."

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaskey, Michael; O'Neill, Patricia A.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the use of MOKE, a basic IBM-compatible Japanese language word processor with a built in Japanese-to-English dictionary that functions as a text editor and also as a preparer and reader of electronic mail in Japanese. (CB)

  14. The significance and the trend of the Chinese wedding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梦笛

    2014-01-01

    With the development of society and the demand of new situation,more and more young people show great interests in the solemn and classical Chinese wedding. But the traditional Chinese wedding is not their first choice. Because of the feature of the age, weddings present different characteristics. That is to say, the unique character of Chinese wedding is the development trend of modern weddings. But the Chinese wedding customs and the significance of every custom are important elements in innovation that we can’t lose. This passage focuses on the significance of the chinese wedding and the development trend of modern Chinese weddings.

  15. CHARACTER RECOGNITION OF VIDEO SUBTITLES\\

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish S Hiremath

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An important task in content based video indexing is to extract text information from videos. The challenges involved in text extraction and recognition are variation of illumination on each video frame with text, the text present on the complex background and different font size of the text. Using various image processing algorithms like morphological operations, blob detection and histogram of oriented gradients the character recognition of video subtitles is implemented. Segmentation, feature extraction and classification are the major steps of character recognition. Several experimental results are shown to demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithm

  16. Introducing Character Animation with Blender

    CERN Document Server

    Mullen, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Introducing Character Animation with Blender, 2nd Edition is written in a friendly but professional tone, with clear descriptions and numerous illustrative screenshots. Throughout the book, tutorials focus on how to accomplish actual animation goals, while illustrating the necessary technical methods along the way. These are reinforced by clear descriptions of how each specific aspect of Blender works and fits together with the rest of the package. By following all the tutorials, the reader will gain all the skills necessary to build and animate a well-modeled, fully-rigged character of their

  17. Constructing Pairs of Compatible Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mathias Kratzer

    2003-01-01

    Given a finite group X such that both the conjugacy of elements in X and the length of any conjugacy class in X can be decided/computed efficiently,the first algorithm described in this article constructs a uniquely determined sequence of representatives for all the conjugacy classes of X. In particular, based on this sequence, any two characters of different groups isomorphic to X become comparable against each other which is utilized by a second algorithm designed to construct so-called compatible characters of given finite groups G and H having isomorphic subgroups U ≤ G and V ≤ H, respectively.

  18. Character Interviews Help Bring Literature to Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindall, Vickie; Cantrell, R. Jeffrey

    1999-01-01

    Describes "Character Interviews," a class activity that guides children, especially reluctant readers, to the meaning of a story through a thoughtful understanding of character as they consider a character's emotions and motives, to respond to a question as that character would. Describes the interview process. Offers sample interviews…

  19. Building Character through Literacy with Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almerico, Gina M.

    2014-01-01

    Character education is described as curriculum specifically developed to teach children about the quality and traits of good character. One means in which children can learn about good character is through the pages of high quality children's literature. In this study, the author defines the characteristics of an effective character development…

  20. On the evolution of word usage of classical Chinese poetry

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Liang

    2015-01-01

    The hierarchy of classical Chinese poetry has been broadly acknowledged by a number of studies in Chinese literature. However, quantitative investigations about the evolution of classical Chinese poetry are limited. The primary goal of this study is to provide quantitative evidence of the evolutionary linkages, with emphasis on word usage, among different period genres for classical Chinese poetry. Specifically, various statistical analyses were performed to find and compare the patterns of word usage in the poems of nine period genres, including shi jing, chu ci, Han shi , Jin shi, Tang shi, Song shi, Yuan shi, Ming shi, and Qing shi. The result of analysis indicates that each of nine period genres has unique patterns of word usage, with some Chinese characters being preferably used by the poems of a particular period genre. The analysis on the general pattern of word preference implies a decreasing trend in the use of ancient Chinese characters along the timeline of dynastic types of classical Chinese poetr...

  1. A cognitive network for oracle-bone characters related to animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dress. Andreas; Grünewald, Stefan; Zeng, Zhenbing

    This paper is dedicated to HAO Bailin on the occasion of his eighties birthday, the great scholar and very good friend who never tired to introduce us to the wonderful and complex intricacies of Chinese culture and history. In this paper, we present an analysis of oracle-bone characters for animals from a `cognitive' point of view. After some general remarks on oraclebone characters presented in Section 1 and a short outline of the paper in Section 2, we collect various oracle-bone characters for animals from published resources in Section 3. In the next section, we begin analysing a group of 60 ancient animal characters from www.zdic.net, a highly acclaimed internet dictionary of Chinese characters that is strictly based on historical sources, and introduce five categories of specific features regarding their (graphical) structure that will be used in Section 5 to associate corresponding feature vectors to these characters. In Section 6, these feature vectors will be used to investigate their dissimilarity in terms of a family of parameterised distance measures. And in the last section, we apply the SplitsTree method as encoded in the NeighbourNet algorithms to construct a corresponding family of dissimilarity-based networks with the intention of elucidating how the ancient Chinese might have perceived the `animal world' in the late bronze age and to demonstrate that these pictographs reflect an intuitive understanding of this world and its inherent structure that predates its classification in the oldest surviving Chinese encyclopedia from approximately the 3rd century BC, the ErYa, as well as similar classification systems in the West by one to two millennia. We also present an English dictionary of 70 oracle-bone characters for animals in Appendix 1. In Appendix 2, we list various variants of animal characters that were published in the Jia Gu Wen Bian (cf. , A Complete Collection of Oracle Bone Characters, edited by the Institute of Archaeology of the Chinese

  2. Predictors of Reading in Children with Chinese as a First Language: A Developmental and Cross-Linguistic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chieh-Fang

    2013-01-01

    Measures of phonological and morphological awareness of Chinese were administered to 94 third-grade students of Chinese in Taiwan to evaluate their relative contributions to current and prospective prediction of early reading in Chinese L1 and English L2. Phonological awareness made a significant unique contribution to Chinese character reading…

  3. Character Analysis of Jane Eyre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡迎春

    2002-01-01

    This thesis analyses Jane Eyre' s character. No matter what Jane met, no matter where she was, she always rebelled against that unfair society, she never gave up to try her best to get free, independent, fair life and true love. By unremitting efforts she finally got dignity, freedom and true love.

  4. THE THERMODYNAMIC CHARACTER OF INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popova T.M.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The article includes data concerning application of one of the universal method of the modern science based on fundamental thermodynamic laws to analyze the efficiency of the information processes. The comparison of the information and thermodynamic processes brought the author to the basic conclusion of the energetic character of information.

  5. Shakespeare Live! and Character Counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookshire, Cathy A.

    This paper discusses a live production of Shakespeare's "Macbeth" (in full costume but with no sets) for all public middle school and high school students in Harrisonburg and Rockingham, Virginia. The paper states that the "Character Counts" issues that are covered in the play are: decision making, responsibility and…

  6. Hamlet and His Melancholy Character

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洁

    2007-01-01

    @@ What's the theme of hamlet?His tragedies often portray some noble hero who faces the injustice of human life and is caught in a difficult situation whose fate is closely connected with the fate of the whole nation.The heroes have some weaknesses in their characters,which finally lead to their tragic thin falls.

  7. Character Toys as Psychological Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Elena O.

    2011-01-01

    The main characteristic of children's play is its mental aspect--the fact that it is based on thoughts and feelings and not on objective reality. During imaginary play, children go beyond the limits of reality, and toys are tools that help them to do this. Children need character toys--toys that play the role of companion or partner--in the early…

  8. Moral Character and Student Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Thirty years after the creation of federal student financial aid programs through the Higher Education Act of 1965, the link between moral character and student financial aid programs is once again influencing the public policy debate. A careful look at the debate, though, shows that the nature of concerns has shifted. In the past, the question…

  9. CHARACTERS THAT SUFFERED DUE TO SHORTAGE IN THE CHARACTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Feng

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the theories about motif and type will be used for analyzing the very types ofcharacters that suffered because of the shortages. To begin with, the analyzing of the differences andsimilarities of the shortages of each character will be counted on the inside and outside parts of theirsufferings. Then the theories of Nietzsche’s and of some myths will be used for analyzing the furtherreason of the sufferings. At last, investigating the special value those sufferings have brought forliteratures and for TV series. Multi-angle perspective is useful for investigating the unique charms ofthe shortages of characters as well as for finding out new understandings for the types of sufferings.

  10. Effects on Learning Logographic Character Formation in Computer-Assisted Handwriting Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chen-hui; Kuo, Chin-Hwa; Horng, Wen-Bing; Chen, Chun-Wen

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that investigates how different learning methods might affect the learning process of character handwriting among beginning college learners of Chinese, as measured by tests of recognition, approximate production, precise production, and awareness of conventional stroke sequence. Two methodologies were examined during…

  11. Hybrid digital fingerprint based on multi-type characters for collusion-resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuxi; Wang, Wenzong; Hu, Hanping; Xu, Jing

    2011-11-01

    Collusion tolerance is an essential requirement for digital fingerprinting, and existing collusion-resistant encoding and tracking methods are generally based on combinatorics. However, those methods have some deficiencies such as low tracking efficiency and large fingerprint database for matching. Owing to those weaknesses, a hybrid fingerprint encoding method based on residual characters is proposed in this paper. The fingerprint is generated by encoding the user information into a binary image composed of letter, numeral and Chinese character. As a result of the complex structure of Chinese character, more residue characters can be reserved when the fingerprint is damaged. Thus, the fingerprint has a good performance in anti-tampering. Meanwhile, it has the capacity for large users because of the diversity of Chinese character. In addition, the paper proposes a tracking method based on grid feature, which greatly reduces the computational complexity and improves the tracking efficiency. The robustness and collusion tolerance of the digital fingerprinting scheme are confirmed by theoretical analysis and experimental results.

  12. 汉魏六朝碑刻中的双形符字和双声符字%The Characters with Dual Pictographic Elements and Characters with Dual Phonetic Elements in the Inscription on Stele in Han Wei and Six Dynasties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴继刚

    2014-01-01

    The characters with dual pictographic elements and characters with dual phonetic elements in the inscrip-tion on stele in Han Wei and Six Dynasties are the inevitable outcome in the course of development of Chinese char-acter , which include diachronic inherited characters and synchronic coined characters . The comparative study shows that the character with dual pictographic elements is an important type of Chinese pictophonetic character and it is in different historical levels , reflecting the priority of indicating a general category of meaning in Chinese pic-tographic character . The character with dual phonetic elements is the representation of chinese characters indica-ting sound and the outcome of character change . The study contributes to enriching the theory of Chinese character structure , discussing the structure reason of Chinese character form , textual research and explaining ancient char-acters . It has the theoritical significance and practical value to do the textual research and explain the ancient Chi-nese characters and variant form of a Chinese character.%汉魏六朝碑刻双形符字、双声符字既有历时传承字,又有共时新造字,是汉字意音文字发展过程中的必然产物。比较研究表明,双形符字是汉字形声字的一种重要类型,其双形符处于不同的历史层次,是形声字形义优先的反映;双声符字是汉字表音化的体现和文字讹变的结果。研究这两类文字现象对于丰富汉字结构理论,探讨汉字形体结构理据,考释古文字与隶变之后异体字具有重要理论意义和实践价值。

  13. Reading Spaced and Unspaced Chinese Text: Evidence from Eye Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xuejun; Yan, Guoli; Liversedge, Simon P.; Zang, Chuanli; Rayner, Keith

    2008-01-01

    Native Chinese readers' eye movements were monitored as they read text that did or did not demark word boundary information. In Experiment 1, sentences had 4 types of spacing: normal unspaced text, text with spaces between words, text with spaces between characters that yielded nonwords, and finally text with spaces between every character. The…

  14. On the Role Played by Zhou Zuoren in the Exchange of Modern Japanese and Chinese Vocabulary%周作人在中日两国词汇交流中的作用和影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李运博

    2014-01-01

    objective and profound cognition of Japanese vocabulary. In view of this, this paper aims at exploring Zhou’s role in the exchange of modern Japanese and Chinese vocabulary by organizing and analyzing both his cognition of Japanese vocabulary and his usage of kanji characters.

  15. SKIN DETECTION OF ANIMATION CHARACTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi Tanvir Ahmed Siddiqui

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing popularity of animes makes it vulnerable to unwanted usages like copyright violations and pornography. That’s why, we need to develop a method to detect and recognize animation characters. Skin detection is one of the most important steps in this way. Though there are some methods to detect human skin color, but those methods do not work properly for anime characters. Anime skin varies greatly from human skin in color, texture, tone and in different kinds of lighting. They also vary greatly among themselves. Moreover, many other things (for example leather, shirt, hair etc., which are not skin, can have color similar to skin. In this paper, we have proposed three methods that can identify an anime character’s skin more successfully as compared with Kovac, Swift, Saleh and Osman methods, which are primarily designed for human skin detection. Our methods are based on RGB values and their comparative relations.

  16. Recognition of isolated handprinted characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bo

    1996-01-01

    Handprinted characters are of unequal complexity and a common description of all alphabet symbols seems therefore unobtainable. However, letters which confuse human beings and man-made OCR systems usually have approximately the same appearance and may therefore be modeled jointly. We part the set...... is usually too large but can be reduced automatically by the use of a predictive code length or predictive error criterion...

  17. Offline arabic character recognition system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Several languages use the Arabic alphabets and arabic scripts present challenges because the letter shape is context sensitive. For the past three decades, there has been a mounting interest among researchers in this problem. In this paper we present an Arabic Character Recognition system and quence steps of recognizing Arabic text. These steps are separately discussed, and previous research work on each step is reviewed. Also in this paper we give some samples of Arabic fonts.

  18. Character virtues in psychiatric practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radden, Jennifer; Sadler, John Z

    2008-01-01

    The character-focused approach known as virtue ethics is especially well suited to understanding and promoting ethical psychiatric practice. Virtues are stable dispositions and responses attributed to character, and a virtue-based ethics is one in which people's selves or characters are at the center of moral assessment. In this discussion by a clinician and a philosopher, clinical scenarios using exchanges and inner monologue illustrate key aspects of virtues. Virtues are acquired through habituation; they are habits of mind as much as behavior; they are as a group heterogeneous, and individually composite; they involve affective responses; they are not impartial; they are compatible with the "role morality" required of professionals; they are responses to particular temptations and weaknesses; and they include, in the capacity for practical judgment known as phronesis, a way of resolving many of the conflicts and dilemmas that arise in practice. The virtue approach to ethics will likely be most useful in the educational setting where practitioners are learning clinical skills and socialized into the broad ethos of professional practice. Aspects of this educational effort are briefly reviewed, including whether it ought to be undertaken at all, whether the effort to teach virtues is possible, and, if so, how it can be achieved.

  19. Comparison of love in Chinese culture and in western culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻远洋

    2009-01-01

    In this passage, love in Chinese culture and in western culture is compared. It briefly introduces the difference love view in western culture and in Chinese culture on a specific matter. Then it discusses the origin of this phenomenon. At last it tries to conclude the characters of these two different love views.

  20. The Learning of Chinese Idiomatic Expressions as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Yao, Jiayi

    2017-01-01

    Chinese idioms are mostly four-character phrases and are called Quadra-syllabic Idiomatic Expressions (QIEs). It has long been reported that learning of Chinese QIEs poses a great challenge for both young L1 speakers and adult L2 learners as the condensed form is often associated with complicated figurative meanings. The present study explored the…

  1. Tonal bilingualism : the case of two closely related Chinese dialects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Junru

    2015-01-01

    Tonal bilinguals of two closely related Chinese dialects handle two tonal systems in their mind; their two vocabularies are from closely related dialects; and they write translation equivalents with common Chinese characters. Their unique language situation makes their mind special. This thesis inve

  2. Beyond Mulan: Rediscovering the Heroines of Chinese Folklore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Suzanne D.

    2000-01-01

    Notes how sadly the Disney treatment of the story of Mulan reduced both the character Mulan and the story's broad appeal. Presents and critiques four picture book versions of the Mulan legend. Discusses 16 picture books of original folklore based on authentic Chinese sources. Concludes with criteria for evaluating Chinese folklore in picture…

  3. Relationships between Reading Comprehension and Its Components in Young Chinese-as-a-Second-Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yu Ka

    2017-01-01

    Based on the Simple View of Reading model, this study examines the relationships among Chinese reading comprehension and its two componential processes, Chinese character reading and listening comprehension, in young learners of Chinese as a second language (CSL) using a longitudinal design. Using relevant measures, a sample of 142 senior primary…

  4. The Beauty of Alliteration and the Art of Its English Chinese Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赫妍

    2009-01-01

    Alliteration,a figure of English,has showed its aesthetic effect through its rhetorical effects.In Chinese,the translation methods of alliteration mainly include homonymous imitation,borrowing of Chinese onomatopoeia,rhythm,meter,parallelism,four-character structure,etc,which fully reflects the art of English Chinese translation.

  5. Eye Movements of Second Language Learners when Reading Spaced and Unspaced Chinese Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Deli; Liversedge, Simon P.; Tian, Jin; Zang, Chuanli; Cui, Lei; Bai, Xuejun; Yan, Guoli; Rayner, Keith

    2012-01-01

    The effect of spacing in relation to word segmentation was examined for four groups of non-native Chinese speakers (American, Korean, Japanese, and Thai) who were learning Chinese as second language. Chinese sentences with four types of spacing information were used: unspaced text, word-spaced text, character-spaced text, and nonword-spaced text.…

  6. Things Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yip Wang

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Chinese culture. Some of the items and activities described include a traditional Chinese child's outfit, dolls, sandalwood fans, writing and printing materials and techniques, toys and crafts, a Chinese abacus, and eating utensils. Several recipes for…

  7. Character Analysis: Up Close and Personal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Carla J.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a class activity which gives students practice in character analysis based on characters' dialog in plays. Offers a version of this activity as applied to Caryl Churchill's play "Top Girls." (SR)

  8. Seafloor character--Offshore of Bolinas, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents the seafloor-character map Offshore of Bolinas, California (raster data file is included in "SeafloorCharacter_OffshoreBolinas.zip,"...

  9. Seafloor character--Offshore of Bolinas, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents the seafloor-character map Offshore of Bolinas, California (raster data file is included in "SeafloorCharacter_OffshoreBolinas.zip,"...

  10. What Is in the Naming? A 5-Year Longitudinal Study of Early Rapid Naming and Phonological Sensitivity in Relation to Subsequent Reading Skills in Both Native Chinese and English as a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jinger; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Shu, Hua; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; Li, Hong

    2011-01-01

    Among 262 Chinese children, syllable awareness and rapid automatized naming (RAN) at age 5 years and invented spelling of Pinyin at age 6 years independently predicted subsequent Chinese character recognition and English word reading at ages 8 years and 10 years, even with initial Chinese character reading ability statistically controlled. In…

  11. A Note on Generalized Characters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S J Bhatt; H V Dedania

    2005-11-01

    For a compactly generated LCA group , it is shown that the set $H(G)$ of all generalized characters on equipped with the compact-open topology is a LCA group and $H(G)=\\hat{G}$ (the dual group of ) if and only if is compact. Both results fail for arbitrary LCA groups. Further, if is second countable, then the Gel’fand space of the commutative convolution algebra $C_c(G)$ equipped with the inductive limit topology is topologically homeomorphic to $H(G)$.

  12. ANALISIS METODE BELAJAR KOSA KATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robihim

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Many jobs fields needed foreign language skills, such as Japanese. To comprehend the Japanese text, people must understand Japanese characters like Hiragana, Katakana, and Kanji because three of them were always used in Japanese text. Learning Hiragana and Katakana usually were taught in elementary level then secondary and high levels have more Kanji usages. Learning Japanese kanji meant learning vocabulary too. But, learning kanji had to be continuos and routine, because kanji had more than one meanings. Kanji did not only one meaning. So, we should know the meaning of the interrelated other kanji writing. To make easy in reading to read Japanese texts, certainly we should know kanji characters and the meanings.

  13. An automatic composition model of Chinese folk music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaomei; Li, Dongyang; Wang, Lei; Shen, Lin; Gao, Yanyuan; Zhu, Yuanyuan

    2017-03-01

    The automatic composition has achieved rich results in recent decades, including Western and some other areas of music. However, the automatic composition of Chinese music is less involved. After thousands of years of development, Chinese folk music has a wealth of resources. To design an automatic composition mode, learn the characters of Chinese folk melody and imitate the creative process of music is of some significance. According to the melodic features of Chinese folk music, a Chinese folk music composition based on Markov model is proposed to analyze Chinese traditional music. Folk songs with typical Chinese national characteristics are selected for analysis. In this paper, an example of automatic composition is given. The experimental results show that this composition model can produce music with characteristics of Chinese folk music.

  14. Implications of Some Characters' Names In English Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯蓓

    2009-01-01

    With more and more Chinese students having a great liking for English literature than ever before, it is of great importance to fully appreciate the original works in a proper way. Apart from some background information on writers or the works, some hints and clues provided throughout the works are essential to the comprehension of the literature. This paper mainly deals with a widely-used approach which writers prefer to apply while readers tend to ignore, that is, naming of some characters. With a summary of previous literature on the significance of some names, the paper first explores the literal meanings and origins of proper nouns in some English literature, and then discusses the relationships between characters' names and their personality, the plot as well as the theme of the works. Hence comes the conclusion that name implications can help to reveal characters' personality, develop the plot and highlight the theme. Awareness of this will surely exert positive effects on the readers' better understanding of English literature.

  15. Body Language Advanced 3D Character Rigging

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Eric; Fong, Jared; Sidwell, Adam G

    2011-01-01

    Whether you're a professional Character TD or just like to create 3D characters, this detailed guide reveals the techniques you need to create sophisticated 3D character rigs that range from basic to breathtaking. Packed with step-by-step instructions and full-color illustrations, Body Language walks you through rigging techniques for all the body parts to help you create realistic and believable movements in every character you design. You'll learn advanced rigging concepts that involve MEL scripting and advanced deformation techniques and even how to set up a character pipeline.

  16. Data set for Tifinagh handwriting character recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Bencharef

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Tifinagh alphabet-IRCAM is the official alphabet of the Amazigh language widely used in North Africa [1]. It includes thirty-one basic letter and two letters each composed of a base letter followed by the sign of labialization. Normalized only in 2003 (Unicode [2], ICRAM-Tifinagh is a young character repertoire. Which needs more work on all levels. In this context we propose a data set for handwritten Tifinagh characters composed of 1376 image; 43 Image For Each character. The dataset can be used to train a Tifinagh character recognition system, or to extract the meaning characteristics of each character.

  17. System and method for character recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, J. P. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A character recognition system is disclosed in which each character in a retina, defining a scanning raster, is scanned with random lines uniformly distributed over the retina. For each type of character to be recognized the system stores a probability density function (PDF) of the random line intersection lengths and/or a PDF of the random line number of intersections. As an unknown character is scanned, the random line intersection lengths and/or the random line number of intersections are accumulated and based on a comparison with the prestored PDFs a classification of the unknown character is performed.

  18. Data set for Tifinagh handwriting character recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencharef, Omar; Chihab, Younes; Mousaid, Nouredine; Oujaoura, Mustapha

    2015-09-01

    The Tifinagh alphabet-IRCAM is the official alphabet of the Amazigh language widely used in North Africa [1]. It includes thirty-one basic letter and two letters each composed of a base letter followed by the sign of labialization. Normalized only in 2003 (Unicode) [2], ICRAM-Tifinagh is a young character repertoire. Which needs more work on all levels. In this context we propose a data set for handwritten Tifinagh characters composed of 1376 image; 43 Image For Each character. The dataset can be used to train a Tifinagh character recognition system, or to extract the meaning characteristics of each character.

  19. Extending Characters on Fix Algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    A dynamical system is a triple $(A,G,\\alpha)$, consisting of a unital locally convex algebra $A$, a topological group $G$ and a group homomorphism $\\alpha:G\\rightarrow\\Aut(A)$, which induces a continuous action of $G$ on $A$. Further, a unital locally convex algebra $A$ is called continuous inverse algebra, or CIA for short, if its group of units $A^{\\times}$ is open in $A$ and the inversion $\\iota:A^{\\times}\\rightarrow A^{\\times},\\,\\,\\,a\\mapsto a^{-1}$ is continuous at $1_A$. For a compact manifold $M$, the Fr\\'echet algebra of smooth functions $C^{\\infty}(M)$ is the prototype of such a continuous inverse algebra. We show that if $A$ is a complete commutative CIA, $G$ a compact group and $(A,G,\\alpha)$ a dynamical system, then each character of $B:=A^G$ can be extended to a character of $A$. In particular, the natural map on the level of the corresponding spectra $\\Gamma_A\\rightarrow\\Gamma_B$, $\\chi\\mapsto\\chi_{\\mid B}$ is surjective.

  20. Marvel and DC Characters Inspired by Arachnids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elidiomar Ribeiro Da-Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article compares arachnid-based Marvel and DC comics characters. The composition of a comic book character often has interesting ‘real-life’ influences. Given the strong connection between arachnids (especially spiders, scorpions and mites, all belonging to the zoological class 'Arachnida' and human beings it is not surprising that they have inspired many fictional characters. We recorded 84 Marvel Comics characters and 40 DC Comics characters, detailed in the dataset that accompanies the article (Da-Silva 2014. Most characters have been created recently, since the 1990s. Marvel has significantly more arachnid characters than DC. As for taxonomic classification, the characters were based mostly on spiders (zoological order 'Araneae'. Of the total characters, the majority are human beings, but an overwhelming number have at least some typical arachnid features. Villains (60.91% of total are significantly more numerous, considering the sum of the two publishers. Arachnids have bad reputation for being dangerous (Thorp and Woodson 1976; Ruppert and Barnes 1996. Since the public usually considers spiders, scorpions and mites “harmful” in general, we expected a larger contingent of villains. However, there was no statistical difference between the amount of villains and heroes in Marvel characters. It did not happen probably due to the success of one character: the Amazing Spider-Man.