WorldWideScience

Sample records for kaninchen oryctolagus cuniculus

  1. Conejo Oryctolagus cuniculus (Linnaeus, 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Salgado I. 2016. Conejo Oryctolagus cuniculus (Linnaeus, 1758). En: Calzada J., Clavero M. & Fernández A. (eds). “Guía virtual de los indicios de los mamíferos de la Península Ibérica, Islas Baleares y Canarias”. Sociedad Española para la Conservación y Estudio de los Mamíferos (SECEM). http://www.secem.es/guiadeindiciosmamiferos/ Downloaded on "12/12/2016”

  2. Encephalitozoonosis in household pet Nederland Dwarf rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencakova, A; Balent, P; Petrovova, E; Novotny, F; Luptakova, L

    2008-05-31

    The paper presents the results of examination of 32 domestically bred rabbits, the breed Nederland Dwarf of Oryctolagus cuniculus, for the presence of Encephalitozoon cuniculi microsporidian species. The results of serological tests for E. cuniculi in 32 rabbits are reviewed along with other follow-up studies of clinical cases. Blood samples were taken from 7 asymptomatic rabbits and 25 rabbits showing neurological and ocular signs suggestive of encephalitozoonosis. In the asymptomatic group, 5 out of 7 rabbits were seropositive (71%). 16 rabbits with clinical diseases showed neurological sings, including torticollis, circus-like movements, loss of weight; 6 of them also showed ataxia, anorexia, asthenia of hind-limbs and 3 showed ocular signs. All 25 rabbits were seropositive. The spores of E. cuniculi were isolated from the faecal samples or kidneys and brain of an animal and subsequently were used for DNA isolation and PCR analysis.

  3. Neonatal cannibalism in cage-bred wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus Canibalismo neonatal en conejos silvestres (Oryctolagus cuniculus alojados en jaula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P González-Redondo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse the occurrence of neonatal cannibalism by individually outdoors cage-bred wild rabbit does (Oryctolagus cuniculus. Ninety eight parturitions that were gathered from 19 female cage-born wild rabbits during five consecutive years were monitored for cannibalism incidence. This alteration in maternal behaviour, which was exclusively limited to the peripartum period, had a high incidence (13.3% of parturitions and was significantly associated with inadequate maternal behaviour such as not using straw or hair in nestbuilding or giving birth outside the nest box. In 84.6% of the parturitions with occurrence of cannibalism the does did not introduce hair into the nest boxes, and in 92.3% of the parturitions with cannibalised kits the does did not introduce straw into the nest boxes. Cannibalism was also associated with a large proportion of rabbits that gave birth outside the nest boxes (53.8%. It is discussed that cannibalism practiced by wild rabbit does in captivity is a manifestation of the failure of maternal behaviour, a consequence of the stress they experience in captivity.El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la práctica de canibalismo neonatal por conejas silvestres (Oryctolagus cuniculus alojadas individualmente en jaulas ubicadas al aire libre. Se controló la incidencia de canibalismo en 98 partos producidos durante cinco años consecutivos por 19 conejas silvestres nacidas en jaula. Esta alteración de la conducta maternal, que estuvo limitada exclusivamente al periparto, tuvo una elevada incidencia (13,3% de los partos y estuvo asociada significativamente con una inadecuada conducta maternal, tal como la no introducción de pelo y paja en los nidales por parte de las conejas o los partos fuera del nidal. En el 84,6% de los partos en los que ocurrió canibalismo las conejas no introdujeron pelo en los nidales, y en el 92,3% de los partos con gazapos canibalizados las conejas no introdujeron paja en

  4. The European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), a source of zoonotic cryptosporidiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, G; Chalmers, R M

    2010-12-01

    Cryptosporidium spp. have been found in the faeces of over 150 mammalian host species, but the risks to public health from wildlife are poorly understood. In summer 2008, the Cryptosporidium sp. rabbit genotype was identified as the aetiological agent in an outbreak of waterborne human cryptosporidiosis. The source was a wild rabbit that had entered a treated water tank. To establish current knowledge about Cryptosporidium spp. infecting lagomorphs, especially the host range and biological characteristics of the rabbit genotype, and the potential risks to public health that rabbits may pose in the transmission of zoonotic cryptosporidiosis, we undertook a literature and data review. The literature returned demonstrates that although the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) has been the most widely studied lagomorph, few large scale studies were found. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in wild rabbit populations in the two large scale studies was 0.9% (95%CI 0.2-5.0) and 0.0% (95%CI 0.0-1.6). Neither study provided age nor sex profiles nor typing of Cryptosporidium isolates. The infecting Cryptosporidium species was confirmed in just four other studies of rabbits, all of which showed the rabbit genotype. Human-infectious Cryptosporidium species including Cryptosporidium parvum have caused experimental infections in rabbits and it is likely that this may also occur naturally. No published studies of the host range and biological features of the Cryptosporidium rabbit genotype were identified, but information was generated on the identification and differentiation of the rabbit genotype at various genetic loci. Both pet and wild rabbits are a potential source of human cryptosporidiosis and as such, good hygiene practices are recommended during and after handling rabbits or exposure to their faeces, or potentially contaminated surfaces. Water supplies should be protected against access by wildlife, including rabbits.

  5. Prenatal ultrasound heating impacts on fluctuations in haematological analysis of Oryctolagus cuniculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Zaiki, Farah Wahida; Md Dom, Sulaiman; Abdul Razak, Hairil Rashmizal; Hassan, Hamzah Fansuri

    2013-10-01

    Prenatal Ultrasound (US) is commonly used as a routine procedure on pregnant women. It is generally perceived as a safe procedure due to the use of non-ionizing radiation. However, the neurotoxicity of diagnostic prenatal US was detected to have a correlation with high susceptibility to early developing fetus. This research involved in vivo experimental model by using 3(rd) trimester pregnant Oryctolagus cuniculus and exposing them to US exposures for 30, 60, and 90 minutes at their gestational day (GD) 28-29. The output power and intensities, spatial peak temporal average intensity (ISPTA) of US were varied from 0.4 to 0.7 W and 0.13 to 0.19 W/cm(2) respectively were tested initially in free-field, water. Haematological analysis was carried out to detect any changes in blood constituents. Statistically significant differences were detected in red blood cell (RBC) count (Pheating in causing defects on studied animal.

  6. Factors affecting the seroprevalence of lagovirus infection in wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Southern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Bocanegra, Ignacio; Astorga, Rafael J; Napp, Sebastián; Huerta, Belén; Carbonero, Alfonso; Perea, Anselmo; Arenas, Antonio

    2011-07-01

    Cross-sectional studies were carried out on wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) populations in Southern Spain to assess the prevalence of lagovirus infection and to identify potentially associated risk factors. A total of 619 blood and 487 liver samples from wild rabbits were collected from seven hunting areas with different Mediterranean ecosystems. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess associations between seropositivity and an extensive set of variables. The seroprevalence was 29.2% (95% CI: 25.6-32.8) and lagoviruses were not detected in liver samples. Logistic regression indicated that seropositivity to lagoviruses was associated with seropositivity to myxomatosis, wild rabbit density, the existence of artificial feeding sites, mean maximum monthly temperatures of 20-30 °C, and annual accumulated rainfall of >600 mm. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Tear production, intraocular pressure and conjunctival microbiota, cytology and histology of New Zealand rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianne P. Oriá

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to establish reference values for selected ophthalmic diagnostic tests in New Zealand rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus. A total of 22 adult male rabbits were used. The ophthalmic tests included evaluation of tear production with Schirmer tear test 1(STT1 and Endodontic absorbent paper point tear test (EAPPTT using two different commercial brand materials. Applanation tonometry, Culture of the conjunctival bacterial flora, , conjunctival cytology and conjunctival histology were also performed. Mean (±SD for STT1, EAPPTTa, EAPPTTb and IOP was 7.27±2.51mm/min, 12.43±1.69mm/min, 15.24±2.07mm/min, 12.89±2.80mm Hg, respectively. Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus sp. and Bacillus sp. were predominant. The cytological evaluation revealed the presence columnar epithelial cells, superficial squamous keratinized cells, lymphocytes, heterophils, red blood cells, mucus and bacteria. The histological analysis revealed a stratified epithelium, characterized by the presence of columnar epithelial cells with a large number of goblet cells. The reported data can be used for therapeutic or experimental purposes.

  8. Evidence of Leishmania infantum Infection in Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus in a Natural Area in Madrid, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerea García

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is one of the most important neglected zoonosis and remains endemic in at least 88 developing countries in the world. In addition, anthropogenic environmental changes in urban areas are leading to its emergency world wide. Zoonotic leishmaniasis control might only be achieved by an integrated approach targeting both the human host and the animal reservoirs, which in certain sylvatic cycles are yet to be identified. Recently, hares have been pointed out as competent reservoirs of Leishmania infantum in Spain, but the role of other lagomorphs has not been clarified. Here, 69 rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus from a natural area in Madrid in which a high density was present were analyzed using indirect (immunofluorescence antibody test, IFAT and direct (PCR, culture techniques. Fifty-seven (82.6% of the animals were positive to at least one technique, with IFAT yielding the highest proportion of positive samples. L. infantum was isolated in 13% animals demonstrating the occurrence of infection in this setting. Our results suggest that rabbits could play a role of competent reservoir of L. infantum and demonstrate that the prevalence of infection is high in the analyzed area.

  9. Eimeria species in wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Fars province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, S M; Oryan, A; Rakhshandehroo, E; Moshiri, A; Mootabi Alavi, A

    2010-12-01

    This investigation was accomplished during February to November 2008. A total of 71 wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) of about 5 to 12 months age were collected alive from different parts of Fars province, south of Iran. Faecal sampling was carried out directly from recti and the oocysts were isolated using sedimentation and floatation techniques and the sporulated oocyst were identified based on morphological and biological characteristics. All the rabbits were apparently healthy and showed no clinical symptoms. Twenty two rabbits (31.0%) were positive for infection with Eimeria and six species including Eimeria perforans (18.3%), Eimeria magna (16.9%), Eimeria media (14.1), Eimeria irresidua (11.2%), Eimeria flavescens (4.2%), and Eimeria coecicola (2.8%) were identified. Eighty six percent of the infected rabbits showed mixed infections with two or three Eimeria species. Lack of clinical signs could be due to the agro ecological and environmental conditions of rabbit habitats specifically dry and hot climatic features in recent years. In addition, immunity induced by long term exposure to low doses of oocysts shedded by the carrier animals probably have pivotal role in impairing parasitic developmental cycles and preventing acute coccidiosis.

  10. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease: advantages of cELISA in assessing immunity in wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Tao; Parkes, John P

    2011-12-15

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) is an acute fatal disease of domestic and wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) caused by RHD virus (RHDV). Accurate assessment of immunity is of great importance for the conservation and control of wild rabbits. We evaluated a competitive ELISA (cELISA) against isotype ELISAs for assessing the protective immunity against the disease by challenging 50 wild-caught rabbits with a lethal dose of RHDV. Death or survival to the challenge was used as a criterion to determine the performance characteristics of the assay for the assessment of immunity in rabbits. At 1:10 dilution, a serum exhibiting ≥ 25% inhibition (1:10(25)) was regarded as the presence of RHDV-specific antibodies. Eleven of 16 (68.8%) rabbits with antibodies at 1:10(25) (rabbit calicivirus, which interfered with isotype ELISAs, had little impact on the specificity of the cELISA for the diagnosis of RHDV infection. The presence of RHDV-specific antibody at 1:10(50) by the cELISA is a reliable indicator for the protective immunity. In contrast to isotype ELISAs, the cELISA is a valuable specific tool for monitoring the herd immunity to RHD for the conservation and management of wild rabbits in the field.

  11. Morphology of the lingual papillae of Oryctolagus cuniculus (Lagomorpha: Leporidae rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Quagliatto Santos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The tongue represents the morphological diversification in mammals; their papillae have mechanical and gustatory functions in feeding. This study aimed to describe the macroscopic and microscopic morphology of the lingual papillae of rabbits of the Oryctolagus cuniculus species. One used 45 dissected tongues from adult rabbits belonging to the collection of the Laboratory for Education and Research on Wild Animals (LAPASof Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU. For the microscopic identification of the tongue, the optical microscopy and the scanning electron microscopy (SEM techniques were used. The tongue has four papillae types: filiform, fungiform, vallate, and foliate. The filiform papillae have a mechanical function and they present three subtypes: type 1, with a conical shape, from the tongue’s body to the rostral edge of the lingual prominence; type 2, with a sharp shape, in the rostral area of the lingual prominence; and type 3, with a thick and sharp shape, in the caudal area of the lingual prominence. The fungiform papillae have a gustatory function and they’re in the tongue’s body. The foliate papillae are pairs, they have a gustatory function, in the lateral surfaces of the tongue’s body. The vallate papillae are pairs, they have a gustatory function, in the root. On the tongue, one observed a keratinized squamous stratified epithelium, lining the papillae and the regions between them.

  12. Enzymatic Modification of Soluble Cyanophycin Using the Type II Peptidyl Arginine Deiminase from Oryctolagus cuniculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiefel, Lars; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2016-07-01

    An increased structural variety expands the number of putative applications for cyanophycin (multi-l-arginyl-poly-[l-aspartic acid], CGP). Therefore, structural modifications of CGP are of major interest; these are commonly obtained by modification and optimization of the bacterial producing strain or by chemical modification. In this study, an enzymatic modification of arginine side chains from lysine-rich CGP is demonstrated using the peptidyl arginine deiminase from Oryctolagus cuniculus, purified from Escherichia coli after heterologous expression. About 10% of the arginine side chains are converted to citrulline which corresponds to 4% of the polymer's total side chains. An inhibition of the reaction in the presence of small amounts of l-citrulline is observed, thereby explaining the low conversion rate. CGP dipeptides can be modified with about 7.5 mol% of the Asp-Arg dipeptides being converted to Asp-Cit. These results show that the enzymatic modification of CGP is feasible, opening up a whole new area of possible CGP modifications for further research.

  13. Coccidiosis in European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus algirus) populations in the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Sofia Marques; Ferreira, Catarina; Paupério, Joana; Silva, Rodolfo Miguel; Alves, Paulo Célio; Lemos, Armando

    2015-06-01

    The European rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus is a keystone species from the Iberian Peninsula where viral diseases have played a prominent role in regulating their populations. Coccidiosis, a parasitic disease caused primarily by Eimeria spp., is also thought to have important negative effects. However, few studies have investigated the impact of coccidia on wild European rabbit populations on the Iberian Peninsula. Here we estimate coccidian prevalence in rabbit faecal samples collected along transects established in two ecological regions. Six Eimeria species, with different pathogenicity, were identified (E. coecicola, E. perforans, E media, E. magna, E. irresidua and E. flavescens). Species diversity varied significantly between regions although mean oocyst excretion levels were generally low in both areas (57.61 s.d.±78.07 and 17.03 s.d.±27.72, oocyst per gram of rabbit faeces). This study is the first to describe the composition of the Eimeria spp. assemblage for wild rabbit populations on the Iberian Peninsula and provides fundamental information for future studies on the potential interaction of viral and parasitic diseases.

  14. Myxomatosis: population dynamics of rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus Linnaeus, 1758) and ecological effects in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowerdew, J R; Trout, R C; Ross, J

    1992-12-01

    In 1953-1955, myxomatosis spread among rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in the United Kingdom, causing 99% mortality. Subsequently, there was a gradual increase in rabbit numbers. By 1955, the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) had already found attenuated strains of myxoma virus. By 1970, genetic resistance had appeared. In the 1970s, mortality declined to 47-69% with only approximately 25% of rabbits infected, giving a field mortality of 12-19%. However, myxomatosis is persistent, generally showing a major prevalence peak in autumn and often a minor peak in spring. An eight-year MAFF experiment in which prevalence of the disease was artificially reduced indicates that myxomatosis remains a significant factor in population regulation. After rabbit numbers fell in the 1950s, important ecological changes took place: vegetation altered due to reduced grazing pressure, predators were affected by the reduction of a major prey species and these changes also affected many other animals. Currently, rabbit numbers have returned to approximately one-third of pre-myxomatosis levels and this is causing damage to farm and conservation habitats.

  15. A case of interscapular fibrosarcoma in a dwarf rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petterino, Claudio; Modesto, Paola; Strata, Daniela; Vascellari, Marta; Mutinelli, Franco; Ferrari, Angelo; Ratto, Alessandra

    2009-11-01

    A 1-year-old, intact, male dwarf rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) was vaccinated against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease in February 1999, and a localized reaction appeared in the same anatomic site within a few days. No regression was observed after subcutaneous antibiotic treatment. The rabbit was kept under observation, and the swelling apparently disappeared in 3 months. The owner then decided to avoid any further subcutaneous drug administration. The referring veterinarian examined the animal on July 2006 for the sudden appearance of a nodular, 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm x 2.0 cm, subcutaneous mass located over the interscapular space. Fine-needle aspiration was performed, and a population of neoplastic spindle cells, rare pleomorphic multinucleated cells, and rare leukocytes were observed. The mass was surgically removed, fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin, and routinely processed for histologic, histochemical, and immunohistochemical diagnostic investigation. The neoplastic tissue exhibited fascicles composed of malignant spindle-shaped cells with elongated to oval hyperchromatic nuclei and scant cytoplasm. Occasional multinucleated cells were also observed. The neoplastic cells were immunoreactive for vimentin but did not stain for smooth muscle actin, desmin, myoglobin, and cytokeratins (AE1/AE3). Moreover, the histochemical stain for aluminum was positive. The diagnosis was fibrosarcoma based on morphologic and immunohistochemical results. The histologic features of this neoplasm were remarkably similar to feline injection-site sarcoma.

  16. Vaccination of free-living juvenile wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) against myxomatosis improved their survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitton, Jean-Sébastien; Devillard, Sébastien; Guénézan, Michel; Fouchet, David; Pontier, Dominique; Marchandeau, Stéphane

    2008-04-17

    For several decades, the populations of the European wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) have declined, which is partly due to myxomatosis. Vaccination against this disease is expected to contribute to restoration of rabbit populations but the actual impact of myxomatosis is not well known and vaccination might have some negative effects. We analyzed the capture-mark-recapture data obtained in a 4-year field experiment (1991-1994) in a park near Paris, France wherein 300 out of 565 seronegative juvenile rabbits were vaccinated at first capture against myxomatosis with the nontransmissible Dervaximyxo SG33 vaccine. After accounting for weight at first capture, age-class (juvenile/adult), "trap-happiness" and season (spring/autumn) of the capture event, vaccinated rabbits had 1.8-fold greater odds of surviving than the unvaccinated rabbits. The average summer survival risk for vaccinated juveniles was 0.63 (+/-0.08 S.E.) whereas it was 0.48 (+/-0.08 S.E.) for unvaccinated juvenile rabbits.

  17. Studies on coccidia species of genus Eimeria from domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus domesticus L.) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toula, F H; Ramadan, H H

    1998-12-01

    Five Eimeria species were reported from domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus domesticus L.) caught from Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. According to their prevalences, they were: Eimeria perfarans (65%), E. magna (45%), E. stiedae (25%), E. exigua (20%) and E. piriformis (10%). 90% of the examined rabbits were positive and mixed infection with two or three Eimeria species was most frequent. E. stiedae, E. piriformis and E. exigua were identified and recorded for the first time from rabbits in Saudi Arabia and are considered as new locality or geographical distribution.

  18. The potential role of wild rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus in the epidemiology of paratuberculosis in domestic ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, M J; Henderson, D; Greig, A; Stevenson, K; Sharp, J M; Hutchings, M R

    2003-06-01

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, the organism responsible for paratuberculosis in cattle and sheep has been found in wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in the east of Scotland. Few studies have investigated either the level of faecal contamination by rabbits on farms, or the potential infectivity of rabbit excreta. The rate of rabbit faecal contamination deposited and the numbers encountered were estimated for 21 fields on 4 farms with a paratuberculosis problem. 7357 +/- 2571 S.E.M. rabbit faecal pellets were deposited per hectare per day and up to 81,000 pellets/ha ('standing crop') were encountered in October/November 1998. Where access to rabbits was restricted, the standing crop of faeces encountered fell to 22,000 pellets/ha. The prevalence of infection with M. a. paratuberculosis was assessed for 83 rabbits from the four farms. M. a. paratuberculosis was isolated from rabbits on all farms with an overall prevalence of 17%. Out of 17 rabbits from which urine was available, M. a. paratuberculosis was isolated from two--the first reported isolation from urine in wild rabbits. The mean number of colony-forming units per gram of infected rabbit faeces was 7.6 x 10(5) +/- 5.2 x 10(5). A relative estimate of the input of M. a. paratuberculosis onto pasture, at the stocking levels found on the four farms, showed that sheep and cattle potentially contributed 4 and 125 times more organisms/ha per day respectively than rabbits. However, rabbits could still contribute millions of M. a. paratuberculosis organisms per ha per day. Existing rabbit control measures on farms may be inadequate in reducing the risk of transmission to livestock.

  19. Strontium calcium phosphate for the repair of leporine (Oryctolagus cuniculus) ulna segmental defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Beena G; Shenoy, Sachin J; Babu, Suresh S; Varma, H K; John, Annie

    2013-01-01

    Scaffolds to aid in repair, replacement, or regeneration of bony tissues have been developed using a wide spectra of materials. Under clinical conditions, assessment of healing and implant placement is guided radiographically. In this context, strontium's role in osteostimulation and its relevance in radio-opacity are known. Therefore to aid in assessment and to ensure tissue regeneration, a bone mimetic porous strontium calcium phosphate (SrCaPO(4) ) was synthesized in-house, which was non-cytotoxic (ISO 10993 (Part V) and subsequently characterized for its crystallinity, functional groups, and 3D porous topography. Furthermore, to assess the feasibility of the bioactive ceramic scaffolds in bone repair, SrCaPO(4) and hydroxyapatite (HA-Control) scaffolds were implanted in the segmental ulna bone critical-sized defect (1.5 cm) of New Zealand White Rabbits (leporine model-Oryctolagus cuniculus) for a period of 4 and 12 weeks, respectively. Healing of the defects was uneventful without any inflammation or infection. Radio-opacity of SrCaPO(4) within the defect site enabled easy assessment of implant placement and osteointegration. Again, histological evaluation coupled with micro-CT and histomorphometrical analysis indicated that SrCaPO(4) favored significant de novo bone formation in par with material degradation at 4 and 12 weeks post-implantation compared to HA at 4 and 12 weeks. Investigations on this radio-opaque SrCaPO(4) established its role in the repair of critical-sized segmental defects, proposing it as a suitable bone substitute for clinical reconstructive surgery with easy radiographic evaluation.

  20. Organic matter and macromineral digestibility in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) as compared to other hindgut fermenters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, K B; Tschudin, A; Liesegang, A; Hatt, J-M; Clauss, M

    2015-12-01

    It is generally assumed that animal species differ in physiological characteristics of their digestive tract. Because investigating digestive processes is often labour-intensive, requiring lengthy adaptation and collection periods, comparisons are often made on the basis of data collated from different studies. We added a new data set on dietary crude fibre (CF) and macromineral (Na, K, Ca, P, Mg) composition and apparent digestibility (aD) of organic matter (OM) and macrominerals in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus; a total of 180 measurements with 12 individuals and 10 different diets) to a literature data collection for rodents and domestic horses (Equus caballus). Significant negative relationships between dietary CF and aD OM were obtained, but the significant difference in digestive efficiency between rabbits and guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) reported from studies where both species had been investigated under identical conditions were not detectable in the larger data collection. However, the 95% confidence interval of the negative slope of the CF-aD OM relationship did not overlap between domestic horses on the one hand, and rabbits and guinea pigs on the other hand, indicating a less depressing effect of CF in horses. Akaike's information criterion indicated that aD of a macromineral did not only depend on its concentration in the diet, but also on the individual and various other diet characteristics and the presence of other macrominerals, indicating complex interactions. The data indicate similar mechanisms in the absorption of macrominerals amongst rabbits, rodents and horses, with the exception of Na and K in guinea pigs and Ca in chinchillas (Chinchilla laniger) that should be further corroborated. In particular, the occurrence of high aD Ca in hindgut fermenters, regardless of whether they employ a digestive strategy of coprophagy or whether they have fossorial habits, suggests that this peculiarity might represent an adaptation to hindgut

  1. Ecto- and endoparasites in remaining population of wild rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus (L., 1758 in east Bohemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Bádr

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of ecto- and endoparasites of wild rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus (L., 1758 was made during February and March 2004. Together five species of ectoparasites and seven species of endopara- sites was found in five specimens of host. Ectoparasites: acarids Leporacarus gibbus (Pagenstecher, 1862, Psoroptes cuniculi (Delafond, 1859, and Cheyletiella parasitivorax (Mégnin, 1878, flea Spilopsyllus cuniculi (Dale, 1878, and louse Haemodipsus ventricosus (Denny, 1842. Except of petechial haemorrhagies inside both earlobes of one rabbit neither hyperkeratosis nor scale with any degrees of hairlessness were detected. Higher incidence of flea Spilopsyllus cuniculi could be important for spreading of myxomatosis. In one rabbit abnormal damage of incisivi was found, which caused the highest documented incidence of acarids Cheyletiella parasitivorax (485 ex., fleas Spilopsyllus cuniculi (65 ex., and especially enormous amount of louse Haemodipsus ventricosus (1840 ex. This finding establish close relation between prevalence and counts of ectoparasites with health of host, because popu- lation of ectoparasites from different taxonomic groups are principally affected by effective hostęs cleanup. Handicapped hosts are not able to make clarify as effective as the healthy ones. Endoparasites: tapeworm Taenia pisiformis (Bloch, 1780 – larvae, nematods Passalurus ambiguus (Rudolphi, 1819 Rudolphi, 1845; Graphidium strigosum (Dujardin, 1845 Railliet and Henry, 1909, Trichostrongylus retortaeformis (Zeder, 1800 Loos, 1905 and protozoa Eimeria piriformis Kotlan & Pospesch, 1934; E. media Kessel, 1929, and E. perforans (Leuckart, 1879 Sluiter & Swellengrebel, 1912. All endoparasites were found in very low or middle intensity, which does not seem to be main cause of decreasing number of wild rabbits in monitored areas.

  2. Large-scale assessment of myxomatosis prevalence in European wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) 60years after first outbreak in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafuerte, Rafael; Castro, Francisca; Ramírez, Esther; Cotilla, Irene; Parra, Francisco; Delibes-Mateos, Miguel; Recuerda, Pilar; Rouco, Carlos

    2017-05-18

    Myxomatosis is a viral disease that affects European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) worldwide. In Spain, populations of wild rabbits drastically decreased in the 1950s after the first outbreak of myxomatosis. Since that first appearance, it seems to be an annual epizootic in Spain with periodic outbreaks, predominantly in summer and autumn. Taking into account rabbit population structure, abundance, and genetic lineage, this paper attempts to make a large-scale characterization of myxomatosis seroprevalence based on the immune status of 29 rabbit populations distributed throughout Spain, where O. cuniculus cuniculus and O. c. algirus, the two known rabbit subspecies, naturally inhabit. A total of 654 samples were collected between 2003 and 2009, and seroprevalence of antibodies against Myxoma virus (MYXV) was determined. Overall, our results revealed that 53% of the rabbit samples were positive to antibodies against MYXV. Newborn and juvenile rabbits were the most susceptible animals to the virus, with 19% and 16% seropositivity for newborn and juveniles, respectively, while adult rabbits were the most protected, with 65% of seropositive samples. This suggests that prevalence is negatively related to the proportion of newborn and juvenile rabbits in a population. Our results also showed that seroprevalence against MYXV tended to be higher in high-abundance populations. In contrast, no differences were detected in seroprevalence between rabbit subspecies. This study confirms that >60years since first outbreak, myxomatosis is an endemic disease in Spain. Based on the results, the establishment of a myxomatosis surveillance protocol is proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Investigations of a rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus model of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, BAFF and its receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahui Yang

    Full Text Available B-cell activation factor belonging to the tumor necrosis factor family (BAFF is a major contributor to survival of B lymphocytes during development and maturation. A relationship between circulating BAFF levels and disease activity has been reported in patients with the autoimmune disease Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE. Clinical trials targeting BAFF or its receptors are currently in progress. In order to further characterize a rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus model of SLE, we investigated the expression of BAFF and its receptors in non-inbred, pedigreed rabbits derived from breeding and selection based on autoantibody responses. We immunized rabbits related to previous groups that developed autoantibodies and inflammatory responses after immunizations with peptides synthesized on multiple antigen-branched polylysine backbones. Blood and sera collected before immunization and after boosts were used for health monitoring, analyses of serum autoantibody responses by ELISA and immunofluorescence. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were studied by flow cytometry and were the source of mRNA for quantitative PCR analyses. We hypothesized that BAFF mRNA expression and serum BAFF levels measured indirectly through BAFF receptor binding might increase in autoantibody-producing rabbits. Immunized rabbits developed elevated levels of leucocyte populations, anti-nuclear, anti-dsDNA and other autoantibodies. BR3 mRNA levels in total PBMC decreased and BAFF levels remained low and unchanged in most immunized rabbits. By flow cytometry, percentages of BAFF positive cells decreased. Percentages of transmembrane activator and CAML interactor (TACI decreased in most rabbits from all the immunized groups. The rabbit is an important model for human autoimmune and infectious diseases, and a high quality draft rabbit genome assembly was recently completed. Human disease models developed in non-inbred pedigreed animals are better able to reflect the complexities

  4. Estereologia das glândulas bulbouretrais do coelho (Oryctolagus cuniculus e da cobaia (Cavia porcellus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bélgica Vásquez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As glândulas bulbouretrais (GBU no coelho (Oryctolagus cuniculus e na cobaia (Cavia porcellus desempenham um papel importante na fisiologia reprodutiva. No entanto, seus aspectos histológico e estereológico são escassos. Assim, o objetivo desta pesquisa foi comparar características estereológicas entre as GBU do coelho e da cobaia como um primeiro passo para a compreensão das variáveis morfométricas que participam nos processos reprodutivos. Foram utilizados 5 coelhos e 5 cobaias adultos machos, saudáveis, obtidos do Biotério da Universidade de La Frontera, Temuco, Chile. A região pélvica foi dissecada isolando-se a GBU de cada animal. Determinou-se o peso e o volume de cada glândula. Estas foram fixadas em formalina tamponada durante 24 horas e incluídas em paraplast. Cortes seriados de 4 μm de espessura foram corados com HE para análise estereológica. A média de células glandulares na GBU do coelho foi 19,50 x 10(5mm³ (DP 2,35 e da cobaia 10,57 x 10(5mm³ (DP 2,07 e a porcentagem média de tecido glandular foi de 25,52% (DP 2,20 e 17,20% (DP 3,33, respectivamente. Todos os parâmetros estereológicos comparados tiveram uma diferença estatisticamente significativa (p<0,0001. Estas diferenças poderiam ser explicadas porque há maior proximidade celular do epitélio secretor, menor diâmetro do lúmen dos ácinos e da relação núcleo citoplasma na GBU do coelho. Assim, os ácinos da GBU apresentam maior quantidade de células por mm³ do que na GBU do coelho. Estes parâmetros podem ser influenciados por fatores hormonais, etários, sazonais e ambientais, entre outros. Considerar as características morfológicas da GBU nesses animais poderia condicionar o êxito da reprodução por parte do macho.

  5. Alimento balanceado-forraje verde idropónico en la alimentación de conejos criollos (oryctolagus cuniculus (Food green balance-forage hydroponic in the feeding of creole rabbits (oryctolagus cuniculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rubén Nava Noriega; Juan Nava Zavaleta;

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available La producción de forraje verde hidropónico (FVH se lleva a cabo en espacios reducidos con diferentes especies vegetales y condiciones hostiles, para alimentar diferentes especies de animales domésticos, equinos, bovinos, caprinos y conejos. El objetivo este trabajo fue valorar 9 proporciones de FVH-Alimento balanceado (AB y ambos por separado como dietas para alimentación de conejos machos criollos Oryctolagus cuniculus. El FVH se produjo con semillas de trigo Triticum aestivum, desinfectadas con hipoclorito de sodio al 5% y escarificadas por 24 horas con agua corriente; se transfirieron a charolas y se llevaron al invernadero, al inicio se regaron con agua corriente, luego con solución nutritiva durante 14 días. El experimento fue completamente al azar (CA con 11 tratamientos, proporciones FVH-AB, FVH y AB por separado, con 3 repeticiones. El experimento duró siete semanas y se registró el peso de los conejos una vez por semana, los datos se procesaron por análisis de varianza (P=0.05 con la prueba de medias de Tukey. Los resultados del peso de los conejos fueron significativos a partir de la cuarta semana, desde la proporción 60% de FVH + 40% de AB hasta AB solo, tratamientos del 3 al 11, con 100% FVH y 90% FVH + 10% AB. Se encontró semejanzas y diferencias con otros autores que han utilizado proporciones FVH + AB para conejos. Se concluye, que a partir de la proporción 60% FVH + 40 % AB puede ser utilizada en la alimentación de conejos criollos (Oryctolagus cuniculus con resultados de ganancia de peso similares a los obtenidos cuando se utiliza de 100% AB.

  6. The effect of single and concomitant pathogen infections on condition and fecundity of the wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lello, J; Boag, B; Hudson, P J

    2005-12-01

    We assessed the effect of two pathogens (myxoma virus and Eimeria stiedae) and five macroparasites (gastrointestinal helminth species) of the wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) upon total host body mass and abdominal fat level. Additionally, we assessed the effects of these organisms on the number of foetuses in adult females during the peak breeding period. Both mass of abdominal fat and total body mass of the rabbit were negatively associated with myxoma virus infection and increasing helminth species richness. Total body mass was also negatively associated with the protozoan parasite E. steidae. No relationship was found between any of the parasites/pathogens and the number of foetuses in adult females, although only relatively small sample sizes were available for this section of the analysis. Increasing host body mass was positively associated with number of foetuses and we propose that mass reduction caused by the pathogen and parasite species could also have the consequence of reducing foetal number.

  7. Observations on the seasonal incidence of myxomatosis and its interactions with helminth parasites in the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boag, B

    1988-07-01

    European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) were collected monthly over a 10-yr period and the incidence of myxomatosis and the size of helminth populations were recorded. Myxomatosis occurred annually, always as an epidemic in the latter half of the year and was associated with both an increase in the percentage of animals infected and the size of the infections of the nematodes Trichostrongylus retortaeformis and Passalurus ambiguus and the cestode Mosgovoyia pectinata. It is suggested that myxomatosis had the effect of reducing the rabbits' overall immune response to infection and that due to the regular annual occurrence of myxomatosis, the resulting increase in the size of helminth infections must be considered an integral part of the population dynamics of these parasites.

  8. A systematic study of the brain base arteries in the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda de Souza

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The brains of 30 New Zealand rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus were injected with red stained latex. The arteries of the ventral surface of the brain were systematized on the right (R and on the left (L side with the respective percentage of appearance: the aortic arch emitted the braquicephalic trunk and the left subclavian artery (83.3%; or the braquicephalic trunk, the left common carotid artery and the left subclavian artery (16.7%. The braquicephalic trunk emitted the right and the left common carotid arteries and the right subclavian artery (83.3%; or the right common carotid artery and the right subclavian artery (16.7%. The common carotid arteries were divided into external and internal carotid arteries (96.7% on the R, 100% on the L.. The internal carotid artery to the R was present (96.7% and absent (3.3%, and to the L, was present (100%. The rostral choroidal artery to the R was collateral branch of the rostral branch of the internal carotid artery (83.3%, collateral branch of caudal branch of the internal carotid artery (16.7%, and to the L was collateral branch of the rostral branch of the internal carotid artery (93.3%, collateral branch of the caudal branch of the internal carotid artery (6.7%. The middle cerebral artery to the R and to the L was single (80% and double (20%. The rostral cerebral artery to the R had middle caliber (90%, thin caliber (6.7% and too thin caliber (3.3%, and to the L had middle caliber (76.7%, thin caliber (16.7% and too thin caliber (6.7%. The internal ethmoidal artery was absent (73.3%, present and single (26.7%. The caudal cerebral artery to the R was single (66.7%, double (26.7% and triple (6.7%, and to the L was single (63.3% and double (36.7%. The terminal branches of the right and left vertebral arteries were present (100%, and formed the basilar artery (100%. The ventral spinal artery was present (100%. The caudal cerebellar artery, to the R was single (43.3%, single with labyrinthic artery

  9. High rabbit abundance proves detrimental to the population growth rate in European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus L. extensive breeding enclosures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ruiz-Aizpurua

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus L. is a key prey species in Mediterranean ecosystems that has declined in its natural ranges as a result of diseases and loss of habitat. This situation has led to the production of wild rabbits in enclosures in which they can acclimate and breed. The efficiency of these enclosures as extensive breeding systems is defined by their population growth rate (PGR. The aim of this study is to analyse the effect of rabbit abundance on the PGR. This has been done by creating general linear models to explain autumn and spring PGR with the use of rabbit abundance estimates, enclosure size, aerial predation and previous PGR as possible explanatory variables. Rabbit abundance and enclosure size negatively affected the autumn PGR, while only rabbit abundance affected the spring PGR in the best-fit models. It is suggested that maintaining rabbit densities at fewer than 30 rabbits per hectare might help to optimise the efficiency inside enclosures.

  10. Experimental infection of wild-caught European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) with Sarcoptes scabiei from a naturally infected wild rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, J; Casais, R; Colomar, V; Bach, E; Prieto, J M; Velarde, R

    2013-06-01

    Scabies was recently reported for the first time in the European wild rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus (Lagomorpha: Leporidae). We experimentally exposed 10 seronegative wild-caught rabbits to skin from a mangy wild rabbit. Serological, physiological, parasitological and histopathological changes were recorded. Three rabbits developed antibodies at 2-5 weeks post-infection (w.p.i.), two of which then developed lesions at 7 w.p.i. One of these had a small area of alopecia on the hind limb that healed naturally within 1 week; the other developed more extensive lesions restricted to the hind limbs (as typically observed in wild rabbits) that lasted until the rabbit died (12.5 w.p.i.). The third rabbit died of trauma 5 w.p.i. before developing any lesions. Antibodies in the healed rabbit disappeared from serum at 8 w.p.i., whereas antibody levels in the sick rabbit increased until its death. Disseminated intravascular coagulation and hepatic necrosis, probably arising from a concomitant infection with rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus, were the likely final cause of death in this rabbit. The mangy rabbit that served as a donor died of a multifocal fibrinosuppurative pneumonia that may have been secondary to the skin bacterial pyoderma.

  11. Absence of a genetic bottleneck in a wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) population exposed to a severe viral epizootic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queney, G; Ferrand, N; Marchandeau, S; Azevedo, M; Mougel, F; Branco, M; Monnerot, M

    2000-09-01

    Infectious diseases and their demographic consequences are thought to influence the genetic diversity of populations. In Europe, during the last 50 years, the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) has suffered two important viral epizootics: myxomatosis and rabbit viral haemorraghic disease (RVHD). Although mortality rates were very high, the impact of these diseases on genetic diversity has never been assessed directly. The subject of this paper is a wild rabbit population in France, which has been studied since the beginning of the 1980s. The first outbreak of RVHD occurred in 1995 and provoked a demographic crash. The population, sampled for the first time in 1982 and 1994, was sampled again at the end of 1996 to examine the impact of the epizootic on genetic diversity. In spite of the observed high mortality rate ( approximately 90%), analysis of 14 polymorphic loci (allozymes and microsatellites) showed no loss in genetic diversity after the epizootic. Determination of temporal changes in allele frequencies indicated that the population evolved under genetic drift. The temporal method of Waples demonstrated a significant decrease in the effective population size (Ne) correlated with the demographic crash due to the epizootic. However, the population had only been studied for two generations after the epizootic and the remnant population size probably stayed high enough ( approximately 50 individuals) to keep its genetic diversity at the precrash level. These results suggest that, contrary to what is usually thought and in spite of the subsequent high mortality rates, past epizootics (especially myxomatosis) may have had little effect on the genetic diversity of wild rabbit populations in Europe.

  12. Behavioural activity of wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus under semi-natural rearing systems: establishing a seasonal pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Díez Valle

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The activity of 2 populations of wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus, L. 1758, consisting of 14 adults (>9 mo of age each (4 males and 10 females, was analysed over 2 consecutive years. Rabbits were captured in the wild and kept in 2 separate enclosures of 0.5 ha, with each enclosure divided into 2 zones: a smaller area where warrens were located (breeding area and a larger area where food and water were provided (feeding area. Seven rabbits in each enclosure were individually tagged with a microchip (2 males and 5 females and, after installing 2 detection devices, it was possible to identify which of the 2 areas they were located in and record the length of time spent in each. To regulate the size of the breeding population, young rabbits produced in the enclosures were captured and removed regularly. Considering the number of movements between areas and the time spent in the feeding area, a circadian activity pattern was found, reporting 2 maximum activity peaks coinciding with twilight (18.35% of the total movements, 6-8 a.m. and daybreak (22.95%, 7-10 p.m. while activity was dramatically decreased during the midday hours (1.86%, 10 a.m.-4 p.m.. Rabbits displayed a seasonal pattern throughout the year, with maximum activity levels during winter (45.76% of the total movements, January-March and spring (42.91%, April-June, which could be related to higher reproductive activity at this time of the year as a higher breeding output was reported in June and September. The levels of activity exhibited by males (13.44% daily activity rate were significantly higher than those displayed by females (9.80%. No significant differences were found regarding time spent on the feeding area in relation to season or gender. The average duration of each foray to the feeding area was higher during the summer, higher for females than males and higher during the middle of the night than the rest of the day.

  13. A case of antibacterial-responsive mucocutaneous disease in a seven-year-old dwarf lop rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) resembling mucocutaneous pyoderma of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benato, L; Stoeckli, M R; Smith, S H; Dickson, S; Thoday, K L; Meredith, A

    2013-04-01

    A seven-year-old, ovariohysterectomised female dwarf lop rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) was referred with severe swelling and erythema of the mucocutaneous junctions of the lips, nares and vulva. Bilateral, severe periocular dermatitis was also present. Heavy pure growths of a member of the Staphylococcus intermedius group were cultured from nasal and aural swabs and skin biopsies. Other possible differential diagnoses were eliminated by standard tests. The clinical features and histopathological characteristics of the biopsies were most consistent with mucocutaneous pyoderma, a dermatosis previously reported in dogs but not in rabbits. Treatment of the bacterial infection with oral marbofloxacin and topical ofloxacin eye drops together with supportive therapy resulted in resolution of the lesions. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of mucocutaneous bacterial pyoderma, similar to mucocutaneous pyoderma of dogs, in a rabbit. © 2013 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  14. CASE REPORT: ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE, ?-GLUTAMYLTRANSFERASE, UREA AND CREATININE SERUM CONCENTRATION IN RABBITS (Oryctolagus cuniculus CONCENTRAÇÃO SÉRICA DE FOSFATASE ALCALINA, GAMA-GLUTAMIL TRANSFERASE, URÉIA E CREATININA EM COELHOS (Oryctolagus cuniculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauren Picada Emanuelli

    2008-04-01

    óstico das hepatopatias. A uréia e a creatinina são excretadas através da urina. O aumento dos valores destes metabólitos em nível sérico é subsídio para diagnóstico de alteração da função renal em mamíferos. Procurou-se estabelecer, no presente estudo, valores de referência destas enzimas para coelhos (Oryctolagus cuniculus, visando subsidiar dados para o uso desses animais de laboratório em experimentos científicos. Para tanto, foi realizada colheita sangüínea de 45 animais, três amostras por coelho, totalizando 135 amostras, obtendo-se o soro por centrifugação imediata. Realizou-se o método colorimétrico e obtiveram-se valores de 36,44±10,66mg/dl de uréia, com mínimo de 9,24mg/dl e máximo de 66,06mg/dl; 0,94±0,22mg/dl para a creatinina, com mínimo de 0,51mg/dl e máximo de 1,53mg/dl e 72,41±29,68UI para fosfatase alcalina, com mínimo de 10,66UI e máximo de 167,39UI. A gama-glutamil transferase foi determinada pelo método cinético, revelando o valor de 6,85±3,31UI, mínimo de 2,0UI e máximo de 15,0UI.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Bioquímica sérica, coelhos, função hepática, função renal.

  15. Light and scanning electron microscopic study of the filiform papillae of the tongue in adult rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus f. domestica, Linnaeus 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosława Kulawik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted on 10 tongues of adult rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus. domestica, of both sexes (five females and five males. The filiform papillae of the tongue were studied, using light and scanning electron microscope. The filiform papillae were arranged on the dorsal surface of the apex and body of the tongue and on its margins. The investigation showed that there were single and complex filiform papillae on the rabbit tongue. These single filiform papillae were cone-shaped, similarly as their connective tissue cores. Complex papillae were palm-shaped and cone-shaped with three to seven processes. However, the number of processes towards the throat diminished. Connective tissue cores of these papillae had also processes. The filiform papillae consisted of an anterior and posterior epithelial cell column. The anterior epithelial cell column showed signs of parakeratinization or soft keratinization whereas the posterior epithelial cell column – hard keratinization. Between filiform papillae there was interpapillary epithelium which did not have any signs of keratinization.

  16. Assessing Animal Welfare Impacts in the Management of European Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus, European Moles (Talpa europaea and Carrion Crows (Corvus corone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra E Baker

    Full Text Available Human-wildlife conflict is a global issue. Attempts to manage this conflict impact upon wild animal welfare, an issue receiving little attention until relatively recently. Where human activities harm animal welfare these effects should be minimised where possible. However, little is known about the welfare impacts of different wildlife management interventions, and opinions on impacts vary widely. Welfare impacts therefore need to be assessed objectively. Our objectives were to: 1 establish whether an existing welfare assessment model could differentiate and rank the impacts of different wildlife management interventions (for decision-making purposes; 2 identify and evaluate any additional benefits of making formal welfare assessments; and 3 illustrate issues raised by application of the model. We applied the welfare assessment model to interventions commonly used with rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus, moles (Talpa europaea and crows (Corvus corone in the UK. The model ranked interventions for rabbits (least impact first: fencing, head shot, chest shot and crows (shooting, scaring, live trapping with cervical dislocation. For moles, managing molehills and tunnels scored least impact. Both spring trapping, and live trapping followed by translocation, scored greater impacts, but these could not be compared directly as they scored on different axes of the model. Some rankings appeared counter-intuitive, highlighting the need for objective formal welfare assessments. As well as ranking the humaneness of interventions, the model highlighted future research needs and how Standard Operating Procedures might be improved. The model is a milestone in assessing wildlife management welfare impacts, but our research revealed some limitations of the model and we discuss likely challenges in resolving these. In future, the model might be developed to improve its utility, e.g. by refining the time-scales. It might also be used to reach consensus among

  17. Primary and secondary experimental infestation of rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) with Sarcoptes scabiei from a wild rabbit: factors determining resistance to reinfestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casais, Rosa; Dalton, Kevin P; Millán, Javier; Balseiro, Ana; Oleaga, Alvaro; Solano, Paloma; Goyache, Félix; Prieto, José Miguel; Parra, Francisco

    2014-06-16

    Studies of sarcoptic mange and immunity are hampered by lack of mite sources and natural infestation models. We have investigated the clinical and pathological signs, specific IgG response and acquired immunity in naïve New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) experimentally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei originally isolated from a clinically affected free-living European wild rabbit. Twenty rabbits were infested using two methods, direct contact for a 24 h period with a seeder rabbit simulating the natural process of infestation and application of a dressing holding approximately 1800 live mites on each hind limb (foot area) for a 24h period. Eight weeks post infestation, rabbits were treated with ivermectin and infestation cleared. Eight weeks later seventeen previously infested and four uninfested naïve controls were then re-exposed to the same S. scabiei variety using the same methods and followed for another 8 weeks. The progress of the disease was markedly more virulent in the animals infested by contact, indicating that the effective dose of mites managing to thrive and infest each rabbit by this method was higher. Nevertheless, infestation by contact resulted in partial protection to reexposure, rabbits developed high non-protective antibody titres upon reinfestation and presented severe clinical signs. However, rabbits reinfested by dressing developed lower IgG titres, and presented high levels of resistance to reinfestation, which might be due to induction of a strong local cellular response in the inoculation point that killed the mites and resulted in a lower mite effective dose, with subsequent reduced lesion development. Statistical analysis showed that sex, method of infestation and previous exposure are key factors determining the ability of rabbits to develop immunity to this disease. The rabbit-mange model developed will allow the further study of immunity and resistance to this neglected pathogen using a natural host system.

  18. Assessing Animal Welfare Impacts in the Management of European Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), European Moles (Talpa europaea) and Carrion Crows (Corvus corone).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Sandra E; Sharp, Trudy M; Macdonald, David W

    2016-01-01

    Human-wildlife conflict is a global issue. Attempts to manage this conflict impact upon wild animal welfare, an issue receiving little attention until relatively recently. Where human activities harm animal welfare these effects should be minimised where possible. However, little is known about the welfare impacts of different wildlife management interventions, and opinions on impacts vary widely. Welfare impacts therefore need to be assessed objectively. Our objectives were to: 1) establish whether an existing welfare assessment model could differentiate and rank the impacts of different wildlife management interventions (for decision-making purposes); 2) identify and evaluate any additional benefits of making formal welfare assessments; and 3) illustrate issues raised by application of the model. We applied the welfare assessment model to interventions commonly used with rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), moles (Talpa europaea) and crows (Corvus corone) in the UK. The model ranked interventions for rabbits (least impact first: fencing, head shot, chest shot) and crows (shooting, scaring, live trapping with cervical dislocation). For moles, managing molehills and tunnels scored least impact. Both spring trapping, and live trapping followed by translocation, scored greater impacts, but these could not be compared directly as they scored on different axes of the model. Some rankings appeared counter-intuitive, highlighting the need for objective formal welfare assessments. As well as ranking the humaneness of interventions, the model highlighted future research needs and how Standard Operating Procedures might be improved. The model is a milestone in assessing wildlife management welfare impacts, but our research revealed some limitations of the model and we discuss likely challenges in resolving these. In future, the model might be developed to improve its utility, e.g. by refining the time-scales. It might also be used to reach consensus among stakeholders about

  19. Assessing Animal Welfare Impacts in the Management of European Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), European Moles (Talpa europaea) and Carrion Crows (Corvus corone)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Sandra E.; Sharp, Trudy M.; Macdonald, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Human-wildlife conflict is a global issue. Attempts to manage this conflict impact upon wild animal welfare, an issue receiving little attention until relatively recently. Where human activities harm animal welfare these effects should be minimised where possible. However, little is known about the welfare impacts of different wildlife management interventions, and opinions on impacts vary widely. Welfare impacts therefore need to be assessed objectively. Our objectives were to: 1) establish whether an existing welfare assessment model could differentiate and rank the impacts of different wildlife management interventions (for decision-making purposes); 2) identify and evaluate any additional benefits of making formal welfare assessments; and 3) illustrate issues raised by application of the model. We applied the welfare assessment model to interventions commonly used with rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), moles (Talpa europaea) and crows (Corvus corone) in the UK. The model ranked interventions for rabbits (least impact first: fencing, head shot, chest shot) and crows (shooting, scaring, live trapping with cervical dislocation). For moles, managing molehills and tunnels scored least impact. Both spring trapping, and live trapping followed by translocation, scored greater impacts, but these could not be compared directly as they scored on different axes of the model. Some rankings appeared counter-intuitive, highlighting the need for objective formal welfare assessments. As well as ranking the humaneness of interventions, the model highlighted future research needs and how Standard Operating Procedures might be improved. The model is a milestone in assessing wildlife management welfare impacts, but our research revealed some limitations of the model and we discuss likely challenges in resolving these. In future, the model might be developed to improve its utility, e.g. by refining the time-scales. It might also be used to reach consensus among stakeholders about

  20. Concurrent cystic endometrial hyperplasia, ovarian luteoma and biliary cyst adenoma in an aged rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus):case report and literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Askari Nasrin; Akhtardanesh Baharak; Kheirandish Reza

    2012-01-01

    A 6-year-old female nulliparous Dutch Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) was presented in shock status with a history of abdominal distention, inappetance, lethargy, polydipsia, diarrhea and weight loss since 2 weeks ago. There was no breeding history. Radiographic survey showed increased soft tissue opacity dorsal to the urinary bladder and ventral to the colon on the lateral view consistent with uteromegaly and severe intestinal distention resembling intussusceptions. Conservative treatment was failed and the animal died. In necropsy, ileocecal intussusception was noted as the main death factor. Thickened uterine endometrium in both horns was observed and the uterus was filled with mucoid fluid. Both ovaries were multilobulated and distended. On the other hand, a small cyst sized 1.5 × 2.5 cm was diagnosed on the liver surface. Several samples were obtained from lesions for histopathological evaluation. Histopathologically, dilated cystic glands of variable size lined by densely packed epithelium and hyperplasia of the endometrium resulting in irregular folds or papillar projection into the lumen were evident and the sections of ovaries revealed ovarian luteoma that composed of polyhedral cells with pale stained vacuolated cytoplasm, centrally located nuclei with distinct cytoplasmic borders and the cytoplasm of cells contain lipid droplet. The occurrence of biliary cyst adenoma was confirmed by microscopic examination of the mass that composed of multicystic space in different sizes lined by flattened to cuboidal biliary epithelium with papillary projections. These cysts were seperated by variable amount of connective tissue. The lack of postmortem investigations in aged rabbits reduced the incidence of neoplastic disease diagnosis in this species. Whereas uterine adenecarcinoma and lymphosarcoma were commonly reported in rabbits, luteoma and biliary cyst adenoma that are well described in this case report were uncommon in rabbit medicine.

  1. Analisi dei conteggi di pallottole fecali di Coniglio selvatico, Oryctolagus cuniculus, nella R.N.O. di Monte Pellegrino (Sicilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Lo Valvo

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Tra le specie di mammiferi presenti in Sicilia, il Coniglio selvatico, Oryctolagus cuniculus (Linnaeus, 1758 ricopre un ruolo importante sia dal punto di vista naturalistico, in quanto presente nella dieta di numerosi predatori come l?Aquila di Bonelli (Hieraetus fasciatus, sia dal punto di vista socio-economico, perché è una specie di tradizionale interesse venatorio, per la quale le amministrazioni locali provvedono a massicci ripopolamenti. Nonostante ciò, le conoscenze sulla biologia ed ecologia, ma anche sugli aspetti gestionali di questa specie in Italia, sono ancora carenti. In questo contributo sono sintetizzati alcuni risultati ottenuti con il metodo del conteggio di pallottole fecali, nell?ambito di una ricerca sul popolamento di Coniglio selvatico presente all?interno della Riserva Naturale di Monte Pellegrino (Palermo. Tra il mese di luglio 2002 e il giugno 2003, all?interno di una zona compresa tra 300 e 600 metri slm, sono state ripetute 7 conte complete delle pallottole fecali presenti in 90 aree campione da 1 mq. Le aree campione sono state scelte in maniera casuale nelle tre principali tipologie ambientali dove è stata riscontrata la presenza di questo lagomorfo e cioè nel rimboschimento artificiale di pino (PIN, nella macchia ad olivastro ed euforbie fruticose (MAC e nel pascolo discontinuo a xerofile nitrofile (PAS. L?analisi della varianza applicata sui valori medi (pallottole fecali/giorno per periodo, opportunamente trasformati, ha mostrato differenze statisticamente significative (p<0,001. L?uso del test di Tukey ha individuato le differenze nel confronto tra PIN-MAC e tra PIN-PAS, e non tra MAC e PAS, che sono risultati quindi simili. Dall?osservazione dei trend del numero medio di pallottole fecali/giorno per area campione, si nota come MAC e PAS mostrino andamenti stagionali della popolazione cunicola correlati (r di Spermann = 0,83, che sembrerebbero legati ad un aumento di densità, dovuto all

  2. Monitoring the spread of myxoma virus in rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus populations on the southern tablelands of New South Wales, Australia. III. Release, persistence and rate of spread of an identifiable strain of myxoma virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, J C; Kerr, P J; Simms, N G; Hood, G M; Pech, R P; Robinson, A J

    2003-02-01

    An identifiable strain of myxoma virus was introduced into four local populations of wild rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus on the southern tablelands of New South Wales (NSW) and its spread in the presence of other field strains was monitored for 6 months. The main vector in this region was considered to be the European rabbit flea Spilopsyllis cuniculi. Each population of rabbits was of a high density and living in groups of warrens covering areas from 59 to 87 hectares. Rabbits occupying centrally located warrens were inoculated with the virus in late September or early October (spring) and the subsequent appearance of myxomatosis across the sites monitored by trapping, shooting and visual observations. Samples, taken from rabbits with myxomatosis, were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) that allowed identification of the introduced strain. On all four sites the introduced virus spread from the inoculated rabbits in the centrally located warrens to rabbits in surrounding warrens. On Sites 1 and 3, this spread continued across the entire site persisting for at least 118 and 174 days respectively. On Sites 2 and 4, the virus was detected for 78 and 62 days respectively and the subsequent inability to detect the introduced virus correlated with the appearance of an unrelated field strain. Using three different methods of calculation, rates of spread ranged from 3.7 to 17.8 m d(-1).

  3. Avaliação computacional da compactação da cromatina e de características morfométricas da cabeça de espermatozoides de coelho (Oryctolagus cuniculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.Y Kanayama

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Investigou-se a correlação entre a morfometria da cabeça e a intensidade da condensação e heterogeneidade da cromatina em espermatozoides de coelho (Oryctolagus cuniculus. Para tal, utilizaram-se 35 esfregaços de sêmen de coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia, corados com azul de toluidina e avaliados por análise de imagem computacional. As imagens foram obtidas digitalmente em tons de cinza e avaliadas por algoritmos desenvolvidos em ambiente de programação Scilab. As mensurações obtidas da cabeça dos espermatozoides foram área, perímetro, comprimento, largura, relação comprimento largura, elipsidade, fator de forma, descritores Fourier e simetria lateral e anteroposterior. Também foram avaliadas a intensidade da compactação e a heterogeneidade da cromatina espermática. Os espermatozoides de coelho apresentaram compactação e heterogeneidade cromatínica mais intensas do que os de touro e observou-se correlação significativa entre características morfométricas da cabeça e compactação e heterogeneidade cromatínica. Conclui-se que a cromatina é importante para a constituição morfológica da cabeça de espermatozoides de coelho e que a cromatina espermática de coelho é naturalmente mais heterogênea e menos compactada que a de touro

  4. A composite six bp in-frame deletion in the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R gene is associated with the Japanese brindling coat colour in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russo Vincenzo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus, classical genetic studies have identified five alleles at the Extension locus: ED (dominant black, ES (steel, weaker version of ED, E (wild type, normal extension of black, eJ(Japanese brindling, mosaic distribution of black and yellow and e (non-extension of black, yellow/red with white belly. Sequencing almost the complete coding sequence (CDS of the rabbit MC1R gene, we recently identified two in-frame deletions associated with dominant black (c.280_285del6; alleles ED or ES and recessive red (c.304_333del30; allele e coat colours. It remained to characterize the eJallele whose phenotypic effect is similar to the Orange and Sex-linked yellow loci of cat and Syrian hamster. Results We sequenced the whole CDS in 25 rabbits of different coat colours including 10 Japanese and 10 Rhinelander (tricolour rabbits and identified another 6 bp-in frame deletion flanked by a G > A transition in 5' (c.[124G>A;125_130del6] that was present in all animals with Japanese brindling coat colour and pattern. These mutations eliminate two amino acids in the first transmembrane domain and, in addition, cause an amino acid substitution at position 44 of the wild type sequence. Genotyping 371 rabbits of 31 breeds with different coat colour this allele (eJ was present in homozygous state in Japanese, Rhinelander and Dutch tricolour rabbits only (except one albino rabbit. Rabbits with eJ/eJ genotype were non fixed at the non-agouti mutation we previously identified in the ASIP gene. Segregation in F1 and F2 families confirmed the order of dominance already determined by classical genetic experiments with a possible dose effect evident comparing eJ/eJ and eJ/e animals. MC1R mRNA was expressed in black hair skin regions only. Conclusions The c.[124A;125_130del6] allele may be responsible for a MC1R variant determining eumelanin production in the black areas. However, the mechanism determining the

  5. Augmented annotation and orthologue analysis for Oryctolagus cuniculus: Better Bunny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Douglas B

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rabbit is an important model organism used in a wide range of biomedical research. However, the rabbit genome is still sparsely annotated, thus prohibiting extensive functional analysis of gene sets derived from whole-genome experiments. We developed a web-based application that provides augmented annotation and orthologue analysis for rabbit genes. Importantly, the application allows comprehensive functional analysis through the use of orthologous relationships. Results Using data extracted from several public bioinformatics repositories we created Better Bunny, a database and query tool that extensively augments the available functional annotation for rabbit genes. Using the complete set of target genes from a commercial rabbit gene expression microarray as our benchmark, we are able to obtain functional information for 88 % of the genes on the microarray. Previously, functional information was available for fewer than 10 % of the rabbit genes. Conclusions We have developed a freely available, web-accessible bioinformatics tool that enables investigators to quickly and easily perform extensive functional analysis of rabbit genes (http://cptweb.cpt.wayne.edu. The software application fills a critical void for a wide range of biomedical research that relies on the rabbit model and requires characterization of biological function for large sets of genes.

  6. Augmented annotation and orthologue analysis for Oryctolagus cuniculus: Better Bunny

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Craig, Douglas B; Kannan, Sujatha; Dombkowski, Alan A

    2012-01-01

    .... Using data extracted from several public bioinformatics repositories we created Better Bunny, a database and query tool that extensively augments the available functional annotation for rabbit genes...

  7. Ultrasound features of kidneys in the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R S Dimitrov

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the normal sonographic features of rabbit kidneys with regard to their use in diagnostic imaging of renal lesions in this species. Materials: Twelve sexually mature clinically healthy New Zealand White rabbits weighing 2.8 kg to 3.2 kg were examined after anaesthesia. Methods: A diagnostic ultrasound system with microconvex multifrequency 6.5 MHz probe was used. The animals were positioned in dorsal recumbency. The transabdominal paravertebral imaging approach was used. Longitudinal and transverse scans of the kidneys were obtained. Six rabbits were sacrificed, their kidneys removed and studied in isotonic liquid medium. Results: The shape of kidneys was elliptical. The fibrous capsule was visualized as a straight hyperechoic band. The fatty capsule was hyperechoic and with irregular borders. The cortex exhibited a heterogeneous echogenicity. The acoustic density of the cortex was lower than that of the liver. The echoicity of the medulla was lower as compared to the cortex and the structures of the kidney pelvis. The latter appeared as a centrally located hyperechoic structure. The post mortem examination showed that kidneys were oval and hyperechoic. The kidney pelvis was seen as a centrally located longitudinal finding, and the renal hilum – as a centrally located hyperechoic finding. Conclusions: The transabdominal paravertebral approach was a good method for visualization of rabbit kidneys. The dorsal recumbency of the subjects allowed the visualization. The in vivo results corresponded to those from the post mortem study. The rabbit kidney was oval in shape. The hypoechoic peripheral zone is occupied by the cortex and the medulla, while the hyperechoic central zone – by the kidney pelvis. The cortex was less echoic than the liver parenchyma. The kidney pelvic cavity had a lower acoustic density than its walls, due to the presence of peripelvic adipose tissue. The present results could be used in the interpretation of normal and pathological renal findings in the rabbit. [Vet. World 2012; 5(5.000: 274-278

  8. Streptococcus agalactiae infection in domestic rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, S Y; Geng, Y; Wang, K Y; Zhou, Z Y; Liu, X X; He, M; Peng, X; Wu, C Y; Lai, W M

    2014-12-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococcus, GBS) has emerged as an important pathogen that affects humans and animals, including aquatic species. In August 2011, a severe infectious disease affecting rabbits, which caused 42% mortality, occurred in Mianyang, Sichuan Province, China. The main clinical signs included acute respiratory distress syndrome, fever, paddling and convulsions. A Gram-positive, chain-forming coccus was isolated from the primary organs and tissues of diseased rabbits and then identified as S. agalactiae by morphology, biochemical and physiological characteristics, 16S rDNA and gyrB gene sequences analysis. All isolates of S. agalactiae showed a similar antibiotic susceptibility, which were sensitive to florfenicol, ampicillin,gentamicin and norfloxacin, as well as being resistant to penicillin, amoxicillin and tetracycline. To our knowledge, this is the first report on S. agalactiae natural infection in domestic rabbits.

  9. Ossifying fibroma in a miniature rex rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, K A; Popielarczyk, M M; Belote, D A; McLeod, G C; Mense, M G

    2006-01-01

    In humans and animals, ossifying fibroma is a benign neoplasm that most frequently affects the mandible, often resulting in cosmetic deformities and malocclusion. It is considered rare in animals and most frequently affects young horses. A surgical biopsy of a solitary mass located beneath the gingiva in the right maxillary region, which had overgrown teeth and expanded the adjacent hard palate from a 6-year-old miniature Rex rabbit was submitted for light microscopic examination. The submitted incisional biopsy specimen was pale pink, firm, and nodular. Histopathologically, the neoplasm was composed of fibroblastic cells separated by abundant collagen. The neoplastic cells were interwoven with osteoblasts surrounding islands of mineralized, bony matrix containing few, widely spaced, often empty, lacunae. Minimal inflammation was present. Based on the histopathologic features, the tumor was diagnosed as an ossifying fibroma. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an ossifying fibroma in a rabbit.

  10. Diagnosis of dental problems in pet rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Dental problems are very common in pet rabbits. To establish a correct diagnosis of rabbit dental pathology, a general knowledge of normal dental anatomy and physiology is necessary. The specific anatomy and the most common pathologies of rabbit dentition are reviewed. Techniques for diagnosing dental abnormalities - such as clinical examination, radiography and computed tomography (CT) - are summarized. Finally two clinical cases of rabbits with dental pathologies are described.

  11. Clinical aspects of lagomorph dental anatomy: the rabbit (oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, D A

    1995-12-01

    The lagomorphs most commonly encountered as pets are rabbits. There are many breeds of domestic rabbit, varying from dwarf varieties with an adult weight of under one kilogram to giants weighing 10 kg. This article provides a working knowledge of the dental anatomy and physiology of rabbits so that veterinarians can interpret clinical and radiographic findings when investigating rabbits with suspected dental disease.

  12. MALASSEZIA SPP ASSOCIATED DERMATITIS IN A PET RABBIT (ORYCTOLAGUS CUNICULUS)

    OpenAIRE

    Quevedo, Miryam; Laboratorio de Anatomía Animal y Fauna Silvestre, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima-Perú.; Lescano G., Jesús; Laboratorio de Anatomía Animal y Fauna Silvestre; Fernández A., Víctor; Clínica de Animales Menores, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima-Perú.

    2014-01-01

    La enfermedad micótica más común en conejos es la dermatofitosis, la cual está asociada principalmente a Trichophyton menthagrophytes y Microsporum canis, mientras que la dermatitis por Malassezia spp ha sido raramente reportada en lagomorfos. El presente trabajo reporta el caso de un conejo Lop macho, de seis meses de edad que fue presentado a la consulta por un problema de dermatitis. El animal presentaba focos de alopecia, descamación de piel y fácil desprendimiento de pelo contiguo en tre...

  13. Deliberate introduction of the European rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus, into Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenner, F

    2010-04-01

    The European rabbit was brought to Australia as a companion animal by early settlers. It sometimes escaped, but failed to survive in the Australian bush. In 1879 wild rabbits were deliberately sent to Victoria to provide game for wealthy settlers to shoot. They soon spread all over Australia, except in the tropics, and became Australia's major animal pest. After careful testing in Australian wildlife and in humans, control by myxoma virus was introduced at various sites between 1937 and 1950, spreading all over the Murray-Darling Basin in 1950. Within one year mutations in the virus had led to slightly less virulence, and these continued for the next 50 years. In the early 21st Century testing viruses obtained from wild rabbits showed that the majority of these viruses were more virulent than the virus used to initiate the epidemic. In 1995 another virus specific for European rabbits, rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus, escaped from areas in which field trials were being carried out and spread around Australia. It was more successful than myxomatosis for rabbit control in arid regions.

  14. A Three-Dimensional Reconstructive Study of Pelvic Cavity in the New Zealand Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema Özkadif

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study has been performed to reveal biometrical aspects and diameter-related differences in terms of sexes regarding pelvic cavity via three-dimensional (3D reconstruction by using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT images of pelvic cavity of the New Zealand rabbit. A total of 16 adult New Zealand rabbits, including 8 males and 8 females, were used in this study. Under anesthesia, the images obtained from MDCT were stacked and overlaid to reconstruct the 3D model of the pelvic cavity using 3D modeling software (Mimics 13.1. Measurements, such as the conjugate, transverse, and vertical diameters of the pelvic cavity, and the pelvic inclination were calculated and analyzed statistically. Biometrical differences of the pelvic diameters in New Zealand rabbits of both sexes were shown clearly. It was concluded that the pelvic diameters revealed by 3D modeling techniques can shed light on medical students who take both anatomy training and gynecological applications. The authors hope that the synchronization of medical approaches may give rise to novel diagnostic and therapeutic developments related to pelvic cavity.

  15. Cardiac markers in five different breeds of rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus Linnaeus, 1758 used for cardiovascular research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipp S. Ferreira

    Full Text Available Abstract: Cardiac biomarkers for clinical and experimental heart diseases have previously been evaluated in rabbits. However, several laboratory assays performed and reported with inconsistent results. This study aimed to assess the effects of breed on serum ANP, CRP, and ACE and establish reference interval (RI for these biomarkers in a large population of healthy rabbits. Ninety-seven adult rabbits from five breeds were included in this study. Assays were performed using specific ELISA commercial kits. The results were statistically analyzed using ANOVA, Tukey test (p<0.05, arithmetic mean, RI of mean, and standard deviation. A significant effect of breed was shown, indicating different RI between breeds for each biomarker. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that breed is an important physiological variable influencing the normal values of cardiac markers in healthy rabbits.

  16. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Chlamydia Infection in Domestic Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoting Ni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular bacteria distributed all over the world, known to cause various forms of diseases in animals and humans. In the present study, a serological survey was conducted to detect the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with rabbit chlamydiosis in northeast China, including Liaoning province, Jilin province, Heilongjiang province, and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Antibodies to Chlamydia were determined by indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA. The overall seroprevalence was estimated at 17.88% in total of 800 blood samples. The Chlamydia seroprevalence varied in domestic rabbits from different factors, and genders of domestic rabbits were considered as major risk factors associated with Chlamydia infection. Our study revealed a widespread and high prevalence of Chlamydia infection in domestic rabbits in northeast China, with higher exposure risk in female domestic rabbits. These findings suggested the potential importance of domestic rabbits in the transmission of zoonotic Chlamydia infection, and thus Chlamydia should be taken into consideration in diagnosing rabbit diseases. To our knowledge, there is no report of Chlamydia infection in domestic rabbits in China and the results extend the host range for Chlamydia, which has important implications for public health and the local economy.

  17. Control of Tick Infestations in Oryctolagus cuniculus (Lagomorpha: Leporidae) With Spinosad Under Laboratory and Field Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ValcÁrcel, Félix; SÁnchez, J L Pérez; Jaime, J M Tercero; Basco-Basco, P I; Guajardo, S C Cota; Cutuli, M T; GonzÁlez, J; Olmeda, A S

    2015-03-01

    Because of great economic loss in the world's livestock industry, and the serious risks to human health, the control of ticks and tick-borne diseases is one of the most important health management issues today. Current methodology involves integrated tick control for preventing the development of resistance. Rabbits are hosts for immature stages of the three-host tick Hyalomma lusitanicum Koch; so, we focus on this host as a strategy to interrupt the tick life cycle. Spinosad is an insecticide-acaricide, produced by the fermentation of metabolites of the actinomycete bacterium Saccharopolyspora spinosa. We administered spinosad orally by force-feeding naturally and artificially infested rabbits, and under field conditions by administering treated food via a hopper during the period of peak infestation and reinfestation risk for rabbits. No living larvae were recovered from treated laboratory rabbits. In naturally infested rabbits, the number of live ticks collected from treated rabbits (mean = 0.62 ticks per ear) was significantly lower than those recovered from untreated rabbits (mean = 7.27; P < 0.001), whereas the number of dead ticks collected from untreated rabbits (mean = 6.53) was significantly lower than those recovered from treated rabbits (mean = 18.62; P < 0.001). In addition, free and continually reinfested rabbits freely ingested low doses of spinosad, reducing the tick burden from 48.00 (Day 0) to 26.09 ticks per ear in treated rabbits (Day 16), whereas controls maintained the infection (46.64). This strategy could be useful as an alternative or supplement to traditional acaricides in tick control programs.

  18. Landscape ecology and wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus habitat modeling in the Mediterranean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narce, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Landscape modification is one of the reasons for the decrease in rabbit populations. The objective of this study was to model wild rabbit habitat using landscape ecology to create a diagnosis method able to assess habitat quality at a large scale. Rabbit presence/absence was recorded on 536 plots of 1 ha. Spotlight transect counts indicated a low relative abundance (KIA = 2.3 rabbits/km. We produced a land use map with metric precision using remote sensing. Water, bare soil, herbaceous, shrubs and trees were identified. Landscape structure and diversity were evaluated using variables available in FRAGSTATS. A logistic regression was performed to assess the link between rabbit presence/absence and landscape structure. Our results indicate that a suitable habitat has a high diversity, a medium number of patches and a small proportion of shrubs. These results could be used to diagnose the landscape prior to any management action to enhance rabbit populations and conversely be helpful as a tool of integrated control in the cases of local outbreaks with agricultural damages.

  19. Parasitic helminths of the wild rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus, in different bioclimatic zones in Tenerife, Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foronda, P; Del Castillo, A; Abreu, N; Figueruelo, E; Piñero, J; Casanova, J C

    2003-12-01

    Faunistic and ecological analyses of the wild rabbit helminth fauna were undertaken in Tenerife island (Canary Islands). Rabbits were collected between 1998 and 2000 in seven bioclimatic zones in Tenerife selected by orientation and altitude. Five parasite species were identified, three cestodes (Taenia pisiformis (larvae), Andrya cuniculi and Mosgovoyia ctenoides) and two nematodes (Trichostrongylus retortaeformis and Passalurus ambiguus). Taenia pisiformis presented an irregular distribution with significant differences in prevalences between the zones. Andrya cuniculi was only found in two zones and there were no significant differences in prevalence values. Mosgovoyia ctenoides presented a wide distribution with significant prevalences, which were higher in northern compared to southern zones. Trichostrongylus retortaeformis was absent in the low southern zones of the island. Passalurus ambiguus was found in all zones with no significant difference in the prevalence of infection. The differences in prevalences are likely to be explained by abiotic factors in the case of T. retortaeformis, and by the absence of definitive and intermediate hosts in the case of T. pisiformis and A. cuniculi, respectively. All parasite species in Tenerife are common helminths in the Iberian Peninsula, from which their rabbit hosts originated. No significant differences were recorded in the mean intensities of infection of any of the parasite species identified.

  20. Pilot Study: Wound Healing with CorMatrix in the Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-23

    Behavioral Study ___ Research: non-Survival (acute) ___ Utilization Mgt. ___ Adjuvant Use _X_ Other (Model/Technique Perfecting )___ Other ( Treatment ... treatment patches in place and not cross contaminate the controls. It also made it much easily to apply a dressing to the ears. 4. Each stitch required a...can change (usually decrease) the dimensions of the wound without actually filling the site with new tissue. This phenomenon is called contracture

  1. Evaluation of millet residue meal based diets as feed for the domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Karikari,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the nutritive value of millet residue meal with fish meal, soybean meal or fish-soybean meal combination (1:2 as protein source. The treatments were labelled according to protein source as fish meal diet, soybean meal diet and fish-soybean meal diet. Thirty nulliparous mixed-breed rabbits of an initial mean (±SD body weight of 1852.6±122.7 g were used in a completely randomised design with 10 rabbits per treatment. The rabbits were allowed four weeks to adjust to the experimental diets before breeding was initiated. The feed intake during gestation and the reproductive data of the rabbits were assessed over two reproductive cycles. Does on the fish meal diet had poorer (P<0.05 DMI, daily growth rate and FCR than those on the soybean meal diet during the pre-breeding period. Does on the fish meal diet delivered less (P<0.05 number of kits at birth and weaned less kits compared to those on the soybean meal diet. Those on the soybean meal diet were heaviest (P<0.05 at mating and at kindling. They out-performed does on the fish meal diet in most of the parameters measured. Parity did not affect reproductive performance, but growth rate of the does had a positive linear relationship with DMI (r= 0.77; P<0.01 and a negative linear relationship with FCR (r= -0.83; P<0.01 during the pre-breeding period. It was concluded that millet residue meal may be a better feed source for rabbit does if soybean meal rather than fish meal or fish-soybean meal combination (1:2 is used to improve the protein content.

  2. Solexa-Sequencing Based Transcriptome Study of Plaice Skin Phenotype in Rex Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lei; Liu, Yan; Wei, Qiang; Xiao, Chenwen; Ji, Quanan; Bao, Guolian; Wu, Xinsheng

    2015-01-01

    Fur is an important genetically-determined characteristic of domestic rabbits; rabbit furs are of great economic value. We used the Solexa sequencing technology to assess gene expression in skin tissues from full-sib Rex rabbits of different phenotypes in order to explore the molecular mechanisms associated with fur determination. Transcriptome analysis included de novo assembly, gene function identification, and gene function classification and enrichment. We obtained 74,032,912 and 71,126,891 short reads of 100 nt, which were assembled into 377,618 unique sequences by Trinity strategy (N50=680 nt). Based on BLAST results with known proteins, 50,228 sequences were identified at a cut-off E-value ≥ 10-5. Using Blast to Gene Ontology (GO), Clusters of Orthologous Groups (KOG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), we obtained several genes with important protein functions. A total of 308 differentially expressed genes were obtained by transcriptome analysis of plaice and un-plaice phenotype animals; 209 additional differentially expressed genes were not found in any database. These genes included 49 that were only expressed in plaice skin rabbits. The novel genes may play important roles during skin growth and development. In addition, 99 known differentially expressed genes were assigned to PI3K-Akt signaling, focal adhesion, and ECM-receptor interactin, among others. Growth factors play a role in skin growth and development by regulating these signaling pathways. We confirmed the altered expression levels of seven target genes by qRT-PCR. And chosen a key gene for SNP to found the differentially between plaice and un-plaice phenotypes rabbit. The rabbit transcriptome profiling data provide new insights in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying rabbit skin growth and development.

  3. Solexa-Sequencing Based Transcriptome Study of Plaice Skin Phenotype in Rex Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Pan

    Full Text Available Fur is an important genetically-determined characteristic of domestic rabbits; rabbit furs are of great economic value. We used the Solexa sequencing technology to assess gene expression in skin tissues from full-sib Rex rabbits of different phenotypes in order to explore the molecular mechanisms associated with fur determination.Transcriptome analysis included de novo assembly, gene function identification, and gene function classification and enrichment. We obtained 74,032,912 and 71,126,891 short reads of 100 nt, which were assembled into 377,618 unique sequences by Trinity strategy (N50=680 nt. Based on BLAST results with known proteins, 50,228 sequences were identified at a cut-off E-value ≥ 10-5. Using Blast to Gene Ontology (GO, Clusters of Orthologous Groups (KOG and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG, we obtained several genes with important protein functions. A total of 308 differentially expressed genes were obtained by transcriptome analysis of plaice and un-plaice phenotype animals; 209 additional differentially expressed genes were not found in any database. These genes included 49 that were only expressed in plaice skin rabbits. The novel genes may play important roles during skin growth and development. In addition, 99 known differentially expressed genes were assigned to PI3K-Akt signaling, focal adhesion, and ECM-receptor interactin, among others. Growth factors play a role in skin growth and development by regulating these signaling pathways. We confirmed the altered expression levels of seven target genes by qRT-PCR. And chosen a key gene for SNP to found the differentially between plaice and un-plaice phenotypes rabbit.The rabbit transcriptome profiling data provide new insights in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying rabbit skin growth and development.

  4. Gene Expression Profiling Analysis Reveals Fur Development in Rex Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bohao; Chen, Yang; Yan, Xiaorong; Hao, Ye; Zhu, Jie; Weng, Qiiaoqing; Wu, Xinsheng

    2017-08-29

    Fur is an important economic trait in rabbits. The identification of genes that influence fur development and knowledge regarding the actions of these genes provides useful tools for improving fur quality. However, the mechanism of fur development is unclear. To obtain candidate genes related to fur development, the transcriptomes of tissues from backs and bellies of Chinchilla rex rabbits were compared. Of the genes analyzed, 336 showed altered expression in the two groups (285 upregulated and 51 downregulated), P≤0.05, fold-change≥2 or ≤0.5). Using GO and KEGG to obtain gene classes that were differentially enriched, we found several genes to be involved in many important biological processes. In addition, we identified several signaling pathways involved in fur development, including the Wnt and MAPK signaling pathways, revealing mechanisms of skin and hair follicle development, and epidermal cell and keratinocytes differentiation. The obtained rabbit transcriptome and differentially expressed gene profiling data provided comprehensive gene expression information for SFRP2, FRZB, CACNG1, SLC25A4 and SLC16A3. To validate the RNA-seq data, the expression levels of eight differentially expressed genes involved in fur development were confirmed by qRT-PCR. The results of rabbit transcriptomic profiling provide a basis for understanding the molecular mechanisms of fur development.

  5. Solexa-Sequencing Based Transcriptome Study of Plaice Skin Phenotype in Rex Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pan, Lei; Liu, Yan; Wei, Qiang; Xiao, Chenwen; Ji, Quanan; Bao, Guolian; Wu, Xinsheng

    2015-01-01

    .... We used the Solexa sequencing technology to assess gene expression in skin tissues from full-sib Rex rabbits of different phenotypes in order to explore the molecular mechanisms associated with fur determination...

  6. Timing and Cue Competition in Conditioning of the Nictitating Membrane Response of the Rabbit ("Oryctolagus Cuniculus")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehoe, E. James; Ludvig, Elliot A.; Sutton, Richard S.

    2013-01-01

    Rabbits were classically conditioned using compounds of tone and light conditioned stimuli (CSs) presented with either simultaneous onsets (Experiment 1) or serial onsets (Experiment 2) in a delay conditioning paradigm. Training with the simultaneous compound reduced the likelihood of a conditioned response (CR) to the individual CSs ("mutual…

  7. Pathological changes and local defense reaction occurring in spontaneous hepatic coccidiosis in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    OpenAIRE

    Darzi, M.M.; Mir, M S; Kamil, S.A.; Nashiruddullah, N.; Munshi, Z.H.

    2007-01-01

    Hepatic coccidiosis occurred in 56 rabbits belonging to different ages, sexes and breeds during the years from 2002 to 2005. Clinically, the severely affected rabbits showed decreased growth rate, anorexia, debilitation, listlessness, diarrhea, icterus and rough hair coat. Postmortem examinations revealed increased dirty dull straw colored peritoneal fluid. Hepatomegaly, with presence of discrete yellowish-white nodules of 1mm to 1 cm size on the surface and throughout the parenchyma, was see...

  8. Efficacy of garlic extract on hepatic coccidiosis in infected rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus): histological and biochemical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toulah, Fawzia H; Al-Rawi, Maisaa M

    2007-12-01

    The rabbits were divided into three groups, of 12 rabbits each. G1 was the (non-infected non-treated) as control, G2 was the (infected-non treated), and G3 was the (infected and treated) rabbits. Each rabbit in the infected groups were given (10(3)) sporuleted oocysts of Eimeria stiedae per rabbit after forty five days exactly. Faecal sample of rabbits from each group were examined each day post infection till oocysts appeared in faeces. The treatment was given by using suitable dosage of garlic according to body weight. After 15, 21, 28, & 35 days post-treatment faecal oocysts were output. Biochemical parameters as serum liver function (ALT, AST, GGT & ALP) that denoted the he-patic cells injury. The results showed a significant differences in the mean values of oocysts shedding and their mean number in bile ducts between Gs 2 &3 from the 15th day post infection (PI) (mean +/-SD:40.33 +/- 16.72 & 25.17 +/- .56 respectively) till the experimental end on the 35th day (55.75 +/- 19.79 & 0.94 +/- 1.43 respectively). The histopathological alterations were in liver of G2 at the experimental end. Coccidiosis in G2 induced histopathological alterations in liver tissue, marked cytoplasmic vacuolations in hepatocytes with clear signs of karyolysis, and dilatation of sinusoids with increase in Kupffer cells. Leukocytic infiltration around congested blood vessels was noticed. Efficacy of garlic on E. stiedae in infected Gs was resident. The liver of G3 regained almost normal appearance compared to control.

  9. Anti-coccidial effect of Commiphora molmol in the domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus domesticus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghdadi, Hanadi B; Al-Mathal, Ebtesam M

    2010-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of oleo-gum-resin of Commiphora monlmol Engler (Family: Burceraceae) known as Myrrh and the commercial extract known as Mirazid as a treatment against hepatic coccidiosis induced by the parasite Eimeria stiedae in domestic rabbits. Rabbits were infected with 1000 parasite sporulated oocysts and subjected to two treatment regimens, using crude myrrh suspension and the oleo-resin extract, mirazid, each administered at 500 mg/kg rabbit body weight. Treatments of infected rabbits resulted in significant reduction of the mean oocyst numbers in rabbit faeces by 52.38% in the crude-treated rabbits and by 90.90% mirazid-treated rabbits, compared to the untreated infected rabbits at day 21 post-infection (pi). At day 28 pi no oocysts parasite were observed in the faeces of rabbits. Both treatments resulted in significant recovery of infected rabbits from all symptoms of infection compared to the untreated infected group and healthy control groups. Histopathological examination of liver showed remarkable improvement in all histopathological parameters in G5 and G8 compared with the infected untreated G2. These included an almost complete healing of the hemorrhagic tissue and partial healing of the endothelial lining and hepatocytes encircling the central vein, the hepatocytes laminate regained their original radial shape and disappearance of fat vacuoles from the tissue and remarkable reduction in lymphocytes infiltration, decreased hyperplasia of the epithelial cells with significant decreasing of the parasite stage numbers. Results also indicate that mirazid was more effective than crude myrrh, probably due to higher content of purified active ingredients.

  10. Lithothamnium calcareum no tratamento de osteotomia experimental em coelhos (Oryctolagus cuniculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Ucrós

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos da suplementação com Lithothamnium calcareum na consolidação de osteotomia experimental em coelhos, por meio de exames radiográfico e histológico. Utilizaram-se 10 coelhos machos da raça Nova Zelândia, de quatro a cinco meses de idade, com massa corporal média de 2,5kg, os quais foram submetidos à osteotomia do terço médio da tíbia direita e à fixação interna com dois pinos intramedulares. Os coelhos foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos experimentais (A e B com cinco animais cada. O grupo A recebeu diariamente dieta contendo 0,75% de L. calcareum, e o grupo B constituiu o controle sem tratamento adicional à fixação da osteotomia. A evolução clínica ocorreu sem intercorrências. As radiografias foram realizadas antes do estudo e em intervalos de 15 dias até o final do experimento, e a histologia foi realizada aos 60 dias. As avaliações radiográficas permitiram acompanhar a evolução do processo de consolidação que ocorreu em todos os casos. Histologicamente, verificou-se consolidação completa em todos os animais do grupo B (controle e em 75% do grupo A. Dos resultados pode-se concluir que, embora tenha ocorrido a consolidação clínica e a radiográfica aos 60 dias em todos os casos, histologicamente o grupo-controle (B foi melhor, mostrando que o organismo sadio não necessita de estímulo para o processo de reparação óssea. Novas pesquisas devem ser realizadas para avaliar o efeito da suplementação mineral em animais portadores de deficiências nutricionais.

  11. Collaterals branches of the aortic arch and its main rami in rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Fernanda de; Bavaresco, Andréia Zechin; Campos, Rui

    2013-01-01

    Neste trabalho, sistematizaram-se os ramos colaterais do arco aórtico e suas principais ramifi cações, utilizando 30 coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia. O sistema arterial foi preenchido com látex corado em vermelho através da aorta torácica no sentido contrário ao fl uxo sanguíneo e fi xado em uma solução aquosa de formaldeído a 20%. Os ramos colaterais do arco aórtico foram o tronco braquiocefálico e a artéria subclávia esquerda. O tronco braquiocefálico emitiu as artérias carótidas comuns esque...

  12. Evaluation of extraction methods for progesterone determination in rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) feces by radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korndoerfer, Clotilde Maria; Meirelles, Cyro Ferreira; Bueno, Ives Claudio da Silva; Abdalla, Adibe Luiz [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Secao de Ciencias Animais]. E-mail: cfmeirel@esalq.usp.br

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to find a practical procedure for the extraction of progesterone (P{sub 4}) from feces and to determine if the P4 plasma profiles during pregnancy were reflected in total fecal P4 of pregnant rabbits. The rabbit was used as model for the techniques. Plasma and feces were collected from 11 rabbits during a period of 42 days. Three different methods of P4 extraction were used. The total P4 was measured by solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) with {sup 125} I-P4 as the tracer. Results suggested that it was possible to extract total P4 from rabbit feces with methanol and petroleum ether. Plasma and fecal P4 profiles were compared for both pregnant and ovariectomized rabbits. It was possible to differentiate total P4 extracted from day two through 28 after breeding (p<0.01). (author)

  13. Topographical and biometrical anatomy of the digestive tract of White New Zealand Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabuj Kanti Nath

    2016-06-01

    Materials and methods: Five rabbits of both sexes were used in this study. After dissection of the rabbits, the exact positions of different parts of the digestive tract (i.e., esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine were measured using Metric rule, thread, electronic and normal balance. Results: The mean lengths of the small intestine and large intestine were 169.53+/-21.65 and 132.3+/-17.42 cm, respectively, and weight of the whole digestive tract was 263.60+/-56.80 gm. The mean lengths and mean diameter of esophagus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and rectum were 9.62+/-1.64, 41.26+/-4.06, 106.60+/-14.64, 21.64+/-46.32, 41.14+/-2.82, 83.16+/-13.74 and 8.0+/-1.08 cm and 1.16+/-0.12, 1.71+/-0.11, 1.70+/-0.09, 1.73+/-0.05, 5.47+/-0.15, 3.36+/-0.16 and 2.81+/-0.24 cm, respectively. Conclusion: These results can be considered as a baseline study that may assist in disease diagnosis and clinical works with rabbits. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(2.000: 145-151

  14. Phase response curve to 1 h light pulses for the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Gerard A; Hudson, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    While much is known about the circadian systems of rodents, chronobiological studies of other mammalian groups have been limited. One of the most extensively studied nonrodent species, both in the laboratory and in the wild, is the European rabbit. The aim of this study was to extend knowledge of the rabbit circadian system by examining its phasic response to light. Twelve Dutch-Himalayan cross rabbits of both sexes were allowed to free-run in constant darkness and then administered 1 h light pulses (1000 lux) at multiple predetermined circadian times. Changes in the phase of the rabbits' circadian wheel-running rhythms were measured after each light pulse and used to construct a phase-response curve (PRC). The rabbits' PRC and free-running period (τ) conformed to the empirical regularities reported for other predominantly nocturnal animals, including rodents and predatory marsupials. The results of the study are thus consistent with reports that the rabbit is essentially a nocturnal animal and show that it can entrain to light/dark (LD) cycles via discrete phase shifts. Knowledge about the rabbit's circadian range of entrainment to LD cycles gained in this study will be useful for examining the putative circadian processes believed to underlie the unusual rhythm of very brief, once-daily nest visits by nursing rabbit mothers and other nursing lagomorphs.

  15. Comparative Ultrasonographic, Anatomotopographic and Macromorphometric Study of the Spleen and Pancreas in Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosen Stefanov DIMITROV

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to perform comparative analysis of the metric anatomy of the spleen and pancreas in rabbit, determined by applying of transabdominal ultrasonography and convectional anatomical research. Twelve mature, clinically healthy New Zealand White rabbits 8 months of age from and weighed between 2.8 kg and 3.2 kg were looked at. The transabdominal B-mode ultrasonography was performed by Diagnostic Ultrasound System. The spleen and pancreas were imaged sagittally and transversally. The approaches w?re percutaneous transabdominal hypochondral left and percutaneous transabdominal epigastric. After euthanizing the animals a laparotomy was performed. The topography, shape and morphometry were made. In longitudinal ultrasongraphic study of the spleen has been seen its elongated shape. There were ultrasonographic metric data presented. The organ was seized to the greater curvature of the stomach in the area of the bottom and portions of the body of the stomach. The ultrasonography and postmortem study showed that the pancreas in rabbit is disseminated organ. The body of the pancreas was localized in the mesoduodenum of the duodenal sigmoid flexure, immediately behind the porta hepatic, as it has been cut through by the portal vein. From the comparative analysis of the obtained results could be conclude, that the study of some quantitative parameters of the structure of the pancreas in rabbit should contribute to the accurate diagnostics of the pancreatic lesions and the abdominal surgical practice in the animals.

  16. Estrutura e celularidade de meniscos frescos de coelhos (Oryctolagus cuniculus) preservados em glicerina

    OpenAIRE

    Vilela,Liana M.; Ricardo J. Del Carlo; Silva,João Carlos P. da; Sérgio Luís P. Da Matta; Rodrigues,Mauricio Correia D.; Betânia S. Monteiro; Mastoby Miguel M. Martinez; Reis,Amanda Maria S.; Machado,Daniel P. Dias; Liliane R. Lopes

    2010-01-01

    No presente estudo foi avaliada a arquitetura tecidual, a população celular, assim como a integridade e a distribuição dos tipos celulares em meniscos frescos de coelhos e preservados em glicerina 98%. Foram analisados meniscos mediais de coelhos recém abatidos, que foram distribuídos em três grupos: o grupo MF (n=7), composto por meniscos frescos, correspondeu ao grupo controle; o grupo MG (n=7), composto por meniscos preservados em glicerina 98%, por 30 dias, e o grupo MR (n=7), por menisco...

  17. Geometric Evaluation of Fresh Menisci and Menisci Preserved in 98% Glycerin: Study in Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Marcela Perez Berrio

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Meniscus alloimplants have been used as a source of tissue for replacement in case of breakage or irreparable damage. To determine possible changes by conservation, the study proposed to geometrically evaluate fresh menisci and menisci preserved in 98% glycerin. 15 medial menisci from eight albino rabbits of New Zealand breed were used, divided into three groups: five fresh menisci (GI; five menisci preserved in 98% glycerin for eight months (GII, and five menisci preserved in 98% glycerin for eight months and then rehydrated in 0.9% saline solution for 24 hours (GIII. All menisci were measured with vernier caliper at seven points of their geometric structure. The study established that there were no statistical differences in the measurements of GII and GIII when compared to GI; there was no difference either in the measurements of GIII when compared to GII, thus rehydration in antibiotic saline solution for 24 hours can be considered unnecessary.

  18. Teratogenicity studies of a new potent tetanus vaccine in rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, N; Srivastava, R K; Singh, R K

    1991-09-01

    Glaxo Laboratories, Bombay, have prepared a potent tetanus vaccine of 250 Lf as a substitute of the previous 5 Lf tetanus vaccine. The safety evaluation of the vaccine has been reported, but the teratogenic potential was not studied. In the experiment reported herein we have studied the teratogenic action of the vaccine in the progeny of rabbits. No congenital anomalies were observed.

  19. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Chlamydia Infection in Domestic Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xiaoting; Qin, Siyuan; Lou, Zhilong; Ning, Hongrui; Sun, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular bacteria distributed all over the world, known to cause various forms of diseases in animals and humans. In the present study, a serological survey was conducted to detect the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with rabbit chlamydiosis in northeast China, including Liaoning province, Jilin province, Heilongjiang province, and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Antibodies to Chlamydia were determined by indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA). The overall seroprevalence was estimated at 17.88% in total of 800 blood samples. The Chlamydia seroprevalence varied in domestic rabbits from different factors, and genders of domestic rabbits were considered as major risk factors associated with Chlamydia infection. Our study revealed a widespread and high prevalence of Chlamydia infection in domestic rabbits in northeast China, with higher exposure risk in female domestic rabbits. These findings suggested the potential importance of domestic rabbits in the transmission of zoonotic Chlamydia infection, and thus Chlamydia should be taken into consideration in diagnosing rabbit diseases. To our knowledge, there is no report of Chlamydia infection in domestic rabbits in China and the results extend the host range for Chlamydia, which has important implications for public health and the local economy.

  20. Seasonal dynamics of ixodid ticks on wild rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus (Leporidae) from Central Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, J; Valcárcel, F; Pérez-Sánchez, J L; Tercero-Jaime, J M; Olmeda, A S

    2016-11-01

    Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease and Myxomatosis caused a decline in the rabbit population in the second half of the last century. Despite some recovery, the risk of vector-borne disease is present and thus the importance of controlling vector populations. In the current study, we describe the ixodid tick fauna in wild rabbit in a natural reserve in Ciudad Real (Central Spain) during the course of two 3-year periods (2007-2009 and 2012-2014). Of all the ticks collected on average 72.5 % were larvae, 24.4 % nymphs and 3.1 % adults, although the percentage varied monthly. Seven tick species were identified: Hyalomma lusitanicum Koch (Parasitic indicator [PI] = number of ticks per examined rabbit = 96.47), Rhipicephalus pusillus Gil Collado (PI = 47.37), Haemaphysalis hispanica Gil Collado (PI = 12.15), Ixodes ventalloi Gil Collado (PI = 0.65), R. bursa Canestrini and Fanzago (PI = 0.18), R. sanguineus Latreille (PI = 0.11), Dermacentor marginatus Sulzer (PI = 0.01). In spring and summer, most abundant were larvae of H. lusitanicum, followed by immature stages of R. pusillus and Ha. hispanica. In autumn, the main tick species were nymphs of I. ventalloi whereas in winter adults of Ha. hispanica were more numerous. Rhipicephalus pusillus was present all year long, although not always in high percentage. PI of other species (R. bursa, R. sanguineus and D. marginatus) were too low to be representative. The seasonal dynamics of ticks on wild rabbit defined in this study could be useful to design species-specific control strategies.

  1. Patterns of parasite aggregation in the wild European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boag, B; Lello, J; Fenton, A; Tompkins, D M; Hudson, P J

    2001-11-01

    Understanding the factors controlling the distribution of parasites within their host population is fundamental to the wider understanding of parasite epidemiology and ecology. To explore changes in parasite aggregation, Taylor's power law was used to examine the distributions of five gut helminths of the wild rabbit. Aggregation was found to be a dynamic process that varied with year, season, host sex, age class, and myxomatosis. Yearly and seasonal changes are thought, in the main, to be the result of variations in weather conditions acting upon infectious stages (or intermediate hosts). Evidence in support of this was the comparatively low degree of fluctuation in the aggregation of the pinworm, Passalurus ambiguus, as the infectious stage of this parasite is likely to be less susceptible to environmental variation. Host age had a marked effect on the level of aggregation of all parasites, but this effect varied between parasite species. P. ambiguus, Trichostrongylus retortaeformis and Cittotaenia denticulata aggregation were lower in adult than juvenile rabbits whilst Graphidium strigosum and Mosgovoyia pectinata aggregation tended to increase with age. Host immunity is thought to be responsible for these differences. Differences in aggregation for different parasites were also seen when the rabbit population was split into males and females. Myxomatosis had a marked effect on helminth distribution with substantially less aggregation in rabbits showing clinical signs of the disease.

  2. Does myxomatosis still regulate numbers of rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus Linnaeus, 1758) in the United Kingdom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout, R C; Ross, J; Fox, A P

    1993-03-01

    Myxomatosis now kills a much smaller proportion of rabbit populations than in the past, while remaining an important regulatory factor, as shown experimentally. On two separate occasions, experimental reduction of the prevalence of the disease (by reducing infestations of the main vector, the rabbit flea) led to significant increases in numbers of rabbits surviving the winter.

  3. Qualidade seminal e morfometria testicular de coelhos (Oryctolagus cuniculus suplementados com geleia real

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K.A. Campos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da geleia real na qualidade seminal e na morfometria testicular de coelhos. Quatorze coelhos adultos da raça Nova Zelândia foram distribuídos em três grupos: com administração diária de 1mL de água, via oral (SG; administração diária de 0,5mg (0,5G de geleia real diluída em 1mL de água, via oral; e administração diária de 1,0mL (1,0G de geleia real diluída em 1mL de água, via oral. O fornecimento de geleia real foi iniciado 30 dias antes das coletas de sêmen, permanecendo durante todo o período de coleta, totalizando 90 dias. Utilizou-se o método da vagina artificial para coleta de sêmen. Foram avaliados os parâmetros físicos e morfológicos do sêmen e os parâmetros de morfometria testicular. Houve diferença no volume seminal do 0,5G (0,54±0,22 em relação ao SG (0,39±0,13 e ao 1,0G (0,30±0,09 (P0,05 para turbilhonamento espermático, concentração espermática, motilidade progressiva e vigor espermático. Os defeitos maiores no grupo 0,5G (8,52±3,26 foram menores do que nos grupos SG (14,09±4,26 e 1,0G (16,1±3,95 (P0,05. Os pesos corporal, testicular, epididimário e o índice gonadossomático não diferiram entre os grupos (P>0,05. A ingestão diária de 0,5mg de geleia real apresentou efeitos positivos na morfologia espermática de coelhos.

  4. Induction of skin papillomas in the rabbit, Oryctologus cuniculus, by bites of a blood-sucking insect, Cimex lectularius, irradiated by gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    el-Mofty, M.M.; Sakr, S.A.; Younis, M.W. (Alexandria Univ. (Egypt))

    1989-11-01

    Bed bugs, Cimex lectularius, irradiated with gamma rays were allowed to suck blood from shaved areas of the skin of rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus, 2 times/week for 5 months and then once weekly for another 5 months. This significantly induced the formation of skin papillomas and sweat gland hyperplasia in five out of nine experimental animals. It is speculated that the saliva of the irradiated bugs was activated by gamma rays and was responsible for the induction of skin papillomas. Because bed bugs play a significant role in the transmission of virus, it is also speculated that there is a virus in the saliva of bugs; this virus may be activated by gamma radiation and causes the development of papillomas in the skin.

  5. Pseudogenization of the MCP-2/CCL8 chemokine gene in European rabbit (genus Oryctolagus), but not in species of Cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus) and Hare (Lepus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent studies in human have highlighted the importance of the monocyte chemotactic proteins (MCP) in leukocyte trafficking and their effects in inflammatory processes, tumor progression, and HIV-1 infection. In European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) one of the prime MCP targets, the chemokine receptor CCR5 underwent a unique structural alteration. Until now, no homologue of MCP-2/CCL8a, MCP-3/CCL7 or MCP-4/CCL13 genes have been reported for this species. This is interesting, because at least the first two genes are expressed in most, if not all, mammals studied, and appear to be implicated in a variety of important chemokine ligand-receptor interactions. By assessing the Rabbit Whole Genome Sequence (WGS) data we have searched for orthologs of the mammalian genes of the MCP-Eotaxin cluster. Results We have localized the orthologs of these chemokine genes in the genome of European rabbit and compared them to those of leporid genera which do (i.e. Oryctolagus and Bunolagus) or do not share the CCR5 alteration with European rabbit (i.e. Lepus and Sylvilagus). Of the Rabbit orthologs of the CCL8, CCL7, and CCL13 genes only the last two were potentially functional, although showing some structural anomalies at the protein level. The ortholog of MCP-2/CCL8 appeared to be pseudogenized by deleterious nucleotide substitutions affecting exon1 and exon2. By analyzing both genomic and cDNA products, these studies were extended to wild specimens of four genera of the Leporidae family: Oryctolagus, Bunolagus, Lepus, and Sylvilagus. It appeared that the anomalies of the MCP-3/CCL7 and MCP-4/CCL13 proteins are shared among the different species of leporids. In contrast, whereas MCP-2/CCL8 was pseudogenized in every studied specimen of the Oryctolagus - Bunolagus lineage, this gene was intact in species of the Lepus - Sylvilagus lineage, and was, at least in Lepus, correctly transcribed. Conclusion The biological function of a gene was often revealed in situations of

  6. Pseudogenization of the MCP-2/CCL8 chemokine gene in European rabbit (genus Oryctolagus, but not in species of Cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus and Hare (Lepus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Loo Wessel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies in human have highlighted the importance of the monocyte chemotactic proteins (MCP in leukocyte trafficking and their effects in inflammatory processes, tumor progression, and HIV-1 infection. In European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus one of the prime MCP targets, the chemokine receptor CCR5 underwent a unique structural alteration. Until now, no homologue of MCP-2/CCL8a, MCP-3/CCL7 or MCP-4/CCL13 genes have been reported for this species. This is interesting, because at least the first two genes are expressed in most, if not all, mammals studied, and appear to be implicated in a variety of important chemokine ligand-receptor interactions. By assessing the Rabbit Whole Genome Sequence (WGS data we have searched for orthologs of the mammalian genes of the MCP-Eotaxin cluster. Results We have localized the orthologs of these chemokine genes in the genome of European rabbit and compared them to those of leporid genera which do (i.e. Oryctolagus and Bunolagus or do not share the CCR5 alteration with European rabbit (i.e. Lepus and Sylvilagus. Of the Rabbit orthologs of the CCL8, CCL7, and CCL13 genes only the last two were potentially functional, although showing some structural anomalies at the protein level. The ortholog of MCP-2/CCL8 appeared to be pseudogenized by deleterious nucleotide substitutions affecting exon1 and exon2. By analyzing both genomic and cDNA products, these studies were extended to wild specimens of four genera of the Leporidae family: Oryctolagus, Bunolagus, Lepus, and Sylvilagus. It appeared that the anomalies of the MCP-3/CCL7 and MCP-4/CCL13 proteins are shared among the different species of leporids. In contrast, whereas MCP-2/CCL8 was pseudogenized in every studied specimen of the Oryctolagus - Bunolagus lineage, this gene was intact in species of the Lepus - Sylvilagus lineage, and was, at least in Lepus, correctly transcribed. Conclusion The biological function of a gene was often

  7. Evolution of viral sensing RIG-I-like receptor genes in Leporidae genera Oryctolagus, Sylvilagus, and Lepus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos de Matos, Ana; McFadden, Grant; Esteves, Pedro J

    2014-01-01

    One of the most severe European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) pathogens is myxoma virus (MYXV), a rabbit-specific leporipoxvirus that causes the highly lethal disease myxomatosis. Other leporid genera, Sylvilagus and Lepus, encompass species with variable susceptibilities to MYXV, but these do not develop the lethal form of the disease. The protective role of the retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I/DDX58) in sensing MYXV in nonpermissive human myeloid cells prompted the study of the RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) family evolution in the three leporid genera. This viral-sensor family also includes the melanoma differentiation-associated factor 5 (MDA5/IFIH1), and the laboratory of genetics and physiology 2 (LGP2/DHX58). Considering specifically the MYXV susceptible host (European rabbit) and one of the virus natural long-term hosts (Sylvilagus bachmani, brush rabbit), the amino acid differences of positively selected sites in RIG-I between the two species were located in the protein region responsible for viral RNA recognition and binding, the repressor domain. Such differences might play a determinant role in how MYXV is sensed. When looking for episodic selection on MDA5 and LGP2 of the eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus), we also uncovered evidence of selective pressures that might be exerted by a species-specific leporipoxvirus, the Shope fibroma virus. Finally, a putative alternative splicing case was identified in Oryctolagus and Lepus MDA5 isoforms, corresponding to the deletion of one specific exon. This study provided the first insights into the evolution of the leporid RLR gene family that helps illuminate the origins of the species-specific innate responses to pathogens and more specifically to MYXV.

  8. La asimetría y el grado de optimización del árbol bronquial en Rattus norvegicus y Oryctolagus cuniculus The asymmetry and the optimization degree of the airway of Rattus norvegicus and Oryctolagus cuniculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAURICIO CANALS

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available La vía aérea ha sido propuesta como modelo de diseño óptimo desde una perspectiva física. Su diseño se ha asociado con un adecuado flujo de gases a los alvéolos, una mínima producción de entropía y un mínimo costo en materia y energía. Se ha propuesto un decrecimiento exponencial del diámetro de los bronquios (dG en función de la generación: dG = do·2-G/3, asociado a una mínima producción de entropía. También se ha propuesto un modelo de renormalización: dG = An·G-u donde u es un exponente y An una función que introduce desviaciones periódicas en la escala, es decir más de una escala, evitando la propagación distal de errores aleatorios en el calibre de un bronquio. Sin embargo, este último resultado podría ser consecuencia en árboles asimétricos de la relación entre el diámetro y el orden del bronquio y no de la generación. En este trabajo estudiamos la asimetría y el decrecimiento del diámetro bronquial en dos especies. Se utiliza el modelo de Zamir como un sistema externo de medida de la optimización. Encontramos una clara asimetría del árbol bronquial. Comprobamos que la relación exponencial diámetro-orden es siempre muy buena (R² ³ 0,8 y que en cambio la relación exponencial diámetro-generación es menos clara (R² From a physical perspective, the air way has been proposed as a model of optimal design. Its design has been associated with a optimal gases flow to the alveoli, a minimum entropy production and minimal costs of mass and energy. The decrease of the bronchial diameter (dG along the airway has been modeled by (i an exponential decay of the bronchial diameter (dG as function of its generation: dG = do·2-G/3, associated to a minimum entropy production, and (ii a renormalization model: dG = An·G-u where u is an exponent and An an harmonic function which introduces periodic variations in the scale, buffering the propagation of stochastic errors in the bronchial diameter. However, that the last result in asymmetric trees may be a consequence of a real relationship between diameter and order more than a relationship diameter-generation. In this work we explore this hypothesis in two species. We also use the Zamir model for vascular trees as an out method to explore the optimality degree of the bronchial ramification. We found a clear asymmetry of the analyzed bronchial trees. We shown that the relationship diameter-order is always very good (R² ³ 0,8. In contrast, the determination coefficients for the relationship diameter-generation were lower (R² < 0,6. The proposed harmonic modulation vanishes when changing generation by order. There were a high optimality degree of the bronchial junctions

  9. Cistoplastia experimental em coelhos (Oryctolagus cuniculus com peritônio bovino conservado em glicerol a 98% Experimental cystoplasty in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus with bovine peritoneum conserved in 98% glycerol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Catelan de Oliveira

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo foi implantado um retalho de membrana peritoneal bovina em substituição a um fragmento da face ventral da bexiga de coelhos albinos, raça Nova Zelândia, adultos, machos não-castrados (n=12, com o intuito de avaliar o processo de reparação tecidual no que se refere à biocompatibilidade, à capacidade de reparação tecidual e a possíveis complicações. Aos sete, 14, 30 e 60 dias de pós-operatório, os animais foram eutanasiados, três em cada período, mediante o emprego de tiopental sódico (200mg kg-1, para posterior avaliação macroscópica e análise histopatológica da interface do implante com o tecido nativo. Macroscopicamente, foram observadas, em todos os períodos, aderências de estruturas adjacentes ao local do implante, presença de cálculos e ausência de sinais de rejeição. Sob microscopia de luz, aos sete, 14 e 30 dias de observação, o implante ainda estava presente, havia intensa reação inflamatória mista, neovascularização, fibroplasia e escassas fibras musculares, contudo, o epitélio e a lâmina própria não estavam reconstituídos. Aos 60 dias de avaliação, o implante não estava mais presente e todas as camadas vesicais encontravam-se reparadas. O implante foi biocompatível e forneceu arcabouço para orientação e desenvolvimento das camadas teciduais da bexiga, mediante processos de reparação, restabelecendo a estrutura do órgão.Bovine peritoneum was utilized to replace a section of ventral face of the bladder of New Zealand rabbits, adult and entire males (n=12 with the purpose of evaluating the tissue repair process in regard of its biocompatility, scar formation ability and possible complications. The animals were euthanized at 7, 14, 30 and 60 days post operative, three in each period, by the use of sodium thiopental (200mg kg-1, followed by macroscopic evaluation and histopathological analysis of the implant interface with the native tissue. Macroscopically it was observed, in all time periods, structure adherence to the implant site, presence of calculi and absence of rejection signs. Under light microscopy at the 7th, 14th and 30th observation days, the implant was present; a mixed intense inflammatory reaction could be observed, neovascularization, fiberplasic process and rare muscle fibers, however the epithelium and sheath weren’t also reconstituted. At the 60th day of evaluation the implant wasn’t anymore present and all vesicle layers were repaired. The implant was biocompatible and provided the mainframe for orientation and development of the tissue layers of the bladder, through repairing processes thus reestablishing the organ’s structure.

  10. Estrutura e celularidade de meniscos frescos de coelhos (Oryctolagus cuniculus) preservados em glicerina Structure and cellularity of the fresh menisci (Oryctolagus cuniculus) of rabbits and the menisci preserved in glycerin

    OpenAIRE

    Vilela,Liana M.; Ricardo J. Del Carlo; João Carlos P. da Silva; Sérgio Luís P. Da Matta; Rodrigues,Mauricio Correia D.; Betânia S. Monteiro; Mastoby Miguel M. Martinez; Reis,Amanda Maria S.; Daniel P. Dias Machado; Liliane R. Lopes

    2010-01-01

    No presente estudo foi avaliada a arquitetura tecidual, a população celular, assim como a integridade e a distribuição dos tipos celulares em meniscos frescos de coelhos e preservados em glicerina 98%. Foram analisados meniscos mediais de coelhos recém abatidos, que foram distribuídos em três grupos: o grupo MF (n=7), composto por meniscos frescos, correspondeu ao grupo controle; o grupo MG (n=7), composto por meniscos preservados em glicerina 98%, por 30 dias, e o grupo MR (n=7), por menisco...

  11. Estrutura e celularidade de meniscos frescos de coelhos (Oryctolagus cuniculus preservados em glicerina Structure and cellularity of the fresh menisci (Oryctolagus cuniculus of rabbits and the menisci preserved in glycerin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana M. Vilela

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo foi avaliada a arquitetura tecidual, a população celular, assim como a integridade e a distribuição dos tipos celulares em meniscos frescos de coelhos e preservados em glicerina 98%. Foram analisados meniscos mediais de coelhos recém abatidos, que foram distribuídos em três grupos: o grupo MF (n=7, composto por meniscos frescos, correspondeu ao grupo controle; o grupo MG (n=7, composto por meniscos preservados em glicerina 98%, por 30 dias, e o grupo MR (n=7, por meniscos preservados em glicerina 98% e reidratados em NaCl 0,9%, por 12 horas. Em todos os meniscos foram identificados e quantificados os diferentes tipos celulares: fibroblastos/fibrócitos e condrócitos. A população celular foi estatisticamente semelhante nos três grupos de meniscos, sendo que os meniscos preservados, grupos MG e MR, apresentaram menor intensidade de coloração e retração das fibras colágenas, diminuição de volume e maior intensidade de coloração dos núcleos (condensação da cromatina, em relação aos meniscos frescos (MF, caracterizando o fenômeno de lise celular. A matriz fibrocartilaginosa dos meniscos preservados revelou- se bem preservada mantendo a arquitetura tecidual dos meniscos. Conclui-se que a glicerina 98% é uma opção de meio de preservação para meniscos objetivando aloenxerto, com matriz colágena desvitalizada.In the present study was evaluated the tissue architecture, the percentage of cellular population, as well as viability and distribution of cells in fresh menisci of rabbits and preserved in 98% glycerin. Were analyzed medial menisci of rabbits freshly slaughtered, which were distributed into three groups: the MF group (n=7, composed of fresh menisci, corresponded to the control group; the MG group (n=7, composed by menisci preserved in 98% glycerin, for 30 days, and the MR group (n=7 by menisci preserved in 98% glycerin and rehydrated in NaCl 0.9% for 12 hours. In all menisci were identified and quantified the different cell types: fibroblasts/fibrocytes and condrocytes. The cell population percentage was statistically similar in all groups. All menisci preserved in the MG and MR groups showed a lower intensity of color and shrinkage of collagen fibers, reduced volume and higher intensity of staining of nucleus (chromatin condensation, as compared to fresh menisci (MF, featuring the phenomenon of cell lysis. The cartilaginous matrix of preserved menisci proved to be well preserved because the tissue architecture was maintained. It was concluded that 98% glycerin is an optional preservation mean for meniscal allografts with a devitalized collagenous matrix.

  12. Taxonomy Icon Data: rabbit [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available g http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Oryctolagus+cuniculus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Oryctolagus+cuniculus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ico...n/icon.cgi?i=Oryctolagus+cuniculus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Oryctolagus+cuniculus&t=NS ...

  13. The role of ACTH and adrenal glucocorticoids in the salt appetite of wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus (L)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaine, E H; Covelli, M D; Denton, D A; Nelson, J F; Shulkes, A A

    1975-10-01

    The selective appetites of wild rabbits for 500 mEq/1 solutions of NaC1, KC1, MgC1(2), and CaC1(2) were studied in intact and adrenalectomized rabbits during daily treatment with either 4 IU long acting ACTH, 1.0 or 2.5 mg cortisol acetate, or 2.5 mg corticosterone. The animals were individually caged and external sodium balances performed. In intact rabbits, cortisol or corticosterone produced a significant stimulation of NaC1 appetite. The response to concurrent dosage of cortisol and corticosterone was less than half of that obtained with ACTH which produced a comparable alteration of blood glucocorticoid levels but a 10-fold increase in NaC1 intake. CaC1(2) intake was increased in intact rabbits by cortisol treatment but not by corticosterone or ACTH. Adrenalectomized rabbits maintained on daily steroid replacement therapy of 0.1 mg deoxycorticosterone acetate and 0.75 mg cortisone acetate showed a normal pattern of electolyte, food, and water intake. Under these conditions ACTH produced a 4-fold increase in NaC1 intake. Further addition of cortisol and corticosterone to steroid replacement therapy produced an increase in NaC1 intake comparable to their effect on normal rabbits. Thereupon supplementation with ACTH resulted in an increase to a level at least as great as that found in ACTH treated, normal rabbits. The effects of ACTH and glucocorticoids on NaC1 appetite were synergistic. Sodium balance showed that increases in NaC1 intake were not the result of the treatment initially producing a body sodium deficit, which was then corrected by increased intake. The results provide further evidence for the hypothesis that NaC1 appetite may be hormonally regulated, and demonstrate that ACTH is capable of stimulating NaC1 intake by a previously unsuspected non-adrenal pathway.

  14. Toxoplasma gondii infection in the mountain hare (Lepus timidus) and domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). II. Early immune reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, K.; Wattrang, E.; Fossum, C.

    1997-01-01

    of the acute phase reactant haptoglobin were raised in hares but not in rabbits one week post-infection (pi), probably reflecting the severe tissue damage present. No difference in the early humoral immune response of hares and rabbits was found, both species producing IgM and IgG antibodies to T. gondii one...... week pi. Lymphocyte stimulation tests performed before and one week after inoculation showed a high proliferative response to the parasite in blood cell cultures from rabbits but not hares. The fatal outcome of T. gondii infection in the hares is probably due, at least in part, to the lack of cellular...

  15. Posible superfetación en una coneja raza NZB (Oryctolagus cuniculus) concomitante a retraso del desarrollo intrauterino (RDIU)

    OpenAIRE

    Tena, Eduardo; Hernández, Braulio; Ibáñez, Alejandra; Reyes, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Los trastornos reproductivos del conejo son complejos y numerosos incluyendo rarezas como la superfetación (SF). Se describe un posible caso de sf descubierto accidentalmente, asociado a distocia en una coneja de la raza nzb, que sufre de severa hemorragia vaginal, postración, hipotermia y no reactiva al estímulo. Durante la palpación, numerosos fetos fueron detectados en ambos cuernos uterinos sin respuesta a la manipulación obstétrica para extracción. La cesárea urgente reveló seis producto...

  16. One-trial object recognition memory in the domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is disrupted by NMDA receptor antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Kurt Leroy; Basurto, Enrique

    2013-08-01

    The spontaneous response to novelty is the basis of one-trial object recognition tests for the study of object recognition memory (ORM) in rodents. We describe an object recognition task for the rabbit, based on its natural tendency to scent-mark ("chin") novel objects. The object recognition task comprised a 15min sample phase in which the rabbit was placed into an open field arena containing two similar objects, then removed for a 5-360min delay, and then returned to the same arena that contained one object similar to the original ones ("Familiar") and one that differed from the original ones ("Novel"), for a 15min test phase. Chin-marks directed at each of the objects were registered. Some animals received injections (sc) of saline, ketamine (1mg/kg), or MK-801 (37μg/kg), 5 or 20min before the sample phase. We found that chinning decreased across the sample phase, and that this response showed stimulus specificity, a defining characteristic of habituation: in the test phase, chinning directed at the Novel, but not Familiar, object was increased. Chinning directed preferentially at the novel object, which we interpret as novelty-induced sensitization and the behavioral correlate of ORM, was promoted by tactile/visual and spatial novelty. ORM deficits were induced by pre-treatment with MK-801 and, to a lesser extent, ketamine. Novel object discrimination was not observed after delays longer than 5min. These results suggest that short-term habituation and sensitization, not long-term memory, underlie novel object discrimination in this test paradigm.

  17. Use of arterial blood gas analysis as a superior method for evaluating respiratory function in pet rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eatwell, K; Mancinelli, E; Hedley, J; Benato, L; Shaw, D J; Self, I; Meredith, A

    A retrospective study compared invasive (arterial blood gas analysis) and non-invasive (capnography and pulse oximetry) methods of monitoring respiratory function in conscious rabbits. Arterial samples from 50 healthy dwarf lop rabbits, presenting for routine surgical neutering, were analysed on a point-of-care blood gas analysis machine. Reference intervals were obtained for pH (7.35-7.54), PaCO2 (mm Hg) (25.29-40.37), PaO2 (mm Hg) (50.3-98.2), base excess (mmol/l) (6.7-6.5), HCO3 (mmol/l) (17.96-29.41), TCO2 (mmol/l) (18.9-30.5). SaO2 (per cent) (88.8-98.0), Na (mmol/l) (137.6-145.2), K (mmol/l) (3.28-4.87), iCal (mmol/l) (1.64-1.94), glucose (mmol/l) (6.23-10.53), haematocrit (per cent) (23.3-40.2) and haemoglobin (mg/dl) (7.91-13.63). Pulse oximetry (SPO2) and capnography (ETCO2) readings were taken concurrently. There was no statistically significant relationship between SPO2 and SaO2 with a mean difference between SPO2 and SaO2 of 8.22 per cent. There was a statistically significant relationship between ETCO2 vs PaCO2, but a wide range of ETCO2 values were observed for a given PaCO2. The mean difference between these was 16.16 mm Hg. The study has provided reference intervals for arterial blood gas analysis in rabbits and demonstrated that capnography and pulse oximetry readings should not be relied upon in conscious rabbits as a guide to ventilation and oxygenation.

  18. A frameshift mutation in the melanophilin gene causes the dilute coat colour in rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanesi, L; Scotti, E; Allain, D; Dall'olio, S

    2014-04-01

    In rabbit, the dilute locus is determined by a recessive mutated allele (d) that causes the dilution of both eumelanic and pheomelanic pigmentations. In mice, similar phenotypes are determined by mutations in the myosin VA, Rab27a and melanophilin (MLPH) genes. In this study, we investigated the rabbit MLPH gene and showed that a mutation in this gene appears responsible for the dilute coat colour in this species. Checkered Giant F1 families segregating for black and grey (diluted or blue) coat colour were first genotyped for a complex indel in intron 1 of the MLPH gene that was completely associated with the coat colour phenotype (θ = 0.00; LOD = 4.82). Then, we sequenced 6357 bp of the MLPH gene in 18 rabbits of different coat colours, including blue animals. A total of 165 polymorphisms were identified: 137 were in non-coding regions and 28 were in coding exons. One of them was a frameshift deletion in exon 5. Genotyping the half-sib families confirmed the complete cosegregation of this mutation with the blue coat colour. The mutation was analysed in 198 rabbits of 23 breeds. All Blue Vienna and all other blue/grey/ash rabbits in other breeds (Californian, Castor Rex, Checkered Giant, English Spot, Fairy Marburg and Fairy Pearly) were homozygous for this deletion. The identification of MLPH as the responsible gene for the dilute locus in rabbit provides a natural animal model for human Griscelli syndrome type 3 and a new mutant to study the role of this gene on pigmentation. © 2013 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  19. A low-virulence Eimeria intestinalis isolate from rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in China: molecular identification, pathogenicity, and immunogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Tuanyuan; Bao, Guolian; Fu, Yuan; Suo, Xun; Hao, Lili

    2014-03-01

    An Eimeria intestinalis isolated from a rabbit in China was first identified by amplifying the 18S small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA gene. The size of the amplified fragment was 1521 bp. The 18S SSU RNA gene of the E. intestinalis isolate shared 99% sequence identity with E. intestinalis isolates from France and the Czech Republic, with 100 and 96% coverage, respectively. Then, the pathogenicity and immunogenicity of the E. intestinalis isolate were evaluated in specific pathogen free (SPF) rabbits. In the pathogenicity assay, SPF rabbits in four groups were infected with 5 × 10(3), 5 × 10(4), 5 × 10(5), and 0 sporulated oocysts, respectively. Clinical signs including diarrhoea, constipation, loss of appetite, and reduction of body weight gain were observed in rabbits inoculated with 5 × 10(4) and 5 × 10(5) oocysts. And one rabbit (25 %) inoculated with 5 × 10(5) oocysts died 15 days after the inoculation. In the immunogenicity assay, SPF rabbits in five groups (named B1, B2, B3, B4, and B5) were immunised with 5 × 10(1), 5 × 10(2), 5 × 10(3), 0, and 0 sporulated oocysts, respectively. All rabbits but the B5 group were challenged with 1 × 10(6) oocysts. After the challenge, no or slight clinical signs were seen in rabbits of the B2 and B3 groups. Compared with the control, a 69.6 and 84.5% reduction of oocyst output was observed in the B2 and B3 groups, respectively. The body weight gain of the two groups was obviously higher than that of the challenge control group. All the results show that the E. intestinalis isolate has low virulence but immunogenicity in rabbit.

  20. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease: are Australian rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) evolving resistance to infection with Czech CAPM 351 RHDV?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsworth, P G; Kovaliski, J; Cooke, B D

    2012-11-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease is a major tool for the management of introduced, wild rabbits in Australia. However, new evidence suggests that rabbits may be developing resistance to the disease. Rabbits sourced from wild populations in central and southeastern Australia, and domestic rabbits for comparison, were experimentally challenged with a low 60 ID50 oral dose of commercially available Czech CAPM 351 virus - the original strain released in Australia. Levels of resistance to infection were generally higher than for unselected domestic rabbits and also differed (0-73% infection rates) between wild populations. Resistance was lower in populations from cooler, wetter regions and also low in arid regions with the highest resistance seen within zones of moderate rainfall. These findings suggest the external influences of non-pathogenic calicivirus in cooler, wetter areas and poor recruitment in arid populations may influence the development rate of resistance in Australia.

  1. Bilateral Successive Cranial Cruciate Ligament Rupture Treated by Extracapsular Stabilization Surgery in a Pet Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zuijlen, Michiel A.; Vrolijk, Patricia W. F.; van der Heyden, Marcel A. G.

    2010-01-01

    A 4.1 kg, 4-month-old female pet rabbit was presented twice within a 4 month period for cranial cruciate ligament rupture of its right, then left stifle joint Stifle joint stabilization was performed with an extracapsular technique after both events. Immediately after stabilization, the rabbit regai

  2. Timing in Trace Conditioning of the Nictitating Membrane Response of the Rabbit ("Oryctolagus Cuniculus"): Scalar, Nonscalar, and Adaptive Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehoe, E. James; Ludvig, Elliot A.; Sutton, Richard S.

    2010-01-01

    Using interstimulus intervals (ISIs) of 125, 250, and 500 msec in trace conditioning of the rabbit nictitating membrane response, the offset times and durations of conditioned responses (CRs) were collected along with onset and peak latencies. All measures were proportional to the ISI, but only onset and peak latencies conformed to the criterion…

  3. Increased virulence of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus associated with genetic resistance in wild Australian rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsworth, Peter; Cooke, Brian D; Kovaliski, John; Sinclair, Ronald; Holmes, Edward C; Strive, Tanja

    2014-09-01

    The release of myxoma virus (MYXV) and Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) in Australia with the aim of controlling overabundant rabbits has provided a unique opportunity to study the initial spread and establishment of emerging pathogens, as well as their co-evolution with their mammalian hosts. In contrast to MYXV, which attenuated shortly after its introduction, rapid attenuation of RHDV has not been observed. By studying the change in virulence of recent field isolates at a single field site we show, for the first time, that RHDV virulence has increased through time, likely because of selection to overcome developing genetic resistance in Australian wild rabbits. High virulence also appears to be favoured as rabbit carcasses, rather than diseased animals, are the likely source of mechanical insect transmission. These findings not only help elucidate the co-evolutionary interaction between rabbits and RHDV, but reveal some of the key factors shaping virulence evolution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of long-term cognitive-enhancing effects of bryostatin-1 on the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) nictitating membrane response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Desheng; Darwish, Deya S; Schreurs, Bernard G; Alkon, Daniel L

    2008-05-01

    Previous work demonstrated that protein kinase C (PKC) is implicated in learning and memory. This study investigated whether: (i) PKC activated by bryostatin-1 (Bryo) just before or just after sessions of classical conditioning was capable of enhancing classical conditioning of the rabbit nictitating membrane response; (ii) improved behavioral performance matched the time course of PKC activation induced by Bryo; and (iii) vitamin E (Vit E) enhanced the efficacy of Bryo. Paired rabbits received daily trace conditioning with a tone conditioned stimulus and a corneal air puff unconditioned stimulus. Unpaired rabbits received the same stimuli but in an explicitly unpaired manner. After trace conditioning, all rabbits received daily delay conditioning, and then tone intensity testing. Rabbits pretreated with 10 microg/kg Bryo every other day before a relatively simple trace conditioning task showed more conditioned responses (CRs) during the first 10 trials of each trace conditioning session and a higher likelihood of a CR on the first trial of each trace conditioning session than rabbits pretreated with the vehicle control. Rabbits either posttreated daily with 10 microg/kg Bryo or pretreated with Vit E and subjected to a difficult trace conditioning task showed increased CRs relative to the vehicle control. Neither Bryo nor Vit E or their combination altered nonassociative responding or altered sensitivity to the conditioned stimulus or unconditioned stimulus. These findings demonstrate Bryo has long-term enhancing effects on classical conditioning of the rabbit nictitating membrane response.

  5. Prevalence, pathology and risk factors for coccidiosis in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in selected regions in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumu, P O; Gathumbi, P K; Karanja, D N; Mande, J D; Wanyoike, M M; Gachuiri, C K; Kiarie, N; Mwanza, R N; Borter, D K

    2014-01-01

    The potential for rabbit production in Kenya is high. However, high morbidity and mortality of domestic rabbits were reported. The aim of the study was to determine the pathology, prevalence and the predisposing factors to coccidiosis in domestic rabbits in selected regions in Kenya. A total of 61 farms keeping rabbits in six different counties were visited in the survey. A total of 2680 live rabbits were examined and 61 rabbits and 302 fecal samples were randomly collected from the farms and examined for coccidian oocysts by ante-mortem and post-mortem methods. The predisposing factors to coccidiosis were assessed through questionnaires and direct observation. Chi square (χ(2)) statistics was used with P values coccidiosis and hepatic coccidiosis was 29.5% and 11.5%, respectively. Higher counts of coccidian oocysts per gram of feces were recovered in weaners than in growers and adults rabbits (P coccidiosis in domestic rabbits in Kenya.

  6. The helminth parasites of the wild rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus and their effect on host condition in Dunas de Mira, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eira, C; Torres, J; Miquel, J; Vingada, J

    2007-09-01

    The present study focuses on the helminth parasite community of the wild rabbit in a sand dune area in Portugal over a 5-year period. The influence of host sex and year on the composition of the helminth community is assessed, along with the potential effect of the detected helminths on host body condition. The basic structure of the helminth community comprises Mosgovoyia ctenoides, Graphidium strigosum, Trichostrongylus retortaeformis, Nematodiroides zembrae and Passalurus ambiguus. Mean intensities of G. strigosum varied between years. General G. strigosum intensities were also found to vary according to both year and host sex, but not according to the interaction of both factors. When assessing the effect of helminths on rabbit body condition (expressed by the kidney fat index), higher burdens of M. ctenoides, a cestode that presents a relatively large body mass, were found to induce a reduction in rabbit condition.

  7. Using «stonebreaker» (Phyllantus niruri) as therapy for struvite urolithiasis in a pet rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    OpenAIRE

    Quevedo U., Miryam; Laboratorio de Anatomía Animal y Fauna Silvestre, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima.; Lescano G., Jesús; Laboratorio de Anatomía Animal y Fauna Silvestre; Sato Sato, Alberto; Laboratorio de Anatomía Animal y Fauna Silvestre, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima

    2015-01-01

    Urolithiasis is a common disease in companion animals, but the etiopathogenesis and frequency in rabbits is poorly known. Conventional therapy can be surgical or medical. An alternative treatment based on the use of the plant «stonebreaker» (Phyllantus niruri) is commonly used in human urolithiasis in Peruvian traditional medicine, despite pharmacologic mechanisms are not completely understood yet. It is reported the case of a male rabbit showing dysuria and abdominal pain. Radiologic examina...

  8. PATRÓN ECOGRÁFICO DE LOS ÓRGANOS ABDOMINALES DEL CONEJO DOMÉSTICO (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    OpenAIRE

    Cahua U., Jacqueline; Clínica de Animales Menores, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima. Perú; Quevedo U., Miryam; Laboratorio de Anatomía y Fauna Silvestre, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima.; Lescano C., Jesus; Laboratorio de Anatomía y Fauna Silvestre, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima.; Bustamante L., José; Laboratorio de Producción Avícola y Especies Menores, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Poma B., Graciela; Clínica de Animales Menores, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima.

    2014-01-01

    El presente estudio tuvo por objetivo la determinación del patrón ecográfico cuantitativo de los órganos abdominales del conejo doméstico. Se trabajó con 16 conejos adultos (11 hembras y 5 machos) de raza Nueva Zelanda, obteniéndose las mediciones descriptivas de hígado (diafragma hilio, dorsoventral y diámetro transverso), vesículabiliar (longitud y espesor), pared gástrica, vejiga (pared, longitud y espesor), bazo (longitud, espesor y diámetro transverso), riñones (longitud, espesor y corte...

  9. Activity Patterns of Wild Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus, L.1758, under Semi-Freedom Conditions, during Autumn and Winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díez, C.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is to assess the activity biorhythms of the European rabbit, under semi-freedom conditions between September and March. The study was carried out in a property located in the north of the County of Valladolid (Spain. Nine wild adult animals, 2 males and 7 females, were used. They were marked individually with a microchip (AVID(r. These animals were lodged in a 0.5 ha. enclosure. It was composed of two areas, one smaller where burrows were located and a bigger area, in which animals had fresh food and water. Both areas were separated by a metallic net provided of two passageways, in which, two microchips readers were placed to register animal activity. Each register indicated date, hour and code of the animal that had gone through the passageway. An activity rate was determined as the number of times that the total of the animals went through all the passageways, per hour of each day of the study. A monthly index of activity was also determined by the average of the daily activity rates during each month. It was observed that wild rabbits present a pronounced twilight and night-time activity, with two activity peaks which coincide with the sunrise and sunset. It was also determined that the activity of the animals in central hours of the day was practically null in both sexes. The activity pattern was changing, gradually, in function of the hour of sunrise and sunset on each month of the study. The activity index increased from September on, reaching a maximum peak during December, and decreased gradually until February when this index increased slightly until the finalization of the study on March. This pattern can be associated with the reproductive rhythms of the wild rabbit in the study area, during this period.

  10. Effects of low dosage Co-60 irradiation in the course of aseptic arthritis of the knee joint of rabbits; Effekte einer niedrig dosierten Co-60-Bestrahlung auf den Verlauf einer aseptischen Arthritis am Kniegelenk des Kaninchens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, U.; Koch, F.; Ludewig, E. [Univ. Leipzig (Germany). Veterinaermedizinische Fakultaet; Kamprad, F.; Melzer, R.; Hildebrandt, G. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie

    1998-12-01

    significance. Conclusion: The experiments provide evidence for an antiphlogistic effect of irradiation with 5 times 1.0 Gy in vivo. They support the clinical observations of the efficacy of anti-inflammatory radiotherapy. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Zahlreiche klinisch-empirische Erhebungen zeigten die Effektivitaet niedriger Strahlendosen in der Therapie schmerzhafter entzuendlich-degenerativer Gelenkerkrankungen. Experimentelle Untersuchungen liegen jedoch kaum vor. Wir untersuchten die Effekte einer lokalen fraktionierten Co-60-Bestrahlung mit 5mal, 1,0 Gy auf eine artifizielle aseptische Arthritis am Kniegelenk des Kaninchens. Material und Methoden: Es wurden drei Einzelversuche (EV) mit jeweils zehn Kaninchen (fuenf Versuchs- und fuenf Kontrolltiere) durchgefuehrt (Versuchsdauer: EV1: 18 Tage; EV2: Sechs Tage; EV3: 29 Tage). Die Induktion der aseptischen Arthritis erfolgte am Tag 0 durch intraartikulaere Injektion von 0,5 ml einer 3%igen Papainloesung (30 000 USP/mg) in das rechte Kniegelenk. Die taeglich fraktionierte lokale Bestrahlung des arthritischen Gelenks mit 5mal, 1,0 Gy wurde an den Tagen 1 bis 5 waehrend einer Kurznarkose durchgefuehrt. Die Kontrollgruppen wurden in analoger Technik an den Tagen 1 bis 5 scheinbestrahlt. Der Verlauf der Arthritis in den Versuchs- und Kontrollgruppen wurde anhand klinischer, laborchemischer und morphometrischer Parameter charakterisiert. Die klinische Untersuchung erfolgte taeglich, die Punktion der Kniegelenke in EV1 wiederholt, in EV2 und EV3 am letzten Versuchstag. Jeweils am Versuchsende wurden die Kniegelenke zur histologischen Analyse nach erfolgter Euthanasie entnommen. Ergebnisse: Die intraartikulaere Injektion von Papain fuehrte bei allen Tieren zu einer perakuten entzuendlichen Reaktion, welche nach einer Woche in die chronische Phase ueberging und sich ueber mehrere Wochen kontinuierlich zurueckbildete. Die lokal bestrahlten Versuchstiere zeigten klinisch eine signifikant schnellere Rueckbildung der entzuendlichen

  11. Myxomatosis. The effect of age upon survival of wild and domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) with a degree of genetic resistance and unselected domestic rabbits infected with myxoma virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobey, W R; Conolly, D; Haycockp; Edmonds, J W

    1970-03-01

    The response of wild and domestic rabbits with a degree of genetic resistance to myxomatosis has been shown to be markedly affected by the age at which they were infected with a virulent strain of the virus. The response, in terms of mean survival time and percentage survival, fell with increasing age from 10 to 30 weeks with little change thereafter.

  12. Myxomatosis: the virulence of field strains of myxoma virus in a population of wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.) with high resistance to myxomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, J W; Nolan, I F; Shepherd, R C; Gocs, A

    1975-06-01

    The virulence of field strains of myxoma virus is increasing in the Mallee region of Victoria where the resistance of the rabbit to myxomatosis is high. This suggests that the climax association will be a moderately severe disease.

  13. Myxomatosis: the occurrence of antibody to a soluble antigen of myxoma virus in wild rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus (L.), in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, J W; Shepherd, R C; Nolan, I F

    1978-10-01

    The occurrence of antibody of myxoma virus in wild rabbits following epizootics is highest in the semi-arid north-west of Victoria and lowest in temperate southern Victoria. Occurrence ranges up to about 90% in the north-west and to about 70% in the south except on the Western Plains where epizootics are rare and antibody occurrence seldom exceeds 30%. The establishment of the European rabbit flea may be changing the pattern of occurrence of antibody in the north-west by causing spring outbreaks of myxomatosis. It is suggested that the effects of the replacement of a simple recurring system of epizootic and breeding season several months apart by the occurrence of myxomatosis twice in the same year, once coincident with the breeding season, will be complex. The occurrence of detectable antibody may be less dependent on the infection rate and may be dependent to some extent on the relative timing of spring myxomatosis and the breeding season.

  14. Myxomatosis: passive immunity in the offspring of immune rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) infested with fleas (Spilopsyllus cuniculi Dale) and exposed to myxoma virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobey, W R; Conolly, D

    1975-02-01

    Kittens with maternal antibodies to myxoma virus, the offspring of rabbits which had recovered from myxomatosis, were exposed to fleas contaminated with myxoma virus and/or contact with infected rabbits from birth. All kittens died or became infected before 8 weeks of age. When compared with adult animals similarly infected the kittens showed no advantage in terms of survival time or recovery rate attributable to maternal antibodies. Flea transmission of virus was found more effective than contact transmissions.

  15. Post-mortem changes in the concentration of lactic acid, phosphates and pH in the muscles of wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) according to the perimortal situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mačanga, Ján; Koréneková, Beáta; Nagy, Jozef; Marcinčák, Slavomir; Popelka, Peter; Kožárová, Ivona; Korének, Marián

    2011-08-01

    In this study changes in the concentrations of lactate, phosphates, and pH values of water extracts of muscles of transported and hunted rabbits during ripening were determined. Concentrations of lactate were higher in the muscles of hunted rabbits. The highest differences were obtained 24h after kill/hunt. Concentrations of lactate in the muscles of hunted rabbits were decreasing, while in the muscles of transported rabbits we observed it to increase in the 7th day and then decrease in the 14th day. Higher concentrations of phosphates were found in the muscles of transported wild rabbits. During the ripening process concentrations of phosphates were decreasing in muscles of both groups. Muscles of hunted rabbits had lower pH values during the whole ripening process. Our research showed that concentrations of lactate, phosphates and pH value post-mortem depended on the perimortal situations.

  16. INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE, MEAN ARTERIAL BLOOD PRESSURE AND PUPILLARY DIAMETER IN RABBITS ( (Oryctolagus cuniculus SUBJECTED TO RETROBULBAR BLOCK WITH DIFFERENT ANESTHETIC PROTOCOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Maria Monção da Silva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate four protocols of loco regional anesthesia for ophthalmic procedures that could provide safety and life support, in addition to maintain intraocular pressure stable, with eye centralization and eyelid akinesia. 20 New Zealand rabbits were used to perform local anesthesia by retrobulbar block with four protocols: 2% lidocaine with epinephrine, 2% lidocaine without epinephrine associated with tramadol, 1% ropivacaine and bupivacaine 0.5 %. Each animal received an anesthetic volume of 1 mL. All anesthetic protocols used promoted eyelid akinesia and centralization of the eye during the assessment period. The retrobulbar block with the proposed anesthetic protocols proved to be feasible and safe for the maintenance of intraocular pressure, invasive blood pressure and pupillary diameter and can be used in intraocular surgeries, respecting the time of action of each anesthetic. All protocols showed an excellent blockage action but bupivacaine promoted the highest pupil diameter compared to the other drugs tested.

  17. A deletion in exon 9 of the LIPH gene is responsible for the rex hair coat phenotype in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Diribarne

    Full Text Available The fur of common rabbits is constituted of 3 types of hair differing in length and diameter while that of rex animals is essentially made up of amazingly soft down-hair. Rex short hair coat phenotypes in rabbits were shown to be controlled by three distinct loci. We focused on the "r1" mutation which segregates at a simple autosomal-recessive locus in our rabbit strains. A positional candidate gene approach was used to identify the rex gene and the corresponding mutation. The gene was primo-localized within a 40 cM region on rabbit chromosome 14 by genome scanning families of 187 rabbits in an experimental mating scheme. Then, fine mapping refined the region to 0.5 cM (Z = 78 by genotyping an additional 359 offspring for 94 microsatellites present or newly generated within the first defined interval. Comparative mapping pointed out a candidate gene in this 700 kb region, namely LIPH (Lipase Member H. In humans, several mutations in this major gene cause alopecia, hair loss phenotypes. The rabbit gene structure was established and a deletion of a single nucleotide was found in LIPH exon 9 of rex rabbits (1362delA. This mutation results in a frameshift and introduces a premature stop codon potentially shortening the protein by 19 amino acids. The association between this deletion and the rex phenotype was complete, as determined by its presence in our rabbit families and among a panel of 60 rex and its absence in all 60 non-rex rabbits. This strongly suggests that this deletion, in a homozygous state, is responsible for the rex phenotype in rabbits.

  18. A deletion in exon 9 of the LIPH gene is responsible for the rex hair coat phenotype in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diribarne, Mathieu; Mata, Xavier; Chantry-Darmon, Céline; Vaiman, Anne; Auvinet, Gérard; Bouet, Stéphan; Deretz, Séverine; Cribiu, Edmond-Paul; de Rochambeau, Hubert; Allain, Daniel; Guérin, Gérard

    2011-04-28

    The fur of common rabbits is constituted of 3 types of hair differing in length and diameter while that of rex animals is essentially made up of amazingly soft down-hair. Rex short hair coat phenotypes in rabbits were shown to be controlled by three distinct loci. We focused on the "r1" mutation which segregates at a simple autosomal-recessive locus in our rabbit strains. A positional candidate gene approach was used to identify the rex gene and the corresponding mutation. The gene was primo-localized within a 40 cM region on rabbit chromosome 14 by genome scanning families of 187 rabbits in an experimental mating scheme. Then, fine mapping refined the region to 0.5 cM (Z = 78) by genotyping an additional 359 offspring for 94 microsatellites present or newly generated within the first defined interval. Comparative mapping pointed out a candidate gene in this 700 kb region, namely LIPH (Lipase Member H). In humans, several mutations in this major gene cause alopecia, hair loss phenotypes. The rabbit gene structure was established and a deletion of a single nucleotide was found in LIPH exon 9 of rex rabbits (1362delA). This mutation results in a frameshift and introduces a premature stop codon potentially shortening the protein by 19 amino acids. The association between this deletion and the rex phenotype was complete, as determined by its presence in our rabbit families and among a panel of 60 rex and its absence in all 60 non-rex rabbits. This strongly suggests that this deletion, in a homozygous state, is responsible for the rex phenotype in rabbits.

  19. Detection of the new emerging rabbit haemorrhagic disease type 2 virus (RHDV2) in Sicily from rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and Italian hare (Lepus corsicanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarda, A; Pugliese, N; Cavadini, P; Circella, E; Capucci, L; Caroli, A; Legretto, M; Mallia, E; Lavazza, A

    2014-12-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), a member of the genus Lagovirus, causes rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD), a fatal hepatitis of rabbits, not previously reported in hares. Recently, a new RHDV-related virus emerged, called RHDV2. This lagovirus can cause RHD in rabbits and disease and mortality in Lepus capensis (Cape hare). Here we describe a case of RHDV2 infection in another hare species, Lepus corsicanus, during a concurrent RHD outbreak in a group of wild rabbits. The same RHDV2 strain infected rabbits and a hare, also causing a RHD-like syndrome in the latter. Our findings confirmed the capability of RHDV2 to infect hosts other than rabbits and improve the knowledge about the epidemiology and the host range of this new lagovirus.

  20. [Species from genus Eimeria observed in domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) feces raised at the Municipality of Campos dos Goytacazes in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Adriana J; Mayen, Friederike L; de Oliveira, Francisco C R

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to identify species of the genus Eimeria from eleven rabbit meat breeders from Campos dos Goytacazes. Fecal samples were collected from rabbits with different health conditions and consintence of feces. The following species of Eimeria were identified: E. perforans; E. magna; E. coecicola; E. irresidua; E. media; E. flavescens; E. nagpurensis; E. intestinalis, E. exigua and E. stiedae. Parasites from this genus were detected in 81.82% (9) of the rabbit meat production sites, regardless of the management and hygiene conditions. In all cases the infection was always caused from more than one species of Eimeria.

  1. Avaliação fisiopatológica de coelhos (Oryctolagus cuniculus) infectados experimentalmente com oocistos esporulados de Eimeria stiedae (APICOMPLEXA: EIMERIIDAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas,Fagner Luiz da Costa

    2009-01-01

    A infecção experimental por Eimeria stiedae em coelhos foi realizada com o objetivo de avaliar os sinais clínicos, alterações hematológicas, metabólicas e anatomopatológicas. Foram utilizados 50 coelhos, raça Nova Zelândia, brancos, com idade entre 40 - 60 dias e de pesos semelhantes. Os animais foram randomizados com relação ao peso e distribuídos em 2 grupos experimentais: grupo infectado, inoculado com 1ml de solução contendo 1x104 oocistos esporulados de E. stiedae; grupo controle, inocul...

  2. Effects of multimodal analgesia with LowDose buprenorphine and meloxicam on fecal glucocorticoid metabolites after surgery in New Zealand white rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschlager, Gregg B; Gillespie, Virginia L; Palme, Rupert; Baxter, Mark G

    2013-09-01

    Despite the increasing use of rabbits as companion animals and models for biomedical research, rabbits have not been extensively studied to identify an efficacious postsurgical analgesic that does not cause systemic complications. The synergy of NSAID and systemic opioids is well-documented, and their combined use reduces the amount of either drug required for adequate analgesia. We measured fecal corticosterone metabolites (FCM) in rabbits after a minimally invasive vascular cut-down procedure. Rabbits received buprenorphine (0.03 mg/kg SC every 12 h for 3 d), meloxicam (0.2 mg/kg SC every 24 h for 3 d), buprenorphine-meloxicam (0.01 mg/kg-0.1 mg/kg SC every 24 h for 3 d), or a single dose of 0.5% bupivacaine (0.5 mL) infused locally at the incision site. By day 3 after surgery, buprenorphine, meloxicam, and bupivacaine groups showed elevated FCM levels, which continued to rise until day 7 and then gradually returned to baseline by day 28. In the buprenorphine-meloxicam group, FCM was relatively unchanged until day 3, when treatment was discontinued, and then began to rise. Rabbits in the buprenorphine-meloxicam group gained more weight over the 28-d study than did those in the other 3 treatment groups. This study shows that in rabbits low-dose buprenorphine administered with meloxicam effectively mitigates the FCM response that develops after surgery without the adverse effects associated with higher doses.

  3. Caracterización inmunohistoquimica del fenotipo celular muscular vascular en el seno carotídeo y sus cambios al envejecimiento en Oryctolagus cuniculus

    OpenAIRE

    Acero Mondragón, Edward Javier

    2012-01-01

    El seno carotídeo es la mayor aferencia barorefleja, con la cual sistema nervioso autónomo ejerce modulación de la presión arterial sistémica. En grado variable, se ha demostrado clínicamente en humanos y experimentalmente en modelos murinos, caninos y lagomorfos, cómo su estimulación tiene un efecto hipotensor; sin embargo, la caracterización inmunohistoquímica del fenotipo celular muscular vascular contráctil o vascular smooth cell contraction (VSC-C) y el fenotipo celular muscular vascular...

  4. Evaluación cardiorrespiratoria de conejos (Oryctolagus cuniculus anestesiados con una combinación de tramadol, acepromacina, xilazina y ketamina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JJ Pérez-Rivero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Los conejos son considerados animales difíciles de anestesiar, debido a sus peculiaridades anatómicas y fisiológicas. Durante la anestesia general se presenta una mortalidad superior al 5%, además las combinaciones anestésicas utilizadas pocas veces incluyen analgésicos de manera transoperatoria. 25 conejos Nueva Zelanda clínicamente sanos fueron anestesiados con la combinación de ketamina (50mg/kg, xilacina (5mg/kg, acepromacina (0,5 mg/ kg, por vía intramuscular, 10 minutos después se aplicó tramadol (5 mg/kg por vía endovenosa. Se evaluó frecuencia cardiaca, respiratoria y oximetría antes de la aplicación de la anestesia al minuto"0" y posteriormente cada 10 minutos hasta el minuto 60. La frecuencia cardiaca y respiratoria tuvieron una diferencia significativa (P < 0,05 entre el minuto "0" y el minuto "10" a partir de este momento no existen cambios significativos durante los restantes 50 minutos. La frecuencia cardiaca promedio fue de 154 ± 28 latidos por minuto y la frecuencia respiratoria promedio fue de 63 ± 33 respiraciones por minuto durante el procedimiento. La oximetría promedio fue de 88 ± 8 %, se encontró diferencia significativa sólo en el minuto 40 de la anestesia. Aparentemente el protocolo anestésico a base de tramadol, acepromacina, xilazina y ketamina es seguro a las dosis utilizadas para la enseñanza de la cirugía, en donde las FC, FR y la Ox aparentemente se comportan con estabilidad, sin embargo, se recomienda suplementar oxigeno durante la anestesia.

  5. Colonization history of Mallorca Island by the European rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus, and the Iberian hare, Lepus granatensis (Lagomorpha: Leporidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seixas, Fernando A.; Juste, Javier; Campos, Paula;

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean islands have a long history of human-mediated introductions resulting in frequent replacements of their fauna and flora. Although these histories are sometimes well documented or may be inferred from paleontological studies, the use of phylogenetic and population genetic reconst...... been originated both from Iberian and French populations. The molecular estimates of the timing of the colonization events of the Mallorcan lagomorphs are consistent with human-mediated introductions by early settlers on the islands....

  6. Comparación bromatológica, microbiológica y sensorial de dos formulaciones de salchichas elaboradas con carne de conejo (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    OpenAIRE

    José Igor Hleap Zapata; Yisell Vanessa Romero Erazo; Saúl Dussán Sarria

    2014-01-01

    En este estudio se evaluaron dos formulaciones diferentes de salchichas elaboradas con carne de conejo, utilizando como extendedores harina de chontaduro (Bactris gasipaes) y almidón modificado de maíz. Ambas formulaciones consistieron en 60% de carne de conejo, 12% de grasa de cerdo y 4% del respectivo extensor, el porcentaje restante correspondió a hielo y condimentos. Los análisis bromatológicos mostraron los contenidos siguientes (base seca): (1) en carne = 60.90% de proteína, 33.65% de...

  7. Avaliação das fibras colágenas de meniscos frescos e preservados em glicerina: estudo experimental em coelhos (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    OpenAIRE

    Vilela,Liana M.; Ricardo J. Del Carlo; Silva,João Carlos P. da; Matta,Sérgio Luís P.Da; Rodrigues,Mauricio Correia D.; Reis,Amanda Maria S.

    2010-01-01

    No presente estudo foi avaliado o efeito da glicerina 98% sobre as fibras colágenas, arquitetura tecidual e o tamanho de meniscos mediais de coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia. Os meniscos foram separados em três grupos: (1) Grupo MF com meniscos frescos (grupo controle), (2) Grupo MG com meniscos preservados em glicerina 98% por 30 dias, e (3) Grupo MR com meniscos preservados em glicerina 98% por 30 dias e reidratados em NaCl 0,9%, por 12 horas. Os cortes histológicos foram corados com sirius re...

  8. Evaluación geométrica de meniscos frescos y conservados en glicerina al 98 %. Estudio en conejos (Oryctolagus cuniculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Marcela Perez Berrio

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Los aloimplantes de meniscos se han utilizado como fuente de tejido a la hora de sustituirlos por roturas o daños irreparables. Para determinar posibles cambios o no por conservación se planteó como objetivo evaluar geométricamente meniscos frescos y conservados en glicerina al 98 %. Se utilizaron 15 meniscos mediales, provenientes de ocho conejos de raza nueva zelanda albina, separados en tres grupos: cinco meniscos frescos (GI, cinco meniscos conservados por ocho meses en glicerina al 98 % (GII y cinco meniscos conservados por ocho meses en glicerina al 98 % y rehidratados en solución salina 0,9 %, por 24 horas (GIII. Todos los meniscos se midieron con pie de rey en siete puntos de su estructura geométrica. El estudio estableció que no hubo diferencias estadísticas en las medidas estudiadas de GII y GIII con relación a GI y al comparar las medidas de GIII con GII tampoco las hubo, por lo que se podría considerar innecesaria a la rehidratación por 24 horas en solución salina antibiótica.

  9. Evaluación geométrica de meniscos frescos y conservados en glicerina al 98 %. Estudio en conejos (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Marcela Perez Berrio; Valery Jose Lancheros Suárez; Mastoby Miguel Martínez Martínez

    2014-01-01

    Los aloimplantes de meniscos se han utilizado como fuente de tejido a la hora de sustituirlos por roturas o daños irreparables. Para determinar posibles cambios o no por conservación se planteó como objetivo evaluar geométricamente meniscos frescos y conservados en glicerina al 98 %. Se utilizaron 15 meniscos mediales, provenientes de ocho conejos de raza nueva zelanda albina, separados en tres grupos: cinco meniscos frescos (GI), cinco meniscos conservados por ocho meses en glicerina al 98 %...

  10. In vitro study and comparison of caecal methanogenesis and fermentation pattern in the brown hare (Lepus europaeus and domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Miśta

    Full Text Available The brown hare and the domestic rabbit are mid-sized herbivorous mammals and hindgut fermenters, though their digestive physiologies differ in some traits. The objective of this study was to estimate and compare the caecal microbial activity in hares and rabbits via an analysis of the following end-products of in vitro caecal fermentation: methane, total gas production, short chain fatty acids and ammonia concentration. Hare caecal methanogenesis occurred at a much lower level (0.25 mmol/kg for samples incubated without substrate and 0.22 mmol/kg for samples incubated with substrate than that of the rabbit (15.49 and 11.73 mmol/kg, respectively (P<0.001. The impact of the substrate's presence on caecal methanogenesis was not significant, though its presence increased the total gas production during fermentation (P<0.001. Hare caecal microflora produced a lower short chain fatty acids concentration than did rabbit microorganisms (P<0.05. In unincubated hare samples, the short chain fatty acids concentration was 28.4 mmol/kg, whereas in unincubated rabbit samples, the short chain fatty acids concentration was 51.8 mmol/kg. The caecal fermentation pattern of the hare was characterised by higher propionate and isobutyrate molar proportions compared with those observed in rabbit caecum (P<0.01. No significant changes in the ammonia concentration in either rabbit or hare caecum were found. The results obtained indicate some differences in the activity of the microbial populations colonising the hare and rabbit caecum, particularly in regards to methanogenic Archaea.

  11. FALSE YAM (Icacina Oliviformis LEAF MEAL AS AN INGREDIENT IN THE DIET OF WEANER RABBITS (Oryctolagus Cuniculus TO IMPROVE BLOOD PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. ANSAH

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A 60 day feeding trial was conducted to determine the effect of Icacina oliviformis leaf (IOL as a feed ingredient on the hematology of weaner rabbits. There were arranged in three treatments with four replicates in a completely randomized design. The control diet (T0 contained 0% Icacina oliviformis leaf (IOL while the treatment diets (T1and T2 contained 5% and 10% IOL, respectively. An amount of 200 g of the experimental diet was given to the animals each day while water was given ad-libitum. Initial blood samples were collected two days earlier before experimental diet was fed. Data were analyzed using Genstat Discovery Edition 3. There were no significant differences (P>0.05 in (Haemoglobin Hb concentration, PCV, RBC however all the erythrocytes values increased from the initial low values to higher values. The margin of increase was higher for T1. There were no significant differences (P>0.05 among the treatment means for WBC, Neutrophiles, Eosinophiles, Monocytes counts in the final readings. The hematology values recorded for all the treatments fell within the normal ranges for rabbits. Feeding 5% and 10% IOL to a weaner rabbits led to an increase in erythrocytes values and could be used in feeding without any detrimental effect.

  12. Early infections by myxoma virus of young rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) protected by maternal antibodies activate their immune system and enhance herd immunity in wild populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchandeau, Stéphane; Pontier, Dominique; Guitton, Jean-Sébastien; Letty, Jérôme; Fouchet, David; Aubineau, Jacky; Berger, Francis; Léonard, Yves; Roobrouck, Alain; Gelfi, Jacqueline; Peralta, Brigitte; Bertagnoli, Stéphane

    2014-03-04

    The role of maternal antibodies is to protect newborns against acute early infection by pathogens. This can be achieved either by preventing any infection or by allowing attenuated infections associated with activation of the immune system, the two strategies being based on different cost/benefit ratios. We carried out an epidemiological survey of myxomatosis, which is a highly lethal infectious disease, in two distant wild populations of rabbits to describe the epidemiological pattern of the disease. Detection of specific IgM and IgG enabled us to describe the pattern of immunity. We show that maternal immunity attenuates early infection of juveniles and enables activation of their immune system. This mechanism associated with steady circulation of the myxoma virus in both populations, which induces frequent reinfections of immune rabbits, leads to the maintenance of high immunity levels within populations. Thus, myxomatosis has a low impact, with most infections being asymptomatic. This work shows that infection of young rabbits protected by maternal antibodies induces attenuated disease and activates their immune system. This may play a major role in reducing the impact of a highly lethal disease when ecological conditions enable permanent circulation of the pathogen.

  13. Myxomatosis. The effect of age upon survival of wild and domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) with a degree of genetic resistance and unselected domestic rabbits infected with myxoma virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobey, W. R.; Conolly, Dorothy; Haycock, P.; Edmonds, J. W.

    1970-01-01

    The response of wild and domestic rabbits with a degree of genetic resistance to myxomatosis has been shown to be markedly affected by the age at which they were infected with a virulent strain of the virus. The response, in terms of mean survival time and percentage survival, fell with increasing age from 10 to 30 weeks with little change thereafter. PMID:5267123

  14. Myxomatosis: passive immunity in the offspring of immune rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) infested with fleas (Spilopsyllus cuniculi Dale) and exposed to myxoma virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobey, W. R.; Conolly, D.

    1975-01-01

    Kittens with maternal antibodies to myxoma virus, the offspring of rabbits which had recovered from myxomatosis, were exposed to fleas contaminated with myxoma virus and/or contact with infected rabbits from birth. All kittens died or became infected before 8 weeks of age. When compared with adult animals similarly infected the kittens showed no advantage in terms of survival time or recovery rate attributable to maternal antibodies. Flea transmission of virus was found more effective than contact transmissions. PMID:1054058

  15. Monitoring the spread of myxoma virus in rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus populations on the southern tablelands of New South Wales, Australia. I. Natural occurrence of myxomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, J C; Kerr, P J; Simms, N G; Robinson, A J

    2003-02-01

    A survey of rabbit populations in the southern tablelands of New South Wales, Australia, was carried out to establish the pattern of occurrence of myxomatosis in preparation for a deliberate release of myxoma virus. Myxomatosis was first detected in December and cases were found on most sites through to May. The serological profiles of rabbit populations suggested that their susceptibility to myxoma virus was generally low in winter and highest in spring and summer reflecting the presence of increasing numbers of susceptible young rabbits. This was consistent with the pattern of rabbit breeding, as determined from the distribution of births and reproductive activity in females and males, which occurred maximally in spring and early summer. The serology and age structure of rabbit populations on sites suggested that some rabbit populations can escape an annual myxomatosis epizootic. Although fleas were present on rabbits throughout the year and therefore not considered to be a limiting factor in the spread of myxomatosis, their numbers peaked at times coincident with peak rabbit breeding. It was concluded that mid to late spring was an optimal time for a deliberate release.

  16. Myxomatosis: the occurrence of antibody to a soluble antigen of myxoma virus in wild rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus (L.), in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, J. W.; Shepherd, R. C.; Nolan, I. F.

    1978-01-01

    The occurrence of antibody of myxoma virus in wild rabbits following epizootics is highest in the semi-arid north-west of Victoria and lowest in temperate southern Victoria. Occurrence ranges up to about 90% in the north-west and to about 70% in the south except on the Western Plains where epizootics are rare and antibody occurrence seldom exceeds 30%. The establishment of the European rabbit flea may be changing the pattern of occurrence of antibody in the north-west by causing spring outbreaks of myxomatosis. It is suggested that the effects of the replacement of a simple recurring system of epizootic and breeding season several months apart by the occurrence of myxomatosis twice in the same year, once coincident with the breeding season, will be complex. The occurrence of detectable antibody may be less dependent on the infection rate and may be dependent to some extent on the relative timing of spring myxomatosis and the breeding season. PMID:701788

  17. Myxomatosis: the virulence of field strains of myxoma virus in a population of wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.) with high resistance to myxomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, J. W.; Nolan, I. F.; Shepherd, R. C.; Gocs, A.

    1975-01-01

    The virulence of field strains of myxoma virus is increasing in the Mallee region of Victoria where the resistance of the rabbit to myxomatosis is high. This suggests that the climax association will be a moderately severe disease. PMID:1056963

  18. Comparación bromatológica, microbiológica y sensorial de dos formulaciones de salchichas elaboradas con carne de conejo (Oryctolagus cuniculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Igor Hleap Zapata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se evaluaron dos formulaciones diferentes de salchichas elaboradas con carne de conejo, utilizando como extendedores harina de chontaduro (Bactris gasipaes y almidón modificado de maíz. Ambas formulaciones consistieron en 60% de carne de conejo, 12% de grasa de cerdo y 4% del respectivo extensor, el porcentaje restante correspondió a hielo y condimentos. Los análisis bromatológicos mostraron los contenidos siguientes (base seca: (1 en carne = 60.90% de proteína, 33.65% de grasa, 4.46% de cenizas y 0.99% de carbohidratos; (2 en salchichas elaboradas con adición de harina de chontaduro = 15.96% de proteína, 13.55% de grasa, 4.10% de cenizas, 3.42% de carbohidratos y 60.63% de humedad; y (3 en salchichas elaboradas con adición de almidón modificado de maíz = 14.54% de proteína, 11.53% de grasa, 3.81% de cenizas, 3.99% de carbohidratos y 63.42% de humedad. Las pruebas microbiológicas consistieron en el análisis de los parámetros tradicionales de calidad y seguridad, además de mediciones sensoriales utilizando pruebas afectivas de preferencia, de grado de satisfacción y de aceptación que permitieron concluir que las salchichas elaboradas presentaron características de inocuidad para el ser humano y de gran aceptación gracias a sus buenas propiedades organolépticas, resultando productos tipo Premium según la NTC 1325.

  19. Control of Hyalomma lusitanicum (Acari: Ixodidade) Ticks Infesting Oryctolagus cuniculus (Lagomorpha: Leporidae) Using the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana (Hyocreales: Clavicipitaceae) in Field Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, J; Valcárcel, F; Pérez-Sánchez, J L; Tercero-Jaime, J M; Cutuli, M T; Olmeda, A S

    2016-11-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi are widely used to control arthropods not just in agricultural settings but also in Veterinary Medicine and Public Health. These products have been employed to control tick populations and tick-borne diseases. The effectiveness of these control measures not only depends on the fungi, but also on the tick species and environmental conditions. In Mesomediterranean areas, tick species are adapted to extreme climatic conditions and it is therefore especially important to develop suitable tick control strategies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a new method of tick control which entails the application of a commercial strain of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo, Vuillemin) on wild rabbit burrows under field conditions. Aqueous solutions of the product were applied using a mist blower sprayer into 1,717 burrows. Two trials were performed, one in spring and the other in summer. The parasitic index (PI) was calculated for 10 rabbits per treatment per time point on day +30, +60, and +90 posttreatment and efficiency was calculated by comparing the PI for ticks in treated and untreated rabbits. A total of 20,234 ixodid ticks were collected. Hyalomma lusitanicum Koch, 1844 was the most abundant tick feeding on rabbits. Treatment significantly reduced the PI in spring (by 78.63% and 63.28% on day +30 and +60, respectively; P < 0.05), but appeared to be less effective in summer, with a marginally significant tick reduction of 35.72% on day +30 (P = 0.05). Results suggest that the efficacy of applications inside burrows could be temperature-dependent and that such applications could be an economic alternative to rabbit tick control during at least two months using a diluted solution of B. bassiana conidia.

  20. Morphology of the paca liver (Cuniculus paca, Linnaeus 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Laura Esper Gomes de Figueiredo Carvalho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The elements related to the morphology of the liver of paca (Cuniculus paca, the second largest rodent of the Brazilian fauna, were observed; this species present zootechnical potential. Eight animals from the animals sector of Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias – Campus of Jaboticabal – UNESP, which is duly certified by IBAMA as an experimental breeding institute, were used. Through a dissection procedure, it was found that the liver of the paca is located in the cranial portion of the abdomen, immediately after the diaphragm, to which it is connected by the triangular, coronary, and falciform ligaments, having its bigger part located right to the medium plan. The liver of this rodent presents the following lobation: right lateral lobe, right medial lobe, quadrate lobe, left medial lobe, and left lateral lobe, besides the caudate lobe formed by the papillary process of caudate lobe and the caudate process of caudate lobe. Gallbladder is located between the quadrate and right medial lobes. Fragments of this organ were collected, fixed, and histologically prepared, being the samples analyzed through light microscopy. It was microscopically observed that intralobular connective tissue is scarce, basically it consists polyhedral hepatocytes organized into cords interposed between sinusoids and the portal triads are found in the lobe, consisting of the portal vein, hepatic artery, and biliary duct.

  1. Miologia do membro pélvico da paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766)

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo M. Leal; Sá,Rafaela M. de; Oliveira,Fabricio S. de; Sasahara, Tais H. C.; Minto, Bruno W.; Marcia R.F. Machado

    2015-01-01

    Resumo: Objetivam-se descrever os músculos do membro pélvico da paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766), mediante dissecção anatômica dessa região. Foram utilizadas dez Cuniculus paca adultas, machos e fêmeas, pesando entre cinco e 10 kg do plantel de pacas do setor de Animais Silvestres da FCAV, Unesp, Jaboticabal/SP. Os animais foram fixados em formaldeído 10% e conservados em solução salina a 30% para dissecação anatômica da musculatura da pelve, coxa e perna, identificando-se a origem e inse...

  2. Morfologia do figado da paca (Cuniculus Paca, Linnaeus 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Luis Martins

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2012v25n2p109 Foram observados os elementos referentes à morfologia do fígado da paca (Cuniculus paca, segundo maior roedor da fauna brasileira que apresenta alto potencial zootécnico. Utilizaram-se oito animais provenientes do setor de Animais Silvestres da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias - Campus de Jaboticabal - UNESP, devidamente credenciado pelo IBAMA como criatório experimental. Mediante procedimento de dissecação verificou-se que o fígado da paca localiza-se na porção cranial do abdome, imediatamente depois do diafragma, ao qual se prende pelos ligamentos triangulares, coronários e falciforme, com sua maior parte localizada à direita do plano médio. O fígado desse roedor apresenta a seguinte lobação: lobo lateral direito, lobo medial direito, lobo quadrado, lobo medial esquerdo e lobo lateral esquerdo, além do lobo caudado formado pelo processo papilar do lobo caudado e processo caudado do lobo caudado. A vesícula biliar encontra-se entre os lobos quadrado e medial direito. Fragmentos desse órgão foram colhidos, fixados e preparadas histologicamente, sendo as amostras analisadas à microscopia de luz. Microscopicamente observou-se que o tecido conjuntivo intralobular é escasso,sua constituição básica de hepatócitos poliédricos organizados em cordões se interpõem por sinusóides e na periferia do lóbulo encontram-se as tríades portais, constituídas pela veia porta, arteria hepática e ducto biliar.

  3. Experimental infestation with the immatures of Amblyomma dissimile Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae on Tropidurus torquatus (Lacertilia: Iguanidae and Oryctolagus cuniculus Infestação experimental com as fases imaturas de Amblyomma dissimile Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae em Tropidurus torquatus (Lacertilia: Iguanidae e Oryctolagus cuniculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.H.T. Freitas

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Larvas provenientes de duas fêmeas de Amblyomma dissimile Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae, naturalmente ingurgitadas em uma iguana (Iguana iguana e provenientes do Estado do Mato Grosso, foram utilizadas na infestação experimental de lagartos da espécie Tropidurus torquatus e coelhos domésticos. As larvas alimentadas em ambos os hospedeiros realizaram ecdise para ninfas. As ninfas apenas ingurgitaram no lagarto e mudaram para machos e fêmeas. Este é o primeiro registro do parasitismo de larvas e ninfas de A. dissimile em T. torquatus e de larvas em coelhos.

  4. Systemic inflammatory response indicators in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus experimentally infected with sporulated oocysts of Eimeria stiedai (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae Indicadores da resposta inflamatória sistêmica em coelhos (Oryctolagus cuniculus infectados experimentalmente com oocistos esporulados de Eimeria stiedai (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fagner Luiz da Costa Freitas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Hemograms and acute-phase proteins in adult male New Zealand White rabbits that had been experimentally infected orally with sporulated oocysts of Eimeria stiedai were evaluated over a 28-day period. Fifty animals were used, divided into two groups: group A infected with 1 × 10(4 sporulated oocysts of E. stiedai and group B inoculated with distilled water. On the seventh day after infection, the infected animals presented anemia and leukocytosis with neutrophilia and monocytosis. Protein fractionation by means of electrophoresis identified 19 acute-phase proteins with molecular weights ranging from 24 to 238 kD. Ceruloplasmin, transferrin and haptoglobin showed high levels on the seventh day after infection, with gradual increases in their concentrations until the end of the experimental period. Thus, from the data of the present study, E. stiedai is considered to be a pyogenic etiological agent for which the infection level can be monitored through the leukocyte count and serum concentrations of ceruloplasmin, transferrin and haptoglobin, and these can be recommended as complementary tests.O hemograma e proteínas de fase aguda foram avaliados durante 28 dias em coelhos adultos, machos, raça branco Nova Zelândia, infectados experimentalmente, via oral, com oocistos esporulados de Eimeria stiedai. Foram usados 50 animais distribuídos em dois grupos: grupo A infectado com 1 × 10(4 oocistos esporulados de E. stiedai e grupo B inoculado com água destilada. No 7º dia após a infecção (dpi, os animais infectados tiveram anemia, leucocitose com neutrofilia e monocitose. O método de fracionamento de proteínas por eletroforese identificou 19 proteínas de fase aguda com pesos moleculares que variaram entre 24 e 238 kD. A ceruloplasmina, transferrina e haptoglobina tiveram níveis elevados no 7° dpi com aumento progressivo de suas concentrações até o término do período experimental. Desta forma, considerando-se os dados encontrados no presente estudo, E. stiedai é considerado um agente etiológico piogênico que pode ter sua infecção monitorada por determinação do leucograma e das concentrações séricas de ceruloplasmina, transferrina e haptoglobina, podendo ser estes recomendados como exames complementares.

  5. Avaliação das fibras colágenas de meniscos frescos e preservados em glicerina: estudo experimental em coelhos (Oryctolagus cuniculus Evaluation of the collagen fibers of the fresh meniscus and the meniscuses preserved in glycerine: experimental study in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana M. Vilela

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo foi avaliado o efeito da glicerina 98% sobre as fibras colágenas, arquitetura tecidual e o tamanho de meniscos mediais de coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia. Os meniscos foram separados em três grupos: (1 Grupo MF com meniscos frescos (grupo controle, (2 Grupo MG com meniscos preservados em glicerina 98% por 30 dias, e (3 Grupo MR com meniscos preservados em glicerina 98% por 30 dias e reidratados em NaCl 0,9%, por 12 horas. Os cortes histológicos foram corados com sirius red para identificação dos tipos de colágenos e observados em microscópio de luz polarizada, avaliando-se a concentração total de colágeno Tipo I e III e a disposição das fibras. Os meniscos frescos apresentaram significativamente maior concentração de fibras colágenas Tipo I e menor concentração de fibras colágenas Tipo III que os meniscos preservados (MG e MR; isto ocorreu devido à perda de água e conseqüente redução do tamanho dos meniscos e retração das fibras colágenas dos meniscos dos Grupos MG e MR; isto pode ter feito com que as fibras Tipo I, mais espessas e em maior quantidade, se tornassem mais evidentes do que as fibras colágenas Tipo III, que são mais delgadas e frágeis (fibrilas. Nos três grupos estudados, as fibras colágenas apresentaram-se de forma circunferencial, interpostas por fibras orientadas radialmente. Entretanto, nos grupos tratados (MG e MR foi observado, em pequenas áreas, leve desorganização das fibras colágenas, o que correspondeu a 42,8% e 14,3% dos meniscos, respectivamente. O grupo de meniscos em glicerina apresentou redução significativa (pIn the present study was evaluated the effect of 98% glycerin on the collagen fibers, tissue architecture and size of medial meniscuses of New Zealand rabbits. The animals were separated into three groups: (1 Group MF of fresh meniscus, (2 Group MG of meniscus preserved in glycerin for 30 days, and (3 Group MR of meniscus preserved in glycerin for 30 days and rehydrated in NaCl 0.9% for 12 hours. Histological sections were stained with sirius red for identification of collagen types, which were examined with a polarized light microscope. The total collagen concentration and the fiber arrangement were evaluated. Group MF presented higher Type I collagen concentration and lower Type III collagen concentration when compared with Group MG and MR. This fact is due to the water loss and consequent reduction in size and subsequent retraction of the collagen fibers of the meniscus from these groups, caused by dehydration. This may have occurred because those Type I fibers, thicker and in larger quantities, become more evident than Type III collagen fibers, which are more slender and fragile (fibrils. In the three groups studied, the collagen fibers presented themselves in a circumference form, interposed by radially oriented fibers. All of the meniscuses from Group MF presented fibers arranged obliquely, while in the treated groups, a slight disorganization of collagen fibers could be observed in some areas, what corresponds to 42.8% and 14.3% of the meniscuses, respectively. The MG group presented a significant decrease (p<0.05 in size if compared with the MF group. In the MR group, 85.7% of the meniscuses went back to the original size after rehydratation. The 98% glycerin is effective in preserving the meniscus, following rehydratation, maintaining size, structural architecture, integrity and percentage of collagen of the meniscus preserved similar to the fresh one.

  6. Miologia do membro torácico da paca (Cuniculus paca)

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo M. Leal; Juliana A.C.E. Silva; Oliveira,Fabricio S. de; Sasahara, Tais H. C.; Marcia R.F. Machado

    2016-01-01

    Resumo: Objetivou-se descrever os músculos do membro torácico da paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766), mediante dissecação anatômica dessa região. Foram utilizadas cinco Cuniculus paca adultas, machos e fêmeas, pesando entre cinco e 10kg do plantel de pacas do setor de Animais Silvestres da FCAV, Unesp, Jaboticabal/SP. Os animais foram fixados em formoldeído a 10% e conservados em solução salina a 30% para dissecação anatômica da musculatura do ombro, braço e antebraço, identificando-se a ori...

  7. New records of tepezcuincle (Cuniculus paca in Puebla, Central Mexico Nuevos registros de tepezcuincle (Cuniculus paca en Puebla, centro de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Eric Ramírez-Bravo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The state of Puebla has little information about mammal presence and distribution. In a study to determine jaguar presence using camera traps and interviews, we obtained 16 new records of tepezcuincle (Cuniculus paca in different vegetation types such as tropical rainforest and cloud forest, as well as in coffee plantations. The records prove that the species is widely spread along the Sierra Norte of Puebla, but the distribution of populations in the Sierra Negra is uncertain.El estado de Puebla tiene poca información sobre presencia y distribución de mamíferos. En un estudio para determinar la presencia del jaguar, mediante cámaras y encuestas, logramos obtener 16 nuevos registros de tepezcuincle (Cuniculus paca en diferentes tipos de vegetación como selvas medianas y bosque mesófilo de montaña,además de cafetales. Estos registros prueban que la especie se distribuye ampliamente a lo largo de la sierra Norte de Puebla; sin embargo, se desconoce la distribución de las poblaciones en la sierra Negra.

  8. Cryptosporidium cuniculus and Giardia duodenalis in rabbits: genetic diversity and possible zoonotic transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weizhe Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium and Giardia are the two important zoonotic pathogens causing diarrhea of humans and animals worldwide. Considering the human cryptosporidiosis outbreak and sporadic cases caused by C. cuniculus, the important public health significance of G. duodenalis and little obtained information regarding rabbit infected with Cryptosporidium and Giardia in China, the aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and molecularly characterize Cryptosporidium and Giardia in rabbits in Heilongjiang Province, China. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 378 fecal samples were obtained from rabbits in Heilongjiang Province. Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were detected using Sheather's sugar flotation technique and Lugol's iodine stain method, respectively. The infection rates of Cryptosporidium and Giardia were 2.38% (9/378 and 7.41% (28/378, respectively. Genotyping of Cryptosporidium spp. was done by DNA sequencing of the small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA gene and all the nine isolates were identified as Cryptosporidium cuniculus. The nine isolates were further subtyped using the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60 gene and two subtypes were detected, including VbA32 (n = 3 and a new subtype VbA21 (n = 6. G. duodenalis genotypes and subtypes were identified by sequence analysis of the triosephosphate isomerase (TPI gene. The assemblage B (belonging to eight different subtypes B-I to B-VIII was found in 28 G. duodenalis-positive samples. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The rabbits have been infected with Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Heilongjiang Province. The results show that the rabbits pose a threat to human health in the studied areas. Genotypes and subgenotypes of C. cuniculus and G. duodenalis in this study might present the endemic genetic characterization of population structure of the two parasites.

  9. Miologia do membro pélvico da paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo M. Leal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Objetivam-se descrever os músculos do membro pélvico da paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766, mediante dissecção anatômica dessa região. Foram utilizadas dez Cuniculus paca adultas, machos e fêmeas, pesando entre cinco e 10 kg do plantel de pacas do setor de Animais Silvestres da FCAV, Unesp, Jaboticabal/SP. Os animais foram fixados em formaldeído 10% e conservados em solução salina a 30% para dissecação anatômica da musculatura da pelve, coxa e perna, identificando-se a origem e inserção de cada músculo. Os resultados foram fotodocumentados e discutidos com base na literatura sobre animais domésticos, ratos e cobaias. Salvo algumas variâncias na origem e inserção de cada músculo e na fusão dos ventres de alguns grupos musculares, de forma geral, a musculatura da paca assemelha-se a dos animais domésticos e a de outros roedores.

  10. Miologia do membro torácico da paca (Cuniculus paca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo M. Leal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Objetivou-se descrever os músculos do membro torácico da paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766, mediante dissecação anatômica dessa região. Foram utilizadas cinco Cuniculus paca adultas, machos e fêmeas, pesando entre cinco e 10kg do plantel de pacas do setor de Animais Silvestres da FCAV, Unesp, Jaboticabal/SP. Os animais foram fixados em formoldeído a 10% e conservados em solução salina a 30% para dissecação anatômica da musculatura do ombro, braço e antebraço, identificando-se a origem e inserção de cada músculo. Os resultados foram fotodocumentados e discutidos com base na literatura sobre animais domésticos, ratos e cobaias. Salvo algumas variâncias na origem e inserção de cada músculo e na fusão dos ventres de alguns grupos musculares, de forma geral, a musculatura do ombro, braço e antebraço da paca assemelha-se a dos animais domésticos e a de outros roedores.

  11. Estrutura, ultraestrutura e morfometria da veia cava de paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766 criada em cativeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Pinter Garcia Filho

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A paca (Cuniculus paca é o segundo maior roedor da fauna brasileira. Apresenta carne de excelente qualidade, o que incentiva a criação comercial. Além disso, este animal pode tornar-se uma opção válida em experimentação embora poucas sejam as informações detalhadas sobre sua morfologia. Assim, objetivou-se descrever a morfologia, morfometria e ultraestrutura de segmentos das porções cranial e caudal da veia cava de quatro pacas (Cuniculus paca adultas excedentes do plantel do Setor de Animais Silvestres do Departamento de Zootecnia da FCAV-Unesp. Os segmentos venosos foram analisados à microscopia de luz e à microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Foram mensuradas as espessuras do complexo formado pelas túnicas íntima e média, além da túnica adventícia e analisou-se os resultados pela estatística descritiva, teste "T" pareado (p<0,05. Em relação à espessura das túnicas estudadas, comprovou-se que os valores da espessura das túnicas íntima, média e adventícia, para todos os animais, foram significativamente maiores no segmento cranial. As camadas das paredes dos vasos apresentaram variações entre si quanto à estrutura e espessura, supostamente devido a uma adaptação à exigência funcional.

  12. Subtyping of Cryptosporidium cuniculus and genotyping of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in rabbits in two farms in Heilongjiang Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Ziyin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi are two prevalent opportunistic pathogens in humans and animals. Currently, few data are available on genetic characterization of both pathogens in rabbits in China. The aim of the present study was to understand prevalence and genetic characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi in rabbits. We collected 215 fecal samples from 150 Rex rabbits and 65 New Zealand White rabbits on two different farms in Heilongjiang Province, China. Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and sequencing the partial small subunit of ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS region of rDNA, respectively. Cryptosporidium was detected in 3.3% (5/150 of Rex rabbits and 29.2% (19/65 of New Zealand White rabbits. All the 24 Cryptosporidium isolates were identified as C. cuniculus. Enterocytozoon bieneusi was only found in 14.7% (22/150 of Rex rabbits. Five known genotypes: CHN-RD1 (n = 12, D (n = 3, Type IV (n = 2, Peru6 (n = 1, and I (n = 1, and three novel ones CHN-RR1 to CHN-RR3 (one each were detected. By analyzing the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60 gene sequences of C. cuniculus isolates, three subtypes were obtained: VbA28 (n = 2, VbA29 (n = 16, and VbA32 (n = 3. All these three C. cuniculus subtypes were reported previously in humans. Four known E. bieneusi genotypes have been found to be present in humans. The three novel ones fell into zoonotic group 1. The results suggest zoonotic potential of C. cuniculus and E. bieneusi isolates in rabbits.

  13. Subtyping of Cryptosporidium cuniculus and genotyping of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in rabbits in two farms in Heilongjiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ziyin; Zhao, Wei; Shen, Yujuan; Zhang, Weizhe; Shi, Ying; Ren, Guangxu; Yang, Di; Ling, Hong; Yang, Fengkun; Liu, Aiqin; Cao, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    Cryptosporidium spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi are two prevalent opportunistic pathogens in humans and animals. Currently, few data are available on genetic characterization of both pathogens in rabbits in China. The aim of the present study was to understand prevalence and genetic characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi in rabbits. We collected 215 fecal samples from 150 Rex rabbits and 65 New Zealand White rabbits on two different farms in Heilongjiang Province, China. Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing the partial small subunit of ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA, respectively. Cryptosporidium was detected in 3.3% (5/150) of Rex rabbits and 29.2% (19/65) of New Zealand White rabbits. All the 24 Cryptosporidium isolates were identified as C. cuniculus. Enterocytozoon bieneusi was only found in 14.7% (22/150) of Rex rabbits. Five known genotypes: CHN-RD1 (n = 12), D (n = 3), Type IV (n = 2), Peru6 (n = 1), and I (n = 1), and three novel ones CHN-RR1 to CHN-RR3 (one each) were detected. By analyzing the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene sequences of C. cuniculus isolates, three subtypes were obtained: VbA28 (n = 2), VbA29 (n = 16), and VbA32 (n = 3). All these three C. cuniculus subtypes were reported previously in humans. Four known E. bieneusi genotypes have been found to be present in humans. The three novel ones fell into zoonotic group 1. The results suggest zoonotic potential of C. cuniculus and E. bieneusi isolates in rabbits. © Z. Yang et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2016.

  14. Transgenic Eimeria magna Pérard, 1925 Displays Similar Parasitological Properties to the Wild-type Strain and Induces an Exogenous Protein-Specific Immune Response in Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Geru; Shi, Tuanyuan; Tang, Xinming; Duszynski, Donald W.; Wang, Yunzhou; Li, Chao; Suo, Jingxia; Tian, Xiuling; Liu, Xianyong; Suo, Xun

    2017-01-01

    Rabbit coccidiosis causes great economic losses to world rabbitries. Little work has been done considering genetic manipulation on the etiological agents, rabbit Eimeria spp. In this study, we constructed a transgenic line of Eimeria magna (EmagER) expressing enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP) and red fluorescent protein (RFP) using regulatory sequences of Eimeria tenella and Toxoplasma gondii. We observed the life cycle of EmagER and confirmed that the transgenic parasites express exogenous proteins targeted to different cellular compartments throughout the entire life cycle. EYFP was expressed mainly in the nucleus and RFP both in the nucleus and cytoplasm. Then, coccidia-free, laboratory-reared 40-day-old rabbits were primarily infected with either EmagER or wild-type strain oocysts and challenged with the wild-type strain. EmagER showed similar reproductivity and immunogenicity to the wild-type strain. Finally, we examined the foreign protein-specific immune response elicited by EmagER. Rabbits were immunized with either transgenic or wild-type oocysts. Immune response against parasite-soluble antigen, EYFP and RFP in spleen, and mesenteric lymph nodes were detected by quantitative real-time PCR. The relative expression level of IFN-γ, IL-2, and TNF-α were higher in EmagER-immunized rabbits than wild-type parasites-immunized rabbits after stimulation with EYFP and RFP. Our study confirmed that a specific immune response was induced by the exogenous protein expressed by EmagER and favored future studies on application of transgenic rabbit coccidia as recombinant vaccine vectors. PMID:28167939

  15. CALIDAD DE LA CARNE Y CONTAMINACIÓN MICROBIOLÓGICA POR Staphylococcus aureus METICILINA RESISTENTES EN CANALES DE CONEJOS (Oryctolagus cuniculus) PROCEDENTES DE UNIDADES DE PRODUCCIÓN FAMILIAR DEL VALLE DE TOLUCA

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez Correa, Juan Luis

    2016-01-01

    La estrecha relación entre la dieta y la salud ha conducido a cambios en los hábitos del consumidor. En este contexto, la carne de conejo es muy valorada por sus propiedades nutricionales y dietéticas. Por las características que tiene la carne es un buen sustrato para la contaminación cruzada. El S. aureus es un patógeno que afecta a humanos y animales. En los conejos puede causar mastitis, dermatitis exudativa, abscesos subcutáneos y septicemias. El uso indiscriminado de antibióticos como t...

  16. Formação da veia porta-hepática em coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia Branco (Oryctolagus cuniculus Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlei José Birck

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Considerando a escassez de informações na literatura, buscou-se traçar um perfil de formação da veia porta-hepática em 20 coelhos, reconhecendo o padrão de sua formação extraparenquimal e as possíveis relações entre os padrões de formação e distribuição da veia porta nesta espécie. Os animais foram injetados com látex Neoprene, fixados em formalina 10% e dissecados. A veia porta, na sua trajetória extraparenquimal, constituiu-se da junção da veia mesentérica cranial e caudal, recebendo ainda tributárias do estômago, baço e pâncreas. A veia mesentérica cranial formou-se, na totalidade dos casos a partir da confluência de um tronco jejunal e um tronco ileocecocólico. O tronco jejunal foi formado pela união de oito a dezoito veias jejunais e o tronco ileocecocólico constituiu-se a partir do encontro das veias cólicas, cecais e ileais, em diferentes arranjos e números. A veia mesentérica caudal foi formada pela união das veias retal e cólica esquerda.

  17. Transgenic Eimeria magna Pérard, 1925 Displays Similar Parasitological Properties to the Wild-type Strain and Induces an Exogenous Protein-Specific Immune Response in Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Geru; Shi, Tuanyuan; Tang, Xinming; Duszynski, Donald W; Wang, Yunzhou; Li, Chao; Suo, Jingxia; Tian, Xiuling; Liu, Xianyong; Suo, Xun

    2017-01-01

    Rabbit coccidiosis causes great economic losses to world rabbitries. Little work has been done considering genetic manipulation on the etiological agents, rabbit Eimeria spp. In this study, we constructed a transgenic line of Eimeria magna (EmagER) expressing enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP) and red fluorescent protein (RFP) using regulatory sequences of Eimeria tenella and Toxoplasma gondii. We observed the life cycle of EmagER and confirmed that the transgenic parasites express exogenous proteins targeted to different cellular compartments throughout the entire life cycle. EYFP was expressed mainly in the nucleus and RFP both in the nucleus and cytoplasm. Then, coccidia-free, laboratory-reared 40-day-old rabbits were primarily infected with either EmagER or wild-type strain oocysts and challenged with the wild-type strain. EmagER showed similar reproductivity and immunogenicity to the wild-type strain. Finally, we examined the foreign protein-specific immune response elicited by EmagER. Rabbits were immunized with either transgenic or wild-type oocysts. Immune response against parasite-soluble antigen, EYFP and RFP in spleen, and mesenteric lymph nodes were detected by quantitative real-time PCR. The relative expression level of IFN-γ, IL-2, and TNF-α were higher in EmagER-immunized rabbits than wild-type parasites-immunized rabbits after stimulation with EYFP and RFP. Our study confirmed that a specific immune response was induced by the exogenous protein expressed by EmagER and favored future studies on application of transgenic rabbit coccidia as recombinant vaccine vectors.

  18. Utilização de plasma rico em plaquetas para estimulação da angiogênese em flape de padrão axial toracodorsal em coelhos (Oryctolagus cuniculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane M. Pazzini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Feridas de grandes extensões, com perda da viabilidade tecidual e retardo na cicatrização por segunda intenção são casos que se faz necessário o emprego de técnicas cirúrgicas reconstrutivas. O plasma rico em plaquetas (PRP é um produto com maior concentração plaquetária, adjuvante no processo cicatricial de cirurgias reconstrutivas, auxiliando nos processos de hemostasia e estimulação da angiogênese. Dessa forma, delineou-se um estudo a fim de avaliar a eficácia do uso do gel produzido a partir do plasma rico em plaquetas (PRP em flapes de avanço de padrão axial toracodorsal em coelhos, para avaliar a possibilidade de favorecer a integração do retalho no leito receptor. Utilizaram-se 30 coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia branco, separados em dois grupos de 15 animais, compreendendo os grupos plasma rico em plaquetas (GPRP, na qual empregou-se o gel antes da síntese da ferida cirúrgica, e controle (GC, na qual utilizou-se apenas solução fisiológica. Para obtenção do PRP, coletou-se sangue dos animais, e determinou-se a contagem plaquetária antes da preparação do gel. No início e término do experimento os animais foram pesados para posterior análise de ganho peso médio. Após o procedimento cirúrgico iniciou-se as avaliações macroscópicas no 3º, 7º e 14º dia, e avaliou-se presença ou ausência de exsudato, integridade da pele, edema, rubor e necrose. Após esta etapa, coletou-se o material da ferida cirúrgica para confecção das lâminas histológicas e posterior avaliação microscópica. Avaliou-se a proliferação vascular, presença de células mononucleares e polimorfonucleares, proliferação fibroblástica, colagenização, reepitelização e hemorragia. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise estatística (Teste t Student, t emparalhado, e Kruskall Walis, sendo p<0,05. O ganho de peso médio não foi significativo entre os grupos; a concentração plaquetária da amostra final do PRP foi significativamente maior quando comparada com a inicial; exsudato e necrose foram significativamente maior no grupo controle quando comparado ao grupo PRP; proliferação vascular e reepitelização foram significativamente maior no grupo PRP, enquanto que a presença de mononucleares, polimorfonucleares, proliferação de fibroblastos, colagenização e hemorragia não foram significativas entre os grupos. Obteve-se no terceiro dia, diferença significativamente maior quanto à variável exsudato no grupo controle quando comparado ao grupo PRP, no sétimo dia exsudato e rubor foram significativamente maior no grupo controle, e ao décimo quarto dia exsudato e integridade da pele foram significativamente maior no grupo controle. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo evidenciaram que a utilização do plasma rico em plaquetas na forma de gel em cirurgia reconstrutiva foi capaz de estimular a angiogênese na ferida favorecendo o processo de cicatrização.

  19. Monitoring the spread of myxoma virus in rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus populations on the southern tablelands of New South Wales, Australia. II. Selection of a strain of virus for release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, P J; Merchant, J C; Silvers, L; Hood, G M; Robinson, A J

    2003-02-01

    To be able to study the dynamics of myxoma virus spread following a release in the field, a strain of virus is required that is both highly transmissible and readily differentiated from other field strains. Eight strains of virus of known virulence for laboratory rabbits and with previously mapped and sequenced restriction fragment length polymorphisms, were used to infect groups of seronegative wild rabbits. Based on these trials, and on the nature of the DNA polymorphism, a virus designated Brooklands/2-93 was chosen as a strain suitable for experimental release. These trials confirmed that resistance to myxomatosis within wild rabbit populations continues to be substantial and that some rabbits are highly resistant. These rabbits probably have little role in transmission of virus. Most of the virus strains tested induced very small or invisible primary lesions at the inoculation site. Thus the secondary skin sites such as eyelids, face and ears may be critical for transmission.

  20. Estudo experimental do poliuretano de óleo de mamona (Ricinus communis como substituto parcial do tendão calcâneo comum em coelhos (Oryctolagus cuniculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezende C.M.F.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência da prótese de poliuretano de mamona como substituto parcial do tendão calcâneo comum, foram utilizadas 30 coelhas da raça Nova Zelândia, entre dois e três meses de idade e peso médio de 2kg. Após anestesia geral, o procedimento cirúrgico em ambos os membros constou de incisão caudo-lateral no sentido longitudinal do terço médio ao distal da tíbia e exposição do tendão calcâneo comum. Após a tenectomia do tendão do músculo gastrocnêmio, a prótese de poliuretano de cerca de 0,5cm de extensão por 0,5cm de diâmetro foi fixada aos cotos proximal e distal do tendão, empregando-se o fio de polipropileno monofilamentar 4-0, conforme técnica modificada de Kessler. A prótese de poliuretano na forma elastomérica revelou propriedades como textura e flexibilidade semelhantes à do tecido tendinoso, pode ser confeccionada na forma e no tamanho almejados e permite ser moldada, cortada e esterilizada por calor úmido. Todos os animais apoiaram os membros operados imediatamente após o retorno anestésico. Não se observaram sinais clínicos de infecção e não ocorreu deiscência de ferida. Percebeu-se aumento de volume local devido ao edema, evidente na primeira semana pós-cirúrgica, que gradualmente desapareceu . À palpação foi possível delimitar com facilidade a prótese que se conservou fixa no local e intacta. Clinicamente o poliuretano de mamona não induziu reação desfavorável que comprometesse a cicatrização tendínea, podendo ser indicado como substituto temporário de tendão.

  1. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-OCUN-01-1663 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OCUN-01-1663 gnl|UG|Ocu#S29897795 49 Oryctolagus cuniculus subtractive hybridi...zation library Oryctolagus cuniculus cDNA, mRNA sequence /gb=BU581981 /gi=23186881 /ug=Ocu.1744 /len=455 0.046 27% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-1491 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-1491 ref|NP_001075479.1| hyaluronan synthase 2 [Oryctolagus cuniculus] dbj|BAB63264.1| hyaluron...ic acid synthase 2 [Oryctolagus cuniculus] NP_001075479.1 0.0 93% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-1071 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-1071 ref|NP_001076178.1| hyaluronan synthase 3 [Oryctolagus cuniculus] dbj|BAB63265.1| hyaluron...ic acid synthase 3 [Oryctolagus cuniculus] NP_001076178.1 9e-73 95% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-0691 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-0691 ref|NP_001075479.1| hyaluronan synthase 2 [Oryctolagus cuniculus] dbj|BAB63264.1| hyaluron...ic acid synthase 2 [Oryctolagus cuniculus] NP_001075479.1 4e-75 90% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGOR-01-1149 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGOR-01-1149 ref|NP_001075479.1| hyaluronan synthase 2 [Oryctolagus cuniculus] dbj|BAB63264.1| hyaluron...ic acid synthase 2 [Oryctolagus cuniculus] NP_001075479.1 0.0 93% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TSYR-01-1258 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TSYR-01-1258 ref|NP_001075479.1| hyaluronan synthase 2 [Oryctolagus cuniculus] dbj|BAB63264.1| hyaluron...ic acid synthase 2 [Oryctolagus cuniculus] NP_001075479.1 1e-101 89% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-1043 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-1043 ref|NP_001075479.1| hyaluronan synthase 2 [Oryctolagus cuniculus] dbj|BAB63264.1| hyaluron...ic acid synthase 2 [Oryctolagus cuniculus] NP_001075479.1 1e-172 84% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0122 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0122 ref|NP_001075479.1| hyaluronan synthase 2 [Oryctolagus cuniculus] dbj|BAB63264.1| hyaluron...ic acid synthase 2 [Oryctolagus cuniculus] NP_001075479.1 0.0 94% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-STRI-01-1209 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-STRI-01-1209 ref|NP_001075479.1| hyaluronan synthase 2 [Oryctolagus cuniculus] dbj|BAB63264.1| hyaluron...ic acid synthase 2 [Oryctolagus cuniculus] NP_001075479.1 0.0 88% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0508 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-01-0508 ref|NP_001076178.1| hyaluronan synthase 3 [Oryctolagus cuniculus] dbj|BAB63265.1| hyaluron...ic acid synthase 3 [Oryctolagus cuniculus] NP_001076178.1 0.0 93% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-BTAU-01-2900 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-BTAU-01-2900 ref|NP_001075479.1| hyaluronan synthase 2 [Oryctolagus cuniculus] dbj|BAB63264.1| hyaluron...ic acid synthase 2 [Oryctolagus cuniculus] NP_001075479.1 0.0 91% ...

  12. Goniometria dos membros pélvicos de pacas (Cuniculus paca criadas em cativeiro Goniometry of the hind limbs of pacas (Cuniculus paca raised in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio André Pinheiro de Araújo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar por meio de estudos goniométricos os membros pélvicos de pacas criadas em cativeiro. Foram utilizadas oito pacas (Cuniculus paca, sendo três fêmeas e cinco machos, com peso entre 6,0 kg e 8,2 kg, nos quais foi aferido o movimento de extensão e flexão das articulações coxofemoral, joelho e tarsocrural utilizando-se um goniômetro de plástico. Foram realizadas duas aferições para cada membro pelo mesmo avaliador, com intervalo de uma semana entre cada aferição, com os animais sob anestesia dissociativa. Não houve diferença estatística nas aferições dos ângulos entres os momentos. As variações entre as medidas de flexão e extensão, efetuadas em cada momento pelo mesmo avaliador, foi entre 1º e 5º para cada membro. Os valores goniométricos médios foram: flexão de 43,96º±7,62 e extensão de 118,31º±9,79 para a articulação coxofemoral; flexão de 54,25º±10,24 e extensão 131,53º±7,89 para o joelho; flexão de 45,94º±7,16 e extensão de 145,03º±5,06 para a articulação tarsocrural. Sendo assim, observou-se que a amplitude de movimento das pacas é maior na articulação tarsocrural, seguida respectivamente do joelho e da articulação coxofemoral.The aim of this study was to evaluate by goniometry the hind limbs of pacas raised in captivity. Eight mature pacas (Cuniculus paca, three females and five males, weighing 6.0-8.2 kg, were used. The quantity of joint flexion and extension motion of the hip joint, stifle joint and tarsocrural joint was measured using a plastic standard goniometer. Under dissociative anesthesia, two measures were made for each member in each animal by the same observer at an interval of one week. There were no statistical differences of the quantity of joint motion between the moments. The flexion and extension angles varied from 1º to 5º in each moment for the same observer. The mean values of the angles of flexion and extension were, respectively

  13. Biological parameters of larvae, nymphs, and engorged females of Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 (Acari: Ixodidae obtained from artificial and successive infestations on Oryctolagus cuniculus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Lagomorpha: Ochotonidae Parâmetros biológicos de larvas, ninfas e fêmeas ingurgitadas de Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 (Acari:Ixodidae obtidas de infestações artificiais e sucessivas em Oryctolagus cuniculus (Lagomorpha:Ochotonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M.V. Freitas

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of acquired resistance to Amblyomma cajennense ticks was evaluated. A total of 18 rabbits were uniformly distributed into three groups named GL, GN, and GA that were submitted to three consecutive infestations with, respectively, larvae, nymphs, and adults of A. cajennense. After the infestations, the parasitic and reproductive parameters of recovered instars were evaluated. A significant reduction of recovery rates of inoculated ticks was observed only after the third infestation of animals in groups GL and GN (PAvaliou-se o desenvolvimento de resistência adquirida frente ao parasitismo por Amblyomma cajennense. Para tanto, 18 coelhos foram uniformemente distribuídos em três grupos denominados GL, GN e GA e submetidos a três infestações consecutivas por, respectivamente, larvas, ninfas ou adultos de A. cajennense. Após a infestação, estudaram-se os parâmetros parasitários e reprodutivos dos exemplares recuperados. Apenas a partir da terceira infestação dos animais dos grupos GL e GN, pôde-se observar uma queda significativa na taxa de recuperação dos ixodídeos inoculados (P<0,01. O dia modal de queda das larvas e ninfas recuperadas aumentou com o decorrer das infestações. As ninfas ingurgitadas recuperadas apresentaram uma redução significativa (P<0,01 no peso médio corporal entre a primeira e terceira infestação. Observou-se uma queda significativa na taxa média de recuperação das fêmeas ingurgitadas somente na terceira infestação (P<0,01. Todavia, a partir da segunda infestação observou-se nas teleóginas recuperadas, uma redução significativa no peso corporal, peso da postura e eclodibilidade das larvas (P<0,05. Os dados sugerem a ocorrência de resistência em coelhos à infestação por A. cajennense que foi mais evidente contra o estádio adulto.

  14. Comparative study of bridge plate associated to the intramedullary pin and the dynamic compression plate on the experimental osteotomy fixation of femoral in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Clinical, radiographic, histological and scintigraphy analyses; Estudo comparativo da placa em ponte associada ao pino intramedular e da placa de compressao dinamica na fixacao de osteotomia experimental em femur de coelhos (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Analises clinica, radiografica, histologica e cintilografica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Natalie Ferreira

    2011-07-01

    The objectives were to benchmark and monitor the fracture healing of femoral osteotomy in rabbits after fixation with dynamic compression plate and bridge plate associated with intramedullary pin. Were used 14 New Zealand rabbits, four months old with mean weight of 3.5 pounds, from the Experimental Farm Professor Helio Barbosa of the Veterinary School of Minas Gerais Federal Univ. (UFMG). The animals were randomly divided into two groups (I and II). All rabbits underwent osteotomy across the middle third of right femur. In the group I was made to fix the osteotomy with the bridge plate (BP) associated with intramedullary pin, introduced the technique of minimal invasion. In group II, we used dynamic compression plate (DCP) via the conventional approach. Both groups were evaluated clinical, radiographic, histologic and scintigraphic findings. Clinical assessments were performed weekly until the 12{sup th} postoperative week and radiographic examinations were performed before, immediately after, at 15, 30, 45, 60 and 90 days. The bone scintigraphy were performed before and at 20, 50 and 90 days after surgery to monitor the bone metabolism qualitatively and quantitatively. Observed perfusion and bone healing process. After 90 days of study, there was histopathologic evaluation of the osteotomized area and the insertion of screws. In the region of the osteotomy was observed predominance of trabecular bone in group I and group II, the predominance of bone osteons, compatible with the original bone. On insertion of the screws did not differ between groups and there was cortical discontinuity, little necrosis and local hemorrhage. The two types of fixation have led to consolidation within the scheduled period, maturing in early fixation with DCP fixation compared with BP. Scintigraphy demonstrated by the indices of activity and image characteristics, the process of bone healing was significantly greater in animals undergoing early fixation with DCP. (author)

  15. Macroscopic description of thoracic member musculature in Cuniculus paca (Linnaeus, 1766 (Rodentia, Cuniculidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Gomes de Souza

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2017v30n2p43 Cuniculus paca (Mammalia: Cuniculidae, or ‘paca’ is a rodent species in great demand for its meat, which has led to domestication and development of paca farms in the Brazilian Amazon region, as well as in other states. Despite the growing consumption of paca meat, knowledge on muscle anatomy is still scarce. An anatomical description of paca forelimbs will form the basis for future zootechnical and veterinary studies, enabling the development of sustainable production in the Amazon region, as well as the preservation of the species. We studied forelimb anatomy in four (04 adult pacas from the Caboclinho Project of Catuaba Experimental Farm (UFAC under IBAMA authorization n°509309. Specimens were fixed in 10% formalin and thoracic limbs were dissected, after which anatomical descriptions and photographic records were generated. We found that paca forelimb musculature is similar to that of other groups of domestic animals with regard to the origin and muscle insertion.

  16. Cranial and caudal mesenteric arteries of the paca (Cuniculus paca, L. 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Cristina de Souza Marques

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The paca (Cuniculus paca, Linnaeus, 1766 is a medium-sized rodent that occurs in Brazil; however, there is little information regarding its morphology. The goal of this study was to describe the origin and branching of the cranial and caudal mesenteric arteries of this rodent in order to contribute to comparative anatomy studies. Ten animals (males and females were used. After death, their thoracic inlet was opened between the fourth and sixth ribs to expose the thoracic aorta, which was cannulated caudally. A stained, neoprene latex solution was then injected, in order to fill the arterial system, and the preparations were fixed in a 10% aqueous formalin solution for over 72h. The fixed specimens were dissected to identify the cranial and caudal mesenteric arteries. The cranial mesenteric artery started at the abdominal aorta, caudally to the celiac artery, and originated in the following arterial branches: caudal pancreatic duodenal, pancreatic, jejunal, ileum colic and cecal. The origin of the caudal mesenteric artery occurred next to the end of abdominal aorta and this vessel issued the left colic artery and cranial rectal artery from which the sigmoid arteries initiated. It was found that there was little difference in the branching pattern of the arteries compared to other rodents and domestic mammals.

  17. Macroscopic description of the external and middle ear of paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro L. Martins

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Paca (Cuniculus paca, one of the largest rodents of the Brazilian fauna, has inherent characteristics of its species which can conribute as a new option for animal experimantation. As there is a growing demand for suitable experimental models in audiologic and otologic surgical research, the gross anatomy and ultrastructural ear of this rodent have been analyzed and described in detail. Fifteen adult pacas from the Wild Animals Sector herd of Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Unesp-Jaboticabal, were used in this study. After anesthesia and euthanasia, we evaluated the entire composition of the external ear, registering and ddescribing the details; the temporal region was often dissected for a better view and detailing of the tympanic bulla which was removed and opened to expose the ear structures analyzed mascroscopically and ultrastructurally. The ear pinna has a triangular and concave shape with irregular ridges and sharp apex. The external auditory canal is winding in its path to the tympanic mebrane. The tympanic bulla is is on the back-bottom of the skull. The middle ear is formed by a cavity region filled with bone and membranous structures bounded by the tympanic membrane and the oval and round windows. The tympanic membrane is flat and seals the ear canal. The anatomy of the paca ear is similar to the guinea pig and from the viewpoint of experimental model has major advantages compared with the mouse ear.

  18. Establishment of a novel corneal endothelial cell line from domestic rabbit, Oryctolagus curiculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, TingJun; Zhao, Jun; Fu, YongFeng; Cong, RiShan; Guo, RuiChao; Liu, WanShun; Han, BaoQin; Yu, QiuTao; Wang, Jing

    2007-04-01

    To develop a rabbit corneal endothelial (RCE) cell line, in vitro culture of RCE cells was initiated from Oryctolagus curiculus corneas and a novel RCE cell line was established in this study. To initiate the primary culture of RCE cells, corneas from rabbit eyes were sliced and attached into glutin-coated wells with endothelial cell surface down. After being cultured at a time-gradient interval from 48 to 6 h, the corneal slices were detached and reattached into new wells, respectively. Cells in the wells containing only a pure population of RCE cells were collected and cultured in 20% FBS-DMEM/F12 medium containing chondroitin sulfate, ocular extract, epidermal growth factor (EGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), carboxymethyl-chitosan, N-acetylglucosamine hydrochloride, glucosamine hydrochloride, culture medium of rabbit corneal stromal cells and oxidation-degradation products of chondroitin sulfate at 37 degrees C, 5% CO(2). The cultured RCE cells, in quadrangle and polygonal shapes, proliferated to confluence 3 weeks later. During the subsequent subculture, the shape of RCE cells changed gradually from polygonal to more fibroblastic. A novel RCE cell line, growing at a steady rate, with a population doubling time of 53.8 h, has been established and subcultured to passage 67. Chromosome analysis showed that the RCE cells exhibited chromosomal aneuploidy with the modal chromosome number of 44. The results of immuno-cytochemical staining with neuron specific enolase (NSE) confirmed that the RCE cells were in neuroectodermal origin. Combined with the results of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment and endothelial cell morphology recovery, it can be concluded that the cell line established here is an RCE cell line. This RCE cell line may serve as a useful tool in theoretical researches of mammalian corneal endothelial cells, and may also have potential application in artificial corneal endothelium development.

  19. Establishment of a novel corneal endothelial cell line from domestic rabbit, Oryctolagus curiculus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To develop a rabbit corneal endothelial (RCE) cell line, in vitro culture of RCE cells was initiated from Oryctolagus curiculus corneas and a novel RCE cell line was established in this study. To initiate the primary culture of RCE cells, corneas from rabbit eyes were sliced and attached into glutin-coated wells with endothelial cell surface down. After being cultured at a time-gradient interval from 48 to 6 h, the corneal slices were detached and reattached into new wells, respectively. Cells in the wells containing only a pure population of RCE cells were collected and cultured in 20% FBS-DMEM/F12 medium con- taining chondroitin sulfate, ocular extract, epidermal growth factor (EGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), carboxymethyl-chitosan, N-acetylglucosamine hydrochloride, glucosamine hydrochloride, culture medium of rabbit corneal stromal cells and oxidation-degradation products of chondroitin sul- fate at 37℃, 5% CO2. The cultured RCE cells, in quadrangle and polygonal shapes, proliferated to con- fluence 3 weeks later. During the subsequent subculture, the shape of RCE cells changed gradually from polygonal to more fibroblastic. A novel RCE cell line, growing at a steady rate, with a population doubling time of 53.8 h, has been established and subcultured to passage 67. Chromosome analysis showed that the RCE cells exhibited chromosomal aneuploidy with the modal chromosome number of 44. The results of immuno-cytochemical staining with neuron specific enolase (NSE) confirmed that the RCE cells were in neuroectodermal origin. Combined with the results of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment and endothelial cell morphology recovery, it can be concluded that the cell line established here is an RCE cell line. This RCE cell line may serve as a useful tool in theoretical re- searches of mammalian corneal endothelial cells, and may also have potential application in artificial corneal endothelium development.

  20. Establishment of a novel corneal endothelial cell line from domestic rabbit, Oryctolagus curiculus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN TingJun; ZHAO Jun; FU YongFeng; CONG RiShan; GUO RuiChao; LIU WanShun; HAN BaoQin; YU QiuTao; WANG Jing

    2007-01-01

    To develop a rabbit corneal endothelial (RCE) cell line, in vitro culture of RCE cells was initiated from Oryctolagus curiculus corneas and a novel RCE cell line was established in this study. To initiate the primary culture of RCE cells, corneas from rabbit eyes were sliced and attached into glutin-coated wells with endothelial cell surface down. After being cultured at a time-gradient interval from 48 to 6 h, the corneal slices were detached and reattached into new wells, respectively. Cells in the wells containing only a pure population of RCE cells were collected and cultured in 20% FBS-DMEM/F12 medium containing chondroitin sulfate, ocular extract, epidermal growth factor (EGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), carboxymethyl-chitosan, N-acetylglucosamine hydrochloride, glucosamine hydrochloride,culture medium of rabbit corneal stromal cells and oxidation-degradation products of chondroitin sulfate at 37℃, 5% CO2. The cultured RCE cells, in quadrangle and polygonal shapes, proliferated to confluence 3 weeks later. During the subsequent subculture, the shape of RCE cells changed gradually from polygonal to more fibroblastic. A novel RCE cell line, growing at a steady rate, with a population doubling time of 53.8 h, has been established and subcultured to passage 67. Chromosome analysis showed that the RCE cells exhibited chromosomal aneuploidy with the modal chromosome number of 44. The results of immuno-cytochemical staining with neuron specific enolase (NSE) confirmed that the RCE cells were in neuroectodermal origin. Combined with the results of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment and endothelial cell morphology recovery, it can be concluded that the cell line established here is an RCE cell line. This RCE cell line may serve as a useful tool in theoretical researches of mammalian corneal endothelial cells, and may also have potential application in artificial corneal endothelium development.

  1. Use of the paca, Cuniculus paca (Rodentia: Agoutidae in the Sierra de Tabasco State Park, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Gallina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cuniculus paca is widely distributed throughout the Neotropics. Known as the paca, it is the largest rodent in the Mexican tropical forests, and one of the most used as a subsistence species for its meat. Since colonial times, this species has been subject of an unreported hunting pressure. For this reason, the aim of this work was to describe the use of the paca by the inhabitants of the Sierra de Tabasco State Park (STSP using sampling areas in a matrix of vegetation with different degrees of disturbance, and different types of land use. We included both preserved areas: owing to the presence of large continuous areas of fragmented rainforest and areas that are not preserved, with smaller rainforest fragments and more isolated. To obtain information about paca use, we interviewed 176 people (>18 years old who live in the STSP. All those interviewed had eaten paca meat, and indicated that this species is most frequently observed in the rainforest during the dry season. Hunting and trapping were the most common ways to obtain pacas, rather than gifting or purchasing, and firearms and dogs are used to hunt them. We estimated that these interviewed group had hunted a total of 488 paca in the year prior to the study.Cuniculus paca está ampliamente distribuido en el Neotrópico. El tepezcuintle o paca es el roedor más grande que se encuentra en las selvas tropicales de México. En cuanto a la cacería de subsistencia es una de las especies más buscadas por su carne. Como se desconoce el impacto de esta actividad, se describe el aprovechamiento que le dan las comunidades humanas en el Parque Estatal de la Sierra de Tabasco (PEST. También, se determinaron zonas de muestreo, las cuales se encontraban en una matriz perturbada en menor o mayor grado, con diferentes tipos de uso de suelo. Además, se consideraron zonas conservadas por la presencia continua de grandes extensiones de selvas fragmentadas y las zonas no conservadas por tener fragmentos

  2. Subsistence hunting of Cuniculus pacain the middle of the Solimões River, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Valsecchi

    Full Text Available Ungulates, large primates and caviomorfs are cited by Amazonian hunters as preferred species. In this research, paca (Cuniculus paca hunting was investigated in relation to water levels and the lunar cycle. In eight years of monitoring in the Amanã Sustainable Development Reserve, the killing of 625 pacas was registered in five monitored communities. Paca hunting took place mainly at night and the most commonly used method is “spotlighting”. A positive correlation between the number of pacas killed and water level (rs=0.890; p<0.0001 was found. At least 37% of the pacas were hunted when moon illumination level was less than 10%, before moonrise or after moonset. In the Boa Esperança community, capture of paca tended to decrease on nights with high moon illumination (rs= −0.663; p=0.067. At the same time, an expressive catch-per-unity-effort decrease was also observed in this community (r2= −0.881; p<0.001, allowing us to predict unsustainable hunting levels for the next decade. The stock of animals in these areas could be continuously replaced if surrounding areas consisted of continuous forests. However, continuous hunting and deforestation force local hunters to travel longer distances to kill prey such as pacas. The confirmation of the relation between paca habits and lunar illumination and water level, a pattern described by local hunters, demonstrates the potential value of participatory research and the possibility of integrating traditional knowledge into scientific knowledge.

  3. Morphology of the tongue and characteristics of lingual papillae in Cuniculus paca (Rodentia: Cuniculidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Quagliatto Santos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the morphology of the tongue, its extrinsic muscles, and the characteristics of lingual papillae in Cuniculus paca. We used fifteen specimens from the Wild Animals Sector of Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP. In this species, the tongue is divided into three regions: root, body, and apex. The latter is delimited by the lingual frenum, which has the aspect of fibrous membrane. We also identified a median groove and a prominence on its dorsal surface. The extrinsic tongue muscles are the styloglossus, hyoglossus, genioglossus, geniohyoid, and milohyoid, the latter two are inserted into the hyoid apparatus. As for the presence of lingual papillae, we observed five papillae types in all specimens: filiform, fungiform, vallate, foliate, and conic. The filiform papillae are distributed throughout the apex surface and tongue body. They are caudally inclined throughout the body, until they are modified in the root region and form the conic papillae. The fungiform papillae are distributed in a large amount on the lingual apex, between the filiform papillae. This papilla type has a mushroom-like shape. Only two vallate papillae are located in the caudal portion of the lingual root, and they have an oval shape and are surrounded by a deep groove. The foliate papillae are observed in parallel grooves or slots located in the lateral portion of the tongue, between the vallate papillae and half of the intermolar prominence. In the tongue root, body, and apex we observed keratinized squamous stratified epithelium lining both the lingual papillae and the surface between them.

  4. Morfologia, ultraestrutura e morfometria do tegumento da paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766 criada em cativeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G.M.P. Isola

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Considerando-se a falta de informações detalhadas sobre a morfologia da paca, sendo o segundo maior roedor da fauna brasileira, de excelente qualidade de carne e, dada a importância do tegumento comum, inclusive para o bom manejo em cativeiro, e até mesmo estudos como uma opção de animal de experimentação, descreveu-se a morfologia, morfometria e a ultraestrutura da pele de oito pacas (Cuniculus paca machos e fêmeas, mediante a análise comparativa de segmentos cutâneos das regiões cervical, dorsal e medial do carpo. Observaram-se macroscopicamente as características da pelagem. Parte dos segmentos das regiões cutâneas foi analisada à microscopia de luz e parte, à microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Mensuraram-se as espessuras da derme, epiderme, camada córnea, perfis das fibras de colágeno da derme reticular e a área dos perfis das células das glândulas sebáceas repletas. Analisaram-se os resultados pela estatística descritiva e teste "T" (p<0,001. A coloração da pelagem da paca é castanho avermelhado com cerdas organizadas em grupos. A arquitetura da cútis e os anexos cutâneos se assemelham aos dos mamíferos em geral, embora haja ausência de glândulas sudoríparas. De acordo com a analise morfométrica, pôde-se inferir que a arquitetura da cútis de pacas machos e fêmeas apresenta diferenças quando comparada entre os sexos e também em um mesmo animal, diferenciando-se entre diversas regiões corpóreas.

  5. Morfologia do sistema genital feminino da paca (Cuniculus paca, Linnaeus, 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Gonçalves dos Reis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi caracterizada a morfologia macroscópica do genital feminino, de seis exemplares adultos de paca (Cuniculus paca, mediante dissecação das cavidades abdominal e pélvica imediatamente após o óbito. Os ovários apresentam forma ovoide, achatados dorso-ventralmente, de coloração amarela esbranquiçada com pequenos pontos avermelhados em sua superfície; têm localização sublombar, caudal aos rins; estão envoltos por uma rasa bolsa ovárica e fixados pelo mesovário; a tuba uterina é um órgão par, de aspecto sinuoso, contínua aos ovários, estando inserida na mesossalpinge e se estendendo até o início de cada corno uterino correspondente. Os cornos uterinos retilíneos fixam-se à parede abdominal pelo mesométrio e se unem pelo ligamento intercornual na altura da entrada da pelve, onde se posicionam dorsalmente à vesícula urinária; duas cevices estão presentes, embora o septo uterino que as separa seja incompleto, caracterizando presença de dois óstios uterinos internos e um único óstio uterino externo, considerando-se este útero como duplo incompleto. A vagina é um órgão tubular que se posiciona ventral ao reto e dorsal à vesícula urinária e à uretra, não se verificou a presença de vestíbulo e a vagina e a uretra não possuem ponto comum de convergência, abrindo-se, cada uma delas, diretamente na região vulvar, que se apresenta plana, com reduzidos lábios vulvares, apenas o clitóris de forma cônica é pouco proeminente e apresenta duas estruturas pontiagudas em sua região distal. Não se verificaram diferenças estatisticamente significativas nas mensurações realizadas nos ovários, tubas uterinas e cornos uterinos, ao se comparar os antímeros direito e esquerdo.

  6. Effects of ultraviolet radiation produced from artificial lights on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration in captive domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Jessica A; Whittington, Julia K; Allender, Matthew C; Mitchell, Mark A

    2014-04-01

    To determine the effects of UVB radiation produced by artificial lights on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculi). 9 juvenile domestic rabbits. After an acclimation period, rabbits were anesthetized with isoflurane, and an initial blood sample was collected for determination of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration. Rabbits were randomly assigned to receive 12-hour exposure to UVB radiation produced by 2 compact fluorescent lights daily (n = 5) or no UVB supplementation (4) commencing on day 1. The UVB radiation emitted into the cage was measured at 9 points approximately 34 cm from the surface of the UVB light sources (representing the position of the rabbits in the cage) after 10 hours of exposure on days 1, 8, and 14. On day 14, another blood sample was collected from anesthetized rabbits for determination of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration. The UVB radiation level was 8.3 to 58.1 μW/cm² for the exposed rabbits and consistently rabbits. Mean ± SD serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in the rabbits that were or were not provided supplemental UVB radiation for 14 days differed significantly (66.4 ± 14.3 nmol/L and 31.7 ± 9.9 nmol/L, respectively). Exposure to UVB radiation produced by artificial light significantly increased serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration in juvenile rabbits. Because vitamin D is an essential hormone in vertebrates, these findings suggested that the provision of supplemental UVB radiation to captive rabbits may be important.

  7. Are we looking in the wrong place? Implications for behavioural-based pain assessment in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculi and beyond?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C Leach

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Successful observation of behaviour depends upon knowing both which behaviours to look for and focusing on the appropriate areas of the body to observe them. Behaviour based scoring systems have become increasingly widely used to assess animal pain and distress. Although studies are available demonstrating which behaviours need to be observed, there has been little attempt to assess how effectively observers apply such information when viewing an animal's behaviour. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study used historical video recordings of New Zealand white rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculi considered to be experiencing varying degrees of post-operative pain to assess the pattern of observation and the ability to assess pain exhibited by both experienced and inexperienced human participants (n = 151. Eye tracking equipment was used to identify how quickly, how frequently, for how long different areas of the rabbit's body were attended to by the participants. Simple visual analogue scoring was used to assess the pain experienced in each sequence. The results demonstrate that irrespective of their experience or gender, observers focus first, more frequently and for longer on the face, compared to the abdomen, ears, back and hindquarters of the rabbit and that participants were poor at identifying rabbits in pain. Observing the back and hindquarters was correlated with 'correct' assessments and observing the face was correlated with 'incorrect' assessments. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, irrespective of experience and gender, observers focused on the face when using behaviour to assess pain and were unable to effectively identify rabbits in pain. Focusing on the face is unlikely to be effective when using behavioural indicators of pain since they involve other body areas. Alternatively, if animals exhibit pain-related facial expressions, then it could improve our ability to assess pain. In addition, these results have potential

  8. Diagnostic Cytochrome b gene profiles for the identification of paca (Cuniculus paca bushmeat: implications for the monitoring of illegal hunting and wildlife trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Silva-Neto

    Full Text Available Abstract Paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766 is the second largest rodent found in Brazil. The quality of the meat and a long tradition of hunting have contributed to the decline of the natural populations of this species. Hunting of paca is strictly prohibited in Brazil, but in spite of this restriction, no forensic tools are available for the identification of the meat. We describe an efficient method, based on single nucleotide polymorphisms of the cytochrome b gene, that can be used to differentiate biological material derived from paca from those of domestic species commonly used as sources of meat. The identification of the presence of C. paca in the samples was 100% reliable.

  9. Characteristics of the larval Echinococcus vogeli Rausch and Bernstein, 1972 in the natural intermediate host, the paca, Cuniculus paca L. (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, R L; D'Alessandro, A; Rausch, V R

    1981-09-01

    In Colombia, the natural intermediate host of Echinococcus vogeli Rausch and Bernstein, 1972 is the paca, Cuniculus paca L. (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae). The larval cestode develops in the liver of the host, where it usually is situated superficially, partly exposed beneath Glisson's capsule. The infective larva consists of a subspherical to asymmetrical, fluid-filled vesicle, up to 30 mm in diameter, enclosed by a thick laminated membrane. It typically contains numerous chambers, often interconnected, produced by endogenous proliferation of germinal and laminated tissue, within which brood capsules arise in an irregular pattern from the germinal layer. Invasive growth by means of exogenous proliferation, typical of infections in man, was not observed in the natural intermediate host. The development of the larval cestode is described on the basis of material from pacas, supplemented by observations on early-stage lesions in experimentally infected nutrias, Myocastor coypus (Molina) (Rodentia: Capromyidae). The tissue response is characterized for early-stage, mature (infective), and degenerating larvae in the comparatively long-lived intermediate host. In addition to previously reported differences in size and form of rostellar hooks, other morphologic characteristics are defined by which the larval stage of E. vogeli is distinguished from that of E. oligarthrus (Diesing, 1863). Pathogenesis by the larval E. vogeli in man, like that by the larval E. multilocularis Leuckart, 1863, is the consequence of atypical proliferation of vesicles attributable to parasite-host incompatibility.

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-XTRO-01-2190 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ryctolagus cuniculus] sp|Q9TV66|HCN4_RABIT Potassium/sodium hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 4 (Hype...CBRC-XTRO-01-2190 ref|NP_001076176.1| hyperpolarization activated cation channel [O...rpolarization-activated cation channel 4) (HAC-4) dbj|BAA77511.2| hyperpolarization activated cation channel [Oryctolagus cuniculus] NP_001076176.1 3e-70 75% ...

  11. Estudo exploratório descritivo do emprego de coelhos brancos da Nova Zelândia (Orytolagus cuniculus como modelo animal na avaliação dos padrões de crescimento craniofacial = Descriptive exploratory research related to the use of New Zealand white rabbits (Orytolagus cuniculus as standard animal in evaluation of craniofacial growth patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardoso, Eduardo Seixas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Os coelhos brancos da Nova Zelândia são freqüentemente relatados como o modelo animal selecionado para experimentos visando avaliação do crescimento craniofacial. Contudo, existe uma dificuldade de acesso às informações referentes aos cuidados no emprego destes espécimes durante trabalhos experimentais. Este estudo exploratório pretende rever a literatura, no que refere-se à seleção de um modelo animal e experimentos que envolvem o crescimento craniofacial bem como relatar os eventos de sucesso e insucesso vividos pelos pesquisadores dentro de um primeiro trabalho experimental, com um modelo animal, numa linha de pesquisa sobre o crescimento craniofacial. Láparos (Oryctolagus cunicullus, em tenra idade, foram manejados dentro de uma rotina de Biotério, para um correto preparo visando à realização de uma cirurgia (experimento. Detalhes referentes ao transporte, criação, fisiologia, comportamento, acomodação, anestesia, morte e manejo de doenças são discutidos para que futuros trabalhos com o propósito de utilização deste mesmo modelo animal possam ser abreviados no seu tempo inicial de contato e reconhecimento das peculiaridades desta espécie

  12. Quadro citológico vaginal, concentração plasmática de progesterona durante a gestação e medidas fetais em paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766 Vaginal citology, serum progesterone concentration during pregnancy and fetal measurements in paca (Cuniculus paca, Linnaeus 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Maria França Ribeiro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Em 27 pacas (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766 objetivou-se descrever aos 30, 60 e 90 dias (D de prenhez diagnosticada por ultrassonografia (US, os tipos celulares do epitélio vaginal em esfregaços vaginais, relatar as condições de abertura da vulva e as características do muco vaginal, determinar a concentração plasmática de progesterona (P4 por radioimunoensaio, e ainda, mensurar por ultrassonografia (US o diâmetro biparietal (DBP fetal aos 60 e 90 dias de prenhez. No D30, 40% das amostras exibiram células (com características estrogênicas superficiais e presença de núcleos nus. Nos D60 e D90, células parabasais, intermediárias, superficiais e naviculares estavam presentes nas mesmas proporções, mas células endocervicais foram descritas em apenas 73,9% e 69% das amostras daqueles dias, respectivamente. No D30 a maior proporção de células naviculares e superficiais diferiu (p The objective of this work was to describe in 27 pacas (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766 at 30, 60 and 90 days (D of pregnancy diagnosed by ultrasonography (U.S. the cell types of the vaginal epithelium by vaginal smears, to report the vulva opening condition and the characteristics of vaginal mucus, to determine the progesterone (P4 serum concentration by radioimmunoassay, and also measure by ultrasound (U.S. the fetuses biparietal diameter (BPD at 60 and 90 days of pregnancy. At D30, 40% of the smears exhibited surface cells (with estrogenic characteristics and of naked nuclei. At D60 and D90, parabasal, intermediate, superficial, and navicular cells were present in the same proportions, but endocervical cells were described in only 73.9% and 69% of those day's smears, respectively. At D30 the highest proportion of navicular and surface cells differed (p < 0.05 compared with other cell types. The vaginal mucus was crystalline and fluid in 100% and 70% of females at D30 and D60, respectively. It was observed the vaginal vestibule open in around 50% of

  13. TMFunction data: 2380 [TMFunction[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available eriments 86.7 Km (mM) kinetic analysis ... S12A1_RABIT (P55015) Helix ... ion affinities; mutagenic approach; F variant; chloride inding; translocation domains ...mbrane ... Na-K-Cl cotransporter NKCC2B Oryctolagus cuniculus rabbit Gim?nez I, Forbush B J Biol Chem. 2007 Mar 2;282(9):6540-7 flux exp

  14. TMFunction data: 2379 [TMFunction[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available eriments 110 Km (mM) kinetic analysis ... S12A1_RABIT (P55015) Helix ... ion affinities; mutagenic approach; F variant; chloride inding; translocation domains ...mbrane ... Na-K-Cl cotransporter NKCC2B Oryctolagus cuniculus rabbit Gim?nez I, Forbush B J Biol Chem. 2007 Mar 2;282(9):6540-7 flux exp

  15. TMFunction data: 2408 [TMFunction[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available eriments 3.7 Flux (mMol/oocyte/hr) kinetic analysis ... S12A1_RABIT (P55015) Helix ... i...mbrane ... Na-K-Cl cotransporter NKCC2B Oryctolagus cuniculus rabbit Gim?nez I, Forbush B J Biol Chem. 2007 Mar 2;282(9):6540-7 flux exp

  16. TMFunction data: 2381 [TMFunction[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available eriments 45.2 Km (mM) kinetic analysis ... S12A1_RABIT (P55015) Helix ... ion affinities; mutagenic approach; F variant; chloride inding; translocation domains ...mbrane ... Na-K-Cl cotransporter NKCC2B Oryctolagus cuniculus rabbit Gim?nez I, Forbush B J Biol Chem. 2007 Mar 2;282(9):6540-7 flux exp

  17. TMFunction data: 2407 [TMFunction[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available eriments 3.1 Flux (mMol/oocyte/hr) kinetic analysis ... S12A1_RABIT (P55015) Helix ... i...mbrane ... Na-K-Cl cotransporter NKCC2B Oryctolagus cuniculus rabbit Gim?nez I, Forbush B J Biol Chem. 2007 Mar 2;282(9):6540-7 flux exp

  18. TMFunction data: 2409 [TMFunction[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available eriments 4.9 Flux (mMol/oocyte/hr) kinetic analysis ... S12A1_RABIT (P55015) Helix ... i...mbrane ... Na-K-Cl cotransporter NKCC2B Oryctolagus cuniculus rabbit Gim?nez I, Forbush B J Biol Chem. 2007 Mar 2;282(9):6540-7 flux exp

  19. TMFunction data: 1188 [TMFunction[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ;NaDC1; Oryctolagus cuniculus Rabbit Pajor AM, Kahn ES, Gangula R. Biochem J. 2000 Sep 15;350 Pt 3:677-83. site directed mutagen...esis 11048 Vmax (pmol/h per oocyte) succinate transport ... S13A2_RABIT (Q28615) Helix ... citrate; mutagenesis; sodium; succinate; Xenopus ooctyes

  20. UniProt search blastx result: AK287903 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287903 J065211G19 P06814|CAN2_RABIT Calpain-2 catalytic subunit (EC 3.4.22.53) (Calpain...-2 large subunit) (Calcium-activated neutral proteinase 2) (CANP 2) (Calpain M-type) (M-calpain) (Millimolar-calpain) (Fragment) - Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit) 0 ...

  1. Toxoplasma gondii coinfection with diseases and parasites in wild rabbits in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    In wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) on an estate in Perthshire, central Scotland, the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii was 18/548 (3.3 %). The wild rabbit could be a T. gondii reservoir and it has potential value as a sentinel of T. gondii in environmental substrates. T. gondii was associated...

  2. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-OCUN-01-0004 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OCUN-01-0004 gnl|UG|Ocu#S33890432 Oryctolagus cuniculus large conductance Ca2+...-activated K+ channel beta1 subunit mRNA, complete cds /cds=p(448,1023) /gb=DQ821756 /gi=123967215 /ug=Ocu.2188 /len=1437 3.0 34% ...

  3. UniProt search blastx result: AK288592 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288592 J090051B06 Q28718|CNGA2_RABIT Cyclic nucleotide-gated olfactory channel (C...yclic nucleotide-gated cation channel 2) (CNG channel 2) (CNG-2) (CNG2) (Aorta CNG channel) (RACNG) - Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit) 4.00E-13 ...

  4. Complete genome sequence of the Campylobacter cuniculorum type strain LMG 24588

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter cuniculorum has been isolated from rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Although C. cuniculorum is highly prevalent in rabbits farmed for human consumption, the pathogenicity of this organism in humans is still unknown. This study describes the whole-genome sequence of the C. cuniculorum t...

  5. UniProt search blastx result: AK287578 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287578 J065038J02 P17635|FMO2_RABIT Dimethylaniline monooxygenase [N-oxide-forming] 2 (EC 1.14.13.8) (Pulm...onary flavin-containing monooxygenase 2) (FMO 2) (Dimethylaniline oxidase 2) (FMO 1B1) - Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit) 2.00E-17 ...

  6. UniProt search blastx result: AK287696 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287696 J065129N03 P17635|FMO2_RABIT Dimethylaniline monooxygenase [N-oxide-forming] 2 (EC 1.14.13.8) (Pulm...onary flavin-containing monooxygenase 2) (FMO 2) (Dimethylaniline oxidase 2) (FMO 1B1) - Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit) 1.00E-16 ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TGUT-05-0042 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-05-0042 ref|NP_001076121.1| potassium voltage-gated channel, delayed-rect...bunit 3) gb|AAF22833.1|AF209723_1 voltage-gated delayed-rectifier potassium channel Kv9.3 [Oryctolagus cuniculus] NP_001076121.1 0.0 85% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FRUB-02-0169 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FRUB-02-0169 ref|NP_001076121.1| potassium voltage-gated channel, delayed-rect...bunit 3) gb|AAF22833.1|AF209723_1 voltage-gated delayed-rectifier potassium channel Kv9.3 [Oryctolagus cuniculus] NP_001076121.1 1e-134 55% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OGAR-01-0901 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OGAR-01-0901 ref|NP_001076121.1| potassium voltage-gated channel, delayed-rect...bunit 3) gb|AAF22833.1|AF209723_1 voltage-gated delayed-rectifier potassium channel Kv9.3 [Oryctolagus cuniculus] NP_001076121.1 1e-172 95% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ETEL-01-0884 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ETEL-01-0884 ref|NP_001076121.1| potassium voltage-gated channel, delayed-rect...bunit 3) gb|AAF22833.1|AF209723_1 voltage-gated delayed-rectifier potassium channel Kv9.3 [Oryctolagus cuniculus] NP_001076121.1 0.0 92% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-EEUR-01-1046 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-EEUR-01-1046 ref|NP_001076121.1| potassium voltage-gated channel, delayed-rect...bunit 3) gb|AAF22833.1|AF209723_1 voltage-gated delayed-rectifier potassium channel Kv9.3 [Oryctolagus cuniculus] NP_001076121.1 0.0 91% ...

  12. Confirmation and phylogenetic analysis of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus in free-living rabbits from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Bildt, M. W. G.; van Bolhuis, G. H.; van Zijderveld, F.; van Riel, D.; Drees, J. M.; Osterhaus, A. D. M. E.; Kuiken, T.

    2006-01-01

    The number of free-living European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in the Netherlands has declined dramatically in recent years. Although rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) infection has been implicated as a possible cause of this decline, the definitive diagnosis has not been reported. We exam

  13. TMFunction data: 1168 [TMFunction[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NaDC1; Oryctolagus cuniculus Rabbit Pajor AM, Kahn ES, Gangula R. Biochem J. 2000 Sep 15;350 Pt 3:677-83. site directed mutagenesis... 25 Uptake (%) succinate transport ... S13A2_RABIT (Q28615) Helix ... citrate; mutagenesis; sodium; succinate; Xenopus ooctyes

  14. Confirmation and phylogenetic analysis of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus in free-living rabbits from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Bildt, M. W. G.; van Bolhuis, G. H.; van Zijderveld, F.; van Riel, D.; Drees, J. M.; Osterhaus, A. D. M. E.; Kuiken, T.

    2006-01-01

    The number of free-living European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in the Netherlands has declined dramatically in recent years. Although rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) infection has been implicated as a possible cause of this decline, the definitive diagnosis has not been reported. We

  15. The translocation of rabbits in a sand dune habitat : survival, dispersal and predation in relation to food quality and the use of burrows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drees, Marijke (J.M.); Dekker, Jasja J.A.; Wester, Linda; Olff, Han

    2009-01-01

    A decrease in a local rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) population can be offset by translocation and restocking the area with rabbits from other areas. However, such translocation programmes tend to suffer from a low survival rate - possibly due to stress and lack of cover. As part of a project, that

  16. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-OCUN-01-1564 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mbinant region (IgA) mRNA, partial cds /cds=p(64,919) /gb=AF090358 /gi=4063640 /ug=Ocu.6889 /len=919 2.9 38% ... ...CBRC-OCUN-01-1564 gnl|UG|Ocu#S29909360 Oryctolagus cuniculus immunoglobulin heavy chain VDJC-alpha transreco

  17. Gene : CBRC-OCUN-01-1128 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available drogenase subunit 2 [Kinyongia tavetanum] 0.023 26% gnl|UG|Ocu#S29909866 Oryctolagus cuniculus mRNP particle...CBRC-OCUN-01-1128 Novel UN C UNKNOWN HCAT_ECOLI 0.038 19% emb|CAM28413.1| NADH dehy

  18. Gene : CBRC-OCUN-01-1316 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available drogenase subunit 2 [Kinyongia tavetanum] 0.019 26% gnl|UG|Ocu#S29909866 Oryctolagus cuniculus mRNP particle...CBRC-OCUN-01-1316 Novel UN C UNKNOWN HCAT_ECOLI 0.069 18% emb|CAM28413.1| NADH dehy

  19. Gene : CBRC-OCUN-01-0735 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available drogenase subunit 2 [Kinyongia tavetanum] 0.078 26% gnl|UG|Ocu#S29909866 Oryctolagus cuniculus mRNP particle...CBRC-OCUN-01-0735 Novel UN D UNKNOWN EVX2_HUMAN 0.057 38% emb|CAM28413.1| NADH dehy

  20. Aspectos ecológicos y sostenibilidad de la caza del majás (Cuniculus paca en la cuenca del río Itaya, Amazonía peruana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Aquino

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Este reporte contiene información acerca de los ambientes de dormir, estructura poblacional y el impacto de la caza del majas (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766. Está basado en observaciones de madrigueras, censos por transectos y registros de caza. Encontramos que cada ambiente de dormir tenía de uno a tres orificios para el acceso y salida, uno a cuatro orificios para la fuga circunstancial y una cavidad interna para el “sueño diurno”. Del total de ambientes examinados, 67% estaban localizados entre 0 y 60 m respecto a los cuerpos de agua, pero algunos también fueron encontrados más allá de los 100 m. De la población extraída por los cazadores, 74% fueron adultos y solamente 4% correspondieron a los infantes. La presión de caza anual fue estimada en 0,4 individuos/km2 y la densidad para el área en general en 6,2 individuos/km2. Finalmente, el modelo de cosecha indica que la caza de esta especie es sostenible en la cuenca del río Alto Itaya.

  1. Habitat use and relative abundance of the Spotted Paca Cuniculus paca (Linnaeus, 1766 (Rodentia: Cuniculidae and the Red-rumped Agouti Dasyprocta leporina (Linnaeus, 1758 (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae in Guatopo National Park, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elinor Jax

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Spotted Paca Cuniculus paca and the Red-rumped Agouti Dasyprocta leporina are affected by habitat loss and hunting.  In Venezuela, their conservation status is unknown, even within protected areas.  The objective of this study was to estimate the relative abundance, activity patterns, habitat use, and effect of human activities on these species in Venezuela.  To achieve this, 26 camera-trap stations (20.8km2 were established in Guatopo National Park between February and April 2011, characterization of the habitat was undertaken and occupancy models were created.  The relative abundance of the Spotted Paca was 1.62 captures/100trap-nights, with a fully nocturnal activity pattern.  The relative abundance of the Red-rumped Agouti was 2.32 captures/100trap-nights, with a pronounced diurnal activity pattern. The occupation probability of the Red-rumped Agouti (0.61 SE 0.02 was higher than that of the Spotted Paca (0.27 SE 0.02. Spotted Pacas were mainly found in areas with mature forest and high tree density, whereas the  Red-rumped Agoutis were most frequently found in valleys with little disturbed forest.  A positive correlation was found between illegal hunting activities and areas occupied by the Spotted Paca.  It is important to strengthen the park control measurements to reduce illegal hunting of Spotted Pacas.

  2. Identification of a Bitter-Taste Receptor Gene Repertoire in Different Lagomorphs Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ana M.; Marques, Andreia T.; Fontanesi, Luca; Thulin, Carl-Gustaf; Sales-Baptista, Elvira; Araújo, Susana S.; Almeida, André M.

    2016-01-01

    The repertoires of bitter-taste receptor (T2R) gene have been described for several animal species, but these data are still scarce for Lagomorphs. The aim of the present work is to identify potential repertoires of T2R in several Lagomorph species, covering a wide geographical distribution. We studied these genes in Lepus timidus, L. europaeus, Oryctolagus cuniculus algirus, Romerolagus diazi, and Sylvilagus floridanus, using O. cuniculus cuniculus as control species for PCR and DNA sequencing. We studied the identities of the DNA sequences and built the corresponding phylogenetic tree. Sequencing was successful for both subspecies of O. cuniculus for all T2R genes studied, for five genes in Lepus, and for three genes in R. diazi and S. floridanus. We describe for the first time the partial repertoires of T2R genes for Lagomorphs species, other than the common rabbit. Our phylogenetic analyses indicate that sequence proximity levels follow the established taxonomic classification. PMID:27092177

  3. Los restos óseos de fauna del yacimiento argárico del Puntarrón Chico, Beniaján (Murcia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateo Saura, Miguel Ángel

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Not available

    [es] Presentamos los primeros resultados del estudio sobre la fauna del yacimiento de Puntarrón Chico, Beniaján (Murcia. Entre los restos, hemos identificado dos especies salvajes (Cervus elaphus y Oryctolagus cuniculus y cinco domésticas (Bos taurus, Sus scrofa, Capra hircus, Ovis aries y Canis familiaris. [fr] On présente ici les premiers resultats de l'étude sur la faune du gisement de Puntarrón Chico, Beniaján (Murcia. Parmi les restes, on peut identifier deux espèces sauvages (Cervus elaphus et Oryctolagus cuniculus et cinq espèces domestiques (Bos taurus, Sus scrofa, Capra hircus, Ovis aries et Canis familiaris.

  4. Occurrence of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli in the faeces of free-ranging wild lagomorphs in southwest Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, Remigio; García, Alfredo; Blanco, Jesús E.; Blanco, Jorge; Rey, Joaquín; Juan M. Alonso; Gómez, Luis; Sánchez, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) is an important group of emerging food-borne pathogens and represents a major public health concern worldwide. The aim of this work was to analyse faecal samples from hunted wild lagomorphs for the presence of E. coli O157:H7 and non-O157 VTEC. During two hunting seasons, faecal samples from 241 animals were collected, including wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and hare (Lepus granatensis) and were examined for VTEC. Overa...

  5. Ursachen und Schweregrad von Anämien bei Heimtierkaninchen

    OpenAIRE

    Dettweiler, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the reference ranges of hematological parameters in pet rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) on the one hand. We especially looked at the automatically measured hematocrit and the absolute reticulocyte count. On the other hand the causes and the severity of anemia in pet rabbits were studied. The reference range for the automatically measured hematocrit of 68 healthy pet rabbits was between 0,33 and 0,45 l/l. The reference range for reticuloc...

  6. A retro- and prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Dettweiler, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the reference ranges of hematological parameters in pet rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) on the one hand. We especially looked at the automatically measured hematocrit and the absolute reticulocyte count. On the other hand the causes and the severity of anemia in pet rabbits were studied. The reference range for the automatically measured hematocrit of 68 healthy pet rabbits was between 0,33 and 0,45 l/l. The reference range for reticuloc...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FRUB-02-0117 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FRUB-02-0117 ref|NP_001075589.1| blood-brain barrier large neutral amino acid ...mall subunit 1 (L-type amino acid transporter 1) (4F2 light chain) (4F2 LC) (4F2LC) (LAT1 light chain) gb|AAP47189.1| blood-brain bar...rier large neutral amino acid transporter light chain [Oryctolagus cuniculus] NP_001075589.1 7e-70 61% ...

  8. The current status and future directions of myxoma virus, a master in immune evasion

    OpenAIRE

    Spiesschaert Bart; McFadden Grant; Hermans Katleen; Nauwynck Hans; Van de Walle Gerlinde R

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Myxoma virus (MYXV) gained importance throughout the twentieth century because of the use of the highly virulent Standard Laboratory Strain (SLS) by the Australian government in the attempt to control the feral Australian population of Oryctolagus cuniculus (European rabbit) and the subsequent illegal release of MYXV in Europe. In the European rabbit, MYXV causes a disease with an exceedingly high mortality rate, named myxomatosis, which is passively transmitted by biting arthropod v...

  9. The current status and future directions of myxoma virus, a master in immune evasion

    OpenAIRE

    Spiesschaert, Bart; McFadden, Grant; Hermans, Katleen; Nauwynck, Hans; Van de Walle, Gerlinde R

    2011-01-01

    Myxoma virus (MYXV) gained importance throughout the twentieth century because of the use of the highly virulent Standard Laboratory Strain (SLS) by the Australian government in the attempt to control the feral Australian population of Oryctolagus cuniculus (European rabbit) and the subsequent illegal release of MYXV in Europe. In the European rabbit, MYXV causes a disease with an exceedingly high mortality rate, named myxomatosis, which is passively transmitted by biting arthropod vectors. M...

  10. Comparative analysis of ear-hole closure identifies epimorphic regeneration as a discrete trait in mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Gawriluk, Thomas R; Simkin, Jennifer; Thompson, Katherine L.; Biswas, Shishir K.; Clare-Salzler, Zak; Kimani, John M.; Kiama, Stephen G.; Jeramiah J. Smith; Ezenwa, Vanessa O.; Ashley W Seifert

    2016-01-01

    Why mammals have poor regenerative ability has remained a long-standing question in biology. In regenerating vertebrates, injury can induce a process known as epimorphic regeneration to replace damaged structures. Using a 4-mm ear punch assay across multiple mammalian species, here we show that several Acomys spp. (spiny mice) and Oryctolagus cuniculus completely regenerate tissue, whereas other rodents including MRL/MpJ ‘healer' mice heal similar injuries by scarring. We demonstrate ear-hole...

  11. Produção lacrimal, pressão intraocular, microbiota, citologia e histologia conjuntival de coelhos Nova Zelândia

    OpenAIRE

    Oriá,Arianne P.; Deusdete C. Gomes Junior; Elane A. Arraes; Alessandra Estrela-Lima; Pinna,Melissa H.; Meneses, Íris D.s.; Martins Filho, Emanoel F. [UNESP

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish reference values for selected ophthalmic diagnostic tests in New Zealand rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). A total of 22 adult male rabbits were used. The ophthalmic tests included evaluation of tear production with Schirmer tear test 1(STT1) and Endodontic absorbent paper point tear test (EAPPTT) using two different commercial brand materials. Applanation tonometry, Culture of the conjunctival bacterial flora, , conjunctival cytology and conjunctival...

  12. Biomechanical analysis of the main masticatory muscles in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, P; Debussy, T

    1980-09-01

    The main masticatory muscles of the Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.) were divided into their 25 component bundles per side. 5 dry skulls were used to determine points of origin and insertion which were then projected onto 3 planes perpendicular to each other, for the establishment of a biomechanical model. By interpreting this model and by examining various mandibular movements, the bundles were classified into 16 functional groups. The findings of other biomechanical studies are contrasted with the results of the study.

  13. Welfare aspects in rabbit rearing and transport

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Cavani; Massimiliano Petracci; Fabio Luzi; Marina Verga

    2010-01-01

    The review starts with the description of the rabbits’ (Oryctolagus cuniculus) main habits and the current situation concerning the rabbit husbandry and management systems, as well as their effects on the welfare of these animals. As far as the intensive rabbit husbandry systems are concerned, the main problems are related to the time since rabbits have been domesticated and their adaptive capacity and coping styles as respects the farming environment and management systems. Both these ...

  14. Clinical Application of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography of the Rabbit Head: Part 1 - Normal Dentition.

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) are increasingly popular as household pets; therefore, veterinarians need to be familiar with the most common diseases afflicting rabbits including dental diseases. Diagnostic approaches for dental disease include gross oral examination, endoscopic oral examination, skull radiography, and computed tomography (CT). CT overcomes many limitations of standard radiography by permitting cross-sectional images of the rabbit head in multiple planes without sup...

  15. Vaccination success and body condition in the European wild rabbit: Applications for conservation strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Cabezas, Sonia; Calvete, C.; Moreno, Sacramento

    2006-01-01

    The European wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is the main prey for several endangered species and an important game species in the Iberian Peninsula. However, over the last several decades 2 diseases, myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD), have contributed to a decline in rabbit populations. In Spain, vaccination campaigns against both diseases and the translocation of vaccinated rabbits are frequently used in projects aimed at stimulating the recovery of wild populations. We es...

  16. Encephalitozoon cuniculi in pet rabbits: diagnosis and optimal management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latney LV

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available La'Toya V Latney,1 Charles W Bradley,2 Nicole R Wyre1 1Departments of Clinical Studies, 2Departments of Pathobiology, Matthew J Ryan Veterinary Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Encephalitozoonosis is a significant microsporidial disease of captive pet rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus. This article overviews the life cycle, pathogenesis, and host immune response to the parasite. Clinical presentation, differential diagnoses, antemortem diagnostics, and postmortem diagnosis will be discussed. International seroprevalence data and histologic prevalence estimates in the US are presented. A review of current treatment and control recommendations are discussed based on extensive review of controlled studies, which have found fenbendazole to be effective for limiting spread of the disease. Keywords: Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Oryctolagus cuniculi, microsporidia, encephalitozoonosis

  17. Feeding profile of Mepraia spinolai, a sylvatic vector of Chagas disease in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón, F; Bacigalupo, A; Quiroga, J F; Ferreira, A; Cattan, P E; Ramírez-Toloza, G

    2016-10-01

    American trypanosomiasis is a chronic disease transmitted mainly by vectors. The hematophagous triatomine vectors transmit Trypanosoma cruzi to a wide variety of mammals, which usually are their food source. This study determined the feeding profile of Mepraia spinolai, a sylvatic triatomine vector, present in endemic areas of Chile. Vectors were captured in the north-central area of Chile. Samples of intestinal contents were analyzed by an Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that identifies and discriminates the presence of serum antigens from Homo sapiens and nine animal species (Canis familiaris, Felis catus, Capra hircus, Mus musculus, Gallus gallus, Octodon degus, Thylamys elegans, Phyllotis darwini and Oryctolagus cuniculus). Our data indicate the most frequent feeding source in this area was P. darwini, followed by O. degus, O. cuniculus, M. musculus, G. gallus, T. elegans, C. familiaris, F. catus and C. hircus. Mixed food sources were also identified.

  18. Myxoma virus in the European rabbit: interactions between the virus and its susceptible host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Marianne M; Werden, Steven J; McFadden, Grant

    2007-01-01

    Myxoma virus (MV) is a poxvirus that evolved in Sylvilagus lagomorphs, and is the causative agent of myxomatosis in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). This virus is not a natural pathogen of O. cuniculus, yet is able to subvert the host rabbit immune system defenses and cause a highly lethal systemic infection. The interaction of MV proteins and the rabbit immune system has been an ideal model to help elucidate host/poxvirus interactions, and has led to a greater understanding of how other poxvirus pathogens are able to cause disease in their respective hosts. This review will examine how MV causes myxomatosis, by examining a selection of the identified immunomodulatory proteins that this virus expresses to subvert the immune and inflammatory pathways of infected rabbit hosts.

  19. Anestesia general en el conejo (General Anaesthesia in rabbit)

    OpenAIRE

    Bimonte Patetta, Diego:; Rodríguez Nieves, Carlos:; de Casas, Luis; Vedovatti Manzoni,Ernesto:

    2007-01-01

    Los autores realizan una revisión de las técnicas utilizadas para la anestesia en conejos (Oryctolagus cuniculus), relatando la xperiencia acumulada en 10 años de anestesia en esta especie bajo distintos regímenes: anestesia inyectable, inhalatoria, en uso tanto clínico como en la investigación. Se hace una descripción de las técnicas anestésicas utilizadas así como los procedimientos empleados tanto en anestesia inyectable como en inhalatoria en esta especie,así como la comparación de una d...

  20. The Contribution of Endozoochory to the Colonization and Vegetation Composition of Recently Formed Sand Coastal Dunes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Dellafiore

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine whether endozoochory contributes to the dispersal and colonization of plant species in recently formed coastal dunes. At least 5.7% of species present in the study area are being dispersed by wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.. Most dispersed species are perennial herbs with small seeds size. The continuous input of seeds through rabbit feces into newly created areas would ensure the constant arrival of seeds and would facilitate colonization. Therefore, endozoochorous dispersal may play a relevant role for the structure and composition of dune plant communities.

  1. Development of a SYBR-based real-time PCR to detect rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus(RHDV) and analyze its tissue distribution in experimentally infected rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenkai; Liu; Ruyi; Dang; Xinglong; Wang

    2015-01-01

    <正>Dear Editor,Rabbit hemorrhagic disease(RHD)is a highly contagious disease of both wild and domesticated rabbits(Oryctolagus cuniculus).The causative agent of the disease is the rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus(RHDV),belongs to the genus Lagovirus within the family Caliciviridae(Granzow et al.,1996;Ohlinger et al.,1990).It is a small and non-enveloped virus with a 7.5 kb single stranded positive sense RNA genome(Meyers et al.,1991;Meyers et al.,2000).Based on an analysis of VP60

  2. Anestesia general en el conejo (General Anaesthesia in rabbit)

    OpenAIRE

    Bimonte Patetta, Diego:; Rodríguez Nieves, Carlos:; Casas, Luis; Vedovatti Manzoni,Ernesto:

    2007-01-01

    Los autores realizan una revisión de las técnicas utilizadas para la anestesia en conejos (Oryctolagus cuniculus), relatando la xperiencia acumulada en 10 años de anestesia en esta especie bajo distintos regímenes: anestesia inyectable, inhalatoria, en uso tanto clínico como en la investigación. Se hace una descripción de las técnicas anestésicas utilizadas así como los procedimientos empleados tanto en anestesia inyectable como en inhalatoria en esta especie,así como la comparación de una d...

  3. Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus detected in Pico, Azores, Portugal, revealed a unique endemic strain with more than 17 years of independent evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Pedro J; Lopes, Ana M; Magalhães, Maria J; Pinheiro, Ana; Gonçalves, David; Abrantes, Joana

    2014-07-14

    Rabbit hemorrhagic disease is caused by a calicivirus, rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), which is responsible for high mortality in domestic and wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). RHDV strains were sequenced from wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus algirus) collected in the Azorean island of Pico, Portugal. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the Pico RHDV strains diverge from all of the others described so far, but cluster with the genogroups 1-5 (G1-G5). The genetic distance between the Pico RHDV sequences and each G1, G2 and G3-G5 genogroup (~0.08) is compatible with an RHDV introduction at least 17 years ago. Our results show that in Pico, RHDV is the outcome of an independent evolution from the original RHDV strain that appeared in its European rabbit population. These are the first sequences of RHDV obtained in the subspecies O. c. algirus, outside of its original region, the Iberian Peninsula. Furthermore, we discuss the risk of rabbit translocations from the Azores to the Iberian Peninsula, where the rabbit wild populations are suffering high mortalities.

  4. Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus Detected in Pico, Azores, Portugal, Revealed a Unique Endemic Strain with More Than 17 Years of Independent Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J. Esteves

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rabbit hemorrhagic disease is caused by a calicivirus, rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV, which is responsible for high mortality in domestic and wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus. RHDV strains were sequenced from wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus algirus collected in the Azorean island of Pico, Portugal. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the Pico RHDV strains diverge from all of the others described so far, but cluster with the genogroups 1–5 (G1–G5. The genetic distance between the Pico RHDV sequences and each G1, G2 and G3–G5 genogroup (~0.08 is compatible with an RHDV introduction at least 17 years ago. Our results show that in Pico, RHDV is the outcome of an independent evolution from the original RHDV strain that appeared in its European rabbit population. These are the first sequences of RHDV obtained in the subspecies O. c. algirus, outside of its original region, the Iberian Peninsula. Furthermore, we discuss the risk of rabbit translocations from the Azores to the Iberian Peninsula, where the rabbit wild populations are suffering high mortalities.

  5. Laparoscopic ovum pick-up in spotted paca ( Cuniculus pacas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.F.P.C. Barros

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this work is study the laparoscopic ovum pick-up (LapOPU technique in spotted paca, describing surgery details, complications and oocyte recovery rate. Nine healthy adult non-pregnant captive females were used, in a total of 39 procedures. When the surgical plane of anaesthesia was achieved, the females were positioned at 20º Trendelenburg. Three 6mm trocars were placed on right and left inguinal and hypogastric regions. Abdomen was inflated with CO2 and the intra-abdominal pressure was stablished in 10mmHg. Follicular punctures were performed moving the ovaries with atraumatic forceps. For punctures, an 18-gauge 3.5 inch long needle attached to a vacuum system with pressure not exceeding 65mmHg was used. Oocytes were recovered into 50mL centrifuge tubes with media composed of PBS supplemented with 10 IU/mL of heparin and kept at 36°C. R Software was used for statistical analysis. Data normality distribution (Shapiro test and variances homoscedasticity (Bartlett test were tested and descriptive statistics (mean±SD was used to present the results. It was only possible to perform LapOPU in 30 of 39 laparoscopies (76.92%. The surgical total time was 37.34 ± 18.53 minutes. The total number of visualized follicles, aspirated follicles, and retrieved oocytes were 502, 415, and 155, respectively. And the same parameters per animal were: 14.34 ± 12.23, 11.86 ± 10.03, and 4.43 ± 4.69 respectively. Oocyte recovery rate was 32.56 ± 27.32%. In conclusion, caudal positioning of portals with slight triangulation allows good viewing of the abdominal cavity and eases the manipulation of the ovaries. Thus this described LapOPU technique is feasible in spotted paca and easy to perform.

  6. Morfologia do joelho da paca (Cuniculus paca, Linnaeus 1766)

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Alessandra

    2012-01-01

    A descrição morfológica da paca pode facilitar sua exploração econômica racional e preservação da espécie. Além disso, devido ao interesse dos pesquisadores por novos modelos experimentais de cirurgia, em especial para reconstrução das estruturas do joelho, objetivou-se com o presente estudo, descrever a anatomia do joelho da paca. Neste contexto, a articulação do joelho foi dissecada para identificar as estruturas presentes; foi verificada a ocorrência de tecido ósseo nos meniscos, e realiza...

  7. Lung morphology of cursorial and non-cursorial mammals: lagomorphs as a case study for a pneumatic stabilization hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, R S

    1996-12-01

    Gross lung morphology is examined in representative species from four genera within the order Lagomorpha (Lepus californicus, Sylvilagus nuttalli, Oryctolagus cuniculus, Ochotona princeps), and compared with a representative rodent out-group (Spermophilus richardonsii). Examination of pulmonary morphology reveals several correlations between the thoracic morphology and locomotor behavior. Lepus, the most cursorial species, exhibits a distinct suite of characteristics: 1) tissue of the right cranial lobe interposed between the heart and sternum; 2) well-defined grooves in the lung tissue for both the aorta and ribs; 3) a fibrous pericardial attachment to the sternum; 4) relatively large heart and lung mass. Sylvilagus, a sprinter, exhibits these features to a lesser degree, whereas Oryctolagus and Ochotona, non-cursorial species, lack most of these features. This same suite of pulmonary features is also observed in a wide range of unrelated cursorial taxa (including selected Artiodactlya, Perissodactyla, Carnivora). Corrosion casts of the internal airways demonstrate that the cursorial and non-cursorial taxa examined here have similar branching patterns despite their variable external morphologies. The juxtaposition of pulmonary lobes, heart, and ribs leads to the hypothesis that the lungs themselves provide mechanical support of the heart and visceral mass during locomotion. Analyses of cineradiographic and pneumotachographic data obtained from Oryctolagus tend to support a pneumatic stabilization hypothesis: the lungs themselves, intimately associated with the chest walls and positively pressurized during landing, may provide some mechanical support to the viscera. This mechanism may be important in stabilizing the relatively large hearts of the most cursorial species during running.

  8. Genetic characterization of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 gene in lagomorphs: comparison between the families Ochotonidae and Leporidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrantes, J; Esteves, P J; Carmo, C R; Müller, A; Thompson, G; van der Loo, W

    2008-04-01

    Chemokines receptors are transmembrane proteins that bind chemokines. Chemokines and their receptors are known to play a crucial role in the immune system and in pathogen entry. There is evidence that myxoma virus, the causative agent of myxomatosis, can use the chemokine receptor CXCR4 to infect cells. This virus causes a benign disease in its natural host, Sylvilagus, but in the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) it causes a highly fatal and infectious disease known as myxomatosis. We have characterized the chemokine receptor CXCR4 gene in five genera of the order Lagomorpha, Ochotona (Ochotonidae), and Oryctolagus, Lepus, Bunolagus and Sylvilagus (Leporidae). In lagomorphs, the CXCR4 is highly conserved, with most of the protein diversity found at surface regions. Five amino acid replacements were observed, two in the intracellular loops, one in the transmembrane domain and two in the extracellular loops. Oryctolagus features unique amino acid changes at the intracellular domains, putting this genus apart of all other lagomorphs. Furthermore, in the 37 European rabbits analysed, which included healthy rabbits and rabbits with clinical symptoms of myxomatosis, 14 nucleotide substitutions were obtained but no amino acid differences were observed.

  9. Lessons in Détente or know thy host: The immunomodulatory gene products of myxoma virus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Martha C Zúñiga

    2003-04-01

    The poxvirus, myxoma virus, encodes within its genome at least eleven different proteins that compromise, skew, or disable the innate and adaptive responses of its hosts. In the laboratory rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus, these effects result in myxomatosis, a fatal condition characterized by skin lesions and systemic immunosuppression. Interestingly, while myxoma infection also causes skin lesions in its natural host and in natural populations of O. cuniculus in Australia where this novel host and the virus have co-evolved, the condition of myxomatosis does not ensue and infection is not fatal. In this review I discuss the biochemical properties of the characterized immunomodulatory proteins of myxoma virus, and their pathogenic effects in laboratory rabbits. Disruption of any one myxoma immunomodulatory gene diminishes the severity of the infection without compromising infectivity. Thus, the characterized immunomodulatory genes appear not to be required for a productive infection in vivo. The differences in the severity of their effects in laboratory-bred versus wild O. cuniculus suggest that the outcome of myxoma infection is a consequence of the interplay between the viral immunomodulatory gene products and the cells and molecules of the host immune system.

  10. A pox on thee! Manipulation of the host immune system by myxoma virus and implications for viral-host co-adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga, Martha C

    2002-09-01

    The poxviruses have evolved a diverse array of proteins which serve to subvert innate and adaptive host responses that abort or at least limit viral infections. Myxoma virus and its rabbit host are considered to represent an ideal poxvirus-host system in which to study the effects of these immunomodulatory proteins. Studies of laboratory rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) infected with gene knockout variants of myxoma virus have provided compelling evidence that several myxoma virus gene products contribute to the pathogenic condition known as myxomatosis. However, myxomatosis, which is characterized by skin lesions, systemic immunosuppression, and a high mortality rate, does not occur in the virus' natural South American host, Sylvilogus brasiliensis. Moreover, in Australia where myxoma virus was willfully introduced to control populations of O. cuniculus, myxomatosis-resistant rabbits emerged within a year of myxoma virus introduction into the field. In this review I discuss the characterized immunomodulatory proteins of myxoma virus, their biochemical properties, their pathogenic effects in laboratory rabbits, the role of the host immune system in the susceptibility or resistance to myxomatosis, and the evidence that immunomodulatory genes may have been attenuated during the co-adaptation of myxoma virus and O. cuniculus in Australia.

  11. Myxomatosis in the Mallee region of Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, R C; Edmonds, J W; Nolan, I F; Gocs, A

    1978-10-01

    Sharp reductions in the wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus (L.)) population in the Mallee are associated with annual myxomatosis epizootics. The extent to which the population reductions are the direct result of the epizootics varies with time of epizootic occurrence. All grazing animals in the Mallee are under nutritional stress each summer and autumn. When the epizootic occurs during the early summer heavy losses occur in a previously healthy population. Similar losses which occur in the late summer and autumn are the result of a nutritional stress - epizootic complex. The end result in each case is a population reduction of about 80%. This reduction occurs in a population which is the most resistant to myxomatosis known in Victoria and in association with epizootics caused by field strains of myxoma virus of moderate virulence only. The earlier summer epizootics are of considerable economic importance because they sharply reduce the pressure on the limited food available for other grazing animals.

  12. Is the New Variant RHDV Replacing Genogroup 1 in Portuguese Wild Rabbit Populations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Ana M.; Correia, Jorge; Abrantes, Joana; Melo, Pedro; Ramada, Margarida; Magalhães, Maria J.; Alves, Paulo C.; Esteves, Pedro J.

    2014-01-01

    The Lagovirus rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), a member of the family Caliciviridae, severely affects European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) populations by causing rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD). RHDV is subdivided in six genogroups but, more recently, a new RHDV variant with a unique genetic and antigenic profile emerged. We performed a study in rabbits found dead in the field during 2013 and 2014 in Portugal to determine the prevalence of this new variant versus the classical RHDV. Fifty-seven liver samples were screened for the presence of RHDV and positive samples were genotyped. All cases of RHDV infection were caused by the new variant. The only former genogroup circulating in Portugal, G1, was not detected. We hence conclude that the new RHDV variant is replacing G1 in Portugal, probably due to a selective advantage. This sudden and rapid replacement emphasizes the necessity of continued monitoring of wild rabbit populations. PMID:25559218

  13. The micromammals (Lagomorpha, Eulipotyphla and Rodentia) from the Middle Pleistocene site of Cuesta de la Bajada (Teruel, Spain): Systematic study and paleoenvironmental considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sese, C.; Soto, E.; Santonja, M.; Perez-Gonzalez, A.; Dominguez-Rodrigo, M.

    2016-07-01

    The micromammal association established in this work is the following: Lagomorpha: Oryctolagus cuniculus; Eulipotyphla: Crocidura cf. russula, cf. Sorex sp., Neomys sp., Soricidae indet. and Talpa sp.; and Rodentia: Eliomys quercinus, Apodemus cf. sylvaticus, Cricetulus (Allocricetus) bursae, Arvicola aff. sapidus, Microtus (Iberomys) brecciensis and Microtus (Terricola duodecimcostatus. This association is characteristic of the Middle Pleistocene. The morphological state of Cricetulus (A.) bursae, Arvicola aff. sapidus and Microtus (I.) brecciensis allows to place it in the advanced, but not final, Middle Pleistocene, which agrees with the numerical data of the site (243–337 ka) that places it in the MIS 8 or 9. The micromammals indicate the predominance of the open spaces with abundant vegetation mainly of herbaceous and bushes but also with some areas with trees. The climate would be of Mediterranean type, similar to the actual or perhaps a little milder and more humid. (Author)

  14. Is the new variant RHDV replacing genogroup 1 in Portuguese wild rabbit populations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Ana M; Correia, Jorge; Abrantes, Joana; Melo, Pedro; Ramada, Margarida; Magalhães, Maria J; Alves, Paulo C; Esteves, Pedro J

    2014-12-30

    The Lagovirus rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), a member of the family Caliciviridae, severely affects European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) populations by causing rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD). RHDV is subdivided in six genogroups but, more recently, a new RHDV variant with a unique genetic and antigenic profile emerged. We performed a study in rabbits found dead in the field during 2013 and 2014 in Portugal to determine the prevalence of this new variant versus the classical RHDV. Fifty-seven liver samples were screened for the presence of RHDV and positive samples were genotyped. All cases of RHDV infection were caused by the new variant. The only former genogroup circulating in Portugal, G1, was not detected. We hence conclude that the new RHDV variant is replacing G1 in Portugal, probably due to a selective advantage. This sudden and rapid replacement emphasizes the necessity of continued monitoring of wild rabbit populations.

  15. Experimental infections with Fasciola in snails, mice and rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Abdel-Nasser A; Khalifa, R M A

    2008-05-01

    Experimental infection trails of Lymnaea (cailliaudi) natalensis snails with miracidia of Fasciola hepatica revealed neither cercariae nor larval stages shed. Infection of white mice with metacercariae from field-collected snails proved to be negative for Fasciola eggs and immature juveniles or adults after 84 days post infection. The infection of eight rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) has succeeded; two rabbits were infected, with a very low infection rate. Faeces of rabbits were negative for eggs. The worm burden was one and three worms from 40 fed metacercariae. The obtained fluke measures 23 mm in length by 4 mm in width. The tegument is covered with sharp-ending spines. The uterus contains few eggs. The intrauterine eggs measured 158 microm x 80 microm. According to the morphological characters of these flukes, they belong to F. gigantica.

  16. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U06388-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available main-co... 35 1.1 AM910996_572( AM910996 |pid:none) Plasmodium knowlesi strain H chr... 35 1.1 ( O76329 ) Re...leotide 2'-phosphodiester... 33 2.4 AM910991_358( AM910991 |pid:none) Plasmodium knowlesi strain H chr... 33... 2.4 U21157_1( U21157 |pid:none) Oryctolagus cuniculus sarcolemmal asso... 33 2.4 AM910990_191( AM910990 |pid:none) Plasmodium knowle....1 AM910994_143( AM910994 |pid:none) Plasmodium knowlesi strain H chr... 33 3.1 AB040962_1( AB040962 |pid:no...; AltName: Full=Myosin heavy chai... 33 4.0 AM910994_385( AM910994 |pid:none) Plasmodium knowles

  17. Review of the status of mammals in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Peshev

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the territory of Bulgaria are found 97 species of mammals, belonging to 8 orders. 37 of them are protected. 19 mammalian species are included in the Bulgarian Red Data Book. Two of them are extinct, 8 are endangered and 9 are rare. In Bulgaria there are no endemic mammals. Three species are extinct: Eliomys quercinus, Mustela lutreola and Lynx lynx. 5 species are introduced: Ondatra zibethica, Oryctolagus cuniculus, Cervus nippon, Cervus dama and Ovis ammon. The raccon dog (Nyctereustes procyonoides appeared by natural colonisation.

  18. Comparative analysis of ear-hole closure identifies epimorphic regeneration as a discrete trait in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawriluk, Thomas R; Simkin, Jennifer; Thompson, Katherine L; Biswas, Shishir K; Clare-Salzler, Zak; Kimani, John M; Kiama, Stephen G; Smith, Jeramiah J; Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Seifert, Ashley W

    2016-04-25

    Why mammals have poor regenerative ability has remained a long-standing question in biology. In regenerating vertebrates, injury can induce a process known as epimorphic regeneration to replace damaged structures. Using a 4-mm ear punch assay across multiple mammalian species, here we show that several Acomys spp. (spiny mice) and Oryctolagus cuniculus completely regenerate tissue, whereas other rodents including MRL/MpJ 'healer' mice heal similar injuries by scarring. We demonstrate ear-hole closure is independent of ear size, and closure rate can be modelled with a cubic function. Cellular and genetic analyses reveal that injury induces blastema formation in Acomys cahirinus. Despite cell cycle re-entry in Mus musculus and A. cahirinus, efficient cell cycle progression and proliferation only occurs in spiny mice. Together, our data unite blastema-mediated regeneration in spiny mice with regeneration in other vertebrates such as salamanders, newts and zebrafish, where all healthy adults regenerate in response to injury.

  19. Age dependency of base modification in rabbit liver DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, O.; Fuji, I.; Yoshida, T.; Cox, A. B.; Lett, J. T.

    1988-01-01

    Age-related modifications of DNA bases have been observed in the liver of the New Zealand white (NZW) rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), a lagomorph with a median life span in captivity of 5-7 yr. The ages of the animals studied ranged from 6 wk to 9 yr. After the DNA had been extracted from the liver cell nuclei and hydrolyzed with acid, the bases were analyzed by column chromatography with Cellulofine gels (GC-15-m). Two peaks in the chromatogram, which eluted before the four DNA bases, contained modified bases. Those materials, which were obtained in relatively large amounts from old animals, were highly fluorescent, and were shown to be crosslinked base products by mass spectrometry. The yield of crosslinked products versus rabbit age (greater than 0.5 yr) can be fitted by an exponential function (correlation coefficient: 0.76 +/- 0.09).

  20. Late cataractogenesis caused by particulate radiations and photons in long-lived mammalian species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lett, J. T.; Lee, A. C.; Cox, A. B.; Wood, D. H.

    Radiation cataractogenesis induced by small acute doses of particulate radiations and photons in the New Zealand white (NZW) rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), the beagle dog (Canis familiaris) and the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) is discussed in the context of the use of animal models to assess the radiation hazards faced by humans during lengthy sojourns in deep space. Attention is paid to: 1) the importance of lifespan studies with long-lived species - the above animals have median lifespans in captivity of 5-7, 13-14 and -25 years, respectively; 2) the magnitudes of possible dose thresholds for cataractogenesis from sparsely ionizing radiations and the modifications of those thresholds by the late degenerative phase of the phenomenon.

  1. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05528-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available one SSJ306. 186 6e-64 3 ( AC170053 ) Oryctolagus cuniculus clone LB1-219P1, WORKING DR... 48 0.22 1 ( DU9648...cinctus clone VMRC5-309H24, WORKING ... 46 0.87 1 ( AC118531 ) Rattus norvegicus ..... 46 0.87 1 ( AC097682 ) Rattus norvegicus clone CH230-66O13, WORKING DRAF... 46 0.87 1 ( DH796484 ) Rattus...equence 1524 from Patent WO0200928. 36 1.7 2 ( AC165687 ) Bos taurus clone CH240-165O2, WORK...ING DRAFT SEQUE... 34 1.7 2 ( AC184284 ) Strongylocentrotus purpuratus clone R3-56M1, WORK... 34

  2. Anestesia general en el conejo (General Anaesthesia in rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bimonte Patetta, Diego:

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Los autores realizan una revisión de las técnicas utilizadas para la anestesia en conejos (Oryctolagus cuniculus, relatando la xperiencia acumulada en 10 años de anestesia en esta especie bajo distintos regímenes: anestesia inyectable, inhalatoria, en uso tanto clínico como en la investigación. Se hace una descripción de las técnicas anestésicas utilizadas así como los procedimientos empleados tanto en anestesia inyectable como en inhalatoria en esta especie,así como la comparación de una de las técnicas de anestesia recomendada y la utilizada como base en nuestro quirófano.

  3. Toxoplasma gondii coinfection with diseases and parasites in wild rabbits in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Sam; Dubey, J P; Smith, Judith E; Boag, Brian

    2015-09-01

    In wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) on an estate in Perthshire, central Scotland, the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii was 18/548 (3·3%). The wild rabbit could be a T. gondii reservoir and it has potential value as a sentinel of T. gondii in environmental substrates. Toxoplasma gondii was associated with female sex (P myxomatosis caused by the virus Myxomatosis cuniculi, the intensity of roundworm eggs, the year or season, rabbit age or distance from farm buildings. Coinfections could have been affected by gestational down regulation of type 1 T helper cells. A sudden influx or release of T. gondii oocysts might have occurred. This is the first report of T. gondii in any wild herbivore in Scotland and also the first report of lapine T. gondii as a coinfection with E. stiedae, M. cuniculi and helminths.

  4. Myxomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertagnoli, S; Marchandeau, S

    2015-08-01

    Myxomatosis, a major disease of European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), is enzootic on several continents. The disease is infectious, virulent and contagious. The pathogen is a virus of the family Poxviridae, genus Leporipoxvirus. In its classic form the disease is often fatal, characterised by severe immunosuppression and the appearance of skin pseudotumours (myxomas); it is conducive to effective mechanical transmission by many biting arthropods. Atypical clinical forms, referred to as amyxomatous, of variable severity and with an apparent preference for direct transmission, have recently emerged in Europe. Virus-host interactions have been particularly well studied since the voluntary introduction of the myxoma virus into Australia and Europe, revealing a remarkable process of co-evolution. Molecular analysis has recently demonstrated the extraordinary evolutionary capacity of the myxoma virus.

  5. Molecular characterization of SG33 and Borghi vaccines used against myxomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavadini, Patrizia; Botti, Giuliana; Barbieri, Ilaria; Lavazza, Antonio; Capucci, Lorenzo

    2010-07-26

    Myxoma virus is a poxvirus responsible for myxomatosis in European Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). The entire genome of the myxoma virus has been sequenced, allowing a systemic survey of the functions of a large number of putative pathogenic factors that this virus expresses to subvert the immune and inflammatory pathways of infected rabbit hosts. In Italy, industrial rabbits are mostly vaccinated against myxomatosis using the attenuated myxoma virus strains Borghi or SG33. We have identified genetic markers specific for Borghi or SG33 vaccine strains and established a PCR-based assay that could be used to: (a) rapidly diagnose the presence of myxoma virus in infected organs; (b) discriminate between field strain-infected and vaccinated rabbits and (c) differentiate between Borghi or SG33 vaccine strain. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of vaccination against viral haemorrhagic disease and myxomatosis on long-term mortality rates of European wild rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvete, C; Estrada, R; Lucientes, J; Osacar, J J; Villafuerte, R

    2004-09-25

    The effects of vaccination against myxomatosis and viral haemorrhagic disease (VHD) on long-term mortality rates in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) were studied from 1993 to 1996 by radiotracking a free-living population of wild rabbits. During the three months after immunisation, unvaccinated young rabbits weighing between 180 and 600 g were 13.6 times more likely to die than vaccinated young rabbits. In adult rabbits, vaccination did not significantly decrease mortality, mainly owing to the high proportion of rabbits which had previously been exposed to the antigens of both diseases. Compared with adult rabbits with natural antibodies to VHD, rabbits without these antibodies were 5.2 times more likely to die of VHD during annual outbreaks.

  7. Possible interaction between myxomatosis and calicivirosis related to rabbit haemorrhagic disease affecting the European rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchandeau, S; Bertagnoli, S; Peralta, B; Boucraut-Baralon, C; Letty, J; Reitz, F

    2004-11-06

    Serological data on myxoma virus, rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) virus and RHD-like viruses in juvenile rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) trapped in 1995, 1996 and 1997 in two areas of France were analysed. For each disease, the effects of bodyweight, year, month and seropositivity for the other disease were modelled by using logistic regressions. In one area, a model including RHD seropositivity was selected to explain the myxoma virus seropositivity. Models including myxoma virus seropositivity were selected to explain the RHD seropositivity in both areas, and the odds of a rabbit being seropositive to both viruses were 5.1 and 8.4 times higher than the odds of a rabbit being seronegative to myxoma virus and seropositive to RHD. The year and bodyweight had significant effects for myxomatosis in one area and for RHD in both areas.

  8. Myxomatosis in the Mallee region of Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, R. C.; Edmonds, J. W.; Nolan, I. F.; Gocs, A.

    1978-01-01

    Sharp reductions in the wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus (L.)) population in the Mallee are associated with annual myxomatosis epizootics. The extent to which the population reductions are the direct result of the epizootics varies with time of epizootic occurrence. All grazing animals in the Mallee are under nutritional stress each summer and autumn. When the epizootic occurs during the early summer heavy losses occur in a previously healthy population. Similar losses which occur in the late summer and autumn are the result of a nutritional stress - epizootic complex. The end result in each case is a population reduction of about 80%. This reduction occurs in a population which is the most resistant to myxomatosis known in Victoria and in association with epizootics caused by field strains of myxoma virus of moderate virulence only. The earlier summer epizootics are of considerable economic importance because they sharply reduce the pressure on the limited food available for other grazing animals. PMID:701787

  9. A Checklist of the Mammals of small Italian islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Angelici

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Present knowledge on mammals of small Italian islands consists mainly of episodic records. In this paper we collect all available information about the distribution of wild mammals on 47 small Italian islands. A total of 37-38 species was found, including: 1 Erinaceomorpha, 4 Soricomorpha, 16-17 Chiroptera, 3 Lagomorpha, 7 Rodentia, 2 Carnivora and 4 Artiodactyla. The subspecific level has been identified whenever possible. The mammal fauna of the Isle of Elba (Tuscan Archipelago is the richest, with 24 species, while the most common species are Rattus rattus present on 47 islands Oryctolagus cuniculus (34, and Mus musculus (33. With the exception of Crocidura sicula, the current mammal fauna on small Italian islands originated from introductions.
    Riassunto Checklist dei mammiferi delle piccole isole italiane Lo stato attuale delle conoscenze sui mammiferi delle piccole isole del territorio italiano è frutto, perlopiù, di segnalazioni episodiche. Abbiamo raccolto le informazioni disponibili riguardo i mammiferi selvatici. Sono state prese in esame 47 isole, sulle quali è stata segnalata la presenza di un totale di 37-38 specie così ripartite: 1 Erinaceomorpha, 4 Soricomorpha, 16-17 Chiroptera, 3 Lagomorpha, 7 Rodentia, 2 Carnivora e 4 Artiodactyla. Quando possibile è stato identificato anche il livello subspecifico. In base ai dati finora disponibili, la teriofauna dell’Isola d’Elba (Arcipelago Toscano risulta quella più diversificata (24 specie, mentre le specie più diffuse sono Rattus rattus, presente su 47 isole, Oryctolagus cuniculus (34 e Mus musculus (33. Con l’eccezione di Crocidura sicula, i popolamenti attuali di mammiferi selvatici nelle piccole isole italiane sono originati da introduzioni operate dall’uomo.

  10. Aspectos fundamentais da experimentação animal - aplicações em cirurgia experimental Fundamental aspects on animal research as applied to experimental surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Blanes Damy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de contribuir à pesquisa em cirurgia experimental, este artigo apresenta uma análise dos principais parâmetros exigidos a serem observados pelos comitês internacionais e nacionais de ética e bem-estar animal, cujo cumprimento é pré-requisito para publicação em periódicos arbitrados de circulação internacional. A padronização da genética, do estado sanitário e do ambiente das espécies de animais Mus musculus (camundongos, Rattus norvegicus (ratos, Oryctolagus cuniculus (coelhos e Sus scropha domesticus (suínos, a observação de condições adequadas no transporte, aclimatação, enriquecimento do ambiente, treinamento de técnicos em experimentação animal, gestão de informação, biossegurança, dieta, anestesia, cuidados pós-operatórios, analgesia e eutanásia, aliados a projetos de pesquisa bem planejados são apresentados como etapas fundamentais para a obtenção de resultados com alto grau de acuidade, alto nível de reprodutibilidade e precisão.This study aimed to present the general principles for experiments performed on laboratory animals as required by international and national ethical committees on animal welfare. Compliance to these principles is a prerequisite for publication in international journals. Details of genetic, sanitary and environmental standards, transportation, acclimation, environmental enrichment, appropriate education and training of all those involved in handling of live animals, information management strategy, biossecurity, diet, anesthesia, analgesia, postoperative care and euthanasia for Mus musculus (mice, Rattus norvegicus (rat, Oryctolagus cuniculus (rabbit and Sus scropha domesticus (pig combined with well planned biomedical research are fundamental to increase the accuracy, reproducibility and precision of the experimental results.

  11. Study on the cytotoxicity and chromosome aberration following implantation of sea coral in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannan TP

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Coral has been used as a bone substitute in many experimental studies. It has been proven to be biocompatible, biodegradable and easy to handle: and it has not been found to cause any inflammatory responses. The present study was undertaken to determine the cytotoxicity in terms of mitotic index as well as the clastogenic effect (chromosome aberration of sea coral implantation in rabbits. The animals comprised of five male adult healthy New Zealand White (Oryctolagus cuniculus rabbits. The biomaterial, sea coral granules used in this study was obtained from Porites species and processed by the tissue bank of Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health Campus, Kubang Kerian, Malaysia. The blood samples were collected twice from the rabbits, once before the implantation of the sea coral granules (which acted as the control and the other, one week after the implantation (which acted as the treatment and lymphocyte cultures were set up. The cultures were then harvested and the chromosomes were prepared for analysis. The diploid number of chromosomes in the rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus was found to be 44. Mean mitotic indices of 3.84 ± 0.54 per cent and 3.76 ± 0.23 per cent were obtained before and after implantation of sea coral granules respectively. There were no structural or numerical chromosomal aberrations observed in both the cases. The mitotic index values and chromosomal analyses in this preliminary study carried out indicate that the biomaterial, sea coral granules is non-cytotoxic and non-clastogenic under the present test conditions.

  12. Diet, dietary selectivity and density of South American Grey Fox, Lycalopex griseus, in Central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Pedreros, Andrés; Yáñez, José; Norambuena, Heraldo V; Zúñiga, Alfredo

    2017-03-06

    The South American Grey Fox (Lycalopex griseus) is a canid widely distributed in southern South America, however some aspects of its biology are still poorly known. We studied the diet and density of L. griseus in the Lago Peñuelas Biosphere Reserve, in Central Chile. The trophic niche breadth was B = 6.16 (Bsta = 0.47) and prey diversity was H ' = 2.46 (Hmax' = 3.17, J' = 0.78). The highest proportions of prey consumed in the diet were Oryctolagus cuniculus (52.21%) and other mammals (32.78%). We compared these results with a latitudinal gradient of diet results for this species in Chile. L. griseus eats mostly mammals (> 90% of total prey), consuming the rodent Phyllotis darwini and reptiles in the Northern zone; O. cuniculus, Octodon degus and Abrocoma bennetti in the Central zone; Abrothrix spp. and lagomorphs in the Southern zone; and Lepus capensis and Ovis aries in the Austral zone. The estimated density of L. griseus in Lago Peñuelas NR was 1.3 foxes /km(2) . This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Host Specificity of Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 (Acari: Ixodidae with Comments on the Drop-off Rhythm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Marques Lisbôa Lopes

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available The parasitic specificity of larval, nymph and adult Amblyomma cajennense on six different host species: Oryctolagus cuniculus, Rattus norvegicus, Gallus gallus domesticus, Anas platyrhynchus, Coturnix coturnix and Streptopelia decorata is described. In terms of the numbers of larvae and nymphs recovered, O. cuniculus was the best host species. The modal day for drop-off of larvae and nymphs was day three for the mammal hosts, but variable in the birds. We conclude that adult A. cajennense have a strong degree of specificity due to the fact that the tick failed to complete its life cycle on any of the evaluated hosts. The immature stages, on the other hand, showed a low level of specificity, most especially in the larval stage, indicating the existence of secondary hosts which probably serve as dispersers in the wild. The results also indicated a variable drop-off rhythm for larvae and nymphs in two periods, diurnal (6-18 hr and nocturnal (18-6 hr, which differed depending upon the host.

  14. Fecal nitrogen concentration as a nutritional quality indicator for European rabbit ecological studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza Gil-Jiménez

    Full Text Available Measuring the quality of the nutritional resources available to wild herbivores is critical to understanding trophic regulation processes. However, the direct assessment of dietary nutritional characteristics is usually difficult, which hampers monitoring nutritional constraints in natural populations. The feeding ecology of ruminant herbivores has been often assessed by analyzing fecal nitrogen (FN concentrations, although this method has been less evaluated in other taxa. This study analyzed the suitability of FN as an indicator of ingesta quality in the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus, which is a keystone lagomorph species in Mediterranean ecosystems and of great conservation interest. Firstly, domestic O. cuniculus were used to evaluate under experimental conditions the accuracy of total FN and the metabolic FN as diet quality indicators of forages with characteristics similar to those available under natural conditions. Secondly, the accuracy of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS to calculate FN was tested using partial least squares regression. Thirdly, a pilot field study was conducted to monitor FN dynamics from wild O. cuniculus in three different habitats during wet and drought periods. A strong association was found between diet type and total FN and metabolic FN (Pseudo-R(2 ≥ 0.89. It was also found that NIRS calibrations were accurate for depicting nitrogen concentrations (R(2 > 0.98 between NIRS and chemical results. Finally, the seasonal FN dynamics measured in the field were consistent with current knowledge on vegetation dynamics and forage limitations in the three habitats. The results support the use of NIRS methods and FN indices as a reliable and affordable approach to monitoring the nutritional quality of rabbit habitats. Potential applications include the assessment of the mechanistic relationships between resource limitations and population abundance, e.g., in relation to natural drought cycles and to habitat

  15. Gross morphology and anatomy of the large intestine of the paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Paes Bürger

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Exploring the potential of using the paca as livestock involves understanding the morphophysiology of its digestive tract so its nutrition can be properly managed. The morphological and anatomical aspects of the large intestine of this species were investigated by inspecting material that was fresh and fixed in an aqueous solution of 10% formaldehyde. The material was provided by the Setor de Animais Selvagens do Departamento de Zootecnia da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias de Jaboticabal – UNESP (FCAV – UNESP. The large intestine of the paca is formed by cecum, colon and rectum, and is located in the abdominal and pelvic cavity near the third or fourth lumbar vertebrae. It was found, in the 10 samples analyzed, that there was no change in the pattern of this arrangement and that this pattern resembles that of mammals in general.

  16. Cambios de largo plazo en el paisaje y los ensambles de micromamíferos y rapaces en Chile central Long-term changes in landscape and in small mammal and raptor assemblages in central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDUARDO F PAVEZ

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available San Carlos de Apoquindo, en la precordillera de Chile central, es una localidad con estudios de larga data en vertebrados (ca. 30 años, situación favorable para el análisis de procesos de largo plazo que operan sobre dichos ensambles. En este contexto estudiamos la trayectoria del uso del suelo mediante imágenes satelitales LANDSAT, correspondientes a 1975, 1989 y 2003 y su presunto efecto sobre la vegetación, micromamíferos y aves rapaces. El análisis de las imágenes satelitales revela una expansión acelerada del área urbana en desmedro del suelo agrícola y matorrales naturales. Las especies de micromamíferos nativos de talla reducida y media no evidencian grandes variaciones de abundancia durante el período de estudio pero las de mayor tamaño redujeron sus poblaciones. El conejo europeo (Oryctolagus cuniculus es una de las especies más abundantes del área, y estaría siendo favorecido por la modificación del paisaje. En la dieta del águila (Geranoaetus melanoleucus y del peuco (Parabuteo unicinctus se observó una disminución sostenida de la principal presa nativa, el degú (Octodon degus y un aumento de la presa exótica, el conejo. Además se observó una tendencia a la disminución de la riqueza y abundancia de aves rapaces durante el período de estudio, la que se asociaría a la expansión urbana y al deterioro del matorral natural. Postulamos que la expansión urbana y la pérdida y fragmentación del matorral han producido una disminución de la población de degú, con su consecuente disminución en la dieta de águilas y peucos, lo que a su vez ha potenciado un incremento de depredación sobre conejo.San Carlos de Apoquindo, a piedemont area to the east of Santiago city, is a site with 30 years of data on vertebrates. Using LANDSAT satellite imagery for the years 1975, 1989 and 2003, we studied the spatio-temporal trajectory of land use and its putative effects on vegetation, small mammals and raptors. On the basis

  17. Micromamíferos del Pleistoceno Medio y Pleistoceno Superior en el Valle del Jarama: yacimientos de Valdocarros y HAT (Madrid, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sesé, C.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We study the micromammals from the sites of Valdocarros and HAT, located in the lithostratigraphic unit of Arganda II and IV respectively, within the Arganda Complex Terrace, in the Jarama Valley (Madrid, Spain. The micromammal associations of these sites consist of the following taxa: in Valdocarros: Erinaceomorpha: Erinaceus europaeus; Soricomorpha: Crocidura aff. russula; Rodentia: Eliomys quercinus, Castor fiber, Apodemus sp., Cricetulus (Allocricetus bursae, Arvicola aff. sapidus and Microtus brecciensis; and Lagomorpha: Oryctolagus cuniculus; and in HAT: Soricomorpha: Soricidae indet.; Rodentia: Eliomys quercinus, Apodemus sp., Arvicola aff. sapidus and Microtus cf. cabrerae; and Lagomorpha: cf. Oryctolagus sp. The micromammal assemblage of the Valdocarros site can be placed in the advanced Middle Pleistocene, but not in its end, because of the faunal association and the evolved state of Microtus brecciensis. However, in HAT, the presence of Microtus cf. cabrerae suggests that this site belongs to the Late Pleistocene. Both micromammal assemblages indicate a temperate climate and a well developed vegetation cover, consisting of some forest and also open areas, with shrub-like vegetation and also meadow and riverside vegetation.

    Se realiza el estudio de los micromamíferos del yacimiento de Valdocarros, que se localiza en la uni dad de Arganda II de la Terraza Compleja de Arganda, en el valle del Jarama (Madrid, y del yacimiento de HAT, que está en la unidad de Arganda IV. Las asociaciones de micromamíferos determinadas en este trabajo en dichos yacimientos son las siguientes: en Valdocarros: erinaceomorfos: Erinaceus europaeus; soricomorfos: Crocidura aff. russula; roedores: Eliomys quercinus, Castor fiber, Apodemus sp., Cricetulus (Allocricetus bursae, Arvicola aff. sapidus y Microtus brecciensis; y lagomorfos: Oryctolagus

  18. Helminths of rabbits (Lagomorpha, Leporidae deposited in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Magalhães Pinto

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Helminth samples (n = 35 recovered from Oryctolagus cuniculus (Linnaeus, 1758 Lilljeborg, 1873 (3 and from another rabbit species, Sylvilagus brasiliensis (Linnaeus, 1758 Thomas, 1901 (32, from August 1909 to February 1948 and that are deposited in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute were analyzed. The studied samples were represented by the cysticercus of the cestode Taenia pisiformis (Bloch, 1780 and by the nematodes Passalurus ambiguus (Rudolphi, 1819, Vianella fariasi (Travassos, 1915, Longistriata perfida Travassos, 1943, Trichostrongylus retortaeformis (Zeder, 1800. The scope of the present investigation is to survey the parasites infecting these hosts, commonly used as laboratory animal models in scientific research and supply figurative data on the helminths in order to provide their easy identification, since the presence of autochthonous parasite burdens, if undetected or misinterpreted, can alter the final results of experimental assays, mainly those related to immunological approaches, when cross-reactions can occur.Trinta e cinco amostras de helmintos coletadas de Oryctolagus cuniculus (Linnaeus, 1758 Lilljeborg, 1873 (3 e de uma outra espécie de coelho, Sylvilagus brasiliensis (Linnaeus, 1758 Thomas, 1901 (32, de agosto de 1909 a fevereiro de 1948 e que estão depositadas na Coleção Helmintológica do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, foram analisadas. As amostras estudadas estão representadas pelo cisticerco do cestóide Taenia pisiformis (Bloch, 1780 e pelos nematóides Passalurus ambiguus (Rudolphi, 1819, Vianella fariasi (Travassos, 1915, Longistriata perfida Travassos, 1943, Trichostrongylus retortaeformis (Zeder, 1800. O objetivo da presente investigação é o de inventariar os parasitos que infectam estes hospedeiros, comumente utilizados como modelos de animais de laboratório na pesquisa científica e fornecer dados figurativos sobre os helmintos a fim de facilitar sua identificação, uma vez que

  19. Avaliação histológica da influência do fenobarbital (Gardenal® na movimentação ortodôntica: estudo em coelhos Histological evaluation of the phenobarbital (Gardenal™ influence on orthodontic movement: a study in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Melo Pithon

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar histologicamente a influência do fenobarbital na movimentação ortodôntica. MÉTODOS: foram utilizados 22 coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia (Oryctolagus cuniculus, distribuídos em três grupos - Normal (N, Controle (C e Experimental (E. No grupo N (n=2 não foi realizado nenhum procedimento, apenas a verificação da condição de normalidade pré-tratamento. Nos grupos C (n=10 e E (n=10 foi montado aparelho ortodôntico entre os primeiros molares e incisivos inferiores, para promover movimentação dos molares para mesial. O que diferenciou os grupos C e E foi que no grupo E foi administrado fenobarbital durante o período da pesquisa. Após os períodos de 7 e 14 dias, os animais foram sacrificados, sendo as peças anatômicas preparadas para confecção das lâminas para posterior análise histológica. RESULTADOS: os resultados demonstraram não haver diferença entre os grupos Normal e Experimental, quando analisados histologicamente.OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to histologically evaluate the influence of phenobarbital on orthodontic tooth movement. METHODS: Twenty-two New Zealand rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus were divided into three groups: normal or non-tested (N, control (C, and experimental (E. In Group N (n = 2 no procedure was carried out, except to verify the condition of normality before treatment. In Groups C (n = 10 and E (n = 10 an orthodontic appliance was inserted between the first molars and lower incisors in order to promote a mesial molar movement. In Group E phenobarbital was administered during the course of the experiment, which differentiates it from the group C. The animals were sacrificed on days 7 and 14 so that anatomical sections could be prepared for further histological analysis. RESULTS: Histologically no difference was observed between normal and experimental groups. CONCLUSIONS: Phenobarbital does not interfere with the orthodontic tooth movement.

  20. Avaliação clínica e radiográfica da influência do fenobarbital (Gardenal® na movimentação ortodôntica: estudo em coelhos Clinical and radiographic evaluation of phenobarbital (Gardenal® influence on orthodontic movement: a study in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Melo Pithon

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Deste estudo foi avaliar clínica e radiograficamente a influência do Fenobarbital na movimentação ortodôntica. METODOLOGIA: Foram utilizados 22 coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia (Oryctolagus cuniculus, distribuídos em três grupos: normal (N, controle (C e experimental (E. O grupo N (n=2 não foi tratado, apenas certificada a condição de normalidade. Nos grupos C (n=10 e E (n=10, foi montado aparelho ortodôntico entre os primeiros molares e incisivos inferiores para promover a movimentação para mesial dos molares. No grupo E, foi administrado conjuntamente à movimentação dentária induzida, o medicamento Fenobarbial. Após os períodos de 7 e 14 dias os animais foram sacrificados para análise clínica e radiográfica. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados demonstraram não haver diferenças na extensão do movimento nem alterações radiográficas entre os animais do grupo controle e experimental.The objective of the present study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic phenobarbital influence on orthodontic movement. 22 New Zealand rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus have been used for study, all divided into three groups: N = normal rabbits; C = control rabbits; and E = experimental rabbits. No procedure was performed in Group N (n = 2, except a certification of the normal condition. In Groups C (n = 10 and E (n = 10, orthodontic device was placed between the lower first molars and the lower incisors in order to promote a mesial molar movement. In Group E, phenobarbital was administered together the treatment. Following the periods of 7 and 14 days, the animals were sacrificed for clinical and radiographic analysis. By comparing the control animals with the experimental ones, the results showed no difference on the rate of orthodontic tooth moment as well no radiographic change.

  1. Influência do comportamento gregário nos processos de muda de Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806 (acari: ixodidae, em condições laboratoriais Influence of aggregation on the molting process of Rhipicephalus sanguineus, (Latreille, 1806 (acari: ixodidae under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique D. Cançado

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com o experimento verificar a influência de diferentes agregações sobre os parâmetros relacionados ao processo de ecdise ninfal e de adulto de Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806. Foram utilizados como hospedeiros 10 coelhos domésticos (Oryctolagus cuniculus primos-infestados. Foram analisados os períodos de pré-ecdise, de ecdise e de muda, o percentual e o ritmo de ecdise para todos os estágios estudados. Durante toda a fase não-parasitária, os carrapatos foram mantidos em condições controladas de umidade (80±5% e temperatura (27±1ºC. Um total de 1560 larvas ingurgitadas e de 1560 ninfas ingurgitadas foi utilizado. Os carrapatos foram divididos em seis grupos contendo um, cinco, dez, 20, 40 e 80 espécimes cada. Para cada um desses grupos foram realizadas dez repetições. Os processos de ecdise ninfal e de adulto foram acompanhados diariamente. Após a análise dos resultados, verificou-se que não houve relação entre as diferentes agregações e o percentual de ecdise em nenhuma etapa experimental. Em todos os outros parâmetros biológicos estudados, verificaram-se diferenças significativas (pThe objective of this experiment was to evaluate the influence of different aggregations on the molting process of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806. Tick-naïve domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus were used as experimental hosts for the parasitic phase. A total of 10 rabbits were used on the experiment. All tick free-living phases were kept in incubator at 27±1ºC, 80±5% relative humidity and scotophase. The periods of pre-molt, molt, percentage of ecdisis and molt rhythm of larvae and nymphs were studied. A total of 1560 engorged larvae and 1560 nymphs of R. sanguineus were divided in six groups of aggregations: 1, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 ticks with ten repetitions each one. The ecdises of nymphs and adults were daily observed. The percentage of ecdysis was the only parameter with no aggregations effects

  2. Genetic characterization of flea-derived Bartonella species from native animals in Australia suggests host-parasite co-evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewmongkol, Gunn; Kaewmongkol, Sarawan; McInnes, Linda M; Burmej, Halina; Bennett, Mark D; Adams, Peter J; Ryan, Una; Irwin, Peter J; Fenwick, Stanley G

    2011-12-01

    Fleas are important arthropod vectors for a variety of diseases in veterinary and human medicine, and bacteria belonging to the genus Bartonella are among the organisms most commonly transmitted by these ectoparasites. Recently, a number of novel Bartonella species and novel species candidates have been reported in marsupial fleas in Australia. In the present study the genetic diversity of marsupial fleas was investigated; 10 species of fleas were collected from seven different marsupial and placental mammal hosts in Western Australia including woylies (Bettongia penicillata), western barred bandicoots (Perameles bougainville), mardos (Antechinus flavipes), bush rats (Rattus fuscipes), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), feral cats (Felis catus) and rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). PCR and sequence analysis of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and the 18S rRNA genes from these fleas was performed. Concatenated phylogenetic analysis of the COI and 18S rRNA genes revealed a close genetic relationship between marsupial fleas, with Pygiopsylla hilli from woylies, Pygiopsylla tunneyi from western barred bandicoots and Acanthopsylla jordani from mardos, forming a separate cluster from fleas collected from the placental mammals in the same geographical area. The clustering of Bartonella species with their marsupial flea hosts suggests co-evolution of marsupial hosts, marsupial fleas and Bartonella species in Australia.

  3. An unusual case of occupational asthma in a part time magician. He has got an allergy surprise from his top hat!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liccardi, Gennaro; Billeri, L; Foglia, M; Sapio, C; De Giglio, M A R; D'Amato, G

    2014-09-01

    In this report we describe a case of respiratory allergy induced by an unusual occupational exposure to rabbit. The patient worked as a part-time magician in theatres and private parties and the most popular performance of his show was to pull out a white rabbit from a top hat. Unfortunately, a few minutes after the extraction of rabbit from top hat, the patient experienced the onset of upper and lower airway symptoms, and in some occasions he was forced to stop the show and to use short acting β₂agonists and intramuscular steroids. The results of SPT and evaluation of serological specific IgE (ImmunoCAP and ImmunoCAP ISAC IgE) revealed allergic sensitization to rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) dander as well as to Parietaria and dust mites. ImmunoCAP ISAC IgE excluded allergic sensitization to other cross-reacting animal allergens. Rabbit constitutes a reliable risk factor for allergic sensitization in individuals working as professional / part-time magicians or as animators in some recreational settings (resorts, parties, charity shows, etc).

  4. Rabbits' eye globe sonographic biometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toni, Maria Carolina; Meirelles, Adriana Érica Wilkes Burton; Gava, Fábio Nelson; Camacho, Aparecido Antônio; Laus, José Luiz; Canola, Júlio Carlos

    2010-11-01

    To measure intraocular structures in New Zealand White breed rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus Linnaeus, 1758) using A-mode and B-mode ultrasound with a 20 MHz transducer. In this study, the eyes of 15 rabbits were evaluated for determination of intraocular measurements using an ophthalmic ultrasound unit able to operate in both A and B-modes. The distances from the cornea to the anterior capsule of the lens (D1), from the anterior capsule of the lens to the posterior capsule of the lens (D2), from the posterior capsule of the lens to the retina (D3) and the complete length of the eye, which corresponds to the distance from the cornea to the retina (D4) were taken. The mean values obtained were 2.70 mm (± 0.22 mm) for D1, 7.32 mm (± 0.40 mm) for D2, 7.10 mm (± 0.45 mm) for D3 and 17.12 mm (± 0.41 mm) for D4. Statistical analyses using the Student's t-test showed that there were no differences between the eyes. The study was feasible without the need of pharmacological restraint and yielded normal mean values for ocular sonographic biometry in rabbits. © 2010 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  5. Experimental West Nile Virus Infection in Rabbits: An Alternative Model for Studying Induction of Disease and Virus Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suen, Willy W; Uddin, Muhammad J; Wang, Wenqi; Brown, Vienna; Adney, Danielle R; Broad, Nicole; Prow, Natalie A; Bowen, Richard A; Hall, Roy A; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle

    2015-07-14

    The economic impact of non-lethal human and equine West Nile virus (WNV) disease is substantial, since it is the most common presentation of the infection. Experimental infection with virulent WNV strains in the mouse and hamster models frequently results in severe neural infection and moderate to high mortality, both of which are not representative features of most human and equine infections. We have established a rabbit model for investigating pathogenesis and immune response of non-lethal WNV infection. Two species of rabbits, New Zealand White (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and North American cottontail (Sylvilagus sp.), were experimentally infected with virulent WNV and Murray Valley encephalitis virus strains. Infected rabbits exhibited a consistently resistant phenotype, with evidence of low viremia, minimal-absent neural infection, mild-moderate neuropathology, and the lack of mortality, even though productive virus replication occurred in the draining lymph node. The kinetics of anti-WNV neutralizing antibody response was comparable to that commonly seen in infected horses and humans. This may be explained by the early IFNα/β and/or γ response evident in the draining popliteal lymph node. Given this similarity to the human and equine disease, immunocompetent rabbits are, therefore, a valuable animal model for investigating various aspects of non-lethal WNV infections.

  6. An invasive non-native mammal population conserves genetic diversity lost from its native range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, A J; Holland, O J; McDonald, R A; Clout, M N; Gleeson, D M

    2015-05-01

    Invasive, non-native species are one of the major causes of global biodiversity loss. Although they are, by definition, successful in their non-native range, their populations generally show major reductions in their genetic diversity during the demographic bottleneck they experience during colonization. By investigating the mitochondrial genetic diversity of an invasive non-native species, the stoat Mustela erminea, in New Zealand and comparing it to diversity in the species' native range in Great Britain, we reveal the opposite effect. We demonstrate that the New Zealand stoat population contains four mitochondrial haplotypes that have not been found in the native range. Stoats in Britain rely heavily on introduced rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus as their primary prey and were introduced to New Zealand in a misguided attempt at biological control of rabbits, which had also been introduced there. While invasive stoats have since decimated the New Zealand avifauna, native stoat populations were themselves decimated by the introduction to Britain of Myxoma virus as a control measure for rabbits. We highlight the irony that while introduced species (rabbits) and subsequent biocontrol (myxomatosis) have caused population crashes of native stoats, invasive stoats in New Zealand, which were also introduced for biological control, now contain more genetic haplotypes than their most likely native source. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Hyperlipidemia-associated gene variations and expression patterns revealed by whole-genome and transcriptome sequencing of rabbit models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Jifeng; Li, Hong; Li, Junyi; Niimi, Manabu; Ding, Guohui; Chen, Haifeng; Xu, Jie; Zhang, Hongjiu; Xu, Ze; Dai, Yulin; Gui, Tuantuan; Li, Shengdi; Liu, Zhi; Wu, Sujuan; Cao, Mushui; Zhou, Lu; Lu, Xingyu; Wang, Junxia; Yang, Jing; Fu, Yunhe; Yang, Dongshan; Song, Jun; Zhu, Tianqing; Li, Shen; Ning, Bo; Wang, Ziyun; Koike, Tomonari; Shiomi, Masashi; Liu, Enqi; Chen, Luonan; Fan, Jianglin; Chen, Y. Eugene; Li, Yixue

    2016-01-01

    The rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is an important experimental animal for studying human diseases, such as hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. Despite this, genetic information and RNA expression profiling of laboratory rabbits are lacking. Here, we characterized the whole-genome variants of three breeds of the most popular experimental rabbits, New Zealand White (NZW), Japanese White (JW) and Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits. Although the genetic diversity of WHHL rabbits was relatively low, they accumulated a large proportion of high-frequency deleterious mutations due to the small population size. Some of the deleterious mutations were associated with the pathophysiology of WHHL rabbits in addition to the LDLR deficiency. Furthermore, we conducted transcriptome sequencing of different organs of both WHHL and cholesterol-rich diet (Chol)-fed NZW rabbits. We found that gene expression profiles of the two rabbit models were essentially similar in the aorta, even though they exhibited different types of hypercholesterolemia. In contrast, Chol-fed rabbits, but not WHHL rabbits, exhibited pronounced inflammatory responses and abnormal lipid metabolism in the liver. These results provide valuable insights into identifying therapeutic targets of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis with rabbit models. PMID:27245873

  8. D1 and D2 dopamine receptor antagonists decrease behavioral bout duration, without altering the bout's repeated behavioral components, in a naturalistic model of repetitive and compulsive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Kurt L; Rueda Morales, Rafael I

    2012-04-21

    Nest building behavior in the pregnant female rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is a model for compulsive behavior in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD). This behavior comprises a cycle of repeated, stereotyped components (collecting straw, entering nest box and depositing the straw there, returning to collect more straw), which itself is repeated 80+ times in a single bout that lasts approximately 50min. The bout, in turn, is repeated if necessary, according to the rabbit's perception of whether or not the nest is finished. We administered SCH23390 (5-100μg/kg; D1/D5 antagonist) or raclopride (0.05-1.0mg/kg; D2/D3 antagonist), subcutaneously to day 28 pregnant female rabbits, 30 or 60min before placing straw inside their home cage. At doses that minimally affected ambulatory behavior in open field (5-12.5μg/kg SCH23390, 0.5-1.0mg/kg raclopride), both antagonists dramatically reduced bout duration while not significantly affecting the initiation of straw carrying behavior, the sequential performance of the individual cycle components, maximum cycle frequency, or the total number of bouts performed. These results point to an important role for dopamine neurotransmission for the prolonged expression of a normal, repetitive and compulsive-like behavior. Moreover, the finding that dopamine receptor antagonists decrease the time spent engaged in repetitive behavior (without significantly altering the form of the repetitive behavior itself) suggests a possible explanation for why neuroleptics can be clinically effective for treating OCD.

  9. Fauna de Coleoptera Associada a Carcaças de Coelhos Expostas em uma Área Urbana no Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Silva

    2012-11-01

    Abstract. Study of Coleoptera fauna associated with rabbit carcasses, Oryctolagus cuniculus Linnaeus (Lagomorpha, Leporidae, during the summer of 2010 and winter of 2011, is present at an urban area of Northern Paraná State, Southern Brazil. To capture the beetles were used pan, pitfall and modified Shannon traps. We collected 236 beetles belonging to 12 families and at least 25 species. Staphylinidae (52.5% and Histeridae (26.7% were the most abundant families in both seasons represented mainly by Aleochara bonariensis Lynch and Euspilotus "group" azureus sp., respectively. Among the seasons, both the decomposition of the carcasses and the succession of coleopterofauna of forensic interest occurred differently due to significant variation of abiotic factors. During the winter, most individuals of Euspilotus "group" azureus sp. (96.8% was captured at the stage of Black Putrefaction, showing an association at this stage. Despite the environment seasonality, there wasn’t significant difference of the abundance among seasons by main beetles neither by coleopterofauna.

  10. Estudo histopatológico do efeito do tenoxicam e do seu diluente no endotélio venoso, em coelhos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schnaider Taylor Brandão

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar pela histopatologia o efeito do tenoxicam e do seu diluente no endotélio venoso, foram utilizados 48 coelhos (Oryctolagus cuniculus, rancos, da linhagem Nova Zelândia, machos, com idade acima de 10 semanas, com peso variando entre 2350 e 3500 gramas, divididos em dois grupos, denominados Experimento e Controle, que foram observados nos tempos de 6, 12 e 24 horas. Administrou-se nas venae auriculares dextra e sinistra, diluente ou tenoxicam/diluente no Grupo Experimento e cloreto de sódio a 0,9% no Grupo Controle. Não se observou diferença estatisticamente significante entre o peso dos animais do Grupo Experimento e do Grupo Controle, antes da realização do procedimento. No que se refere à presença ou ausência de trombose, observamos que: após administração do diluente no Grupo Experimento, 19,4% das venae apresentaram trombos; após administração do tenoxicam com o diluente no Grupo Experimento, a incidência de trombose foi também de 19,4%; no Grupo Controle, em que foi injetado cloreto de sódio a 0,9%, nenhuma das venae apresentou trombos. Os resultados observados permitem concluir que o tenoxicam com o seu diluente comercial ou o seu diluente isolado podem acarretar trombose nas venae em que foram injetados.

  11. Estudo morfométrico do efeito do Tenoxicam e do seu diluente no endotélio venoso, em coelhos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schnaider Taylor Brandão

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar pela morfometria o efeito do tenoxicam e do seu diluente no endotélio venoso, foram utilizados 48 coelhos (Oryctolagus cuniculus, brancos, da linhagem Nova Zelândia, machos, com idade acima de 10 semanas, com peso variando entre 2.350 e 3.500 gramas, divididos em dois grupos, denominados Experimento e Controle, que foram observados nos tempos de 6, 12 e 24 horas. Administrou-se nas venae auriculares dextra e sinistra, diluente ou tenoxicam/diluente no Grupo Experimento e cloreto de sódio a 0,9% no Grupo Controle. Não se constatou diferença estatisticamente significante entre o peso dos animais do Grupo Experimento e do Grupo Controle, antes da realização do procedimento. Pode-se observar que após a administração do tenoxicam com o seu diluente ou do diluente isolado, os diâmetros dos núcleos das células endoteliais apresentaram significativamente menor dimensão, quando comparados aos do grupo Controle, em que foi injetado cloreto de sódio a 0,9%. Os resultados encontrados permitem concluir que o tenoxicam com o seu diluente comercial ou o diluente isolado reduzem o diâmetro dos núcleos das células endoteliais das venae em que foram injetados os fármacos.

  12. A study of the treatment of cutaneous fungal infection in animal model using photoactivated composite of methylene blue and gold nanoparticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Abeer Attia; Noaman, Islam; El-Elsayyad, Hasan; El-Mashad, Noha; Soliman, Mona

    2016-09-01

    Onychomycosis is a widespread public health problem, in which T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes is the commenest causative organisms. Current medical therapy has many drawbacks and side effects. Methylene blue (m.b) photodynamic therapy (pdt) proved efficacy but with lengthy sessions. Optimizing methylene blue photodynamic therapy by combination of methylene blue photosensitizer and gold nanoparticles (aunps) in a composite as gold nanoparticles are efficient delivery systems and efficient enhancers of photosensitizers for antifungal photodynamic therapy. Eighty newzealand rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) were used and categorized in eight equal groups as follows; healthy and infection control, composite photodynamic therapy and five comparative groups. Photodynamic therapy was initiated at day three to five post inoculation, for four sessions forty eight hours apart. Each group divided and light exposure at two fluencies; 80J and 100J. All groups were investigated macroscopically and microscopically (histopathology and scanning electron microscope) also flowcytometry assessment for cell death and X-ray analysis for gold nanoparticles accumulation in brain and liver tissues were determined. Recovery from infection approaching 96% in gold nanoparticles+light group, around 40% in methylene blue photodynamic therapy and 34% in composite photodynamic therapy. The observed findings confirmed by apparent decrease of apoptosis, however small amounts of gold nanoparticles detected in brain and liver. Light stimulated gold nanoparticles is a promising tool in treatment of onychomycosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of environmental enrichment and group size on behaviour and live weight in growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Zucca

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the effects of group size and environmental enrichment on behaviour and growth of 108 hybrid growing rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus. We compared the behaviour (time budget and reactions to specific behavioural tests: “tonic immobility” and “emergence test” and live weight of growing rabbits housed in cages with a different number of rabbits per cage (2, 3 and 4; same density:14 rabbits/m2. Half of the cages were enriched with a wooden stick (Robinia Pseudoacacia, length: 20 cm – diameter: 6 cm, cylindrical hanging from the ceiling of the cage. The stick and number of animals per cage had no effect on weight gain or on behavioural tests responses. Interaction with the stick was significantly higher at the beginning of the growing period. Principal component analysis performed on the data for the whole period showed significant differences according to the treatments: increasing the number of rabbits per cage and introducing a wooden stick seemed to affect locomotor activity frequency and social interactions. Rabbits housed 3 and 4 per cage showed less lying behaviour and higher locomotor activity and sitting. The larger functional space allowance enabled rabbits to perform more natural behaviours compared to smaller cages (2 rabbits/cage. Environmental enrichment seems to be related to higher allogrooming behaviour frequency, which could indicate a social behaviour related to pheromonal olfactory stimulation and mutual recognition.

  14. Rigid internal fixation with titanium versus bioresorbable miniplates in the repair of mandibular fractures in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochuli-Vieira, E; Cabrini Gabrielli, M A; Pereira-Filho, V A; Gabrielli, M F R; Padilha, J G

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare by qualitative histology the efficacy of rigid internal fixation with titanium system and the Lacto Sorb system in mandibular fractures in rabbits. Thirty male adult rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus were used. Unilateral mandibular osteotomies were performed between the canine and first premolar. The animals were divided into two groups: for Group I-rigid internal fixation was performed with titanium system 1.5 mm (Synthes, Oberdorf, Switzerland), with two screws of 6 mm (bicortical) on each side of the osteotomy. For Group II-rigid internal fixation was performed with PLLA/PGA system 1.5 mm (Lacto Sorb, WLorenz, Jacksonville, FL, USA). The histological analysis evaluated the presence of inflammatory reaction, degree of bone healing and degree of resorption of the Lacto Sorb screws. The results of both fixation systems were similar, only with a small difference after 15 and 30 days. In Group I a faster bony healing was noted. But after 60 days, bony healing was similar in both groups. It is concluded that both PLLA/PGA and titanium plates and screws provide sufficient strength to permit mandibular bone healing. The resorption process of PLLA/PGA osteosynthesis material did not cause acute or chronic inflammatory reaction or foreign body reaction during the studied period.

  15. Comparative analysis of ear-hole closure identifies epimorphic regeneration as a discrete trait in mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawriluk, Thomas R.; Simkin, Jennifer; Thompson, Katherine L.; Biswas, Shishir K.; Clare-Salzler, Zak; Kimani, John M.; Kiama, Stephen G.; Smith, Jeramiah J.; Ezenwa, Vanessa O.; Seifert, Ashley W.

    2016-01-01

    Why mammals have poor regenerative ability has remained a long-standing question in biology. In regenerating vertebrates, injury can induce a process known as epimorphic regeneration to replace damaged structures. Using a 4-mm ear punch assay across multiple mammalian species, here we show that several Acomys spp. (spiny mice) and Oryctolagus cuniculus completely regenerate tissue, whereas other rodents including MRL/MpJ ‘healer' mice heal similar injuries by scarring. We demonstrate ear-hole closure is independent of ear size, and closure rate can be modelled with a cubic function. Cellular and genetic analyses reveal that injury induces blastema formation in Acomys cahirinus. Despite cell cycle re-entry in Mus musculus and A. cahirinus, efficient cell cycle progression and proliferation only occurs in spiny mice. Together, our data unite blastema-mediated regeneration in spiny mice with regeneration in other vertebrates such as salamanders, newts and zebrafish, where all healthy adults regenerate in response to injury. PMID:27109826

  16. Parasitic infections of wild rabbits and hares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the most important parasitic infections of wild rabbits and hares, which harmful effect in this animal population is manifested as a gradual weakening of the immune system, reduction in fertility, weight loss and constant exhaustion. Order of Lagomorpha (hares or lagomorphs belongs to superorder of higher mammals which includes the family of rabbits (Leporidae which are represented in Europe as well as the family of whistleblowers (Ochotonidae which live only in North America and Northern regions of Asia. The most important representatives of Leporidae family are European hare (Lepus europeus and wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus. The most important endoparasitosis of hares and wild rabbits are: coccidiosis, encephalitozoonosis (nosemosis, toxoplasmosis, sarcocystosis, giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, protostrongylosis, trichostrngylodosis, passalurosis, anoplocephalidosis, cysticercosis and fasciolosis. The most frequent ectoparasites of rabbits and wild hares are fleas, lice and ticks. Reduction in hare population, which is noticed in whole Europe including Serbia, is caused by changed living conditions, quantitatively and qualitatively insufficient nutrition, increased use of herbicides as well as various infectious diseases and the diseases of parasitic etiology. Since wild rabbits and hares pose a threat to health of domestic rabbits and people, knowledge of parasitic fauna of these wild animals is of extreme epizootiological and epidemiological importance.

  17. Spatio-temporal dynamics of tularemia in French wildlife: 2002-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moinet, Marie; Decors, Anouk; Mendy, Christiane; Faure, Eva; Durand, Benoit; Madani, Nora

    2016-08-01

    Tularemia, caused by Francisella tularensis, is endemic in France. The surveillance of this disease in wildlife is operated by the SAGIR Network and by the National Reference Laboratory for Tularemia. Wild animals found dead or dying collected by the SAGIR network are necropsied and when tularemia is suspected culture and/or PCR are performed to confirm the diagnosis. The aim of this study was to present the results of tularemia surveillance in wildlife and to investigate the spatial and temporal pattern of tularemia observed between the 2002-2003 and 2012-2013 hunting seasons in French wildlife. Fourty-one to 121 cases were collected each hunting season for a total of 693 confirmed cases and 46 additional suspected cases. The main species affected was the European Brown Hare (Lepus europaeus) but 4 rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), 2 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and one wild boar (Sus scrofa) were also found positive. The Standard Mortality Ratio was mapped and Kulldorff's retrospective space-time scan statistic was implemented and allowed the detection of several clusters: the nationwide outbreak of 2007-2008; 2 clusters in northern and central-western France in high hare-abundance areas and another in North-eastern France where the abundance of hares is low. Our results confirm the usefulness of brown hare as a sentinel of environmental risk.

  18. The history of mammal eradications in Hawai`i and the United States associated islands of the Central Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, S.C.; Jacobi, J.D.; Veitch, C.R.; Clout, M.N.; Townsend, D.R.

    2011-01-01

    Many eradications of mammal taxa have been accomplished on United States associated islands of the Central Pacific, beginning in 1910. Commonly eradicated species are rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), rats (Rattus spp.), feral cats (Felis catus), and several feral ungulates from smaller islands and fenced natural areas on larger Hawaiian Islands. Vegetation and avifauna have demonstrated dramatic recovery as a direct result of eradications. Techniques of worldwide significance, including the Judas goat method, were refined during these actions. The land area from which ungulates have been eradicated on large Hawaiian Islands is now greater than the total land area of some smaller Hawaiian Islands. Large multi-tenure islands present the greatest challenge to eradication because of conflicting societal interests regarding introduced mammals, mainly sustained-yield hunting. The difficulty of preventing reinvasion poses a persistent threat after eradication, particularly for feral pigs (Sus scrofa) on multi-tenure islands. Larger areas and more challenging species are now under consideration for eradication. The recovery of endangered Hawaiian birds may depend on the creation of large predator-proof exclosures on some of the larger islands. Large scale eradications of small Indian mongooses (Herpestes auropunctatus) would be beneficial to ground-nesting birds such as nēnē (Branta sandvicensis), but this has been achieved only in small exclosures.

  19. Sequencing of Sylvilagus VDJ genes reveals a new VHa allelic lineage and shows that ancient VH lineages were retained differently in leporids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Ana; Melo-Ferreira, José; Abrantes, Joana; Martinelli, Nicola; Lavazza, Antonio; Alves, Paulo C; Gortázar, Christian; Esteves, Pedro J

    2014-12-01

    Antigen recognition by immunoglobulins depends upon initial rearrangements of heavy chain V, D, and J genes. In leporids, a unique system exists for the VH genes usage that exhibit highly divergent lineages: the VHa allotypes, the Lepus sL lineage and the VHn genes. For the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), four VHa lineages have been described, the a1, a2, a3 and a4. For hares (Lepus sp.), one VHa lineage was described, the a2L, as well as a more ancient sL lineage. Both genera use the VHn genes in a low frequency of their VDJ rearrangements. To address the hypothesis that the VH specificities could be associated with different environments, we sequenced VDJ genes from a third leporid genus, Sylvilagus. We found a fifth and equally divergent VHa lineage, the a5, and an ancient lineage, the sS, related to the hares' sL, but failed to obtain VHn genes. These results show that the studied leporids employ different VH lineages in the generation of the antibody repertoire, suggesting that the leporid VH genes are subject to strong selective pressure likely imposed by specific pathogens.

  20. Periodontal Dressing-containing Green Tea Epigallocathechin gallate Increases Fibroblasts Number in Gingival Artifical Wound Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardisa U. Pradita

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Green tea leaf (Camellia sinensis is one of herbal plants that is used for traditional medicine. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG in green tea is the most potential polyphenol component and has the strongest biological activity. It is known that EGCG has potential effect on wound healing. Objective: This study aimed to determine the effect of adding green tea EGCG into periodontal dressing on the number of fibroblasts after gingival artificial wound in animal model. Methods: Gingival artifical wound model was performed using 2mm punch biopsy on 24 rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus. The animals were divided into two groups. Periodontal dressing with EGCG and without EGCG was applied to the experimental and control group, respectively. Decapitation period was scheduled at day 3, 5, and 7 after treatment. Histological analysis to count the number of fibroblasts was performed. Results: Number of fibroblasts was significantly increased in time over the experimental group treated with EGCG periodontal dressing compared to control (p<0.05. Conclusion: EGCG periodontal dressing could increase the number of fibroblast, therefore having role in wound healing after periodontal surgery in animal model.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v20i3.197

  1. Total ear canal ablation and lateral bulla osteotomy for treatment of otitis externa and media in a rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Eric P; Bennett, R Avery; Whittington, Julia K

    2011-07-15

    A 7-year-old spayed female Miniature Rex European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) was evaluated because of scratching at the right ear. Physical examination revealed purulent exudate in the right ear canal. Microbial culture of the exudate yielded Pseudomonas aeruginosa susceptible to marbofloxacin; however, the infection was refractory to appropriate medical treatment. Computed tomography revealed isoattenuating material within the right tympanic bulla and external ear canal with no enhancement following IV administration of contrast medium. The left tympanic bulla appeared normal. A total ear canal ablation and lateral bulla osteotomy were performed on the right ear, and polymethylmethacrylate beads containing either gentamicin or cefazolin were placed within the bulla and surrounding tissues. Two weeks after surgery, the patient appeared comfortable with no signs of scratching at the right ear. Total ear canal ablation and lateral bulla osteotomy can be successfully performed for treatment of chronic otitis externa and media in rabbits. Cartilage plates that compose the external ear canal, a bony acoustic duct, lack of a horizontal ear canal, and thickness of the lateral aspect of the tympanic bulla are features unique to rabbits and have not been described in relation to these surgical procedures in rabbits. Rabbits also produce a caseous exudate, and it is difficult to resolve infections of bone and soft tissues. Placement of antimicrobial-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads is recommended to minimize the risk of recurrent infection.

  2. Importance of latrine communication in European rabbits shifts along a rural-to-urban gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziege, Madlen; Bierbach, David; Bischoff, Svenja; Brandt, Anna-Lena; Brix, Mareike; Greshake, Bastian; Merker, Stefan; Wenninger, Sandra; Wronski, Torsten; Plath, Martin

    2016-06-14

    Information transfer in mammalian communication networks is often based on the deposition of excreta in latrines. Depending on the intended receiver(s), latrines are either formed at territorial boundaries (between-group communication) or in core areas of home ranges (within-group communication). The relative importance of both types of marking behavior should depend, amongst other factors, on population densities and social group sizes, which tend to differ between urban and rural wildlife populations. Our study is the first to assess (direct and indirect) anthropogenic influences on mammalian latrine-based communication networks along a rural-to-urban gradient in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) living in urban, suburban and rural areas in and around Frankfurt am Main (Germany). The proportion of latrines located in close proximity to the burrow was higher at rural study sites compared to urban and suburban ones. At rural sites, we found the largest latrines and highest latrine densities close to the burrow, suggesting that core marking prevailed. By contrast, latrine dimensions and densities increased with increasing distance from the burrow in urban and suburban populations, suggesting a higher importance of peripheral marking. Increased population densities, but smaller social group sizes in urban rabbit populations may lead to an increased importance of between-group communication and thus, favor peripheral over core marking. Our study provides novel insights into the manifold ways by which man-made habitat alterations along a rural-to-urban gradient directly and indirectly affect wildlife populations, including latrine-based communication networks.

  3. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of fat mass and obesity-associated gene in rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Jinyi; Jing, Wenqian; Jiang, Yunliang

    2013-12-01

    Fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene codes for a nuclear protein of the AlkB related nonhaem iron and 2-oxoglutaratedependent oxygenase superfamily, and is involved in animal fat deposition and human obesity. In this work, the molecular characterization and expression features of rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) FTO cDNA were analysed. The rabbit FTO cDNA with a size of 2158 bp was cloned, including 1515 bp of the open reading frame that encoded a basic protein of 504 amino acids. Homologous comparison indicated that the rabbit FTO shared 36.36-91.88% identity with those from other species and phylogenetic analysis showed that the rabbit FTO is closely related to human, but more distantly related to zebrafish. The New Zealand rabbit FTO mRNA was detected in all tissues examined, with the highest levels found in the spleen and the lowest found in the kidney. However, no significant differences were seen in cerebellum, corpora quadrigemina, medulla oblongata and cerebral cortex of commercial adult rabbits. Moreover, mRNA levels of FTO in liver tissues were significantly increased in lactating New Zealand rabbits compared with 70-day-old, 90-day-old and gestating rabbits (P rabbits than in 70-day-old rabbits (P rabbits were not significantly different (P > 0.05).

  4. Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus Variant Recombinant VP60 Protein Induces Protective Immunogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dong-Kun; Kim, Ha-Hyun; Nah, Jin-Ju; Song, Jae-Young

    2015-11-01

    Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is highly contagious and often causes fatal disease that affects both wild and domestic rabbits of the species Oryctolagus cuniculus. A highly pathogenic RHDV variant (RHDVa) has been circulation in the Korean rabbit population since 2007 and has a devastating effect on the rabbit industry in Korea. A highly pathogenic RHDVa was isolated from naturally infected rabbits, and the gene encoding the VP60 protein was cloned into a baculovirus transfer vector and expressed in insect cells. The hemagglutination titer of the Sf-9 cell lysate infected with recombinant VP60 baculovirus was 131,072 units/50 μl and of the supernatant 4,096 units/50 μl. Guinea pigs immunized twice intramuscularly with a trial inactivated RHDVa vaccine containing recombinant VP60 contained 2,152 hemagglutination inhibition (HI) geometric mean titers. The 8-week-old white rabbits inoculated with one vaccine dose were challenged with a lethal RHDVa 21 days later and showed 100% survival rates. The recombinant VP60 protein expressed in a baculovirus system induced high HI titers in guinea pigs and rendered complete protection, which led to the development of a novel inactivated RHDVa vaccine.

  5. Detection of L1, infectious virions and anti-L1 antibody in domestic rabbits infected with cottontail rabbit papillomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiafen; Budgeon, Lynn R; Cladel, Nancy M; Culp, Timothy D; Balogh, Karla K; Christensen, Neil D

    2007-12-01

    Shope papillomavirus or cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) is one of the first small DNA tumour viruses to be characterized. Although the natural host for CRPV is the cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus floridanus), CRPV can infect domestic laboratory rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and induce tumour outgrowth and cancer development. In previous studies, investigators attempted to passage CRPV in domestic rabbits, but achieved very limited success, leading to the suggestion that CRPV infection in domestic rabbits was abortive. The persistence of specific anti-L1 antibody in sera from rabbits infected with either virus or viral DNA led us to revisit the questions as to whether L1 and infectious CRPV can be produced in domestic rabbit tissues. We detected various levels of L1 protein in most papillomas from CRPV-infected rabbits using recently developed monoclonal antibodies. Sensitive in vitro infectivity assays additionally confirmed that extracts from these papillomas were infectious. These studies demonstrated that the CRPV/New Zealand White rabbit model could be used as an in vivo model to study natural virus infection and viral life cycle of CRPV and not be limited to studies on abortive infections.

  6. Transthoracic single port with peroral assistance: an animal experiment to assess a less invasive technique for human esophageal atresia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques-Coelho, Tiago; Soares, Tony R; Miranda, Alice; Moreira-Pinto, João; Correia-Pinto, Jorge

    2012-12-01

    Thoracoscopic repair of esophageal atresia has becoming the gold standard in many centers because it allows a better cosmetic result and avoids the musculoskeletal sequelae of a thoracotomy. Natural orifice translumenal endocopic surgery (NOTES) is a new surgical paradigm, and its human application has already been started in some procedures. In the present study, we explore the feasibility of performing an esophagoesophageal anastomosis using a single transthoracic single port combined with a peroral access in a rabbit model to simulate repair of esophageal atresia by hybrid NOTES in a human newborn. Adult male rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus, n=28) were used to perform the surgical protocol. We used a transthoracic telescope with a 3-mm working channel and a flexible endoscope with a 2.2-mm working channel by peroral access. We performed total esophagotomy with peroral scissors followed by an esophagoesophageal anastomosis achieved with a rigid transthoracic scope helped by the peroral operator. Extracorporeal transthoracic knots were performed to complete the anastomosis. The anastomoses were examined in loco and ex loco, after animal sacrifice. We successfully accomplished a complete esophageal anastomosis in all rabbits using a combination of transthoracic and peroral 3-mm instruments. This study provides important insights for a possible translation of hybrid NOTES to human newborns with esophageal atresia. Forward studies to accomplish their feasibility in human newborns will still be necessary.

  7. Structural equation modeling for observational studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, J.B.

    2008-01-01

    Structural equation modeling (SEM) represents a framework for developing and evaluating complex hypotheses about systems. This method of data analysis differs from conventional univariate and multivariate approaches familiar to most biologists in several ways. First, SEMs are multiequational and capable of representing a wide array of complex hypotheses about how system components interrelate. Second, models are typically developed based on theoretical knowledge and designed to represent competing hypotheses about the processes responsible for data structure. Third, SEM is conceptually based on the analysis of covariance relations. Most commonly, solutions are obtained using maximum-likelihood solution procedures, although a variety of solution procedures are used, including Bayesian estimation. Numerous extensions give SEM a very high degree of flexibility in dealing with nonnormal data, categorical responses, latent variables, hierarchical structure, multigroup comparisons, nonlinearities, and other complicating factors. Structural equation modeling allows researchers to address a variety of questions about systems, such as how different processes work in concert, how the influences of perturbations cascade through systems, and about the relative importance of different influences. I present 2 example applications of SEM, one involving interactions among lynx (Lynx pardinus), mongooses (Herpestes ichneumon), and rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), and the second involving anuran species richness. Many wildlife ecologists may find SEM useful for understanding how populations function within their environments. Along with the capability of the methodology comes a need for care in the proper application of SEM.

  8. Natural evolution of experimental vitreous hemorrhage and effects of corticosteroids on its course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Dragan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The course and prognosis of vitreous hemorrhage (VH are difficult to predict in spite of so far published experimental and clinical studies. Objective. The goal of this study was to follow the course and evaluate prognosis of vitreous hemorrhage. Methods. The experiment was performed on 19 Chinchilla rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus, both males and females (38 eyes, weighing 2500-3000 g, which were treated with autologous blood (B from marginal ear vein - the first group, and the second group was treated with both blood and corticosteroids (B+CS. The course of vitreous hemorrhage was examined. Results. Our results have shown that the cellular reaction to vitreous hemorrhage is different, compared to hemorrhage in other types of tissue, which is due to absence of an early polymorphonuclear cellular reaction. Number of cells within vitreous body is very low. Conclusion. Vitreous hemorrhage has unusual course followed by a small number of cells (mostly poly-morphonuclear cells. This is most important fact why VH is cleared very slowly (about 6 to 9 weeks. CS has moderate influence on the acceleration of VH absorption.

  9. MAMÍFEROS INVASORES EN LA PATAGONIA ARGENTINA: EL CONEJO SILVESTRE EUROPEO COMO CASO EMBLEMÁTICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Never Antonio Bonino Vassallo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Se brinda una reseña de los estudios biológicos y ecológicos realizados sobre el conejo silvestre europeo (Oryctolagus cuniculus, tal vez el más emblemático de los mamíferos exóticos introducidos en Argentina. En el sector continental argentino el conejo se encuentra establecido, y en proceso de dispersión, principalmente en las provincias de Mendoza y Neuquén (NO de la Patagonia. En esta región, el conejo ha demostrado tener un efecto negativo sobre la economía regional, especialmente en áreas ganaderas y en plantaciones comerciales de árboles frutales y maderables. No existen programas oficiales para controlar la dispersión geográfica y/o el impacto de esta especie exótica. La gente que se siente perjudicada por el conejo recurre a intentos individuales para controlar sus efectos negativos. Es necesario implementar monitoreos regulares de la dispersión del conejo para la detección temprana y el manejo de poblaciones recién establecidas; además, se requieren estudios comparativos tendientes a determinar los métodos más adecuados para controlar el impacto del conejo.

  10. Germline transgenesis in rabbits by pronuclear microinjection of Sleeping Beauty transposons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivics, Zoltán; Hiripi, László; Hoffmann, Orsolya I; Mátés, Lajos; Yau, Tien Yin; Bashir, Sanum; Zidek, Vaclav; Landa, Vladimír; Geurts, Aron; Pravenec, Michal; Rülicke, Thomas; Bösze, Zsuzsanna; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna

    2014-04-01

    The laboratory rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is widely used as a model for a variety of inherited and acquired human diseases. In addition, the rabbit is the smallest livestock animal that is used to transgenically produce pharmaceutical proteins in its milk. Here we describe a protocol for high-efficiency germline transgenesis and sustained transgene expression in rabbits by using the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system. The protocol is based on co-injection into the pronuclei of fertilized oocytes of synthetic mRNA encoding the SB100X hyperactive transposase together with plasmid DNA carrying a transgene construct flanked by binding sites for the transposase. The translation of the transposase mRNA is followed by enzyme-mediated excision of the transgene cassette from the plasmids and its permanent genomic insertion to produce stable transgenic animals. Generation of a germline-transgenic founder animal by using this protocol takes ∼2 months. Transposon-mediated transgenesis compares favorably in terms of both efficiency and reliable transgene expression with classic pronuclear microinjection, and it offers comparable efficacies (numbers of transgenic founders obtained per injected embryo) to lentiviral approaches, without limitations on vector design, issues of transgene silencing, and the toxicity and biosafety concerns of working with viral vectors.

  11. Disseminated histoplasmosis (Histoplasma capsulatum) in a pet rabbit: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, João; Woods, Samantha; Fowlkes, Natalie; Leissinger, Mary; Blair, Robert; Pucheu-Haston, Cherie; Johnson, James; Elster Phillips, Christina; Tully, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    A 2.5-year-old intact male miniature lop rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) was presented with multiple nodules surrounding the eyes, nose, mouth, and prepuce. Cytological evaluation of the periocular nodules revealed the presence of intracellular (within macrophages) and extracellular yeast organisms. The yeast organisms were approximately 3-5 µm in diameter, round to oval, with a thin clear capsule, and contained an eccentrically placed basophilic crescent-shaped nucleus. The clinical pathological interpretation was granulomatous inflammation with intralesional yeast of a morphology consistent with Histoplasma spp. The rabbit was treated with microsized griseofulvin (25 mg/kg, orally, once a day) for 12 days pending final cytological diagnosis of histoplasmosis. No significant improvement was noted during the treatment period, and humane euthanasia was performed. Postmortem examination revealed the presence of intracellular and extracellular yeast organisms in the small intestine, skin (antebrachium, perioral, palpebral, perianal, and pinnal), penis, penile urethra, rectum, axillary lymph node, and conjunctiva. Postmortem fungal culture yielded Histoplasma capsulatum. Based on clinical and postmortem findings, a definitive diagnosis of disseminated histoplasmosis was made. Disseminated histoplasmosis appears to be unreported in rabbits. Although the treatment used did not provide noticeable improvement, available information on histoplasmosis treatment in other species has been reviewed to provide useful information for future management of this condition in rabbits.

  12. Predator-prey relationships in a Mediterranean vertebrate system: Bonelli's eagles, rabbits and partridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moleón, Marcos; Sánchez-Zapata, José A; Gil-Sánchez, José M; Ballesteros-Duperón, Elena; Barea-Azcón, José M; Virgós, Emilio

    2012-03-01

    How predators impact on prey population dynamics is still an unsolved issue for most wild predator-prey communities. When considering vertebrates, important concerns constrain a comprehensive understanding of the functioning of predator-prey relationships worldwide; e.g. studies simultaneously quantifying 'functional' and 'numerical responses' (i.e., the 'total response') are rare. The functional, the numerical, and the resulting total response (i.e., how the predator per capita intake, the population of predators and the total of prey eaten by the total predators vary with prey densities) are fundamental as they reveal the predator's ability to regulate prey population dynamics. Here, we used a multi-spatio-temporal scale approach to simultaneously explore the functional and numerical responses of a territorial predator (Bonelli's eagle Hieraaetus fasciatus) to its two main prey species (the rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus and the red-legged partridge Alectoris rufa) during the breeding period in a Mediterranean system of south Spain. Bonelli's eagle responded functionally, but not numerically, to rabbit/partridge density changes. Type II, non-regulatory, functional responses (typical of specialist predators) offered the best fitting models for both prey. In the absence of a numerical response, Bonelli's eagle role as a regulating factor of rabbit and partridge populations seems to be weak in our study area. Simple (prey density-dependent) functional response models may well describe the short-term variation in a territorial predator's consumption rate in complex ecosystems.

  13. Intermuscular pressure between synergistic muscles correlates with muscle force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Lars; Siebert, Tobias; Leichsenring, Kay; Blickhan, Reinhard; Böl, Markus

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between muscle force generated during isometric contractions (i.e. at a constant muscle-tendon unit length) and the intermuscular (between adjacent muscles) pressure in synergistic muscles. Therefore, the pressure at the contact area of the gastrocnemius and plantaris muscle was measured synchronously to the force of the whole calf musculature in the rabbit species Oryctolagus cuniculus Similar results were obtained when using a conductive pressure sensor, or a fibre-optic pressure transducer connected to a water-filled balloon. Both methods revealed a strong linear relationship between force and pressure in the ascending limb of the force-length relationship. The shape of the measured force-time and pressure-time traces was almost identical for each contraction (r=0.97). Intermuscular pressure ranged between 100 and 700 mbar (70,000 Pa) for forces up to 287 N. These pressures are similar to previous (intramuscular) recordings within skeletal muscles of different vertebrate species. Furthermore, our results suggest that the rise in intermuscular pressure during contraction may reduce the force production in muscle packages (compartments).

  14. Genome scale evolution of myxoma virus reveals host-pathogen adaptation and rapid geographic spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Peter J; Rogers, Matthew B; Fitch, Adam; Depasse, Jay V; Cattadori, Isabella M; Twaddle, Alan C; Hudson, Peter J; Tscharke, David C; Read, Andrew F; Holmes, Edward C; Ghedin, Elodie

    2013-12-01

    The evolutionary interplay between myxoma virus (MYXV) and the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) following release of the virus in Australia in 1950 as a biological control is a classic example of host-pathogen coevolution. We present a detailed genomic and phylogeographic analysis of 30 strains of MYXV, including the Australian progenitor strain Standard Laboratory Strain (SLS), 24 Australian viruses isolated from 1951 to 1999, and three isolates from the early radiation in Britain from 1954 and 1955. We show that in Australia MYXV has spread rapidly on a spatial scale, with multiple lineages cocirculating within individual localities, and that both highly virulent and attenuated viruses were still present in the field through the 1990s. In addition, the detection of closely related virus lineages at sites 1,000 km apart suggests that MYXV moves freely in geographic space, with mosquitoes, fleas, and rabbit migration all providing means of transport. Strikingly, despite multiple introductions, all modern viruses appear to be ultimately derived from the original introductions of SLS. The rapidity of MYXV evolution was also apparent at the genomic scale, with gene duplications documented in a number of viruses. Duplication of potential virulence genes may be important in increasing the expression of virulence proteins and provides the basis for the evolution of novel functions. Mutations leading to loss of open reading frames were surprisingly frequent and in some cases may explain attenuation, but no common mutations that correlated with virulence or attenuation were identified.

  15. Contribution of collagen stable isotope biogeochemistry to the paleobiology of extinct endemic vertebrates from Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocherens, H; Michaux, J; Billiou, D; Castanet, J; Garcìa-Talavera, F

    2003-09-01

    The paleodiet and paleoenvironmental context of two extinct species from Tenerife island, one giant rat Canariomys bravoi and one giant lizard Gallotia goliath, have been investigated using carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of fossil bone collagen. Preliminary to this study, a calibration of the isotopic variations of bone collagen from modern Rat Rattus rattus, Rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus and Lizard Gallotia galotti relative to environmental conditions on Tenerife Islands has been attempted. No clear relationship could be found between collagen delta13C and delta15N values and aridity; the only relevant factors seem to be seashore proximity for rat, and the relative amount of C3 and CAM plants. It seems that anthropic activities have interfered with the expected relationships between collagen isotopic compositions and environmental conditions. Most fossil specimens yielded well preserved collagen. The isotopic composition of giant rat and giant lizard collagen suggest a purely C3 environment, possibly more humid than today on Tenerife. Large ranges of nitrogen isotopic compositions, especially within giant rats, may be due to local environmental conditions. Further work is needed in order to provide more valuable paleobiological information in order to better understand the role of environmental factors in the evolution and extinction of insular endemic species on Tenerife.

  16. Analyzing the proximity to cover in a landscape of fear: a new approach applied to fine-scale habitat use by rabbits facing feral cat predation on Kerguelen archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierrick Blanchard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Although proximity to cover has been routinely considered as an explanatory variable in studies investigating prey behavioral adjustments to predation pressure, the way it shapes risk perception still remains equivocal. This paradox arises from both the ambivalent nature of cover as potentially both obstructive and protective, making its impact on risk perception complex and context-dependent, and from the choice of the proxy used to measure proximity to cover in the field, which leads to an incomplete picture of the landscape of fear experienced by the prey. Here, we study a simple predator-prey-habitat system, i.e., rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus facing feral cat Felis catus predation on Kerguelen archipelago. We assess how cover shapes risk perception in prey and develop an easily implementable field method to improve the estimation of proximity to cover. In contrast to protocols considering the “distance to nearest cover”, we focus on the overall “area to cover”. We show that fine-scale habitat use by rabbits is clearly related to our measure, in accordance with our hypothesis of higher risk in patches with smaller area to cover in this predator-prey-habitat system. In contrast, classical measures of proximity to cover are not retained in the best predictive models of habitat use. The use of this new approach, together with a more in-depth consideration of contrasting properties of cover, could help to better understand the role of this complex yet decisive parameter for predator-prey ecology.

  17. Phylogeographic Triangulation: Using Predator-Prey-Parasite Interactions to Infer Population History from Partial Genetic Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, A. Márcia; Thode, Guillermo; Real, Raimundo; Feliu, Carlos; Vargas, J. Mario

    2012-01-01

    Phylogeographic studies, which infer population history and dispersal movements from intra-specific spatial genetic variation, require expensive and time-consuming analyses that are not always feasible, especially in the case of rare or endangered species. On the other hand, comparative phylogeography of species involved in close biotic interactions may show congruent patterns depending on the specificity of the relationship. Consequently, the phylogeography of a parasite that needs two hosts to complete its life cycle should reflect population history traits of both hosts. Population movements evidenced by the parasite’s phylogeography that are not reflected in the phylogeography of one of these hosts may thus be attributed to the other host. Using the wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and a parasitic tapeworm (Taenia pisiformis) as an example, we propose comparing the phylogeography of easily available organisms such as game species and their specific heteroxenous parasites to infer population movements of definitive host/predator species, independently of performing genetic analyses on the latter. This may be an interesting approach for indirectly studying the history of species whose phylogeography is difficult to analyse directly. PMID:23209834

  18. Treatment-based Markov chain models clarify mechanisms of invasion in an invaded grassland community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelis, Lisa Castillo; Wootton, J Timothy

    2010-02-22

    What are the relative roles of mechanisms underlying plant responses in grassland communities invaded by both plants and mammals? What type of community can we expect in the future given current or novel conditions? We address these questions by comparing Markov chain community models among treatments from a field experiment on invasive species on Robinson Crusoe Island, Chile. Because of seed dispersal, grazing and disturbance, we predicted that the exotic European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) facilitates epizoochorous exotic plants (plants with seeds that stick to the skin an animal) at the expense of native plants. To test our hypothesis, we crossed rabbit exclosure treatments with disturbance treatments, and sampled the plant community in permanent plots over 3 years. We then estimated Markov chain model transition probabilities and found significant differences among treatments. As hypothesized, this modelling revealed that exotic plants survive better in disturbed areas, while natives prefer no rabbits or disturbance. Surprisingly, rabbits negatively affect epizoochorous plants. Markov chain dynamics indicate that an overall replacement of native plants by exotic plants is underway. Using a treatment-based approach to multi-species Markov chain models allowed us to examine the changes in the importance of mechanisms in response to experimental impacts on communities.

  19. Purification and Biochemical Characterisation of Rabbit Calicivirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerases and Identification of Non-Nucleoside Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadya Urakova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV is a calicivirus that causes acute infections in both domestic and wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus. The virus causes significant economic losses in rabbit farming and reduces wild rabbit populations. The recent emergence of RHDV variants capable of overcoming immunity to other strains emphasises the need to develop universally effective antivirals to enable quick responses during outbreaks until new vaccines become available. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp is a primary target for the development of such antiviral drugs. In this study, we used cell-free in vitro assays to examine the biochemical characteristics of two rabbit calicivirus RdRps and the effects of several antivirals that were previously identified as human norovirus RdRp inhibitors. The non-nucleoside inhibitor NIC02 was identified as a potential scaffold for further drug development against rabbit caliciviruses. Our experiments revealed an unusually high temperature optimum (between 40 and 45 °C for RdRps derived from both a pathogenic and a non-pathogenic rabbit calicivirus, possibly demonstrating an adaptation to a host with a physiological body temperature of more than 38 °C. Interestingly, the in vitro polymerase activity of the non-pathogenic calicivirus RdRp was at least two times higher than that of the RdRp of the highly virulent RHDV.

  20. Purification and Biochemical Characterisation of Rabbit Calicivirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerases and Identification of Non-Nucleoside Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urakova, Nadya; Netzler, Natalie; Kelly, Andrew G; Frese, Michael; White, Peter A; Strive, Tanja

    2016-04-14

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is a calicivirus that causes acute infections in both domestic and wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). The virus causes significant economic losses in rabbit farming and reduces wild rabbit populations. The recent emergence of RHDV variants capable of overcoming immunity to other strains emphasises the need to develop universally effective antivirals to enable quick responses during outbreaks until new vaccines become available. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is a primary target for the development of such antiviral drugs. In this study, we used cell-free in vitro assays to examine the biochemical characteristics of two rabbit calicivirus RdRps and the effects of several antivirals that were previously identified as human norovirus RdRp inhibitors. The non-nucleoside inhibitor NIC02 was identified as a potential scaffold for further drug development against rabbit caliciviruses. Our experiments revealed an unusually high temperature optimum (between 40 and 45 °C) for RdRps derived from both a pathogenic and a non-pathogenic rabbit calicivirus, possibly demonstrating an adaptation to a host with a physiological body temperature of more than 38 °C. Interestingly, the in vitro polymerase activity of the non-pathogenic calicivirus RdRp was at least two times higher than that of the RdRp of the highly virulent RHDV.

  1. Two new species of Schizorchis (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae) from leporids (Lagomorpha: Leporidae) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Kuizheng; Bai, Jialin; Chen, Shien

    2012-10-01

    Four specimens of wild leporids, Lepus capensis Linnaeus, 1758, in Longde County, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (NXHAR), and 40 domestic rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus (Linnaeus, 1758) (20 from Xiji County, NXHAR, and 20 from Jingning County, Gansu Province) were examined for the presence of helminth parasites. Two new cestode species of Schizorchis Hansen, 1948 (Anoplocephalidae), were found: Schizorchis sinensis sp. n. from L. capensis and Schizorchis oryctolagi sp. n. from domestic rabbits. Schizorchis sinensis sp. n. is distinguished from all the species in the genus from pikas, Ochotona spp. (Lagomorpha: Ochotonidae) by having much longer strobila, a larger cirrus sac, a greater number of segments, and more numerous testes. The morphology of S. oryctolagi n. sp. is most similar to that of S. sinensis. It is distinguished from the latter species by its relatively small strobila, larger number of segments, smaller size of eggs, and much larger cirrus sac, which is substantially extending in a medial direction. In addition, a genital papilla is present in S. sinensis , but absent in S. oryctolagi. These findings indicate that species of Schizorchis are widespread in leporid mammals, contrary to the widespread opinion that the latter genus is specific to ochotonid lagomorph mammals. They are congruent, however, with the hypothesis of a close phylogenetic relationship between species of Schizorchis and Mosgovoyia. The occurrence of Schizorchis spp. in leporids is considered relict, vestigial from wider geographical and host ranges of this parasite genus during the Pleistocene.

  2. por Penicillium digitatum: ¿se equivocaba Janzen?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.E. Peris

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Janzen (1977 propuso que los vertebrados frugívoros prefieren los frutos sanos frente a los infectados por hongos y bacterias dado que los microbiosproducen compuestos tóxicos y antibióticos y, además, reducen el valor nutritivo de los frutos infectados. Valoramos dicha hipótesis mediante experimentosde campo en los que ofrecimos tres variedades comerciales de frutos del género Citrus sanos e infectados por Penicillium digitatum.Sorprendentemente, los frugívoros (principalmente conejos Oryctolagus cuniculus y roedores como la rata negra Rattus rattus y ratones, probablemente,Mus spretus y Apodemus sylvaticus prefirieron siempre los cítricos infectados a los frutos "control" sanos. En concreto, el consumo de frutosinfectados de las tres variedades estudiadas fue hasta 32 veces mayor en comparación con el consumo de frutos sanos. Proponemos tres hipótesisno excluyentes que podrían explicar la preferencia de los frutos infectados por mamíferos y otros vertebrados frugívoros.

  3. Herbal formulations as feed additives in the course of rabbit subclinical coccidiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosal, Paweł; Kowalska, Dorota; Bielański, Paweł; Kowal, Jerzy; Kornaś, Sławomir

    2014-01-01

    Two simultaneous experiments were carried out in a breeding farm of New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus f. domesticus) to determine the feasibility of replacing coccidiostats with garlic and oregano preparation. The research took place during June and July, the period of the greatest threat of coccidiosis caused by Eimeria spp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae). In one investigation, 40 rabbits aged 1-3 months were divided into four groups of ten animals: Group A being a control which received no coccidiostats in feed, Group B receiving the coccidiostat Baycox in water once at weaning, Group C receiving the coccidiostat robenidine in feed, and group D receiving herbal extracts in feed. In the second trial, six mated females were allocated equally to three groups analogous to A, C, and D above during pregnancy and lactation. Bulk stool samples were collected from each group of rabbits at weekly intervals for coproscopic analysis, and the production results of the animals were recorded. In the young rabbits, both the faecal coccidia oocyst counts and body weight gains were more favourable in group D than the remaining groups. Also, the female rabbits of group D were the least infected. The results demonstrate that garlic and oregano feed additives exert a positive influence on the level and course of coccidia infection, with regard to maintaining a good level of animal productivity, and these herbal extracts appear to have potential value in coccidiosis prophylaxy.

  4. Effects of heavy ions on rabbit tissues: damage to the forebrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, A.B.; Keng, P.C.; Lee, A.C.; Lett, J.T. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins (USA). Dept. of Radiology and Radiation Biology)

    1982-10-01

    As part of a study of progressive radiation effects in normal tissues, the forebrains of New Zealand white rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) (about 6 weeks old) were irradiated locally with single acute doses of /sup 60/Co ..gamma..-photons (LETsub(infinity)=0.3 keV/..mu..m), Ne ions (LETsub(infinity)=35+-3 keV/..mu..m) or Ar ions (LETsub(infinity)=90+-5 keV/..mu..m). Other rabbits received fractionated doses of /sup 60/Co ..gamma..-photons according to a standard radiotherapeutic protocol. Irradiated rabbits and appropriately aged controls were sacrificed at selected intervals, and whole sagittal sections of their brains were examined for pathological changes. Forebrain damage was scored with subjective indices based on histological differences between the anterior (irradiated) and posterior (unirradiated) regions of the brain. Those indices ranged from zero (no apparent damage) to five (severe infarctions, etc.). At intermediate levels of forebrain damage, the relative biological effectiveness (r.b.e.) of each heavy ion was similar to that found for alopecia and cataractogenesis, and the early expression of the damage was also accelerated as the LETsub(infinity) increased. Late deterioration of the forebrain appeared also to be accelerated by increasing LETsub(infinity), although its accurate quantification was not possible because other priorities in the overall experimental design limited systematic sacrifice of the animals.

  5. Welfare aspects in rabbit rearing and transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Cavani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The review starts with the description of the rabbits’ (Oryctolagus cuniculus main habits and the current situation concerning the rabbit husbandry and management systems, as well as their effects on the welfare of these animals. As far as the intensive rabbit husbandry systems are concerned, the main problems are related to the time since rabbits have been domesticated and their adaptive capacity and coping styles as respects the farming environment and management systems. Both these aspects have implications in the present and future of rabbit rearing for different purposes. Examples are given on the effects of different housing and management systems on rabbit welfare, as well as examples of the ethological, physiological and productive indicators used to evaluate these effects. Transportation and, more generally, preslaughter phases including catching, fasting and lairage at the abattoir are considered major stressors for farmed rabbits and might have deleterious effects on health, well-being, performance, and finally, product quality. A general statement of the recent scientific studies considering the effects of pre-slaughter factors on physiological and productive measurements are reported. Finally, some indications in order to improve rabbit welfare, already present at the European level, are also outlined, together with the European Food Safety Authority opinions.

  6. Toxicity of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) in three vertebrate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark S; McFarland, Craig A; Bazar, Matthew A; Quinn, Michael J; LaFiandra, Emily May; Talent, Larry G

    2010-04-01

    The explosive, octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine or high-melting explosive (HMX), has been found in soils in areas used for testing and training by the military. Many of these areas contain habitat for valued wildlife species. In an effort to better understand the environmental consequences from exposure, a reptilian (western fence lizard [Sceloporus occidentalis]), an amphibian (red-backed salamander [Plethodon cinereus]), and a mammalian species (rabbit [Oryctolagus cuniculus]) were exposed to HMX under controlled laboratory conditions. Lizards and rabbits were exposed to HMX by way of corn oil through gavage, and salamanders were exposed to HMX in soil. Two deaths occurred from acute oral exposures to lizards to 5000 mg HMX/kg BW. Histological and gross pathologic assessment suggested gut impaction as a possible cause of death. Salamanders exposed to concentrations of HMX in soil 24 h after oral exposures. An LD(50) for rabbits was calculated as 93 mg/kg (95% confidence interval 76-117). A subacute 14-day testing regime found a lowest observed effect level of 10 mg/kg-d and a no observed adverse effect level of 5 mg/kg-d based on hyperkinesia and seizure incidence, although changes suggesting functional hepatic alterations were also found. These data suggest that physiologic differences between species, particularly in gastrointestinal structure and function, can affect the absorption of HMX and hence lead to marked differences in toxicity from exposure to the same compound.

  7. Evolution of genome organizations of squirrels (Sciuridae) revealed by cross-species chromosome painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tangliang; O'Brien, Patricia C M; Biltueva, Larisa; Fu, Beiyuan; Wang, Jinhuan; Nie, Wenhui; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Graphodatsky, Alexander S; Yang, Fengtang

    2004-01-01

    With complete sets of chromosome-specific painting probes derived from flow-sorted chromosomes of human and grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis), the whole genome homologies between human and representatives of tree squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis, Callosciurus erythraeus), flying squirrels (Petaurista albiventer) and chipmunks (Tamias sibiricus) have been defined by cross-species chromosome painting. The results show that, unlike the highly rearranged karyotypes of mouse and rat, the karyotypes of squirrels are highly conserved. Two methods have been used to reconstruct the genome phylogeny of squirrels with the laboratory rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) as the out-group: (1) phylogenetic analysis by parsimony using chromosomal characters identified by comparative cytogenetic approaches; (2) mapping the genome rearrangements onto recently published sequence-based molecular trees. Our chromosome painting results, in combination with molecular data, show that flying squirrels are phylogenetically close to New World tree squirrels. Chromosome painting and G-banding comparisons place chipmunks (Tamias sibiricus ), with a derived karyotype, outside the clade comprising tree and flying squirrels. The superorder Glires (orde Rodentia + order Lagomorpha) is firmly supported by two conserved syntenic associations between human chromosomes 1 and 10p homologues, and between 9 and 11 homologues.

  8. Experimental West Nile Virus Infection in Rabbits: An Alternative Model for Studying Induction of Disease and Virus Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willy W. Suen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The economic impact of non-lethal human and equine West Nile virus (WNV disease is substantial, since it is the most common presentation of the infection. Experimental infection with virulent WNV strains in the mouse and hamster models frequently results in severe neural infection and moderate to high mortality, both of which are not representative features of most human and equine infections. We have established a rabbit model for investigating pathogenesis and immune response of non-lethal WNV infection. Two species of rabbits, New Zealand White (Oryctolagus cuniculus and North American cottontail (Sylvilagus sp., were experimentally infected with virulent WNV and Murray Valley encephalitis virus strains. Infected rabbits exhibited a consistently resistant phenotype, with evidence of low viremia, minimal-absent neural infection, mild-moderate neuropathology, and the lack of mortality, even though productive virus replication occurred in the draining lymph node. The kinetics of anti-WNV neutralizing antibody response was comparable to that commonly seen in infected horses and humans. This may be explained by the early IFNα/β and/or γ response evident in the draining popliteal lymph node. Given this similarity to the human and equine disease, immunocompetent rabbits are, therefore, a valuable animal model for investigating various aspects of non-lethal WNV infections.

  9. [Epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in Chile. V. Prevalence of the infection in humans and domestic and wild animals, studied by indirect hemagglutination reaction, in the Juan Fernández Archipelago. V Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutzin, M; Contreras, M C; Schenone, H

    1989-01-01

    A serological study utilizing an indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT) for toxoplasmosis was carried out in 222 humans and in 58 domestic animals (31 dogs, Canis familiaris; 27 cats, Felis catus), and in 62 wild mammals distributed into 50 rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus and 12 goats, Capra hircus. This survey was performed in the Juan Fernández Archipelago, formed by three islands: Robinson Crusoe, Santa Clara and Alejandro Selkirk (80 degrees 47'-78 degrees 47' west long., and 33 degrees 36'-33 degrees 47' south lat.). Blood samples were collected in filter paper and IHAT with titres greater than or equal to 1:16 were considered positive. This survey showed a prevalence of 42.3% in humans with no difference between men (43.0%) and women (41.5%). A high prevalence was found within groups of young individuals (0 to 19 years old), men and women. Regarding the domestic animal population, 44.8% resulted positive, distributed as follows: dogs 9.7% and cats 85.2%. Twenty one percent of wild animals were positive, distributed as follows: rabbits 8.0% and goats 75.0%. The global prevalence of toxoplasmosis in animals (domestic and wild) was 32.5%. All titres in humans and animals were less than or equal to 1:512. Toxoplasmosis is well extended among the human and animal population of the Juan Fernández Archipelago.

  10. Experimental infection of specific pathogen-free New Zealand White rabbits with five strains of amyxomatous myxoma virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlier, D; Cassart, D; Boucraut-Baralon, C; Coignoul, F; Vindevogel, H

    1999-11-01

    Myxomatosis is a specific disease of the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) due to a virus belonging to the genus Leporipoxvirus. Forty-seven years after its deliberate introduction into Europe, the clinical aspects and the epizootiology of myxomatosis have changed. Two forms (nodular and amyxomatous) of the disease have been identified to date. A comparative study was made of the clinical signs, pathogenesis and gross lesions observed in male specific pathogen-free New Zealand White rabbits inoculated with five strains of amyxomatous myxoma virus. All five strains induced the characteristic amyxomatous myxomatosis clinical syndrome with clinical signs that differed only in intensity. The varying clinical intensity, together with the results of virological examination question the virulence of at least three of the five strains. Genomic analysis confirmed that the five strains came from the Lausanne strain introduced in 1952 in France and not from an unnoticed introduction of a Californian strain of myxoma virus. No link was found between the amyxomatous myxoma virus strains and the SG33 vaccine strain. 1999 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  11. Virulence and pathogenesis of the MSW and MSD strains of Californian myxoma virus in European rabbits with genetic resistance to myxomatosis compared to rabbits with no genetic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvers, L; Inglis, B; Labudovic, A; Janssens, P A; van Leeuwen, B H; Kerr, P J

    2006-04-25

    The pathogenesis of two Californian strains of myxoma virus (MSW and MSD) was examined in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) that were either susceptible to myxomatosis (laboratory rabbits) or had undergone natural selection for genetic resistance to myxomatosis (Australian wild rabbits). MSW was highly lethal for both types of rabbits with average survival times of 7.3 and 9.4 days, respectively, and 100% mortality. Classical clinical signs of myxomatosis were not present except in one rabbit that survived for 13 days following infection. Previously described clinical signs of trembling and shaking were observed in laboratory but not wild rabbits. Despite the high resistance of wild rabbits to myxomatosis caused by South American strains of myxoma virus, the MSW strain was of such high virulence that it was able to overcome resistance. The acute nature of the infection, relatively low viral titers in the tissues and destruction of lymphoid tissues, suggested that death was probably due to an acute and overwhelming immunopathological response to the virus. No virus was found in the brain. The MSD strain was attenuated compared to previously published descriptions and therefore was only characterized in laboratory rabbits. It is concluded that Californian MSW strain of myxoma virus is at the extreme end of a continuum of myxoma virus virulence but that the basic pathophysiology of the disease induced is not broadly different to other strains of myxoma virus.

  12. Coccidian and nematode infections influence prevalence of antibody to myxoma and rabbit hemorrhagic disease viruses in European rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertó-Moran, Alejandro; Pacios, Isabel; Serrano, Emmanuel; Moreno, Sacramento; Rouco, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The interaction among several parasites in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is crucial to host fitness and to the epidemiology of myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease. These diseases have caused significant reductions in rabbit populations on the Iberian Peninsula. Most studies have focused on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of these viruses individually, and little is known about interactions between these viruses and other parasites. Taking advantage of an experimental restocking program in Spain, the effects of coccidian and nematode infections on the probability of having detectable antibody to myxoma and rabbit hemorrhagic disease viruses were tested in European wild rabbits. For 14 mo, we monitored rabbit abundance and parasite loads (coccidia and nematodes) in three reintroduced rabbit populations. While coccidian and nematode loads explained seasonal antibody prevalences to myxoma virus, the pattern was less clear for rabbit hemorrhagic disease. Contrary to expectations, prevalence of antibody to myxoma virus was inversely proportional to coccidian load, while nematode load seemed to play a minor role. These results have implications for viral disease epidemiology and for disease management intended to increase rabbit populations in areas where they are important for ecosystem conservation.

  13. Innate resistance to myxomatosis in wild rabbits in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J; Sanders, M F

    1977-12-01

    Wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from one study area in England have been used over a period of 11 years to investigate the possible appearance of innate resistance to myxomatosis. Rabbits of 4-6 weeks old were captured alive, retained in the laboratory until at least 4 months old, and then infected with a type of myxoma virus which kills 90-95% of laboratory rabbits. Observations were made of symptoms, mortality rate and survival times.In the first 4 years of the study (1966-9), mortality rates were not significantly different from those of laboratory rabbits, although survival times of wild rabbits were appreciably longer. In 1970, the mortality rate amongst wild rabbits was 59%, in 1974 it was 17%, and in 1976 it was 20%, thus showing that a considerable degree of inherited resistance to myxomatosis has developed.The types of myxoma virus most commonly isolated from wild rabbits in Great Britain in recent years have been those which cause 70-95% mortality in laboratory rabbits. Therefore, if the degree of innate resistance demonstrated is widespread in Great Britain, there are serious implications regarding the size of the rabbit population, because myxomatosis has been an important factor in holding rabbit numbers at a relatively low level.

  14. Innate resistance to myxomatosis in wild rabbits in England*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J.; Sanders, M. F.

    1977-01-01

    Wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from one study area in England have been used over a period of 11 years to investigate the possible appearance of innate resistance to myxomatosis. Rabbits of 4-6 weeks old were captured alive, retained in the laboratory until at least 4 months old, and then infected with a type of myxoma virus which kills 90-95% of laboratory rabbits. Observations were made of symptoms, mortality rate and survival times. In the first 4 years of the study (1966-9), mortality rates were not significantly different from those of laboratory rabbits, although survival times of wild rabbits were appreciably longer. In 1970, the mortality rate amongst wild rabbits was 59%, in 1974 it was 17%, and in 1976 it was 20%, thus showing that a considerable degree of inherited resistance to myxomatosis has developed. The types of myxoma virus most commonly isolated from wild rabbits in Great Britain in recent years have been those which cause 70-95% mortality in laboratory rabbits. Therefore, if the degree of innate resistance demonstrated is widespread in Great Britain, there are serious implications regarding the size of the rabbit population, because myxomatosis has been an important factor in holding rabbit numbers at a relatively low level. PMID:270526

  15. Epidemiology of viral haemorrhagic disease and myxomatosis in a free-living population of wild rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvete, C; Estrada, R; Villafuerte, R; Osácar, J J; Lucientes, J

    2002-06-22

    From January 1993 to June 1996, the epidemiology of myxomatosis and viral haemorrhagic disease (VHD) was studied in a free-living population of wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Spain by means of serological surveys and radiotracking. Myxomatosis was endemic and associated with the breeding period. Its serological pattern was characterised by a 100 per cent prevalence of antibodies in adult rabbits and a rapid increase in antibodies in young rabbits in their first year. No mortality from myxomatosis was detected in adults, and mortality in young rabbits could not be estimated because of interference by predators and scavengers and the deaths of many radiotagged rabbits inside their burrows. VHD was also an endemic disease associated with the breeding period. Adults had a higher prevalence of antibodies against VHD than young rabbits, reaching values of 80 to 90 per cent. During the study, there was an increase in rabbit numbers as a result of a decrease in mortality from predation which was associated with an increase in mortality due to VHD and in the prevalence of antibodies to VHD. Mortality from VHD was lower in rabbits with VHD antibodies than in seronegative rabbits, but some mortality from the disease was also detected in seropositive rabbits. The annual mean mortality rate due to VHD in adult rabbits was estimated to be 21.8 per cent.

  16. Cross-sectional study of the association between pathological conditions and myxoma-virus seroprevalence in intensive rabbit farms in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlier, D; Herbots, J; Detilleux, J; Lemaire, M; Thiry, E; Vindevogel, H

    2001-01-17

    Myxomatosis is a major viral disease of the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Two forms of the disease (nodular and amyxomatous) exist. The clinical diagnosis of the nodular form is easily performed on the basis of typical skin lesions whereas that of amyxomatous forms must be based on virus isolation or detection of specific antibodies to myxoma virus (MV). The seroprevalence of MV was studied between March 1998 and February 1999 in 16 farms from three European countries considered free of myxomatosis on the basis of the absence of typical clinical signs. MV antibodies were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (sensitivity 100%, specificity 90%) in all 16 farms; the seroprevalences corrected for test inaccuracy (95% confidence interval) were 55+/-7.7% and 37+/-6.1% for does and broilers, respectively. The association between herd sizes, types of rabbitries, and presence of recurrent respiratory or digestive troubles and seroprevalence of MV antibodies was tested in logistic multiple regressions. In all models, the seroprevalence of MV antibodies was significantly higher in herds (does and broilers) with recurrent respiratory or digestive troubles than in herds without these problems. The seroprevalence was also higher in herds (does and broilers) where animals were housed totally or partially in outdoors rabbitries than in totally enclosed rabbitries. The effect of herd sizes on the presence of MV antibodies was the same in does and broilers; intermediate sizes were at lower risk than the smaller and larger ones.

  17. Effects of myxoma virus and rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus on the physiological condition of wild European rabbits: Is blood biochemistry a useful monitoring tool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacios-Palma, Isabel; Santoro, Simone; Bertó-Moran, Alejandro; Moreno, Sacramento; Rouco, Carlos

    2016-12-01

    Myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) are the major viral diseases that affect the wild European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). These diseases arrived in Europe within the last decades and have caused wild rabbit populations to decline dramatically. Both viruses are currently considered to be endemic in the Iberian Peninsula; periodic outbreaks that strongly impact wild populations regularly occur. Myxoma virus (MV) and rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) alter the physiology of infected rabbits, resulting in physical deterioration. Consequently, the persistence and viability of natural populations are affected. The main goal of our study was to determine if blood biochemistry is correlated with serostatus in wild European rabbits. We carried out seven live-trapping sessions in three wild rabbit populations over a two-year period. Blood samples were collected to measure anti-MV and anti-RHDV antibody concentrations and to measure biochemical parameters related to organ function, protein metabolism, and nutritional status. Overall, we found no significant relationships between rabbit serostatus and biochemistry. Our main result was that rabbits that were seropositive for both MV and RHDV had low gamma glutamyltransferase concentrations. Given the robustness of our analyses, the lack of significant relationships may indicate that the biochemical parameters measured are poor proxies for serostatus. Another explanation is that wild rabbits might be producing attenuated physiological responses to these viruses because the latter are now enzootic in the study area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Timing and severity of immunizing diseases in rabbits is controlled by seasonal matching of host and pathogen dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Konstans; Brook, Barry W; Lacy, Robert C; Mutze, Greg J; Peacock, David E; Sinclair, Ron G; Schwensow, Nina; Cassey, Phillip; O'Hara, Robert B; Fordham, Damien A

    2015-02-06

    Infectious diseases can exert a strong influence on the dynamics of host populations, but it remains unclear why such disease-mediated control only occurs under particular environmental conditions. We used 16 years of detailed field data on invasive European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Australia, linked to individual-based stochastic models and Bayesian approximations, to test whether (i) mortality associated with rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) is driven primarily by seasonal matches/mismatches between demographic rates and epidemiological dynamics and (ii) delayed infection (arising from insusceptibility and maternal antibodies in juveniles) are important factors in determining disease severity and local population persistence of rabbits. We found that both the timing of reproduction and exposure to viruses drove recurrent seasonal epidemics of RHD. Protection conferred by insusceptibility and maternal antibodies controlled seasonal disease outbreaks by delaying infection; this could have also allowed escape from disease. The persistence of local populations was a stochastic outcome of recovery rates from both RHD and myxomatosis. If susceptibility to RHD is delayed, myxomatosis will have a pronounced effect on population extirpation when the two viruses coexist. This has important implications for wildlife management, because it is likely that such seasonal interplay and disease dynamics has a strong effect on long-term population viability for many species. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Myxomatosis in wild rabbit: design of control programs in Mediterranean ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Bocanegra, Ignacio; Astorga, Rafael Jesús; Napp, Sebastián; Casal, Jordi; Huerta, Belén; Borge, Carmen; Arenas, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out in natural wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) populations from southern Spain to identify risk factors associated to myxoma virus infection. Blood samples from 619 wild rabbits were collected, and questionnaires which included variables related to host, disease, game management and environment were completed. A logistic regression analysis was conducted to investigate the associations between myxomatosis seropositivity (dependent variable) across 7 hunting estates and an extensive set of explanatory variables obtained from the questionnaires. The prevalence of antibodies against myxomatosis virus was 56.4% (95% CI: 52.5-60.3) and ranged between 21.4% (95% CI: 9.0-33.8) and 70.2% (95% CI: 58.3-82.1) among the different sampling areas. The logistic regression analysis showed that autumn (OR 9.0), high abundance of mosquitoes (OR 8.2), reproductive activity (OR 4.1), warren's insecticide treatment (OR 3.7), rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) seropositivity (OR 2.6), high hunting pressure (OR 6.3) and sheep presence (OR 6.4) were associated with seropositivity to myxomatosis. Based on the results, diverse management measures for myxomatosis control are proposed.

  20. The current status and future directions of myxoma virus, a master in immune evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiesschaert, Bart; McFadden, Grant; Hermans, Katleen; Nauwynck, Hans; Van de Walle, Gerlinde R

    2011-06-09

    Myxoma virus (MYXV) gained importance throughout the twentieth century because of the use of the highly virulent Standard Laboratory Strain (SLS) by the Australian government in the attempt to control the feral Australian population of Oryctolagus cuniculus (European rabbit) and the subsequent illegal release of MYXV in Europe. In the European rabbit, MYXV causes a disease with an exceedingly high mortality rate, named myxomatosis, which is passively transmitted by biting arthropod vectors. MYXV still has a great impact on European rabbit populations around the world. In contrast, only a single cutaneous lesion, restricted to the point of inoculation, is seen in its natural long-term host, the South-American Sylvilagus brasiliensis and the North-American S. Bachmani. Apart from being detrimental for European rabbits, however, MYXV has also become of interest in human medicine in the last two decades for two reasons. Firstly, due to the strong immune suppressing effects of certain MYXV proteins, several secreted virus-encoded immunomodulators (e.g. Serp-1) are being developed to treat systemic inflammatory syndromes such as cardiovascular disease in humans. Secondly, due to the inherent ability of MYXV to infect a broad spectrum of human cancer cells, the live virus is also being developed as an oncolytic virotherapeutic to treat human cancer. In this review, an update will be given on the current status of MYXV in rabbits as well as its potential in human medicine in the twenty-first century.

  1. Climate change, patch choice, and intensification at Pont d'Ambon (Dordogne, France) during the Younger Dryas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Emily Lena

    2009-11-01

    This paper considers the impact of the Younger Dryas on the prehistoric inhabitants of Pont d'Ambon, a site in the Dordogne region of southwestern France, through an examination of the zooarchaeological remains from this site. An investigation of patch choice indicates that patch choice evenness declines during the Younger Dryas due to increasing local dominance of the grassland patch. Analyses of demographic composition, cutmark frequency, and marrow processing in the wild European rabbit ( Oryctolagus cuniculus) assemblage suggest intensified rabbit use during this period. This study thus supports the hypothesis that changing climate had significant impacts on the prehistoric inhabitants of Pont d'Ambon. However, the traditional climate hypothesis—that changing climate negatively impacted the availability of larger fauna, forcing a switch to smaller, lower-ranked prey items—is not supported here. The inhabitants of Pont d'Ambon seem to have adapted to changing climate by efficiently exploiting the new species available to them, and possibly, during the Younger Dryas, by intensifying their use of one of these new species, the European rabbit.

  2. The influence of liners on the pulp inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidović Lado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The study included application of liners and dental composites in to cavities of six experimental animals - rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus. Objective. The aim of the study was to investigate rabbit dental pulp response to different liners. Methods. Cavity preparation for class V were made on the maxillary central incisors and one lower incisor, while the second lower incisor served as a control tooth. These teeth were restored with the use of one of the following liners - Calcimol LC, ANA Liner and Fuji II LC Improved, and Ceram-X mono dental composite. After an observation period of five days animals were sacrificed and prepared for histological analysis. The existence and degree of the pulp inflammation was determined by using a light microscope. Results. Results showed that the used liners do not cause distortion of the structure and continuity of the odontoblastic layer. Inflammation was not registered in the control group, while in each group of tested materials one tooth with mild signs of hyperemia was registered. Results showed that all three tested liners demonstrated favorable effects on the pulp of the tooth and did not lead to inflammatory reactions. Conclusion. Histological analysis of the dental pulp of experimental animals suggests that the liners used in this study do not compromise the integrity of the odontoblastic layer, if it is applied over a thin layer of dentin. In each group of tested materials one tooth with mild signs of hyperemia and vasodilation was registered.

  3. Pathologic fracture of the femur due to endometrial adenocarcinoma metastasis in a female pet rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haist, Verena; Hirschfeld, Simon Gonzales; Mallig, Carolin; Fehr, Michael; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    This case report describes the clinical, pathomorphological and histopathological findings in a 12-year-old female pet rabbit with a pathologic fracture of the femur due to a metastasising endometrial adenocarcinoma. The animal was presented due to a history of right hindlimb lameness and inappetence. A fracture of the right femur with adjacent lyric bone lesions was detected by clinical and X-ray examination. Necropsy and histopathology revealed an endometrial adenocarcinoma with metastasis to the right femoral bone, resulting in the pathologic fracture. In both locations, tumour cells were immunohistochemically positive for pan-cytokeratin. Additionally, the animal suffered from an Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection which manifested itself in a multifocal granulomatous encephalitis and bilateral chronic inflammatory lesions in the kidneys.The report shows that in case of bone fractures in female pet rabbits the possibility of a pathologic fracture due to metastasising endometrial adenocarcinoma has to be considered.

  4. 兔TLR2、TLR3和TLR4部分cDNA序列的克隆及分析%Cloning and sequence analysis of cDNA encoding rabbit Toll-like receptor2,3,4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂奎; 曾兴艳; 周作勇; 王裕文

    2012-01-01

    In this study, Toll-like receptor 2 (R TLR2 ), Toll-like receptor-3 (R TLR3) and Toll-like receptor-4 (R TLR4 ) gene were cloned from Japanese white rabbits spleen by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaetion(RT-PCR). Sequence analysis indicated that the RTLR2,RTLR3 and RTLR4 eDNA cloned were 128,150 and 139 bp in length and that the nucleotide sequence of RTLR2 shared 99 % homology with the published sequence Oryctolagus cuniculus TLR2(NM_001082781),while RTLR3 and RTLR4 shared 100% homology with the published sequence TLR3 (NM_001082219)and TLR4 (NM_001082732). The predicted amino acid sequence of RTLR2,RTLR3 and RTLR4 gene was compared to that of the partial cDNA fragments of Oryctolagus cuniculus TLR2, TLR3 and TLR4, with 100% similarity. The comparison of the deduced amino acids sequence of R TLR2,RTLR3 and R TLR4 with that of horse,dog,cat, orangutan,human, cattle sheep and mouse showed that the amino acids homology similarity were 80%,78%,78%,78%,78%,76%,73% and 61% in TLR2,97%,97%,95%,95%,95%,95%,93%and 93% in TLR3, and 75 %, 75 %, 75 %, 73 %,71 %, 66 %,66 % and 62 % in TLR4, respectively. Based on the phylogenetic tree and alignment of predicted animo sequence,we concluded that R TLR2,RTLR3 and RTLR4 were partial eDNA fragments of Oryctolagus cuniculus TLR2,TLR3 and TLR4,individually. Likewise,it was suggested that there was species-specific of TLRs in different kinds of animials.%用RT-PCR技术从日本大耳白兔脾脏组织克隆出兔Toll样受体2、3、4基因(拟命名为RTLR2、R TLR3和RTLR4)的cDNA序列并进行测序,获得的3个Toll样受体基因序列长分别为128、150和139bp,并将其测序结果与GenBank中登录的穴兔(Oryctolagus cuniculus)的Toils核苷酸序列进行比对,发现本次克隆到的RTLR2与穴兔TLR2的基因序列(NM_001082781)相似性为99%,而RTLR3与TLR3(NM_001082219)和RTLR4与TLR4(NM_001082732)相似性均为100%。Protein Blast同源性结果显示,RTLR2、RTLR3

  5. Anesthetic protocol for videolaparoscopic surgery in rabbits Protocolo anestésico para cirurgia videolaparoscópica em coelhos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosi Pereira Balbinotto

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To describe the anesthetic protocol and the intubation technique without visualizing the trachea in rabbits, in order to enable the videolaparoscopic surgical procedure. METHODS: The experiment was performed on 33 female rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus, aged from 5 to 7 months. It consisted of general anesthesia and endotracheal intubation by manual palpation of the trachea of the rabbits, without using the laryngoscope, orally, for later videolaparoscopic surgical access to the abdominal cavity. RESULTS: The mean values and standard deviation of vital parameters of the animals were 223.8±15.61 beats per minute for heart rate; 35±9 movements per minute for respiratory rate; 96.94±0.99% of oxymetry and 42.82±4.02 mmHg for capnometry; 16.7±4.3 minutes for pneumoperitoneum (duration of surgery and 1 hour and 14±8.52 minutes for time of observation (from induction to recovery from anesthesia. All animals were intubated in at most three attempts. No animals were lost after the introduction of this anesthetic technique. CONCLUSION: This protocol proved adequate, safe and easy to perform, on rabbits submitted to videolaparoscopic surgery.OBJETIVO: Descrever o protocolo anestésico e a técnica de intubação sem visualização da traqueia em coelhos, para viabilização de procedimento cirúrgico videolaparoscópico. MÉTODOS: O experimento foi realizado em 33 coelhas (Oryctolagus cuniculus, com idade entre 5 e 7 meses. Consistiu de anestesia geral e intubação endotraqueal por meio de palpação manual da traquéia das coelhas, sem o uso de laringoscópio, pela via oral, para posterior acesso cirúrgico videolaparoscópico da cavidade abdominal. RESULTADOS: Os valores médios e desvio padrão dos parâmetros vitais dos animais foram de 223,8±15,61 batimentos por minuto para freqüência cardíaca; 35±9 movimentos por minuto para frequência respiratória; 96,94±0,99% de oximetria e 42,82±4,02 mmHg para capnometria; 16,7±4,3 minutos

  6. Tratamento homeopático da hepatotoxicose aguda induzida por tetracloreto de carbono em coelhos Homeopatic treatment of acute carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília Ribeiro Moncorvo

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Quinze (15 coelhos (Oryctolagus cuniculus foram submetidos à intoxicação pelo tetracloreto de carbono na dosagem de 0,5 ml/kg de peso corporal, dose única, administrado por sonda gástrica. Foram realizadas as dosagens de alanina amino transferase (ALT, aspartato amino transferase (AST, fosfatase alcalina (FA e gama glutamil transferase (GGT antes e durante o experimento. Vinte e quatro (24 horas após a intoxicação, os coelhos foram divididos aleatoriamente em três grupos de 5 animais. Cada grupo recebeu um tratamento diferente durante 13 dias. O grupo I foi tratado com tetracloreto de carbono diluído na 30ª centesimal hahnemanniana (30 CH, uma vez ao dia. O grupo II recebeu Phosphorus 30 CH, também uma vez ao dia. O grupo III desempenhou o papel de controle, recebendo diariamente uma dose de placebo, pelo mesmo período de tempo que os grupos anteriores. Os resultados das concentrações séricas de ALT, AST, GGT e FA foram submetidos à análise estatística. A variação da concentração de todas as enzimas foi significativa entre os dias, mas nem todas variaram significativamente entre os grupos considerados. O tetracloreto de carbono 30 CH foi capaz de acelerar a recuperação do quadro de hepatite tóxica aguda determinada pela redução dos níveis de ALT. O tratamento com Phosphorus 30 CH mostrou-se incapaz seja de reverter o quadro de hepatite tóxica, seja de acelerar a regeneração hepática.Fithteen (15 New Zeland and Californian rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus were submitted to intoxication with carbon tethracloride in a dose 0/0.5 ml/kg, once a day, administred by orogastric sonde. Enzimatic parameters: alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyltransferase of those rabbits were tested before and during the experiment. After the intoxication, the rabbits were divided in three groups of five animals. Each group received differents treatments during 13 days. The

  7. Application of high frequency bipolar electrocoagulation LigaSureTM in appendix vermiformis of rabbits with or without acute inflammatory process Aplicação do eletrocoagulador bipolar de alta frequência LigaSureTM no apêndice vermiforme na vigência ou não de processo inflamatório agudo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cristina de Souza

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of the use of LigaSureTM in appendectomy, with or without acute inflammatory process, and to compare with simple ligature and conventional therapy. METHODS: A total of 30 rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus randomly allocated in two groups, group A and B, of 15 animals each were used. The group A without acute appendicitis and the group B with acute appendicitis were submitted to appendectomy. After, the groups were subdivided into three groups, each group containing five rabbits submitted to simple ligature, conventional therapy and application of LigaSureTM. We assessed macroscopic and microscopy parameters of appendiceal stump and operative wound. RESULTS: The group with acute appendicitis that LigaSureTM was applied had fibrosis in 100% of animals, as well as in the other operative techniques used. It suggested that application of LigaSureTM is efficient as other techniques used in healing of appendiceal stump. CONCLUSIONS: The application of LigaSureTM induces the formation of fibrosis in the appendiceal stump. The technique proved efficacy to induce enough fibrous tissue to obstruct leakage of enteric content.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia da utilização do LigaSureTM na apendicectomia, com ou sem a presença de processo inflamatório agudo, comparando com ligadura simples ou técnica tradicional. MÉTODOS: Um total de 30 coelhos (Oryctolagus cuniculus foi alocado em dois grupos, grupos A e B, cada um composto por 15 animais. O grupo A não apresentava apendicite aguda e o grupo B com apendicite aguda, sendo os animais submetidos à apendicitectomia. Cada grupo foi divido em três subgrupos, cada um com cinco animais onde foram então submetidos à ligadura simples, técnica tradicional ou utilização do LigaSureTM. Foram avaliados parâmetros macroscópicos assim como microscópicos do coto apendicular assim como da ferida operatória. RESULTADOS: No grupo que apresentava apendicite aguda onde foi utilizado o

  8. Micromamíferos del Pleistoceno Superior del yacimiento de PRERESA en el valle del Manzanares y su contribución a la reconstrucción paleoambiental de la cuenca de Madrid durante el Pleistoceno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sesé, C.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available PRERESA (Getafe, Madrid is a site of the first third of the Late Pleistocene, at the end of MIS 5, of which 255 m2 have been excavated, and where 754 stone pieces and abundant remains of micro- and macrovertebrates have been recovered. This paper deals with the study of the following identified micromammals at the site: Erinaceomorpha: Erinaceus europaeus; Soricomorpha: Crocidura russula; Chiroptera: Rhinolophus ferrumequinum; Rodentia: Eliomys quercinus quercinus, Apodemus sp., Cricetulus (Allocricetus bursae, Arvicola aff. sapidus, Microtus cabrerae, Microtus duodecimcostatus; Lagomorpha: Oryctolagus cuniculus. This faunal association, mainly due to the presence of Microtus cabrerae, belongs to the Late Pleistocene. The evolved stage of Microtus cabrerae and Arvicola aff. sapidus indicate the antiquity of this association within the first part of this period, which is consistent with the date of 84±5,6 ka BP obtained by OSL. All the taxa recorded in PRERESA are currently living in the area where the site is located, except Cricetulus (Allocricetus bursae that became extinct in the Iberian Peninsula at the end of the Late Pleistocene. Observations on the material indicate that the accumulation of the small mammal remains could have been mainly caused by predators, most likely by pellets of birds of prey. The association of small mammals from PRERESA indicates temperate conditions with some moisture and vegetation development with some wooded areas and mainly open areas but mostly shrubby, herbaceous, wet and dry grasslands, and riparian vegetation. The comparison of the small mammals from PRERESA with those of the Middle Pleistocene sites from Áridos and Valdocarros, indicate a similarity of the climatic conditions and lansdcape in the low sections of the Manzanares and Jarama rivers in the moments that these sites represent (the advanced Middle Pleistocene and

  9. Rabbit biocontrol and landscape-scale recovery of threatened desert mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedler, Reece D; Brandle, Robert; Read, John L; Southgate, Richard; Bird, Peter; Moseby, Katherine E

    2016-08-01

    Funding for species conservation is insufficient to meet the current challenges facing global biodiversity, yet many programs use expensive single-species recovery actions and neglect broader management that addresses threatening processes. Arid Australia has the world's worst modern mammalian extinction record, largely attributable to competition from introduced herbivores, particularly European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and predation by feral cats (Felis catus) and foxes (Vulpes vulpes). The biological control agent rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) was introduced to Australia in 1995 and resulted in dramatic, widespread rabbit suppression. We compared the area of occupancy and extent of occurrence of 4 extant species of small mammals before and after RHDV outbreak, relative to rainfall, sampling effort, and rabbit and predator populations. Despite low rainfall during the first 14 years after RHDV, 2 native rodents listed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), the dusky hopping-mouse (Notomys fuscus) and plains mouse (Pseudomys australis), increased their extent of occurrence by 241-365%. A threatened marsupial micropredator, the crest-tailed mulgara (Dasycercus cristicauda), underwent a 70-fold increase in extent of occurrence and a 20-fold increase in area of occupancy. Both bottom-up and top-down trophic effects were attributed to RHDV, namely decreased competition for food resources and declines in rabbit-dependent predators. Based on these sustained increases, these 3 previously threatened species now qualify for threat-category downgrading on the IUCN Red List. These recoveries are on a scale rarely documented in mammals and give impetus to programs aimed at targeted use of RHDV in Australia, rather than simply employing top-down threat-based management of arid ecosystems. Conservation programs that take big-picture approaches to addressing threatening processes over large spatial scales should be prioritized to maximize

  10. Laying the foundations for a human-predator conflict solution: assessing the impact of Bonelli's eagle on rabbits and partridges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Moleón

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Predation may potentially lead to negative effects on both prey (directly via predators and predators (indirectly via human persecution. Predation pressure studies are, therefore, of major interest in the fields of theoretical knowledge and conservation of prey or predator species, with wide ramifications and profound implications in human-wildlife conflicts. However, detailed works on this issue in highly valuable--in conservation terms--Mediterranean ecosystems are virtually absent. This paper explores the predator-hunting conflict by examining a paradigmatic, Mediterranean-wide (endangered predator-two prey (small game system. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We estimated the predation impact ('kill rate' and 'predation rate', i.e., number of prey and proportion of the prey population eaten, respectively of Bonelli's eagle Aquila fasciata on rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus and red-legged partridge Alectoris rufa populations in two seasons (the eagle's breeding and non-breeding periods, 100 days each in SE Spain. The mean estimated kill rate by the seven eagle reproductive units in the study area was c. 304 rabbits and c. 262 partridges in the breeding season, and c. 237 rabbits and c. 121 partridges in the non-breeding period. This resulted in very low predation rates (range: 0.3-2.5% for both prey and seasons. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The potential role of Bonelli's eagles as a limiting factor for rabbits and partridges at the population scale was very poor. The conflict between game profitability and conservation interest of either prey or predators is apparently very localised, and eagles, quarry species and game interests seem compatible in most of the study area. Currently, both the persecution and negative perception of Bonelli's eagle (the 'partridge-eating eagle' in Spanish have a null theoretical basis in most of this area.

  11. Modelling landscape-level numerical responses of predators to prey: the case of cats and rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennyffer Cruz

    Full Text Available Predator-prey systems can extend over large geographical areas but empirical modelling of predator-prey dynamics has been largely limited to localised scales. This is due partly to difficulties in estimating predator and prey abundances over large areas. Collection of data at suitably large scales has been a major problem in previous studies of European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus and their predators. This applies in Western Europe, where conserving rabbits and predators such as Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus is important, and in other parts of the world where rabbits are an invasive species supporting populations of introduced, and sometimes native, predators. In pastoral regions of New Zealand, rabbits are the primary prey of feral cats (Felis catus that threaten native fauna. We estimate the seasonal numerical response of cats to fluctuations in rabbit numbers in grassland-shrubland habitat across the Otago and Mackenzie regions of the South Island of New Zealand. We use spotlight counts over 1645 km of transects to estimate rabbit and cat abundances with a novel modelling approach that accounts simultaneously for environmental stochasticity, density dependence and varying detection probability. Our model suggests that cat abundance is related consistently to rabbit abundance in spring and summer, possibly through increased rabbit numbers improving the fecundity and juvenile survival of cats. Maintaining rabbits at low abundance should therefore suppress cat numbers, relieving predation pressure on native prey. Our approach provided estimates of the abundance of cats and rabbits over a large geographical area. This was made possible by repeated sampling within each season, which allows estimation of detection probabilities. A similar approach could be applied to predator-prey systems elsewhere, and could be adapted to any method of direct observation in which there is no double-counting of individuals. Reliable estimates of numerical

  12. Genetic Signatures of Demographic Changes in an Avian Top Predator during the Last Century: Bottlenecks and Expansions of the Eurasian Eagle Owl in the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graciá, Eva; Ortego, Joaquín; Godoy, José Antonio; Pérez-García, Juan Manuel; Blanco, Guillermo; Delgado, María del Mar; Penteriani, Vincenzo; Almodóvar, Irene; Botella, Francisco; Sánchez-Zapata, José Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The study of the demographic history of species can help to understand the negative impact of recent population declines in organisms of conservation concern. Here, we use neutral molecular markers to explore the genetic consequences of the recent population decline and posterior recovery of the Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo) in the Iberian Peninsula. During the last century, the species was the object of extermination programs, suffering direct persecution by hunters until the 70's. Moreover, during the last decades the eagle owl was severely impacted by increased mortality due to electrocution and the decline of its main prey species, the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). In recent times, the decrease of direct persecution and the implementation of some conservation schemes have allowed the species' demographic recovery. Yet, it remains unknown to which extent the past population decline and the later expansion have influenced the current species' pattern of genetic diversity. We used eight microsatellite markers to genotype 235 eagle owls from ten Spanish subpopulations and analyse the presence of genetic signatures attributable to the recent population fluctuations experienced by the species. We found moderate levels of differentiation among the studied subpopulations and Bayesian analyses revealed the existence of three genetic clusters that grouped subpopulations from central, south-western and south-eastern Spain. The observed genetic structure could have resulted from recent human-induced population fragmentation, a patchy distribution of prey populations and/or the philopatric behaviour and habitat selection of the species. We detected an old population bottleneck, which occurred approximately 10,000 years ago, and significant signatures of recent demographic expansions. However, we did not find genetic signatures for a recent bottleneck, which may indicate that population declines were not severe enough to leave detectable signals on the species

  13. Impact of high predation risk on genome-wide hippocampal gene expression in snowshoe hares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavergne, Sophia G; McGowan, Patrick O; Krebs, Charles J; Boonstra, Rudy

    2014-11-01

    The population dynamics of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) are fundamental to the ecosystem dynamics of Canada's boreal forest. During the 8- to 11-year population cycle, hare densities can fluctuate up to 40-fold. Predators in this system (lynx, coyotes, great-horned owls) affect population numbers not only through direct mortality but also through sublethal effects. The chronic stress hypothesis posits that high predation risk during the decline severely stresses hares, leading to greater stress responses, heightened ability to mobilize cortisol and energy, and a poorer body condition. These effects may result in, or be mediated by, differential gene expression. We used an oligonucleotide microarray designed for a closely-related species, the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), to characterize differences in genome-wide hippocampal RNA transcript abundance in wild hares from the Yukon during peak and decline phases of a single cycle. A total of 106 genes were differentially regulated between phases. Array results were validated with quantitative real-time PCR, and mammalian protein sequence similarity was used to infer gene function. In comparison to hares from the peak, decline phase hares showed increased expression of genes involved in metabolic processes and hormone response, and decreased expression of immune response and blood cell formation genes. We found evidence for predation risk effects on the expression of genes whose putative functions correspond with physiological impacts known to be induced by predation risk in snowshoe hares. This study shows, for the first time, a link between changes in demography and alterations in neural RNA transcript abundance in a natural population.

  14. Comparative evolutionary analyses of beta globin gene in eutherian, dinosaurian and neopterygii taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauri Awasthi, Garima Srivastava & Aparup Das

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Comparative genomics and evolutionary analyses of conserved genes have enabled usto understand the complexity of genomes of closely related species. For example: -globin gene present inhuman hemoglobin is one such gene that has experienced many genetic changes in many related taxa andproduced more than 600 variants. One of the variant, HBS causes sickle-cell anemia in humans but offersprotection against severe malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum. In the present study, we characterized andperformed evolutionary comparative analyses of the -globin gene in different related and unrelated taxa tohave a comprehensive view of its evolution.Methods: DNA and protein sequences of -globin gene were downloaded from NCBI and characterized in detailin nine eutherian (Homo sapiens, Pan troglodytes, Macaca mulatta, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Bostaurus, Canis familiaris, Equus caballus, Oryctolagus cuniculus, a dinosaurian (Gallus gallus and a neopterygii(Danio rerio taxa. Three more eutherian (Papio anubis, Ovis aries and Sus scrofa taxa were included for ananalysis at the protein level but not included at the gene level owing to lack of genomic information. Computationaland phylogenetic analyses were performed using evolutionary comparative approach.Results: Results of comparative and phylogenetic analyses revealed less conservation of genetic architecture of-globin compared to its protein architecture in all eutherian taxa. Both dinosaurian and neopterygii taxa servedas outgroups and varied at gene and protein levels.Interpretation & conclusion: Most remarkably, all primates from eutherian taxa including P. anubis showedonly nine codon position differences and an absolute similarity between H. sapiens and P. troglodytes. Absoluteconservation of coding region in Equus caballus (horse was observed. The results were discussed with aninference on the role of evolutionary forces in maintaining such close similarities

  15. Laying the Foundations for a Human-Predator Conflict Solution: Assessing the Impact of Bonelli's Eagle on Rabbits and Partridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moleón, Marcos; Sánchez-Zapata, José A.; Gil-Sánchez, José M.; Barea-Azcón, José M.; Ballesteros-Duperón, Elena; Virgós, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    Background Predation may potentially lead to negative effects on both prey (directly via predators) and predators (indirectly via human persecution). Predation pressure studies are, therefore, of major interest in the fields of theoretical knowledge and conservation of prey or predator species, with wide ramifications and profound implications in human-wildlife conflicts. However, detailed works on this issue in highly valuable –in conservation terms– Mediterranean ecosystems are virtually absent. This paper explores the predator-hunting conflict by examining a paradigmatic, Mediterranean-wide (endangered) predator-two prey (small game) system. Methodology/Principal Findings We estimated the predation impact (‘kill rate’ and ‘predation rate’, i.e., number of prey and proportion of the prey population eaten, respectively) of Bonelli's eagle Aquila fasciata on rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus and red-legged partridge Alectoris rufa populations in two seasons (the eagle's breeding and non-breeding periods, 100 days each) in SE Spain. The mean estimated kill rate by the seven eagle reproductive units in the study area was c. 304 rabbits and c. 262 partridges in the breeding season, and c. 237 rabbits and c. 121 partridges in the non-breeding period. This resulted in very low predation rates (range: 0.3–2.5%) for both prey and seasons. Conclusions/Significance The potential role of Bonelli's eagles as a limiting factor for rabbits and partridges at the population scale was very poor. The conflict between game profitability and conservation interest of either prey or predators is apparently very localised, and eagles, quarry species and game interests seem compatible in most of the study area. Currently, both the persecution and negative perception of Bonelli's eagle (the ‘partridge-eating eagle’ in Spanish) have a null theoretical basis in most of this area. PMID:21818399

  16. Clinical Application of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography of the Rabbit Head: Part 1 - Normal Dentition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GG Comet Riggs

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus are increasingly popular as household pets; therefore, veterinarians need to be familiar with the most common diseases afflicting rabbits including dental diseases. Diagnostic approaches for dental disease include gross oral examination, endoscopic oral examination, skull radiography, and computed tomography (CT. CT overcomes many limitations of standard radiography by permitting cross-sectional images of the rabbit head in multiple planes without superimposition of anatomic structures. Cone-beam CT (CBCT is an oral and maxillofacial imaging modality that produces high-resolution images. The objective of this study was to describe and compare the normal anatomic features of the dentition and surrounding maxillofacial structures in healthy rabbits on CBCT and conventional CT. Ten New Zealand white rabbit cadaver heads were scanned using CBCT and conventional CT. Images were evaluated using Anatomage Invivo 5 software. The maxillofacial anatomy was labeled on CBCT images and the mean lengths and widths of the teeth were determined. The visibility of relevant dental and anatomic features (pulp cavity, germinal center, tooth outline, periodontal ligament were scored and compared between conventional CT and CBCT. The thinnest teeth were the maxillary second incisor teeth at 1.29 ± 0.26 mm and the maxillary third molar teeth at 1.04 ±0.10 mm. In general, it was found that CBCT was superior to conventional CT when imaging the dentition. Importantly, the periodontal ligament was significantly (P<0.01 more visible on CBCT than on conventional CT. Ability to see the periodontal ligament with such detail may allow earlier detection and treatment of periodontal disease in rabbits. This study is the first of its kind and shows the feasibility and yield of CBCT when evaluating the maxillofacial features and dentition in rabbits.

  17. Arterial blood gas parameters in pet rabbits anaesthetized using a combination of fentanyl-fluanisone-midazolam-isoflurane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benato, L; Chesnel, M; Eatwell, K; Meredith, A

    2013-07-01

    Blood gas analysis is a well-recognized method to monitor pulmonary function, blood oxygenation, ventilation and acid-base status during general anaesthesia. The aim of this study was to report blood gas analysis results in pet rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) obtained during general anaesthesia using a portable clinical analyser. Thirty-two rabbits were premedicated with 0·2 mL/kg fentanyl and fluanisone. Anaesthesia was induced with 0·2 mg/kg midazolam and maintained with 2% isoflurane in oxygen via endotracheal tube. Arterial blood samples were taken from the central ear artery 10 minutes after induction of anaesthesia. Respiratory acidaemia was observed during anaesthesia. Mean ±sd (range) arterial blood pH was 7·33 ±0·08 (7·15 to 7·48). PaCO2 and PaO2 were, respectively, 55·02 ±10·5 (37·7 to 92·1) mmHg and 370·0 ±120·5 (67 to 561) mmHg. Base excess was 2·8 ±3·6 (-3 to 11) mmol/L, HCO3 was 28·73 ±3·07 (23·7 to 35·4) mmol/L and TCO2 was 30·4 ±3·2 (25 to 37) mmol/L. None of the rabbits developed haematoma during arterial blood collection or ischaemia of the pinna during the hospitalization period. Arterial blood gas analysis is a safe and easy to perform diagnostic technique that can contribute to improved safety of rabbit anaesthesia, by providing information on the respiratory and metabolic status of the patient. © 2013 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  18. Renal and vascular studies of aqueous extract of Urtica dioica in rats and rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.F. Dizaye

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Urtica dioica has a variety of uses in traditional medicine for genitourinary ailments kidney disorders, allergies, diabetes, anemia, gastrointestinal tract ailments, musculoskeletal aches and alopecia. However, only a few of these uses have scientific bases that support their clinical uses. This study was done to evaluate some of the in vivo and in vitro pharmacological actions of this plant. Eighteen local domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus were used for in vitro studies (effect of the plant extract on isolated pulmonary arteries and isolated urinary bladder smooth muscle and in vivo studies (effect of the extract on renal function. Six male albino rats were used for studying the effects of the plant extract on blood pressure and heart rate. Urtica dioica extract produced a significant increase in urine volume and urinary Na+ excretion without significant changes in K+ excretion rates in experimental rabbits. No changes occurred in Glomerular filtration rate and %Na+ reabsorption of filtered load. Neither vasodilatation nor vasoconstriction of isolated pulmonary arteries of the rabbit was seen after applying the aqueous extract of U. dioica. Besides it could not reverse the vasoconstrictor effect of phenylephrine. Urtica dioica has no detectable effects on the isolated bladder; moreover it did not reverse the contraction that was produced by pilocarpine. In experimental rats, the plant extract produced a profound drop in blood pressure associated with decreased heart rate. In conclusion the aqueous extract of U. dioica produced diuretic and natriuretic effects with out significant effect on the K+ excretion rate in rabbits. Moreover it produced a profound drop in blood pressure and heart rate.

  19. Skinned fibres produce the same power and force as intact fibre bundles from muscle of wild rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Nancy A; Diack, Rebecca A; West, Timothy G; Wilson, Alan M; Woledge, Roger C

    2015-09-01

    Skinned fibres have advantages for comparing the muscle properties of different animal species because they can be prepared from a needle biopsy taken under field conditions. However, it is not clear how well the contractile properties of skinned fibres reflect the properties of the muscle fibres in vivo. Here, we compare the mechanical performance of intact fibre bundles and skinned fibres from muscle of the same animals. This is the first such direct comparison. Maximum power and isometric force were measured at 25 °C using peroneus longus (PL) and extensor digiti-V (ED-V) muscles from wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). More than 90% of the fibres in these muscles are fast-twitch, type 2 fibres. Maximum power was measured in force-clamp experiments. We show that maximum power per volume was the same in intact (121.3 ± 16.1 W l(-1), mean ± s.e.m.; N=16) and skinned (122.6 ± 4.6 W l(-1); N=141) fibres. Maximum relative power (power/F(IM) Lo, where F(IM) is maximum isometric force and Lo is standard fibre length) was also similar in intact (0.645 ± 0.037; N=16) and skinned (0.589 ± 0.019; N=141) fibres. Relative power is independent of volume and thus not subject to errors in measurement of volume. Finally, maximum isometric force per cross-sectional area was also found to be the same for intact and skinned fibres (181.9 kPa ± 19.1; N=16; 207.8 kPa ± 4.8; N=141, respectively). These results contrast with previous measurements of performance at lower temperatures where skinned fibres produce much less power than intact fibres from both mammals and non-mammalian species. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of fat mass and obesity-associated gene in rabbit

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jinyi Xing; Wenqian Jing; Yunliang Jiang

    2013-12-01

    Fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene codes for a nuclear protein of the AlkB related nonhaem iron and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent oxygenase superfamily, and is involved in animal fat deposition and human obesity. In this work, the molecular characterization and expression features of rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) FTO cDNA were analysed. The rabbit FTO cDNA with a size of 2158 bp was cloned, including 1515 bp of the open reading frame that encoded a basic protein of 504 amino acids. Homologous comparison indicated that the rabbit FTO shared 36.36–91.88% identity with those from other species and phylogenetic analysis showed that the rabbit FTO is closely related to human, but more distantly related to zebrafish. The New Zealand rabbit FTO mRNA was detected in all tissues examined, with the highest levels found in the spleen and the lowest found in the kidney. However, no significant differences were seen in cerebellum, corpora quadrigemina, medulla oblongata and cerebral cortex of commercial adult rabbits. Moreover, mRNA levels of FTO in liver tissues were significantly increased in lactating New Zealand rabbits compared with 70-day-old, 90-day-old and gestating rabbits $(P \\lt 0.05)$. In contrast, FTO mRNA levels were significantly lower in longissimus dorsi muscle of 90-day-old New Zealand rabbits than in 70-day-old rabbits $(P \\lt 0.05)$. However, the expression levels of FTO in mammary gland and ovary of gestating and lactating rabbits were not significantly different $(P \\gt 0.05)$.

  1. Comparison of bacterial culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica in wild animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sting, Reinhard; Runge, Martin; Eisenberg, Tobias; Braune, Silke; Müller, Wolfgang; Otto, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Detection of the zoonotic pathogen Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica (EF tularensis) in wild animals with culture techniques as well as polymerase chain reaction were compared and discussed on the basis of the investigation of 60 animals. The samples originated from 55 European brown hares (Lepus europaeus), two red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and one each from a wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), a European beaver (Castor fiber), and a lemur (Lemur catta). When comparing the growth of 28 F. tularensis isolates on the cysteine blood agar and the modified Martin-Lewis-agar used in this study, cultivation was successful for 26 isolates on both media, but for two isolates only on the cysteine blood agar. Out of 43 carcasses 19 tested positive in bacteriological culture and PCR. Two culture positive samples of tonsils originating from foxes could not be confirmed by PCR, although PCR was positive in 22 samples that missed growth of F. tularensis. Comparative studies on cultural detection of E. tularensis were performed on samples of 16 hares from lung, spleen, liver and gut and in one case with a peritoneal swab. In at least one of these localizations cultivation of the pathogen was successful. Detection rate was reduced to 94% (15 of 16 hares) considering only the results of the cultures of the lungs and spleens. For a sensitive and rapid detection of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica, the PCR is a suitable method thereby avoiding hazardous multiplying of the pathogen. However, cultivation of F. tularensis is often a prerequisite for further studies on antibiotic resistance patterns of the pathogen, molecular epidemiological and pathological analyses of tularaemia.

  2. MNF, an ankyrin repeat protein of myxoma virus, is part of a native cellular SCF complex during viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanié, Sophie; Gelfi, Jacqueline; Bertagnoli, Stéphane; Camus-Bouclainville, Christelle

    2010-03-08

    Myxoma virus (MYXV), a member of the Poxviridae family, is the agent responsible for myxomatosis, a fatal disease in the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Like all poxviruses, MYXV is known for encoding multiple proteins that regulate cellular signaling pathways. Among them, four proteins share the same ANK/PRANC structure: M148R, M149R, MNF (Myxoma Nuclear factor) and M-T5, all of them described as virulence factors. This family of poxvirus proteins, recently identified, has drawn considerable attention for its potential role in modulating the host ubiquitin-proteasome system during viral infection. To date, many members of this novel protein family have been shown to interact with SCF components, in vitro. Here, we focus on MNF gene, which has been shown to express a nuclear protein presenting nine ANK repeats, one of which has been identified as a nuclear localization signal. In transfection, MNF has been shown to colocalise with the transcription factor NF-kappaB in the nucleus of TNFalpha-stimulated cells. Functionally, MNF is a critical virulence factor since its deletion generates an almost apathogenic virus. In this study, to pursue the investigation of proteins interacting with MNF and of its mechanism of action, we engineered a recombinant MYXV expressing a GFP-linked MNF under the control of MNF native promoter. Infection of rabbits with MYXV-GFPMNF recombinant virus provided the evidence that the GFP fusion does not disturb the main function of MNF. Hence, cells were infected with MYXV-GFPMNF and immunoprecipitation of the GFPMNF fusion protein was performed to identify MNF's partners. For the first time, endogenous components of SCF (Cullin-1 and Skp1) were co-precipitated with an ANK myxoma virus protein, expressed in an infectious context, and without over-expression of any protein.

  3. Molecular characterization of adipose tissue in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Emeli M; Fainberg, Hernan P; Choong, Siew S; Giles, Thomas C; Sells, James; May, Sean; Stansfield, Fiona J; Allen, William R; Emes, Richard D; Mostyn, Alison; Mongan, Nigel P; Yon, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) is a dynamic and flexible organ with regulatory roles in physiological functions including metabolism, reproduction and inflammation; secreted adipokines, including leptin, and fatty acids facilitate many of these roles. The African elephant (Loxodonta africana) is experiencing serious challenges to optimal reproduction in captivity. The physiological and molecular basis of this impaired fertility remains unknown. AT production of leptin is a crucial molecular link between nutritional status, adiposity and fertility in many species. We propose that leptin has a similar function in the African elephant. African elephant visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT) was obtained from both sexes and a range of ages including females with known pregnancy status. RNA was extracted and histological sections created and analyzed by microarray, PCR and immunohistochemistry respectively. Gas-chromatography was used to determine the fatty acid composition of AT. Microarray expression profiling was used to compare gene expression profiles of AT from pre-pubertal versus reproductively competent adult African elephants. This study demonstrates, for the first time, leptin mRNA and protein expression in African elephant AT. The derived protein sequence of the elephant leptin protein was exploited to determine its relationship within the class I helical cytokine superfamily, which indicates that elephant leptin is most closely related to the leptin orthologs of Oryctolagus cuniculus (European rabbit), Lepus oiostolus (woolly hare), and members of the Ochotonidae (Pika). Immunohistological analysis identified considerable leptin staining within the cytoplasm of adipocytes. Significant differences in fatty acid profiles between pregnant and non-pregnant animals were revealed, most notably a reduction in both linoleic and α linoleic acid in pregnant animals. This report forms the basis for future studies to address the effect of nutrient composition and body

  4. Adult carrion arthropod community in a tropical rainforest of Malaysia: analysis on three common forensic entomology animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azwandi, A; Nina Keterina, H; Owen, L C; Nurizzati, M D; Omar, B

    2013-09-01

    Decomposing carrion provides a temporary microhabitat and food source for a distinct community of organisms. Arthropods constitute a major part of this community and can be utilized to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI) of cadavers during criminal investigations. However, in Malaysia, knowledge of carrion arthropod assemblages and their succession is superficial. Therefore, a study on three types of forensic entomology animal model was conducted from 27 September 2010 to 28 October 2010 in a tropical rainforest at National University of Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia. Over one month collections of arthropods were made on nine animal carcasses: three laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus, mean weight: 0.508 ± 0.027 kg), three rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus, mean weight: 2.538 ± 0.109 kg) and three long tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis, mean weight: 5.750 ± 0.551 kg). A total of 31,433 arthropods belonging to eight orders and twenty-eight families were collected from all carcasses. Among 2924 of adults flies collected, approximately 19% were calliphorids with Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) being the most abundant. Arthropod taxon richness was lower on rat carcasses compared to that of rabbit and monkey carcasses, and this was more apparent during the first week of decomposition. However, there were no significant differences in Shannon-Weiner index (H'), Simpson dominance index (C) and Pielou's Evenness index (J) between different animal model. The arthropod assemblages associated to animal model were different significantly (p<0.05) while decomposition stage was a significant factor influencing insect assemblages (p<0.05). Analysis on the arthropods succession indicated that some taxa have a clear visitation period while the others, particularly Coleoptera, did not show a clear successional pattern thus require futher insect succession study. Although human bodies were not possible for the succession study, most of the arthropods collected are

  5. Genetic Signatures of Demographic Changes in an Avian Top Predator during the Last Century: Bottlenecks and Expansions of the Eurasian Eagle Owl in the Iberian Peninsula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Graciá

    Full Text Available The study of the demographic history of species can help to understand the negative impact of recent population declines in organisms of conservation concern. Here, we use neutral molecular markers to explore the genetic consequences of the recent population decline and posterior recovery of the Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo in the Iberian Peninsula. During the last century, the species was the object of extermination programs, suffering direct persecution by hunters until the 70's. Moreover, during the last decades the eagle owl was severely impacted by increased mortality due to electrocution and the decline of its main prey species, the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus. In recent times, the decrease of direct persecution and the implementation of some conservation schemes have allowed the species' demographic recovery. Yet, it remains unknown to which extent the past population decline and the later expansion have influenced the current species' pattern of genetic diversity. We used eight microsatellite markers to genotype 235 eagle owls from ten Spanish subpopulations and analyse the presence of genetic signatures attributable to the recent population fluctuations experienced by the species. We found moderate levels of differentiation among the studied subpopulations and Bayesian analyses revealed the existence of three genetic clusters that grouped subpopulations from central, south-western and south-eastern Spain. The observed genetic structure could have resulted from recent human-induced population fragmentation, a patchy distribution of prey populations and/or the philopatric behaviour and habitat selection of the species. We detected an old population bottleneck, which occurred approximately 10,000 years ago, and significant signatures of recent demographic expansions. However, we did not find genetic signatures for a recent bottleneck, which may indicate that population declines were not severe enough to leave detectable signals

  6. Interspecific and geographic variation in the diets of sympatric carnivores: dingoes/wild dogs and red foxes in south-eastern Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi E Davis

    Full Text Available Dingoes/wild dogs (Canis dingo/familiaris and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes are widespread carnivores in southern Australia and are controlled to reduce predation on domestic livestock and native fauna. We used the occurrence of food items in 5875 dingo/wild dog scats and 11,569 fox scats to evaluate interspecific and geographic differences in the diets of these species within nine regions of Victoria, south-eastern Australia. The nine regions encompass a wide variety of ecosystems. Diet overlap between dingoes/wild dogs and foxes varied among regions, from low to near complete overlap. The diet of foxes was broader than dingoes/wild dogs in all but three regions, with the former usually containing more insects, reptiles and plant material. By contrast, dingoes/wild dogs more regularly consumed larger mammals, supporting the hypothesis that niche partitioning occurs on the basis of mammalian prey size. The key mammalian food items for dingoes/wild dogs across all regions were black wallaby (Wallabia bicolor, brushtail possum species (Trichosurus spp., common wombat (Vombatus ursinus, sambar deer (Rusa unicolor, cattle (Bos taurus and European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus. The key mammalian food items for foxes across all regions were European rabbit, sheep (Ovis aries and house mouse (Mus musculus. Foxes consumed 6.1 times the number of individuals of threatened Critical Weight Range native mammal species than did dingoes/wild dogs. The occurrence of intraguild predation was asymmetrical; dingoes/wild dogs consumed greater biomass of the smaller fox. The substantial geographic variation in diet indicates that dingoes/wild dogs and foxes alter their diet in accordance with changing food availability. We provide checklists of taxa recorded in the diets of dingoes/wild dogs and foxes as a resource for managers and researchers wishing to understand the potential impacts of policy and management decisions on dingoes/wild dogs, foxes and the food

  7. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD and rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrantes Joana

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV is a calicivirus of the genus Lagovirus that causes rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD in adult European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus. First described in China in 1984, the virus rapidly spread worldwide and is nowadays considered as endemic in several countries. In Australia and New Zealand where rabbits are pests, RHDV was purposely introduced for rabbit biocontrol. Factors that may have precipitated RHD emergence remain unclear, but non-pathogenic strains seem to pre-date the appearance of the pathogenic strains suggesting a key role for the comprehension of the virus origins. All pathogenic strains are classified within one single serotype, but two subtypes are recognised, RHDV and RHDVa. RHD causes high mortality in both domestic and wild adult animals, with individuals succumbing between 48-72 h post-infection. No other species has been reported to be fatally susceptible to RHD. The disease is characterised by acute necrotising hepatitis, but haemorrhages may also be found in other organs, in particular the lungs, heart, and kidneys due to disseminated intravascular coagulation. Resistance to the disease might be explained in part by genetically determined absence or weak expression of attachment factors, but humoral immunity is also important. Disease control in rabbitries relies mainly on vaccination and biosecurity measures. Such measures are difficult to be implemented in wild populations. More recent research has indicated that RHDV might be used as a molecular tool for therapeutic applications. Although the study of RHDV and RHD has been hampered by the lack of an appropriate cell culture system for the virus, several aspects of the replication, epizootology, epidemiology and evolution have been disclosed. This review provides a broad coverage and description of the current knowledge on the disease and the virus.

  8. Distribution and prevalence of the Australian non-pathogenic rabbit calicivirus is correlated with rainfall and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, June; Fordham, Damien A; Cooke, Brian D; Cox, Tarnya; Mutze, Greg; Strive, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Australia relies heavily on rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) for the biological control of introduced European wild rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus, which are significant economic and environmental pests. An endemic non-pathogenic rabbit calicivirus termed RCV-A1 also occurs in wild rabbits in Australian and provides partial protection against lethal RHDV infection, thus interfering with effective rabbit control. Despite its obvious importance for rabbit population management, little is known about the epidemiology of this benign rabbit calicivirus. We determined the continent-wide distribution and prevalence of RCV-A1 by analysing 1,805 serum samples from wild rabbit populations at 78 sites across Australia for the presence of antibodies to RCV-A1 using a serological test that specifically detects RCV-A1 antibodies and does not cross-react with co-occurring RHDV antibodies. We also investigated possible correlation between climate variables and prevalence of RCV-A1 by using generalised linear mixed effect models. Antibodies to RCV-A1 were predominantly detected in rabbit populations in cool, high rainfall areas of the south-east and south-west of the continent. There was strong support for modelling RCV-A1 prevalence as a function of average annual rainfall and minimum temperature. The best ranked model explained 26% of the model structural deviance. According to this model, distribution and prevalence of RCV-A1 is positively correlated with periods of above average rainfall and negatively correlated with periods of drought. Our statistical model of RCV-A1 prevalence will greatly increase our understanding of RCV-A1 epidemiology and its interaction with RHDV in Australia. By defining the environmental conditions associated with the prevalence of RCV-A1, it also contributes towards understanding the distribution of similar viruses in New Zealand and Europe.

  9. Distribution and prevalence of the Australian non-pathogenic rabbit calicivirus is correlated with rainfall and temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Australia relies heavily on rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV for the biological control of introduced European wild rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus, which are significant economic and environmental pests. An endemic non-pathogenic rabbit calicivirus termed RCV-A1 also occurs in wild rabbits in Australian and provides partial protection against lethal RHDV infection, thus interfering with effective rabbit control. Despite its obvious importance for rabbit population management, little is known about the epidemiology of this benign rabbit calicivirus. METHODS: We determined the continent-wide distribution and prevalence of RCV-A1 by analysing 1,805 serum samples from wild rabbit populations at 78 sites across Australia for the presence of antibodies to RCV-A1 using a serological test that specifically detects RCV-A1 antibodies and does not cross-react with co-occurring RHDV antibodies. We also investigated possible correlation between climate variables and prevalence of RCV-A1 by using generalised linear mixed effect models. RESULTS: Antibodies to RCV-A1 were predominantly detected in rabbit populations in cool, high rainfall areas of the south-east and south-west of the continent. There was strong support for modelling RCV-A1 prevalence as a function of average annual rainfall and minimum temperature. The best ranked model explained 26% of the model structural deviance. According to this model, distribution and prevalence of RCV-A1 is positively correlated with periods of above average rainfall and negatively correlated with periods of drought. IMPLICATIONS: Our statistical model of RCV-A1 prevalence will greatly increase our understanding of RCV-A1 epidemiology and its interaction with RHDV in Australia. By defining the environmental conditions associated with the prevalence of RCV-A1, it also contributes towards understanding the distribution of similar viruses in New Zealand and Europe.

  10. A pandemic strain of calicivirus threatens rabbit industries in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botti Giuliana

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease (RHD is a severe acute viral disease specifically affecting the European rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus. As the European rabbit is the predominant species of domestic rabbit throughout the world, RHD contributes towards significant losses to rabbit farming industries and endangers wild populations of rabbits in Europe and other predatory animals in Europe that depend upon rabbits as a food source. Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease virus (RHDV – a Lagovirus belonging to the family Caliciviridae is the etiological agent of RHD. Typically, RHD presents with sudden death in 70% to 95% of infected animals. There have been four separate incursions of RHDV in the USA, the most recent of which occurred in the state of Indiana in June of 2005. Animal inoculation studies confirmed the pathogenicity of the Indiana 2005 isolate, which caused acute death and pathological changes characterized by acute diffuse severe liver necrosis and pulmonary hemorrhages. Complete viral genome sequences of all USA outbreak isolates were determined and comparative genomics revealed that each outbreak was the result of a separate introduction of virus rather than from a single virus lineage. All of the USA isolates clustered with RHDV genomes from China, and phylogenetic analysis of the major capsid protein (VP60 revealed that they were related to a pandemic antigenic variant strain known as RHDVa. Rapid spread of the RHDVa pandemic suggests a selective advantage for this new subtype. Given its rapid spread, pathogenic nature, and potential to further evolve, possibly broadening its host range to include other genera native to the Americas, RHDVa should be regarded as a threat.

  11. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) and rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV): a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is a calicivirus of the genus Lagovirus that causes rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) in adult European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). First described in China in 1984, the virus rapidly spread worldwide and is nowadays considered as endemic in several countries. In Australia and New Zealand where rabbits are pests, RHDV was purposely introduced for rabbit biocontrol. Factors that may have precipitated RHD emergence remain unclear, but non-pathogenic strains seem to pre-date the appearance of the pathogenic strains suggesting a key role for the comprehension of the virus origins. All pathogenic strains are classified within one single serotype, but two subtypes are recognised, RHDV and RHDVa. RHD causes high mortality in both domestic and wild adult animals, with individuals succumbing between 48-72 h post-infection. No other species has been reported to be fatally susceptible to RHD. The disease is characterised by acute necrotising hepatitis, but haemorrhages may also be found in other organs, in particular the lungs, heart, and kidneys due to disseminated intravascular coagulation. Resistance to the disease might be explained in part by genetically determined absence or weak expression of attachment factors, but humoral immunity is also important. Disease control in rabbitries relies mainly on vaccination and biosecurity measures. Such measures are difficult to be implemented in wild populations. More recent research has indicated that RHDV might be used as a molecular tool for therapeutic applications. Although the study of RHDV and RHD has been hampered by the lack of an appropriate cell culture system for the virus, several aspects of the replication, epizootology, epidemiology and evolution have been disclosed. This review provides a broad coverage and description of the current knowledge on the disease and the virus. PMID:22325049

  12. Myxoma Virus and the Leporipoxviruses: An Evolutionary Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Peter J.; Liu, June; Cattadori, Isabella; Ghedin, Elodie; Read, Andrew F.; Holmes, Edward C.

    2015-01-01

    Myxoma virus (MYXV) is the type species of the Leporipoxviruses, a genus of Chordopoxvirinae, double stranded DNA viruses, whose members infect leporids and squirrels, inducing cutaneous fibromas from which virus is mechanically transmitted by biting arthropods. However, in the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), MYXV causes the lethal disease myxomatosis. The release of MYXV as a biological control for the wild European rabbit population in Australia, initiated one of the great experiments in evolution. The subsequent coevolution of MYXV and rabbits is a classic example of natural selection acting on virulence as a pathogen adapts to a novel host species. Slightly attenuated mutants of the progenitor virus were more readily transmitted by the mosquito vector because the infected rabbit survived longer, while highly attenuated viruses could be controlled by the rabbit immune response. As a consequence, moderately attenuated viruses came to dominate. This evolution of the virus was accompanied by selection for genetic resistance in the wild rabbit population, which may have created an ongoing co-evolutionary dynamic between resistance and virulence for efficient transmission. This natural experiment was repeated on a continental scale with the release of a separate strain of MYXV in France and its subsequent spread throughout Europe. The selection of attenuated strains of virus and resistant rabbits mirrored the experience in Australia in a very different environment, albeit with somewhat different rates. Genome sequencing of the progenitor virus and the early radiation, as well as those from the 1990s in Australia and Europe, has shown that although MYXV evolved at high rates there was no conserved route to attenuation or back to virulence. In contrast, it seems that these relatively large viral genomes have the flexibility for multiple pathways that converge on a similar phenotype. PMID:25757062

  13. Molecular cloning, characterisation and mRNA expression analysis of the sheep myosin light chain 1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunlan; Wang, Guizhi; Ji, Zhibin; Liu, Zhaohua; Hou, Lei; Liu, Guanqing; Wang, Jianmin

    2015-09-10

    The complete cDNA sequence of the sheep MYL1 (Myosin light chain 1) gene was cloned using RT-PCR, 5' RACE and 3' RACE. We obtained two alternatively spliced isoforms of the MYL1 gene, MYL1a and MYL1b, which are 849 and 1046bp in length and encode proteins composed of 150 and 192 amino acid residues, respectively. And the GenBank accession numbers of MYL1a and MYL1b full-length cDNA sequences that we cloned are KJ700419 and KJ710701, respectively. Neither protein was predicted to have a signal peptide, but both were predicted to have several N-glycosylation and phosphorylation sites. More than half of the secondary structure of these proteins was predicted to be α-helical. The human MYL2 protein (1m8q.1.C) is the most similar in tertiary structure. Sequence alignment showed that the sheep MYL1a protein shares more than 92% amino acid sequence similar with Mus musculus, Homo sapiens, Rattus norvegicus, Sus scrofa and Gallus gallus and that the MYL1b protein shares more than 93% amino acid sequence similar with M. musculus, H. sapiens, R. norvegicus, Bos taurus and Oryctolagus cuniculus. Transcription profile analyses of various tissues indicated that the sheep MYL1a and MYL1b mRNAs were highly but differentially expressed in the longissimus dorsi. Moreover, the expression levels of these genes in the longissimus dorsi differed between Dorper and Small-tailed Han sheep. These results serve as a foundation for further investigations of the function of the sheep MYL1 gene.

  14. Molecular Characterization of Adipose Tissue in the African Elephant (Loxodonta africana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choong, Siew S.; Giles, Thomas C.; Sells, James; May, Sean; Stansfield, Fiona J.; Allen, William R.; Emes, Richard D.; Mostyn, Alison; Mongan, Nigel P.; Yon, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) is a dynamic and flexible organ with regulatory roles in physiological functions including metabolism, reproduction and inflammation; secreted adipokines, including leptin, and fatty acids facilitate many of these roles. The African elephant (Loxodonta africana) is experiencing serious challenges to optimal reproduction in captivity. The physiological and molecular basis of this impaired fertility remains unknown. AT production of leptin is a crucial molecular link between nutritional status, adiposity and fertility in many species. We propose that leptin has a similar function in the African elephant. African elephant visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT) was obtained from both sexes and a range of ages including females with known pregnancy status. RNA was extracted and histological sections created and analyzed by microarray, PCR and immunohistochemistry respectively. Gas-chromatography was used to determine the fatty acid composition of AT. Microarray expression profiling was used to compare gene expression profiles of AT from pre-pubertal versus reproductively competent adult African elephants. This study demonstrates, for the first time, leptin mRNA and protein expression in African elephant AT. The derived protein sequence of the elephant leptin protein was exploited to determine its relationship within the class I helical cytokine superfamily, which indicates that elephant leptin is most closely related to the leptin orthologs of Oryctolagus cuniculus (European rabbit), Lepus oiostolus (woolly hare), and members of the Ochotonidae (Pika). Immunohistological analysis identified considerable leptin staining within the cytoplasm of adipocytes. Significant differences in fatty acid profiles between pregnant and non-pregnant animals were revealed, most notably a reduction in both linoleic and α linoleic acid in pregnant animals. This report forms the basis for future studies to address the effect of nutrient composition and body

  15. Poikilocytosis in rabbits: prevalence, type, and association with disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary M Christopher

    Full Text Available Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus are a popular companion animal, food animal, and animal model of human disease. Abnormal red cell shapes (poikilocytes have been observed in rabbits, but their significance is unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and type of poikilocytosis in pet rabbits and its association with physiologic factors, clinical disease, and laboratory abnormalities. We retrospectively analyzed blood smears from 482 rabbits presented to the University of California-Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital from 1990 to 2010. Number and type of poikilocytes per 2000 red blood cells (RBCs were counted and expressed as a percentage. Acanthocytes (>3% of RBCs were found in 150/482 (31% rabbits and echinocytes (>3% of RBCs were found in 127/482 (27% of rabbits, both healthy and diseased. Thirty-three of 482 (7% rabbits had >30% acanthocytes and echinocytes combined. Mild to moderate (>0.5% of RBCs fragmented red cells (schistocytes, microcytes, keratocytes, spherocytes were found in 25/403 (6% diseased and 0/79 (0% healthy rabbits (P = 0.0240. Fragmentation and acanthocytosis were more severe in rabbits with inflammatory disease and malignant neoplasia compared with healthy rabbits (P<0.01. The % fragmented cells correlated with % polychromasia, RDW, and heterophil, monocyte, globulins, and fibrinogen concentrations (P<0.05. Echinocytosis was significantly associated with renal failure, azotemia, and acid-base/electrolyte abnormalities (P<0.05. Serum cholesterol concentration correlated significantly with % acanthocytes (P<0.0001, % echinocytes (P = 0.0069, and % fragmented cells (P = 0.0109, but correlations were weak (Spearman ρ <0.02. These findings provide important insights into underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms that appear to affect the prevalence and type of naturally-occurring poikilocytosis in rabbits. Our findings support the need to carefully document poikilocytes in research

  16. Responses of a top and a meso predator and their prey to moon phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penteriani, Vincenzo; Kuparinen, Anna; del Mar Delgado, Maria; Palomares, Francisco; López-Bao, José Vicente; Fedriani, José María; Calzada, Javier; Moreno, Sacramento; Villafuerte, Rafael; Campioni, Letizia; Lourenço, Rui

    2013-11-01

    We compared movement patterns and rhythms of activity of a top predator, the Iberian lynx Lynx pardinus, a mesopredator, the red fox Vulpes vulpes, and their shared principal prey, the rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus, in relation to moon phases. Because the three species are mostly nocturnal and crepuscular, we hypothesized that the shared prey would reduce its activity at most risky moon phases (i.e. during the brightest nights), but that fox, an intraguild prey of lynx, would avoid lynx activity peaks at the same time. Rabbits generally moved further from their core areas on darkest nights (i.e. new moon), using direct movements which minimize predation risk. Though rabbits responded to the increased predation risk by reducing their activity during the full moon, this response may require several days, and the moon effect we observed on the rabbits had, therefore, a temporal gap. Lynx activity patterns may be at least partially mirroring rabbit activity: around new moons, when rabbits moved furthest and were more active, lynxes reduced their travelling distances and their movements were concentrated in the core areas of their home ranges, which generally correspond to areas of high density of rabbits. Red foxes were more active during the darkest nights, when both the conditions for rabbit hunting were the best and lynxes moved less. On the one hand, foxes increased their activity when rabbits were further from their core areas and moved with more discrete displacements; on the other hand, fox activity in relation to the moon seemed to reduce dangerous encounters with its intraguild predator.

  17. Molecular characterization of adipose tissue in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeli M Nilsson

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue (AT is a dynamic and flexible organ with regulatory roles in physiological functions including metabolism, reproduction and inflammation; secreted adipokines, including leptin, and fatty acids facilitate many of these roles. The African elephant (Loxodonta africana is experiencing serious challenges to optimal reproduction in captivity. The physiological and molecular basis of this impaired fertility remains unknown. AT production of leptin is a crucial molecular link between nutritional status, adiposity and fertility in many species. We propose that leptin has a similar function in the African elephant. African elephant visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT was obtained from both sexes and a range of ages including females with known pregnancy status. RNA was extracted and histological sections created and analyzed by microarray, PCR and immunohistochemistry respectively. Gas-chromatography was used to determine the fatty acid composition of AT. Microarray expression profiling was used to compare gene expression profiles of AT from pre-pubertal versus reproductively competent adult African elephants. This study demonstrates, for the first time, leptin mRNA and protein expression in African elephant AT. The derived protein sequence of the elephant leptin protein was exploited to determine its relationship within the class I helical cytokine superfamily, which indicates that elephant leptin is most closely related to the leptin orthologs of Oryctolagus cuniculus (European rabbit, Lepus oiostolus (woolly hare, and members of the Ochotonidae (Pika. Immunohistological analysis identified considerable leptin staining within the cytoplasm of adipocytes. Significant differences in fatty acid profiles between pregnant and non-pregnant animals were revealed, most notably a reduction in both linoleic and α linoleic acid in pregnant animals. This report forms the basis for future studies to address the effect of nutrient composition

  18. Climate changes influence free-living stages of soil-transmitted parasites of European rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Alexander D; Poole, Adam; Cattadori, Isabella M

    2013-04-01

    Climate warming has been suggested to augment the risk of infectious disease outbreaks by extending the seasonal window for parasite growth and by increasing the rate of transmission. Understanding how this occurs in parasite-host systems is important for appreciating long-term and seasonal changes in host exposure to infection and to reduce species extinction caused by diseases. We investigated how free-living stages of two soil-transmitted helminths of the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) responded to experimental changes in temperature by performing laboratory experiments with environmental chambers and field manipulations using open-top-chambers. This study was motivated by our previous observations that air temperature has increased over the last 30 years in our field site and that during this period intensity of infection of Graphidium strigosum but not Trichostrongylus retortaeformis was positively associated with this temperature increase. Laboratory and field experiments showed that both parasites accelerated egg development and increased hatching rate and larval survival in response to accumulating thermal energy. Both parasites behaved similarly when exposed to diverse temperature regimes, decadal trends, and monthly fluctuations, however, T. retortaeformis was more successful than G. strigosum by showing higher rates of egg hatching and larval survival. Across the months, the first day of hatching occurred earlier in warmer conditions suggesting that climate warming can lengthen the period of parasite growth and host exposure to infective stages. Also, T. retortaeformis hatched earlier than G. strigosum. These findings showed that seasonal changes in intensity, frequency, and duration of daily temperature are important causes of variability in egg hatching and larva survival. Overall, this study emphasizes the important role of climate warming and seasonality on the dynamics of free-living stages in soil-transmitted helminths and their

  19. MNF, an ankyrin repeat protein of myxoma virus, is part of a native cellular SCF complex during viral infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelfi Jacqueline

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Myxoma virus (MYXV, a member of the Poxviridae family, is the agent responsible for myxomatosis, a fatal disease in the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus. Like all poxviruses, MYXV is known for encoding multiple proteins that regulate cellular signaling pathways. Among them, four proteins share the same ANK/PRANC structure: M148R, M149R, MNF (Myxoma Nuclear factor and M-T5, all of them described as virulence factors. This family of poxvirus proteins, recently identified, has drawn considerable attention for its potential role in modulating the host ubiquitin-proteasome system during viral infection. To date, many members of this novel protein family have been shown to interact with SCF components, in vitro. Here, we focus on MNF gene, which has been shown to express a nuclear protein presenting nine ANK repeats, one of which has been identified as a nuclear localization signal. In transfection, MNF has been shown to colocalise with the transcription factor NF-κB in the nucleus of TNFα-stimulated cells. Functionally, MNF is a critical virulence factor since its deletion generates an almost apathogenic virus. In this study, to pursue the investigation of proteins interacting with MNF and of its mechanism of action, we engineered a recombinant MYXV expressing a GFP-linked MNF under the control of MNF native promoter. Infection of rabbits with MYXV-GFPMNF recombinant virus provided the evidence that the GFP fusion does not disturb the main function of MNF. Hence, cells were infected with MYXV-GFPMNF and immunoprecipitation of the GFPMNF fusion protein was performed to identify MNF's partners. For the first time, endogenous components of SCF (Cullin-1 and Skp1 were co-precipitated with an ANK myxoma virus protein, expressed in an infectious context, and without over-expression of any protein.

  20. M148R and M149R are two virulence factors for myxoma virus pathogenesis in the European rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanié, Sophie; Mortier, Jérémy; Delverdier, Maxence; Bertagnoli, Stéphane; Camus-Bouclainville, Christelle

    2009-01-01

    Myxoma virus (MYXV), a member of the Poxviridae family, is the agent responsible for myxomatosis, a fatal disease in the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). MYXV has a linear double-stranded DNA genome that encodes several factors important for evasion from the host immune system. Among them, four ankyrin (ANK) repeat proteins were identified: M148R, M149R, M150R and M-T5. To date, only M150R and M-T5 were studied and characterized as critical virulence factors. This article presents the first characterization of M148R and M149R. Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) fusions allowed us to localize them in a viral context. Whereas M149R is only cytoplasmic, interestingly, M148R is in part located in the nucleolus, a unique feature for an ANK repeat poxviral protein. In order to evaluate their implication in viral pathogenicity, targeted M148R, M149R, or both deletions were constructed in the wild type T1 strain of myxoma virus. In vitro infection of rabbit and primate cultured cells as well as primary rabbit cells allowed us to conclude that M148R and M149R are not likely to be implicated in cell tropism or host range functions. However, in vivo experiments revealed that they are virulence factors since after infection of European rabbits with mutant viruses, a delay in the onset of clinical signs, an increase of survival time and a dramatic decrease in mortality rate were observed. Moreover, histological analysis suggests that M148R plays a role in the subversion of host inflammatory response by MYXV.

  1. Skin diseases in pet rabbits: a retrospective study of 334 cases seen at the University of California at Davis, USA (1984-2004).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snook, Tara S; White, Stephen D; Hawkins, Michelle G; Tell, Lisa A; Wilson, Laura S; Outerbridge, Catherine A; Ihrke, Peter J

    2013-12-01

    Rabbits are growing in popularity as companion animals, and dermatology problems are often the presenting complaint when seeing a veterinarian. To document skin diseases and their prevalence in pet domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in northern California, USA; to investigate predilections for breed, age or sex for the most common conditions over a 20 year period. Three hundred and thirty-four pet rabbits from the overall hospital population met inclusion criteria. A retrospective study was carried out by searching the computerized medical records of rabbits seen at the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital (VMTH) from 1 January 1984 to 31 December 2004 using key words relevant to dermatology. Twenty-nine per cent of pet rabbits seen at the VMTH had skin disease. Lop-eared rabbits were over-represented, whereas mixed-breed rabbits and castrated males were under-represented in the dermatology caseload compared with the hospital population. Pododermatitis was the most common skin disease; abscesses, alopecia, otitis externa and ectoparasites also were common. Several species of bacteria other than Pasteurella spp. were isolated from abscesses. Despite the frequent mention of myxomatosis and venereal spirochetosis in the rabbit literature, few cases (three and two, respectively) were diagnosed. Castrated males were 3.7 times more likely to present with alopecia than intact males; rabbits rabbits. Cutaneous conditions in pet rabbits in the USA are common. Bacterial culture should be performed and antibiotic susceptibility determined in all rabbits with abscesses, particularly those not responding to typical anti-Pasteurella antibiotics. © 2013 ESVD and ACVD.

  2. MNF, an ankyrin repeat protein of myxoma virus, is part of a native cellular SCF complex during viral infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Myxoma virus (MYXV), a member of the Poxviridae family, is the agent responsible for myxomatosis, a fatal disease in the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Like all poxviruses, MYXV is known for encoding multiple proteins that regulate cellular signaling pathways. Among them, four proteins share the same ANK/PRANC structure: M148R, M149R, MNF (Myxoma Nuclear factor) and M-T5, all of them described as virulence factors. This family of poxvirus proteins, recently identified, has drawn considerable attention for its potential role in modulating the host ubiquitin-proteasome system during viral infection. To date, many members of this novel protein family have been shown to interact with SCF components, in vitro. Here, we focus on MNF gene, which has been shown to express a nuclear protein presenting nine ANK repeats, one of which has been identified as a nuclear localization signal. In transfection, MNF has been shown to colocalise with the transcription factor NF-κB in the nucleus of TNFα-stimulated cells. Functionally, MNF is a critical virulence factor since its deletion generates an almost apathogenic virus. In this study, to pursue the investigation of proteins interacting with MNF and of its mechanism of action, we engineered a recombinant MYXV expressing a GFP-linked MNF under the control of MNF native promoter. Infection of rabbits with MYXV-GFPMNF recombinant virus provided the evidence that the GFP fusion does not disturb the main function of MNF. Hence, cells were infected with MYXV-GFPMNF and immunoprecipitation of the GFPMNF fusion protein was performed to identify MNF's partners. For the first time, endogenous components of SCF (Cullin-1 and Skp1) were co-precipitated with an ANK myxoma virus protein, expressed in an infectious context, and without over-expression of any protein. PMID:20211013

  3. Myxomatosis in Australia and Europe: a model for emerging infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Peter J

    2012-03-01

    Myxoma virus is a poxvirus naturally found in two American leporid (rabbit) species (Sylvilagus brasiliensis and Sylvilagus bachmani) in which it causes an innocuous localised cutaneous fibroma. However, in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) the same virus causes the lethal disseminated disease myxomatosis. The introduction of myxoma virus into the European rabbit population in Australia in 1950 initiated the best known example of what happens when a novel pathogen jumps into a completely naïve new mammalian host species. The short generation time of the rabbit and their vast numbers in Australia meant evolution could be studied in real time. The carefully documented emergence of attenuated strains of virus that were more effectively transmitted by the mosquito vector and the subsequent selection of rabbits with genetic resistance to myxomatosis is the paradigm for pathogen virulence and host-pathogen coevolution. This natural experiment was repeated with the release of a separate strain of myxoma virus in France in 1952. The subsequent spread of the virus throughout Europe and its coevolution with the rabbit essentially paralleled what occurred in Australia. Detailed molecular studies on myxoma virus have dissected the role of virulence genes in the pathogenesis of myxomatosis and when combined with genomic data and reverse genetics should in future enable the understanding of the molecular evolution of the virus as it adapted to its new host. This review describes the natural history and evolution of myxoma virus together with the molecular biology and experimental pathogenesis studies that are informing our understanding of evolution of emerging diseases. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Myxoma virus and the Leporipoxviruses: an evolutionary paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Peter J; Liu, June; Cattadori, Isabella; Ghedin, Elodie; Read, Andrew F; Holmes, Edward C

    2015-03-06

    Myxoma virus (MYXV) is the type species of the Leporipoxviruses, a genus of Chordopoxvirinae, double stranded DNA viruses, whose members infect leporids and squirrels, inducing cutaneous fibromas from which virus is mechanically transmitted by biting arthropods. However, in the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), MYXV causes the lethal disease myxomatosis. The release of MYXV as a biological control for the wild European rabbit population in Australia, initiated one of the great experiments in evolution. The subsequent coevolution of MYXV and rabbits is a classic example of natural selection acting on virulence as a pathogen adapts to a novel host species. Slightly attenuated mutants of the progenitor virus were more readily transmitted by the mosquito vector because the infected rabbit survived longer, while highly attenuated viruses could be controlled by the rabbit immune response. As a consequence, moderately attenuated viruses came to dominate. This evolution of the virus was accompanied by selection for genetic resistance in the wild rabbit population, which may have created an ongoing co-evolutionary dynamic between resistance and virulence for efficient transmission. This natural experiment was repeated on a continental scale with the release of a separate strain of MYXV in France and its subsequent spread throughout Europe. The selection of attenuated strains of virus and resistant rabbits mirrored the experience in Australia in a very different environment, albeit with somewhat different rates. Genome sequencing of the progenitor virus and the early radiation, as well as those from the 1990s in Australia and Europe, has shown that although MYXV evolved at high rates there was no conserved route to attenuation or back to virulence. In contrast, it seems that these relatively large viral genomes have the flexibility for multiple pathways that converge on a similar phenotype.

  5. An overview of the lagomorph immune system and its genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Ana; Neves, Fabiana; Lemos de Matos, Ana; Abrantes, Joana; van der Loo, Wessel; Mage, Rose; Esteves, Pedro José

    2016-02-01

    Our knowledge of the lagomorph immune system remains largely based upon studies of the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), a major model for studies of immunology. Two important and devastating viral diseases, rabbit hemorrhagic disease and myxomatosis, are affecting European rabbit populations. In this context, we discuss the genetic diversity of the European rabbit immune system and extend to available information about other lagomorphs. Regarding innate immunity, we review the most recent advances in identifying interleukins, chemokines and chemokine receptors, Toll-like receptors, antiviral proteins (RIG-I and Trim5), and the genes encoding fucosyltransferases that are utilized by rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus as a portal for invading host respiratory and gut epithelial cells. Evolutionary studies showed that several genes of innate immunity are evolving by strong natural selection. Studies of the leporid CCR5 gene revealed a very dramatic change unique in mammals at the second extracellular loop of CCR5 resulting from a gene conversion event with the paralogous CCR2. For the adaptive immune system, we review genetic diversity at the loci encoding antibody variable and constant regions, the major histocompatibility complex (RLA) and T cells. Studies of IGHV and IGKC genes expressed in leporids are two of the few examples of trans-species polymorphism observed outside of the major histocompatibility complex. In addition, we review some endogenous viruses of lagomorph genomes, the importance of the European rabbit as a model for human disease studies, and the anticipated role of next-generation sequencing in extending knowledge of lagomorph immune systems and their evolution.

  6. Myxoma Virus and the Leporipoxviruses: An Evolutionary Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Kerr

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Myxoma virus (MYXV is the type species of the Leporipoxviruses, a genus of Chordopoxvirinae, double stranded DNA viruses, whose members infect leporids and squirrels, inducing cutaneous fibromas from which virus is mechanically transmitted by biting arthropods. However, in the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus, MYXV causes the lethal disease myxomatosis. The release of MYXV as a biological control for the wild European rabbit population in Australia, initiated one of the great experiments in evolution. The subsequent coevolution of MYXV and rabbits is a classic example of natural selection acting on virulence as a pathogen adapts to a novel host species. Slightly attenuated mutants of the progenitor virus were more readily transmitted by the mosquito vector because the infected rabbit survived longer, while highly attenuated viruses could be controlled by the rabbit immune response. As a consequence, moderately attenuated viruses came to dominate. This evolution of the virus was accompanied by selection for genetic resistance in the wild rabbit population, which may have created an ongoing co-evolutionary dynamic between resistance and virulence for efficient transmission. This natural experiment was repeated on a continental scale with the release of a separate strain of MYXV in France and its subsequent spread throughout Europe. The selection of attenuated strains of virus and resistant rabbits mirrored the experience in Australia in a very different environment, albeit with somewhat different rates. Genome sequencing of the progenitor virus and the early radiation, as well as those from the 1990s in Australia and Europe, has shown that although MYXV evolved at high rates there was no conserved route to attenuation or back to virulence. In contrast, it seems that these relatively large viral genomes have the flexibility for multiple pathways that converge on a similar phenotype.

  7. Interspecific and geographic variation in the diets of sympatric carnivores: dingoes/wild dogs and red foxes in south-eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Naomi E; Forsyth, David M; Triggs, Barbara; Pascoe, Charlie; Benshemesh, Joe; Robley, Alan; Lawrence, Jenny; Ritchie, Euan G; Nimmo, Dale G; Lumsden, Lindy F

    2015-01-01

    Dingoes/wild dogs (Canis dingo/familiaris) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are widespread carnivores in southern Australia and are controlled to reduce predation on domestic livestock and native fauna. We used the occurrence of food items in 5875 dingo/wild dog scats and 11,569 fox scats to evaluate interspecific and geographic differences in the diets of these species within nine regions of Victoria, south-eastern Australia. The nine regions encompass a wide variety of ecosystems. Diet overlap between dingoes/wild dogs and foxes varied among regions, from low to near complete overlap. The diet of foxes was broader than dingoes/wild dogs in all but three regions, with the former usually containing more insects, reptiles and plant material. By contrast, dingoes/wild dogs more regularly consumed larger mammals, supporting the hypothesis that niche partitioning occurs on the basis of mammalian prey size. The key mammalian food items for dingoes/wild dogs across all regions were black wallaby (Wallabia bicolor), brushtail possum species (Trichosurus spp.), common wombat (Vombatus ursinus), sambar deer (Rusa unicolor), cattle (Bos taurus) and European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). The key mammalian food items for foxes across all regions were European rabbit, sheep (Ovis aries) and house mouse (Mus musculus). Foxes consumed 6.1 times the number of individuals of threatened Critical Weight Range native mammal species than did dingoes/wild dogs. The occurrence of intraguild predation was asymmetrical; dingoes/wild dogs consumed greater biomass of the smaller fox. The substantial geographic variation in diet indicates that dingoes/wild dogs and foxes alter their diet in accordance with changing food availability. We provide checklists of taxa recorded in the diets of dingoes/wild dogs and foxes as a resource for managers and researchers wishing to understand the potential impacts of policy and management decisions on dingoes/wild dogs, foxes and the food resources they

  8. Technique of spinal cord compression induced by inflation of epidural balloon catheter in rabbits (Oryctologus cuniculus): efficient and easy to use model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Antonio F B DA; Scheffer, Jussara P; Coelho, Barbara P; Aiello, Graciane; Guimarães, Arthur G; Gama, Carlos R B; Vescovini, Victor; Cabral, Paula G A; Oliveira, André L A

    2016-09-01

    The most common cause of spinal cord injury are high impact trauma, which often result in some motor impairment, sensory or autonomic a greater or lesser extent in the distal areas the level of trauma. In terms of survival and complications due to sequelae, veterinary patients have a poor prognosis unfavorable. Therefore justified the study of experimental models of spinal cord injury production that could provide more support to research potential treatments for spinal cord injuries in medicine and veterinary medicine. Preclinical studies of acute spinal cord injury require an experimental animal model easily reproducible. The most common experimental animal model is the rat, and several techniques for producing a spinal cord injury. The objective of this study was to describe and evaluate the effectiveness of acute spinal cord injury production technique through inflation of Fogarty(r) catheter using rabbits as an experimental model because it is a species that has fewer conclusive publications and contemplating. The main requirements of a model as low cost, handling convenience, reproducibility and uniformity. The technique was adequate for performing preclinical studies in neuro-traumatology area, effectively leading to degeneration and necrosis of the nervous tissue fostering the emergence of acute paraplegia.

  9. Resumen de Experiencias en el Desarrollo de Neonatos de Lapa, Boruga o Tinajo Cuniculus paca (Linnaeus, 1766) en Núcleos de Reubicación de Cormacarena

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Murillo-Pacheco; Jennifer A Restrepo-Parra; Mauricio Torres-Munevar; Carlos A Parra-Sandoval

    2009-01-01

    La Corporación de desarrollo sostenible del área de manejo especial de la Macarena (Cormacarena), mediante resolución número 2.6.04.890 de Diciembre de 2004, creo los núcleos de reubicación de fauna silvestre decomisada,  como estrategia para la disposición de los animales sujetos de trafico ilegal...

  10. EFFECTS OF ELECTRIC STIMULATION ON THE HEALING OF TENDON OF THE GASTROCNEMIUS MUSCLE IN RABBITS (Oryctolagus cunicullus EFEITOS DA ESTIMULAÇÃO ELÉTRICA NA CICATRIZAÇÃO DO TENDÃO DO MÚSCULO GASTROCNÊMIO EM COELHOS (Oryctolagus cunicullus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weslay Souza de Oliveira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of transcutaneous electrical stimulation with alternate electrical current on gastrocnemius muscle tendon healing, in rabbits submitted to experimental tenotomy and tenorrhaphy. Twenty-four male rabbits, New Zealand breed, were divided into four groups of the same number, in order to evaluate the cicatricial tendon repair at 7, 15, 21 and 30 days post-surgery. The middle third of the tendon of the gastocnemius muscle was sectioned transversall and submitted to a synthesis with Kessler modified suture. After 24 hours, daily at the same schedule, were done near the cutaneous wound of the right pelvic member, applications of 2 mA of alternative current, during six minutes, at a frequence of 100 Hz. The material collected was examined by light microscopy. Significant difference wasn´t found between the treated member and the control. Transcutaneous electrotherapy was used in our experimental protocol, despite not leading to tissue damage and being less invasive in comparison to other methods, was incapable to promote a more efficient healing response on the gastrocnemius muscle tendon repair in rabbits.

    KEY WORDS: Achilles tendon, electrotherapy, surgery, tenotomy, tissue repair. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da estimulação elétrica transcutânea de corrente alternada na regeneração do tendão do músculo gastrocnêmio, em coelhos submetidos à tenotomia e tenorrafia experimental. Dividiram-se vinte e quatro coelhos adultos da raça Nova Zelândia em quatro grupos iguais para avaliação da cicatrização tendínea aos sete, quinze, vinte e um e trinta dias de pós-operatório. Após incisão cutânea de aproximadamente três centímetros, o terço médio do tendão do músculo gastrocnêmio foi individualizado, seccionado transversalmente e suturado com sutura de Kessler modificada. Decorridas 24 horas, diariamente em um mesmo horário aplicaram-se, próxima à ferida cutânea do membro pélvico direito, 2 mA de corrente alternada, durante seis minutos, com frequência de 100 hz. O material colhido foi examinado por microscopia de luz. A eletroterapia transcutânea com corrente alternada utilizada no protocolo proposto, apesar de não causar danos aos tecidos e ter uma aplicação menos invasiva que os demais métodos, mostrou-se incapaz de promover resposta cicatricial mais efetiva na regeneração do tendão do músculo gastrocnêmio em coelhos. Estudos utilizando técnicas mais invasivas e/ou um tempo maior de estímulo são recomendáveis para avaliar seu efeito na regeneração de tendões.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Cirurgia, eletroterapia, reparo tecidual, tendão calcâneo, tenotomia.

  11. Accumulation of plutonium in mammalian wildlife tissues: comparison of recent data with the ICRP distribution models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, M.; Child, D.; Davis, E.; Hotchkis, M.; Payne, T. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Org. (Australia); Ikeda-Ohno, A. [University of New South Wales (Australia); Twining, J. [Austral Radioecology (Australia)

    2014-07-01

    We examined the distribution of plutonium (Pu) in the tissues of mammalian wildlife to address the paucity of such data under environmental exposure conditions. Pu activity concentrations were measured in Macropus rufus (red kangaroo), Oryctolagus cuniculus (European rabbit), and Pseudomys hermannsburgensis (sandy inland mouse)inhabiting the relatively undisturbed, semi-arid conditions at the former Taranaki weapons test site at Maralinga, Australia. Of the absorbed Pu (distributed via circulatory and lymph systems) accumulation was foremost in bone (83% ±10% SD), followed by muscle (9% ±10%), liver (7% ±7%), kidneys (0.5% ±0.3%), and heart (0.4% ±0.4%). The bone values are higher than those reported in ICRP 19 and 48 (45-50% bone), while the liver values are lower than ICRP values (30-45% liver). The ICRP values were based on data dominated by relatively soluble forms of Pu, including prepared solutions and single-atom ions produced by decay following the volatilisation of uranium during nuclear detonation (fallout Pu, ICRP 1986). In contrast, the Maralinga data relates to low-soluble forms of Pu used in tests designed to simulate accidental release and dispersal. We measured Pu in lung, GI-tract and the skin and fur as distinct from the absorbed Pu in bone, liver, muscle, and kidneys. Compared with the mean absorbed activity concentrations, the results for lung tissues were higher by up to one order of magnitude, and those in the GI tract contents and the washed skin/fur were higher by more than two orders of magnitude. These elevated levels are consistent with the presence of low-soluble Pu, including particulate forms, which pass through, or adhere upon, certain organs, but are not readily absorbed into the bloodstream. This more transitory Pu can provide dose to the lung and GI tract organs, as well as provide potential transfer of contamination when consumed in predator-prey food chains, or during human foodstuff consumption. For example, activity

  12. Citotoxicidade de plantas com indicativo etnográfico para a desinfecção de água Cytotoxicity of plants as an ethnographic indicator for water disinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Gonçalves

    2009-01-01

    disinfectants which, combined with organic residues, result in trihalomethane (potentially oncogenic. The aim of this work was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of five plant extracts, capable of promoting water disinfection, against six cell lines: Vero (ATCC CCl81 African green monkey cells; MDBK (ATCC CCL 24 Martin Darby Bonne kidney cells; MDCK (ATCC CCL 34 Canis familiaris kidney cells; CRFK (ATCC CCL 94 Felix catus kidney cells; PK 15 (ATCC CCL 33 Sus scrofa kidney cells; RK13 (ATCC CCL 37 Oryctolagus cuniculus kidney cells, as well as to evaluate the most sensitive cell cultures for the toxicity test of plant extracts. The most toxic extract was that of white goosefoot (Chenopodium album against all tested cells. California arrowhead (Sagittaria montevidensis extract had median toxicity and extracts of "erva baleeira" (Cordia curassavica, miracle leaf (Bryophyllum pinnatum [Kurz] and colombian waxweed (Cuphea carthagenensis [Jacq.] J.F. Macbride were the least toxic. This finding was statistically significant (p=0.99 when the plant extracts were compared regarding the concentrations and the studied cells. The most sensitive cells were VERO (monkey kidney and CRFK (feline kidney compared to the others (MDBK, MDCK, PK 15, RK 13, with significant difference (p=0.99. In conclusion, plant extracts must be evaluated as to their toxicity before being used as health resources and some cells are more effective than others in the detection of cytopathogenic effects.

  13. Development of non-lethal methods for investigation of actinide uptake by wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, M.; Child, D.; Davis, E.; Harrison, J.; Hotchkis, M.; Payne, T.; Thiruvoth, S. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Org. (Australia); Wood, M. [University of Salford (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    There is growing interest in the use of non-lethal methods in radioecology and an International Union of Radioecology Task Group has been established to facilitate international cooperation in this field (http://iur-uir.org/en/task-groups/id-19-non-lethal-methods-in-radioecology). In this paper, we evaluate the use of lethally-, and non-lethally obtained samples (various body tissues, excreta and blood withdrawals as well as parasites and found bones) as indicators of contamination. Samples of mammals and reptiles were collected from the semi-arid former weapons test site at Maralinga, Australia and analysed for thorium, plutonium, and uranium isotopes by accelerator mass spectrometry and alpha-spectrometry. Most samples were of low mass and presented analytical challenges as a result. The plutonium concentrations in blood withdrawn from the marginal ear veins of Oryctolagus cuniculus (European rabbit) were successfully analysed using small samples (0.2 -7.9 ml, below the ∼10 ml threshold for safe extraction of blood from these rabbits). The results demonstrate that small-volume blood samples can serve as indicators of the presence of plutonium absorbed within other tissues (e.g., muscle, bone). However, the magnitude of the blood plutonium masses were poorly correlated with those in muscle and bone due to the presence of a small number of outliers (without the outliers, correlations improved to r = +0.66 and r = +0.51 for muscle and bone respectively). The activity concentrations in parasitic ticks were relatively high compared with those of their hosts Pseudomys hermannsburgensis (sandy inland mouse) and Ctenophorus cristatus (crested dragon lizard). Successful measurement of tick samples indicates a potential for use of parasites as general indicators of contamination within host organisms. The concentrations of actinides in found bones of Macropus rufus (red kangaroo) and O. cuniculus demonstrated potential for their use as indicators of the areal extent of

  14. BIOMECHANICS AND HISTOLOGICAL ANALYSIS IN RABBIT FLEXOR TENDONS REPAIRED USING THREE SUTURE TECHNIQUES (FOUR AND SIX STRANDS) WITH EARLY ACTIVE MOBILIZATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severo, Antônio Lourenço; Arenhart, Rodrigo; Silveira, Daniela; Ávila, Aluísio Otávio Vargas; Berral, Francisco José; Lemos, Marcelo Barreto; Piluski, Paulo César Faiad; Lech, Osvandré Luís Canfield; Fukushima, Walter Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Analyzing suture time, biomechanics (deformity between the stumps) and the histology of three groups of tendinous surgical repair: Brazil-2 (4-strands) which the end knot (core) is located outside the tendon, Indiana (4-strands) and Tsai (6-strands) with sutures technique which the end knot (core) is inner of the tendon, associated with early active mobilization. Methods: The right calcaneal tendons (plantar flexor of the hind paw) of 36 rabbits of the New Zealand breed (Oryctolagus cuniculus) were used in the analysis. This sample presents similar size to human flexor tendon that has approximately 4.5 mm (varying from 2mm). The selected sample showed the same mass (2.5 to 3kg) and were male or female adults (from 8 ½ months). For the flexor tendons of the hind paws, sterile and driven techniques were used in accordance to the Committee on Animal Research and Ethics (CETEA) of the University of the State of Santa Catarina (UDESC), municipality of Lages, in Brazil (protocol # 1.33.09). Results: In the biomechanical analysis (deformity) carried out between tendinous stumps, there was no statistically significant difference (p>0.01). There was no statistical difference in relation to surgical time in all three suture techniques with a mean of 6.0 minutes for Tsai (6- strands), 5.7 minutes for Indiana (4-strands) and 5.6 minutes for Brazil (4-strands) (p>0.01). With the early active mobility, there was qualitative and quantitative evidence of thickening of collagen in 38.9% on the 15th day and in 66.7% on the 30th day, making the biological tissue stronger and more resistant (p=0.095). Conclusion: This study demonstrated that there was no histological difference between the results achieved with an inside or outside end knot with respect to the repaired tendon and the number of strands did not affect healing, vascularization or sliding of the tendon in the osteofibrous tunnel, which are associated with early active mobility, with the repair techniques

  15. Estudo morfométrico do efeito do tenoxicam com água bidestilada ou com cloreto de sódio a 0,9% no endotélio venoso, em coelhos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schnaider Taylor Brandão

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar, pela morfometria, se o tenoxicam com água bidestilada (diluente ou com cloreto de sódio a 0,9% (NaCl 0,9% provoca alterações no endotélio venoso. Métodos: Foram utilizados 90 coelhos (Oryctolagus cuniculus, brancos, da linhagem Nova Zelândia, machos, com idade acima de 10 semanas, com peso variando entre 2000 e 3500 gramas, divididos em dois grupos denominados Experimento e Controle, que foram observados nos tempos de 6h, 12h e 24h. Administrou-se nas venae auriculares dextra e sinistra, tenoxicam com seu diluente ou com NaCl 0,9% no grupo Experimento e NaCl 0,9% no grupo Controle. Para análise estatística dos resultados foi aplicada a análise de variância a um critério: a em separado para cada grupo (Tenoxicam/NaCl 0,9%, Tenoxicam/Diluente e NaCl 0,9%, para comparar as medidas médias dos diâmetros dos núcleos das células endoteliais obtidas nos períodos de observação de 6h, 12h e 24h. Resultados: Observou-se que não ocorreram diferenças significantes entre as medidas médias dos diâmetros nucleares encontradas nos períodos de eutanásia de 6, 12 e 24h, em separado para cada grupo. As medidas médias dos diâmetros nucleares do grupo Controle foram significantemente maiores do que as observadas no grupo Experimento. Conclusão: O tenoxicam, com água bidestilada ou com cloreto de sódio a 0,9%, reduziu os diâmetros dos núcleos das células endoteliais nas venae em que foi injetado.

  16. Characterisation of wild rabbit commercial game farms in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro González-Redondo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to characterise the wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus commercial game farms in Spain using variables related to structure, management and marketing. To this end, a structured survey was administered in 2009 to 21 privately-owned farms. This subsector was an average age of 13. The average size of the breeding stock of the farms was 431 does and 64 bucks. Eighty-five percent of the farms kept all or part of the breeding stock in cages and 38.1% used artificial insemination. All the farms carried out breeder self-replacement, 4.8% by buying wild rabbits from other farms, whereas 38.1% captured wild rabbits for this purpose. Nineteen percent of the wild rabbit game farms also produced other game species, mainly red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa, pheasant (Phasianus colchicus and quail (Coturnix coturnix. Fourteen percent of the farms supplied wild rabbits to be used as prey to be released in programmes for the conservation of endangered predators, and 38.1% supplied breeding rabbits to be used by other farms to replace culled animals. Eighty-six percent of the farms offered the service of transporting the animals from the farm to the hunting grounds to their clients, and 14.3% advised customers on how to successfully release and restock hunting grounds. Seventy-six percent of the farms marketed their products throughout Spain, and 38.1% exported wild rabbits to neighbouring countries, mainly Portugal and France. Forty-three percent of the farms advertised themselves in hunting magazines, 19.1% promoted themselves by attending livestock and game fairs, and 38.1% had their own websites. In conclusion, this alternative rabbit production system constitutes a well-established subsector in Spain, despite being only 2 decades old. It also seems that it has not yet reached its development maturity. It shows wide diversity in terms of farm size and structure, as well as marketing and promotional activities.

  17. Phlebotomine sand fly survey in the focus of leishmaniasis in Madrid, Spain (2012-2014): seasonal dynamics, Leishmania infantum infection rates and blood meal preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Estela; Jiménez, Maribel; Hernández, Sonia; Martín-Martín, Inés; Molina, Ricardo

    2017-08-01

    An unusual increase of human leishmaniasis cases due to Leishmania infantum is occurring in an urban area of southwestern Madrid, Spain, since 2010. Entomological surveys have shown that Phlebotomus perniciosus is the only potential vector. Direct xenodiagnosis in hares (Lepus granatensis) and rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) collected in the focus area proved that they can transmit parasites to colonized P. perniciosus. Isolates were characterized as L. infantum. The aim of the present work was to conduct a comprehensive study of sand flies in the outbreak area, with special emphasis on P. perniciosus. Entomological surveys were done from June to October 2012-2014 in 4 stations located close to the affected area. Twenty sticky traps (ST) and two CDC light traps (LT) were monthly placed during two consecutive days in every station. LT were replaced every morning. Sand fly infection rates were determined by dissecting females collected with LT. Molecular procedures applied to study blood meal preferences and to detect L. infantum were performed for a better understanding of the epidemiology of the outbreak. A total of 45,127 specimens belonging to 4 sand fly species were collected: P. perniciosus (75.34%), Sergentomyia minuta (24.65%), Phlebotomus sergenti (0.005%) and Phlebotomus papatasi (0.005%). No Phlebotomus ariasi were captured. From 3203 P. perniciosus female dissected, 117 were infected with flagellates (3.7%). Furthermore, 13.31% and 7.78% of blood-fed and unfed female sand flies, respectively, were found infected with L. infantum by PCR. The highest rates of infected P. perniciosus were detected at the end of the transmission periods. Regarding to blood meal preferences, hares and rabbits were preferred, although human, cat and dog blood were also found. This entomological study highlights the exceptional nature of the Leishmania outbreak occurring in southwestern Madrid, Spain. It is confirmed that P. perniciosus is the only vector in the affected area

  18. Morphological and molecular characterization of Eimeria paludosa coccidian parasite (Apicomplexa:Eimeriidae) in a dusky moorhen (Gallinula tenebrosa, Gould, 1846) in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongchang; Brice, Belinda; Elloit, Aileen; Lee, Elvina; Ryan, Una

    2014-12-01

    . irresidua, from a European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from the Czech Republic. This is the first molecular characterization of E. paludosa.

  19. Expression of NADPH oxidase (NOX 5 in rabbit corneal stromal cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhan Rizvi

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine whether NOX 5 is expressed in rabbit corneal stromal cells (RCSC. NADPH oxidases (NOXes are enzymes that preferentially use NADPH as a substrate and generate superoxide. Several isoforms of NOXes function as multi-protein complexes while NOX5 and DUOXs do not require the accessory proteins for their activity and possess calcium binding EF hands. METHODS: Human NOX5 primers were used to amplify the rabbit NOX5 by RT-PCR. Amplified product was sequenced to confirm its identity. The protein encoded by the NOX5 was identified by western blot analysis. NOX5 siRNA was used to reduce transcript, protein, and calcium stimulated activity. In silico analyses were performed to establish the putative structure, functions, and evolution of rabbit NOX5. RESULTS: NOX activity was measured in RCSC with NADPH rather than NADH as a substrate. RT-PCR with NOX5 primers amplified 288 bp product using RCSC cDNA, which, when sequenced, confirmed its identity to human NOX5 mRNA. This sequence was used to predict the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus NOX5 gene. NOX5 siRNA reduced amounts of NOX5 mRNA in RCSC and reduced ionomycin stimulated superoxide production. A protein of about 65 to 70 kDa encoded by the NOX5 was detected by western blot analysis. In silico analysis predicted a putative rabbit NOX5 protein containing 801 amino acids. Motif searches predicted the presence of at least 3 putative EF-hands in N-terminus and a NOX domain in C terminal region. CONCLUSIONS: The data document that the NOX5 gene was expressed in cells of lagomorphs unlike rodents, making the rabbit an interesting model to study NOX5 functions. The activity of the rabbit NOX5 was calcium stimulated, a trait of NOX5 in general. NOX5 may also prove to be a useful genetic marker for studying the taxonomic position of lagomorphs and the Glires classification.

  20. For mRNA Accessible Sites Screening:A Comparative Study by Using MAST and Computational Prediction%软件预测和MAST技术筛选mRNA反义核酸靶点的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛建平; Zicai LIANG; 毛秉智

    2004-01-01

    基因mRNA的结构靶点筛选是反义核酸药物研发的一个难题.兔(Oryctolagus cuniculus)β珠蛋白基因mRNA的结构靶位点通过运用MAST技术筛选获得,和计算机软件RNAstructure3.71模拟分析的位点进行了比较,也和寡核苷酸微阵列杂交技术筛选获得的靶点结果(M.Natalie,1997)进行了比较,显示:据MAST技术获得的兔β珠蛋白基因2个反义核酸结合靶位点,和用RNAstructure3.71软件给出的模拟分析的2个靶位点相同,且它们与寡核苷酸微阵列杂交技术的结果完全一致.运用MAST技术筛选获得绿色荧光蛋白(GFP)mRNA有4个结构靶位点,体外分析表明这4个靶位点均有效,其中有3个与RNAstructure3.7l软件分析的靶点相同,但计算机模拟推荐的结构靶位点较多,而且随着基因长度增加确认靶位点的难度增大,获得的靶位点还需要实验验证,计算机软件模拟分析对实验筛选靶点、设计反义核酸有辅助价值.MAST方法能筛选各种长度基因mRNA的全部可及位点和准确给定核苷酸的起止位置以供设计反义核酸,具有简单快捷的优点,将能为反义核酸设计起重要作用.

  1. Leptin controls rabbit ovarian function in vivo and in vitro: possible interrelationships with ghrelin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirotkin, A V; Rafay, J; Kotwica, J

    2009-10-01

    The aim of these in vivo and in vitro studies was to examine the role of leptin in the control of plasma hormone concentrations, reproduction, and secretory activity of ovarian granulosa cells. In in vivo experiments, 15 female European domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) were treated with leptin (5 microg animal(-1)d(-1) for 1 wk before induction of ovulation with 25 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin and 0.25 IU human chorionic gonadotropin), and 15 females constituted the control group (treated with phosphate-buffered saline). Plasma concentrations of progesterone (P(4)), testosterone (T), estradiol (E(2)), estrone sulfate (ES), and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) were determined at the estimated day of ovulation by radioimmunoassay (RIA), and number, viability, and body weight of newborns were recorded at parturition. In in vitro experiments, granulosa cells were isolated from periovulatory ovarian follicles of five control and five females treated with ghrelin (10 microg animal(-1)d(-1) for 1 wk before induced ovulation). Isolated cells were cultured for 2 d with and without leptin (0, 1, 10, or 100 ng/mL medium). Secretion of P(4), T, E(2), IGF-I, and prostaglandin F (PGF) was assessed in culture medium by RIA. In in vivo experiments, leptin administrations reduced plasma P(4), T, E(2), ES, and IGF-I levels. Leptin treatments did not affect ovarian weight or total number and body mass of newborns, but the proportion of pregnant females and number of live newborns were significantly higher in leptin-treated females than that in control females. In in vitro experiments, leptin significantly decreased (at 1 and 10 ng/mL) or increased (at 100 ng/mL) P(4) secretion, promoted E(2) and IGF-I (both at 100 ng/mL) secretion, and reduced T (at 1 and 10 ng/mL) and PGF (at 10 ng/mL) secretion. Granulosa cells from ghrelin-treated animals secreted less P(4), T, E(2), and PGF, but not IGF-I, than that secreted by granulosa cells from control animals. Furthermore

  2. Neofunctionalization of the Sec1 α1,2fucosyltransferase paralogue in leporids contributes to glycan polymorphism and resistance to rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Nyström

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available RHDV (rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus, a virulent calicivirus, causes high mortalities in European rabbit populations (Oryctolagus cuniculus. It uses α1,2fucosylated glycans, histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs, as attachment factors, with their absence or low expression generating resistance to the disease. Synthesis of these glycans requires an α1,2fucosyltransferase. In mammals, there are three closely located α1,2fucosyltransferase genes rSec1, rFut2 and rFut1 that arose through two rounds of duplications. In most mammalian species, Sec1 has clearly become a pseudogene. Yet, in leporids, it does not suffer gross alterations, although we previously observed that rabbit Sec1 variants present either low or no activity. Still, a low activity rSec1 allele correlated with survival to an RHDV outbreak. We now confirm the association between the α1,2fucosyltransferase loci and survival. In addition, we show that rabbits express homogenous rFut1 and rFut2 levels in the small intestine. Comparison of rFut1 and rFut2 activity showed that type 2 A, B and H antigens recognized by RHDV strains were mainly synthesized by rFut1, and all rFut1 variants detected in wild animals were equally active. Interestingly, rSec1 RNA levels were highly variable between individuals and high expression was associated with low binding of RHDV strains to the mucosa. Co-transfection of rFut1 and rSec1 caused a decrease in rFut1-generated RHDV binding sites, indicating that in rabbits, the catalytically inactive rSec1 protein acts as a dominant-negative of rFut1. Consistent with neofunctionalization of Sec1 in leporids, gene conversion analysis showed extensive homogenization between Sec1 and Fut2 in leporids, at variance with its limited degree in other mammals. Gene conversion additionally involving Fut1 was also observed at the C-terminus. Thus, in leporids, unlike in most other mammals where it became extinct, Sec1 evolved a new function with a dominant-negative effect

  3. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Encephalitozoon cuniculi in rabbits from different farming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumayerová, Helena; Juránková, Jana; Jeklová, Edita; Kudláčková, Hana; Faldyna, Martin; Kovařčík, Kamil; Jánová, Eva; Koudela, Břetislav

    2014-08-29

    The breeding of domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) for human consumption has a long tradition mainly in European and Asian countries. Infections that can affect the production of meat or even be transmitted from animals to humans are important to monitor, especially for public health reasons as well as for their impact on animals health. This study aimed to collect sera from rabbits bred in different conditions and test the presence of Toxoplasma gondii and Encephalitozoon cuniculi antibodies. Whether infections were active or latent was assessed by determining the occurrence of IgM or IgM together with IgG antibodies which indicated active infection whereas latent infection was characterized by finding IgG antibodies only. An ELISA test was performed with 1883 sera samples collected throughout the Czech and Slovak Republics. The seroprevalence of T. gondii in 902 samples from 6 commercial farms (CF) was very low with only 4 rabbits (0.4%) being positive. In total 99 (10.1%) individuals out of 981 samples from 29 household farms (HF) were positive for T. gondii antibodies. Only 2 (50%) of the T. gondii positive CF rabbits had active infections while the rest were latently infected. The serological results showed that 35 (35.4%) rabbits from the T. gondii positive HF group suffered from active infection. Out of CF samples 185 (20.5%) were positive for E. cuniculi. Antibodies of E. cuniculi were detected in 497 (50.7%) HF rabbits. Active E. cuniculi infections were determined in 85.9% of CF and 56.3% of HF rabbits; respectively. Interestingly, the E. cuniculi positive rabbits were significantly more often positive for anti-T. gondii antibodies in comparison to E. cuniculi negative individuals. Prevalence of T. gondii in CF rabbits was negligible. According to our results meat of HF rabbits still poses a risk of T. gondii infection. Nevertheless, the risk is on its lowest level in 20 years which is apparently caused due to changes in feeding practices. The

  4. Molecular Cloning and Characteristics of Sheep C3d Gene%绵羊C3d基因克隆及分子特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳耀敬; 焦硕; 郭宪; 冯瑞林

    2008-01-01

    从绵羊(Ovis aries)肝脏组织克隆到了补体C3d基因并对其核苷酸序列和推导的氨基酸序列以及蛋白结构进行了分析.绵羊补体C3d基因的编码区含有909个核苷酸,编码303个氨基酸残基(GenBank No.EF681138).绵羊C3d与人(Homo sapiens)、牛(Bos taurus)、山羊(Capra hircus)、野猪(Sus scrofa)、金仓鼠(Mesocricetus auratus)、小鼠(Mus musculus)、褐鼠(Rattus norvegicus)、大袋鼠(Macropus eugenii)、兔(Oryctolagus cuniculus)和原鸡(Gallus gallus)推导出的C3d氨基酸序列的一致性分别为80.4%,94.7%,96.9%,82.8%,81.1%,80.6%,80.2%,71.0%,75.2%和60.3%.绵羊与原鸡C3d的一致性最低为60.3%,而与其它动物C3d之间的一致性则较高为71.0%~96.9%.生物学软件分析发现,绵羊C3d蛋白有2个蛋白激酶C磷酸化位点,1个氨基葡聚糖附着位点,1个酪蛋白激酶Ⅱ磷酸化位点,1个酪氨酸激酶磷酸化位点,1个十四(烷)酰化位点.绵羊C3d二级结构中螺旋和转角交替出现,其中α螺旋占55.12%,β折叠为2.31%,转角区域为42.57%,这样的结构有利于其桶状结构的形成.ESyPred3D同源建模预测可知绵羊C3d三级结构与人C3d一样也形成由核心和外层构成的桶状分子结构.

  5. No evidence of a threshold in traffic volume affecting road-kill mortality at a large spatio-temporal scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grilo, Clara, E-mail: clarabentesgrilo@gmail.com [Departamento de Biología de la Conservación, Estación Biológica de Doñana (EBD-CSIC), Calle Américo Vespucio s/n, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Centro Brasileiro de Estudos em Ecologia de Estradas, Departamento de Biologia, Universidade Federal de Lavras, Campus Universitário, 37200-000 Lavras, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Ferreira, Flavio Zanchetta; Revilla, Eloy [Departamento de Biología de la Conservación, Estación Biológica de Doñana (EBD-CSIC), Calle Américo Vespucio s/n, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain)

    2015-11-15

    Previous studies have found that the relationship between wildlife road mortality and traffic volume follows a threshold effect on low traffic volume roads. We aimed at evaluating the response of several species to increasing traffic intensity on highways over a large geographic area and temporal period. We used data of four terrestrial vertebrate species with different biological and ecological features known by their high road-kill rates: the barn owl (Tyto alba), hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus), red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Additionally, we checked whether road-kill likelihood varies when traffic patterns depart from the average. We used annual average daily traffic (AADT) and road-kill records observed along 1000 km of highways in Portugal over seven consecutive years (2003–2009). We fitted candidate models using Generalized Linear Models with a binomial distribution through a sample unit of 1 km segments to describe the effect of traffic on the probability of finding at least one victim in each segment during the study. We also assigned for each road-kill record the traffic of that day and the AADT on that year to test for differences using Paired Student's t-test. Mortality risk declined significantly with traffic volume but varied among species: the probability of finding road-killed red foxes and rabbits occurs up to moderate traffic volumes (< 20,000 AADT) whereas barn owls and hedgehogs occurred up to higher traffic volumes (40,000 AADT). Perception of risk may explain differences in responses towards high traffic highway segments. Road-kill rates did not vary significantly when traffic intensity departed from the average. In summary, we did not find evidence of traffic thresholds for the analysed species and traffic intensities. We suggest mitigation measures to reduce mortality be applied in particular on low traffic roads (< 5000 AADT) while additional measures to reduce barrier effects should take into

  6. The small mammals of an upper piedmontese Po plain site (Leinì, Turin prov. / La micromammalofauna di una stazione planiziaria piemontese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Osella

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The 24 small mammals listed as living in Leinì (Piedmontese Po plain, near Turin, 245 m on sea level (only the red fox, Vulpes vulpes is not sure, are briefly analysed (Chiroptera excepted. List and analysis are the results of studies pursued for about 35 years. However, in Verona's Museum of Natural History, the housed materials are related to the last eighteen years (1966-1984 (Tab. I. For a complete analysis, this fauna is compared with the Veronese Po plain one, especially with the Busatello one (Gazzo Veronese-Ostiglia. This site is a stretch of marshes named "Valli Grandi Veronesi and Ostigliesi" (Tab. II. In this analysis, if we don't consider the not native species (Myocastor coypus and Mustela vison, the estinguished species (Lutra lutra, the Mediterranean species (living only along the border of the Po plain basin (Suncus etruscus and the hunting species (Lepus europaeus and Oryctolagus cuniculus we have 23 taxa for Lein and only 17 and 13, respectively, for Veronese Po plain and Busatello. The richer small mammal fauna of the Piedmontese Po plain is, above all, supported by different ecological conditions but the preservation of some species (e.g. Glis glis and Muscardinus avellanarius in Leinì is surely related also to historical problems and to a land anthropization pushed forward to a lesser degree. Riassunto Vengono elencate e brevemente commentate tutte le specie di micromammiferi presenti a Leinì (Torino, Chirotteri esclusi. Si tratta di un complesso di 24 specie (solo la volpe non è del tutto sicura per ognuna delle quali gli autori, sinteticamente, espongono le osservazioni raccolte in circa 35 anni. A maggior chiarimento del significato faunistico del popolamento, viene presa in esame anche la micromammalofauna della pianura padano veneta, precisamente la pianura veronese ed in particolar modo la

  7. Molecular species identification, host preference and detection of myxoma virus in the Anopheles maculipennis complex (Diptera: Culicidae) in southern England, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugman, Victor A; Hernández-Triana, Luis M; Prosser, Sean W J; Weland, Chris; Westcott, David G; Fooks, Anthony R; Johnson, Nicholas

    2015-08-15

    Determining the host feeding patterns of mosquitoes by identifying the origin of their blood-meals is an important part of understanding the role of vector species in current and future disease transmission cycles. Collecting large numbers of blood-fed mosquitoes from the field is difficult, therefore it is important to maximise the information obtained from each specimen. This study aimed to use mosquito genome sequence to identify the species within Anopheles maculipennis sensu lato (An. maculipennis s.l.), identify the vertebrate hosts of field-caught blood-fed An. maculipennis s.l. , and to test for the presence of myxoma virus (Poxviridae, genus Leporipoxvirus) in specimens found to have fed on the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Blood-fed An. maculipennis s.l. were collected from resting sites at Elmley Nature Reserve, Kent, between June and September 2013. Hosts that An. maculipennis s.l. had fed on were determined by a PCR-sequencing approach based on the partial amplification of the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit I gene. Mosquitoes were then identified to species by sequencing a region of the internal transcribed spacer-2. DNA extracts from all mosquitoes identified as having fed on rabbits were subsequently screened using PCR for the presence of myxoma virus. A total of 94 blood-fed Anopheles maculipennis s.l. were collected, of which 43 (46%) provided positive blood-meal identification results. Thirty-six of these specimens were identified as Anopheles atroparvus, which had fed on rabbit (n = 33, 92%) and cattle (n = 3, 8%). Seven mosquitoes were identified as Anopheles messeae, which had fed on cattle (n = 6, 86%) and dog (n = 1, 14%). Of the 33 An. atroparvus that contained rabbit blood, nine (27%) were positive for myxoma virus. Results demonstrate that a single DNA extract from a blood-fed mosquito can be successfully used for molecular identification of members of the An. maculipennis complex, blood

  8. Dying like rabbits: general determinants of spatio-temporal variability in survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tablado, Zulima; Revilla, Eloy; Palomares, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    1. Identifying general patterns of how and why survival rates vary across space and time is necessary to truly understand population dynamics of a species. However, this is not an easy task given the complexity and interactions of processes involved, and the interpopulation differences in main survival determinants. 2. Here, using European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) as a model and information from local studies, we investigated whether we could make inferences about trends and drivers of survival of a species that are generalizable to large spatio-temporal scales. To do this, we first focused on overall survival and then examined cause-specific mortalities, mainly predation and diseases, which may lead to those patterns. 3. Our results show that within the large-scale variability in rabbit survival, there exist general patterns that are explained by the integration of factors previously known to be important at the local level (i.e. age, climate, diseases, predation or density dependence). We found that both inter- and intrastudy survival rates increased in magnitude and decreased in variability as rabbits grow old, although this tendency was less pronounced in populations with epidemic diseases. Some causes leading to these higher mortalities in young rabbits could be the stronger effect of rainfall at those ages, as well as, other death sources like malnutrition or infanticide. 4. Predation is also greater for newborns and juveniles, especially in population without diseases. Apart from the effect of diseases, predation patterns also depended on factors, such as, density, season, and type and density of predators. Finally, we observed that infectious diseases also showed general relationships with climate, breeding (i.e. new susceptible rabbits) and age, although the association type varied between myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease. 5. In conclusion, large-scale patterns of spatio-temporal variability in rabbit survival emerge from the combination

  9. Knowing for controlling: ecological effects of invasive vertebrates in Tierra del Fuego Conocer para controlar: efectos ecológicos de vertebrados invasores en Tierra del Fuego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA A SILVA

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The Tierra del Fuego (TDF archipelago is recognized as part o the last places on Earth that may still be considered wild. However, this condition may be threatened by the large number of invasive species present on the archipelago. These species can have significant effects on the ecology of the invaded ecosystems, at the genetic as well as at population, community and ecosystem levels. The aim of this study is to, by a bibliographic review, systematize existing information on the ecological impacts these species would be having on the TDF archipelago and detect information gaps in order to orient future research and effective management programs on these species. We restricted our review to vertebrate, non-marine invaders. We determined which species have invaded TDF, described their impacts on the archipelago and evaluated their potential impacts; this last issue was determined by reviewing some of the impacts these species have had in other geographic areas. Our findings indicate that at least nine vertebrate species (Salmo trutta, Salvelinus fontinalis, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Castor canadensis, Ondatra zibethicus, Oryctolagus cuniculus, Pseudalopex griseus, Mustela vison and Sus seroja have wild populations established away from human settlements in TDF. There is some scientific evidence on ecological impacts on the area for only five of these invaders, with the American beaver (Castor canadensis being the species monopolizing the greatest number of studies. These results contrast with the recognition, both in TDF and worldwide, of the potential of most of these species to cause significant ecological impacts, which makes it unlikely that the lack of verified impacts on TDF reflects an absence of significant effects of these invaders on the archipelago. We suggest that future research should focus on determining population density and distribution of these and other (i.e., feral species invasive vertebrates, as well as their impacts mainly on

  10. Estrategias de subsistencia en los momentos finales del Pleistoceno medio: el nivel XII de la Cova del Bolomor (La Valldigna, Valencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth BLASCO

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La Cova del Bolomor, situada en Tavernes de la Valldigna (Valencia, ofrece uno de los mejores registros faunísticos de la segunda mitad del Pleistoceno medio de la Península Ibérica. La cavidad contiene un relleno sedimentario formado por diecisiete niveles estratigráficos que abarcan desde el OIS 9 al OIS 5e. Esta amplia secuencia cronológica permite abordar diferentes cuestiones relacionadas con los grupos humanos de este periodo y sus relaciones con el medio ambiente. Concretamente, a partir del estudio zooarqueológico del nivel XII (OIS 6, se ha reconstruido la secuencia antrópica de obtención y procesamiento de los recursos faunísticos. De este modo, se han identificado diferentes estrategias de subsistencia llevadas a cabo por los homínidos para la obtención de los animales. Estas técnicas van desde el carroñeo hasta la caza e incluyen el aprovisionamiento de pequeñas presas como las aves (Cygnus olor o los lepóridos (Oryctolagus cuniculus. Esta variabilidad de estrategias podría interpretarse como la gran capacidad de adaptación que poseen estos grupos humanos para aprovechar las oportunidades que el medio les ofrece. También se ha observado la existencia de patrones bien sistematizados tanto en el aprovechamiento de los recursos faunísticos externos (piel, carne, tendones como en la obtención de los recursos internos (médula. Muchos de los elementos diagnósticos que evidencian la fracturación antrópica en el nivel XII presentan cierta sistematización en zonas y partes anatómicas concretas. La existencia de morfologías repetidas en algunos elementos esqueléticos indica una cierta estandarización a la hora de fracturar los huesos. Esta reiteración podría implicar la existencia de mecanismos de aprendizaje o de transmisión de información intergrupal por parte de los grupos humanos del Pleistoceno medio final. En general, este estudio pretende aportar datos sobre las estrategias de subsistencia de

  11. Relação parasito-hospedeiro na infestação artificial de Oryctolagos cuniculus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lagomorpha: Ochotonidae) por Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787) (Acari: ixodidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Maria Vianna de Freitas

    2005-01-01

    O presente estudo teve por objetivo, avaliar os aspectos imunológicos da relaçao parasitohospedeiro em coelhos artificialmente infestados por Amblyomma cajennense e iniciar a busca de antígenos passíveis de serem utilizados no controle deste parasito. Para tanto foram realizados três experimentos distintos: (1) no primeiro experimento estudou-se odesenvolvimento de resistência adquirida em coelhos submetidos às infestações artificiais por larvas, ninfas e adultos de A. cajennese. Os coelhos s...

  12. Bioinformatics Analysis of Coding Regions of Hsf2 Gene among Species%不同物种Hsf2基因编码区生物信息分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马建青; 李祥龙; 周荣艳; 李兰会; 任玉红

    2012-01-01

    The genetic diversity of the CDS of Hsf2 gene from 14 species, including Homo sapiens ,Pan troglodytes ,Nomascus leucogency ,Macaca mulatta ,Callithrix jacchus ,Oryctolagus cuniculus, Ailuropoda melanoleuca ,Sus scrofa ,Bos Taurus ,Loxodonta Africana ,Rattus norveg-icus ,Mus musculus , Cavia porcellus and Cricetulus qriseus were analyzed using the method of comparative genomics' and bioinformatics. The characteristics of composition of nucleic acid sequences and amino acid sequences were also analyzed. The results showed that a total of 203 polymorphic sites, including 68 single polymorphic sites, the percentage was about 9. 81%, that could be sorted into 17 haplotypes were detected from 40 sequences of 14 species. Comparing with its CDS and the structure of protein conservative within species, it comes to relative diversity in Hsf2 for nucleotide among species. The amino acid sequences of Hsf2 presented hydrophilic,theoretical PI was less than 7 mostly. The nature of polypeptide was acid and the instability index of polypeptide was between 51. 90 and 58. 13,indicating that the polypeptide was not stable.%采用比较基因组学和生物信息学方法,分析了人、黑猩猩、长臂猿、猕猴、狨、欧洲兔、大熊猫、野猪、牛、非洲象、褐家鼠、小家鼠、荷兰猪和灰仓鼠共14个物种的热休克转录因子2(或称热激因子2,heat shock transcription factor 2,HSF2)基因编码区(CDS)的遗传多样性,并对该基因的氨基酸序列、组成成分等进行预测和推断.结果表明,在来自14个物种的40条基因序列中共检测到多态位点数203个,其中有单一多态位点68个,百分率约为9.81%,检测到单体型17种,Hsf2基因CDS在种内表现较为保守,种间则表现有较丰富的遗传多样性.Hsf2的氨基酸序列表现为亲水性,理论等电点大多小于7,表现为酸性;肽链的不稳定系数在51.90~58.13,表明多肽不稳定.

  13. Terrestrial environments during MIS 11: evidence from the Palaeolithic site at West Stow, Suffolk, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, R. C.; Parfitt, S. A.; Bridgland, D. R.; Lewis, S. G.; Rowe, P. J.; Atkinson, T. C.; Candy, I.; Debenham, N. C.; Penkman, K. E. H.; Rhodes, E. J.; Schwenninger, J.-L.; Griffiths, H. I.; Whittaker, J. E.; Gleed-Owen, C.

    2007-05-01

    Multidisciplinary investigations of the sequence at Beeches Pit, West Stow (Suffolk, UK), have a direct bearing the age of the Hoxnian Interglacial and its correlation with the continental Holsteinian and with the global marine record. At this site, glacial deposits (till and outwash gravels) referable to the Anglian Lowestoft Formation fill a subglacial channel cut in Chalk bedrock. Above these glacial deposits a series of interglacial sediments occurs, consisting of limnic, tufaceous and colluvial silts, lacking pollen but rich in shells, ostracods and vertebrates. Lower Palaeolithic flint artefacts of Acheulian character have also been recovered, including refitting examples. Charred material is abundant at certain horizons and many of the bones have been burned. Several discrete areas of burnt sediment are interpreted as hearths. The molluscan fauna comprises some 78 taxa and includes species of considerable zoogeographical and biostratigraphical importance. The land snail assemblage from the tufa consists of woodland taxa with no modern analogue, including species that are either extinct (e.g. Zonitoides sepultus) or which no longer live in Britain (e.g. Platyla polita, P. similis, Neniatlanta pauli). This is also the type locality of Retinella ( Lyrodiscus) skertchlyi, which belongs to a subgenus of zonitid land snail now living only on the Canary Islands. There are indications from this fauna ('the Lyrodiscus biome') that the climate was wetter and perhaps warmer than the present day. The vertebrate fauna is also noteworthy with species of open habitats, such as rabbit ( Oryctolagus cf . cuniculus), and of closed forest, such as squirrel ( Sciurus sp.) and garden dormouse ( Eliomys quercinus) present at different times. The occurrence of southern thermophiles, such as Aesculapian snake ( Zamenis longissimus), indicates temperatures warmer than those of eastern England today. The upper levels include much material reworked from the interglacial sediments

  14. 昆明鼠白细胞介素-15基因的克隆与序列分析%Cloning and Sequence Analysis of IL-15 Gene of Chinese KM Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李中原; 李佳缘; 周东辉; 朱兴全; 陈佳

    2012-01-01

    参照GenBank登录的小家鼠(Mus musculus)白细胞介素-15基因序列设计引物,利用RT-PCR技术对刚地弓形虫RH株诱导昆明(KM)鼠72 h后的脾细胞进行扩增,克隆得到了KM鼠的成熟IL-15核苷酸序列.经测序分析发现,KM鼠成熟IL-15序列长度为345 bp,编码114个氨基酸,与小家鼠IL-15序列相似性达到100%.序列比对和遗传进化分析表明,KM鼠成熟IL-15序列与挪威鼠亲缘关系较近,核苷酸和氨基酸序列相似性分别为94.2%和95.5%;与土拨鼠、人、灵长类、兔、犬、猫、牛、野猪等哺乳动物亲缘关系相对较远,核苷酸和氨基酸序列相似性分别为71.2%~78.8%和69.5%~74.7%;与珍珠鸟、非洲蟾蜍和斑马鱼亲缘关系最远,核苷酸和氨基酸序列相似性分别为6.1%~50.9%和16.1%~32.5%.KM鼠IL-15基因的成功克隆为进一步研究其功能及免疫增强作用奠定了基础.%According to IL-15 gene sequence of Mus musculus available in GenBank database, specific primers were designed and synthesized. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method, mature IL-15 sequence was amplified from the spleen cells of Kunming (KM) mice stimulated for 72 h by Toxoplasma gondii RH strain, then cloned into pMD18-T vector and transformed into the competent Escherichia coli JM109 for obtaining the positive clone and sequenced. Sequencing analysis revealed that the length of mature IL-15 of KM mice was 345 bp, encoding 114 amino acids. The results of sequence alignment and genetic evolution analysis showed that the KM mice mature IL-15 sequence was the closest to Norvegi-cus rattus , and the homologies of nucleotide and amino acid sequence were 94. 2% and 95. 5% respectively. Sequence similarity between the KM mice mature IL-15 sequence and that of Cavia porcellus , human, primates, Oryctolagus cuniculus, dog, cat. Bos taurus, Sus scrofa etc. , and the nucleotide hotnology ranged between 71.2% to 78. 8% , and

  15. Prokaryotic Expression of the Soluble Cry2Ab Protein from Bacillus thuringiensis and Preparation of the Polyclonal Antibody Against Cry2Ab%苏云金杆菌Cry2Ab可溶蛋白的原核表达及多克隆抗体的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵恩斯; 林莉; 关雄

    2013-01-01

    Cry2Ab toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis is a toxic protein, which is wildly used in controlling lepidopteran pest in agricultural production. In this research, the cry2A b gene (1 914 bp) was amplified from total DNA of B. Thuringiensis WB9 strain by a pair of primer designed by the full-length sequence of published crylAb gene. Then, cry2Ab was ligated with linearized pGEX-KG vector by restriction enzyme BamH Ⅰ and Xho Ⅰ for the construction of cry2Ab-pk expression vector. The soluble Cry2Ab-GST fusion protein (approximately 90 kD) was obtained after transferring Cry2Ab-PK expression vector into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and then inducing by 0.8 mmol/L IPTG at 16℃ for 36 h. Total soluble protein was purified by batch purification and GST tag was removed by the use of prescission protease to obtain soluble Cry2Ab protein (approximately 65 kD). Polyclonal antibody against Cry2Ab was produced by immunizing the purified Cry2Ab to New Zealand white rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) after three times of intramuscular injection and one time of intravenous injection. The titter of antibody was over 1:150 000, measured by indirect ELISA. Specificity of the prepared antibody was determined by Western blot, showing that the polyclonal antibody against the Cry2Aa or Cry2Ab protein was positive and the antibody against Cry1Ab or Cry3Aa protein was negative. These results indicated that antibody against Cry2Ab protein can specifically identify Cry2A protein but cannot identify other three domains Cry protein including CrylAb and Cry3Aa. These results will provide technical support for further study of Cry2A toxins mechanism and the interaction between Cry2A toxins and its receptors.%苏云金杆菌Cry2Ab蛋白是一类对鳞翅目昆虫有特异性毒性作用的毒素蛋白,已广泛应用于针对鳞翅目害虫的防治之中.依据苏云金杆菌cry2Ab基因序列设计一对全长引物,从苏云金杆菌(Bacillus thuringiensis WB9菌株总DNA中克隆出cry2Ab

  16. Myxoma virus M-T7, a secreted homolog of the interferon-gamma receptor, is a critical virulence factor for the development of myxomatosis in European rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossman, K; Nation, P; Macen, J; Garbutt, M; Lucas, A; McFadden, G

    1996-01-01

    Myxoma virus is a leporipoxvirus of New World rabbits (Sylvilagus sp.) that induces a rapidly lethal infection known as myxomatosis in the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Like all poxviruses, myxoma virus encodes a plethora of proteins to circumvent or inhibit a variety of host antiviral immune mechanisms. M-T7, the most abundantly secreted protein of myxoma virus-infected cells, was originally identified as an interferon-gamma receptor homolog (Upton, Mossman, and McFadden, Science 258, 1369-1372, 1992). Here, we demonstrate that M-T7 is dispensable for virus replication in cultured cells but is a critical virulence factor for virus pathogenesis in European rabbits. Disruption of both copies of the M-T7 gene in myxoma virus was achieved by the deletion of 372 bp of M-T7 coding sequences, replacement with a selectable marker, p7.5Ecogpt, and selection of a recombinant virus (vMyxlac-T7gpt) resistant to mycophenolic acid. vMyxlac-T7gpt expressed no detectable M-T7 protein and infected cells supernatants were devoid of any detectable interferon-gamma binding activities. Immunohistochemical staining with anti-beta-galactosidase and anti-CD43 antibodies demonstrated that in vMyxlac-T7gpt-infected rabbits the loss of M-T7 not only caused a dramatic reduction in disease symptoms and viral dissemination to secondary sites, but also dramatically influenced host leukocyte behavior. Notably, primary lesions in wild-type virus infections were generally underlayed by large masses of inflammatory cells that did not effectively migrate into the dermal sites of viral replication, whereas in vMyxlac-T7gpt infections this apparent block to leukocyte influx was relieved. A second major phenotypic distinction noted for the M-T7 knockout virus was the extensive activation of lymphocytes in secondary immune organs, particularly the spleen and lymph nodes, by Day 4 of the infection. This is in stark contrast to infection by wild-type myxoma virus, which results in relatively

  17. The current status and future directions of myxoma virus, a master in immune evasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiesschaert Bart

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Myxoma virus (MYXV gained importance throughout the twentieth century because of the use of the highly virulent Standard Laboratory Strain (SLS by the Australian government in the attempt to control the feral Australian population of Oryctolagus cuniculus (European rabbit and the subsequent illegal release of MYXV in Europe. In the European rabbit, MYXV causes a disease with an exceedingly high mortality rate, named myxomatosis, which is passively transmitted by biting arthropod vectors. MYXV still has a great impact on European rabbit populations around the world. In contrast, only a single cutaneous lesion, restricted to the point of inoculation, is seen in its natural long-term host, the South-American Sylvilagus brasiliensis and the North-American S. Bachmani. Apart from being detrimental for European rabbits, however, MYXV has also become of interest in human medicine in the last two decades for two reasons. Firstly, due to the strong immune suppressing effects of certain MYXV proteins, several secreted virus-encoded immunomodulators (e.g. Serp-1 are being developed to treat systemic inflammatory syndromes such as cardiovascular disease in humans. Secondly, due to the inherent ability of MYXV to infect a broad spectrum of human cancer cells, the live virus is also being developed as an oncolytic virotherapeutic to treat human cancer. In this review, an update will be given on the current status of MYXV in rabbits as well as its potential in human medicine in the twenty-first century. Table of contents Abstract 1. The virus 2. History 3. Pathogenesis and disease symptoms 4. Immunomodulatory proteins of MYXV 4.1. MYXV proteins with anti-apoptotic functions 4.1.1. Inhibition of pro-apoptotic molecules 4.1.2. Inhibition by protein-protein interactions by ankyrin repeat viral proteins 4.1.3. Inhibition of apoptosis by enhancing the degradation of cellular proteins 4.1.4. Inhibition of apoptosis by blocking host Protein Kinase R (PKR 4

  18. Structures and Functions Prediction and Expression Profiles of Calreticulin as Calcium Binding Chaperones in Chicken%鸡钙离子结合分子伴侣Calreticulin的结构与功能预测及组织表达特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽丽; 李楠; 曹嫦妤; 龚都强; 于东; 王伟; 李金龙

    2014-01-01

    内的终端非还原性α-L-阿拉伯呋喃糖苷残基的水解,作用于α-L-阿拉伯呋喃糖苷、含(1,3)和/或(1,5)糖苷键的阿拉伯聚糖、阿拉伯木聚糖和阿拉伯半乳聚糖,能与糖类分子及Ca2+特异性结合,可监控糖蛋白组装折叠及Ca2+调控,且在消化系统中发挥重要作用。%[Objective] The aim of the current study is to reveal the evolutionary relationships, and investigate the protein structure and functions and the expression profiles of calreticulin (CRT) as a key Ca2+ binding molecular chaperone within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of chicken.[Method]The nucleotides and amino acids of CRT in 12 species of vertebrates recorded in Gene bank were analyzed for evolutionary relationships by Laser Gene, and the structures and functions of CRT protein in chicken were predicted by bioinformatics, and the expression profiles of CRT in 30 organizations of chicken was analyzed by real-time PCR.[Result]Results of homology analysis showed that compared with the other 11 species of nucleotide sequences of CRT gene in chicken, gallus gallus and oryctolagus cuniculus had the highest nucleotide sequence homology, which was 78.7%, in addition, gallus gallus and oncorhynchus mykiss had the lowest homology, which was 70.5%. In the homology of amino acid sequences, the relationship between gallus gallus and crotalus adamanteus cadam is the closest by 85.0%, and the furthest relationships with gallus gallus is oncorhynchus mykiss which was 69.0% in amino acid sequence, besides, the homology of gallus gallus with cricetulus griseus, macaca mulatta, homo sapiens, oryctolagus cuniculus, sus scrofa, bos taurus, and xenopus (silurana) tropicalisis relatively close to almost above 80.1%. The protein structure and function prediction revealed that the CRT of chicken was constitute with 404 amino acids, and had a relative molecular mass of 46.8802 kD and a theoretical isoelectric point of 4.41, moreover, the negative charge

  19. El peso del conejo de monte criado en jaula

    OpenAIRE

    P. González-Redondo

    1997-01-01

    Live weights of 19 wild rabbits (Orycrolagus cuniculus) reared in cages were measured and compared to the expected weights according to the growth curve followed by the wild rabbits growing in a natural environment. The results obtained, show that the rearing in captivity does not produces an increase in live weight of the wil rabbit. Los pesos de 19 conejos de monte (Orycrolagus cuniculus) criados en jaula fueron medidos y comparados con los pesos esperados segun una curva de crecimiento ...

  20. problems and prospects of rabbit production in nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    with the rabbits being fed on crop residues, weeds, waste fruits, vegetables and poultry droppings. The manure can .... descendants of the European wild rabbit, Oryctolagus ... most popular in commercial rabbit industries in the .... and a water supply for cleaning purposes (Aduku and ..... Journal of Biotechnology, 2:6 34-39.

  1. 家蚕乳糖酶-根皮苷水解酶基因BmLPH014192的表达和序列选择性剪接分析%Expression and Sequence Alternative Splicing Analysis of the Lactase-phlorizin Hydrolase Gene BmLPH014192 in Bombyx mori

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄飞飞; 赵小靓; 鲁成

    2013-01-01

    Lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LPH) is a giycoprotein in microvillus membrane of the intestinal epithelial cell. It has hydrolytic activity to lactose and phlorizin. We identified one of the silkworm (Bombyx mori) LPH genes and named it as BmLPH014192. CDS (coding sequence) of this gene is 1 305 bp long and encodes 434 amino acids, with predicted molecular weight of 50. 8 kD and isoelectric point of 5. 35. An alignment of the cDNA sequence with silkworm genom-ic sequence revealed that there are 7 exons in BmLPH 014192 and all of the exon/intron boundaries conformed to the GT-AG rule. Sequence comparison between BmLPH 014192 and LPH genes from other species including Homo sapiens, Rattus norvegicus and Oryctolagus cuniculus of mammal and Drosophila melanogaster, Anopheles gambiae, Chilo suppressalis, Camponotus floridanus and Danaus plexippus of insect revealed that their amino acids all shared about 60% similarity. Phylogenetic analysis showed that BmLPH014192 was clustered with other insect LPH genes. Microarray analyzing results indicated that BmLPHO14192 was expressed only in midgut among 9 tissues of day 3 silkworm larvae of the 5th instar, and the expression level was very high. Fragments amplified from midgut cDNAs of Dazao, a variety spinning green cocoons, and of 19-710, a variety spinning white cocoons, were 1 000 and 750 bp long respectively, indicating their origination from alternative splicing. No specific band was amplified from midgut of other white cocoon species. It is suggested that the special expression pattern of BmLPH 014192 is related to the specific function of this gene in midgut tissues of different silkworm varieties.%乳糖酶-根皮苷水解酶(lactase-phlorizin hydrolase,LPH)是肠组织上皮细胞微绒膜上的一种糖蛋白,对乳糖和根皮苷有水解活性.鉴定了家蚕基因组中的一个LPH基因,命名为BmLPH014192.该基因CDS长1 305 bp,编码434个氨基酸,预测蛋白质分子质量为50.8 kD,等电点(pI)为5.35.

  2. TMFunction data: 1174 [TMFunction[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cuniculus Rabbit Pajor AM, Kahn ES, Gangula R. Biochem J. 2000 Sep 15;350 Pt 3:677-83. site directed mutagen...esis 138 Uptake (%) succinate transport ... S13A2_RABIT (Q28615) Helix ... citrate; mutagenesis; sodium; succinate; Xenopus ooctyes

  3. TMFunction data: 1190 [TMFunction[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cuniculus Rabbit Pajor AM, Kahn ES, Gangula R. Biochem J. 2000 Sep 15;350 Pt 3:677-83. site directed mutagen...esis 14939 Vmax (pmol/h per oocyte) succinate transport ... S13A2_RABIT (Q28615) Helix ... citrate; mutagenesis; sodium; succinate; Xenopus ooctyes

  4. TMFunction data: 1176 [TMFunction[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cuniculus Rabbit Pajor AM, Kahn ES, Gangula R. Biochem J. 2000 Sep 15;350 Pt 3:677-83. site directed mutagen...esis 150 Uptake (%) succinate transport ... S13A2_RABIT (Q28615) Helix ... citrate; mutagenesis; sodium; succinate; Xenopus ooctyes

  5. TMFunction data: 1170 [TMFunction[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cuniculus Rabbit Pajor AM, Kahn ES, Gangula R. Biochem J. 2000 Sep 15;350 Pt 3:677-83. site directed mutagen...esis 78 Uptake (%) succinate transport ... S13A2_RABIT (Q28615) Helix ... citrate; mutagenesis; sodium; succinate; Xenopus ooctyes

  6. TMFunction data: 1173 [TMFunction[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cuniculus Rabbit Pajor AM, Kahn ES, Gangula R. Biochem J. 2000 Sep 15;350 Pt 3:677-83. site directed mutagen...esis 81 Uptake (%) succinate transport ... S13A2_RABIT (Q28615) Helix ... citrate; mutagenesis; sodium; succinate; Xenopus ooctyes

  7. TMFunction data: 1189 [TMFunction[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cuniculus Rabbit Pajor AM, Kahn ES, Gangula R. Biochem J. 2000 Sep 15;350 Pt 3:677-83. site directed mutagen...esis 14745 Vmax (pmol/h per oocyte) succinate transport ... S13A2_RABIT (Q28615) Helix ... citrate; mutagenesis; sodium; succinate; Xenopus ooctyes

  8. TMFunction data: 1184 [TMFunction[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cuniculus Rabbit Pajor AM, Kahn ES, Gangula R. Biochem J. 2000 Sep 15;350 Pt 3:677-83. site directed mutagen...esis 408 Km (microM) succinate transport ... S13A2_RABIT (Q28615) Helix ... citrate; mutagenesis; sodium; succinate; Xenopus ooctyes

  9. TMFunction data: 1191 [TMFunction[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cuniculus Rabbit Pajor AM, Kahn ES, Gangula R. Biochem J. 2000 Sep 15;350 Pt 3:677-83. site directed mutagen...esis 9361 Vmax (pmol/h per oocyte) succinate transport ... S13A2_RABIT (Q28615) Helix ... citrate; mutagenesis; sodium; succinate; Xenopus ooctyes

  10. TMFunction data: 1183 [TMFunction[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cuniculus Rabbit Pajor AM, Kahn ES, Gangula R. Biochem J. 2000 Sep 15;350 Pt 3:677-83. site directed mutagen...esis 524 Km (microM) succinate transport ... S13A2_RABIT (Q28615) Helix ... citrate; mutagenesis; sodium; succinate; Xenopus ooctyes

  11. TMFunction data: 1178 [TMFunction[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cuniculus Rabbit Pajor AM, Kahn ES, Gangula R. Biochem J. 2000 Sep 15;350 Pt 3:677-83. site directed mutagen...esis 176 Km (microM) succinate transport ... S13A2_RABIT (Q28615) Helix ... citrate; mutagenesis; sodium; succinate; Xenopus ooctyes

  12. TMFunction data: 1192 [TMFunction[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cuniculus Rabbit Pajor AM, Kahn ES, Gangula R. Biochem J. 2000 Sep 15;350 Pt 3:677-83. site directed mutagen...esis 10810 Vmax (pmol/h per oocyte) succinate transport ... S13A2_RABIT (Q28615) Helix ... citrate; mutagenesis; sodium; succinate; Xenopus ooctyes

  13. TMFunction data: 1181 [TMFunction[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cuniculus Rabbit Pajor AM, Kahn ES, Gangula R. Biochem J. 2000 Sep 15;350 Pt 3:677-83. site directed mutagen...esis 577 Km (microM) succinate transport ... S13A2_RABIT (Q28615) Helix ... citrate; mutagenesis; sodium; succinate; Xenopus ooctyes

  14. TMFunction data: 1175 [TMFunction[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cuniculus Rabbit Pajor AM, Kahn ES, Gangula R. Biochem J. 2000 Sep 15;350 Pt 3:677-83. site directed mutagen...esis 96 Uptake (%) succinate transport ... S13A2_RABIT (Q28615) Helix ... citrate; mutagenesis; sodium; succinate; Xenopus ooctyes

  15. TMFunction data: 1172 [TMFunction[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cuniculus Rabbit Pajor AM, Kahn ES, Gangula R. Biochem J. 2000 Sep 15;350 Pt 3:677-83. site directed mutagen...esis 9 Uptake (%) succinate transport ... S13A2_RABIT (Q28615) Helix ... citrate; mutagenesis; sodium; succinate; Xenopus ooctyes

  16. TMFunction data: 1179 [TMFunction[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cuniculus Rabbit Pajor AM, Kahn ES, Gangula R. Biochem J. 2000 Sep 15;350 Pt 3:677-83. site directed mutagen...esis 216 Km (microM) succinate transport ... S13A2_RABIT (Q28615) Helix ... citrate; mutagenesis; sodium; succinate; Xenopus ooctyes

  17. TMFunction data: 1169 [TMFunction[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cuniculus Rabbit Pajor AM, Kahn ES, Gangula R. Biochem J. 2000 Sep 15;350 Pt 3:677-83. site directed mutagen...esis 109 Uptake (%) succinate transport ... S13A2_RABIT (Q28615) Helix ... citrate; mutagenesis; sodium; succinate; Xenopus ooctyes

  18. TMFunction data: 1182 [TMFunction[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cuniculus Rabbit Pajor AM, Kahn ES, Gangula R. Biochem J. 2000 Sep 15;350 Pt 3:677-83. site directed mutagen...esis 466 Km (microM) succinate transport ... S13A2_RABIT (Q28615) Helix ... citrate; mutagenesis; sodium; succinate; Xenopus ooctyes

  19. TMFunction data: 1187 [TMFunction[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cuniculus Rabbit Pajor AM, Kahn ES, Gangula R. Biochem J. 2000 Sep 15;350 Pt 3:677-83. site directed mutagenesis... 1842 Vmax (pmol/h per oocyte) succinate transport ... S13A2_RABIT (Q28615) Helix ... citrate; mutagenesis; sodium; succinate; Xenopus ooctyes

  20. Can breathing circuit filters help prevent the spread of influenza A (H1N1) virus from intubated patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Jan F; Crozier, Thomas A; Howard, Glenn; Quintel, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Zielsetzung: Im März 2010 berichteten weltweit mehr als 213 Länder über laborchemisch bestätigte Influenza H1N1-Infektionen mit mindestens 16.813 Toten. In einigen Ländern wurden rund 10 bis 30% der hospitalisierten Patienten auf eine Intensivstation aufgenommen und bis zu 70% dieser Patienten benötigten eine mechanische Beatmung. Es stellt sich die Frage, ob Beatmungsfilter in der Lage sind Viruspartikel von einem infizierten Patienten daran zu hindern, das Beatmungsgerät sowie die Raumluft zu kontaminieren. Wir untersuchten Filter, die routinemäßig in unserer Abteilung benutzt werden, auf ihre Wirksamkeit und Effizienz hinsichtlich des Influenza Virus H1N1 (A/PR/8/34)). Methoden: Laboruntersuchungen von drei Filtern (PALL Ultipor(®) 25, Ultipor(®) 100 und Pall BB50T Beatmungsfilter, hergestellt von Pall Life Sciences) unter Verwendung eines monodispersen Aerosols von Influenza A (H1N1) Virus in einem Luftströmungsmodel mit Viruspartikeln quantifiziert als zytopathologische Effekte in kultivierten Kaninchen-Nierenzellen (MDCK). Ergebnisse: Die initiale Viruslast von 7.74±0.27 log10 wurde hinter den Filtern auf eine Viruslast von ≤2.43 log10 reduziert. Dieses Ergebnis entspricht einer Virusfiltration von ≥99.9995%.Schlussfolgerung: Die drei getesteten Filter verhinderten eine Ausbreitung des Virus, es deutet also daraufhin, dass die Verwendung dieser Filter das Risiko einer Virusübertragung von intubierten und beatmeten Patienten an das Beatmungsgerät und die Raumluft reduzieren kann.

  1. Bone morphology of the hind limbs in two caviomorph rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, F A P; Sesoko, N F; Rahal, S C; Teixeira, C R; Müller, T R; Machado, M R F

    2013-04-01

    In order to evaluate the hind limbs of caviomorph rodents a descriptive analysis of the Cuniculus paca (Linnaeus, 1766) and Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766) was performed using anatomical specimens, radiography, computed tomography (CT) and full-coloured prototype models to generate bone anatomy data. The appendicular skeleton of the two largest rodents of Neotropical America was compared with the previously reported anatomical features of Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout, 1769) and domestic Cavia porcellus (Linnaeus, 1758). The structures were analyzed macroscopically and particular findings of each species reported. Features including the presence of articular fibular projection and lunulae were observed in the stifle joint of all rodents. Imaging aided in anatomical description and, specifically in the identification of bone structures in Cuniculus paca and Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris. The imaging findings were correlated with the anatomical structures observed. The data may be used in future studies comparing these animals to other rodents and mammalian species.

  2. Bioadhesive agents in addition to oral contrast media - evaluation in an animal model; Evaluierung der Wirkung bioadhaesiver Substanzen als Zugabe zu oralen Kontrastmitteln - eine experimentelle Studie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, R.; Schneider, G.; Textor, J.; Schild, H.H. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Bonn (Germany); Fimmers, R. [Universitaetsklinik Bonn (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Statistik und Datenverarbeitung; Sachse, A. [Schering AG, Berlin (Germany)

    1998-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the additional effect of bioadhesives in combination with iotrolan and barium as oral contrast media in an animal model. Method: The bioadhesives Noveon, CMC, Tylose and Carbopol 934 were added to iotrolan and barium. The solutions were administered to rabbits by a feeding tube. The animals were investigated by computed tomography (CT) and radiography after 0,5, 4, 12, 24 and in part after 48 hours. Mucosal coating and contrast filling of the bowel were evaluated. Results: Addition of bioadhesives to oral contrast media effected long-term contrast in the small intestine and colon, but no improvement in continuous filling and coating of the gastrointestinal tract was detected. Mucosal coating was seen only in short regions of the caecum and small intestine. In CT the best results for coating were observed with tylose and CMC, in radiography additionally with carbopol and noveon. All contrast medium solutions were well tolerated. Conclusion: The evaluated contrast medium solutions with bioadhesives have shown long-term contrast but no improvement in coating in comparison to conventional oral contrast media. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Pruefung der Wirkung von bioadhaesiven Substanzen als Zugabe zu den oralen Kontrastmitteln (KM) Iotrolan und Barium im Tierexperiment. Methode: Die bioadhaesiven Substanzen Noveon, Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), Tylose und Carbopol 934 wurden Iotrolan-Loesungen und Bariumsulfatsuspensionen beigemischt und anschliessend 30 Kaninchen ueber Magensonde verabreicht. In der Spiral-CT und Radiographie wurden die Tiere nach 0,5, 4, 12, 24 und teilweise nach 48 Stunden untersucht und hinsichtlich Schleimhautbeschlag und kontinuierlicher KM-Fuellung bewertet. Ergebnisse: Die Zugabe adhaesiver Stubstanzen beguenstigte eine langanhaltende Kontrastierung von Duenn- und Dickdarm. Es konnte jedoch weder eine vollstaendige Kontrastierung noch ein durchgehender Beschlag des gesamten Gastrointestinaltraktes bewirkt werden. Ein

  3. AcEST: BP918425 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available n C region (Fragment) OS=Heterodontus francisci Align length 54 Score (bit) 33.1 ... chain C region (Fragment) OS=Heterodontus francisci PE=2 SV=1 Length = 370 Score = 29.6 bits (65), Expect =...GYDAEVGCQACNCSLVGSTHHRCDVVTGHCQCKSKFGGRAC 1074 >sp|P23087|HVCS_HETFR Ig heavy chain C region, secreted form OS=Heterodontus... heavy chain C region, membrane-bound form OS=Heterodontus francisci PE=4 SV=1 Length = 461 Score = 29.3 bit...BG_RABIT Sex hormone-binding globulin OS=Oryctolagus... 29 8.3 >sp|P23085|HVC2_HETFR Ig heavy chain C region (Fragment) OS=Heterodont

  4. Estudio experimental de la osteosustitución con biomateriales cerámicos formulados como cementos óseos Experimental study of the bone substitution with ceramic biomaterials formulated as bone cements

    OpenAIRE

    Sanzana, E. S.; Ginebra, M.P.; P A Torres; J A Planell; Navarro, M. E.

    2007-01-01

    Los biomateriales cerámicos presentan interesantes propiedades biológicas, por lo que pueden ser utilizados en la sustitución ósea. En este estudio fueron comparados dos cementos óseos de fosfato de calcio con el autoinjerto óseo esponjoso. Se realizó un defecto cavitario de 6 mm en la metáfisis femoral distal derecha de 36 conejos machos Oryctolagus cuniculi. Los animales fueron divididos en 3 grupos de 12 conejos, que recibieron como implantes cemento de fosfato a tricálcico (TPC), cemento ...

  5. Primera identificación de Echinococcus vogeli en una paca en la provincia de Misiones, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Vizcaychipi, Katherina A.; Helou, Marcia; Dematteo, Karen; Macchiaroli, Natalia; Cucher, Marcela Alejandra; Rosenzvit, Mara Cecilia; D'Alessandro, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We report the fi rst fi nding of Echinococcus vogeli in a paca, Cuniculus paca, in the tropical forest of Misiones, in the north of Argentina. The presence of the bush dog, Speothos venaticus, E. vogeli´s only natural defi nitive host, was also reported. The polycystic hydatids, 2 to 3 cm in diameter, were only found in the liver of an adult paca. The size range of the hooks and the relative proportion blade/handle did not show signif...

  6. Animal Species Identification by PCR – RFLP of Cytochrome b

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Minarovič

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available An alternative DNA detection system is based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification of a segment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Subsequent cleavage by a restriction enzymes gives rise to a specie-specific pattern on an agarose gel. We used five animal species (Mustela vison, Mustela putorius furo, Sus scrofa domesticus, Oryctolagus cuninculus, Anser anser. Length of PCR product was 359 bp and we used universal primers. Restriction fragment length polymorphism was analyzed by using the restriction endonuclease AluI. Results of cleavage were visualized by using electrophoresis and UV transiluminator. Every animal specie has a unique combination of restriction fragments i.e. Mustela vison 81 bp, 109 bp and 169 bp, Mustela putorius furo 169 bp and 190 bp, Sus scrofa domesticus 115 bp and 244 bp, Oryctolagus cunninculus is not cleaved by AluI so it has whole 359 bp fragment on agarose gel, Anser anser 130 bp and 229 bp. The results suggest that the method of PCR - RFLP is rapid and simple method for identification of species. PCR – RFLP can reliably identify chosen species. Application of genetic methods is very useful for breeding of livestock and protection of biodiversity.

  7. Is there a difference between hare syphilis and rabbit syphilis? Cross infection experiments between rabbits and hares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumeij, Johannes T; Mikalová, Lenka; Smajs, David

    2013-05-31

    Cross infection of rabbits and hares with Treponema paraluiscuniculi from rabbits and the related microorganism from hares, which was provisionally named "Treponema paraluisleporis", revealed that T. paraluiscuniculi affects rabbits clinically, but only causes seroconversion in hares without causing clinical disease, while "T. paraluisleporis" induces disease in both rabbits and hares. The 16S rRNA gene of "T. paraluisleporis" was sequenced (GenBank acc. no. JX899416) and compared to the sequence of T. paraluiscuniculi strain Cuniculi A. A phylogenetic tree based on the sequence alignment of 2002 bp taken from several treponemal strains was constructed. Both "T. paraluisleporis" and T. paraluiscuniculi are clustered together indicating their common origin. The close phylogenetic relatedness of both representatives supports the conclusion that subspecies or ecovar status should be given to these strains rather than species status. A more appropriate species name might be Treponema paraluisleporidarum. The genitive refers to the nominative Leporidae (family of rabbits and hares). The naturally occurring strain in rabbits would than be T. paraluisleporidarum ecovar Cuniculus and the strain from hares T. paraluisleporidarum ecovar Lepus. Since the former seems to have fewer physiological hosts, ecovar Lepus may represent an evolutionary ancestor of ecovar Cuniculus.

  8. New mammalian records in the Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape, northwestern Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy M. Hurtado

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Pacific Tropical Rainforest and Equatorial Dry Forest are found only in southern Ecuador and northern Peru, and are among the most poorly known ecosystems of South America. Even though these forests are protected in Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape (PNCA, they are threatened by fragmentation because of farming and agriculture. The aim of this study was to determine the medium and large mammalian species richness, using transect census, camera trapping, and specimen bone collection. Nine transects were established and 21 camera trap stations were placed along 16 km2 in three localities of PNCA, from August 2012 to April 2013. Total sampling effort was 215 km of transects and 4077 camera-days. We documented 22 species; including 17 with camera trapping, 11 with transect census, and 10 with specimen collection.  Camera traps were the most effective method, and four species (Dasyprocta punctata, Cuniculus paca, Leopardus wiedii and Puma concolor were documented only with this method. This comprised the first Peruvian record for Dasyprocta punctata, and the first record for the western slope of the Peruvian Andes for Cuniculus paca. Also, both specimen collections and sightings confirm the presence of Potos flavus, first record in the western slope of the Peruvian Andes. Panthera onca, Tremarctos ornatus and Saimiri sciureus are considered locally extinct, while several species are in need of further research. We highlight the importance of the high diversity of this rainforests and encourage local authorities to give the area the highest priority in conservation.

  9. Novel piroplasmid and Hepatozoon organisms infecting the wildlife of two regions of the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert S. Soares

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available During 2009–2012, wild animals were sampled in two areas within the Amazon biome of Brazil, in the states of Mato Grosso and Pará. Animal tissues and blood were molecularly tested for the presence of Piroplasmida (genera Babesia, Theileria, Cytauxzoon or Hepatozoon DNA. Overall, 181 wild animals comprising 36 different species (2 reptiles, 5 birds, and 29 mammals were sampled. The following Piroplasmida agents were detected: Cytauxzoon felis in one ocelot (Leopardus pardalis, Theileria cervi in two red brocket deer (Mazama americana, Theileria spp. in three nine-banded-armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus, one agouti (Dasyprocta sp., and four lowland pacas (Cuniculus paca, Babesia spp. in one common opossum (Didelphis marsupialis and one white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari. The following Hepatozoon agents were detected: Hepatozoon sp. (possibly Hepatozoon caimani in three spectacled caimans (Caiman crocodilus, Hepatozoon felis in an ocelot (Leopardus pardalis, and Hepatozoon spp. in one scorpion mud turtle (Kinosternon scorpioides and one lowland paca (Cuniculus paca. Phylogenetic analyses inferred by the 18S rRNA gene partial sequences supported these results, highlighting at least five novel Piroplasmida agents, and two novel Hepatozoon agents. This study screened the presence of tick-borne protozoa in a number of wildlife species from the Amazon for the first time. Our results indicate that a variety of genetically distinct Piroplasmida and Hepatozoon organisms circulate under natural conditions in the Amazonian wildlife.

  10. Comparison of noninvasive MRT-procedures for the temperature measurement for the application during medical thermal therapies; Vergleich nichtinvasiver MRT-Verfahren zur Temperaturmessung fuer den Einsatz bei medizinischen Thermotherapien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rademaker, G.; Jenne, J.W.; Rastert, R.; Roeder, D.; Schad, L.R. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Abt. Biophysik und Medizinische Strahlenphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    {sub 1}, D, PRF) der MR-unterstuetzten Temperaturueberwachung. Die Messungen in idealen Phantomen wie Ultraschallgel zeigte in Uebereinstimmung mit der Literatur eine prozentuale Aenderung der T{sub 1}-Relaxationszeit von 1,98%/ C, des Diffusionskoeffizienten von 2,22%/ C und der PRF von-0,0101 ppm/ C. Aus der inversen Darstellung der Datensaetze ueber den gesamten Kalibrierungsbereich wurde die Temperaturaufloesung ermittelt (T{sub 1}: 2,1{+-}0,6 C; D: 0,93{+-}0,2 C; PRF: 1,4{+-}0,3 C). Die Diffusionsmethode und die PRF-Methode sind nicht in Fettgewebe anwendbar. Die Diffusionsmethode ist aufgrund einer verlaengerten Echozeit und der Anisotropie des Gewebes nur bedingt anwendbar. Es wird anhand eines Tierexperimentes (Kaninchen in vivo) dargestellt, dass Temperaturmonitoring fuer eine lokale Erwaermungskontrolle bei HIFU mittels T{sub 1}- und PRF-Verfahren moeglich ist und Applikatoren im MR-Tomographen zu keiner wesentlichen Beeintraechtigung der Bildqualitaet fuehren. (orig.)

  11. La inmunocromatografía para el diagnóstico de la infección por Taenia solium en Mesocricetus auratus mediante la detección de coproantígenos*

    OpenAIRE

    Hermes Escalante A; Obed Huamanchay C; Kelly Davelois A

    2001-01-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar la técnica de inmunocromatografía para el diagnóstico de la infección por Taenia solium en Mesocricetus auratus "hámsters" mediante la detección de coproantígenos. Materiales y métodos: Se produjo en Oryctolagus cunniculus "conejo" IgG anti-antígenos de excreción/secreción (ES) de T. solium y en Capra hircus "cabra" IgG anti-IgG de conejo. Parte de las IgG anti-antígenos ES de T. solium fue conjugado con oro coloidal. La inmunocromatografía se llevó a cabo utilizando tiras d...

  12. La inmunocromatografia para el diagnótico de la infección por Taenia solium en Mesocricetus auratus mediante la detección de coproantígenos

    OpenAIRE

    Escalante A, Hermes; Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional de Trujillo - Perú; Huamanchay C, Obed; Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional de Trujillo - Perú; Davelois A, Kelly; Centro de Análisis e Investigación Escalabs Trujillo - Perú

    2001-01-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar la técnica de inmunocromatografía para el diagnóstico de la infección por Taenia solium en Mesocricetusauratus “hámsters” mediante la detección de coproantígenos. Materiales y métodos: Se produjo en Oryctolagus cunniculus“conejo” IgG anti-antígenos de excreción/secreción (ES) de T. solium y en Capra hircus “cabra” IgG anti-IgG de conejo.Parte de las IgG anti-antígenos ES de T. solium fue conjugado con oro coloidal. La inmunocromatografía se llevó a caboutilizando tiras de ni...

  13. Rate of development of forensically-important Dipterain southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo F. Krüger

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dipteran larvae were collected from rabbit (Oryctolagus cunniculus L. carcasses during the four seasons in 2005 in the southernmost state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The larvae were fed ground beef at ambient temperatures following collection from carcasses. The development of each species under these conditions was estimated. The most abundant species in the carcasses were Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann and Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann (Calliphoridae, and they were found in all seasons. The data were fitted to a linear model that describes the relationship between temperature and linear developmental rating. These two species are primary forensic indicators in southern Brazil. Other species such as Hemilucilia semidiaphana (Rondani (Calliphoridae, Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp, Muscina stabulans (Fallen (Muscidae, and Fannia pusio (Wiedemann (Fanniidae were forensically less important because they only occurred in high frequency in certain seasons and during the first days of carcass decomposition.

  14. El yacimiento plioceno del Pozo de Piedrabuena (Campo de Calatrava, provincia de Ciudad Real. geología, paleontología y análisis paleoambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazo, A. V.

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a sedimentological palaeontological and paleontological analysis of the Piedrabuena Water Well paleontological site (Ciudad Real, Campo de Calatrava, Castilla-La Mancha, Spain. The fossil mammal remains were accumulated by means of a low efficiency transport fan system, with mass transport mechanisms, which filled the whole of the Piedrabuena Depression: a circular shaped basin sorrounded by Paleozoic rocks (quartzites and shales. Neogene sedimentation evolved towards expansive palustrine carbonate sediments towards the top of the unit. The faunal assemblage composed of Rodentia indet., cf. Oryctolagus sp., Felis cf. issiodorensis, Hyaena sp., Dicerorhinus cf. etruscus, Sus minor, Cervidae indet (big sized, Cervidae Indet. (small sized, Gazella borbonica> and Hippotraginae indet. This fauna is characteristic of the Ruscinian-Villafranchian transition.En este trabajo se analizan las características geológicas y paleontológicas del yacimiento del Pozo de Piedrabuena, Ciudad Real (Castilla-La Mancha, España. Este yacimiento se localiza en materiales transportados por abanicos aluviales de pequeño desarrollo, que colmatan la Depresión de Piedrabuena, rodeada por rocas paleozoicas (cuarcitas y pizarras. A techo de los depósitos hay una expansión de carbonatos palustres. La fauna encontrada ha sido la siguiente: Rodentia indet., cf. Oryctolagus sp., Felix cf. issiodorensis, Hyaena sp., Dicerorhinus cf. etruscus, Cervidae indet. (talla grande, Cervidae indet. (talla pequeña, Gazella borbonica, Hippotraginae indet., que permite situar el yacimiento en el tránsito Rusciniense-Villafranquiense. El análisis paleoambiental muestra la coexistencia de especies de bosque y de zonas abiertas, lo que coincide bien con la estratificación de la vegetación de la zona: rala en las áreas centrales palustres y mucho más desarrollada sobre los abanicos aluviales áridos de los bordes.

  15. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05260-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Synthetic construct Homo sapiens c... 38 0.11 NRL( 1AGP ) H-ras p21 protein mutant with gly 12 replace...s p21 protein mutant with gly 12 replaced by arg (... 38 0.11 BC086608_1( BC08660...lagus cuniculus H-RAS PROTO-ONCO... 38 0.11 NRL( 221P ) H-ras p21 protein mutant with asp 38 replaced by glu... |pid:none) Ashbya gossypii (= Eremothecium ... 38 0.11 NRL( 621P ) H-ras p21 protein mutant with gln 61 replace..... 38 0.11 NRL( 721P ) H-ras p21 protein mutant with gln 61 replaced by leu (... 38 0.11 NRL( 821P ) C-h-ras

  16. Taxonomic revision of Pseudolaelia Porto & Brade (Laeliinae, Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Menini Neto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pseudolaelia is a genus endemic to eastern Brazil. The species are often epiphytes on Velloziaceae or are saxicolous, predominantly on granitic and gneissic outcrops (inselbergs in the Atlantic Forest and, less often, in the campos rupestres (dry, rocky grasslands of the cerrado (savanna and caatinga (shrublands. The genus is characterized by homoblastic pseudobulbs, long rhizomes, long and usually slender inflorescences, racemes or panicles, bearing pink, yellow or whitish flowers, labellum often 3-lobed, with simple, fimbriate or erose margin, semi-cylindrical or claviform column, cuniculus present. Twelve species are recognized; seven binomials are placed in synonymy. Of those seven, three are considered illegitimate because, contrary to the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature guidelines, there are no corresponding type specimens deposited in a recognized herbarium, and those three were therefore lectotypified. We present descriptions of, illustrations of and a dichotomous key to Pseudolaelia species, as well as addressing their taxonomy, ecology, conservation and geographic distribution.

  17. [First report of Echinococcus vogeli in a paca in Misiones province, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizcaychipi, Katherina A; Helou, Marcia; Dematteo, Karen; Macchiaroli, Natalia; Cucher, Marcela; Rosenzvit, Mara; D'Alessandro, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    We report the first finding of Echinococcus vogeli in a paca, Cuniculus paca, in the tropical forest of Misiones, in the north of Argentina. The presence of the bush dog, Speothos venaticus, E. vogelís only natural definitive host, was also reported. The polycystic hydatids, 2 to 3 cm in diameter, were only found in the liver of an adult paca. The size range of the hooks and the relative proportion blade/handle did not show significant differences with respect to the ones reported for E. vogeli. The size of E. granulosus hooks, measured for comparison purposes, was significantly smaller (p E. vogeli in Argentina. The probability of finding neotropical echinococcosis in humans reinforces the need to expand the search for E. vogeli in Argentina. Echinococcosis due to E. vogeli is very aggressive and may cause death in about a third of the human population affected.

  18. AcEST: DK962178 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 40 0.009 sp|P14105|MYH9_CHICK Myosin-9 OS=Gallus gallus GN=MYH9 PE=2 SV=1 40 0.012 sp|Q5U2Y9|LCA5_RAT Leberc...MRQKHSQAIEELAEQLEQTK--RVKAN-LEKAKQALESERAELSNEVKV 1235 >sp|Q5U2Y9|LCA5_RAT Lebercilin OS=Rattus norvegicus G...gus cuniculus GN=TC... 38 0.044 sp|Q59037|SMC_METJA Chromosome partition protein smc homolog OS=... 38 0.044 sp|Q80ST9|LCA5_MOUSE Leb...ercilin OS=Mus musculus GN=Lca5 PE=2 SV=1 38 0.044 sp|P4

  19. Mammal Hunting in the Special Use Zone and Buffer Tingo Maria National Park, Huánuco, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorella Nasha Gonzales Guillén

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Between the months of August to November 2011 were conducted 42 semi-structured interviews to assess the hunting of mammals in areas of special purpose (ZUE and buffer (ZA National Park Tingo María surveys. The results indicate that 43% of the population practiced hunting as a secondary activity, the main smallholder agriculture. The methodology used for hunting are the "tramperas" while the hunting is often 2-3 times a month. Hunting is more common after the wet season, it is selective and responds to the taste of meat that an economic need. Among the most hunted mammals include agouti Dasyprocta sp. and picuro Cuniculus paca, while animals higher biomass as the peccary Pecari tajacu are rare in the area, so it is recommended to increase the control of hunting of vulnerable species in the villages which are inside and in the vicinity of the Park.

  20. Estudio experimental de la osteosustitución con biomateriales cerámicos formulados como cementos óseos Experimental study of the bone substitution with ceramic biomaterials formulated as bone cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E S Sanzana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Los biomateriales cerámicos presentan interesantes propiedades biológicas, por lo que pueden ser utilizados en la sustitución ósea. En este estudio fueron comparados dos cementos óseos de fosfato de calcio con el autoinjerto óseo esponjoso. Se realizó un defecto cavitario de 6 mm en la metáfisis femoral distal derecha de 36 conejos machos Oryctolagus cuniculi. Los animales fueron divididos en 3 grupos de 12 conejos, que recibieron como implantes cemento de fosfato a tricálcico (TPC, cemento de fosfato monocálcico (MPC y autoinjerto óseo (CON. Los estudios radiológico e histológico han mostrado una correcta sustitución de ambos biomateriales por hueso neoformado. El estudio histomorfométrico ha revelado que la neoformación ósea obtenida con los 2 cementos, tanto a las 4 como las 12 semanas, es equivalente a la generada por el injerto óseo. No se han encontrado diferencias significativas en la reabsorción de los materiales. Finalmente, este trabajo ha concluido que los cementos óseos de fosfato de calcio son materiales osteoconductivos, osteotransductivos y biocompatibles que se comportan como sustitutivos óseos.Ceramic biomaterials have interesting biological properties that can be used in bone substitution. In this study two calcium phosphate bone cements were compared to cancellous bone autograft. A bone cavitary defect of 6 mm in diameter was carried out in the right distal femoral methaphyses of 36 male rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculi. The animals were divided into 3 groups of 12 rabbits receiving a tricalcium phosphate cement (TPC, monocalcium phosphate cement (MPC and autologous bone (CON as implants. The radiological and histological studies showed a correct substitution of both biomaterials with new bone. The histomorphometric study revealed that the bone neoformation obtained with the two cements at 4 and 12 weeks is equivalent to the bone generated by the bone graft. There were no significant differences in the

  1. COMUNIDAD DE MAMÍFEROS NO VOLADORES EN UN ÁREA PERIURBANA ANDINA, CUNDINAMARCA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Fernanda Liévano Latorre

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de los cambios antrópicos en los Andes colombianos, todavía se encuentran relictos de ecosistemas nativos con valor para la conservación, siendo los únicos remanentes de hábitat para vida silvestre en áreas cercanas a grandes ciudades. Presentamos resultados de una investigación realizada en la Reserva privada Passiflora (cerca de Bogotá, que buscó examinar la diversidad de la comunidad de mamíferos no voladores. Combinando diferentes métodos encontramos 17 especies, pertenecientes a siete órdenes, que sugieren que ésta es una comunidad compleja a pesar de la intervención antrópica en la zona. Destacamos la presencia de especies raras o endémicas como Olallamys albicauda, Cuniculus taczanowskii y Leopardus tigrinus. Nuestro estudio indica que pese a la transformación de los Andes colombianos, es posible encontrar elementos representativos de su mastofauna incluso en pequeñas reservas privadas, añadiendo valor a estas iniciativas particulares que complementan las iniciativas nacionales de conservación de la biodiversidad.ABSTRACTDespite the anthropic changes in the Colombian Andes, there are still several relicts of native ecosystems with conservation value, which are the only habitat remnants for wildlife in areas near large cities. We present results of a research conducted at the Passiflora private Reserve (near Bogota which aimed to evaluate the diversity of the community of non-flying mammals. Combining diverse methods, we found 17 mammal species, belonging to seven orders, suggesting a complex mammal community despite the human intervention in the area. Besides, we highlight the presence of rare or endemic species such as Olallamys albicauda, Cuniculus taczanowskii and Leopardus tigrinus. We conclude that despite the transformation of the Andes, it is still possible to find representative elements of Andean mammal fauna, even in private small reserves, adding value to these particular initiatives, which

  2. Apendicite aguda: modelo experimental em coelhos Acute appendicitis: model experimental in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João EBRAM-NETO

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Com objetivo de estudar experimentalmente as diversas fases evolutivas da apendicite aguda, foram utilizados 60 coelhos (Oryctogalus cuniculus, fêmeas, da linhagem Nova Zelândia, com peso variando de 2510 a 3040 gramas. Os animais foram divididos em dois grupos denominados controle e experimento, e estes subdivididos em três subgrupos com períodos de observação de 12, 24 e 48 horas. No grupo experimento foi realizada a oclusão do lume apendicular por meio de sutura seromuscular circular a 8 cm da extremidade distal do apêndice cecal, com fio de polipropileno 4-0. No controle foi feita somente a simulação da cirurgia. Os aspectos macroscópicos (aumento do tamanho, necrose, perfuração, aderência e secreção na cavidade abdominal bem como os microscópicos do grupo experimento, evidenciaram uma progressão das alterações anatomopatológicas mostrando haver uma relação entre a intensidade dos achados histopatológicos e o tempo de observação. Conclui-se que o método utilizado causa apendicite aguda com alterações anatomopatológicas distintas, de acordo com a fase evolutiva da doença.The evolving phases of acute appendicitis were studied experimentally. Sixty female rabbits (Oryctogalus cuniculus of New Zealand lineage weighing about 2510 to 3040 g were divided in two groups: a control group and experimental group. The experimental group was divided into three subgroups for observation after 12, 24 and 48 hours of the operation, that consisted on a 4-0 polypropylene circular suture at 8 cm from the distal part of the cecal appendix. The control group was sham operated. The macroscopic exam (increase of the appendix volume, necrosis, perfuration, adherence and secretion in the abdominal cavity and the microscopic finding showed a progression in the anatomopathological alterations. There was a close relationship between the histopathological findings and time after the appendiceal obstruction. We conclude that the method

  3. Diversidad de mamíferos terrestres de talla grande y media de una selva subcaducifolia del noreste de Oaxaca, México Diversity of large and medium sized land mammals of a subcaducifolious tropical forest of north eastern of Oaxaca, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Pérez-Irineo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available El estado de Oaxaca en el sureste de México alberga una biodiversidad extraordinaria. Sin embargo, las actividades humanas han propiciado alteraciones considerables, incluida la disminución de diferentes ambientes naturales, especialmente de los bosques tropicales; por ello es importante documentar la diversidad de estos ambientes, así como su respuesta a las transformaciones antropocéntricas. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo estimar la diversidad de mamíferos terrestres en una selva mediana en el noreste del estado de Oaxaca, México. Se recorrieron 3 senderos para la búsqueda de rastros, captura de organismos, avistamientos y fototrampeo de septiembre de 2007 a agosto de 2008. Se registraron 15 especies de 6 órdenes, 11 familias y 14 géneros, entre ellas 7 nuevas para la región. Las especies más abundantes fueron Nasua narica, Pecari tajacu, Dasyprocta mexicana, Cuniculus paca y Leopardus pardalis. A pesar de presentar un índice de diversidad bajo con respecto a otros estudios comparables, la presencia de especies consideradas en riesgo por la legislación mexicana, como L. pardalis, L. wiedii, Eira barbara y Tamandua mexicana hacen a la zona valiosa para la conservación de la diversidad en la región.The state of Oaxaca, in southeast Mexico is home to an extraordinary biodiversity. But human activities have led to significant changes, including reduction of different natural habitats, especially tropical forests, so it is important to document the diversity of these environments, and their response to the anthropocentric changes. Therefore, this study aimed to estimate the diversity of terrestrial mammals in a tropical forest in northeastern of the state of Oaxaca, Mexico. Three transects were walked to search for tracks, catches of organisms, sightings, and phototrapping from September 2007 to August 2008. There were recorded 15 species of 6 orders, 11 families, and 14 genera, 7 of this not previously known in the region. The

  4. Bone Repair on Fractures Treated with Osteosynthesis, ir Laser, Bone Graft and Guided Bone Regeneration: Histomorfometric Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos Aciole, Jouber Mateus; dos Santos Aciole, Gilberth Tadeu; Soares, Luiz Guilherme Pinheiro; Barbosa, Artur Felipe Santos; Santos, Jean Nunes; Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz Barbosa

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate, through the analysis of histomorfometric, the repair of complete tibial fracture in rabbits fixed with osteosynthesis, treated or not with infrared laser light (λ780 nm, 50 mW, CW) associated or not to the use of hydroxyapatite and guided bone regeneration (GBR). Surgical fractures were created, under general anesthesia (Ketamina 0,4 ml/Kg IP and Xilazina 0,2 ml/Kg IP), on the dorsum of 15 Oryctolagus rabbits that were divided into 5 groups and maintained on individual cages, at day/night cycle, fed with solid laboratory pelted diet and had water ad libidum. On groups II, III, IV and V the fracture was fixed with wire osteosynthesis. Animals of groups III and V were grafted with hydroxyapatite and GBR technique used. Animals of groups IV and V were irradiated at every other day during two weeks (16 J/cm2, 4×4 J/cm2). Observation time was that of 30 days. After animal death (overdose of general anesthetics) the specimes were routinely processed to wax and underwent histological analysis by light microscopy. The histomorfometric analysis showed an increased bone neoformation, increased collagen deposition, less reabsorption and inflammation when laser was associated to the HATCP. It is concluded that IR laser light was able to accelerate fracture healing and the association with HATCP and GBR resulted on increased deposition of CHA.

  5. Nutritional beliefs among rural Nigerian mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebomoyi, E

    1988-01-01

    At Shao, a rural community in Nigeria, 730 women were asked to state their awareness of pregnancy symptoms and nutritional beliefs during pregnancy. Among the participants, 92.3% mentioned the stoppage of menstruation while 81.9% recognized breast enlargement, 16.2% considered nausea and vomiting, and 5.3% mentioned the darkening of the nipples. Specific foods of the protein rich meat group, particularly rabbit Oryctolagus capensis was avoided during pregnancy because of sociocultural beliefs. Energy-giving starch-rich food items were most frequently regarded as good for the body. Over 50% of the respondents considered the roots, the starchy food group, and the fruits and vegetables group as most nutritious during pregnancy. Only 38.8% of the respondents met the recommended weekly weight gain standard and 61.2% did not. It was recommended that a statewide classification of food taboos in Kwara State should be undertaken to assist the services provided by primary healthcare workers. The need to intensify health counseling in antenatal care clinics was highlighted.

  6. [Comparative anatomic studies of the vomeronasal complex and the rostral palate of various mammals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöhrmann-Repenning, A

    1984-01-01

    The structures of the rostral palate in regard to the vomeronasal complex of different species of mammals were studied. In all cases, we find a very interesting system of furrows which preserves a connection between the nasopalatine ducts and the preoral surroundings. For rodents, lagomorphs, Solenodon, Setifer, and Echinops, we find a special situation in this part of the palate. Here the incisors are not separated by a diastema nor the oral openings of the nasopalatine ducts are overgrown by a bipartite caudal branch of the rhinarium. The results of the anatomic studies of the vomeronasal complex and the rostral palate of the mammals investigated are discussed: First of all, some elements of the vomeronasal complex needed to be analysed in regard to structure and nomenclature, specifically the cartilago paraseptalis with its outer bar, the cartilago ductus nasopalatini and the cartilago palatina. Because of 2 criterions, the vomeronasal complex could be classified as either primitive or progressive. We find a primitive one in Didelphis, Tupaia, Solenodon, Oryctolagus, and all rodents. In contrast, the other insectivores studied and all primates show progressive structures at their vomeronasal complex. Finally, conclusions in regard to the function of the organs of Jacobson are derived from these studies. The significance of the "flehmen" mechanism for the functioning of the organs is questioned.

  7. Medium- and large-sized mammals in a steppic savanna area of the Brazilian Pampa: survey and conservation issues of a poorly known fauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Espinosa

    Full Text Available Abstract The wildlife of the Brazilian Pampa is threatened by large-scale habitat loss, due in particular to the expansion of soybean cultivation and the conversion of grasslands areas into extensive areas of silviculture. It is essential to study how the mammal fauna copes with the highly fragmented, human-influenced, non-protected landscape. Our study presents the results of a survey of the large- and medium-sized mammals of a typical human-influenced steppic savanna area of the Pampa biome. The survey was conducted exclusively with the use of camera traps over a period of 16 months. The relative frequencies of species in the area were evaluated. We recorded 18 species, some of them locally threatened (Tamandua tetradactyla, Alouatta caraya, Leopardus colocolo, Leopardus geoffroyi, Leopardus wiedii, Puma yagouaroundi, Mazama gouazoubira and Cuniculus paca. Several species were found to thrive in the area; however, many species were considered rare, and undoubtedly new species could be recorded if we continued the sampling. Our results contribute to the knowledge of faunal diversity in the Pampa biome and associated habitats, warn about threats and provide support for conservation measures.

  8. Roadkill hotspots in a protected area of Cerrado in Brazil: planning actions to conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno H Saranholi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Here we aimed to identify the main points of animal death by roadkill in the view of helping mitigation plans and reducing the impact over the local fauna of a protected area. Materials and methods. We surveyed the roads around a protected area of Cerrado (São Paulo, Brazil from May 2012 to August 2013. We recorded the local of roadkills, biometric and morphologic data of the animals, and collected samples of tissue for molecular species confirmation. Results. Thirty-one roadkilled animals were registered, including threatened species: Leopardus pardalis; Cuniculus paca and Chrysocyon brachyurus. Most roadkills were represented by mammals (54.8% and reptiles (38.7%, and the mortality rate was 1.46 animals/km/year. Three roadkill hotspots were detected, suggesting that they were important points of animal crossing, probably because of the existence of natural remnant vegetation and intersection of roads by riparian vegetation. Conclusions. This work provided strong evidence of the most critical points where mitigation strategies should be immediately implemented and highlighted the importance of detecting roadkill hotspots and the species or taxonomic groups more affected, helping to elaborate effective actions that can improve fauna conservation.

  9. First detection of Sarcoptes scabiei from domesticated pig (Sus scrofa) and genetic characterization of S. scabiei from pet, farm and wild hosts in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erster, Oran; Roth, Asael; Pozzi, Paolo S; Bouznach, Arieli; Shkap, Varda

    2015-08-01

    In this report we describe for the first time the detection of Sarcoptes scabiei type suis mites on domestic pigs in Israel and examine its genetic variation compared with S. sabiei from other hosts. Microscopic examination of skin samples from S. scabiei-infested pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) revealed all developmental stages of S. scabiei. To detect genetic differences between S. scabiei from different hosts, samples obtained from pig, rabbits (Orictolagus cuniculus), fox (Vulpes vulpes), jackal (Canis aureus) and hedgehog (Erinaceus concolor) were compared with GenBank-annotated sequences of three genetic markers. Segments from the following genes were examined: cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 (COX1), glutathione-S-transferase 1 (GST1), and voltage-sensitive sodium channel (VSSC). COX1 analysis did not show correlation between host preference and genetic identity. However, GST1 and VSSC had a higher percentage of identical sites within S. scabiei type suis sequences, compared with samples from other hosts. Taking into account the limited numbers of GST1 and VSSC sequences available for comparison, this high similarity between sequences of geographically-distant, but host-related populations, may suggest that different host preference is at least partially correlated with genetic differences. This finding may help in future studies of the factors that drive host preferences in this parasite.

  10. Genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from Brazilian wildlife revealed abundant new genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Vitaliano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to isolate and genotype T. gondii from Brazilian wildlife. For this purpose, 226 samples were submitted to mice bioassay and screened by PCR based on 18S rRNA sequences. A total of 15 T. gondii isolates were obtained, including samples from four armadillos (three Dasypus novemcinctus, one Euphractus sexcinctus, three collared anteaters (Tamandua tetradactyla, three whited-lipped peccaries (Tayassu pecari, one spotted paca (Cuniculus paca, one oncilla (Leopardus tigrinus, one hoary fox (Pseudalopex vetulus, one lineated woodpecker (Dryocopus lineatus and one maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus. DNA from the isolates, originated from mice bioassay, and from the tissues of the wild animal, designated as “primary samples”, were genotyped by PCR–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR/RFLP, using 12 genetic markers (SAG1, SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L258, PK1, CS3 and Apico. A total of 17 genotypes were identified, with 13 identified for the first time and four already reported in published literature. Results herein obtained corroborate previous studies in Brazil, confirming high diversity and revealing unique genotypes in this region. Given most of genotypes here identified are different from previous studies in domestic animals, future studies on T. gondii from wildlife is of interest to understand population genetics and structure of this parasite.

  11. Animais silvestres utilizados como recurso alimentar em assentamentos rurais no município de Uruará, Pará, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Lucas Cajaiba

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of hunting animals is of fundamental importance for human subsistence in different tropical areas. Knowing the chosen species, the techniques of capture and the quantity are fundamental aspects to understand how to use and the degree of threat of hunting on each wild species. In this perspective, the objective of this work was to record the wild animal species most commonly used as food resource in five rural settlements in the municipality of Uruará-PA, in addition to qualify the main techniques of capturing these species. The data collection was made through semi-structured interviews and participant observation. For the selection of the interviewees, we adopted the “snowball” method. As a result, we identified 38 species of animals consumed, most being mammals (42.1%, followed by birds (39.4% and reptiles (18.5%. The species most frequently mentioned were: Cuniculus paca (n=156, Euphractus sexcinctus (n=154 and Pecari tajacu (n=137. The most used technique was hunting with shotgun. Among the animals cited, Priodontes maximus, Tayassu pecari, Tapirus terrestris, Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Podocnemis unifilis, Tinamus tao, Crax fasciolata and Podocnemis unifilis are in the list of threatened species. The results point to the urgent need for educational programs to farmers regarding the unsustainable use of animals.

  12. Mineral Licks as Diversity Hotspots in Lowland Forest of Eastern Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Romo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mineral licks are sites where a diverse array of mammals and birds consume soil (geophagy or drink water, likely for mineral supplementation. The diversity of species that visit such sites makes them important for conservation, particularly given that hunters often target animals at licks. Use of mineral licks varies among species, with frugivores among the most common visitors but there is considerable temporal and spatial variation in lick use both within and among species. Camera traps triggered by heat and motion were used to document use of mineral licks by birds and non-volant mammals over a four-year period at a lowland forest site in eastern Ecuador. We obtained 7,889 photographs representing 23 mammal species and 888 photographs representing 15 bird species. Activity (photographs/100 trap-days at the four licks varied from 89 to 292 for mammals and from six to 43 for birds. Tapirs (Tapirus terrestris, peccaries (Pecari tajacu, Tayassu pecari, deer (Mazama americana, and pacas (Cuniculus paca were the most frequent mammal visitors; guans (Pipile pipile and pigeons (Columba plumbea were the most common birds. Use of licks varied diurnally and seasonally but patterns of use varied among species and sites. Mineral licks provide an important resource for many species but further studies are needed to determine the precise benefit(s obtained and how benefits may vary with diet and other factors, such as rainfall.

  13. A direct contact between astrocyte and vitreous body is possible in the rabbit eye due to discontinuities in the basement membrane of the retinal inner limiting membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Haddad

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Different from most mammalian species, the optic nerve of the rabbit eye is initially formed inside the retina where myelination of the axons of the ganglion cells starts and vascularization occurs. Astrocytes are confined to these regions. The aforementioned nerve fibers known as medullated nerve fibers form two bundles that may be identified with the naked eye. The blood vessels run on the inner surface of these nerve fiber bundles (epivascularization and, accordingly, the accompanying astrocytes lie mostly facing the vitreous body from which they are separated only by the inner limiting membrane of the retina. The arrangement of the astrocytes around blood vessels leads to the formation of structures known as glial tufts. Fragments (N = 3 or whole pieces (N = 3 of the medullated nerve fiber region of three-month-old male rabbits (Orictolagus cuniculus were fixed in glutaraldehyde followed by osmium tetroxide, and their thin sections were examined with a transmission electron microscope. Randomly located discontinuities (up to a few micrometers long of the basement membrane of the inner limiting membrane of the retina were observed in the glial tufts. As a consequence, a direct contact between the astrocyte plasma membrane and vitreous elements was demonstrated, making possible functional interactions such as macromolecular exchanges between this glial cell type and the components of the vitreous body.

  14. Continuous arterial blood gas monitoring in rabbits: an efficient method for evaluation of ratio-based optrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Roy C.; Olstein, Alan D.; Malin, Stephen F.; Perkovich, Anne

    1992-04-01

    Laboratory bench testing of optical blood gas sensors is insufficient to completely predict capabilities. Sensor testing in animals offers advantages of known physiologic and regulatory mechanisms of hemodynamics to better predict sensor performance. The domestic rabbit, Oryctalogis Cuniculus, a lagomorph of the family Leporidae was used for sensor evaluation. The rabbits are ventilated and blood gases modulated by variations in FIO2 and rate adjustments. Twenty gauge catheters are placed in the dorsal aorta, cartoid, and femoral arteries. Pressures are monitored via transducers on the arterial lines. The optical blood gas sensors are fitted within the catheters and blood samples are collected over them for bench analysis. Sensors are on 125 micrometers glass optic fibers. Proprietary prepolymers are applied on the fiber tips through in fiber photopolymerization. These sensors are then calibrated in tonometered water and blood. Sensor monitoring is accomplished through OSR microfluorimetry systems. We have used this model in 26 studies over the past six months evaluating over fifty blood gas sensors. These studies have lasted from six to twenty-four hours. Our correlation of sensor readings to assayed blood samples is r2 equals .97 for pH values of 6.80 - 7.70, r2 equals .94 for PCO2 values of 10 - 175 mmHg and r2 equals .94 for PO2 values of 10 - 350 mmHg.

  15. MONITORING OF THE INTESTINAL TRACT PARASITE LOAD AND OF THE SANITARY MANGEMENT AT A PACA BREEDING FARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Maria França Ribeiro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766 rearing has shown development in all Latin America countries. Fresh feces samples were collected from the soil and analyzed by Willis Mollay and Hoffmann’s techniques, aiming at accompanying the sanitary management, determining the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites, and their respective load, of pacas raised in captivity, and evaluating parasite control strategies, between the months of November/2012 and June/2013. A McMaster’s camera was used for quantification. The reading was accomplished by optical microscopy with 25x and 40x lenses, which revealed 21,433 eggs per gram of feces (EPG, with an average of 2,679,12 (± 41.0 Strongyloides spp., and 3,325 EPG, with average of 415.6 (± 57.0 Trychuris spp. Besides, 482,101 oocytes per gram of feces (OPG were found, with an average of 60,263 (± 15.93 Eimeria spp., and 51 larvae of Strongyloides spp., with an average of 6.3 (± 6.86 larvae. Two eggs of Hymenolepis diminuta were identified in only one stall. An anthelminthic (albendazole 10% and trimethopim associated with sulfadiazine were used to treat the disease. We concluded the great index of parasitic infestation presented by the animals, in spite of the anthelminthic treatments, can be associated with the rainfall rates observed, the physical conditions of the instalations, as well as the adequate cleaning and sanitization of the facilities.

  16. Terrestrial mammals in an Atlantic Forest remnant, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Borba de Miranda

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The threat degree and the ecological importance of terrestrial mammals make clear the need for constantly conducting researches in order to add information to the current knowledge on this theme. This study aimed to provide a list of terrestrial mammal species in an Atlantic Forest remnant located in the Southwestern Paraná state, Brazil. Species richness and occurrence frequency were studied from April to October 2009 using two methods: direct observation and recording of traces. We registered 20 taxa distributed into 7 orders: Artiodactyla, Carnivora, Didelphimorphia, Lagomorpha, Primates, Rodentia, and Xenarthra. Among these, 4 taxa were registered either by direct observation or by recording of traces and the others were registered only through traces. The most frequently occurring species were Didelphis sp. (30.6% and Cerdocyon thous (25.6%. Out of the 20 registered taxa, Leopardus pardalis, Leopardus tigrinus, and Cuniculus paca are listed as vulnerable in the Red Book of Threatened Fauna in Parana State. Although small, the study area may assist in the availability of food and shelter for the fauna of mammals, representing an important element of the regional landscape.

  17. Effect Of Heparin Sodium In Protection Of The Lens Against Cataract Induced With Intravitreal Injection Of Sodium Selenite- In Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahaa A. Abdul-Hussein

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To evaluate the possible protective role of heparin sodium eye drops against sodium selenite induced cataract in rabbits.Materials and Methods A group of 18 adult rabbits Oryctologus cuniculus were divided into 3 groups each one of 6 rabbits normal group without treatment and induction control group received DW pre and post induction of cataract and heparin sodium group received heparin sodium eye drops pre and post induction of cataract. The cataract had been induced by intravitreal injection of 0.1ml sodium selenite 0.01 wv in the right eye. Results Heparin sodium was effective in prevention of cataract and the mean score of opacity was 0.170.01 at the end of trial period in stead of the expected score 4 0.00 which observed in DW group and there was non significant difference comparing to pre induction p0.05. Conclusions Heparin sodium eye drops exerted a detectable preventive effect against sodium selenite - induced cataract in rabbits also it was found to be apparently safe and tolerable along the trial period.

  18. Francisella species in ticks and animals, Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes de Carvalho, I; Toledo, A; Carvalho, C L; Barandika, J F; Respicio-Kingry, L B; Garcia-Amil, C; García-Pérez, A L; Olmeda, A S; Zé-Zé, L; Petersen, J M; Anda, P; Núncio, M S; Escudero, R

    2016-02-01

    The presence of Francisella species in 2134 ticks, 93 lagomorphs and 280 small mammals from the Iberian Peninsula was studied. Overall, 19 ticks and 6 lagomorphs were positive for Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica, suggesting, as described for other regions, that lagomorphs may have an important role in the maintenance of F. tularensis in nature. Of the 6 positive lagomorphs, 4 were identified as the European rabbit, Oryctogalus cuniculus. Additionally, 353 ticks and 3 small mammals were PCR positive for Francisella-like endosymbionts (FLEs) and one small mammal was also positive for Francisella hispaniensis-like DNA sequences. Among FLE positive specimens, a variety of sequence types were detected: ticks were associated with 5 lpnA sequence types, with only one type identified per tick, in contrast to 2 lpnA sequence types detected in a single wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus). To our knowledge, this is the first report of FLEs in free-living small mammals as well as the first detection of F. hispaniensis-like sequences in a natural setting.

  19. Insects of forensic importance from Rio Grande do Sul state in southern Brazil Insetos de importância forense do Rio Grande do Sul, sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Sandro Barros de Souza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted throughout the year 2005, at the Universidade Federal de Pelotas campus. The objectives of the study were to analyze the decomposition of rabbit (Oryctolagus cunniculus L. with mean weight 2.67 Kg carcass and describe the interaction of insects acting on it, as well as the insect's potential use in legal medicine. We collected 5.239 insect specimens; 1.827 of them were obtained from larvae collected from carcasses and reared. The specimens were identified and 20 species were of forensic importance. The species Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann, 1819 and Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819 (Diptera, Calliphoridae were better indicators of post-mortem interval (PMI because they occurred in all seasons and were the first to reach the carcass. Hemilucilia semidiaphana (Rondani, 1850, H. segmentaria (Fabricius, 1805 (Diptera, Calliphoridae, Muscina stabulans (Fallén, 1817 and Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp, 1883 (Diptera, Muscidae can disclose death time because they occur only in certain months of the year. Oxyletrum discicolle (Brullé, 1840 (Coleoptera, Silphidae and Dermestes maculates De Geer, 1774 (Coleoptera, Desmestidae were found in advanced stages of decomposition.Durante todas as estações do ano de 2005 foi conduzido um experimento em uma área do campus da Universidade Federal de Pelotas. O objetivo do estudo foi analisar a decomposição de carcaças de coelho (Oryctolagus cunniculus L. pesando 2,67 Kg em média e descrever como os insetos atuam na decomposição e seu possível uso na medicina-legal. Foram coletados 5.239 espécimes; 1.827 foram obtidos a partir da criação de imaturos coletados na carcaça. Foram identificadas 20 espécies com importância forense. As espécies mais propícias para serem usadas com indicadoras de intervalo post-mortem (IPM são Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann, 1819 e Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819 (Diptera, Calliphoridae por terem sido encontradas em todas as estações de coleta

  20. The Florey lecture, 1983. Biological control, as exemplified by smallpox eradication and myxomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenner, F

    1983-06-22

    Biological control is an important method of dealing with plant and insect pests. The control of rabbits by myxomatosis and the eradication of smallpox by vaccination are unusual examples of biological control, in that they involve a vertebrate and a viral pest respectively. Myxomatosis is a benign disease in Sylvilagus rabbits in South America which is transmitted mechanically by mosquitoes. In the European rabbit, Oryctolagus, which is a pest in Australia and England, the virus from Sylvilagus produces a generalized disease that is almost always lethal. Myxomatosis was deliberately introduced into Australia in 1950 and into Europe in 1952. It was at first spectacularly successful in controlling the rabbit pest, but biological adjustments occurred in the virulence of the virus and the genetic resistances of rabbits. After 30 years of interaction, natural selection has resulted in a balance at a fairly high level of viral virulence. Smallpox has been a major scourge of mankind for over 1500 years. It spread from Asia to Europe in the Middle ages and from Europe to Africa and the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries. Jenner's cowpox vaccine provided a method of control that reduced the severity of the disease during the 19th century but failed to eliminate the disease from many countries before the 1930s. Thereafter it was eradicated from Europe and North America, but remained endemic in South America, Africa and Asia. In 1967 it was still endemic in 33 countries and W.H.O. established a programme for global eradication within 10 years. The goal was achieved in 1977. Problems of the eradication programme and reasons for its success will be described.

  1. Biomechanical and Macroscopic Evaluations of the Effects of 5-Fluorouracil on Partially Divided Flexor Tendon Injuries in Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duci, Shkelzen B; Arifi, Hysni M; Ahmeti, Hasan R; Manxhuka-Kerliu, Suzana; Neziri, Burim; Mekaj, Agon Y; Lajqi, Shpetim; Shahini, Labinot

    2015-06-20

    The main goals of flexor tendon surgery are to restore digital motion by providing tendon healing and to preserve tendon gliding. Our purpose was to investigate the effects of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) on tendon adhesions in partially divided profundus flexor tendons (flexor digitorum profundus [FDPs]) following surgical repair and in partially divided FDPs without surgical repair, and to compare the results of the repair versus the nonrepair of zone two injuries via macroscopic and biomechanical evaluations of tendon adhesions. We used 32 adult male European rabbits (Oryctolagus cunniculus) weighing from 2.5 to 3.5 kg. The study was performed on the deep flexor tendons of the second and third digits of the right hind paws of the rabbits; thus, a total of 64 tendons were examined in this study. Based on the results achieved in our experimental study, the load (N) significantly increased in subgroup 1a in which the tendons were surgically repaired and were not treated with 5-FU compared with subgroup 2a in which tendons were surgically repaired and treated with 5-FU. The load (N) significantly increased in subgroup 1a in which the tendons were surgically repaired and were not treated with 5-FU compared to subgroup 2a in which the tendons were surgically repaired and treated with 5-FU. Therefore, these results revealed a decrease in adhesion formation in the subgroup that was treated with 5-FU due to increased resistance to tendon adhesions during their excursion through the tendon sheath, which in this case required greater traction force.

  2. Biomechanical and Macroscopic Evaluations of the Effects of 5-Fluorouracil on Partially Divided Flexor Tendon Injuries in Rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shkelzen B Duci; Hysni M Arifi; Hasan R Ahmeti; Suzana Manxhuka-Kerliu; Burim Neziri; Agon Y Mekaj; Shpetim Lajqi

    2015-01-01

    Background:The main goals of flexor tendon surgery are to restore digital motion by providing tendon healing and to preserve tendon gliding.Our purpose was to investigate the effects of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) on tendon adhesions in partially divided profundus flexor tendons (flexor digitorum profundus [FDPs]) following surgical repair and in partially divided FDPs without surgical repair,and to compare the results of the repair versus the nonrepair of zone two injuries via macroscopic and biomechanical evaluations of tendon adhesions.Methods:We used 32 adult male European rabbits (Oryctolagus cunniculus) weighing from 2.5 to 3.5 kg.The study was performed on the deep flexor tendons of the second and third digits of the right hind paws of the rabbits;thus,a total of 64 tendons were examined in this study.Results:Based on the results achieved in our experimental study,the load (N) significantly increased in subgroup 1a in which the tendons were surgically repaired and were not treated with 5-FU compared with subgroup 2a in which tendons were surgically repaired and treated with 5-FU.Conclusions:The load (N) significantly increased in subgroup 1 a in which the tendons were surgically repaired and were not treated with 5-FU compared to subgroup 2a in which the tendons were surgically repaired and treated with 5-FU.Therefore,these results revealed a decrease in adhesion formation in the subgroup that was treated with 5-FU due to increased resistance to tendon adhesions during their excursion through the tendon sheath,which in this case required greater traction force.

  3. Biomechanical and Macroscopic Evaluations of the Effects of 5-Fluorouracil on Partially Divided Flexor Tendon Injuries in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duci, Shkelzen B; Arifi, Hysni M; Ahmeti, Hasan R; Manxhuka-Kerliu, Suzana; Neziri, Burim; Mekaj, Agon Y; Lajqi, Shpetim; Shahini, Labinot

    2015-01-01

    Background: The main goals of flexor tendon surgery are to restore digital motion by providing tendon healing and to preserve tendon gliding. Our purpose was to investigate the effects of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) on tendon adhesions in partially divided profundus flexor tendons (flexor digitorum profundus [FDPs]) following surgical repair and in partially divided FDPs without surgical repair, and to compare the results of the repair versus the nonrepair of zone two injuries via macroscopic and biomechanical evaluations of tendon adhesions. Methods: We used 32 adult male European rabbits (Oryctolagus cunniculus) weighing from 2.5 to 3.5 kg. The study was performed on the deep flexor tendons of the second and third digits of the right hind paws of the rabbits; thus, a total of 64 tendons were examined in this study. Results: Based on the results achieved in our experimental study, the load (N) significantly increased in subgroup 1a in which the tendons were surgically repaired and were not treated with 5-FU compared with subgroup 2a in which tendons were surgically repaired and treated with 5-FU. Conclusions: The load (N) significantly increased in subgroup 1a in which the tendons were surgically repaired and were not treated with 5-FU compared to subgroup 2a in which the tendons were surgically repaired and treated with 5-FU. Therefore, these results revealed a decrease in adhesion formation in the subgroup that was treated with 5-FU due to increased resistance to tendon adhesions during their excursion through the tendon sheath, which in this case required greater traction force. PMID:26063369

  4. Biomechanical and Macroscopic Evaluations of the Effects of 5-Fluorouracil on Partially Divided Flexor Tendon Injuries in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shkelzen B Duci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The main goals of flexor tendon surgery are to restore digital motion by providing tendon healing and to preserve tendon gliding. Our purpose was to investigate the effects of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU on tendon adhesions in partially divided profundus flexor tendons (flexor digitorum profundus [FDPs] following surgical repair and in partially divided FDPs without surgical repair, and to compare the results of the repair versus the nonrepair of zone two injuries via macroscopic and biomechanical evaluations of tendon adhesions. Methods: We used 32 adult male European rabbits (Oryctolagus cunniculus weighing from 2.5 to 3.5 kg. The study was performed on the deep flexor tendons of the second and third digits of the right hind paws of the rabbits; thus, a total of 64 tendons were examined in this study. Results: Based on the results achieved in our experimental study, the load (N significantly increased in subgroup 1a in which the tendons were surgically repaired and were not treated with 5-FU compared with subgroup 2a in which tendons were surgically repaired and treated with 5-FU. Conclusions: The load (N significantly increased in subgroup 1a in which the tendons were surgically repaired and were not treated with 5-FU compared to subgroup 2a in which the tendons were surgically repaired and treated with 5-FU. Therefore, these results revealed a decrease in adhesion formation in the subgroup that was treated with 5-FU due to increased resistance to tendon adhesions during their excursion through the tendon sheath, which in this case required greater traction force.

  5. Conocimiento, uso y valor cultural de seis presas del jaguar (Panthera onca y su relación con éste, en San Nicolás de los Montes, San Luis Potosí, Mexico Knowledge, use and cultural value of six prey of jaguar (Panthera onca and their relationship with this species in San Nicolás de los Montes, San Luis Potosí, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulce M. Ávila-Nájera

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Durante 2007 se obtuvo información del conocimiento y la percepción que los pobladores del ejido tienen sobre el jaguar, sus presas y los factores que afectan la distribución y su conservación. Mediante el índice de importancia cultural (IIC se determinó el conocimiento que los ejidatarios tienen de las presas, y el uso y valor que les otorgan. Las presas que reconocieron importantes fueron venado cola blanca (Odocoileus virginianus, temazate (Mazama temama, pecarí (Tayassu pecari, tejón (Nasua narica, armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus y tepezcuintle (Cuniculus paca; 72% de los encuestados también identificaron especies domésticas como presas del jaguar. Según su percepción, las más abundantes son pecarí, tejón y armadillo. El valor de uso más importante es el alimenticio, puesto que 82% de los encuestados ha consumido alguna especie silvestre. El valor más alto del IIC fue para el venado (27.17. En el ejido se considera perjudicial el jaguar por alimentarse del ganado. Los pobladores y los jaguares utilizan las mismas especies para obtener beneficio. El presente estudio constituye una base para el desarrollo de trabajos tendientes a manejar y conservar los recursos naturales que existen en el ejido considerando las necesidades de la población humana, de su fauna silvestre y la relación entre éstas.During 2007, we obtained information about the knowledge, perception of rural people regarding jaguar, its preys and the factors that affect its distribution and conservation. Additionally, we determined with the Index of Cultural Importance the knowledge, use and value that rural people assign to preys of the jaguar. They recognized as important prey species of the jaguar to white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus, brocket (Mazama temama, pecari (Tayassu peccari, coati (Nasua narica, armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus and paca (Cuniculus paca. Most of the villagers (72% identified also domestic species as preys of the jaguar

  6. Comparación entre heridas por proyectiles de fuego calibre .22 de baja velocidad y de aire comprimido calibre .177 sobre flanco derecho de cadáveres frescos de conejos (Wounds produces by fire projectils caliber .22 low velocity and air compressed caliber.177 on right side of fresh dead rabbits. a trial study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bimonte, D.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl objetivo del trabajo fue comparar, los efectos de proyectiles .177 Airecomprimido (AC, y .22 Rimfire Baja Velocidad (LV sobre tejidos óseos ymusculares, utilizando n=12 cadáveres frescos de conejos de 3 kilogramosde peso, (Oriyctolagus cuniculus híbridos Línea Genética Verde divididos endos grupos: (n=6 para .22 Rimfire (LV, peso 2,68 gramos velocidad inicialde 325 m/s y energía inicial 137 Julios y n=6 para .177 AC peso de 0,475gramos, velocidad de 138 m/s y Energía inicial de 4,54Julios.;suspendidos para simular condiciones reales de impacto. El diseñoexperimental fue aprobado por Comisión de Bioética, Facultad deVeterinaria, Universidad de la República, Uruguay. Ensayo de penetraciónrealizados en el Club Uruguayo de Tiro. A la necropsia se describieron laslesiones sobre tejidos musculares, huesos y órganos huecos, así como lascaracterísticas de los orificios de entrada (OE y de salida (OS, para cadatipo de munición y propulsión. Se halló que los disparos producidos pormunición. 22 Rimfire (LV producían fracturas de huesos largos mientrasque para el calibre .177 (AC usado no se registraron fracturas. Loshallazgos en órganos viscerales (toráxicos y abdominales fueron letalespara cualquiera de los dos tipos de munición disparada a 16 m. Solo en elcaso de la munición .177 (AC se encontraron los proyectiles alojados en pared del flanco opuesto al del ingreso. El proyectil .22 Rimfire (LV traspasa ambos flancos. Ambos tipos de proyectiles disparados a unadistancia de 16 metros, son capaces de producir lesiones letales.SummaryThe objective of this paper was to make a comparison the effectsproduced by projectiles .177 Air compressed (AC and .22 Rimfire Lowvelocity (LV on muscular and osseous tissues, using n=12 recently deadrabbit 3 kilogramos of weight, (Oriyctolagus cuniculus hybrid Greengenetical line divided in two groups: (n=6 for .22 Rimfire (LV, weight2,68 grams, initial velocity 325 m/s y initial energy 137

  7. Esterilização tubária com adesivo cirúrgico sintético: estudo experimental Tubal sterilization with synthetic surgical adhesive: experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Chaplin Rivoire

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar a perviedade da tuba uterina de coelhas submetidas a aplicação endotubária pela via transvaginal de n-butil-2-cianoacrilato. MÉTODO: Vinte coelhas (Orictolagus cuniculus da linhagem Nova Zelândia foram distribuídas em dois grupos, 1 (controle e 2 (experimento. O grupo controle foi submetido a técnica operatória para esterilização pelo método proposto por Pomeroy e o grupo experimento teve a aplicação de 0,25mL do adesivo cirúrgico n-butil-2-cianoacrilato no lúmen tubário por via transvaginal. Após quatro semanas e quatro acasalamentos e o diagnóstico clínico da presença de gestação, foram submetidos a três testes de perviedade: histerossalpingografia (in vivo, teste de perviedade com corante azul de metileno (in vitro e teste de pressão de rompimento (in vitro. Foi realizada a morfometria computadorizada digitalizada para medir o diâmetro tubário, a mucosa e o miossalpinge. RESULTADOS: Houve vazamento em somente uma tuba uterina do grupo 2, embora o adesivo estivesse presente no lúmen tubário, o que foi não significante estatisticamente. Apresentou significância estatística a morfometria, que mostrou aumento nas medidas do diâmetro tubário, da mucosa e do miossalpinge, que consideramos ser pela presença do polímero formado pelo adesivo, não havendo danos celulares. CONCLUSÕES: Concluímos que a aplicação transvaginal de n-butil-2-cianoacrilato no lúmen tubário de coelhas é tão eficaz para esterilização quanto o método de Pomeroy.BACKGROUND: Study of the patency of the uterine tube of rabbits submitted to the transvaginal approach application of n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate. METHODS: Twenty rabbits were used (Orictolagus cuniculus of the lineage New Zealand, distributed in two groups, 1 (control and 2 (try. Control group was submitted to the technique for sterilization through the method proposed by Pomeroy and the group experiment had the application of 0,25mL of the surgical adhesive n

  8. A Retrospective Study on Genetic Heterogeneity within Treponema Strains: Subpopulations Are Genetically Distinct in a Limited Number of Positions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darina Čejková

    Full Text Available Pathogenic uncultivable treponemes comprise human and animal pathogens including agents of syphilis, yaws, bejel, pinta, and venereal spirochetosis in rabbits and hares. A set of 10 treponemal genome sequences including those of 4 Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum (TPA strains (Nichols, DAL-1, Mexico A, SS14, 4 T. p. ssp. pertenue (TPE strains (CDC-2, Gauthier, Samoa D, Fribourg-Blanc, 1 T. p. ssp. endemicum (TEN strain (Bosnia A and one strain (Cuniculi A of Treponema paraluisleporidarum ecovar Cuniculus (TPLC were examined with respect to the presence of nucleotide intrastrain heterogeneous sites.The number of identified intrastrain heterogeneous sites in individual genomes ranged between 0 and 7. Altogether, 23 intrastrain heterogeneous sites (in 17 genes were found in 5 out of 10 investigated treponemal genomes including TPA strains Nichols (n = 5, DAL-1 (n = 4, and SS14 (n = 7, TPE strain Samoa D (n = 1, and TEN strain Bosnia A (n = 5. Although only one heterogeneous site was identified among 4 tested TPE strains, 16 such sites were identified among 4 TPA strains. Heterogeneous sites were mostly strain-specific and were identified in four tpr genes (tprC, GI, I, K, in genes involved in bacterial motility and chemotaxis (fliI, cheC-fliY, in genes involved in cell structure (murC, translation (prfA, general and DNA metabolism (putative SAM dependent methyltransferase, topA, and in seven hypothetical genes.Heterogeneous sites likely represent both the selection of adaptive changes during infection of the host as well as an ongoing diversifying evolutionary process.

  9. Sustainability and comanagement of subsistence hunting in an indigenous reserve in Guyana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Christopher A; Milstein, Marissa S; Yukuma, Charakura; Marawanaru, Elisha; Suse, Phillip

    2017-10-01

    Although hunting is a key component of subsistence strategies of many Amazonians, it is also one of the greatest threats to wildlife. Because indigenous reserves comprise over 20% of Amazonia, effective conservation often requires that conservation professionals work closely with indigenous groups to manage resource use. We used hunter-generated harvesting data in spatially explicit biodemographic models to assess the sustainability of subsistence hunting of indigenous Waiwai in Guyana. We collected data through a hunter self-monitoring program, systematic follows of hunters, and semistructured interviews. We used these data to predict future densities of 2 indicator species, spider monkeys (Ateles paniscus) and bearded sakis (Chiropotes sagulatus), under different scenarios of human population expansion and changing hunting technology. We used encounter rates from transect surveys and hunter catch-per-unit effort (CPUE) to validate model predictions. Paca (Cuniculus paca) (198 /year), Currosaw (Crax alector) (168), and spider monkey (117) were the most frequently harvested species. Predicted densities of spider monkeys were statistically indistinguishable from empirically derived transect data (Kolmogorov-Smirnov D = 0.67, p = 0.759) and CPUE (D = 0.32, p = 1.000), demonstrating the robustness of model predictions. Ateles paniscus and C. sagulatus were predicted to be extirpated from <13% of the Waiwai reserve in 20 years, even under the most intensive hunting scenarios. Our results suggest Waiwai hunting is currently sustainable, primarily due to their low population density and use of bow and arrow. Continual monitoring is necessary, however, particularly if human population increases are accompanied by a switch to shotgun-only hunting. We suggest that hunter self-monitoring and biodemographic modeling can be used effectively in a comanagement approach in which indigenous parabiologists continuously provide hunting data that is then used to update model

  10. Assessment of mammal reproduction for hunting sustainability through community-based sampling of species in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Pedro; El Bizri, Hani; Bodmer, Richard E; Bowler, Mark

    2017-08-01

    Wildlife subsistence hunting is a major source of protein for tropical rural populations and a prominent conservation issue. The intrinsic rate of natural increase. (rmax ) of populations is a key reproductive parameter in the most used assessments of hunting sustainability. However, researchers face severe difficulties in obtaining reproductive data in the wild, so these assessments often rely on classic reproductive rates calculated mostly from studies of captive animals conducted 30 years ago. The result is a flaw in almost 50% of studies, which hampers management decision making. We conducted a 15-year study in the Amazon in which we used reproductive data from the genitalia of 950 hunted female mammals. Genitalia were collected by local hunters. We examined tissue from these samples to estimate birthrates for wild populations of the 10 most hunted mammals. We compared our estimates with classic measures and considered the utility of the use of rmax in sustainability assessments. For woolly monkey (Lagothrix poeppigii) and tapir (Tapirus terrestris), wild birthrates were similar to those from captive populations, whereas birthrates for other ungulates and lowland-paca (Cuniculus paca) were significantly lower than previous estimates. Conversely, for capuchin monkeys (Sapajus macrocephalus), agoutis (Dasyprocta sp.), and coatis (Nasua nasua), our calculated reproductive rates greatly exceeded often-used values. Researchers could keep applying classic measures compatible with our estimates, but for other species previous estimates of rmax may not be appropriate. We suggest that data from local studies be used to set hunting quotas. Our maximum rates of population growth in the wild correlated with body weight, which suggests that our method is consistent and reliable. Integration of this method into community-based wildlife management and the training of local hunters to record pregnancies in hunted animals could efficiently generate useful information of life

  11. Non-legalized commerce in game meat in the Brazilian Amazon: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baía Jr, Pedro Chaves; Guimarães, Diva Anelie; Le Pendu, Yvonnick

    2010-09-01

    In tropical forests, wild game meat represents an option or the only protein source for some human populations. This study analyzed the wildlife meat trade destined to human consumption in an open market of the Amazon rainforest, Brazil. Wildlife meat trade was monitored during 2005 through interviews to vendors and consumers in order to evaluate the socioeconomic profile of the sellers, the main species and byproducts sold, their geographical origin, commercial value, frequency of sale and product demand. Data indicated that vendors were financially highly dependant of this activity, getting a monthly income up to US$271.49. During the survey, the amount of wildlife meat on sale added a total of 5 970kg, as follows: 63.2% capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), 34.4% cayman (Melanosuchus niger and/or Caiman crocodilus crocodilus), 1.1% paca (Cuniculus paca); 0.6% armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus), 0.5% deer (Mazama americana), 0.2% matamata (Chelus fimbriatus), and 0.1% opossum (Didelphis marsupialis). Most of the commercialized species were not slaughtered locally. The consumption of wildlife meat was admitted by 94% of the interviewed, consisting of 27 ethno-species: 19 mammals, 6 reptiles, and 2 birds. The same percentage of the interviewed (94%) already bought wildlife meat of 18 species: 12 mammals and 6 reptiles. The great amount of wildlife meat traded and the important demand for these products by the local population, point out the necessity to adopt policies for a sustainable management of cinegetic species, guaranteeing the conservation of the environment, the improvement of living standards, and the maintenance of the local culture.

  12. Effect of Rabbit Epididymal Antimicrobial Peptide, REHbβP, on LPS-Induced Proinflammatory Cytokine Responses in Human Vaginal Cells In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. R. Reddy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMP’s protect epithelial surfaces including epididymis against pathogens and play a key role in orchestrating various defensive responses. Recently, we have identified one such AMP, rabbit epididymal hemoglobin-β subuit (REHbβP from the epididymal fluid of rabbit, Oryctologus cuniculus. The demonstration of a protective role of REHbβP in epididymal epithelial cells (EPEC’s led us to investigate: (1 the identification of LPS interactive domain in REHbβP, and (2 whether the REHbβP of rabbit origin mediates vaginal cellular immune responses of another species (human. HeLa-S3, human vaginal epithelial cells (hVECs were exposed to LPS or the LPS-stimulated cells treated with REHbβP or neutral peptide, nREHbβP. Effect of LPS and cytokines (IL-6 and IL-1α and chemokines (IL-8, MCP-1 levels was determined in the culture supernatants. In response to the LPS, hVECs synthesized these mediators and the levels were significantly higher than controls. This enhancing effect was ameliorated when the LPS-induced hVECs were treated with REHbβP. Similar results were obtained on NF-κB protein and hBD-1 mRNA expression. Confocal microscopy studies revealed that REHbβP attenuated the LPS-induced internalization of E. coli by macrophages. The chemotaxis studies performed using Boyden chamber Transwell assay, which showed elevated migration of U937 cells when the supernatants of LPS-induced hVECs were used, and the effect was inhibited by REHbβP. REHbβP was found to be localized on the acrosome of rabbit spermatozoa, suggesting its role in sperm protection beside sperm function. In conclusion, REHbβP may have the potential to develop as a therapeutic agent for reproductive tract infections (RTI’s.

  13. Mamíferos terrestres em um remanescente de Mata Atlântica, Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Regina Wolfart

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2013v26n4p111 O grau de ameaça e a importância ecológica dos mamíferos terrestres evidenciam a necessidade da constante realização de pesquisas com o intuito de acrescentar informações ao conhecimento atual sobre esse tema. Este estudo teve por objetivo fornecer uma lista de espécies de mamíferos terrestres em um remanescente de Mata Atlântica localizado no sudoeste do estado do Paraná. A riqueza de espécies e a frequência de ocorrência foram estudadas de abril a outubro de 2009, utilizando dois métodos: observação direta e registro de vestígios. Foram registrados 20 táxons distribuídos em sete ordens: Artiodactyla, Carnivora, Didelphimorphia, Lagomorpha, Primates, Rodentia e Xenarthra. Dentre estes, quatro táxons foram registrados tanto por observação direta quanto pelo registro de vestígios e os demais foram registrados somente por meio de vestígios. As espécies com ocorrência mais frequente foram Didelphis sp. (30,6% e Cerdocyon thous (25,6%. Dos 20 táxons registrados, Leopardus pardalis, Leopardus tigrinus e Cuniculus paca constam como vulneráveis no Livro Vermelho da Fauna Ameaçada no Estado do Paraná. Apesar de pequena, a área de estudo deve auxiliar na disponibilidade de alimento e abrigo para a mastofauna, representando um importante elemento da paisagem regional.

  14. Non-legalized commerce in game meat in the Brazilian Amazon: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Chaves Baía Júnior

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In tropical forests, wild game meat represents an option or the only protein source for some human populations. This study analyzed the wildlife meat trade destined to human consumption in an open market of the Amazon rainforest, Brazil. Wildlife meat trade was monitored during 2005 through interviews to vendors and consumers in order to evaluate the socioeconomic profile of the sellers, the main species and byproducts sold, their geographical origin, commercial value, frequency of sale and product demand. Data indicated that vendors were financially highly dependant of this activity, getting a monthly income up to US$271.49. During the survey, the amount of wildlife meat on sale added a total of 5 970kg, as follows: 63.2% capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, 34.4% cayman (Melanosuchus niger and/or Caiman crocodilus crocodilus, 1.1% paca (Cuniculus paca; 0.6% armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus, 0.5% deer (Mazama americana, 0.2% matamata (Chelus fimbriatus, and 0.1% opossum (Didelphis marsupialis. Most of the commercialized species were not slaughtered locally. The consumption of wildlife meat was admitted by 94% of the interviewed, consisting of 27 ethno-species: 19 mammals, 6 reptiles, and 2 birds. The same percentage of the interviewed (94% already bought wildlife meat of 18 species: 12 mammals and 6 reptiles. The great amount of wildlife meat traded and the important demand for these products by the local population, point out the necessity to adopt policies for a sustainable management of cinegetic species, guaranteeing the conservation of the environment, the improvement of living standards, and the maintenance of the local culture. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (3: 1079-1088. Epub 2010 September 01.

  15. Interactions between terrestrial mammals and the fruits of two neotropical rainforest tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo-Sanabria, Angela A.; Mendoza, Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    Mammalian frugivory is a distinctive biotic interaction of tropical forests; however, most efforts in the Neotropics have focused on cases of animals foraging in the forest canopy, in particular primates and bats. In contrast much less is known about this interaction when it involves fruits deposited on the forest floor and terrestrial mammals. We conducted a camera-trapping survey to analyze the characteristics of the mammalian ensembles visiting fruits of Licania platypus and Pouteria sapota deposited on the forest floor in a well preserved tropical rainforest of Mexico. Both tree species produce large fruits but contrast in their population densities and fruit chemical composition. In particular, we expected that more species of terrestrial mammals would consume P. sapota fruits due to its higher pulp:seed ratio, lower availability and greater carbohydrate content. We monitored fruits at the base of 13 trees (P. sapota, n = 4 and L. platypus, n = 9) using camera-traps. We recorded 13 mammal species from which we had evidence of 8 consuming or removing fruits. These eight species accounted for 70% of the species of mammalian frugivores active in the forest floor of our study area. The ensemble of frugivores associated with L. platypus (6 spp.) was a subset of that associated with P. sapota (8 spp). Large body-sized species such as Tapirus bairdii, Pecari tajacu and Cuniculus paca were the mammals more frequently interacting with fruits of the focal species. Our results further our understanding of the characteristics of the interaction between terrestrial mammalian frugivores and large-sized fruits, helping to gain a more balanced view of its importance across different tropical forests and providing a baseline to compare against defaunated forests.

  16. The thrill of the chase: uncovering illegal sport hunting in Brazil through YouTube™ posts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani R. El Bizri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of unregulated sport hunting can severely affect populations of target game species. Because hunting in Brazil is limited by law, obtaining data on illegal sport hunting in this country is challenging. We used an unusual online resource, YouTube™, to detect the occurrence of sport hunting in Brazil, measure the impacts of the activity on the main Brazilian game species and biomes, evaluate the opinions of hunters and internet users on sport hunting, and discuss the need for policy interventions in wildlife conservation in this country. We found 383 videos related to Brazilian sport hunting on YouTube™, accounting for more than 15 million views. Most videos were produced in the Cerrado (Brazilian savannah and approximately 70% of them depicted events of pursuit and killing of wild animals, especially lowland pacas (Cuniculus paca and armadillos (Family Dasypodidae. Videos were posted primarily in July and December, coinciding with the two main Brazilian vacation periods. Furthermore, the shotguns identified on videos show that sport hunters expend large sums of money to undertake their hunts. These results indicate that Brazilian sport hunters are possibly wealthier urban residents who travel to rural areas to hunt, contrasting with previous hunting studies in the country. Most viewers declared themselves in favor of sport hunting in comments (n = 2893 and ratings (n = 36,570 of the videos. Discussions generated by comments suggest that Brazilian sport hunters employ several informal management strategies to maintain game species stocks for future hunting and intensely question the restrictions of Brazilian environmental policies. Our results demonstrate that solutions are needed for the regulation of sport hunting in Brazil. Government actions, whether to increase surveillance or legalize hunting programs, should take into account the opinions of sport hunters and their perceptions on hunting dynamics to support effective policy

  17. La inmunocromatografía para el diagnóstico de la infección por Taenia solium en Mesocricetus auratus mediante la detección de coproantígenos*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermes Escalante A

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la técnica de inmunocromatografía para el diagnóstico de la infección por Taenia solium en Mesocricetus auratus "hámsters" mediante la detección de coproantígenos. Materiales y métodos: Se produjo en Oryctolagus cunniculus "conejo" IgG anti-antígenos de excreción/secreción (ES de T. solium y en Capra hircus "cabra" IgG anti-IgG de conejo. Parte de las IgG anti-antígenos ES de T. solium fue conjugado con oro coloidal. La inmunocromatografía se llevó a cabo utilizando tiras de nitrocelulosa en las cuáles se fijó dos bandas con anticuerpos de captura; en la primera, las IgG anti-antígenos ES de T. solium (banda de prueba, y en la segunda las IgG anti-IgG de conejo (banda control. La técnica fue evaluada con un "pool" de tres muestras de medio de cultivo con antígenos ES de T. solium, Hymenolepis nana, Dyphillobotrium pacificum y de larvas de Anisakis simplex, así como con un "pool" de tres muestras fecales de hámsters no parasitados, de parasitados por H. nana y de siete muestras fecales de hámsters parasitados por T. Solium. Resultados: La inmunocromatografía permitió detectar antígenos de T. solium en muestras de medio de cultivo con antígenos ES específicas y en heces de hámsters parasitados por T. solium mediante la coloración de la banda de prueba, siendo negativo cuando se utilizó medios con ES de otros helmintos y sin antígenos, así como con muestras de heces de hámsters infectados por otros parásitos y de no parasitados. En todas las tiras usadas se observó coloración de la banda control. Conclusión: La técnica de inmunocromatografía es capaz de detectar antígenos de T. solium, tanto en medio de cultivo como en heces de hámsters, faltando evaluar la sensibilidad y la especificidad con muestras fecales humanas para el diagnóstico de la teniosis mediante la detección de coproantígenos.

  18. Riqueza e composição de vertebrados em latrinas ativas e inativas de Pteronura brasiliensis (Carnivora, Mustelidae na Amazônia Oriental, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia M. Togura

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou avaliar a riqueza e composição de vertebrados de médio e grande porte em latrinas ativas e inativas de ariranhas [Pteronura brasiliensis (Gmelin, 1788], em uma Unidade de Conservação de Uso Sustentável na Amazônia Oriental Brasileira. O estudo foi realizado em 45 latrinas ao longo de 230 km nos rios Falsino e Araguari (0°55'N, 51°35'W, sendo que desse total, 24 apresentaram fezes frescas e 21 fezes velhas de ariranhas. De julho a novembro de 2012, cada latrina foi monitorada com uma armadilha fotográfica programada para operar por 24 horas. O esforço de campo resultou em 458,8 armadilhas/dia, sendo 247,5 armadilhas/dia em latrinas com fezes frescas e 211,3 armadilhas/dia com fezes velhas. Foram obtidos registros de 22 espécies de vertebrados. A maior parte das espécies registradas foram mamíferos (n = 13, seguida por aves (n = 6, e répteis (n = 3. As espécies mais frequentemente fotografadas foram paca [Cuniculus paca (Linnaeus, 1766; n = 21], jaguatirica [Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758; n =11], juriti-pupu (Leptotila verreauxi Bonaparte, 1855; n = 8, ariranha [Pteronura brasiliensis (Gmelin, 1788; n = 7], e anta [Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758; n = 6], que foram responsáveis por 55,8% de todos os registros. A maior parte dos registros (69,5% foram obtidos em latrinas com fezes frescas e o número de espécies foi maior (n = 19 do que os registrados em latrinas com fezes velhas (n = 15. No entanto, a dissimilaridade entre a comunidade de vertebrados entre latrinas com fezes frescas e velhas não diferiu. A média de visitação em latrinas com fezes frescas foi ligeiramente superior do que em latrinas com fezes velhas, embora essa diferença tenha sido apenas marginalmente significativa. Entretanto, houve uma diminuição no número de registros de felinos [Leopardus pardalis, Leopardus wiedii (Schinz, 1821 e Panthera onca (Linnaeus, 1758], marginalmente significativo em latrinas com fezes frescas

  19. Especificación y estacionalidad en el Paleolítico Superior de La Cueva de Ambrosio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Yraverdra Sainz de los Terreros

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A través de los análisis taxonómicos que se han venido realizando en los últimos años dentro de los estudios arqueozoológicos, se han generalizado ciertas opiniones acerca de las estrategias cinegéticas del final del Paleolítico Superior. De manera que gran cantidad de autores coinciden en afirmar que desde el Solutrense y hasta el Magdaleniense se produjeron ciertos hábitos especializados sobre un número muy reducido de especies. De esta forma conejos en el mediterráneo, y ciervos y cabras en el cantábrico se consideran las especies más frecuentemente cazadas durante este periodo. Aunque coincidimos en parte de estas propuestas, creemos que muchas de las interpretaciones realizadas en torno a la especialización cinegética deben ser revisadas, ya que muchas de ellas se fundamentan en criterios estrictamente taxonómicos, obviando la información de otro tipo de analíticas como las procedentes de la tafonomía o la estacionalidad. En este caso hemos analizado el yacimiento solutrense de Cueva de Ambrosio (Almería, España y hemos visto como la interpretación sobre este lugar cambia según se utilicen o no, alguno de estos métodos.With the taxonomic data of the zooarchaeological studies some researchs have proposed specializating hunting behavior for the end Upper Palaeolitic times in reed deers (Cervus elaphus and goats (Capra pyrenaica in the Cantabric Cornice and rabits (Orictolagus cuniculus in the Mediterranean. Althought we can think in this specializating hunting,we believe that some interpretations should to be revised, because many of then are made only in taxonomics data forget other analitic sciences as the taphonomy or the seasonality more resolutives. In this paper we are aply both analitic sciencies to the Solutrean site of the Ambosio Cave (Almería, Spain and we saw how the interpretation of the site change with the aplication of this methods.

  20. Ecological Relationships of Meso-Scale Distribution in 25 Neotropical Vertebrate Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Lincoln José; Norris, Darren; de Oliveira, Tadeu Gomes; Michalski, Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Vertebrates are a vital ecological component of Amazon forest biodiversity. Although vertebrates are a functionally important part of various ecosystem services they continue to be threatened by anthropogenic impacts throughout the Amazon. Here we use a standardized, regularly spaced arrangement of camera traps within 25km2 to provide a baseline assessment of vertebrate species diversity in a sustainable use protected area in the eastern Brazilian Amazon. We examined seasonal differences in the per species encounter rates (number of photos per camera trap and number of cameras with photos). Generalized linear models (GLMs) were then used to examine the influence of five variables (altitude, canopy cover, basal area, distance to nearest river and distance to nearest large river) on the number of photos per species and on functional groups. GLMs were also used to examine the relationships between large predators [Jaguar (Panthera onca) and Puma (Puma concolor)] and their prey. A total of 649 independent photos of 25 species were obtained from 1,800 camera trap days (900 each during wet and dry seasons). Only ungulates and rodents showed significant seasonal differences in the number of photos per camera. The number of photos differed between seasons for only three species (Mazama americana, Dasyprocta leporina and Myoprocta acouchy) all of which were photographed more (3 to 10 fold increase) during the wet season. Mazama americana was the only species where a significant difference was found in occupancy, with more photos in more cameras during the wet season. For most groups and species variation in the number of photos per camera was only explained weakly by the GLMs (deviance explained ranging from 10.3 to 54.4%). Terrestrial birds (Crax alector, Psophia crepitans and Tinamus major) and rodents (Cuniculus paca, Dasyprocta leporina and M. acouchy) were the notable exceptions, with our GLMs significantly explaining variation in the distribution of all species