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  1. Geochemistry of magnetite from Proterozoic Fe-Cu deposits in the Kangdian metallogenic province, SW China

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    Chen, Wei Terry; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Gao, Jian-Feng; Hu, Ruizhong

    2015-10-01

    Fe-Cu deposits in the Kangdian Fe-Cu metallogenic province, SW China, are hosted in Paleoproterozoic meta-volcanic-sedimentary sequences and are spatially associated with coeval mafic intrusions. Several well-known examples are the giant Lala, Dahongshan, and Yinachang deposits. They have a common paragenetic sequence of an early Fe-oxide stage associated with sodic alteration and a late Cu-sulfide stage associated with potassic-carbonate alteration. Magnetite dominates the Fe-oxide stage of these deposits but is also present in the Cu-sulfide stage of the Lala deposit. This study uses trace element compositions of magnetite to examine the nature and origin of the ore-forming fluids. The magnetite has variable concentrations of Ti, Al, Mg, Mn, Si, V, Cr, Ca, Co, Ni, Sc, Zn, Cu, Mo, Sn, and Ga, which are thought to have been controlled mainly by fluid compositions and/or intensive parameters (e.g., temperature and oxygen fugacity ( fO2)). Fluid-rock interaction and coprecipitating mineral phases appear to be less important in controlling the magnetite compositions. Magnetite grains in the Fe-oxide stage of the Lala and Dahongshan deposits have comparable trace element compositions and were likely precipitated from chemically similar fluids. High Ni contents of magnetite in both deposits, coupled with previous isotopic data and the fact that the two deposits are spatially associated with coeval mafic intrusions, strongly suggest that the ore-forming fluids were genetically related to the mafic magmas that formed the intrusions. Magnetite grains in the Fe-oxide stage of the Yinachang deposit have much lower V and Ni but higher Sn and Mo contents than those of the Lala and Dahongshan deposits and are thus thought to have precipitated from more oxidized and Mo-Sn-rich fluids that may have evolved from relatively felsic magmas. Magnetite grains from the Cu-sulfide and Fe-oxide stages of the Lala deposit are broadly similar in composition, but those in the Cu

  2. Major and Trace Element Geochemistry of Coals and Intra-Seam Claystones from the Songzao Coalfield, SW China

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    Lei Zhao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Silicic, mafic and alkali intra-seam tonsteins have been known from SW China for a number of years. This paper reports on the geochemical compositions of coals and tonsteins from three seam sections of the Songzao Coalfield, SW China, and evaluates the geological factors responsible for the chemical characteristics of the coal seams, with emphasis on the influence from different types of volcanic ashes. The roof and floor samples of the Songzao coal seams mostly have high TiO2 contents, consistent with a high TiO2 content in the detrital sediment input from the source region, namely mafic basalts from the Kangdian Upland on the western margin of the coal basin. The coals from the Songzao Coalfield generally have high ash yields and are highly enriched in trace elements including Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, rare earth elements (REE, Y, Hg and Se; some variation occurs among different seam sections due to input of geochemically different volcanic ash materials. The geochemistry of the Songzao coals has also been affected by the adjacent tonstein/K-bentonite bands. The relatively immobile elements that are enriched in the altered volcanic ashes also tend to be enriched in the adjacent coal plies, possibly due to leaching by groundwaters. The coals near the alkali tonstein bands in the Tonghua and Yuyang sections of the Songzao Coalfield are mostly high in Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, Th, U, REE and Y. Coal samples overlying the mafic K-bentonite in the Tonghua section are high in V, Cr, Zn and Cu. The Datong coal, which has neither visible tonstein layers nor obvious volcanogenic minerals, has high TiO2, V, Cr, Ni, Cu and Zn concentrations in the intervals between the coal plies affected by mafic and alkaline volcanic ashes. This is consistent with the suggestion that a common source material was supplied to the coal basin, derived from the erosion of mafic basaltic rocks of the Kangdian Upland. Although the Songzao coal is generally a high-sulfur coal, most of the

  3. swDMR: A Sliding Window Approach to Identify Differentially Methylated Regions Based on Whole Genome Bisulfite Sequencing.

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    Zhen Wang

    Full Text Available DNA methylation is a widespread epigenetic modification that plays an essential role in gene expression through transcriptional regulation and chromatin remodeling. The emergence of whole genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS represents an important milestone in the detection of DNA methylation. Characterization of differential methylated regions (DMRs is fundamental as well for further functional analysis. In this study, we present swDMR (http://sourceforge.net/projects/swDMR/ for the comprehensive analysis of DMRs from whole genome methylation profiles by a sliding window approach. It is an integrated tool designed for WGBS data, which not only implements accessible statistical methods to perform hypothesis test adapted to two or more samples without replicates, but false discovery rate was also controlled by multiple test correction. Downstream analysis tools were also provided, including cluster, annotation and visualization modules. In summary, based on WGBS data, swDMR can produce abundant information of differential methylated regions. As a convenient and flexible tool, we believe swDMR will bring us closer to unveil the potential functional regions involved in epigenetic regulation.

  4. A Late Variscan Sn province: the Arburese region (SW Sardinia, Italy)

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    Naitza, Stefano; Secchi, Francesco; Oggiano, Giacomo; Cuccuru, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    Late Variscan Sn - rich European provinces (e. g. Erzgebirge, Cornwall) are of particular relevance as they offer key insights into crustal evolution, intrusive processes and ore genesis. In Sardinia (Italy), small Sn deposits are only known in the Arburese historical mining region (SW Sardinia), hosted in low-grade metamorphics close to the contacts with intrusives. This region is characterised by two late variscan intrusions, which differ in age and composition: the Arbus and the Monte Linas pluton, aging 304 ± 1 Ma, and 289 ± 1 Ma respectively. They emplaced at shallow crustal levels and crosscut the basal thrust between the alloctonous prism and the foreland of the Variscan belt of Sardinia. The Arbus Pluton (AP) is a composite intrusion of piroxene- and amphibole- granodiorites hosting minor amounts of monzogabbroic rocks and cordierite-bearing granites with a wide core of leuco-monzogranites. Tourmaline greisens and pegmatites garnish the contact between the border facies and the host metamorphic rocks. The Monte Linas Pluton (MLP) has biotite monzogranite composition. The pluton is internally zoned, from medium grained monzogranite in the core to hololeucocratic fine-grained rock-types at the top, where often F-greisen, fayalite-pegmatite pods and sill are common. In both plutons the igneous associations are high-K ilmenite series, suggesting derivation from low- fO2 magmas possibly linked to a common crustal contribution; however, in the Linas Pluton magnetite in the fine-grained facies may indicate an increase in oxygen fugacity. The AP-related Sn ores consist of high-temperature As-Sn quartz veins. They are vertically zoned, from quartz-chlorite-cassiterite to large quartz-arsenopyrite veins. Ore microscopy and SEM-EDS analyses evidenced a vein texture made of thick idiomorphic and frequently twinned cassiterite crystals, alternated with several generations of banded/geodic quartz. Chlinoclore aggregates are included into the quartz. The arsenopyrite

  5. Thermal structure of pumpellyite-actinolite facies regions in the Sanbagawa belt, Shikoku, SW Japan

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    Sakaguchi, M.

    2003-12-01

    On the basis of the mineral assemblages of pelitic rocks, the Sanbagawa belt in Shikoku, SW Japan, has been divided, from low- to high-grade parts, into the chlorite, garnet, albite-biotite and oligoclase-biotite zones (Higashino, 1990). Also, the mineral assemblage of pumpellyite + actinolite + epidote + chlorite or epidote + actinolite + hematite + chlorite, which defines the pumpellyite-actinolite (PA) facies (e.g., Banno, 1998), is widely recognized in metabasites in the chlorite zone (e.g. Banno & Sakai, 1989). However, the detailed study on the PA facies regions has been done only in the Omoiji-Nagasawa area (Nakajima et al., 1977) and Asemigawa-Shirataki area (Nakajima, 1982) in central Shikoku, and thus, it is still hard to solve the regional thermal structure of the PA facies region. This study is aimed to reveal the thermal structure of the PA facies region of the Sanbagawa belt in Shikoku by analyzing the mineral assemblages and mineral chemistries of metabasites from the nine newly studied areas. The studied areas studied belong to the chlorite zone in the Oboke and Besshi units; the Oboke unit structurally underlay the Besshi unit. The mineral assemblages include pumpellyite + epidote + actinolite, epidote + actinolite _ hematite and epidote + Na-amphibole + actinolite + hematite. The metabasites from some areas involve Na-pyroxene-bearing assemblages, but the analyses of the Schreinemakers bundle of Tagiri et al. (1992) show that these assemblages do not define the Na-pyroxene-chlorite subfacies. As the low-grade metamorphic rocks do not have the hematite + pumpellyite paragenesis, its metamorphic temperature is estimated to be higher than the discontinuous reaction temperature of pumpellyite + hematite + quartz = epidote + actinolite + H2O, as shown by Nakajima et al. (1977). It is difficult to detect the difference in temperature in the PA facies regions by analyzing mineral assemblages. To detect the difference in temperature, and then to reveal

  6. Geology, geochemistry and genesis of the Eocene Lailishan Sn deposit in the Sanjiang region, SW China

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    Cao, Hua-Wen; Pei, Qiu-Ming; Zhang, Shou-Ting; Zhang, Lin-Kui; Tang, Li; Lin, Jin-Zhan; Zheng, Luo

    2017-04-01

    The Lailishan deposit is an important tin deposit that is genetically associated with an Early Eocene biotite granite in the western Yunnan metallogenic belt in the Sanjiang region, SW China. This study reports new zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic data, whole-rock elements, mica Ar-Ar age and C-H-O-S-Pb isotope for the Lailishan Sn deposit. The mineralization-related biotite granite crystallized during the Early Eocene (50.5 Ma), with its zircon εHf(t) values ranging from -11.5 to -7.6 and two-stage Hf model ages (TDM2) ranging from 1.60 to 1.85 Ga. The rocks are peraluminous with A/CNK values of 0.99-1.08. The granites display high Si, Al and K contents but low Mg, Fe and Ca contents. The rocks show flat chondrite-normalized REE patterns with strong Eu negative anomalies. These characteristics indicate that the magma originated from a continental crustal source. The hydrothermal muscovite exhibits an Ar-Ar plateau age of 50.4 ± 0.2 Ma. The δ18O and δD values of hydrothermal quartz from the deposit range from -7.32‰ to 4.01‰ and from -124.9‰ to -87.1‰, respectively. The δ13CPDB and δ18OSMOW values of calcite range from -11.3‰ to -3.7‰ and from +2.2‰ to +12.7‰, respectively. The sulfur isotopic compositions (δ34SV-CDT) range from +3.3‰ to +8.6‰ for sulfide separates, and the lead isotopic ratios 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb range from 18.668 to 18.746, from 15.710 to 15.743 and from 39.202 to 39.295, respectively. These isotopic compositions are similar to those of magma-derived fluids, indicating that the ore-forming fluids and materials mainly originated from magmatic rocks with some input from meteoric water. This evidence suggests that the tin mineralization is closely linked to the Lailishan I-type granites. In combination with previous data, it is proposed in this study that widespread early Eocene magmatism resulted from the slab breakoff of the subducting Neo-Tethyan slab at ca. 55 Ma.

  7. Regional forecast model for the Olea pollen season in Extremadura (SW Spain)

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    Fernández-Rodríguez, Santiago; Durán-Barroso, Pablo; Silva-Palacios, Inmaculada; Tormo-Molina, Rafael; Maya-Manzano, José María; Gonzalo-Garijo, Ángela

    2016-10-01

    The olive tree ( Olea europaea) is a predominantly Mediterranean anemophilous species. The pollen allergens from this tree are an important cause of allergic problems. Olea pollen may be relevant in relation to climate change, due to the fact that its flowering phenology is related to meteorological parameters. This study aims to investigate airborne Olea pollen data from a city on the SW Iberian Peninsula, to analyse the trends in these data and their relationships with meteorological parameters using time series analysis. Aerobiological sampling was conducted from 1994 to 2013 in Badajoz (SW Spain) using a 7-day Hirst-type volumetric sampler. The main Olea pollen season lasted an average of 34 days, from May 4th to June 7th. The model proposed to forecast airborne pollen concentrations, described by one equation. This expression is composed of two terms: the first term represents the resilience of the pollen concentration trend in the air according to the average concentration of the previous 10 days; the second term was obtained from considering the actual pollen concentration value, which is calculated based on the most representative meteorological variables multiplied by a fitting coefficient. Due to the allergenic characteristics of this pollen type, it should be necessary to forecast its short-term prevalence using a long record of data in a city with a Mediterranean climate. The model obtained provides a suitable level of confidence to forecast Olea airborne pollen concentration.

  8. Seismotectonic Investigation of Biga Peninsula in SW Marmara Region Using Steerable Filter Technique, Potential Field Data and Recent Seismicity

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    Görgün, Ethem; Albora, A. Muhittin

    2017-07-01

    We examine seismotectonic setting of Biga Peninsula in western Anatolia (Çanakkale region) using the steerable filter technique and recent seismicity. One of the most important issues in geophysics is to observe borders or margins of tectonic/geologic discontinues. For this purpose, we apply this filter technique to gravity anomaly map of Biga Peninsula. We observe undetected/buried faults in Biga Peninsula using the steerable technique where they have never been seen in the geological maps before. These buried faults comply with recent seismicity for this region. Focal mechanisms of past earthquakes (M ≥ 3.5) are in good agreement with fault orientations. This observation shows that we have to take into account these fault locations and consider for preparing future seismic hazard maps. The geometry of fault segments reveals mostly strike-slip faulting regime with NE-SW trending direction of T-axis in the entire study region. According to high-resolution hypocenter relocation of the Biga earthquake sequences in the observation period between 5 January 2005 and 14 November 2015 extends from N to S direction. The stress tensor inversion results indicate a predominant normal stress regime with a NW-SE oriented maximum horizontal compressive stress (S H). According to strong discrepancy of density in the Biga Peninsula is characterized by numerous small segmented secondary faults. These buried or undetected fault locations indicate that these segments are large enough to increase earthquake stress failure towards NW-SE and N-S directions, respectively. Seismotectonic setting of Biga Peninsula is divided into sub-regions by NE-SW trending secondary faults with normal and major strike-slip components. This output is verified by steerable filter and local/regional seismotectonic analysis. We propose a new seismotectonic model for Biga Peninsula and update the orientation of active fault segments. According to our model, North Anatolian Fault Zone cross-cuts the

  9. An alternative radiometric method for calculating the sedimentation rates: Application to an intertidal region (SW of Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligero, R.A., E-mail: rufino.ligero@uca.e [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Casas-Ruiz, M. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Barrera, M. [Departamento de Medio Ambiente, CIEMAT, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Barbero, L. [Departamento de Ciencias de la Tierra, Universidad de Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real (Spain); Melendez, M.J. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    A new method using the inventory determined for the activity of the radionuclide {sup 137}Cs, coming from global radioactive fallout has been utilised to calculate the sedimentation rates. The method has been applied in a wide intertidal region in the Bay of Cadiz Natural Park (SW Spain). The sedimentation rates estimated by the {sup 137}Cs inventory method ranged from 0.26 cm/year to 1.72 cm/year. The average value of the sedimentation rate obtained is 0.59 cm/year, and this rate has been compared with those resulting from the application of the {sup 210}Pb dating technique. A good agreement between the two procedures has been found. From the study carried out, it has been possible for the first time, to draw a map of sedimentation rates for this zone where numerous physico-chemical, oceanographic and ecological studies converge, since it is situated in a region of great environmental interest. This area, which is representative of common environmental coastal scenarios, is particularly sensitive to perturbations related to climate change, and the results of the study will allow to make short and medium term evaluations of this change.

  10. An alternative radiometric method for calculating the sedimentation rates: application to an intertidal region (SW of Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligero, R A; Casas-Ruiz, M; Barrera, M; Barbero, L; Meléndez, M J

    2010-09-01

    A new method using the inventory determined for the activity of the radionuclide (137)Cs, coming from global radioactive fallout has been utilised to calculate the sedimentation rates. The method has been applied in a wide intertidal region in the Bay of Cádiz Natural Park (SW Spain). The sedimentation rates estimated by the (137)Cs inventory method ranged from 0.26 cm/year to 1.72 cm/year. The average value of the sedimentation rate obtained is 0.59 cm/year, and this rate has been compared with those resulting from the application of the (210)Pb dating technique. A good agreement between the two procedures has been found. From the study carried out, it has been possible for the first time, to draw a map of sedimentation rates for this zone where numerous physico-chemical, oceanographic and ecological studies converge, since it is situated in a region of great environmental interest. This area, which is representative of common environmental coastal scenarios, is particularly sensitive to perturbations related to climate change, and the results of the study will allow to make short and medium term evaluations of this change.

  11. Nature and distribution of geological domains at the Africa-Eurasia plate boundary off SW Iberia and regional geodynamic implications

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    Martínez-Loriente, Sara; Sallarès, Valentí; Gràcia, Eulàlia; Bartolome, Rafael

    2014-05-01

    We present a new classification of geological domains at the Africa-Eurasia plate boundary off SW Iberia, together with a regional geodynamic reconstruction spanning from the Mesozoic extension to the Neogene-to-present-day convergence. It is based on seismic velocity and density models along two regional wide-angle seismic transects, one running NW-SE from the Horseshoe to the Seine abyssal plains, and the other running N-S from S Portugal to the Seine Abyssal Plain, combined with previously available information. The seismic velocity and density structure at the Seine Abyssal Plain and the internal Gulf of Cadiz indicates the presence of a highly heterogeneous oceanic crust, similar to that described in ultra-slow spreading centers, whereas in the Horseshoe and Tagus abyssal plains, the basement structure resembles that of exhumed mantle sections identified in the Northern Atlantic margin. The integration of all this new information allows defining the presence of three oceanic domains offshore SW Iberia: (1) the Seine Abyssal Plain domain, generated during the first stages of slow seafloor spreading in the NE Central Atlantic (Early Jurassic); (2) the Gulf of Cadiz domain, made of oceanic crust generated in the Alpine-Tethys spreading system between Iberia and Africa, which was coeval with the formation of the Seine Abyssal Plain domain and lasted up to the North Atlantic continental break-up (Late Jurassic); and (3) the Gorringe Bank domain, mainly made of rocks exhumed from the mantle with little synchronous magmatism, which formed during the first stages of North Atlantic opening. Our models suggest that the Seine Abyssal Plain and Gulf of Cadiz domains are separated by the Lineament South strike-slip fault, whereas the Gulf of Cadiz and Gorringe Bank domains appear to be limited by a deep thrust fault located at the center of the Horseshoe Abyssal Plain. The formation and evolution of these three domains during the Mesozoic is key to understand the sequence

  12. VS30 mapping and soil classification for seismic site effect evaluation in Dinar region, SW Turkey

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    Ismet Kanlı, Ali; Tildy, Péter; Prónay, Zsolt; Pınar, Ali; Hermann, László

    2006-04-01

    The Dinar earthquake (MS= 6.1) of 1995 October 1 killed 90 people and destroyed more than 4000 buildings. Despite the moderate size of the earthquake, the level of damage was extremely high, which led to many studies that were carried out in the region. The majority of these studies concluded that the main reasons for the damage were the construction errors and the poor soil conditions. However, at that time no appropriate soil condition map based on extended, high density measurements was available. Shear wave velocity is an important parameter for evaluating the dynamic behaviour of soil in the shallow subsurface. Thus site characterization in calculating seismic hazards is usually based on the near surface shear wave velocity values. The average shear wave velocity for the top 30 m of soil is referred to as VS30. For earthquake engineering design purposes, both the Uniform Building Code (UBC) and Eurocode 8 (EC8) codes use VS30 to classify sites according to the soil type. The Vs30 values calculated by using multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) were used to create a new soil classification map of the Dinar region. Surface seismic measurements were carried out at 50 locations mostly in Dinar city and its surroundings. The dispersion data of the recorded Rayleigh waves were inverted using a Genetic Algorithm (GA) method to obtain shear wave velocity profiles of the investigated sites. Thus the derived Vs30 map of the Dinar region was transformed to the UBC and EC8 standards. Soil classification results show that most parts of the region, located in alluvial basin, have low shear wave velocity values. These values are within the range of 160-240 m s-1 and thus fall into the SD and SE categories according to the UBC and the C and D categories according to EC8. Within the region, some parts located on the hill zone and the transition zone have better soil conditions [corresponding to SC (UBC) and B (EC8) categories] and have comparatively high shear wave

  13. Bathymetric and regional changes in benthic macrofaunal assemblages on the deep Eastern Brazilian margin, SW Atlantic

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    Bernardino, Angelo Fraga; Berenguer, Vanessa; Ribeiro-Ferreira, Venina P.

    2016-05-01

    Deep-sea continental slopes have valuable mineral and biological resources in close proximity to diverse, undersampled and fragile marine benthic ecosystems. The eastern Brazilian Continental Margin (19.01°S to 21.06°S, 37.88°W to 40.22°W) is an important economic region for both fishing and oil industries, but is poorly understood with respect to the structure of the soft-sediment benthic fauna, their regional distribution and their bathymetric patterns. To identify spatial and temporal patterns of benthic macrofaunal assemblages on the slope (400 to 3000 m), the Espirito Santo Basin Assessment Project (AMBES, coordinated by Cenpes-Petrobras) sampled 42 stations across the Brazilian Eastern Slope during both Summer 2012 and Winter 2013. We found a significant decrease in macrofaunal abundance at the 400 m isobath along the slope near the northern region of the Espirito Santo Basin, suggesting benthic responses to upwelling events towards the south in Campos Basin and southern Espirito Santo Basin. The taxonomic diversity and assemblage composition also changed significantly across depth zones with mid-slope peaks of diversity at 1000-1300 m. In general, macrofaunal assemblages were strongly related to slope depth, suggesting a strong influence of productivity gradients and water mass distribution on this oligotrophic margin. Sediment grain size was marginally important to macrofaunal composition on the upper slope. In general, macrofaunal assemblages on the slope of Espirito Santo Basin are similar to other areas of the SE Brazilian margin, but regional changes in response to productivity and depth need to be considered for management strategies in the face of increasing economic activities off-shore.

  14. Reconstruction of early Holocene paleoclimate and environment in the SW Kola region, Russian Arctic

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    Grekov, Ivan; Kolka, Vasiliy; Syrykh, Liudmila; Nazarova, Larisa

    2016-04-01

    In the current period of the global climate change it becomes necessary to have a clear understanding of not only the changes taking place in the components of the natural environment, but also to understand development of all interactions between those components. Quaternary terrigenic sediments and lakes of the Kola Peninsula store information about the development of the region in the Late Glacial and Holocene: movements of the glacier, neotectonic activity, post-glacial rebound, formation and development of natural environments after deglaciation. Multi-proxy study of landscapes evolution of the Kola Peninsula in the Late Quaternary will help to establish a detailed reconstruction of climatic and environmental changes of this poor studied sector of the Arctic. Quaternary history on the Kola Peninsula is represented mainly by Late Pleistocene and Holocene sediments covering the Baltic Shield (Lavrova, 1960; Evzerov, 2015). Several palaeolimnological investigations in the Baltic Shield area have been performed earlier (Donner et al., 1977; Anundsen, 1985; Berglund, 2004). Studies of the southern coast of the Kola Peninsula have shown that marine transgression took place in the Late Pleistocene that was then replaced by a regression with variable speed. The slowdown of the uplift of the area took place between 8800 - 6800 BP (cal. years) and corresponded to the time of the Tapes transgression of the Arctic Ocean (Evzerov et al. 2010; Kolka, et al., 2013). Palaeoclimatic studies based on micro-paleontological analyzes indicate uneven development of the Kola Peninsula landscapes in the Late Glacial and Early Holocene. The northern coast of the Peninsula became free of ice first. In this area tundra-steppe vegetation was established for a short time and was later replaced by tundra (Snyder et al, 2000). Southern part of the Kola Peninsula was dependent on the conditions of deglaciation of the White Sea basin and cleared of ice much later (Evzerov et al., 2010; Kolka

  15. The Beaverhead impact structure, SW Montana and Idaho: Implications for the regional geology of the western U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiske, P.S.; Hargaves, R.B.

    1994-03-17

    The Beaverhead impact structure in SW Montana and Idaho is an allochthonous fragment of a large impact structure ({approximately} 100 km diameter) that was transported some distance eastward during the Cretaceous Sevier orogeny. It is the first tectonic fragment of a large impact structure identified in the geologic record. The present evidence for impact consists of shatter cones, pseudotachylites, and planar deformation features in quartz. The age of the impact is not well constrained but is estimated to be Neoproterozoic to Cambrian (1000-500 Ma). The Beaverhead impact event must have created other features that may be preserved, elsewhere in western Montana and Idaho. These include proximal and distal ejecta (which may be misinterpreted as diamictites and/or tuff horizons) and other fragments of the crater floor containing shatter cones and pseudotachylite. A large circular gravity, magnetic and topographic anomaly, which could be the root of the impact structure, has been identified near Challis, Idaho. An enigmatic lithic tuff, identified in drill cores from the Challis area and an intraformational quartzite breccia in the Leaton Gulch area may be impact-related deposits, but no definitive evidence of shock metamorphism has been observed in these materials. The discovery of more pieces of the Beaverhead puzzle, as well as the recognition of other large impacts in the geologic record, are likely once the regional geologic community grows to accept the incidence of such events and becomes more familiar with the features of shock metamorphism in the field. To that end, the community of geologists in this area should integrate the Beaverhead structure into their research and teaching curriculum.

  16. Occurrence and mobility of toxic elements in coals from endemic fluorosis areas in the Three Gorges Region, SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yan; Xiao, Tangfu; Liu, Yizhang; Zhu, Jianming; Ning, Zengping; Xiao, Qingxiang

    2017-10-01

    Fluorine (F) is a topic of great interest in coal-combustion related endemic fluorosis areas. However, little extent research exists regarding the environmental geochemistry of toxic elements that are enriched in coals and coal wastes in traditional endemic fluorosis areas, particularly focusing on their occurrences and mobilities during the weathering-leaching processes of coals and coal wastes in the surface environment. This paper addressed the issue of toxic elements in coals and coal wastes in the Three Gorges Region, Southwest (SW) China, where endemic fluorosis has historically prevailed, and investigated the distribution, occurrence, mobility features, and associated potential health risks. For this purpose, a modified experiment combined with long-term humidity cell test and column leaching trial was applied to elucidate the mobility of toxic elements in coals and coal wastes. In addition, sequential chemical extraction (SCE) was used to ascertain the modes of occurrence of toxic elements. The results demonstrated that the contents of toxic elements in the study area followed the order: stone coals > gangues > coal balls > coals. Furthermore, modes of occurrence of toxic elements were obviously different in coals and coal wastes. For example, cadmium (Cd) was mainly associated with monosulfide fraction in coals, molybdenum (Mo) and arsenic (As) were mainly associated with carbonate and silicate in coal gangues and stone coals, chromium (Cr) mainly existed in silicate and insoluble matter in coal gangues and coal balls, thallium (Tl) mainly occurred in organic matter in stone coals and sulfide in coals, and the occurrence of antimony (Sb) varied with different kinds of samples. Moreover, a large amount of toxic elements released to the leachates during the weathering and leaching process, which might pollute the environment and threaten human health. Based on the geo-accumulation index (Igeo), single factor index (Pi) and Nemerow index (PN), soils in the

  17. Comparative study of Uranium estimation in drinking water samples of seismically active regions of NW-Himalayas, Himachal Pradesh and SW-Punjab, India using Laser Fluorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajwa, B.; Arora, V.; Saini, K. [Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar (India)

    2014-07-01

    The Laser Fluorimetry Technique has been used for the microanalysis of uranium content in drinking water samples collected from different sources like the hand pumps and natural springs of seismically active regions of Chamba and Dharamshala, Himachal Pradesh, NW-Himalayas and Bathinda and Mansa districts of SW-Punjab, state, India. The purpose of this study was to investigate the uranium concentration levels of ground water being used for drinking purposes and to determine its health effects, if any, to the local population of these regions. In the present study 47 samples of drinking water collected from different villages of the seismic active belt of Chamba and Dharamshala region of Himachal Pradesh, India have been analyzed for chemical and radiological toxicity. Uranium concentration in drinking water sample of study region ranged between 2.7 μgL{sup -1} - 53.9 μgL{sup -1} with an average value of 20.1 μgL{sup -1}. In SW-Punjab, Uranium concentration in 76 drinking water samples has been found to vary between 0.13 μgL{sup -1} and 676 μgL{sup -1} with an average of 90.2 μgL{sup -1}. Data analysis reveals that, 19% samples of NW-Himalayas water have uranium concentration higher than recommended limit of 30 μgL{sup -1} (WHO, 2011) while none of the samples exceeds the threshold of 60 μgL{sup -1} recommended by AERB, DAE, India, 2004. On the other hand, 64% water samples of SW-Punjab have uranium concentration higher than recommended limit of 30 μgL{sup -1} (WHO, 2011) while 39% water samples exceeds the threshold of 60 μgL{sup -1} recommended by AERB, DAE, India, 2004. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  18. The SW Sex enigma

    CERN Document Server

    Dhillon, V S; Marsh, T R

    2012-01-01

    The SW Sex stars are a class of cataclysmic variables, originally identified because they shared a number of enigmatic properties - most notably, single-peaked emission lines instead of the double-peaked lines one would expect from their high-inclination accretion discs. We present high time-resolution spectrophotometry of the eclipsing nova-like variables SW Sex and DW UMa, two of the founding members of the SW Sex class. Both systems show single-peaked Balmer and HeII 4686A emission lines that appear to originate from a region in the disc that lies close to, but downstream of, the bright spot. The emission-line light curves are consistent with the finding from X-ray and ultraviolet observations that we predominantly see the flared disc rim and the unobscured back portion of the disc in these systems. In DW UMa, the HeII 4686A emission line originates from close to the white dwarf and exhibits flaring. Such flares have been used to argue for magnetically-channelled accretion, as in the intermediate polars, b...

  19. In situ SIMS U-Pb dating of hydrothermal rutile: reliable age for the Zhesang Carlin-type gold deposit in the golden triangle region, SW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Qiaohui; Hu, Ruizhong; Xiong, Bin; Li, Qiuli; Zhong, Richen

    2017-02-01

    The contiguous region between Guangxi, Guizhou, and Yunnan, commonly referred to as the Golden Triangle region in SW China, hosts many Carlin-type gold deposits. Previously, the ages of the gold mineralization in this region have not been well constrained due to the lack of suitable minerals for radiometric dating. This paper reports the first SIMS U-Pb age of hydrothermal rutile crystals for the Zhesang Carlin-type gold deposit in the region. The hydrothermal U-bearing rutile associated with gold-bearing sulfides in the deposit yields an U-Pb age of 213.6 ± 5.4 Ma, which is within the range of the previously reported arsenopyrite Re-Os isochron ages (204 ± 19 to 235 ± 33 Ma) for three other Carlin-type gold deposits in the region. Our new and more precise rutile U-Pb age confirms that the gold mineralization was contemporaneous with the Triassic W-Sn mineralization and associated granitic magmatism in the surrounding regions. Based on the temporal correlation, we postulate that coeval granitic plutons may be present at greater depths in the Golden Triangle region and that the formation of the Carlin-type gold deposits is probably linked to the coeval granitic magmatism in the region. This study clearly demonstrates that in situ rutile U-Pb dating is a robust tool for the geochronogical study of hydrothermal deposits that contain hydrothermal rutile.

  20. Rb-Sr Geochronology and Geochemical Characteristics of Mafic Dikes in the Nova Lacerda and Conquista D´Oeste Region, Mato Grosso, SW Amazonian Craton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarildo Salina Ruiz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Nova Lacerda and Conquista D’Oeste regions, Mato Grosso State, SW part of the Amazonian Craton, mafi c dikestrending NNW intrude the Nova Lacerda Granite (1462 ± 12 Ma, within the Jauru Domain, in the Rondonia-San IgnacioProvince (1.55 - 1.3 Ga. The mafi c swarm comprises diabases, metadiabases and amphibolites. Metadiabases originatedfrom uralitization of diabases. These rocks have tholeiitic affi nity and predominant basaltic composition. Some samples are andesi-basalts. The ages of diabases and metabasites are 1380 ± 32 Ma and 1330 ± 120 Ma respectively. Geochemical data indicate that the compositional variation of diabases and metadiadases is due to fractional crystallization of evolved tholeiitic magmas. The origin of the basaltic magmas is related to a heterogeneous mantle source.

  1. Baseline element composition of foliose and fruticose lichens along the steep climatic gradient of SW Patagonia (Aisén Region, Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaci, Fabrizio; Fantozzi, Federica; Figueroa, Ricardo; Parra, Oscar; Bargagli, Roberto

    2012-09-01

    Samples of foliose (Nephroma antarcticum) and fruticose (Usnea sp.) lichens were collected across a steep climatic and vegetation gradient in a remote, almost pristine region of SW Chilean Patagonia. Concentrations of major and trace elements in lichens from the rainforest were among the lowest ever reported worldwide for foliose and fruticose lichens and can be considered background levels for the region. The two lichen growth forms showed different elemental compositions mainly due to the greater capacity of foliose thalli to intercept elements from windborne and canopy-leached particles. The patterns of spatial variation in the chemical composition of lichens were effectively explained by statistical methods and reflected the different availability of wet and dry deposition along the steep climatic gradient. Baseline values established for N. antarcticum samples growing in temperate Nothofagus forests were therefore distinct from those of samples growing in more open, drier habitats. The fruticose Usnea sp. showed a higher affinity for atmophile Hg, low concentrations of lithophilic elements, and the same baseline composition whether from temperate forests or from dry, barren environments. The provided background and baseline values against which variations can be measured will be useful in the early detection of local or regional climatic and environmental change, especially in view of the planned construction of hydropower dams under the recently approved HidroAysén Project.

  2. An alternative method for the estimation of sedimentation rates using radiometric measurements in an intertidal region (sw of spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligero, Rufino; Casas-Ruiz, Melquiades; Barrera, Manuel; Barbero, Luis

    2010-05-01

    The techniques for the direct measurement of the sedimentation rate are reliable but slow and imprecise, given that the time intervals of measurement cannot be very long. Consequently it is an extremely laborious task to obtain a representative map of the sedimentation rates and such maps are available for very few zones. However, for most environmental studies, it is very important to know the sedimentation rates. The high degree of accuracy of the gamma spectrometric techniques together with the application of the model describes in this work, has allowed the determination of the sedimentation rates in a wide spatial area such of the Bay of Cadiz to be obtained with precision and consuming considerably less time in comparison to the traditional techniques. Even so, the experimental conditions required for the sample cores are fairly restrictive, and although the radiological method provides a quantitative advance in measurement, the experimental difficulty in the execution of the study is not greatly diminished. For this reason, a second model has been derived based on the measurement of the inventory, which offers economies in time and financial cost, and which allows the sedimentation rate in a region to be determined with satisfactory accuracy. Furthermore, it has been shown that the application of this model requires a precise determination of 137Cs inventories. The sedimentation rates estimated by the 137Cs inventory method ranged from 0.26 cm/year to 1.72 cm/year. The average value of the sedimentation rate obtained is 0.59 cm/year, and this rate has been compared with those resulting from the application of the 210Pb dating technique. A good agreement between the two procedures has been found. From the study carried out, it has been possible for the first time, to draw a map of sedimentation rates for this zone where numerous physical-chemical, oceanographic and ecological studies converge, since it is situated in a region of great environmental interest

  3. Extensive hydrothermal activity revealed by multi-tracer survey in the Wallis and Futuna region (SW Pacific)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konn, C.; Fourré, E.; Jean-Baptiste, P.; Donval, J. P.; Guyader, V.; Birot, D.; Alix, A. S.; Gaillot, A.; Perez, F.; Dapoigny, A.; Pelleter, E.; Resing, J. A.; Charlou, J. L.; Fouquet, Y.

    2016-10-01

    extensive Tonga-Fiji plume and which thus may not originate from a sole source near the Samoa. Our results also emphasize and support the idea that back-arc hydrothermal systems have a significant input to the regional and global ocean and maybe more important than their MOR analogues.

  4. 基于 SW 模型测度的区域科技创新景气指数构建研究--以深圳南山区科技创新统计改革后的季度数据为例%Research on Regional Technology Innovation Climate Index Based on SW Index Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨武; 王悦; 申远

    2015-01-01

    Currently,the measure on the state of regional technological innovation is mainly based on the ability and per-formance of innovation,using annual data.These index indicators are lack of timing with the problem of dynamic timeli-ness.This paper builds the scientific and technological innovation climate index with SW model based on innovation cycle theory from the perspective of the state of the economy.These index are based on the quarterly data of Shenzhen Nanshan district after the reform of science and technology statistical indicators.Results have shown that technological innovation cli-mate index based on SW model can reflect technological innovation status timely and dynamically.%目前对区域科技创新状态的测度主要是基于创新能力和创新绩效,测度的周期以年度数据为主,由此构建的科技创新指数缺乏动态性与时效性,而且指标之间缺乏时序性。基于创新周期理论,从景气状态的视角出发,以经过科技创新统计指标改革后的深圳市南山区的季度周期数据为基础,应用 SW 模型构建了一套反映区域科技创新状态的景气指数。研究表明,应用 SW 模型构造的区域科技创新景气指数具有动态、时效地反映不同区域科技创新景气状态的功能。

  5. Changes in rainfall thresholds for debris flow initiation and run-out on a local and regional scale in the Wenchuan earthquake area, SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asch, Theo; Luna, Byron Quan; Tang, Chenxiao; van Westen, Cees; Alkema, Dinand; Fan, Xuanmei

    2013-04-01

    For the development of early warning systems for the initiation and run-out distances of debris flows, to avoid or mitigate intolerable risks, it is necessary to assess rainfall thresholds. However one must be aware that these thresholds can change. These changes can be ascribed to environmental and climate change as well as socio-economical changes. In the Wenchuan area in the Sichuan Province, SW China, changes in thresholds are related to a depletion of source materials for these debris flows. The intensive Earthquake of 2008 in the Wenchuan area generated many co-seismic landslides, which delivered a lot of loose source material. It caused a dramatic increase in debris flow occurrences in the subsequent years. A preliminary model was designed, with entrainment processes driven by run-off water as the main triggering mechanism, to describe the relationship between rain input and debris flow run-out with the intention to assess rainfall thresholds for the start of debris flows and critical run out distances. The model was calibrated on the depositional volumes of debris flow events which occurred in individual catchments in August 2011. The calibrated model was used to construct rainfall intensity -duration threshold curves. These curves describe the thresholds for a critical run-out distance, determined by the outlet of the catchment, which was considered as the limit beyond which elements at risk situated in the main river plain are threatened. The research is focused on the change in these thresholds curves after a range of consecutive debris flow triggering rain events. It appeared that for individual catchments the rate of change of these thresholds can vary dramatically which is related to the location of available loose erodible material in the catchment. The model is also applied on a regional scale in the Jingxiu area. A method was proposed to made a general estimate of the time duration to arrive at a debris flow frequency level before the earthquake

  6. Changes in rainfall thresholds for debris flow initiation and run-out on a local and regional scale in the Wenchuan earthquake area, SW China

    OpenAIRE

    Asch, Th. W. J. van; B. Quan Luna; Tang, C.; Westen, A. Van; Alkema, D.; Fan, X.

    2013-01-01

    For the development of early warning systems for the initiation and run-out distances of debris flows, to avoid or mitigate intolerable risks, it is necessary to assess rainfall thresholds. However one must be aware that these thresholds can change. These changes can be ascribed to environmental and climate change as well as socio-economical changes. In the Wenchuan area in the Sichuan Province, SW China, changes in thresholds are related to a depletion of source materials for these debris fl...

  7. Ages and compositions of primary and secondary allanite from the Lala Fe-Cu deposit, SW China: implications for multiple episodes of hydrothermal events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei Terry; Zhou, Mei-Fu

    2014-08-01

    tectonothermal events including the ~1.05-1.1 Ga intra-plate and subsequent 960-740 Ma arc magmatism in the Kangdian region.

  8. SW21 Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-02-10

    Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories hosted the tenth annual Strategic Weapons in the 21st Century Conference (SW21) on 21 January 2016 to reinforce the national commitment to leadership and institutional excellence for nuclear deterrence. The event has been successful over the years in drawing together a diverse, high-level group of policy makers and experts from multiple disciplines to engage in informed dialogue on topics related to strategic weapons in national and international security.

  9. Shrub expansion in SW Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rasmus Halfdan

    to increasing shrub cover. Despite this, there is only limited experimental evidence that growth of the species responds to warming. Plant populations in fragmented and isolated locations could face problems adapting to a warming climate due to limited genetic variation and restricted migration from southern...... of firewood collection. A delayed reaction to the ending of the little ice age cannot be excluded, but seems rather unlikely considering other studies from Greenland. Effects of global warming in SW Greenland must be studied over even longer time periods than the 120 years of the current study. To answer......Arctic regions have experienced higher temperatures in recent decades, and the warming trend is projected to continue in the coming years. Arctic ecosystems are considered to be particularly vulnerable to climate change. Expansion of shrubs has been observed widely in tundra areas across the Arctic...

  10. The earthquakes of 29 July 2003, 12 February 2007, and 17 December 2009 in the region of Cape Saint Vincent (SW Iberia) and their relation with the 1755 Lisbon earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pro, C.; Buforn, E.; Bezzeghoud, M.; Udías, A.

    2013-01-01

    The Cape Saint Vincent region is of major seismological interest for its tectonic complexity and for the occurrence of the great 1755 Lisbon earthquake. No structure capable of generating such a large earthquake has yet been convincingly identified, but all authors agree that there is a possibility of a similar earthquake occurring offshore of the Cape sometime in the future. To shed some light on the region's dynamics, we here examine the mechanism of the three largest earthquakes to have occurred in the last 40 years west of the Cape - 29 July 2003 (Mw = 5.3), 12 February 2007 (Mw = 6.1), and 17 December 2009 (Mw = 5.5). By inversion of the body waves and the kinematic slip distribution, we estimated the three earthquakes to have had similar characteristics (dimensions, maximum slip, stress drop, source time function, focal depth, and rupture velocity), although there were differences in the geometry of the rupture that reflect the great seismotectonic complexity of the zone. The focal mechanisms of the 2003 and 2007 earthquakes were similar, corresponding to thrusting motion, but the 2009 earthquake had a dip-slip motion in a vertical plane. As deduced from the slip distributions, the three shocks show NE-SW rupture planes, with the energy released propagating to the NE, compatible with the regional NW-SE horizontal compression produced by the convergence of the Eurasian and African plates. Applied to the generation of the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, this direction of faulting would correspond to a complex rupture along NE-SW trending thrust faults at the Gorringe Bank, the Horseshoe Scarp, and the Marquis de Pombal Fault, with the rupture propagating to the NE towards the Portuguese coast. Such a model could explain that unusually large and tsunami-generating earthquake.

  11. Chemostratigraphy of Flood Basalts in the Garzê-Litang Region and Zongza Block:Implications for Western Extension of the Emeishan Large Igneous Province, SW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Long; XU Yigang; XU Jifeng; HE Bin; Pirajno FRANCO

    2004-01-01

    The Late Permian Emeishan Large Igneous Province (ELIP) is commonly regarded as being located in the western part of the Yangtze craton, SW China, with an asymmetrical shape and a small area. This area, however, is just amaximum estimation because some parts of the ELIP were not recognized or dismembered and destroyed during thebasalts in petrography and geochemistry. Flood basalts in the Sanjiangkou area are composed of the lower part of the lowTi (LT) tholeiite and the upper part of the high-Ti (HT) tholeiite, which is the same as the flood basalts on the western craton, consist of HT tholeiite only. This is the same as the flood basalts within the Yangtze craton. Therefore we argue that these contemporary basalts all originated from the Emeishan mantle plume, and the ELIP could have a significant westward extension with an outcropped area of over 500,000 km2. This new scenario shows that the LT tholeiite occurs on the westem margin of the Yangtze craton, while the HT tholeiite overlying the LT basalts occupies the whole area of the ELIP.

  12. Heavy minerals and garnet geochemistry of stream sediments and bedrocks from the Almklovdalen area, Western Gneiss Region, SW Norway: Implications for provenance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krippner, Anne; Meinhold, Guido; Morton, Andrew C.; Schönig, Jan; von Eynatten, Hilmar

    2016-05-01

    Detrital heavy minerals commonly document the geological setting in the source area, hence they are widely used in sedimentary provenance analysis. In heavy mineral studies, the 63-125 and 63-250 μm grain size fractions are most commonly used. Heavy mineral data and garnet geochemistry of stream sediments and bedrocks from the catchment area draining the Almklovdalen peridotite massif in SW Norway reveal that a wider grain size spectrum needs to be considered to avoid misleading interpretations. The Almklovdalen peridotite massif consists mainly of dunite and harzburgite, as testified by the heavy mineral suite. At the outlet of the main river, the heavy mineral spectrum is very monotonous due to dilution by a strong influx of olivine. Heavy minerals like apatite and epidote characterising the host gneisses have almost disappeared. MgO-rich almandine garnets are more frequent in the coarser grain size fractions, whereas MnO-rich almandine garnets are more frequent in the finer grain size fractions. Garnets with pyrope content exceeding 50% are only found in the 500-1000 μm grain size fraction. Therefore, the sample location and the selected grain size fraction are of paramount importance when dealing with heavy minerals and mineral geochemical data; otherwise, provenance-sensitive information may be missed.

  13. Seismotectonics and Neotectonics of the Gulfs of Gökova-Kuşadasi-Siǧacik and Surrounding Regions (SW Turkey): Earthquake Mechanisms, Source Rupture Modeling, Tsunami Hazard and Geodynamic Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yolsal-Cevikbilen, Seda; Karaoglu, Özgür; Taymaz, Tuncay; Helvaci, Cahit

    2013-04-01

    The mechanical behavior of the continental lithosphere for the Aegean region is one of the foremost interesting geological disputes in earth sciences. The Aegean region provides complex tectonic events which produced a strong heterogeneity in the crust (i.e. large thrusts and exhumation shear zones or extensional detachments) as such in among most continental regions. In order to investigate mechanical reasons of the ongoing lithospheric-scale extension within the region, we must tackle all of the existing kinematic and dynamic agents: (1) roll back of the subduction slab and back arc extension; (2) westward extrusion of the Anatolian micro-plate; (3) block rotations of the Aegean region and western Anatolia; and (4) transtensional transform faults. Furthermore, seismological studies, particularly earthquake source mechanisms and rupture modeling, play important roles on deciphering the ongoing deformation and seismotectonic characteristics of the region. Recently, many moderate earthquakes occurred in the Gulfs of Gökova, Kuşadası, Sıǧacık and surroundings. In the present study, we examined source mechanisms and rupture histories of those earthquakes with Mw > 5.0 in order to retrieve the geometry of active faulting, source characteristics, kinematic and dynamic source parameters and current deformations of the region by using teleseismic body-waveform inversion of long-period P- and SH-waves, and broad-band P-waveforms recorded by GDSN and FDSN stations. We also checked first motion polarities of P- waveforms recorded at regional and teleseismic stations and applied several uncertainty tests to find the error limits of minimum misfit solutions. Inversion results revealed E-W directed normal faulting mechanisms with small amount of left lateral strike slip components in the Gulf of Gökova and NE-SW oriented right lateral strike slip faulting mechanisms in the Gulf of Sıǧacık. Earthquakes mostly have N-S and NW-SE directed T- axes directions which are

  14. The Elusive Multiplying Factor for Sustainable Development: The Case for Integrating Scientific Research and Basic Education in the MAP Region, SW Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I.; de Los Rios, M.; Mendoza, E.; Reis, V. L.

    2005-05-01

    The Region of Madre de Dios-Peru, the State of Acre-Brazil, and the Department of Pando-Bolivia, known collectively as the trinational MAP Region, lies at the heart of Southwestern Amazonia. This region covers over 300,000 km2 with a population of 700,000 that ranges from urban dwellers to indigenous groups trying to avoid contact with industrial society. This region, home of incredible biological and cultural wealth, represents some of the economically poorest areas of the respective countries. It is also a site of accelerating global change in land-use, with three highways being developed for all-weather transport between central Brazil and Pacific ports. Our group has engaged in pilot experiments to provide regional societies with access to recent scientific results. Our objective is to help these societies in their quest to develop through: a) the use of GPS and satellite imagery for land use planning by small rural producers; b) municipal-level meetings in two countries to evaluate current problems and future land use along the inter-oceanic highway; c) the analysis of deforestation in the trinational river basin; d) dissemination via the media of imagery and analysis of fires during the burning season; and e) incorporation of nearby forests into the rural educational system. While most of these experiments have proven successful, they pale before the challenge of expanding them to become significant in changing land use and promoting sustainable development in this region. The multiplying factors need to be in the range of ten to a thousand times the size of the pilot experiments. Public policy and economic initiatives are crucial, but are often treated as the only means for such multiplication. The basic education system represents another, complementary multiplying factor. In the State of Acre, about a third of the population, 200,000, are in the K-12 school system and of these over 80% are in the 1- to 8-year series. Currently, we are helping local school

  15. Oligo-Miocene foraminiferal record (Miogypsinidae, Lepidocyclinidae and Nummulitidae) from the Western Taurides (SW Turkey): Biometry and implications for the regional geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Ercan; Less, György; Báldi-Beke, Mária; Kollányi, Katalin; Acar, Ferhat

    2009-05-01

    The marine Oligo-Miocene units of western Taurides, deposited under different tectonic regimes (in Bey Dağları platform in foreland and coeval sequences in hinterland), were studied to establish a high-resolution biostratigraphic framework. Biometric study of the full spectrum of larger foraminifera in a regional scale allowed us correlating them with the shallow benthic zonation (SBZ) system introduced by [Cahuzac, B., Poignant, A., 1997. Essai de biozonation de l'Oligo-Miocène dans les bassins européens à l'aide des grands foraminifères néritiques. Bulletin de la Société géologique de France 168, 155-169], and to determine the ages of these sites on zonal precision for the first time. In correlating these assemblages to standard shallow benthic zones, planktonic data were also used whenever possible. Taxa, classified under the genera Nummulites, Miogypsina, Miolepidocyclina, Nephrolepidina, Eulepidina, Heterostegina, Operculina and Cycloclypeus (?) and their assemblages, closely resemble to the fauna described from European basins. These groups characterize the SBZ 22B to 25 zones referring to a time interval from early Chattian to Burdigalian. However, a main gap in late Chattian (SBZ 23) and in early part of the Aquitanian (SBZ 24) is also recorded in the platform succession. In the meantime, rare Eulepidina in the Burdigalian levels suggest a clear Indo-Pacific influence. Based on the discovery of early Chattian (SBZ 22B) deposits (previously mapped under Eocene/Miocene units), the Oligo-Miocene stratigraphy of the Bey Dağları platform is also revised. A more precise chronology for regional Miocene transgression is presented based on the miogypsinid evolutionary scale.

  16. Wavelet analysis and interpretation of gravity data in Sichuan-Yunnan region, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LOU Hai; WANG Chun-yong

    2005-01-01

    The Bouguer gravity anomaly data of Sichuan-Yunnan region and its vicinity were analyzed with wavelet transformation method. In the process, complete orthogonal wavelet function system with good symmetry and higher vanishing moment was selected to decompose the gravity anomaly into two parts. With the power spectral analysis on the decomposed anomalies, we interpreted that the two parts of anomalies represent the density variation in upper and middle crust, and in deep crust and uppermost mantle, respectively. The two parts of anomalies indicate the difference between shallow and deep tectonics. The results of shallow-layer apparent density mapping reveal that: a) the crustal density in Sichuan basin is higher than that in Songpan-Garze orogenic zone; b) the density of Kangdian rhombic block is heterogeneous; c) the boundary faults of Kangdian block are of different density features, suggesting different tectonic signification. The results of deep-layer apparent density mapping show a similar,but not the same, density distribution pattern as the shallow results, and indicate that the tectonics of shallow and deep crust are different, they may be in a status of incomplete coupling. Our results also show that the earthquakes in this area are controlled not only by the fracture zones but also by the deep density distribution.

  17. Apatite trace element and halogen compositions as petrogenetic-metallogenic indicators: Examples from four granite plutons in the Sanjiang region, SW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Li-Chuan; Hu, Rui-Zhong; Wang, Xin-Song; Bi, Xian-Wu; Zhu, Jing-Jing; Li, Chusi

    2016-06-01

    The abundances of trace elements including Sr, Ga and rare earth elements (REE) and halogens in apatite crystals from four intermediate-felsic plutons in the Zhongdian terrane in the Sanjiang region have been determined using electron microprobe and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to evaluate the potential of apatite as a petrogenic-metallogenic indicator. The selected plutons include one that is not mineralized (the Triassic Xiuwacu pluton, or the TXWC pluton), one that hosts a porphyry-type Cu deposit (the Pulang pluton, or the PL pluton), one that hosts a porphyry-type Mo deposit (the Tongchanggou pluton, or the TCG pluton), and one that hosts a vein-type Mo deposit (the Cretaceous Xiuwacu pluton, or the CXWC pluton). Except for the CXWC pluton, the other three plutons have adakite-like trace element signatures in whole rocks. The results from this study show that REE, Sr and halogens in apatite can be used to track magma compositions, oxidation states and crystallization history. Apatite crystals from the adakite-like plutons are characterized by much higher Sr/Y and δEu than the non-adakite-type pluton. This means that apatite, which is not susceptible to alteration, is a useful tool for identifying the adakite-like plutons that no longer preserve the initial Sr/Y ratios in whole rocks due to weathering and hydrothermal alteration. Based on apatite Ga contents and δEu values, it is inferred that the parental magmas for the two adakite-like plutons containing porphyry-type Cu and Mo mineralization are more oxidized than that for the non-adakite-type pluton containing vein-type Mo mineralization. Apatite crystals from the vein-type Mo deposit have much lower Cl/F ratios than those from the porphyry-type Cu and Mo deposits. Apatite crystals from the adakite-like pluton without Cu or Mo mineralization is characterized by much lower Cl/F ratios than those from the adakite-like plutons that host the porphyry-type Cu and Mo deposits. The

  18. The Main Geological Events of the Kangdian Proterozoic Eon and Response from to the La-La IOCG Deposit%康滇地轴元古代重大地质事件与拉拉IOCG矿床成矿响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王奖臻; 李泽琴; 黄从俊

    2012-01-01

    Precambrian deposits are the dominant members of the IOCG group in terms of both copper and gold resources.These giant IOCG deposits are located in intracratonic settings within about 100 km of the margins of Archean or Paleoproterozoic cratons or other lithospheric boundaries.Their tectonic setting at formation was most likely anorogenic,with magmatism and associated hydrothermal activity driven by mantle underplating and/or plumes.Based on a review of isotopic dating data from the Kangdian Proterozoic rocks/minerals,three major geological events are suggested: the formation of the Kangdian basement of the Yangtze craton,2486-1884 Ma,which would be as a part of Kenorland supercontinent;the Kangdian Continental Rifting located along the west margin of Yangtz craton,1725-1466 Ma,which happened during the anorogenic period of Columbia supercontinent;metamorphism-magmatism events(1100-721 Ma) were the response to assembling and rifting of Rodinia supercontinent.The La-La IOCG deposit is hosted by the Kangdian basement of the western margin of Yangtze craton.The host rocks of the deposits are Proterozoic metamorphic rocks,Hekou Group,the protolith of which was the products of the Kangdian Rifting during 1712-1680 Ma,which contributed Stage I meneralization of the Lala IOCG deposit: Iron-P-REE.StageII(1000-900 Ma),with chalcopyrite(I) + magnetite(II) + molybdenite+purple fluorite + ankerite ± pyrite ± cobaltite ± quartz ±biotite(II) ± garnet(II) ± sericite,and StageIII(~850 Ma),with dolomite/calcite+chalcopyrite±quartz,followed assembling of Rodinia supercontinent.%有关IOCG最新研究成果建议,将IOCG矿床限定于资源量大于1 Mt的大型/超大型矿床。对世界上已知的大型/超大型IOCG矿床的成矿背景和成矿作用进行分析对比,发现前寒纪大型/超大型IOCG矿床均位于前寒纪超大陆的边缘、形成于非造山期,与壳幔相互作用有关,与板底垫托、地幔柱等相关的重大地质事件关系密切。

  19. Stabilization of pSW100 from Pantoea stewartii by the F conjugation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mei-Hui; Liu, Shih-Tung

    2008-05-01

    Plasmid pSW100 is 1 of the 13 plasmids from Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii SW2 which has a replicon that resembles that of ColE1. This work uses a pSW100 derivative, pSW140K, to study how the pSW100 replicon is stably maintained in its hosts. Our results indicate that although pSW140K is stable in Escherichia coli HB101, the plasmid is rapidly lost in another E. coli strain, DH5alpha, indicating that the genetic background of an E. coli strain affects the stability of pSW140K. Mutagenesis of E. coli HB101 with EZ::TN revealed that mutations in traC, traF, traG, traN, and traV, which encode the components of the sex pilus assembly, reduce plasmid stability. Furthermore, this work identified that a 38-bp region located immediately upstream of the RNAII promoter is critical to the maintenance of plasmid stability in E. coli HB101. TraC binds to the region, and in addition, deleting the region destabilizes the plasmid. Furthermore, inserting this 38-bp fragment into a plasmid that contains the minimal replicon from pSW200 stabilizes the plasmid in E. coli HB101. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence staining also revealed that derivatives of pSW100, pSW128A, and TraC are colocalized in cells, suggesting that pSW100 may use the sex pilus assembly as a partition apparatus to ensure the even distribution of the plasmid during cell division, which may thus maintain the plasmid's stability.

  20. Shrub expansion in SW Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rasmus Halfdan

    from more southerly habitats are better adapted to climatic conditions in a warmer Greenland compared with local provenances. To answer the first question historical photographs of vegetation in SW Greenland (1898–1974) were compiled. The photos were repeated in 2010 and 2011 and 64 photo pairs were...... cropped into 133 smaller units and classified by aspect, substrate stability, muskoxen grazing and human disturbance. The photo material was evaluated by 22 experts with respect to changes in shrub cover. The results revealed a general shrub cover increase in the whole dataset, but also in a subset...... of firewood collection. A delayed reaction to the ending of the little ice age cannot be excluded, but seems rather unlikely considering other studies from Greenland. Effects of global warming in SW Greenland must be studied over even longer time periods than the 120 years of the current study. To answer...

  1. Development of a locus-specific, co-dominant SCAR marker for assisted-selection of the Sw-5 (Tospovirus resistance) gene cluster in a wide range of tomato accessions

    OpenAIRE

    DIANESE, E. de C.; Fonseca, M.E.N.; Goldbach, R W; Kormelink, R.J.M.; Inoue-Nagata, A.K.; Resende, MR; BOITEUX, L. S.

    2010-01-01

    The best levels of broad-spectrum Tospovirus resistance reported in tomatoes thus far are conferred by the Sw-5 locus. This locus contains at least five paralogues (denoted Sw-5a through Sw-5e), of which Sw-5b represents the actual resistance gene. Here we evaluated a panel of seven PCR primer pairs matching different sequences within a genomic region spanning the Sw-5a and Sw-5b gene cluster. Primer efficiency evaluation was done employing tomato isolines with and without the Sw-5 locus. One...

  2. Oblique collision and deformation partitioning in the SW Iberian Variscides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Cáceres, Irene; Simancas, José Fernando; Martínez Poyatos, David; Azor, Antonio; González Lodeiro, Francisco

    2016-05-01

    Different transpressional scenarios have been proposed to relate kinematics and complex deformation patterns. We apply the most suitable of them to the Variscan orogeny in SW Iberia, which is characterized by a number of successive left-lateral transpressional structures developed in the Devonian to Carboniferous period. These structures resulted from the oblique convergence between three continental terranes (Central Iberian Zone, Ossa-Morena Zone and South Portuguese Zone), whose amalgamation gave way to both intense shearing at the suture-like contacts and transpressional deformation of the continental pieces in-between, thus showing strain partitioning in space and time. We have quantified the kinematics of the collisional convergence by using the available data on folding, shearing and faulting patterns, as well as tectonic fabrics and finite strain measurements. Given the uncertainties regarding the data and the boundary conditions modeled, our results must be considered as a semi-quantitative approximation to the issue, though very significant from a regional point of view. The total collisional convergence surpasses 1000 km, most of them corresponding to left-lateral displacement parallel to terrane boundaries. The average vector of convergence is oriented E-W (present-day coordinates), thus reasserting the left-lateral oblique collision in SW Iberia, in contrast with the dextral component that prevailed elsewhere in the Variscan orogen. This particular kinematics of SW Iberia is understood in the context of an Avalonian plate salient currently represented by the South Portuguese Zone.

  3. The Distribution of Water Emission in M17SW

    CERN Document Server

    Snell, R L; Ashby, M L N; Bergin, E A; Chin, G; Erickson, N R; Goldsmith, P F; Harwit, M; Kleiner, S C; Koch, D G; Neufeld, D A; Patten, B M; Plume, R; Schieder, R; Stauffer, J R; Tolls, V; Wang, Z; Winnewisser, G; Zhang, Y F; Melnick, G J

    2000-01-01

    We present a 17-point map of the M17SW cloud core in the 1_{10}-1_{01} transition of ortho-water at 557 GHz obtained with the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite. Water emission was detected in 11 of the 17 observed positions. The line widths of the water emission vary between 4 and 9 km s^{-1}, and are similar to other emission lines that arise in the M17SW core. A direct comparison is made between the spatial extent of the water emission and the ^{13}CO J = 5\\to4 emission; the good agreement suggests that the water emission arises in the same warm, dense gas as the ^{13}CO emission. A spectrum of the H_2^{18}O line was also obtained at the center position of the cloud core, but no emission was detected. We estimate that the average abundance of ortho-water relative to H_2 within the M17 dense core is approximately 1x10^{-9}, 30 times smaller than the average for the Orion core. Toward the H II region/molecular cloud interface in M17SW the ortho-water abundance may be about 5 times larger than in the dens...

  4. Rb-Sr geochronology and geochemical characteristics of mafic dikes in the Nova Lacerda and Conquista D'Oeste region, Mato Grosso, SW Amazonian Craton; Geocronologia Rb-Sr e caracteristicas geoquimicas dos diques maficos da regiao de Nova Lacerda e Conquista D'Oeste (MT), porcao sudoeste do Craton Amazonico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Paulo Cesar Correa da; Matos, Joao Batista de [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Dept. de Recursos Minerais; Grupo de Pesquisas em Evolucao Crustal e Metalogenia Guapore, Cuiaba, MT (Brazil)], e-mail: pccorrea@ufmt.br, e-mail: jmatos@cpd.ufmt.br; Girardi, Vicente Antonio Vitorio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Mineralogia e Geotectonica], e-mail: girardi@usp.br; Ruiz, Amarildo Salina [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia Geral; Grupo de Pesquisas em Evolucao Crustal e Metalogenia Guapore, Cuiaba, MT (Brazil)], e-mail: asruiz@rc.unesp.br

    2009-07-01

    In the Nova Lacerda and Conquista D'Oeste regions, Mato Grosso State, SW part of the Amazonian Craton, mafic dikes trending NNW intrude the Nova Lacerda Granite (1462{+-}12 Ma), within the Jauru Domain, in the Rondonia-San Ignacio Province (1.55 - 1.3 Ga). The mafic swarm comprises diabases, metadiabases and amphibolites. Metadiabases originated from uralitization of diabases. These rocks have tholeiitic affinity and predominant basaltic composition. Some samples are andesi-basalts. The ages of diabases and metabasites are 1380 {+-} 32 Ma and 1330 {+-} 120 Ma respectively. Geochemical data indicate that the compositional variation of diabases and metadiadases is due to fractional crystallization of evolved tholeiitic magmas. The origin of the basaltic magmas is related to a heterogeneous mantle source. (author)

  5. The Legionella pneumophila IcmSW complex interacts with multiple Dot/Icm effectors to facilitate type IV translocation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D Cambronne

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Many gram-negative pathogens use a type IV secretion system (T4SS to deliver effector proteins into eukaryotic host cells. The fidelity of protein translocation depends on the efficient recognition of effector proteins by the T4SS. Legionella pneumophila delivers a large number of effector proteins into eukaryotic cells using the Dot/Icm T4SS. How the Dot/Icm system is able to recognize and control the delivery of effectors is poorly understood. Recent studies suggest that the IcmS and IcmW proteins interact to form a stable complex that facilitates translocation of effector proteins by the Dot/Icm system by an unknown mechanism. Here we demonstrate that the IcmSW complex is necessary for the productive translocation of multiple Dot/Icm effector proteins. Effector proteins that were able to bind IcmSW in vitro required icmS and icmW for efficient translocation into eukaryotic cells during L. pneumophila infection. We identified regions in the effector protein SidG involved in icmSW-dependent translocation. Although the full-length SidG protein was translocated by an icmSW-dependent mechanism, deletion of amino terminal regions in the SidG protein resulted in icmSW-independent translocation, indicating that the IcmSW complex is not contributing directly to recognition of effector proteins by the Dot/Icm system. Biochemical and genetic studies showed that the IcmSW complex interacts with a central region of the SidG protein. The IcmSW interaction resulted in a conformational change in the SidG protein as determined by differences in protease sensitivity in vitro. These data suggest that IcmSW binding to effectors could enhance effector protein delivery by mediating a conformational change that facilitates T4SS recognition of a translocation domain located in the carboxyl region of the effector protein.

  6. U-Th-Pb SHRIMP ages and oxygen isotope composition of zircon from two contrasting late Variscan granitoids, Nisa-Albuquerque batholith, SW Iberian Massif: Petrologic and regional implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solá, A. Rita; Williams, Ian S.; Neiva, Ana M. R.; Ribeiro, M. Luisa

    2009-08-01

    The late Variscan Nisa-Albuquerque batholith in the SW Iberian Massif, consists of a dominant very coarse-grained porphyritic S-type monzogranite to syenogranite (Nisa monzogranite) surrounding a discontinuous central core that includes contrasting very fine-grained I-type tonalite-granodiorite (Aldeia da Mata tonalite). The batholith is located at the boundary between the Central Iberian and Ossa-Morena Zones, a complex segment of crust that was subject to both Cadomian and Variscan tectonism. Variscan zircons in the Nisa monzogranite can be broadly classified into three texturally and chemically distinct types with mutually indistinguishable SHRIMP 206Pb/ 238U ages: 1) high-U, low-Th/U (< 0.1) outermost overgrowths (307.4 ± 4.0 Ma); 2) moderate U and Th/U zircon with concentric zoning occurring both as inner overgrowths and whole grains (305.4 ± 6.2 Ma)";; and 3) texturally discordant cores (309.0 ± 4.6 Ma). Many other cores have ages in the ranges 2.56-1.85 and 0.66-0.51 Ga. The overgrowths and Variscan cores with low Th/U have uniformly high δ18O (9.5 ± 0.2‰). Variscan cores with moderate Th/U have a wide range of δ18O (6.7-10.9‰). Cores older than 500 Ma have an even wider range of composition (4.4-10.0‰). Zircon from the central Aldeia da Mata tonalite, in contrast, contains no inherited cores, has moderate to high Th/U (0.5-1.8), and is uniform in 206Pb/ 238U age (306.2 ± 3.0 Ma) and δ18O (7.4 ± 0.3‰). The zircon in the Nisa monzogranite records a history of magma genesis involving mixing between 1) a metaluminous magma progressively contaminated by a small sedimentary component, and 2) a more voluminous peraluminous magma originating from a largely metasedimentary source. The inherited zircon age pattern closely matches the age pattern of detrital zircon in early Paleozoic sediments from North Africa. The zircon in the Aldeia da Mata tonalite records nothing of the age of the magma's source rocks, but the moderately high δ18O does preclude

  7. Geochemistry of Archaean supracrustal belts in SW Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szilas, Kristoffer

    . (3) The Nunatak 1390 area contains ultramafic rocks with geochemical characteristics similar to high-Ti komatiites, but they show geochemical signs of a juvenile slab melt contribution. Their high MgO contents may thus reflect flux-melting of a refractory mantle source, as is the case for boninites......This PhD-thesis investigates the geological formation environment of c. 3200-3000 million-year-old volcanic rocks from SW Greenland, using whole-rock geochemical data in combination with U-Pb, Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf isotope data. The following three supracrustal areas were studied: (1) The Tartoq Group...... geochemical mixing trends between juvenile felsic and mafic end-members. This suggests that partial melting and magma mixing by mafic underplating and slab melt metasomatism of the mantle source region were important in forming rocks of andesitic composition, which is also observed in some modern island arcs...

  8. HELIX: A Versatile SW Composition Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, R.; Gallagher, D.; Adrian, M. L.

    2001-12-01

    Composition instruments have made themselves indispensable in the study of heliospheric plasmas, since only they are able to identify particle ``tracers" that reveal secrets of plasma origin and transport. However, future mission opportunities are likely to put severe constraints on present instrument designs, requiring a radical rethinking of mass spectrometry techniques. Time-of-flight methods currently give the highest mass resolution for the solar wind, but at the cost of limited dynamic range. Likewise magnetic deflection and quadrupole techniques have limitations that preclude their use for heliospheric studies. We present a novel SW mass spectrometer design that is capable of a breakthrough mass resolution M/Δ M>3000, in a 1 liter, 1 kg package with a huge geometric factor of 0.03cm2sr. Such capabilities enable new heliospheric science, such as the molecular identification of cometary or LISM constituents, the plasma composition of magnetic holes, or the triple isotopes of oxygen. Scaling this design down to more typical SW composition instrument abilities, we can achieve a mass resolution of M/Δ M=100 with a 5x10-4cm2sr in a 5 cm package weighing less than 100 grams. Such a miniature detector would be ideal for multiple space probes or a Pluto flyby. We will present the first preliminary data from a modulated ion beam demonstrating the mass resolution capabilities of this breakthrough design as well as some of the challenges in the implementation.

  9. Shrub expansion in SW Greenland under modest regional warming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rasmus Halfdan; Meilby, Henrik; Kollmann, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    –1974) and repeated the photos in 2010 and 2011. Sixty-four photo pairs were cropped into 133 smaller units and classified by aspect, substrate stability, muskoxen grazing, and human disturbance. The photo material was evaluated by 22 experts with respect to changes in shrub cover, revealing a general increase across...

  10. Establishing a new Archaeomagnetic Record for the SW Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, F.; Cassidy, J.; Gratton, M. N.; Hill, M. J.; Shaw, J.; Sheppard, P. J.

    2008-12-01

    The goal of this study is to establish the first archaeomagnetic record for the SW Pacific for the last few millennia using an outstanding collection of well-dated archaeological ceramics from a wide region, namely: 1. Bismarks-Northern Solomons 3500-0 BP, 2. Western Solomons 2000-0 BP, 3. Southeast Solomons 3100- 2000 BP, 4. Vanuatu 3100-700 BP, 5. New Caledonia 3000-0 BP, 5. Fiji -Tonga 3000-0 BP. Ultimately, we aim to investigate the potential for archaeomagnetic dating, especially of un-orientated inter-tidal samples that have proved impossible to date using C14 methods because of their disturbed contexts. Because the currently available samples are un-orientated, we are using palaeointensity measurements to establish the archaeomagnetic record. Although much archaeomagnetic intensity data (especially of the last three millennia) are already available, the geographic distribution of sites is very poor with a particular lack of data for the southern hemisphere. The new data will be the first such from the SW Pacific and should therefore contribute significantly to improving global field models. Preliminary measurements of palaeointensity from samples from the W-Solomon (site New Georgia, 3100 BP) and SE-Solomon (site Santa Cruz, 600 BP) Islands show a mean value of 33.4 ± 5.4 μT and 31.6 ± 4.2 μT, respectively. In addition we will present further results, primarily from Lakeba in Fiji (18.2° S, 178.8° E) and the Duke of York Islands in the Bismarck Archipelago (4.2° S, 152.5° E). Palaeointensity measurements are being carried out using the latest state of the art microwave demagnetisation methods in order to minimise alteration. We use pTRM and tail-checks in order to detect any thermo-chemical alteration and multi domain (MD) effects. Anisotropy and cooling rate are also determined and corrected for.

  11. Comparative palynological analysis of Lygodium venustum Sw. and L. volubile Sw. (Lygodiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN P. RAMOS GIACOSA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Lygodium Sw. is one of the few climbing ferns in the world. The spores of L. venustum Sw. and L. volubile Sw. were studied using light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. This work is based on herbarium material. The spores are trilete, triangular, with straight to convex sides in polar view. The equatorial diameter is 72-104 µm, and the polar diameter is 64-84 µm. The ornamentation in L. venustum is verrucate-tuberculate while in L. volubile, it is verrucate-tuberculate in the proximal face but with a few ridges on the distal face, where a micro-ornamentation constituted by verrrucae and tubercles is observed. An equatorial ridge is also present. The exospore is two-layered; in L. venustum, it is smooth in contrast with the ornamented exospore of L. volubile. The perispore of the two species analyzed is similar. This wall is four-layered with particular elements arranged radially in the middle layer. On the spores surface of both species, few spheroids are observed. The results introduced in the current study may be useful for the systematics of the genus as well as for phylogenetic purposes.O gênero Lygodium Sw. é um das poucas samambaias trepadoras no mundo. Os esporos de L. venustum Sw. e L. volubile Sw. foi estudados com microscopias de luz e eletrônicas de transmissão e varredura. Este trabalho é baseado em material de herbário. Os esporos são trilete, triangular com lados retos para convexo em vista polar. O equatorial diâmetro é 72-104 µm e o diâmetro polar é 64-84 µm. O ornamentação em L. venustum é verrucose-tuberculoso enquanto em L. volubile é verrucose-tuberculoso no proximal cara e com poucos cume no distal cara, em que um micro-ornamentação constituída por verrugas e tubérculos é observado. Um cume equatorial também está presente. O exosporo é de dois camadas, em L. venustum é liso em contraste com o exosporo ornamentado de L. volubile. O perisporo é similar nas duas esp

  12. PRLs Promote Spreading, Adhesion, and Proliferation of Human SW480 and SW620 Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that PRL-3 is involved in the metastasis of colorectal cancer, but the mechanism concerning that has not been well defined. This article expresses PRL-1, PRL-2, and PRL-3 and the catalytically inactive mutant forms of those enzymes in SW620 and SW480 cells, two human cell lines derived from non-metastatic cancer and metastatic colorectal cancer, respectively. While the expression of the native forms of PRLs promotes the spreading, adhesion, and proliferation of these cells, the expression of their mutant forms inhibits the earlier-mentioned processes. These data thus provide a cellular mechanism for the role of PRL-3 in tumor metastasis and suggest that all the three PRLs have similar functions.

  13. Cloud effects on the SW radiation at the surface at a mid-latitude site in southwestern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgueiro, Vanda; João Costa, Maria; Silva, Ana Maria; Lanconelli, Christian; Bortoli, Daniele

    2017-04-01

    This work presents a study of cloud radiative effects on shortwave (CRESW) radiation at the surface in Évora region (southwestern Europe) during 2015 and a case study is analyzed. CRESW (in Wm-2) is defined as the difference between the net shortwave irradiance (downward minus upward shortwave irradiance) in cloudy and clear sky conditions. This measure is usually used to translate changes in the SW radiation that reaches the surface due to changes in clouds (type and/or cover). The CRESW is obtained using measured SW irradiance recorded with a Kipp&Zonen CM 6B pyranometer (broadband 305 - 2800 nm) during the period from January to December 2015, and is related with the cloud liquid water path (LWP) and with cloud ice water path (IWP) showing the importance of the different type of clouds in attenuating the SW radiation at the surface. The cloud modification factor, also a measure of the cloud radiative effects (CMF; ratio between the measured SW irradiance under cloudy conditions and the estimated SW irradiance in clear-sky conditions) is related with the cloud optical thickness (COT; obtained from satellite data). This relation between CMF and COT is shown for different cloud fractions revealing an exponential decreasing of CMF as COT increases. Reductions in the SW radiation of the order of 80% (CMF = 0.2) as well enhancements in the SW radiation larger than 30% (CMF = 1.3) were found for small COT values and for different cloud fractions. A case study to analyse the enhancement events in a cloudy day was considered and the cloud properties, COT and LWP (from satellite and surface measurements), were related with the CRESW.

  14. SW radiative effect of aerosol in GRAPES_GFS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiying

    2017-04-01

    The aerosol particles can scatter and absorb solar radiation, and so change the shortwave radiation absorbed by the atmosphere, reached the surface and that reflected back to outer space at TOA. Since this process doesn't interact with other processes, it is called direct radiation effect. The clear sky downward SW and net SW fluxes at the surface in GRAPES_GFS of China Meteorological Administration are overestimated in Northern multitudes and Tropics. The main source of these errors is the absence of aerosol SW effect in GRAPES_GFS. The climatic aerosol mass concentration data, which include 13 kinds of aerosol and their 14 SW bands optical properties are considered in GRAPES_GFS. The calculated total optical depth, single scatter albedo and asymmetry factor are used as the input to radiation scheme. Compared with the satellite observation from MISER, the calculated total optical depth is in good consistent. The seasonal experiments show that, the summer averaged clear sky radiation fluxes at the surface are improved after including the SW effect of aerosol. The biases in the clear sky downward SW and net SW fluxes at the surface in Northern multitudes and Tropic reduced obviously. Furthermore, the weather forecast experiments also show that the skill scores in Northern hemisphere and East Asia also become better.

  15. Southwest Indian Ocean Bathymetric Compilation (swIOBC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, L.; Dorschel, B.; Arndt, J. E.; Jokat, W.

    2014-12-01

    As result of long-term scientific activities in the southwest Indian Ocean, an extensive amount of swath bathymetric data has accumulated in the AWI database. Using this data as a backbone, supplemented by additional bathymetric data sets and predicted bathymetry, we generate a comprehensive regional bathymetric data compilation for the southwest Indian Ocean. A high resolution bathymetric chart of this region will support geological and climate research: Identification of current-induced seabed structures will help modelling oceanic currents and, thus, provide proxy information about the paleo-climate. Analysis of the sediment distribution will contribute to reconstruct the erosional history of Eastern Africa. The aim of swIOBC is to produce a homogeneous and seamless bathymetric grid with an associated meta-database and a corresponding map for the area from 5° to 39° S and 20° to 44° E. Recently, multibeam data with a track length of approximately 86,000 km are held in-house. In combination with external echosounding data this allows for the generation of a regional grid, significantly improving the existing, mostly satellite altimetry derived, bathymetric models. The collected data sets are heterogeneous in terms of age, acquisition system, background data, resolution, accuracy, and documentation. As a consequence, the production of a bathymetric grid requires special techniques and algorithms, which were already developed for the IBCAO (Jakobsson et al., 2012) and further refined for the IBCSO (Arndt et al., 2013). The new regional southwest Indian Ocean chart will be created based on these methods. Arndt, J.E., et al., 2013. The International Bathymetric Chart of the Southern Ocean (IBCSO) Version 1.0—A new bathymetric compilation covering circum-Antarctic waters. GRL 40, 1-7, doi: 10.1002/grl.50413, 2013. Jakobsson, M., et al., 2012. The International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean (IBCAO) Version 3.0. GRL 39, L12609, doi: 10.1029/2012GL052219.

  16. Distributed power-law seismicity changes and crustal deformation in the SW Hellenic ARC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tzanis

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A region of definite accelerating seismic release rates has been identified at the SW Hellenic Arc and Trench system, of Peloponnesus, and to the south-west of the island of Kythera (Greece. The identification was made after detailed, parametric time-to-failure modelling on a 0.1° square grid over the area 20° E – 27° E and 34° N–38° N. The observations are strongly suggestive of terminal-stage critical point behaviour (critical exponent of the order of 0.25, leading to a large earthquake with magnitude 7.1 ± 0.4, to occur at time 2003.6 ± 0.6. In addition to the region of accelerating seismic release rates, an adjacent region of decelerating seismicity was also observed. The acceleration/deceleration pattern appears in such a well structured and organised manner, which is strongly suggestive of a causal relationship. An explanation may be that the observed characteristics of distributed power-law seismicity changes may be produced by stress transfer from a fault, to a region already subjected to stress inhomogeneities, i.e. a region defined by the stress field required to rupture a fault with a specified size, orientation and rake. Around a fault that is going to rupture, there are bright spots (regions of increasing stress and stress shadows (regions relaxing stress; whereas acceleration may be observed in bright spots, deceleration may be expected in the shadows. We concluded that the observed seismic release patterns can possibly be explained with a family of NE-SW oriented, left-lateral, strike-slip to oblique-slip faults, located to the SW of Kythera and Antikythera and capable of producing earthquakes with magnitudes MS ~ 7. Time-to-failure modelling and empirical analysis of earthquakes in the stress bright spots yield a critical exponent of the order 0.25 as expected from theory, and a predicted magnitude and critical time perfectly consistent with the figures given above. Although we have determined an approximate location

  17. Airborne Quercus pollen in SW Spain: Identifying favourable conditions for atmospheric transport and potential source areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya-Manzano, José María; Fernández-Rodríguez, Santiago; Smith, Matt; Tormo-Molina, Rafael; Reynolds, Andrew M; Silva-Palacios, Inmaculada; Gonzalo-Garijo, Ángela; Sadyś, Magdalena

    2016-11-15

    The pollen grains of Quercus spp. (oak trees) are allergenic. This study investigates airborne Quercus pollen in SW Spain with the aim identifying favourable conditions for atmospheric transport and potential sources areas. Two types of Quercus distribution maps were produced. Airborne Quercus pollen concentrations were measured at three sites located in the Extremadura region (SW Spain) for 3 consecutive years. The seasonal occurrence of Quercus pollen in the air was investigated, as well as days with pollen concentrations ≥80Pm(-3). The distance that Quercus pollen can be transported in appreciable numbers was calculated using clusters of back trajectories representing the air mass movement above the source areas (oak woodlands), and by using a state-of-the-art dispersion model. The two main potential sources of Quercus airborne pollen captured in SW Spain are Q. ilex subsp. ballota and Q. suber. The minimum distances between aerobiological stations and Quercus woodlands have been estimated as: 40km (Plasencia), 66km (Don Benito), 62km (Zafra) from the context of this study. Daily mean Quercus pollen concentration can exceed 1,700Pm(-3), levels reached not less than 24 days in a single year. High Quercus pollen concentration were mostly associated with moderate wind speed events (6-10ms(-1)), whereas that a high wind speed (16-20ms(-1)) seems to be associated with low concentrations.

  18. Neotectonic fault detection and lithosphere structure beneath SW of High Atlas (Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoulali, Youssef; Radi, Said; Azguet, Roumaissae; Bachaoui, Mostapha

    2016-08-01

    The High Atlas is a 100 km wide zone defined by E-W to NE-SW trending folds nearly orthogonal to the Atlantic coastline. The major compressional structures in the High Atlas consist of large-scale fold systems which affect Mesozoic and Cainozoic formations. The extreme West of the High Atlas including the region of Agadir is defined as an earthquake Zone. Historical seismicity data shows that the Agadir region was hit by two destructive earthquakes in 1731 and 1960 with magnitude 6.4 and 6.0, respectively. The present study has two main goals: 1) to use remote sensing techniques to detect and map the surface geological structures including faults; 2) to use the local earthquake tomography for imaging the lithosphere (subsurface) and detect deep structures. For the remote sensing techniques we used ETM + Landsat7 images and the SRTM 90 m image as a Digital Terrane Elevation Model. This study focuses on the computerized identification, feature extraction and quantitative interpretation of lineaments over the SW High Atlas. The analysis developed here is based on the numerical enhancement of a Landsat image and on the statistical processing of data generated through enhancement. The results generated by the numerical enhancement and statistical analysis are presented on fault maps, lineament maps, polar diagrams and lineament density maps. The lineaments have a high concentration of orientations around the directions N40E, N80W and N-S. For the subsurface study, seismic data sets were used to define the 3-D velocity structures. We also used local earthquake tomography to obtain the velocity map and crustal structure of the SW High Atlas region. The tomography results show a new and detailed lithosphere structure defined by a high velocity body in the northern of SW High Atlas from 15 to 45 Km depth, dipping to the north beneath the Essaouira basin in the western Meseta with P velocity variations from 6.5 to 7.8 km/s. This anomaly can be interpreted as an old

  19. Seismological structures of the subducted Philippine Sea plate and the overriding SW Japan arc, - Reinterpretation of the wide-angle reflection data in the Kii Peninsula, SW Japan -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Takaya; Kurashimo, Eiji; Abe, Susumu; Yokota, Ken; Iidaka, Takashi; Katao, Hiroshi; Higashinaka, Motonori; Nakanishi, Ayako; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki

    2017-04-01

    Our recent reinterpretation for seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection data in eastern Kii Peninsula, SW Japan, provided new structural information on the uppermost part of the subducted Philippine Sea (PHS) plate and overriding the SW Japan arc, including the landward reflectivity variation in the vicinity of the plate boundary and the large scale structural change within the SW Japan arc. The Kii peninsula is located in the eastern part of the well-known subduction zone along the Nankai trough where offshore M8-class megathrust earthquakes repeatedly occur. The plate boundary beneath this Peninsula is in the stable or conditionally stable regime except for its southernmost tip, which corresponds to the northwestern end of the rupture area at the last event (1944 Tonankai earthquake (M7.9)). The surface geology of the overriding SW Japan arc is divided to two parts by the E-W trending Median Tectonic Line (MTL), the most prominent tectonic boundary in SW Japan. South of the MTL, Cretaceous-Jurassic accretionary complexes are exposed, whose northernmost unit consists of high P-T metamorphic rocks (the Sanbagawa metamorphic belt (SMB)). The region north of the MTL is occupied by older accretionary complexes, partly suffered from the Cretaceous magmatic intrusions. Our seismic data from five dynamite shots were acquired in 2006 along 80-km line almost perpendicular to the Nankai trough. The structure of the SW Japan arc was obtained both from intensive wide-angle reflection analysis and advanced reflection processing by seismic interferometry technique. The former analysis delineated clear structural change in the uppermost crust across the MTL. In the latter processing, we retrieved virtual shot records at 512 receiver points from free-surface backscattered waves by the deconvolution interferometry. The subsequent CRS (Common Reflection Surface)/MDRS (Multi-Dip Reflection Surfaces) methods provided an enhanced image within the island arc, including a northward

  20. Sedimentary features and exploration targets of Middle Permian reservoirs in the SW Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoming Xu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The exploration direction and targets for the large-scale Middle Permian gas reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin are hot spots and challenges in current exploration researches. The exploration successes of large gas field of Cambrian Longwangmiao Formation in Gaoshiti-Moxi region, Central Sichuan Basin, indicated that prospective sedimentary facies belt was the basis for the formation of large gas fields. In this paper, based on seismic data, outcrop data and drilling data, the tectonic framework and sedimentary features of the Middle Permian in the SW Sichuan Basin were comprehensively studied. The following conclusions were reached from the perspective of sedimentary facies control: (1 during the Middle Permian, this region was in shallow water gentle slope belts with high energy, where thick reef flat facies were deposited; (2 the basement was uplifted during Middle Permian, resulting in the unconformity weathering crust at the top of Maokou Formation due to erosion; the SW Sichuan Basin was located in the karst slope belt, where epigenic karstification was intense; and (3 reef flat deposits superimposed by karst weathering crust was favorable for the formation of large-scale reef flat karst reservoirs. Based on the combination of the resources conditions and hydrocarbon accumulation conditions in this region, it was pointed out that the Middle Permian has great potential of large-scale reef flat karst gas reservoir due to its advantageous geological conditions; the Middle Permian traps with good hydrocarbon accumulation conditions were developed in the Longmen Mountain front closed structural belt in the SW Sichuan Basin and Western Sichuan Basin depression slope belt, which are favorable targets for large-scale reef flat karst reservoirs.

  1. Curie point depth in the SW Caribbean using the radially averaged spectra of magnetic anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Juan M.; Vargas, Carlos A.; Leon, Hermann

    2017-01-01

    We have estimated the Curie Point Depth (CPD) using the average radial power spectrum in a tectonically complex area located in the SW Caribbean basin. Data analyzed came from the World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map, and three methods have been used to compare results and evaluate uncertainties: Centroid, Spectral Peak, and Forward Modeling. Results show a match along the three methods, suggesting that the CPD values in the area ranging between 6 km and 50 km. The results share the following characteristics: A) High values (> 30 km) are in continental regions; B) There is a trend of maximum CPD values along the SW-NE direction, starting from the Central Cordillera in Colombia to the Maracaibo Lake in Venezuela; C) There is a maximum CPD at the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (Colombia) as well as between Costa Rica - Nicaragua and Nicaragua - Honduras borders. The lowest CPD values (coastal regions and offshore. We also tested results by estimating the geothermal gradient and comparing measured observations of the study area. Our results suggest at least five thermal terrains in the SW Caribbean Basin: A) The area that is comprising the Venezuela Basin, the Beata Ridge and the Colombia Basin up to longitude parallel to the Providencia Throat. B) The area that includes zones to the north of the Cocos Ridge and Panam Basin up to the trench. C) The orogenic region of the northern Andes and including areas of the Santa Marta Massif. D) The continental sector that encompasses Nicaragua, northern Costa Rica and eastern of Honduras. E) Corresponds to areas of the northern Venezuela and Colombia, NW of Colombia, the Panamanian territory and the transition zones between the Upper and Lower Nicaragua Rise.

  2. The Characteristics of Seismogenic Zones in SW Taiwan: Implications from Studying Mechanisms of Microearthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Strong; Chang, Yi-Zen; Yeh, Yu-Lien; Wen, Yi-Ying

    2017-04-01

    parameters can serve as a detail physical status (such as fluid migration, fault geometry and the pressure of the leading edge of the rupturing) to investigate the characteristics of seismongenic structures more precisely. In addition, the obtained regional stress field in this study also used to assure and to exam the tectonic models proposed for SW Taiwan previously, which will help to properly assess seismic hazard analysis for major engineering construction projects in the urban area.

  3. The validity and reliability of the handheld SW-100 autokeratometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eghosasere Iyamu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The agreement of new instruments or clinical tests with other instruments or tests defines the possibility of these being used interchangeably.Aim: To investigate the validity and reliability of the SW-100 autokeratometer using a Bausch & Lomb (B&L keratometer as the ‘gold standard’. Methods: Eighty subjects (80 right eyes aged between 21 and 38 years were recruited. For intra-test repeatability, two measurements of the corneal radius of curvature were taken with the SW-100 and B&L keratometers. Forty of the 80 subjects participated in the inter-test repeatability measurement.Results: Corneal radius of curvature was found to be statistically different between the two instruments (p < 0.001, with the SW-100 providing slightly flatter values of 0.11 mm and 0.05 mm for the horizontal and vertical meridians, respectively, than the B&L keratometer. The average corneal curvature was 0.07 mm flatter with the SW-100 autokeratometer than with the B&L device. Agreement between the SW-100 and B&L keratometers’ axes was 45% within ± 5°, 60.3% within ± 10°, 78.8% within ± 15°, 80.3% within ± 20°, and 88.7% within ± 40°. Intertest repeatability was better for the B&L device than the SW-100 and showed no significant difference between the two sessions. Both instruments demonstrated comparable intrasession repeatability. As such, both instruments were comparatively reliable (per coefficients of repeatability. The range of limits of agreement of ± 0.14 mm (horizontal meridian and ± 0.17 mm (vertical meridian between the SW-100 and B&L devices showed good agreement.Conclusion: The results suggest that the SW-100 autokeratometer is a reliable and objective instrument that, however, provides flatter radii of curvature measurements than the B&L keratometer. A compensating factor incorporated into the instrument could reduce the difference between the two instruments and make them more interchangeable. 

  4. Magnetostratigraphy of the Neogene sediments of SW Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez Bettucci, L.; Orgeira, M. J.; Sanchez, G.; Bertoni-Machado, C.; Farina, R.

    2007-05-01

    Preliminary results on the magnetostratigraphy of three Neogene formations from SW Uruguay are presented: Camacho, Raigón and Libertad, and a relative age from the record of reversions in the Earth's magnetic field polarity is proposed. The sediments outcrop in the SW region of Uruguay,and have been received attention due to their fossil contents. The oldest is the late Miocene-Pliocene Camacho Fm, of Huayquerian to Montehermosan affinities. A Pliocene-early Pleistocene age has been assigned to Raigón Fm, of Chapadmalalan affinities. The overlying Libertad Fm has been considered early-middle Pleistocene in age, and to have Marplatan-Ensenadan affinities. The lithology of this facies of Camacho Fm is identified by the presence of fine to very fine sandstones and is composed of silty-sandy and bioturbed silty deposits. The marine facies of this formation is rich in fossil content, as several invertebrate and vertebrate taxa are found. The upper Raigón Fm is formed by sandstones of varied grain size and includes lenses and levels of claystones and conglomerates. It shows the sedimentological features of a deep, pebble-rich braided fluvial system. The 383 vertebrate specimens found in the sandy facies and studied in a taphonomically-oriented study belong to 19 genera and 13 higher taxa. The bones are disarticulated, with smooth fractures and little weathered or abraded, which is congruent with a short time of contact, as observed in strong and sudden flows. The elements belong to the three Voorhies groups and fractured specimens are found along with well preserved materials, implying different taphonomical histories and reworking. The consequent inferred time averaging urges caution at using these remains for defining precise ages. The Libertad Fm, top of the sequence, is conformed by greenish clays, clayey fine sandstones, medium sized sandstones and conglomeratic levels, corresponding to deposits of continental origin under a semiarid climate, which allowed the

  5. Verbascum lindae (Scrophulariaceae), a new species from SW Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parolly, Gerald; Tan, Kit

    2007-01-01

    Verbascum lindae, a taxonomically isolated limestone chasmophyte from the vilayet of Isparta in SW Anatolia is described as a species new to science and illustrated. Its affinities with other Anatolian Verbascum species, which have either a chasmophytic habit or at least a woody base, are discussed....

  6. Seaweeds of the Spermonde Archipelago, SW Sulawesi, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheij, E.; Prud’homme van Reine, W.F.

    1993-01-01

    Seaweeds are important components of tropical reef systems. The present paper deals with the Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and noncoralline Rhodophyta collected by the first author in the Spermonde Archipelago, SW Sulawesi, Indonesia, during the Buginesia-III project (November 1988-November 1990). Additio

  7. JVLA Observations of IC 348SW: Compact Radio Sources and their Nature

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, L F; Palau, A

    2014-01-01

    We present sensitive 2.1 and 3.3 cm JVLA radio continuum observations of the region IC 348 SW. We detect a total of 10 compact radio sources in the region, of which seven are first reported here. One of the sources is associated with the remarkable periodic time-variable infrared source LRLL 54361, opening the possibility of monitoring this object at radio wavelengths. Four of the sources appear to be powering outflows in the region, including HH 211 and HH 797. In the case of the rotating outflow HH 797 we detect at its center a double radio source, separated by $\\sim3"$. Two of the sources are associated with infrared stars that possibly have gyrosynchrotron emission produced in active magnetospheres. Finally, three of the sources are interpreted as background objects.

  8. JVLA observations of IC 348 SW: Compact radio sources and their nature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez, Luis F.; Zapata, Luis A.; Palau, Aina, E-mail: l.rodriguez@crya.unam.mx, E-mail: l.zapata@crya.unam.mx, E-mail: a.palau@crya.unam.mx [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, UNAM, Apdo. Postal 3-72 (Xangari), 58089 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico)

    2014-07-20

    We present sensitive 2.1 and 3.3 cm Jansky Very Large Array radio continuum observations of the region IC 348 SW. We detect a total of 10 compact radio sources in the region, 7 of which are first reported here. One of the sources is associated with the remarkable periodic time-variable infrared source LRLL 54361, opening the possibility of monitoring this object at radio wavelengths. Four of the sources appear to be powering outflows in the region, including HH 211 and HH 797. In the case of the rotating outflow HH 797, we detect a double radio source at its center, separated by ∼3''. Two of the sources are associated with infrared stars that possibly have gyrosynchrotron emission produced in active magnetospheres. Finally, three of the sources are interpreted as background objects.

  9. Extended [C I] and ^{13}CO(5-4) Emission in M17SW

    CERN Document Server

    Howe, J E; Bergin, E A; Chin, G; Erickson, N R; Goldsmith, P F; Harwit, M; Hollenbach, D J; Kaufman, M J; Kleiner, S C; Koch, D G; Neufeld, D A; Patten, B M; Plume, R; Schieder, R; Snell, R L; Stauffer, J R; Tolls, V; Wang, Z; Winnewisser, G; Zhang, Y F; Melnick, G J

    2000-01-01

    We mapped a 13 by 22 pc region in emission from 492 GHz [C I] and, for the first time, 551 GHz ^{13}CO(5-4) in the giant molecular cloud M17SW, using the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite. The morphologies of the [C I] and ^{13}CO emission are strikingly similar. The extent and intensity of the [C I] and ^{13}CO(5-4) emission is explained as arising from photodissociation regions on the surfaces of embedded molecular clumps. Modeling of the ^{13}CO(5-4) emission in comparison to ^{13}CO(1-0) indicates a temperature gradient across the cloud, peaking to at least 63 K near the M17 ionization front and decreasing to at least 20 K at the western edge of the cloud. We see no correlation between gas density and column density. The beam-averaged column density of C I in the core is 1x10^{18} cm^-2, and the mean column density ratio N(C I)/N(CO) is about 0.4. The variations of N(C I)/N(CO) with position in M17SW indicate a similar clump size distribution throughout the cloud.

  10. Use of Student Experiments for Teaching Embedded Software Development Including HW/SW Co-Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, H.; Kambe, H.; Koizumi, H.

    2009-01-01

    Embedded systems have been applied widely, not only to consumer products and industrial machines, but also to new applications such as ubiquitous or sensor networking. The increasing role of software (SW) in embedded system development has caused a great demand for embedded SW engineers, and university education for embedded SW engineering has…

  11. Microbial community in the potential gas hydrate area Kaoping Canyon bearing sediment at offshore SW Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. Y.; Hung, C. C.; Lai, S. J.; Ding, J. Y.; Lai, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    The deep sub-seafloor biosphere is among the least-understood habitats on Earth, even though the huge microbial biomass plays a potentially important role in long-term controls of global biogeochemical cycles. The research team from Taiwan, supported by the Central Geological Survey (CGS), has been demonstrated at SW offshore Taiwan that indicated this area is potential gas hydrate region. Therefore, the Gas Hydrate Master Program (GHMP) was brought in the National Energy Program-Phase II (NEP-II) to continue research and development. In this study, the microbial community structure of potential gas hydrate bearing sediments of giant piston core MD-178-10-3291 (KP12N) from the Kaoping Canyon offshore SW of Taiwan were investigated. This core was found many empty spaces and filling huge methane gas (>99.9 %) that might dissociate from solid gas hydrate. 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and phylogenetic analysis showed that the dominant members of Archaea were ANME (13 %), SAGMEG (31 %) and DSAG (20 %), and those of Bacteria were Chloroflexi (13 %), Candidate division JS1 (40 %) and Planctomycetes (15 %). Among them, ANME-3 is only distributed at the sulfate-methane interface (SMI) of 750 cmbsf, and sharing similarity with the Hydrate Ridge clone HydBeg92. ANME-1 and SAGMEG distributed below 750 cmbsf. In addition, DSAG and Candidate division JS1 are most dominant and distributed vertically at all tested depths from 150-3600 cmbsf. Combine the geochemical data and microbial phylotype distribution suggests the potential of gas hydrate bearing sediments at core MD-178-10-3291 (KP12N) from the Kaoping Canyon offshore SW of Taiwan.

  12. First report of a resistance-breaking strain of Tomato spotted wilt virus infecting tomatoes with the Sw-5 tospovirus-resistance gene in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) with the Sw-5 resistance gene in tomato is highly effective. However, in certain regions of the world where resistant tomatoes have been continually planted, resistance-breaking strains of TSWV have emerged. In spring 2016 resistant tomatoes were obse...

  13. Assessment of climate impacts on the karst-related carbon sink in SW China using MPD and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Sibo; Jiang, Yongjun; Liu, Zaihua

    2016-09-01

    Riverine carbon fluxes of some catchments in the world have significantly changed due to contemporary climate change and human activities. As a large region with an extensive karstic area of nearly 7.5 × 105 km2, Southwest (SW) China has experienced dramatic climate changes during recent decades. Although some studies have investigated the karst-related carbon sink in some parts of this region, the importance of climate impacts have not been assessed. This research examined the impacts of recent climate change on the karst-related carbon sink in the SW China for the period 1970-2013, using a modified maximal potential dissolution (MPD) method and GIS. We first analyzed the major determinants of carbonate dissolution at a spatial scale, calculated the total karst-related carbon sink (TCS) and carbon sink fluxes (CSFs) in the SW China karst region with different types of carbonate rocks, and then compared with other methods, and analyzed the causes of CSFs variations under the changed climate conditions. The results show that the TCS in SW China experienced a dramatic change with regional climate, and there was a trend with TCS decreasing by about 19% from 1970s to 2010s. This decrease occurred mostly in Guizhou and Yunnan provinces, which experienced larger decreases in runoff depth in the past 40 years (190 mm and 90 mm, respectively) due to increased air temperature (0.33 °C and 1.04 °C, respectively) and decreased precipitation (156 mm and 106 mm, respectively). The mean value of CSFs in SW China, calculated by the modified MPD method, was approximately 9.36 t C km- 2 a- 1. In addition, there were large differences in CSFs among the provinces, attributed to differences in regional climate and to carbonate lithologies. These spatiotemporal changes depended mainly on hydrological variations (i.e., discharge or runoff depth). This work, thus, suggests that the karst-related carbon sink could respond to future climate change quickly, and needs to be considered in

  14. Microstructures associated with the Sottunga-Jurmo shear zone and their implications for the 1.83–1.79 Ga tectonic development of SW Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taija Torvela

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This petrographic study of rock samples from the area of a large-scale shear zone, the Sottung-Jurmo shear zone, in SW Finland, illuminates the thermal development of and strain distribution within the rocks during the last development stages of the shear zone. The results indicate relatively high temperatures during the deformation phases that created the gneisses and the mylonites, strain partitioning through time and continued transpression from S-SW until at least c. 1.79 Ga. This has implications to the latest tectonic models since the results together with previous studies suggest acompartmentalisation of regional stresses between the area SW of the shear zone and central Fennoscandia. The results also suggest that the uplift rate increased during the late stage of the transpression.

  15. Late Cenozoic stress state distributions at the intersection of the Hellenic and Cyprus Arcs, SW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Över, Semir; Özden, Süha; Pınar, Ali; Yılmaz, Hüseyin; Kamacı, Züheyr; Ünlügenç, Ulvi Can

    2016-12-01

    The history of the Late Cenozoic stress regime was determined for an area between the gulfs of Fethiye and Antalya. Fault kinematic analysis and inversion of focal mechanisms of shallow earthquakes reveal significant evolution of the regional stress regime in SW Anatolia, i.e., the area of interaction between the Hellenic and Cyprus arcs, from the Mio-Pliocene to the present time. Fault kinematic analysis yields two different normal faulting stress regimes along the southwestern part of Fethiye-Burdur Fault zone, e.g., in and around Çameli Basin (Zone A1) and two different strike-slip to normal faulting stress regimes characterized by a roughly orthogonal set of extensional axes between Fethiye and Demre (Zone B) with an older NW-SE σ3 axis for Mio-Pliocene and a younger NE-SW σ3 axis for Plio-Quaternary time. Inversion of focal mechanisms of the earthquakes occurring in Zone A1 provides an extensional stress state with approximately N-S σ3 axis. Inversion of those occurring in Zone B, south of Zone A1, yields a dominantly strike-slip stress state with a NE-SW σ3 axis and a NW-SE σ1 axis respectively. The inversion slip vectors from fault planes yield a consistent normal faulting stress regime in Burdur Basin and its surroundings (i.e., along the northeastern part of Fethiye-Burdur Fault Zone, (Zone A2)) during Plio-Quaternary, continuing into recent time as indicated by earthquake focal mechanism inversions. Both states have a consistent NW-SE σ3 axis. Fault kinematic analysis indicates NW-SE extension acting in Zone C (subarea between Demre and Antalya), south of Zone A2, during Mio-Pliocene time. The inversion of focal mechanisms yields normal faulting also characterized by a consistent NW-SE σ3 axis. The nearly orthogonal extensional stress regimes (NW-SE and NE-SW) obtained by inversion of both measured and seismic faults seem to have been acting contemporaneously with each other at different intensities from the Mio-Pliocene onwards in SW Turkey. This

  16. Deciphering the brittle evolution of SW Norway through a combined structural, mineralogical and geochronological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiber, Thomas; Viola, Giulio; Fredin, Ola; Zwingmann, Horst; Wilkinson, Camilla Maya; Ganerød, Morgan

    2016-04-01

    SW Norway has experienced a complex brittle history after cessation of the Caledonian orogeny, and the recent discoveries of major hydrocarbon reserves in heavily fractured and weathered basement offshore SW Norway has triggered a renewed interest in understanding this complex tectonic evolution. In this contribution we present results from a multidisciplinary study combining lineament analysis, field work, paleo-stress inversion, mineralogical characterization and radiometric dating in the Bømlo area of SW Norway in order to develop a tectonic model for the brittle evolution of this important region. The study area mainly consists of the Rolvsnes granodiorite (U-Pb zircon age of ca. 466 Ma), which is devoid of penetrative ductile deformation features. The first identified brittle faults are muscovite-bearing top-to-the-NNW thrusts and E-W striking dextral strike-slip faults decorated with stretched biotite. These are mechanically compatible and are assigned to the same NNW-SSE transpressional regime. Ar-Ar muscovite and biotite dates of ca. 450 Ma (Late Ordovician) indicate fault activity in the course of a Taconian-equivalent orogenic event. During the subsequent Silurian Laurentia-Baltica collision variably oriented, lower-grade chlorite and epidote-coated faults formed in response to a ENE-WSW compressional stress regime. A large number of mainly N-S striking normal faults consist of variably thick fault gouge cores with illite, quartz, kaolinite, calcite and epidote mineralizations, accommodating mainly E-W extension. K-Ar dating of illites separated from representative fault gouges and zones of altered granodiorite constrain deformation ranging from the Permian to the Late Jurassic, indicating a long history of crustal extension where faults were repeatedly activated. In addition, a set of ca. SW-NE striking faults associated with alteration zones give Cretaceous dates, either representing a young phase of NW-SE extension or reactivation of previously formed

  17. Comportement de Stylosanthes guianensis (Aubl. Sw. dans la basse Ruzizi et le Mosso (Burundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vancoppenolle, R.

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Requirements of Stylosanthes guianensis (Aubl Sw in lower Ruzizi and Mosso (Burundi. This paper describes the requirements of Stylosanthes guianensis in two ecological regions : Mosso (1 280 m alt. and lower Ruzizi (800 m alt.. This legume was introduced in 1953 into the grasslands of the east and in 1970 into lower Ruzizi, with the aim of improving the value of the natural pastures using leguminous plants. At Mosso, soil and climatic conditions were favourable for Stylosanthes and it grew well. However, since 1981. Anthracnose has severely reduced its growth and until a solution is found its general introduction will not be possible. In lower Ruzizi plant development was limited by low rainfall (670, 4 mm per year and soils with a low water retention capacity (sand dunes. For this region, it is necessary to identify cultivars resistant to drought and devise a method of establishing these cultivars on sand dunes.

  18. rSW-seq: Algorithm for detection of copy number alterations in deep sequencing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Tae-Min

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent advances in sequencing technologies have enabled generation of large-scale genome sequencing data. These data can be used to characterize a variety of genomic features, including the DNA copy number profile of a cancer genome. A robust and reliable method for screening chromosomal alterations would allow a detailed characterization of the cancer genome with unprecedented accuracy. Results We develop a method for identification of copy number alterations in a tumor genome compared to its matched control, based on application of Smith-Waterman algorithm to single-end sequencing data. In a performance test with simulated data, our algorithm shows >90% sensitivity and >90% precision in detecting a single copy number change that contains approximately 500 reads for the normal sample. With 100-bp reads, this corresponds to a ~50 kb region for 1X genome coverage of the human genome. We further refine the algorithm to develop rSW-seq, (recursive Smith-Waterman-seq to identify alterations in a complex configuration, which are commonly observed in the human cancer genome. To validate our approach, we compare our algorithm with an existing algorithm using simulated and publicly available datasets. We also compare the sequencing-based profiles to microarray-based results. Conclusion We propose rSW-seq as an efficient method for detecting copy number changes in the tumor genome.

  19. Crustal structure of the SW Iberian passive margin: The westernmost remnant of the Ligurian Tethys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, A.; Fernández, O.; Torne, M.; Sánchez de la Muela, A.; Muñoz, J. A.; Terrinha, P.; Manatschal, G.; Salas, M. C.

    2017-05-01

    At present, the SW Iberian margin is located along the convergent Iberia-Nubia plate boundary. In Mesozoic times, the margin was located at the triple junction of the Ligurian Tethys, Central Atlantic and Northern Atlantic. The characterization of its crustal structure has allowed us to propose a configuration for this triple junction and to determine the role that this transform margin played within the plate kinematic system. In this paper we present an integrated study based on the interpretation of a 2D regional multichannel seismic survey consisting of 58 profiles, tied with onshore geology and exploratory wells, and on gravimetric modeling performed over four NW-SE trending profiles. Integrated interpretation of MCS data combined with 2D gravity modeling reveals a complex pattern in the southward crustal thinning of SW Iberia and supports the possible presence of oceanic crust under the Gulf of Cadiz. The tapering of Iberian crust is characterized by steps with rapid changes in the thickness of the crust, and thinning to Bank. Margin inversion and the pre-existing extensional crustal structure are responsible for the areal distribution and amplitude of the prominent positive gravity anomaly observed in the Gulf of Cadiz.

  20. Seismic and gravity anomaly evidence of large-scale compressional deformation off SW Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, T. A.; Watts, A. B.; Pinheiro, L. M.; Myklebust, R.

    2010-04-01

    Multi-channel seismic and gravity anomaly data have been used to determine the extent of compressional deformation along the SW Portugal rifted continental margin and place constraints on the long-term (> 1 M.a.) strength of the lithosphere. The seismic sections suggest that the region of compressional deformation is broad (˜ 100 km) and has been active since the Miocene. Integration with recently compiled high-resolution bathymetric data shows that the main thrust front is located along the base of the continental slope, between north of the Gorringe Bank and the Setúbal Canyon. Gravity data show that the thrust front is associated with a narrow isostatic anomaly 'high' of up to 70 mGal that is flanked on its NW edge by a broad 'low' of up to 20 mGal. This high-low 'couple' can be explained by compressional loading of extended continental lithosphere that increased its flexural strength (or equivalent elastic thickness, Te) since rifting. Based on combined 2-D backstripping and gravity modelling techniques we estimate a Te of ˜ 10 km during the main stretching episode, in the Late Jurassic (maybe earliest Cretaceous?), and of 35-50 km during the Miocene to Recent compression. The existence of a broad region of deformation off SW Portugal together with a strong lithosphere have implications for the rupture models of large earthquakes in the region, such as the 1755 Great Lisbon earthquake, particularly when accounting for a complex, multiple rupture in faults which cut through lithosphere of distinct nature and origin, as appears to be required by modellers to explain the historical observational data.

  1. Cytotoxic effects of new geranyl chalcone derivatives isolated from the leaves of Artocarpus communis in SW 872 human liposarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Song-Chwan; Hsu, Chin-Lin; Yu, Yu-Shen; Yen, Gow-Chin

    2008-10-08

    Breadfruit (Artocarpus communis Moraceae) is cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions as a traditional starch crop and also has potential medicinal properties. The aim of this work was to study the in vitro anticancer activity of compounds isolated from the leaves of Artocarpus communis. Three new geranyl chalcone derivatives including isolespeol (1), 5'-geranyl-2',4',4-trihydroxychalcone (2), and 3,4,2',4'-tetrahydroxy-3'-geranyldihydrochalcone (3), together with two known compounds lespeol (4) and xanthoangelol (5), were isolated from the leaves of Artocarpus communis. The structures of 1- 5 were elucidated by spectroscopy and through comparison with data reported in the literature. The effects of geranyl chalcone derivatives (1- 5) on the viability of human cancer cells (including SW 872, HT-29, COLO 205, Hep3B, PLC5, Huh7, and HepG2 cells) were investigated. The results indicate that isolespeol (1) showed the highest inhibitory activity with an IC 50 value of 3.8 muM in SW 872 human liposarcoma cells. Treatment of SW 872 human liposarcoma cells with isolespeol (1) caused the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsim). Western blotting revealed that isolespeol (1) stimulated increased protein expression of Fas, FasL, and p53. The expression ratios of pro- and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members were also changed by isolespeol (1) treatment to subsequently induce the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, which was followed by cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). These results demonstrate that isolespeol (1) induces apoptosis in SW 872 cells through Fas- and mitochondria-mediated pathways.

  2. Análise do potencial de imagem TerraSAR-X para mapeamento temático no sudoeste da Amazônia brasileira Analysis of the potential use from TerraSAR-X images for thematic mapping in SW Brazilian Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Edwin Garcia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como objetivo analisar o potencial de imagens SAR polarimétricas do sensor TerraSAR-X, no modo StripMap, para mapear o uso e cobertura da terra na região sudoeste da Amazônia brasileira. No procedimento metodológico imagens de amplitude nas polarizações A HH e A VV, A derivada da matriz de covariância, bem como da entropia A Entropia derivada da decomposição de alvos por auto-valores fizeram parte, de forma individual ou combinada, do conjunto de dados investigados. Na classificação das imagens foram empregados dois classificadores: um baseado nas funções estatísticas de máxima verossimilhança (MAXVER; e outro, o método contextual (Context. Os resultados temáticos dessas classificações foram avaliados através da matriz de confusão e pelo índice Kappa. De forma sintetizada pode-se afirmar que as componentes A e A Entropia, têm significativa contribuição no procedimento classificatório, sobretudo pelo método Context, cujo desempenho alcançou com 78% de exatidão global e índice Kappa de 0,70.The objective of this work was to analyze the potential use of SAR polarimetric images from the TerraSAR-X sensor system, at StripMap mode, to map land use and land cover in SW Brazilian Amazon. Amplitude images at polarizations A HH, A VV, A, derived from the co-variance matrix, as well as the entropy A Entropia, derived from the decomposition of targets by eigenvalues, are parts of the datasets investigated individually or in combined form. Two classifiers were used: the first is based on statistical functions of maximum likelihood (MAXVER, and the second is the contextual method (Context. The thematic results from these classifications were evaluated by a confusion matrix and by the Kappa index. Summarizing we can state that the components A and A Entropia, gave a significant contribution to the image classification procedure, considering specially the Context method, whose performance reached 78% of

  3. Growth Inhibition Effect of DL-Lysine Acetylalicylate on sw480 Colon Carcinoma Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shu; TIAN Xiao-feng; WANG Li-ming

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of DL-lysine acetylsalicylate on proliferation of colon carcinoma cells line sw480. Methods: After treatment of DL-lysine acetylsalicylate, the study was performed by observing sw480 colorectal cancer cells with phase contrast microscope, making growth curve, and examining the inhibition rate of sw480 cells with MTT assay. Results: The morphology of sw480 cells showed characteristics of apoptosis, the cell growth curve showed inhibited proliferation of sw480 cells when treated with DL-lysine acetylsalicylate (P<0.05). The rate of inhibition was upward when the drug concentration increased. Conclusion: DL-lysine acetylsalicylate for injection can inhibit the growth of sw480 colorectal cancer cells obviously in a dose dependent manner.

  4. UX Ursae Majoris as a SW Sex star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neustroev, V. V.; Suleimanov, V. F.; Borisov, N. V.; Belyakov, K. V.; Shearer, A.

    2010-11-01

    We present an analysis of time-resolved, medium resolution optical spectroscopic observations of UX UMa in the blue (3920-5250 A˚) and red (6100-7200 A˚) wavelength ranges in April 1999 and March 2008, respectively. UX UMa has been in different states during those observations. Doppler tomography method was used to accretion disc structure investigation in both states. During the observations in 1999, UX UMa showed many of the defining properties of the SW Sex stars. However, all these features almost completely disappeared in 2008. We have also estimated the radial velocity semi-amplitude K1.

  5. Geodynamic evolution of the SW Variscides: Orogenic collapse shown by new tectonometamorphic and isotopic data from western Ossa-Morena Zone, SW Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, F. M.; Marques, F. O.; BallèVre, M.; Tassinari, C.

    2008-12-01

    The pre-Mesozoic geodynamic evolution of SW Iberia has been investigated on the basis of detailed structural analysis, isotope dating, and petrologic study of high-pressure (HP) rocks, revealing the superposition of several tectonometamorphic events: (1) An HP event older than circa 358 Ma is recorded in basic rocks preserved inside marbles, which suggests subduction of a continental margin. The deformation associated with this stage is recorded by a refractory graphite fabric and noncoaxial mesoscopic structures found within the host metasediments. The sense of shear is top to south, revealing thrusting synthetic with subduction (underthrusting) to the north. (2) Recrystallization before circa 358 Ma is due to a regional-scale thermal episode and magmatism. (3) Noncoaxial deformation with top to north sense of shear in northward dipping large-scale shear zones is associated with pervasive hydration and metamorphic retrogression under mostly greenschist facies. This indicates exhumation by normal faulting in a detachment zone confined to the top to north and north dipping shear zones during postorogenic collapse soon after 358 Ma ago (inversion of earlier top to south thrusts). (4) Static recrystallization at circa 318 Ma is due to regional-scale granitic intrusions.

  6. Present-day strain partitioning and strain transfer across the Fairweather and Denali Faults in SW Yukon - SE Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzotti, S.; Marechal, A.; Elliott, J.; Freymueller, J. T.; Schmidt, M.

    2012-12-01

    In SW Yukon - SE Alaska, the present-day Pacific - North America relative motion is highly oblique to the main plate boundary, resulting in strong strain partitioning tectonics that link the Aleutian subduction to the west to Queen-Charlotte transform to the south. This transition region is also the site of present-day orogeny and accretion of the allochthonous Yakutat Terrane to the Northern Cordillera. We present results from new campaign and permanent GPS stations deployed in SW Yukon, combined with STEEP data from SE Alaska, straddling the Fairweather and Denali Faults. GPS data are processed with the NRCan PPP software to derive long-term velocities and are corrected for transient effects primarily due to Glacial Isostatic Adjustment to recent ice mass loss. In the southern region (from Yakutat, AK to Whitehorse, YK), our preferred model gives slip rates of 49.9 +/- 2.6 mm/a on the Fairweather Fault and 1.1 +/- 1.0 mm/a on the Denali Fault; i.e., over 95% the Pacific - North America strike-slip motion is accommodated on the main plate-boundary fault. However, the fault-normal component is strongly partitioned, with ~25% of the Pacific - North America convergence transferred inland, into the Yukon and Northern Cordillera. This strain transfer could explain the seismicity observed in the Mackenzie Mountains 500 - 800 km from the coast. In the northern region (from Yakutat, AK to Beaver Creek, YK), the Pacific - North America convergence is strongly partitioned, with less than ~60% accommodated on the Chugach-St. Elias Fault and the residual motion distributed between the Pamplona thrust zone to the south (~15%) and internal shortening of the St. Elias Mountains to the north (~25%), where few faults and little seismicity are observed. The new GPS data also helps address the activity and slip rate of a potential "Connector Fault" that would link the Fairweather and Totschunda Faults, bypassing the Denali Fault in SW Yukon.

  7. Spatial variations of PAH properties in M17SW revealed by Spitzer/IRS spectral mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Yamagishi, M; Ishihara, D; Oyabu, S; Suzuki, T; Onaka, T; Nagayama, T; Umemoto, T; Minamidani, T; Nishimura, A; Matsuo, M; Fujita, S; Tsuda, Y; Kohno, M; Ohashi, S

    2016-01-01

    We present $Spitzer$/IRS mid-infrared spectral maps of the Galactic star-forming region M17 as well as IRSF/SIRIUS Br$\\gamma$ and Nobeyama 45-m/FOREST $^{13}$CO ($J$=1--0) maps. The spectra show prominent features due to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at wavelengths of 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.3, 12.0, 12.7, 13.5, and 14.2 $\\mu$m. We find that the PAH emission features are bright in the region between the HII region traced by Br$\\gamma$ and the molecular cloud traced by $^{13}$CO, supporting that the PAH emission originates mostly from photo-dissociation regions. Based on the spatially-resolved maps, we examine spatial variations of the PAH properties in detail. As a result, we find that the interband ratio of PAH 7.7 $\\mu$m/PAH 11.3 $\\mu$m varies locally near M17SW, but rather independently of the distance from the OB stars in M17, suggesting that the ionization degree of PAHs is mainly controlled by local conditions rather than the global UV environments determined by the OB stars in M17. We also find tha...

  8. Enhanced Southern Westerly Activity During the Last Glacial Interglacial Transition in SW Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, P. I.; Villa-Martinez, R. P.; Cardenas, M. L.; Moy, C. M.

    2008-12-01

    Much of the ongoing controversy regarding synchrony or bipolar asynchrony has centered on the timing and structure of temperature changes during the Last Glacial Interglacial Transition (LGIT) in the southern mid- latitudes, in particular the Patagonian region (40°-56°S) of South America. South America is the only continuous continental landmass in the Southern Hemisphere that intersects the entire westerly wind belt and lies in the critical climatic interface between mid- to high latitudes. The region between 50°- 55°S is of particular interest considering its proximity to the polar front and the southern margin of the westerly winds, and the possibility of monitoring paleoclimate changes at or near this important oceanic- atmospheric boundary. Present and past climate studies, including modeling simulations, have emphasized that interactions between changes in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, the southern westerly winds, sea ice, and the polar front are important drivers for deep ocean circulation changes, variations in atmospheric CO2, and equator-to-pole temperature and pressure gradients. Yet, the behavior of the westerly winds and the adjacent Southern Ocean during the LGIT is still poorly understood despite their fundamental influence on modern hemispheric and global climate. In this study we compare sediment cores from small closed-basin lakes and a bog from the Ultima Esperanza area of SW Patagonia (52°S), an area affected solely by the southern westerlies. Lake sediment cores from three lakes show lacustrine sedimentation over the last 17,000 years. In contrast, the Dumestre bog shows subaerial peat deposition since 15 ka interrupted by a prominent lacustrine phase dated between 14.5-11.5 ka. During this interval palynological records indicate the preponderance of cold-resistant herbs, along with aquatic taxa, followed by a rapid expansion of Nothofagus woodlands/forests, a lake regressive phase in Dumestre, and disappearance of laminated calcite

  9. Kinematics of SW Anatolia implications on crustal deformation above slab tear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkaptan, Murat; Koç, Ayten; Lefebvre, Côme; Gülyüz, Erhan; Uzel, Bora; Kaymakci, Nuretdin; Langereis, Cornelis G.; Özacar, Arda A.; Sözbilir, Hasan

    2014-05-01

    SW Anatolian tectonics are dominated mainly by emplacement of Lycian Nappes from north to south over the Beydaǧları platform during the early to middle Miocene, which followed by the development of the so called Fethiye Burdur Fault Zone (FBFZ). This fault zone is supposed to be a sinistral strike-slip fault zone that accommodated more than 100 km displacement between the Menderes Massif and the Beydaǧları platform during the exhumation of the Menderes Massif, mainly during the late Miocene. In addition, the FBFZ is collinear with the on-land NE continuation of the Pliny Trench along which the north subducting African slab is thought to be torn apart and retreated from somewhere around the apex of Isparta Angle to its present configuration as a STEP fault. In order to test already proposed evolutionary scenarios, and the feasibility of a STEP fault scenario and tectonic evolution of the region, we have conducted a rigorous paleomagnetic and kinematic study in the region containing more than 3000 paleomagnetic samples collected from 88 locations distributed evenly all over SW Anatolia and more than 2000 fault slip data measured mainly along the FBFZ. According to our preliminary results, except for some local insignificant clockwise rotations - the region underwent counter-clockwise rotation during the early to Late Miocene. The rotation senses and amounts are almost the same everywhere implying that rotation took place uniformly everywhere, as a rigid body rotation or the region underwent no internal rotational deformation. Likewise, rotations in the west and the east of FBFZ are similar for the post-late Miocene implying no internal rotational deformation. In addition to paleomagnetic data, the slickenside pitches and constructed paleostress configurations mainly along the FBFZ indicated that the faults within the FBFZ are mainly normal in character although minor lateral components are observed at the fault terminations or intersections. These fault slip

  10. Active NE-SW Compressional Strain Within the Arabian Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, M. A.; ArRajehi, A.; King, R. W.; McClusky, S.; Reilinger, R. E.; Douad, M.; Sholan, J.; Bou-Rabee, F.

    2012-12-01

    Motion of the Arabian plate with respect to Eurasia has been remarkably steady over more than 25 Myr as revealed by comparison of geodetic and plate tectonic reconstructions (e.g., McQuarrie et al., 2003, GRL; ArRajehi et al., 2010, Tectonics). While internal plate deformation is small in comparison to the rate of Arabia-Eurasia convergence, the improved resolution of GPS observations indicate ~ NE-SW compressional strain that appears to affect much of the plate south of latitude ~ 30°N. Seven ~ NE-SW oriented inter-station baselines all indicated shortening at rates in the range of 0.5-2 mm/yr, for the most part with 1-sigma velocity uncertainties < 0.4 mm/yr. Plate-scale strain rates exceed 2×10-9/yr. The spatial distribution of strain can not be resolved from the sparse available data, but strain appears to extend at least to Riyadh, KSA, ~ 600 km west of the Zagros Fold and Thrust Belt that forms the eastern, collisional boundary of the Arabian plate with Eurasia (Iran). Geodetic velocities in the plate tectonic reference frame for Arabia, derived from magnetic anomalies in the Red Sea (Chu and Gordon, 1998, GJI), show no significant E-W motion for GPS stations located along the Red Sea coast (i.e., geodetic and plate tectonic spreading rates across the Red Sea agree within their resolution), in contrast to sites in the plate interior and along the east side of the plate that indicate east-directed motions. In addition, NE-SW contraction is roughly normal to ~ N-S striking major structural folds in the sedimentary rocks within the Arabian Platform. These relationships suggest that geodetically observed contraction has characterized the plate for at least the past ~ 3 Myr. Broad-scale contraction of the Arabian plate seems intuitively reasonable given that the east and north sides of the plate are dominated by active continental collision (Zagros, E Turkey/Caucasus) while the west and south sides are bordered by mid-ocean ridge spreading (Red Sea and Gulf of

  11. Early Paleozoic accretionary orogenesis along northern margin of Gondwana constrained by high-Mg metaigneous rocks, SW Yunnan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xiaowan; Wang, Yuejun; Cawood, Peter A.; Zhang, Yuzhi

    2015-12-01

    SW Yunnan of China constituted part of the northern margin of Gondwana facing the proto-Tethys ocean in the early Paleozoic. However, the evolution of the region and its relationship with the accretionary orogenism have been poorly established. This paper reports a set of new zircon U-Pb age data and whole-rock major oxides, elemental and Sr-Nd isotopic data for early Paleozoic metavolcanic rocks from the previously defined Lancang Group and reveals the development of an Ordovician suprasubduction zone in SW Yunnan. Zircon U-Pb ages of 462 ± 6 and 454 ± 27 Ma for two representative samples indicate eruption of the volcanic rocks in the Late Ordovician. Geochemical data for the metavolcanic rocks together with other available data indicate a calc-alkaline affinity with high Al2O3 (13.04-18.77 wt%) and low TiO2 (0.64-1.00 wt%). They have Mg-numbers ranging from 62 to 50 with SiO2 of 53.57-69.10 wt%, compositionally corresponding to the high-Mg andesitic rocks. They display enrichments in LREEs and LILEs with significant Eu negative anomalies (δEu = 0.20-0.33), and depletions in HFSEs, similar to arc volcanic rocks. Their initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios range from 0.721356 to 0.722521 and ɛNd(t) values from -7.63 to -7.62 with Nd model ages of 2.06-2.10 Ga. Integration of ages and geochemical data with available geological observations, we propose the presence of Ordovician magmatism related to proto-Tethyan evolution in SW Yunnan and the metaigneous rocks formed in an island-arc setting. They were part of a regional accretionary orogen that extended along the northern margin of Gondwana during Neoproterozoic to early Paleozoic period.

  12. Classroom-Level Positive Behavior Supports in Schools Implementing SW-PBIS: Identifying Areas for Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinke, Wendy M.; Herman, Keith C.; Stormont, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the use of classroom-level behavior management strategies that align with School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SW-PBIS). Direct observations of universal classroom management strategies were conducted across 33 elementary classrooms in elementary schools implementing SW-PBIS with high fidelity. Findings…

  13. Speleological exploration results for Kamena Gora and Petnja, SW Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nešić Dragan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Speleomorphological exploration in the Kamena Gora village area and Petnja depression, parts of the Jabuka-Babine plateau bordering on Montenegro in the extreme SW of Serbia, is described in this paper in the sections on morphology, survey methods and general speleomorphologic and morphogenetic features of caves. The results of particular note are the two cave systems in Petnja depression: the Petnja Caves 551 m long and the Kurtova Jama system 650 m long, the latter probably being one of major speleologic features in Serbia. The big and small Mujova Caves and Bezdan are the three caves explored in Kamena Gora. The exploration should be continued at a general survey level.

  14. Seismic evidence of exhumed mantle rock basement at the Gorringe Bank and the adjacent Horseshoe and Tagus abyssal plains (SW Iberia)

    OpenAIRE

    Sallarès, Valentí; Martinez-Loriente, Sara; Prada, Manuel; Gracia, Eulalia; Ranero, César; Gutscher, Marc-André; Bartolome, Rafael; Gailler, Audrey; Dañobeitia, Juan José; Zitellini, Nevio

    2013-01-01

    International audience; The Gorringe Bank is a gigantic seamount that separates the Horseshoe and Tagus abyssal plains offshore SW Iberia, in a zone that hosts the convergent boundary between the Africa and Eurasia plates. Although the region has been the focus of numerous investigations since the early 1970s, the lack of appropriate geophysical data makes the nature of the basement, and thus the origin of the structures, still debated. In this work, we present combined P-wave seismic velocit...

  15. Mapping of Microsatellite SW943 to Porcine Chromosome 12p11-(2/3p13) Using Primed in situ Synthesis and Somatic Cell Hybrid Panel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bang; WANG Yong-qiang; ZHANG Qing-de; YU Mei; ZHAO Shu-hong; XIONG Tong-an; LI Kui

    2002-01-01

    The porcine microsatellite SW943 was regionally localized on 12p11-(2/3p13) by the two methods: the Primed in situ (PRINS) labelling on the pachytene bivalents of pigs using the Dig-11-dUTP as the report molecule and pig × rodent Somatic Cell Hybrid PaneI(SCHP) which contains 27 cell lines through PCR amplification. Advantages and disadvantages of the two methods for physical mapping of microsatellites were also discussed.

  16. The Tomato spotted wilt virus cell-to-cell movement protein (NSM) triggers a hypersensitive response in Sw-5 containing resistant tomato lines and Nicotiana benthamiana transformed with the functional Sw-5b resistance gene copy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hallwass, M.; Silva de Oliveira, A.; Dianese, E.C.; Lohuis, D.; Boiteux, L.S.; Inoue-Nagata, A.K.; Resende, de R.O.; Kormelink, R.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Although the Sw-5 gene cluster has been cloned, and Sw-5b has been identified as the functional gene copy that confers resistance to Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), its avirulence (Avr) determinant has not been identified to date. Nicotiana tabacum SR1 plants transformed with a copy of the Sw-5b

  17. Impact of sea-level rise on earthquake and landslide triggering offshore the Alentejo margin (SW Iberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, M. C.; Roque, C.; Luttrell, K. M.; Vázquez, J. T.; Alonso, B.

    2016-12-01

    Earthquakes and submarine landslides are recurrent and widespread manifestations of fault activity offshore SW Iberia. The present work tests the effects of sea-level rise on offshore fault systems using Coulomb stress change calculations across the Alentejo margin. Large-scale faults capable of generating large earthquakes and tsunamis in the region, especially NE-SW trending thrusts and WNW-ESE trending dextral strike-slip faults imaged at basement depths, are either blocked or unaffected by flexural effects related to sea-level changes. Large-magnitude earthquakes occurring along these structures may, therefore, be less frequent during periods of sea-level rise. In contrast, sea-level rise promotes shallow fault ruptures within the sedimentary sequence along the continental slope and upper rise within distances of <100 km from the coast. The results suggest that the occurrence of continental slope failures may either increase (if triggered by shallow fault ruptures) or decrease (if triggered by deep fault ruptures) as a result of sea-level rise. Moreover, observations of slope failures affecting the area of the Sines contourite drift highlight the role of sediment properties as preconditioning factors in this region.

  18. Using SW4 for 3D Simulations of Earthquake Strong Ground Motions: Application to Near-Field Strong Motion, Building Response, Basin Edge Generated Waves and Earthquakes in the San Francisco Bay Are

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, A. J.; Pitarka, A.; Petersson, N. A.; Sjogreen, B.; McCallen, D.; Miah, M.

    2016-12-01

    Simulation of earthquake ground motions is becoming more widely used due to improvements of numerical methods, development of ever more efficient computer programs (codes), and growth in and access to High-Performance Computing (HPC). We report on how SW4 can be used for accurate and efficient simulations of earthquake strong motions. SW4 is an anelastic finite difference code based on a fourth order summation-by-parts displacement formulation. It is parallelized and can run on one or many processors. SW4 has many desirable features for seismic strong motion simulation: incorporation of surface topography; automatic mesh generation; mesh refinement; attenuation and supergrid boundary conditions. It also has several ways to introduce 3D models and sources (including Standard Rupture Format for extended sources). We are using SW4 to simulate strong ground motions for several applications. We are performing parametric studies of near-fault motions from moderate earthquakes to investigate basin edge generated waves and large earthquakes to provide motions to engineers study building response. We show that 3D propagation near basin edges can generate significant amplifications relative to 1D analysis. SW4 is also being used to model earthquakes in the San Francisco Bay Area. This includes modeling moderate (M3.5-5) events to evaluate the United States Geologic Survey's 3D model of regional structure as well as strong motions from the 2014 South Napa earthquake and possible large scenario events. Recently SW4 was built on a Commodity Technology Systems-1 (CTS-1) at LLNL, new systems for capacity computing at the DOE National Labs. We find SW4 scales well and runs faster on these systems compared to the previous generation of LINUX clusters.

  19. Demographic responses of boreal-montane orchid Malaxis monophyllos (L. Sw. populations to contrasting environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Jermakowicz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In an age of changes in species’ geographical ranges, compounded by climatic and anthropogenic impacts, it become important to know which processes and factors influence plant populations and their persistence in the long term. Here we investigated dynamic and fitness components in twelve populations of Malaxis monophyllos (L. Sw., situated in different geographical (regions and ecological (type of habitat units. Although M. monophyllos is a rare species, characterized by highly fragmented, boreal-montane distribution range, in last few decades it successfully colonized secondary habitats in Polish uplands. Our results indicate that M. monophyllos is represented mainly by small populations, which annual spatial and temporal changes might be very high, what affects the ephemeral character of these populations, regardless of the region and type of habitat. This dynamic structure, in turn, is caused by intensive exchange of individuals in populations, as well as by their short above-ground life span. Despite the large range of variation in size and reproductive traits, we can distinguish some regional patterns, which indicate boreal region as the most optimal for M. monophyllos growth and persistence in the long term, and with montane and upland/anthropogenic populations, due to lower reproductive parameters, as the most threatened. Although it should be considered that anthropogenic populations, despite their lower reproductive parameters and instability in the long term, present an intermediate, geographical and ecological character, therefore they may be valuable in shaping, both M. monophyllos’ future range, as well as its potential for response on ongoing and future changes. In general, reproduction is the main factor differentiating of M. monophyllos populations in regions, and we can suspect that it may become the cause of the future differentiation and isolation of these populations, occurring with progressive range fragmentation.

  20. Neogene magmatism and its possible causal relationship with hydrocarbon generation in SW Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, Mónica; Altenberger, Uwe; Romer, Rolf L.

    2009-07-01

    The Cretaceous oil-bearing source and reservoir sedimentary succession in the Putumayo Basin, SW Colombia, was intruded by gabbroic dykes and sills. The petrological and geochemical character of the magmatic rocks shows calc-alkaline tendency, pointing to a subduction-related magmatic event. K/Ar dating of amphibole indicates a Late Miocene to Pliocene age (6.1 ± 0.7 Ma) for the igneous episode in the basin. Therefore, we assume the intrusions to be part of the Andean magmatism of the Northern Volcanic Zone (NVZ). The age of the intrusions has significant tectonic and economic implications because it coincides with two regional events: (1) the late Miocene/Pliocene Andean orogenic uplift of most of the sub-Andean regions in Peru, Ecuador and Colombia and (2) a pulse of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion that has reached the gas window. High La/Yb, K/Nb and La/Nb ratios, and the obtained Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions suggest the involvement of subducted sediments and/or the assimilation of oceanic crust of the subducting slab. We discuss the possibility that magma chamber(s) west of the basin, below the Cordillera, did increase the heat flow in the basin causing generation and expulsion of hydrocarbons and CO2.

  1. Three-Dimensional Shallow Water Adaptive Hydraulics (ADH-SW3): Turbulence Closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    ER D C/ CH L CR -1 5- 1 Three- Dimensional Shallow Water Adaptive Hydraulics (ADH-SW3): Turbulence Closure Co as ta l a nd H yd ra ul ic...library at http://acwc.sdp.sirsi.net/client/default. ERDC/CHL CR-15-1 June 2015 Three- Dimensional Shallow Water Adaptive Hydraulics (ADH-SW3...closure schemes into the three- dimensional shallow water module of the Adaptive Hydraulics (ADH-SW3) numerical code. The report also briefly

  2. Spatial Variations of PAH Properties in M17SW Revealed by Spitzer/IRS Spectral Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, M.; Kaneda, H.; Ishihara, D.; Oyabu, S.; Suzuki, T.; Onaka, T.; Nagayama, T.; Umemoto, T.; Minamidani, T.; Nishimura, A.; Matsuo, M.; Fujita, S.; Tsuda, Y.; Kohno, M.; Ohashi, S.

    2016-12-01

    We present Spitzer/IRS mid-infrared spectral maps of the Galactic star-forming region M17 as well as IRSF/SIRIUS Brγ and Nobeyama 45 m/FOREST 13CO (J = 1-0) maps. The spectra show prominent features due to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at wavelengths of 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.3, 12.0, 12.7, 13.5, and 14.2 μm. We find that the PAH emission features are bright in the region between the H ii region traced by Brγ and the molecular cloud traced by 13CO, supporting that the PAH emission originates mostly from photo-dissociation regions. Based on the spatially resolved Spitzer/IRS maps, we examine spatial variations of the PAH properties in detail. As a result, we find that the interband ratio of PAH 7.7 μm/PAH 11.3 μm varies locally near M17SW, but rather independently of the distance from the OB stars in M17, suggesting that the degree of PAH ionization is mainly controlled by local conditions rather than the global UV environments determined by the OB stars in M17. We also find that the interband ratios of the PAH 12.0 μm, 12.7 μm, 13.5 μm, and 14.2 μm features to the PAH 11.3 μm feature are high near the M17 center, which suggests structural changes of PAHs through processing due to intense UV radiation, producing abundant edgy irregular PAHs near the M17 center.

  3. Late-orogenic vertical movements within the arc of the SW Alps and Ligurian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertotti, G.; Mosca, P.

    2009-09-01

    Mainly on the basis of seismic data, we reconstruct magnitude and timing of Miocene to Present vertical movements in the region of the Savigliano basin, an up to 4 km thick succession of Neogene to Quaternary sediments accumulated inside the Alpine arc at the western termination of the Po Plain. We focus, in particular, on the margins of the basin which are the link between the mountain range and the subsiding basin. Seismic data from these regions allow for the definition of upward and downward vertical movements (uplift-exhumation and subsidence) with a spatial and temporal resolution which cannot be attained by other methods. The eastern, southern and western margins of the Savigliano basin display very different geometries of the sedimentary bodies and, therefore, document different vertical movements during Miocene to Present times. The eastern part of the Savigliano basin, and the regions to the E, experienced subsidence followed by exhumation. The southern margin of the basin, in the Cuneo area, was much more stable with Miocene to present formations all pinching-out close to the present day outcropping position of the basement-sedimentary cover contact. In the W, seismic sections record a stage of tilting until the Burdigalian, followed by generalized subsidence which affected also the adjacent regions of the SW Alps. The overall pattern of vertical movements is essentially controlled by the NW-ward migration of a syncline-anticline couple with the synclinal axis presently located in the center of the Savigliano basin. The width of the folds is in the order of 30-60 km (1/2 wavelength). In map view, the trace of the fold axes changes from N-S in the Savigliano basin to E-W in the Alessandria basin.

  4. The recognition of transient compressional fault slow−slip along the northern shore of Hornsund Fjord, Sw Spitsbergen, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stemberk Josef

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of direct 3−D fault displacement monitoring along the northern shore of Hornsund Fjord, SW Spitsbergen, Svalbard. The fault displacements have been recorded using three permanently installed optical−mechanical crack gauges since 2009. The monitoring data from all three sites provided evidence for a remarkable slip event that lasted from September 2011 to May 2012. The cause is discussed in some detail with consideration given to both exogenic (temperature changes, surface processes and endogenic processes (isostatic rebound and regional seismicity. It is proposed that transient fault slips recorded had a tectonic origin and were caused by approximately W−E oriented compression corresponding to regional compression in the Svalbard area.

  5. Travel time seismic tomography on Reykjanes, SW Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jousset, Philippe; Ágústsson, Kristjan; Blanck, Hanna; Metz, Malte; Franke, Steven; Pàll Hersir, Gylfi; Bruhn, David; Flovenz, Ólafur; Friðleifsson, Guðmundur

    2017-04-01

    We present updated tomographic results obtained using seismic data recorded around geothermal reservoirs located both on-land Reykjanes, SW-Iceland and offshore along Reykjanes Ridge. We gathered records from a network of 234 seismic stations (including 24 Ocean Bottom Seismometers) deployed between April 2014 and August 2015. In order to determine the orientation of the OBS stations, we used Rayleigh waves planar particle motions from large magnitude earthquakes. This method proved suitable using the on-land stations: orientations determined using this method with the orientations measured using a giro-compass agreed. We focus on the 3D velocity images using local earthquakes to perform travel time tomography. The processing includes first arrival picking of P- and S- phases using an automatic detection and picking technique based on Akaike Information Criteria. We locate earthquakes by using a non-linear localization technique, as a priori information for deriving a 1D velocity model. We then computed 3D velocity model by joint inversion of each earthquake's location and velocity lateral anomalies with respect to the 1D model. Our models confirms previous models obtained in the area, with enhanced details. In a second step, we performed inversion of the Vp/Vs ratio. Results indicate a low Vp/Vs ratio anomaly at depth suggesting the absence of large magmatic body under Reykjanes, unlike results obtained at other geothermal field, sucha as Krafla and Hengill. We discuss implications of those results in the light of recent IDDP drilling in Reykjanes.

  6. Palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of Hüsamlar coal seam, SW Turkey

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zeynep Büçkün; HüLya İnaner; Riza Görkem Oskay; Kimon Christanis

    2015-06-01

    The Ören and Yatağan Basins in SW Turkey host several Miocene coal deposits currently under exploitation for power generation. The present study aims to provide insight into the palaeoenvironmental conditions, which controlled the formation of the Hüsamlar coal seam located in Ören Basin. The coal seam displays many sharp alternations of matrix lignite beds and inorganic, lacustrine sediment layers. The coal is a medium-to-high ash lignite (10.47–31.16 wt%, on dry basis) with high total sulphur content (up to 10 wt%, on dry, ash-free basis), which makes it prone to self-combustion. The maceral composition indicates that the peat-forming vegetation consisted of both arboreal and herbaceous plants, with the latter being predominant in the upper part of the seam. Mica and feldspars contribute to the low part of the seam; carbonates are dominant in the upper part, whereas quartz and pyrite are present along the entire coal profile. The sudden transitions of the telmatic to the lacustrine regime and reverse is attributed to tectonic movements that controlled water table levels in the palaeomire, which affected surface runoff and hence, clastic deposition.

  7. ROLE OF PANCREATIC STELLATE CELLS AND GALECTIN-3 ON PROLIFERATION AND INFILTRATION OF HUMAN PANCREATIC CANCER CELL LINE SW1990

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Hai-biao; XU Ming; WANG Xing-peng

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) and galectin-3 (GAL-3)on the proliferation and infiltration of pancreatic cancer cell line SW1990. Methods Human pancreatic cancercell line SW1990 and PSCs were cultured in vitro. Supernatant of cultured PSCs and SW1990 cells was collected.Expressions of GAL-3 in SW1990 cells and PSCs were detected by ELISA, RT-PCR and Western blot. Theproliferation of those cultured PSCs and SW1990 cells were measured by MTT assay and flowcytometry. Infiltrationof SW1990 cells was detected by cell infiltration kit. Results SW1990 cells expressed GAL-3 and the expressionwas up-regulated by the supernatant fluid of cultured PSCs. PSCs did not express GAL-3. SW1990 cells couldstimulate the proliferation of PSCs via GAL-3. GAL-3 antibody could inhibit SW1990 cells proliferation andinfiltration, which indicated that supernatant of PSCs might stimulate the proliferation of SW1990 cells through theinteraction with GAL-3 protein. The supernatant fluid of PSCs could enhance the invasiveness of SW1990 cellsthrough the interaction with GAL-3. Conclusion GAL-3 and PSCs was involved in the proliferation andinfiltration process of pancreatic cancer.

  8. Upper crust response to geodynamic processes beneath Isparta Angle, SW Turkey: Revealed by CMT solutions of earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Över, Semir; Özden, Süha; Kamacı, Züheyr; Yılmaz, Hüseyin; Ünlügenç, Ulvi Can; Pınar, Ali

    2016-09-01

    The Isparta Angle is an important area of SW Anatolia where extensions in all directions (N-S, NE-SW, NW-SE and E-W) meet. These extensions were determined by normal faulting structures as well as by shallow earthquakes. All extensions, except the E-W one, were attributed to the deviatoric stresses in relation to slab forces and/or extrusion of Anatolia. The moment tensor inversion of 40 shallow earthquakes which occurred in the inner part of the Isparta Angle give focal mechanisms mostly indicating normal faulting. Inversion of all focal mechanisms of the earthquakes obtained from the moment tensor inversion yields normal faulting characterized by an approximately E-W (N268°E) σ3 axis. The calculated stress ratio R is 0.6944 indicating a triaxial stress state. Commonly accepted geodynamic models for the eastern Mediterranean region do not include plate boundary forces acting in the east or west direction. Our hypothesis is that the cause of the E-W extension is the combined forces of Gravitational Potential Energy and the hot asthenosphere upwelling through a tear fault in the subducted African plate between the Hellenic and Cyprus arcs beneath the Isparta Angle.

  9. Study on Invasion of Artesunate on Inhibiting Human Colon Cancer Cell SW620

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Fan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the invasive effect of Chinese extraction artesunate on human colon cancer cell SW620 and explore its possible mechanisms. Methods: Colon cancer cell SW620 was managed by different concentrations of artesunate, and soft agar colony-cultivating trial was applied to detect anchorage independent proliferation of cancer cells, Boyden chamber model method to detect the invasive capability of cancer cells and Western blot method to detect the change of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 proteins. Results: Artesunate can effectively inhibit malignant proliferation and invasive capability of colon cancer cell SW620, and was dose-dependent (P < 0.01. Artesunate can effectively inhibit the expression of cancer cell ICAM-1 gene proteins, and was time- and concentration-dependant (P <0.01. Conclusion: Artesunate can significantly inhibit the invasion of colon cancer cell SW620, which can be related to down-regulation of ICAM-1 protein level.

  10. Study on Invasion of Artesunate on Inhibiting Human Colon Cancer Cell SW620

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Yu; Zhang Youli; Yao Guangtao; Li Yikui

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To observe the invasive effect of Chinese extraction artesunate on human colon cancer cell SW620 and explore its possible mechanisms. Methods:Colon cancer cell SW620 was managed by different concentrations of artesunate, and soft agar colony-cultivating trial was applied to detect anchorage independent proliferation of cancer cells, Boyden chamber model method to detect the invasive capability of cancer cells and Western blot method to detect the change of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) proteins. Results:Artesunate can effectively inhibit malignant proliferation and invasive capability of colon cancer cell SW620, and was dose-dependent (P Conclusion:Artesunate can signiifcantly inhibit the invasion of colon cancer cell SW620, which can be related to down-regulation of ICAM-1 protein level.

  11. Amphibians and agrochemicals: Dermal contact and pesticide uptake from irrigated croplands in SW Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods Although isolated wetlands comprise a significant portion of amphibian breeding habitats throughout the United States, they are not protected under the Clean Water Act. In SW Georgia where agriculture is dominant within the landscape, many isolated ...

  12. Production of uracil from methane by a newly isolated Methylomonas sp. SW1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangwoo; Lee, Wangjun; Song, Insu; Kwon, Yuhyun; Yun, Seokhun; Park, Soohyun; Cho, Sukhyeong; Oh, Byung-Keun; Oh, Han Bin; Lee, Jinwon

    2016-12-20

    Methane is an abundant, inexpensive one-carbon feedstock and one of the most powerful greenhouse gases. Because it does not compete with food demand, it is considered a promising carbon feedstock for the production of valuable products using methanotrophic bacteria. Here, we isolated a novel methanotrophic bacterium, Methylomonas sp. SW1, from a sewage sample obtained from Wonju City Water Supply Drainage Center, Republic of Korea. The conditions for uracil production by Methylomonas sp. SW1, such as Cu(2+) concentration and temperature were investigated and optimized. As a result, Methylomonas sp. SW1 produced uracil from methane as a sole carbon source with a titer of 2.1mg/L in 84h without genetic engineering under the optimized condition. The results in this study demonstrate the feasibility of using Methylomonas sp. SW1 for the production of uracil from methane. This is the first report of uracil production from gas feedstock by methanotrophic bacteria.

  13. The Importance of Interfaces: A HW/SW Codesign Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dan C. Raun; Madsen, Jan; Pedersen, Steen

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a codesign case study in image analysis. The main objective is to stress the importance of handling HW/SW interfaces more precisely at the system level. In the presented case study, there is an intuitive and simple HW/SW interface, which is based upon the functional modules in...... in the application. However, it is found that this seemingly sound choice caused a number of practical problems and sub-optimal solutions during the implementation of the prototype system....

  14. TRATAMENTOS PRÉ-GERMINATIVOS EM SEMENTES DE Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L. Sw. - LEGUMINOSAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCICLÉIA MENDES DE OLIVEIRA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L. Sw. is an exotic species of Leguminoseae commonly known as flamboyant-mirim, and largely used for unban arborization. The objective of this study was to evaluate methods for overcome dormancy of seeds of flamboyant mirim. The work was developed at the Laboratory of Seed Analysis and green house of Centro de Ciências Agrárias at Universidade Federal da Paraíba, campus II, Areia, PB. The experimental procedure used was completely randomized with 14 treatments (control (intact seeds (T1; scarification with sandpaper opposite number 80 in the region to hilum soaking in water for 0; 12; 24; 36 and 48 h (T2, T3, T4, T5 e T6 at 30 ºC; immersion in hot water at temperatures 70 and 80 °C (T7 and T8; sulfuric acid scarification by immersion 5; 10; 15; 20; 25 and 30 minutes(T9, T10, T11, T12, T13 e T14 and four repetitions. The variable obtained were percentage emergency, first count emergency and emergency speed index (IVE. Daily count of the seedlings was carried out during 25 days. The seeds immerged in sulfuric acid for 30 minutes presented smaller of seedlings emergency. The mechanical scarification of the seed tegument followed by immersion in water for 12 and 24 h are the most effective method for to overcome dormancy of seeds of flamboyant.

  15. Basement nappes on the NE boundary the Ossa-Morena Zone (SW Iberian Variscides)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romao, Jose Manuel; Ribeiro, Antonio; Munha, Jose; Ribeiro, Luisa

    2010-05-01

    The studied area is located in the Abrantes (W-central Portugal) region of the Ossa Morena Zone, where the NW tip of the Tomar-Badajoz-Cordoba Shear Zone (TBCSZ) stops against the Porto-Tomar-Ferreira do Alentejo Shear Zone (PTFASZ). The TBCSZ is a WNW-ESE sinistral transpressive intra-plate Variscan flower structure, whereas the PTFASZ is N-S dextral paleotransform during the Variscan Wilson cycle in SW Iberia. The NE branch of the TBCSZ, with top to NE sense of thrusting, is characterized by the following tectonic units, from top to bottom: - Paleozoic cover: Bimodal volcanics, marbles and arkoses, metamorphosed under greenschist facies (and displaying a minor thrust at the base), inferred to be of Lower Paleozoic age by stratigraphic correlation with other sectors dated as Cambrian to Silurian in the Ossa Morena Zone. - Cadomian intermediate crust: low/intermediate pressure (~ 4 - 7 kb) retrograded granulites, including a mafic (meta-gabbroic) component that yielded metamorphic zircons dated at 539±3 Ma (Henriques et al., 2009). - Cadomian upper crust: granitic gneisses, yielding prismatic, oscillatory-zoned, igneous zircons dated at 570 Ma, and 540±5 Ma metamorphic monazites (Henriques et al., 2009). - Cadomian volcano-sedimentary sequences: Greenschist facies black phyllites and greywackes, intercalated with black chert beds and bimodal metavolcanics ("Série Negra"), which are correlated with the Neoproterozoic sequences of the Ibero-Armorican Massif. All the tectonic units are separated by top to NE thrusts, operating under ductile conditions in the upper units and under a brittle regime in the lower units; thus, inverting the inherited Cadomian crust below the basal décollement of Palaeozoic cover. The tectonic units belong to the Ossa-Morena Zone and were transported towards NE, on top of the (very low-grade) Central-Iberian Zone relative autochthon (Ediacarian/Cambrian to Lower Devonian). The amount of the NE thrust displacement in the granulite

  16. Tamarugite from Diana Cave (SW Romania) -first true karst occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pušcaš, C. M.; Onac, B. P.; Effenberger, H. S.; Povarǎ, I.

    2012-04-01

    Diana Cave is located within the town limits of Baile Herculane (SW Romania) and develops as a 14 m long, westward oriented, unique passage guided by the Diana fault [1]. At the far end of the cave, the thermo-mineral Diana Spring wells forth. In the early 1970s a mine gallery that intersected the cave was created to drain the water into a pumping station and the original cave passage was somewhat altered and reinforced with concrete. Today the concrete and the silty limestone cave walls are heavily corroded by H2SO4 outgassing from the hot water (ca. 50°C) and display abundant gypsum crusts, soggy aggregates of native S, and a variety of more exotic sulfates. Among them, a mineral that has been previously identified in caves only in connection to volcanic activity, either as thermal springs or fumaroles [2]: tamarugite [NaAl(SO4)26H2O]. It was [3] that first mentioned the occurrence of this Na and Al sulfate in Diana Cave, our research aiming to give a detailed description of this mineral, its paragenesis, and mechanisms of precipitation. Recently, tamarugite has also been identified in a sulfuric acid cave from Greece [4]. Along with powder X-ray diffractions coupled with Rietveld refinement, scanning electron microscope, and electron probe micro-analysis, δ18O and δ34S compositions of the sulfate mineral as well as precipitates from the water were analyzed to identify and better constrain the genesis of this rare sulfate. Regrettably, the crystal size of our specimens is inappropriate for identification by means of single crystal X-ray diffraction. Physical and chemical parameters of Diana Spring were as well measured on several occasions. Geochemical analysis suggests that the minute, white tamarugite flakes precipitated in Diana Cave as a result of the interactions between the thermo-mineral water or water vapor and the original limestone bedrock and concrete that blankets the mine gallery. [1] Povara, I., Diaconu, G., Goran, C. (1972). Observations pr

  17. Sea urchins, their predators and prey in SW Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Mamede

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea urchins play a key role structuring benthic communities of rocky shores through an intense herbivory. The most abundant sea urchin species on shallow rocky subtidal habitats of the SW coast of Portugal is Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea. It is considered a key species in various locations throughout its geographical distribution by affecting the structure of macroalgae communities and may cause the abrupt transformation of habitats dominated by foliose algae to habitats dominated by encrusting algae - the urchin barrens. The removal of P. lividus predators by recreational and commercial fishing is considered a major cause of this phenomenon by affecting the trophic relationships between predators, sea urchins and algae communities. Marine protected areas (MPAs usually lead to the recovery of important predator species that control sea urchin populations and restore habitats dominated by foliose macroalgae. Therefore, MPAs provide a good opportunity to test cascading effects and indirect impacts of fishing at the ecosystem level. The ecological role of P. lividus was studied on rocky subtidal habitats of the SW coast of Portugal (Alentejo considering three trophic levels: population of P. lividus, their predators (fish and shellfish and their prey (macroalgae communities. Several studies were conducted: (1 a non-destructive observational study on the abundance and distribution patterns of P. lividus, their predators and preys, comparing areas with different protection; (2 a manipulative in situ study with cages to assess the role of P. lividus as an herbivore and the influence of predation; (3 a descriptive study of P. lividus predators based on underwater filming; (4 and a study of human perception on these trophic relationships and other issues on sea urchin ecology and fishery, based on surveys made to fishermen and divers. Subtidal studies were performed with SCUBA diving at 3-12 m deep. Results indicate that in the

  18. Paleoclimatic records from holocene speleothems of SW Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, A.; Claude, C.; Stenni, B.

    2003-04-01

    Here we report the first results of a paleoclimatic study using O- and U-Th isotopes on a stalactite from the Tchivinguiro cave (Chela Formation, SW Angola). TIMS U-Th age determinations on 10 fragments were carried-out. The stalactite rim returned an age of 4930+/-50 y, dating an interruption of calcite deposition, possibly due to the onset of a drier period. Layering in the stalactite has an average thickness of 6.4 mm. Assuming that the layers are annual, the stalactite potentially records environmental conditions from 5 to 18 ka. Further age determinations are in progress. A δ18O profile on individual layers corresponding to a time interval of 25 y centred at 6.6 ka was obtained with an ionprobe Cameca IMS 1270 in Nancy. δ18O ranges from +24.5 to +29.1 (SMOW) with an average δ18O = +26.8. The average calculated δ18O of the water from which the speleothems deposited is -3.3 assuming today annual mean temperature of the cave (18.4^oC). The measured δ18O of today water in the cave is -5.5, similar to the annual mean of the rain collected in the area during this study. To explain the difference of -2.2 δ18O units, a cooler period during calcite deposition is invoked. Assuming 13^oC as a minimum local temperature (at LGM), the δ18O of the water in equilibrium with the stalactite is -4.6. A combination of changes in moisture sources, trajectory path and local effects may explain the lighter value of the water in the cave at 6.6 ka relative to today.

  19. Stratigraphy of the Krš Gradac section (SW Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoičić Rajka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Krš Gradac section (near to Sjenica, SW Serbia, a transition of a carbonate platform to basin facies are outcropped: Norian-lower Liassic shallow-water carbonates, middle Liassic-lower Dogger Ammonitico Rosso facies, and upper Bathonian into lowermost Cretaceous deep-water radiolarites in which the carbonate graded bed and mass flow layer are intercalated. The presence of a lower Dogger condensed sequence with the Bajocian protoglobigerinid event was hitherto not evidenced. It is documented that components of a graded bed are of extrabasinal (upper Triassic-lower Tithonian carbonate platform sediments and intrabasinal (radiolarite, meta-andesite origin, indicating a tectonic event not older than the early Tithonian. This tectonic event caused the fracturing of the carbonate platform, also partly basinal area. Consequently, the age of the graded bed is not older than the lower Tithonian. In the uppermost radiolaritic sediments in the Krš Gradac section (?middle-upper Tithonian-lowermost Cretaceous, a mass flow layer appears, which contains clasts of intrabasinal origin - different radiolarites, siliceous radiolarian argillites (some of which are unconsolidated with washed radiolarians and sponge spicules in a ferruginous sediment, sandstone grains, etc. The mass flow event is estimated as Berriasian. In the Krš Gradac radiolarite succession, the authors recognized two deep-water formations, an older one, upper Bathonian-lower Tithonian, between hardground (Dogger and a graded bed, and a younger formation, which started with a graded bed. This formation, according to its stratigraphic position, corresponds to ?middle-upper Tithonian-lowermost Cretaceous.

  20. Determination of Teloschistes flavicans (sw norm anti-inflammatory activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênia C Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lichens produce a variety of substances that possesses pharmacological actions. However, rare products are submitted to rigorous scientific tests or have the risk potential or side effects evaluated. The lack of medical and sanitary control, absence of accurate botanical identification or purity certification, founded in diverse natural products, may represent great danger to population health. This work aimed to evaluate toxic effects and anti-inflammatory action in vivo of Teloschistes flavicans (Sw. Norm. (TFN unrefined extracts, as well as determinate its main constituents. Methods: The carrageenan induced paw edema and cotton pellet implant induced granuloma methods were utilized, besides a classic acute toxicity test. TFN acetone extract inhibited carrageenan paw edema on 60, 120, and 180 min (inhibition percentiles of 45.03%, 60.59% and 41.72%. Results: TFN ethereal (inhibition percentiles of 23.95% and 29.01% and chloroform (inhibition percentiles of 28.8% and 22.04% extracts inhibited edema on 120 and 180 min. None of the extract inhibited the granuloma development. None of the extract caused death or other acute toxicity signs. Vicanicine (60.26% in ethereal extract and 51.17% in acetone extract, parietine (9.60% in ethereal extract and 15.38% on second, falacinol (0.78% in ether and 14.95% in acetone and very low concentration of falacinal (0.15% in ethereal extract and 3.32% in acetone extract were detected in the medicine. Conclusions: The tested extracts have antiedematogenic activity, but are not effective on subchronic inflammation. The extracts do not present toxic effects in administered doses.

  1. Neotectonics of the SW Iberia margin, Gulf of Cadiz and Alboran Sea: a reassessment including recent structural, seismic and geodetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, T. A.; Matias, L. M.; Terrinha, P.; Negredo, A. M.; Rosas, F.; Fernandes, R. M. S.; Pinheiro, L. M.

    2012-03-01

    We use a thin-shell approximation for the lithosphere to model the neotectonics of the Gulf of Cadiz, SW Iberia margin and the westernmost Mediterranean, in the eastern segment of the Azores-Gibraltar plate boundary. In relation to previous neotectonic models in the region, we utilize a better constrained structural map offshore, and the recent GPS measurements over NW Africa and Iberia have been taken into account, together with the seismic strain rate and stress data, to evaluate alternative geodynamic settings proposed for the region. We show that by assuming a relatively simple, two-plate tectonic framework, where Nubia and Eurasia converge NW-SE to WNW-ESE at a rate of 4.5-6 mm yr-1, the models correctly predict the amount of shortening and wrenching between northern Algeria-Morocco and southern Spain and between NW Morocco and SW Iberia, as estimated from both GPS data and geological constraints. The consistency between modelled and observed velocities in the vicinity of Gibraltar and NW Morocco indicates that forcing by slab sinking beneath Gibraltar is not required to reproduce current horizontal deformation in these areas. In the Gulf of Cadiz and SW Iberia, the modelling results support a diffuse Nubia-Eurasia Plate boundary, where the convergence is accommodated along NNE-SSW to NE-SW and ENE-WSW thrust faults and WNW-ESE right-lateral strike-slip faults, over an area >200 km wide, in good general agreement with the distribution of the seismic strain rate and associated faulting mechanisms. The modelling results are robust to regional uncertainties in the structure of the lithosphere and have important implications for the earthquake and tsunami hazard of Portugal, SW Spain and Morocco. We predict maximum, long-term average fault slip rates between 1-2 mm yr-1, that is, less than 50 per cent the average plate relative movement, suggesting very long return periods for high-magnitude (Mw > 8) earthquakes on individual structures.

  2. Diversity and aboveground biomass of lianas in the tropical seasonal rain forests of Xishuangbanna, SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Xiao-Tao; Tang, Jian-Wei; Feng, Zhi-Li; Li, Mai-He

    2009-01-01

    Lianas are important components of tropical forests and have significant impacts on the diversity, structure and dynamics of tropical forests. The present study documented the liana flora in a Chinese tropical region. Species richness, abundance, size-class distribution and spatial patterns of lianas were investigated in three 1-ha plots in tropical seasonal rain forests in Xishuangbanna, SW China. All lianas with > or = 2 cm diameter at breast height (dbh) were measured, tagged and identified. A total of 458 liana stems belonging to 95 species (ranging from 38 to 50 species/ha), 59 genera and 32 families were recorded in the three plots. The most well-represented families were Loganiaceae, Annonceae, Papilionaceae, Apocynaceae and Rhamnaceae. Papilionaceae (14 species recorded) was the most important family in the study forests. The population density, basal area and importance value index (IVI) varied greatly across the three plots. Strychnos cathayensis, Byttneria grandifolia and Bousigonia mekongensis were the dominant species in terms of IVI across the three plots. The mean aboveground biomass of lianas (3 396 kg/ha) accounted for 1.4% of the total community above-ground biomass. The abundance, diversity and biomass of lianas in Xishuangbanna tropical seasonal rain forests are lower than those in tropical moist and wet forests, but higher than those in tropical dry forests. This study provides new data on lianas from a geographical region that has been little-studied. Our findings emphasize that other factors beyond the amount and seasonality of precipitation should be included when considering the liana abundance patterns across scales.

  3. Aerosol radiative effect in UV, VIS, NIR, and SW spectra under haze and high-humidity urban conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Ma, Yingying; Gong, Wei; Wang, Lunche; Xia, Xiangao; Che, Huizheng; Hu, Bo; Liu, Boming

    2017-10-01

    Aerosol properties derived from sun-photometric observations at Wuhan during a haze period were analyzed and used as input in a radiative transfer model to calculate the aerosol radiative effect (ARE) in ultraviolet (UV), visible (VIS), near-infrared (NIR), and shortwave (SW) spectra. The results showed that the aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 440 nm increased from 0.32 under clear-air conditions to 0.85 during common haze and 1.39 during severe haze. An unusual inverse relationship was found between the Ångström exponent (AE) and AOD during the haze period at Wuhan. Under high-humidity conditions, the fine-mode median radius of aerosols increased from 0.113 μm to approximately 0.2-0.5 μm as a result of hygroscopic growth, which led to increases in the AOD and decreases in the AE simultaneously. These changes were responsible for the inverse relationship between AE and AOD at Wuhan. The surface ARE in the UV (AREUV), VIS (AREVIS), NIR (ARENIR), and SW (ARESW) spectra changed from -4.46, -25.37, -12.15, and -41.99 W/m2 under clear-air conditions to -9.48, -53.96, -29.81, and -93.25 W/m2 during common hazy days and -12.89, -80.16, -55.17, and -148.22 W/m2 during severe hazy days, respectively, and the percentages of AREUV, AREVIS, and ARENIR in ARESW changed from 11%, 61%, and 28%-9%, 54%, and 37%, respectively. Meanwhile, the ARE efficiencies (REE) in SW varied from -206.5 W/m2 under clear-air conditions to -152.94 W/m2 during the common haze period and -131.47 W/m2 during the severe haze period. The smallest decreasing rate of the REE in NIR was associated with the increase of ARENIR. The weakened REE values were related to the strong forward scattering and weak backward scattering of fine aerosol particles with increasing size resulting from hygroscopic growth, while the variation of the single scattering albedo showed less impact. Source region analysis by back trajectories and the concentration weighted trajectory (CWT) method showed that black carbon came

  4. Isolation of Side Population Cells and Detection of ABCG2 from SW480

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hai-guang; PAN Yi-fei; GUO Gui-long; HU Xiao-qu; HUANG Ka-te; ZHANG Xiao-hua

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Side population cells (SP cells) are a new type of stem cells. They mainly express ABCG2/BCRP1 and have the ability to eliminate DNA dye Hoechst33342. Many studies showed that side population cells were able of self-renewal, differentiation and carcinogenesis in cancers. Our investigation aimed at isolation of side population cells and ABCG2 positive subpopulation from colon cancer cell line SW480 and identification of their characteristics of cancer stem cells. Methods: side population cells and non-side population cells of colon cancer cell line SW480 were isolated with DNA dye Hoechst33342 and their cell cycles were measured by flow cytometry. Expression of ABCG2 of SW480 was measured by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence, and its proportion was measured by flow cytometry. Results: SW480 contained 2.29% side population cells. The fraction of side population cells decreased greatly to 0.40% by treatment with verapamil. The fraction of side population cells in S-G2M cell cycle was 16.14%, which was much lower than the fraction (34.05%) of non-side population cells in S-G2M. In SW480, ABCG2 positive cells, which proportion was 9.66%, were small, circular or oval, lack of psuedopods, similar to poor differentiation. On the contrary, the ABCG2 negative cells were large, polygonal, with many psuedopods, similar to high differentiation. Conclusion: our assay identified that side population cells did exist in SW480 and had a quiescence characteristic of stem cells. ABCG2 positive subpopulation occupied about 9.66% of SW480 and may have the ability to promote cell self-renewal and inhibit cell differentiation. Therefore, to isolate ABCG2 positive subpopulation from side population cells may be an alternative to study colorectal cancer stem cells.

  5. Geochemical evolution of lithospheric mantle underlying Intrasudetic Fault (SW Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćwiek, Mateusz; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena; Puziewicz, Jacek; Ntaflos, Theodoros

    2015-04-01

    The Pilchowice basanite (SW Poland) forms volcanic plug located exactly on Intrasudetic Fault, which is one of the major tectonic lines in northern part of the Bohemian Massif. It originated during the formation of Variscan Orogen and marks the contact between two different crustal domains. The basanite is rhönite-bearing (Ladenberger et al., 2005. Min.Pol-Spec. Pap.) and contains small (JoP), which is in an opposition to modal content of clinopyroxene (0-4.1 vol.%). This suggests, that clinopyroxene is a "stealth" metasomatic phase (O'Reillly and Griffin, 2013, Springer). As trace element composition of clinopyroxene shows features typical for reaction with alkaline silicate melt (negative inflection at the most incompatible trace elements) and carbonatite (Ti, Zr, Hf anomalies), we suggest that majority of xenoliths were metasomatized by the an agent being a carbonatite-silicate melt or by CO2-bearing alkaline silicate melt. Xenolith where clinopyroxene shows constant enrichment in LREE may represent a part of mantle affected by pure carbonatitic metasomatism. Xenoliths with the lowest Fo content in olivine are probably cumulates of mafic silicate melt. Intergranular aggregates originated during reaction between primary phases and infiltrating, possibly mafic melt. The "glassy patch" might be a product of complete breakdown of amphibole in upper mantle conditions (Shaw, 2009, Lithos). However, presence of rhönite in host basanite suggests that some amphibole might have been broken also in lower pressures. Chemical composition of peridotites from Pilchowice resembles that recorded by group A mantle xenoliths from Krzeniów (Matusiak-Małek et al., 2014, JoP). In Pilchowice we have described the first xenolith affected by purely carbonatitic metasomatism. We also suggest that hydrous phases might have been present in upper mantle beneath this Pilchowice, which is believed to be nominally anhydrous (Puziewicz et al., 2015, IJES, DOI 10.1007/s00531

  6. SW-MW infrared spectrometer for lunar mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Arup; Biswas, Amiya; Joshi, Shaunak; Kumar, Ankush; Rehman, Sami; Sharma, Satish; Somani, Sandip; Bhati, Sunil; Karelia, Jitendra; Saxena, Anish; Chowdhury, Arup R.

    2016-04-01

    SW-MW Imaging Infrared Spectrometer, the Hyperspectral optical imaging instrument is envisaged to map geomorphology and mineralogy of lunar surface. The instrument is designed to image the electro-magnetic energy emanating from moon's surface with high spectral and spatial resolution for the mission duration from an altitude of 100 km. It is designed to cover 0.8 to 5 μm in 250 spectral bands with GSD 80m and swath 20km. Primarily, there are three basic optical segments in the spectrometer. They are fore optics, dispersing element and focusing elements. The payload is designed around a custom developed multi-blaze convex grating optimized for system throughput. The considerations for optimization are lunar radiation, instrument background, optical throughput, and detector sensitivity. HgCdTe (cooled using a rotary stirling cooler) based detector array (500x256 elements, 30μm) is being custom developed for the spectrometer. Stray light background flux is minimized using a multi-band filter cooled to cryogenic temperature. Mechanical system realization is being performed considering requirements such as structural, opto-mechanical, thermal, and alignment. The entire EOM is planned to be maintained at 240K to reduce and control instrument background. Al based mirror, grating, and EOM housing is being developed to maintain structural requirements along with opto- mechanical and thermal. Multi-tier radiative isolation and multi-stage radiative cooling approach is selected for maintaining the EOM temperature. EOM along with precision electronics packages are planned to be placed on the outer and inner side of Anti-sun side (ASS) deck. Power and Cooler drive electronics packages are planned to be placed on bottom side of ASS panel. Cooler drive electronics is being custom developed to maintain the detector temperature within 100mK during the imaging phase. Low noise detector electronics development is critical for maintaining the NETD requirements at different target

  7. K-Ar age and geochemistry of the SW Japan Paleogene cauldron cluster: Implications for Eocene-Oligocene thermo-tectonic reactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaoka, T.; Kiminami, K.; Nishida, K.; Takemoto, M.; Ikawa, T.; Itaya, T.; Kagami, H.; Iizumi, S.

    2011-01-01

    Systematic K-Ar dating and geochemical analyses of Paleogene cauldrons in the Sanin Belt of SW Japan have been made to explore the relationship between the timing of their formation and the Paleogene subduction history of SW Japan documented in the Shimanto accretionary complex. We also examine the magma sources and tectonics beneath the backarc region of SW Japan at the eastern plate boundary of Eurasia. Fifty-eight new K-Ar ages and 19 previously reported radiometric age data show that the cauldrons formed during Middle Eocene to Early Oligocene time (43-30 Ma), following a period of magmatic hiatus from 52 to 43 Ma. The hiatus coincides with absence of an accretionary prism in the Shimanto Belt. Resumption of the magmatism that formed the cauldron cluster in the backarc was concurrent with voluminous influx of terrigenous detritus to the trench, as a common tectono-thermal event within a subduction system. The cauldrons are composed of medium-K calc-alkaline basalts to rhyolites and their plutonic equivalents. These rocks are characterized by lower concentrations of large ion lithophile elements (LILE) including K 2O, Ba, Rb, Th, U and Li, lower (La/Yb) n ratios, lower initial Sr isotopic ratios (0.7037-0.7052) and higher ɛNd( T) values (-0.5 to +3.5) relative to Late Cretaceous to Early Paleogene equivalents. There are clear trends from enriched to depleted signatures with decreasing age, from the Late Cretaceous to the Paleogene. The same isotopic shift is also confirmed in lower crust-derived xenoliths, and is interpreted as mobilization of pre-existing enriched lithospheric mantle by upwelling depleted asthenosphere. Relatively elevated geothermal gradients are presumed to have prevailed over wide areas of the backarc and forearc of the SW Japan arc-trench system during the Eocene to Oligocene. Newly identified Late Eocene low silica adakites and high-Mg andesites in the Sanin Belt and Early Eocene A-type granites in the SW Korea Peninsula probably formed

  8. [Effect of HIF-1α Gene Silence on Biological Characteristics of Human Colon Cancer Cells SW480].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Hao, Lang-song; Shi, Jia; Huang, Jian

    2015-07-01

    To investigate changes in proliferation and apoptosis of human colon cancer SW480 cells after silencing hypoxia inducible factor-lα (HIF-1α) expression. siRNA interference technology was performed to silence the expression of HIF-1α using lipofectamine mediation to transfect siRNA into human colon cancer SW480 cells. The siRNA interfered SW480 cells were compared with a negative control group, an empty vector group, and a blank control group. Real-time PCR and Western blot were used to measure the expressions of HIF-lα protein and mRNA. MTT and flow cytometry (FCM) were used to evaluate the apoptosis and proliferation of SW480 cells. The interfered SW480 cells had a higher level of silence of HIF-lα mRNA (> 80%) compared with those of in the three control groups (P silencing promotes apoptosis and inhibits the proliferation of SW480 cells in vitro.

  9. Antitumor bioactivity of adenovirus-mediated p27mt in colorectal cancer cell line SW480

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ze-Qun sun; Chang-Sheng Deng; Shao-Yong Xu; Yong Du

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To explore the antitumor bioactivity of adenovirus-mediated mutant type p27kip1 gene in a colorectal cancer cell line SW480.METHODS: We constructed recombinant adenovirus vector expressing a mutant type p27kip1 gene (ad-p27mt), with mutation of Thr-187/Pro-188 (ACGCCC) to Met-187/Ile-188 (ATGATC), and transduced into SW480 cells. Then we detected expression of p27, Bcl-2 and Bax protein in the transductants by Western blotting, cell cycle of transductants by a digital flow cytometric system, migrating potential with Boyden Chamber end SW480 tumor cell growth inhibition in vitro and in vivo.RESULTS: We found that a recombinant adenovirus vector of expressing ad-p27mt, with mutation of Thr-187/Pro-188 (ACGCCC) to Met-187/Ile-188 (ATGATC) has potent inhibition of SW480 tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, ed-p27mt induced cell apoptosis via regulating bax and bcl-2 expressions, and G1/S arrest in SW480 cells and inhibited celt migration.CONCLUSION: ad-p27mt has a strong anti-tumor bioactivity and has the potential to develop into new therapeutic agents for colorectal cancer.

  10. On The Accretion Rates of SW Sextantis Nova-Like Variables

    CERN Document Server

    Ballouz, Ronald-Louis

    2009-01-01

    We present accretion rates for selected samples of nova-like variables having IUE archival spectra and distances uniformly determined using an infrared method by Knigge (2006). A comparison with accretion rates derived independently with a multi-parametric optimization modeling approach by Puebla et al.(2007) is carried out. The accretion rates of SW Sextantis nova-like systems are compared with the accretion rates of non-SW Sextantis systems in the Puebla et al. sample and in our sample, which was selected in the orbital period range of three to four and a half hours, with all systems having distances using the method of Knigge (2006). Based upon the two independent modeling approaches, we find no significant difference between the accretion rates of SW Sextantis systems and non-SW Sextantis nova-like systems insofar as optically thick disk models are appropriate. We find little evidence to suggest that the SW Sex stars have higher accretion rates than other nova-like CVs above the period gap within the same...

  11. Diversity and aboveground biomass of lianas in the tropical seasonal rain forests of Xishuangbanna, SW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Tao Lü

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Lianas are important components of tropical forests and have significant impacts on the diversity, structure and dynamics of tropical forests. The present study documented the liana flora in a Chinese tropical region. Species richness, abundance, size-class distribution and spatial patterns of lianas were investigated in three 1-ha plots in tropical seasonal rain forests in Xishuangbanna, SW China. All lianas with = 2 cm diameter at breast height (dbh were measured, tagged and identified. A total of 458 liana stems belonging to 95 species (ranging from 38 to 50 species/ha, 59 genera and 32 families were recorded in the three plots. The most well-represented families were Loganiaceae, Annonceae, Papilionaceae, Apocynaceae and Rhamnaceae. Papilionaceae (14 species recorded was the most important family in the study forests. The population density, basal area and importance value index (IVI varied greatly across the three plots. Strychnos cathayensis, Byttneria grandifolia and Bousigonia mekongensis were the dominant species in terms of IVI across the three plots. The mean aboveground biomass of lianas (3 396 kg/ha accounted for 1.4% of the total community aboveground biomass. The abundance, diversity and biomass of lianas in Xishuangbanna tropical seasonal rain forests are lower than those in tropical moist and wet forests, but higher than those in tropical dry forests. This study provides new data on lianas from a geographical region that has been little-studied. Our findings emphasize that other factors beyond the amount and seasonality of precipitation should be included when considering the liana abundance patterns across scales. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (1-2: 211-222. Epub 2009 June 30.Las lianas son componentes importantes de los bosques tropicales y tienen importantes impactos en la diversidad, la estructura y la dinámica de los bosques tropicales. El presente estudio documenta la flora de lianas en una región tropical estacional china. La

  12. District Energy Corporation SW 40th Street Thermal Energy Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davlin, Thomas [District Energy Corporation, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2014-06-06

    The overall deliverable from the project is the design, construction and commissioning of a detention facility heating and cooling system that minimizes ownership costs and maximizes efficiency (and therefore minimizes environmental impact). The primary deliverables were the proof of concept for the application of geothermal systems for an institutional facility and the ongoing, quarterly system operating data downloads to the Department of Energy . The primary advantage of geothermal based heat pump systems is the higher efficiency of the system compared to a conventional chiller, boiler, cooling tower based system. The higher efficiency results in a smaller environmental foot print and lower energy costs for the detention facility owner, Lancaster County. The higher efficiency for building cooling is primarily due to a more constant compressor condensing temperature with the geothermal well field acting as a thermal “sink” (in place of the conventional system’s cooling tower). In the heating mode, Ground Couple Heat Pump (GCHP) systems benefits from the advantage of a heat pump Coefficient of Performance (COP) of approximately 3.6, significantly better than a conventional gas boiler. The geothermal well field acting as a thermal “source” allows the heat pumps to operate efficiently in the heating mode regardless of ambient temperatures. The well field is partially located in a wetland with a high water table so, over time, the project will be able to identify the thermal loading characteristics of a well field located in a high water table location. The project demonstrated how a large geothermal well field can be installed in a wetland area in an economical and environmentally sound manner. Finally, the SW 40th Street Thermal Energy Plant project demonstrates the benefits of providing domestic hot water energy, as well as space heating, to help balance well filed thermal loading in a cooling dominated application. During the period of August 2012 thru

  13. Running SW4 On New Commodity Technology Systems (CTS-1) Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, Arthur J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Petersson, N. Anders [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pitarka, Arben [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sjogreen, Bjorn [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-30

    We have recently been running earthquake ground motion simulations with SW4 on the new capacity computing systems, called the Commodity Technology Systems - 1 (CTS-1) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). SW4 is a fourth order time domain finite difference code developed by LLNL and distributed by the Computational Infrastructure for Geodynamics (CIG). SW4 simulates seismic wave propagation in complex three-dimensional Earth models including anelasticity and surface topography. We are modeling near-fault earthquake strong ground motions for the purposes of evaluating the response of engineered structures, such as nuclear power plants and other critical infrastructure. Engineering analysis of structures requires the inclusion of high frequencies which can cause damage, but are often difficult to include in simulations because of the need for large memory to model fine grid spacing on large domains.

  14. NEW DATA ON MIDDLE DEVONIAN CONODONTS FROM SW-SARDINIA:THE SU NUARGI II SECTION REVISITED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOFIE GOUWY

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The conodont collection from the nodular limestone beds of the Su Nuargi II outcrop near Domusnovas in SW-Sardinia (Italy is restudied for the purpose of reassessing the outcrop and updating the conodont collection to the most recent taxonomy. Su Nuargi II is the most important outcrop in the SW of the island exposing Middle Devonian rocks. Forty-five conodont taxa have been identified in the collection, positioning the outcrop within the interval covering the timorensis to latifossatus zones (Lower to Middle Givetian slightly widening the interpretation of Olivieri (1985. A new morphotype of Polygnathus linguiformis linguiformis is described. The genera Tortodus and Schmidtognathus are identified for the first time in the Middle Devonian of Sardinia. Additionally, a second Middle Devonian outcrop is discovered in the SW of the Island. 

  15. Sedimentological and Stratigraphic Controls on Natural Fracture Distribution in Wajid Group, SW Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaafi, Mohammed; Hariri, Mustafa; Abdullatif, Osman; Makkawi, Mohammed; Korvin, Gabor

    2016-04-01

    The Cambro-Permian Wajid Group, SW Saudi Arabia, is the main groundwater aquifer in Wadi Al-Dawasir and Najran areas. In addition, it has a reservoir potentiality for oil and natural gas in Rub' Al-Khali Basin. Wajid Group divided into four formations, ascending Dibsiyah, Sanamah, Khussyayan and Juwayl. They are mainly sandstone and exposed in an area extend from Wadi Al-Dawasir southward to Najran city and deposited within fluvial, shallow marine and glacial environments. This study aims to investigate the sedimentological and stratigraphic controls on the distribution of natural fractures within Wajid Group outcrops. A scanline sampling method was used to study the natural fracture network within Wajid Group outcrops, where the natural fractures were measured and characterized in 12 locations. Four regional natural fracture sets were observed with mean strikes of 050o, 075o, 345o, and 320o. Seven lithofacies characterized the Wajid Group at these locations and include fine-grained sandstone, coarse to pebbly sandstone, cross-bedded sandstone, massive sandstone, bioturbated sandstone, conglomerate sandstone, and conglomerate lithofacies. We found that the fine-grained and small scale cross-bedded sandstones lithofacies are characterized by high fracture intensity. In contrast, the coarse-grained sandstone and conglomerate lithofacies have low fracture intensity. Therefore, the relative fracture intensity and spacing of natural fractures within Wajid Group in the subsurface can be predicted by using the lithofacies and their depositional environments. In terms of stratigraphy, we found that the bed thickness and the stratigraphic architecture are the main controls on fractures intensity. The outcomes of this study can help to understand and predict the natural fracture distribution within the subsurface fractured sandstone hosting groundwater and hydrocarbon in Wajid and Rub' Al-Khali Basins. Hence, the finding of this study might help to explore and develop the

  16. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon age, geochemistry and Nd isotope of the Guandaoshan pluton in SW Sichuan: Petrogenesis and tectonic significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Xianhua(李献华); LI; Zhengxiang(李正祥); ZHOU; Hanwen(周汉文); LIU; Ying(刘颖); LIANG; Xirong(梁细荣); LI; Wuxian(李武显)

    2003-01-01

    SHRIMP U-Pb zircon age, geochemical and Nd isotopic data are reported for the Neoproterozoic Guandaoshan pluton in the Yanbian region, SW Sichuan. This pluton is of typical I-type granite and emplaced at (857±13) Ma. Geochemical and Nd isotopic characters suggest that the pluton was generated by partial melting of pre-existing, young (late Mesoproterozoic to early Neoproterozoic) low-K tholeiitic protolith within an intraplate anorogenic setting. The Guandaoshan pluton probably records the earliest magmatism induced by the proposed ca. 860-750 Ma mantle superplume beneath the supercontinent Rodinia.

  17. Direct correlation of radiolarian Kilinora spiralis Zone with the Late Jurassic ammonite faunal succession in the Kurisaka Formation, Kurosegawa Terrane, SW Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ISHIDA; Keisuke; TSUJINO; Yasuyuki; KOZAI; Takeshi; SATO; Tadashi; HIRSCH; Francis

    2009-01-01

    The last appearance datum of the radiolarian Kilinora spiralis is recorded above the first appearance datum of the ammonite Ataxioceras (A.) kurisakense in the Todoro Section of the Kurisaka Formation, Southern Kurosegawa Terrane, Shikoku, SW Japan. The constraint by ammonite age prolongs the range of the Kilinora spiralis Zone, a remarkable Jurassic radiolarian zone in Japan-NW Pacific region, into the lower Kimmeridgian. The direct correlation of the Kilinora spiralis zone with the Late Jurassic ammonite faunal succession in the Kurisaka Formation will provide a clue to the still pending chronological difference between European and North American radiolarian zones.

  18. The Introduction of a Domestic Airborne LiDAR System SW-LiDAR%国产SW-LiDAR系统的简介

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志杰; 施昆; 关艳玲; 蒋凤保

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduced the structure, characteristics of a domestic airborne LiDAR systems SW-LiDAR and USES. This paper also provided highlights of inertial navigation principle, the principle of differential GPS and conformation equation, which is integrate theory. The workflow was introduced. Finally, the development trend of the system were prospected.%本文介绍国产机载SW-LiDAR系统的构成、特点和用途。重点阐述了该系统的三个集成原理:惯性导航原理、差分GPS原理和构象方程。介绍了该系统的工作流程。最后展望了该系统的应用前景。

  19. SW-100 FPSM Typical Fault Analysis of Broadcast Transmitter%SW-100FPSM广播发射机的典型故障探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亮

    2014-01-01

    本文简要介绍了 PSM 短波广播发射机调制方式及工作原理,分析了 PSM 短波广播发射机优点。针SW-100FPSM广播发射机运行维护中出现的典型故障进行了分析研讨,提出了解决对策。%This paper briefly introduces the PSM shortwave broadcast transmitter modulation mode and working principle, analyses the PSM shortwave radio transmitter. It analyzed and put forward countermeasure for the typical fault in the main-tenance counter the SW-100FPSM shortwave broadcast transmitter.

  20. Maximizing Throughput of SW ARQ with Network Coding through Forward Error Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farouq M. Aliyu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, several techniques for improving throughput of wireless communication have been developed in order to cater for the ever increasing demand of high speed network service. However, these techniques can only give little improvement in performance because packets have to be delivered as is. As such researchers have begun thinking outside the box by proposing ideas that require relay nodes to temper packets’ contents in order to improve the throughput of a network. One of the state of the art techniques in this field is called Network Coding (NC. NC is a state of the art technique that allows relay nodes linearly combine two or more packets in a way they can be recovered upon reaching their destination. However, increasing packet size increases possibility of error affecting it. In this paper, the authors decide to investigate whether adding data recovery technique can improve the performance of a network that uses network coding, if it can, by how much can it? Is it worth the trouble? In order to answer these questions, the authors carried out a quantitative analysis of throughput in a Stop-and-Wait Automatic Repeat reQuest (SW-ARQ data transmission system with Network Coding (NC and Forward Error Correction (FEC. Vandermonde matrix is chosen as the coding technique for this research because it has both NC and data recovery characteristics. Python programming language is used to develop three Discrete Event Simulations: SW-ARQ without any NC, SW-ARQ with NC and SW-ARQ with NC and FEC. The obtained results show that SW-ARQ with NC and FEC is superior to traditional SW-ARQ in terms of throughput, especially in channels with high error rates.

  1. Targeted pancreatic cancer therapy with the small molecule drug conjugate SW IV-134.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Yassar M; Spitzer, Dirk; Vangveravong, Suwanna; Hornick, Mary C; Garg, Gunjal; Hornick, John R; Goedegebuure, Peter; Mach, Robert H; Hawkins, William G

    2014-07-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is highly resistant to conventional therapeutics and has been shown to evade apoptosis by deregulation of the X-linked and cellular inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (XIAP and cIAP). Second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases (Smac) induces and amplifies cell death by reversing the anti-apoptotic activity of IAPs. Thus, Smac-derived peptide analogues (peptidomimetics) have been developed and shown to represent promising cancer therapeutics. Sigma-2 receptors are overexpressed in many proliferating tumor cells including pancreatic cancer. Selected ligands to this receptor are rapidly internalized by cancer cells. These characteristics have made the sigma-2 receptor an attractive target for drug delivery because selective delivery to cancer cells has the potential to increase therapeutic efficacy while minimizing toxicity to normal tissues. Here, we describe the initial characterization of SW IV-134, a chemically linked drug conjugate between the sigma-2 ligand SW43 and the Smac mimetic SW IV-52 as a novel treatment option for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The tumor killing characteristics of our dual-domain therapeutic SW IV-134 was far greater than either component in isolation or in an equimolar mix and suggests enhanced cellular delivery when chemically linked to the sigma-2 ligand. One of the key findings was that SW IV-134 retained target selectivity of the Smac cargo with the involvement of the NF-κB/TNFα signaling pathway. Importantly, SW IV-134 slowed tumor growth and improved survival in murine models of pancreatic cancer. Our data support further study of this novel therapeutic and this drug delivery strategy because it may eventually benefit patients with pancreatic cancer.

  2. The reactivation of the SW Iberian passive margin: a brief review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Joao; Rosas, Filipe; Terrinha, Pedro; Schellart, Wouter; Almeida, Pedro; Gutscher, Marc-André; Riel, Nicolas; Ribeiro, António

    2016-04-01

    On the morning of the 1st of November of 1755 a major earthquake struck offshore the Southwest Iberian margin. This was the strongest earthquake ever felt in Western Europe. The shake, fire and tsunami devastated Lisbon, was felt as far as Finland and had a profound impact on the thinkers of that time, in particular on the Enlightenment philosophers such as Voltaire, Rousseau and Kant. The Great Lisbon Earthquake is considered by many as the event that marks the birth of modern geosciences; and made of this region one of the most well studied areas in the world. After the 1755 earthquake, Kant and others authors wrote several treaties dealing with the causes and dynamics of earthquakes and tsunamis and were close to identify some key elements of what we now call plate tectonics. More than two hundred years later, in the year of 1969, the region was struck by another major earthquake. This was precisely during the period in which the theory of plate tectonics was being built. Geoscientists like Fukao (1973), Purdy (1975) and Mackenzie (1977) immediately focused their attention in the area. They suggested that these events were related with "transient" subduction of Africa below Iberia, along the East-West Azores-Gibraltar plate boundary. Several years later, Ribeiro (1989) suggested that instead of Africa being subducted below Iberia, it was the West Iberian passive margin that was being reactivated, a process that may, in time, lead to the formation of a new subduction zone. In the turning of the millennium, a subducting slab was imaged bellow the Gibraltar Straits, a remanent of the Western Mediterranean arc system that according to Gutscher et al. (2002) was related with ongoing subduction. Recently, it was proposed that a causal link between the Gibraltar subduction system and the reactivation of the SW Iberian margin might exist. In addition, the large-scale Africa-Eurasia convergence is inducing compressive stresses along the West Iberian margin. The margin

  3. A review of the tectonic evolution of the Sunsás belt, SW Amazonian Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Wilson; Geraldes, Mauro Cesar; Matos, Ramiro; Ruiz, Amarildo Salina; Saes, Gerson; Vargas-Mattos, Gabriela

    2010-01-01

    supports the idea that the main nucleus of Rodinia incorporated the terrains forming the SW corner of Amazonia and most of the Grenvillian margin, as a result of two independent collisional events, as indicated in the Amazon region by the Ji-Paraná shear zone event and the Sunsás belt, respectively.

  4. Crustal and upper-mantle structure beneath the western Atlas Mountains in SW Morocco derived from receiver functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieker, Kathrin; Wölbern, Ingo; Thomas, Christine; Harnafi, Mimoun; El Moudnib, Lahcen

    2014-09-01

    The High Atlas and the Anti Atlas are fold-belts linked to former and still ongoing continent-continent collisions. Despite their high elevation, studies indicate a lack of a deep crustal root (Morocco to analyse teleseismic P- and S-wave receiver functions. Our study yields a crustal thickness ranging from 24 km near the Atlantic coast to 44 km beneath the High Atlas with an average crustal Vp/Vs ratio of 1.77 in the entire region. A crustal thickness of 40 km cannot entirely support the topography in this region. Furthermore, we find the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary at ˜80 km depth. The lithosphere beneath SW Morocco is thinner than beneath northern Morocco (>150 km). This lithospheric thinning supports the theory of thermal compensation of the mountain ranges. The mantle transition zone thickness amounts to 240 ± 10 km. The transition zone seems to be slightly thinned which might indicate a higher mantle temperature in this region.

  5. Influence of wind turbines on seismic stations in the upper rhine graben, SW Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieger, Toni; Ritter, Joachim R. R.

    2017-09-01

    By analysing long- and short-term seismological measurements at wind farms close to the town of Landau, SW Germany, we present new insights into ground motion signals from wind turbines (WTs) at local seismic stations. Because of their need to be located in similar regions with sparsely anthropogenic activities, wind turbines impact seismic stations and their recordings in a way that is not yet fully understood by researchers. To ensure the undisturbed recording tasks of a regional seismic array or a single station by a protected area around those endangered stations, it is very important to investigate the behavior of WTs as a seismic source. For that reason, we calculate averaged one-hour long spectra of the power spectral density (PSD) before and after the installation of a new wind farm within the investigated area. These PSD are ordered according to the rotation speed. We observe a clear increase of the PSD level after the WT installation in a frequency range of 0.5 to 10 Hz up to a distance of 5.5 km away from the WT. By analysing seismic borehole data, we also observe a decrease of the PSD of wind dependent signals with depth. The impact of wind-dependent signals is found to be much more pronounced for the shallower station (150 m depth) than for the deeper one (305 m depth). Using short-term profile measurements, we fit a power-law decay proportional to 1/r b to the main WT-induced PSD peaks and differentiate between near-field and far-field effects of ground motions. For low frequencies in the range from 1 to 4 Hz, we determine a b value of 0.78 to 0.85 for the far field, which is consistent with surface waves. The b value increases (up to 1.59) with increasing frequencies (up to 5.5 Hz), which is obviously due to attenuating effects like scattering or anelasticity. These results give a better understanding of the seismic wavefield interactions between wind turbines (or wind farms) with nearby seismic stations, including borehole installations, in a

  6. Study of the gamma irradiation effects on the PMMA/HA and PMMA/SW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, P.; Albano, C.; Perera, R.; Domínguez, N.

    2010-03-01

    The behavior of the poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) under the action of gamma radiation has been sufficiently studied. In this work, we present results from melt flow index (MFI), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of PMMA composites with hydroxyapatite (HA) and seaweed residues (SW) irradiated with gamma rays at 1.08 kGy/h. Composites of PMMA/HA and PMMA/SW with 10%, 20% and 30% of the filler were prepared. The results show an increase in the MFI values with the integral dose of radiation, being consistent with chain-scission reactions. No EPR signal was observed in pure PMMA, while in the composites, the typical EPR signal of the PMMA radicals was observed, which increased with the amount of HA or SW. When comparing the relative intensities of the EPR signals for both types of composites, a slight increase in the concentration of free radicals generated in the sample with SW respect to that of PMMA/HA composite was obtained. A decay of the total free radical concentration was observed as time elapsed.

  7. Ecosystem metabolism in a temporary Mediterranean marsh (Donana National Park, SW Spain)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertz-Hansen, O.; Montes, C.; Duarte, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    metabolic balance of the open waters supporting submerged macrophytes of the Donana marsh (SW Spain) was investigated in spring, when community production is highest. The marsh community (benthic + pelagic) was net autotrophic with net community production rates averaging 0.61 g C m(-2) d(-1), an...

  8. Metamorphism of siliceous dolomites in the high-grade Precambrian of Rogaland, SW Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauter, P.C.C.

    1983-01-01

    In the Precambrian granulite facies terrain of Rogaland, SW Norway, some small occurrences of marbles are present. They are mainly exposed at three locations A, Band C, at increasing distance from the anorthositic and monzonitic intrusions. The Precambrian basement in Rogaland has undergone several

  9. Geochemistry of high-temperature granulitic supracrustals from Rogaland, SW Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bol, L.C.G.M.

    1990-01-01

    Were the granulite-facies metamorphic supracrustals of the Faurefjell Metasediment Formation in Rogaland, SW Norway, chemically open or closed systems? In order to assess differential element mobilities in response to pre-, syn- and post-metamorphic fluid fluxes through this formation, the mineralog

  10. Lower Maastrichtian cyclostratigraphy of the Bidart section (Basque Country, SW France)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husson, Dorothée; Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph; Galbrun, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Cyclostratigraphic analysis of the Maastrichtian limestone-marl alternations of Bidart (SW France) allows the hypothesis of orbital control on lithological cycles to be evaluated. Magnetic Susceptibility (MS), oxygen and carbon isotope measurements, sampled at a high resolution, are analyzed using...

  11. sw-SVM: sensor weighting support vector machines for EEG-based brain-computer interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jrad, N; Congedo, M; Phlypo, R; Rousseau, S; Flamary, R; Yger, F; Rakotomamonjy, A

    2011-10-01

    In many machine learning applications, like brain-computer interfaces (BCI), high-dimensional sensor array data are available. Sensor measurements are often highly correlated and signal-to-noise ratio is not homogeneously spread across sensors. Thus, collected data are highly variable and discrimination tasks are challenging. In this work, we focus on sensor weighting as an efficient tool to improve the classification procedure. We present an approach integrating sensor weighting in the classification framework. Sensor weights are considered as hyper-parameters to be learned by a support vector machine (SVM). The resulting sensor weighting SVM (sw-SVM) is designed to satisfy a margin criterion, that is, the generalization error. Experimental studies on two data sets are presented, a P300 data set and an error-related potential (ErrP) data set. For the P300 data set (BCI competition III), for which a large number of trials is available, the sw-SVM proves to perform equivalently with respect to the ensemble SVM strategy that won the competition. For the ErrP data set, for which a small number of trials are available, the sw-SVM shows superior performances as compared to three state-of-the art approaches. Results suggest that the sw-SVM promises to be useful in event-related potentials classification, even with a small number of training trials.

  12. Lateglacial and early Holocene tephrostratigraphy and sedimentology of the Store Slotseng basin, SW Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jeppe Joel; Noe-Nygaard, Nanna

    2014-01-01

    The history of the Lateglacial and Preboreal sedimentary succession from the Store Slotseng kettle hole basin, SW Denmark is presented. A tephrostratigraphical and multi-proxy investigation of the sediments, including stable isotope geochemistry, reveals small- and large-scale changes...

  13. Properties of cast films made of chayote (Sechium edule Sw.) tuber starch reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, cellulose (C) and cellulose nanocrystals (CN) were blended with chayote tuber (Sechium edule Sw.) starch (CS) in formulations cast into films. The films were conditioned at different storage temperatures and relative humidity (RH), and analyzed by mechanical tests, X-ray diffraction, ...

  14. The relationship between orogenesis and sedimentation in the SW part of the Cantabrian Mountains (NW Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, van den W.J.

    1969-01-01

    The structures in the SW part of the Cantabrian Mountains have much in common with those of the Foothills Belt of the Rocky Mountains, the Alps and the Central European Hercynian orogene, and their origin can be explained in the same way as that of the structures in these orogenes. The greywacke sed

  15. Palynological evidence for late-Holocene human occupation recorded in two wetlands in SW Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermoere, M; Bottema, S; Vanhecke, L; Waelkens, M; Paulissen, E; Smets, E

    2002-01-01

    Pollen diagrams from mountain lakes and marshes in SW Turkey show evidence of intensive anthropogenic influence in the landscape between 3500 and 1300 BP. Three cores from within the territory of the classical city Sagalassos (Western Taurus, Pisidia) were palynologically analysed to make a reconstr

  16. Strangelet search in S-W collisions at 200A GeV/c

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borer, K.; Dittus, F.; Frei, D.; Hugentobler, E.; Klingenberg, R.; Moser, U.; Pretzl, K.; Schacher, J.; Stoffel, F.; Volken, W.; Elsener, K.; Lohmann, K. D.; Baglin, C.; Bussière, A.; Guillaud, J. P.; Appelquist, G.; Bohm, C.; Hovander, B.; Selldèn, B.; Zhang, Q. P.

    1994-03-01

    A search for new massive particles with a low charge to mass ratio in S-W collisions at a beam momentum of 200 GeV/c per nucleon is presented. Upper limits for the production of strangelets with a mass to charge ratio of up to 60 GeV/c2 at rigidities of +/-150 GV are reported.

  17. Supporting document for the SW Quadrant Historical Tank Content Estimate for U-Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Johnson, E.D.

    1994-06-01

    This Supporting Document provides historical characterization information gathered on U-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information, temperature data, sampling data, and drywell and liquid observation well data for Historical Tank Content Estimate of the SW Quadrant at the Hanford 200 West Area.

  18. Study of the gamma irradiation effects on the PMMA/HA and PMMA/SW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, P., E-mail: silva@ivic.v [Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Centro de Fisica, Carretera Panamericana Km. 11, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Albano, C. [Universidad Central de Venezuela, Facultad de Ingenieria (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Centro de Quimica (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Perera, R. [Departamento de Mecanica, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas 1080-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Dominguez, N. [Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Centro de Quimica (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    The behavior of the poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) under the action of gamma radiation has been sufficiently studied. In this work, we present results from melt flow index (MFI), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of PMMA composites with hydroxyapatite (HA) and seaweed residues (SW) irradiated with gamma rays at 1.08 kGy/h. Composites of PMMA/HA and PMMA/SW with 10%, 20% and 30% of the filler were prepared. The results show an increase in the MFI values with the integral dose of radiation, being consistent with chain-scission reactions. No EPR signal was observed in pure PMMA, while in the composites, the typical EPR signal of the PMMA radicals was observed, which increased with the amount of HA or SW. When comparing the relative intensities of the EPR signals for both types of composites, a slight increase in the concentration of free radicals generated in the sample with SW respect to that of PMMA/HA composite was obtained. A decay of the total free radical concentration was observed as time elapsed.

  19. [Label-free monitoring 5-FU induced SW 620 cells apoptosis using FTIR microspectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Sun, Xue-Jun; Zhang, Chao; He, Sai; Du, Jun-Kai; Huo, Xiong-Wei; Zheng, Jian-Bao; Zhang, Shi-Yun; Zhang, Yuan-Fuz; Xu, Yi-Zhuang; Wu, Jin-Guang

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) monitoring of biochemical changes in apoptosis cells. Different concentrations of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treated colon cancer cell lines SW620 were used to determine the optimum concentration of 5-FU IC50 by means of MTT assay. Cell starvation and 5-Fu synergistic cell cycle arrest was in G1 and S phase. FTIR combined with flow cytometry was applied to analysis of SW 620 cells and SW620 cells treated with 5-FU for 12h, 24h (early apoptosis) and 48 h (late apoptosis) respectively. The peak position and the intensity of all bands were measured and comparison was made between the SW620 and apoptotic SW620 cells. Apoptosis cells have following characteristics compared with SW620 cells (1) The band at 1 740 cm-1 is an C=O stretching vibration. Changes in these bands can reflect lipid changes, and relative peak intensity ratio 11740/11460 significantly increased (p<0. 05), indicating that the relative contents of lipid in apoptosis cells increased. (2) The band at the 1 410 cm-1 peak represents that C-H stretching related was increased to amino acid residues and shifted to higher wave numbers compared to other groups. I1410o/I 460 at early and late death phase was significantly increased, which suggests that the relative contents of amino acid residues in apoptosis cells increased (p <0. 05). New vibrational bands at 1 120 cm-1 appeared at 24 h and increased at 48 h compared with other groups. The 1 120 cm-1 absorption band is mainly due to ser, serine and threonine C-O(H) stretching vibration, and I1120/I 1460 significantly increased (p<0. 05), indicating that the relative quantity of amino acid residues in apoptosis cells increased due to that DNA unwinds the double helix. (3) 1 240 cm-1 is mainly due to the asymmetric stretching modes of phosphodiester groups shifting to higher wave number, illustrating that nucleic acid conformation was changed in apoptosis cells. (4) The band

  20. Assessing the recurrence of big earthquakes and tsunami in the Gulf of Cadiz (SW Iberia) using thin-sheet neotectonic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, T.; Matias, L. M.; Terrinha, P.; Negredo, A.; Rosas, F.; Fernandes, R.; Pinheiro, L.

    2008-12-01

    The eastern end of the Azores-Gibraltar plate boundary is characterized by distributed deformation that accommodates the collision between the Eurasia and Africa plates. Despite this, the active faults in the area can generate very large earthquakes and destructive tsunamis, such as the Great Lisbon Earthquake, that occurred in the 1st November 1755 (estimated Mw = 8.7). The largest instrumental earthquake recorded was the 28th of February 1969 Mw=8.0, localized in the Horseshoe abyssal plain with a thrust fault mechanism. In this study we used a thin-shell approximation (SHELLS- Bird, P., Computers and Geosciences, 25, 383- 394, 1999) to model the neotectonics of this segment of the Africa-Eurasia plate boundary and put constraints on the recurrence periods of earthquakes and tsunamis. In relation to previous neotectonic models in the region we use a better constrained structural map, particularly in the Gulf of Cadiz and SW Iberia, based on recently acquired multi-beam bathymetry, backscatter data and numerous high quality multi- channel seismic profiles. Importantly, the map shows the existence of several NNE-SSW to ENE-WSW thrust faults, associated to prominent bathymetric features, and a set of very long (up to 600 km) strike-slip lineaments, extending between the western Horseshoe Abyssal Plain and the eastern Gulf of Cadiz. Different models have been tested, for various boundary scenarios (geometry and plate velocities) and fault networks, and the results compared with seismic strain release, recent GPS observations and stress orientation. The modeling suggests that, when mature, the long strike-slip lineaments will accommodate most of the relative motion between Eurasia and Africa (aprox. 4 mm/a) along a "transform-type" plate boundary. This situation, however, is associated with only minor thrust faulting in the region and predicts a strong attenuation of the velocity field between the northern Morocco and Gibraltar, in contradiction with present day GPS

  1. The Influence of Mulberry Fruit Juice on Proliferation and Apoptosis of Colon Cancer Cell Line SW620%桑椹汁对结肠癌细胞株SW620增殖和凋亡的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕欢; 闻燕; 王俊; 许晓风; 吴宇; 江明珠

    2013-01-01

    To confirm anti-tumor function of mulberry fruit, colon cancer cell line SW620 was treated with different concentrations of mulberry fruit juice. The growth curve was drawn by MTT method to investigate proliferation of SW620 cells. Change of transcriptional level of apoptosis-related gene p53 in SW620 cells and expression level of its encoded protein were detected by fluorescent quantitative PCR and SDS-PAGE to analyze the influencing mechanism of mulberry fruit juice on proliferation and apoptosis of colon cancer cell line SW620. It was found that the inhibitory effect of mulberry fruit juice on the proliferation of SW620 cells was enhanced obviously with the increase of mulberry fruit juice concentration. After being treated with mulberry fruit juice containing 6. 267 3 ×10-3 mg/mL anthocyanin for 24 h, SW620 cells had the following remarkable changes. Cell growth was obviously inhibited. Cells exfoliated and deformed. Cell adherence declined and cell apoptosis was observed. Genomic DNA of SW620 cells showed obvious degradation. The result of fluorescent quantitative PCR showed that expression level of gene p53 in the experimental group increased by 6. 5 folds compared with the control group. In addition, SDS-PAGE assay indicated that the expression level of protein p53 in the experimental group was also obviously higher than that in the control group. These results indicated that mulberry fruit juice has inhibitory effect on proliferation of colon cancer cell line SW620. The inhibitory mechanism may be related to cell apoptosis caused by up-regulation of p53 gene in SW620 cells which was induced by active ingredients of mulberry fruit juice.%为证实桑椹的抗肿瘤功能,以不同浓度桑椹汁处理结肠癌细胞株SW620,应用MTT法对比绘制生长曲线,调查SW620细胞的增殖情况,通过荧光定量PCR、SDS-PAGE检测SW620细胞凋亡相关基因p53的转录及蛋白质表达变化,分析桑椹汁对SW620细胞增殖、凋亡的影响机制.结果显示,桑椹汁对SW

  2. Geophysical Character and Geochemical Evolution of the Mesoproterozoic Figueira Branca Intrusive Suite, SW Amazon Craton (Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louro, Vinicius; Cawood, Peter; Mantovani, Marta

    2016-04-01

    The Jauru Terrain hosts the Figueira Branca Intrusive Suite (FBS) in the SW of the Amazon Craton (Brazil). The FBS is a series of 1425 Ma layered mafic intrusions, previously interpreted as anorogenic. The FBS area is located in foreland to the Santa Helena orogen, formed by the subduction of the Rio Alegre Terrain under the Jauru Terrain. Potential field methods (magnetic and gravity), gamma-ray spectrometry, geochemical and isotope data were used to characterize and to model the extent of FBS magmatism, the distribution of faults and shear zones in the area, to evaluate affinities of the magmatic activity, and the relation between the FBS and the Santa Helena orogen. The geophysical methods identified three anomalies corresponding with FBS outcrops. A fourth anomaly with significantly higher amplitude was observed to the north of the three anomalies. From south to north, the anomalies were named Indiavaí, Azteca, Figueira Branca and Jauru. These anomalies were modeled and indicated a northwest-southeast trend, parallel to regional shear zones. The gamma-ray data enabled the collection of 50 samples from the FBS rocks, the Alto Jauru group that hosts the FBS, from nearby intrusive suites, and the Rio Alegre Terrain. The 30 freshest samples were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence for oxides and some trace elements, 20 by ICP-MS for Rare-Earth Elements and 10 for Nd-Sr isotope analyses. The FBS samples were gabbros and gabbro-norites with Nb/Yb-Th/Yb and TiO2/Yb-Nb/Yb ratios indicating varying degrees of crustal interaction. The TiO2/Yb-Nb/Yb data suggested a subduction related component and the ɛNd-ɛSr indicated a juvenile source. Samples from coeval adjacent intermediate magma suites displayed similar characteristics, which suggest derivation from a bimodal source probably related with the subduction of the Rio Alegre Terrain. We interpreted the tectonic setting of the FBS as a result of a roll-back of the subducted slab, which resulted in rejuvenation of the

  3. Upper mantle discontinuity beneath the SW-Iberia peninsula: A multidisciplinary view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomeras, Imma; de Lis Mancilla, Flor; Ayarza, Puy; Afonso, Juan Carlos; Diaz, Jordi; Morales, Jose; Carbonell, Ramon; Topoiberia Working Group

    2010-05-01

    Evidence for an upper mantle discontinuity located between 60 and 70 km depth have been provided by different seismic data sets acquired in the Southern Iberian peninsula. First indications of such a discontinuity were obtained by the very long offsets seismic refraction shot gathers acquired within the DSS ILIHA project in the early 90's. Clear seismic events recoded by the dense wide-angle seismic reflection shot gathers of the IBERSEIS experiment (2003) provided further constraints on the depth of the discontinuity and first-order estimates of its physical properties beneath the Ossa Morena Zone. Furthermore, the normal incidence Vibroseis deep seismic reflection images of the ALCUDIA transect (2007) extends this structure to the northeast beneath the Central Iberian Zone. This transect images deep laterally discontinuous reflections at upper mantle travel times (19 s) that roughly correspond to depths within the range of 60-70 km. Receiver function studies of the passive seismic recordings acquired by the IBERARRAY (TOPOIBERIA projects) provides additional support for the existence of this upper mantle structure and suggests that this is a relatively large scale regional feature. Two major scenarios need to be addressed when discussing the origin and nature of this deep structure. One is the tectonic scenario in which the structure maybe be related to a major tectonic event such as an old subduction process and therefore represent an ancient slab. A second hypothesis, would relate this feature to a phase change in the mantle. This latter assumption requires this feature ought to be a broader scale boundary which could be identified by different seismic techniques. Reflectivity modeling carried out over the IBERSEIS wide angle reflection data concludes that the observed phase is consistent with an heterogeneous gradient zone located at, approximately, 61-72 km depth. A layered structure with alternating velocities within ranges 8.1 to 8.3 km/s is necessary in

  4. Peaches Preceded Humans: Fossil Evidence from SW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tao; Wilf, Peter; Huang, Yongjiang; Zhang, Shitao; Zhou, Zhekun

    2015-11-01

    Peach (Prunus persica, Rosaceae) is an extremely popular tree fruit worldwide, with an annual production near 20 million tons. Peach is widely thought to have origins in China, but its evolutionary history is largely unknown. The oldest evidence for the peach has been Chinese archaeological records dating to 8000-7000 BP. Here, we report eight fossil peach endocarps from late Pliocene strata of Kunming City, Yunnan, southwestern China. The fossils are identical to modern peach endocarps, including size comparable to smaller modern varieties, a single seed, a deep dorsal groove, and presence of deep pits and furrows. These fossils show that China has been a critical region for peach evolution since long before human presence, much less agriculture. Peaches evolved their modern morphology under natural selection, presumably involving large, frugivorous mammals such as primates. Much later, peach size and variety increased through domestication and breeding.

  5. Non-perturbative evaluation of cSW for smeared link clover fermion and Iwasaki gauge action

    CERN Document Server

    Taniguchi, Yusuke

    2013-01-01

    We performed a rough estimate of the non-perturbative value of the clover term coefficient cSW for the APE stout link Wilson fermion. We varied the number of smearings from Nsmear=1 to 6 and adopted beta values roughly corresponding to the lattice spacing of 0.1 fm. We used the Schroedinger functional technique for an evaluation of cSW and found that cSW decreases monotonically as we increase Nsmear but has a 10% order of deviation from the tree level value for Nsmear=6.

  6. Strategies to improve performance od SW-SAGD (Single Well-Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage); Estrategias para melhor desempenho do SW-SAGD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Richard Douglas Ribeiro [Norse Energy do Brasil S/A, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Trevisan, Osvair Vidal [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The present work presents an extensive numerical study, using a commercial reservoir simulator, on the recovery of heavy oil by steam injection assisted by gravity drainage in single horizontal wells. The goal is to study several strategies to improve performance of the Single Well - Steam Assisted Drainage Gravity (SW-SAGD), a new but promising thermal recovery technique aimed at exploitation of heavy oils. The strategies are basically made up of two measures: cyclic steam injection prior to the main injection-production process; and well bore splitting into injection and production zones by packer settings. The measures are scrutinized when used separately or together. Cyclic injection is varied according to cycle duration. Comparisons are made between the performance of oil recovery for the developed strategies and the performance of the traditional dual well SAGD technique with similar operating parameters and field conditions. The results point out the best strategy regarding key parameters such as the oil recovery factor and the steam oil ratio. Results were also verified for variations of rock and fluid properties in the range of a typical heavy oil reservoir. As a result, a new strategy for the SW-SAGD process is presented, providing oil recovery, which is higher than that yielded by the equivalent DW-SAGD. (author)

  7. ESTABILIDAD DE ANTOCIANINAS EN JUGO Y CONCENTRADO DE AGRAZ (VACCINIUM MERIDIONALE SW. STABILITY OF ANTHOCYANINS IN JUICE AND CONCENTRATE OF AGRAZ(VACCINIUM MERIDIONALE SW.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Jobanny Martínez Zambrano

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la cinética de la estabilidad térmica y de almacenamiento de las antocianinas en jugo y concentrado de agraz (Vaccinium meridionale Sw. siguiendo una cinética de primer orden. La degradación de las antocianinas con la temperatura fue modelada adecuadamente con la ecuación de Arrhenius. El efecto del pH en la estabilidad térmica de las antocianinas en los concentrados de agraz se estudió a seis diferentes valores (3,0 - 8,0 en buffer citrato-fosfato. La degradación de las antocianinas fue mayor para el jugo que para el concentrado. Una disminución significante en la estabilidad de las antocianinas del concentrado se observó a pH cercano a 5,0.The kinetics of thermal and storage stabilities of anthocyanins in agraz (Vaccinium meridionale Sw. juice and concentrate were studied with first-order reaction kinetics. The temperature-dependent degradation was adequately modeled on the Arrhenius equation. The effect of pH on thermal stability of anthocyanins in concentrate of agraz was studied at six different pHs (3.0 - 8.0 in citrate-phosphate buffer solutions. The results indicated that anthocyanins degradation was higher in juice than concentrate. A significant decrease in anthocyanin stability was observed at pHs above 5.0.

  8. Regionalism, Regionalization and Regional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu C. Andrei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustained development is a concept associating other concepts, in its turn, in the EU practice, e.g. regionalism, regionalizing and afferent policies, here including structural policies. This below text, dedicated to integration concepts, will limit on the other hand to regionalizing, otherwise an aspect typical to Europe and to the EU. On the other hand, two aspects come up to strengthen this field of ideas, i.e. the region (al-regionalism-(regional development triplet has either its own history or precise individual outline of terms.

  9. Hydrography and climate of the last 4,400 years in a SW Greenland fjord – implications for Labrador Sea palaeoceanography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Aagaard-Sørensen, Steffen; Sulsbrück, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    A multiproxy record including benthic foraminifera, diatoms and XRF data of a marine sediment core from a SW Greenland fjord provides a detailed reconstruction of the oceanographic and climatic variations of the region during the last 4,400 cal. years. The lower part of our record represents...... Atlantic region. Our data show that increased advection of Atlantic water (Irminger Sea Water) from the West Greenland Current into the Labrador Sea was a typical feature of Northeast Atlantic cooling episodes such as the ‘Little Ice Age’ and the ‘European Dark Ages’, while the advection of Irminger Sea...... Water decreased significantly during warm episodes such as the ‘Mediaeval Warm Period’ and the ‘Roman Warm Period’. Whereas the Mediaeval Warm Period was characterised by relatively cool climate as suggested by low melt-water production, the preceding Dark Ages display higher melt-water runoff...

  10. 5-Geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin inhibits colon cancer (SW480) cells growth by inducing apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Jaiprakash R; Jayaprakasha, Guddadarangavvanahally K; Kim, Jinhee; Murthy, Kotamballi N Chidambara; Chetti, Mahadev B; Nam, Sang-Yong; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2013-03-01

    For the first time, three coumarins were isolated from the hexane extract of limes (Citrus aurantifolia) and purified by flash chromatography. The structures were identified by NMR (1D, 2D) and mass spectral analyses as 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin, limettin, and isopimpinellin. These compounds inhibited human colon cancer (SW-480) cell proliferation, with 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin showing the highest inhibition activity (67 %) at 25 µM. Suppression of SW480 cell proliferation by 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin was associated with induction of apoptosis, as evidenced by annexin V staining and DNA fragmentation. In addition, 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin arrested cells at the G0/G1 phase, and induction of apoptosis was demonstrated through the activation of tumour suppressor gene p53, caspase8/3, regulation of Bcl2, and inhibition of p38 MAPK phosphorylation. These findings suggest that 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin has potential as a cancer preventive agent. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Synergistic antitumor effect of TRATL and doxorubicin on colon cancer cell line SW480

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Hong Xu; Chang-Sheng Deng; You-Qing Zhu; Shi-Quan Liu; Dong-Zhou Liu

    2003-01-01

    AIM: TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosisinducing ligand) has been reported to specifically induce apoptosis of cancer cells although only a small percentage of cell lines were sensitive to it. Cell lines not responding to TRAIL in vitro were said to be more prone to apoptosis when TRAIL was combined with another anticancer agent.Generally, factors affecting drug-sensitivity involve many apoptosis-related proteins, including p53. The expression of wild-type p53 gene was proposed as an important premise for tumor cells responding to chemotherapy. The present study was to investigate the cell killing action of TRAIL on colon cancer cell line SW480, its synergistic effect with doxorubicin, and the possible mechanisms. METHODS: SW480 cells were cultured in the regular condition and incubated with different levels of agents.Morphologic changes in these cells after treatment were observed under phase-contrast microscope and cytotoxicity by TRAIL alone and in combination with doxorubicin was quantified by a 1-day microculture tetrazolium dye (MTT)assay. In addition, flow cytometry assay (FCM) and transmission electron microscopy were used to detectapoptosis among these cells. Variation of p53 protein level among different groups according to concentrations of agents was measured by Western blot assay.RESULTS: (1) SW480 cells were not sensitive to TRAIL,with IC50>1 mg@L1 and dose-independent cytotoxicity. (2)SW480 cells were sensitive to doxorubicin at a certain degree,with dose-dependent cytotoxicity and IC50=65.25+3.48μmol@L-1. (3) TRAIL could synergize with doxorubicin to kill SW480 cells effectively, which was represented by the boosted killing effect of doxorubicin on theses cells. IC50 of doxorubicin against SW480 cells sharply reduced when it was combined with TRAIL. (4) Subtoxic TRAIL (100 μg.L-1),combined with subtoxic doxorubicin (0.86 μmol@L1), could kill SW480 cells sufficiently. Cytotoxicity by MTT assay arrived at 80.12+2.67%, which was

  12. On the SW Sex-Type Eclipsing Cataclysmic Variable SDSS0756+0858

    CERN Document Server

    Tovmassian, Gagik; Gonzalez-Buitrago, Diego; Zharikov, Sergey; García-Díaz, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a spectroscopic and photometric study of SDSS J075653.11+085831. X-ray observations were also attempted. We determined the orbital period of this binary system to be 3.29 hours. It is a deep eclipsing system, whose spectra shows mostly single peaked Balmer emission lines and a quite intense He II line. There is also the presence of faint (often double peaked) He I emission lines as well as several absorption lines; Mg I being the most prominent. All these features point towards affiliation of this object to the growing number of SW Sex-type objects. We developed a phenomenological model of a SW Sex system to reproduce the observed photometric and spectral features.

  13. Seismic hazard impact of the Lower Tagus Valley Fault Zone (SW Iberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilanova, Susana P.; Fonseca, Joao F. B. D.

    The seismic hazard of SW Iberia is composed of two contributions: offshore, large to very large events on the plate boundary between Africa and Eurasia such as the Lisbon earthquake of 1755 or the Gorringe Bank earthquake of 1969; and onshore, moderate to strong intraplate earthquakes on inherited crustal fractures. One of these zones of crustal weakness is the Lower Tagus Valley (LTV) fault zone, which displays the highest level of seismic hazard in Western Iberia. In this paper we review the active tectonics and seismicity of the LTV, integrating previous geophysical data with recent results of paleoseismological investigations, and discuss its impact on the seismic hazard of SW Iberia. We conclude that the seismic zonation for hazard assessment currently in force in the building code is biased towards the scenario of distant offshore rupture, and does not take adequately into account the LTV seismic source.

  14. Simulink-based HW/SW codesign of embedded neuro-fuzzy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyneri, L M; Chiaberge, M; Lavagno, L

    2000-06-01

    We propose a semi-automatic HW/SW codesign flow for low-power and low-cost Neuro-Fuzzy embedded systems. Applications range from fast prototyping of embedded systems to high-speed simulation of Simulink models and rapid design of Neuro-Fuzzy devices. The proposed codesign flow works with different technologies and architectures (namely, software, digital and analog). We have used The Mathworks' Simulink environment for functional specification and for analysis of performance criteria such as timing (latency and throughput), power dissipation, size and cost. The proposed flow can exploit trade-offs between SW and HW as well as between digital and analog implementations, and it can generate, respectively, the C, VHDL and SKILL codes of the selected architectures.

  15. swLORETA: a novel approach to robust source localization and synchronization tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmero-Soler, Ernesto [Institute for Medicine and Virtual Institute of Neuromodulation, Research Center Juelich, Leo-Brand-Street, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Dolan, Kevin [Institute for Medicine and Virtual Institute of Neuromodulation, Research Center Juelich, Leo-Brand-Street, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Hadamschek, Volker [Institute for Medicine and Virtual Institute of Neuromodulation, Research Center Juelich, Leo-Brand-Street, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Tass, Peter A [Institute for Medicine and Virtual Institute of Neuromodulation, Research Center Juelich, Leo-Brand-Street, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2007-04-07

    Standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) is a widely used technique for source localization. However, this technique still has some limitations, especially under realistic noisy conditions and in the case of deep sources. To overcome these problems, we present here swLORETA, an improved version of sLORETA, obtained by incorporating a singular value decomposition-based lead field weighting. We show that the precision of the source localization can further be improved by a tomographic phase synchronization analysis based on swLORETA. The phase synchronization analysis turns out to be superior to a standard linear coherence analysis, since the latter cannot distinguish between real phase locking and signal mixing.

  16. Heliotropium thermophilum (Boraginaceae), a new taxon from SW Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Celik, Ali; Gemici, Yusuf

    2008-01-01

    of its unusual habitat, which is a geothermal area with ground temperatures of 55-65 °C. Affinities clearly lie with the annual H. hirsutissimum Grauer, which is distributed in N Africa, the East Mediterranean area, and SW Asia; the latter, however, is hexaploid (2n = 48) and never occurs in thermal...... habitats. Micromorphological, ecological, and ecophysiological data for the new taxon are provided. Ecological isolation has allowed the evolution and differentiation of a new and distinct species....

  17. Three Dimensional Shallow Water Adaptive Hydraulics (ADH-SW3): Waterborne Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    SDEF SAILING LINE SEGMENT DEFINITION Field Type Value Description 1 char SDEF Card type 2 int > 0 Vessel number 3 int > 0 Sailing line segment ...upper-right portion of the flume. Figure 2. Angle flume domain. Figure 3. Boat definition parameters (parameters are defined in section “Boundary...CHL CHETN-IV-106 October 2015 6 Figure 8. Galveston Bay ADH-SW3 domain. Figure 9. Boat definition parameters for Galveston Bay vessel

  18. COxSwAIN: Compressive Sensing for Advanced Imaging and Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurwitz, Richard; Pulley, Marina; LaFerney, Nathan; Munoz, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The COxSwAIN project focuses on building an image and video compression scheme that can be implemented in a small or low-power satellite. To do this, we used Compressive Sensing, where the compression is performed by matrix multiplications on the satellite and reconstructed on the ground. Our paper explains our methodology and demonstrates the results of the scheme, being able to achieve high quality image compression that is robust to noise and corruption.

  19. Strangelet search in S-W collisions at 200[ital A] GeV/[ital c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borer, K.; Dittus, F.; Frei, D.; Hugentobler, E.; Klingenberg, R.; Moser, U.; Pretzl, K.; Schacher, J.; Stoffel, F.; Volken, W. (Laboratory for High Energy Physics, University of Bern, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland)); Elsener, K.; Lohmann, K.D. (CERN, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland)); Baglin, C.; Bussiere, A.; Guillaud, J.P. (Laboratoire de Physique des Particules, CNRS-Institut National de Physique Nucleaire et de Physique des Particules, F-74019 Annecy-le-Vieux (France)); Appelquist, G.; Bohm, C.; Hovander, B.; Sellden, B.; Zhang, Q.P. (Fysikum, Stockholm University, Box 6730, S-113 85 Stockholm (Sweden))

    1994-03-07

    A search for new massive particles with a low charge to mass ratio in S-W collisions at a beam momentum of 200 GeV/[ital c] per nucleon is presented. Upper limits for the production of strangelets with a mass to charge ratio of up to 60 GeV/[ital c][sup 2] at rigidities of [plus minus]150 GV are reported.

  20. The ionized and hot gas in M17 SW: SOFIA/GREAT THz observations of [C II] and 12CO J=13-12

    CERN Document Server

    Perez-Beaupuits, J P; Ossenkopf, V; Stutzki, J; Guesten, R; Simon, R; Huebers, H -W; Ricken, O; Sandell, G

    2012-01-01

    With new THz maps that cover an area of ~3.3x2.1 pc^2 we probe the spatial distribution and association of the ionized, neutral and molecular gas components in the M17 SW nebula. We used the dual band receiver GREAT on board the SOFIA airborne telescope to obtain a 5'.7x3'.7 map of the 12CO J=13-12 transition and the [C II] 158 um fine-structure line in M17 SW and compare the spectroscopically resolved maps with corresponding ground-based data for low- and mid-J CO and [C I] emission. For the first time SOFIA/GREAT allow us to compare velocity-resolved [C II] emission maps with molecular tracers. We see a large part of the [C II] emission, both spatially and in velocity, that is completely non-associated with the other tracers of photon-dominated regions (PDR). Only particular narrow channel maps of the velocity-resolved [C II] spectra show a correlation between the different gas components, which is not seen at all in the integrated intensity maps. These show different morphology in all lines but give hardly...

  1. Age and Geochemical Features of Dredged Basalts from Offshore SW Taiwan: The Coincidence of Intra-Plate Magmatism with the Spreading South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Lung Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports age and geochemical analyses of basaltic rocks dredged from volcanic seamounts offshore SW Taiwan. 40Ar/39Ar dating results of these rocks show them to be of the early Miocene age of ~22 - 21 Ma. They are evolved alkali basalts that show OIB-type geochemical features similar to post-spreading seamount basalts (14 - 3.5 Ma in the South China Sea (SCS and Miocene intraplate basalts on the Penghu Islands (16 - 8 Ma and NW Taiwan (23 - 9 Ma. Their Sr-Nd-Pb isotope data plot within the range of the SCS seamount basalts that show an EM2-like component in the mantle source. The age and overall geochemical characteristics of the dredged basalts are comparable to those of the Kungkuan basalts, NW Taiwan and Baolai basalts, SW Taiwan, suggesting an extensive alkali basaltic volcanism along the southeastern Eurasian continental margin during the early Miocene that resulted from regional lithospheric extension in association with seafloor spreading in the South China Sea.

  2. Computer Simulation of Single-Well Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SW-SAGD), SUPRI TR-119

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Keith T.; Kovscek, Anthony R.

    1999-08-09

    Steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is an effective method of producing heavy oil and bitumen. In a typical SAGD approach, steam is injected into a horizontal well located directly above a horizontal producer. A steam chamber grows around the injection well and helps displace heated oil toward the production well. Single-well (SW) SAGD attempts to create a similar process using only one horizontal well. This may include steam injection from the toe of the horizontal well with production at the heel. Obvious advantages of SW-SAGD include cost savings and utility in relatively thin reservoirs. However, the process is technically challenging. To improve early-time response of SW-SAGD, it is necessary to heat the near-wellbore area to reduce oil viscosity and allow gravity drainage to take place. Ideally heating should occur with minimal circulation or bypassing of stream. Since project economics are sensitive to early production response, we are interested in optimizing the start -up procedure.

  3. Gesture Recognition Using Neural Networks Based on HW/SW Cosimulation Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Mekala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hardware/software (HW/SW cosimulation integrates software simulation and hardware simulation simultaneously. Usually, HW/SW co-simulation platform is used to ease debugging and verification for very large-scale integration (VLSI design. To accelerate the computation of the gesture recognition technique, an HW/SW implementation using field programmable gate array (FPGA technology is presented in this paper. The major contributions of this work are: (1 a novel design of memory controller in the Verilog Hardware Description Language (Verilog HDL to reduce memory consumption and load on the processor. (2 The testing part of the neural network algorithm is being hardwired to improve the speed and performance. The American Sign Language gesture recognition is chosen to verify the performance of the approach. Several experiments were carried out on four databases of the gestures (alphabet signs A to Z. (3 The major benefit of this design is that it takes only few milliseconds to recognize the hand gesture which makes it computationally more efficient.

  4. The novel sigma-2 receptor ligand SW43 stabilizes pancreas cancer progression in combination with gemcitabine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goedegebuure Peter

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sigma-2 receptors are over-expressed in proliferating cancer cells, making an attractive target for the targeted treatment of pancreatic cancer. In this study, we investigated the role of the novel sigma-2 receptor ligand SW43 to induce apoptosis and augment standard chemotherapy. Results The binding affinity for sigma-2 ligands is high in pancreas cancer, and they induce apoptosis with a rank order of SV119 in vitro. Combining these compounds with gemcitabine further increased apoptosis and decreased viability. Our in vivo model showed that sigma-2 ligand treatment decreased tumor volume to the same extent as gemcitabine. However, SW43 combination treatment with gemcitabine was superior to the other compounds and resulted in stabilization of tumor volume during treatment, with minimal toxicities. Conclusions This study shows that the sigma-2 ligand SW43 has the greatest capacity to augment gemcitabine in a pre-clinical model of pancreas cancer and has provided us with the rationale to move this compound forward with clinical investigations for patients with pancreatic cancer.

  5. Zircon LA-ICPMS geochronology of the Cornubian Batholith, SW England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neace, Erika R.; Nance, R. Damian; Murphy, J. Brendan; Lancaster, Penelope J.; Shail, Robin K.

    2016-06-01

    Available Usbnd Pb age data for the Cornubian Batholith of SW England is based almost entirely on monazite and xenotime, and very little zircon Usbnd Pb age data has been published. As a result, no zircon inheritance data is available for the batholith, by which the nature of the unexposed basement of the Rhenohercynian Zone in SW England might be constrained. Zircon LA-ICPMS data for the Cornubian Batholith provides Concordia ages (Bodmin Moor granite: 316 ± 4 Ma, Carnmenellis granite: 313 ± 3 Ma, Dartmoor granite: ~ 310 Ma, St. Austell granite: 305 ± 5 Ma, and Land's End granite: 300 ± 5 Ma) that are consistently 20-30 Ma older than previously published emplacement ages for the batholith and unrealistic in terms of geologic relative age relationships with respect to the country rock. This discrepancy is likely as a consequence of minor pre-granitic Pb inheritance. Several of the batholith's granite plutons contain a component of late-Devonian inheritance that may record rift-related, lower crustal melting or arc-related magmatism associated with subduction of the Rheic Ocean. In addition, the older granites likely contain Mesoproterozoic inheritance, although the highly discordant nature of the Mesoproterozoic ages precludes their use in assigning an affinity to the Rhenohercynian basement in SW England.

  6. γ-Tocotrienol induces paraptosis-like cell death in human colon carcinoma SW620 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Shu Zhang

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is one of the most serious illnesses among diagnosed cancer. As a new type of anti-cancer composition from tocotrienol-rich fraction of palm oil, γ-tocotrienol is widely used in anti-cancer research. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of γ-tocotrienol on human colon cancer SW620 and HCT-8 cells. We showed that treatment with different concentrations of γ-tocotrienol resulted in a dose dependent inhibition of cell growth. Cell death induced by γ-tocotrienol was mediated by a paraptosis-like cell death in SW620 and HCT-8 cells. Real-time RT-PCR and western blot analyses showed that γ-tocotrienol inhibited the expression level of β-catenin, cyclin D1 and c-jun. These data suggest that a paraptosis-like cell death induced by γ-tocotrienol in SW620 cells is associated with the suppression of the Wnt signaling pathway, which offers a novel tool for treating apoptosis-resistance colon cancer.

  7. HMGB1-mediated autophagy decreases sensitivity to oxymatrine in SW982 human synovial sarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yongsong; Xu, Peng; Yang, Le; Xu, Ke; Zhu, Jialin; Wu, Xiaoqing; Jiang, Congshan; Yuan, Qiling; Wang, Bo; Li, Yuanbo; Qiu, Yusheng

    2016-11-29

    Oxymatrine (OMT) is a type of alkaloid extracted from a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, Sophora flavescens. Although the antitumor activities of OMT have been observed in various cancers, there are no reports regarding the effects of OMT on human synovial sarcoma. In the present study, we analyzed the antitumor activities of OMT in SW982 human synovial sarcoma cells and determine whether high mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1)-mediated autophagy was associated with its therapeutic effects. We found that OMT exhibited antitumor activity in SW982 cells and facilitated increases in autophagy. Inhibition of autophagy by 3-MA or ATG7 siRNA increased the level of apoptosis, which indicated that OMT-induced autophagy protected cells from the cytotoxicity of OMT. Administration of OMT to SW982 cells increased the expression of HMGB1. When HMGB1 was inhibited via HMGB1-siRNA, OMT-induced autophagy was decreased, and apoptosis was increased. Furthermore, we found that HMGB1-siRNA significantly increased the expression of p-Akt and p-mTOR. OMT-induced autophagy may be mediated by the Akt/mTOR pathway, and HMGB1 plays a vital role in the regulation of autophagy. Therefore, we believe that combining OMT with an inhibitor of autophagy or HMGB1 may make OMT more effective in the treatment of human synovial sarcoma.

  8. Antibiofilm activity of Bacillus pumilus SW9 against initial biofouling on microfiltration membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Yu, Xin; Gong, Song; Ye, Chengsong; Fan, Zihong; Lin, Huirong

    2014-02-01

    Membrane biofouling, resulting from biofilm formation on the membrane, has become the main obstacle hindering wider application of membrane technology. Initial biofouling proves to be crucial which involves early stages of microbial adhesion and biofilm formation. Biological control of microbial attachment seems to be a promising strategy due to its high efficiency and eco-friendliness. The present study investigated the effects of a bacterium Bacillus pumilus SW9 on controlling the initial fouling formed by four target bacterial strains which were pioneer species responsible for biofouling in membrane bioreactors, using microfiltration membranes as the abiotic surfaces. The results suggested that strain SW9 exhibited excellent antibiofilm activity by decreasing the attached biomass of target strains. The production of extracellular polysaccharides and proteins by four target strains was also reduced. A distinct improvement of permeate flux in dead-end filtration systems was achieved when introducing strain SW9 to microfiltration experiments. Scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy were performed to further ascertain significant changes of the biofouling layers. A link between biofilm inhibition and initial biofouling mitigation was thus provided, suggesting an alternatively potential way to control membrane biofouling through bacterial interactions.

  9. Cretaceous to Quaternary Siliciclastic Sediments of the Tarfaya Basin, Marginal Atlantic, SW Morocco Petrography, Geochemistry, Provenance, Climate and Weathering

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Sajid

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is prepared to attain the doctorate under the title "Cretaceous to Quaternary Siliciclastic Sediments of the Tarfaya Basin, Marginal Atlantic, SW Morocco Petrography, Geochemistry, Provenance, Climate and Weathering".

  10. 番茄红素诱导人结肠癌SW480细胞凋亡的作用机制%Mechanism of Lycopene Induced Cell Apoptosis on Human Colon Cancer SW480 Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵其辉; 邱青朝; 胡波

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of Lycopene on the apoptosis of human colon cancer SW480 cells and the relevant molecular mechanism. Methods The anti-proliferative effect of a different concentration of Lycopene on SW480 cells was measured by MTT assay. Ratio of SW480 cells apoptosis was analyzed by flow cy-tometry. The levels of Bcl-2,Bax were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot. The expression levels of Caspase-9 and Caspase-3 were analyzed by Western blot. Results The MTT assay showed that Lycopene had potent anti-proliferative effect on SW480 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The IC50 value of Lycopene was SW480 cells treated with 1. 0 μmol/L Lycopene for 24 hours. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that Lycopene increased the percentage of apoptotic SW480 cells. The expression level of Bcl-2 were decreased, while the expression levels of Bax,Caspase-9 and Caspase-3 were increased significantly in SW480 cells treated with different concentrations of Lycopene. Conclusion Lycopene could induce apoptosis of SW480 cells by decreasing the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and increasing Caspase-9 and Caspase-3 expression.%目的 探讨番茄红素诱导人结肠癌SW480细胞凋亡的分子机制.方法 体外培养SW480细胞,采用MTT比色实验、流式细胞术、RT PCR和Western blot方法,分析番茄红素对SW480细胞的生长增殖作用、对细胞凋亡率的影响及对细胞凋亡相关分子Bcl-2、Bax、Caspase-9和Caspase-3表达的影响.结果 MTT法显示,番茄红素能显著抑制SW480细胞的生长增殖能力,且呈一定的量效与时效关系,24 h的半数抑制浓度(IC50)为1.0 μmol/L;流式细胞仪分析表明,番茄红素呈浓度依赖性诱导SW480细胞凋亡;RT PCR或Western blot分析表明,SW480细胞经不同浓度番茄红素诱导后,与溶媒组相比,Bcl-2表达逐渐减弱,而Bax,Caspase-9和Caspase-3表达逐渐增强,Bcl-2/Bax比值降低.结论 番茄红素对SW480细胞的抑制增殖作用,可能与降低Bcl-2/Bax

  11. Morphostructural characterization of the western edge of the Huila Plateau (SW Angola), based on remote sensing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Fernando Carlos; Pereira, Alcides José; Mantas, Vasco Manuel; Mpengo, Horácio Kativa

    2016-05-01

    Recognition of the main morphostructural features of the western edge of the Huila Plateau (SW Angola) can be done by using remote sensing techniques associated with field work. A digital elevation model (DEM) of the area was built for this purpose. This model is based on altimeter data acquired from the Aster sensor, on which image processing techniques such as enhancement techniques, contrast change and filtering were applied. Other techniques, such as RGB colour composition, were also tested. The processed satellite images were interpreted by visual process and the results were then compared with available geological maps (scale 1: 1 000 000). To facilitate both analysis and interpretation, the edge of the plateau was divided into three sectors: northern (or Chongoroi Edge), central (or Humpata Edge) and southern (or Oncocua Edge). For each sector, the main morphological aspects and main lineament systems were identified and characterized. In the specific case of the central sector, these parameters were also confirmed by field work. This study shows that the morphology of the western edge of the plateau is dominated by N50°W-N60°W, N60°E and N-S trending main tectonic systems. These results have important implications in terms of geological mapping and regional tectonics as well as in land-use planning and other areas, such as hydrogeology or geotechnics.

  12. Size of the fragment for crystal cluster SCF-X/sub /-SW calculations of alkaline earth metal oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobach, V.A.; Sobolev, A.B.; Shul' gin, B.V.

    Calculation of (A/sub x/B/sub y/) (x=1, 13; y=6, 14) clusters, corresponding to ideal crystals of alkaline earth metal oxides (AEMO) MgO, CaO, SrO by means of molecular cluster (MC) and crystal cluster (CC) SCF-X/sub /-SW method is carried out. MC method is not suitable for description of ideal AEMO electron structure due to long-range Coulomb interaction and potential cluster effect. Even in CC method at x < 13 and y < 14 (A/sub x/B/sub y/) cluster nonstoichiometry is inhibitory to the obtaining of satisfactory agreement with the experimental optical and X-ray spectra. (A13B14) and (B13A14) clusters satisfactorily reproduce partial composition of valence band (VB) and conduction band (CB), VB and CB widths, a fine structure of oxygen K-emission spectra in MgO and also experimental distribution of electron density. Sphere radii variation effect on the value of intersphere region error with muffin-tin averaging is considered.

  13. Production of ethanol from mesquite [Prosopis juliflora (SW) D.C.] pods mash by Zymomonas mobilis in submerged fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Celiane Gomes Maia da [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Domesticas; Andrade, Samara Alvachian Cardoso; Schuler, Alexandre Ricardo Pereira [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Souza, Evandro Leite de [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Nutricao; Stamford, Tania Lucia Montenegro [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Nutricao], E-mail: tlmstamford@yahoo.com.br

    2011-01-15

    Mesquite [Prosopis juliflora (SW) D.C.], a perennial tropical plant commonly found in Brazilian semi-arid region, is a viable raw material for fermentative processes because of its low cost and production of pods with high content of hydrolyzable sugars which generate many compounds, including ethanol. This study aimed to evaluate the use of mesquite pods as substrate for ethanol production by Z. mobilis UFPEDA- 205 in a submerged fermentation. The fermentation was assessed for rate of substrate yield to ethanol, rate of ethanol production and efficiency of fermentation. The very close theoretical (170 g L{sup -1}) and experimental (165 g L{sup -1}) maximum ethanol yields were achieved at 36 h of fermentation. The highest counts of Z. mobilis UFEPEDA-205 (both close to 6 Log cfu mL{sup -1}) were also noted at 36 h. Highest rates of substrate yield to ethanol (0.44 g ethanol g glucose{sup -1}), of ethanol production (4.69 g L{sup -1} h{sup -1}) and of efficiency of fermentation (86.81%) were found after 30 h. These findings suggest mesquite pods as an interesting substrate for ethanol production using submerged fermentation by Z. mobilis. (author)

  14. Surface and deep water carbon isotope record of the last one million years in the SW Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miriam, Cobianchi; Valeria, Luciani; Claudia, Lupi; Nicoletta, Mancin; Nicola, Pelosi; Mario, Sprovieri; Iacopo, Trattenero

    2010-05-01

    The Pleistocene carbon isotope record from the core MD 97-2114 (SW Pacific Ocean) is used to reconstruct the surface- and deep-water circulation variability during the last one million years. The analyzed core has been recovered from an IMAGES (International Marine Past Global Change Study) cruise, at 1,935 m water depth, on the north eastern slope of Chatham Rise (east of New Zealand). This region represents a key area for investigating the evolution during the Pleistocene of the biogeochemistry and dynamic of the southern oceanic fronts (Subtropical, Subantarctic, Polar Fronts). In fact, in this crucial area the largely wind-driven Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) interacts with the west Pacific Ocean circulation via Deep Western Boundary Current (DWBC) coming from the Antarctic region. The excellent record of the core MD 97-2114 offers a unique opportunity to investigate the climate and oceanographic evolution of the region at a millenarian time-scale by mean of a high-resolution chemostratigraphic, multi-proxy dataset. Moreover, quantitative data on the calcareous planktic and benthic microfossil record, integrated with the C and O isotope data performed both on planktic and benthic foraminiferal tests, allows to understand coupling or decoupling events between sea surface and bottom waters in terms of productivity, current activity and carbon export dynamics. The northward migration of the Polar Front during the Mid-Pleistocene Transition is particularly focalized for its potential effects on the primary productivity and on the carbon biological pump. This oceanographic event seems to be related to a variation in the volume of the DWBC like a response to changes in the water production from the Antarctic source, as already proposed in previous papers.

  15. A Multiwavelength Study of the Relativistic Tidal Disruption Candidate Sw J2058+05 at Late Times

    CERN Document Server

    Pasham, Dheeraj R; Levan, Andrew J; Bower, Geoffrey C; Horesh, Assaf; Brown, Gregory C; Dolan, Stephen; Wiersema, Klaas; Filippenko, Alexei V; Fruchter, Andrew S; Greiner, Jochen; Hounsell, Rebekah A; O'Brien, Paul T; Page, Kim L; Rau, Arne; Tanvir, Nial R

    2015-01-01

    ${\\it Swift}$ J2058.4+0516 (Sw J2058+05, hereafter) has been suggested as the second member (after Sw J1644+57) of the rare class of tidal disruption events accompanied by relativistic ejecta. Here we report a multiwavelength (X-ray, ultraviolet/optical/infrared, radio) analysis of Sw J2058+05 from 3 months to 3 yr post-discovery in order to study its properties and compare its behavior with that of Sw J1644+57. Our main results are as follows. (1) The long-term X-ray light curve of Sw J2058+05 shows a remarkably similar trend to that of Sw J1644+57. After a prolonged power-law decay, the X-ray flux drops off rapidly by a factor of $\\gtrsim 160$ within a span of $\\Delta$$t$/$t$ $\\le$ 0.95. Associating this sudden decline with the transition from super-Eddington to sub-Eddington accretion, we estimate the black hole mass to be in the range of $10^{4-6}$ M$_{\\odot}$. (2) We detect rapid ($\\lesssim 500$ s) X-ray variability before the dropoff, suggesting that, even at late times, the X-rays originate from close ...

  16. Virosecurinine induces apoptosis by affecting Bcl-2 and Bax expression in human colon cancer SW480 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuan-Rong; Xia, Yong-Hui; Yao, Shu-Yan; Zhang, Qing; Wang, Ying; Ji, Zhao-Ning

    2012-04-01

    Virosecurinine, the major alkaloid isolated from Securinega suffruticosa Pall Rehd was found to exhibit growth inhibition and cytotoxicity against huaman colon cancer SW480 cells via the microculture tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Due to its greater cytotoxic potency and selectivity towards SW480 cells, flow cytometry was used to analyze the cell cycle distribution of control and treated SW480 cells whereas Annexin V-FITC/PI flow cytometry analysis was carried out to confirm apoptosis induced by virosecurinine in SW480 cells. Apoptotic regulatory genes were determined by RT-PCR analysis. Virosecurinine was found to induce G1/S cell cycle arrest which led to predominantly apoptotic mode of cell death. Mechanistically, virosecurinine was found to up-regulated the Bax gene expression and down-regulated the Bcl-2 expression in SW480, The ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax was significantly decreased. Hence, we suggest that virosecurinine induced apoptosis in SW480 cells by affecting the expression of bcl-2 and bax.

  17. Assessing the environmental sensitivity to land degradation. A validation of the MEDALUS method in SW Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavado Contador, J. F.; Schnabel, S.; Gómez Gutiérrez, A.; Pulido Fernández, M.

    2009-04-01

    In places where drought is one of the main climatic constraints, land degradation and desertification can take place if soils have suffered from a loss of biological production and resilience caused by both, natural and anthropogenic factors. It is important to identify such sensitive areas and to describe the driving forces leading to land degradation in order to properly understand the phenomenon. The main goal of this work is to identify places with different sensitivity to land degradation in Extremadura (Spain) by means of a modeling approach developed in the European Commission funded MEDALUS project (Mediterranean Desertification Land Use) (Kosmas et al., 1999), which identifies such areas on the basis of an index (ESA index, Environmental Sensitive Area index) in which environmental quality (climate, vegetation, soil) as well as anthropogenic factors (management) are included. A geographical information system approach was applied in this study. Sensitivity to degradation is analyzed by combining four quality indexes (soil, climate, vegetation and management). The first three giving information about environmental conditions and the later about man-related factors. Each of those quality indexes result from averaging several parameters involved in their calculation. The study area covered the whole region of the Extremadura (41.633 km²), located in the SW Iberian Peninsula. For the classification of soil cover classes, the CORINE land cover 2000 maps were used and reclassified according to the requirements. Some information was also gathered from the National Forest Inventory. A digital elevation model of 25 m pixel size was used to calculate terrain slope and aspect and the climate data were obtained from the Digital Climatic Atlas of the Iberian Peninsula. Two maps of environmental sensitivity to land degradation with different legend resolution (4 and 8 classes) were established and tested by comparing the results obtained (classes of sensitivity) with

  18. Timing of Svecofennian crustal growth and collisional tectonics in Åland, SW Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Ehlers

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to quantify the time parameter in the tectonomagmatic evolution of what has been called the Southern Svecofennian Arc Complex (SSAC of SW Finland, advanced radiometric dating techniques have here been applied to rock groups of key importance in that area. In this paper we report the results of 131 high-resolution ionmicroprobe spot analyses (SIMS of zircons, and 33 measurements using isotope dilution mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS on zircon, monazite and titanite, and employing both large-sample multi-grain as well as single-grain techniques. The Torsholma area of the Åland archipelago, situated between southern Finland and central Sweden, is a key structural area significant to resolve the time dimension in Svecofennian tectonics. There a collage of imbricated rock slabs was formed by tectonic shortening representing the culmination of large-scale penetrative Svecofennian deformation. Another structurally significant feature investigated is the South FinlandShear Zone (SFSZ that transects the southwest-Finnish archipelago and further east follows the southern coast of Finland. This shear zone forms the southern limit of the c. 1830 Ma Late Svecofennian Granite and Migmatite Zone (LSGM and also features deformations of a later stage when the considered region of Svecofennian crust was consolidated. The obtained age results and their tectonic analysis can be summarized as follows. The Enklinge volcanic sequence (1885±6 Ma is within error limits coeval with the intrusion of abundant early-kinematic gneissose granodiorites whose average age of 1884±5 Ma marks the formation of new crust in this region. Some of these geisses contain a significant amount of 2000–2080 Ma zircon. Although many Svecofennian granitoids are known to contain heterogeneous zircon populations, mainly formed c. 1890 Ma ago but also containing an inherited component, the Kökar gneiss is, to the best of our knowledge, the first case where inheritance from c. 2030

  19. Development of a locus-specific, co-dominant SCAR marker for assisted-selection of the Sw-5 (Tospovirus resistance) gene cluster in a wide range of tomato accessions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dianese, E.C.; Fonseca, M.E.N.; Goldbach, R.W.; Kormelink, R.J.M.; Inoue-Nagata, A.K.; Resende, de R.O.; Boiteux, L.S.

    2010-01-01

    The best levels of broad-spectrum Tospovirus resistance reported in tomatoes thus far are conferred by the Sw-5 locus. This locus contains at least five paralogues (denoted Sw-5a through Sw-5e), of which Sw-5b represents the actual resistance gene. Here we evaluated a panel of seven PCR primer pairs

  20. EFFECTS OF HYDROXYCAMPTOTHECIN ON THE MIGRATION OF HUMAN ADRENOEORTICAL CARCINOMA CELL LINE SW-13%羟喜树碱对人肾上腺皮质癌SW-13细胞迁移的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴峰萍张劼通讯; 罗佐杰文静梁杏欢

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of HCPT on the migration of human adrenoeortical carcinoma cel line SW-13.Method SW-13 cel were culutured and the same cels were studied,which were randomly divided into there groops:The 0.8ug/mlHCPT intervention group and negative control group. The migration ability of SW-13 was measured by non-migration area.The size of the non-migration area was photographed at 0,48h and analyzed with the Image pro plus 6 software.Results At 48 hour, the non-migration area percentage in the experimental group were larger than negative Control .Conlusions HCPT could inhibit the migration ability of SW-13 cels. Objective To investigate the effects of HCPT on the migration of human adrenoeortical carcinoma cel line SW-13.Method SW-13 cel were culutured and the same cels were studied,which were randomly divided into there groops:The 0.8ug/mlHCPT intervention group and negative control group. The migration ability of SW-13 was measured by non-migration area.The size of the non-migration area was photographed at 0,48h and analyzed with the Image pro plus 6 software.Results At 48 hour, the non-migration area percentage in the experimental group were larger than negative Control .Conlusions HCPT could inhibit the migration ability of SW-13 cels.%  目的:观察羟喜树碱对人肾上腺皮质癌SW-13细胞迁移的影响。方法:体外培养人肾上腺皮质癌SW-13细胞,取对数生长期细胞(同一代)进行实验,随机分为羟喜树碱干预组和对照组,干预组加入0.8ug/ml羟喜树碱。细胞划痕试验观察SW-13细胞的体外迁移力,分别在0h、48h拍照观察,应用Image pro plus 6软件处理分析结果。结果:1、光镜下可见羟喜树碱干预组SW-13细胞未迁移面积大于对照组;2、羟喜树碱干预组SW-13细胞的未迁移率大于对照组(P=0.000)。结论:羟喜树碱有可能降低人肾上腺皮质癌SW-13细胞侵袭、迁移的能力。

  1. Functional characterization of a novel lytic phage EcSw isolated from Sus scrofa domesticus and its potential for phage therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easwaran, Maheswaran; Paudel, Sarita; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Shin, Hyun-Jin

    2015-06-01

    In this study, multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli Sw1 (E. coli Sw1) and active lytic phage EcSw was isolated from feces samples of Sus scrofa domesticus (piglet) suffering from diarrhea. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that isolated EcSw belongs to the Myoviridae family with an icosahedral head (80 ± 4) and a long tail (180 ± 5 nm). The EcSw phage genome size was estimated to be approximately 75 Kb of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). Phage dynamic studies show that the latent period and burst size of EcSw were approximately 20 min and 28 PFU per cell, respectively. Interestingly, the EcSw phage can tolerate a wide range of environmental conditions, such as temperature, pH and ions (Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)). Furthermore, genome sequence analysis revealed that the lytic genes of the EcSw phage are notably similar to those of enterobacteria phages. In addition, phage-antibiotic synergy has notable effects compared with the effects of phages or antibiotics alone. Inhibition of E. coli Sw1 and 0157:H7 strains showed that the limitations of host specificity and infectivity of EcSw. Even though, it has considerable potential for phage therapy for handling the problem of the emergence of multidrug resistant pathogens.

  2. Neoproterozoic geodynamic evolution of SW-Gondwana: a southern African perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimmel, H. E.; Basei, M. S.; Gaucher, C.

    2011-04-01

    Our current understanding of the tectonic history of the principal Pan-African orogenic belts in southwestern Africa, reaching from the West Congo Belt in the north to the Lufilian/Zambezi, Kaoko, Damara, Gariep and finally the Saldania Belt in the south, is briefly summarized. On that basis, possible links with tectono-stratigraphic units and major structures on the eastern side of the Río de la Plata Craton are suggested, and a revised geodynamic model for the amalgamation of SW-Gondwana is proposed. The Río de la Plata and Kalahari Cratons are considered to have become juxtaposed already by the end of the Mesoproterozoic. Early Neoproterozoic rifting led to the fragmentation of the northwestern (in today's coordinates) Kalahari Craton and the splitting off of several small cratonic blocks. The largest of these ex-Kalahari cratonic fragments is probably the Angola Block. Smaller fragments include the Luis Alves and Curitiba microplates in eastern Brazil, several basement inliers within the Damara Belt, and an elongate fragment off the western margin, named Arachania. The main suture between the Kalahari and the Congo-São Francisco Cratons is suspected to be hidden beneath younger cover between the West Congo Belt and the Lufilian/Zambezi Belts and probably continues westwards via the Cabo Frío Terrane into the Goiás magmatic arc along the Brasilia Belt. Many of the rift grabens that separated the various former Kalahari cratonic fragments did not evolve into oceanic basins, such as the Northern Nosib Rift in the Damara Belt and the Gariep rift basin. Following latest Cryogenian/early Ediacaran closure of the Brazilides Ocean between the Río de la Plata Craton and the westernmost fragment of the Kalahari Craton, the latter, Arachania, became the locus of a more than 1,000-km-long continental magmatic arc, the Cuchilla Dionisio-Pelotas Arc. A correspondingly long back-arc basin (Marmora Basin) on the eastern flank of that arc is recognized, remnants of which

  3. Prokaryotic diversity in the extreme lakes of Turkey, SW Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Cansu; Gül Karagüler, Nevin; Menekşe-Kılıç, Meryem; Akçer-Ön, Sena; Haydar Gültekin, A.; Balcı, Nurgül

    2016-04-01

    The Lake District, located in the SW Anatolia region of Turkey, hosts a number of lakes with unique water chemistry. Among them, Lake Acigol, Lake Salda and Lake Yarisli display extreme biogeochemical conditions. In terms of their water chemistry and diverse prokaryotic community, each lake sets a great example for microbially mediated reactions (e.g carbonate precipitation). Lake Acigol (average pH around 8.6) is known for hypersaline and alkaline water chemistry. Lake Salda (average pH around 9.1) is known for its hydromagnesite beaches, clayey-hydromagnesite shoreline and ancient-modern stromatolite formations as well as being a model for Mars. For the first time, Lake Yarisli having alkaline conditions with an average pH value of 9.5 is investigated for its geochemistry and geobiology during this study. Algal bloom and well developed cyanobacterial mats are visible on shallow waters along the Eastern shoreline of the lake. In scope of elucidating complex bio/geochemical reactions that regulate C, S and O cycles in the extreme conditions of these lakes, water, surface sediment and shallow core samples were collected. For the first time, prokaryotic diversity of Lake Acigol, Salda and Yarisli were determined by Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) during this study (Balci et al., 2013). Preliminary results revealed the total number of bacterial classes determined for Lake Acigol, Lake Salda and Lake Yarisli as 22, 19 and 19; respectively. Lake Acigol, Salda and Yarisli are mostly dominated by bacterial classes of Alphaproteobacteria (68.2%, 25.6% and 1.9%; respectively), Cyanobacteria (10.2%, 5.3% and 92.9%; respectively), Bacilli (9.6%, 23.7% and 0.45%; respectively), Gammaproteobacteria (6.1%, 39.6% and 4.3%; respectively) and Actinobacteria (2.7%, 1.8% and 0.06%; respectively). The total number of archaeal classes determined for Lake Acigol, Lake Salda and Lake Yarisli are 8, 7 and 6; respectively. Common most dominant archaeal classes of Lake Acigol, Lake Salda

  4. Investigating migration inhibition and apoptotic effects of Fomitopsis pinicola chloroform extract on human colorectal cancer SW-480 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqin Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fomitopsis pinicola (Sw. Ex Fr.m Karst (FPK which belongs to the Basidiomycota fungal class is one of the most popular medical fungi in China. It has been used for many diseases: cancer, heart diseases, diabetes and so on. However, little study on the pro-apoptotic effect and migration inhibition of FPK chloroform extract (FPKc has been reported and the possible involved mechanism has not been illuminated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Chemical analysis was performed by HPLC which showed ergosterol (ES concentration was 105 µg/mg. MTT assay revealed that FPKc could selectively inhibit SW-480 cells viability with the IC50 of 190.28 µg/ml. Wound healing and transwell assay indicated that FPKc could inhibit the migration of SW-480 cells obviously, FPKc could also dramatically decreased the matrix metalloproteinases-2, 9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression. Annexin V-FITC/PI staining, nuclear Hoechst 33342 staining and DNA fragmentation analysis revealed that FPKc and ES could induce SW-480 cells apoptosis. The apoptosis process closely involved in ROS accumulation and depletion of GSH, activation of caspase 3, poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP degradation. FPKc could also up-regulate P53 expression and thus lead to G1 phase arrest. When SW-480 cells were pretreated with N-acetylcysteine (NAC, the ROS generation, cell viability and apoptotic ratio were partially declined, which indicated that ROS was vertical in the pro-apoptosis process induced by FPKc. Moreover, in the whole process, ES which has been previously found in FPKc had the similar effect to FPKc. Thus we could conclude that ES, as one of the highest abundant components in FPKc, might also be one of the active constituents. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: FPKc could inhibit the migration of SW-480 cells, induce SW-480 cells G1 phase arrest and cause ROS-mediated apoptosis effect. And ES might be one of the effective constituents in the whole process.

  5. The Role of Biodiversity, Traditional Knowledge and Participatory Plant Breeding in Climate Change Adaptation in Karst Mountain Areas in SW China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yiching; Li, Jingsong [Center for Chinese Agricultural Policy (China)

    2011-07-15

    This is a report of a country case study on the impacts of climate change and local people's adaptation. The research sites are located in the karst mountainous region in 3 SW China provinces - Guangxi, Guizhou and Yunnan – an area inhabited by 33 ethnic groups of small farmers and the poor, with rich Plant Genetic Resources (PGR) and culture. Climate change is exacerbating already harsh natural conditions and impacting on biodiversity of remote farmers living in extreme poverty, with very limited arable land. Genetic diversity has also suffered from the adoption of high yielding hybrids. Yet traditional varieties, related TK and Participatory Plant Breeding (PPB) for maize and rice are showing real potential for resilience and adaptation.

  6. Hydrography and climate of the last 4,400 years in a SW Greenland fjord – implications for Labrador Sea palaeoceanography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Aagaard-Sørensen, Steffen; Sulsbrück, Henrik;

    2007-01-01

    the final termination of the Holocene Thermal Maximum. After the onset of the ‘Neoglaciation’ at app. 3.2 ka cal. BP, the fjord system was subject to a number of marked hydrographical changes that were closely linked to the general climatic and oceanographic development of the Labrador Sea and the North......A multiproxy record including benthic foraminifera, diatoms and XRF data of a marine sediment core from a SW Greenland fjord provides a detailed reconstruction of the oceanographic and climatic variations of the region during the last 4,400 cal. years. The lower part of our record represents...... Water decreased significantly during warm episodes such as the ‘Mediaeval Warm Period’ and the ‘Roman Warm Period’. Whereas the Mediaeval Warm Period was characterised by relatively cool climate as suggested by low melt-water production, the preceding Dark Ages display higher melt-water runoff...

  7. 芝麻素对人结肠癌SW480细胞株的影响%The effect of sesamin on human’s colon cancer SW480 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙方博; 白金权; 王瑶; 赵斌; 佟瑶瑶; 张晓霞

    2015-01-01

    目的探讨芝麻素对人结肠癌 SW480细胞株的作用及机制。方法 MTT 比色法检测芝麻素对SW480增殖抑制率的变化,确定半数抑制浓度( IC50);倒置显微镜下观察芝麻素作用SW480后形态学变化;流式细胞术行Annexin-FITC/PI 双染法检测细胞早期凋亡率;通过免疫细胞化学染色方法观察 caspase-3和caspase-8的表达。结果芝麻素作用SW480产生增殖抑制现象;镜下观察芝麻素作用SW480使其体积缩小,皱缩变圆,贴壁不牢,视野中细胞凋亡明显;芝麻素组与对照组相比细胞早期凋亡率具有统计学意义,( P <0.01);芝麻素作用SW480后caspase-3和caspase-8的表达较对照组显著,具有统计学意义,(P<0.01)。结论芝麻素作用人结肠癌SW480细胞株呈现出增殖抑制作用,具有浓度依赖性;增值抑制作用的机制可能与激活caspase家族成员有关。%Objective To investigate the effect of Sesamin on human’s colon cancer SW480 cells and its mechanism. Methods MTT colorimetry was employed to determine the median inhibitory concentration ( IC50 ) and observe the influence of Sesamin on SW480 cells’ proliferation. SW480’s morphological changes were observed under the micro-scope. Annexin-FITC/PI double staining was used to detect the cells’ apoptosis rate. The expression of caspase-3 and caspase-8 were observed by the immunohistochemical staining. Results Seatrain inhibited the proliferation of SW480;SW480'volume shrinks and becomes round,while the phenomenon of apoptosis was clear. Compared with the control group,the Sesamin group’s early apoptosis rate is statistically significant (P <0. 01) and the expression of caspase-3 and caspase-8 was more significant ( P <0 . 01 ) . Conclusion Sesamin could inhibit the proliferation of SW480 in a dose-depend manner and its mechanism may be concerned in the activation of caspase family members.

  8. 冬凌草甲素对胰腺癌SW1990细胞的抑制作用及机制%Inhibiting effect of oridonin on human pancreatic cancer cell line SW1990 and its mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文兰; 付彩文; 付文浩; 柳树芳; 王姝莲; 程三芳

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨冬凌草甲素对人胰腺癌SW1990细胞增殖的抑制作用及其作用机制。方法以10、20、40μmol/L不同浓度冬凌草甲素( Ori)作用于胰腺癌SW1990细胞,采用CCK-8检测胰腺癌SW1990细胞增殖情况;流式细胞仪检测细胞周期及凋亡情况;RT-PCR法检测Survivin、p21基因mRNA表达水平。结果不同浓度的Ori作用于胰腺癌SW1990细胞1、2、3 d后,胰腺癌SW1990细胞增殖抑制程度不等,药物浓度越高,抑制程度越高,两者间具有明显剂量与时间依赖性。0、10、20、40μmol/L的冬凌草甲素作用于胰腺癌SW1990细胞24 h后,凋亡率分别为0.87%±0.65%、1.85%±1.02%、5.38%±0.15%和16.60%±0.50%,出现明显的G2/M期周期阻滞。与对照组相比,10、20、40μmol/L的Ori作用于SW1990细胞24 h后,p21 mRNA表达增加,而Survivin mRNA表达下降。结论冬凌草甲素通过诱导凋亡和G2/M期周期阻滞来实现对胰腺癌SW1990细胞增殖的抑制作用,其机制可能与Survivin和p21调节信号有关。%Objective To investigate the inhibit effect of oridonin on human pancreatic cancer cell line SW1990 and its mechanism. Methods SW1990 cells were induced with different concentrations (10,20,40 μmol/L) of oridonin,the proliferation of SW1990 cells were detected by CCK-8;cell cycle and apoptosis were measured by flow cytometry; RT-PCR assay was used to detect the expression level of survivin and p21 gene mRNA. Results Different concentrations of oridonin inhibited SW1990 cells proliferation in a time-and dose-dependent manner after 1d,2 d,3 d. Oridonin at 0,10,20,40 μmol/L caused obvious cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase,and 24 h apoptosis rate were 0. 87%± 0. 65%、1. 85% ± 1. 02%,5. 38% ± 0. 15% and 16. 60% ± 0. 50%. Compared with control group,p21 mRNA ex-pression increased,while Survivin mRNA expression decreased. Conclusion Oridonin inhibits SW1990 cells prolifera-tion by inducing apoptosis and arresting G2/M phase cycle

  9. High-resolution seafloor features related to potential gas-hydrate formation off SW Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, S.; Tsai, C.; Chen, S.; Shih, T.

    2010-12-01

    The area off SW Taiwan is considered as a high potential area for gas-hydrate formation. The gas-hydrate signature is indicated by the abundant presence of BSR (Bottom-Simulating-Reflector). High methane concentration is also shown in the bottom water near the seafloor. To have a better understanding, we have conducted deep-towed survey of side-scan sonar and sub-bottom profiler in several potential areas. Pockmarks are found in several places. Some are related to gas seeping. The gas seeps are especially obvious in high-resolution sub-bottom profilers. The high pore-pressure due to the charging of the gas has clearly uplifted a top layer of sediments. The pockmarks area usually accompany the presence of authigenic carbonate. In the image of side-scan sonar data, the irregular patterns of strong backscatter signal are associated with the gas seeping or pockmark sites. The presence of pockmarks or gas seeps could be related to structural faults. Because the NW convergence of the Philippine Sea plate relative to the Eurasian plate, the area off SW Taiwan in fact is under compression and has caused folds and faults. These structural faults provide efficient conduits for fluid to migrate upward. Thus, the pockmarks frequently appear near faults. In the water depth of about 450m, the upward gas even goes into water column and creates clear gas plume image in EK 500 data. The gas is inferred to be dissociated from gas-hydrate and can get into the atmosphere. The dissociation of gas-hydrate has probably also induced the instability of the seafloor off SW Taiwan and cuased submarine landslides.

  10. The Influence of SW-GW Exchange on Whole Stream Metabolism Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seybold, E. C.; McGlynn, B. L.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, the dynamic connection between SW-GW has been documented across a wide range of aquatic ecosystems. However this appreciation for dynamic GW exchange has not yet been fully incorporated into our interpretation and quantification of stream ecological processes. To address this, we explored the influence of GW exchange on estimates of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) in real time over 4 months in a snowmelt-dominated catchment in Montana. We examine how metabolism varied seasonally, and assess how the relationship between GW exchange and in-stream processes evolved over the snowmelt-baseflow recession. Traditional 1-station metabolism methods do not fully incorporate hydrologic information into NEP estimates. They are generally insensitive to variation in discharge, and do not incorporate travel times or account for GW exchange. Here we demonstrate that failing to account for both gains and losses can bias NEP estimates and fluxes, particularly in systems with high rates of GW exchange. At our site, accounting for GW exchange during high flow conditions when GW-SW exchange was highest increased instantaneous NEP rates by 2.6 times. Over the entire growing season, this led to a 2.4-fold increase in cumulative growing season NEP. Ecosystem metabolism is a biologically mediated process that is often obfuscated by physical hydrological processes. In order to assess the magnitudes of biotic processes, we must first disentangle them from co-occurring physical processes. We demonstrate that SW-GW exchange is an influential physical process that exerts a strong influence on metabolism estimates. We posit that incorporating GW into metabolism methods will influence NEP estimates across a wide range of systems, particularly those with high rates of exchange or strong seasonality in gains and losses. Incorporating hydrology more fully into stream ecological methods is necessary for accurate understanding and quantification of carbon cycling in streams.

  11. Seismic and gravity constraints on the nature of the basement in the Africa-Eurasia plate boundary: New insights for the geodynamic evolution of the SW Iberian margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Loriente, Sara; Sallarès, Valentí; Gràcia, Eulàlia; Bartolome, Rafael; Dañobeitia, Juan José; Zitellini, Nevio

    2014-01-01

    We present a new classification of geological domains at the Africa-Eurasia plate boundary off SW Iberia, together with a regional geodynamic reconstruction spanning from the Mesozoic extension to the Neogene-to-present-day convergence. It is based on seismic velocity and density models along a new transect running from the Horseshoe to the Seine abyssal plains, which is combined with previously available geophysical models from the region. The basement velocity structure at the Seine Abyssal Plain indicates the presence of a highly heterogeneous, thin oceanic crust with local high-velocity anomalies possibly representing zones related to the presence of ultramafic rocks. The integration of this model with previous ones reveals the presence of three oceanic domains offshore SW Iberia: (1) the Seine Abyssal Plain domain, generated during the first stages of slow seafloor spreading in the NE Central Atlantic (Early Jurassic); (2) the Gulf of Cadiz domain, made of oceanic crust generated in the Alpine-Tethys spreading system between Iberia and Africa, which was coeval with the formation of the Seine Abyssal Plain domain and lasted up to the North Atlantic continental breakup (Late Jurassic); and (3) the Gorringe Bank domain, made of exhumed mantle rocks, which formed during the first stages of North Atlantic opening. Our models suggest that the Seine Abyssal Plain and Gulf of Cadiz domains are separated by the Lineament South strike-slip fault, whereas the Gulf of Cadiz and Gorringe Bank domains appear to be limited by a deep thrust fault located at the center of the Horseshoe Abyssal Plain.

  12. Abnormal number cell division of human thyroid anaplastic carcinoma cell line, SW 1736

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichi Ikeda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cell division, during which a mother cell usually divides into two daughter cells during one cell cycle, is the most important physiological event of cell biology. We observed one-to-four cell division during imaging of live SW1736 human thyroid anaplastic carcinoma cells transfected with a plasmid expressing the hybrid protein of green fluorescent protein and histone 2B (plasmid eGFP-H2B. Analysis of the images revealed a mother cell divided into four daughter cells. And one of the abnormally divided daughter cells subsequently formed a dinucleate cell.

  13. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits proliferation and migration of human colon cancer SW620 cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang ZHOU; long ZHOU; Ting WANG; Yuan MU; Biao WU; Dong-lin GUO; Xian-mei ZHANG; Ying WU

    2012-01-01

    Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the major polyphenolic constituent in green tea.The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of EGCG on proliferation and migration of the human colon cancer SW620 cells.Methods:Proliferation and migration of SW620 cells were induced by the protease-activated receptor 2-agonist peptide (PAR2-AP,100 μmol/L) or factor Vlla (10 nmol/L),and analyzed using MTT and Transwell assays,respectively.The cellular cytoskeleton was stained with rhodamine-conjugated phalloidin and examined with a laser scanning confocal fluorescence microscope.The expression of caspase-7,tissue factor (TF) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 in the cells was examined using QT-PCR,ELISA and Western blot assays.The activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-KB) signaling pathways was analyzed with Western blot.Results:Both PAR2-AP and factor Vlla promoted SW620 cell proliferation and migration,and caused cytoskeleton reorganization (increased filopodia and pseudopodia).Pretreatment with EGCG (25,50,75,and 100 μg/mL) dose-dependently blocked the cell proliferation and migration induced by PAR2-AP or factor Vlla.EGCG (100 μg/mL) prevented the cytoskeleton changes induced by PAR2-AP or factor Vlla.EGCG (100 μg/mL) counteracted the down-regulation of caspase-7 expression and up-regulation of TF and MMP-9 expression in the cells treated with PAR2-AP or factor Vlla.Furthermore,it blocked the activation of ERK1/2 and NF-κB (p65/RelA) induced by PAR2-AP or factor Vlla.Conclusion:EGCG blocks the proliferation and migration of SW620 cells induced by PAR2-AP and factor Vlla via inhibition of the ERK1/2 and NF-KB pathways.The compound may serve as a preventive and therapeutic agent for colon cancers.

  14. Kinky thresholds revisited: opportunity costs differ in the NE and SW quadrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckermann, Simon

    2015-02-01

    Historically, a kinked threshold line on the cost-effectiveness plane at the origin was suggested due to differences in willingness to pay (WTP) for health gain with trade-offs in the north-east (NE) quadrant versus willingness to accept (WTA) cost reductions for health loss with trade-offs in the south-west (SW) quadrant. Empirically, WTA is greater than WTP for equivalent units of health, a finding supported by loss aversion under prospect theory. More recently, appropriate threshold values for health effects have been shown to require an endogenous consideration of the opportunity cost of alternative actions in budget-constrained health systems, but also allocative and displacement inefficiency observed in health system practice. Allocative and displacement inefficiency arise in health systems where the least cost-effective program in contraction has a higher incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER = m) than the most cost-effective program in expansion (ICER = n) and displaced services (ICER = d), respectively. The health shadow price derived by Pekarsky, [Formula: see text] reflects the opportunity cost of best alternative adoption and financing actions in reimbursing new technology with expected incremental costs and net effect allowing for allocative (n < m), and displacement, inefficiency (d < m). This provides an appropriate threshold value for the NE quadrant. In this paper, I show that for trade-offs in the SW quadrant, where new strategies have lower expected net cost while lower expected net effect than current practice, the opportunity cost is contraction of the least cost-effective program, with threshold ICER m. That is, in the SW quadrant, the cost reduction per unit of decreased effect should be compared with the appropriate opportunity cost, best alternative generation of funding. Consequently, appropriate consideration of opportunity cost produces a kink in the threshold at the origin, with the health shadow price in the NE quadrant

  15. SW Sex stars, old novae, and the evolution of cataclysmic variables

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidtobreick, Linda

    2014-01-01

    The population of cataclysmic variables with orbital periods right above the period gap are dominated by systems with extremely high mass transfer rates, the so-called SW Sextantis stars. On the other hand, some old novae in this period range which are expected to show high mass transfer rate instead show photometric and/or spectroscopic resemblance to low mass transfer systems like dwarf novae. We discuss them as candidates for so-called hibernating systems, CVs that changed their mass transfer behaviour due to a previously experienced nova outburst. This paper is designed to provide input for further research and discussion as the results as such are still very preliminary.

  16. Strangelet search in S-W collisions at 200 A.GeV/c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appelquist, G.; Baglin, C.; Bohm, C.; Borer, K.; Bussiere, A.; Elsener, K.; Dittus, F.; Frei, D.; Guillaud, J.P.; Hovander, B.; Klingenberg, R.; Lohmann, K.D.; Hugentobler, E.; Moser, U.; Pretzl, K.; Schacher, J.; Sellden, B.; Stoffel, F.; Volken, W.; Zhang, Q.P. [Bern Univ. (Switzerland)]|[CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)]|[LAPP, CNRS-IN2P3, Annecy-le-Vieux (France)]|[Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)

    1994-01-03

    We have searched for new massive particles with a low charge to mass ratio in S-W collisions at a beam momentum of 200 GeV/c per nucleon. Upper limits for the production of strangelets with a mass to charge ratio up to 60 GeV/c{sup 2} at rigidities of {+-}150 GV are reported. This study was done with a test setup using as a spectrometer the H{sub 6}-beamline in the north area at CERN. (orig.)

  17. Disk-Anchored Magnetic Propellers - A Cure for the SW Sex Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Horne, Keith

    1999-01-01

    In AE Aqr, magnetic fields transfer energy and angular momentum from a rapidly spinning white dwarf to material in the gas stream from the companion star, with the effect of spinning down the white dwarf while flinging the gas stream material out of the binary system. This magnetic propeller produces a host of observable signatures, chief among which are broad single-peaked flaring emission lines with phase-shifted orbital kinematics. SW Sex stars have accretion disks, but also broad single-p...

  18. Chronic Hypertension Leads to Neurodegeneration in the TgSwDI Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruyer, Anna; Soplop, Nadine; Strickland, Sidney; Norris, Erin H

    2015-07-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies link vascular disorders, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and stroke, with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Hypertension, specifically, is an important modifiable risk factor for late-onset AD. To examine the link between midlife hypertension and the onset of AD later in life, we chemically induced chronic hypertension in the TgSwDI mouse model of AD in early adulthood. Hypertension accelerated cognitive deficits in the Barnes maze test (Phypertension induced hippocampal neurodegeneration at an early age in this mouse line (43% reduction in the dorsal subiculum; P<0.05), establishing this as a useful research model of AD with mixed vascular and amyloid pathologies.

  19. The formation of lipid droplets favors intracellular Mycobacterium leprae survival in SW-10, non-myelinating Schwann cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Song-Hyo; An, Sung-Kwan

    2017-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease that is caused by the obligate intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium leprae (M.leprae), which is the leading cause of all non-traumatic peripheral neuropathies worldwide. Although both myelinating and non-myelinating Schwann cells are infected by M.leprae in patients with lepromatous leprosy, M.leprae preferentially invades the non-myelinating Schwann cells. However, the effect of M.leprae infection on non-myelinating Schwann cells has not been elucidated. Lipid droplets (LDs) are found in M.leprae-infected Schwann cells in the nerve biopsies of lepromatous leprosy patients. M.leprae-induced LD formation favors intracellular M.leprae survival in primary Schwann cells and in a myelinating Schwann cell line referred to as ST88-14. In the current study, we initially characterized SW-10 cells and investigated the effects of LDs on M.leprae-infected SW-10 cells, which are non-myelinating Schwann cells. SW-10 cells express S100, a marker for cells from the neural crest, and NGFR p75, a marker for immature or non-myelinating Schwann cells. SW-10 cells, however, do not express myelin basic protein (MBP), a marker for myelinating Schwann cells, and myelin protein zero (MPZ), a marker for precursor, immature, or myelinating Schwann cells, all of which suggests that SW-10 cells are non-myelinating Schwann cells. In addition, SW-10 cells have phagocytic activity and can be infected with M. leprae. Infection with M. leprae induces the formation of LDs. Furthermore, inhibiting the formation of M. leprae-induced LD enhances the maturation of phagosomes containing live M.leprae and decreases the ATP content in the M. leprae found in SW-10 cells. These facts suggest that LD formation by M. leprae favors intracellular M. leprae survival in SW-10 cells, which leads to the logical conclusion that M.leprae-infected SW-10 cells can be a new model for investigating the interaction of M.leprae with non-myelinating Schwann cells. PMID:28636650

  20. Identification of the Novel TMEM16A Inhibitor Dehydroandrographolide and Its Anticancer Activity on SW620 Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujie Sui

    Full Text Available TMEM16A, a calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC, is highly amplified and expressed in human cancers and is involved in the growth and metastasis of some malignancies. Inhibition of TMEM16A represents a novel pharmaceutical approach for the treatment of cancers and metastases. The purpose of this study is to identify a new TMEM16A inhibitor, investigate the effects of this inhibitor on the proliferation and metastasis of TMEM16A-amplified SW620 cells, and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism in vitro. We identified a novel small-molecule TMEM16A inhibitor dehydroandrographolide (DP. By using patch clamp electrophysiology, we showed that DP inhibited TMEM16A chloride currents in Fisher rat thyroid (FRT cells that were transfected stably with human TMEM16A and in TMEM16A-overexpressed SW620 cells but did not alter cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR chloride currents. Further functional studies showed that DP suppressed the proliferation of SW620 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner using MTT assays. Moreover, DP significantly inhibited migration and invasion of SW620 cells as detected by wound-healing and transwell assays. Further mechanistic study demonstrated that knockdown of human TMEM16A decreased the inhibitory effect of DP on the proliferation of SW620 cells and that TMEM16A-dependent cells (SW620 and HCT116 were more sensitive to DP than TMEM16A-independent cells (SW480 and HCT8. In addition, we found that treatment of SW620 cells with DP led to a decrease in TMEM16A protein levels but had no effect on TMEM16A mRNA levels. The current work reveals that DP, a novel TMEM16A inhibitor, exerts its anticancer activity on SW620 cells partly through a TMEM16A-dependent mechanism, which may introduce a new targeting approach for an antitumour therapy in TMEM16A-amplified cancers.

  1. USDA Southwest Regional Hub for Adaptation to and Mitigation of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rango, A.; Elias, E.; Steele, C. M.; Havstad, K.

    2014-12-01

    The USDA Southwest (SW) Climate Hub was created in February 2014 to develop risk adaptation and mitigation strategies for coping with climate change effects on agricultural productivity. There are seven regional hubs across the country with three subsidiary hubs. The SW Climate Hub Region is made up of six states: New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, Nevada, California and Hawaii (plus the Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands). The SW Climate Hub has a subsidiary hub located in Davis, California. The Southwest region has high climatic diversity, with the lowest and highest average annual rainfall in the U.S.(6.0 cm in Death Valley, CA and 1168 cm at Mt. Waialeale, HI). There are major deserts in five of the six states, yet most of the states, with exception of Hawaii, depend upon the melting of mountain snowpacks for their surface water supply. Additionally, many of the agricultural areas of the SW Regional Hub depend upon irrigation water to maintain productivity. Scientific climate information developed by the Hub will be used for climate-smart decision making. To do this, the SW Regional Hub will rely upon existing infrastructure of the Cooperative Extension Service at Land-Grant State Universities. Extension service and USDA-NRCS personnel have existing networks to communicate with stakeholders (farmers, ranchers, and forest landowners) through meetings and workshops which have already started in the six states. Outreach through the development of a weather and climate impact modules designed for seventh grade students and their teachers will foster education of future generations of rural land managers. We will be synthesizing and evaluating existing reports, literature and information on regional climate projections, water resources, and agricultural adaptation strategies related to climate in the Southwest. The results will be organized in a spatial format and provided through the SW Hub website (http://swclimatehub.info) and peer-reviewed articles.

  2. Disentangling the excitation conditions of the dense gas in M17 SW

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez-Beaupuits, J P; Spaans, M; Ossenkopf, V; Menten, K M; Requena-Torres, M A; Wiesemeyer, H; Stutzki, J; Guevara, C; Simon, R

    2015-01-01

    We probe the chemical and energetic conditions in dense gas created by radiative feedback through observations of multiple CO, HCN and HCO$^+$ transitions toward the dense core of M17 SW. We used the dual band receiver GREAT on board the SOFIA airborne telescope to obtain maps of the $J=16-15$, $J=12-11$, and $J=11-10$ transitions of $^{12}$CO. We compare these maps with corresponding APEX and IRAM 30m telescope data for low- and mid-$J$ CO, HCN and HCO$^+$ emission lines, including maps of the HCN $J=8-7$ and HCO$^+$ $J=9-8$ transitions. The excitation conditions of $^{12}$CO, HCO$^+$ and HCN are estimated with a two-phase non-LTE radiative transfer model of the line spectral energy distributions (LSEDs) at four selected positions. The energy balance at these positions is also studied. We obtained extensive LSEDs for the CO, HCN and HCO$^+$ molecules toward M17 SW. The LSED shape, particularly the high-$J$ tail of the CO lines observed with SOFIA/GREAT, is distinctive for the underlying excitation conditions...

  3. Transpressive suture and flower structure: the Tomar-Badajoz-Cordoba shear zone, SW Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti Linares, D.; Palomeras, I.; Perez-Estaun, A.; Carbonell, R.; Simancas, F.; Ayarza, P.; Tejero, R.; Martín-Parra, L.; Matas, J.; Lodeiro, F.; Mansilla, L.

    2009-12-01

    The Tomar-Badajoz-Córdoba shear Zone (TBCSZ) is a major structural element located in SW-Iberia. This is considered a suture that separates the Central Iberian Zone (CIZ) in NE and Ossa Morena Zone (OMZ) in SW. It is at least 380km in length and 10 to 20km width. It is a left lateral transpressive flower structure. The strike-slip displacement decays from SE to NW. Its axial zone includes a high grade metamorphic rock unit known as the Central Unit (CU) containing eclogites, and also suture lithotypes as ophiolites. It has been interpreted as a Variscan suture or a reworked Cadomian suture in intraplate regime during the Variscan cycle. This important structure has been imaged by 2 deep seismic reflection transects, the IBERSEIS in 2003 and more recently by ALCUDIA. The good quality of the seismic data sets constrains the internal architecture of this transpressional zone imaging a crustal scale flower structure. The structure features a north dipping wedge limited by two bands of reflectors that reach the middle crust (5 s). Beneath that and slightly to the north a wedge of relatively high amplitude reflectivity dips to the south into the mantle for 10-15 km. This structure is most probably the seismic signature of a complex structure result of deformation associated to a strike slip fault.

  4. An Orbital Stability Study of the Proposed Companions of SW Lyncis

    CERN Document Server

    Hinse, Tobias C; Wittenmyer, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the dynamical stability of the proposed companions orbiting the Algol type short-period eclipsing binary SW Lyncis (Kim et al. 2010). The two candidate companions are of stellar to sub-stellar nature, and were inferred from timing measurements of the system's primary and secondary eclipses. We applied well-tested numerical techniques to accurately integrate the orbits of the two companions and to test for chaotic dynamical behaviour. We carried out the stability analysis within a systematic parameter survey varying both the geometries and orientation of the orbits of the companions, as well as their masses. In all our numerical integrations we found that the proposed SW Lyn multi-body system is highly unstable on time-scales on the order of 1000 years. Our results cast doubt on the interpretation that the timing variations are caused by two companions. This work demonstrates that a straightforward dynamical analysis can help to test whether a best-fit companion-based model is a physically...

  5. Benchmarking of the SW80 polycrystalline silicon modules using the sun as source of light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mtunzi Busiso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Benchmarking of modules is necessary as it helps to note any changes on the operation of the modules when in operation outdoors. The equipment needed to do this has been found to be very expensive hence the need of cheaper methods. This paper tries to show how this can be achieved using outdoor conditions and an I/V measuring instrument PVPM1000. SW80 photovoltaic modules were tested using outdoor conditions. The current and voltage measurements were taken at solar noon and converted to the standard test conditions (STC, 1000 Wm-2 AM 1.5 and 25°C. These normalized values were in turn taken as bench mark values of the modules. Future measurements can then be taken at solar noon and compared to benchmark values; any variations in performance can then be noted. The variations on benchmark values as compared to the manufacturer STC values for SW80 type module were noted. The measurements were carried out under typical South Africa meteorological conditions.

  6. Photometry of the SW Sex-type nova-like BH Lyncis in high state

    CERN Document Server

    Stanishev, V; Genkov, V

    2006-01-01

    Aims: We present a photometric study of the deeply eclipsing SW Sex-type nova-like cataclysmic variable star BH Lyn Methods: Time-resolved V-band CCD photometry was obtained for seven nights between 1999 and 2004. Results: We determined 11 new eclipse timings of BH Lyn and derived a refined orbital ephemeris with an orbital period of 0.155875577(14) day. During the observations, BH Lyn was in high-state with V~15.5 mag. The star presents ~1.5 mag deep eclipses with mean full-width at half-flux of 0.0683(+/-0.0054)P_orb. The eclipse shape is highly variable, even changing form cycle to cycle. This is most likely due to accretion disc surface brightness distribution variations, most probably caused by strong flickering. Time-dependent accretion disc self-occultation or variations of the hot spot(s) intensity are also possible explanations. Negative superhumps with period of ~0.145 day are detected in two long runs in 2000. A possible connection between SW Sex and negative superhump phenomena through the presenc...

  7. Disk-Anchored Magnetic Propellers A Cure for the SW Sex Syndrome

    CERN Document Server

    Horne, K

    1999-01-01

    In AE Aqr, magnetic fields transfer energy and angular momentum from a rapidly spinning white dwarf to material in the gas stream from the companion star, with the effect of spinning down the white dwarf while flinging the gas stream material out of the binary system. This magnetic propeller produces a host of observable signatures, chief among which are broad single-peaked flaring emission lines with phase-shifted orbital kinematics. SW Sex stars have accretion disks, but also broad single-peaked phase-shifted emission lines similar to those seen in AE Aqr. We propose that a magnetic propeller similar to that which operates in AE Aqr is also at work in SW Sex stars -- and to some extent in all nova-like systems. The propeller is anchored in the inner accretion disk, rather than or in addition to the white dwarf. Energy and angular momentum are thereby extracted from the inner disk and transferred to gas stream material flowing above the disk, which is consequently pitched out of the system. This provides a n...

  8. Effects of phycoerythrin from Gracilaria lemaneiformis in proliferation and apoptosis of SW480 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peizhen; Ying, Jun; Chang, Qingli; Zhu, Wen; Yang, Guangjian; Xu, Teng; Yi, Huiguang; Pan, Ruowang; Zhang, Enyong; Zeng, Xiaofeng; Yan, Chunxia; Bao, Qiyu; Li, Shengbin

    2016-12-01

    We studied phycoerythrin (PE) in human SW480 tumor cells and the underlying molecular mechanisms of action. PE inhibited cell proliferation as evidenced by CCK-8 assay. The IC50 values of phycoerythrin were 48.2 and 27.4 µg/ml for 24 and 48 h of exposure, respectively. PE induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in SW480 cells as observed under electron microscopy and with flow cytometry. Apoptosis increased from 5.1 (controls) to 39.0% in 80.0 µg/ml PE-treated cells. Differences in protein expression were identified using proteomic techniques. Protein spots (1018±60 and 1010±60) were resolved in PE-treated and untreated group. Forty differential protein spots were analyzed with MALDI-TOF-MS, including GRP78 and NPM1. The expression as measured by qPCR and western blotting agreed with data from two-dimensional electrophoresis. GRP78, NPM1, MTHSP75, Ezrin and Annexin A2 were decreased and HSP60 was increased after PE treatment, indicating that PE may target multiple proteins to induce apoptosis.

  9. Echinacoside Induces Apoptosis in Human SW480 Colorectal Cancer Cells by Induction of Oxidative DNA Damages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwei Dong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Echinacoside is a natural compound with potent reactive oxygen species (ROS-scavenging and anti-oxidative bioactivities, which protect cells from oxidative damages. As cancer cells are often under intense oxidative stress, we therefore tested if Echinacoside treatment would promote cancer development. Surprisingly, we found that Echinacoside significantly inhibited the growth and proliferation of a panel of cancer cell lines. Treatment of the human SW480 cancer cells with Echinacoside resulted in marked apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, together with a significant increase in active caspase 3 and cleaved PARP, and upregulation of the G1/S-CDK blocker CDKN1B (p21. Interestingly, immunocytochemistry examination of drug-treated cancer cells revealed that Echinacoside caused a significant increase of intracellular oxidized guanine, 8-oxoG, and dramatic upregulation of the double-strand DNA break (DSB-binding protein 53BP1, suggesting that Echinacoside induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in SW480 cancer cells via induction of oxidative DNA damages. These results establish Echinacoside as a novel chemical scaffold for development of anticancer drugs.

  10. The Shortwave (SW) Clear-Sky Detection and Fitting Algorithm: Algorithm Operational Details and Explanations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, CN; Gaustad, KL

    2004-01-31

    This document describes some specifics of the algorithm for detecting clear skies and fitting clear-sky shortwave (SW) functions described in Long and Ackerman (2000). This algorithm forms the basis of the ARM SW FLUX ANAL 1Long VAP. In the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) case, the value added procedures (VAP) can be described as having three parts: a “front end,” a “black box,” and a “back end.” The “front end” handles the file management of the processing, what range of data files to process in the run, which configuration file to use for each site, extracting the data from the ARM NetCDF files into an ASCII format for the code to process, etc. The “back end” produces ARM-format NetCDF files of the output and other file management. The “black box” is the processing code(s), and is what is discussed in this document. Details on the “front” and “back” ends of the ARM VAP are presented elsewhere.

  11. Inhibition of Proto-oncogene Pokemon Expression by siRNA Expression Vector in SW480 Cells%siRNA表达载体对SW480细胞原癌基因Pokemon的抑制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭睿; 李喜霞; 解军

    2009-01-01

    观察siRNA表达载体对SW480细胞中Pokemon原癌基因的抑制效应,为进一步研究该基因的功能奠定基础.构建针对Pokemon基因的RNAi质粒表达载体,脂质体法转染人结直肠癌SW480细胞系,观察转染效率及细胞表型变化.稳定转染后,实时荧光定量PCR和Western blot检测SW480细胞中Pokemon mRNA及蛋白质的表达情况;MTT法检测siRNA对SW480细胞恶性增殖的影响;流式细胞仪分析细胞凋亡改变.镜下观察阳性转染率约36%,转染表达载体后细胞形态发生了显著变化;Pokemon mRNA及蛋白质的表达受到明显抑制:与阴性对照组相比,表达质粒产生的siRNA对Pokemon mRNA的抑制率在转染后24 h和48 h分别为34.2%和67.7%;对蛋白的抑制率在48 h和72 h分别为48.3%和73.6%.MTT法检测细胞生长曲线表明Pokemon抑制可使SW480细胞生长速度明显减慢;流式细胞仪分析显示转染Pokemon siRNA表达质粒后SW480细胞凋亡增加.构建的RNAi表达载体可以有效抑制SW480细胞中Pokemon基因的表达,并对SW480细胞的生长具有明显抑制及诱导凋亡作用.

  12. Detection of Cytotoxic Activity of Lectin on Human Colon Adenocarcinoma (Sw480 and Epithelial Cervical Carcinoma (C33-A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirandeli Bautista

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Lectins comprise a heterogeneous class of proteins that recognize the carbohydrate moieties of glycoconjugates with high specificity. Numerous studies have shown that lectins are capable of recognizing specific carbohydrate moieties displayed by malignant cells or tissues. The present work was performed to investigate the effects of tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius lectins on proliferation, colony formation, and alteration of DNA synthesis of human malignant cells. Tepary bean lectin showed dose dependent  effects on the inhibition of viability as well as on colony formation in two human malignant cells lines (C33-A, Sw480; By contrast, tepary bean lectin only showed significant effects on DNA synthesis on Sw480 cells. Our results provide evidence of the anti- proliferative and cytotoxic effects of the tepary bean lectins on C33-A and Sw480 cells lines.

  13. A HW-SW Co-Designed System for the Lunar Lander Hazard Detection and Avoidance Breadboarding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo, Pedro; Latorre, Antonio; Valle, Carlos; Gomez de Aguero, Sergio; Hagenfeldt, Miguel; Parreira, Baltazar; Lindoso, Almudena; Portela, Marta; Garcia, Mario; San Millan, Enrique; Zharikov, Yuri; Entrena, Luis

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents the HW-SW co-design approach followed to tackle the design of the Hazard Detection and Avoidance (HDA) system breadboarding for the Lunar Lander ESA mission, undertaken given the fact that novel GNC technologies used to promote autonomous systems demand processing capabilities that current (and forthcoming) space processors are not able to satisfy. The paper shows how the current system design has been performed in a process in which the original HDA functionally validated design has been partitioned between SW (deemed for execution in a microprocessor) and HW algorithms (to be executed in an FPGA), considering the performance requirements and resorting to a deep analysis of the algorithms in view of their adequacy to HW or SW implementation.

  14. 三角旗舰产品麦哲伦SW2系列音箱

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    法国三角音箱的旗舰Magellan(麦哲伦)系列音箱面市几年来,广受业界及市场好评,经过厂方的不断努力和深入研发,最近厂方推出了全新的旗舰Magellan SW2系列音箱,该系列包含Grand Concert SW2(大演奏会)、ConcertoSW2(协奏曲)、Quatuor(四重奏)、Cello(大提琴)、Duetto(二重奏)共5款产品。

  15. Human-climate-environment interactions during the past 4000 years in the Taurus Mountain Range, SW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraeten, Gert; Broothaerts, Nils; Van Loo, Maarten; Poblome, Jeroen; Degryse, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean has been an area of intense human occupation since the early Neolithic. However, contrary to many temperate environments in NW Europe, human pressure on the landscape did not follow a linear trajectory from the Neolithic to the present, but is rather characterised by cycles of land cover expansion and contraction. Here, we provide a synthesis of human-climate-environment interactions in the region of the antique city of Sagalassos in the Taurus mountain range of SW Turkey. The combination of archaeological, palynological and geomorphological data, together with geochemical sediment provenancing and spatial modelling techniques, enabled to reconstruct the relative importance of anthropogenic pressure and climatic changes on the environment. The sensitivity of the landscape towards anthropogenic disturbance is strongly controlled by the geomorphic-tectonic setting, as well as by important feedback mechanisms in the soil system. The first major clearing of the landscape in the Iron Age led to a peak in soil erosion, but also to soil exhaustion limiting erosion rates in subsequent periods. Soil erosion and sediment delivery is more limited during the main occupation phases of the Roman Imperial Period. Periods with more favorable climate in the Roman and Mid-Byzantine periods resulted in the occupation of more isolated parts of the territory (i.e. higher up in the mountains), whilst a decrease in human pressure can be observed during the Early Byzantine and Ottoman periods related to less favorable conditions. Such smaller and short-lasting bursts of human occupation did not significanlty impact the environment. Only in the last two hundred years, human pressure reached similar values as those encountered in the classical period.

  16. Trace element partitioning and soil particle characterisation around mining and smelting areas at Tharsis, Riotinto and Huelva, SW Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopin, E.I.B. [School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: edith.chopin@univ-reims.fr; Alloway, B.J. [School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading (United Kingdom)

    2007-02-15

    Trace elements may present an environmental hazard in the vicinity of mining and smelting activities. However, the factors controlling trace element distribution in soils around ancient and modern mining and smelting areas are not always clear. Tharsis, Riotinto and Huelva are located in the Iberian Pyrite Belt in SW Spain. Tharsis and Riotinto mines have been exploited since 2500 B.C., with intensive smelting taking place. Huelva, established in 1970 and using the Flash Furnace Outokumpu process, is currently one of the largest smelter in the world. Pyrite and chalcopyrite ore have been intensively smelted for Cu. However, unusually for smelters and mines of a similar size, the elevated trace element concentrations in soils were found to be restricted to the immediate vicinity of the mines and smelters, being found up to a maximum of 2 km from the mines and smelters at Tharsis, Riotinto and Huelva. Trace element partitioning (over 2/3 of trace elements found in the residual immobile fraction of soils at Tharsis) and soil particles examination by SEM-EDX showed that trace elements were not adsorbed onto soil particles, but were included within the matrix of large trace element-rich Fe silicate slag particles (i.e. 1 mm o at least 1 wt.% As, Cu and Zn, and 2 wt.% Pb). Slag particle large size (1 mm o) was found to control the geographically restricted trace element distribution in soils at Tharsis, Riotinto and Huelva, since large heavy particles could not have been transported long distances. Distribution and partitioning indicated that impacts to the environment as a result of mining and smelting should remain minimal in the region.

  17. A high-density linkage map of the RN region in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looft, C; Milan, D; Jeon, J T; Paul, S; Reinsch, N; Rogel-Gaillard, C; Rey, V; Amarger, V; Robic, A; Kalm, E; Chardon, P; Andersson, L

    2000-01-01

    The porcine RN locus affects muscle glycogen content and meat quality. We previously mapped the RN locus to chromosome 15. This study describes the identification of polymorphisms for four class I and four class II markers located in the RN region. Resource families were genotyped with F-SSCP markers (fluorescent single strand conformation polymorphism) and microsatellite markers. Subsequent multipoint linkage analysis revealed the order FN1-IGFBP5-S1000-S1001-IL8RB-VIL1-RN-Sw936-Sw906. The gene order is identical to the previously reported porcine RH map of the same region. The described map will facilitate positional cloning of the RN gene.

  18. Perturbative determination of c{sub sw} for plaquette and Symanzik gauge action and stout link clover fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics; Perlt, H.; Schiller, A. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Division, Dept. of Mathematical Sicences; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2008-06-15

    Using plaquette and Symanzik improved gauge action and stout link clover fermions we determine the improvement coefficient c{sub SW} in one-loop lattice perturbation theory from the off-shell quark-quark-gluon three-point function. In addition, we compute the coefficients needed for the most general form of quark field improvement and present the one-loop result for the critical hopping parameter {kappa}{sub c}. We discuss mean field improvement for c{sub SW} and {kappa}{sub c} and the choice of the mean field coupling for the actions we have considered. (orig.)

  19. The $SW(3/2,2)$ superconformal algebra via a Quantum Hamiltonian Reduction of $osp(3|2)$

    CERN Document Server

    Díaz, Lázaro O Rodríguez

    2016-01-01

    We prove that the family of non-linear $W$-algebras $SW(3/2,2)$ which are extensions of the $N=1$ superconformal algebra by a primary supercurrent of conformal weight $2$ can be realized as a quantum Hamiltonian reduction of the Lie superalgebra $osp(3|2)$. In consequence we obtain an explicit free field realization of the algebra in terms of the screening operators. At central charge $c=12$ the $SW(3/2,2)$ superconformal algebra corresponds to the superconformal algebra associated to sigma models based on eight-dimensional manifolds with special holonomy $Spin(7)$, i.e., the Shatashvili-Vafa $Spin(7)$ superconformal algebra.

  20. Structure and geological evolution of the bedrock at southern Satakunta, SW Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulamaeki, S.; Paananen, M.; Elo, S. [Geological Survey of Finland (Finland)

    2002-02-01

    The southern Satakunta area lies on the west coast of Finland, mainly covering the mainland (with main towns Pori and Rauma), but also including the coastal archipelago and part of the Bothnian Sea. Near the centre of the area lies the island of Olkiluoto, on which Finland's site for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel is located. The purpose of the present report is to compile and interpret all available geological and geophysical data relevant to understanding the regional geological setting of the Olkiluoto site. The area described is covered by four 1:100 000 scale geological map sheets, published by the Geological Survey of Finland, which, together with low-altitude aeromagnetic maps, provide the basis for a new 1:250 000 geological map compilation. This shows that the bedrock of southern Satakunta can be subdivided into three main zones: a pelitic migmatite belt in the southwest, a central, NW-SE trending area of sandstone, and a psammitic migmatite belt in the northeast. The migmatite belts formed during the Svecofennian orogeny, 1900-1800 Ma ago (Palaeoproterozoic). The sandstone area is the remnant of an alluvial basin, preserved now in a NW-SE trending graben, bounded on both sides by normal fault zones. The sandstones are thought to be at least 1400-1300 Ma old (Mesoproterozoic), and they are cut by Postjotnian olivine diabase dykes, 1270-1250 Ma in age. The Svecofennian migmatite belts show a complex history of formation, with various phases of anatexis/metamorphism, deformation and intrusion. In the pelitic migmatite belt, in which the Olkiluoto site is situated, four phases of ductile deformation (D-D4) and two phases of regional highT/lowP metamorphism and migmatite formation can be recognised, together with synorogenic (tonalite, granodiotite) and late orogenic ( potassium granite) intrusions. Subsequently, this very heterogeneous complex was intruded by anorogenic rapakivi granites, with ages 1580-1550 Ma. One pluton, the Eurajoki stock

  1. Superimposing various biophysical and social scales in a rapidly changing rural area (SW Niger)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Christian; Massuel, Sylvain; Favreau, Guillaume; Cappelaere, Bernard; Leblanc, Marc; Bachir, Salifou; Ousmane, Boureïma

    2014-05-01

    In SW Niger, close to Niamey, a detailed hydrological survey has been developed for the last 20 years (international experiments HAPEX-SAHEL and later AMMA), investigating the distribution of water in atmosphere, surface, soil and aquifers. It covers an area of about 10 000 km2, with a series of imbricated scales of instrumentation, in time and space. This dense long term field observation led to many major scientific results. Among them, one of the most original and paradoxical is the continuous rise of the water table, even during the severe droughts of the 1970s and 1980s (about 3 m in the last 30 years). In spite of a large apparent homogeneity of the biophysical environment throughout the region, numerous heterogeneities exist at different scales, complicating the hydrological analysis. On the surface, the hydrological system was, ~6000 years ago, a structured drainage network leading to the Niger River. It was later broken into much smaller elements by aeolian dunes deposited during arid episodes and the study area now appears as a juxtaposition of hundreds of small endorheic catchments (most often 1 to 20 km2) where the surface runoff finally ends in temporary ponds. During most violent rainy events, erosion can be locally very severe and modify durably the size of the catchment and the local hydrology. Conversely, during smaller rainy events, surface runoff may never reach the ponds because it infiltrates in more permeable zones at mid-slope. The actual surface area of the catchment contributing to the surface runoff thus varies considerably with time. Because of their great number, only a few catchments are instrumented and extrapolation of measurements to ungauged catchments is an additional difficulty. Most of water temporarily stored in ponds infiltrates and recharges groundwater. The Continental Terminal (CT) aquifer system is made of three independent layers, of which the upper one (CT3) is only considered here. The CT aquifer systems is a

  2. Structure and geological evolution of the bedrock at southern Satakunta, SW Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulamaeki, S.; Paananen, M.; Elo, S. [Geological Survey of Finland (Finland)

    2002-02-01

    The southern Satakunta area lies on the west coast of Finland, mainly covering the mainland (with main towns Pori and Rauma), but also including the coastal archipelago and part of the Bothnian Sea. Near the centre of the area lies the island of Olkiluoto, on which Finland's site for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel is located. The purpose of the present report is to compile and interpret all available geological and geophysical data relevant to understanding the regional geological setting of the Olkiluoto site. The area described is covered by four 1:100 000 scale geological map sheets, published by the Geological Survey of Finland, which, together with low-altitude aeromagnetic maps, provide the basis for a new 1:250 000 geological map compilation. This shows that the bedrock of southern Satakunta can be subdivided into three main zones: a pelitic migmatite belt in the southwest, a central, NW-SE trending area of sandstone, and a psammitic migmatite belt in the northeast. The migmatite belts formed during the Svecofennian orogeny, 1900-1800 Ma ago (Palaeoproterozoic). The sandstone area is the remnant of an alluvial basin, preserved now in a NW-SE trending graben, bounded on both sides by normal fault zones. The sandstones are thought to be at least 1400-1300 Ma old (Mesoproterozoic), and they are cut by Postjotnian olivine diabase dykes, 1270-1250 Ma in age. The Svecofennian migmatite belts show a complex history of formation, with various phases of anatexis/metamorphism, deformation and intrusion. In the pelitic migmatite belt, in which the Olkiluoto site is situated, four phases of ductile deformation (D-D4) and two phases of regional highT/lowP metamorphism and migmatite formation can be recognised, together with synorogenic (tonalite, granodiotite) and late orogenic ( potassium granite) intrusions. Subsequently, this very heterogeneous complex was intruded by anorogenic rapakivi granites, with ages 1580-1550 Ma. One pluton, the Eurajoki stock

  3. Two-stage evolution of the Cenozoic Kunbei fault system and its control of deposition in the SW Qaidam Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wen; Wu, Chaodong; Wang, Jialin; Fang, Ya'nan; Wang, Chuanwu; Chen, Qilin; Liu, Huaqing

    2017-09-01

    The structural relationship between the Qaidam Basin and Qimen Tagh-Eastern Kunlun Range holds important implications for evaluating the formation mechanism of the Tibetan Plateau. Various models have been proposed to reveal the structural relationship, although controversies remain. To address these issues, we analysed the seismic and lithologic data of the Kunbei fault system (i.e. the Kunbei, Arlar and Hongliuquan faults), which lies to the north of the Qimen Tagh-Eastern Kunlun Range within the SW Qaidam Basin. Based on the regional geological framework and our kinematic analyses, we propose that the Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Kunbei fault system can be divided into two stages. From the Early Eocene to the Middle Miocene, the system was characterized by left-lateral strike-slip faults and weak south-dipping thrust faults based on the flower structure in the seismic section, which is an apparent strike-slip deformation that was identified in the -1510-ms time slice and the root-mean-square amplitude attribute slice. This strike-slip motion was generated by the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau caused by the onset of the Indian-Eurasian collision. Since the Middle Miocene, the Kunbei fault system has undergone intense south-dipping thrusting, and a nearly 2.2-km uplift has been observed in the hanging wall in the Arlar fault. The south-dipping thrusting is the far-field effect of the full collision that occurred between the Indian-Eurasian plates. The lake area in the SW Qaidam Basin has been shrinking since the Middle Miocene and presents widespread delta and fluvial deposits, which are consistent with the proposed tectonic evolution.

  4. Two-stage evolution of the Cenozoic Kunbei fault system and its control of deposition in the SW Qaidam Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wen; Wu, Chaodong; Wang, Jialin; Fang, Ya'nan; Wang, Chuanwu; Chen, Qilin; Liu, Huaqing

    2016-09-01

    The structural relationship between the Qaidam Basin and Qimen Tagh-Eastern Kunlun Range holds important implications for evaluating the formation mechanism of the Tibetan Plateau. Various models have been proposed to reveal the structural relationship, although controversies remain. To address these issues, we analysed the seismic and lithologic data of the Kunbei fault system (i.e. the Kunbei, Arlar and Hongliuquan faults), which lies to the north of the Qimen Tagh-Eastern Kunlun Range within the SW Qaidam Basin. Based on the regional geological framework and our kinematic analyses, we propose that the Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Kunbei fault system can be divided into two stages. From the Early Eocene to the Middle Miocene, the system was characterized by left-lateral strike-slip faults and weak south-dipping thrust faults based on the flower structure in the seismic section, which is an apparent strike-slip deformation that was identified in the -1510-ms time slice and the root-mean-square amplitude attribute slice. This strike-slip motion was generated by the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau caused by the onset of the Indian-Eurasian collision. Since the Middle Miocene, the Kunbei fault system has undergone intense south-dipping thrusting, and a nearly 2.2-km uplift has been observed in the hanging wall in the Arlar fault. The south-dipping thrusting is the far-field effect of the full collision that occurred between the Indian-Eurasian plates. The lake area in the SW Qaidam Basin has been shrinking since the Middle Miocene and presents widespread delta and fluvial deposits, which are consistent with the proposed tectonic evolution.

  5. Black woodpecker Dryocopus martius (L., 1758 distribution, abundance, habitatuse and breeding performance in a recentlycolonized region in SW Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olano, M., Aierbe, T., Beñaran, H., Hurtado, R., Ugarte, Urruzola, A., Vázquez, J., Ansorregi, F., Galdos, A. ... [et al.

    2015-01-01

    localidades potenciales utilizando inventarios forestales, y cada localidad fue visitada durante el periodo enero-marzo. Las localidades ocupadas se consideraron “dominios vitales reproductivos” cuando se pudo comprobar el emparejamiento o la nidificación, o cuando se registró presencia de individuos en un mínimo de tres visitas consecutivas. Se vigiló el desarrollo de la reproducción en nidos activos durante mayo y junio. Se detectaron y cartografiaron 21 "dominios vitales reproductivos", distribuidos fundamentalmente a lo largo de las franjas oriental y meridional del área de estudio. Las determinantes ambientales relacionadas positivamente con la presencia de "dominios vitales reproductivos" fueron elevada cobertura arbolada, estructura madura, superficies de haya Fagus sylvatica, bosque mixto caducifolio y pino laricio Pinus nigra, y parcelas forestales poco fragmentadas. Las plantaciones de pino de Monterrey P. radiata y las alturas bajas del arbolado se seleccionaron negativamente. Las parcelas de alimentación preferidas incluyeron proporciones de roble americano Quercus rubra y plantaciones de pino laricio. Se detectaron trece nidos activos. Todos los nidos salvo dos fueron excavados en hayas. El éxito de cría fue elevado (92% pero la tasa de vuelo (1.8 estuvo por debajo de los promedios descritos en Europa, lo que podría indicar limitaciones intrínsecas en esta población periférica.

  6. Simulations of strong ground motion in SW Iberia for the 1969 February 28 (Ms = 8.0) and the 1755 November 1 (M ~ 8.5) earthquakes - II. Strong ground motion simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandin, Raphaël; Borges, José Fernando; Bezzeghoud, Mourad; Caldeira, Bento; Carrilho, Fernando

    2007-11-01

    This is the second paper of a series of two concerning strong ground motion in SW Iberia due to earthquakes originating from the adjacent Atlantic area. The aim of this paper is to use the velocity model that was proposed and validated in the companion paper for seismic intensity modelling of the 1969 (Ms = 8.0) and 1755 (M = 8.5-8.7) earthquakes. First, we propose a regression to convert simulated values of Peak Ground Velocity (PGV) into Modified Mercalli Intensity (MMI) in SW Iberia, and using this regression, we build synthetic isoseismal maps for a large (Ms = 8.0) earthquake that occurred in 1969. Based on information on the seismic source provided by various authors, we show that the velocity model effectively reproduces macroseismic observations in the whole region. We also confirm that seismic intensity distribution is very sensitive to a small number of source parameters: rupture directivity, fault strike and fault dimensions. Then, we extrapolate the method to the case of the great (M = 8.5-8.7) 1755 earthquake, for a series of hypotheses recently proposed by three authors about the location of the epicentral region. The model involving a subduction-related rupture in the Gulf of Cádiz results in excessive ground motion in northern Morocco, suggesting that the source of the 1755 earthquake should be located further west. A rupture along the western coast of Portugal, compatible with an activation of the passive western Iberian margin, would imply a relatively low average slip, which, alone, would could not account for the large tsunami observed in the whole northern Atlantic ocean. A seismic source located below the Gorringe Bank seems the most likely since it is more efficient in reproducing the distribution of high intensities in SW Iberia due to the 1755 earthquake.

  7. 面向国产CPU SW-1600的向量重组%DOMESTIC PRODUCED CPU SW-1600 ORIENTED VECTOR REGROUP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏帅; 赵荣彩; 姚远

    2011-01-01

    Since vectorized regroup instructions sire comparatively complex whereas different instructions correspond to different delays, it is hard to find out a uniform and efficient vector regroup algorithm. The paper analyzes shifting and insertion/extraction instructions that are offered by domestic produced CPU SW-1600, and presents an optimal algorithm that only depends on shifting or insertion/extraction instructions to realize vector regroup as well as an efficient algorithm that integrates the two types of instructions to realize vector regroup. At last it is proven by experiments that the algorithms can better vectorize programs. The speedup ratio for integer type values reaches 7.31 while that for complex double precision float type programs reaches 1. 83.%由于向量化重组指令比较复杂并且不同指令有不同的延迟,从而难以寻找一种统一高效的向量重组算法.对国产CPUSW-1600提供的移位和插入提取指令进行了分析,提出单独依靠移位或插入提取指令实现向量重组的最优算法,并综合这两类指令实现向量重组的高效算法.最后通过实验证明该算法可以较好地对程序进行向量化,对整型数据的加速比达到7.31,对复杂的双精度浮点型程序的加速比也达到1.83.

  8. Nuclear DNA content of the pigeon orchid (Dendrobium crumenatum Sw. with the analysis of flow cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upatham Meesawat

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear DNA content for the adult plants grown in a greenhouse and in vitro young plantlets of the pigeon orchid (Dendrobium crumenatum Sw. was analyzed using flow cytometry. The resulting 2C DNA values ranged from 2.30±0.14 pgto 2.43±0.06 pg. However, nuclear DNA ploidy levels of long-term in vitro plantlets were found to be triploid and tetraploid.These ploidy levels were confirmed by chromosome counting. Tetraploid individuals (2n = 4x = 76 had approximately two times DNA content than diploid (2n = 2x = 38 individuals. This variation may be due to prolonged cultivation and thepresence of exogenous plant growth regulators.

  9. Excitation conditions and energetics of the dense gas in M17 SW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Beaupuits, J. P.; Güsten, R.; Spaans, M.; Ossenkopf, V.; Menten, K. M.; Requena-Torres, M. A.; Stutzki, J.; Wiesemeyer, H.; Guevara, C.

    2016-05-01

    The chemical and energetic conditions created by radiative feedback are probed with observations of multiple molecular transitions toward M17 SW. Extensive maps, including the 12CO J = 16 → 15, J = 12 → 11, and J = 11 → 10 lines, as well as the HCN J = 8 → 7 and HCO+ J = 9 → 8 transitions, were obtained with the dual band receiver GREAT on board the SOFIA airborne telescope, and with the ground based APEX and IRAM 30 m telescopes. These data provide extensive line spectral energy distributions (LSEDs) of the CO, HCN and HCO+ molecules (and their isotopologues). The excitation conditions of the three species are estimated simultaneously using the same density and temperature in a two-phase non-LTE radiative transfer model of the LSEDs.

  10. Trace element mapping of two Pyrenean chert deposits (SW Europe) by PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez de la Torre, Marta, E-mail: marta.sanchez-de-la-torre@u-bordeaux-montaigne.fr [IRAMAT-CRP2A (UMR 5060), CNRS/Université Bordeaux Montaigne, Maison de l’Archéologie, Esplanade des Antilles, 33607 Pessac Cedex (France); SERP-Universitat de Barcelona, Montalegre St 6-8, 08001 Barcelona (Spain); Angyal, Anikó; Kertész, Zsófia [MTA Atomki, Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Dubernet, Stéphan; Le Bourdonnec, François-Xavier [IRAMAT-CRP2A (UMR 5060), CNRS/Université Bordeaux Montaigne, Maison de l’Archéologie, Esplanade des Antilles, 33607 Pessac Cedex (France); Csedreki, László; Furu, Enikő; Papp, Enikő; Szoboszlai, Zoltán; Szikszai, Zita [MTA Atomki, Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4026 Debrecen (Hungary)

    2017-06-01

    The geochemical character of two chert formations from the Pyrenean mountain range (SW Europe) was established by PIXE analyses. While it was not possible to distinguish the formations through reference to major and minor elements, some variations were revealed at the trace elemental level. In order to determine if these elements are associated with the Si matrix or to the contents of a specific inclusion, elemental maps were acquired and the elemental composition of the identified inclusions were also determined. As a result, Sr, Ni and Zn are better represented in Montgaillard samples while Y, Hf, W and Zr are typical of Montsaunès cherts. Thanks to elemental maps it has been possible to determine that most of these characteristic elements are usually related to a specific inclusion content.

  11. Wave hindcast experiments in the Indian Ocean using MIKE 21 SW model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P G Remya; Raj Kumar; Sujit Basu; Abhijit Sarkar

    2012-04-01

    Wave prediction and hindcast studies are important in ocean engineering, coastal infrastructure development and management. In view of sparse and infrequent in-situ observations, model derived hindcast wave data can be used for the assessment of wave climate in offshore and coastal areas. In the present study, MIKE 21 SW Model has been used to carry out wave hindcast experiments in the Indian Ocean. Model runs have been made for the year 2005 using QuickSCAT scatterometer winds blended with ECMWF model winds. In order to study the impact of southern ocean swells, the model has been run in two different domains, with the southern boundary being shifted far south for the Domain 60S model. The model simulated wave parameters have been validated by comparing with buoy and altimeter data and various statistical yardsticks have been employed to quantify the validation. Possible reason for the poorer performance of the model in the Arabian Sea has also been pointed out.

  12. Late Pleistocene Climate Events and The Origin of Agriculture In SW Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossignol-Strick, M.

    In the Eastern Mediterranean sea, the climate succession of the last deglaciation is documented and dated in marine cores by the d18-O variation of foraminiferal cal- cite and pollen records. The Last Glacial Maximum is identified by a large abundance of grass pollen from a prairie-type vegetal cover with low annual precipitation in the mountainous north and east borderlands of the sea, where the pollen mainly origi- nates. During the first phase of the last deglaciation, the Bolling/Allerod chronozone, the moisture availability increases and makes possible the spread of a deciduous for- est, as shown by the increasing pollen abundance of the deciduous oak. The cold and arid Younger Dryas is identified by a reversal to semi-desert conditions, with the in- crease of sage-brush (Artemisia) and the saline-tolerant Chenopodiaceae. The climate of the earliest Holocene is Optimum for at least 3000 years (9000-6000yr BP), with the largest spread of the deciduous forest at low-middle elevations signalling wet sum- mers and of the Pistacia woodland at low elevations signalling mild, no-frost winters. This is the time when the most recent sapropel deposited in the eastern Mediterranean under anoxic bottom conditions generated by a surface lid of lower salinity due to the concomitant largest floods of the Nile River fed by the strongest African monsoon rains in the Ethiopian Highlands. In SW Asia, the pollen records of lakes and marshes have been correlated with those of the marine cores, thereby obtaining a robust time-frame. In that area, the archaeo- logical data of human settlements are independently dated by 14C. Thus the archaeo- logical succession can be securely set against the well-dated climatic succession. The Late Palaeolithic populations of SW Asia were wandering hunter-gatherers in the prairies of the Last Glacial Maximum, where they already collected wild wheat, barley and fruit. With the Bolling/Allerod wetter and warmer climate, they began to settle in

  13. Complete genome sequence of Kangiella koreensis type strain (SW-125T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Sikorski, Johannes [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Lapidus, Alla L. [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Nolan, Matt [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Tice, Hope [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Cheng, Jan-Fang [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Lucas, Susan [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Chen, Feng [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ovchinnikova, Galina [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bruce, David [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Chen, Amy [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Palaniappan, Krishna [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Chang, Yun-Juan [ORNL; Jeffries, Cynthia [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Chain, Patrick S. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Saunders, Elizabeth H [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Brettin, Thomas S [ORNL; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Tindall, Brian [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Bristow, James [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Eisen, Jonathan [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Markowitz, Victor [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Detter, J. Chris [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California

    2009-11-01

    Kangiella koreensis (Yoon et al. 2004) is the type species of the genus and is of phylogenetic interest because of the very isolated location of the genus Kangiella in the gammaproteobac-terial order Oceanospirillales. K. koreensis SW-125T is a Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming bacterium isolated from tidal flat sediments at Daepo Beach, Yellow Sea, Ko-rea. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome se-quence, and annotation. This is the first completed genome sequence from the genus Kangiel-la and only the fourth genome from the order Oceanospirillales. This 2,852,073 bp long sin-gle replicon genome with its 2647 protein-coding and 48 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  14. Saddle-shaped reticulate Nummulites from Early Oligocene rocks of Khari area, SW Kutch, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Sengupta; Sampa Sarkar; S Mukhopadhyay

    2011-04-01

    Saddle-shaped reticulate Nummulites from the Early Oligocene rocks of Khari area, SW Kutch, India is reported here for the first time. Unusual shape of this Nummulites is due to the curved nature of the coiling plane, indicating space constrained postembryonic test growth. With regular development of chambers, septa and septal filaments, the saddle-shaped Nummulites constitutes the third morphotype of N. cf. fichteli Michelotti form A. Other morphotypes of the species reported earlier include inflated lenticular and conical tests. Multiple morphotypes of N. cf. fichteli form A indicates varied test growth in response to substrate conditions. Morphological variability exhibited by N. cf. fichteli form A from Kutch and some Early Oligocene reticulate Nummulites from the Far East are comparable. This faunal suite is morphologically distinct from the contemporary reticulate Nummulites of the European localities.

  15. Sedimentology models from activity concentration measurements: application to the "Bay of Cadiz" Natural Park (SW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligero, R A; Vidal, J; Meléndez, M J; Hamani, M; Casas-Ruiz, M

    2009-03-01

    A previous study on seabed sediments of the Bay of Cadiz (SW of Spain) enabled us to identify several relations between sedimentological variables and activity concentrations of environmental radionuclides such as (137)Cs, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K. In this paper the study has been extended to a large neighbouring inter-tidal area in order to establish if the above mentioned models can be generalized. As a result we have determined that the measured activity concentrations are closely to the values predicted by the theoretical models (correlation coefficient range=0.85-0.93). Furthermore, the proposal model for granulometric facies as a function of activity concentrations of the abovementioned radionuclides provides for the sediments distribution a representation which agrees with the values of the tidal energy distribution obtained using numeric models calibrated with experimental data from current meters and water level recorders.

  16. 基于SW/Simulation制动闸蝶形弹簧的受力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏静

    2013-01-01

    According to the force of the disc spring of the hydraulic disc brake this paper analysis the butterfly spring with the SW/Simulation. We got the picture of Stress diagram and fatigue damage map which provide the basis for the design of the device of the brake failure detection.%  根据液压盘式制动器中制动闸蝶形弹簧组的受力实际,应用Solid Works有限元分析模块,对蝶形弹簧进行有限元分析,得出蝶形弹簧的应力图、疲劳损坏图。为制动器蝶形弹簧组失效的检测装置的设计提供依据。

  17. Study of the period changes in SW Dor, an RR Lyrae type star with Blazhko effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdnikov, L. N.; Kniazev, A. Y.; Dambis, A. K.; Kravtsov, V. V.; Sefako, R.

    2016-09-01

    In 2012-2014 we acquired 1569 CCD BVIc frames for the RR Lyrae type variable SW Dor with the 76-cm telescope of the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) and 1-m telescopes of Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope network (LCOGT). Our observations showed a large scatter in the resulting phased light curve, especially near maximum brightness, which allowed us to reveal the Blazhko effect with a period of ˜80.9d. To study the pulsation period changes, we used all the available observations including the 1299 magnitude estimates from the digitized plate library of Harvard University (the DASCH project), which allowed us to construct the O-C diagram spanning a 125-year long time interval and discover for the first time at least three abrupt changes of the pulsation period.

  18. Commissioning of a 6 MeV X-Band SW Accelerating Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, Q; Sun, X; Tao, X; Tong, D

    2004-01-01

    A 6 MeV, X-band on-axis SW electron linear accelerating guide is being developed in Accelerator laboratory of Tsinghua University. It can be suitable for portable radiation therapy and radiography. The design, manufacture and high power test of the guide are given in this paper. The guide is 38 cm long and contains 25 accelerating cells with 24 coupling cells, operated in the π/2 mode. The RF power source is a pulsed magnetron at 9300 MHz with 1.5 MW peak power. The results of beam tests are following: the electron energy is more than 6 MeV at 50 mA and focal spot size is less than φ 1.5 mm without any focusing solenoid.

  19. Monitoring physical properties of a submarine groundwater discharge source at Kalogria Bay, SW Peloponnissos, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karageorgis, A. P.; Papadopoulos, V. P.; Georgopoulos, D.; Kanellopoulos, Th. D.; Papathanassiou, E.

    2012-04-01

    An impressive SGD in Kalogria Bay (SW Peloponnissos) was surveyed for the first time in 2006, revealing the existence of 2 major and 2 minor point sources of freshwater (salinity ~l-2); the discharge was ~ 1000 m3 h-1. The major point source was located in a karstic cavity at 25 m depth. In July 2009, and for a period of one year, the site was monitored intensively. During summer, the underwater discharge was not very strong, the water was flowing from many dispersed points, and salinity range was 20-36. During autumn and winter, flow velocity increased considerably (> 1 m s-1), and the SGDs discharged water of low salinity (< 2). Gradually, the smaller SGDs ceased their operation, and the major SGD emanated brackish water during spring and summer, thus hampering the possibilities of freshwater exploitation, in a touristic area which suffers from great aridity and water demand is high during summer.

  20. Monitoring physical properties of a submarine groundwater discharge source at Kalogria Bay, SW Peloponnissos, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papathanassiou E.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available An impressive SGD in Kalogria Bay (SW Peloponnissos was surveyed for the first time in 2006, revealing the existence of 2 major and 2 minor point sources of freshwater (salinity ~l-2; the discharge was ~ 1000 m3 h−1. The major point source was located in a karstic cavity at 25 m depth. In July 2009, and for a period of one year, the site was monitored intensively. During summer, the underwater discharge was not very strong, the water was flowing from many dispersed points, and salinity range was 20–36. During autumn and winter, flow velocity increased considerably (> 1 m s−1, and the SGDs discharged water of low salinity (< 2. Gradually, the smaller SGDs ceased their operation, and the major SGD emanated brackish water during spring and summer, thus hampering the possibilities of freshwater exploitation, in a touristic area which suffers from great aridity and water demand is high during summer.

  1. 法国Triangle(三角)新款Magellan Concerto SW2音箱

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    拥有超过25年发展历史的法国Triangle(三角)音响公司,以更为创新的设计理念和技术,于2006年底推出了新一代旗舰Magellan系列音箱,Concerto(协奏曲)SW2是率先出现的一款。在2006年底的广州白天鹅音响大展上,法国三角牌的老板Renaud de Vergnette先生和亚洲区业务经理Remy Bellemer先生向我刊介绍了这款寄予了众多希望的新产品。

  2. Evolutionary analysis of tomato Sw-5 resistance-breaking isolates of Tomato spotted wilt virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Carmelo; Aramburu, José; Galipienso, Luis; Soler, Salvador; Nuez, Fernando; Rubio, Luis

    2011-01-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) causes severe economic losses in many crops worldwide and often overcomes resistant cultivars used for disease control. Comparison of nucleotide and amino acid sequences suggested that tomato resistance conferred by the gene Sw-5 can be overcome by the amino acid substitution C to Y at position 118 (C118Y) or T120N in the TSWV movement protein, NSm. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that substitution C118Y has occurred independently three times in the studied isolates by convergent evolution, whereas the substitution T120N was a unique event. Analysis of rates of non-synonymous and synonymous changes at individual codons showed that substitution C118Y was positively selected.

  3. Neogene to recent contraction and basin inversion along the Nubia-Iberia boundary in SW Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Adrià; Fernández, Oscar; Terrinha, Pedro; Muñoz, Josep Anton

    2017-02-01

    The SW of Iberia is currently undergoing compression related to the convergence between Nubia and Iberia. Multiple compressive structures, and their related seismic activity, have been documented along the diffuse Nubia-Iberia plate boundary, including the Gorringe bank west of the Gulf of Cadiz, and the Betic-Rif orogen to the east. Despite seismic activity indicating a dominant compressive stress along the Algarve margin in the Gulf of Cadiz, the structures at the origin of this seismicity remain elusive. This paper documents the contractional structures that provide linkage across the Gulf of Cadiz and play a major role in defining the present-day seismicity and bathymetry of this area. The structures described in this paper caused the Neogene inversion of the Jurassic oblique passive margin that formed between the central Atlantic and the Ligurian Tethys. This example of a partially inverted margin provides insights into the factors that condition the inversion of passive margins.

  4. Young green turtles, Chelonia mydas, exposed to plastic in a frontal area of the SW Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Carman, Victoria; Acha, E Marcelo; Maxwell, Sara M; Albareda, Diego; Campagna, Claudio; Mianzan, Hermes

    2014-01-15

    Ingestion of anthropogenic debris represents an important threat to marine turtle populations. Information has been limited to inventories of debris ingested and its consequences, but why ingestion occurs and the conditions that enable it are less understood. Here we report on the occurrence of plastic ingestion in young green turtles (Chelonia mydas) inhabiting the Río de la Plata (SW Atlantic). This estuarine area is characterized by a frontal system that accumulates anthropogenic debris. We explored exposure of green turtles to plastic and its ingestion via debris distribution, habitat use and digestive tract examination. Results indicated that there is considerable overlap of frontal accumulated plastic and core foraging areas of the animals. Exposure results in ingestion, as shown by the high frequency of plastic found in the digestive tracts. The Río de la Plata estuarine front is an area of conservation concern for young green turtles.

  5. High-pressure metamorphism in the Early Variscan subduction complex of the SW Iberian Massif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio Pascual, Francisco J.; Matas, Jerónimo; Martín Parra, Luis M.

    2013-04-01

    Several units exposed in the boundary area of the Ossa Morena Zone (OMZ) and the South Portuguese Zone (SPZ) preserve petrographic and thermobarometric evidence for an early metamorphic episode (M1), developed under a high-P, low to intermediate-T gradient, related to Early Variscan subduction in the SW Iberian Massif. In the OMZ, these are the Cubito-Moura Unit (Pmin ~ 9.2 kbar and T = 395 ± 45 °C), blueschists from its basal mélange (Pmin ~ 12.4 kbar and T = 310 ± 11 °C), and the underlying Fuenteheridos Group (P = 10.9 ± 0.4 kbar and T = 449 ± 31 °C). The equivalent units in the SPZ are the La Minilla Formation (P = 8.7 ± 0.4 kbar and T = 388 ± 16 °C) and the lawsonite pseudomorphs-bearing Pulo do Lobo Formation. All these units formed part of an approximately NE verging orogenic wedge (present coordinates) developed by the accretion of subducted slabs of the outermost margin of Gondwana and other elements of the Rheic Ocean realm, from at least the Middle Devonian to the lowermost Tournaisian. High-pressure rocks were subsequently emplaced on more internal zones of the OMZ that only experienced a younger high-T, low to intermediate-P metamorphism (M2). This high-T event was coeval with magmatic activity from the uppermost Devonian to the Middle Mississippian, probably as a consequence of transtensional lithospheric thinning and/or delamination of the lower crust and mantle lithosphere of the Gondwana margin. Pre-Late Devonian synorogenic sedimentation in forearc and back-arc basins of the subduction complex evolved to a Late Devonian-Middle Mississippian foreland basin system in early collisional stages. Finally, a new Middle-Late Mississippian fold-and-thrust belt with opposite (SW) vergence and new foreland basins developed during late collisional stages.

  6. The elusive nature of the Rheic Ocean suture in SW Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Cáceres, I.; Martínez Poyatos, D.; Simancas, J. F.; Azor, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Rheic Ocean suture resulted from pre-Carboniferous oceanic subduction followed by Late Devonian-Carboniferous Variscan collision. In SW Iberia, this suture has been classically located along the boundary between the Ossa-Morena and South Portuguese Zones based on the presence of three units: (i) a conspicuous metamafic unit (Beja-Acebuches) that crops out along this boundary and has been interpreted as a pre-Carboniferous Rheic Ocean ophiolite; (ii) a low-grade metasedimentary unit with minor mid-ocean ridge basalt-like lithologies (Pulo do Lobo unit), thought to represent a Rheic Ocean subduction-related accretionary prism; and (iii) the allochthonous Cubito-Moura unit that contains high-pressure and ophiolitic-like rocks. We report new structural and geochronological data that allow us to reinterpret the origin and internal structure of the Beja-Acebuches and the Pulo do Lobo units. Thus, both the Beja-Acebuches protoliths and the Pulo do Lobo metabasalts would have been formed in the context of an intracollisional extensional stage that interrupted the Variscan collision at early Carboniferous time, after the Rheic Ocean consumption, and the first continental collision. Later on, collision was resumed in an oblique left-lateral regime that gave way to coeval frontal (folds and thrusts) and lateral (shear zones and strike-slip faults) structures, with variable pressure-temperature conditions and space distribution along time. As a consequence of the superposition of transtension and complex transpression, the Rheic suture in SW Iberia has an obscure nearly cryptic appearance.

  7. Possible petrological controls on the location and time scale of slow slip in SW Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, S.; Mizukami, T.; Yokoyama, H.; Hiramatsu, Y.; Arai, S.; Kawahara, H.; Nagaya, T.

    2014-12-01

    To examine the possibility that there was a petrological control on the location and nature of episodic tremor and slip (ETS), we compared the petrological characteristics of wedge mantle material to the results of recent geophysical observations in the Shikoku area, southwest Japan. This study revealed a close relationship between predicted mineral assemblages in the mantle wedge and the characteristics of slow slip behaviour recorded in the Shikoku area: Short-term ETSs take place in the antigorite +olivine stability field and silent long-term slow slip events (SSEs) take place in the antigorite+brucite stability field. The petrology of the mantle wedge may be an important control on the fluid pressure along the subduction interface and influence the time scales of SSEs. The Cretaceous Sanbagawa oceanic subduction complex of SW Japan preserves fragments of the former mantle wedge in contact with subducted slab units. P-T paths and peak P-T conditions show this belt formed as the result of subduction of a young slab under relatively warm conditions. These characteristics make the Sanbagawa belt a good analogue to modern warm subduction zones such as the Philippine Sea subduction zone beneath SW Japan and offer the possibility of directly examining the former plate boundary. Mantle wedge units derived from shallow depths show evidence for widely developed primary brucite and antigorite. In contrast, units derived from greater depths and higher peak temeratures consist dominantly of antigorite and olivine. Observations of the natural serpentinites suggest that the shallow serpentinite with brucite shows higher absorbency of water and provides fluid pathways that can reduce the fluid pore pressure on the subduction boundary.

  8. Apoptosis induction with polo-like kinase-1 antisense phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotide of colon cancer cell line SW480

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Fan; Shu Zheng; Ze-Feng Xu; Jia-Yi Ding

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of polo-like kinase-1 (PLK1) antisense phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotide (ASODN) on apoptosis and cell cycle of human colon cancer cell line 5W480.METHODS: After SW480 colon cancer cells were transfected with PLK1 ASODN, Northern and Western blot analyses were used to examine PLK1 gene expression in cancer cells. We studied apoptosis using terminal uridine deoxynucleotidyl nick end labeling. Apoptosis and cell cycle of SW480 cells were examined by fluorescence-activated cell sorter scan.RESULTS: The levels of PLK1 mRNA and protein were greatly inhibited by PLK1 ASODN in SW480 cancer cells transfected with PLK1 ASODN. Apoptosis index (AI) induced PLK1 ASODN in a time- and dose-dependent manner.Results from FLM showed that sub-2N DNA content of transfected cancer cells was significantly increased and arrested at G2/M compared with control groups.CONCLUSION: PLK1 ASODN can induce apoptosis of human colon cancer cell line SW480.

  9. Late-Quaternary variations in clay minerals along the SW continental margin of India: Evidence of climatic variations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.; Sukhija, B.S.; Gujar, A.R.; Nagabhushanam, P.; Paropkari, A.L.

    Down-core variations in illite, chlorite, smectite and kaolinite (the major clays) in two sup(14)C-dated cores collected along the SW continental margin of India show that illite and chlorite have enhanced abundance during 20-17, 12.5, 11-9.5, and 5...

  10. Impact of age on the cerebrovascular proteomes of wild-type and Tg-SwDI mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L Searcy

    Full Text Available The structural integrity of cerebral vessels is compromised during ageing. Abnormal amyloid (Aβ deposition in the vasculature can accelerate age-related pathologies. The cerebrovascular response associated with ageing and microvascular Aβ deposition was defined using quantitative label-free shotgun proteomic analysis. Over 650 proteins were quantified in vessel-enriched fractions from the brains of 3 and 9 month-old wild-type (WT and Tg-SwDI mice. Sixty-five proteins were significantly increased in older WT animals and included several basement membrane proteins (nidogen-1, basement membrane-specific heparan sulfate proteoglycan core protein, laminin subunit gamma-1 precursor and collagen alpha-2(IV chain preproprotein. Twenty-four proteins were increased and twenty-one decreased in older Tg-SwDI mice. Of these, increases in Apolipoprotein E (APOE and high temperature requirement serine protease-1 (HTRA1 and decreases in spliceosome and RNA-binding proteins were the most prominent. Only six shared proteins were altered in both 9-month old WT and Tg-SwDI animals. The age-related proteomic response in the cerebrovasculature was distinctly different in the presence of microvascular Aβ deposition. Proteins found differentially expressed within the WT and Tg-SwDI animals give greater insight to the mechanisms behind age-related cerebrovascular dysfunction and pathologies and may provide novel therapeutic targets.

  11. The sudden appearance of Aeolidiella glauca (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia) in lake Greveliningen (S.W. Netherlands) in 1983 and 1984

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, R.

    1985-01-01

    In 1983 and 1984 a population of the nudibranch Aeolidiella glauca (Alder & Hancock, 1845) was found in the saline Lake Grevelingen (S.W. Netherlands). The number of specimens observed exceeds by far the total number previously recorded from the Dutch coast. Field observations on food intake suggest

  12. Evaluation of thermal performance in fields subjected to steam injection (SW-SAGD mode), Orinoco oil belt, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armas, F.; Mago, R.; Franco, L.; Rodriguez, J.; Gil, E. [PDVSA EandP (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    The first well to operate the SW-SAGD process in the Orinoco oil belt in Venezuela was built in 2006 by Petroleos de Venezuela S.A (PDVSA). SW-SAGD is a thermal recovery process consisting in the injection of steam through a horizontal well pipe insulation. In order to follow the behavior of steam and the movement of heated fluids in such a process better, PDVSA installed a monitoring system composed of high temperature fiber optic and thermocouple type sensors. The aim of this paper is to assess the thermal behavior of reservoirs in wells under the SW-SAGD process. A pilot test has been conducted over the last 3 years. Results show an increase in production and estimations show a recovery factor twice as high as in other wells. This study demonstrated that SW-SAGD is an excellent alternative solution to stimulate reservoirs in the Orinoco oil belt and valuable information on the reservoir's thermal behavior was established.

  13. Mechanisms underlying aspirin-mediated growth inhibition and apoptosis induction of cyclooxygenase-2 negative colon cancer cell line SW480

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) on proliferation and apoptosis of colorectal can- cer cell line $W480 and its mechanism. METHODS: Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 negative colorec- tal cancer cell line SW480 was treated with aspirin at concentrations of 2.5 retool/L, 5.0 retool/L, 10.0 mmol/L for different periods in vitro. Anti-proliferation effect of aspirin on SW480 was detected by 3-(4,5-dimeth- ylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Cell cycle and apoptosis were observed by flow cytometry (FCM). Transmission electron microscope (TEM) was used for morphological study. Apoptosis-as- sociated genes were detected by immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting. RESULTS: Aspirin inhibited SW480 proliferation and induced apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Treatment with different concentrations of aspirin significantly increased the proportions of cells at the G0/G1 phase and decreased the proportions of cells at the S- and G2/M phases in a concentration- dependent manner. Aspirin not only induced apoptosis but also caused cell necrosis at a high concentration as well. After treatment with aspirin, SW480 cells displayed typically morphological features of apoptosis and necrosis under TEM, and increased the Bcl-2 expression in cells, but the expression of Bax was down regulated. CONCLUSION: Aspirin inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of SW480 cells. Its anti-tumor mechanism may arrest cell cycle and shift Bax/Bcl-2 balance in cells.

  14. Cell death triggering and effector recognition by Sw-5 SD-CNL proteins from resistant and susceptible tomato isolines to Tomato spotted wilt virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, Athos Silva; Koolhaas, Ivo; Boiteux, Leonardo Silva; Caldararu, Octav F; Petrescu, Andrei-Jose; Oliveira Resende, Renato; Kormelink, Richard

    2016-12-01

    Only a limited number of dominant resistance genes acting against plant viruses have been cloned, and further functional studies of these have been almost entirely limited to the resistance genes Rx against Potato virus X (PVX) and N against Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Recently, the cell-to-cell movement protein (NSM ) of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) has been identified as the avirulence determinant (Avr) of Sw-5b-mediated resistance, a dominant resistance gene which belongs to the class of SD-CC-NB-LRR (Solanaceae domain-coiled coil-nucleotide-binding-leucine-rich repeat, SD-CNL) resistance genes. On transient expression of the NSM protein in tomato and transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana harbouring the Sw-5b gene, a hypersensitive cell death response (HR) is triggered. Here, it is shown that high accumulation of the Sw-5b protein in N. benthamiana leaves, achieved by co-expression of the Sw-5b protein with RNA silencing suppressors (RSSs), leads to auto-activity in the absence of NSM . In a similar approach, Sw-5a, the highest conserved paralogue of Sw-5b from Solanum peruvianum, also triggered HR by auto-activation, whereas the highest conserved orthologue from susceptible S. lycopersicum, named Sw-5a(S) , did not. However, neither of the last two homologues was able to trigger an NSM -dependent HR. Truncated and mutated versions of these Sw-5 proteins revealed that the NB-ARC [nucleotide-binding adaptor shared by Apaf-1 (from humans), R proteins and CED-4 (from nematodes)] domain is sufficient for the triggering of HR and seems to be suppressed by the SD-CC domain. Furthermore, a single mutation was sufficient to restore auto-activity within the NB-ARC domain of Sw-5a(S) . When the latter domain was fused to the Sw-5b LRR domain, NSM -dependent HR triggering was regained, but not in the presence of its own Sw-5a(S) LRR domain. Expression analysis in planta revealed a nucleocytoplasmic localization pattern of Sw-5b, in which the SD-CC domain seems to be

  15. Solasodine accumulation in regenerated plants of Solanum torvum Sw Acúmulo de solasodina em plantas micropropagadas de Solanum torvum Sw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.B Moreira

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A nodal segment culture was developed in order to assess Solanum torvum Sw. regeneration and solasodine levels. The influence of auxins (indoleacetic acid, 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid and benzyl adenine on S. torvum growth in micropropagation was investigated. A nodal segment culture was initiated with seeds germinated in MS basal medium added of GA3 and grown in different concentrations of IAA, IAA + BAP and NAA + BAP. Sixty-day-old plants from the in vitro culture were collected, frozen and lyophilized; then, the methyl orange method was used to quantify solasodine for the spectrophotometric assay. The best results regarding plant regeneration and solasodine accumulation were obtained by using the MS basal medium without addition of plant growth regulators; however, there was great production of calluses presenting friable bases. Based on these results, cell cultures can be initiated from such calluses with application of other auxins and cytokinins to enhance solasodine production, besides different elicitors, light intensities and sucrose concentrations.A regeneração de Solanum torvum e a avaliação do conteúdo de solasodina foram os objetivos de cultura de segmentos nodais. A influência de auxinas (ácido 3-indolacético, ácido naftalenoacético e de 6-benzilaminopurina no crescimento de S. torvum na micropropagação foi investigado. Cultura de segmentos nodais foi iniciada por sementes germinadas em meio básico MS acrescido de GA3 e cultivadas em diferentes concentrações de AIA, AIA + BAP e ANA + BAP. Plantas da cultura in vitro com 60 dias foram coletadas, congeladas e liofilizadas e o método de alaranjado de metila foi utilizado para quantificação de solasodina para o ensaio espectrofotométrico. Os melhores resultados para regeneração vegetal e acúmulo de solasodina foram alcançados no meio MS sem adição de reguladores de crescimento havendo, porém grande produção de calos de base friáveis. Esses resultados mostram

  16. Influences of the interferon induced transmembrane protein I on the proliferation, invasion, and metastasis of the colorectal cancer SW480 cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jing-dong; LUO Hong-lei; LI Jin; FENG Wan-ting; CHEN Long-bang

    2012-01-01

    Background Interferon-induced transmembrane protein 1 (IFITM1) has been identified as a molecular marker of the colorectal tumors; however its influences on the biological behaviors of the colorectal cancer cells are currently unknown.We aimed to study the influences of IFITM1 on the proliferation,invasion,and metastasis of the colorectal cancer SW480 cell lines.Methods We constructed IFITM1/pEGFP-C3 recombinant plasmids and transfected them into the colorectal cancer SW480 cell lines.IFITM1/pEGFP-C3 recombinant plasmids were identified by means of immunofluorescence,laser confocal scanning microscopy,and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.IFITM1/SW480 cells with stable over-expression of IFITM1 were confirmed by G418 screening.The influences of IFITM1 on the proliferation of the SW480 cell lines were investigated by MTT assay and tumor transplantation experiments in nude mice.Cell invasion experiments were performed to determine the invasion capacity of the IFITM1/SW480 cells.Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 activities were detected by the gelatin zymographic analysis,and MMP-9 expression by the Western blotting analysis.Results IFITM1/pEGFP-C3 recombinant plasmids were successfully constructed in this study,and the IFITM1/SW480 cells with stable IFITM1 gene over-expression were confirmed by G418 screening.MTT results showed that the proliferation of the IFITM1/SW480 cells was significantly enhanced (P <0.01).Tumors were harvested from four weeks old mice.Tumor volumes were (1347.00±60.94) mm3,(1032.40±111.38) mm3 and (1018.78±28.83) mm3; and tumor weights were (1522.34±62.76) mg,(1137.78±97.22) mg and (1155.76±133.31) mg for mice inoculated with the IFITM1/SW480 cells,pEGFP-C3/SW480 cells and SW480 cells,respectively.Tumor volumes and weights from mice inoculated with the IFITM1/SW480 cells were significantly increased (P <0.01).In addition,the numbers of the SW480 cells and IFITM1/SW480 cells that migrated through Matrigel were

  17. Effects of calcium signaling on coagulation factor VIIa-induced proliferation and migration of the SW620 colon cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying; Wang, Jing; Zhou, Hong; Yu, Xiaoyan; Hu, Lichao; Meng, Fanlu; Jiang, Shuanghong

    2014-12-01

    Tissue factor (TF)/VIIa/protease‑activated receptor 2 (PAR2) has been shown to trigger the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. This was shown to be closely associated with the proliferation and migration of SW620 colon cancer cells; however, the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the effects of calcium signaling on the proliferation and migration of SW620 cells induced by coagulation factor VIIa. The results demonstrated that VIIa and PAR2 agonist PAR2‑AP increased [Ca2+]i in SW620 cells. In addition, VIIa‑and PAR2‑AP‑induced ERK1/2 activation was inhibited by thapsigargin (TG)‑induced depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores and EGTA‑mediated removal of extracellular Ca2+. It was also identified that VIIa and PAR2‑AP‑induced proliferation and migration of SW620 cells was modulated by EGTA and TG. Taken together, the present results indicate that VIIa triggers calcium signaling in SW620 cells, in a TF‑dependent manner, which is critical for VIIa‑induced ERK1/2 activation in SW620 cells. These results suggested that calcium signaling had a vital role in the proliferation and migration of SW620 cells.

  18. Linking Tengchong Terrane in SW Yunnan with Lhasa Terrane in southern Tibet through magmatic correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jincheng; Zhu, Dicheng; Dong, Guochen; Zhao, Zhidan; Wang, Qing

    2016-04-01

    New zircon U-Pb data, along with the data reported in the literature, reveal five phases of magmatic activity in the Tengchong Terrane since the Early Paleozoic with spatial and temporal variations summarized as: Cambrian-Ordovician (500-460 Ma) to the eastern, minor Triassic (245-206 Ma) in the eastern and western, abundant Early Cretaceous (131-114 Ma) in the eastern, extensive Late Cretaceous (77-65 Ma) in the central, and Paleocene-Eocene (65-49 Ma) in the central and western Tengchong Terrane, in which the Cretaceous-Eocene magmatism was migrated from east to west (Xu et al., 2012). The increased zircon eHf(t) of the Early Cretaceous granitoids from -12.3 to -1.4 at ca. 131-122 Ma to -4.6 to +7.1 at ca. 122-114 Ma identified for the first time in this study and the magmatic flare-up at ca. 53 Ma in the central and western Tengchong Terrane (Wang et al., 2014, Ma et al., 2015) indicate the increased contributions from mantle- or juvenile crust-derived components. The spatial and temporal variations and changing magmatic compositions with time in the Tengchong Terrane closely resemble the Lhasa Terrane in southern Tibet. Such similarities, together with the data of stratigraphy and paleobiogeography (Zhang et al., 2013), enable us to propose that the Tengchong Terrane in SW Yunnan is most likely linked with the Lhasa Terrane in southern Tibet, both of which experience similar tectonomagmatic histories since the Early Paleozoic. References Ma, L.Y., Wang, Y.J., Fan, W.M., Geng, H.Y., Cai, Y.F., Zhong, H., Liu, H.C., Xing, X.W., 2014. Petrogenesis of the early Eocene I-type granites in west Yingjiang (SW Yunnan) and its implication for the eastern extension of the Gangdese batholiths. Gondwana Research 25, 401-419. Wang, Y.J., Zhang, L.M., Cawood, P.A., Ma, L.Y., Fan, W.M., Zhang, A.M., Zhang, Y.Z., Bi, X.W., 2014. Eocene supra-subduction zone mafic magmatism in the Sibumasu Block of SW Yunnan: Implications for Neotethyan subduction and India-Asia collision

  19. Coastal and submarine instabilities distribution in the tectonically active SW margin of the Corinth Rift (Psathopyrgos, Achaia, Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simou, Eirini; Papanikolaou, Dimitrios; Lykousis, Vasilios; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Vassilakis, Emmanuel

    2014-05-01

    The Corinth Rift, one of the most active rifts in the world as local extension trending NE-SW reaches the amount of 14±2 mm/yr, corresponds to one of the largest zones of seismically active normal faulting. The formation, growth and migration southwards of the prevailing fault systems, which evolve simultaneously with the intense morphogenetic processes, are overprinted in the age, facies and thickness of the Plio-Pleistocene sequences constructing the south margin of the western Gulf of Corinth. The dominant fault blocks, defined by east-west trending, north dipping normal faults, are accompanied by several morphological features and anomalies, noticed in both the terrestrial and the marine environment. Our main aim has been to examine how the tectonic evolution, in combination with the attendant fierce erosional and sedimentary processes, has affected the morphology through geodynamic processes expressed as failures in the wider coastal area. High resolution multibeam bathymetry in combination with the available land surface data have contributed to submarine and subaerial morphological mapping. These have been used as a basis for the detection of all those geomorphic features that indicate instabilities probably triggered, directly or indirectly, by the ongoing active tectonic deformation. The interpretation of the combined datasets shows that the southwestern margin of the Corinth Rift towards Psathopyrgos fault zone is characterized by intense coastal relief and a narrow, almost absent, continental shelf, which passes abruptly to steep submarine slopes. These steep slope values denote the effects of the most recent brittle deformation and are related to coastal and submarine instabilities and failures. High uplift rates and rapid sedimentation, indicative of the regional high-energy terrestrial and submarine environment, are subsequently balanced by the transportation of the seafloor currents, especially where slope gradients decrease, disintegrating the

  20. Episodic speleothem deposition tracks the terrestrial impact of millennial-scale last glacial climate variability in SW Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fankhauser, Adelheid; McDermott, Frank; Fleitmann, Dominik

    2016-11-01

    Eighty four new U-Th ages are presented for twenty randomly selected broken, displaced and reworked calcite speleothems retrieved from clastic sedimentary fill and from isolated bedding-plane shelves in Crag cave (SW Ireland). The dated pre-Holocene samples span much of the last glacial, ranging in age from 85.15 ± 0.60 to 23.45 ± 0.17 ka. Speleothem deposition requires the presence of liquid water, and because Crag cave is a shallow system, deposition is considered likely only when mean annual air temperatures (MAAT) exceed the freezing point of water. Deposition at this mid-latitude ocean-marginal site occurred episodically during MIS5a through to MIS2, synchronously within dating uncertainties, with the timing of Greenland Interstadials (GI). In the latter part of Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS3), deposition was particularly intense, consistent with regional scale climate amelioration inferred previously from radiocarbon ages for sparse MIS3 organic and freshwater surficial deposits in N. Ireland. A brief episode of speleothem deposition at c.23.40 ± 0.22 ka coincides with GI-2, demonstrating the sensitivity of the site to brief climate amelioration episodes in Greenland during MIS2. Conditions favourable for speleothem deposition occurred periodically during the last glacial, indicating temperature changes of at least 10 °C between stadials and interstadials at this mid-latitude site. Deposition ceased during Greenland Stadials (GS), including during periods of ice-rafting in the adjacent N. Atlantic Ocean (Heinrich events). Oxygen and carbon isotope ratios of the last glacial speleothems are generally elevated, reflecting non-equilibrium isotope fractionation effects. However, establishment of low δ13C values often occurred within a few decades of climate amelioration, indicating that biogenic CO2 production resumed rapidly at this site, particularly during MIS3. Speleothem δ18O variability was driven largely by long-term changes in the δ18O value of the

  1. Magmatic and post-magmatic phenomena in the Karkonosze granite and its metamorphic envelope (West Sudetes, SW Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozłowski, Andrzej; Ilnicki, Sławomir; Matyszczak, Witold; Marcinowska, Agnieszka

    2016-09-01

    Mineralogical studies of the Karkonosze granite (ca. 322-312 Ma) and its surroundings in West Sudetes (SW Poland) have provided data on Nb-Ta-REE minerals from pegmatites in the NE part of the pluton and several new finds of Ag minerals and 15 oxygenic Bi phases, hitherto not reported from the massif. The Karkonosze pegmatites are enriched in HREE as fergusonite-(Y) or xenotime-(Y) appear in almost every studied pegmatite, together with a subordinate assemblage of the aeschynite, euxenite or columbite group. The abundance of LREE minerals such as allanite-( Ce) and the monazite group, correlates inversely with the Nb-Ta-Ti minerals, whilst an early generation of monazite-(Ce) revealed an exceptionally high amount of Nd (up to 22 wt.% of Nd2O3 ). The physical and chemical conditions during the magmatic and post-magmatic processes were reconstructed and the effects of contact metamorphism in amphibolites from hornfelsed zones examined. Changes in solution composition and concentration at the early magmatic stage (825-920°C), pegmatitic stage overlapping with hydrothermal (560°C which ended at 160-90°C) and clearly hydrothermal stage (400 to 110°C) were studied in detail by means of melt and fluid inclusions in quartz. Furthermore, post-magmatic fluids, including some enriched in Li and B, were identified in rock-forming quartz from the whole pluton. In turn, study of the amphibolites indicates that the pair cummingtonite + anorthite or the presence of Ca-rich plagioclase with actinolite seem to be reliable mineral proxies of the thermal impact of the granitoid body on amphibolites in its envelope. The inferred conditions of the contact processes (450-550°C, 2.5- 4.8 kbar) point to an elevated geothermal gradient (ca. 32-45°C/km) probably reflecting the heat flow induced by the Karkonosze intrusion. Moreover, despite the textural and mineral changes imposed by regional and contact metamorphism, the amphibolites have their pre-metamorphic (magmatic) geochemical

  2. Configuration of geological domains and geodynamic evolution of the Africa-Eurasia plate boundary off SW Iberia revisited based on seismic velocity and density models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Loriente, Sara; Sallarès, Valentí; Gràcia, Eulàlia; Bartolome, Rafael; Ranero, César

    2015-04-01

    We present a new classification of geological (basement) domains at the Africa-Eurasia plate boundary offshore SW Iberia, together with a regional geodynamic reconstruction spanning from the Mesozoic extension to the Neogene-to-present-day convergence. It is based on seismic velocity and density models along two regional wide-angle seismic transects, one running NW-SE from the Tagus to the Seine abyssal plains, and the other running N-S from S Portugal to the Seine Abyssal Plain, combined with previously available information. The seismic velocity and density structure at the Seine Abyssal Plain and the internal Gulf of Cadiz indicates the presence of a highly heterogeneous oceanic crust, similar to that described in ultra-slow spreading centers, whereas in the Horseshoe and Tagus abyssal plains, the basement structure resembles that of exhumed mantle sections identified in the Northern Atlantic margin. The integration of all this new information allows defining the presence of three oceanic domains off SW Iberia: (1) the Seine Abyssal Plain domain, generated during the first stages of slow seafloor spreading in the NE segment of the Central Atlantic (Early Jurassic); (2) the Gulf of Cadiz domain, made of oceanic crust generated in the Alpine-Tethys spreading system between Iberia and Africa, which was coeval with the formation of the Seine Abyssal Plain domain and lasted up to the North Atlantic continental break-up (Late Jurassic); and (3) the Gorringe Bank domain, mainly made of rocks exhumed from the mantle with little synchronous magmatism, which formed during the first stages of North Atlantic opening (Early Cretaceous). Our models suggest that the Seine Abyssal Plain and Gulf of Cadiz domains are separated by the Lineament South strike-slip fault, whereas the Gulf of Cadiz and Gorringe Bank domains appear to be limited by a deep thrust fault located at the center of the Horseshoe Abyssal Plain, which coincides with the seismicity cluster nucleated in the

  3. Implications of Magmatic Events on Hydrocarbon Generation: Occurrences of Gabbroic Rocks in the Orito Field, Putumayo Basin, SW Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, M.; Altenberger, U.; Romer, R. L.

    2005-12-01

    Mafic dikes and sills intruded the sedimentary succession in the Orito Oil Field, located in the Putumayo Basin, SW Colombia. One sample from the Orito-4 well yields a Late Miocene to Pliocene age (40K/40Ar on amphibole 6.1 ± 0.7 Ma) for the igneous event in the basin. This coincides with the widely recognized regional Andean orogenic uplift that affected most of sub-Andean Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia. Furthermore, the uplift consequently coincides with a second pulse of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion in the Putumayo Basin. This second pulse was thermally more evolved than the first one (Late Oligocene - Miocene). The high content of CO2 in the gas budget recovered in different wells along the basin may be related to the heat flux of the mafic intrusions. There are four geological events that coincide with this large scale evolution during the late Miocene to early Pliocene (13 - 3 Ma): regional orogenic uplift, persistent igneous intrusions, CO2 formation, and a second pulse of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion. The Late Miocene - Pliocene age of the intrusion is the key to formulate a hypothesis where these four events are joined together. Regional uplift and intrusions: The mafic rocks of the Orito Oil Field show Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions that suggest derivation from a mantle source below the western edge of the South American continent. The geochemical signature of these rocks that form part of the Northern Volcanic Zone (NVZ) reflects subduction-related magmatism. Thus, they record subduction and start of the last pervasive uplift episode that took place during the Late Neogene. Intrusions and second migration phase: The Late Miocene pulse of hydrocarbon generation and migration coincides closely with the estimated age of the intrusions; therefore, a causal link with the geothermal anomaly induced by the mafic igneous rocks is likely. The temperature of a mafic magma reaching 1000 to 1200°C is sufficient to heat the host rocks, where the

  4. Deep Imaging of large scale extensional structures in the SW South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yao; Delescluse, Matthias; Wang, Jun; Pubellier, Manuel; Chamot-Rooke, Nicolas; Qiu, Yan; Savva, Dimitri; Meresse, Florian

    2016-04-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) is the largest marginal basin in SE Asia and exhibits hundreds of kilometres of extended continental crust on both conjugate margins. The structures and processes leading to the formation of the SCS are still debated at various levels (timing, mechanisms). A joint collaboration between French and Chinese scientists led to the acquisition of coincident refraction and reflection seismic data over the SW sub-basin. In 2011, a 1000-km-long refraction line was first shot using R/V Tan Bao and 50 Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS). Among the results was the homogeneous thickness (~12 km) of the thinned continental crust over hundreds of kilometres and the possible large scale normal faults rooting in a ductile lower crust which could explain the relatively flat Moho. The coincident multichannel seismic (MCS) profile is now available to us. The 1000-km-long MCS line was acquired using a ~7000 cu.in. tuned airgun array and 6 to 8 km long streamers. Here we focus on a 230-km-long section of the profile to the south of the V-shaped SW oceanic basin across Spratley Islands. Multiples attenuation and high density velocity analysis are performed to obtain a detailed imaging of the sediments and crust at depth. We apply pre-stack Kirchhoff time migration and superimpose the obtained reflectivity on the refraction velocity model. The processed section includes a basin bound by a large crustal normal fault already imaged in the refraction velocity model, although no information on the basement was used to model the refraction velocities. The results validate the interpretation of the refraction velocity lateral variations and emphasize the significant vertical offsets of the large scale normal faults. Deep crustal reflectivity may give additional hints at a lower crustal ductile flow. Future work will consist in using the geometry of the MCS profiles in the refraction velocity modelling and an attempt to use more advanced migration methods with the help of

  5. Differential RNA-seq analysis comparing APC-defective and APC-restored SW480 colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Lauren E; Love, Christopher G; Sieber, Oliver M; Faux, Maree C; Burgess, Antony W

    2016-03-01

    The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumour suppressor gene is mutated in about 80% of colorectal cancers (CRC) Brannon et al. (2014) [1]. APC is a large multifunctional protein that regulates many biological functions including Wnt signalling (through the regulation of beta-catenin stability) Reya and Clevers (2005) [2], cell migration Kroboth et al. (2007), Sansom et al. (2004) [3], [4], mitosis Kaplan et al. (2001) [5], cell adhesion Faux et al. (2004), Carothers et al. (2001) [6], [7] and differentiation Sansom et al. (2004) [4]. Although the role of APC in CRC is often described as the deregulation of Wnt signalling, its other biological functions suggest that there are other factors at play that contribute to the onset of adenomas and the progression of CRC upon the truncation of APC. To identify genes and pathways that are dysregulated as a consequence of loss of function of APC, we compared the gene expression profiles of the APC mutated human CRC cell line SW480 following reintroduction of wild-type APC (SW480 + APC) or empty control vector (SW480 + vector control) Faux et al. (2004) . Here we describe the RNA-seq data derived for three biological replicates of parental SW480, SW480 + vector control and SW480 + APC cells, and present the bioinformatics pipeline used to test for differential gene expression and pathway enrichment analysis. A total of 1735 genes showed significant differential expression when APC was restored and were enriched for genes associated with cell polarity, Wnt signalling and the epithelial to mesenchymal transition. There was additional enrichment for genes involved in cell-cell adhesion, cell-matrix junctions, angiogenesis, axon morphogenesis and cell movement. The raw and analysed RNA-seq data have been deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database under accession number GSE76307. This dataset is useful for further investigations of the impact of APC mutation on the properties of colorectal cancer cells.

  6. Differential RNA-seq analysis comparing APC-defective and APC-restored SW480 colorectal cancer cells

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    Lauren E. King

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC tumour suppressor gene is mutated in about 80% of colorectal cancers (CRC Brannon et al. (2014 [1]. APC is a large multifunctional protein that regulates many biological functions including Wnt signalling (through the regulation of beta-catenin stability Reya and Clevers (2005 [2], cell migration Kroboth et al. (2007, Sansom et al. (2004 [3,4], mitosis Kaplan et al. (2001 [5], cell adhesion Faux et al. (2004, Carothers et al. (2001 [6,7] and differentiation Sansom et al. (2004 [4]. Although the role of APC in CRC is often described as the deregulation of Wnt signalling, its other biological functions suggest that there are other factors at play that contribute to the onset of adenomas and the progression of CRC upon the truncation of APC. To identify genes and pathways that are dysregulated as a consequence of loss of function of APC, we compared the gene expression profiles of the APC mutated human CRC cell line SW480 following reintroduction of wild-type APC (SW480 + APC or empty control vector (SW480 + vector control Faux et al. (2004 . Here we describe the RNA-seq data derived for three biological replicates of parental SW480, SW480 + vector control and SW480 + APC cells, and present the bioinformatics pipeline used to test for differential gene expression and pathway enrichment analysis. A total of 1735 genes showed significant differential expression when APC was restored and were enriched for genes associated with cell polarity, Wnt signalling and the epithelial to mesenchymal transition. There was additional enrichment for genes involved in cell–cell adhesion, cell–matrix junctions, angiogenesis, axon morphogenesis and cell movement. The raw and analysed RNA-seq data have been deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO database under accession number GSE76307. This dataset is useful for further investigations of the impact of APC mutation on the properties of colorectal cancer cells.

  7. Variations in Organic Matter Burial and Composition in Sediments from the Indian Ocean Continental Margin Off SW Indonesia (Sumatra - Java - Flores) Since the Last Glacial Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennerjahn, T. C.; Gesierich, K.; Schefuß, E.; Mohtadi, M.

    2014-12-01

    Global climate change is a mosaic of regional changes to a large extent determined by region-specific feedbacks between climate and ecosystems. At present the ocean is forming a major sink in the global carbon cycle. Organic matter (OM) storage in sediments displays large regional variations and varied over time during the Quaternary. Upwelling regions are sites of high primary productivity and major depocenters of organic carbon (OC), the least understood of which is the Indian Ocean upwelling off Indonesia. In order to reconstruct the burial and composition of OM during the Late Quaternary, we analyzed five sediment cores from the Indian Ocean continental margin off the Indonesian islands Sumatra to Flores spanning the last 20,000 years (20 kyr). Sediments were analyzed for bulk composition, stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes of OM, amino acids and hexosamines and terrestrial plant wax n-alkanes and their stable carbon isotope composition. Sedimentation rates hardly varied over time in the western part of the transect. They were slightly lower in the East during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and deglaciation, but increased strongly during the Holocene. The amount and composition of OM was similar along the transect with maximum values during the deglaciation and the late Holocene. High biogenic opal covarying with OM content indicates upwelling-induced primary productivity dominated by diatoms to be a major control of OM burial in sediments in the East during the past 20 kyr. The content of labile OM was low throughout the transect during the LGM and increased during the late Holocene. The increase was stronger and the OM less degraded in the East than in the West indicating that continental margin sediments off Java and Flores were the major depocenter of OC burial along the Indian Ocean margin off SW Indonesia. Temporal variations probably resulted from changes in upwelling intensity and terrestrial inputs driven by variations in monsoon strength.

  8. Anti-inflammatory effect of lycopene in SW480 human colorectal cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jae Hoon; Kim, Woo Kyoung; Ha, Ae Wha; Kim, Myung Hwan

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Although the antioxidative effects of lycopene are generally known, the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory properties of lycopene are not fully elucidated. This study aimed to examine the role and mechanism of lycopene as an inhibitor of inflammation. METHODS/MATERIALS Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated SW 480 human colorectal cancer cells were treated with 0, 10, 20, and 30 µM lycopene. The MTT assay was performed to determine the effects of lycopene on cell proliferation. Western blotting was performed to observe the expression of inflammation-related proteins, including nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), inhibitor kappa B (IκB), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK), c-jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 (p38 MAP kinase). Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to investigate the mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were determined via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. RESULTS In cells treated with lycopene and LPS, the mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, iNOS, and COX-2 were decreased significantly in a dose-dependent manner (P cancer cells.

  9. Male and female reproductive success in natural and anthropogenic populations of Malaxis monophyllos (L. Sw. (Orchidaceae

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    Jermakowicz Edyta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the presented study, male and female reproductive success was analyzed in relation to the population size, floral display and pollinators’ availability in natural and anthropogenic populations of the orchid Malaxis monophyllos (L. Sw. Our results indicated significant differences between all investigated populations in parameters of floral display, including heights and number of flowers per inflorescence, as well the number of flowering individuals and their spatial structure. Additionally, populations differed both in male (pollinia removal and female (fruit set reproductive success, but only the fruit set clearly differentiated anthropogenic and natural populations. Despite the average flower number per plant being significantly higher in two of the anthropogenic populations, it was not related to the fruits set, which was significantly lower there. Moreover, our preliminary study concerning the potential pollinators of M. monophyllos showed a higher contribution of flies in natural habitats than in anthropogenic ones. Thus, we can suspect that the main factors influencing the level of female reproductive success in M. monophyllos populations are abundance of effective pollinators, as well as flower visitors, which may have resulted in a different level of pollen discounting in populations. Therefore, further studies concerning breeding system and pollination as important forces that shape demographic processes in M. monophyllos populations are necessary. Our results also indicate that suitable conservation methods in M. monophyllos should always include the preservation of potential pollinators, especially in these new, secondary habitats.

  10. Carihuayrazo S-W a little Ecuadorian glacier in the way to extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, B. E.

    2015-12-01

    Carihuayrazo S-W glacier is located on the western cordillera in the Ecuadorian Andes. During the last 60 years it has been a dramatical reduction in its ice coverage corresponding to 67%. During the last 15 years an accelerated ice coverage lost has been observed with a value of 37%.The values on the reduction of ice coverage were correlated with the equilibrium line altitude (ELA) location for the Ecuadorian Andes, corresponding to 5100 meters above sea level (m.a.s.l.). This value was determined over the last 20 years using different measurements over the Antisana 15 glacier (1994-2014). This place is used as a reference to locate the coverage lost for the glaciers in the Ecuadorian Andes. At the moment the Glacier under study doesn't have accumulation area since the more higher altitude was located at 5020 meters above sea level (m.a.s.l), value that is below the equilibrium line altitude. Values for mass balance have been measured during short periods of time with high negative values. According to the observations carried out on this glacier since 2003 there is a high probability that it will disappear in the next ten years . At the moment this glacier is monitoring with special attention in order to document with detail its disappearance.

  11. An automatic continuous monitoring station for groundwater geochemistry at an active fault zone in SW Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chun-Wei; Yang, Tsanyao F.; Fu, Ching-Chou; Hilton, David R.; Liu, Tsung-Kwei; Walia, Vivek; Lai, Tzu-Hua

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have revealed that gas compositions of fluid samples collected from southwestern Taiwan where many hot springs and mud volcanoes are distributed along tectonic sutures show significant variation prior to and after some disaster seismic events. Such variations, including radon activity, CH4/CO2, CO2/3He and 3He/4He ratios of gas compositions, are considered to be precursors of earthquakes in this area. To validate the relationship between fluid compositions and local earthquakes, a continuous monitoring station has been established at Yun-Shui, which is an artesian well located at an active fault zone in SW Taiwan. It is equipped with a radon detector and a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) for in-situ measurement of the dissolved gas composition. Data is telemetered to Taipei so we are able to monitor variations of gas composition in real time. Furthermore, we also installed a syringe pump apparatus for the retrieval and temporal analysis of helium (SPARTAH) at this station. From the SPARTAH samples, we can obtain detailed time series records of H-O isotopic compositions, DIC concentration and δ13C isotopic ratios, and anion concentration of the water samples at this station. After continuous monitoring for about one year, some anomalies occurred prior to some local earthquakes. It demonstrates that this automated system is feasible for long-term continuous seismo-geochemical research in this area. Keywords: monitoring; geochemistry; isotope; dissolved gases; pre-seismic signal.

  12. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for the two layer fault system of Antalya (SW Turkey) area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipova, Nihat; Cangir, Bülent

    2017-09-01

    Southwest Turkey, along Mediterranean coast, is prone to large earthquakes resulting from subduction of the African plate under the Eurasian plate and shallow crustal faults. Maximum observed magnitude of subduction earthquakes is Mw = 6.5 whereas that of crustal earthquakes is Mw = 6.6. Crustal earthquakes are sourced from faults which are related with Isparta Angle and Cyprus Arc tectonic structures. The primary goal of this study is to assess seismic hazard for Antalya area (SW Turkey) using a probabilistic approach. A new earthquake catalog for Antalya area, with unified moment magnitude scale, was prepared in the scope of the study. Seismicity of the area has been evaluated by the Gutenberg-Richter recurrence relationship. For hazard computation, CRISIS2007 software was used following the standard Cornell-McGuire methodology. Attenuation model developed by Youngs et al. Seismol Res Lett 68(1):58-73, (1997) was used for deep subduction earthquakes and Chiou and Youngs Earthq Spectra 24(1):173-215, (2008) model was used for shallow crustal earthquakes. A seismic hazard map was developed for peak ground acceleration and for rock ground with a hazard level of a 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years. Results of the study show that peak ground acceleration values on bedrock change between 0.215 and 0.23 g in the center of Antalya.

  13. Effects of Krill Oil on serum lipids of hyperlipidemic rats and human SW480 cells

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    Qian Wen-Bin

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD and colon cancer incidence are known to be closely related to dietary factors. This article evaluated effects of krill oil (KO on serum lipids of hyperlipidemia rats and human colon cancer cells (SW480. Serum lipids of rats fed with high fat diet (HFD and different doses of KO were measured by automatic analyzer. Effect of KO on viability of cells was determined by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT assay. Results Except for higher dose group, body weights decreased significantly. Total cholesterol (TC, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C of all dose groups, Triglycerides (TG of low and mid dose groups descended significantly, while there were no significant differences of HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C, compared with control group. Treatment of colon cancer cells with KO also resulted in time-dependent inhibition of cell growth. Conclusion Our findings indicated that the consumption of KO may provide benefits to control serum lipid levels in certain diseases and inhibit growth of colon cancer cells. Therefore, KO may be a good candidate for development as a functional food and nutraceutical.

  14. Ecophysiological and ultrastructural effects of dust pollution in lichens exposed around a cement plant (SW Slovakia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Luca; Guttová, Anna; Grassi, Alice; Lackovičová, Anna; Senko, Dušan; Sorbo, Sergio; Basile, Adriana; Loppi, Stefano

    2015-10-01

    The study investigated the ecophysiological and ultrastructural effects of dust pollution from a cement industry in the lichen species Evernia prunastri and Xanthoria parietina, which were exposed for 30, 90 and 180 days around a cement mill, two quarries, and inhabited and agricultural sites in SW Slovakia. The results showed that dust deposition from quarrying activities and cement works at the cement mill (mainly enriched in Ca, Fe and Ti) significantly affected the photosynthetic apparatus of E. prunastri (sensitive to dust and habitat eutrophication), while X. parietina (tolerant to dust and habitat eutrophication) adapted to the new environment. The length of the exposure strongly affected the vitality of the mycobiont (measured as dehydrogenase activity) in transplanted lichens. Dust deposition led to ultrastructural alterations, including lipid droplets increase, swelling of cellular components, thylakoid degeneration and sometimes plasmolysis, which, on the whole, gave the cells an aged appearance. Photosynthetic parameters deserve further attention as potential indicators for monitoring early biological symptoms of the air pollution caused during cement production.

  15. Transportation and transformation of mercury in a calcine profile in the Wanshan Mercury Mine, SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Runsheng; Gu, Chunhao; Feng, Xinbin; Zheng, Lirong; Hu, Ningning

    2016-12-01

    Calcination of Hg ores has resulted in serious contamination of mercury (Hg) in the environment. To understand the mobilization of Hg in the calcine pile, the speciation of Hg in a profile of a large calcine pile in the Wanshan Mercury Mine, SW China was investigated using the X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES), to understand the mobilization of Hg in the calcine pile. Higher concentrations of Hg were observed at the 30-50 cm depth of the profile, corresponding to a cemented layer. This layer is observed in the entire pile, and was formed due to cementation of calcines. Hg species in calcines include cinnabar (α-HgS), metacinnabar (β-HgS), elemental Hg(0), and minor mercuric chloride (HgCl2), but these Hg species show dramatic changes in the profile. Variations in Hg speciation suggest that extensive mobilization of Hg can occur during weathering processes. We show that the cemented layer can prevent the leaching of Hg and the emission of Hg(0) from the pile. High MeHg concentrations were found near the cemented layer, indicating Hg methylation occurs. This study provides important insights into the environmental risk of Hg in mining areas.

  16. Terrestrial events across the Permian Triassic boundary along the Yunnan Guizhou border, SW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianxin, Yu; Yuanqiao, Peng; Suxin, Zhang; Fengqing, Yang; Quanming, Zhao; Qisheng, Huang

    2007-01-01

    The border area between western Guizhou and eastern Yunnan Provinces in SW China is an ideal place to undertake research considering the terrestrial-ecological system evolution across the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB). The study of plant and palynomorph fossils, clay minerals, inorganic geochemistry and sedimentary facies in this area enable us to interpret the events occurring at that time. The extinction pattern of the flora interpreted from megafloral and palynomorph data is demonstrated by a sudden decline of species numbers at the PTB after a long-term of gradual changes, followed by a delayed extinction in the basal Triassic. The two boundary claybeds (Beds 66 and 68 in the Chahe Section, beds 47 and 49 in the Zhejue Section) are considered to be volcanogenic. The inorganic geochemical anomalies occurred between Beds 63 and 69, Chahe Section and Beds 45 and 50, Zhejue Section. Sedimentary facies changed from channels of braided rivers, into flood plains of braided rivers, then to shallow lakes, reflecting a gradual transgression by lakes across the area. Our conclusions are that the mass extinction across the PTB in western Guizhou and eastern Yunnan was probably caused by the Siberian basaltic eruption episode and the siliceous volcanism in South China. These lithospheric events represented by volcanisms heralded a series of climatic and environmental events, giving rise to a catastrophe for the biosphere.

  17. Structure of the epiphyte community in a tropical montane forest in SW China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxu Zhao

    Full Text Available Vascular epiphytes are an understudied and particularly important component of tropical forest ecosystems. However, owing to the difficulties of access, little is known about the properties of epiphyte-host tree communities and the factors structuring them, especially in Asia. We investigated factors structuring the vascular epiphyte-host community and its network properties in a tropical montane forest in Xishuangbanna, SW China. Vascular epiphytes were surveyed in six plots located in mature forests. Six host and four micro-site environmental factors were investigated. Epiphyte diversity was strongly correlated with host size (DBH, diameter at breast height, while within hosts the highest epiphyte diversity was in the middle canopy and epiphyte diversity was significantly higher in sites with canopy soil or a moss mat than on bare bark. DBH, elevation and stem height explained 22% of the total variation in the epiphyte species assemblage among hosts, and DBH was the most important factor which alone explained 6% of the variation. Within hosts, 51% of the variation in epiphyte assemblage composition was explained by canopy position and substrate, and the most important single factor was substrate which accounted for 16% of the variation. Analysis of network properties indicated that the epiphyte host community was highly nested, with a low level of epiphyte specialization, and an almost even interaction strength between epiphytes and host trees. Together, these results indicate that large trees harbor a substantial proportion of the epiphyte community in this forest.

  18. Chelerythrine chloride induces apoptosis in renal cancer HEK-293 and SW-839 cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Meng; Zhang, Meng; Fan, Peng-Li; Qin, Yu-Hua; Zhao, Hong-Wei

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloid chelerythrine chloride (CC) has inhibitory effects on various tumors. However, the anticancer activity of CC and its underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated in renal cancer cells. The present study examined the effects of CC on growth inhibition and apoptosis of renal cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Flow cytometry and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays revealed that CC markedly suppressed the growth of HEK-293 and human renal cancer SW-839 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The xenograft mouse model, which was performed in nude mice, exhibited a reduced tumor growth following CC treatment. In addition, the present study revealed that CC significantly decreased the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt, which was accompanied by upregulation of p53, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)-associated X protein, cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP), and downregulation of Bcl-2, caspase-3 and PARP. Furthermore, the use of PD98059, a specific mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor, potentiated the proapoptotic effects of CC, which indicated that CC may induce apoptosis in renal cancer cells partly via inhibition of ERK activity. Overall, the results of the present study demonstrated that CC may be developed as a potential anticancer treatment for patients with renal cancer.

  19. Comprehensive analysis of conventional land management in privately-owned rangelands of Extremadura (SW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido, Manuel; Herguido, Estela; Francisco Lavado Contador, Joaquín; Schnabel, Susanne; Gómez-Gutiérrez, Álvaro

    2017-04-01

    Extensive grazing is a key factor for the conservation of High Nature Value (HNV) farming systems such as woody rangelands (dehesas or montados) or grasslands (pastizales) in SW Europe. They have been created from clearing the former Mediterranean forest and have been subject to land use and management changes, particularly during recent decades. Environmental and economic consequences of those changes have been scarcely studied so far. In this study, the land management of 10 privately-owned farms (ranging from 200 to 1,000 ha in size) has been analysed from various perspectives: [1] environmental (soil quality, land degradation, tree regeneration, etc.), [2] economic (inputs, outputs, infrastructure and vehicles) and [3] sociodemographic (type of exploitation, generational relay, etc.). Data were obtained through field surveys, aerial image analysis and personal interviews with owners and shepherds. The results showed negative economic consequences (e.g. more expenses on food supply) on farms where soils are more degraded. Approximately 30% of the farms had negative economic balances, compensated by subsidy payments from the European Union. Furthermore, 50% of the samples do not have guaranteed the generational relay. The obtained information is relevant to evaluate the sustainability of these farming systems. However, a larger number of cases is still necessary in order to draw definitive conclusions. Keywords: Dehesas, Land management, Sustainability, Integrated approach

  20. High-resolution seismic structure analysis of an active submarine mud volcano area off SW Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsiao-Shan; Hsu, Shu-Kun; Tsai, Wan-Lin; Tsai, Ching-Hui; Lin, Shin-Yi; Chen, Song-Chuen

    2015-04-01

    In order to better understand the subsurface structure related to an active mud volcano MV1 and to understand their relationship with gas hydrate/cold seep formation, we conducted deep-towed side-scan sonar (SSS), sub-bottom profiler (SBP), multibeam echo sounding (MBES), and multi-channel reflection seismic (MCS) surveys off SW Taiwan from 2009 to 2011. As shown in the high-resolution sub-bottom profiler and EK500 sonar data, the detailed structures reveal more gas seeps and gas flares in the study area. In addition, the survey profiles show several submarine landslides occurred near the thrust faults. Based on the MCS results, we can find that the MV1 is located on top of a mud diapiric structure. It indicates that the MV1 has the same source as the associated mud diapir. The blanking of the seismic signal may indicate the conduit for the upward migration of the gas (methane or CO2). Therefore, we suggest that the submarine mud volcano could be due to a deep source of mud compressed by the tectonic convergence. Fluids and argillaceous materials have thus migrated upward along structural faults and reach the seafloor. The gas-charged sediments or gas seeps in sediments thus make the seafloor instable and may trigger submarine landslides.

  1. Environmental drivers of phototrophic biofilms in an Alpine show cave (SW-Italian Alps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piano, E; Bona, F; Falasco, E; La Morgia, V; Badino, G; Isaia, M

    2015-12-01

    The proliferation of lampenflora is a major threat for the conservation of show caves, since phototrophic organisms cause physical, chemical and aesthetic damage to speleothems. In this paper we examine the environmental factors influencing the presence and the growth of the three main photosynthetic groups composing phototrophic biofilms in the Bossea show cave (SW-Italian Alps). The presence and the primary production of cyanobacteria, diatoms and green algae were detected with BenthoTorch®, an instrument for in situ measurement of chlorophyll a concentration that has never been used before in caves. By means of different techniques of regression analysis, we highlighted the response of the three photosynthetic groups to different environmental factors. Illuminance proved to be the main factor influencing positively both the probability of the presence and the productivity of the three groups. The presence of seeping water on the substrate and the distance from the cave entrance proved to play an important role in determining patterns of colonization. By means of GIS techniques, we provide thematic maps of the cave, providing a representation of pattern of the density of the three examined photosynthetic groups within different areas of the cave. The same approach may apply to other show caves, aiming at providing suggestions for the cave management (i.e. cleaning of the cave walls and positioning of artificial lights) and reduce impact caused by tourism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers for Axonopus compressus (Sw.) Beauv. (Poaceae) using 454 sequencing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X-L; Li, Y; Liao, L; Bai, C-J; Wang, Z-Y

    2015-05-11

    Axonopus compressus (Sw.) Beauv. is a perennial herb widely used as a garden lawn grass. In this study, we used Roche 454 pyrosequencing, combined with the magnetic bead enrichment method FIASCO, to isolate simple sequence repeat markers from the A. compressus genome. A total of 1942 microsatellite loci were identified, with 53,193 raw sequencing reads. One hundred micro-satellite loci were selected to test the primer amplification efficiency in 24 individuals; 14 primer pairs yielded polymorphic amplification products. The number of observed alleles ranged from two to six, with an average of 3.5. Shannon's Information index values ranged from 0.169 to 0.650, with an average of 0.393. Nei's genetic diversity values ranged from 0.108 to 0.457, with an average of 0.271. This first set of microsatellite markers developed for Axonopus will assist in the development of molecular marker-assisted breeding and the assessment of genetic diversity in A. compressus.

  3. Diverse magmatic effects of subducting a hot slab in SW Japan: Results from forward modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Jun-Ichi; Gill, James B.; Kunikiyo, Tomoyuki; Osaka, Isaku; Shimoshioiri, Yusuke; Katakuse, Maiko; Kakubuchi, Susumu; Nagao, Takashi; Furuyama, Katsuhiko; Kamei, Atsushi; Kawabata, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Junichi; van Keken, Peter E.; Stern, Robert J.

    2014-03-01

    response to the subduction of the young Shikoku Basin of the Philippine Sea Plate, arc magmas erupted in SW Japan throughout the late Cenozoic. Many magma types are present including ocean island basalt (OIB), shoshonite (SHO), arc-type alkali basalt (AB), typical subalkalic arc basalt (SAB), high-Mg andesite (HMA), and adakite (ADK). OIB erupted since the Japan Sea back-arc basin opened, whereas subsequent arc magmas accompanied subduction of the Shikoku Basin. However, there the origin of the magmas in relation to hot subduction is debated. Using new major and trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotope analyses of 324 lava samples from seven Quaternary volcanoes, we investigated the genetic conditions of the magma suites using a geochemical mass balance model, Arc Basalt Simulator version 4 (ABS4), that uses these data to solve for the parameters such as pressure/temperature of slab dehydration/melting and slab flux fraction, pressure, and temperature of mantle melting. The calculations suggest that those magmas originated from slab melts that induced flux melting of mantle peridotite. The suites differ mostly in the mass fraction of slab-melt flux, increasing from SHO through AB, SAB, HMA, to ADK. The pressure and temperature of mantle melting decreases in the same order. The suites differ secondarily in the ratio of altered oceanic crust to sediment in the source of the slab melt. The atypical suites associated with hot subduction result from unusually large mass fractions of slab melt and unusually cool mantle temperatures.

  4. Ecosystem metabolism in a temporary Mediterranean marsh (Doñana National Park, SW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Geertz-Hansen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic balance of the open waters supporting submerged macrophytes of the Doñana marsh (SW Spain was investigated in spring, when community production is highest. The marsh community (benthic + pelagic was net autotrophic with net community production rates averaging 0.61 g C m−2 d−1, and gross production rates exceeding community respiration rates by, on average, 43%. Net community production increased greatly with increasing irradiance, with the threshold irradiance for communities to become net autotrophic ranging from 42 to 255 μE m−2 s−1, with net heterotrophic at lower irradiance. Examination of the contributions of the benthic and the pelagic compartments showed the pelagic compartment to be strongly heterotrophic (average P/R ratio = 0.27, indicating that the metabolism of the pelagic compartment is highly subsidised by excess organic carbon produced in the strongly autotrophic benthic compartment (average P/R = 1.58.

  5. Ecosystem metabolism in a temporary Mediterranean marsh (Doñana National Park, SW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Geertz-Hansen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic balance of the open waters supporting submerged macrophytes of the Doñana marsh (SW Spain was investigated in spring, when community production is highest. The marsh community was net autotrophic with net community production rates averaging 0.61 g C m−2 d−1, and gross production rates exceeding community respiration rates by, on average, 43%. Net community production increased greatly with increasing irradiance, with the threshold irradiance for communities to become net autotrophic being 42 to 255 μE m−2 s−1, below which communities became net heterotrophic. Examination of the contributions of the benthic and the pelagic compartments showed the pelagic compartment to be strongly heterotrophic (average P/R ratio = 0.27, indicating that the metabolism of the pelagic compartment is strongly subsidised by excess organic carbon produced in the strongly autotrophic benthic compartment (average P/R = 1.58.

  6. Evaluation of soft sediment deformation structures along the Fethiye–Burdur Fault Zone, SW Turkey

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mehmet Ozcelik

    2016-03-01

    Burdur city is located on lacustrine sedimentary deposits at the northeastern end of the Fethiye–Burdur Fault Zone (FBFZ) in SW Turkey. Fault steps were formed in response to vertical displacement along normal fault zones in these deposits. Soft sediment deformation structures were identified at five sitesin lacustrine sediments located on both sides of the FBFZ. The deformed sediments are composed of unconsolidated alternations of sands, silts and clay layers and show different morphological types. The soft sediment deformation structures include load structures, flame structures, slumps, dykes, neptuniandykes, drops and pseudonodules, intercalated layers, ball and pillow structures, minor faults and water escape structures of varying geometry and dimension. These structures are a direct response to fluid escape during liquefaction and fluidization mechanism. The driving forces inferred include gravitationalinstabilities and hydraulic processes. Geological, tectonic, mineralogical investigations and age analysis were carried out to identify the cause for these soft sediment deformations. OSL dating indicated an age ranging from 15161±744 to 17434±896 years for the soft sediment deformation structures. Geological investigations of the soft sediment deformation structures and tectonic history of the basin indicate that the main factor for deformation is past seismic activity.

  7. Desacetyluvaricin induces S phase arrest in SW480 colorectal cancer cells through superoxide overproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jun-Yi; Zhou, Guang-Xiong; Chen, Tianfeng; Gao, Si; Choi, Mei-Yuk; Wong, Yum-Shing

    2014-03-01

    Annonaceous acetogenins (ACGs) are a group of fatty acid-derivatives with potent anticancer effects. In the present study, we found desacetyluvaricin (Dau) exhibited notable in vitro antiproliferative effect on SW480 human colorectal carcinoma cells with IC50 value of 14 nM. The studies on the underlying mechanisms revealed that Dau inhibited the cancer cell growth through induction of S phase cell cycle arrest from 11.3% (control) to 33.2% (160 nM Dau), which was evidenced by the decreased protein expression of cyclin A Overproduction of superoxide, intracellular DNA damage, and inhibition of MEK/ERK signaling pathway, were also found involved in cells exposed to Dau. Moreover, pre-treatment of the cells with ascorbic acid significantly prevented the Dau-induced overproduction of superoxide, DNA damage and cell cycle arrest. Taken together, our results suggest that Dau induces S phase arrest in cancer cells by firstly superoxide overproduction and subsequently the involvement of various signaling pathways.

  8. In vivo gibberellin biosynthesis in endosperm of Sechium edule Sw. seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceccarelli, N.; Lorenzi, R. (Universita degli Studi, Pisa (Italy))

    1990-07-01

    Biosynthesis of gibberellins (GAs) was studied in vivo in endosperms of Sechium edule Sw. Exogenous ent-({sup 14}C)kaurene was metabolized into four major products: GA{sub 12}, GA{sub 4}, GA{sub 7} and 16,17-dihydro-16-hydroxy-GA{sub 15} alcohol glucoside. Other minor metabolites were also observed including ent-kaurenol and ent-kaurenal. Conversion of ent-({sup 14}C)kaurene to ent-karuenol glucoside by endosperm cell-free preparations in the presence of UDPG was observed. However, the finding was not confirmed in in vivo studies and is probably artifactual. Overall evidence coming from the analysis of endogenous GAs and in vitro and in vivo biosynthetic studies are discussed in relation to the possible existence in the Sechium seeds of a different route, along with the known pathway, branching from ent-kaurene or ent-7-{alpha}-hydroxykaurenoic acid and this also leading to biologically active GAs.

  9. Subseasonal-to-interannual variability of rainfall over New Caledonia (SW Pacific)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moron, Vincent; Barbero, Renaud; Robertson, Andrew W.

    2016-04-01

    Daily rainfall occurrence and amount at 55 stations over New Caledonia (NC, 20°S, 166°E) are examined throughout the calendar year during 1980-2010 using a Hidden Markov Model (HMM). Daily rainfall variability is described in terms of six discrete rainfall states identified by the HMM. Three states are interpreted as trade wind regimes associated with persistent low level anticyclonic conditions and weak to strong easterlies. The most prevalent state (state 1; 36 % of days) is dry everywhere and is characterized by an elongated anticyclone centered around Australia; NC is located on the eastern edge of this anticyclone. This state is predominant from mid-May to mid-December and peaks in September. The second most prevalent state (state 2; 27 % of days) and the last trade regime (state 4; 12 % of days) are most frequent in austral summer. States 2 and 4 are associated with the subtropical anticyclone centered south of NC, close to its climatological location in austral summer, and light (state 2) to moderate (state 4) rainfall mostly along the windward coast. A distinct state (state 3; 11 % of days) is mostly associated with wintertime extratropical eastward traveling troughs between New Caledonia and New Zealand, inducing light rainfall over the SW of the main island of New Caledonia. The two last states 5 and 6 are infrequent (skill peaks in September-November.

  10. Studying radon exhalation rates variability from phosphogypsum piles in the SW of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Coto, I; Mas, J L; Vargas, A; Bolívar, J P

    2014-09-15

    Nearly 1.0 × 10(8) tonnes of phosphogypsum were accumulated during last 50 years on a 1,200 ha disposal site near Huelva town (SW of Spain). Previous measurements of exhalation rates offered very variable values, in such a way that a worst case scenario could not be established. Here, new experimental data coupled to numerical simulations show that increasing the moisture contents or the temperature reduces the exhalation rate whilst increasing the radon potential or porosity has the contrary effect. Once the relative effects are compared, it can be drawn that the most relevant parameters controlling the exhalation rate are radon potential (product of emanation factor by (226)Ra concentration) and moisture saturation of PG. From wastes management point of view, it can be concluded that piling up the waste increasing the height instead of the surface allows the reduction of the exhalation rate. Furthermore, a proposed cover here is expected to allow exhalation rates reductions up to 95%. We established that the worst case scenario corresponds to a situation of extremely dry winter. Under these conditions, the radon exhalation rate (0.508 Bqm(-2)s(-1)) would be below though close to the upper limit established by U.S.E.P.A. for inactive phopsphogypsum piles (0.722 Bqm(-2)s(-1)).

  11. Structure of the epiphyte community in a tropical montane forest in SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mingxu; Geekiyanage, Nalaka; Xu, Jianchu; Khin, Myo Myo; Nurdiana, Dian Ridwan; Paudel, Ekananda; Harrison, Rhett Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Vascular epiphytes are an understudied and particularly important component of tropical forest ecosystems. However, owing to the difficulties of access, little is known about the properties of epiphyte-host tree communities and the factors structuring them, especially in Asia. We investigated factors structuring the vascular epiphyte-host community and its network properties in a tropical montane forest in Xishuangbanna, SW China. Vascular epiphytes were surveyed in six plots located in mature forests. Six host and four micro-site environmental factors were investigated. Epiphyte diversity was strongly correlated with host size (DBH, diameter at breast height), while within hosts the highest epiphyte diversity was in the middle canopy and epiphyte diversity was significantly higher in sites with canopy soil or a moss mat than on bare bark. DBH, elevation and stem height explained 22% of the total variation in the epiphyte species assemblage among hosts, and DBH was the most important factor which alone explained 6% of the variation. Within hosts, 51% of the variation in epiphyte assemblage composition was explained by canopy position and substrate, and the most important single factor was substrate which accounted for 16% of the variation. Analysis of network properties indicated that the epiphyte host community was highly nested, with a low level of epiphyte specialization, and an almost even interaction strength between epiphytes and host trees. Together, these results indicate that large trees harbor a substantial proportion of the epiphyte community in this forest.

  12. Field rates for natural attenuation of arsenic in Tinto Santa Rosa acid mine drainage (SW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asta, Maria P; Ayora, Carlos; Acero, Patricia; Cama, Jordi

    2010-05-15

    Reactive transport modelling of the main processes related to the arsenic natural attenuation observed in the acid mine drainage (AMD) impacted stream of Tinto Santa Rosa (SW Spain) was performed. Despite the simplicity of the kinetic expressions used to deal with arsenic attenuation processes, the model reproduced successfully the major chemical trends observed along the acid discharge. Results indicated that the rate of ferrous iron oxidation was similar to the one obtained in earlier field studies in which microbial catalysis is reported to occur. With regard to the scaled arsenic oxidation rate, it is one order of magnitude faster than the values obtained under laboratory conditions suggesting the existence of a catalytic agent in the natural system. Schwertmannite precipitation rate, which was represented by a simple kinetic expression relying on Fe(III) and pH, was in the range calculated for other AMD impacted sites. Finally, the obtained distribution coefficients used for representing arsenic sorption onto Fe(III) precipitates were lower than those deduced from reported laboratory data. This discrepancy is attributed to a decrease in the schwertmannite arsenate sorption capacity as sulphate increases in the solution.

  13. Foraminiferal biostratigraphy of Early Cretaceous (Hauterivian-Barremian) sediments of the Zagros basin (SW of Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afghah, Massih; Abtahiyan, Ali-Reza; Saberi, Amir

    2016-09-01

    Parts of Early Cretaceous sediments of the Zagros basin (SW of Iran) is nominated as the Gadvan Formation. To facilitate biostratigraphy study, four stratigraphic sections of this rock unit are selected around Shiraz named as Fahliyan, Kamal abad, Garm abad, and Hossien abad stratigraphic columns. These stratigraphic sections are sandwiched between the Fahliyan and Dariyan formations. Foraminiferal biostratigraphy of these sections have supported two biozones in the three of studied sections and one section is marked by one biozone. Normally established biozones of the studied section are described as Pseudocyclammina lituus-Trocholina assemblage zone (Hauterivian) and Choffatella decipiens- Praechrysalidina infracretacea assemblage zone (Barremian). Two established biozones are recognizable in Fahliyan, Garm abad, and Kamal abad stratigraphic sections as Hauterivian to Barremian age and Hossien abad stratigraphic section is described by one which marks Barremian. Biostratigraphy of the studied stratigraphic sections of the Gadvan reveals different lower biostratigraphic limit whereas; the upper biostratigraphic limit of the Gadvan is synchronous across the entire studied area. Biostratigraphic data of studied stratigraphic sections fully supported the dominant agglutinated foraminifera in Gadvan Formation. Also dasycladacea are recorded in all the studied stratigraphic sections.

  14. Surgical technique for single-port laparoscopy in huge ovarian tumors: SW Kim's technique and comparison to laparotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Sook; Lee, In Ok; Eoh, Kyung Jin; Chung, Young Shin; Lee, Inha; Lee, Jung-Yun; Nam, Eun Ji; Kim, Sunghoon; Kim, Young Tae; Kim, Sang Wun

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to introduce a method to remove huge ovarian tumors (≥15 cm) intact with single-port laparoscopic surgery (SPLS) using SW Kim's technique and to compare the surgical outcomes with those of laparotomy. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed for patients who underwent either SPLS (n=21) with SW Kim's technique using a specially designed 30×30-cm(2)-sized 3XL LapBag or laparotomy (n=22) for a huge ovarian tumor from December 2008 to May 2016. Perioperative surgical outcomes were compared. In 19/21 (90.5%) patients, SPLS was successfully performed without any tumor spillage or conversion to multi-port laparoscopy or laparotomy. There was no significant difference in patient characteristics, including tumor diameter and total operation time, between both groups. The postoperative hospital stay was significantly shorter for the SPLS group than for the laparotomy group (median, 2 [1 to 5] vs. 4 [3 to 17] days; Phuge ovarian tumors.

  15. The history and future trends of ocean warming-induced gas hydrate dissociation in the SW Barents Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadakkepuliyambatta, Sunil; Chand, Shyam; Bünz, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    The Barents Sea is a major part of the Arctic where the Gulf Stream mixes with the cold Arctic waters. Late Cenozoic uplift and glacial erosion have resulted in hydrocarbon leakage from reservoirs, evolution of fluid flow systems, shallow gas accumulations, and hydrate formation throughout the Barents Sea. Here we integrate seismic data observations of gas hydrate accumulations along with gas hydrate stability modeling to analyze the impact of warming ocean waters in the recent past and future (1960-2060). Seismic observations of bottom-simulating reflectors (BSRs) indicate significant thermogenic gas input into the hydrate stability zone throughout the SW Barents Sea. The distribution of BSR is controlled primarily by fluid flow focusing features, such as gas chimneys and faults. Warming ocean bottom temperatures over the recent past and in future (1960-2060) can result in hydrate dissociation over an area covering 0.03-38% of the SW Barents Sea.

  16. Geological, Geochemical Characteristics and Tectonic Significance of Mafic and Ultramafic Rocks in the Northeast Segment of Antalya Complex, SW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elitok, O.

    2005-12-01

    The area of SW Turkey known as the Isparta Angle include autochthonous and allochthonous units (from west to east the Lycian nappes, Beydaglari-Karacahisar autochthonous, the Antalya Complex, Anamas-Akseki autochthonous, and the Beysehir-Hoyran nappes). Emplacement of the nappes during Neotectonic evolution of Eastern Mediterranean region resulted in the formation of the Isparta Angle which has played an important role in tectonic evolution of Turkey and Eastern Mediterranean region. The study area is located in the northeast segment of Antalya Complex and covers an area of approximately 300 km2. Mainly carbonate rock unites constitute the autochthonous basement and overlain tectonicaly by the Obektas formation in olistostromal melange character, Kizildag Peridotite with ophiolitic melange and ophiolite-related metamorphic rocks, Pazarkoy group, and Dulup limestones. Pazarkoy group (Upper Triassic-Lower Cretaceous) include slope, basinal sedimantery rocks formed within passive margin environment, volcanic rocks characterized by different tectonomagmatic environments and serpentinites. Volcanic rocks are observed mainly as massive or pillow lavas at different locations in Pazarkoy group (at Akpinar Tepe, Havutlu, Ayvalipinar). The volcanics outcropping in the vicinity of Akpinar Tepe in alkaline basalt to trachyandesite composition and Ayvalipinar in alkaline basalt composition display nearly OIB-like pattern on the N-MORB normalized spider diagram with slightly negative Nb anomaly reflecting subduction zone affinity. But, on the tectonomagmatic discrimination diagrams (Zr/Y vs. Zr, V vs. Ti/1000), these volcanics plot within WPB field. The volcanics exposed around Havutlu, in Obektas formation and in ophiolitic melange have subalkaline basalt composition and on the primitive-mantle normalized spider diagram they show parallel pattern in HFSE with negative Nb-Ta anomaly. On the Chondrite-normalized REE pattern, volcanics taken from Havutlu display slightly

  17. Extensive soft sediment deformation and peperite formation at the base of a rhyolite lava: Owyhee Mountains, SW Idaho, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Mclean, Charlotte E.; Brown, David J; Rawcliffe, Heather J.

    2016-01-01

    In the Northern Owyhee Mountains (SW Idaho), a >200 m thick flow of the Miocene Jump Creek Rhyolite was erupted on to a sequence of tuffs, lapilli-tuffs, breccias and lacustrine siltstones of the Sucker Creek Formation. The rhyolite lava flowed over steep palaeotopography, resulting in the forceful emplacement of lava into poorly consolidated sediments. The lava invaded this sequence, liquefying and mobilizing the sediment, propagating sediment sub-vertically in large metre-scale fluidal diap...

  18. Three-Dimensional Shallow Water Adaptive Hydraulics (ADH-SW3) Validation: Galveston Bay Hydrodynamics and Salinity Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Salinity Transport Co as ta l a nd H yd ra ul ic s La bo ra to ry Gaurav Savant and R. Charlie Berger April 2015 Approved for public release...Three-Dimensional Shallow Water Adaptive Hydraulics (ADH-SW3) Validation Report 1: Galveston Bay Hydrodynamics and Salinity Transport Gaurav...water surface elevations, velocities, and salinity . DISCLAIMER: The contents of this report are not to be used for advertising, publication, or

  19. Anti-Cancer Effect and the Underlying Mechanisms of Gypenosides on Human Colorectal Cancer SW-480 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Han; Wang, Xiaobing; Niu, Junfeng; Wang, Yaqin; Wang, Pan; Liu, Quanhong

    2014-01-01

    Background Gypenosides (Gyp), the main components from Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino, are widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-cancer effect and the underlying mechanisms of Gyp on human colorectal cancer cells SW-480. Materials and Methods The inhibitory effect of Gyp on SW-480 cells was evaluated by MTT assay. Apoptotic cell death was detected by nuclear Hoechst 33342 staining and DNA fragmentation analysis. Apoptosis was analyzed using Annexin V-PE/7-amino-actinomycin D staining. Cell membrane integrity was evaluated with flow cytometry following PI staining. Changes of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) were detected through flow cytometry analysis of rhodamine 123 (Rh123). The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in Gyp induced cell death was investigated by intracellular ROS generation and general ROS scavenger. Wound-healing assay was carried out to investigate Gyp-inhibited migration of SW-480 cells in vitro. Additionally, the alterations in F-actin microfilaments were analyzed by FITC-labeled phalloidin toxin staining and the morphological changes were evaluated under scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results After the Gyp treatment, the plasma membrane permeability of SW-480 cell was increased, Δψm was decreased significantly, the level of intracellular ROS level was increased, DNA fragmentation and apoptotic morphology were observed. Cells treated with Gyp exert serious microfilament network collapse as well as the significant decrease in the number of microvilli. Gyp induced the changes of cell viability, cell migration, intracellular ROS generation and nuclear morphology were alleviated obviously by NAC. Conclusion The results in this study implied that ROS play an important role in Gyp induced cell toxicity and apoptosis, and the mitochondria damage may be upstream of ROS generation post Gyp treatment. The findings of the present study provide new evidences for anti-tumor mechanisms

  20. Anti-cancer effect and the underlying mechanisms of gypenosides on human colorectal cancer SW-480 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gypenosides (Gyp, the main components from Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino, are widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-cancer effect and the underlying mechanisms of Gyp on human colorectal cancer cells SW-480. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The inhibitory effect of Gyp on SW-480 cells was evaluated by MTT assay. Apoptotic cell death was detected by nuclear Hoechst 33342 staining and DNA fragmentation analysis. Apoptosis was analyzed using Annexin V-PE/7-amino-actinomycin D staining. Cell membrane integrity was evaluated with flow cytometry following PI staining. Changes of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm were detected through flow cytometry analysis of rhodamine 123 (Rh123. The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS in Gyp induced cell death was investigated by intracellular ROS generation and general ROS scavenger. Wound-healing assay was carried out to investigate Gyp-inhibited migration of SW-480 cells in vitro. Additionally, the alterations in F-actin microfilaments were analyzed by FITC-labeled phalloidin toxin staining and the morphological changes were evaluated under scanning electron microscope (SEM. RESULTS: After the Gyp treatment, the plasma membrane permeability of SW-480 cell was increased, Δψm was decreased significantly, the level of intracellular ROS level was increased, DNA fragmentation and apoptotic morphology were observed. Cells treated with Gyp exert serious microfilament network collapse as well as the significant decrease in the number of microvilli. Gyp induced the changes of cell viability, cell migration, intracellular ROS generation and nuclear morphology were alleviated obviously by NAC. CONCLUSION: The results in this study implied that ROS play an important role in Gyp induced cell toxicity and apoptosis, and the mitochondria damage may be upstream of ROS generation post Gyp treatment. The findings of the present study provide new evidences for anti

  1. Quantitative shear wave optical coherence elastography (SW-OCE) with acoustic radiation force impulses (ARFI) induced by phase array transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shaozhen; Le, Nhan Minh; Wang, Ruikang K.; Huang, Zhihong

    2015-03-01

    Shear Wave Optical Coherence Elastography (SW-OCE) uses the speed of propagating shear waves to provide a quantitative measurement of localized shear modulus, making it a valuable technique for the elasticity characterization of tissues such as skin and ocular tissue. One of the main challenges in shear wave elastography is to induce a reliable source of shear wave; most of nowadays techniques use external vibrators which have several drawbacks such as limited wave propagation range and/or difficulties in non-invasive scans requiring precisions, accuracy. Thus, we propose linear phase array ultrasound transducer as a remote wave source, combined with the high-speed, 47,000-frame-per-second Shear-wave visualization provided by phase-sensitive OCT. In this study, we observed for the first time shear waves induced by a 128 element linear array ultrasound imaging transducer, while the ultrasound and OCT images (within the OCE detection range) were triggered simultaneously. Acoustic radiation force impulses are induced by emitting 10 MHz tone-bursts of sub-millisecond durations (between 50 μm - 100 μm). Ultrasound beam steering is achieved by programming appropriate phase delay, covering a lateral range of 10 mm and full OCT axial (depth) range in the imaging sample. Tissue-mimicking phantoms with agarose concentration of 0.5% and 1% was used in the SW-OCE measurements as the only imaging samples. The results show extensive improvements over the range of SW-OCE elasticity map; such improvements can also be seen over shear wave velocities in softer and stiffer phantoms, as well as determining the boundary of multiple inclusions with different stiffness. This approach opens up the feasibility to combine medical ultrasound imaging and SW-OCE for high-resolution localized quantitative measurement of tissue biomechanical property.

  2. Karakterisasi Simplisia Dan Skrining Fitokimia Serta Isolasi Steroid/Triterpenoid Dari Ekstrak Etanol Pucuk Labu Siam (Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw.)

    OpenAIRE

    Tarziah

    2013-01-01

    One of the Cucurbitaceou plans is chayote (Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw.). used to treat kidney stone disease, arteriosclerosis and high blood pressure that contains saponin, flavonoid, polyphenol, and steroid/triterpenoid. Simplex characterization and chemical content contained in chayote shoots are not listed in the book Materia Medika Indonesia. The purpose of this study was to determine the simplex characterization, phytochemical screening for compounds that contained in chayote shoots and is...

  3. Spectroscopic search for new SW Sextantis stars in the 3-4 hour orbital period range -- I

    CERN Document Server

    Rodríguez-Gil, P; Gänsicke, B T

    2006-01-01

    [Abridged] We report on time-resolved optical spectroscopy of ten non-eclipsing nova-like cataclysmic variables in the orbital period range between 3 and 4 hours. Of the ten systems so far observed, HL Aqr, BO Cet, AH Men, V380 Oph, AH Pic, and LN UMa are identified as new members of the SW Sex class. We present improved orbital period measurements for HL Aqr (Porb = 3.254 +- 0.001 h) and V380 Oph (Porb = 3.69857 +- 0.00002 h). BO Cet and V380 Oph exhibit emission-line flaring with periodicities of 20 min and 47 min, respectively. The Halpha line of HL Aqr shows significant blueshifted absorption modulated at the orbital period. Similarly to the emission S-wave of the high-inclination SW Sex stars, this absorption S-wave has its maximum blue velocity at orbital phase ~0.5. We estimate an orbital inclination for HL Aqr in the range 19 < i < 27 deg, which is much lower than that of the emission-dominated, non-eclipsing SW Sex stars (i ~ 60-70 deg). This gives rise to the interesting possibility of many lo...

  4. Rosiglitazone induces autophagy in H295R and cell cycle deregulation in SW13 adrenocortical cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerquetti, Lidia; Sampaoli, Camilla [Endocrinology, Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology ' Sapienza' University of Rome, Via di Grottarossa, 1035-00189 Rome (Italy); Research Center S. Pietro Hospital, Via Cassia, 600-00189 Rome (Italy); Amendola, Donatella; Bucci, Barbara [Research Center S. Pietro Hospital, Via Cassia, 600-00189 Rome (Italy); Masuelli, Laura [Department of Experimental Medicine, ' Sapienza' University of Rome, Rome (Italy); Marchese, Rodolfo [Research Center S. Pietro Hospital, Via Cassia, 600-00189 Rome (Italy); Misiti, Silvia [Endocrinology, Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology ' Sapienza' University of Rome, Via di Grottarossa, 1035-00189 Rome (Italy); Research Center S. Pietro Hospital, Via Cassia, 600-00189 Rome (Italy); De Venanzi, Agostino; Poggi, Maurizio; Toscano, Vincenzo [Endocrinology, Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology ' Sapienza' University of Rome, Via di Grottarossa, 1035-00189 Rome (Italy); Stigliano, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.stigliano@uniroma1.it [Endocrinology, Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology ' Sapienza' University of Rome, Via di Grottarossa, 1035-00189 Rome (Italy); Research Center S. Pietro Hospital, Via Cassia, 600-00189 Rome (Italy)

    2011-06-10

    Thiazolidinediones, specific peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR-{gamma}) ligands, used in type-2 diabetes therapy, show favourable effects in several cancer cells. In this study we demonstrate that the growth of H295R and SW13 adrenocortical cancer cells is inhibited by rosiglitazone, a thiazolidinediones member, even though the mechanisms underlying this effect appeared to be cell-specific. Treatment with GW9662, a selective PPAR-{gamma}-inhibitor, showed that rosiglitazone acts through both PPAR-{gamma}-dependent and -independent mechanisms in H295R, while in SW13 cells the effect seems to be independent of PPAR-{gamma}. H295R cells treated with rosiglitazone undergo an autophagic process, leading to morphological changes detectable by electron microscopy and an increased expression of specific proteins such as AMPK{alpha} and beclin-1. The autophagy seems to be independent of PPAR-{gamma} activation and could be related to an increase in oxidative stress mediated by reactive oxygen species production with the disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential, triggered by rosiglitazone. In SW13 cells, flow cytometry analysis showed an arrest in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle with a decrease of cyclin E and cdk2 activity, following the administration of rosiglitazone. Our data show the potential role of rosiglitazone in the therapeutic approach to adrenocortical carcinoma and indicate the molecular mechanisms at the base of its antiproliferative effects, which appear to be manifold and cell-specific in adrenocortical cancer lines.

  5. Effect of LED irradiation on the expression of MMP-3 and MMP-13 in SW1353 cells in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Chang-chun; Guo, Zhou-yi; Zhang, Feng-xue; Deng, Wen-di; Liu, Song-hao

    2007-05-01

    Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP) plays an active role in remodeling cartilage in osteoarthritic cartilage. To find an effective method of prevention of osteoclasia, this in vitro study focuses on the expression of MMP-3 and MMP-13 in the SW1353 cells by LED irradiation. The human chondrosarcoma cell line SW1353 were stimulated with the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1beta or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and were received the irradiation of LED (632nm, 4mW/cm2). The cell count was assessed over a 96-hour period by using Trypan blue dye exclusion assay, and the cell activity was evaluated with a Cell Counting Kit-8 Assays. The subsequent expression of MMP-3 and MMP-13 was quantified. Results of this experiment showed that the cultural cell activity was decreased, and the expression of MMP-3 and MMP-13 was increased by being stimulated with IL-1beta or TNF-alpha. After received LED irradiation, the death rate of cultural cell was increased and the expression of MMP-3 and MMP-13 was decreased significantly. The present study concluded that particular LED irradiation stimulates SW1353 cell proliferation activity and inhibit the MMP-3 and MMP-13 enzymatic activity. These findings might be clinically relevant, indicating that the low power laser irradiation treatment is likely to achieve the repair of articular cartilage in clinic.

  6. MEK/ERK signaling pathway in apoptosis of SW620 cell line and inhibition effect of resveratrol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Chen; Zhi-Liang Jin; Hai Xu

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the involvement of MAPK MEK/ERK signaling transduction pathway in the apoptosis process of SW620 tumor cell line and the inhibition effect of resveratrol. Methods: SW620 cell lines were divided into 5 groups, namely, control group, PD98059 group, low-dose resveratrol group, mid-dose resveratrol group and high-dose resveratrol group. The inhibition rate of cell proliferation was detected by MTT method. The expression of apoptotic molecules and MEK/ERK signaling pathway related proteins were assayed by real-time PCR and Western blotting. Results: Compared with control group, the proliferation of cells treated with resveratrol was significantly inhibited. In the case of apoptotic molecules, the expression of Bax, Caspase 3 and Caspase 9 was increased significantly while the expression of anti-apoptotic molecule Bcl2 was decreased significantly in resveratrol groups with a dose-dependent manner. In the case of molecules in MEK/ERK signaling pathway, the expression of Ras, Raf, MEK and ERK1/2 was decreased significantly in resveratrol groups with a dose-dependent manner. Conclusions: PD98059 and resveratrol can effectively inhibit the proliferation of SW620 through inhibiting the MEK/ERK signaling pathway.

  7. Long-lasting transcurrent tectonics in SW Alps evidenced by Neogene to present-day stress fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauve, Victorien; Plateaux, Romain; Rolland, Yann; Sanchez, Guillaume; Bethoux, Nicole; Delouis, Bertrand; Darnault, Romain

    2014-05-01

    The SW Alps are an active orogen undergoing intra-mountainous extension and peripheral compression. We discuss the significance of syn-orogenic extension based on a comparison of paleo-stress derived from fault-slip data inversion reflecting the long-term (< 12 Ma) evolution of SW Alps and the present-day stress state obtained by the inversion of the focal mechanisms of the last 30-years seismicity. The resulting stress states of long-term and active tectonic regimes are in good agreement, showing that extension accompanies strike-slip and reverse faulting in the southern part of the belt. The extensional deformation regime is limited to specific tectonic domains that can be interpreted as ‘transitional' between pure strike-slip segments where the deformation concentrates on inherited ductile shear zones that were formed between 32° and 20 Ma ago. We thus propose that the extensional deformation in the SW Alps can be defined as a local deformation in a pull-apart type domain (High Durance - Jausiers area) or above slowly exhuming internal massifs (Dora Maira - Ivrea Body) along a curved boundary between the slowly rotating Apulian block and the relatively immobile Western Europe. The transcurrent fault system merges into a compressional front along the Mediterranean - Ligurian coast mainly to the east of San Remo.

  8. Evaluation of six potential evapotranspiration models for estimating crop potential and actual evapotranspiration in arid regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sien; Kang, Shaozhong; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Jianhua; Du, Taisheng; Tong, Ling; Ding, Risheng

    2016-12-01

    Using potential evapotranspiration (PET) to estimate crop actual evapotranspiration (AET) is a critical approach in hydrological models. However, which PET model performs best and can be used to predict crop AET over the entire growth season in arid regions still remains unclear. The six frequently-used PET models, i.e. Blaney-Criddle (BC), Hargreaves (HA), Priestley-Taylor (PT), Dalton (DA), Penman (PE) and Shuttleworth (SW) models were considered and evaluated in the study. Five-year eddy covariance data over the maize field and vineyard in arid northwest China were used to examine the accuracy of PET models in estimating daily crop AET. Results indicate that the PE, SW and PT models underestimated daily ET by less than 6% with RMSE lower than 35 W m-2 during the four years, while the BC, HA and DA models under-predicted daily ET approximately by 10% with RMSE higher than 40 W m-2. Compared to BC, HA and DA models, PE, SW and PT models were more reliable and accurate for estimating crop PET and AET in arid regions. Thus the PE, SW and PT models were recommended for predicting crop evapotranspiration in hydrological models in arid regions.

  9. Benthic organisms collected using sediment sampler from the SW RESEARCHER in the Gulf of Mexico from 22 September 1977 to 16 December 1977 (NODC Accession 8100224)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic organisms were collected using sediment sampler casts from the SW RESEARCHER in the Gulf of Mexico from 22 September 1977 to 16 December 1977. Data were...

  10. South Atlantic continental margins of Africa: a comparison of the tectonic vs climate interplay on the evolution of equatorial west Africa and SW Africa margins

    CERN Document Server

    Seranne, M; Seranne, Michel; Anka, Zahie

    2005-01-01

    The comparative review of 2 representative segments of Africa continental margin: the equatorial western Africa and the SW Africa margins, helps in analysing the main controlling factors on their development. Early Cretaceous active rifting S of the Walvis Ridge resulted in the formation of the SW Africa volcanic margin. The non-volcanic rifting N of the Walvis ridge, led to the formation of the equatorial western Africa margin, with thick and extensive, synrift basins. Regressive erosion of SW Africa prominent shoulder uplift accounts for high clastic sedimentation rate in Late Cretaceous - Eocene, while dominant carbonate production on equatorial western Africa shelf suggests little erosion of a low hinterland. The early Oligocene climate change had contrasted response in both margins. Emplacement of the Congo deep-sea fan reflects increased erosion in equatorial Africa, under the influence of wet climate, whereas establishment of an arid climate over SW Africa induced a drastic decrease of denudation, and ...

  11. Physical, nutrients, and other data from CTD and bottle casts from the SW Pacific Ocean from 24 February 1990 to 12 April 1990 (NODC Accession 0000184)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD and bottle data were collected from the SW Pacific Ocean 24 February 1990 to 12 April 1990. CTD parameters include temperature profiles, salinity profiles, and...

  12. Hydrographic features of the western Bay of Bengal in the upper 500 m under the influence of NE and SW monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suryanarayana, A.; Murty, V.S.N.; Sarma, Y.V.B.; Babu, M.T.; Rao, D.P.; Sastry, J.S.

    The distribution of temperature, salinity, density and geostrophic currents in the upper 500 m of the western Bay of Bengal within 500 km adjoining the East Coast of India for NE and SW monsoons have been studied. These distributions show...

  13. Current meter components and other data from FIXED PLATFORMS from the SW Atlantic (limit-20 W) from 27 January 1986 to 01 April 1987 (NODC Accession 8800329)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter components data were collected from FIXED PLATFORMS in the SW Atlantic (limit-20 W) from 27 January 1986 to 01 April 1987. Data were collected by...

  14. Caracterização físico-química e microbiológica da farinha de algaroba (Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC Physicochemical and microbiological characterization of mesquite flour (Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celiane Gomes Maia da Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Algaroba (Prosopis juliflora (Sw. D.C. é uma leguminosa arbórea tropical comum no semi-árido brasileiro e desenvolve-se em lugares secos, onde dificilmente outras plantas poderiam sobreviver. Suas vagens produzem uma farinha que pode ser usada na alimentação humana, além de vários outros produtos como o mel, licor e um produto similar ao café. Este trabalho teve por objetivo caracterizar quanto à composição físico-química e microbiológica a farinha de algaroba potencialmente passível de introdução como matéria-prima de interesse comercial. A farinha de algaroba foi analisada quanto ao teor de umidade, cinzas, proteína, lipídios, açúcares totais, açúcares redutores, fibra alimentar total e tanino. Os minerais analisados foram cálcio, fósforo, magnésio, ferro, zinco, sódio, potássio, manganês, silício, alumínio e cobre. As análises microbiológicas foram: coliformes a 45 °C.g -1, Bacillus cereus.g -1, Salmonella sp..25 g -1, e bolores e leveduras.g -1. Verificou-se que a farinha de algaroba apresenta elevados níveis de açúcares (56,5 g.100 g -1, razoável teor de proteínas (9,0 g.100 g -1 e baixo teor em lipídios (2,1 g.100 g -1. Quanto aos minerais observou-se a predominância do fósforo (749 mg.100 g -1 e do cálcio (390 mg.100 g -1. As análises microbiológicas apresentaram resultados inferiores ao limite estabelecido pela legislação, sendo considerada apropriada quanto à qualidade higiênico-sanitária. Portanto, conclui-se que esta possui uma elevada concentração de açúcares além de outros nutrientes, como minerais, importantes para o desenvolvimento humano e animal.Mesquite (Prosopis juliflora (Sw. D.C. is a tropical tree legume fairly common in the semi-arid region of Brazil, which thrives in dry environments where other plants would hardly survive. Its seedpods can be made into flour, which is used in human food and other products such as honey, liqueur and a product similar to coffee. The

  15. NEW PALEOMAGNETIC DATA ON THE SILURIAN AND DEVONIAN SEDIMENTARY ROCKS FROM PODOLIA, SW UKRAINE, AND KINEMATICS OF THE EAST EUROPEAN PLATFORM IN THE MIDDLE PALEOZOIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Bakhmutov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Paleomagnetic data are the priority source of information for global paleotectonic reconstructions representing horizontal movements of the crustal blocks. Upon receipt of new paleomagnetic data, kinematic models of the East European platform in the Paleozoic are regularly revised and improved. The article presents results of the paleomagnetic study of sedimentary gray-colored and red beds of the Silurian and Lower Devonian sequences located in the Dniester river basin, Podolia region, SW Ukraine. The study covered 17 outcrops that are stratigraphically correlated with the Wenlock, Ludlow, Pridoli states of the Sillurian and the Lochkovian stage of the Devon. Over 400 samples of grey limestone, argillite, dolomite, red limestone and sandstone were analyzed, and two components of natural remnant magnetization (NRM were revealed. The first component with SSW declination and negative inclination is revealed in the majority of the samples during AF- and T-magnetic cleaning. Its pole positions, that are calculated separately for each series, are trending to the Permian segment of the apparent polar wander path (APWP published by Torsvik et al. [2012] for Baltica / Stable Europe. Considering its chemical origin, this NRM component is related to formation of authigenic minerals due to rock remagnetization. The second component is revealed only in some samples taken from the red beds (during thermal demagnetization in the range of unblocking temperatures from 590 to 690 °С and in few samples of grey limestone (in AF fields from 30 to 70 mT or in the range of unblocking temperatures from 300 to 460 °С. This component has SW declination and positive inclination, goes to the origin of coordinates of the diagrams, and has all the indicators of primary magnetization of sediments. Calculated positions of the poles (0 ºS and 329 ºE for grey limestone of the Tiverskaya series, 2.3 °S and 338.4 °E for red beds of the Dniestrovskaya series, etc. are well

  16. Deriving earthquake history of the Knidos Fault Zone, SW Turkey, using cosmogenic 36Cl surface exposure dating of the fault scarp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Cengiz; Ersen Aksoy, Murat; Akif Sarikaya, Mehmet; Tuysuz, Okan; Genc, S. Can; Ertekin Doksanalti, Mustafa; Sahin, Sefa; Benedetti, Lucilla; Tesson, Jim; Aster Team

    2016-04-01

    Formation of bedrock fault scarps in extensional provinces is a result of large and successive earthquakes that ruptured the surface several times. Extraction of seismic history of such faults is critical to understand the recurrence intervals and the magnitude of paleo-earthquakes and to better constrain the regional seismic hazard. Knidos on the Datca Peninsula (SW Turkey) is one of the largest cities of the antique times and sits on a terraced hill slope formed by en-echelon W-SW oriented normal faults. The Datça Peninsula constitutes the southern boundary of the Gulf of Gökova, one of the largest grabens developed on the southernmost part of the Western Anatolian Extensional Province. Our investigation relies on cosmogenic 36Cl surface exposure dating of limestone faults scarps. This method is a powerful tool to reconstruct the seismic history of normal faults (e.g. Schlagenhauf et al 2010, Benedetti et al. 2013). We focus on one of the most prominent fault scarp (hereinafter Mezarlık Fault) of the Knidos fault zone cutting through the antique Knidos city. We collected 128 pieces of tablet size (10x20cm) 3-cm thick samples along the fault dip and opened 4 conventional paleoseismic trenches at the base of the fault scarp. Our 36Cl concentration profile indicates that 3 to 4 seismic events ruptured the Mezarlık Fault since Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The results from the paleoseismic trenching are also compatible with 36Cl results, indicating 3 or 4 seismic events that disturbed the colluvium deposited at the base of the scarp. Here we will present implications for the seismic history and the derived slip-rate of the Mezarlık Fault based on those results. This project is supported by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK, Grant number: 113Y436) and it was conducted with the Decision of the Council of Ministers with No. 2013/5387 on the date 30.09.2013 and was done with the permission of Knidos Presidency of excavation in

  17. The 2008 Methoni earthquake sequence: the relationship between the earthquake cycle on the subduction interface and coastal uplift in SW Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Andy; Palamartchouk, Kirill; Papanikolaou, Xanthos; Paradissis, Demitris; Raptakis, Costas; Copley, Alex; England, Philip; Jackson, James

    2017-03-01

    Seismological, GPS and historical data suggest that most of the 40 mm yr-1 convergence at the Hellenic Subduction Zone is accommodated through aseismic creep, with earthquakes of MW ≲ 7 rupturing isolated locked patches of the subduction interface. The size and location of these locked patches are poorly constrained despite their importance for assessment of seismic hazard. We present continuous GPS time-series covering the 2008 MW 6.9 Methoni earthquake, the largest earthquake on the subduction interface since 1960. Post-seismic displacements from this earthquake at onshore GPS sites are comparable in magnitude with the coseismic displacements; elastic-dislocation modelling shows that they are consistent with afterslip on the subduction interface, suggesting that much of this part of the interface is able to slip aseismically and is not locked and accumulating elastic strain. In the Hellenic and other subduction zones, the relationship between earthquakes on the subduction interface and observed long-term coastal uplift is poorly understood. We use cGPS-measured coseismic offsets and seismological body-waveform modelling to constrain centroid locations and depths for the 2008 Methoni MW 6.9 and 2013 Crete MW 6.5 earthquakes, showing that the subduction interface reaches the base of the seismogenic layer SW of the coast of Greece. These earthquakes caused subsidence of the coast in regions where the presence of Pliocene-Quaternary marine terraces indicates recent uplift, so we conclude that deformation associated with the earthquake cycle on the subduction interface is not the dominant control on vertical motions of the coastline. It is likely that minor uplift on a short length scale (˜15 km) occurs in the footwalls of normal faults. We suggest, however, that most of the observed Plio-Quaternary coastal uplift in SW Greece is the result of thickening of the overriding crust of the Aegean by reverse faulting or distributed shortening in the accretionary wedge

  18. Tectonic implications of Early Miocene OIB magmatism in a near-trench setting: The Outer Zone of SW Japan and the northernmost Ryukyu Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiminami, Kazuo; Imaoka, Teruyoshi; Ogura, Kazuki; Kawabata, Hiroshi; Ishizuka, Hideo; Mori, Yasushi

    2017-03-01

    The Outer Zone of the SW Japan and northernmost Ryukyu arcs was affected by intense igneous activity during the Miocene, characterized by MORB-like basalts, alkaline basalts, and S-type (with subordinate I-type) felsic to intermediate volcano-plutonic complexes. These igneous rocks are inferred to be the products of near-trench magmatism. Early Miocene (∼18 Ma) alkaline basalt dikes from the Shingu-Otoyo area in central northern Shikoku, and an alkaline lamprophyre dike from Tanegashima, one of the northernmost Ryukyu Islands, pre-date the Middle Miocene felsic to intermediate igneous rocks. The basalts and lamprophyre have compositions of basanite, basalt, trachybasalt and phonotephrite. They are characterized by elevated large-ion lithophile elements (LILEs; e.g., Sr, Ba, and Th) and high concentrations of high-field strength elements (HFSEs; e.g., TiO2, Nb, and Zr). The geochemical signatures of the basalts and lamprophyre suggest an ocean island basalt-type (OIB-type) mantle source. The occurrence of alkaline basalts and lamprophyre with OIB-type, intraplate geochemical signatures in a near-trench setting is unusual with regard to plate tectonic processes. We propose that trench-ward motion of the overriding plate during the period around the Early Miocene resulted in a shallowly dipping slab, and interplate coupling between the subducting Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) and the overlying crust beneath most of the Outer Zone in the western part of SW Japan and the northernmost Ryukyu Islands. The OIB-type magmatism in the near-trench environment is most plausibly explained by the upwelling of asthenospheric material from beneath the subducting slab, which migrated through fractures and/or tears in the slab. We envisage two possible scenarios for the formation of these fractures or tears: (1) the shallowing dip angle of the subducted PSP resulted in concave-upwards flexure of the slab, generating fractures in the flexed region; and (2) differential motion within

  19. Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase α and Extracelluar Signal-Regulated Kinase Mediates CB-PIC-Induced Apoptosis in Hypoxic SW620 Colorectal Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung-Yun; Lee, Hyo-Jeong; Lee, Hyo-Jung; Jung, Deok-Beom; Kim, Hyunseok; Sohn, Eun Jung; Kim, Bonglee; Jung, Ji Hoon; Kwon, Byoung-Mog; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Here, antitumor mechanism of cinnamaldehyde derivative CB-PIC was elucidated in human SW620 colon cancer cells. CB-PIC significantly exerted cytotoxicity, increased sub-G1 accumulation, and cleaved PARP with apoptotic features, while it enhanced the phosphorylation of AMPK alpha and ACC as well as activated the ERK in hypoxic SW620 cells. Furthermore, CB-PIC suppressed the expression of HIF1 alpha, Akt, and mTOR and activated the AMPK phosphorylation in hypoxic SW620 cells. Conversely, silencing of AMPK α blocked PARP cleavage and ERK activation induced by CB-PIC, while ERK inhibitor PD 98059 attenuated the phosphorylation of AMPK α in hypoxic SW620 cells, implying cross-talk between ERK and AMPK α . Furthermore, cotreatment of CB-PIC and metformin enhanced the inhibition of HIF1 α and Akt/mTOR and the activation of AMPK α and pACC in hypoxic SW620 cells. In addition, CB-PIC suppressed the growth of SW620 cells inoculated in BALB/c athymic nude mice, and immunohistochemistry revealed that CB-PIC treatment attenuated the expression of Ki-67, CD34, and CAIX and increased the expression of pAMPK α in CB-PIC-treated group. Interestingly, CP-PIC showed better antitumor activity in SW620 colon cancer cells under hypoxia than under normoxia, since it may be applied to chemoresistance. Overall, our findings suggest that activation of AMPK α and ERK mediates CB-PIC-induced apoptosis in hypoxic SW620 colon cancer cells.

  20. Predicting Pollicipes pollicipes (Crustacea: Cirripedia abundance on intertidal rocky shores of SW Portugal: a multi-scale approach based on a simple fetch-based wave exposure index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jacinto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding and predicting patterns of distribution and abundance of marine resources is important for conservation and management purposes in small-scale artisanal fisheries and industrial fisheries worldwide. The goose barnacle (Pollicipes pollicipes is an important shellfish resource and its distribution is closely related to wave exposure at different spatial scales. We modelled the abundance (percent coverage of P. pollicipes as a function of a simple wave exposure index based on fetch estimates from digitized coastlines at different spatial scales. The model accounted for 47.5% of the explained deviance and indicated that barnacle abundance increases non-linearly with wave exposure at both the smallest (metres and largest (kilometres spatial scales considered in this study. Distribution maps were predicted for the study region in SW Portugal. Our study suggests that the relationship between fetch-based exposure indices and P. pollicipes percent cover may be used as a simple tool for providing stakeholders with information on barnacle distribution patterns. This information may improve assessment of harvesting grounds and the dimension of exploitable areas, aiding management plans and supporting decision making on conservation, harvesting pressure and surveillance strategies for this highly appreciated and socio-economically important marine resource.

  1. Precambrian crustal contribution to the Variscan accretionary prism of the Kaczawa Mountains (Sudetes, SW Poland): evidence from SHRIMP dating of detrital zircons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryza, Ryszard; Zalasiewicz, Jan; Mazur, Stanisław; Aleksandrowski, Paweł; Sergeev, Sergey; Larionov, Alexander

    2007-11-01

    SHRIMP dating of detrital zircons from sandstones of the Gackowa Formation (Kaczawa Complex, Sudetes, SW Poland) indicates input from late (550-750 Ma) and early Proterozoic to Archaean sources (˜2.0-3.4 Ga, the latter being the oldest recorded age from the Sudetic region). These dates preclude within-terrane derivation from seemingly correlatory acid volcanic rocks of early Palaeozoic age. Rather, they indicate provenance from Cadomian and older rocks that currently form part of other, geographically distant terranes; the most likely source identified to date is the Lusatian Block in the Saxothuringian Zone. Hence, the Gackowa Formation may be late Proterozoic rather than early Palaeozoic in depositional age, possibly coeval with the late Proterozoic (pre-Cadomian) greywackes of Lusatia, being subsequently tectonically interleaved with early Palaeozoic volcanic rocks into the Kaczawa accretionary prism during the Variscan orogeny. However, correlation with the lithologically similar early Ordovician Dubrau Quartzite of Saxothuringia, and so assignation to the early Paleozoic (post-Cadomian) rift succession deposited at the northern margin of Gondwana, cannot yet be precluded.

  2. Occurrence, distribution and environmental risk of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) in coastal and ocean waters from the Gulf of Cadiz (SW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biel-Maeso, Miriam; Baena-Nogueras, Rosa María; Corada-Fernández, Carmen; Lara-Martín, Pablo A

    2017-08-31

    In this study, we have evaluated the occurrence and distribution of 78 pharmaceuticals in different aquatic marine environments from the Gulf of Cadiz (SW Spain) for the first time. The obtained results revealed that pharmaceuticals were present in seawater at total concentrations ranging 61-2133 and 16-189ngL(-1) in coastal and oceanic transects, respectively. Potential marine pollution hotspots were observed in enclosed or semi-enclosed water bodies (Cadiz Bay), showing concentrations that were one or two orders of magnitude higher than in the open ocean. The presence of these chemicals in local sewage treatment plants (STPs), one of the main contamination sources, was also assessed, revealing total concentrations of up to 23μgL(-1) in effluents. PhACs with the highest detection frequencies and concentrations in the sampling region were analgesics and anti-inflammatories followed by antibiotics in the case of samples from Cadiz Bay or caffeine in oceanic seawater samples. Risk quotients, expressed as ratios between the measured environmental concentration (MEC) and the predicted no-effect concentrations (PNEC) were higher than 1 for two compounds (gemfibrozil and ofloxacin) in effluent of Jerez de la Frontera sewage treatment plant (STP). No high environmental risk was detected in both coastal and oceanic sampling areas, although the information available about the effects of these chemicals on marine biota is still very limited and negative effects on non-target species cannot be discarded. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Detection of cretaceous incised-valley shale for resource play, Miano gas field, SW Pakistan: Spectral decomposition using continuous wavelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseer, Muhammad Tayyab; Asim, Shazia

    2017-10-01

    Unconventional resource shales can play a critical role in economic growth throughout the world. The hydrocarbon potential of faults/fractured shales is the most significant challenge for unconventional prospect generation. The continuous wavelet transforms (CWT) of spectral decomposition (SD) technology is applied for shale gas prospects on high-resolution 3D seismic data from the Miano area in the Indus platform, SW Pakistan. Schmoker' technique reveals high-quality shales with total organic carbon (TOC) of 9.2% distributed in the western regions. The seismic amplitude, root-mean-square (RMS), and most positive curvature attributes show limited ability to resolve the prospective fractured shale components. The CWT is used to identify the hydrocarbon-bearing faulted/fractured compartments encased within the non-hydrocarbon bearing shale units. The hydrocarbon-bearing shales experience higher amplitudes (4694 dB and 3439 dB) than the non-reservoir shales (3290 dB). Cross plots between sweetness, 22 Hz spectral decomposition, and the seismic amplitudes are found more effective tools than the conventional seismic attribute mapping for discriminating the seal and reservoir elements within the incised-valley petroleum system. Rock physics distinguish the productive sediments from the non-productive sediments, suggesting the potential for future shale play exploration.

  4. Sedimentary records of mangrove evolution during the past one hundred years based on stable carbon isotope and pollen evidences in Maowei, SW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Peng; Meng, Xianwei; Li, Zhen; Feng, Aiping

    2016-06-01

    Mangroves accumulate sedimentary sequences, where cores can provide historical records of mangrove evolution with past climate change and human activity. The study traced the history of mangrove evolution during the past one hundred years in a mangrove swamp of Maowei Sea, SW China. The sedimentation rates (0.38-0.95 cm yr-1) were calculated on the basis of ln (210Pbxs/Al) and mass depth in the core sediments. Chemical tracers, such as δ13Corg and C:N values, were utilized to trace the contribution of mangrove-derived organic matter using a ternary mixing model. Because of potential diagenetic alteration and / or overlap in the isotopic signatures of different components, simultaneous use of mangrove pollen diagrams can help to supplement some of these limitations. Combined with mangrove pollen, mangrove evolution was reconstructed and could be divided into three stages: flourishment (1886-1905 AD), slight degradation (1905-1949 AD) and rapid degradation period (1949-2007 AD), which was consistent with previous reports. The reclamation of mangrove swamps to shrimp ponds was the major reason for rapid degradation of mangrove ecosystems in recent years, rather than climate change in the region.

  5. Pliocene obducted, rotated and migrated ultramafic rocks and obduction-induced anatectic granite, SW Seram and Ambon, Eastern Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linthout, Kees; Helmers, Hendrik

    Geochemistry, petrography and thermobarometry of the ultramafic and associated rocks of SW Seram and Ambon indicate that they were obducted as weakly depleted oceanic lithosphere which was formed about 10 Ma prior to obduction. Occurrences of cordierite-bearing granite are closely associated with the ultramafic rocks. Petrography and geochemical analysis based on major, RE and other trace elements, indicate that the granite is of the S-type, containing a significant restite component; a VAG signal is interpreted as inherited from the partly melted and included Palaeozoic metasediments. The granite magma was formed as a consequence of the obduction of very hot mantle peridotite inflicting high-grade metamorphism and partial anatexis on the Palaeozoic continental substratum. The oldest age in the literature for cordierite-bearing dacite, connected to this partial anatexis, sets the minimum age of the obduction event at 4.4 Ma. The obduction took place at the eastern end of the Banda Arc, near the NE margin of the Weber Deep, where SW Seram must have been at that time. The ophiolite as part of the Buru-Seram Microplate, rotated and migrated about 400 km westward to its present position. Since the Early Pliocene, the rate of upheaval in Kaibobo (SW Seram) has averaged about 260 cm Ka -1, but may well have been over 1000 cm Ka -1 in the early period immediately after the formation of the granite melt. As the average uplift rate over the same period for Central Seram was previously estimated at 110 cm Ka -1, strongly differential upheaval prevailed in Seram in the Early Pliocene. It is postulated that young oceanic lithosphere has been created by transtensional pull-apart in the easternmost part of the Banda Sea Plate due to oblique convergence of the northward moving Australian Plate, of which fragments gradually became incorporated in the regime of the westbound SW Pacific Plates. Obduction was effected during the strong Pliocene rotation of the Buru-Seram Microplate

  6. TGF-{beta}1 increases invasiveness of SW1990 cells through Rac1/ROS/NF-{kappa}B/IL-6/MMP-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binker, Marcelo G. [Departments of Medicine and Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 1A8 (Canada); CBRHC Research Center, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Binker-Cosen, Andres A. [CBRHC Research Center, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gaisano, Herbert Y. [Departments of Medicine and Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 1A8 (Canada); Cosen, Rodica H. de [CBRHC Research Center, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Cosen-Binker, Laura I., E-mail: laura.cosen.binker@utoronto.ca [Departments of Medicine and Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 1A8 (Canada); CBRHC Research Center, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-02-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Rac1 mediates TGF-{beta}1-induced SW1990 invasion through MMP-2 secretion and activation. {yields} NADPH-generated ROS act downstream of Rac1 in TGF-{beta}1-challenged SW1990 cells. {yields} TGF-{beta}1-stimulated ROS activate NF-{kappa}B in SW1990 cells. {yields} NF{kappa}B-induced IL-6 release is required for secretion and activation of MMP-2 in SW1990 cells. -- Abstract: Human pancreatic cancer invasion and metastasis have been found to correlate with increased levels of active matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2). The multifunctional cytokine transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-{beta}1) has been shown to increase both secretion of MMP-2 and invasion by several pancreatic cancer cell types. In the present study, we investigated the signaling pathway involved in TGF-{beta}1-promoted MMP-2 secretion and invasion by human pancreatic cancer cells SW1990. Using specific inhibitors, we found that stimulation of these tumor cells with TGF-{beta}1 induced secretion and activation of the collagenase MMP-2, which was required for TGF-{beta}1-stimulated invasion. Our results also indicate that signaling events involved in TGF-{beta}1-enhanced SW1990 invasiveness comprehend activation of Rac1 followed by generation of reactive oxygen species through nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase, activation of nuclear factor-kappa beta, release of interleukin-6, and secretion and activation of MMP-2.

  7. The movement protein (NSm) of Tomato spotted wilt virus is the avirulence determinant in the tomato Sw-5 gene-based resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiró, Ana; Cañizares, M Carmen; Rubio, Luis; López, Carmelo; Moriones, Enrique; Aramburu, José; Sánchez-Navarro, Jesús

    2014-10-01

    The avirulence determinant triggering the resistance conferred by the tomato gene Sw-5 against Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is still unresolved. Sequence comparison showed two substitutions (C118Y and T120N) in the movement protein NSm present only in TSWV resistance-breaking (RB) isolates. In this work, transient expression of NSm of three TSWV isolates [RB1 (T120N), RB2 (C118Y) and non-resistance-breaking (NRB)] in Nicotiana benthamiana expressing Sw-5 showed a hypersensitive response (HR) only with NRB. Exchange of the movement protein of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) with NSm supported cell-to-cell and systemic transport of the chimeric AMV RNAs into N. tabacum with or without Sw-5, except for the constructs with NBR when Sw-5 was expressed, although RB2 showed reduced cell-to-cell transport. Mutational analysis revealed that N120 was sufficient to avoid the HR, but the substitution V130I was required for systemic transport. Finally, co-inoculation of RB and NRB AMV chimeric constructs showed different prevalence of RB or NBR depending on the presence or absence of Sw-5. These results indicate that NSm is the avirulence determinant for Sw-5 resistance, and mutations C118Y and T120N are responsible for resistance breakdown and have a fitness penalty in the context of the heterologous AMV system.

  8. Dietary flavanols exert different effects on antioxidant defenses and apoptosis/proliferation in Caco-2 and SW480 colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Sonia; Rodríguez-Ramiro, Ildefonso; Martín, María Angeles; Goya, Luis; Bravo, Laura

    2011-12-01

    Flavanols intake has been associated with reduced risk of cancer. In this study, the anticarcinogenic effects of the flavanols epicatechin (EC), epicatechin-gallate (ECG) and procyanidin B2 (PB2) on Caco-2 and SW480 colon cancer cells were investigated. Catechins showed different cytotoxicity depending on the cell line. ECG displayed strong growth inhibitory effects against SW480 cells, but was ineffective on Caco-2 cells. In contrast, PB2 did not affect Caco-2 cells, whereas promoted cell growth in SW480 cells and EC had no obvious effects on any cell line. Exposure of SW480 cells to ECG led to apoptosis as determined by caspase-3 activity, imbalance among Bcl-2 anti- and pro-apoptotic protein levels, ERK activation and AKT inhibition, whereas PB2 treatment enhanced phospho-AKT and phospho-ERK levels. Incubation of Caco-2 cells with ECG increased glutathione levels without affecting the expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins, AKT or ERK. The results suggest that the different cytotoxicity of flavanols is caused by their different activity and the degree of differentiation of the colon cancer cell line. Thus, ECG induced apoptosis in SW480 cells and contributed to the cytotoxic effect, whereas ECG enhanced the antioxidant potential in Caco-2 cells. PB2 activated cell proliferation and survival/proliferation pathways in SW480 cells.

  9. Distribution of Ag in Cu-sulfides in Kupferschiefer deposit, SW Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozub, Gabriela A.

    2014-05-01

    The Cu-Ag Kupferschiefer deposit located at the Fore-Sudetic Monocline (SW Poland) is a world class deposit of stratabound type. The Cu-Ag mineralization in the deposit occurs in the Permian sedimentary rocks (Rotliegend and Zechstein) in three lithological types of ore: the dolomite, the black shale and the sandstone. Silver, next to copper, is the most important element in the Kupferschiefer deposit (Salamon 1979; Piestrzyński 2007; Pieczonka 2011). Although occurrence of the Ag-minerals such as native silver, silver amalgams, stromeyerite, jalpaite and mckinstryite, silver is mainly present in the deposit due to isomorphic substitutions in Cu-minerals such as chalcocite, bornite, tennantite, covellite and chalcopyrite. The aim of the study was to define distribution of silver in Cu-minerals and correlate occurrence of Ag-enriched Cu-sulfides with native silver and silver amalgams. Identification of minerals and textural observation were performed using field emission scanning electron microscope. Analyzes of chemical composition of Cu-sulfides were performed utilizing electron microprobe. Silver concentration in Cu sulfides ranges from 0.1 to 10.4 wt.% in chalcocite, 0.2-15.8 wt.% in bornite, 0.1-2.9 wt.% in tennantite, 0.05-0.3 wt.% in chalcopyrite and ca. 0.4 wt.% in covellite. In general, distribution of silver in Cu-minerals is irregular, as indicated by high variations of Ag concentration in each mineral. Content of Ag in Cu-sulphides, in samples where native silver and silver amalgams are not found, is lower than in samples, where native silver and silver amalgams are noted. The chemical analyzes of Ag-bearing Cu-minerals indicate decrease of Cu content in minerals with high Ag concentration. In such case, decrease of Fe content is also noted in bornite. Lack of micro-inclusions of the native silver or silver amalgams in the Cu-minerals indicates that presence of Ag is mainly related to the isomorphic substitutions. This is in agreement with previous

  10. Woody debris transport modelling by a coupled DE-SW approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persi, Elisabetta; Petaccia, Gabriella; Sibilla, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    The presence of wood in rivers is gaining more and more attention: on one side, the inclusion of woody debris in streams is emphasized for its ecological benefits; on the other hand, particular attention must be paid to its management, not to affect hydraulic safety. Recent events have shown that wood can be mobilized during floodings (Comiti et al. 2008, Lange and Bezzola 2006), aggravating inundations, in particular near urban areas. For this reason, the inclusion of woody debris influence on the prediction of flooded areas is an important step toward the reduction of hydraulic risk. Numerical modelling plays an important role to this purpose. Ruiz-Villanueva et al. (2014) use a two-dimensional numerical model to calculate the kinetics of cylindrical woody debris transport, taking into account also the hydrodynamic effects of wood. The model here presented couples a Discrete Element approach (DE) for the calculation of motion of a cylindrical log with the solution of the Shallow Water Equations (SW), in order to simulate woody debris transport in a two-dimensional stream. In a first step, drag force, added mass force and side force are calculated from flow and log velocities, assuming a reference area and hydrodynamic coefficients taken from literature. Then, the equations of dynamics are solved to model the planar roto-translation of the wooden cylinder. Model results and its physical reliability are clearly affected by the values of the drag and side coefficients, which in turn depend upon log submergence and angle towards the flow direction. Experimental studies to evaluate drag and side coefficients can be found for a submerged cylinder, with various orientations (Gippel et al. 1996; Hoang et al. 2015). To extend such results to the case of a floating (non-totally submerged) cylinder, the authors performed a series of laboratory tests whose outcomes are implemented in the proposed DE-SW model, to assess the effects of these values on the dynamic of woody

  11. SW#db: GPU-Accelerated Exact Sequence Similarity Database Search.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matija Korpar

    Full Text Available In recent years we have witnessed a growth in sequencing yield, the number of samples sequenced, and as a result-the growth of publicly maintained sequence databases. The increase of data present all around has put high requirements on protein similarity search algorithms with two ever-opposite goals: how to keep the running times acceptable while maintaining a high-enough level of sensitivity. The most time consuming step of similarity search are the local alignments between query and database sequences. This step is usually performed using exact local alignment algorithms such as Smith-Waterman. Due to its quadratic time complexity, alignments of a query to the whole database are usually too slow. Therefore, the majority of the protein similarity search methods prior to doing the exact local alignment apply heuristics to reduce the number of possible candidate sequences in the database. However, there is still a need for the alignment of a query sequence to a reduced database. In this paper we present the SW#db tool and a library for fast exact similarity search. Although its running times, as a standalone tool, are comparable to the running times of BLAST, it is primarily intended to be used for exact local alignment phase in which the database of sequences has already been reduced. It uses both GPU and CPU parallelization and was 4-5 times faster than SSEARCH, 6-25 times faster than CUDASW++ and more than 20 times faster than SSW at the time of writing, using multiple queries on Swiss-prot and Uniref90 databases.

  12. Morphometric and hydraulic geometry assessment of a gully in SW Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraballo-Arias, N. A.; Conoscenti, C.; Di Stefano, C.; Ferro, V.; Gómez-Gutiérrez, A.

    2016-12-01

    Gully erosion represents one of the most significant types of land degradation in the Mediterranean areas, giving place to important on- and off-site effects. In this paper, a second-order gully located in SW Spain is analyzed. Along the gully, 28 cross-sections were established and measured with a Leica TCRM1102 laser total station, approximately every 6 months from 2001 to 2007. The sections were located at variable distance, placing them in areas where active erosion was evident. In total, 13 field measurements were carried out, and the geometric characteristics of 28 cross-sections were obtained. Morphometric analyses were carried out in both the main gully and a tributary reach by applying an empirical relationship between channel length and eroded volume. Morphometric variables of the gully sections were combined into two dimensionless groups, and a morphological similarity between different linear erosion landforms (rills, ephemeral and permanent gullies) was obtained. Then, the coefficient of variation of the calculated volumes was used to compare the instability between the main gully and the tributary reach. Finally, the hydraulic geometry of the gully was assessed by calibrating three empirical power equations, which relate bankfull discharge with mean flow velocity, cross-sectional depth and width. The hydraulic characterization of the main gully and the tributary reach was investigated for each field survey and a different behavior was detected. The hydraulic analysis also demonstrated that higher values of discharge provide better predictions of flow velocity; the size of the main and tributary gullies affects the discharge-width relationship; and that gully depth is the variable which can be predicted with the highest accuracy.

  13. Hydrothermal dolomites in SW Sardinia (Italy): evidence for a widespread late-Variscan fluid flow event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boni, M.; Parente, G.; Bechstädt, T.; De Vivo, B.; Iannace, A.

    2000-03-01

    Epigenetic replacive and saddle dolomite, frequently forming zebra structures (Geodic dolomite), affected Cambrian limestones and early diagenetic dolomites across large areas of the Iglesiente-Sulcis mining district (SW Sardinia, Italy). The dolomite crops out in an area of more than 500 km 2 and reaches a thickness of up to 600 m (or even more). This rock represents one of the most extensive dolomites of epigenetic origin yet documented. Prior to dolomitization, the Cambrian carbonates underwent ductile deformation and greenschist facies metamorphism. The same is true for the overlying tectonic nappes. Fluid inclusion analysis combined with O- and Sr-isotope data indicate that the dolomitizing fluid can be categorized as a "basinal brine". The spread in homogenization temperatures shows a gradient with values decreasing from east to west. The higher temperatures (mean of around 100°C) have been measured in eastern parts of the Iglesiente area, whereas the lowermost temperatures (mean of about 85°C) have been found along the western coast of Iglesiente. This fluid certainly can neither have come directly from the low-grade metamorphic lithotypes undergoing dolomitization, nor from the low-temperature metamorphic rocks within the overlying nappes. It is assumed that a late-Variscan hydrothermal event, which coincided with extensional tectonics, set brine circulation into motion. Dolomitization may have occurred within circulation cells, which were driven by high heat flow. Fluids originated in the underlying rocks and circulated upward to affect the overlying Cambrian carbonates. An alternative model is that the dolomitization was caused by hydrothermal brines that originated within basinal areas of the Variscan orogenic pile circulating deep within the crust, and ascended in the External Zone (Iglesiente-Sulcis). Whatever the origin, these reducing saline fluids, which carried radiogenic Sr, dolomitized a large volume of Early Paleozoic rocks. The many

  14. Ophiolites of Iran: Keys to understanding the tectonic evolution of SW Asia: (II) Mesozoic ophiolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam, Hadi Shafaii; Stern, Robert J.

    2015-03-01

    Iran is a mosaic of continental terranes of Cadomian (520-600 Ma) age, stitched together along sutures decorated by Paleozoic and Mesozoic ophiolites. Here we present the current understanding of the Mesozoic (and rare Cenozoic) ophiolites of Iran for the international geoscientific audience. We summarize field, chemical and geochronological data from the literature and our own unpublished data. Mesozoic ophiolites of Iran are mostly Cretaceous in age and are related to the Neotethys and associated backarc basins on the S flank of Eurasia. These ophiolites can be subdivided into five belts: 1. Late Cretaceous Zagros outer belt ophiolites (ZOB) along the Main Zagros Thrust including Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene Maku-Khoy-Salmas ophiolites in NW Iran as well as Kermanshah-Kurdistan, Neyriz and Esfandagheh (Haji Abad) ophiolites, also Late Cretaceous-Eocene ophiolites along the Iraq-Iran border; 2. Late Cretaceous Zagros inner belt ophiolites (ZIB) including Nain, Dehshir, Shahr-e-Babak and Balvard-Baft ophiolites along the southern periphery of the Central Iranian block and bending north into it; 3. Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene Sabzevar-Torbat-e-Heydarieh ophiolites of NE Iran; 4. Early to Late Cretaceous Birjand-Nehbandan-Tchehel-Kureh ophiolites in eastern Iran between the Lut and Afghan blocks; and 5. Late Jurassic-Cretaceous Makran ophiolites of SE Iran including Kahnuj ophiolites. Most Mesozoic ophiolites of Iran show supra-subduction zone (SSZ) geochemical signatures, indicating that SW Asia was a site of plate convergence during Late Mesozoic time, but also include a significant proportion showing ocean-island basalt affinities, perhaps indicating the involvement of subcontinental lithospheric mantle.

  15. Environmental drivers of phototrophic biofilms in an Alpine show cave (SW-Italian Alps)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piano, E., E-mail: elena.piano@unito.it [Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Turin, Via Accademia Albertina 13, 10123 Turin (Italy); Bona, F.; Falasco, E. [Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Turin, Via Accademia Albertina 13, 10123 Turin (Italy); La Morgia, V. [ISPRA, via Ca' Fornacetta, 9, 40064 Ozzano dell' Emilia (Italy); Badino, G. [Department of Physics, University of Turin, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Turin (Italy); Isaia, M. [Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Turin, Via Accademia Albertina 13, 10123 Turin (Italy)

    2015-12-01

    The proliferation of lampenflora is a major threat for the conservation of show caves, since phototrophic organisms cause physical, chemical and aesthetic damage to speleothems. In this paper we examine the environmental factors influencing the presence and the growth of the three main photosynthetic groups composing phototrophic biofilms in the Bossea show cave (SW-Italian Alps). The presence and the primary production of cyanobacteria, diatoms and green algae were detected with BenthoTorch®, an instrument for in situ measurement of chlorophyll a concentration that has never been used before in caves. By means of different techniques of regression analysis, we highlighted the response of the three photosynthetic groups to different environmental factors. Illuminance proved to be the main factor influencing positively both the probability of the presence and the productivity of the three groups. The presence of seeping water on the substrate and the distance from the cave entrance proved to play an important role in determining patterns of colonization. By means of GIS techniques, we provide thematic maps of the cave, providing a representation of pattern of the density of the three examined photosynthetic groups within different areas of the cave. The same approach may apply to other show caves, aiming at providing suggestions for the cave management (i.e. cleaning of the cave walls and positioning of artificial lights) and reduce impact caused by tourism. - Highlights: • We used a PAM fluorimeter on autotrophic biofilms in a show cave for the first time. • We modelled the environmental factors influencing phototrophic biofilms. • Illuminance, moisture and distance from the entrance proved to be significant. • We produced thematic maps illustrating our results. • We provide suggestions for cave management.

  16. Rapid loss of phosphorus during early pedogenesis along a glacier retreat choronosequence, Gongga Mountain (SW China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanhong; Zhou, Jun; Bing, Haijian; Sun, Hongyang; Wang, Jipeng

    2015-01-01

    The loss of phosphorus (P) during the early pedogenesis stage is important at the ecosystem level, and it also plays an important role in the global P cycle. The seasonal variation of total P (Pt) and its fractions along a young soil chronosequence (Hailuogou chronosequence) on the eastern slope of Gongga Mountain, SW China, was investigated based on the modified Hedley fractionation technique to understand P loss during the early pedogenesis stage. The results showed that the mineral P (mainly apatite) was the dominant fraction of Pt in the C horizon of the soil, and the seasonal difference in Pt and its fractions was insignificant. In the A horizon, Pt concentrations decreased markedly compared with those in the C horizon, and as the age of the soil increased, the inorganic P (Pi) significantly decreased and the organic P (Po) prominently increased. Seasonally, the P fractions exhibited various distributions in the A horizon. The variation of Pt and its fractions revealed that the P loss was rapid along the 120-year soil chronosequence. The P stocks in soils (0-30 cm) started to decrease at the 52 year site. And the P stock depletion reached almost 17.6% at the 120-year site. The loss of P from the soil of the Hailuogou chronosequence was mainly attributed to weathering, plant uptake, and transport by runoff. About 36% P loss was transported into plant biomass P at the 120 year site. The data obtained indicated that the glacier retreat chronosequence could be used to elucidate the fast rate of P loss during the early pedogenic stage.

  17. Wide-angle seismic reflection constraints on the lithosphere of the Variscan Belt on SW- Iberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomeras, I.; Ayarza, P.; Afonso, J.; Carbonell, R.; Martinez-Poyatos, D.; Simancas, F.; Gonzalez-Lodeiro, F.; Perez-Estaun, A.

    2008-12-01

    Two wide-angle seismic transects (A and B) were acquired across the Variscan Belt on SW-Iberia. They run across three major tectonic units in the area: South Portuguese Zone, Ossa-Morena Zone, and Central Iberian Zone. Transect A is approximately 300 km long and coincides with the course of the IBERSEIS deep seismic reflection profile. Transect B is 220 km long and is located to the SE of Transect A. The close station spacing along the transects (400 m on Transect A and 150 m on Transect B) allows to identify well defined arrivals within the upper, middle and lower crust as well as in the upper mantle. Resulting velocity models were obtained by forward modeling. The most remarkable features on these models are high velocity areas at mid crustal depths (15-20 km) with velocities in the range of 6.8-7.1 km/s. The Moho discontinuity is located at 31-33 km depth, characterized by a velocity jump from 7.1 km/s to 8.2 km/s. Shot gathers show also a sharp mantle reflection at offsets larger than 180 km which has been modeled as a fairly continuous feature with a velocity increase from 8.2 km/s to 8.4 km/s at 65-67 km depth. The nature of this boundary in still uncertain but it likely reflects a lithological change with subtle velocity/density contrasts, only visible at relatively high incidence angles. The velocity depth function for the crust in the area does not fit any of the standard average crustal velocity models due to the anomalous mid crustal velocities.

  18. Mineralogical and Organo-Geochemical Properties of the Denizli (sw Turkey) Coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banu Koralay, Demet; Koralay, Tamer

    2016-04-01

    Coal samples for this study were systematically collected from the Yeşilyuva town of Denizli (SW Turkey) province. In order to be evaluated in terms of their mineralogic composition, source rock potential, total organic carbon (TOC, %), and thermal maturity. To find out the mineralogical composition of the Yeşilyuva coals, X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD) analysis was performed. Quartz, feldspar, calcite, pyrite, gypsum and clay minerals are determined in XRD analysis as the mineral matter in Yeşilyuva coals. The organo-geochemical results of samples suggest that the Yeşilyuva coals have excellent source rock quantity according to total organic carbon (TOC, %) contents (ranging from 8.82 to 43.80 wt. %), indicating that their present circumstances in the basin that preferred production and preservation of organic matter. According to genetic potential (GP, averaging 37.42 mg hydrocarbon/g rock), S1 (averaging 2.11 mg hydrocarbon/g rock) and S2 (averaging 35.31 mg hydrocarbon/g rock) values, all the coal samples show good to excellent source rock potential. The hydrogen index (HI) and S2/S3 values of Yeşilyuva coals range from 43 to 171 mg HC/g TOC and 0.64 to 2.83, respectively. These values indicate that all the coal samples have gas potential. Determination of the thermal maturity is based on production index (PI) and Tmax values, and the potential source rock is considered immature for PI values Mineral composition, Organo-Geochemical properties. Total Organic Carbon (TOC), Hydrocarbon Potential Acknowledgement: This study was financially supported by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK, project number 114Y668)

  19. Lidar Investigation of Infiltration Water Heterogeneity in the Tamala Limestone, SW WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, K.; Mariethoz, G.; Treble, P. C.; Baker, A.

    2014-12-01

    To better manage groundwater resources in carbonate areas and improve our understanding of speleothem archives, it is important to understand and predict unsaturated zone hydrology in karst. The high level of complexity and spatial heterogeneity of such systems is challenging and requires knowledge of the typical geometry of karstic features. We present an exhaustive characterization of Golgotha Cave, SW Western Australia, based on an extensive LIDAR measurement campaign. The cave is developed in Quaternary age aeolianite (dune limestone) and contains speleothem records. We collect 30 representative 3D scan images from this site using FARO Focus3D, a high-speed 3D laser scanner, to visualize, study and extract 2D and 3D information from various points of view and at different scales. In addition to LIDAR data, 32 automatic drip loggers are installed at this site to measure the distribution and volume of water flow. We perform mathematical morphological analyses on the cave ceiling, to determine statistical information regarding the stalactites widths, lengths and spatial distribution. We determine a relationship between stalactites diameter and length. We perform tests for randomness to investigate the relationship between stalactite distribution and ceiling features such as fractures and apply this to identify different types of possible flow patterns such as fracture flow, solution pipe flow, primary matrix flow etc. We also relate stalactites density variation with topography of the cave ceiling which shows hydraulic gradient deviations. Finally we use Image Quilting, one of the recently developed multiple-point geostatistics methods, with the training images derived from LIDAR data to create a larger cave system to represent not only the caves that are visible, but the entire system which is inaccessible. As a result, an integral geological model is generated which may allow other scientists, geologist, to work on two different levels, integrating different

  20. Report for Treating Hanford LAW and WTP SW Simulants: Pilot Plant Mineralizing Flowsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arlin Olson

    2012-02-28

    The US Department of Energy is responsible for managing the disposal of radioactive liquid waste in underground storage tanks at the Hanford site in Washington State. The Hanford waste treatment and immobilization plant (WPT) will separate the waste into a small volume of high level waste (HLW), containing most of the radioactive constituents, and a larger volume of low activity waste (LAW), containing most of the non-radioactive chemical and hazardous constituents. The HLW and LAW will be converted into immobilized waste forms for disposal. Currently there is inadequate LAW vitrification capacity planned at the WTP to complete the mission within the required timeframe. Therefore additional LAW capacity is required. One candidate supplemental treatment technology is the fluidized bed steam reformer process (FBSR). This report describes the demonstration testing of the FBSR process using a mineralizing flowsheet for treating simulated Hanford LAW and secondary waste from the WTP (WTP SW). The FBSR testing project produced leach-resistant solid products and environmentally compliant gaseous effluents. The solid products incorporated normally soluble ions into an alkali alumino-silicate (NaS) mineral matrix. Gaseous emissions were found to be within regulatory limits. Cesium and rhenium were captured in the mineralized products with system removal efficiencies of 99.999% and 99.998 respectively. The durability and leach performance of the FBSR granular solid were superior to the low activity reference material (LMR) glass standards. Normalized product consistency test (PCT) release rates for constituents of concern were approximately 2 orders of magnitude less than that of sodium in the Hanford glass [standard].

  1. Hybrid zoneless probabilistic seismic hazard analysis: Test and first application to SW Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, C.; Gruenthal, G.

    2007-12-01

    Zoneless approaches are one option to assess probabilistic seismic hazard (PSHA). They rely simply on smoothing the epicenter locations of past events according to the fractal distribution of earthquakes in space without defining seismic source zones. However, some shortcomings are connected with these zoneless approaches. Sometimes, one cannot apply one single magnitude completeness, especially when the study area covers different catalogue areas, where different completeness patterns are valid. Furthermore, the characteristic depths of the strongest earthquakes generally differ over larger areas. With respect to these two reasons, a hybrid approach for zoneless PSHA is introduced in this study; i.e. a combination of a zoneless approach with a seismic source model based solely on the large scale geological architecture. This large scale model meets the requirements of introducing different magnitude completeness. But the probability of the earthquake occurrence is based on a pure zoneless approach. Then, instead of a time set of magnitude completeness for the entire studying area, as it is the standard procedure for zoneless approaches, various time sets for different large zones are considered. Another innovation of our approach is to take into account the actual depth of each earthquake rather than assuming a certain weighting set of depths. We apply the hybrid zoneless approach to the SW part of Germany, which represents one of the highest seismicity areas in the country. The use of area specific magnitude completeness and actual depths of all events clearly results in a more realistic PSHA. Furthermore, we compare the results of the hybrid zoneless approach with the results of a recent study using a zone-based methodology. The zone-based approach shows more significant contrasts in the study area; i.e the hybrid zoneless approach provides a rather smoothed pattern. This corresponds to comparisons between zoneless and zone-based approaches by previous studies.

  2. Hydrothermal alteration of plagioclase and growth of secondary feldspar in the Hengill Volcanic Centre, SW Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, D.; Grönvold, K.; Oskarsson, N.; Gunnlaugsson, E.

    2002-05-01

    Dissolution of igneous feldspar and the formation and occurrence of secondary feldspar in tholeiitic basalts from the Hengill volcanic centre, in SW Iceland was studied by microprobe analysis of cuttings from two ca. 2000 m deep geothermal wells. Well NG-7 in Nesjavellir represents a geothermal system in a rift zone where the intensity of young, insignificantly altered intrusions increases with depth. Well KhG-1 in Kolviðarhóll represents the margin of a rift zone where the intensity of intrusives is lower and the intensity of alteration higher. This marginal well represents altered basaltic crust in an early retrograde state. The secondary plagioclase in both wells is mainly oligoclase, occurring in association with K-feldspar and chlorite±actinolite. The texture of this assemblage depends on the lithology and intensity of alteration. In Nesjavellir (NG-7) the composition of secondary albite-oligoclase is correlated with the host-rock composition. This connection is not apparent in more intensely altered samples from Kolviðarhóll (KhG-1). The influence of temperature on composition of secondary Na-feldspar is unclear in both wells although Ca is expected to increase with temperature. Any temperature dependence may be suppressed by the influence of rock composition in Nesjavellir and by retrograde conditions at Kolviðarhóll. The absence of clear compositional gradients between igneous plagioclase and secondary feldspar and between Na-feldspar and K-feldspar suggests that secondary feldspars formed by dissolution precipitation reactions.

  3. Managing carbon sinks in rubber (Hevea brasilensis plantation by changing rotation length in SW China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Moazzam Nizami

    Full Text Available Extension of the rotation length in forest management has been highlighted in Article 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol to help the countries in their commitments for reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. CO2FIX Model Ver.3.2 was used to examine the dynamics of carbon stocks (C stocks in a rubber plantation in South Western China with the changing rotation lengths. To estimate the efficiency of increasing the rotation length as an Article 3.4 activity, study predicted that the rubber production and C stocks of the ecosystem increased with the increasing rotation (25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 years. While comparing the pace of growth both in economical (rubber production and ecological (C stocks terms in each rotation, 40 years rotation length showed maximum production and C stocks. After elongation of 40 year rotation to four consecutive cycles, it was concluded that the total C stocks of the ecosystem were 186.65 Mg ha(-1. The longer rotation lengths showed comparatively increased C stocks in below ground C stock after consecutive four rotations. The pace of C input (Mg C ha(-1 yr(-1 and rubber production indicated that 40 years rotation is best suited for rubber plantation. The study has developed carbon mitigation based on four rotation scenarios. The possible stimulated increase in C stocks of the entire ecosystem after consecutive long rotations indicated that the emphasis must be paid on deciding the rotation of rubber plantation in SW China for reporting under article 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol.

  4. MENEKAN LAJU PENYEBARAN KOLERA DI ASIA DENGAN 3SW (STERILIZATION, SEWAGE, SOURCES, AND WATER PURIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagus Anggaraditya Anggaraditya

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penyakit taun atau kolera (juga disebut Asiatic cholera adalah penyakit menular di saluran pencernaan yang disebabkan oleh bakterium Vibrio cholerae. Kolera ditemukan pada tahun 1883 karena infeksi Vibrio cholerae, bakteri berbentuk koma. Penemuan ini ditemukan oleh bakteriologi Robert Koch (Jerman, 1843-1910.Penyebab kolera, adalah bakteri Vibrio cholerae, yang merupakan bakteri gram negatif, berbentuk basil (batang dan bersifat motil (dapat bergerak, memiliki struktur antogenik dari antigen flagelar H dan antigen somatik O, gamma-proteobacteria, mesofilik dan kemoorganotrof, berhabitat alami di lingkungan akuatik dan umumnya berasosiasi dengan eukariot. Pada orang yang feacesnya ditemukan bakteri kolera mungkin selama 1-2 minggu belum merasakan keluhan berarti, Tetapi saat terjadinya serangan infeksi maka tiba-tiba terjadi diare dan muntah dengan kondisi cukup serius sebagai serangan akut yang menyebabkan samarnya jenis diare yg dialamiCara pencegahan dan memutuskan tali penularan penyakit kolera adalah dengan prinsip sanitasi lingkungan, terutama kebersihan air dan pembuangan kotoran (feaces pada tempatnya yang memenuhi standar lingkungan. Lainnya ialah meminum air yang sudah dimasak terlebih dahulu, cuci tangan dengan bersih sebelum makan memakai sabun/antiseptik, cuci sayuran dangan air bersih terutama sayuran yang dimakan mentah (lalapan, hindari memakan ikan dan kerang yang dimasak setengah matang. Kolera memang sudah menjadi momok yang menakutkan di dunia, dan belajar dari negara-negara di Asia yang sudah pernah mengalami wabah kolera, dapat diambil kesimpulan bahwa pengobatan dengan vaksin tidak memiliki pengaruh yang signifikan.Selain karena tidak menjangkau seluruh warga miskin di sebuah negara, harga vaksin kolera juga dirasa cukup memberatkan anggaran negara-negara yang sedang berkembang di Asia.Cara yang dirasa paling tepat dalam menekan laju penyebara kolera adalah 3SW (Sterilization, Sewage, Sources, and Water

  5. Dissolved organic phosphorus speciation in the waters of the Tamar estuary (SW England)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monbet, Phil; McKelvie, Ian D.; Worsfold, Paul J.

    2009-02-01

    The speciation of dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) in the temperate Tamar estuary of SW England is described. Eight stations from the riverine to marine end-members were sampled during four seasonal campaigns in 2007 and the DOP pool in the water column and sediment porewater was characterized and quantified using a flow injection manifold after sequential enzymatic hydrolysis. This enabled the enzymatically hydrolysable phosphorus (EHP) fraction and its component labile monoester phosphates, diester phosphates and a phytase-hydrolysable fraction that includes myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (phytic acid), to be determined and compared with the total DOP, dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) and total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) pools. The results showed that the DOP pool in the water column varied temporally and spatially within the estuary (1.1-22 μg L -1) and constituted 6-40% of TDP. The EHP fraction of DOP ranged from 1.1-15 μg L -1 and represented a significant and potentially bioavailable phosphorus fraction. Furthermore the spatial profiles of the three components of the EHP pool generally showed non-conservative behavior along the salinity gradient, with apparent internal estuarine sources. Porewater profiles followed broadly similar trends but were notably higher at the marine station throughout the year. In contrast to soil organic phosphorus profiles, the labile monoester phosphate fraction was the largest component, with diester phosphates also prevalent. Phytic acid concentrations were higher in the lower estuary, possibly due to salinity induced desorption processes. The EHP fraction is not commonly determined in aquatic systems due to the lack of a suitable measurement technique and the Tamar results reported here have important implications for phosphorus biogeochemistry, estuarine ecology and the development of efficient strategies for limiting the effects of phosphorus on water quality.

  6. From Submarine Volcanoes to Modern Atolls: New Insights from the Mozambique Channel (SW Indian Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorry, S.; Courgeon, S.; Camoin, G.; BouDagher-Fadel, M.; Jouet, G.; Poli, E.

    2016-12-01

    Although the long-term evolution of isolated shallow-water carbonate platforms leading to guyot and atoll formation has been the subject of numerous studies during the last decades, their driving processes are still the subject of active debates. The Mozambique Channel (SW Indian Ocean) is characterized by several modern carbonate platforms, ranging from 11°S to 21°S in latitudes. These platforms are characterized by reef margins mostly developed on windward sides with internal parts blanketed by sand dunes and numerous reef pinnacles, or by Darwin-type atolls with enclosed lagoons. Dredge sampling, underwater observations and geophysical acquisitions carried out during recent oceanographic cruises (PTOLEMEE and PAMELA-MOZ1) along slopes and basins adjacent to modern platforms led to the discovery of flat-top seamounts corresponding to shallow-water carbonate platforms which grew on top of submarine volcanoes. Microfacies and datings (biostratigraphy analysis coupled with Strontium isotopic stratigraphy) indicate that those carbonate platforms, characterized by fauna assemblages dominated by corals, Halimeda and red algaes, and larger benthic foraminifera, developed in tropical settings from Early Miocene to Late Miocene/Early Pliocene times. Submarine volcanism, karstification and pedogenesis evidences on top of the drowned edifices demonstrate that tectonic deformation, rejuvenated volcanic activity and subaerial exposure occurred after and potentially during the Neogene platform aggradation. Growth of modern platforms on top of submerged carbonate terraces is explained by topographic irregularities inherited from volcanism, tectonic and/or subaerial exposure conditions which could have produced favorable substratum for carbonates which grew during the Plio-Quaternary, up to reach modern sea-level. This research is co-funded by TOTAL and IFREMER as part of the PAMELA (Passive Margin Exploration Laboratories) scientific project.

  7. Soil respiration in tropical seasonal rain forest in Xishuangbanna, SW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHA; Liqing; ZHENG; Zheng; TANG; Jianwei; WANG; Yinghong

    2005-01-01

    With the static opaque chamber and gas chromatography technique, from January 2003 to January 2004 soil respiration was investigated in a tropical seasonal rain forest in Xishuangbanna, SW China. In this study three treatments were applied, each with three replicates: A (bare soil), B (soil+litter), and C (soil+litter+seedling). The results showed that soil respiration varied seasonally, low from December 2003 to February 2004, and high from June to July 2004. The annual average values of CO2 efflux from soil respiration differed among the treatments at 1% level, with the rank of C (14642 mgCO2· m-2. h-1)>B (12807 mgCO2· m-2. h-1)>A (9532 mgCO2· m-2. h-1). Diurnal variation in soil respiration was not apparent due to little diurnal temperate change in Xishuangbanna. There was a parabola relationship between soil respiration and soil moisture at 1% level. Soil respiration rates were higher when soil moisture ranged from 35% to 45%. There was an exponential relationship between soil respiration and soil temperature (at a depth of 5cm in mineral soil) at 1% level. The calculated Q1o values in this study,ranging from 2.03 to 2.36, were very near to those of tropical soil reported. The CO2 efflux in 2003was 5.34 kgCO2· m-2. a-1 from soil plus litter plus seedling, of them 3.48 kgCO2· m-2. a-1 from soil (accounting for 62.5%), 1.19 kgCO2· m-2. a-1 from litter (22.3%) and 0.67 kgCO2·m-2. a-1 from seedling (12.5%).

  8. Studying radon exhalation rates variability from phosphogypsum piles in the SW of Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Coto, I., E-mail: israel.lopez@dfa.uhu.es [Dpto. Física Aplicada, Facultad CC. Experimentales, University of Huelva, Campus de El Carmen s/n, 21007 Huelva (Spain); Mas, J.L. [Dpto. Física Aplicada I. Escuela Politécnica Superior, University of Sevilla, C/Virgen de Africa 7, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Vargas, A. [Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Instituto de Técnicas Energéticas, Campus Sud Edificio ETSEIB, Planta 0, Pabellón C, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Bolívar, J.P. [Dpto. Física Aplicada, Facultad CC. Experimentales, University of Huelva, Campus de El Carmen s/n, 21007 Huelva (Spain)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Variability of radon exhalation rates from PG piles has been studied using numerical simulation supported by experimental data. • Most relevant parameters controlling the exhalation rate are radon potential and moisture saturation. • Piling up the waste increasing the height instead of the surface allows the reduction of the exhalation rate. • A proposed cover here is expected to allow exhalation rates reductions up to 95%. - Abstract: Nearly 1.0 × 10{sup 8} tonnes of phosphogypsum were accumulated during last 50 years on a 1200 ha disposal site near Huelva town (SW of Spain). Previous measurements of exhalation rates offered very variable values, in such a way that a worst case scenario could not be established. Here, new experimental data coupled to numerical simulations show that increasing the moisture contents or the temperature reduces the exhalation rate whilst increasing the radon potential or porosity has the contrary effect. Once the relative effects are compared, it can be drawn that the most relevant parameters controlling the exhalation rate are radon potential (product of emanation factor by {sup 226}Ra concentration) and moisture saturation of PG. From wastes management point of view, it can be concluded that piling up the waste increasing the height instead of the surface allows the reduction of the exhalation rate. Furthermore, a proposed cover here is expected to allow exhalation rates reductions up to 95%. We established that the worst case scenario corresponds to a situation of extremely dry winter. Under these conditions, the radon exhalation rate (0.508 Bq m{sup −2} s{sup −1}) would be below though close to the upper limit established by U.S.E.P.A. for inactive phopsphogypsum piles (0.722 Bq m{sup −2} s{sup −1})

  9. A palynostratigraphic approach to the SW Anatolian molasse basin: Kale-Tavas molasse and Denizli molasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgün, Funda; Sözbilir, Hasan

    The study, explains stratigraphy of the Oligo-Miocene molasse around the Denizli province (SW Anatolia), based on the palynology which is also supported by the detailed mapping and correlation of the measured sections from the coal-bearing sequences of the molasse deposits. For this purpose, two huge depressions named as the Kale-Tavas molasse and Denizli molasse basins were examined. The Kale-Tavas molasse deposits has a basal unconformity with the underlying pre-Oligocene basement and begins with the Chattian Karadere and Mortuma formations which are covered unconformably by the Aquitanian Yenidere formation. An angular unconformity between the Chattian and the Burdigalian is only observed in the middle part of the basin, around Kale. In the Tavas section, the Aquitanian and the Burdigalian are absent. The Denizli molasse is characterized by Chattian-Aquitanian sequence consisting of distinctive sedimentary facies, alluvial fan and deltaic-shallow marine deposits with carbonate patch reefs. Palynostratigraphic studies, which have given the Chattian age, have been carried out from the coal lenses of alluvial fan and delta plain deposits. In addition to the palynological determinations, coral and foraminiferal content of the carbonate patch reefs which rest conformably on the coal-bearing sequences have yielded the Chattian-Aquitanian age. Two different palynomorph associations have been determined from the molasse deposits. The first palynomorph association which is established in the samples from the Sağdere and Mortuma formations, corresponds to the Chattian age, whilst the second is of the Aquitanian age. The Late Oligocene-Early Miocene which is claimed as the time of N-S-extensional tectonics in western Turkey, is related to the depositional time of the molasse sequences in the study area. Thus, the molasse is older than the basal deposits of the Gediz and Büyük Menderes grabens.

  10. Evaluation of forest structure, biomass and carbon sequestration in subtropical pristine forests of SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizami, Syed Moazzam; Yiping, Zhang; Zheng, Zheng; Zhiyun, Lu; Guoping, Yang; Liqing, Sha

    2017-03-01

    Very old natural forests comprising the species of Fagaceae (Lithocarpus xylocarpus, Castanopsis wattii, Lithocarpus hancei) have been prevailing since years in the Ailaoshan Mountain Nature Reserve (AMNR) SW China. Within these forest trees, density is quite variable. We studied the forest structure, stand dynamics and carbon density at two different sites to know the main factors which drives carbon sequestration process in old forests by considering the following questions: How much is the carbon density in these forest trees of different DBH (diameter at breast height)? How much carbon potential possessed by dominant species of these forests? How vegetation carbon is distributed in these forests? Which species shows high carbon sequestration? What are the physiochemical properties of soil in these forests? Five-year (2005-2010) tree growth data from permanently established plots in the AMNR was analysed for species composition, density, stem diameter (DBH), height and carbon (C) density both in aboveground and belowground vegetation biomass. Our study indicated that among two comparative sites, overall 54 species of 16 different families were present. The stem density, height, C density and soil properties varied significantly with time among the sites showing uneven distribution across the forests. Among the dominant species, L. xylocarpus represents 30% of the total carbon on site 1 while C. wattii represents 50% of the total carbon on site 2. The average C density ranged from 176.35 to 243.97 t C ha(-1). The study emphasized that there is generous degree to expand the carbon stocking in this AMNR through scientific management gearing towards conservation of old trees and planting of potentially high carbon sequestering species on good site quality areas.

  11. Olivine melilitites of the SW German tertiary volcanic province: mineralogy and petrogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunworth, E.A.; Wilson, M. [Leeds University (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    1998-12-31

    The mineralogy and mineral chemistry of olivine melilitites from the Late Tertiary Urach and Hegau volcanic provinces of SW Germany, and from Mahlberg Castle, north of the Kaisertuhl carbonatite complex within the Upper Rhinegraben, provide important constraints on the petrogenesis of these rather rare magma types. The principal features of the mineralogy are controlled by the high degree of silica undersaturation, relatively low total alkalis (<5 wt%, Na{sub 2}O > K{sub 2}O), and the high Ca and Mg contents of the magmas. Olivine (Fo{sub 79-89}), frequently reverse-zoned, Ca-saturated clinopyroxene exhibiting strong disequilibrium zonation, and akermanite-rich melilite are the dominant crystallizing phases, along with Cr-spinel and magnetite. Rare Ba-Ti phlogopite, containing up to 18 wt% BaO and 9 wt% TiO{sub 2}, occurs in the groundmass of most samples, along with Nb-rich perovskite, fluoraphatite, nepheline and devitrified glass. The combination of previously published geochemical data with the results of this petrographic study suggest that initial melt generation occurred within the dolomite-garnet stability field in the asthenosphere, the main episode of magma generation occurred at the base of the lithosphere, and additional wall-rock assimilation occurred as the magmas rose through the lithosphere, including the incorporation of spinel peridotite xenoliths and sheared olivine xenocrysts which last equilibriated close to the base of the crust. Thus, the bulk-rock composition of the magmas records a composite product of a complex multi-stage and multi-source history. (author)

  12. Geology of the Jewel Cave SW Quadrangle, Custer County, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braddock, William A.

    1963-01-01

    The Jewel Cave SW quadrangle is in the southwestern part of the Black Hills in Custer County, S. Dak., about midway between Edgemont, S. Dak., and Newcastle, Wyo. All the rocks that crop out within the quadrangle are of sedimentary origin and range in age from Pennsylvanian to Early Cretaceous. The Minnesota Formation of Pennsylvania and Permian age, which is about 1,000 feet thick, was studied in outcrop and from two diamond-drill cores. In the subsurface the upper part of the formation consists of gray sandstone, very fine grained dolomite, and anhydrite. The anhydrite has been leached from the formation near the outcrop, perhaps in the early part of the Cenozoic Era, and the resulting subsidence has produced collapse breccias in the Minnelusa and milder deformation in the overlying units. In the collapse breccias the rocks have been oxidized and are red, whereas in the subsurface they are gray. The anhydrite cement of the subsurface sandstone has been replaced by calcite, and the dolomite beds have been partially converted to limestone. The Opeche Formation of Permian age consists of 75 to 115 feet of red siltstone and shale and two thin gypsum beds. The Minnekahta Limestone of Permian age is about 40 feet thick. The Spearfish Formation of Permian and Triassic age is about 550 feet thick and consists of red siltstone red sandstone, dolomite, and gypsum. The dolomite and gypsum beds are restricted to the lower half of the formation. In the northeast corner of the quadrangle the gypsum beds have been dissolved by ground water. The Sundance Formation of Late Jurassic age is divided into five members that have a total thickness of about 360 feet. The Morrison Formation of Late Jurassic age ranges in thickness from 60 to 120 feet. It consists of blocky weathering noncarbonaceous mudstone and subordinate beds of limestone and sandstone. The Inyan Kara Group of Early Cretaceous age has been subdivided into the Lakota Formation and the Fall River Formation. The Lakota

  13. PAHs as Probes of Photodissociation Regions in M17 and the Orion Bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, G. C.; Bregman, J. D.; Schultz, A.; Temi, P.; Rank, D. M.; Witteborn, Fred C. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    We have obtained narrow-band images of M17 SW and the Orion Bar in the PAH emission bands and pedestal (3.29, 3. 36, 3. 42 microns) The emission bands at 3.3 and 3.4 microns arise from the photodissociation regions (PDRs) between ionized gas and molecular clouds. In both M17 SW and the Orion Bar, the PDRs are nearly edge-on, providing excellent opportunities for comparing models of PDRs with observations. We observe an exponential drop in the strength of the 3.3 micron emission with a 1/e distance of 9 arcsec in Orion and 5 arcsec in M17 SW, in good agreement with previous observations. These results show that the two regions are very similar, and they imply that the mean density is 2.4 times higher in the Orion Bar than in the M17 SW PDR. However, we also find that in the Orion Bar, the ratio of the 3.4 micron emission to the 3.3 micron emission is consistent with the 1/e distance of 3 arcsec determined from PDR models fit to the molecular H and CO in the Orion Bar. We are presently investigating how the main band can imply that the UV field is dropping with a 1/e distance of 9 arcsec while the model PDR predicts a 1/e distance of 3 arcsec.

  14. New U-Pb ages in the Diablillos Intrusive Complex, Southern Puna, Argentina: A long magmatic event in the Paleozoic Arc, SW Gondwana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Agustin; Hauser, Natalia [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Instituto de Geociencias. Lab. de Geocronologia; Becchio, Raul; Nieves, Alexis; Suzano, Nestor [Universidad Nacional de Salta (UNSa)-CONICET, Salta (Argentina)

    2015-07-01

    The Puna geological region comprises Salta, Jujuy and Catamarca provinces, northwestern Argentina. This 4000 meter above sea level high-plateau region lies between the Central Argentinian Andes. The Puna basement in the central Andes consists of Proterozoic–Paleozoic metamorphic rocks and granitoids. Diverse authors, proposed different models to explain the origin of the basement, where two orogenic events are recognized: the Pampean (Upper Precambrian–Lower Cambrian) and Famatinian (Upper Cambrian–Lower Silurian) (e.g. Ramos et al., 1986; Ramos, 1988; Loewy et al., 2004; for opposite points of view see Becchio et al., 1999; Bock et al., 2000; Buttner et al., 2005). Hence, Lucassen et al. (2000) proposed for the Central Andean basement, an evolution in a mobile belt, where the Pampean and Famatinian cycles are not distinct events but, they are one single, non-differentiable event from 600 to 400 Ma. The mobile belt culminated in low-P/ high-T metamorphism at approximately 525-500 Ma. Then, these were followed by a long-lasting high-thermal gradient regime in the mid-crust until Silurian times. Becchio et al., (2011) defined the Diablillos Intrusive Complex (CID, by its Spanish name), emplaced in the Inca Viejo Range. This range splits the Salares Ratones-Centenario with the Salar Diablillos (Fig.1). This Complex is located in the Eastern Magmatic Belt, Southern Puna, Argentina. Here we present new zircons U-Pb ages by LA-MC-ICPMS in the Diablillos Intrusive Complex, contributing to understanding the magmatic event in the lower Paleozoic arc, SW Gondwana. (author)

  15. Twenty years of biological monitoring of element concentrations in permanent forest and grassland plots in Baden-Württemberg (SW Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzaring, Jürgen; Holz, Ingo; Zipperle, Jürgen; Fangmeier, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    nutrients C, N, S, P, Ca, K and Mg and the metals Mn, Cd, Pb, Al, Cu, Ni and Hg. Data were analysed using descriptive and multivariate statistics and maps were produced to identify regional differences in pollutant deposition. Out of the elements analysed, lead and sulphur concentrations showed the most pronounced downward trends over time in tree foliage and grassland samples with the largest decreases observed in the early 1990 s. Both the reduced lead and sulphur levels in the biomonitors reflect the successful implementation of clean air policies, i.e. the introduction of unleaded gasoline, the availability of desulphurisation technologies and the economic transition of Eastern European heavy industries. However, the decrease in sulphur concentrations was lower in beech foliage from SW Germany as compared to beech leaves from six German national parks suggesting regional differences in sulphur deposition and trends thereof. At the same time, sulphur concentrations declined more strongly in the grassland samples indicating that much of the deposited sulphur remains in the forest ecosystems while in the grassland ecosystems it is gradually removed by the frequent cutting and grazing. During the time series, the decrease in sulphur deposition coincided with a marked increase in rain pH. At the same time, the increasing nitrogen concentrations observed over time in beech leaves suggest that emissions of oxidised and reduced nitrogen are still adding to the large-scale eutrophication of SW German forests. However, N concentrations in both the tree foliage and in the bulk grassland samples were unrelated to the modelled N deposition. When also considering macronutrient concentrations and N:P and N:K ratios, the results point to serious nutrient imbalances in many beech forests, which may reduce plant vitality and tree growth in the long run. Biological monitoring using plants is an effective tool to address changes in the environmental quality over time and space. The success

  16. Caracterização físico-química e microbiológica da farinha de algaroba (Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC) Physicochemical and microbiological characterization of mesquite flour (Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC)

    OpenAIRE

    Celiane Gomes Maia da Silva; Artur Bibiano de Melo Filho; Edleide Freitas Pires; Tânia Lúcia Montenegro Stamford

    2007-01-01

    Algaroba (Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) D.C.) é uma leguminosa arbórea tropical comum no semi-árido brasileiro e desenvolve-se em lugares secos, onde dificilmente outras plantas poderiam sobreviver. Suas vagens produzem uma farinha que pode ser usada na alimentação humana, além de vários outros produtos como o mel, licor e um produto similar ao café. Este trabalho teve por objetivo caracterizar quanto à composição físico-química e microbiológica a farinha de algaroba potencialmente passível de int...

  17. New observations on the Ni-Co ores of the southern Arburese Variscan district (SW Sardinia, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naitza, Stefano; Secchi, Francesco; Oggiano, Giacomo; Cuccuru, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    Among the European Variscan regions, the Arburese district, located in the Paleozoic basement of SW Sardinia (Italy) is remarkable for its metallogenic complexity, and offers good opportunities to investigate time/space and genetic links between post-collisional Variscan intrusive magmatism and mineral deposits. The district hosts a large variety of mineral deposits and occurrences, which include the Pb-Zn (Cu, Ag) mesothermal veins of the Montevecchio Lode System, one of the largest and richest Variscan hydrothermal ore deposit of Europe, now exhausted. Ore deposits are genetically related to the emplacement of the Late Variscan (304±1 Ma) Arbus Pluton, a granitoid composite intrusion ranging from monzogabbroic to granodioritic and to peraluminous leucogranitic rock-types. After more than a century of geological studies in the area, several metallogenic issues are still unresolved; among them, the occurrence in the southern sectors of little known polymetallic Ni-Co-(Pb-Zn-Cu-Ag-Bi) veins, a kind of mineralization quite unusual for the Sardinian basement. These hydrothermal deposits are hosted by very low-grade metamorphic rocks at short distance from the intrusion, where contact effect generate also hornfels. Spatial, structural and textural characters of the hydrothermal system are coherent and in apparent continuity with those of the Montevecchio Lode System. Ni-Co ores are hosted by a system of parallel, 1-2 m thick high-angle veins that discontinuously follow the southwestern and southern contacts of the Arbus Pluton for about 7 km. They constantly dip SSW, sideways with respect to the pluton contact, and show a prevalence of fracture infilling (banded and brecciated) textures, with alternating quartz and siderite bands, cockades and frequent inclusions of wallrock fragments. Wallrocks are usually silicified, bleached and/or sericitized. Systematic studies of ore textures and parageneses from different veins along the system have been performed by standard

  18. The influence of grazing intensity on soil properties and degradation processes in Mediterranean rangelands (Extremadura, SW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido-Fernández, Manuel; Schnabel, Susanne; Francisco Lavado-Contador, Joaquín

    2014-05-01

    Rangelands cover vast extensions of land in Spain (>90,000 km2), where a total amount of 13 millions of domestic animals graze extensively their pastures. By clear-cutting shrubs, removing selected trees and by cultivation, these rangelands were created from former Mediterranean oak forests, mainly composed by holm oak and cork oak (Quercus ilex rotundifolia and Q. suber) as tree species, Nowadays this land system is exploited economically in large farms (>100 ha), most of them held on private ownership (80% of total) and dedicated to extensive ranching. Overgrazing is common and the excessive stocking rates may deteriorate soil quality, causing economic losses and environmental damage. Many studies have been developed on the effects of livestock grazing over soil properties and degradation processes, most of them by only comparing extreme cases (e.g. ungrazed vs. grazed or overgrazed areas). The main goal of this study is to contribute to the understanding on how animal grazing affects soil properties and degradation processes. The study is particularly focused on soil compaction and sheet erosion as related to the reduction of vegetation cover by defoliation. Soil properties were analysed from 119 environmental units selected from 56 farms distributed throughout the region of Extremadura (SW Spain). The units are representative of different rangeland types, i.e. scrublands of Retama sphaerocarpa, dehesas (wooded rangelands) and treeless grasslands. Soil surface cover was determined along transects in September 2010 (antecedent rainfall: 413-923 mm) considering the following classes: bare ground, grasses, mosses, litter, stones (<2 mm) and rock outcrops. Farmer interviews were also conducted in order to quantify stocking rates and to assess land management in 12 out of 56 farms. In the farms where transects and farmer interviews could not be carried out, bare soil surface and livestock densities were estimated. Bare soil surface was determined by classifying

  19. Estudio fitoquímico de la especie Hibiscus elatus S.W.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Márquez Hernández

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio fitoquímico preliminar de la especie Hibiscus elatus S.W. Se practicó un tamizaje fitoquímico sobre material seco y fresco, en el que se obtuvieron resultados positivos para mucílagos, sustancias reductoras, antocianinas, aminoácidos, taninos y flavonoides. Se determinó que las antocianinas se afectan durante el proceso de secado. Para la realización del estudio químico se maceró el material vegetal con 4 menstruos (fracciones A, B, C y D. A partir de las fracciones A y B se aisló el producto HE1, el cual se analizó por espectroscopia ultravioleta, infrarroja, de resonancia magnética nuclear protónica, de carbono 13, mediante uso de técnicas especiales y por espectrometría de masas, lo que permitió identificarlo como el flavonoide gossypitrina. La fracción C se sometió a un fraccionamiento según el método de absorción-desorción sobre silicagel, lo que permitió la detección de rutina y quercetina. Los flavonoides identificados se reportan por primera vez para la especie.A preliminary phytochemical study of Hibiscus elatus species was undertaken. A phytochemical sieving of fresch dry material made it possible to obtain positive results for mucilages, reducing substances, anthocyamins, aminoacids, tanines and flavonoids. Anthocyamines were determined to be affected during dryng process. For carry ing uot the chemical study, the plant was mecrated into 4 solvents (A, B, C and D fractions. Taking A and B fractions as a basis, product HE1 was isolated and analyzed by ultra - violet, infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance, proton and carbon 13 spectroscopies as well as special techniques and mass spectrometry. This resulted in the identification of this product as gossypitrin flavonoid. Fraction C was fractioned by silicagel absorption - desorption methods which allowed us to detec rutin and quercetin. The identified flavonoids are reported for the first time in this species.

  20. The transformations and fates of deposited N in an N saturated subtropical forested catchment, SW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jing; Mulder, Jan; Dörsch, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Subtropical forests in south China are receiving long-term elevated nitrogen (N) deposition. Previous field observations in the N-saturated forested headwater catchment at Tieshanping (TSP), Chongqing, SW China, found apparent fast NH4+ disappearance in the top soil on the hillslope, but lab incubation for nitrification potentials did not support such disappearance. Meanwhile, large unaccounted N sinks were suggested by fast NO3- disappearance along the flow path in the groundwater discharge zone (GDZ), possibly due to denitrification and subsequent N2 emission. In this study, we investigated the fates of deposited N (mainly in the forms of NH4+ and NO3-) and the nature of the N transformations using isotopic tracer approach. 15N-labeled NH4+ or NO3- (99 atom% 15N) were amended to repacked surface soil columns from the hillslope and GDZ of TSP. The changes of the N forms of NH4+, NO3-, dissolved organic N, microbial biomass N and bulk N in soil were traced in a period of 15 days, representing transient (0.5 hr, 6 hr and 1 day) and mid-term (5 days and 15 days) N transformations. The soil moistures were kept at the typical field conditions (55% and 95% WFPS for hillslope soil and GDZ soil, respectively). Opposite to the field observations, the amount of added NH4+ decreased gradually on hillslope. 85% and 30% of the added 15N-NH4+ kept in the form of NH4+ after 1 day and 15 days. 15N-NO3- was produced gradually on hillslope, up to 26% of added 15N-NH4+ after 15 days incubation. About half of the added 15N-NH4+ was incorporated to organic N. The added 15N-NO3- showed a similar picture, with 55% left in the soil of hillslope after the whole incubation. Interestingly, although soil in GDZ had much higher WFPS, the nitrification rate of it was much higher than that on hillslope. Apparently the added 15N-NH4+ was incorporated immediately into organic matter in GDZ soil and being denitrified gradually along the time. The incorporation of the added 15N-NO3- into soil

  1. Modeling stem increment in individual Pinus occidentalis Sw. trees in La Sierra, Dominican Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueno, S.; Bevilacqua, E.

    2010-07-01

    One of the most common and important tree characteristics used in forest management decision-making is tree diameter-at-breast height (DBH). This paper presents results on an evaluation of two growth functions developed to model stem diameter increases in individual Pinus occidentalis Sw. trees in La Sierra, Dominican Republic. The first model was developed in order to predict future DBH (FDM) at different intervals of time and the other for predicting growth, that is, periodic annual diameter increment (PADIM). Each model employed two statistical techniques for fitting model parameters: stepwise ordinary least squares (OLS) regression, and mixed models. The two statistical approaches varied in how they accounted for the repeated measurements on individual trees over time, affecting standard error estimates and statistical inference of model parameters. Each approach was evaluated based on six goodness of- fit statistics, using both calibration and validation data sets. The objectives were 1) to determine the best model for predicting future tree DBH; 2) to determine the best model for predicting periodic annual diameter increment, both models using tree size, age, site index and different indices of competitive status; and 3) compare which of these two modeling approaches predicts better the future DBH. OLS provided a better fit for both of the growth functions, especially in regards to bias. Both models showed advantages and disadvantages when they were used to predict growth and future diameter. For the prediction of future diameter with FDM, accuracy of predictions were within one centimeter for a five-year projection interval. The PADIM presented negligible bias in estimating future diameter, although there was a small increase in bias as time of prediction increased. As expected, each model was the best in estimating the response variable it was developed for.. However, a closer examination of the distribution of errors showed a slight advantage of the FDM

  2. Long-Term Water Quality Studies in a Eutrophic Lake Catchment: Slapton Ley, SW England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, T. P.; Worrall, F.; Howden, N. J. K.

    2014-12-01

    Monitoring is the process by which we keep the behaviour of the environment in view, an essential way of discovering whether there are significant undesirable changes taking place. Long-term datasets reveal important patterns for scientists to explain and are essential for testing hypotheses undreamt of at the time monitoring scheme was set up. Many environmental processes take place over relatively long periods of time; very often, subtle processes are embedded within highly variable systems so that their weak signal cannot be extracted without a long record. Slapton Ley is a freshwater coastal lagoon in SW England. The Ley is part of a National Nature Reserve, wetland 116 ha in area which is divided into two basins: the Higher Ley (39 ha) is mainly reed swamp; the Lower Ley (77 ha) is open water. In the 1960s it became apparent that the Ley was becoming increasingly eutrophic. In order to gauge water, sediment and nutrient inputs into the lake, measurements began on the main catchments in late 1969. Continuous monitoring of discharge and a weekly water-sampling programme have been maintained by the Slapton Ley Field Centre ever since. The monitoring programme has been supplemented by a number of research projects which have sought to identify the salient hydrological processes operating within the Slapton catchments and to relate these to the delivery of sediment and solute to the stream system. The nitrate issue has been of particular interest at Slapton; although many longer series exist for large rivers like the Thames, the long record of nitrate data for the Slapton catchments is unique in Britain for small rural basins. Other issues to be explored will be the phosphorus legacy in lake sediments and a long-term decline in lake pH. The Slapton water quality record has confirmed that undesirable changes are taking place, revealed evidence of important patterns to be explained, allowed testing of new hypotheses (e.g. links with land-use change) and helped

  3. Processing and Analysis of Near-Seafloor Magnetic Anomalies around Futuna Island, SW Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szitkar, F.; Dyment, J.; Fouquet, Y.; Choi, Y.

    2011-12-01

    In September 2010, cruise Futuna of R/V L'Atalante collected near-seafloor magnetic data with AUV Aster-X (70 m asf) and Deep-Sea Submersible (DSS) Nautile (2-20 m asf) on several volcanic systems around Futuna Island, SW Pacific Ocean. Here we present the data, the method of analysis, and a first geological interpretation. Unlike a ship, a submersible (or an AUV) cannot tow a magnetometer due to the close proximity of the seafloor. Instead, the magnetometer is rigidly fixed on the submersible, which magnetization affects the magnetic measurements. A vector magnetometer (i.e. three orthogonal fluxgate sensors) measures the field three components in a referential linked to the submarine, a requirement to determine and correct the magnetization of the submersible, The remanent magnetization vector (3 components) and the magnetic susceptibility tensor (9 coefficients) of the submersible are estimated by inverting magnetic data collected on calibration loops, far from both the ship and the seafloor, during the descent (ascent) of the submersible at the beginning (end) of the dives. For this estimation, the ambient field is assumed to be the IGRF, the departures from this assumption reflecting the magnetization of the submersible. The twelve coefficients are inverted from the loop data by a least square method, regularized by a dumping factor to account for the limited pitch and roll values sampled by the submersible. Once determined, these coefficients are used to reduce the magnetic data acquired during the whole dive for the magnetic effect of the submersible, the resulting three component anomalies being rotated to the geographic reference frame as well. The resulting anomalies acquired by the AUV on regularly-spaced tracks are gridded and reduced to the pole such as the resulting anomalies are located on the top of their causative sources. They are further inverted to equivalent magnetization using the high-resolution topography acquired by the AUV. The anomalies

  4. Internal tides affect benthic community structure in an energetic submarine canyon off SW Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jian-Xiang; Chen, Guan-Ming; Chiou, Ming-Da; Jan, Sen; Wei, Chih-Lin

    2017-07-01

    Submarine canyons are major conduits of terrestrial and shelf organic matter, potentially benefiting the seafloor communities in the food-deprived deep sea; however, strong bottom currents driven by internal tides and the potentially frequent turbidity currents triggered by storm surges, river flooding, and earthquakes may negatively impact the benthos. In this study, we investigated the upper Gaoping Submarine Canyon (GPSC), a high-sediment-yield canyon connected to a small mountain river (SMR) off southwest (SW) Taiwan. By contrasting the benthic meiofaunal and macrofaunal communities within and outside the GPSC, we examined how food supplies and disturbance influenced the benthic community assemblages. The benthic communities in the upper GPSC were mainly a nested subset of the adjacent slope assemblages. Several meiofaunal (e.g. ostracods) and macrofaunal taxa (e.g. peracarid crustaceans and mollusks) that typically occurred on the slope were lost from the canyon. The polychaete families switched from diverse feeding guilds on the slope to motile subsurface deposit feeders dominant in the canyon. The diminishing of epibenthic peracarids and proliferation of deep burrowing polychaetes in the GPSC resulted in macrofauna occurring largely within deeper sediment horizons in the canyon than on the slope. The densities and numbers of taxa were depressed with distinct and more variable composition in the canyon than on the adjacent slope. Both the densities and numbers of taxa were negatively influenced by internal tide flushing and positively influenced by food availability; however, the internal tides also negatively influenced the food supplies. While the meiofauna and macrofauna densities were both depressed by the extreme physical conditions in the GPSC, only the macrofaunal densities increased with depth in the canyon, presumably related to increased frequency and intensity of disturbance toward the canyon head. The population densities of meiofauna, on the

  5. Gas Geothermometry in the Hveragerdi High—Temperature Geothermal Field,SW Iceland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙占学; HALLDORARMANNSON

    2000-01-01

    Five gas geothermometers based on the concentrations of CO2,H2S,H2,CH2,N2 and Ar in fumaroles and wet-stem wells are applied to estimating subsurface temperatures in the Hveragerdi high-temperature geothmal field,SW Iceland,The results for fumaroles indicate that the calculated subsurface temperatures decrase from the northern part to the southern part of the field.The CO2-geothermometer gives the highers temperature values,with an average of 256℃ for the northern part,and 247℃ for the southern part.The H2S-geothermometer reveals an aquifer temperature of 211℃ for the northern part,and 203℃ for the southern part.The H2-geothermometer gives an average subsurface temperature of 229℃ for the northern part,and 184℃ for the southern part,which agerees excellently with the measured temperatures in wet-steam wells.The measured borhole temperatures in the field range from 215℃ to 230℃ for the northern part,and from 167℃ to 198℃ for the southern part.The CO2/H2-geothermometer gives the lowest subsurface temperature values,with an average of 203℃ for the northern part,and 143℃ for the southern part,The CO2/N2-geothermometer gives 249℃ for the northern part and 235℃ for the southern part.For the data from wells,the CO2-, H2S-,and H2-geothermometers,give average subsurface temperatures of 247℃ for the northern part and 246℃ for the southern part,213℃ for the northern part and 220℃ for the southern part,and 217℃ for the northern part and 216℃ for the southern part,respectively.The CO2/H2-geothermometer indicates an average subsurface tem,perature of about 200℃ for both the northern part and the southern part.The CO2/N2-geothermometer gives an average subsurface temperature of 180℃ for the northern part and 259℃ for the southern part.The discrepancy between the estimeated subsurface temperatures obtained by the various gas geothermometers has been explained in this paper.By integrating the solute geothermometric results,mixing model

  6. Wide-angle seismic constraints on the nature, origin and evolution of the SW Iberian margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallares, V.; Gailler, A.; Gutscher, M.; Martínez-Loriente, S.; Bartolome, R.; Graindorge, D.; Diaz, J.; Gracia, E.

    2011-12-01

    We investigate the crustal structure of the SW Iberian margin along two new refraction and wide-angle reflection seismic profiles acquired during the NEAREST-2008 survey; one crossing from the central Gulf of Cadiz to the Variscan continental margin in the Algarve, Southern Portugal (P1), and the other crossing the Gorringe bank from Tagus Abyssal plain to the Seine Abyssal plain (P2). P1 shows shows a sharp transition between the ~30 km-thick Variscan domain in the north and a ~7 km-thick and ~150 km-wide crustal section that is oceanic in nature. The sharp transition between continental and oceanic crust is best explained by an initial rifting setting as a transform margin during the Early Jurassic that followed the continental break-up in the Central Atlantic. The narrow oceanic basin would have formed during an oblique rifting and seafloor spreading episode between Iberia and Africa that lasted up to the initiation of oceanic spreading in the North Atlantic (earliest Cretaceous). This oceanic plate segment could be the last remnant of an oceanic corridor that once connected the Alpine-Tethys with the Atlantic ocean. This interpretation is consistent with geodynamic models suggesting the existence of a narrow oceanic slab beneath the Gibraltar arc-Alboran basin system. In P2, the most striking observation is that the Tagus and Horseshoe Abyssal plains, as well as the Gorringe bank, show the same basement velocity structure, suggesting a common nature and origin. The velocity and density gradient confirms that the basement in these domains is made of highly serpentinized, exhumed mantle, probably emplaced during the initial phases of rifting at the of the North Atlantic in the Early Cretaceous. In contrast, the Seine Abyssal plain south from Coral Patch show evidences for the presence of a well-developed oceanic crust, similar to that described along P1. Therefore, these new observations provide key constraints to better understand the initial phases of rifting

  7. First flight of SMASH, the SwRI Miniature Assembly for Solar Hard X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Amir; Laurent, Glenn Thomas; Shoffner, Michael; Higuera Caubilla, David; Meurisse, Jeremie; Smith, Kelly; Shih, Albert Y.; Saint-Hilaire, Pascal; DeForest, Craig; Mansour, Nagi N.; Hathaway, David H.

    2016-05-01

    The SwRI Miniature Assembly for Solar Hard X-rays (SMASH) was successfully flown from Antarctica in January (19-30) 2016, as a piggy-back instrument on the Gamma-Ray Imager/Polarimeter for Solar flares (GRIPS) high altitude balloon payload. SMASH is a technological demonstration of a new miniaturized hard X-ray (HXR) detector for use on CubeSats and other small spacecraft, including the proposed CubeSat Imaging X-ray Solar Spectrometer (CubIXSS).HXRs are the observational signatures of energetic processes on the Sun, including plasma heating and particle acceleration. One of the goals of CubIXSS will be to address the question of how plasma is heated during solar flares, including the relationship between thermal plasma and non-thermal particles. SMASH demonstrated the space-borne application of the commercial off-the-shelf Amptek X123-CdTe, a miniature cadmium telluride photon-counting HXR spectrometer. The CdTe detector has a physical area of 25 mm^2 and 1 mm fully-depleted thickness, with a ~100 micron Be window; with on-board thermoelectric cooling and pulse pile-up rejection, it is sensitive to solar photons from ~5 to ~100 keV with ~0.5-1.0 keV FWHM resolution. Photons are accumulated into histogram spectra with customizable energy binning and integration time. With modest resource requirements (~1/8 U, ~200 g, ~2.5 W) and low cost (~$10K), the X123-CdTe is an attractive solution for HXR measurements from budget- and resource-limited platforms such as CubeSats. SMASH flew two identical X123-CdTe detectors for redundancy and increased collecting area; the supporting electronics (power, CPU) were largely build-to-print using the Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) CubeSat design.We review the SMASH mission, design, and detector performance during the 12-day Antarctic flight. We present current progress on our data analysis of observed solar flares, and discuss future applications of the space-qualified X123-CdTe detector, including the CubIXSS mission

  8. Hypogenic speleogenesis in quartzite: The case of Corona 'e Sa Craba Cave (SW Sardinia, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Onac, Bogdan P.; Galli, Ermanno; Dublyansky, Yuri; Baldoni, Eleonora; Sanna, Laura

    2014-04-01

    The paper presents a detailed study demonstrating the hypogenic origin of the Corona 'e Sa Craba quartzite cave in SW Sardinia (Italy). Although the quartzite host-rock of this cave derived from silicification of Cambrian dolostones and dissolution of carbonate remnants could have had a role in the speleogenesis, detailed morphologic and petrographic investigation revealed clear evidence of quartz dissolution without signs of mechanical erosion by running waters. Thin section microscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images show pervasive dissolution morphologies, such as pits and notches on quartz crystals causing the deep arenization of the cave walls, suggesting that the dissolution of quartz had a primary role in the formation of the void. The study of secondary cave minerals and the sulfur isotopic composition of sulfates and sulfides, coupled with data on fluid inclusions, allowed reconstruction of the peculiar speleogenetic history of this hypogenic hydrothermal quartzite cave. The cave formed by reduced hydrothermal fluids, probably under basic-neutral pH in phreatic conditions. The presence of abundant cations of Ba2 + in reduced Cl-rich fluids enhanced the quartz dissolution rate, allowing the formation of the voids in deep settings. During the Late Oligocene uplift of the area, the hydrothermal fluids in the cave reached oxygen-rich conditions, thus a minerogenetic phase started with the deposition of barite when the temperature of the fluid was ≤ 50 °C. The presence of cinnabar crusts in the lower part of the cave walls and on the boulders suggests a later volcanic phase with Hg-rich vapors ascending from below. Other minerals such as alunite, basaluminite, gypsum and halloysite (typical of an acid sulfate alteration environment), and phosphates were formed in a final, much more recent stage. The δ34S values of the cave sulfate minerals indicate that S is derived from the remobilization of original Precambrian Pb-Zn Mississippi Valley Type

  9. A millennial-scale record of tidewater glacier advance and retreat, SW Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Danni; Mair, Doug; Rea, Brice; Schofield, Ed; Lea, James; Barr, Iestyn; Kamenos, Nick; Schoenrock, Kate

    2017-04-01

    Tidewater glaciers (TWGs) exert a major control on the short- and long-term mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) and have experienced widespread retreat over the last century. However, in many cases inferences on their dynamics, prior to this, are poorly constrained due to a lack of observations and paucity of mapped or mappable deglacial geomorphology. Especially lacking is evidence associated with TWG advance during the Little Ice Age (LIA, AD c. 1300 to 1850). Such data are crucial for numerical model calibration and validation in order to more confidently forward model ice sheet dynamics and projection future sea-level rise. Therefore, empirical data constraints from the palaeo-record, that span such timescales (decadal to millennial), are essential. Kangiata Nunaata Sermia (KNS) is the most dynamic TWG in SW Greenland, located c. 100 km inland from Nuuk, at the head of Godthabsfjord. KNS has received considerable research attention over the last decade but glacial geomorphological and numerical dating investigations have been limited. However, the adjacent topography and geomorphology presents a unique opportunity to reconstruct the advance and retreat dynamics over the LIA. We present detailed glacial geomorphological mapping for KNS, which followed a morphostratigraphic approach, using a combination of aerial photos, Landsat, a DEM and field mapping. This identified a three landsystems, which are associated with the LIA, pre-LIA and neoglacial. From the mapping inferences on rapid changes in meltwater routing have been inferred. When KNS reached its LIA maximum (c. 1761), the calving front was c. >22 km further along the fjord than present and a number of ice-dammed lakes were formed. We present new 14C dating from peat underlying lake sediments associated with an ice-dammed lake and buried palaeosols resulting from meltwater re-routing over topographic spillways. The ages support an early and rapid LIA advance phase, with advance rates being

  10. Late Pliocene To Pleistocene Tectonic Activity In SW Portugal: The S.Teotónio-Aljezur- Sinceira Fault System And Evidence For Coastal Uplift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, P.; Cabral, J.; Rockwell, T.

    2008-12-01

    Southwestern Portugal is located close to the Eurasia-Nubia plate boundary. East of the Gloria transform fault, this boundary becomes complex, particularly as it approaches the Gorringe Bank, the Horseshoe Plain, and the Gulf of Cadiz, where deformation related to the NW-SE convergence of Iberia and Nubia, at a rate of ~4-5 mm/ year, becomes distributed across a few hundred kilometer-wide zone. This area corresponds to the inferred seismogenic source zone for the 1755 earthquake and tsunami (estimated ≥ Mw 8), and also for the Mw 7.9 1969 event. During the past decade, several off-shore active folds and faults have been recognized in this region however, in spite of increased knowledge, none of the recognized active structures are clearly associated with the 1755 earthquake. Major likely sources are the Marquês de Pombal and Horseshoe faults. The Marquês de Pombal fault is a major NNE-SSW trending thrust located ~100 km SW of Cape S.Vicente that exhibits a ~1 km-high, 60 km-long scarp. Assuming rupture of this entire structure suggests earthquake magnitudes in the Mw 7.8 range. The Horseshoe fault, which is oriented NE- SW along a 175 km-long trend parallel to Säo Vicente canyon, a major morphological feature in the off- shore that has been interpreted as a possible extend for the Alentejo-Plasencia fault. Rupture of this entire fault could yield moment magnitude events up to Mw 8, assuming 10 m of average displacement. Neither of these potential sources can likely produce, by themselves, an earthquake that matches the upper estimates for the 1755 earthquake (Mw 8.7). Along the southwestern Portuguese coast, mainly at the western coastline, cliffs in Palaeozoic schist reach more than 100m in altitude, with evidence of uplift in the form of raised beach deposits, paleo-sea cliffs and multiple eolianite units. Several abrasion platforms with regional expression may have formed during multiple marine occupations. In contrast, the southern coast is underlain

  11. Spectroscopic search for new SW Sextantis stars in the 3-4 hour orbital period range -- I

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    [Abridged] We report on time-resolved optical spectroscopy of ten non-eclipsing nova-like cataclysmic variables in the orbital period range between 3 and 4 hours. Of the ten systems so far observed, HL Aqr, BO Cet, AH Men, V380 Oph, AH Pic, and LN UMa are identified as new members of the SW Sex class. We present improved orbital period measurements for HL Aqr (Porb = 3.254 +- 0.001 h) and V380 Oph (Porb = 3.69857 +- 0.00002 h). BO Cet and V380 Oph exhibit emission-line flaring with periodicit...

  12. CRITERIOS DE MANEJO LOCAL DEL CULTIVO DE CHAYOTE (Sechium edule Jacq. Sw) EN ZONAS RURALES DE CHIAPAS, MÉXICO

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    A partir de un análisis socioantropológico fundamentado en la etnoagronomía y la etnobotánica, se describen los criterios de productores para el manejo del cultivo de chayote (Sechium edule Jacq. Sw) en zonas rurales de los municipios Villa Corzo y Villaflores en el estado de Chiapas, México. A través de entrevistas estructuradas realizadas a 30 productores en cada municipio para recopilar y sistematizar el conocimiento tradicional, se obtuvieron criterios sobre actividades clave para lo...

  13. Determination of c_sw in N_f=3+1 Lattice QCD with massive Wilson fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Fritzsch, Patrick; Stollenwerk, Felix; Wolff, Ulli

    2015-01-01

    We develop a strategy for the non-perturbative determination of the O(a)-improvement coefficient c_sw for Wilson fermions with massive sea quarks. The improvement condition is defined via the PCAC relation in the Schr\\"odinger functional. It is imposed along a line of constant physics designed to be close to the correct mass of the charm quark. The numerical work uses the tree-level improved L\\"uscher-Weisz gauge action in N_f=3+1 Lattice QCD.

  14. Critical applications of SW 846 US EPA methods to evaluation of marine samples quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Ferreira Silvério

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Technical evaluation of analytical data is of extreme relevance considering it can be used for comparisons with environmental quality standards and decision-making as related to the management of disposal of dredged sediments and the evaluation of salt and brackish water quality in accordance with CONAMA 357/05 Resolution. It is, therefore, essential that the project manager discusses the environmental agency's technical requirements with the laboratory contracted for the follow-up of the analysis underway and even with a view to possible re-analysis when anomalous data are identified. The main technical requirements are: (1 method quantitation limits (QLs should fall below environmental standards; (2 analyses should be carried out in laboratories whose analytical scope is accredited by the National Institute of Metrology (INMETRO or qualified or accepted by a licensing agency; (3 chain of custody should be provided in order to ensure sample traceability; (4 control charts should be provided to prove method performance; (5 certified reference material analysis or, if that is not available, matrix spike analysis, should be undertaken and (6 chromatograms should be included in the analytical report. Within this context and with a view to helping environmental managers in analytical report evaluation, this work has as objectives the discussion of the limitations of the application of SW 846 US EPA methods to marine samples, the consequences of having data based on method detection limits (MDL and not sample quantitation limits (SQL, and present possible modifications of the principal method applied by laboratories in order to comply with environmental quality standards.Avaliação técnica do resultado analítico é de extrema relevância, pois o mesmo será utilizado para comparação com legislações e tomadas de decisão, tais como, disposição adequada de sedimento dragado e avaliação da qualidade de água superficial salobra e salina

  15. A One-Year Study of the Diurnal Cycle of Meteorology, Clouds, and Radiation in the West African Sahel Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquardt-Collow, Allison; Ghate, Virendra P.; Miller, Mark A.; Trabachino, Lynne

    2016-01-09

    The diurnal cycles of meteorological and radiation variables are analyzed during the wet and dry seasons over the Sahel region of West Africa during 2006 using surface data collected by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program’s Mobile Facility, satellite radiation measurements from the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) instrument aboard Meteosat 8, and reanalysis products from the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). The meteorological analysis builds upon past studies of the diurnal cycle in the region by incorporating diurnal cycles of lower tropospheric wind profiles, thermodynamic profiles, integrated water vapor and liquid water measurements, and cloud radar measurements of frequency and location. These meteorological measurements are complemented by 3-hour measurements of the diurnal cycles of the TOA and surface shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) radiative fluxes and cloud radiative effects (CREs), and the atmospheric radiative flux divergence (RFD) and atmospheric CREs. Cirrus cloudiness during the dry season is shown to peak in coverage in the afternoon, while convective clouds during the wet season are shown to peak near dawn and have an afternoon minimum related to the rise of the Lifting Condensation Level into the Saharan Air Layer. The LW and SW RFDs and CREs exhibit diurnal cycles during both seasons, but there is a relatively small difference in the LW cycles during the two seasons (10-30 Wm^(-2) depending on the variable and time of day). Small differences in the TOA CREs during the two seasons are overwhelmed by large differences in the surface SW CREs, which exceed 100 Wm^(-2). A significant surface SW CRE during the wet season combined with a negligible TOA SW CRE produces a diurnal cycle in the atmospheric CRE that is modulated primarily by the SW surface CRE, peaks at midday at ~150 Wm^(-2), and varies widely from day to day.

  16. Development and application of corrosion inhibitor SW-638 for oilfield water injection%油田注水缓蚀剂SW-638的研制及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫旭涛; 刘志刚; 贺光武

    2013-01-01

    以长链脂肪酸、多乙烯多胺等为原料,以磷酸酯为季胺化试剂,合成了含膦咪唑啉季胺盐,与缓蚀增效剂H和缓蚀增效剂T复配,研制出油田注水缓蚀剂SW-638,其最优组成为:咪唑啉季胺盐60%、缓蚀增效剂H 10%和缓蚀增效剂T4%;在延长油田一污水处理站进行了应用试验,SW-638投加量为50 mg/L,经过连续30 d的监测,结果试片表面光亮,无点蚀,平均腐蚀速率为0.032 6 mm/a,满足<0.076 mm/a的油田注水要求.

  17. Exosomes derived from SW480 colorectal cancer cells promote cell migration in HepG2 hepatocellular cancer cells via the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Mitsuru; Watanabe, Narumi; Watanabe, Miki; Sakamoto, Maki; Sato, Akika; Fujisaki, Mizuki; Kubota, Shiori; Monzen, Satoru; Maruyama, Atsushi; Nanashima, Naoki; Kashiwakura, Ikuo; Nakamura, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes are membrane-derived extracellular vesicles that have recently been recognized as important mediators of intercellular communication. In the present study, we investigated the effects of exosomes derived from SW480 colorectal cancer cells in recipient HepG2 hepatocellular cancer cells. We demonstrated that SW480-derived exosomes were taken up by the recipient HepG2 cells via dynamin-dependent endocytosis and were localized to the HepG2 lysosomes. In addition, SW480-derived exosomes induced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 following their uptake into HepG2 cells. Of note, these changes occurred during the early phase after exosome treatment. Furthermore, SW480-derived exosomes promoted the migration of recipient HepG2 cells in a wound-healing assay, which was suppressed by pretreatment with U0126, an upstream inhibitor of ERK1/2. These results indicated that SW480-derived exosomes activated a classical mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in recipient HepG2 cells via dynamin-dependent endocytosis and subsequently enhanced cell migration by ERK1/2 activation. Our results provide new insights into the regulation of cellular functions by exosomes.

  18. The Effect of Matrine on the Proliferation and RhoA Expression of Colon Cancer Cell Line SW620%苦参碱对人结肠癌SW620细胞增殖及RhoA基因表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李楠静; 张又

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of matrine on the proliferation and RhoA expression of colon cancer cell line SW620. Methods The SW620 proliferative activity was evaluated by CCK-8 assay;The Cell apotosis rate was analyzed with flow cytometry;The expression of RhoA mRNA was examined by RT-PCR. manner Results Matrine can inhibit the proliferation of SW620 cells in dose and time-dependent manner. With the increasing concentration of matrine, the rate of apotosis increases in flow cytometry;RhoA mRNA expression level gradually lowerd. Conclusion Matrine can inhibit the proliferation of SW620 cells, the mechanism may relate to induced apotosis and down to RhoA mRNA expression level.%目的:研究苦参碱对人结肠癌SW620细胞增殖及RhoA基因表达的影响。方法利用Cell Counting Kit-8检测不同浓度苦参碱对人结肠癌SW620细胞的增殖抑制作用,利用流式细胞仪检测细胞的凋亡率,RT-PCR检测SW620细胞内RhoA mRNA表达的水平。结果苦参碱能明显抑制SW620细胞的增殖,呈现剂量和时间依赖性关系,随着浓度增加能使SW620细胞的凋亡率增加,并且使SW620细胞内RhoA mRNA表达下降。结论苦参碱能显著抑制人结肠癌SW620细胞的增殖,其作用机制可能与诱导细胞凋亡、下调RhoA mRNA的表达有关。

  19. BMP-2联合温热化疗对SW480中GDF15和TFF3表达的影响%Effect of bone morphogenetic protein-2 combined with hyperthermic chemotherapy on GDF15 and TFF3 expression in SW480

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕德利; 王亚旭; 舒宁波; 谢凯

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨骨形态发生蛋白-2(Bone morphogenetic protein-2,BMP-2)联合温热化疗对SW480中GDF15和TFF3表达的影响.方法:BMP-2作用于大肠癌SW480细胞系,置于43℃温热化疗30 min,培养6h.(1)流式细胞法检测SW480细胞的凋亡;(2) Western blot法检测GDF15和TFF3蛋白表达情况;(3) RT-PCR半定量检测GDF15和TFF3的mRNA表达.结果:BMP-2联合43℃温热化疗后SW480细胞凋亡增加,GDF15和TFF3蛋白表达水平下降,GDF15和TFF3的mRNA表达亦下调.结论:BMP-2联合温热化疗通过抑制大肠癌SW480的GDF15和TFF3蛋白及其相关基因表达,增强抑制SW480的增殖及转移复发的作用;温热疗法联合化疗对GDF15和TFF3表达抑制有协同作用.%Objective: To explore the effect of bone morphogenetic protein-2(BMP-2) combined with hyperthermic chemotherapy on GDF15 and TFF3 expression in SW480. Methods:BMP-2 was acted on SW480 colorectal cancer cell lines,placed in 43 t hyperthermic chemotherapy for 30 min and cultured for 6 h. (1 )Apoptosis of SW480 cells was detected by flow cytometry assay; (2)GDF15 and TFF3 protein expressions were detected by Western blot; (3)GDF15 and TFF3 mRNA expressions were detected by RT-PCR. Results: SW480 cells apoptosis was increased, GDF15 and TFF3 protein levels were decreased after BMP-2 combined with 43 t hyperthermic chemotherapy. GDF 15 and TFF3 mRNA expressions were also reduced. Conclusions: BMP-2 combined hyperthermic chemotherapy can inhibit proliferation and metastasis of SW480 by inhibiting GDF15 and TFF3 protein and mRNA expressions. Hyperthermia combined with chemotherapy has synergistic effect on the inhibition of GDF15 and TFF3 expression.

  20. Designing regional pattern for ecosystem restoration: A case study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guoqiang; MA Keming; FU Bojie; LIU Shiling

    2006-01-01

    Designing regional pattern is challenging for ecosystem restoration both in theory and in practice. The present study proposed a new approach to design regional pattern for ecosystem restoration with a case in the arid valley of Upper Minjiang River, SW China. The procedures are: (1) Determine the regional pattern of main environmental factors based on the relationships between the important environmental factors and the main geographical factors generated from DEM data. (2) Overlay the maps of the main environmental factors. (3) Generate a lookup table according to the species selection rule we proposed to link the candidate restoration species to the main environmental factors.(4) Determine the regional pattern of ecosystem restoration by positioning the restoration species in the map of environmental factors according to the lookup table. The regional restoration pattern designed in this way would be applicable not only to restoring a region, but also to predicting the future landscape change.

  1. Molecular and Cytogenetics Identification of Alien Chromation in Dwarf,Large Spike and High Yielding Potential Wheat Breeding Parent SW3243%小麦育种亲本SW3243中1BL/1RS易位的细胞学和分子标记检测及来源分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨恩年; 唐宗祥; 李俊; 杨武云; 邹裕春

    2010-01-01

    为了深入了解小麦育种亲本SW3243的遗传基础,利用多重PCR引物对SW3243及其他47个材料进行1BL/1RS易位系检测,同时对SW3243进行Giemsa-C带分析,并利用5对定位于黑麦染色体1RS上的特异PCR引物对1BL/1RS易位系进行了多样性分析.多重PCR分析结果表明,包括SW3243在内共23个材料含有1BL/1RS易位.细胞学研究结果证实,SW3243含有1对1BL/1RS易位染色体;筛选到定位于黑麦1RS上的3对SSR引物(Xmwg913、Xmwg2062a、SCM9)可用于区别不同的1BL/1RS易位染色体;用筛选到的3对特异PCR引物对SW3243及其他22个1BL/1RS品种(系)进行分析,结果表明SW3243所含1BL/1RS易位染色体与SW22514、西科麦2号、山前麦、川麦32、川麦35的1 BL/1RS易位染色体不同.

  2. Linking phytoplankton nitrogen uptake, macronutrients and chlorophyll- a in SW Atlantic waters: The case of the Gulf of San Jorge, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparazzo, Flavio E.; Williams, Gabriela N.; Pisoni, Juan P.; Solís, Miriam; Esteves, José L.; Varela, Diana E.

    2017-08-01

    We compared biological and chemical parameters in surface waters of the Gulf of San Jorge to better understand carbon export and the factors that control phytoplankton production in an area of the Argentinian Continental Shelf, a vastly under sampled region of the SW Atlantic Ocean. In April of 2012, we estimated new and regenerated primary production in the Gulf by measuring nitrate and ammonium uptake, respectively. We also measured macronutrient, and in situ chlorophyll-a concentrations, which were compared to chlorophyll-a estimates from remote sensing. Although the Gulf of San Jorge presents high levels of chlorophyll-a and primary production, the relationship between these parameters is not straightforward. Previous studies showed that surface chlorophyll-a explains only part of the variance in euphotic-zone integrated primary production, and that satellite-derived chlorophyll-a underestimates in situ primary production. Our results showed large spatial variability in the Gulf, with transitional physico-chemical conditions, such as fronts, that could favor an increase in biological production. In situ chlorophyll-a concentrations were highest at the mid-shelf station (6.0 mg m- 3) and lowest at the northernmost location by an order of magnitude. Remote sensing measurements of chlorophyll-a underestimated our in situ chlorophyll-a concentrations. Total nitrogen (nitrate + ammonium) uptake showed relatively similar rates throughout the study area (≈ 130 nM-N d- 1), except in the northernmost station where it was much lower (53 nM-N d- 1). This north region had a distinct water mass and maximal levels of macronutrients (nitrate ≈ 6 μM, ammonium ≈ 1.2 μM, phosphate ≈ 1.2 μM and silicic acid ≈ 4 μM). For the entire sampling region, chlorophyll-a concentrations strongly correlated with total nitrogen uptake (r = 0.76, n = 8, p < 0.05) and new primary production (r = 0.78, n = 8, p < 0.05). Values of the f-ratio were 0.9 in mid-shelf, and ranged

  3. Petrography and geochronology (U/Pb-Sm/Nd) the Passagem Granite, Pensamiento Granitoid Complex, Paragua Terrane, SW Amazon Craton, Mato Grosso, Brazil; Petrologia e geocronologia (U/Pb-Sm/Nd) do Granito Passagem, Complexo Granitoide Pensamiento, SW do Craton Amazonico (MT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Gisely Carmo de, E-mail: giselycarmo@hotmail.co [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (ICET/UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Geociencias; Sousa, Maria Zelia Aguiar de, E-mail: mzaguiar@terra.com.b [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso(ICET/UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra. Dept. de Recursos Minerais; Ruiz, Amarildo Salina; Matos, Joao Batista de, E-mail: asruiz@gmail.co, E-mail: jmatos@cpd.ufmt.b [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (ICET/UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra. Dept. de Geologia Geral

    2010-09-15

    The Passagem granite includes stocks, plugs and dikes located in the Ricardo Franco hill - Vila Bela da Santissima Trindade region - state of Mato Grosso, central Brazil. The Passagem Granite is included in the Paragua terrane - SW Amazonian Craton. It consists of isotropic monzogranite, sienogranite and more rarely granodiorites with leucocratic dark gray to white color. These rocks range from hypidomorphic inequigranular to xenomorphic texture, fine to medium grained. Biotite is the only primary mafic present as essential phase and characterize an expanded slightly acid sequence formed by a sub-alkaline magmatism of high-potassium calc-alkaline, slightly peraluminous composition from arc magmatic tectonic environment during a post-collisional period. Mechanism of fractional crystallization of plagioclase, biotite, titanite, apatite and zircon associated with simultaneous crustal assimilation are suggested for the evolution of these rocks. The results support the hypothesis of a post-collisional magmatism in the Paragua terrane at 1284 +- 20 Ma corresponding to the crystallization age of the Passagem granite. This paper propose that Passagem Granite represents as an extension in Brazilian terrane of the Pensamiento Granitoid Complex. (author)

  4. The 1590-1520 Ma Cachoeirinha magmatic arc and its tectonic implications for the Mesoproterozoic SW Amazonian craton crustal evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz Amarildo S.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Isotopic and chemical data of rocks from the Cachoeirinha suite provide new insights on the Proterozoic evolution of the Rio Negro/Juruena Province in SW Amazonian craton. Six U-Pb and Sm-Nd analyses in granitoid rocks of the Cachoeirinha suite yielded ages of 1587-1522 Ma and T DM model ages of 1.88-1.75 Ga (EpsilonNd values of -0.8 to +1.0. In addition, three post-tectonic plutonic rocks yielded U-Pb ages from 1485-1389 Ma (T DM of 1.77-1.74 Ga and EpsilonNd values from -1.3 to +1.7. Variations in major and trace elements of the Cachoeirinha suite rocks indicate fractional crystallization process and magmatic arc geologic setting. These results suggest the following interpretations: (1 The interval of 1590-1520 Ma represents an important magmatic activity in SW Amazonian craton. (2 T DM and arc-related chemical affinity supportthe hypothesis that the rocks are genetically associated with an east-dipping subduction zone under the older (1.79-1.74 Ga continental margin. (3 The 1590-1520 Ma age of intrusive rocks adjacent to an older crust represents similar geological framework along the southern margin of Baltica, corroborating the hypothesis of tectonic relationship at that time.

  5. TECTONO-SEDIMENTARY EVOLUTION OF THE EOCENE TRANSGRESSIVE DEPOSITS IN THE ACIGÖL, BURDUR AND ISPARTA AREAS (SW TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EZHER TOKER

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Eocene transgressive deposits of the Acıgöl, Burdur and Isparta basins are the best exposed of the SW Turkey and shed light on one of the outstanding problems of the tectono-sedimentary evolution during paleotectonic and neotectonic period. In the present paper we describe a tectonic model of the progressive foreland migration of the allochthonous units such as Lycian and Antalya nappes, initialemplacement onto stable carbonate platform in the Early Oligocene, carrying piggy-back basins and incorporating from alluvial fan to deep-marine deposits recognized in these terrigenous successions.In general, the facies and structural observations on the overall Mid-Late Eocene clastic sequences, outcropping in behind the Lycian nappes, indicate: i the alluvial fan to shallow marine settings of the Başçeşme Fm in Acıgöl, ii the Varsakyayla Fm in Burdur and iii proximal to distal flysch facies trend of the Kayıköy Fm in Isparta. The collected data allow us to hypothesize that the Mid-Late Eocene tectono-sedimentary history was characterized by a terrigenous clastics, probably lying on the constructing tectonic edifice and then deformed and covered by a piggy-back like sequence. Thetectono-sedimentary evolution of the Eocene transgressive in SW Turkey has been probably developed through a progressive migration towards the foreland basin.

  6. Determination of c{sub sw} in N{sub f}=3+1 lattice QCD with massive Wilson fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stollenwerk, Felix

    2017-02-07

    In order to obtain sensible results from Lattice QCD that may be compared with experiment, extrapolation to the continuum is crucial. The well-established Symanzik improvement program systematically reduces the order of cutoff effects, allowing for better control of the aforementioned errors, as well as larger and thus more affordable lattice spacings. Applied to the Wilson fermion action, it entails the addition of the Sheikholeslami-Wohlert term with the O(a) improvement coefficient c{sub sw}. In this work, a strategy is developed for the non-perturbative determination of c{sub sw} in the theory with N{sub f}=3+1 massive sea quarks. It is embedded in a general, mass-dependent renormalization and improvement scheme, for which we lay the foundations. The improvement condition, formulated by means of the PCAC relation in the Schroedinger Functional, is imposed along a line of constant physics that is designed to be close to the physical mass of the charm quark. The aim of this rather elaborate approach is to avoid large, mass-dependent O(a{sup 2}) effects in future large volume simulations with four dynamical quark species. The numerical results are worked out using the tree-level improved Luescher-Weisz gauge action. Since the gradient flow coupling is employed in the definition of the line of constant physics, its interdependence with the topological charge in regard to critical slowing down and topology freezing is investigated in a supplemental study.

  7. Late Carboniferous tectonic subsidence in South Wales: implications for Variscan basin evolution and tectonic history in SW Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, P.M.; Gayer, R.A. [University of Cardiff, Cardiff (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    2000-01-01

    Detailed stratigraphic data were used to backstrip seven sections from the Carboniferous South Wales coal basin. Resulting tectonic subsidence curves for the interval 319-305 Ma (Namurian-Westphalian D) are convex-up, indicating increasing subsidence rate with time, with rates between 130 and 250 m Ma{sup -1} suggesting a foreland basin setting. Forward modelling of subsidence due to flexural loading in front of a propagating orogenic wedge shows that an orogenic load migrating in a north-northeasterly direction across SW England between 319 and 305 Ma could have generated the backstripped subsidence patterns. Sensitivity tests show that while many of the forward model parameters are poorly constrained, and the model results non-unique, backstripped subsidence patterns allow reasonable constraint on the different model cases, so that model predictions can be treated as one possibility in a limited range. The predicted load evolution is consistent with current knowledge of tectonic and stratigraphic features of SW England. These results suggest that subsidence in other Late Carboniferous UK basins may also have been influenced by flexure due to a propagating orogenic load.

  8. Early-Cretaceous highly fractionated I-type granites from the northern Tengchong block, western Yunnan, SW China: Petrogenesis and tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ren-Zhi; Lai, Shao-Cong; Qin, Jiang-Feng; Zhao, Shao-Wei

    2015-03-01

    .699-39.007, respectively, signify that some subduction-related material such as ocean island volcanic rocks and mature arc primitive rocks may be involved as sources. Based on an analysis of similar zircon saturated temperature and geochemical characteristics of typical highly fractionated I-type granites in SE and SW China, and consideration of the regional geological setting, we suggest that the parent magma may be derived from the ancient middle to lower continental crust and mantle-derived basaltic magma. These were generated in the setting of a westward subducted Lushui-Luxi-Ruili (LLR) Tethyan oceanic slab, where mantle-wedge-derived sources provided enough heat and material to melt the middle to lower ancient crust. Taking into account the temporal-spatial distributions of Early Cretaceous magmatic rocks in the region, we further suggest the existence of an Andean-type active continental margin from the Lhasa block to the Tengchong block along the Bangong-Nujiang-LLR Tethys Ocean during the Early Cretaceous.

  9. Seismic structure of the main geological provinces off the SW Iberian margin: first results from the NEAREST-SEIS wide-angle seismic survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallarès, Valentí; Martínez-Loriente, Sara; Gailler, Audrey; Bartolomé, Rafael; Gutscher, Marc-André; Graindorge, David; Lia Grácia, Eulà; Díaz, Jordi

    2010-05-01

    The region offshore the SW Iberian margin hosts the present-day NW-SE plate convergence between the European and African Plates at a rate of 4.5 mm/yr, fact that causes continuous seismic activity of moderate magnitude. In autumn 2008 a Spanish-French team carried out a refraction and wide-angle reflection seismic survey in the area (NEAREST-SEIS cruise), in the framework of the EU, FP6-funded NEAREST project. During the survey two long seismic profiles were acquired using a pool of 36 Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS), with the objectives of providing information about the geometry of the crust-mantle boundary and the physical properties of the crust, revealing the deep geometry of the main fault interfaces, and identifying the nature of the basement and the limits of the different geological provinces in the region. A total of 30 OBS were deployed along profile P1, which is 356 km long and trends NW-SE from the Tagus abyssal plain (TAP), crossing the Gorringe bank (GB), the Horseshoe abyssal plain (HAP) and the Coral Patch Ridge (CPR), up to the thrust-and-fold belt of the Seine abyssal plain (SAP). The acquired data were modeled by joint refraction and reflection travel time inversion, following a layer-stripping strategy. The inverted model show four well-differentiated domains in terms of its seismic structure: In the TAP a 3-4 km-thick, low velocity sedimentary layer covers the basement, which shows a remarkably high velocity (>7 km/s), similar to that of the basement outcropping in the Gorringe bank. In the HAP the sedimentary cover is thicker, showing an upper unit with low velocity corresponding to the Horseshoe gravitational unit, on top of a higher velocity lower unit, which may represent the highly consolidated Mesozoic sedimentary sequence. The thickness of the two units together exceeds 5 km. The basement shows the same velocity distribution as in TAP and GB, suggesting a common nature and origin. According to its seismic structure, and considering that

  10. Tamarugite in the Steam-Condensate Alteration Paragenesis in Diana Cave (SW Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puscas, C. M.; Onac, B. P.; Effenberger, H. S.; Povară, I.

    2012-12-01

    The double-salt hydrate tamarugite [NaAl(SO4)2 6H2O] is an uncommon mineral in the cave environment, forming as a result of chemical reactions between water and bedrock only under very specific conditions. The Diana Cave hosts a unique tamarugite occurrence, the first one to be reported from a typical karst environment. The cave is located within the limits of Băile Herculane township in the Cerna Mountains, SW Romania. It consists of a 14 m long, westward-oriented single passage, developed along the Diana Fault. In 1974 a concrete-clad mine gallery was created to channel the thermal water (Diana 1+2 Spring) flowing through the cave to a pumping station. The spring's chemical and physical parameters fluctuated through time, averaging 51.98° C, discharge of 0.96 Ls-1, pH of 7.46, 5768.66 ppm TDS, 9303 μScm-1 conductivity, 5.02 salinity. The major chemical components of the thermo-mineral water in Diana Cave are, Na+ (1392.57 ppm), K+ (58.55 ppm), Ca2+ (725.16 ppm), Mg2+ (10.78 ppm), Cl- (3376.83 ppm), and SO42- (92.27 ppm), and H2S (24.05 ppm), with traces of Si, Fe2+, Br+, I-, and Li+. The general air circulation pattern within the cave is fairly simple: cold air from the outside sweeps into the cave along the floor, heats up at the contact with the thermo-mineral water, ascends, and exists the cave along the ceiling. At the contact with the cold walls of the Diana Cave, the hot steam condenses and gives rise to a rich and exotic sulfate-mineral paragenesis (including halotrichite-series minerals, gypsum, bassanite, anhydrite, epsomite, alunite, halite, native sulfur, etc.). The most exotic minerals precipitate at or below the contact between the Tithonic - Neocomian limestone and the overlaying Cretaceous shaly limestone, as a result of steam-condensate alteration. Minerogenetic mechanisms responsible for the peculiar sulfate mineral assemblage in Diana Cave are evaporation, oxidation, hydrolysis, double exchange reactions, and deposition from vapours or

  11. Structural and Petrophysical Characterization of Fault Zones in Shales: Example from the Tournemire Url (sw, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DICK, P.; Du Peloux de Saint Romain, A.; Moreno, E.; Homberg, C.; Renel, F.; Dauzères, A.; Wittebroodt, C.; Matray, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Tournemire Underground Research Laboratory (URL) operated by IRSN (French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety) is located on the western border of the Mesozoic sedimentary Causses Basin (SW France). The URL crosses a thick Toarcian shale formation (≈250 m) and is interbedded between two aquiferous limestone formations. In addition to the 250 m thick overlying limestones, the geotechnical and hydrogeological characteristics of this site exhibit similarities with those measured by the French National Agency for Radioactive Waste Management (Andra) in the Callovo-Oxfordian formation of Bure (Meuse/Haute Marne, France). The Tournemire site is marked by numerous minor shear bands that affect not only the shale formation but also the over- and underlying limestone units. Since analogous discontinuities in an underground deep geological repository could act as a preferential pathway for radionuclide migration, the Tournemire site appears as an ideal location to understand the internal and permeability structures of such clay-based faults. In this study, we investigate the structural and petrophysical variations observed in a 10-15 m thick, subvertical, strike-slip shear band. For this, eight fully cored and logged horizontal boreholes were drilled normal to the fault's direction. The internal architecture and permeability of the fault was revealed through a combination of different tools (AMS, SEM, XRD and helium pycnometer) used on samples, as well as optical, induction and neutron porosity logging used in boreholes. The analysis of core samples from the different boreholes indicates that the studied fault zone is divided into a fault core (gouge), surrounded by a damaged zone (e.g., kinematically related fracture sets, small faults, and veins). Porosity and hydraulic conductivity values are low in the undisturbed shale (respectively, 9% and 10-14 m.s-1) and increase progressively towards the fault core (respectively, 15-20% and 5.10-12 m.s-1

  12. Seismic tomography and ambient noise reflection interferometry on Reykjanes, SW Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jousset, Philippe; Verdel, Arie; Ágústsson, Kristján; Blanck, Hanna; Franke, Steven; Metz, Malte; Ryberg, Trond; Weemstra, Cornelius; Hersir, Gylfi; Bruhn, David

    2016-04-01

    Recent advances in volcano-seismology and seismic noise interferometry have introduced new processing techniques for assessing subsurface structures and controls on fluid flow in geothermal systems. We present tomographic results obtained from seismic data recorded around geothermal reservoirs located both on-land Reykjanes, SW-Iceland and offshore along Reykjanes Ridge. We gathered records from a network of 234 seismic stations (including 24 Ocean Bottom Seismometers) deployed between April 2014 and August 2015. In order to determine the orientation of the OBS stations, we used Rayleigh waves planar particle motions from large magnitude earthquakes. This method proved suitable using the on-land stations: orientations determined using this method with the orientations measured using a giro-compass agreed. We obtain 3D velocity images from two fundamentally different tomography methods. First, we used local earthquakes to perform travel time tomography. The processing includes first arrival picking of P- and S- phases using an automatic detection and picking technique based on Akaike Information Criteria. We locate earthquakes by using a non-linear localization technique, as a priori information for deriving a 1D velocity model. We then computed 3D velocity models of velocities by joint inversion of each earthquake's location and lateral velocity anomalies with respect to the 1D model. Our models confirms previous models obtained in the area, with enhanced details. Second, we performed ambient noise cross-correlation techniques in order to derive an S velocity model, especially where earthquakes did not occur. Cross-correlation techniques involve the computation of cross- correlation between seismic records, from which Green's functions are estimated. Surface wave inversion of the Green's functions allows derivation of an S wave velocity model. Noise correlation theory furthermore shows that zero-offset P-wave reflectivity at selected station locations can be

  13. Tectonic geomorphology of a large normal fault: Akşehir fault, SW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topal, Savaş; Keller, Edward; Bufe, Aaron; Koçyiğit, Ali

    2016-04-01

    In order to better understand the activity of the Akşehir normal fault in SW Turkey and the associated seismic hazard, we investigated the tectonic geomorphology of a 60-km stretch of the 100-km-long Akşehir fault block. The fault can be separated into seven geomorphic segments (1 to 7 from NW to SE) along the mountain front. Segment length varies from about 9 to 14 km, and relief of the horst block varies from about 0.6 km in the SE to 1.0 km in the NW. Analysis of the tectonic geomorphology of 32 drainage basins and mountain front facets using a combination of geomorphic indices reveals a general pattern of high slip rates in the northern and central segments and low slip rates in the southern, probably older, segments. We show that mountain front sinuosity varies from about 1.1 to 1.4 on segments S1-S6 to 2.4 on segment S7, suggesting that the six northern segments are more active than the southernmost segment. Similarly, χ analysis and slope-area analysis of streams reveal a pattern of steepest channels draining the central and northern segments of the horst. The ratio of valley floor width to valley height varies from 0.2 to 0.6, which are typical values for tectonically active mountain fronts; and alluvial fans along segments S1, S2, and S4 are back-tilted. Finally, we show that (1) shapes of the ~ 100-900m high mountain front facets are mostly triangular (~ 80%) and partly trapezoidal (~ 20%); (2) facet slopes range from 6 to 22°; (3) facets at the NW and SE segment ends are larger than the intervening facets; and (4) steepest facets occur along the central segments. Uplift rates estimated from the slope of mountain front facets range from about 0.06 m/ky on the southernmost fault segment (S7) to 0.23 m/ky on the more central S5 and 0.16 m/ky on the northern segment (S1). The estimated pattern of uplift is consistent with the pattern of geomorphic indices. The vertical relief of the facets suggests that uplift of the mountain front initiated in the late

  14. Dynamic uplift and erosion history of the Colorado Plateau: New insights from a SW-NE thermochronologic transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, X.; Reiners, P.; Whipple, K. X.; Moucha, R.; Forte, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Colorado Plateau (CP), Paleozoic and Mesozoic sediments overlapped by Jurassic to Upper Cretaceous marine sediments is uplifted nowadays at ~1.9 km mean elevation with extremely limited crustal shortening. Deep buoyancy-driven dynamics are sometimes proposed to explain part of this uplift, but the lack of critical data and the inherently non-observable convective mantle contribute to a lack of consensus on the forces that are responsible for such features. Given recent advances in the dynamic interpretations of tomographic density variations in the mantle, [Moucha et al., 2009] simulate realistic 3D mantle convection in response to the observed mantle heterogeneity, and predict back- and forward in time the evolution of mantle flow, and thus mantle-driven dynamic surface uplift and/or subsidence. This 30 Ma retrodictions of mantle convection model carries intriguing implications for the post-Laramide evolution of the Grand Canyon (GC), the Colorado River (CR) and Lake Bidahochi that may help reconcile numerous geologic, geomorphic, and low-temperature thermochronologic data. Our analysis of the CR profile inferred from the dynamic uplift retrodictions suggests 3 major events in the post-Laramide evolution of the CP. (1) 30 to 15 Ma: Regular and homogeneous uplift (300 to 400 m) throughout the whole plateau with potential incision of the western GC with Grand Wash Cliffs tectonic relief development ~18 Ma. (2) ~15 to ~8 Ma: further uplift concentrated in the SW CP, tilting the plateau back to the E and possibly ponding the upper CR, plausibly explaining the formation of Lake Bidahochi (~190 m of observed lake sediments) and sustaining the incision of western GC. (3) ~8 to 0 Ma: NE migration of the wave of uplift, tilting the southwestern CP back to the W. It coincides with (and may have triggered) hypothesized Lake Bidahochi spillover that may have caused the dramatic post-6Ma incision of the GC. We also obtained single-grains apatite (U

  15. 简谈SW2-1101少油断路器调试的"一原九步法"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董俊

    2003-01-01

    @@ SW2-1101少油断路器在新安装投运前或大修后,均须对其进行调试.本人在长期工作中,针对SW2-1101少油断路器(配CY5液压机构)的调试,总结出一套原则、步骤和方法,即标题所提的"一原九步法"."一原"指在调试工作中应遵循"先本体,后机构,先下面,后上面"工作原则."九步法"即按此工作原则,对SW2-1101少油断路器进行调试的九个步骤和方法.

  16. Feasibility study (I stage) of CO{sub 2} geological storage by ECBM techniques in the Sulcis coal province (SW Sardinia, Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedora Quattrocchi; Roberto Bencini; Carlo Amorino (and others) [Istituto Nazionale Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Rome (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    An ECBM feasibility study started for the Sulcis Coal Province (SW Sardinia, Italy): available geochemical, structural-geology, stratigraphic and reservoir engineering considerations as well as the newly gathered experimental data are discussed, including fluid geochemistry (major and minor elements, dissolved gases, C and He isotopic ratios) of different strata/reservoir, coal composition and experimental data on CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} adsorption on coal. A MapInfo GIS structure was built up including stratigraphic, geo-structural, hydro-geochemical, coal-compositional and environmental-impact information as well as the CO{sub 2} sources location and typology. Though preliminary, these data highlight both the positive and negative features of the Sulcis Coal Province with respect to the exploitation of the ECBM technique. CO{sub 2} geological storage and CH{sub 4} production potentials in Sulcis have been roughly evaluated as a whole, in the frame of the Sardinia region CO{sub 2} sources, including the coal-fired power plants, both existent and foreseen (hundreds of millions of tonnes of CO{sub 2} are possible to be stored underground in the next decades). The most important objective of this phase I of the project is the selection of the best Sulcis ECBM test-pilot site, which will be followed by the choice of a site for scale up (Phase II-2007) and possibly by future full scale implementation within a network type of project (Phase III-2008). 9 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Deglacial changes of the southern margin of the southern westerly winds revealed by terrestrial records from SW Patagonia (52°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, P. I.; Villa-Martínez, R.; Cárdenas, M. L.; Sagredo, E. A.

    2012-05-01

    Much of the ongoing discussion regarding synchrony or bipolar asynchrony of paleoclimate events has centered on the timing and structure of the last glacial termination in the southern mid- latitudes, in particular the southwestern Patagonian region (50°-55°S). Its location adjacent to the Drake Passage and near the southern margin of the southern westerly winds (SWW) allows examining the postulated links between the Southern Ocean-SWW coupled system and atmospheric CO2 variations through the last glacial termination. Results from two sites located in the Última Esperanza area (52°S) allow us to infer SWW-driven changes in hydrologic balance during this critical time interval. These findings indicate peatland development under temperate/wet conditions between 14,600 and 14,900 cal yr BP, followed by cooling and a lake transgressive phase that led to a shallow lake during the early part of the Antarctic Cold Reversal (ACR, 13,600-14,600 cal yr BP), followed in turn by a deeper lake and modest warming during Younger Dryas time (YD, ˜11,800-13,000 cal yr BP), superseded by terrestrialization and forest expansion at the beginning of the Holocene. We propose that the SWW (i) strengthened and shifted northward during ACR time causing a precipitation rise in northwestern and southwestern Patagonia coeval with mid- and high-latitude cooling and a halt in the deglacial atmospheric CO2 rise; (ii) shifted southward during YD time causing a precipitation decline/increase in NW/SW Patagonia, respectively, high-latitude warming, and invigorated CO2 release from the Southern Ocean; (iii) became weaker between ˜10,000 and 11,500 cal yr BP causing a precipitation decline throughout Patagonia, concurrent with peak mid- and high-latitude temperatures and atmospheric CO2 concentrations.

  18. Fine-scale thermohaline ocean structure retrieved with 2-D prestack full-waveform inversion of multichannel seismic data: Application to the Gulf of Cadiz (SW Iberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnino, D.; Sallarès, V.; Biescas, B.; Ranero, C. R.

    2016-08-01

    This work demonstrates the feasibility of 2-D time-domain, adjoint-state acoustic full-waveform inversion (FWI) to retrieve high-resolution models of ocean physical parameters such as sound speed, temperature and salinity. The proposed method is first described and then applied to prestack multichannel seismic (MCS) data acquired in the Gulf of Cadiz (SW Iberia) in 2007 in the framework of the Geophysical Oceanography project. The inversion strategy flow includes specifically designed data preconditioning for acoustic noise reduction, followed by the inversion of sound speed in the shotgather domain. We show that the final sound speed model has a horizontal resolution of ˜ 70 m, which is two orders of magnitude better than that of the initial model constructed with coincident eXpendable Bathy Thermograph (XBT) data, and close to the theoretical resolution of O(λ). Temperature (T) and salinity (S) are retrieved with the same lateral resolution as sound speed by combining the inverted sound speed model with the thermodynamic equation of seawater and a local, depth-dependent T-S relation derived from regional conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) measurements of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) database. The comparison of the inverted T and S models with XBT and CTD casts deployed simultaneously to the MCS acquisition shows that the thermohaline contrasts are resolved with an accuracy of 0.18oC for temperature and 0.08 PSU for salinity. The combination of oceanographic and MCS data into a common, pseudo-automatic inversion scheme allows to quantitatively resolve submeso-scale features that ought to be incorporated into larger-scale ocean models of oceans structure and circulation.

  19. Effectiveness of apparent electrical conductivity surveys at varying soil water contents for assessing soil and water dynamics across a rainfed mountain olive orchard in SW Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aura, Pedrera,; De Vijver, Ellen, Van; Karl, Vanderlinden,; Sergio, Martos-Rosillo; Meirvenne, Marc, Van; Espejo-Pérez, Antonio, J.; Encarnación V., Taguas,; Giráldez, Juan, V.

    2013-04-01

    Knowledge and understanding of the spatio-temporal variability of soil physical and chemical properties at the field or micro-catchment scale are of prime importance for many agricultural and environmental applications that aim at soil, water and carbon conservation. Geophysical methods, such as electromagnetic induction (EMI), are nowadays a key tool to monitor these properties across relevant scales, as a result of their non-destructive nature and their capability to survey repeatedly large areas within a small time window. Geophysical instrument response depends on the electromagnetic properties of the subsoil and for EMI in particular moist soil conditions are generally considered as most suitable for data acquisition. In water-limited environments, such as those under Mediterranean climate, these conditions are not met during large periods of the year, apparently hampering the usefulness of the method in these regions. The aim of this study is to obtain a better understanding of the sensor response and the contribution of soil properties to the geophysical signals under varying water contents. An experimental micro-catchment in SW Spain under rainfed olive cultivation was surveyed for apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) on 11 moments in time using a Dualem-21S. In addition, ECa and soil water content (SWC) was measured at 48 locations throughout the catchment on each survey date. At each of these locations, soil profile samples were analyzed for texture, soil organic matter content (SOM), soil depth, gravel content, and bulk density. Overall, correlations between the different soil properties and ECa improved with increasing SWC, although the ECa patterns remained constant in time. Time-lapse imaging offers the most promising results under the conditions of this study, but still requires at least one survey under wet soil conditions. Despite the smaller correlations between ECa and soil properties under dry conditions, ECa patterns are still relevant for

  20. Major element compositions of fluid inclusions from hydrothermal vein-type deposits record eroded sedimentary units in the Schwarzwald district, SW Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Benjamin F.; Burisch, Mathias; Marks, Michael A. W.; Markl, Gregor

    2017-02-01

    Mixing of sedimentary formation fluids with basement-derived brines is an important mechanism for the formation of hydrothermal veins. We focus on the sources of the sediment-derived fluid component in ore-forming processes and present a comprehensive fluid inclusion study on 84 Jurassic hydrothermal veins from the Schwarzwald mining district (SW Germany). Our data derive from about 2300 fluid inclusions and reveal differences in the average fluid composition between the northern, central, and southern Schwarzwald. Fluids from the northern and southern Schwarzwald are characterised by high salinities (18-26 wt% NaCl+CaCl2), low Ca/(Ca+Na) mole ratios (0.1-0.4), and variable Cl/Br mass ratios (30-1140). In contrast, fluids from the central Schwarzwald show even higher salinities (23-27 wt% NaCl+CaCl2), higher Ca/(Ca+Na) mole ratios (0.2-0.9), and less variable Cl/Br mass ratios (40-130). These fluid compositions correlate with the nature and thickness of the now eroded sedimentary cover rocks. Compared to the northern and the southern Schwarzwald, where halite precipitation occurred during the Middle Triassic, the sedimentary basin in the central Schwarzwald was relatively shallow at this time and no halite was precipitated. Accordingly, Cl/Br ratios of fluids from the central Schwarzwald provide no evidence for the reaction of a sedimentary brine with halite, whereas those from the northern and southern Schwarzwald do. Instead, elevated Ca/(Ca+Na), high SO4 contents, and relatively low Cl/Br imply the presence of a gypsum dissolution brine during vein formation in the central Schwarzwald which agrees with the reconstructed regional Triassic geology. Hence, the information archived in fluid inclusions from hydrothermal veins in the crystalline basement has the potential for reconstructing sedimentary rocks in the former overburden.

  1. Analogue modeling of the role of multi-level decollement layers on the geometry of orogenic wedge: an application to the Zagros Fold-Thrust Belt, SW Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanadian, Mostafa; Faghih, Ali; Grasemann, Bernhard; Fard, Iraj Abdollahie; Maleki, Mehrdad

    2017-03-01

    The presence of evaporate and incompetent formations (i.e., decollement horizons) within the sedimentary sequence of fold-thrust belts can control their structural style and deformation evolution. In the present study, the influence of the decollement layers (e.g., basal and internal decollement layers) on the deformation style of several segments of the Zagros Fold-Thrust Belt (ZFTB), SW Iran (e.g., Fars Arc, Dezful Embayment, and Izeh Zone) was investigated using a series of analogue models of accretionary wedges. The study of seismic profiles to understand the structural evolution of these segments of the belt, where several decollement intervals acted as basal and internal decollements, is complemented by the analogue model results. The experimental results reveal that the thickness of the internal decollement layers influences the creation of fold-dominated or thrust-dominated deformations, respectively. Experimental models and seismic data highlight that incompetent layers act as barrier units against fault propagation (in-sequence and/or out-of-sequence faults) into overlying strata towards southwest by fore-deformation and control the rate of deformation propagation in the ZFTB. The presence of both the basal and internal decollement layers located at different stratigraphic levels is required to form disharmonic decollement folds in the foreland of the ZFTB. In addition, the geometry, spacing, activity, and propagation of faults as well as the topographic height of the critical wedges are directly controlled by low-frictional decollements (Geophys J Int, 165(1):336-356 2006; Geochem Geophys Geosyst, 14:1131-1155 2013). The seismic profiles of the ZFTB showed that in addition to lithological contrasts, the existence and activity of deep-seated and basement faults had a big impact on the structural styles of the region.

  2. Zooplankton biomass and composition in the western Bay of Bengal during late sw monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Madhupratap, M.; Nair, V.R.; Nair, S.R.S.; Rao, T.S.S.

    Copepoda formed the predominant group except in the southern region where a swarm of pelagic tunicates reduced their contribution to only 19% of the total zooplankton count. Decapod larvae occurred in fairly large numbers all along the coastal...

  3. Capillary pressure and saturation relations for supercritical CO2 and brine in sand: High-pressure Pc(Sw) controller/meter measurements and capillary scaling predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, Tetsu K.; Wan, Jiamin; Jung, Jong-Won; Kim, Tae Wook; Kim, Yongman; Dong, Wenming

    2013-08-01

    In geologic carbon sequestration, reliable predictions of CO2 storage require understanding the capillary behavior of supercritical (sc) CO2. Given the limited availability of measurements of the capillary pressure (Pc) dependence on water saturation (Sw) with scCO2 as the displacing fluid, simulations of CO2 sequestration commonly rely on modifying more familiar air/H2O and oil/H2O Pc(Sw) relations, adjusted to account for differences in interfacial tensions. In order to test such capillary scaling-based predictions, we developed a high-pressure Pc(Sw) controller/meter, allowing accurate Pc and Sw measurements. Drainage and imbibition processes were measured on quartz sand with scCO2-brine at pressures of 8.5 and 12.0 MPa (45°C), and air-brine at 21°C and 0.1 MPa. Drainage and rewetting at intermediate Sw levels shifted to Pc values that were from 30% to 90% lower than predicted based on interfacial tension changes. Augmenting interfacial tension-based predictions with differences in independently measured contact angles from different sources led to more similar scaled Pc(Sw) relations but still did not converge onto universal drainage and imbibition curves. Equilibrium capillary trapping of the nonwetting phases was determined for Pc = 0 during rewetting. The capillary-trapped volumes for scCO2 were significantly greater than for air. Given that the experiments were all conducted on a system with well-defined pore geometry (homogeneous sand), and that scCO2-brine interfacial tensions are fairly well constrained, we conclude that the observed deviations from scaling predictions resulted from scCO2-induced decreased wettability. Wettability alteration by scCO2 makes predicting hydraulic behavior more challenging than for less reactive fluids.

  4. Land - Ocean Climate Linkages and the Human Evolution - New ICDP and IODP Drilling Initiatives in the East African Rift Valley and SW Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahn, R.; Feibel, C.; Co-Pis, Icdp/Iodp

    2009-04-01

    , and Interocean Exchanges"; IODP ref. no. 702-full) aims at deciphering the late Neogene ocean history of the SW Indian Ocean. SAFARI specifically targets the Agulhas Current in the SW Indian Ocean that constitutes the strongest western boundary current in the southern hemisphere oceans. The Current transports warm and saline surface waters from the tropical Indian Ocean to the southern tip of Africa. Exchanges with the atmosphere influence eastern and southern African climates including individual weather systems such as extra-tropical cyclone formation in the region and rainfall patterns. Ocean models further suggest the "leakage" of Agulhas water around South Africa into the Atlantic potentially modulates the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (MOC) with consequences for climate globally. The SAFARI drilling initiative aims to retrieve a suite of long drill cores along the southeast African margin and in the Indian-Atlantic ocean gateway. SAFARI will shed light on the history of Agulhas Current warm water transports along the southeast African margin during the late Neogene and its linking with ocean-climate developments. Specific objectives of SAFARI are to test (1) the sensitivity of the Agulhas Current to changing climates of the Plio/Pleistocene, including upstream forcing linked with equatorial Indian Ocean changes and Indonesian Throughflow; (2) the Current's influence on eastern and southern Africa climates, including rain fall patterns and vegetation changes; (3) buoyancy transfer to the Atlantic by Agulhas leakage around southern Africa, and (4) the contribution of variable Agulhas Leakage to shifts of the Atlantic MOC during episodes of major ocean and climate reorganizations of the past 5 Ma. These studies will provide insight into the Current's influence on eastern and southern African terrestrial climates, including its possible impact on the late Neogene evolution of large mammals including hominids. The ICDP and IODP drilling campaigns will

  5. Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, S.C.C.; Johnston, A.C.; Chiu, J.M. [Memphis State Univ., TN (United States). Center for Earthquake Research and Information

    1994-08-01

    The seismic activity in the southern Appalachian area was monitored by the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN) since late 1979 by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at Memphis State University. This network provides good spatial coverage for earthquake locations especially in east Tennessee. The level of activity concentrates more heavily in the Valley and Ridge province of eastern Tennessee, as opposed to the Blue Ridge or Inner Piedmont. The large majority of these events lie between New York - Alabama lineament and the Clingman/Ocoee lineament, magnetic anomalies produced by deep-seated basement structures. Therefore SARSN, even with its wide station spacing, has been able to define the essential first-order seismological characteristics of the Southern Appalachian seismic zone. The focal depths of the southeastern U.S. earthquakes concentrate between 8 and 16 km, occurring principally beneath the Appalachian overthrust. In cross-sectional views, the average seismicity is shallower to the east beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces and deeper to the west beneath the Valley and Ridge and the North American craton. Results of recent focal mechanism studies by using the CERI digital earthquake catalog between October, 1986 and December, 1991, indicate that the basement of the Valley and Ridge province is under a horizontal, NE-SW compressive stress. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting on nearly north-south fault planes is preferred because it agrees with the trend of the regional magnetic anomaly pattern.

  6. Novel virus influenza A (H1N1sw in South-Eastern France, April-August 2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Nougairède

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In April 2009, the first cases of pandemic (H1N1-2009 influenza [H1N1sw] virus were detected in France. Virological surveillance was undertaken in reference laboratories of the seven French Defence Zones. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report results of virological analyses performed in the Public Hospitals of Marseille during the first months of the outbreak. (i Nasal swabs were tested using rapid influenza diagnostic test (RIDT and two RT-PCR assays. Epidemiological characteristics of the 99 first suspected cases were analyzed, including detection of influenza virus and 18 other respiratory viruses. During three months, a total of 1,815 patients were tested (including 236 patients infected H1N1sw virus and distribution in age groups and results of RIDT were analyzed. (ii 600 sera received before April 2009 and randomly selected from in-patients were tested by a standard hemagglutination inhibition assay for antibody to the novel H1N1sw virus. (iii One early (May 2009 and one late (July 2009 viral isolates were characterized by sequencing the complete hemagglutinine and neuraminidase genes. (iiii Epidemiological characteristics of a cluster of cases that occurred in July 2009 in a summer camp were analyzed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study presents new virological and epidemiological data regarding infection by the pandemic A/H1N1 virus in Europe. Distribution in age groups was found to be similar to that previously reported for seasonal H1N1. The first seroprevalence data made available for a European population suggest a previous exposure of individuals over 40 years old to influenza viruses antigenically related to the pandemic (H1N1-2009 virus. Genomic analysis indicates that strains harbouring a new amino-acid pattern in the neuraminidase gene appeared secondarily and tended to supplant the first strains. Finally, in contrast with previous reports, our data support the use of RIDT for the detection of infection in

  7. Detection and analysis of morphotectonic features utilizing satellite remote sensing and GIS: An example in SW Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radaideh, Omar M. A.; Grasemann, Bernhard; Melichar, Rostislav; Mosar, Jon

    2016-12-01

    This study investigates the dominant orientations of morphological features and the relationship between these trends and the spatial orientation of tectonic structures in SW Jordan. Landsat 8 and hill-shaded images, constructed from 30 m-resolution ASTER-GDEM data, were used for automatically extracting and mapping geological lineaments. The ASTER-GDEM was further utilized to automatically identify and extract drainage network. Morphological features were analyzed by means of azimuth frequency and length density distributions. Tectonic controls on the land surface were evaluated using longitudinal profiles of many westerly flowing streams. The profiles were taken directly across the northerly trending faults within a strong topographic transition between the low-gradient uplands and the deeply incised mountain front on the east side of the Dead Sea Fault Zone. Streams of the area are widely divergent, and show numerous anomalies along their profiles when they transect faults and lineaments. Five types of drainage patterns were identified: dendritic, parallel, rectangular, trellis, and modified dendritic/trellis. Interpretation and analysis of the lineaments indicate the presence of four main lineament populations that trend E-W, N-S, NE-SW, and NW-SE. Azimuthal distribution analysis of both the measured structures and drainage channels shows similar trends, except for very few differences in the prevailing directions. The similarity in orientation of lineaments, drainage system, and subsurface structural trends highlights the degree of control exerted by underlying structure on the surface geomorphological features. Faults and lineaments serve as a preferential conduit for surface running waters. The extracted lineaments were divided into five populations based on the main age of host rocks outcropping in the study area to obtain information about the temporal evolution of the lineament trends through geologic time. A general consistency in lineament trends over

  8. Photodynamic therapy with the phthalocyanine photosensitizer Pc 4 of SW480 human colon cancer xenografts in athymic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitacre, C M; Feyes, D K; Satoh, T; Grossmann, J; Mulvihill, J W; Mukhtar, H; Oleinick, N L

    2000-05-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using the silicon phthalocyanine photosensitizer Pc 4 [HOSiPcOSi(CH3)2(CH2)3N-(CH3)2] is an oxidative stress associated with induction of apoptosis in various cell types. We assessed the effectiveness of Pc 4-PDT on SW480 colon cancer xenografts grown in athymic nude mice. Animals bearing xenografts were treated with 1 mg/kg body weight Pc 4 and 48 h later were irradiated with 150 J/cm2 672-nm light from a diode laser delivered at 150 mW/cm2. Biochemical studies were performed in xenografts resected at various time points up to 26 h after Pc 4-PDT treatment, whereas tumor size was evaluated over a 4-week period in parallel experiments. In the tumors resected for biochemical studies, apoptosis was visualized by activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 and a gradual increase in the cleavage of the nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) to a maximum of approximately 60% of the total PARP present at approximately 26 h. At that time all Pc 4-PDT-treated tumors had regressed significantly. Two signaling responses that have previously been shown to be associated with Pc 4-PDT-induced apoptosis in cultured cells, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and p21/WAF1/Cip1, were examined. A marked increase in phosphorylation of p38 was observed within 1 h after Pc 4-PDT without changes in levels of the p38 protein. Levels of p21 were not altered in the xenografts in correspondence with the presence of mutant p53 in SW480 cells. Evaluation of tumor size showed that tumor growth resumed after a delay of 9-15 days. Our results suggest that: (a) Pc 4-PDT is effective in the treatment of SW480 human colon cancer xenografts independent of p53 status; (b) PARP cleavage may be mediated by caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation in the Pc 4-PDT-treated tumors; and (c) p38 phosphorylation may be a trigger of apoptosis in response to PDT in vivo in this tumor model.

  9. Effect of 5-fluorouracil on the expression of ATP-binding cassette superfamily G member 2 in human colon cancer cell SW480%氟尿嘧啶对人结肠癌SW480细胞ABCG2表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿金妙; 尤捷; 刘海光; 黄奇迪; 郭贵龙

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察氟尿嘧啶(5-FU)对人结肠癌SW480细胞ABCG2表达的影响.方法 用不同药物浓度的5-FU处理SW480细胞,用CCK8法检测5-FU在SW480中的IC50,流式细胞仪检测SW480细胞ABCG2的阳性表达率,RT-PCR检测ABCG2的mRNA在SW480细胞中的表达差异.结果 5-FU对SW480细胞的IC50随着药物浓度的增加而升高(P<0.05).流式细胞仪检测发现,正常SW480细胞(A组)中ABCG2阳性表达率为(6.26±0.86)%;在药物处理48 h后即刻检测时(B组)的阳性表达率下降至(3.43±1.18)%(P<0.05);在药物处理48 h后的第2代细胞检测时(C组)则升高至(12.91±3.42)%(P<0.05).3组ABCG2 mRNA表达趋势与流式细胞仪检测结果的趋势一致.结论 不同浓度的5-FU可以影响人结肠癌SW480细胞ABCG2的表达.%Objective To investigate the effect of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) on the expression of ATP-binding cassette superfamily G member 2(ABCG2) in human colon cancer cell SW480.Methods SW480 cells were treated with various concentrations of 5-FU.CCK8 assay was utilized to detect the 5-FU IC50 to SW480 cells.Positive expression of ABCG2 was detected by flow cytometry,and mRNA expression of ABCG2 was detected by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).Results The 5-FU IC50 to SW480 cells increased as the drug concentration increased(P<0.05).Flow cytometry revealed that positive expression rate of ABCG2 in normal SW480 cells (group A) was (6.26±0.86)%.Immediately after treatment with 5-FU for 48 hours,the positive expression rate of ABCG2 (group B) was (3.43±1.18)%(P<0.05).In the second passage of cells after treatment with 5-FU for 48 hours,the positive expression rate of ABCG2 (group C) was (12.91±3.42)%(P<0.05).The mRNA expression of ABCG2 detected by RT-PCR was in accordance with the results from flow cytometry.Conclusion Expression of ABCG2 in SW480 cells can be affected by various concentrations of 5-FU.

  10. Seismic structure and crustal nature of the geological provinces off the SW Iberian margin: results of the NEAREST-SEIS wide-angle seismic survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallares, V.; Martinez, S.; Gailler, A.; Gutscher, M.; Bartolome, R.; Gracia, E.; Diaz, J.

    2010-12-01

    The region offshore the SW Iberian margin hosts the present-day NW-SE plate convergence between the European and African Plates causing continuous seismic activity of moderate magnitude. In autumn 2008 a Spanish-French team carried out a wide-angle seismic survey in the area (NEAREST-SEIS cruise), in the framework of the EU-funded NEAREST project. During the survey two long profiles were acquired using a pool of 36 Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS), to provide information about the crustal structure and nature of the different geological provinces, and to reveal the deep geometry of the main fault interfaces. A total of 30 OBS were deployed along profile P1, which is 356 km long and trends NW-SE from the Tagus abyssal plain (TAP), crossing the Gorringe bank (GB), the Horseshoe abyssal plain (HAP) and the Coral Patch Ridge (CPR), up to the thrust-and-fold belt of the Seine abyssal plain (SAP). The inverted model along this profile show four different domains. In the TAP a 3-4 km-thick, low velocity sedimentary layer covers the basement, which shows a velocity >7 km/s just 2-3 km below its top, similarly to that of the basement outcropping in the Gorringe bank. In the HAP the sedimentary cover is thicker, showing an upper unit with low velocity corresponding to the Horseshoe gravitational unit, on top of a higher velocity lower unit, which may represent the highly consolidated Mesozoic sedimentary sequence, with a total thickness of 5 km. The basement shows the same velocity distribution as in TAP and GB, suggesting a common nature and origin. According to its seismic structure, we interpret this basement as highly serpentinized, exhumed mantle. In contrast, the CPR and SAP show evidences for the presence of a well-developed, 6-7 km-thick oceanic crust, underlying the sedimentary sequence. Profile P2 is 256 km long, and trends S-N from the easternmost SAP beyond the NW Moroccan margin, crossing the Gulf of Cadiz imbricated wedge and the Portimao bank ending at the

  11. FOXQ1基因介导了 Shh 诱导的 SW480细胞血管生成及增殖%FOXQ1 gene mediate angiogenesis and proliferation induced by Shh in SW480 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱双伟; 李相述; 彭旭东; 陈诚; 陈小龙; 魏正强

    2016-01-01

    AIM:To explore the effect of FOXQ1 gene silencing on angiogenesis and proliferation ability of co-lon cancer cells induced by Sonic hedgehog (Shh).METHODS:Lentivirus expressing different FOXQ1-shRNA or nega-tive cantrol (NC)-shRNA was used to infect the SW480 cells.The best silencing condition was screened and used in the following experiments .The SW480 cells were divided into interfered group ( FOXQ1-shRNA) and control group ( NC-shR-NA) .The MTT assay was used to observe the doubling time and cell activity .Tube formation assay was performed to detect the ability of angiogenesis.Meanwhile, the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, matrix metallopro-teinase ( MMP) 2 and cyclin D1 at mRNA and protein levels was determined by real-time PCR and Western blot .After in-duction of the cells by recombinant Shh proteins , the changes of angiogenesis and proliferation ability in each group were detected.At the same time, the transformation of related gene was examined .RESULTS:Compared with control group , the angiogenic ability in interfered group was decreased , and no obvious difference of proliferation ability was observed .The expression of VEGF-A and MMP2 was declined significantly , and the expression of cyclin D 1 was not obviously changed . Recombinant Shh proteins improved the expression of FOXQ1 gene.Compared with NC-shRNA group, after induction, the angiogenic ability of FOXQ1-shRNA group was decreased , and the proliferation ability was not obviously changed .CON-CLUSION:FOXQ1 gene mediates the angiogenic ability but does not affect the proliferation ability of SW 480 cells.Mean-while, it may be regulated by shh pathway .%目的:探讨FOXQ1基因沉默对大肠癌SW480细胞血管生成及增殖能力的影响及其在 Sonic hedgehog(Shh)通路中的作用。方法:以携带FOXQ1-shRNA的慢病毒载体感染SW480细胞,将细胞株分为FOXQ1-shRNA和NC-shRNA组,利用脐静脉内皮细胞系926细胞行体外血管形成

  12. A high-density linkage map of the RN region in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chardon Patrick

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The porcine RN locus affects muscle glycogen content and meat quality. We previously mapped the RN locus to chromosome 15. This study describes the identification of polymorphisms for four class I and four class II markers located in the RN region. Resource families were genotyped with F-SSCP markers (fluorescent single strand conformation polymorphism and microsatellite markers. Subsequent multipoint linkage analysis revealed the order FN1-IGFBP5-S1000-S1001-IL8RB-VIL1-RN-Sw936-Sw906. The gene order is identical to the previously reported porcine RH map of the same region. The described map will facilitate positional cloning of the RN gene.

  13. First field-based observations of δ(2)H and δ(18)O values of event-based precipitation, rivers and other water bodies in the Dzungarian Gobi, SW Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnik Šturm, Martina; Ganbaatar, Oyunsaikhan; Voigt, Christian C; Kaczensky, Petra

    2017-05-01

    For certain remote areas like Mongolia, field-based precipitation, surface and ground water isotopic data are scarce. So far no such data exist for the Mongolian Gobi desert, which hinders the understanding of isotopic fractionation processes in this extreme, arid region. We collected 26 event-based precipitation samples, 39 Bij river samples, and 75 samples from other water bodies in the Dzungarian Gobi in SW Mongolia over a period of 16 months for hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope analysis. δ(2)H and δ(18)O values in precipitation show high seasonal variation and cover an extreme range: 175 ‰ for δ(2)H and 24 ‰ for δ(18)O values. The calculated local meteoric water line (LMWL) shows the isotopic characteristics of precipitation in an arid region. Individual water samples fall into one of three groups: within, above or below the 95 % confidence interval of LMWL. Data presented provide a basis for future studies in this region.

  14. GERMINAÇÃO DE SEMENTES DE SABIÁ (MIMOSA CAESALPINIAEFOLIA BENTH. E ALGAROBA (PROSOPIS JULIFLORA (SW DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Barros Torres

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito da temperatura e do substrato sobre a germinação de sementes de sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. e algaroba (Prosopis juliflora (SW DC em condições de laboratório. Foram testadas as temperaturas de 25°C e 30°C constantes e 20-30°C alternadas em substratos de papel toalha, papel mata-borrão e areia. O melhor resultado de germinação para as sementes de sabiá foi obtido com a temperatura de 20-30°C em substrato de papel mata-borrão e a mesma temperatura em substrato de areia, para sementes de algaroba.

  15. Nature of the lithosphere across the Variscan orogen of SW Iberia: Dense wide-angle seismic reflection data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomeras, I.; Carbonell, R.; Flecha, I.; Simancas, F.; Ayarza, P.; Matas, J.; MartíNez Poyatos, D.; Azor, A.; GonzáLez Lodeiro, F.; PéRez-Estaún, A.

    2009-02-01

    Two wide-angle seismic transects have been acquired across the SW Iberian Massif. They crossed three major geological zones (South Portuguese Zone, Ossa-Morena Zone, and Central Iberian Zone), with their tectonic contacts and the Pyrite Belt being of greatest interest. A total of 690 digital seismic recording instruments (650 Texans and 40 Reftek 3 component units) from the IRIS-PASSCAL Instrument Pool were used. The transects (A and B) are each approximately 300 km long and consist of 3 and 6 shot points, respectively, with an approximately 60-km shot point interval. The charge sizes range from 1000 kg at the edges to 500 kg at the center. These recently acquired experiments were designed to provide velocity constraints on the lithosphere and to complement the previously acquired normal incidence seismic profile IBERSEIS. Both data sets are part of the SW Iberia project, which was developed within the EUROPROBE program and designed to address fundamental questions about the nature and dynamics of the Variscan lithosphere. The acquisition parameters provide closely spaced wide-angle seismic images of the lithosphere beneath SW Iberia. In transect A, the station spacing was on average 400 m, while along transect B, the receiver spacing was approximately 150 m. Because of this close trace spacing, the lateral continuity of the seismic arrivals is greatly improved. Frequency analysis revealed that the recorded events feature relatively low frequencies (6-25 Hz). After processing, the shot records show high-amplitude and well-defined arrivals. The interpreted PmP arrival, located at approximately 11 s (normal incidence traveltime), is characterized by high amplitude and relatively low frequency (6-12 Hz). A well-defined Pn arrival appears at offsets beyond 120 km. At far offsets greater than 180 km, an upper mantle reflection is observed. Furthermore, within the upper crust, the shots records feature a relatively high-velocity arrival, located at 4-5-s normal incidence

  16. Long-term persistence of acquired resistance to 5-fluorouracil in the colon cancer cell line SW620

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tentes, I.K., E-mail: itentes@med.duth.gr [Department of Biochemistry, Medical School, Democritus University of Thrace, 6th km Alexandroupolis-Komotini (Dragana), 68100 Alexandroupolis (Greece); Schmidt, W.M. [Center for Anatomy and Cell Biology, Waehringer Strasse 13, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Krupitza, G. [Institute of Clinical Pathology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Steger, G.G.; Mikulits, W. [Department of Medicine I, Medical University of Vienna, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Kortsaris, A. [Department of Biochemistry, Medical School, Democritus University of Thrace, 6th km Alexandroupolis-Komotini (Dragana), 68100 Alexandroupolis (Greece); Mader, R.M. [Department of Medicine I, Medical University of Vienna, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2010-11-15

    Treatment resistance to antineoplastic drugs represents a major clinical problem. Here, we investigated the long-term stability of acquired resistance to 5-fluorouracil (FU) in an in vitro colon cancer model, using four sub-clones characterised by increasing FU-resistance derived from the cell line SW620. The resistance phenotype was preserved after FU withdrawal for 15 weeks ({approx} 100 cell divisions) independent of the established level of drug resistance and of epigenetic silencing. Remarkably, resistant clones tolerated serum deprivation, adopted a CD133{sup +} CD44{sup -} phenotype, and further exhibited loss of membrane-bound E-cadherin together with predominant nuclear {beta}-catenin localisation. Thus, we provide evidence for a long-term memory of acquired drug resistance, driven by multiple cellular strategies (epithelial-mesenchymal transition and selective propagation of CD133{sup +} cells). These resistance phenomena, in turn, accentuate the malignant phenotype.

  17. Archaeological evidence for 9th and 8th millennia BC at Girmeler Cave near Tlos in SW Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turan Takaoğlu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A mound settlement in front of the Girmeler Cave near the major Lycian city of Tlos in SW Turkey revealed evidence for occupation during the late 9th and 8th millennia BC. The ccupation is characterized by a structure with at least two layers of lime-plastered floor, hearths and bins and a wattle-and-daub superstructure, all pointing to a sedentary community engaged in intensive hunting and gathering. The trial trenches at Girmeler Cave also yielded evidence of an Early Pottery Neolithic period at the end of the 8th millennium BC. The remains of several buildings with terrazzo floors and wattle-and-daub superstructures were found. It is likely that the cave served as a sacred site in the Early Pottery Neolithic period. There was a hiatus between the late 9th/early 8th millennium BC and the Early Pottery Neolithic occupations at the site.

  18. Evaluation of the sea ice proxy IP against observational and diatom proxy data in the SW Labrador Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weckström, K.; Andersen, M.L.; Kuijpers, A.

    2013-01-01

    The recent rapid decline in Arctic sea ice cover has increased the need to improve the accuracy of the sea ice component in climate models and to provide detailed long-term sea ice concentration records, which are only available via proxy data. Recently, the highly branched isoprenoid IP25...... established sea ice proxy (sea ice diatom abundance in sediments) in the South-West (SW) Labrador Sea. Furthermore, our study location at the southern margin of Arctic sea ice drift provided a new environmental setting in which to further test the novel PIP25 index. Our two study sites are located North......-East (NE) and South-East (SE) of Newfoundland where box cores covering the last ca 100-150 years were collected. IP25 concentrations are nearly an order of magnitude higher and sea ice diatoms more abundant in sediments from NE of Newfoundland, where sea ice prevails 2-4 months per year compared...

  19. ECONOMICAL VIABILITY OF PRESERVATIVE TREATMENT OF Prosopis juliflora (SW D.C. WOOD SUBMITTED TO SAP DISPLACEMENT METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmoulis Wanderley de Farias Sobrinho

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the economical viability of preservative treatment of Prosopis juliflora (Sw D.C. roundpieces treated with Osmose CCB commercial preservative applied by sap displacement method in rural property and to comparetheir costs with Mimosa caesalpiniifolia, Mimosa tenuiflora and Prosopis juliflora non-treated pieces costs. The treatment of Prosopisjuliflora wood demonstrated to be economically viable when compared to alternatives using the Equivalent Annual Costs (EACs, fordiscount rates of 12; 15; and 18% and expected useful life varying from 16 to 30 years, in these situations treated Prosopis juliflorawood presented smaller EAC than Mimosa caesalpiniifolia, Mimosa tenuiflora and Prosopis juliflora non-treated woods for theanalyzed situations, that justifies the employment of the Prosopis juliflora treated logs as fence posts and other similar uses.

  20. Effect of the invader Boccardia proboscidea (Polychaeta: Spionidae) on richness, diversity and structure of SW Atlantic epilithic intertidal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elías, Rodolfo; Jaubet, María L; Llanos, Elizabeth N; Sanchez, María A; Rivero, María S; Garaffo, Griselda V; Sandrini-Neto, Leonardo

    2015-02-28

    In Mar del Plata (Argentine, SW Atlantic), a large seaside resort, the sewage discharges impact the littoral ecosystem. The invader polychaete Boccardia proboscidea has developed reefs since spring of 2008. The effect of this species on the richness, diversity and structure of epilithic intertidal community was assessed through an MBACI design in both sewage-impacted and reference sites, and Before/After the invasion. The presence of reefs of B. proboscidea since spring 2008 has caused a significant reduction of total individuals, total taxa and diversity in sewage-impacted sites regarding the reference ones. The species analyzed showed a high variable response because patterns were dominated by small-scale variability. Occasional peaks in abundance were observed on a single sampling site and time and a large variation among replicates. The associated fauna, formerly rich and diverse in impacted sites, shows a tendency to disappear as the ecosystem engineer Brachidontes rodriguezii is replaced by monocultures of B. proboscidea.

  1. Coastal circulation in the North Indian Ocean: Coastal segment (14,S-W)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shetye, S.R.; Gouveia, A.D.

    and as a result the circulation shows a distinct seasonal character. The nature of winds, precipitation, runoff, and tides in the region are summarized. Characteristics of large-scale near surface circulation and of water masses in the North Indian Basin...

  2. Changing sediment dynamics due to natural reforestation in the Dragonja catchment, S.W. Slovenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keesstra, S.D.; Dam, van O.; Verstraeten, G.; Huissteden, van J.

    2009-01-01

    Under the influence of socio¿economic changes in many regions in Europe, a trend of decreasing agricultural activity has been observed since the Second World War. The resulting reforestation profoundly changes water and sediment supply to river channels, deposition rates on the floodplains and erosi

  3. Monitoring the impact of surface albedo on a saline lake in SW Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Argaman, E.; Zeiliguer, A.; Keesstra, S.D.

    2012-01-01

    Lake Elton is located east of the Volga River in Russia and covers an area of 155¿km2. The hydrological system of the Lake and its surroundings are extremely vulnerable to climate change and human interference, but available local and regional information is sparse. Utilising climate data from 1987

  4. Constaints on the nature of the SW-Iberia crust from wide-angle P- and S-velocity models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomeras, I.; Marti, D.; Carbonell, R.; Ayarza, P.; Simancas, F.; Martinez-Poyatos, D.; Azor, A.; Lodeiro, F.; Perez-Estaun, A.

    2009-12-01

    The SW-Iberian Peninsula was studied with the two wide-angle seismic reflection transects acquired in 2003. Both transects cross the three tectonic provinces in the area that are part of the Variscan Belt: South Portuguesse Zone (SPZ), Ossa-Morena Zone (OMZ) and Central Iberia Zone (CIZ). The data were acquired by 650 vertical component seismographs (TEXANS seismic recorders) from the IRIS-PASSCAL Instrument Center, using explosive sources with charge sizes ranging from 500 to 1000 kg. Both Transects, A and B, are, approximately, 300 km long with station spacing of 400 m and 150 m respectively. The relatively small station spacing favored the lateral correlation of the seismic events and provided resolution enough for the identification of shear-waves arrivals. The most prominent S-wave phase recorded by the vertical component sensors corresponds to the SmS which is nearly horizontal for a velocity reduction of 4600 m/s. This phase can be followed up to normal incidence at 18 s ttwt. Two S-wave velocity models have been derived by iterative forward modeling to provide constraints on the nature of the deep crust beneath the Variscan of SW-Iberia. P and S velocity models show a high velocity area at mid crustal levels, that has been interpreted as a mafic intrusion. Vp/Vs relationship has been also calculated to constraint the crustal composition. The resulting images present a mid- to lower-crust with a Vp/Vs > 1.73 that implies a crust with a high content in mafic components.

  5. S-waves velocity model for the SW-Iberia derived from the IBERSEIS wide-angle seismic reflection transects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomeras, I.; Marti, D.; Carbonell, R.; Ayarza, P.; Simancas, F.; Martinez-Poyatos, D.; Azor, A.; Gonzalez-Lodeiro, F.; Perez-Estaun, A.

    2009-04-01

    The IBERSEIS wide-angle seismic reflection transects acquired in 2003 in SW-Iberia Peninsula provided constraints on the P-wave seismic velocity structure across the three tectonic provinces in the area: the South Portuguesse Zone (SPZ), the Ossa-Morena Zone (OMZ) and the Central Iberia Zone (CIZ). These data were acquired by 650 vertical component seismographs (TEXAN seismic recorders) from the IRIS-PASSCAL Instrument center, using explosive sources with charge sizes ranging from 500 to 1000 kg. Both transects A and B are, approximately, 300 km long with a station spacing of 400 m and of 150 m respectively. The relatively small station spacing favored the lateral correlation of the seismic events and provided enough resolution for the identification of shear-wave arrivals. The most prominent S-wave phase recorded by the vertical component sensors corresponds to the SmS which is nearly horizontal for a velocity reduction of 4600 m/s. This phase can even be followed up to near vertical incidence at 18 s(twtt). A few S-wave crustal arrivals can be also identified, although at small offsets they interfere with the previous P-wave arrivals. The Sn phase can be observed at very far offsets providing additional constraints on the nature of the shallow subcrustal mantle. Furthermore, slant stacks of the shot gathers (tau-p sections) reveal the existing of PS energy. PS phases are more difficult to identify in the shot gathers. Finally, a preliminary S-wave velocity model has been derived by iterative forward modeling to provide additional constraints on the nature of the deep crust and upper mantle beneath the Variscan of SW-Iberia.

  6. Origin of co-existing basalts, high-Mg andesites, and adakites in the SW Japan hot subduction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, J.; Kunikiyo, T.; Osaka, I.; Shimoshioiri, Y.; Katakuse, M.; Kakubuchi, S.; Nagao, T.; Furuyama, K.; Kamei, A.; Nakajima, J.; Stern, R. J.; Gill, J. B.

    2012-12-01

    In response to subduction of the young, hot Shikoku Basin of the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) slab, arc magmas have been active throughout the late Cenozoic (high-Mg andesites (HMAs), and adakitic andesites and dacites. The OIB-type basalts preceded the arc-type magmas. Therefore, the transition from OIB- to arc-types was related to opening of the Japan of Sea back-arc basin and subsequent re-initiation of PSP subduction. However, both the origin and tectonic implications of this magmatism are debated. Consequently, we analyzed the bulk rock geochemistry of 340 lava samples from seven Quaternary volcanoes and investigated their sources and melting conditions using a geochemical mass balance model, Arc Basalt Simulator version 4 (ABS4). Comparison to basement granitoids precludes adakite genesis in the lower crust. Instead, the ABS4 model suggests that the adakites are mostly slab melts plus minor interaction with mantle wedge peridotite (PERID). Increasing involvement of PERID during slab melt-fluxed mantle melting explains fairly well the geochemical variations of the shoshonites, mildly alkalic to sub-alkalic basalts, and HMAs. We propose that the generation of various magma types in the late Cenozoic SW Japan arc originated simply by "slab melt-fluxed mantle melting" with large variations in melting conditions including depth, temperature, degree of melting, and flux fractions. Such volcanism has been continuous from 13 Ma (Setouchi HMA) to the present, so that the hot subduction system, involving subduction of the Shikoku Basin spreading ridge, should be continuous since 13 Ma beneath the SW Japan arc. Our results further suggest that this atypically hot system generated diverse primary arc magmas from various degrees of flux melting even though the slab source components and sub-arc mantle are fairly homogeneous.

  7. Modern sediments and Pleistocene reefs from isolated carbonate platforms (Iles Eparses, SW Indian Ocean): A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorry, Stéphan J.; Camoin, Gilbert F.; Jouet, Gwénaël; Roy, Pascal Le; Vella, Claude; Courgeon, Simon; Prat, Sophie; Fontanier, Christophe; Paumard, Victorien; Boulle, Julien; Caline, Bruno; Borgomano, Jean

    2016-04-01

    Isolated carbonate platforms occur throughout the geologic record, from Archean to present. Although the respective roles of tectonics, sediment supply and sea-level changes in the stratigraphical architecture of these systems are relatively well constrained, the details of the nature and controls on the variability of sedimentological patterns between and within individual geomorphologic units on platforms have been barely investigated. This study aims at describing and comparing geomorphological and sedimentological features of surficial sediments and fossil reefs from three isolated carbonate platforms located in the SW Indian Ocean (Glorieuses, Juan de Nova and Europa). These carbonate platforms are relatively small and lack continuous reef margins, which have developed only on windward sides. Field observations, petrographic characterization and grain-size analyses are used to illustrate the spatial patterns of sediment accumulation on these platforms. The internal parts of both Glorieuses and Juan de Nova platforms are blanketed by sand dunes with medium to coarse sands with numerous reef pinnacles. Skeletal components including coral, green algae, and benthic foraminifera fragments prevail in these sediments. Europa platform exhibits a similar skeletal assemblage dominated by coral fragments, with the absence of wave-driven sedimentary bodies. Fossil reefs from the Last interglacial (125,000 years BP) occur on the three platforms. At Glorieuses, a succession of drowned terraces detected on seismic lines is interpreted as reflecting the last deglacial sea-level rise initiated 20,000 years ago. These findings highlight the high potential of these platforms to study past sea-level changes and the related reef response, which remain poorly documented in the SW Indian Ocean.

  8. Physical activity monitoring in stroke: SenseWear Pro2 activity accelerometer versus Yamax Digi-Walker SW-200 pedometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanroy, Christel; Vissers, Dirk; Cras, Patrick; Beyne, Saskia; Feys, Hilde; Vanlandewijck, Yves; Truijen, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Determine validity and reliability of SenseWear Pro2 Armband (SWP2A) and Yamax Digi-Walker SW-200 Pedometer (YDWP) in stroke and healthy adults. Fifteen stroke patients and 15 healthy participants wore SWP2A on upper arm and YDWP at hip/knee. Different activities were performed: treadmill walking, walking up/down a step, cycling and walking on an even surface. Steps and Energy Expenditure (EE) were measured and compared to steps counted manually and indirect calorimetry. Repeated measurements were compared to determine reliability of both devices. Spearman correlation coefficients between knee-worn YDWP and counted steps while walking on an even surface was ≥0.89 in healthy and ≥0.95 in stroke. Treadmill walking revealed high Spearman correlation coefficients in healthy individuals (rs ≥ 0.90) and at 1.5 km/h in stroke (rs = 0.69). During other activities YDWP often underestimated steps. SWP2A data revealed inconsistent results in EE and steps. Reliability tested by repeated measurements varied between 0.66 and 0.98 for YDWP and 0.61 and 0.97 for SWP2A. YDWP and SWP2A are both reliable. Only knee-worn YDWP is a valid device to measure steps except high intensity walking in stroke. YDWP systematically undercounts steps during other activities of short duration. This study could not demonstrate valid measurement of steps/EE in stroke using SWP2A. Implications for Rehabilitation Stroke is a disabling disease with residual neurologic deficits, which impairs mobility and predisposes them to sedentary behavior. A Yamax Digi-Walker SW-200 knee-worn pedometer showed to be a valid and reliable technique to measure ambulatory activity in stroke. A valid instrument to measure energy expenditure in stroke needs to be explored.

  9. Análisis fitoquímico y farmacológico de extractos de Allophylus cominia (L. Sw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Véliz Rodríguez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El efecto sobre la glicemia provocado por la administración oral de los extractos acuoso y alcohólico de la planta Allophylus cominia (L.Sw (Palo de caja, 1g/kg m.c., colectada en San José de las Lajas y Nueva Paz, fue estudiado en ratas normoglicémicas, sin observarse diferencias significativas entre estos grupos. En el ensayo con sobrecarga de glucosa (PTG, el extracto acuoso de las hojas fue el que presentó un efecto biológico sobre las concentraciones séricas de glucosa, a diferencia del de los tallos y la corteza para este modelo farmacológico, mientras que el estudio fitoquímico, indicó una misma composición química general para todos los extractos analizados. Finalmente, la evaluación de la toxicidad aguda oral tras la administración de una dosis de 5 000 mg/kg. m.c. del extracto acuoso de las hojas colectadas en San José de las Lajas, reveló que, bajo las condiciones experimentales, la sustancia ensayada no provoca alteraciones que pudieran interpretarse como tóxicas, como se había observado previamente para el caso del extracto acuoso de la corteza. Estos resultados permiten afirmar que el consumo de decocciones de hojas de Allophylus cominia (L.Sw, además de constituir una ventaja desde el punto de vista medioambiental, no provoca efecto sobre la glucosa sanguínea en modelos normoglicémicos bajo las condiciones experimentales empleadas. Se debe valorar el resultado de su administración en dosis repetidas en modelos diabéticos, en concordancia con su uso etnomédico.

  10. SiRNA-mediated IGF-1R inhibition sensitizes human colon cancer SW480 cells to radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavari, Kamal; Taghikhani, Mohammad; Mesbah-Namin, Seyed A. (Dept. of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares Univ., Tehran (Iran)); Maragheh, Mohammad Ghannadi (Nuclear Fuel Cycle Research Center, Nuclear Sciences and Technology Research Inst., Tehran (Iran)); Babaei, Mohammad Hosein (Radioisotope Quality Control Center, Nuclear Sciences and Technology Research Inst., Tehran (Iran)); Arfaee, Ali Jabbary; Madani, Hossein; Mirzaei, Hamid Reza (Radiation Oncology Dept., Shohada Hospital, Shahid Beheshti Medical Sciences Univ., Tehran (Iran))

    2010-01-15

    Purpose. Insulin like growth factor receptor 1 (IGF-1R) is well-documented to play a key role in radiation response and tumor radiosensitivity, thus offering an attractive clinic drug target to enhance tumor sensitivity to anti-cancer radiotherapy. Material and methods. Human colon carcinoma SW480 cells were transfected with the specific small interference RNA (siRNA) expression vector (pkD-shRNA-IGF-1R-V2) designed to target IGF-1R mRNA. The expression of IGF-1R mRNA and its protein among the transfected and untransfected cells were detected by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and ELISA assay. The changes in cell radiosensitivity were examined by MTT assay. Results. Transfection of mammalian expression vector pkD containing IGF-1R siRNA was shown to reduce IGF-1R mRNA levels by up to 95%. ELISA assay detected a similar inhibition of IGF-1R protein levels in cells transfected with IGF-1R siRNA. SW480 cells transfected with the expression vector for siRNA significantly rendered cells more sensitive to radiation and the highest radiation enhancement ratio was 2.02 +- 0.08. Conclusion. These data provide the first evidence that specific siRNA fragment (pkD-shRNA-IGF-1R-V2) targeting human IGF-1R mRNA is able to enhance colon cancer radiosensitivity. Also results indicated that, combining IGF-1R siRNA and radiation significantly enhances antitumor efficacy compared with either modality alone

  11. Oceanic provenance of lithospheric mantle beneath Lower Silesia (SW Poland) and the two kinds of its "Fe-metasomatism"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puziewicz, Jacek; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Kukuła, Anna; Ćwiek, Mateusz

    2016-04-01

    Our recent studies (Puziewicz et al. 2015, IJES 104:1913-1924, and references therein) show that the subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) beneath Lower Silesia (SW Poland) and neighbouring part of Upper Lusatia (SE Germany) is dominated by harzburgites. Part of them contain small amounts of clinopyroxene which, despite its primary textural appearance, is a late addition to the protoliths which are residues after extensive (up to 30 %) partial melting. This clinopyroxene was added to the harzburgites in Cenozoic times by alkaline basaltic melts migrating upwards from their asthenospheric sources during rifting in the Variscan foreland of the Alpine-Carpathian chain. The pre-rifting history of the SCLM beneath the region is thus recorded in the olivine and orthopyroxene. The forsterite content in olivine divides the Lower Silesian harzburgites into two groups: A (olivine Fo 90.5 - 92.0), and B (olivine Fo 84.0 - 90.0; for data see Puziewicz et al. 2015, op. cit.). The Al content in orthopyroxene is low and similar in both A and part of B harzburgites, called B1 in the following. The orthopyroxene occurring in the B1 harzburgites contains typically 0.05 - 0.10 atoms of Al per formula unit (corresponding to 0.5 - 2.5 wt. % Al2O3), although slightly lower (down to 0.02 a pfu) and slightly higher (up to 0.13 a pfu) Al contents occur in subordinate number of samples. The Al content in the B1 orthopyroxene is not correlated with forsterite content in coexisting olivine. The B2 harzburgites occur only in one site (Księginki). They contain orthopyroxene which Al content exhibits negative correlation with forsterite content in coexisting olivine. The most Al -rich orthopyroxene (0.24 atoms of Al pfu, corresponding to ca. 5.7 wt % Al2O3) coexists with olivine Fo 86.5 in Księginki. The low contents of Al in orthopyroxene is specific for the Lower Silesian/Upper Lusatian domain of European lithospheric mantle. The Al-poor mantle domain below Lower Silesia and upper

  12. Using online databases for landslide susceptibility assessment: an example from the Veneto Region (northeastern Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, spatial data available in the Italian portals was used to evaluate the landslide susceptibility of the Euganean Hills Regional Park, located SW of Padua (northeastern Italy). Quality, applicability and possible analysis scales of the online data were investigated.

    After a brief overview on the WebGIS portals around the world, their contents and tools for natural risk analyses, a susceptibility analysis of the study area was carried out using a simple probab...

  13. Seismic evidence of exhumed mantle rock basement at the Gorringe Bank and the adjacent Horseshoe and Tagus abyssal plains (SW Iberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallarès, Valentí; Martínez-Loriente, Sara; Prada, Manel; Gràcia, Eulàlia; Ranero, César; Gutscher, Marc-André; Bartolome, Rafael; Gailler, Audrey; Dañobeitia, Juan José; Zitellini, Nevio

    2013-03-01

    The Gorringe Bank is a gigantic seamount that separates the Horseshoe and Tagus abyssal plains offshore SW Iberia, in a zone that hosts the convergent boundary between the Africa and Eurasia plates. Although the region has been the focus of numerous investigations since the early 1970s, the lack of appropriate geophysical data makes the nature of the basement, and thus the origin of the structures, still debated. In this work, we present combined P-wave seismic velocity and gravity models along a transect that crosses the Gorringe Bank from the Tagus to the Horseshoe abyssal plains. The P-wave velocity structure of the basement is similar in the Tagus and Horseshoe plains. It shows a 2.5-3.0 km-thick top layer with a velocity gradient twice stronger than oceanic Layer 2 and an abrupt change to an underlying layer with a five-fold weaker gradient. Velocity and density is lower beneath the Gorringe Bank probably due to enhanced fracturing, that have led to rock disaggregation in the sediment-starved northern flank. In contrast to previous velocity models of this region, there is no evidence of a sharp crust-mantle boundary in any of the record sections. The modelling results indicate that the sediment overlays directly serpentinite rock, exhumed from the mantle with a degree of serpentinization decreasing from a maximum of 70-80% under the top of Gorringe Bank to less than 5% at a depth of ˜20 km. We propose that the three domains were originally part of a single serpentine rock band, of nature and possibly origin similar to the Iberia Abyssal Plain ocean-continent transition, which was probably generated during the earliest phase of the North Atlantic opening that followed continental crust breakup (Early Cretaceous). During the Miocene, the NW-SE trending Eurasia-Africa convergence resulted in thrusting of the southeastern segment of the exhumed serpentinite band over the northwestern one, forming the Gorringe Bank. The local deformation associated to plate

  14. Coupling between SW monsoon-related surface and deep ocean processes as discerned from continuous particle flux measurements and correlated satellite data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rixen, T.; Haake, B.; Ittekkot, V.; Guptha, M.V.S.; Nair, R.R.; Schlussel, P.

    as well as open ocean upwelling at the beginning of the SW monsoon. Both open ocean upwelling and coastal upwelling off Oman cause a cooling of surface waters at our western and central Arabian Sea stations. When SSTs fall below their long-term average...

  15. Cell and nuclear enlargement of SW480 cells induced by a plant lignan, arctigenin: evaluation of cellular DNA content using fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyungsu; Lee, Hee Ju; Yoo, Ji-Hye; Jho, Eun Hye; Kim, Chul Young; Kim, Minkyun; Nho, Chu Won

    2011-08-01

    Arctigenin is a natural plant lignan previously shown to induce G(2)/M arrest in SW480 human colon cancer cells as well as AGS human gastric cancer cells, suggesting its use as a possible cancer chemopreventive agent. Changes in cell and nuclear size often correlate with the functionality of cancer-treating agents. Here, we report that arctigenin induces cell and nuclear enlargement of SW480 cells. Arctigenin clearly induced the formation of giant nuclear shapes in SW480, as demonstrated by fluorescence microscopic observation and quantitative determination of nuclear size. Cell and nuclear size were further assessed by flow cytometric analysis of light scattering and fluorescence pulse width after propidium iodide staining. FSC-H and FL2-W values (parameters referring to cell and nuclear size, respectively) significantly increased after arctigenin treatment; the mean values of FSC-H and FL2-W in arctigenin-treated SW480 cells were 572.6 and 275.1, respectively, whereas those of control cells were 482.0 and 220.7, respectively. Our approach may provide insights into the mechanism behind phytochemical-induced cell and nuclear enlargement as well as functional studies on cancer-treating agents.

  16. 染料木黄酮诱导人结肠癌SW480细胞凋亡及机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童玲玲; 蒋崇辉; 李纯颖; 李东阳; 袁秀琴; 谢红卫; 余子建

    2006-01-01

    目的 探讨染料木黄酮(GEN)诱导人结肠癌SW480细胞凋亡的生物学效应及抗肿瘤机制。方法 通过MTT法检测GEN对该细胞系生长的影响;应用PI染色流式细胞术(FCM)分析GEN处理前后的细胞周期分布的变化;SP免疫组化法检测细胞内bcl-2、Bax蛋白的表达。结果 GEN能抑制SW480细胞增殖,呈浓度依赖性。流式细胞仪示不同浓度GEN作用于SW480细胞,出现G2/M阻滞;SP免疫组化结果表明GEN处理细胞72h后,Bax蛋白表达升高,bcl-2蛋白表达下降。结论 GEN有诱导人结肠癌SW480细胞凋亡的作用,其机制与bcl-2/Bax比值下降有关。

  17. The Solanum demissumR8 late blight resistance gene is an Sw-5 homologue that has been deployed worldwide in late blight resistant varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossen, Jack H.; Arkel, van Gert; Bergervoet-van Deelen, Marjan; Jo, Kwang Ryong; Jacobsen, Evert; Visser, Richard G.F.

    2016-01-01

    The potato late blight resistance geneR8has been cloned.R8is found in five late blight resistant varieties deployed in three different continents. R8 recognises Avr8 and is homologous to the NB-LRR protein Sw-5 from tomato.Abstract: The broad spectrum late blight resistance gene R8 from Solanum

  18. A NEW SW-846 METHOD FOR THE ANALYSIS OF TOXAPHENE AND TOXAPHENE CONGENERS IN SOLID AND AQUEOUS SAMPLES USING GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY / NEGATIVE ION MASS SPECTROMETRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    US EPA SW-846 methods have typically relied on dual column gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detection (GC-ECD) for analysis of low concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, including toxaphene, in environmental samples. Toxaphene is one of the most widely appl...

  19. Geochemical characterisation and of black shales from the Tarfaya-Layoune Basin (SW Morocco) : Implications for palaeoenvironmental controls on sulfurisation process of the organic matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Kolonic, S.; Wagner, T.; Kuypers, M.M.M.; Botcher, M.; Kuhn, W.; Whener, H.

    2002-01-01

    Organic geochemical and petrological investigations were carried out on Cenomanian/Turonian black shales from three sample sites in the Tarfaya Basin (SW Morocco) to characterize the sedimentary organic matter. These black shales have a variable bulk and molecular geochemical composition reflecting

  20. Description of the early stages of Eccopsis galapagana Razowski & Landry (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), a defoliator of Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC (Fabaceae) in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The biology and early stages of Eccopsis galapagana Razowski & Landry are described and illustrated for the first time; details of the adults also are provided. Under outbreak conditions, the species has become a serious pest of algarrobo tree (Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC.; Fabaceae) in Colombia. Al...

  1. Effects of recombinant adenovirus Ad-PERK siRNA on the proliferation and apoptosis of human chondrosarcoma SW1353 cells in endoplasmic reticulum stress%内质网应激时重组腺病毒Ad-PERK siRNA对人软骨肉瘤SW1353细胞增殖和凋亡的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李美玲; 夏飞; 邓莉; 伍志盟; 郭风劲

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨靶向蛋白激酶样内质网激酶(protein kinase-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase,PERK]基因的小干扰RNA (small interfering RNA,siRNA)重组腺病毒在内质网应激(endoplasmic reticulum stress,ERS)时对人软骨肉瘤SW1353细胞增殖和凋亡的影响.方法:构建靶向PERK基因的siRNA重组腺病毒Ad-PERKsiRNA,并将其感染SW1353细胞后,RT-PCR和蛋白质印迹法检测SW1353细胞中PERK mRNA和蛋白的表达.应用衣霉素(tunicamycin,TM)建立ERS模型;在ERS状态下,MTT法检测Ad-PERKsiRNA感染后SW1353细胞的增殖情况,FCM法检测感染后SW1353细胞的细胞周期和细胞凋亡率,透射电子显微镜下观察感染后SW1353细胞超微结构的变化,蛋白质印迹法检测感染后SW1353细胞中cleaved caspase 3、caspase 12、CCAAT/增强子结合蛋白同源蛋白(CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein,CHOP)和磷酸化c-Jun氨基端激酶(phospho-c-Jun-N-terminal kinase,p-JNK)蛋白的表达.结果:成功构建获得重组腺病毒AdPERKsiRNA.Ad-PERK siRNA感染后,SW1353细胞中PERK mRNA和蛋白的表达水平下调(P<0.05).在ERS状态下,Ad-PERKsiRNA可促进SW1353细胞的增殖(P<0.05),Ad-PERK siRNA感染组S期细胞所占比例高于感染空载体腺病毒Ad-RFP的阴性对照组和未感染的空白对照组(P<0.05),Ad-PERK siRNA感染组SW1353细胞的凋亡率低于阴性对照组和空白对照组(P<0.05),透射电子显微镜下观察发现阴性对照组和空白对照组SW1353细胞存在明显的凋亡,Ad-PERK siRNA感染组SW1353细胞中cleaved caspase 3、caspase 12、CHOP和p-JNK蛋白的表达水平均明显低于阴性对照组和空白对照组(P<0.05).结论:重组腺病毒Ad-PERKsiRNA可以促进ERS状态下SW1353细胞的增殖,并抑制其凋亡.

  2. The search for reliable aqueous solubility (Sw) and octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow) data for hydrophobic organic compounds; DDT and DDE as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontolillo, James; Eganhouse, R.P.

    2001-01-01

    The accurate determination of an organic contaminant?s physico-chemical properties is essential for predicting its environmental impact and fate. Approximately 700 publications (1944?2001) were reviewed and all known aqueous solubilities (Sw) and octanol-water partition coefficients (Kow) for the organochlorine pesticide, DDT, and its persistent metabolite, DDE were compiled and examined. Two problems are evident with the available database: 1) egregious errors in reporting data and references, and 2) poor data quality and/or inadequate documentation of procedures. The published literature (particularly the collative literature such as compilation articles and handbooks) is characterized by a preponderance of unnecessary data duplication. Numerous data and citation errors are also present in the literature. The percentage of original Sw and Kow data in compilations has decreased with time, and in the most recent publications (1994?97) it composes only 6?26 percent of the reported data. The variability of original DDT/DDE Sw and Kow data spans 2?4 orders of magnitude, and there is little indication that the uncertainty in these properties has declined over the last 5 decades. A criteria-based evaluation of DDT/DDE Sw and Kow data sources shows that 95?100 percent of the database literature is of poor or unevaluatable quality. The accuracy and reliability of the vast majority of the data are unknown due to inadequate documentation of the methods of determination used by the authors. [For example, estimates of precision have been reported for only 20 percent of experimental Sw data and 10 percent of experimental Kow data.] Computational methods for estimating these parameters have been increasingly substituted for direct or indirect experimental determination despite the fact that the data used for model development and validation may be of unknown reliability. Because of the prevalence of errors, the lack of methodological documentation, and unsatisfactory data

  3. Effects of downregulation of CD147 in the mobility of thyroid cancer cell SW579 and its mechanisms%下调CD147表达对甲状腺癌细胞SW579运动能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王巍; 邵跃; 宋晓雯; 赵成海

    2016-01-01

    目的:检测CD147 siRNA对甲状腺癌SW579细胞的作用及其机制。方法:检测CD147 siRNA处理后SW579细胞的CD147 mRNA和蛋白水平。利用CKK-8实验检测细胞增殖。同时利用transwell检测细胞运动能力变化。并利用Western-blot技术检测运动相关蛋白的变化。结果:下调CD147可以明显抑制SW579细胞增殖,并且阻碍其运动。处理后细胞的MMP-2和MMP-9蛋白水平明显下降。一种运动相关蛋白WAVE2的表达随着CD147的下调而下降。结论:CD147下调可能通过抑制MMP-2、MMP-9和WAVE2表达导致SW579细胞运动能力下降。%Objective To detect the effects and mechanisms of CD147 in thyroid cancer cell SW579. Methods RT-PCR and Western-blot were used to determine the levels of CD147 mRNA and protein in SW579 cells after treated with CD147 specific small interference RNA (siRNA). The proliferative ratio of SW579 cells after treated with CD147 siRNA was detected by CCK-8 assay. We detected the changes of cellular mobility after treated with CD147 siRNA by transwell assay. Mobility related proteins were analyzed by western-blot. Results The proliferative ratio and the mobility of SW579 cells were inhibited significantly by down-regulation of CD147. The levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9