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Sample records for kangaroos macropus fuliginosus

  1. Morphological and morphometric characteristics of gastric mucosa in western grey kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus

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    Mahmoud Badran Shoeib

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to investigate the morphology and histomorphometry of stomach and gastric mucosa in western grey kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus. The stomach was composed of three indistinctive separate parts namely sacciform forestomach, tubiform forestomach, and hindstomach. The tubiform forestomach was the main tubular section of the organ. The stomach had a compound lining. The non-glandular mucosa occupied the medial blind sac (MBS of the sacciform forestomach; the layer covered about one-third of the tubiform forestomach (non-glandular region and the entire length of the gastric sulcus. The glandular part lined the parietal blind sac (PBS of sacciform forestomach and the cardiac gland region of tubiform forestomach as well as fundic and pyloric gland regions of the hindstomach. The cardiac mucosa had smooth and folded areas; these were filled with mixed glands. In the fundic glands, the parietal cells outnumbered the chief cells. The pyloric glands were of serous-like in characteristics. In conclusion, gross and histological structures of the stomach of western grey kangaroo are adaptive with its food habitat, which allows thorough mixing of highly fibrous grasses.

  2. Brain thermal inertia, but no evidence for selective brain cooling, in free-ranging western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus).

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    Maloney, Shane K; Fuller, Andrea; Meyer, Leith C R; Kamerman, Peter R; Mitchell, Graham; Mitchell, Duncan

    2009-04-01

    Marsupials reportedly can implement selective brain cooling despite lacking a carotid rete. We measured brain (hypothalamic) and carotid arterial blood temperatures every 5 min for 5, 17, and 63 days in spring in three free-living western grey kangaroos. Body temperature was highest during the night, and decreased rapidly early in the morning, reaching a nadir at 10:00. The highest body temperatures recorded occurred sporadically in the afternoon, presumably associated with exercise. Hypothalamic temperature consistently exceeded arterial blood temperature, by an average 0.3 degrees C, except during these afternoon events when hypothalamic temperature lagged behind, and was occasionally lower than, the simultaneous arterial blood temperature. The reversal in temperatures resulted from the thermal inertia of the brain; changes in the brain to arterial blood temperature difference were related to the rate of change of arterial blood temperature on both heating and cooling (P cooling in kangaroos. The effect of thermal inertia on brain temperature is larger than might be expected in the grey kangaroo, a discrepancy that we speculate derives from the unique vascular anatomy of the marsupial brain.

  3. Peters anomaly in a red kangaroo (Macropus rufus).

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    Suedmeyer, Wm Kirk; Pearce, Jacqueline; Persky, Meredith; Houck, Marlys L

    2014-09-01

    A 10-mo-old female red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) presented with a unilateral congenital corneal opacity OD. Complete ophthalmic examination revealed a shallow anterior chamber and a focal area of corneal edema with multiple persistent pupillary membranes extending from the iris colarette to the corneal endothelium adjacent to the edematous area of cornea. High-resolution B-scan ultrasound of the anterior segment showed an area consistent with thinning of Descemet's membrane in the area of corneal edema. Ophthalmic examination and ultrasound findings are consistent with a diagnosis of Peters anomaly, a form of anterior segment dysgenesis. An electroretinogram performed on the affected animal did not reveal any specific abnormalities. Karyotype analyses revealed a normal diploid number (2n = 20, -XX), with an abnormal pericentric inversion in the second largest chromosomal pair. The kangaroo exhibits mild compensated vision deficits in the affected eye. The maternal and paternal adult pairing has been discontinued in an effort to prevent future offspring anomalies.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in a red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) with otitis.

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    Okeson, Danelle M; Coke, Rob L; Kochunov, Peter; Davis, M Duff

    2008-12-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on an adult, male Red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) with a history of nonspecific neurologic signs and acute discharge from the left ear. MRI revealed findings consistent with otitis and possible osteomyelitis of the temporal and mastoid bones. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of otitis and MRI findings in a kangaroo.

  5. A retrospective study of Babesia macropus associated with morbidity and mortality in eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus and agile wallabies (Macropus agilis

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    Shannon L. Donahoe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This is a retrospective study of 38 cases of infection by Babesia macropus, associated with a syndrome of anaemia and debility in hand-reared or free-ranging juvenile eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus from coastal New South Wales and south-eastern Queensland between 1995 and 2013. Infection with B. macropus is recorded for the first time in agile wallabies (Macropus agilis from far north Queensland. Animals in which B. macropus infection was considered to be the primary cause of morbidity had marked anaemia, lethargy and neurological signs, and often died. In these cases, parasitised erythrocytes were few or undetectable in peripheral blood samples but were sequestered in large numbers within small vessels of visceral organs, particularly in the kidney and brain, associated with distinctive clusters of extraerythrocytic organisms. Initial identification of this piroplasm in peripheral blood smears and in tissue impression smears and histological sections was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy and molecular analysis. Samples of kidney, brain or blood were tested using PCR and DNA sequencing of the 18S ribosomal RNA and heat shock protein 70 gene using primers specific for piroplasms. The piroplasm detected in these samples had 100% sequence identity in the 18S rRNA region with the recently described Babesia macropus in two eastern grey kangaroos from New South Wales and Queensland, and a high degree of similarity to an unnamed Babesia sp. recently detected in three woylies (Bettongia penicillata ogilbyi in Western Australia.

  6. Toxoplasmosis in the Eastern Grey Kangaroo, Macropus giganteus and the Cape Hyrax, Procavis capensis in Japan

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    Khaled Mohamed El-Dakhly1,4, Nagwan El-Habashi2, El-Shaymaa El-Nahass3,4, Hiroki Sakai4 and Tokuma Yanai4,*

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis was investigated in an eastern grey kangaroo, Macropus giganteus, and four cape hyraxes, Procavia capensis, in a Japanese zoo. Clinically, the kangaroo showed neurological signs, emaciation, diarrhea, elevated AST and CK, and subjected to coma before death. One young cape hyrax had severe anorexia, while the other three died without exhibiting clinical signs. Grossly, lungs of the kangaroo were dark red in color, while hyraxes, besides, showed hepatic multifocal white foci, and intestinal multifocal hemorrhages. Histologically, the kangaroo had frequent Toxoplasma gondii pseudocysts in brain, heart and skeletal muscles. All hyraxes had multifocal necrosis with cysts containing numerous bradyzoites in liver and spleen, along with necrotic gastroenteritis and intestinal hemorrhages. Immunohistochemically, cysts showed positive reaction to anti-T. gondii antibodies. These findings indicate possible outbreaks of toxoplasmosis in eastern grey kangaroos and cape hyraxes, zoo habitants; therefore, they could be susceptible intermediate hosts for T. gondii in terms of zoonosis. This is the first report of toxoplasmosis in eastern grey kangaroos and cape hyraxes in Japanese zoos.

  7. Phylogeography of Eastern Grey Kangaroos, Macropus giganteus, Suggests a Mesic Refugium in Eastern Australia.

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    Brett A Coghlan

    Full Text Available Phylogeographic studies around the world have identified refugia where fauna were able to persist during unsuitable climatic periods, particularly during times of glaciation. In Australia the effects of Pleistocene climate oscillations on rainforest taxa have been well studied but less is known about the effects on mesic-habitat fauna, such as the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus. The eastern grey kangaroo is a large mammal that is common and widespread throughout eastern Australia, preferring dry mesic habitat, rather than rainforest. As pollen evidence suggests that the central-eastern part of Australia (southeast Queensland and northern New South Wales experienced cycles of expansion in mesic habitat with contraction in rainforests, and vice versa during glacial and interglacial periods, respectively, we hypothesise that the distribution of the eastern grey kangaroo was affected by these climate oscillations and may have contracted to mesic habitat refugia. From 375 mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from across the distribution of eastern grey kangaroos we obtained 108 unique haplotypes. Phylogenetic analysis identified two clades in Queensland, one of which is newly identified and restricted to a small coastal region in southern Queensland north of Brisbane, known as the Sunshine Coast. The relatively limited geographic range of this genetically isolated clade suggests the possibility of a mesic habitat refugium forming during rainforest expansion during wetter climate cycles. Other potential, although less likely, reasons for the genetic isolation of the highly distinct clade include geographic barriers, separate northward expansions, and strong local adaptation.

  8. Secretion of whey acidic protein and cystatin is down regulated at mid-lactation in the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus)

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    Nicholas, K.R.; Fisher, J.A.; Muths, E.; Trott, J.; Janssens, P.A.; Reich, C.; Shaw, D.C.

    2001-01-01

    Milk collected from the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) between day 100 and 260 of lactation showed major changes in milk composition at around day 200 of lactation, the time at which the pouch young begins to temporarily exit the pouch and eat herbage. The carbohydrate content of milk declined abruptly at this time and although there was only a small increase in total protein content, SDS PAGE analysis of milk revealed asynchrony in the secretory pattern of individual proteins. The levels of ??-lactalbumin, ??-lactoglobulin, serum albumin and transferrin remain unchanged during lactation. In contrast, the protease inhibitor cystatin, and the putative protease inhibitor whey acidic protein (WAP) first appeared in milk at elevated concentrations after approximately 150 days of lactation and then ceased to be secreted at approximately 200 days. In addition, a major whey protein, late lactation protein, was first detected in milk around the time whey acidic protein and cystatin cease to be secreted and was present at least until day 260 of lactation. The co-ordinated, but asynchronous secretion of putative protease inhibitors in milk may have several roles during lactation including tissue remodelling in the mammary gland and protecting specific proteins in milk required for physiological development of the dependent young. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science Inc.

  9. A Reproductive Management Program for an Urban Population of Eastern Grey Kangaroos (Macropus giganteus

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    Andrew Tribe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, culling has been the expedient, most common, and in many cases, the only tool used to control free-ranging kangaroo populations. We applied a reproductive control program to a population of eastern grey kangaroos confined to a golf course in South East Queensland. The program aimed to reduce fecundity sufficiently for the population to decrease over time so that overgrazing of the fairways and the frequency of human–animal conflict situations were minimised. In 2003, 92% of the female kangaroos above 5 kg bodyweight were implanted with the GnRH agonist deslorelin after darting with a dissociative anaesthetic. In 2007, 86% of the females above 5 kg were implanted with deslorelin and also 87% of the males above 5 kg were sterilised by either orchidectomy or vasectomy. In 2005, 2008 and 2009, the population was censused to assess the effect of each treatment. The 2003 deslorelin program resulted in effective zero population growth for approximately 2.5 years. The combined deslorelin–surgery program in 2007 reduced the birth rate from 0.3 to 0.06%/year for 16 months, resulting in a 27% population reduction by November 2009. The results were consistent with implants conferring contraception to 100% of implanted females for at least 12 months. The iatrogenic mortality rates for each program were 10.5% and 4.9%, respectively, with 50% of all mortalities due to darting-related injuries, exertional myopathy/hyperthermia or recovery misadventure. The short term sexual and agonistic behaviour of the males was assessed for the 2007 program: no significant changes were seen in adult males given the vasectomy procedure, while sexual behaviours’ were decreased in adult males given the orchidectomy procedure. It is concluded that female reproduction was effectively controlled by implantation with deslorrelin and male reproductive behaviour was reduced by orchidectomy, which together achieved population control.

  10. Circulating levels of prolactin and progesterone in a wild population of red kangaroos (Macropus rufus) Marsupialia: Macropodidae

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    Muths, E.; Hinds, L. A.

    1996-01-01

    Circulating progesterone and prolactin levels were measured in shot and live-caught wild red kangaroos using radioimmunoassays validated for the red kangaroo. The objective of the study was to correlate hormone profiles with reproductive status and determine if red kangaroos follow the general pattern elucidated for other macropodids. During Phase 2a lactation (600 pg/ml (n= 32) during the transition to Phase 3 lactation (181 to 235 days) when the quiescent corpus luteum and embryo were reactivated. Progesterone concentrations then decreased to prolactin during Phase 2a were prolactin concentrations increased to 15 ng/ml (n= 32), then decreased and remained low through the subsequent stage of dual lactation. These results indicate that progesterone and prolactin profiles in wild red kangaroos follow patterns found previously in other macropodid species, the tammar and Bennett's wallabies.

  11. Developmental and Post-Eruptive Defects in Molar Enamel of Free-Ranging Eastern Grey Kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) Exposed to High Environmental Levels of Fluoride.

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    Kierdorf, Uwe; Death, Clare; Hufschmid, Jasmin; Witzel, Carsten; Kierdorf, Horst

    2016-01-01

    Dental fluorosis has recently been diagnosed in wild marsupials inhabiting a high-fluoride area in Victoria, Australia. Information on the histopathology of fluorotic marsupial enamel has thus far not been available. This study analyzed the developmental and post-eruptive defects in fluorotic molar enamel of eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) from the same high-fluoride area using light microscopy and backscattered electron imaging in the scanning electron microscope. The fluorotic enamel exhibited a brownish to blackish discolouration due to post-eruptive infiltration of stains from the oral cavity and was less resistant to wear than normally mineralized enamel of kangaroos from low-fluoride areas. Developmental defects of enamel included enamel hypoplasia and a pronounced hypomineralization of the outer (sub-surface) enamel underneath a thin rim of well-mineralized surface enamel. While the hypoplastic defects denote a disturbance of ameloblast function during the secretory stage of amelogenesis, the hypomineralization is attributed to an impairment of enamel maturation. In addition to hypoplastic defects, the fluorotic molars also exhibited numerous post-eruptive enamel defects due to the flaking-off of portions of the outer, hypomineralized enamel layer during mastication. The macroscopic and histopathological lesions in fluorotic enamel of M. giganteus match those previously described for placental mammals. It is therefore concluded that there exist no principal differences in the pathogenic mechanisms of dental fluorosis between marsupial and placental mammals. The regular occurrence of hypomineralized, opaque outer enamel in the teeth of M. giganteus and other macropodids must be considered in the differential diagnosis of dental fluorosis in these species.

  12. Developmental and Post-Eruptive Defects in Molar Enamel of Free-Ranging Eastern Grey Kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) Exposed to High Environmental Levels of Fluoride

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    Kierdorf, Uwe; Death, Clare; Hufschmid, Jasmin; Witzel, Carsten; Kierdorf, Horst

    2016-01-01

    Dental fluorosis has recently been diagnosed in wild marsupials inhabiting a high-fluoride area in Victoria, Australia. Information on the histopathology of fluorotic marsupial enamel has thus far not been available. This study analyzed the developmental and post-eruptive defects in fluorotic molar enamel of eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) from the same high-fluoride area using light microscopy and backscattered electron imaging in the scanning electron microscope. The fluorotic enamel exhibited a brownish to blackish discolouration due to post-eruptive infiltration of stains from the oral cavity and was less resistant to wear than normally mineralized enamel of kangaroos from low-fluoride areas. Developmental defects of enamel included enamel hypoplasia and a pronounced hypomineralization of the outer (sub-surface) enamel underneath a thin rim of well-mineralized surface enamel. While the hypoplastic defects denote a disturbance of ameloblast function during the secretory stage of amelogenesis, the hypomineralization is attributed to an impairment of enamel maturation. In addition to hypoplastic defects, the fluorotic molars also exhibited numerous post-eruptive enamel defects due to the flaking-off of portions of the outer, hypomineralized enamel layer during mastication. The macroscopic and histopathological lesions in fluorotic enamel of M. giganteus match those previously described for placental mammals. It is therefore concluded that there exist no principal differences in the pathogenic mechanisms of dental fluorosis between marsupial and placental mammals. The regular occurrence of hypomineralized, opaque outer enamel in the teeth of M. giganteus and other macropodids must be considered in the differential diagnosis of dental fluorosis in these species. PMID:26895178

  13. Developmental and Post-Eruptive Defects in Molar Enamel of Free-Ranging Eastern Grey Kangaroos (Macropus giganteus Exposed to High Environmental Levels of Fluoride.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Kierdorf

    Full Text Available Dental fluorosis has recently been diagnosed in wild marsupials inhabiting a high-fluoride area in Victoria, Australia. Information on the histopathology of fluorotic marsupial enamel has thus far not been available. This study analyzed the developmental and post-eruptive defects in fluorotic molar enamel of eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus from the same high-fluoride area using light microscopy and backscattered electron imaging in the scanning electron microscope. The fluorotic enamel exhibited a brownish to blackish discolouration due to post-eruptive infiltration of stains from the oral cavity and was less resistant to wear than normally mineralized enamel of kangaroos from low-fluoride areas. Developmental defects of enamel included enamel hypoplasia and a pronounced hypomineralization of the outer (sub-surface enamel underneath a thin rim of well-mineralized surface enamel. While the hypoplastic defects denote a disturbance of ameloblast function during the secretory stage of amelogenesis, the hypomineralization is attributed to an impairment of enamel maturation. In addition to hypoplastic defects, the fluorotic molars also exhibited numerous post-eruptive enamel defects due to the flaking-off of portions of the outer, hypomineralized enamel layer during mastication. The macroscopic and histopathological lesions in fluorotic enamel of M. giganteus match those previously described for placental mammals. It is therefore concluded that there exist no principal differences in the pathogenic mechanisms of dental fluorosis between marsupial and placental mammals. The regular occurrence of hypomineralized, opaque outer enamel in the teeth of M. giganteus and other macropodids must be considered in the differential diagnosis of dental fluorosis in these species.

  14. Passage marker excretion in red kangaroo (Macropus rufus), collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) and colobine monkeys (Colobus angolensis, C. polykomos, Trachypithecus johnii).

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    Schwarm, Angela; Ortmann, Sylvia; Wolf, Christian; Streich, W Jürgen; Clauss, Marcus

    2009-11-01

    Ruminants are characterized by an efficient particle-sorting mechanism in the forestomach (FRST) followed by selective rechewing of large food particles. For the nonruminating foregut fermenter pygmy hippo it was demonstrated that large particles are excreted as fast as, or faster than, the small particles. The same has been suggested for other nonruminating foregut fermenters. We determined the mean retention time of fluids and different-sized particles in six red kangaroos (Macropus rufus), seven collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu) and three colobine monkeys (Colobus angolensis, C. polykomos, Trachypithecus johnii). We fed Co-EDTA as fluid and mordanted fiber as particle markers (Cr, Ce). Mean (+ or - SD) total tract retention time for fluids, small and large particles was 14 + or - 2, 29 + or - 10 and 30 + or - 9 hr in red kangaroos, 26 + or - 2, 34 + or - 5 and 32 + or - 3 hr in collared peccaries and 57 + or - 17, 55 + or - 19 and 54 + or - 19 hr in colobine monkeys, respectively. Large and small particles were excreted simultaneously in all species. There was no difference in the excretion of fluids and particles in the colobine monkeys, in contrast to the other foregut fermenters. In the nonprimate, nonruminant foregut fermenters, the difference in the excretion of fluids and small particles decreases with increasing food intake. On the contrary, ruminants keep this differential excretion constant at different intake levels. This may be a prerequisite for the sorting of particles in their FRST and enable them to achieve higher food intake rates. The functional significance of differential excretion of fluids and particles from the FRST requires further investigations.

  15. Familiarity breeds contempt: kangaroos persistently avoid areas with experimentally deployed dingo scents.

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    Michael H Parsons

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Whether or not animals habituate to repeated exposure to predator scents may depend upon whether there are predators associated with the cues. Understanding the contexts of habituation is theoretically important and has profound implication for the application of predator-based herbivore deterrents. We repeatedly exposed a mixed mob of macropod marsupials to olfactory scents (urine, feces from a sympatric predator (Canis lupus dingo, along with a control (water. If these predator cues were alarming, we expected that over time, some red kangaroos (Macropus rufous, western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus and agile wallabies (Macropus agilis would elect to not participate in cafeteria trials because the scents provided information about the riskiness of the area. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated the effects of urine and feces independently and expected that urine would elicit a stronger reaction because it contains a broader class of infochemicals (pheromones, kairomones. Finally, we scored non-invasive indicators (flight and alarm stomps to determine whether fear or altered palatability was responsible for the response. Repeated exposure reduced macropodid foraging on food associated with 40 ml of dingo urine, X = 986.75+/-3.97 g food remained as compared to the tap water control, X = 209.0+/-107.0 g (P0.5. Macropodids did not habituate to repeated exposure to predator scents, rather they avoided the entire experimental area after 10 days of trials (R(2 = 83.8; P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Responses to urine and feces were indistinguishable; both elicited fear-based responses and deterred foraging. Despite repeated exposure to predator-related cues in the absence of a predator, macropodids persistently avoided an area of highly palatable food. Area avoidance is consistent with that observed from other species following repeated anti-predator conditioning, However, this is the first time this response has been

  16. Seasonal variation in kangaroo tooth enamel oxygen and carbon isotopes in southern Australia

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    Brookman, Tom H.; Ambrose, Stanley H.

    2012-09-01

    Serial sampling of tooth enamel growth increments for carbon and oxygen isotopic analyses of Macropus (kangaroo) teeth was performed to assess the potential for reconstructing paleoseasonality. The carbon isotope composition of tooth enamel apatite carbonate reflects the proportional intake of C3 and C4 vegetation. The oxygen isotopic composition of enamel reflects that of ingested and metabolic water. Tooth enamel forms sequentially from the tip of the crown to the base, so dietary and environmental changes during the tooth's formation can be detected. δ13C and δ18O values were determined for a series of enamel samples drilled from the 3rd and 4th molars of kangaroos that were collected along a 900 km north-south transect in southern Australia. The serial sampling method did not yield pronounced seasonal isotopic variation patterns in Macropus enamel. The full extent of dietary isotopic variation may be obscured by attenuation of the isotopic signal during enamel mineralisation. Brachydont (low-crowned) Macropus teeth may be less sensitive to seasonal variation in isotopic composition due to time-averaging during mineralisation. However, geographic variations observed suggest that there may be potential for tracking latitudinal shifts in vegetation zones and seasonal environmental patterns in response to climate change.

  17. Esophageal diverticula in Parma wallabies (Macropus parma).

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    Okeson, Danelle M; Esterline, Meredith L; Coke, Rob L

    2009-03-01

    Four adult, wild caught Parma wallabies (Macropus parma) presented with intermittent, postprandial, midcervical swellings. Esophageal diverticula were discovered in the four animals. One of two wallabies was managed successfully with surgery. A third animal died of other causes. The fourth animal died with possible complications from the diverticulum. This is the first published report of esophageal diverticula in macropods.

  18. Single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis of genetic variation in Labiostrongylus longispicularis from kangaroos.

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    Huby-Chilton, F; Beveridge, I; Gasser, R B; Chilton, N B

    2001-06-01

    Single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis was employed to screen for sequence heterogeneity in the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) of ribosomal (r) DNA of Labiostrongylus longispicularis, a parasitic strongylid nematode occuring in some species of kangaroo in different geographical regions of Australia. The results showed that most of the nematodes screened had different SSCP profiles, which were subsequently shown to correspond to polymorphisms and/or an indel in the ITS-2 sequence. These variable sites related mainly to unpaired regions of the predicted secondary structure of the precursor rRNA molecule. SSCP profiles could be used to distinguish L. longispicularis in Macropus robustus robustus (New South Wales) from L. longispicularis in Macropus robustus erubescens and Macropus rufus (South Australia). This difference corresponded to a transversional change in the ITS-2 sequence at alignment position 82. The study demonstrated clearly the effectiveness of SSCP analysis for future large-scale population genetic studies of L. longispicularis in order to test the hypothesis that L. longispicularis from different geographical regions represents multiple sibling species.

  19. Hopping Down the Main Street: Eastern Grey Kangaroos at Home in an Urban Matrix

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    Graeme Coulson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Most urban mammals are small. However, one of the largest marsupials, the Eastern Grey Kangaroo Macropus giganteus, occurs in some urban areas. In 2007, we embarked on a longitudinal study of this species in the seaside town of Anglesea in southern Victoria, Australia. We have captured and tagged 360 individuals to date, fitting each adult with a collar displaying its name. We have monitored survival, reproduction and movements by resighting, recapture and radio-tracking, augmented by citizen science reports of collared individuals. Kangaroos occurred throughout the town, but the golf course formed the nucleus of this urban population. The course supported a high density of kangaroos (2–5/ha, and approximately half of them were tagged. Total counts of kangaroos on the golf course were highest in summer, at the peak of the mating season, and lowest in winter, when many males but not females left the course. Almost all tagged adult females were sedentary, using only part of the golf course and adjacent native vegetation and residential blocks. In contrast, during the non-mating season (autumn and winter, many tagged adult males ranged widely across the town in a mix of native vegetation remnants, recreation reserves, vacant blocks, commercial properties and residential gardens. Annual fecundity of tagged females was generally high (≥70%, but survival of tagged juveniles was low (54%. We could not determine the cause of death of most juveniles. Vehicles were the major (47% cause of mortality of tagged adults. Road-kills were concentrated (74% in autumn and winter, and were heavily male biased: half of all tagged males died on roads compared with only 20% of tagged females. We predict that this novel and potent mortality factor will have profound, long-term impacts on the demography and behavior of the urban kangaroo population at Anglesea.

  20. Mitochondrial genetic differentiation and morphological difference of Miniopterus fuliginosus and Miniopterus magnater in China and Vietnam.

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    Li, Shi; Sun, Keping; Lu, Guanjun; Lin, Aiqing; Jiang, Tinglei; Jin, Longru; Hoyt, Joseph R; Feng, Jiang

    2015-03-01

    Because of its complicated systematics, the bent-winged bat is one of the most frequently studied bat species groups. In China, two morphologically similar bent-winged bat species, Miniopterus fuliginosus and Miniopterus magnater were identified, but their distribution range and genetic differentiation are largely unexplored. In this study, we applied DNA bar codes and two other mitochondrial DNA genes including morphological parameters to determine the phylogeny, genetic differentiation, spatial distribution, and morphological difference of the M. fuliginosus and M. magnater sampled from China and one site in Vietnam. Mitochondrial DNA gene genealogies revealed two monophyletic lineages throughout the Tropic of Cancer. According to DNA bar code divergences, one is M. fuliginosus corresponding to the Chinese mainland and the other is M. magnater corresponding to tropical regions including Hainan and Guangdong provinces of China and Vietnam. Their most recent common ancestor was dated to the early stage of the Quaternary glacial period (ca. 2.26 million years ago [Ma] on the basis of D-loop data, and ca. 1.69-2.37 Ma according to ND2). A population expansion event was inferred for populations of M. fuliginosus at 0.14 Ma. The two species probably arose in separate Pleistocene refugia under different climate zones. They significantly differed in forearm length, maxillary third molar width, and greatest length of the skull.

  1. (Kangaroo grass) at various growth stages

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-06

    Apr 6, 2009 ... Key words: Kangaroo grass, biomass, dry matter, rangeland, growth stages. INTRODUCTION ... Soil organic matter, soil porosity and nutrient ... as soil moisture approaches field capacity (Nolan, 1994). Because Kangaroo ...

  2. [Dietary composition, echolocation pulses and morphological measurements of the long-fingered bat Miniopterus fuliginosus (Chiroptera: Vespertilioninae)].

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    Hu, Kai-Liang; Wei, Li; Zhu, Teng-Teng; Wang, Xu-Zhong; Zhang, Li-Biao

    2011-04-01

    We investigated food (insect) availability in foraging areas utilized by the long-fingered bat Miniopterus fuliginosus using light traps, fish netting and fecal analysis. The dominant preys of M. fuliginosus were Lepidoptera (55%, by volume percent) and Coleoptera (38%) of a relatively large body size. M. fuliginosus has relatively long, narrow wings and a wing span of 6.58+/-0.12 and high wing loading of 9.85+/-0.83 N/m2. The echolocation calls of free flying M. fuliginosus were FM signals, with a pulse duration of 1.45+/-0.06 ms, interpulse interval of 63.08+/-21.55 ms, and low dominant frequency of 44.50+/-2.26 kHz. This study shows that the morphological characteristics and echolocation calls of long-fingered bats are closely linked to their predatory behavior.

  3. About Skin-to-Skin Care (Kangaroo Care)

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    ... Size Email Print Share About Skin-to-Skin Care Page Content Article Body You may be able ... care, also called kangaroo care. What is Kangaroo Care? Kangaroo care was developed in South America as ...

  4. Mother-offspring distances reflect sex differences in fine-scale genetic structure of eastern grey kangaroos.

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    King, Wendy J; Garant, Dany; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2015-05-01

    Natal dispersal affects life history and population biology and causes gene flow. In mammals, dispersal is usually male-biased so that females tend to be philopatric and surrounded by matrilineal kin, which may lead to preferential associations among female kin. Here we combine genetic analyses and behavioral observations to investigate spatial genetic structure and sex-biased dispersal patterns in a high-density population of mammals showing fission-fusion group dynamics. We studied eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) over 2 years at Wilsons Promontory National Park, Australia, and found weak fine-scale genetic structure among adult females in both years but no structure among adult males. Immature male kangaroos moved away from their mothers at 18-25 months of age, while immature females remained near their mothers until older. A higher proportion of male (34%) than female (6%) subadults and young adults were observed to disperse, although median distances of detected dispersals were similar for both sexes. Adult females had overlapping ranges that were far wider than the maximum extent of spatial genetic structure found. Female kangaroos, although weakly philopatric, mostly encounter nonrelatives in fission-fusion groups at high density, and therefore kinship is unlikely to strongly affect sociality.

  5. Mother–offspring distances reflect sex differences in fine-scale genetic structure of eastern grey kangaroos

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Wendy J; Garant, Dany; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Natal dispersal affects life history and population biology and causes gene flow. In mammals, dispersal is usually male-biased so that females tend to be philopatric and surrounded by matrilineal kin, which may lead to preferential associations among female kin. Here we combine genetic analyses and behavioral observations to investigate spatial genetic structure and sex-biased dispersal patterns in a high-density population of mammals showing fission–fusion group dynamics. We studied eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) over 2 years at Wilsons Promontory National Park, Australia, and found weak fine-scale genetic structure among adult females in both years but no structure among adult males. Immature male kangaroos moved away from their mothers at 18–25 months of age, while immature females remained near their mothers until older. A higher proportion of male (34%) than female (6%) subadults and young adults were observed to disperse, although median distances of detected dispersals were similar for both sexes. Adult females had overlapping ranges that were far wider than the maximum extent of spatial genetic structure found. Female kangaroos, although weakly philopatric, mostly encounter nonrelatives in fission–fusion groups at high density, and therefore kinship is unlikely to strongly affect sociality. PMID:26045958

  6. How Does a Hopping Kangaroo Breathe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliodori, Mauricio J.; Lujan, Heidi L.; Janbaih, Hussein; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    We developed a model to demonstrate how a hopping kangaroo breathes. Interestingly, a kangaroo uses less energy to breathe while hopping than while standing still. This occurs, in part, because rather than using muscle power to move air into and out of the lungs, air is pulled into (inspiration) and pushed out of (expiration) the lungs as the…

  7. A comparative study of prenatal development in Miniopterus schreibersii fuliginosus, Hipposideros armiger and H. pratti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru Binghua

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bats comprise the second largest order of mammals. However, there are far fewer morphological studies of post-implantation embryonic development than early embryonic development in bats. Results We studied three species of bats (Miniopterus schreibersii fuliginosus, Hipposideros armiger and H. pratti, representing the two suborders Yangochiroptera and Yinpterochiroptera. Using an established embryonic staging system, we identified the embryonic stages for M. schreibersii fuliginosus, H. armiger and H. pratti and described the morphological changes in each species, including the development of the complex and distinctive nose-leaves in H. armiger and H. pratti. Finally, we compared embryonic and fetal morphology of the three species in the present study with five other species for which information is available. Conclusion As a whole, the organogenetic sequence of bat embryos is uniform and the embryos appear homoplastic before Stage 16. Morphological differentiation between species occurs mainly after embryonic Stage 16. Our study provides three new bat species for interspecific comparison of post-implantation embryonic development within the order Chiroptera and detailed data on the development of nose-leaves for bats in the superfamily Rhinolophoidea.

  8. Aerobic characteristics of red kangaroo skeletal muscles: is a high aerobic capacity matched by muscle mitochondrial and capillary morphology as in placental mammals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Terence J; Mifsud, Brock; Raad, Matthew C; Webster, Koa N

    2004-07-01

    Marsupials and placentals together comprise the Theria, the advanced mammals, but they have had long independent evolutionary histories, with the last common ancestor occurring more than 125 million years ago. Although in the past the marsupials were considered to be metabolically 'primitive', the red kangaroo Macropus rufus has been reported to have an aerobic capacity (VO2max) comparable to that of the most 'athletic' of placentals such as dogs. However, kangaroos travel at moderate speeds with lower relative cost than quadrupedal placentals. Given the long independent evolution of the two therian groups, and their unusual locomotor energetics, do kangaroos achieve their high aerobic capacity using the same structural and functional mechanisms used by (athletic) placentals? Red kangaroo skeletal muscle morphometry matched closely the general aerobic characteristics of placental mammals. The relationship between total mitochondrial volume in skeletal muscle and VO2max during exercise was identical to that in quadrupedal placentals, and differed from that in bipedal humans. As for placentals generally, red kangaroo mitochondrial oxygen consumption at VO2max was 4.7 ml O2 min(-1) ml(-1) of mitochondria. Also, the inner mitochondrial membrane densities were 35.8 +/- 0.7 m2 ml(-1) of mitochondria, which is the same as for placental mammals, and the same pattern of similarity was seen for capillary densities and volumes. The overall data for kangaroos was equivalent to that seen in athletic placentals such as dogs and pronghorns. Total skeletal muscle mass was high, being around 50% of body mass, and was concentrated around the pelvis and lower back. The majority of the muscles sampled had relatively high mitochondrial volume densities, in the range 8.8-10.6% in the major locomotor muscles. Again, capillary densities and capillary blood volumes followed the pattern seen for mitochondria. Our results indicate that the red kangaroo, despite its locomotion and extreme

  9. Amphotis marginata (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) a highwayman of the ant Lasius fuliginosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölldobler, Bert; Kwapich, Christina L

    2017-01-01

    The space occupied by evolutionarily advanced ant societies can be subdivided into functional sites, such as broodchambers; peripheral nest chambers; kitchen middens; and foraging routes. Many predators and social parasites are specially adapted to make their living inside specific niches created by ants. In particular, the foraging paths of certain ant species are frequented by predatory and kleptoparasitic arthropods, including one striking example, the nitidulid beetle, Amphotis marginata. Adults of this species obtain the majority of their nutrition by acting as a kind of "highwayman" on the foraging trails of the ant Lasius fuliginosus, where they solicit regurgitation from food laden ant-workers by mimicking the ant's food-begging signals. Employing food labeled with the radio isotope 32P, we assessed the quantities of food the beetles siphoned-off of food-laden ants, and we investigated the site preferences, behavioral mechanisms and possible morphological adaptations underlying the food kleptoparasitism of A. marginata.

  10. Parents\\' lived experience of providing kangaroo care to their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parents\\' lived experience of providing kangaroo care to their preterm infants. ... While there is good evidence to demonstrate the benefits of kangaroo care in low ... experience of birth; anxiety and barriers; an intimate connection; adjustments, ...

  11. Dental anomalies in Dromiciops gliroides (Microbiotheria, Microbiotheriidae), Caenolestes fuliginosus and Rhyncholestes raphanurus (Paucituberculata, Caenolestidae) Anomalías en la dentición de Dromiciops gliroides (Microbiotheria, Microbiotheriidae), Caenolestes fuliginosus and Rhyncholestes raphanurus (Paucituberculata, Caenolestidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Gabriel M.

    2007-01-01

    Dental anomalies are described after analyzing series of skulls and mandibles of three species of South American marsupials: the monito del monte {Dromiciops gliroides), the silky shrew-opossum {Caenolestes fuliginosus) and the Chilean shrew-opossum {Rhyncholestes raphanurus). The anomalies are classified into three categories: (1) supernumerary or missing teeth in normal positions of the dental series, (2) morphological anomalies like teeth fusion or anomalous crown shape, and (3) presence o...

  12. A second-generation anchored genetic linkage map of the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Hardip R

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii, a small kangaroo used for decades for studies of reproduction and metabolism, is the model Australian marsupial for genome sequencing and genetic investigations. The production of a more comprehensive cytogenetically-anchored genetic linkage map will significantly contribute to the deciphering of the tammar wallaby genome. It has great value as a resource to identify novel genes and for comparative studies, and is vital for the ongoing genome sequence assembly and gene ordering in this species. Results A second-generation anchored tammar wallaby genetic linkage map has been constructed based on a total of 148 loci. The linkage map contains the original 64 loci included in the first-generation map, plus an additional 84 microsatellite loci that were chosen specifically to increase coverage and assist with the anchoring and orientation of linkage groups to chromosomes. These additional loci were derived from (a sequenced BAC clones that had been previously mapped to tammar wallaby chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, (b End sequence from BACs subsequently FISH-mapped to tammar wallaby chromosomes, and (c tammar wallaby genes orthologous to opossum genes predicted to fill gaps in the tammar wallaby linkage map as well as three X-linked markers from a published study. Based on these 148 loci, eight linkage groups were formed. These linkage groups were assigned (via FISH-mapped markers to all seven autosomes and the X chromosome. The sex-pooled map size is 1402.4 cM, which is estimated to provide 82.6% total coverage of the genome, with an average interval distance of 10.9 cM between adjacent markers. The overall ratio of female/male map length is 0.84, which is comparable to the ratio of 0.78 obtained for the first-generation map. Conclusions Construction of this second-generation genetic linkage map is a significant step towards complete coverage of the tammar wallaby

  13. An investigation into the Swan Island Honduras collecting event of Tiaporus fuliginosus Cope (Reptilia: Teiidae) and its systematic status

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCranie, James R.; Gotte, Steve W.

    2015-01-01

    Confusion exists in the literature concerning the collecting event of the teiid lizard Tiaporus fuliginosus. We investigated the literature and documents stored at the Smithsonian Institution Archives involving the collector of those specimens in an effort to resolve that confusion. We conclude that the type series was collected on the Swan Islands of Honduras by Charles H. Townsend during 1887. We also provide a redescription of that nominal form and show that it is a valid species that should be called Ameiva fuliginosa. We also examined the type series of A. panchlora from Old Providence, Colombia and confirm that its 1950 placement as a junior synonym of A. fuliginosa is correct.

  14. Molecular characterization of Eimeria species in macropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongchang; Fenwick, Stan; Potter, Abbey; Elliot, Aileen; Power, Michelle; Beveridge, Ian; Ryan, Una

    2012-10-01

    A total of 597 faecal samples were collected from western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus), Euros (M. robustus), red kangaroos (M. rufus) in Western Australia and Eastern Grey Kangaroos (M. giganteus) from Victoria and screened for the presence of Eimeria by PCR at the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) locus. The overall prevalence was 24.3% (145/597). At the 18S rRNA locus, sequences were obtained for 25 of the 145 positives. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that all the macropod-derived Eimeria species grouped in a separate marsupial clade that included Eimeria trichosuri from brushtail possums. At least 6 different clades were identified within the marsupial isolates and many of the genotypes identified are likely to be valid species, however morphological and biological data need to be collected to match sequences to previously characterized Eimeria species or identify if they are new species.

  15. HYPOALDOSTERONISM IN A MATSCHIE'S TREE KANGAROO (DENDROLAGUS MATSCHIEI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whoriskey, Sophie T; Bartlett, Susan L; Baitchman, Eric

    2016-06-01

    A 20-yr-old female Matschie's tree kangaroo (Dendrolagus matschiei) was diagnosed with hypoaldosteronism, a rare condition in which the body fails to produce normal amounts of the mineralocorticoid aldosterone. Aldosterone plays a key role in body salt homeostasis, increasing sodium reabsorption and promoting excretion of potassium. Hypoaldosteronism resulted in decreased appetite, lethargy, and weight loss in conjunction with hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, and hypercalcemia in this tree kangaroo. The animal was successfully managed with mineralocorticoid replacement using desoxycorticosterone pivalate. To the authors' knowledge this is the first report of hypoaldosteronism in a tree kangaroo and one of the few reports in the veterinary literature in any species.

  16. Setting up Kangaroo Mother Care at Queen Elizabeth Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Central Hospital, Blantyre - A practical approach .... It is not sustainable .... This is a very distressing event for the mother, other mothers and .... management of well preterm infants: a pilot study. ... Kangaroo Mother Care — A practical guide.

  17. Mothers’ Experiences with Premature Neonates about Kangaroo Care: Qualitative Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahere Salimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:  Premature neonates admitted in NICU besides being separated from their mothers are prone to inevitably painful and stressful situations. Kangaroo care is the most effective method to get rid of this separation and its negative consequences. This study was performed to determine the experiences of mothers having premature neonates concerning Kangaroo care.   Material and Methods: The present study is a qualitative research in which focus group discussion method is used for data collection. Research society consisted of mothers having premature neonates Research group reread and categorized the qualitative findings. Contents of interviews were analyzed using the conventional interpretation approach introduced by Dicklman Method.   Results: Through content analysis of information emerged two major categories including mothers’ experiences about advantages of kangaroo care in interaction with neonate, and, feeling of physical-mental healthiness of neonate. Executive obstacles of kangaroo care from mothers’ standpoint were also discussed, which will be subsequently presented.   Discussion: According to the obtained results, it seems vital to highlight kangaroo care as a safe and effective clinical care-taking treatment in nursery of premature neonates in all hospitals. Nurses shall provide all mothers with the needed instructions for holding the premature and lower-weight neonate properly on their chests and shall promote their knowledge level concerning positive effects of kangaroo care including induction of tranquil sleep, optimization of physiological conditions of neonate, and removal of suckling obstacles.

  18. Dental anomalies in Dromiciops gliroides (Microbiotheria, Microbiotheriidae, Caenolestes fuliginosus and Rhyncholestes raphanurus (Paucituberculata, Caenolestidae Anomalías en la dentición de Dromiciops gliroides (Microbiotheria, Microbiotheriidae, Caenolestes fuliginosus and Rhyncholestes raphanurus (Paucituberculata, Caenolestidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIEL M MARTIN

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Dental anomalies are described after analyzing series of skulls and mandibles of three species of South American marsupials: the monito del monte {Dromiciops gliroides, the silky shrew-opossum {Caenolestes fuliginosus and the Chilean shrew-opossum {Rhyncholestes raphanurus. The anomalies are classified into three categories: (1 supernumerary or missing teeth in normal positions of the dental series, (2 morphological anomalies like teeth fusion or anomalous crown shape, and (3 presence of teeth in unusual positions. Cusp fusion and supernumerary teeth at the end of the toothrow have been observed predominantly in D. gliroides. A tendency to find supernumerary or missing teeth is observed between the procumbent incisors and the second lower premolars in caenolestids. Possible causes for these anomalies and their morphofunctional value are discussed. A comparison with other marsupials is presented and discussed. Isolation of local populations and its effects on genetic drift processes might explain the high percentage of dental anomaliesA partir del análisis de series de cráneos y mandíbulas del monito de monte {Dromiciops gliroides, el ratón marsupial sedoso {Caenolestes fuliginosus y la comadrejita trompuda {Rhyncholestes raphanurus, se describen las anomalías en la dentición (incisivos, premolares, molares, clasificándose de acuerdo a tres categorías: (1 dientes supernumerarios o faltantes en alguna posición, (2 anomalías morfológicas tales como fusión de dientes o variaciones en el número de raíces, y (3 presencia de dientes en posiciones inusuales. Se observa una tendencia al desarrollo de dientes supernumerarios en cenoléstidos, o pérdida de elementos dentarios en la mandíbula, principalmente entre los incisivos procumbentes y el segundo premolar. En D. gliroides, la tendencia es hacia la fusión de cúspides y la producción de dientes supernumerarios al final de la hilera molar superior (apareciendo como M5. Se discuten las

  19. The role of inspections in the commercial kangaroo industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keely Boom

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an assessment of the enforcement of the law governing commercial kangaroo killing, focusing particularly upon inspectorial practices. Australia’s kangaroo industry is the largest commercial kill of land-based wildlife in the world. Professional shooters hunt kangaroos in rural and remote locations at night. Due to the remote and decentralised nature of the killing, the industry presents unique challenges to law enforcement agencies that are responsible for the enforcement of animal welfare standards. This article focuses upon the role that inspections have in detecting offences within the commercial kangaroo industry. It provides a comparative analysis across the states, highlighting key differences in terms of inspectorial practices and the resulting outcomes. A common theme across all of the jurisdictions is that none of the agencies responsible for enforcement regularly conduct inspections of shooters, making it impossible to ensure that these parties are complying with the National Code of Practice for the Humane Shooting of Kangaroos and Wallabies. Recommendations for reform are offered, including stronger compliance policy, higher rates of inspection, increased resourcing and the introduction of alternative methods of inspection.

  20. Phylogeny of kangaroo apples (Solanum subg. Archaesolanum, Solanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poczai, Péter; Hyvönen, Jaakko; Symon, David E

    2011-11-01

    Kangaroo apples, subgenus Archaesolanum, are a unique and still poorly known group within the genus Solanum. Here we aimed to reveal phylogeny, historical biogeography and age of diversification of Archaesolanum. We sampled all recognized species of the group and sequenced three chloroplast regions, the trnT-trnL spacer, trnL intron and trnL-trnF spacer to calibrate a molecular clock to estimate the age of the group. Distributional data were combined with the results of phylogenetic analysis to track the historical processes responsible for the current range of the group. Our analysis supported the monophyly of the kangaroo apples and the biogeographical disjunction between the two subclades within the group. Based on the divergence time estimates the most recent common ancestor of kangaroo apples is from the late Miocene age (~9 MYA). Based on the age estimate the common ancestors of the kangaroo apples are presumed to have arrived in Australia by long-distance dispersal. The two distinct lineages within the group have separated during the aridification of the continent and further speciated in the brief resurgence of rainforests during the Pliocene.

  1. What is kangaroo mother care? Systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace J Chan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Kangaroo mother care (KMC, often defined as skin–to–skin contact between a mother and her newborn, frequent or exclusive breastfeeding, and early discharge from the hospital has been effective in reducing the risk of mortality among preterm and low birth weight infants. Research studies and program implementation of KMC have used various definitions.

  2. Presumptive Acute Neural Toxoplasmosis in a Captive Red-Necked Wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Hermosilla

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A red-necked male wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus from a German zoo was presented for acute onset of severe neurological signs, including head tremor, lethargy, unresponsiveness, and weakness. Serum biochemical abnormalities included increased LDH- and AST-levels, hyperproteinaemia, and reduced ALT-, ALP-, and creatinine-levels. The wallaby was found serologically positive for Toxoplasma gondii by the indirect haemagglutination test. After initiation of therapy by subcutaneous injections of trimethoprim/sulfadoxin, amelioration of neurological signs was noted and after 10 days the affected wallaby recovered. T. gondii can be confirmed rapidly by serology, and immediate therapy may reduce clinical illness and fatality of the disease within captive macropods.

  3. Kangaroo Care: Experiences and Needs of Parents in Neonatal Intensive Care: A Systematic Review ‘Parents’ Experience of Kangaroo Care’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gabriels, karlijn; Brouwer, AJ; maat, Jessica; van den Hoogen, Agnes

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This review is focusing on the experiences and needs of parents with infants within NICU regarding Kangaroo Care. Ten studies with qualitative designs were included. Kangaroo Care was overall experienced as positive; giving parents the opportunity to get to know their babies and (re-) const

  4. Fatal toxoplasmosis associated with an atypical Toxoplasma gondii strain in a Bennett’s wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus) in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasmosis is often fatal in captive wallabies, but the causes of this high susceptibility are not well understood. Here, we report fatal toxoplasmosis in a Bennet´s wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus) due to an atypical T. gondii strain for the first time in Europe. The wallaby was one of a colony of...

  5. Reproductive strategies of the kangaroo leech, Marsupiobdella africana (Glossiphoniidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Kruger

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Kangaroo Leech, Marsupiobdella africana, is a hermaphroditic organism, with insemination taking place by the planting of a spermatophore on another leech. Spermatophores are mostly planted on the anterior of the recipient leech, but not always. Several spermatophores may be planted by different leeches on a single recipient. The spermatophore consists of two side by side lobes. Within minutes from planting of the spermatophore, the contents are squeezed out and into the body of the recipient. Sperm are believed to find the way to the ova by following chemical cues. Kangaroo Leeches display advanced parental care by transferring fertilized eggs from the reproductive opening to a brood pouch on the ventral side. Fully developed leeches may copulate after detaching from the amphibian host Xenopus laevis, or from the Cape River Crab Potamonautes perlatus with which it maintains a phoretic association.

  6. Kangaroo Mother Method: Mothers' Experiences and Contributions to Nursing

    OpenAIRE

    João Carlos Arivabene; Maria Antonieta Rubio Tyrrell

    2010-01-01

    This research aimed to describe mothers' experiences, analyzing them in the light of the principles of the Kangaroo Mother Method (KMM), and discuss the mothers' contributions based on the meanings of these experiences for nursing actions. In data collection, a questionnaire was used that characterized the mothers' socioeconomic profile and, through focus groups, stories were obtained about the benefits of these experiences, which supported the construction of the following categories: surviv...

  7. Kangaroo – A pattern-matching program for biological sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betel Doron

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biologists are often interested in performing a simple database search to identify proteins or genes that contain a well-defined sequence pattern. Many databases do not provide straightforward or readily available query tools to perform simple searches, such as identifying transcription binding sites, protein motifs, or repetitive DNA sequences. However, in many cases simple pattern-matching searches can reveal a wealth of information. We present in this paper a regular expression pattern-matching tool that was used to identify short repetitive DNA sequences in human coding regions for the purpose of identifying potential mutation sites in mismatch repair deficient cells. Results Kangaroo is a web-based regular expression pattern-matching program that can search for patterns in DNA, protein, or coding region sequences in ten different organisms. The program is implemented to facilitate a wide range of queries with no restriction on the length or complexity of the query expression. The program is accessible on the web at http://bioinfo.mshri.on.ca/kangaroo/ and the source code is freely distributed at http://sourceforge.net/projects/slritools/. Conclusion A low-level simple pattern-matching application can prove to be a useful tool in many research settings. For example, Kangaroo was used to identify potential genetic targets in a human colorectal cancer variant that is characterized by a high frequency of mutations in coding regions containing mononucleotide repeats.

  8. The Tergal Gland Secretion of the Two Rare Myrmecophilous Species Zyras collaris and Z. haworthi (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae and the Effect on Lasius fuliginosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Stoeffler

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The beetle species Zyras collaris and Z. haworthi belong to the rove beetle tribe Myrmedoniini (Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae, which comprises many myrmecophilous species. Due to their rareness, it is unknown how the two species interact with their host ants. GC-MS analyses revealed that both species release α-pinene, β-pinene, myrcene and limonene from their defensive tergal glands. This composition of tergal gland secretion is unique within the subfamily Aleocharinae. In biotests, Lasius fuliginosus ants showed increased antennation towards filter paper balls treated with mixtures of these substances in natural concentrations. Because these monoterpenes are also present in some aphid species which are attended by ants, we hypothesize that Zyras beetles mimic the presence of aphids and thereby achieve acceptance by their host ants.

  9. Thermal implications of interactions between insulation, solar reflectance, and fur structure in the summer coats of diverse species of kangaroo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Terence J; Maloney, Shane K

    2017-04-01

    Not all of the solar radiation that impinges on a mammalian coat is absorbed and converted into thermal energy at the coat surface. Some is reflected back to the environment, while another portion is reflected further into the coat where it is absorbed and manifested as heat at differing levels. Substantial insulation in a coat limits the thermal impact at the skin of solar radiation, irrespective where in the coat it is absorbed. In coats with low insulation, the zone where solar radiation is absorbed may govern the consequent heat load on the skin (HL-SR). Thin summer furs of four species of kangaroo from differing climatic zones were used to determine how variation in insulation and in coat spectral and structural characteristics influence the HL-SR. Coat depth, structure, and solar reflectance varied between body regions, as well as between species. The modulation of solar radiation and resultant heat flows in these coats were measured at low (1 m s(-1)) and high (6 m s(-1)) wind speeds by mounting them on a heat flux transducer/temperature-controlled plate apparatus in a wind tunnel. A lamp with a spectrum similar to solar radiation was used as a proxy for the sun. We established that coat insulation was largely determined by coat depth at natural fur lie, despite large variations in fibre density, fibre diameter, and fur mass. Higher wind speed decreased coat insulation, but depth still determined the overall level. A multiple regression analysis that included coat depth (insulation), fibre diameter, fibre density, and solar reflectance was used to determine the best predictors of HL-SR. Only depth and reflectance had significant impacts and both factors had negative weights, so, as either insulation or reflectance increased, HL-SR declined, the larger impact coming from coat reflectance. This reverses the pattern observed in deep coats where insulation dominates over effects of reflectance. Across all coats, as insulation declined, reflectance increased

  10. Disseminated mycobacteriosis manifesting as paraplegia in two Parma wallabies (Macropus parma) naturally exposed to Mycobacterium avium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robveille, Cynthia; Albaric, Olivier; Gaide, Nicolas; Abadie, Jérome

    2015-11-01

    Two captive female Parma wallabies (Macropus parma) died after a history of flaccid paraplegia. On postmortem examination, granulomatous and suppurative osteomyelitis involving the left ischium and the lumbosacral region, with meningeal extension at the cauda equina, and caseonecrotic mastitis were the most significant changes. Multiple small nodules in the liver and spleen, and an enlargement of some lymph nodes with central caseous necrosis were also observed. Microscopically, a disseminated granulomatous inflammation with numerous multinucleate giant cells was seen. Numerous acid-fast bacilli were detected in macrophages, in multinucleated giant cells, and free in the central necrosis and suppurative exudate. After culture, polymerase chain reaction assays were carried out to detect the 65-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp65) and insertion sequences (IS)1245 and IS900. The causative agent was identified as Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium.

  11. The physics of articulated toys - a jumping and rotating kangaroo

    CERN Document Server

    Güémez, J

    2014-01-01

    We describe the physics of an articulated toy with an internal source of energy provided by a spiral spring. The toy is a funny low cost kangaroo which jumps and rotates. The study consists of a mechanical and a thermodynamical analysis which makes use of the Newton and center of mass equations, the rotational equations and the first law of thermodynamics. This amazing toy provides a nice demonstrative example how new physics insights can be brought about when links with thermodynamics are established in the study of mechanical systems.

  12. 普通长翼蝠食性结构及其回声定位与体型特征%Dietary composition, echolocation pulses and morphological measurements of the long-fingered bat Miniopterus fuliginosus (Chiroptera: Vespertilioninae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡开良; 韦力; 朱滕滕; 王绪中; 张礼标

    2011-01-01

    在普通长翼蝠(Miniopterus fuliginosus)的捕食区内用灯诱法和网捕法调查潜在食物(昆虫)种类; 用粪便分析法鉴定普通长翼蝠的食物组成,发现其主要捕食体型较大的鳞翅目和鞘翅目昆虫,体积百分比分别为55%和38%.普通长翼蝠具有相对狭长的翼,翼展比为6.94 ± 0.13;翼载为(9.85 ± 0.83)N/m2,相对较大.飞行状态下普通长翼蝠的回声定位叫声为调频下扫型,声脉冲时程为(1.45 ± 0.06)ms,脉冲间隔为(63.08 ± 21.55)ms,主频较低,为(44.50 ± 2.26)kHz.研究表明,普通长翼蝠的形态特征和回声定位特征与其捕食行为有着密切的联系.%We investigated food (insect) availability in foraging areas utilized by the long-fingered bat Miniopterus fuliginosus using light traps, fish netting and fecal analysis. The dominant preys of M. fuliginosus were Lepidoptera (55%,by volume percent) and Coleoptera (38%) of a relatively large body size. M. fuliginosus has relatively long, narrow wings and a wing span of 6.58 ± 0.12 and high wing loading of 9.85 ± 0.83 N/m2. The echolocation calls of free flying M.fuliginosus were FM signals, with a pulse duration of 1.45 ± 0.06 ms, interpulse interval of 63.08 ± 21.55 ms, and low dominant frequency of 44.50 ± 2.26 kHz. This study shows that the morphological characteristics and echolocation calls of long-fingered bats are closely linked to their predatory behavior.

  13. Monitoring the Stephen's kangaroo rat: An analysis of monitoring methods and recommendations for future monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document covers a series of analyses to explore and summarize previous monitoring efforts of Stephens Kangaroo Rats (SKR) and make recommendations for future...

  14. impact of partial kangaroo mother care on growth rates and duration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-02-02

    Feb 2, 2012 ... rates and duration of hospital stay of Low Birth Weight (LBW) infants. Design: ... Intervention: Kangaroo mother care was practised over an eight hour period per day ... settings, as well as its benefits and limitations. These.

  15. Lactation transcriptomics in the Australian marsupial, Macropus eugenii: transcript sequencing and quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitley Jane C

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactation is an important aspect of mammalian biology and, amongst mammals, marsupials show one of the most complex lactation cycles. Marsupials, such as the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii give birth to a relatively immature newborn and progressive changes in milk composition and milk production regulate early stage development of the young. Results In order to investigate gene expression in the marsupial mammary gland during lactation, a comprehensive set of cDNA libraries was derived from lactating tissues throughout the lactation cycle of the tammar wallaby. A total of 14,837 express sequence tags were produced by cDNA sequencing. Sequence analysis and sequence assembly were used to construct a comprehensive catalogue of mammary transcripts. Sequence data from pregnant and early or late lactating specific cDNA libraries and, data from early or late lactation massively parallel sequencing strategies were combined to analyse the variation of milk protein gene expression during the lactation cycle. Conclusion Results show a steady increase in expression of genes coding for secreted protein during the lactation cycle that is associated with high proportion of transcripts coding for milk proteins. In addition, genes involved in immune function, translation and energy or anabolic metabolism are expressed across the lactation cycle. A number of potential new milk proteins or mammary gland remodelling markers, including noncoding RNAs have been identified.

  16. LEISHMANIA INFANTUM INFECTION IN BENNETT'S WALLABIES (MACROPUS RUFOGRISEUS RUFOGRISEUS) IN A SPANISH WILDLIFE PARK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Ana; de Quadros, Lino Pérez; Mateo, Marta; Hernández, Leticia; Gálvez, Rosa; Alcántara, Gabriel; Checa, Rocío; Jiménez, María Ángeles; Chicharro, Carmen; Cruz, Israel; Miró, Guadalupe

    2016-06-01

    Although dogs are the main reservoir for human Leishmania infantum infection, the disease has also been reported in other domestic and wild mammals. In 2011, a fatal case of naturally acquired leishmaniosis was described for the first time in a Bennett's wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus rufogriseus) kept in a wildlife park in Madrid (Spain). This study was designed to assess the infection status of twelve Bennett's wallabies in the same park one year after this incident. Phlebotomus perniciosus, the main vector of L. infantum in Spain, was screened for using sticky and Centers for Disease Control miniature light traps. L. infantum infection was confirmed by molecular diagnosis in four animals, but only one wallaby returned a positive serology result. The presence of the sand fly vector was also confirmed in this habitat. These results suggest that the first case of L. infantum in a wallaby in this park was not an isolated incident and stress the need for further work to determine the role of this parasite in the morbidity and mortality of these macropods. Madrid was recently the scene of an outbreak of human cutaneous and visceral leishmaniosis. Epidemiological studies have so far revealed the widespread presence of L. infantum infection in animals other than the dog. Our ongoing work suggests a risk of L. infantum infection not only among captive animals in Madrid, but also among threatened species or even species that are already extinct in the wild.

  17. Locomotion in extinct giant kangaroos: were sthenurines hop-less monsters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janis, Christine M; Buttrill, Karalyn; Figueirido, Borja

    2014-01-01

    Sthenurine kangaroos (Marsupialia, Diprotodontia, Macropodoidea) were an extinct subfamily within the family Macropodidae (kangaroos and rat-kangaroos). These "short-faced browsers" first appeared in the middle Miocene, and radiated in the Plio-Pleistocene into a diversity of mostly large-bodied forms, more robust than extant forms in their build. The largest (Procoptodon goliah) had an estimated body mass of 240 kg, almost three times the size of the largest living kangaroos, and there is speculation whether a kangaroo of this size would be biomechanically capable of hopping locomotion. Previously described aspects of sthenurine anatomy (specialized forelimbs, rigid lumbar spine) would limit their ability to perform the characteristic kangaroo pentapedal walking (using the tail as a fifth limb), an essential gait at slower speeds as slow hopping is energetically unfeasible. Analysis of limb bone measurements of sthenurines in comparison with extant macropodoids shows a number of anatomical differences, especially in the large species. The scaling of long bone robusticity indicates that sthenurines are following the "normal" allometric trend for macropodoids, while the large extant kangaroos are relatively gracile. Other morphological differences are indicative of adaptations for a novel type of locomotor behavior in sthenurines: they lacked many specialized features for rapid hopping, and they also had anatomy indicative of supporting their body with an upright trunk (e.g., dorsally tipped ischiae), and of supporting their weight on one leg at a time (e.g., larger hips and knees, stabilized ankle joint). We propose that sthenurines adopted a bipedal striding gait (a gait occasionally observed in extant tree-kangaroos): in the smaller and earlier forms, this gait may have been employed as an alternative to pentapedal locomotion at slower speeds, while in the larger Pleistocene forms this gait may have enabled them to evolve to body sizes where hopping was no longer

  18. Nurses' adherence to the Kangaroo Care Method: support for nursing care management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Johanson da Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: construct an explanatory theoretical model about nurses' adherence to the Kangaroo Care Method at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, based on the meanings and interactions for care management.METHOD: qualitative research, based on the reference framework of the Grounded Theory. Eight nurses were interviewed at a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The comparative analysis of the data comprised the phases of open, axial and selective coding. A theoretical conditional-causal model was constructed.RESULTS: four main categories emerged that composed the analytic paradigm: Giving one's best to the Kangaroo Method; Working with the complexity of the Kangaroo Method; Finding (demotivation to apply the Kangaroo Method; and Facing the challenges for the adherence to and application of the Kangaroo Method.CONCLUSIONS: the central phenomenon revealed that each nurse and team professional has a role of multiplying values and practices that may or may not be constructive, potentially influencing the (discontinuity of the Kangaroo Method at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. The findings can be used to outline management strategies that go beyond the courses and training and guarantee the strengthening of the care model.

  19. Understanding kangaroo care and its benefits to preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell-Yeo ML

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Marsha L Campbell-Yeo,1–4 Timothy C Disher,1 Britney L Benoit,1 C Celeste Johnston,2,4,5 1School of Nursing, Dalhousie University, 2Department of Pediatrics, IWK Health Centre, 3Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Dalhousie University, 4Centre for Pediatric Pain Research, IWK Health Centre, Halifax, NS, 5Ingram School of Nursing, McGill University, Montréal, QC, Canada Abstract: The holding of an infant with ventral skin-to-skin contact typically in an upright position with the swaddled infant on the chest of the parent, is commonly referred to as kangaroo care (KC, due to its simulation of marsupial care. It is recommended that KC, as a feasible, natural, and cost-effective intervention, should be standard of care in the delivery of quality health care for all infants, regardless of geographic location or economic status. Numerous benefits of its use have been reported related to mortality, physiological (thermoregulation, cardiorespiratory stability, behavioral (sleep, breastfeeding duration, and degree of exclusivity domains, as an effective therapy to relieve procedural pain, and improved neurodevelopment. Yet despite these recommendations and a lack of negative research findings, adoption of KC as a routine clinical practice remains variable and underutilized. Furthermore, uncertainty remains as to whether continuous KC should be recommended in all settings or if there is a critical period of initiation, dose, or duration that is optimal. This review synthesizes current knowledge about the benefits of KC for infants born preterm, highlighting differences and similarities across low and higher resource countries and in a non-pain and pain context. Additionally, implementation considerations and unanswered questions for future research are addressed. Keywords: kangaroo care, skin-to-skin contact, infant, preterm, review

  20. Spatial requirements of free-ranging Huon tree kangaroos, Dendrolagus matschiei (Macropodidae, in upper montane forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Porolak

    Full Text Available Tree kangaroos (Macropodidae, Dendrolagus are some of Australasia's least known mammals. However, there is sufficient evidence of population decline and local extinctions that all New Guinea tree kangaroos are considered threatened. Understanding spatial requirements is important in conservation and management. Expectations from studies of Australian tree kangaroos and other rainforest macropodids suggest that tree kangaroos should have small discrete home ranges with the potential for high population densities, but there are no published estimates of spatial requirements of any New Guinea tree kangaroo species. Home ranges of 15 Huon tree kangaroos, Dendrolagus matschiei, were measured in upper montane forest on the Huon Peninsula, Papua New Guinea. The home range area was an average of 139.6±26.5 ha (100% MCP; n = 15 or 81.8±28.3 ha (90% harmonic mean; n = 15, and did not differ between males and females. Home ranges of D. matschiei were 40-100 times larger than those of Australian tree kangaroos or other rainforest macropods, possibly due to the impact of hunting reducing density, or low productivity of their high altitude habitat. Huon tree kangaroos had cores of activity within their range at 45% (20.9±4.1 ha and 70% (36.6±7.5 ha harmonic mean isopleths, with little overlap (4.8±2.9%; n = 15 pairs between neighbouring females at the 45% isopleth, but, unlike the Australian species, extensive overlap between females (20.8±5.5%; n = 15 pairs at the complete range (90% harmonic mean. Males overlapped each other and females to a greater extent than did pairs of females. From core areas and overlap, the density of female D. matschiei was one per 19.4 ha. Understanding the cause of this low density is crucial in gaining greater understanding of variations in density of tree kangaroos across the landscape. We consider the potential role of habitat fragmentation, productivity and hunting pressure in limiting tree kangaroo

  1. Positive interactions between desert granivores: localized facilitation of harvester ants by kangaroo rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Edelman

    Full Text Available Facilitation, when one species enhances the environment or performance of another species, can be highly localized in space. While facilitation in plant communities has been intensely studied, the role of facilitation in shaping animal communities is less well understood. In the Chihuahuan Desert, both kangaroo rats and harvester ants depend on the abundant seeds of annual plants. Kangaroo rats, however, are hypothesized to facilitate harvester ants through soil disturbance and selective seed predation rather than competing with them. I used a spatially explicit approach to examine whether a positive or negative interaction exists between banner-tailed kangaroo rat (Dipodomys spectabilis mounds and rough harvester ant (Pogonomyrmex rugosus colonies. The presence of a scale-dependent interaction between mounds and colonies was tested by comparing fitted spatial point process models with and without interspecific effects. Also, the effect of proximity to a mound on colony mortality and spatial patterns of surviving colonies was examined. The spatial pattern of kangaroo rat mounds and harvester ant colonies was consistent with a positive interspecific interaction at small scales (<10 m. Mortality risk of vulnerable, recently founded harvester ant colonies was lower when located close to a kangaroo rat mound and proximity to a mound partly predicted the spatial pattern of surviving colonies. My findings support localized facilitation of harvester ants by kangaroo rats, likely mediated through ecosystem engineering and foraging effects on plant cover and composition. The scale-dependent effect of kangaroo rats on abiotic and biotic factors appears to result in greater founding and survivorship of young colonies near mounds. These results suggest that soil disturbance and foraging by rodents can have subtle impacts on the distribution and demography of other species.

  2. Positive interactions between desert granivores: localized facilitation of harvester ants by kangaroo rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    Facilitation, when one species enhances the environment or performance of another species, can be highly localized in space. While facilitation in plant communities has been intensely studied, the role of facilitation in shaping animal communities is less well understood. In the Chihuahuan Desert, both kangaroo rats and harvester ants depend on the abundant seeds of annual plants. Kangaroo rats, however, are hypothesized to facilitate harvester ants through soil disturbance and selective seed predation rather than competing with them. I used a spatially explicit approach to examine whether a positive or negative interaction exists between banner-tailed kangaroo rat (Dipodomys spectabilis) mounds and rough harvester ant (Pogonomyrmex rugosus) colonies. The presence of a scale-dependent interaction between mounds and colonies was tested by comparing fitted spatial point process models with and without interspecific effects. Also, the effect of proximity to a mound on colony mortality and spatial patterns of surviving colonies was examined. The spatial pattern of kangaroo rat mounds and harvester ant colonies was consistent with a positive interspecific interaction at small scales (ant colonies was lower when located close to a kangaroo rat mound and proximity to a mound partly predicted the spatial pattern of surviving colonies. My findings support localized facilitation of harvester ants by kangaroo rats, likely mediated through ecosystem engineering and foraging effects on plant cover and composition. The scale-dependent effect of kangaroo rats on abiotic and biotic factors appears to result in greater founding and survivorship of young colonies near mounds. These results suggest that soil disturbance and foraging by rodents can have subtle impacts on the distribution and demography of other species.

  3. The role of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in growth and reproduction in female brown house snakes (Lamprophis fuliginosus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparkman, A M; Byars, D; Ford, N B; Bronikowski, A M

    2010-09-15

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a peptide hormone critically involved in the regulation of key life-history traits such as growth and reproduction. Its structure and function are well-characterized among diverse mammal, fish, and bird species; however, little is known regarding the activities of IGF-1 in non-avian reptiles, particularly snakes and lizards. Nevertheless, several unique characteristics of reptiles, such as high metabolic flexibility and remarkable diversity in life-history strategy, suggest that they are of great interest in the study of endocrinological mechanisms underlying the regulation and evolution of life-history traits. Here we test for a relationship between IGF-1 and individual feeding rate, growth rate and reproductive stage in lab-reared female offspring of wild-caught oviparous house snakes, Lamprophis fuliginosus. We confirm a positive correlation between IGF-1 and both feeding and growth rates in sexually immature snakes, similar to that reported in other taxa. We also show a family effect on IGF-1, suggesting that IGF-1 levels may be heritable in these snakes, and serve as an important target of selection to produce divergent life-history strategies. Furthermore, we provide evidence that suggests that IGF-1 may peak rapidly after first mating, and subsequently decline prior to egg-laying, a phenomenon not previously reported in other taxa. These findings suggest that further comparative study of IGF-1 in snakes may reveal both the extent to which IGF-1 function is conserved across major taxonomic groups, as well as novel and intriguing roles for IGF-1 in the regulation of reproductive activities.

  4. Botfly (Diptera:Oestridae) parasitism of Ord's kangaroo rats (Dipodomys ordii) at Suffield National Wildlife Area, Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gummer, D L; Forbes, M R; Bender, D J; Barclay, R M

    1997-08-01

    During field study of Ord's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ordii) at Suffield National Wildlife Area, Alberta, Canada, a high prevalence of parasitism by botfly (Diptera: Oestridae) larvae was observed. Botflies have not previously been documented as parasites of kangaroo rats. Botfly parasitism could have a significant impact on the growth, survival, and reproduction of Ord's kangaroo rat, which is considered a vulnerable species in Canada. Therefore, it is important to investigate how botfly parasitism varies with season and with gender or age of host. In 1995, 525 individual kangaroo rats were caught by nightlighting and live trapping for a total of 952 capture records. Upon capture, each kangaroo rat was ear-tagged and thoroughly examined for parasites and wounds. Third-instar botfly (Cuterebra polita) larvae were observed in kangaroo rats between 16 June and 23 August. Prevalence was 34% based on 454 kangaroo rats sampled during that time, whereas the mean intensity was 2.3 larvae per infested host (n = 156, range = 1-11). In contrast to some other studies of botfly parasitism of rodents, there were no gender or age biases in either prevalence or intensity of infestation. The index of dispersion was 2.8, indicating that the parasites were aggregated in hosts. Botfly parasitism could be an important factor affecting northern populations of kangaroo rats; future investigations into the potential effects of botfly larvae on host fitness are warranted.

  5. Interpersonal relationships between professionals and mothers of premature from Kangaroo-Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Eliene de Oliveira Callou

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To understand the interpersonal relationships between professionals and mothers of premature newborns of the Kangaroo Unit. Methods: This was an exploratory study of qualitative approach. The interviews were conducted with 10 mothers and 7 professionals who joined in Kangaroo Program and then analyzed by the content analysis technique. The guiding questions used were related to feelings perceived in relation to the Kangaroo method, related to mother-child dyad and interpersonal relationships. Results: Mothers reported on their speeches: “safe to be with the baby in Kangaroo Method” and “sense of maternal feeling during breastfeeding”, while in the professionals’ discourses have emerged: “guidelines on caring for the babies”, “the embracement by the team” and “the importance of family support.” Conclusions: The interaction between professionals and mothers of Kangaroo Unit facilitates the permanence of the binomial in the method, therefore develops feelings of security, tranquility and confidence to take care of the baby. It is important that the team be aware of the difficulties, supporting them in the weakest moments and sharing their fears, doubts and concerns over the baby’s hospitalization.

  6. Draft De Novo Transcriptome of the Rat Kangaroo Potorous tridactylus as a Tool for Cell Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udy, Dylan B; Voorhies, Mark; Chan, Patricia P; Lowe, Todd M; Dumont, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    The rat kangaroo (long-nosed potoroo, Potorous tridactylus) is a marsupial native to Australia. Cultured rat kangaroo kidney epithelial cells (PtK) are commonly used to study cell biological processes. These mammalian cells are large, adherent, and flat, and contain large and few chromosomes-and are thus ideal for imaging intra-cellular dynamics such as those of mitosis. Despite this, neither the rat kangaroo genome nor transcriptome have been sequenced, creating a challenge for probing the molecular basis of these cellular dynamics. Here, we present the sequencing, assembly and annotation of the draft rat kangaroo de novo transcriptome. We sequenced 679 million reads that mapped to 347,323 Trinity transcripts and 20,079 Unigenes. We present statistics emerging from transcriptome-wide analyses, and analyses suggesting that the transcriptome covers full-length sequences of most genes, many with multiple isoforms. We also validate our findings with a proof-of-concept gene knockdown experiment. We expect that this high quality transcriptome will make rat kangaroo cells a more tractable system for linking molecular-scale function and cellular-scale dynamics.

  7. Multi-proxy monitoring approaches at Kangaroo Island, South Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Bronwyn; Drysdale, Russell; Tyler, Jonathan; Goodwin, Ian

    2017-04-01

    Interpretations of geochemical signals preserved in young speleothems are greatly enhanced by comprehensive cave-site monitoring. In the light of this, a cave monitoring project is being conducted concurrently with the development of a new palaeoclimate record from Kelly Hill Cave (Kangaroo Island, South Australia). The site is strategically located because it is situated between longer-lived monitoring sites in southeastern and southwestern Australia, as well as being climatically 'upstream' from major population and agricultural centres. This study aims to understand possible controls on speleothem δ18O in Kelly Hill Cave through i. identification of local and regional δ18O drivers in precipitation; and ii. preservation and modification of climatic signals within the epikarst as indicated by dripwater δ18O. These aims are achieved through analysis of a five-year daily rainfall (amount and δ18O) dataset in conjunction with in-cave drip monitoring. Drivers of precipitation δ18O were identified through linear regression between δ18O values and local meteorological variables, air-parcel back trajectories, and synoptic-typing. Synoptically driven moisture sources were identified through the use of NCEP/NCAR climate reanalysis sea-level pressure, precipitable moisture, and outgoing longwave radiation data in order to trace moisture sources and travel mechanisms from surrounding ocean basins. Local controls on δ18O at Kelly Hill Cave are consistent with published interpretations of southern Australia sites, with oxygen isotopes primarily controlled by rainfall amount on both daily and monthly time scales. Back-trajectory analysis also supports previous observations that the Southern Ocean is the major source for moisture-bearing cold-front systems. However, synoptic typing of daily rainfall δ18O and amount extremes reveals a previously unreported tropical connection and moisture source. This tropical connection appears to be strongest in summer and autumn, but

  8. Advantages of kangaroo Mother care in Less Than 2000 Grams Low Birth Weight Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Jafarzadeh

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background:The aim of study was to compare the effect of Kangaroo mother care (KMC and conventional methods of care (CMC in low birth weight babies less than 2000 grams.Method: One hundred babies with birth weight less than 2000 grams and without clinical problem were randomized in two groups; the tervention group (N=50 who received Kangaroo mother care and the control group (N=50 with conventional care. Two groups were compared in daily weight gaining, self confidence of mother, duration of hospitalization, clinical cyanosis and nosocomial infection. Collected data was analyzed by SPSS 11.5 software . Irct ID: IRCT201101091162N16.Results: The KMC babies had better daily weight gaining average [18.31±7.57gm vs. 4.8±16.57gm (P0.05.Conclusions: In this study Kangaroo mother care had better effect on daily weight gaining, mother confidence and shorter duration of hospitalization.

  9. Physical mechanisms underlying the strain-rate-dependent mechanical behavior of kangaroo shoulder cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibbotuwawa, Namal; Oloyede, Adekunle; Li, Tong; Singh, Sanjleena; Senadeera, Wijitha; Gu, YuanTong

    2015-09-01

    Due to anatomical and biomechanical similarities to human shoulder, kangaroo was chosen as a model to study shoulder cartilage. Comprehensive enzymatic degradation and indentation tests were applied on kangaroo shoulder cartilage to study mechanisms underlying its strain-rate-dependent mechanical behavior. We report that superficial collagen plays a more significant role than proteoglycans in facilitating strain-rate-dependent behavior of the kangaroo shoulder cartilage. By comparing the mechanical properties of degraded and normal cartilages, it was noted that proteoglycan and collagen degradation significantly compromised strain-rate-dependent mechanical behavior of the cartilage. Superficial collagen contributed equally to the tissue behavior at all strain-rates. This is different to the studies reported on knee cartilage and confirms the importance of superficial collagen on shoulder cartilage mechanical behavior. A porohyperelastic numerical model also indicated that collagen disruption would lead to faster damage of the shoulder cartilage than when proteoglycans are depleted.

  10. Parental involvement and kangaroo care in European neonatal intensive care units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallás-Alonso, Carmen R; Losacco, Valentina; Maraschini, Alice

    2012-01-01

    To compare, in a large representative sample of European neonatal intensive care units, the policies and practices regarding parental involvement and holding babies in the kangaroo care position as well as differences in the tasks mothers and fathers are allowed to carry out....

  11. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii in zoo animals in selected zoos in the midwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Camps, Silvia; Dubey, J P; Saville, W J A

    2008-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infections in zoo animals are of interest because many captive animals die of clinical toxoplasmosis and because of the potential risk of exposure of children and elderly to T. gondii oocysts excreted by cats in the zoos. Seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies in wild zoo felids, highly susceptible zoo species, and feral cats from 8 zoos of the midwestern United States was determined by using the modified agglutination test (MAT). A titer of 1:25 was considered indicative of T. gondii exposure. Among wild felids, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 6 (27.3%) of 22 cheetahs (Acynonyx jubatus jubatus), 2 of 4 African lynx (Caracal caracal), 1 of 7 clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa), 1 of 5 Pallas cats (Otocolobus manul), 12 (54.5%) of 22 African lions (Panthera leo), 1 of 1 jaguar (Panthera onca), 1 of 1 Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis), 1 of 1 Persian leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor), 5 (27.8%) of 18 Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica), 1 of 4 fishing cats (Prionailurus viverrinus), 3 of 6 pumas (Puma concolor), 2 of 2 Texas pumas (Puma concolor stanleyana), and 5 (35.7%) of 14 snow leopards (Uncia uncia). Antibodies were found in 10 of 34 feral domestic cats (Felis domesticus) trapped in 3 zoos. Toxoplasma gondii oocysts were not found in any of the 78 fecal samples from wild and domestic cats. Among the macropods, antibodies were detected in 1 of 3 Dama wallabies (Macropus eugenii), 1 of 1 western grey kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus), 1 of 2 wallaroos (Macropus robustus), 6 of 8 Bennett's wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus), 21 (61.8%) of 34 red kangaroos (Macropus rufus), and 1 of 1 dusky pademelon (Thylogale brunii). Among prosimians, antibodies were detected in 1 of 3 blue-eyed black lemurs (Eulemur macaco flavifrons), 1 of 21 ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), 2 of 9 red-ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata rubra), and 2 of 4 black- and white-ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata). Among the avian species tested, 2 of 3 bald

  12. Further characterisation of two Eimeria species (Eimeria quokka and Eimeria setonicis) in quokkas (Setonix brachyurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austen, J M; Friend, J A; Yang, R; Ryan, U M

    2014-03-01

    The identification and characterisation of novel Eimeria species has largely been based on sporulated oocyst and sporocyst morphology, the host species and the geographical range. Variation in the size and shape of Eimeria oocysts across their host range however, make the identification and characterisation of novel species using traditional methodologies alone problematic. The use of molecular markers and phylogenetic analysis has greatly advanced our ability to characterise Eimeria species and has recently been applied to understand evolutionary relationships among Eimeria species from Australian marsupials. In the present study, Eimeria species isolated from quokkas (Setonix brachyurus) captured from Two Peoples Bay, Bald Island and Rottnest Island, Western Australia, were morphologically identified as Eimeria quokka and Eimeria setonicis. Both Eimeria species were identified as being polymorphic in nature with regards to sporulated oocyst and sporocyst morphometrics. Phylogenetic analysis using 18S rRNA and COI (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1) genes, grouped E. quokka and E. setonicis within the Eimeria marsupial clade together with Eimeria trichosuri from brushtail possums, Eimeria macropodis from tammar wallabies (Macropus eugenii) and several unidentified macropod Eimeria species from western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus). This study is the first to characterise E. quokka and E. setonicis by molecular analysis, enabling more extensive resolution of evolutionary relationships among marsupial-derived Eimeria species.

  13. Functional morphology of the forelimb of living and extinct tree-kangaroos (Marsupialia: Macropodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Natalie M; Harvey, Kathryn J; Prideaux, Gavin J; O'Shea, James E

    2011-10-01

    Tree-kangaroos are a unique group of arboreal marsupials that evolved from terrestrial ancestors. The recent discovery of well-preserved specimens of extinct tree-kangaroo species (genus Bohra) within Pleistocene cave deposits of south-central Australia provides a unique opportunity to examine adaptive evolution of tree-kangaroos. Here, we provide the first detailed description of the functional anatomy of the forelimb, a central component of the locomotor complex, in the extant Dendrolagus lumholtzi, and compare its structure and function with representatives of other extant marsupial families. Several features were interpreted as adaptations for coping with a discontinuous, uneven and three-dimensional arboreal substrate through enhanced muscular strength and dexterity for propulsion, grasping, and gripping with the forelimbs. The forelimb musculoskeletal anatomy of Dendrolagus differed from terrestrial kangaroos in the following principal ways: a stronger emphasis on the development of muscles groups responsible for adduction, grasping, and gripping; the enlargement of muscles that retract the humerus; and modified shape of the scapula and bony articulations of the forelimb bones to allow improved mobility. Many of these attributes are convergent with other arboreal marsupials. Tree-kangaroos, however, still retain the characteristic bauplan of their terrestrial ancestors, particularly with regard to skeletal morphology, and the muscular anatomy of the forelimb highlights a basic conservatism within the group. In many instances, the skeletal remains of Bohra have similar features to Dendrolagus that suggest adaptations to an arboreal habit. Despite the irony of their retrieval from deposits of the Nullarbor "Treeless" Plain, forelimb morphology clearly shows that the species of Bohra were well adapted to an arboreal habitat.

  14. Preterm newborns at Kangaroo Mother Care: a cohort follow-up from birth to six months

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    Maria Alexsandra da S. Menezes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:To evaluate clinical outcomes, growth and exclusive breastfeeding rates in premature infants assisted by Kangaroo Mother Care at birth, at discharge and at six months of life.METHODS: Prospective study of a premature infants cohort assisted by Kangaroo Mother Care in a tertiary public maternity in Northeast Brazil with birth weight ≤1750g and with clinical conditions for Kangaroo care.RESULTS: The sample was composed by 137 premature infants, being 62.8% female, with average birth weight of 1365±283g, average gestational age of 32±3 weeks and 26.2% were adequate for gestational age. They have been admitted in the Kangaroo Ward with a median of 13 days of life, weighing 1430±167g and, at this time, 57.7% were classified as small for corrected gestational age. They were discharged with 36.8±21.8 days of chronological age, weighing 1780±165g and 67.9% were small for corrected gestational age. At six months of life (n=76, they had an average weight of 5954±971g, and 68.4% presented corrected weight for gestational age between percentiles 15 and 85 of the World Health Organization (WHO weight curve. Exclusive breastfeeding rate at discharge was 56.2% and, at six months of life, 14.4%.CONCLUSIONS: In the studied sample, almost two thirds of the children assisted by Kangaroo Mother Care were, at six months of life, between percentiles 15 and 85 of the WHO weight curves. The frequency of exclusive breastfeeding at six months was low.

  15. Seasonal patterns of circulating progesterone and prolactin and response to bromocriptine in the female tammar Macropus eugenii.

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    Tyndale-Biscoe, C H; Hinds, L A

    1984-01-01

    Concentrations of prolactin and progesterone in the plasma of female tammars (Macropus eugenii) were measured during lactational quiescence and seasonal quiescence and during the period of natural resumption of reproduction after the summer solstice in December. Prolactin concentrations were consistently low (less than 40 ng/ml) during the period of declining day length and consistently elevated (greater than 40 ng/ml) during the period of increasing day length. Basal levels of progesterone were lowest (118.9 +/- 9.1 pg/ml) at the winter solstice and highest (244.1 +/- 21.0 pg/ml) at the summer solstice. Treatment with bromocriptine (CB154) did not depress prolactin levels at either time of the year but during February to June a single injection of 5 mg/kg body wt induced development of the quiescent corpus luteum (CL) and the diapausing embryo was reactivated. In February and March the level of progesterone increased in association with the developing CL, but after treatment at the winter solstice in June plasma progesterone did not increase although pregnancy was successfully completed. From September through November only 1 of 50 females responded to bromocriptine. None responded to bromocriptine given at the summer solstice in December, but all these animals spontaneously reactivated 2 weeks later. The difference in response of female tammars to bromocriptine treatment in the two halves of the year suggests that different endocrine controls operate in lactational and seasonal quiescence and that the latter is more complex.

  16. Molecular insights into evolution of the vertebrate gut: focus on stomach and parietal cells in the marsupial, Macropus eugenii.

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    Kwek, Joly; De Iongh, Robbert; Nicholas, Kevin; Familari, Mary

    2009-09-15

    Gastrulation in vertebrate embryos results in the formation of the primary germ layers: ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm, which contain the progenitors of the tissues of the entire fetal body. Extensive studies undertaken in Xenopus, zebrafish and mouse have revealed a high degree of conservation in the genes and cellular mechanisms regulating endoderm formation. Nodal, Mix and Sox gene factor families have been implicated in the specification of the endoderm across taxa. Considerably less is known about endoderm development in marsupials. In this study we review what is known about the molecular aspects of endoderm development, focusing on evolution and development of the stomach and parietal cells and highlight recent studies on parietal cells in the stomach of Tammar Wallaby, Macropus eugenii. Although the regulation of parietal cells has been extensively studied, very little is known about the regulation of parietal cell differentiation. Intriguingly, during late-stage forestomach maturation in M. eugenii, there is a sudden and rapid loss of parietal cells, compared with the sharp increase in parietal cell numbers in the hindstomach region. This has provided a unique opportunity to study the development and regulation of parietal cell differentiation. A PCR-based subtractive hybridization strategy was used to identify candidate genes involved in this phenomenon. This will allow us to dissect the molecular mechanisms that underpin regulation of parietal cell development and differentiation, which have been a difficult process to study and provide markers that can be used to study the evolutionary origin of these cells in vertebrates.

  17. Transparency and communication can improve wildlife welfare outcomes: A case of kangaroos

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    Simmons Peter

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available All countries manage human and wildlife coexistence. Where traditionally humans may have killed animals perceived to be a problem, this is often no longer legal or socially acceptable. Decision-makers tend to feel less strongly about coexistence issues than the people who attempt to influence them on behalf of human or wildlife interests. It has been argued that links between human interests and decisions affecting wildlife should be transparent, and that open decision making processes involving a range of local stakeholders will improve outcomes for humans and wildlife. This paper examines one case incident in an ongoing conflict between an international car racing track and kangaroos that have occasionally been found on the track during a race, causing danger to themselves and race participants. A secret local government report and plan to cull kangaroos was obtained using Freedom of Information legislation. When released to the media the subsequent public discussion showed a much greater concern for kangaroo stress, harm and right to live than the official report, and called for consideration of a range of alternatives to culling. This led to postponement of culling plans, and commitment to a more open community discussion of options. The case clearly supports claims that greater transparency and local stakeholder participation in management decision processes can improve welfare outcomes for non-human animals.

  18. Derivation of soil screening thresholds to protect chisel-toothed kangaroo rat from uranium mine waste in northern Arizona

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    Hinck, Jo E.; Linder, Greg L.; Otton, James K.; Finger, Susan E.; Little, Edward E.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical data from soil and weathered waste material samples collected from five uranium mines north of the Grand Canyon (three reclaimed, one mined but not reclaimed, and one never mined) were used in a screening-level risk analysis for the Arizona chisel-toothed kangaroo rat (Dipodomys microps leucotis); risks from radiation exposure were not evaluated. Dietary toxicity reference values were used to estimate soil-screening thresholds presenting risk to kangaroo rats. Sensitivity analyses indicated that body weight critically affected outcomes of exposed-dose calculations; juvenile kangaroo rats were more sensitive to the inorganic constituent toxicities than adult kangaroo rats. Species-specific soil-screening thresholds were derived for arsenic (137 mg/kg), cadmium (16 mg/kg), copper (1,461 mg/kg), lead (1,143 mg/kg), nickel (771 mg/kg), thallium (1.3 mg/kg), uranium (1,513 mg/kg), and zinc (731 mg/kg) using toxicity reference values that incorporate expected chronic field exposures. Inorganic contaminants in soils within and near the mine areas generally posed minimal risk to kangaroo rats. Most exceedances of soil thresholds were for arsenic and thallium and were associated with weathered mine wastes.

  19. The Effect of Kangaroo Mother Care on Fuss and Crying Time in Colicky Infants

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    Zahra Akbarian Rad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infantile colic is a common complaint in the first few weeks of life. On the other hand, because of its unknown etiology, there is not a specific therapy for this complaint, but various therapeutic options for reducing pain and restlessness of these infants are recommended. Skin to skin contact by Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC increases in pain threshold and it seems to be a suitable method for the care of these infants. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of KMC on infantile colic. Methods: This case- control study was performed between March 2012 and March 2013. Subjects were 55 infants with exclusive breast fed infant, aged 15-60 days with excessive fuss and crying, referred to Infant and Child Clinic in Ayatollah Rohani Hospital in Babol, north of Iran. Babies whose weights were less than 2500 Grams and with inheritance and clinical diseases excluded from the study. Infants were subjected to KMC at least 2 hours a day. Standard questionnaire and Barr Scale were filled by interview. Data was analyzed by SPSS v.11.5 and T-test, a P- value less than 0.05 considered being significant. Results: The fuss and crying time before the KMC was 2.21±1.54 hours per day and decreased to 1.16±1.3 hours per day after the implementation of KMC. (p=0.001 Conclusions: Kangaroo mother care at home can be used as a simple and safe method for decreasing of cry and fussiness in colicky infants. Keywords: Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC, fussiness, Colicky Infants, colic

  20. The Effect of Kangaroo Mother Care on Fuss and Crying Time in Colicky Infants

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    Zahra Akbarian Rad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Infantile colic is a common complaint in the first few weeks of life. On the other hand, because of its unknown etiology, there is not a specific therapy for this complaint, but various therapeutic options for reducing pain and restlessness of these infants are recommended. Skin to skin contact by Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC increases in pain threshold and it seems to be a suitable method for the care of these infants. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of KMC on infantile colic.Methods: This case- control study was performed between March 2012 and March 2013. Subjects were 55 infants with exclusive breast fed infant, aged 15-60 days with excessive fuss and crying, referred to Infant and Child Clinic in Ayatollah Rohani Hospital in Babol, north of Iran. Babies whose weights were less than 2500 Grams and with inheritance and clinical diseases excluded from the study. Infants were subjected to KMC at least 2 hours a day. Standard questionnaire and Barr Scale were filled by interview. Data was analyzed by SPSS v.11.5 and T-test, a P- value less than 0.05 considered being significant.Results:The fuss and crying time before the KMC was 2.21±1.54 hours per day and decreased to 1.16±1.3 hours per day after the implementation of KMC. (p=0.001Conclusions:Kangaroo mother care at home can be used as a simple and safe method for decreasing of cry and fussiness in colicky infants. Keywords: Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC, fussiness, Colicky Infants, colic

  1. Use of “Kangaroo Care” to Alleviate the Intensity of Vaccination Pain in Newborns

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    Mahboobe Gholami Robatsangi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective:It has been demonstrated that newborns feel pain completely. Thus, they should be treated with this in mind. Recent research showed that non-pharmacological interventions such as "Kangaroo Care" may be useful for decreasing pain in newborns. We tried to determine the effect of kangaroo care on the pain intensity of vaccination in healthy newborns. Methods:This study was a randomized case-control clinical trial. Subjects were 60 healthy full-term newborns delivered in a general Hospital, in Iran, from March to July 2006. They were randomly assigned to case and control groups. The case group received 30 minutes skin to skin contact, whereas infants in the control group were put, wrapped in a blanket, aside the mothers. Behavioral changes of newborns were evaluated and observed 2 minutes before, during, and 3 minutes after the intervention. All procedures were filmed. An assistant who was blinded to the study, scored behavior changes using Neonatal/Infant Pain Scale. Heart rate and oxygen saturation levels as displayed on the pulse monitor and duration of crying were recorded using a stopwatch. Findings:Mean pain intensity during the intervention v was significantly lower in the case group (P<0.006. Mean pain intensity 3 minutes after intervention was also significantly lower in the case group (P<0.021. Mean duration of crying was significantly lower in case group as well (P<0.001. Conclusion:Kangaroo care may be used to decrease pain intensity in newborns undergoing painful procedures.

  2. [Pathology of the digestive tract in kangaroos. A review based on our own study results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoon, H A; Murmann, W

    1985-01-01

    The present paper describes spontaneous pathological findings including etiological aspects in digestive tracts of kangaroos, which have been detected in 166 necropsies during the last 20 years. Protozoan - infections, herpes virus infections, gastroenteritis of unknown etiology and especially the occurrence of the so called "lumpy-jaw" turned out to be of special importance. These findings are discussed with reference to the literature, completed as well by short literature reviews, sub-divided into the different organs and the variable etiology of the diseases, as by a brief description of digestive tract physiology and anatomy in marsupials.

  3. Effect of Kangaroo Mother Care on Growth and Morbidity Pattern in Low Birth Weight Infants

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    Keerti Swarnkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC is dened as skin-to-skin contact between a mother and her newborn baby derived from practical similarities to marsupial care giving, proximately exclusive breastfeeding and early discharge from hospital. This concept was proposed as an alternative to conventional methods of care for low birth weight (LBW infants, and in replication to quandaries of earnest overcrowding in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs. KMC essentially utilizes the mother as a natural incubator Aim and Objectives: The aim was to assess the feasibility, acceptability and the effectiveness of KMC in LBW infants. It avoids agitation routinely experienced in busy ward. Material and Methods: A pilot open-labeled quasi-randomised clinical trial was conducted in Level III NICU of a teaching institution. 60 newborn infants <2500 g, meeting inclusion criteria were alternatively randomised into two groups: Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC and Conventional Methods of Care (CMC. Kangaroo mother care was practiced with minimum total period of eight hours a day intermittently for the intervention group while the controls remained in incubators or cots. Weight, head circumference, length, morbidity episodes, hospital stay, feeding patterns were monitored for all infants till postmenstrual age of 42 weeks in preterm babies or till a weight of 2500 g is achieved in term SGA babies. Results: The pilot study conrmed that trial processes were efcient, the intervention was acceptable (to mothers and nurses and that the outcome measures were appropriate; KMC babies achieved signicantly better growth at the end of the study (For preterm babies, weight, length and head circumference gain were signicantly higher in the KMC group (weight 19.28±2.9g/day, length 0.99±0.56cm/week and head circumference 0.72±0.07 cm/week than in the CMC group (P <0.001. A signicantly higher number of babies in the CMC group suffered from hypothermia, hypoglycemia, and

  4. Plasma endotoxin activity in kangaroos with oral necrobacillosis (lumpy jaw disease) using an automated handheld testing system.

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    Sotohira, Yukari; Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Sasaki, Haruka; Sano, Tadashi; Tsuchiya, Masakazu; Suzuki, Yohko; Shimamori, Toshio; Tsukano, Kenji; Sato, Ayano; Yokota, Hiroshi; Asakawa, Mitsuhiko

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reliability and effectiveness of directly determining endotoxin activity in plasma samples from kangaroos with lumpy jaw disease (LJD, n=15) and healthy controls (n=12). Prior to the present study, the ability of the commercially available automated handheld portable test system (PTS(TM)) to detect endotoxin activity in kangaroo plasma was compared with that of the traditional LAL-kinetic turbidimetric (KT) assay. Plasma samples, which were obtained from endotoxin-challenged cattle, were diluted 1:20 in endotoxin-free water and heated to 80°C for 10 min. The performance of the PTS(TM) was not significantly different from that of the traditional LAL-based assay. The data obtained using PTS(TM) correlated with those using KT (r(2)=0.963, PPTS(TM) is applicable as a simplified system to assess endotoxin activity in macropods. In the present study, we demonstrated the diagnostic value of plasma endotoxin activity in kangaroos with systemic inflammation caused by oral necrobacillosis and identified plasma endotoxin activity as a sensitive marker of systemic inflammation in kangaroos with LJD. Based on ROC curves, we proposed a diagnostic cut-off point for endotoxin activity of >0.22 EU/ml for the identification of LJD. Our results indicate that the assessment of plasma endotoxin activity is a promising diagnostic tool for determining the outcome of LJD in captive macropods.

  5. Studies on the in vitro cultivation of ciliate protozoa from the kangaroo forestomach.

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    Dehority, Burk A; Wright, André-Denis G

    2014-08-01

    The methods used for culturing rumen protozoa were found to be unsatisfactory for growth of ciliate protozoa from the kangaroo forestomach. Based on published measurements of physical parameters in the marsupial forestomach, several modifications were incorporated into the procedure, i.e., an increase in % hydrogen in the gas phase, adjustment of initial pH of the medium to 6.9-7.0 range, feed only forage as a substrate and incubate at a lower temperature (33-36 °C). Only incubation at the lower temperature increased survival time of the kangaroo protozoa. Two species of Bitricha were still viable after 28 d in culture. Cultures had to be terminated at that time. One of the species differed considerably in size and shape from previously described species and based on 18S rRNA data, may represent a new species of Bitricha. The second species, present in low numbers was identified as Bitricha oblata. In a separate trial, Macropodinium yalanbense survived for 11 d, at which time these cultures also had to be terminated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Parents’ lived experience of providing kangaroo care to their preterm infants

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    Angela Leonard

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Premature and low birthweight infants pose particular challenges to health services in South Africa. While there is good evidence to demonstrate the benefits of kangaroo care in low birthweight infants, limited research has been conducted locally on the experiences of parents who provide kangaroo care to their preterm infants. This phenomenological study explores the lived experience of parents who provided their preterm infants with kangaroo care at a tertiary-level maternity centre in the Western Cape. In-depth interviews were conducted with six parents: four mothers and two fathers. Data was analysed using an adaptation of the approaches described by Colaizzi (1978:48-71 and Hycner (1985:280-294. To ensure trustworthiness, the trustworthiness criteria described by Guba and Lincoln (1989:242-243 were applied. Kangaroo care is a phased process, each phase bringing a unique set of experiences. The eight themes that emerged are described: unforeseen, unprepared and uncertain - the experience of birth; anxiety and barriers; an intimate connection; adjustments, roles and responsibilities; measuring success; a network of encouragement and support; living-in challenges; and living with the infant outside of hospital. Challenges facing health care providers are described and recommendations for information about kangaroo care and support for parents are made. Opsomming Vroeggebore babas en babas met ’n lae geboortegewig stel besondere uitdagings vir Suid-Afrikaanse gesondhiedsdienste. Daar bestaan goeie bewyse dat die kangaroesorgmetode voordelig is vir babas met ’n laegeboortegewig, dog is minimale plaaslike navorsing gedoen oor die ondervindinge van ouers wat hierdie metode gebruik om vir hul vroeggebore babas te sorg. Hierdie fenomenologiese studie verken die geleefde ervaringe van ouers wat vir hulle vroeggebore babas deur middel van die kangaroesorgmetode in ’n tersiêre kraamsentrum in die Weskaap gesorg het. Data is ingesamel deur in

  7. The effect of kangaroo ward care in comparison with "intermediate intensive care" on the growth velocity in preterm infant with birth weight control trial.

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    Sharma, Deepak; Murki, Srinivas; Pratap, Oleti Tejo

    2016-10-01

    Kangaroo mother care (KMC) reduces neonatal mortality, neonatal sepsis and improves growth outcome in preterm infants. In this study, we compared the efficacy of "baby care in kangaroo ward (KWC)" with "baby care in intermediate intensive care (IIC)" in stable preterm infants (birth weight birth weight <1100 g) infants at term gestational age. Clinical trial registry of India CTRI/2014/05/004625 WHAT IS KNOWN: • Kangaroo mother care (KMC) reduces neonatal mortality, neonatal sepsis and improves growth outcome in VLBW infants. What is new: • Baby care by mother can be given safely in kangaroo ward from a weight of 1150 g in stable preterm infants without any adverse effects.

  8. [Social representations on breastfeeding according to preterm infants' mothers in Kangaroo Care].

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    Javorski, Marly; Caetano, Laise Conceição; Vasconcelos, Maria Gorete Lucena de; Leite, Adriana Moraes; Scochi, Carmen Gracinda Silvan

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the social representations on premature infants' breastfeeding at a Kangaroo Care Unit, from the perspective of mothers who are breastfeeding and describe the conflicts and contradictions they experience in this context. A qualitative approach was adopted, using the first stage of enunciation analysis in the light of social representations theory to identify the meanings assigned to breastfeeding. We found the following representations: healthy babies are breastfed, mother's milk provides protection and preserves the premature child's life, breastfeeding is the complement of motherhood and breastfeeding a premature infant is a hard and exhausting experience. The conflicts resulted from the assimilation of technical contents and discourse, late sucking and representations on breastfeeding.

  9. Isolation and Identification of Pyrene Mineralizing Mycobacterium spp. from Contaminated and Uncontaminated Sources

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    Christopher W. M. Lease

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium isolates obtained from PAH-contaminated and uncontaminated matrices were evaluated for their ability to degrade three-, four- and five-ring PAHs. PAH enrichment studies were prepared using pyrene and inocula obtained from manufacturing gas plant (MGP soil, uncontaminated agricultural soil, and faeces from Macropus fuliginosus (Western Grey Kangaroo. Three pyrene-degrading microorganisms isolated from the corresponding enrichment cultures had broad substrate ranges, however, isolates could be differentiated based on surfactant, phenol, hydrocarbon and PAH utilisation. 16S rRNA analysis identified all three isolates as Mycobacterium sp. The Mycobacterium spp. could rapidly degrade phenanthrene and pyrene, however, no strain had the capacity to utilise fluorene or benzo[a]pyrene. When pyrene mineralisation experiments were performed, 70–79% of added 14C was evolved as 14CO2 after 10 days. The present study demonstrates that PAH degrading microorganisms may be isolated from a diverse range of environmental matrices. The present study demonstrates that prior exposure to PAHs was not a prerequisite for PAH catabolic activity for two of these Mycobacterium isolates.

  10. The Effect of Kangaroo Mother Care Immediately after Delivery on Mother-infant Attachment 3 Months after Delivery

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    Fatemeh Zahra Karimi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background  The aim of this study was determine the effect of kangaroo mother care (KMC immediately after delivery on mother-infant attachment 3-month after delivery. Materials and Methods: In this RCT study, 72 mother-infant pairs were randomly divided in to kangaroo mother care and routine care groups.The intervention group received kangaroo mother care (KMC in the first two hours post birth. The control group just received routine hospital care. Mothers in the intervention group were encouraged to keep the baby in KMC as much as possible during the day and night throughout the neonatal period. Participants were followed up for three months after birth. The Main outcome measure was mother-infant attachment at 3 months postpartum and maternal anxiety about the baby at the same time. The data was collected by questionnaire (demographic information of parents and neonates and maternal attachment scale. Analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 14. Results: There was no significant difference between two groups regarding their baseline data. Mean maternal attachment score in the KMC group and in the routine care group at three months after delivery was 52.40±3.30 and 49.86±4.18 respectively, which was significantly higher in the KMC group (P

  11. Bringing compassion to the ethical dilemma in killing kangaroos for conservation: comment on "Conservation through sustainable use" by Rob Irvine.

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    Ramp, Daniel

    2013-06-01

    Ethical debate on the killing of kangaroos has polarised conservation and animal welfare science, yet at the heart of these scientific disciplines is the unifying aim of reducing harm to non-human animals. This aim provides the foundation for common ground, culminating in the development of compassionate conservation principles that seek to provide mechanisms for achieving both conservation and welfare goals. However, environmental decision-making is not devoid of human interests, and conservation strategies are commonly employed that suit entrenched positions and commercial gain, rather than valuing the needs of the non-human animals in need of protection. The case study on the wild kangaroo harvest presents just such a dilemma, whereby a conservation strategy is put forward that can only be rationalised by ignoring difficulties in the potential for realising conservation benefits and the considerable welfare cost to kangaroos. Rather than an open debate on the ethics of killing game over livestock, in this response I argue that efforts to bring transparency and objectivity to the public debate have to date been obfuscated by those seeking to maintain entrenched interests. Only by putting aside these interests will debate about the exploitation of wildlife result in humane, compassionate, and substantive conservation benefits.

  12. Suppurative otitis and ascending meningoencephalitis associated with Bacteroides tectus and Porphyromonas gulae in a captive Parma wallaby (Macropus parma) with toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannitti, Federico; Schapira, Andrea; Anderson, Mark; Clothier, Kristin

    2014-09-01

    A 6-year-old female Parma wallaby (Macropus parma) at a zoo in California developed acute ataxia and left-sided circling. Despite intensive care, clinical signs progressed to incoordination and prostration, and the animal was euthanized. At necropsy, the left tympanic cavity was filled with homogeneous suppurative exudate that extended into the cranium expanding the meninges and neuroparenchyma in the lateral and ventral aspect of the caudal ipsilateral brainstem and medulla oblongata. Microscopically, the brainstem showed regional severe suppurative meningoencephalitis with large numbers of neutrophils, fewer macrophages, and lymphocytes admixed with fibrin, necrotic cellular debris, hemorrhage, and mineralization, with numerous intralesional Gram-negative bacilli. Bacteroides spp. and Porphyromonas spp. were isolated on anaerobic culture from the meninges, and the bacteria were further characterized by partial 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing as Bacteroides tectus and Porphyromonas gulae. Bacterial aerobic culture from the meninges yielded very low numbers of mixed flora and Proteus spp., which were considered contaminants. Culture of Mycoplasma spp. from middle ear and meninges was negative. Additionally, Toxoplasma gondii cysts were detected by immunohistochemistry in the heart and brain, and anti-Toxoplasma antibodies were detected in serum. The genera Bacteroides and Porphyromonas have been associated with oral disease in marsupials; but not with otitis and meningoencephalitis. The results of the present work highlight the importance of performing anaerobic cultures in the diagnostic investigation of cases of suppurative otitis and meningoencephalitis in macropods.

  13. Speed cameras, section control, and kangaroo jumps-a meta-analysis.

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    Høye, Alena

    2014-12-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted of the effects of speed cameras and section control (point-to-point speed cameras) on crashes. 63 effect estimates from 15 speed camera studies and five effect estimates from four section control studies were included in the analysis. Speed cameras were found to reduce total crash numbers by about 20%. The effect declines with increasing distance from the camera location. Fatal crashes were found to be reduced by 51%, this result may however be affected by regression to the mean (RTM). Section control was found to have a greater crash reducing effect than speed cameras (-30% for total crash numbers and -56% for KSI crashes). There is no indication that these results (except the one for the effect of speed cameras on fatal crashes) are affected by regression to the mean, publication bias or outlier bias. The results indicate that kangaroo driving (braking and accelerating) occurs, but no adverse effects on speed or crashes were found. Crash migration, i.e., an increase of crash numbers on other roads due to rerouting of traffic, may occur in some cases at speed cameras, but the results do not indicate that such effects are common. Both speed cameras and section control were found to achieve considerable speed reductions and the crash effects that were found in meta-analysis are of a similar size or greater than one might expect based on the effects on speed.

  14. Maternal singing during kangaroo care led to autonomic stability in preterm infants and reduced maternal anxiety.

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    Arnon, Shmuel; Diamant, Chagit; Bauer, Sofia; Regev, Rivka; Sirota, Gisela; Litmanovitz, Ita

    2014-10-01

    Kangaroo care (KC) and maternal singing benefit preterm infants, and we investigated whether combining these benefitted infants and mothers. A prospective randomised, within-subject, crossover, repeated-measures study design was used, with participants acting as their own controls. We evaluated the heart rate variability (HRV) of stable preterm infants receiving KC, with and without maternal singing. This included low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF) and the LF/HF ratio during baseline (10 min), singing or quiet phases (20 min) and recovery (10 min). Physiological parameters, maternal anxiety and the infants' behavioural state were measured. We included 86 stable preterm infants, with a postmenstrual age of 32-36 weeks. A significant change in LF and HF, and lower LF/HF ratio, was observed during KC with maternal singing during the intervention and recovery phases, compared with just KC and baseline (all p-values singing than just KC (p = 0.04). No differences in the infants' behavioural states or physiological parameters were found, with or without singing. Maternal singing during KC reduces maternal anxiety and leads to autonomic stability in stable preterm infants. This effect is not detected in behavioural state or physiological parameters commonly used to monitor preterm infants. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The effect of formal, neonatal communication-intervention training on mothers in kangaroo care

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    Alta Kritzinger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to low-birth-weight, preterm birth, HIV and/or AIDS and poverty-related factors, South Africa presents with an increased prevalence of infants at risk of language delay. A Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC unit offers unique opportunities for training.Aim: The aim of the present study was to determine if formal, neonatal communication-intervention training had an effect on mothers’ knowledge and communication interaction with their high-risk infants.Methods: Three groups of mothers participated: Group 1 was trained whilst practicing KMC; Group 2 was not trained but practiced KMC; and Group 3 was also not trained but practiced sporadic KMC. Ten mothers per group were matched for age, education level and birth order of their infants. The individual training was based on graded sensory stimulation and responsive mother-infant communication interaction, which emphasised talking and singing by the mother.Results: Significant differences were found in mother-infant communication interaction between all three groups, which indicated a positive effect on Group 1 with training. Group 2, KMC without training, also had a positive effect on interaction. However, Group 1 mothers with training demonstrated better knowledge of their infants and were more responsive during interaction than the other two groups.Conclusion: The present study suggests that neonatal communication-intervention training adds value to a KMC programme. Normal 0 false false false EN-ZA X-NONE X-NONE

  16. Ord's kangaroo rats living in floodplain habitats: Factors contributing to habitat attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M.S.; Wilson, K.R.; Andersen, D.C.

    2003-01-01

    High densities of an aridland granivore, Ord's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ordii), have been documented in floodplain habitats along the Yampa River in northwestern Colorado. Despite a high probability of inundation and attendant high mortality during the spring flood period, the habitat is consistently recolonized. To understand factors that potentially make riparian habitats attractive to D. ordii, we compared density and spatial pattern of seeds, density of a competitor (western harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex occidentalis), and digging energetics within floodplain habitats and between floodplain and adjacent upland habitats. Seed density within the floodplain was greatest in the topographically high (rarely flooded) floodplain and lowest immediately after a spring flood in the topographically low (frequently flooded) floodplain. Seed densities in adjacent upland habitat that never floods were higher than the lowest floodplain habitat. In the low floodplain prior to flooding, seeds had a clumped spatial pattern, which D. ordii is adept at exploiting; after spring flooding, a more random pattern resulted. Populations of the western harvester ant were low in the floodplain relative to the upland. Digging by D. ordii was energetically less expensive in floodplain areas than in upland areas. Despite the potential for mortality due to annual spring flooding, the combination of less competition from harvester ants and lower energetic costs of digging might promote the use of floodplain habitat by D. ordii.

  17. The effect of kangaroo mother care on mental health of mothers with low birth weight infants

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    Zohreh Badiee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The mothers of premature infants are at risk of psychological stress because of separation from their infants. One of the methods influencing the maternal mental health in the postpartum period is kangaroo mother care (KMC. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of KMC of low birth weight infants on their maternal mental health. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Pediatrics of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Premature infants were randomly allocated into two groups. The control group received standard caring in the incubator. In the experimental group, caring with three sessions of 60 min KMC daily for 1 week was practiced. Mental health scores of the mothers were evaluated by using the 28-item General Health Questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed by the analysis of covariance using SPSS. Results: The scores of 50 infant-mother pairs were analyzed totally (25 in KMC group and 25 in standard care group. Results of covariance analysis showed the positive effects of KMC on the rate of maternal mental health scores. There were statistically significant differences between the mean scores of the experimental group and control subjects in the posttest period (P < 0.001. Conclusion: KMC for low birth weight infants is a safe way to improve maternal mental health. Therefore, it is suggested as a useful method that can be recommended for improving the mental health of mothers.

  18. Enhanced kangaroo mother care for heel lance in preterm neonates: a crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, C C; Filion, F; Campbell-Yeo, M; Goulet, C; Bell, L; McNaughton, K; Byron, J

    2009-01-01

    To test if enhancing maternal skin-to-skin contact, or kangaroo mother care (KMC) by adding rocking, singing and sucking is more efficacious than simple KMC for procedural pain in preterm neonates. Preterm neonates (n=90) between 32 0/7 and 36 0/7 weeks' gestational age participated in a single-blind randomized crossover design. The infant was held in KMC with the addition of rocking, singing and sucking or the infant was held in KMC without additional stimulation. The Premature Infant Pain Profile was the primary outcome with time to recover as the secondary outcome. A repeated-measures analysis of covariance was employed for analyses. There were no significant differences in any of the 30 s time periods over the 2 min of blood sampling nor in time to return to baseline. Compared to historical controls of the same age in incubator, the pain scores were lower and comparable to other studies of KMC. There were site differences related to lower scores with the use of sucrose in one site and higher scores in younger, sicker infants in another site. The sensorial stimulations from skin-to-skin contact that include tactile, olfactory sensations from the mother are sufficient to decrease pain response in premature neonates. Other studies showing that rocking, sucking and music were efficacious were independent of skin-to-skin contact, which, when used alone has been shown to be effective as reported across studies.

  19. The Effect of Kangaroo Mother Care on Neonatal Outcomes in Iranian Hospitals: A Review

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    Leila Sarparast

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC is a supportive technique that beings at the neonatal period and is one of the skin-to-skin contact methods of holding neonate by mother. This method has an important role in exclusive breastfeeding and thermal care of neonates. This study aimed to investigate the application of KMC and evaluate the effect of this technique in different neonatal outcomes, particularly in Iranian neonates. Moreover, this review can be a tool for formative evaluation for this newly introduced treatment intervention in Iran. Evidence Acquisition: This review was conducted in national and international databases concerning experience with KMC on term and preterm neonates admitted in Iranian hospitals from 2006 to 2014. The measured outcomes included physiologic, psychologic, and clinical effects of this practice on newborn infants. Results: In this study, 42 Persian and English language papers were reviewed and finally 26 articles were selected. Various effects of KMC on different factors such as analgesia; physiological effects, breastfeeding, icterus, length of hospitalization, infection, psychologic effects, and weight gain were found. Conclusions: The results showed that as a simple and suitable strategy for increasing the health status of the mothers and newborns, KMC had an important role in improvement of neonatal outcomes in neonatal wards of Iranian hospitals in recent ten years. Therefore, promoting this technique in all neonatal wards of the country can promote health status of this population.

  20. Rolling out of kangaroo mother care in secondary level facilities in Bihar-Some experiences

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    Sutapa B Neogi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preterm birth is one of the leading causes of under-five child deaths worldwide and in India. Kangaroo mother care (KMC is a powerful and easy-to-use method to promote health and well-being and reduce morbidity and mortality in preterm/low birth weight (LBW babies. Objective: As the part of the roll-out of India Newborn Action Plan interventions, we implemented KMC in select facilities with an objective to assess the responsiveness of public health system to roll out KMC. Methods: KMC intervention was implemented in two select high priority districts, Gaya and Purnea in Bihar over the duration of 8 months from August 2015 to March 2016. The implementation of intervention was phased out into; situation analysis, implementation of intervention, and interim assessment. KMC model, as envisaged keeping in mind the building blocks of health system, was established in 6 identified health-care facilities. A pretested simple checklist was used to assess the awareness, knowledge, skills, and practice of KMC during baseline situational analysis and interim assessment phases for comparison. Results: The intervention clearly seemed to improve the awareness among auxiliary nurse midwives/nurses about KMC. Improvements were also observed in the availability of infrastructure required for KMC and support logistics like facility for manual expression of breast milk, cups/suitable devices such as paladi cups for feeding small babies and digital weighing scale. Although the recording of information regarding LBW babies and KMC practice improved, still there is scope for much improvement. Conclusion: There is a commitment at the national level to promote KMC in every facility. The present experience shows the possibility of rolling out KMC in secondary level facilities with support from government functionaries.

  1. Randomized controlled trial of music during kangaroo care on maternal state anxiety and preterm infants' responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hui-Ling; Chen, Chia-Jung; Peng, Tai-Chu; Chang, Fwu-Mei; Hsieh, Mei-Lin; Huang, Hsiao-Yen; Chang, Shu-Chuan

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to investigate the influences of music during kangaroo care (KC) on maternal anxiety and preterm infants' responses. There are no experimental studies that explore the influences of combination of music and KC on psychophysiological responses in mother-infant dyads. Purposive sampling was used to recruit 30 hospitalized preterm infants body weight 1500 gm and over, gestational age 37 weeks and lower from two NICUs. Mother-infant dyads were randomly assigned to the treatment and the control group using permuted block randomization stratified on gender. There were 15 mother-infant dyads in each group. Subjects in the treatment dyads listened to their choice of a lullaby music during KC for 60 min/section/day for three consecutive days. Control dyads received routine incubator care. Using a repeated measures design with a pretest and three posttests, the responses of treatment dyads including maternal anxiety and infants' physiologic responses (heart rate, respiratory rate, and O2 saturation) as well as behavioural state were measured. The results revealed that there were no significant differences between the two groups on infants' physiologic responses and the values were all in the normal range. However, infants in the treatment group had more occurrence of quiet sleep states and less crying (pMusic during KC also resulted in significantly lower maternal anxiety in the treatment group (peffect. The findings provide evidence for the use of music during KC as an empirically-based intervention for bahavioural state stability and maternal anxiety in mother-infant dyads.

  2. Supporting factors and barriers in implementing kangaroo mother care in Indonesia

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    Hadi Pratomo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Kangaroo mother care (KMC was introduced to Indonesia in the 1990s. Since then, KMC has not been widely implemented and has not received national policy support. Objective The objectives of this case study were to implement KMC by an intervention that would ultimately benefit ten hospitals in Java, Indonesia, as well as identify supporting factors and barriers to KMC implementation. Methods An intervention with four phases was conducted in ten hospitals. Two teaching hospitals were supported to serve as training centers, six hospitals were supported to implement KMC and two other hospitals were supported to strengthen existing KMC practices. The four phases were comprised of a baseline assessment, a five-day training workshop, two supervisory visits to each hospital, and an end-line assessment. Results A total of 344 low birth weight infants received KMC during the intervention period. Good progress with regards to implementation was observed in most hospitals between the first and second supervisory visits. Supporting factors for KMC were the following: support received from hospital management, positive attitudes of healthcare providers, patients, families and communities, as well as the availability of resources. The most common challenges were record keeping and data collection, human resources and staff issues, infrastructure and budgets, discharge and follow-up, as well as family issues. Challenges related to the family were the inability of the mother or family to visit the infant frequently to provide KMC, and the affordability of hospital user fees for the infant to stay in the hospital for a sufficient period of time. Conclusion KMC appeared to be well accepted in most hospitals. For an intervention to have maximum impact, it is important to integrate services and maintain a complex network of communication systems. [Paediatr Indones. 2012;52:43-50].

  3. Changing patterns of meat consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in Australia: Will kangaroo meat make a difference?

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    Ratnasiri, Shyama; Bandara, Jayatilleke

    2017-01-01

    The Australian per capita consumption of ruminant meat such as beef and lamb has declined over the last two decades. Over the same period, however, per capita consumption of non-ruminant meat such as chicken and pork has continued to increase. Furthermore, it is now observed that the human consumption of kangaroo meat is on the rise. This study investigates the implications of these changes in meat consumption patterns on Green House Gases (GHGs) emission mitigation in Australia using a Vector Auto Regression (VAR) forecasting approach. Our results suggest that the increase will continue in non-ruminant meat consumption and this will not only offset the decline in ruminant meat consumption, but will also raise the overall per capita meat consumption by approximately 1% annually. The per capita GHGs emissions will likely decrease by approximately 2.3% per annum, due to the inclusion of non-ruminant meat in Australian diets. The GHGs emissions can further be reduced if the average Australian consumer partially replaces ruminant meat with kangaroo meat.

  4. Changing patterns of meat consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in Australia: Will kangaroo meat make a difference?

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    Ratnasiri, Shyama; Bandara, Jayatilleke

    2017-01-01

    The Australian per capita consumption of ruminant meat such as beef and lamb has declined over the last two decades. Over the same period, however, per capita consumption of non-ruminant meat such as chicken and pork has continued to increase. Furthermore, it is now observed that the human consumption of kangaroo meat is on the rise. This study investigates the implications of these changes in meat consumption patterns on Green House Gases (GHGs) emission mitigation in Australia using a Vector Auto Regression (VAR) forecasting approach. Our results suggest that the increase will continue in non-ruminant meat consumption and this will not only offset the decline in ruminant meat consumption, but will also raise the overall per capita meat consumption by approximately 1% annually. The per capita GHGs emissions will likely decrease by approximately 2.3% per annum, due to the inclusion of non-ruminant meat in Australian diets. The GHGs emissions can further be reduced if the average Australian consumer partially replaces ruminant meat with kangaroo meat. PMID:28196141

  5. Kangaroo mother care diminishes pain from heel lance in very preterm neonates: A crossover trial

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    McNaughton Kathryn

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skin-to-skin contact, or kangaroo mother care (KMC has been shown to be efficacious in diminishing pain response to heel lance in full term and moderately preterm neonates. The purpose of this study was to determine if KMC would also be efficacious in very preterm neonates. Methods Preterm neonates (n = 61 between 28 0/7 and 31 6/7 weeks gestational age in three Level III NICU's in Canada comprised the sample. A single-blind randomized crossover design was employed. In the experimental condition, the infant was held in KMC for 15 minutes prior to and throughout heel lance procedure. In the control condition, the infant was in prone position swaddled in a blanket in the incubator. The primary outcome was the Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP, which is comprised of three facial actions, maximum heart rate, minimum oxygen saturation levels from baseline in 30-second blocks from heel lance. The secondary outcome was time to recover, defined as heart rate return to baseline. Continuous video, heart rate and oxygen saturation monitoring were recorded with event markers during the procedure and were subsequently analyzed. Repeated measures analysis-of-variance was employed to generate results. Results PIPP scores at 90 seconds post lance were significantly lower in the KMC condition (8.871 (95%CI 7.852–9.889 versus 10.677 (95%CI 9.563–11.792 p CI 103–142 versus 193 seconds (95%CI 158–227. Facial actions were highly significantly lower across all points in time reaching a two-fold difference by 120 seconds post-lance and heart rate was significantly lower across the first 90 seconds in the KMC condition. Conclusion Very preterm neonates appear to have endogenous mechanisms elicited through skin-to-skin maternal contact that decrease pain response, but not as powerfully as in older preterm neonates. The shorter recovery time in KMC is clinically important in helping maintain homeostasis. Trial Registration (Current

  6. Kangaroo mother care: a multi-country analysis of health system bottlenecks and potential solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background Preterm birth is now the leading cause of under-five child deaths worldwide with one million direct deaths plus approximately another million where preterm is a risk factor for neonatal deaths due to other causes. There is strong evidence that kangaroo mother care (KMC) reduces mortality among babies with birth weight hospital discharge with follow-up. The World Health Organization has endorsed KMC for stabilised newborns in health facilities in both high-income and low-resource settings. The objectives of this paper are to: (1) use a 12-country analysis to explore health system bottlenecks affecting the scale-up of KMC; (2) propose solutions to the most significant bottlenecks; and (3) outline priority actions for scale-up. Methods The bottleneck analysis tool was applied in 12 countries in Africa and Asia as part of the Every Newborn Action Plan process. Country workshops involved technical experts to complete the survey tool, which is designed to synthesise and grade health system "bottlenecks", factors that hinder the scale-up, of maternal-newborn intervention packages. We used quantitative and qualitative methods to analyse the bottleneck data, combined with literature review, to present priority bottlenecks and actions relevant to different health system building blocks for KMC. Results Marked differences were found in the perceived severity of health system bottlenecks between Asian and African countries, with the former reporting more significant or very major bottlenecks for KMC with respect to all the health system building blocks. Community ownership and health financing bottlenecks were significant or very major bottlenecks for KMC in both low and high mortality contexts, particularly in South Asia. Significant bottlenecks were also reported for leadership and governance and health workforce building blocks. Conclusions There are at least a dozen countries worldwide with national KMC programmes, and we identify three pathways to scale: (1

  7. Marsupial and monotreme serum immunoglobulin binding by proteins A, G and L and anti-kangaroo antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Paola K; Hartley, Carol A; Browning, Glenn F; Devlin, Joanne M

    2015-12-01

    Serological studies are often conducted to examine exposure to infectious agents in wildlife populations. However, specific immunological reagents for wildlife species are seldom available and can limit the study of infectious diseases in these animals. This study examined the ability of four commercially available immunoglobulin-binding reagents to bind serum immunoglobulins from 17 species within the Marsupialia and Monotremata. Serum samples were assessed for binding, using immunoblots and ELISAs (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays), to three microbially-derived proteins - staphylococcal protein A, streptococcal protein G and peptostreptococcal protein L. Additionally, an anti-kangaroo antibody was included for comparison. The inter- and intra-familial binding patterns of the reagents to serum immunoglobulins varied and evolutionary distance between animal species was not an accurate predictor of the ability of reagents to bind immunoglobulins. Results from this study can be used to inform the selection of appropriate immunological reagents in future serological studies in these clades.

  8. A new species of Near-shore Marine Goby (Pisces: Gobiidae: Nesogobius) from Kangaroo Island, Australia.

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    Hammer, Michael P; Hoese, Douglass F; Bertozzi, Terry

    2015-12-11

    Nesogobius is one of two goby genera with all species wholly restricted to temperate Australian waters. Described here is a new member of the genus discovered during near-shore marine and estuarine fish sampling along the central southern Australian coastline. The tiger sandgoby Nesogobius tigrinus sp. nov. is distinguished from other congeners by a combination of colouration including four prominent vertical black bars on males; morphological characters involving body scales (large), head scales (naked), body depth (slender) and gill opening (wide); meristic counts including a lack of second dorsal and anal fin spines; and mitochondrial DNA sequence divergence. The species appears to be a narrow range endemic, restricted to specific sub-tidal habitat in the unique sheltered embayments of northeast Kangaroo Island. This study forms part of ongoing investigations to more fully describe the biodiversity and conservation requirements of the regional ichthyofauna.

  9. Genetic evaluation of the Association of Zoos and Aquariums Matschie's tree kangaroo (Dendrolagus matschiei) captive breeding program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreevy, Thomas J; Dabek, Lisa; Husband, Thomas P

    2011-01-01

    Matschie's tree kangaroo (Dendrolagus matschiei) is an endangered species that has been bred in captivity since the 1970s. In 1992, the Tree Kangaroo Species Survival Plan(®) (TKSSP) was established to coordinate the captive management of Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) D. matschiei. The TKSSP makes annual breeding recommendations primarily based on the mean kinship (MK) strategy. Captive breeding programs often use the MK strategy to preserve genetic diversity in small populations-to avoid the negative consequences of inbreeding and retain their adaptive potential. The ability of a captive breeding program to retain the population's genetic diversity over time can be evaluated by comparing the genetic diversity of the captive population to wild populations. We analyzed DNA extracted from blood and fecal samples from AZA (n = 71), captive (n = 28), and wild (n = 22) D. matschiei using eight microsatellite markers and sequenced the partial mitochondrial DNA control region gene. AZA D. matschiei had a similar expected heterozygosity (H(e) = 0.595 ± 0.184) compared with wild D. matschiei (H(e) = 0.628 ± 0.143), but they had different allelic frequencies (F(ST) = 0.126; P < 0.001). AZA D. matschiei haplotype diversity was almost two times lower than wild D. matschiei Ĥ = 0.740 ± 0.063. These data will assist management of AZA D. matschiei and serve as a baseline for AZA and wild D. matschiei genetic diversity values that could be used to monitor future changes in their genetic diversity. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Microstructural and compositional features of the fibrous and hyaline cartilage on the medial tibial plateau imply a unique role for the hopping locomotion of kangaroo.

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    Bo He

    Full Text Available Hopping provides efficient and energy saving locomotion for kangaroos, but it results in great forces in the knee joints. A previous study has suggested that a unique fibrous cartilage in the central region of the tibial cartilage could serve to decrease the peak stresses generated within kangaroo tibiofemoral joints. However, the influences of the microstructure, composition and mechanical properties of the central fibrous and peripheral hyaline cartilage on the function of the knee joints are still to be defined. The present study showed that the fibrous cartilage was thicker and had a lower chondrocyte density than the hyaline cartilage. Despite having a higher PG content in the middle and deep zones, the fibrous cartilage had an inferior compressive strength compared to the peripheral hyaline cartilage. The fibrous cartilage had a complex three dimensional collagen meshwork with collagen bundles parallel to the surface in the superficial zone, and with collagen bundles both parallel and perpendicular to the surface in the middle and deep zones. The collagen in the hyaline cartilage displayed a typical Benninghoff structure, with collagen fibres parallel to the surface in the superficial zone and collagen fibres perpendicular to the surface in the deep zone. Elastin fibres were found throughout the entire tissue depth of the fibrous cartilage and displayed a similar alignment to the adjacent collagen bundles. In comparison, the elastin fibres in the hyaline cartilage were confined within the superficial zone. This study examined for the first time the fibrillary structure, PG content and compressive properties of the central fibrous cartilage pad and peripheral hyaline cartilage within the kangaroo medial tibial plateau. It provided insights into the microstructure and composition of the fibrous and peripheral hyaline cartilage in relation to the unique mechanical properties of the tissues to provide for the normal activities of kangaroos.

  11. Microstructural and compositional features of the fibrous and hyaline cartilage on the medial tibial plateau imply a unique role for the hopping locomotion of kangaroo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bo; Wu, Jian Ping; Xu, Jiake; Day, Robert E; Kirk, Thomas Brett

    2013-01-01

    Hopping provides efficient and energy saving locomotion for kangaroos, but it results in great forces in the knee joints. A previous study has suggested that a unique fibrous cartilage in the central region of the tibial cartilage could serve to decrease the peak stresses generated within kangaroo tibiofemoral joints. However, the influences of the microstructure, composition and mechanical properties of the central fibrous and peripheral hyaline cartilage on the function of the knee joints are still to be defined. The present study showed that the fibrous cartilage was thicker and had a lower chondrocyte density than the hyaline cartilage. Despite having a higher PG content in the middle and deep zones, the fibrous cartilage had an inferior compressive strength compared to the peripheral hyaline cartilage. The fibrous cartilage had a complex three dimensional collagen meshwork with collagen bundles parallel to the surface in the superficial zone, and with collagen bundles both parallel and perpendicular to the surface in the middle and deep zones. The collagen in the hyaline cartilage displayed a typical Benninghoff structure, with collagen fibres parallel to the surface in the superficial zone and collagen fibres perpendicular to the surface in the deep zone. Elastin fibres were found throughout the entire tissue depth of the fibrous cartilage and displayed a similar alignment to the adjacent collagen bundles. In comparison, the elastin fibres in the hyaline cartilage were confined within the superficial zone. This study examined for the first time the fibrillary structure, PG content and compressive properties of the central fibrous cartilage pad and peripheral hyaline cartilage within the kangaroo medial tibial plateau. It provided insights into the microstructure and composition of the fibrous and peripheral hyaline cartilage in relation to the unique mechanical properties of the tissues to provide for the normal activities of kangaroos.

  12. Método Mãe-Canguru Método Madre Canguro Kangaroo Mother Method

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    Roberta Costa

    2005-12-01

    conocimientos lo hace difícil, también, una adecuada evaluación de esta práctica con relación al recién-nacido y su familia pero, principalmente, en lo que concierne a la aplicación del MMC junto al equipo neonatal.Study of a qualitative nature, whose objective is to identify the knowledge that comes out produced and propagated in Brazilians and foreigners periodic, about Kangaroo Mother Method (KMM. An incursion for literature was carried through, from the databases Medline and Lilacs, as well as direct search to main the nursing periodic, during the period from 1995 through 2004. Eight five articles were selected, later catalogued and submitted to categorizes. After analysis of the articles, four categories were extracted on the thematic. The results had led to the conclusion that despite the KMM being configuring itself as a paradigmatic change in the care to the newborn, it does not have total correspondence with the theoretical production, taking the one that the practical one is developed, many times, without had theoretical sustentation. This gap of knowledge makes it difficult, also, one adequate evaluation of this practical with relation to newborn and its family but, mainly, in whom it says respect to the application of KMM together to the neonatal team.

  13. Scaling up kangaroo mother care in South Africa: 'on-site' versus 'off-site' educational facilitation

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    van Rooyen Elise

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scaling up the implementation of new health care interventions can be challenging and demand intensive training or retraining of health workers. This paper reports on the results of testing the effectiveness of two different kinds of face-to-face facilitation used in conjunction with a well-designed educational package in the scaling up of kangaroo mother care. Methods Thirty-six hospitals in the Provinces of Gauteng and Mpumalanga in South Africa were targeted to implement kangaroo mother care and participated in the trial. The hospitals were paired with respect to their geographical location and annual number of births. One hospital in each pair was randomly allocated to receive either 'on-site' facilitation (Group A or 'off-site' facilitation (Group B. Hospitals in Group A received two on-site visits, whereas delegates from hospitals in Group B attended one off-site, 'hands-on' workshop at a training hospital. All hospitals were evaluated during a site visit six to eight months after attending an introductory workshop and were scored by means of an existing progress-monitoring tool with a scoring scale of 0–30. Successful implementation was regarded as demonstrating evidence of practice (score >10 during the site visit. Results There was no significant difference between the scores of Groups A and B (p = 0.633. Fifteen hospitals in Group A and 16 in Group B demonstrated evidence of practice. The median score for Group A was 16.52 (range 00.00–23.79 and that for Group B 14.76 (range 07.50–23.29. Conclusion A previous trial illustrated that the implementation of a new health care intervention could be scaled up by using a carefully designed educational package, combined with face-to-face facilitation by respected resource persons. This study demonstrated that the site of facilitation, either on site or at a centre of excellence, did not influence the ability of a hospital to implement KMC. The choice of outreach

  14. Differing impact of a major biogeographic barrier on genetic structure in two large kangaroos from the monsoon tropics of Northern Australia.

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    Eldridge, Mark D B; Potter, Sally; Johnson, Christopher N; Ritchie, Euan G

    2014-03-01

    Tropical savannas cover 20-30% of the world's land surface and exhibit high levels of regional endemism, but the evolutionary histories of their biota remain poorly studied. The most extensive and unmodified tropical savannas occur in Northern Australia, and recent studies suggest this region supports high levels of previously undetected genetic diversity. To examine the importance of barriers to gene flow and the environmental history of Northern Australia in influencing patterns of diversity, we investigated the phylogeography of two closely related, large, vagile macropodid marsupials, the antilopine wallaroo (Macropus antilopinus; n = 78), and the common wallaroo (Macropus robustus; n = 21). Both species are widespread across the tropical savannas of Australia except across the Carpentarian Barrier (CB) where there is a break in the distribution of M. antilopinus. We determined sequence variation in the hypervariable Domain I of the mitochondrial DNA control region and genotyped individuals at 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci to assess the historical and contemporary influence of the CB on these species. Surprisingly, we detected only limited differentiation between the disjunct Northern Territory and QueenslandM. antilopinus populations. In contrast, the continuously distributedM. robustus was highly divergent across the CB. Although unexpected, these contrasting responses appear related to minor differences in species biology. Our results suggest that vicariance may not explain well the phylogeographic patterns in Australia's dynamic monsoonal environments. This is because Quaternary environmental changes in this region have been complex, and diverse individual species' biologies have resulted in less predictable and idiosyncratic responses.

  15. Evalvacija šolskega matematičnega tekmovanja Kenguru = Evaluation of the Kangaroo School Mathematical Competition

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    Barbara Komel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Each year Slovene students of secondary vocational schools, among them also the Construction and Service School in Kranj (Economics and Service Educational Centre Kranj, compete in knowledge in the Kangaroo International Mathematical Competition . We decided to evaluate two points of view of the competition, namely processional in the sense of extra-curricular activities, i.e. preparation for the competition, and interpersonal in the sense of deepening the relations between teachers and students. One of the main aims of our evaluation, besides deepening the relations, was to motivate and prepare as many students as possible for the competition. While carrying out the project, there was a growing conviction that the process of evaluation is more important than its results, because it has united and brought closer all the participants, students as well as teacher-mentors. An extremely positive consequence of evaluation is the fact that the understanding of the competition itself has improved and it has also boosted its own efficiency. School climate has become friendlier, while the project group of mathematicians gained new guidelines for further work.

  16. Kangaroo care and behavioral and physiologic pain responses in very-low-birth-weight twins: a case study.

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    Cong, Xiaomei; Cusson, Regina M; Hussain, Naveed; Zhang, Di; Kelly, Sharon P

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this case study was to describe pain responses in three study conditions: longer (30 minutes) kangaroo care (KC) before and throughout heel stick (KC30), shorter (15 minutes) KC before and throughout heel stick (KC15), and incubator care throughout heel stick (IC) in 28-week gestational age twins. Pain responses were measured by crying time, Preterm Infant Pain Profile (PIPP), and heart rate variability indexes, including low-frequency power (LF, representing sympathetic activity), high-frequency power (HF, parasympathetic activity), and LF/HF ratio (sympathetic-parasympathetic balance). Both twins cried more and had higher PIPP pain scores and tachycardia during heel stick in the IC condition. Infant B had an incident of apnea and tachycardia by the end of the heel stick and a bradycardia episode during recovery in the IC condition. The twins had lower LF/HF ratios (better autonomic nervous system balance) during recovery in both longer and shorter KC conditions compared with the IC condition. Infant B had difficulty returning to LF/HF ratio baseline level after the painful procedure in the IC condition. These data suggest that both longer and shorter KC before and throughout painful procedures can be helpful in reducing behavioral and physiologic pain responses in preterm infants.

  17. A new species of the basal "kangaroo" Balbaroo and a re-evaluation of stem macropodiform interrelationships.

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    Karen H Black

    Full Text Available Exceptionally well-preserved skulls and postcranial elements of a new species of the plesiomorphic stem macropodiform Balbaroo have been recovered from middle Miocene freshwater limestone deposits in the Riversleigh World Heritage Area of northwestern Queensland, Australia. This constitutes the richest intraspecific sample for any currently known basal "kangaroo", and, along with additional material referred to Balbaroo fangaroo, provides new insights into structural variability within the most prolific archaic macropodiform clade--Balbaridae. Qualitative and metric evaluations of taxonomic boundaries demonstrate that the previously distinct species Nambaroo bullockensis is a junior synonym of B. camfieldensis. Furthermore, coupled Maximum Parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses reveal that our new Balbaroo remains represent the most derived member of the Balbaroo lineage, and are closely related to the middle Miocene B. camfieldensis, which like most named balbarid species is identifiable only from isolated jaws. The postcranial elements of Balbaroo concur with earlier finds of the stratigraphically oldest balbarid skeleton, Nambaroo gillespieae, and suggest that quadrupedal progression was a primary gait mode as opposed to bipedal saltation. All Balbaroo spp. have low-crowned bilophodont molars, which are typical for browsing herbivores inhabiting the densely forested environments envisaged for middle Miocene northeastern Australia.

  18. Avaliação dos resultados neonatais do método canguru no Brasil Evaluation of the neonatal outcomes of the kangaroo mother method in Brazil

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    Fernando Lamy Filho

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os resultados do método canguru no Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo de coorte prospectivo comparando 16 unidades que possuíam ou não a segunda fase do método canguru: oito eram centros nacionais de referência para o método canguru (grupo estudo, e oito faziam parte da Rede Brasileira de Pesquisas Neonatais (grupo controle. Foram incluídos 985 recém-nascidos pesando entre 500 e 1.749 g. Na análise multivariada, utilizou-se a regressão linear múltipla e a regressão de Poisson com ajuste robusto. RESULTADOS: Na análise ajustada (para peso de nascimento, idade gestacional, Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology Perinatal Extension II, Neonatal Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System, idade e escolaridade maternas, o tempo médio de internação (p = 0,14 e intercorrências clínicas na unidade intermediária ou canguru foram iguais entre os grupos. Peso (p = 0,012, comprimento (p = 0,039 e perímetro cefálico (p = 0,006 com 36 semanas de idade gestacional corrigida foram menores nas unidades canguru. As unidades canguru tiveram desempenho superior em relação ao aleitamento materno exclusivo na alta (69,2 versus 23,8%, p = 0,022. CONCLUSÃO: As evidências sugerem que a estratégia de humanização adotada pelo Ministério da Saúde é uma alternativa segura ao tratamento convencional e uma boa estratégia para a promoção do aleitamento materno.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the results of the kangaroo mother method in Brazil. METHODS: A prospective cohort study comparing 16 units that have or do not have the second phase of the kangaroo mother method: eight were national centers of excellence for the kangaroo mother method (study group and eight were part of the Brazilian Neonatal Research Network (control group. A total of 985 newborn infants with birth weights of 500 to 1,749 g were enrolled. Multivariate analyses employed multiple linear regression and Poisson regression with robust adjustment. RESULTS: The adjusted analysis

  19. Comparative Effect of Massage Therapy versus Kangaroo Mother Care on Body Weight and Length of Hospital Stay in Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants.

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    Rangey, Priya Singh; Sheth, Megha

    2014-01-01

    Background. Massage therapy (MT) and kangaroo mother care (KMC) are both effective in increasing the weight and reducing length of hospital stay in low birth weight preterm infants but they have not been compared. Aim. Comparison of effectiveness of MT and KMC on body weight and length of hospital stay in low birth weight preterm (LBWPT) infants. Method. 30 LBWPT infants using convenience sampling from Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, V.S. hospital, were randomly divided into 2 equal groups. Group 1 received MT and Group 2 received KMC for 15 minutes, thrice daily for 5 days. Medically stable babies with gestational age Limitation. Long term follow-up was not taken.

  20. Trial gain of weight and hospital length stay of the low birth weight preterm infant in assistance for kangaroo mother care

    OpenAIRE

    Márcia Aparecida Giacomini Rodrigues; Maria Aparecida Tedeschi Cano

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if the Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) interferes in the gain of weight and in the hospital length stay of the low birth weight preterm newborn (LWBPTN). For this, it was realized an analytic retrospective study, through the evaluation of the medical records of 60 LWBPTN with born weight less than 2000 g that received assistance by KMC, for a period of 2 hours per day and, 60 LWBPTN that received assistance by the Traditional Method of Care (TMC), admitted in ...

  1. A sedge plant as the source of Kangaroo Island propolis rich in prenylated p-coumarate ester and stilbenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Colin C; Tran, Van H; Duke, Rujee K; Abu-Mellal, Abdallah; Plunkett, George T; King, Douglas I; Hamid, Kaiser; Wilson, Karen L; Barrett, Russell L; Bruhl, Jeremy J

    2017-02-01

    Propolis samples from Kangaroo Island, South Australia, were investigated for chemical constituents using high-field nuclear magnetic resonance spectral profiling. A type of propolis was found containing a high proportion of prenylated hydroxystilbenes. Subsequently, the botanical origin of this type of propolis was identified using a beehive propolis depletion method and analysis of flora. Ligurian honey bees, Apis mellifera ligustica Spinola, were found to produce propolis from resin exuded by the Australian native sedge plant Lepidosperma sp. Montebello (Cyperaceae). The plants, commonly known as sword sedge, were found to have resin that matched with the propolis samples identified as the most abundant propolis type on the island containing C- and O-prenylated tetrahydroxystilbenes (pTHOS) in addition to a small amount of prenylated p-coumarate. The isolation of five pTHOS not previously characterized are reported: (E)-4-(3-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-3,4',5-trihydroxy-3'-methoxystilbene, (E)-2,4-bis(3-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-3,3',4',5-tetrahydroxystilbene, (E)-2-(3-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyloxy)-3',4',5-trihydroxystilbene, (E)-2,6-bis(3-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-3,3',5,5'-tetrahydroxystilbene and (E)-2,6-bis(3-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-3,4',5-trihydroxy-3'-methoxystilbene. A National Cancer Institute 60 human cell line anticancer screen of three of these compounds showed growth inhibitory activity. The large Australasian genus Lepidosperma is identified as a valuable resource for the isolation of substances with medicinal potential. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Early kangaroo mother care vs. conventional method in stabilizing low birth weight infant: physiologic parameters (preliminary report

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    Rulina Suradi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Kangaroo mother care (KMC has been accepted as an effective method in nursing low birth weight infant (LBWI. However, the application of this method in the early life of infants has not been studied in Indonesia. Objective To evaluate some physiologic parameters of LBWI treated with early KMC compared to conventional method. Methods This was a randomized clinical-trial, which compared early KMC to conventional method in stabilizing LBWI in the first 4 hours of life. All LBWI (birth weight 1500-2499 g bom at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital and Budi Kemuliaan Matemity Hospital Jakarta were recruited consecutively in the period of November 2001 until March 2002. The inclusion criteria were spontaneous delivery, APGAR scores 13t and 5th minute 37, and parental consent. Results Sixty-four subjects distributed evenly into early KMC group and control group. One subject in the KMC group and three subjects in the control group were excluded due to respiratory distress. The mean birth weight was 2091 (SO 299.4 g in the KMC group and 2184 (SO 214.9 g inthe control group. The mean gestational-age in both groups was 35.6 (SO 3.0 weeks. There were no statistical differences in mean temperature (P=0.281, heart rate (P=0.956, and respiratory rate (P=0.898 between the two groups during the first 4 hours of life. We found a larger proportion of infants reaching the temperature of 36.5QC in the KMC group, especially at one hour (49% vs. 7%; the difference of proportion was 0.42 (95%CI 0.22 to 0.61. Conclusion Early KMC method is proved to be as safe as conventional method in stabilizing healthy LBWI.

  3. Research Progress of Kangaroo Nursing Care Applied in Neonatal Pain Management%袋鼠式护理应用于新生儿疼痛管理的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖苑红; 沈永珍; 黄晓睿

    2016-01-01

    袋鼠式护理已被广泛应用于新生儿护理中,在新生儿疼痛管理中的应用更受关注。本文通过综述袋鼠式护理应用于新生儿疼痛管理的应用机制、现状及效果,对今后开展袋鼠式护理应用于新生儿疼痛管理的研究提出建议。%Kangaroo care has been widely used in neonatal care,and more attention has been paid in the application of neonatal pain management. This article reviewed the mechanism of kangaroo care used in neonatal pain management,the current situation,and the effectiveness of kangaroo care used in neonatal pain management. Suggestions about how to apply kangaroo care in neonatal pain management were presented.

  4. Kangaroo mother program: physical growth and morbidity in a cohort of children, followed from 40 weeks of postconceptional age until first year.

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    Diana Palencia

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Up to 40 weeks of postconceptional age, the kangaroo mother program at the Hospital Universitario del Valle has proved to be a safe alternative for premature babies’ management with a low birth weight. Objectives: To evaluate the physical growth and morbidity in children followed since 40 weeks up to 1 year in the program. Material and methods: A cohort study was performed in newborn infants admitted to the kangaroo mother program in the newborn unit at the Hospital Universitario del Valle, Cali, Colombia, with birth weight lower than 2000 g, from 40 weeks postconceptional age up to one year age, between August 2002 and July 2006. Information was collected about maternal age and morbidity, prenatal control, type of birth, gender, birth weight, gestational age, breastfeeding, thick motor development, physical growth, morbidity, readmissions, mortality and tests results. Results: A total of 390 infants were admitted to the program, with a 61% of captation. 65% of theirs mothers did not have prenatal control. Before completing the 40 weeks, 5.3% were readmitted due to anaemia and apnoea. After 40 weeks, 13% were readmitted by bronchopneumonia and acute diarrhoea. Most of them were allocated in the reference percentiles for weight and size. Size had a better growth than weight. The cumulated low weight incidence for age at 13 months was 22%. Conclusions: To increase the coverage of prenatal control program and to watch that the children receive prescribed iron and formulated folic acid.

  5. 袋鼠式护理对足月新生儿疼痛的护理效果%Kangaroo Care for Neonatal Pain Nursing Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宗小敏

    2013-01-01

    Objective To discuss kangaroo care for neonatal pain nursing effect, evaluation of its clinical application value. Methods From 2010 September to 2011 June in our hospital was born in 98 full-term neonates were divided randomly into two groups, the control group (n=49 ) using the routine nursing care, observation group (n=49 ) using a kangaroo care, two groups of neonatal pain, heart rate, oxygen saturation and crying time comparison. Results The observation group of neonatal pain score lower than those in the control group, the difference between the two groups was significant (P < 0.05 ); study group of neonatal heart rate lower than that of the control group, while the oxygen saturation is higher than that of control group, the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P < 0.05 ); observation group of neonatal crying time shorter than the control group, the difference between the two groups was significant (P < 0.05 ). Conclusion Kangaroo care helps to reduce neonatal pain, promote stable vital signs, it is worth of application.%目的 讨论袋鼠式护理对于足月新生儿疼痛的护理效果,评价其临床应用价值.方法 将2010年9月-2011年6月在本院出生的98例足月新生儿随机分为两组,其中对照组(49例)采用常规护理方法,观察组(49例)采用袋鼠式护理,对两组新生儿的疼痛程度、心率、血氧饱和度及啼哭时间进行比较.结果 观察组新生儿疼痛评分低于对照组,两组差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);观察组新生儿心率低于对照组,而血氧饱和度高于对照组,两组差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);观察组新生儿啼哭时间短于对照组,两组间差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论袋鼠式护理有助于降低新生儿的疼痛感,促进生命体征稳定,临床应用效果好.

  6. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF COMBINATION OF KANGAROO MOTHER CARE METHOD AND LULLABY MUSIC THERAPY ON VITAL SIGN CHANGE IN INFANTS WITH LOW BIRTH WEIGHT

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    Nuuva Yusuf

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kangaroo mother care (KMC and lullaby music methods have been considered as the alternative treatment for vital sign changes in low birth weight infants. However, little is known about the combination of the two methods. Objective: To identify effectiveness of combinations of Kangaroo mother care and Lullaby music methods on changes in vital signs in low birth weight infants. Methods: A quasi experiment with non-equivalent control group design. This study was conducted on October– December 2016 at the General Hospital of Ambarawa and General Hospital of Ungaran, Semarang. There were 36 samples selected using consecutive sampling divided into three groups, namely: 1 a group of LBW infants with the combination of KMC and lullaby music, 2 a LBW infant group with the lullaby music intervention, and 3 a control group given standard care in LBW infants by KMC method. Paired t-test and MANOVA test were used to analyzed the data. Results: Findings revealed that there were significant differences between the combination group, lullaby music group, and control group in temperature (p=0.003, pulse (p=0.001, respiration (p=0.001, and oxygen saturation (p=0.014 with significant value of <0.05, which indicated that there was a statistically significant difference in vital sign changes among the three groups. Conclusion: The combination of KMC method and Lullaby music intervention was effective on vital sign changes (temperature, pulse, respiration, and oxygen saturation compared with the lullaby music group alone and control group with KMC method in low birth weight infants. It is suggested that the combination of KMC and Lullaby music methods can be used as an alternative to improve LBW care for mothers in the NICU and at home and to reach the stability of the baby's vital signs.

  7. 袋鼠式护理对足月新生儿疼痛的护理效果%Kangaroo Care for Nursing Effect of Neonatal Pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游李平

    2013-01-01

      目的:探究袋鼠式护理对足月新生儿疼痛的护理效果及其临床意义。方法:将本院2012年10月-2013年2月内足月出生的58例新生儿随机平均分为两组,各29例。研究组采用袋鼠式护理,对照组采用常规护理,比较两组新生儿疼痛程度、心率和血氧饱和度方面的差异。结果:在疼痛程度和心率方面,研究组明显低于对照组比较,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);在血氧饱和度方面,研究组明显高于对照组,比较差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:袋鼠式护理对比较于足月新生儿疼痛的护理效果显著,能够有效降低足月新生儿的疼痛感,对于新生儿的心理和生理均有良好的促进作用。%Objective:To explore the kangaroo care for nursing effect of neonatal pain and its clinical significance. Method:In our hospital from 2012 October to 2013 February 58 cases of newborn infants born at term were randomly divided into two groups,each of 29 cases. Study group received kangaroo care,and the control group received routine nursing care.To compare the differences in neonatal pain,heart rate and blood oxygen saturation between the two groups. Result:The degree of pain and heart rate of the study group was significantly lower than that of the control group,the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05);in the blood oxygen saturation of the study group was significantly higher than that of the control group,with statistically significant differences(P<0.05). Conclusion:Kangaroo care for nursing effect of neonatal pain significantly,can effectively reduce the full-term newborn pain,to promote the role of newborn’s psychological and physical have good. As a kind of high quality nursing methods,get recognition and promotion in clinic.

  8. Effect of kangaroo mother care on growth and development of low birthweight babies up to 12 months of age: a controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Alpanamayi; Ghosh, Jagabandhu; Singh, Arun K; Hazra, Avijit; Mukherjee, Suchandra; Mukherjee, Ranajit

    2014-06-01

    Kangaroo mother care (KMC) is a nonconventional low-cost method of newborn care. Our aim was to assess the effect of sustained KMC on the growth and development of low birthweight Indian babies up to the age of 12 months. We enrolled 500 mother and baby pairs, in groups of five, in a parallel group controlled clinical trial. The three infants with the lowest birthweight in each group received KMC, while the other two received conventional care. All babies were exclusively breastfed for 6 months. Babies in the intervention group were provided KMC until the infant was 40 weeks of corrected gestation or weighed 2500 g. Weight, length and head, chest and arm circumferences were evaluated at birth and at the corrected ages of 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. Development was assessed using the Developmental Assessment Scales for Indian Infants (DASII) at 12 months. The KMC babies rapidly achieved physical growth parameters similar to the control babies at 40 weeks of corrected age. But after that, they surpassed them, despite being smaller at birth. DASII motor and mental development quotients were also significantly better for KMC babies. The infants in the KMC group showed better physical growth and development than the conventional control group. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The impact of the method Kangaroo Mother Care in the learning process of low-birth-weight preterm infants: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana de Paiva Franco

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Technology advances and scientific studies in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU have contributed significantly to reduce mortality and morbidity of at-risk newborns (NB. However, they are more likely to present neurological and/or developmental psychomotor delay with neurological and sensory alterations. Therefore, proposals for neonatal intervention were developed with the aim of protecting the baby and offering appropriate incentives to minimize the effects of hospital intervention. To this end, programs of protective measures such as the Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC were developed. Given the relevance of the issue described, this systematic review critically appraises articles from the national and international literature, published in recent years (from 2000 to 2011, that describe whether the KMC can be a protective factor for the development of writing in premature infants. The textual search was conducted using the Virtual Health Library (VHL, a website that covers publications worldwide, allowing access to articles from health science, including LILACS, IBECS, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library and SciELO, as database. The findings revealed that infants who participated in the KMC program showed improvements in their development and that factors such as low-birth-weight prematurity and learning disorders have close relationship with the onset of motor impairments and changes in psychomotor development. The findings showed no articles describing the KMC as a protective factor for the incidence of dysgraphia. Thus, we emphasize the importance of conducting further studies on these topics.

  10. Comparative Effect of Massage Therapy versus Kangaroo Mother Care on Body Weight and Length of Hospital Stay in Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants

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    Priya Singh Rangey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Massage therapy (MT and kangaroo mother care (KMC are both effective in increasing the weight and reducing length of hospital stay in low birth weight preterm infants but they have not been compared. Aim. Comparison of effectiveness of MT and KMC on body weight and length of hospital stay in low birth weight preterm (LBWPT infants. Method. 30 LBWPT infants using convenience sampling from Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, V.S. hospital, were randomly divided into 2 equal groups. Group 1 received MT and Group 2 received KMC for 15 minutes, thrice daily for 5 days. Medically stable babies with gestational age < 37 weeks and birth weight < 2500 g were included. Those on ventilators and with congenital, orthopedic, or genetic abnormality were excluded. Outcome measures, body weight and length of hospital stay, were taken before intervention day 1 and after intervention day 5. Level of significance was 5%. Result. Data was analyzed using SPSS16. Both MT and KMC were found to be effective in improving body weight (P = 0.001, P = 0.001. Both were found to be equally effective for improving body weight (P = 0.328 and reducing length of hospital stay (P = 0.868. Conclusion. MT and KMC were found to be equally effective in improving body weight and reducing length of hospital stay. Limitation. Long term follow-up was not taken.

  11. Trial gain of weight and hospital length stay of the low birth weight preterm infant in assistance for kangaroo mother care

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    Márcia Aparecida Giacomini Rodrigues

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate if the Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC interferes in the gain of weight and in the hospital length stay of the low birth weight preterm newborn (LWBPTN. For this, it was realized an analytic retrospective study, through the evaluation of the medical records of 60 LWBPTN with born weight less than 2000 g that received assistance by KMC, for a period of 2 hours per day and, 60 LWBPTN that received assistance by the Traditional Method of Care (TMC, admitted in the unity of neonatal intensive care and unity of premature of a private maternity in the city of Ribeirão Preto-SP, Brazil, comparing the gain of weight and the hospital length stay. We did not find differences statistically significant in relation to the gain of weight of the LWBPTN assisted by KMC, in relation to LWBPTN assisted by the TMC, 15,8 and 14,9 g/per day, respectively. In relation to the time of admission, we also did not find differences statistically significant, 27,3 and 26,2 days, for the LWBPTN in the KMC and TMC, respectively, although in the stratification of the sample, the LBWPTN with pregnancy age < 30 weeks or birth weight < 1500 g left the hospital 3 days earlier in the KMC. It was concluded that the KMC, in the conditions of this study, it seems not to interfere significatively in the gain of weight and in the time of admission of LWBPTN. We emphasize that the utilization of KMC in the assistance to the LWBPTN of low weight is a viable model, even for the private health institution.

  12. Kangaroo mother method: randomised controlled trial of an alternative method of care for stabilised low-birthweight infants. Maternidad Isidro Ayora Study Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, N L; Camacho, L W; Rojas, E P; Stern, C

    1994-09-17

    Because resources for care of low-birthweight (LBW) infants in developing countries are scarce, the Kangaroo mother method (KMM) was developed. The infant is kept upright in skin-to-skin contact with the mother's breast. Previous studies reported several benefits with the KMM but interpretation of their findings is limited by small size and design weaknesses. We have done a longitudinal, randomised, controlled trial at the Isidro Ayora Maternity Hospital in Quito, Ecuador. Infants with LBW (< 2000 g) who satisfied out-of-risk criteria of tolerance of food and weight stabilisation were randomly assigned to KMM and control (standard incubator care) groups (n = 128 and 147, respectively). During 6 months of follow-up the KMM group had a significantly lower rate than the control group of serious illness (lower-respiratory-tract disorders, apnoea, aspiration, pneumonia, septicaemia, general infections; 7 [5%] vs 27 [18%], p < 0.002), although differences between the groups in less severe morbidity were not significant. There was no significant difference in growth or in the proportion of women breastfeeding, perhaps because the proportion breastfeeding was high in both groups owing to strong promotion. Mortality was the same in both groups; most deaths occurred during the stabilisation period before randomisation. KMM mothers made more unscheduled clinic visits than control mothers but their infants had fewer re-admissions and so the cost of care was lower with the KMM. Since the eligibility criteria excluded nearly 50% of LBW infants from the study, the KMM is not universally applicable to these infants. The benefits might be greater in populations where breastfeeding is not so common.

  13. Efeitos do Método Mãe Canguru nos sinais vitais de recém-nascidos pré-termo de baixo peso Effects of Kangaroo Mother Care on the vital signs of low-weight preterm newborns

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    CM Almeida

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as freqüências cardíaca e respiratória, a pressão arterial média, a temperatura e a saturação periférica de oxigênio dos recém-nascidos pré-termo (RNPT de baixo peso, antes e após a aplicação do MMC. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 22 RNPT de baixo peso, saudáveis, de ambos os sexos, não portadores de deficiências neurológicas, cardíacas e/ou respiratórias. A avaliação foi realizada após trinta minutos de permanência do RNPT em berço comum e após trinta minutos de aplicação do MMC, por 3 dias consecutivos. Para a avaliação, foram utilizados monitor cardíaco com dispositivo para medida da pressão arterial média de forma não invasiva e sensor para a oximetria de pulso, termômetro e cronômetro. RESULTADOS: Os resultados não mostraram alterações significativas quanto à pressão arterial média (p> 0,05 e freqüência cardíaca (p> 0,05 após a aplicação do MMC, mas, por outro lado, houve aumento significativo da temperatura axilar (pOBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the heart and respiration rates, mean arterial pressure, temperature and peripheral oxygen saturation of low-weight preterm newborns, before and after the application of kangaroo mother care. METHOD: Twenty-two healthy low-weight preterm newborns of both sexes were studied. None of them had neurological, cardiac and/or respiratory deficiencies. Assessments were made after the newborn had been left in an ordinary cot for 30 minutes and after 30 minutes of kangaroo mother care, on three consecutive days. For these evaluations, a heart monitor with a device for non-invasively measuring mean arterial pressure, a sensor for pulse oximetry, a thermometer and a chronometer were utilized. RESULTS: There were no significant changes in mean arterial pressure (p> 0.05 or heart rate (p> 0.05 after applying kangaroo mother care. However, there were significant increases in axillary temperature (p< 0.05 and peripheral oxygen

  14. Research on dynamics coupling for underactuated bionic kangaroo-hopping robot%欠驱动仿袋鼠跳跃机器人动力学耦合研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈朋威; 葛文杰; 李岩

    2012-01-01

    根据袋鼠的生物结构及运动特点,建立了具有欠驱动关节的仿袋鼠跳跃机器人模型.以此模型为基础,分析系统的主动关节与被动关节之间的加速度耦合效应.采用拉格朗日方方法建立了机构的动力学方程.结合实例,运用Matlab软件对机器人进行仿真分析,给出了机器人全局单关节耦合变化规律.结果表明:仿袋鼠跳跃机器人的踝关节与欠驱动关节间存在足够大的耦合并且通过动力学耦合来控制欠驱动关节的位置是可能的.动力学耦合指标对欠驱动机器人的结构设计和驱动装置位置有重要作用.%According to the biological structure and kinematic characteristics of kangaroo, we establish a model for uniped hopping mechanism of bionic kangaroo with underactuated joint.Based on this model,the dynamic coupling effects of the acceleration coupling between active joints and passive ones are an-alyzed,and dynamics equations are established with adopting lagrange method.Wuh practical example and using Matlab simulation analysis for the robot is made so that the changing rule of the global individual joint coupling are obtained.The result indicates that a large coupling between the ankle joint and underactuated joint of the hopping kangaroo robot is available, thus it is possible to control the position of the under-actuated joint via the dynamics coupling, which index plays an important role in structure design and actuator placement of underactuated robots system.

  15. Research progress on kangaroo mother care in nursing of preterm infants%袋鼠式护理在早产儿护理中的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田莉; 丁晓华; 武玉蓉

    2011-01-01

    With the development of perinatology and neonatology,the survival rate of preterm infants was improved a lot,the preterm infants become one of the important study in nowdays.there have been many studies about nursing of preterm infants,This article summarizes research progress on kangaroo mother care in nursing of preterm infants.%随着围产医学和新生儿医学的迅速发展,早产儿的存活率得到极大提高,早产儿成为当今研究的重要内容之一.有关早产儿护理干预的研究也很多,现就袋鼠式护理在早产儿护理中的研究进展综述如下.

  16. Genetic variation in the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 within three species of Progamotaenia (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae) from macropodid marsupials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, M; Gasser, R B; Chilton, N B; Beveridge, I

    2005-01-01

    Sequence variation within 3 morphologically defined species of the anoplocephalid cestode genus Progamotaenia (P. ewersi, P. macropodis and P. zschokkei) was investigated using the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene. The magnitude of genetic variation detected within each morphospecies suggests that, in each instance, several cryptic species are present. Within P. ewersi, 5 genetically distict groups of cestodes were detected, 1 shared by Macropus robustus and M. parryi in Queensland, 1 in M. agilis from Queensland, 1 in Petrogale assimilis from Queensland, 1 in Macropus fuliginosus from South Australia and 1 in Wallabia bicolor from Victoria. In P. macropodis, cestodes from M. robustus from Queensland, Western Australia and the Northern Territory, M. parryi from Queensland and M. eugenii from South Australia were genetically distinct from those in Wallabia bicolor from Queensland and Victoria and from M. fuliginosus from South Australia. P. zschokkei consisted of a number of genetically distinct groups of cestodes, 1 in Lagorchestes conspicillatus and L. hirsutus from Queensland and the Northern Territory respectively, 1 in Petrogale herberti, P. assimilis and M. dorsalis from Queensland, 1 in Onychogalea fraenata from Queensland, 1 in M. agilis from Queensland and 1 in Thylogale stigmatica and T. thetis from Queensland. In general, genetic groups within each morphospecies were host specific and occurred predominantly in a particular macropodid host clade. Comparison of genetic relationships of cestodes with the phylogeny of their hosts revealed examples of colonization (P. zschokkei in M. agilis) and of host switching (P. zschokkei in M. dorsalis).

  17. The Meta Analysis of Alleviatory Effect of Kangaroo Care on Neonatal Painful Caused by Invasive Operation%袋鼠式护理缓解侵入性操作所致新生儿疼痛的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朴海善; 王松; 李胜玲

    2012-01-01

    目的 通过对袋鼠式护理缓解侵入性操作所致新生儿疼痛的随机对照试验和(或)临床对照试验文献进行Meta分析,客观评价袋鼠式护理的效果,为临床新生儿疼痛的管理提供理论依据.方法 联机检索在线PUBMED、EBSCO、OVID、EMBASE、Cochrane library、中国知网、中国生物医学文献数据库,并以手工检索和引文检索为辅助,全面获取有关袋鼠式护理缓解侵入性操作所致新生儿疼痛的中英文文献.对符合纳入标准的文献,由两名研究者独立进行方法学质量评价和资料提取.采用RevMan5.0.25统计软件进行meta分析.结果 经筛选共纳入7篇临床对照试验文献.Meta分析结果显示:袋鼠式护理和襁褓包裹比较,更能稳定新生儿侵入性操作期间和操作后恢复期的心率及血氧饱和度(P<0.01),可缩短新生儿侵入性操作时和操作后恢复期啼哭和疼痛面容的持续时间(P<0.01),可减少新生儿侵入性操作时的NFCS评分(P<0.01).结论 袋鼠式护理可以有效缓解新生儿对疼痛的生理反应和行为反应,减轻新生儿疼痛.由于相关研究较少,今后尚需纳入更多设计严格的大样本随机对照试验以进一步评价袋鼠式护理缓解新生儿疼痛的效果.%Objective To evaluate the alleviatory effect of kangaroo care on neonatal pain caused by invasive operation using Meta analysis. Methods With the computer retrieval of PUBMED/MEDLINE , EBSCO, OVID, EMBASE, Cochrane library, CNKI, CMBI and auxiliary manual retrieval, citation retrieval as well, the author tried to gain the documents comprehensively in both Chinese and English on the kangaroo care easing neonatal pain caused by invasive operation. To the included documents fit for standard, two researchers were planned to screen them and then to make a methodological quality evaluation and material extraction independently. The RevMan5.0.25 statistical software for Meta analysis was used. Results After

  18. Método Mãe Canguru: aplicação no Brasil, evidências científicas e impacto sobre o aleitamento materno Kangaroo Mother Care: scientific evidences and impact on breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Isoyama Venancio

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever o histórico do Método Mãe Canguru e apresentar evidências científicas sobre os benefícios dessa prática para os bebês de baixo peso no tocante a morbimortalidade, desenvolvimento psicoafetivo, neurossensorial e amamentação. FONTES DE DADOS: Foram consultadas publicações sobre o Método Mãe Canguru abrangendo o período de 1983 até 2004, identificadas nas bases de dados MEDLINE e Lilacs, bem como livros, teses e publicações técnicas do Ministério da Saúde. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Desde sua primeira descrição, o Método Mãe Canguru tem sido amplamente estudado. A análise de experimentos randomizados mostrou que o mesmo consiste em fator de proteção para a amamentação exclusiva no momento da alta hospitalar (RR 0,41; IC95% 0,25-0,68. O método também está associado a redução do risco de infecção hospitalar com 41 semanas de idade gestacional corrigida (RR 0,49; IC95% 0,25-0,93; redução de enfermidades graves (RR 0,30; IC95% 0,14-0,67; redução de infecções do trato respiratório inferior aos 6 meses (RR 0,37; IC95% 0,15-0,89; e maior ganho ponderal diário (diferença de médias de 3,6 g/dia; IC95% 0,8-6,4. O desenvolvimento psicomotor foi semelhante entre bebês submetidos ao Método Mãe Canguru e controles aos 12 meses, e não houve evidências de impacto sobre a mortalidade infantil. CONCLUSÃO: Há evidências de impacto positivo do Método Mãe Canguru sobre a prática da amamentação. Embora o método pareça reduzir a morbidade infantil, as evidências são ainda insuficientes para que o mesmo seja recomendado rotineiramente. Por outro lado, não existem relatos sobre efeitos deletérios da aplicação do método. Há a necessidade de se realizar estudos sobre a efetividade, aplicabilidade e aceitabilidade do Método Mãe Canguru em nosso meio.OBJECTIVE: To describe the history of the Kangaroo Mother Care and present scientific evidence about benefits of this practice on morbidity and

  19. 考虑尾巴的六刚体仿袋鼠跳跃机器人的落地稳定性研究%Stance Stability of a Hopping Robot Based on the Six-rigid-body Kangaroo Model Considering Its Tail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜兴长; 杨方; 葛文杰; 杨静

    2011-01-01

    根据袋鼠的生物结构及跳跃的特点,建立了具有尾巴和脚趾的仿袋鼠跳跃机器人六刚体模型。应用拉格朗日方法,建立了机构在着地阶段的运动学和动力学方程。运用Matlab7.0对机器人进行仿真计算分析,给出了机器人在着地阶段的各关节转角、关节驱动力矩、质心轨迹、着地压力和ZMP随时间的变化规律。仿真结果表明:考虑尾巴的六刚体仿袋鼠跳跃机器人能显著提高机构的落地稳定性。%Bsaed on the bionic structure and the motion feature of a kangaroo, we estamlsn a mouel ior unlpeu hopping mechanism of a six-rigid-body bionic kangaroo with tail and toe. We adopt Lagrange method to establish the dynamics and kinematics equations for its stance phase. Taking the hopping robot with parameters as an example and using Matlab 7.0 for simulation ,we obtain the changing rule of each joint angle ,joint driving torque, the centroid trajectory, the ground pressure and ZMP with time of the stance phase. The result shows that the tail can greatly improve the stance stability of the bionic kangaroo robot.

  20. Atenção humanizada ao recém-nascido de baixo-peso. Método Canguru e cuidado centrado na família: correspondências e especificidades Humanized care for low birth weight newborns. The Kangaroo care Method and family-centered care: correspondence and specificities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia de Abreu e Silva Hennig

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta a Atenção Humanizada ao Recém-Nascido de Baixo-Peso - Método Canguru - como uma diretriz clínica na assistência neonatal, e busca traçar um paralelo com outro importante componente do cuidado infantil descrito na literatura internacional: o cuidado centrado na família. O artigo propõe que a Atenção Humanizada ao Recém-Nascido de Baixo-Peso - Método Canguru seja vista como uma boa prática e seja considerada também no campo das tecnologias em saúde.The main purpose of this paper is to introduce the Human Attention of Low Birth Weight-Kangaroo Care as clinical guidelines in neonatal intensive care. It will also try to link this clinical guideline and another component of neonatal infant care: the Family-Centered Care. Based on this relationship, this paper proposes that Human Attention of Low Birth Weight-Kangaroo Care should be catalogued as a Potentially Better Practices and also, considered as a Health Care Technology.

  1. O Método Mãe Canguru em hospitais públicos do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil: uma análise do processo de implantação Kangaroo Mother Care in public hospitals in the State of São Paulo, Brazil: an analysis of the implementation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Júlia Colameo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi elaborado para analisar a implantação do Método Mãe Canguru em 28 diferentes hospitais públicos do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Os hospitais escola, os amigos da criança, os com banco de leite humano e os com mais de 12 profissionais treinados obtiveram melhores escores de implantação. A resistência dos profissionais de saúde à participação da família tem dado um caráter intra-hospitalar ao método. Mudanças no treinamento, incluir os gestores no programa e prever recursos orçamentários para a adoção, avaliação e controle do Método Mãe Canguru são necessários.This study analyzed the implementation of the Kangaroo Mother method in 28 different São Paulo State public hospitals. Teaching hospitals, Baby-Friendly Hospitals, hospitals with human milk banks, and those with more than 12 trained health professionals showed higher implementation scores. Because of staff resistance to family participation in neonatal care, the Kangaroo Mother method is basically applied in-hospital. Changes in the initial training, including manager awareness-raising and proper financial resource allocation, are necessary for implementation, follow-up, assessment, and feedback.

  2. Australia's savanna herbivores: bioclimatic distributions and an assessment of the potential impact of regional climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Euan G; Bolitho, Elizabeth E

    2008-01-01

    The future impacts of climate change are predicted to significantly affect the survival of many species. Recent studies indicate that even species that are relatively mobile and/or have large geographic ranges may be at risk of range contractions or extinction. An ecologically and evolutionary significant group of mammals that has been largely overlooked in this research is Australia's large marsupial herbivores, the macropodids (kangaroos). The aims of our investigation were to define and compare the climatic conditions that influence the current distributions of four sympatric large macropodids in northern Australia (Macropus antilopinus, Macropus robustus, Macropus giganteus, and Macropus rufus) and to predict the potential future impact of climate change on these species. Our results suggest that contemporary distributions of these large macropodids are associated with well-defined climatic gradients (tropical and temperate conditions) and that climatic seasonality is also important. Bioclimatic modeling predicted an average reduction in northern Australian macropodid distributions of 48% +/- 16.4% in response to increases of 2.0 degrees C. At this temperature, the distribution of M. antilopinus was reduced by 89% +/-0.4%. We predict that increases of 6.0 degrees C may cause severe range reductions for all four macropodids (96% +/-2.1%) in northern Australia, and this range reduction may result in the extinction of M. antilopinus.

  3. Percepção dos pais sobre a vivência no método mãe-canguru La percepción de los padres en la vivencia del método madre-canguro Perception of parents in experiencing the kangaroo mother method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Elisângela Fernandes Bis Furlan

    2003-08-01

    institucional del equipo de salud como de la relación con la clientela, posibilitando la comprensión de las dificultades y significados atribuidos a la vivencia y a la optimización del cuidado de enfermería.This study aimed at analyzing the perception of pre-term babies' parents in experiencing the Kangaroo Mother Method. It is a descriptive study with a qualitative approach. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews with 10 parents, held in the first 60 days after the discharge of the pre-term baby from the Kangaroo method, in a philanthropic hospital in the interior of São Paulo State. The parents' perception concerning the experience was grouped in four thematic units: making maternal stay in the Kangaroo Method flexible; favoring the mother-child and family relationship; completing the pre-term newborn's growth and development and developing skills in caring for the child. The obtained data provided information for the organization of care in the Kangaroo Mother Method, from the institutional perspective of the health care team as well as the relationship with clients, which enabled understanding about the difficulties and meanings attributed to the experience and optimization of nursing care.

  4. Evaluación auditiva neurosensorial en un grupo de prematuros del programa madre conguro Sensorineural auditory evaluation in a group of preterm neonates from the "Kangaroo mother" program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Hernández

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre agosto de 1989 y diciembre de 1991 se buscó asociación entre algunos factores de riesgo comunes a los prematuros con peso menor de 1.500 g al nacer y el hecho de presentar disminución de la agudeza auditiva, medida con los potenciales evocados del tallo cerebral a los 4 meses y luego entre los 8 y los 14 meses. Los factores de riesgo tenidos en cuenta en 133 prematuros del ";Programa madre canguro"; del Instituto de los Seguros Sociales, en Medellín, fueron: Peso inferior a 1.500 g, hiperbilirrubinemia superior a 10 mg/ml, sufrimiento fetal, membranas hialinas, uso de aminoglicósidos, hipoglucemia, hemorragia del tercer trimestre e hipertensión arterial materna. Se halló pérdida de la agudeza auditiva en la evaluación inicial en 54 nifíos (40.6% mientras en la final sólo la presentaban 10 (7.5%; no pudo detectarse asociación entre los factores de riesgo y la disminución de la agudeza auditiva en la evaluación inicial ni en la final. La mejoría de resultados de agudeza auditiva entre las pruebas iniciales y las finales puede explicarse, entre otras razones, por la maduración cerebral del prematuro. Se debe investigar más la razón de los déficits finales y, ojalá, establecer programas de seguimiento con pruebas auditivas en este grupo de niños en riesgo. A study was carried out to investigate the association between risk factors commonly found in preterm neonates with very low birth-weight (Iess than 1.500 g and decreased auditory acuteness; the latter was measured according to brain stem evoked potentiaJs (BERA test In 133 preterm neonates belonging to the "Kangaroo mother program", in 'Medellín,Colombla. The following risk factors we~ evaluated: Hyperbilirrubinemia, hyaline membrane, birth weight lower than 1.500g, fetal distress, hypoglycemia, use of aminoglycosldes, thlrd trimester hemorrhage, and maternal high blood presssure. Abnormal results in BERA test were found in 54 cases (40.6% at 4 months and in only 10 (7

  5. Planes, kangaroos, and the CAPD manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, D M; Whishaw, J M; Thomas, M; Thatcher, G

    1996-01-01

    The Western Australian (WA) Remote Area Dialysis Programme was developed in 1988 due to the cultural need to dialyze an increasing number of aboriginal patients in their own communities, rather than relocating them up to 3000 km away in Perth. The success of the program relies on remote area health services (RAHS), which have no prior experience in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), providing consistent routine and emergency medical care to the patients. Our aim was to standardize the care of all CAPD patients in remote WA by providing the RAHS with an easy-to-follow manual. Although the RAHS received treatment protocols, and in-service education, consistent care was not always provided. We confirmed this by: (1) examining the existing quality assurance tools, peritonitis and hospital admission rates, (2) discussion with remote area staff regarding patients, and (3) informal assessment of remote area staff receptiveness to in-service education by a CAPD nurse. We identified the causes of the inconsistent care to be: (1) high remote area staff turnover (six months average for a registered nurse), (2) the protocols were difficult to follow, and (3) confusion for the RAHS as to the appropriate contact person at our hospital. In 1994, the situation was exacerbated by the dramatic increase in the number of patients and RAHS involved (14 new patients, bringing the total to 20 patients in 12 centers) plus the introduction of a second treating hospital (with differing protocols). A team of two CAPD nurses and two nephrologists was established, to collaborate with two remote area hospitals and the second treating hospital to produce the "Remote Area CAPD Manual." The manual is an easy-to-follow, step-by-step guide for the management of CAPD by non-dialysis personnel. It has led to improved management of CAPD, improvement in communication with RAHS, and the increased confidence of remote area staff in the management of CAPD patients. In conclusion, RAHS can give consistent care if provided with clear, concise guidelines.

  6. Conhecimentos e práticas dos profissionais de saúde sobre a "atenção humanizada ao recém-nascido de baixo peso - método canguru" Health professional's knowledge and practices about "human attention of low birth weight- kangaroo care"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia de Abreu e Silva Hennig

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: identificar os conhecimentos e as práticas sobre a Atenção Humanizada ao Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso - Método Canguru (AHRNBP-MC de profissionais médicos e de enfermagem em maternidades públicas da cidade do Rio de Janeiro. MÉTODO: estudo descritivo transversal realizado através de questionário. Participaram das entrevistas 148 médicos e enfermeiros atuantes nestas unidades. Destes, os 116 profissionais que atuam exclusivamente na unidade intensiva responderam sobre quesitos específicos das práticas assistenciais sobre a perspectiva da AHRNBP-MC. RESULTADOS: em relação às estratégias apontadas para minimizar ruído e luminosidade, 39% dos profissionais referiram atender rapidamente aos alarmes/cuidados no uso dos equipamentos e 88% apontaram a diminuição da luminosidade em pelo menos 1 período em 24h. Como estratégias para dor/desconforto, 34% referiram usar a sucção não-nutritiva e 9% citaram utilizar glicose. Oitenta e três porcento relataram serem as informações do quadro clínico as principais informações aos pais na 1ª visita. O exame físico é o procedimento em que é permitida a presença da mãe para 73% dos entrevistados. Cinquenta e nove porcento usavam a estabilidade clínica como critério para a ida do bebê ao colo materno pela primeira vez. CONCLUSÃO: apesar do conhecimento teórico sobre a Atenção Humanizada, os profissionais ainda não o utilizam plenamente em sua prática clínica, sugerindo que ainda não está completamente assimilada a abrangência dessa forma de cuidado neonatal.OBJECTIVE: to identify knowledge and practices related to Low Weight Newborn Humane Care - the Kangaroo Method by the medical and nursing staff in public maternity hospitals located in the city of Rio de Janeiro. METHOD: a cross cutting descriptive method performed by questionnaire application aiming at the management of eleven public maternity hospitals in the city of Rio de Janeiro, selected for the

  7. 袋鼠式护理减轻新生儿足跟采血疼痛的效果观察*%Effect of Kangaroo care on diminishing neonatal pain during heel lancing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪芬; 刘敏; 鲍柳春; 蒋洁; 赵丽

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of Kangaroo care(KC)on diminishing neonatal pain during heel lancing. Methods Sixty neonates were divided randomly into two equal groups:intervention group and control group,which 30 cases in each group.In the intervention group,neonates were treated with KC(neonates were put in direct and continuous skin-to-skin contact with his/her mom)from 20 mins before heel lancing to 1 mins after the end of the lancing.In the control group,neonates were treated with regular care.The differences in heart rate,blood oxygen saturation,facial pain expression,crying duration and DAN(Douleur Aigue Nouveaune)scores between two groups were compared at 7 time points from 10s before the heel lancing to 10s after the lancing. Results The results of repeated measu te at 7 time points after heel lancing.There were significant interaction effect between time and main effect(P Heel lancing could lead to moderate to severe pain of neonates.KC could effectively diminish the neonatal pain degree caused by heel lancing.%  目的探讨袋鼠式护理在减轻新生儿足跟采血疼痛的效果。方法将行足跟采血的60例新生儿随机分为干预组与对照组,每组各30例,干预组从足跟采血前20 min至足跟采血结束后1 min实施袋鼠式护理,对照组按常规护理。比较从足跟采血前10 s至足跟采血结束后10 s 8个时间点两组新生儿心率、血氧饱和度、面部疼痛表情、啼哭持续时间和新生儿急性疼痛行为评分量表(douleur aigue nouveaune,DAN)评分情况。结果足跟采血后7个时间点新生儿心率重复测量资料分析结果:时间与主效应的交互效应比较,P<0.01,说明两组新生儿不同时间点心率是不相等的;时间效应比较,P<0.01,说明随着时间的延长,两组新生儿心率具有加快的趋势;两组新生儿穿刺后7个时间点心率比较,差异具有统计学意义(均P<0.05),干预组新生儿心率

  8. Atenção humanizada ao recém-nascido de baixo-peso (método Mãe Canguru: percepções de puérperas La atención humanizada al recién nascido de bajo peso (método madre canguru: percepción de mujeres en posparto Humane care newborn low-weight (kangaroo mother method: mother's perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Nicoletti Neves

    2010-03-01

    todo Canguru. Concluyó que la enfermería desempeña un papel central en la inserción del método con la familia, con los cuidados.Breastfeeding is one of the key practices which promote health, being associated with a reduction of diseases and mortality in childhood. Thus, from the course conclusive work, the present article was structured, which aimed to recognize the perceptions of mothers in the face of the use of the mother kangaroo method. With a qualitative, descriptive and field approach, it was held at the Philanthropic Hospital of Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brazil, by the months of August to October 2006, in which six mothers were included in the kangaroo mother method during the admission of the baby. For the gathering, semi-structured interviews were made and data were analyzed by the content analysis. This article analyzed two categories, maternal experience with the mother kangaroo method, with the subcategories: mother kangaroo method and maternal breastfeeding and experiences at the kangaroo practice; and knowing the kangaroo method. As a conclusion, nursing plays an essential role in the insertion of the family to the method, from the provided cares.

  9. Vivendo no método canguru a tríade mãe-filho-família Viviendo en el método canguru la tríade madre-hijo-familia Living the mother-child-family triad in the kangaroo method

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    Laise Conceição Caetano

    2005-08-01

    con el hijo en el método canguro o con la familia.This study focuses on the experience of families in the Kangaroo Mother Method (KM and aims to understand the functioning of the family dynamics and to apprehend the family transformations as a result of their experience in the method. The study used Symbolic Interactionism as a theoretical and Grounded Theory as a methodological reference framework. Data revealed the following phenomena: having an unexpected evolution and outcome of pregnancy, which is a phase in which the parents go through a pregnancy and suffer due to its premature interruption; coping with the prematurity of the child, in which the parents get into the world of prematurity and face the need to act for the child's survival; and living with the decision and the experience together with the child, which reveals the possibility of staying in hospital in the KM or not. These phenomena led to the central category: weighing the risks and benefits between staying with the child in the kangaroo method or with the family.

  10. 袋鼠式护理配合母乳吸吮对新生儿足跟采血所致疼痛程度的影响%Influence of Kangaroo care with breast sucking on pain degree caused by neonatal heel prick

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁林娟; 秦玲; 高倩; 梁文波; 黄海燕

    2016-01-01

    [目的]探究分析袋鼠式护理配合母乳吸吮对新生儿足跟采血所致疼痛程度的影响。[方法]随机选取我院在2014年8月-2015年7月接收的95例行足跟采血的新生儿为研究对象,随机分为观察组(48例)和对照组(47例)。对照组采用常规护理干预,观察组在新生儿足跟采血前后实施袋鼠式护理,对比分析两组新生儿的疼痛程度、血氧饱和度及心率变化情况。[结果]观察组新生儿的急性疼痛行为评分(6.32±1.05)分,明显低于对照组(7.83±1.27)分;观察组新生儿的疼痛程度也明显轻于对照组(P<0.05);观察组护理满意度(97.92%)显著高于对照组(87.23%),两组对比差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。[结论]袋鼠式护理配合母乳吸吮能够显著缓解新生儿足跟采血前后的疼痛程度,有效改善了足跟采血所致疼痛对新生儿的刺激,同时也明显提高了护理满意度。%Objective:To probe into and analyze the influence of kangaroo care with breast sucking on pain degree caused by neonatal heel prick.Methods:A total of 9 5 cases of neonates receiving heel prick in hospital were ran-domly selected from August 2014 to July 2015 and randomly divided into observation group(48 cases)and con-trol group(47 cases).The neonates in control group received routine nursing intervention,the neonates in obser-vation group received the kangaroo care before and after the implementation of the neonatal heel prick,then to compare and analyze the degree of pain,blood oxygen saturation and heart rate changes between the two groups of newborns.Results:The acute pain behavior score in observation group of newborns was(6.32±1.05),signif-icantly lower than that in control group(7.83±1.27);the degree of pain in observation group of neonates was also significantly lighter than that in control group(P<0.05);the care satisfaction in observation group(97.92%) was significantly higher(87.23%),and the difference was statistically

  11. Interação mãe-bebê pré-termo e mudança no estado de humor: comparação do Método Mãe-Canguru com visita na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal Interaction between mothers and pre-term infants and mood changes: a comparison between the Kangaroo Mother Method and those observed on a visit to a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Guimarães Cruvinel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar mudanças nos estados de humor de mães de bebês pré-termo em função do tipo de contato com o seu filho: Método Mãe-Canguru (MMC e visita ao filho na incubadora da Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal. MÉTODOS: foi aplicada a Escala Analógica de Humor em 60 mães divididas em 2 grupos: mães que participam do Método Mãe-Canguru (GC e mães que acompanharam o bebê na incubadora (GI. Os grupos foram pareados em função da idade das mães, número de gestações e tipo de parto. As mães foram avaliadas antes e depois de uma das visitas ao filho na incubadora ou sessão de MMC. RESULTADOS: as mães do GC melhoraram o humor, relatando: sentirem-se mais calmas, fortes, com idéias claras, ágeis, dinâmicas, satisfeitas, tranqüilas, perspicazes, relaxadas, atentas, competentes, alegres e amistosas. As mães do GI não apresentaram melhora no estado de humor em nenhum item, mas pioraram no item "sentindo-se desajeitada". CONCLUSÕES: o Método Mãe-Canguru mostrou-se eficaz na melhora nos estados de humor de mães de bebês pré-termo, contribuindo assim para a minimização dos efeitos negativos da internação neonatal.OBJECTIVE: to assess changes in the subjective state of mood of mothers of pre-term babies, comparing different kinds of mother-infant interaction: the Kangaroo Mother Method (KMM and those observed on a visit to a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. METHODS: the Visual Analogue Mood Scale was used with 60 mothers divided into two groups: mothers included in the Kangaroo Program (KG and mothers with a baby on an incubator (IG. The groups were matched for the mothers' age, number of pregnancies and kind of delivery. The mothers were evaluated before and after a visit to the baby on an incubator or a KMM session. RESULTS: it was found that KG mothers were in a better mood, reporting that they felt calmer, stronger, more clear-headed, more agile, dynamic, satisfied, at ease, perceptive, relaxed, considerate

  12. Programa mãe-canguru e a relação mãe-bebê: pesquisa qualitativa na rede pública de Betim El programa madre-canguro y la relación madre-bebé: pesquisa cualitativade en la red pública de Betim Kangaroo mother program and the relationship mother-baby: qualitative research in a public maternity of Betim city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline de Oliveira Moreira

    2009-09-01

    ás, que la madre, familiares, el equipo pueden crear un ambiente facilitador a partir del momento en que asumen una postura activa en la mediación de la relación del prematuro con el mundo.This text approaches the results of the qualitative research financed by FAPEMIG and PUC-MINAS and aims to investigate the effects of the kangaroo mother method in the relationship between the mother and the newborn baby. The field research had the data collected by semi structural interviews conducted with the mothers of newborn babies egressed from the Kangaroo program of Betim's Public Maternity named Maternidade Municipal Aidée Conroy Espejo. We utilized the content analyses with thematic categories on data assessment. The results showed the complexity of motherhood inside the prematurity, crossed by the trauma experience, by the fear of losing the baby and by the vision of the child's fragility. In this context, the Kangaroo-Mother Program facilitates the relationship between the mother and the premature baby, contributing to the dyadic's bound. We concluded that mother, family members, and staff can provide a facilitating environment as they take on an active attitude in the mediation between the premature relationship and the world.

  13. As representações sociais do aleitamento materno para mães de prematuros em unidade de cuidado canguru Representaciones sociales de la lactancia materna para madres de prematuros en el cuidado canguro Social representations on breastfeeding according to preterm infants' mothers in kangaroo care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marly Javorski

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos do estudo foram identificar as representações sociais sobre aleitamento materno de pré-termo, em unidade de Cuidado Canguru, sob a óptica das mães que estão amamentando, e descrever os conflitos e contradições que eles vivenciam nesse contexto institucional. A pesquisa utiliza-se de uma abordagem qualitativa em que foi empregado o primeiro estágio da análise de enunciação à luz da Teoria das Representações Sociais. As representações encontradas são: os bebês saudáveis são alimentados no peito, o leite materno confere a proteção e a preservação da vida de uma criança prematura, o aleitamento materno é o complemento da maternidade e amamentar um bebê prematuro é uma experiência difícil e desgastante. Os conflitos são decorrentes da assimilação de conteúdos e discurso técnico, sucção tardia e representações sobre leite materno.Los objetivos del estudio fueron identificar las representaciones sociales de la lactancia materna al bebe prematuro en la unidad de cuidado canguro bajo la óptica de las madres que están amamantando y describir los conflictos y contradicciones que vivencian en el contexto institucional. Fue adoptada una aproximación cualitativa, empleándose la primera fase del análisis de enunciación a la luz de la teoría de representaciones sociales. Las representaciones encontradas son: Los bebes saludables son alimentados a pecho, la leche materna da protección y preservación de la vida a un niño prematuro, la lactancia materna es el complemento de la maternidad y dar lactancia a un bebe prematuro es una experiencia difícil y desgastante. Los conflictos y contradicciones resultan de la asimilación de contenidos y discurso técnico, succión tardía y representaciones sobre la leche materna.This study aimed to identify the social representations on premature infants' breastfeeding at a Kangaroo Care Unit, from the perspective of mothers who are breastfeeding and describe the

  14. Sucção do recém-nascido prematuro: comparação do método Mãe-Canguru com os cuidados tradicionais Suckling of the premature newborn child: comparison between the Kangaroo Mother method with traditional care

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    Izabella Santos Nogueira de Andrade

    2005-03-01

    newborns were evaluated and submitted to phoniatric intervention in the process of hospital discharge. RESULTS: in Group 1 there was a significant improvement related to behavior, stress signs, coordination and suction rhythm. Hospital stay was considerably shorter. In group 2 there was a significant improvement related to the coordination between suction, deglutition and breathing. CONCLUSIONS: newborns of both groups were benefited by phoniatrics, nevertheless, the best results related to the Kangaroo-Mother Method. It has been noted that this method is a good alternative for developing countries for it contributes to the effectiveness of nursing, shortening hospital stay and reducing public health costs.

  15. Respostas fisiológicas de recém-nascidos pré-termo submetidos ao Metódo Mãe-Canguru e a posição prona Physical responses of pre-term newborn babies submitted to the Kangaroo-Mother Care Method in Prone position

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    Maiara Dantas Olmedo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O Ministério da Saúde recomenda e incentiva a Atenção Humanizada ao recém-nascido de baixo peso utilizando-se o Método Mãe-Canguru (MMC nas unidades integrantes do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar e comparar as respostas fisiológicas entre o MMC e a posição prona (PP, em recém-nascidos pré-termo (RNPT. Foi feito um estudo de intervenção, realizado entre setembro e outubro de 2009, composto por 20 RNPT, de ambos os sexos, com idade gestacional entre 24 a 36 semanas, estáveis hemodinamicamente, sendo classificados como grupo I (MMC e grupo II (PP. Foram consideradas as variáveis: frequência cardíaca (FC, frequência respiratória (FR, saturação periférica de oxigênio (SatO2 e temperatura corporal (T. As mensurações foram realizadas por três dias consecutivos, antes e 60 min após a aplicação das técnicas. No grupo PP, a FR aferida antes foi significativamente maior do que a aferida após a intervenção, nos 1º e 3º dias (pThe Ministry of Health recommends and looks forward to the Humanized Attention of low weight newborn babies using the Kangaroo-Mother Care Method (MCM in Unified Health System units. The aim of this work was to evaluate and compare the physiological responses between the MMC and the Prone Position (PP in pre-term newborn babies (PNB. Intervention study, realized between September and October of 2009, was performed. It was formed by 20 PNB, both sexes, with gestational ages between 24 to 36 weeks, hemodynamic stable, classified as group I (MCM and group II (PP. The following variables were considered: heart frequency (HF, breathing frequency (BF, periphery saturation of oxygen (SatO2, and body temperature (T. All measurements were realized for three consecutive days, before and 60 min after applying the procedures. On the PP group, the HF checked before was meaningfully higher than the one checked after the procedure, on the first and third days (p<0.0001; p<0

  16. Método mãe canguru nos hospitais / maternidades públicos de Salvador e atuação dos profissionais da saúde na segunda etapa do método Kangaroo mother method in hospitals / public maternity in Salvador and performance of health professionals in the second stage of the method

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    Juliana Rodrigues da Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: investigar quantos hospitais/ maternidades públicos em Salvador utilizam o método mãe-canguru, quais os profissionais estão inseridos na equipe e caracterizar a atuação dos profissionais de saúde que estão inseridos na segunda etapa do método. MÉTODO: trata-se de um estudo quantitativo descritivo do qual participaram os responsáveis pelo setor de neonatologia e os profissionais de saúde inseridos na segunda etapa do método respondendo a questionários. Os dados obtidos foram analisados por meio de estatística descritiva calculando-se frequências simples. RESULTADOS:das sete instituições públicas de Salvador quatro utilizam o método. Nas três instituições pesquisadas realizam-se as três etapas preconizadas, em duas delas o quadro profissional tem pelo menos um atuante de cada especialidade recomendada pelo Ministério da Saúde, no entanto evidencia-se reduzido número de fonoaudiólogos nos serviços. Dentre as principais ações dos profissionais da saúde inseridos na segunda etapa estão o incentivo ao posicionamento canguru, ao aleitamento materno exclusivo e orientação às mães quanto aos cuidados com o bebê. CONCLUSÕES:evidencia-se que a recomendação do Ministério da Saúde de que o método seja implantado nas unidades médico-assistenciais integrante do Sistema Único de Saúde ainda não é uma realidade em todos os hospitais/ maternidades públicos de Salvador, no entanto evidenciou-se quadro profissional em conformidade com a recomendação em duas das instituições pesquisadas e a atuação dos profissionais entrevistados se incorpora no campo da transdisciplinaridade.PURPOSE:to investigate how many public hospitals and maternity hospitals in Salvador use the Kangaroo Mother Method, who are the professionals inserted in the team, and to characterize the acting of the health professionals who are inserted in the second stage of the method. METHOD: a descriptive quantitative study, in which the

  17. Antigenic compartmentation of the cerebellar cortex in an Australian marsupial, the tammar wallaby Macropus eugenii

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marzban, Hassan; Hoy, Nathan; Marotte, Lauren R; Hawkes, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian cerebellar cortex is apparently uniform in composition, but a complex heterogeneous pattern can be revealed by using biochemical markers such as zebrin II/aldolase C, which is expressed...

  18. Implantação do Método Mãe-Canguru na percepção de enfermeiras de um hospital universitário Implantación del Método Madre canguro en la percepción de enfermeras de un hospital universitario Implantation of the Kangaroo Mother Method in the perception of nurses in a university hospital

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    Thaís Cristina de Hollanda Parisi

    2008-01-01

    involucramiento de los colaboradores de la institución, en los procesos de cambio y la necesidad de adecuación de los recursos humanos y físicos para la implantación efectiva del método. De esta forma, dio subsidios para la reorganización de las actividades asistenciales y gerenciales en el referido servicio.OBJECTIVE: To understand the perception of nurses in a Neonatal Unit about the implantation of the Kangaroo Mother Method. METHODS: This is an exploratory-descriptive, qualitative study, performed at the Neonatal Unit at Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade de São Paulo, with the participation of five nurses. Data collection occurred through interviews, which were transformed into narratives and then categorized. RESULTS: Three categories were extracted from the narratives and interpreted according to the planned changes: the decision-making and awareness processes of the healthcare team, the intervenient factors and the beliefs and feelings associated to the implantation of the Kangaroo Mother Method. CONCLUSION: This study showed the importance of the involvement of the collaborators at the institution during the processes of change and the need to adequate the human and physical resources for the effective implantation of the method. Therefore, it yielded subsidies for the reorganization of the healthcare and managerial activities of the service.

  19. Implementation of Kangaroo mother care by health workers in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-08-04

    Aug 4, 2016 ... mother (or substitute) and her low birth weight infant, both in hospital and ... come countries. In Nigeria, it was estimated that KMC would save over ..... parents and also benefit the hospital, with improved in- fant survival and ...

  20. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in zoo and domestic animals in Jiangxi Province, China

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    Luo Houqiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that infects a wide range of warm-blooded animals throughout the world. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii were determined using a commercial indirect hemagglutination (IHA test in wild animals in a zoo. Three of 11 giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis (27%, 1 of 5 wolves (Canis lupus laniger (20%, 1 of 6 hippopotamuses (Hippopotamus amphibious (17%, and 2 of 9 tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus (22% were found to be positive. No antibodies were detected in leopards (Panthera pardus, wild geese (Anser cygnoides, and Eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus. Domestic species from 13 counties of Jiangxi Province, China were also investigated by an indirect hemagglutination (IHA test. Thirty-five of 340 goats (10%, 94 of 560 water buffaloes (17%, and 4 of 35 cattle (11% were found to be seropositive. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in animals kept in zoos and domestic animals in this province.

  1. Método Mãe-Canguru: evolução ponderal de recém-nascidos Método Madre Canguro: evolución ponderal de recién nacidos Kangaroo Mother Method: newborn weight outcome

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    Juliana de Oliveira Freitas

    2007-03-01

    estudio revela la necesidad de acompañar a los RN en pequeño, mediano y largo plazo y ampliar las discusiones sobre el acompañamiento de su crecimiento como una estrategia de atención básica, con miras a brindar atención de calidad a los RN y sus familias.OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the pattern of newborns weight gain in the second phase of the Kangaroo Mother Method and to determine the influence of breast feeding on newborns weight gain METHODS: This was a prospective study of 22 newborns. Data were collected from March to August 2005. RESULTS: More than a half (54.6% of the newborns had weight below the 5 percentile of the weight curve. The percentile of weight loss was of 9.8%. The mean of days for newborns to achieve the minimum weight and progress to normal weight was 5.2 days and 17.4 days, respectively. The relative rate of weight gain was 9g/kg/day and13.2g/kg/day in the first phase and in the second phase, respectively. The relative rate of weight gain of newborns who breast fed at the second phase was of 11.9g/kg/day. And, the relative rate of weight gain of newborns who breast fed and who were also fed with milk from the Human Milk Bank was 14.5g/kg/day. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests the importance of short, medium and long term follow-up of newborns. Monitoring the growth of newborns may be a strategy to improve the quality care to newborns and their families.

  2. Maternal factors regulating preterm infants' responses to pain and stress while in maternal kangaroo care Los factores maternos regula la respuesta al dolor y al estrés del recién nacido en posición canguro Fatores maternos influenciam a resposta à dor e ao estresse do neonato em posição canguru

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    Thaíla Corrêa Castral

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between maternal factors and the response of preterm infants to pain and stress experienced during heel puncture while in maternal kangaroo care was investigated. This descriptive study included 42 mothers and their preterm infants cared for in a neonatal unit. Data were collected in the baseline, procedure, and recovery phases. We measured the neonates' facial actions, sleep and wake states, crying, salivary cortisol levels, and heart rate, in addition to the mothers' behavior, salivary cortisol levels, and mental condition. The influence of the maternal explanatory variables on the neonatal response variables were verified through bivariate analysis, ANOVA, and multiple regression. The mothers' behavior and depression and/or anxiety did not affect the neonates' responses to pain and stress, though the mothers' levels of salivary cortisol before the procedure explained the variance in the neonates' levels of salivary cortisol after the procedure (p=0.036. Additionally, the mothers' baseline levels of salivary cortisol along with the neonates' age explained the variance in the neonates' heart rate (p=0.001. The ability of mothers to regulate their own stress contributed to the infants' responses to pain and stress.Asociación entre los factores maternos y la respuesta de los prematuros sometidos a punción del calcáneo en posición canguro. Estudio descriptivo envolviendo 42 madres y prematuros de una unidad neonatal. La colecta se dio en el período basal, procedimiento y recuperación. Se midieron la mímica facial, sueño y vigilia, llanto, cortisol salival y frecuencia cardíaca neonatal; y el comportamiento, cortisol salival y estado mental materno. Se analizó la influencia de las variables maternas en las variables neonatales por análisis bi-variada, análisis de variancia y regresión múltiple. La depresión, ansiedad y comportamiento materno no influenciaron la respuesta del prematuro al dolor. El cortisol pre

  3. Kangaroo Mother Method: Mothers' Experiences and Contributions to Nursing Método madre canguro: vivencias maternas y contribuciones para la enfermería Método mãe canguru: vivências maternas e contribuições para a enfermagem

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    João Carlos Arivabene

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to describe mothers' experiences, analyzing them in the light of the principles of the Kangaroo Mother Method (KMM, and discuss the mothers' contributions based on the meanings of these experiences for nursing actions. In data collection, a questionnaire was used that characterized the mothers' socioeconomic profile and, through focus groups, stories were obtained about the benefits of these experiences, which supported the construction of the following categories: survival and recovery of the baby; the mothers' daily life modified by the KMM and valuation of affective family bonds in the KMM. The experiences are related to increased bonding between mother and baby, reduction of the infant's time of separation from the family, besides leading to increased competition and confidence in the parents to take care of their child, even before discharge, improving the mother's relation with the family, inside the family and with the team that takes care of the baby.El objetivo de este estudio fue describir vivencias de las madres, analizándolas bajo los principios del Método de la Madre Canguro (MMC y discutir las contribuciones de las madres a partir de los significados de esas vivencias para las acciones de enfermería. En la recolección de los datos, se empleó un cuestionario que caracterizó el perfil socioeconómico de las madres y, por medio de la técnica grupo focal, se obtuvieron relatos de los beneficios de esas vivencias que subsidiaron la construcción de las categorías: sobrevivencia y recuperación del bebé; el día a día de las madres modificado por el MMC; y, valorización de los lazos afectivos familiares en el MMC. Se constató que las vivencias están relacionadas al aumento del vínculo entre la madre y el bebé, a la disminución del tiempo de separación del recién nacido de la familia, además de proporcionar mayor competencia y confianza a los padres en los cuidados con su hijo, inclusive antes del

  4. Análise de custos da atenção hospitalar a recém-nascidos de risco: uma comparação entre Unidade Intermediária Convencional e Unidade Canguru Análisis de los costes de la atención hospitalaria para los recién nacidos en riesgo: una comparación entre la Unidad Intermedia Neonatal y la Unidad Canguro Cost analysis of hospital care for newborns at risk: comparison of an Intermediate Neonatal Care Unit and a Kangaroo Unit

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    Cynthia Magluta

    2013-06-01

    y R$394,22 en la Unidad Intermedia Convencional. El coste de la cohorte hipotética fue R$5,710,281.66 para la asistencia en la segunda y tercera etapa de la Unidad Canguro y R$7,119,865.61 para la Unidad Intermedia Convencional. La Unidad Intermedia Convencional tiene costes un 25% más altos que la Unidad Canguro. El presente estudio puede contribuir a la toma de decisiones en el cuidado de la salud.The aim of this study was to compare the direct costs of implementation of the Kangaroo Method and an Intermediate Neonatal Care Unit, from the perspective of the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Newborns were eligible for inclusion if they were clinically stable and were able to receive care in those two modalities. A decision tree model was developed that incorporated baseline variables and costs into a hypothetical cohort of 1,000 newborns, according to the literature and expert opinions. Daily cost was BR$343.53 for the second stage of the Kangaroo Unit and BR$394.22 for the Intermediate Neonatal Care Unit. The total cost for the hypothetical cohort was BR$5,710,281.66 for the second and third stages of the Kangaroo Unit and R$7,119,865.61 for the Intermediate Neonatal Care Unit. The Intermediate Neonatal Care Unit cost 25% more than the Kangaroo Unit. The study can contribute to decision-making in health, in addition to providing support for studies related to economic evaluation in neonatal health.

  5. The role of inhibitory dynamics in the loss and reemergence of macropodoid tooth traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couzens, Aidan M C; Evans, Alistair R; Skinner, Matthew M; Prideaux, Gavin J

    2016-03-01

    The reversibility of phenotypic evolution is likely to be strongly influenced by the ability of underlying developmental systems to generate ancestral traits. However, few studies have quantitatively linked these developmental dynamics to traits that reevolve. In this study, we assess how changes in the inhibitory cascade, a developmental system that regulates relative tooth size in mammals, influenced the loss and reversals of the posthypocristid, a molar tooth crest, in the kangaroo superfamily Macropodoidea. We find that posthypocristid loss is linked with reduced levels of posterior molar inhibition, potentially driven by selection for lophodont, higher-crowned molar teeth. There is strong support for two posthypocristid reversals, each occurring after more than 15 million years of absence, in large-bodied species of Macropus, and two giant extinct species of short-faced sthenurine kangaroo (Procoptodon). We find that whereas primitive posthypocristid expression is linked to higher levels of posterior molar inhibition, reemergence is tied to a relative increase in third molar size associated with increasing body mass, producing molar phenotypes similar to those in mouse where the ectodysplasin pathway is upregulated. We argue that although shifts in the inhibitory cascade may enable reemergence, dietary ecology may limit the frequency of phylogenetic reversal.

  6. Terceira etapa método Canguru: convergência de práticas investigativas e cuidado com famílias em atendimento ambulatorial Tercera etapa método Canguro: convergencia de prácticas de investigación y cuidado con familias en la atención ambulatoria Third stage of the Kangaroo method: converging investigative and care practices with families in outpatient care

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    Márcia Borck

    2010-12-01

    -Care Research which objectives were to investigate the adaptation process experience of families in this third stage of the Kangaroo Method with premature and/or low weight newborns, to implement a nursing visit in reference to the four adaptive modes of the Roy Theory. The study was developed from October of 2006 to February of 2007 in University Hospital. The subjects were six mothers, family members, and their babies. The data was collected through Roy's adaptive care process model, utilizing observation techniques and semi-structured interviews. The data analysis process occurred through apprehension, synthesis, theorization, and transference. The results show the need to strengthen the role of the family in release from the hospital, communication among the interdisciplinary team and rethinking the criteria for release in the third stage.

  7. Método canguru: práticas investigativas e de cuidado de enfermagem no modelo de adaptação de Roy Método canguro: prácticas de investigación y de atención en enfermería en el modelo de adaptación de Roy Kangaroo method: investigative practices and nursing care in the Roy adaptation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Borck

    2012-06-01

    se evidencia la tercera etapa como una oportunidad para retroalimentar el sistema de cuidado, apoyar las familias para sobreponer sus conflictos, preocupaciones, miedos, inseguridades y el propio comportamiento inmaduro del bebé.This study deals with a qualitative, Convergent-Care Research which objectives were to investigate the adaptation process experienced by six families in this third stage of the Kangaroo Method (KM with premature and/or low weight newborns, from Oct/06 to Feb/07, and implement a nursing visit with each participant of the study, in reference to the four adaptive modes of the Roy Theory. The Adaptation Model proposed by Sister Callista Roy was used as a theoretical reference. The data was collected through Roy's adaptive care process model, applying observation techniques and semi-structured interviews. The data analysis process occurred through apprehension, synthesis, theorization, and transference. The results show the need to strengthen the role of the family when release from the hospital, communication among the interdisciplinary team, reviewing the criteria for release in the third stage, as well as guaranteeing all the possibilities for continued care. This study evidences the third stage as an opportunity to reinforce the care system, support for the family in order to overcome their conflicts, concerns, fears, insecurities, and the very immature behavior of the baby.

  8. Assistência humanizada ao neonato prematuro e/ou de baixo peso: implantação do Método Mãe Canguru em Hospital Universitário Asistencia humanizada al recién nacido prematuro y/o de bajo peso: implantación del Método Madre Canguro en el Hospital Universitario Humanized assistence to premature and/or low weigh newborn: implantation of Kangaroo-Mother Method at a University Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrícia Adriana Mazzo Neves

    2006-09-01

    asociación entre tecnología, relación interpersonal y entre diversas áreas, cuidado humano y participación familiar.Experience report about nurses and multiprofessional group during the process of implantation of Kangaroo-Mother Method at the University Hospital of Maringá State University, Paraná, in 2002, with the objectives of: humanize the care to premature and/or low weight newborn, refining the familiar support; promote a better level of satisfaction to the assistance group. The baby stands on skin to skin contact with the mother, father or significative relative's breast, with benefits to his weight, temperature, affection, breastfeeding, besides the probable decrease of time in hospital and infection risks. A group, trained by the Ministry of Health started the implantation and multiplication of the Method; sophisticated a multiprofessional Extension Project in the institution as organizer and integrating studies and assistance. The difficulties found were about association among tecnology, people's relation and many common areas, human care and familiar participation.

  9. Candidatus Bartonella antechini: a novel Bartonella species detected in fleas and ticks from the yellow-footed antechinus (Antechinus flavipes), an Australian marsupial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewmongkol, Gunn; Kaewmongkol, Sarawan; Owen, Helen; Fleming, Patricia A; Adams, Peter J; Ryan, Una; Irwin, Peter J; Fenwick, Stanley G

    2011-05-05

    Bartonella are fastidious, Gram-negative, aerobic bacilli belonging to the Alphaproteobacteria group. In the last ten years, the discovery of new Bartonella species from a variety of mammalian hosts, arthropod vectors and geographical areas has increased. More than 20 species of Bartonella have been identified, of which approximately thirteen are associated with disease in humans and animals. Recently, four novel species of Bartonella were isolated from mammalian hosts in Australia: Bartonella australis from eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) and Bartonella rattaustraliani, Bartonella queenslandensis and Bartonella coopersplainsensis from rodents. Bartonella-like organisms have also been detected from Ixodes tasmani ticks collected from koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus). However, very little is known about Bartonella spp. in other marsupials in Australia. We report the identification of a novel Bartonella species detected from fleas (Acanthopsylla jordani) and ticks (Ixodes antechini) collected from a small carnivorous marsupial, Antechinus flavipes (Mardos or Yellow-footed antechinus) in the southwest of Western Australia. New nested-PCRs targeting the gltA gene and the ribosomal ITS region were developed as part of the present study. DNA sequencing of the 16S rRNA, gltA, ftsZ and rpoB genes and the ribosomal ITS region revealed that this detection is a distinct Bartonella species and is related to B. australis isolated from kangaroos. This is the first report of two different possible arthropod vectors in Australia (ticks and fleas) being infected with the same species of Bartonella. We propose the name Candidatus Bartonella antechini n. sp. for the recently characterized organism.

  10. Eaten out of house and home: impacts of grazing on ground-dwelling reptiles in Australian grasslands and grassy woodlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howland, Brett; Stojanovic, Dejan; Gordon, Iain J; Manning, Adrian D; Fletcher, Don; Lindenmayer, David B

    2014-01-01

    Large mammalian grazers can alter the biotic and abiotic features of their environment through their impacts on vegetation. Grazing at moderate intensity has been recommended for biodiversity conservation. Few studies, however, have empirically tested the benefits of moderate grazing intensity in systems dominated by native grazers. Here we investigated the relationship between (1) density of native eastern grey kangaroos, Macropus giganteus, and grass structure, and (2) grass structure and reptiles (i.e. abundance, richness, diversity and occurrence) across 18 grassland and grassy Eucalyptus woodland properties in south-eastern Australia. There was a strong negative relationship between kangaroo density and grass structure after controlling for tree canopy cover. We therefore used grass structure as a surrogate for grazing intensity. Changes in grazing intensity (i.e. grass structure) significantly affected reptile abundance, reptile species richness, reptile species diversity, and the occurrence of several ground-dwelling reptiles. Reptile abundance, species richness and diversity were highest where grazing intensity was low. Importantly, no species of reptile was more likely to occur at high grazing intensities. Legless lizards (Delma impar, D. inornata) were more likely to be detected in areas subject to moderate grazing intensity, whereas one species (Hemiergis talbingoensis) was less likely to be detected in areas subject to intense grazing and three species (Menetia greyii, Morethia boulengeri, and Lampropholis delicata) did not appear to be affected by grazing intensity. Our data indicate that to maximize reptile abundance, species richness, species diversity, and occurrence of several individual species of reptile, managers will need to subject different areas of the landscape to moderate and low grazing intensities and limit the occurrence and extent of high grazing.

  11. Sounds scary? Lack of habituation following the presentation of novel sounds.

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    Tine A Biedenweg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Animals typically show less habituation to biologically meaningful sounds than to novel signals. We might therefore expect that acoustic deterrents should be based on natural sounds. METHODOLOGY: We investigated responses by western grey kangaroos (Macropus fulignosus towards playback of natural sounds (alarm foot stomps and Australian raven (Corvus coronoides calls and artificial sounds (faux snake hiss and bull whip crack. We then increased rate of presentation to examine whether animals would habituate. Finally, we varied frequency of playback to investigate optimal rates of delivery. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Nine behaviors clustered into five Principal Components. PC factors 1 and 2 (animals alert or looking, or hopping and moving out of area accounted for 36% of variance. PC factor 3 (eating cessation, taking flight, movement out of area accounted for 13% of variance. Factors 4 and 5 (relaxing, grooming and walking; 12 and 11% of variation, respectively discontinued upon playback. The whip crack was most evocative; eating was reduced from 75% of time spent prior to playback to 6% following playback (post alarm stomp: 32%, raven call: 49%, hiss: 75%. Additionally, 24% of individuals took flight and moved out of area (50 m radius in response to the whip crack (foot stomp: 0%, raven call: 8% and 4%, hiss: 6%. Increasing rate of presentation (12x/min ×2 min caused 71% of animals to move out of the area. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The bull whip crack, an artificial sound, was as effective as the alarm stomp at eliciting aversive behaviors. Kangaroos did not fully habituate despite hearing the signal up to 20x/min. Highest rates of playback did not elicit the greatest responses, suggesting that 'more is not always better'. Ultimately, by utilizing both artificial and biological sounds, predictability may be masked or offset, so that habituation is delayed and more effective deterrents may be produced.

  12. Prevalence and Clinical Significance of Herpesvirus Infection in Populations of Australian Marsupials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalder, Kathryn; Vaz, Paola K.; Gilkerson, James R.; Baker, Rupert; Whiteley, Pam; Ficorilli, Nino; Tatarczuch, Liliana; Portas, Timothy; Skogvold, Kim; Anderson, Garry A.; Devlin, Joanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Herpesviruses have been reported in several marsupial species, but molecular classification has been limited to four herpesviruses in macropodids, a gammaherpesvirus in two antechinus species (Antechinus flavipes and Antechinus agilis), a gammaherpesvirus in a potoroid, the eastern bettong (Bettongia gaimardi) and two gammaherpesviruses in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus). In this study we examined a range of Australian marsupials for the presence of herpesviruses using molecular and serological techniques, and also assessed risk factors associated with herpesvirus infection. Our study population included 99 koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus), 96 eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus), 50 Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) and 33 common wombats (Vombatus ursinius). In total, six novel herpesviruses (one alphaherpesvirus and five gammaherpesviruses) were identified in various host species. The overall prevalence of detection of herpesvirus DNA in our study population was 27.2% (95% confidence interval (CI) of 22.6–32.2%), but this varied between species and reached as high as 45.4% (95% CI 28.1–63.7%) in common wombats. Serum antibodies to two closely related macropodid herpesviruses (macropodid herpesvirus 1 and 2) were detected in 44.3% (95% CI 33.1–55.9%) of animals tested. This also varied between species and was as high as 92% (95% CI 74.0–99.0%) in eastern grey kangaroos. A number of epidemiological variables were identified as positive predictors for the presence of herpesvirus DNA in the marsupial samples evaluated. The most striking association was observed in koalas, where the presence of Chlamydia pecorum DNA was strongly associated with the presence of herpesvirus DNA (Odds Ratio = 60, 95% CI 12.1–297.8). Our results demonstrate the common presence of herpesviruses in Australian marsupials and provide directions for future research. PMID:26222660

  13. Prevalence and Clinical Significance of Herpesvirus Infection in Populations of Australian Marsupials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Stalder

    Full Text Available Herpesviruses have been reported in several marsupial species, but molecular classification has been limited to four herpesviruses in macropodids, a gammaherpesvirus in two antechinus species (Antechinus flavipes and Antechinus agilis, a gammaherpesvirus in a potoroid, the eastern bettong (Bettongia gaimardi and two gammaherpesviruses in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus. In this study we examined a range of Australian marsupials for the presence of herpesviruses using molecular and serological techniques, and also assessed risk factors associated with herpesvirus infection. Our study population included 99 koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus, 96 eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus, 50 Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii and 33 common wombats (Vombatus ursinius. In total, six novel herpesviruses (one alphaherpesvirus and five gammaherpesviruses were identified in various host species. The overall prevalence of detection of herpesvirus DNA in our study population was 27.2% (95% confidence interval (CI of 22.6-32.2%, but this varied between species and reached as high as 45.4% (95% CI 28.1-63.7% in common wombats. Serum antibodies to two closely related macropodid herpesviruses (macropodid herpesvirus 1 and 2 were detected in 44.3% (95% CI 33.1-55.9% of animals tested. This also varied between species and was as high as 92% (95% CI 74.0-99.0% in eastern grey kangaroos. A number of epidemiological variables were identified as positive predictors for the presence of herpesvirus DNA in the marsupial samples evaluated. The most striking association was observed in koalas, where the presence of Chlamydia pecorum DNA was strongly associated with the presence of herpesvirus DNA (Odds Ratio = 60, 95% CI 12.1-297.8. Our results demonstrate the common presence of herpesviruses in Australian marsupials and provide directions for future research.

  14. Eaten out of house and home: impacts of grazing on ground-dwelling reptiles in Australian grasslands and grassy woodlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Howland

    Full Text Available Large mammalian grazers can alter the biotic and abiotic features of their environment through their impacts on vegetation. Grazing at moderate intensity has been recommended for biodiversity conservation. Few studies, however, have empirically tested the benefits of moderate grazing intensity in systems dominated by native grazers. Here we investigated the relationship between (1 density of native eastern grey kangaroos, Macropus giganteus, and grass structure, and (2 grass structure and reptiles (i.e. abundance, richness, diversity and occurrence across 18 grassland and grassy Eucalyptus woodland properties in south-eastern Australia. There was a strong negative relationship between kangaroo density and grass structure after controlling for tree canopy cover. We therefore used grass structure as a surrogate for grazing intensity. Changes in grazing intensity (i.e. grass structure significantly affected reptile abundance, reptile species richness, reptile species diversity, and the occurrence of several ground-dwelling reptiles. Reptile abundance, species richness and diversity were highest where grazing intensity was low. Importantly, no species of reptile was more likely to occur at high grazing intensities. Legless lizards (Delma impar, D. inornata were more likely to be detected in areas subject to moderate grazing intensity, whereas one species (Hemiergis talbingoensis was less likely to be detected in areas subject to intense grazing and three species (Menetia greyii, Morethia boulengeri, and Lampropholis delicata did not appear to be affected by grazing intensity. Our data indicate that to maximize reptile abundance, species richness, species diversity, and occurrence of several individual species of reptile, managers will need to subject different areas of the landscape to moderate and low grazing intensities and limit the occurrence and extent of high grazing.

  15. Best practices for washing and handling of the bag Kangaroo enteral feeding

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Enteral nutrition is a valuable tool in the therapy of hospitalized, especially in intensive care units, and patients for their diseases lose their ability to ingest food patients.Method. The methodology pointing evidence-based clinical practice (PCBE) dealing with the study and analysis of primary and original research of high scientific quality, locating findings that respond to the clinical question posed was applied.Results. No study directly answer the question, however, se...

  16. Cool-water Eocene-Oligocene carbonate sedimentation on a paleobathymetric high, Kangaroo Island, southern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Noel P.; Matenaar, Joanne; Bone, Yvonne

    2016-07-01

    The Kingscote Limestone is a thin, biofragmental ~ 41 m thick Paleogene subtropical to cool-temperate carbonate interpreted to have accumulated in a seaway developed between a series of mid-shelf islands. It is a pivotal section that allows interpretation of a region in which there is little exposure of early Cenozoic shelf sediments. Sedimentation occurred on part of the shelf along the northern margin of an extensive Eocene embayment that evolved into a narrow Oligocene ocean following collapse of the Tasman Gateway. Eocene strata are subtropical echinoid-rich floatstones with conspicuous bryozoans, and mollusks, together with large and small benthic foraminifers. Numerous echinoid rudstone storm deposits punctuate the succession. Correlation with coeval Eocene strata across southern Australia supports a regional facies model wherein inner neritic biosiliceous spiculitic sediments passed outboard into calcareous facies. The silica was derived from land covered by a thriving subtropical forest and attendant deep weathering. Oligocene rocks are distinctively cooler cyclic cross-bedded bryozoan rudstones and floatstones with a similar benthic biota but dominated by bryozoans and containing no large benthic foraminifers. These deposits are interpreted as flood-dominated tidal subaqueous dunes that formed in a flood-tide dominated inter-island strait. Omission surfaces at the top of the Eocene and at the top of most Oligocene cycles are Fe-stained hardgrounds that underwent extensive multigeneration seafloor and meteoric diagenesis prior to deposition of the next cycle. Cycles in the Kingscote Limestone, although mostly m-scale and compositionally distinct are similar to those across the region and point to a recurring cycle motif controlled by icehouse eustasy and local paleogeography.

  17. Camels, Cormorants, and Kangaroo Rats: Integration and Synthesis in Organismal Biology After World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Joel B

    2015-01-01

    During the decades following World War II diverse groups of American biologists established a variety of distinctive approaches to organismal biology. Rhetorically, organismal biology could be used defensively to distinguish established research traditions from perceived threats from newly emerging fields such as molecular biology. But, organismal biologists were also interested in integrating biological disciplines and using a focus on organisms to synthesize levels of organization from molecules and cells to populations and communities. Part of this broad movement was the development of an area of research variously referred to as physiological ecology, environmental physiology, or ecophysiology. This area of research was distinctive in its self-conscious blend of field and laboratory practices and its explicit integration with other areas of biology such as ecology, animal behavior, and evolution in order to study adaptation. Comparing the intersecting careers of Knut Schmidt-Nielsen and George Bartholomew highlights two strikingly different approaches to physiological ecology. These alternative approaches to studying the interactions of organisms and environments also differed in important ways from the organismal biology championed by leading figures in the modern synthesis.

  18. Kangaroo Mother Program: results of follow-up at 40 weeks of postconceptional age.

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    Javier Torres

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El bajo peso al nacer es un problema de salud pública en los países en vía de desarrollo, que en América Latina produce una mortalidad neonatal 35 veces mayor a la esperada. En la unidad de recién nacidos del Hospital Universitario del Valle, 75% de los neonatos tienen Objetivos: Evaluar los niños seguidos desde la unidad neonatal hasta las 40 semanas de edad gestacional en el programa madre canguro. Materiales y métodos: Se evaluó la cohorte de recién nacidos que ingresaron al programa madre canguro en la unidad de recién nacidos del Hospital Universitario del Valle, Cali, Colombia, con peso Resultados: Un total de 66 niños alcanzaron el término, 40 (60.6% niñas, y 26 (39.4% niños, con promedios (los rangos se dan entre paréntesis de los siguientes datos al nacer: 32 semanas (27-38, edad gestacional; 1,434 g (700-1,950, peso; 41 cm (35-47, talla; y 28 cm (22-41, perímetro cefálico, respectivamente. Al egreso los datos correspondientes fueron: 34 semanas (31-39 edad gestacional; 19 días (4-48 edad postconcepción; y 1552 g (1,359-2,239, peso. Durante el seguimiento tuvieron cinco consultas en promedio y una ganancia de peso total promedio de 18 g/kg/día. Al egreso 96% recibían lactancia materna y a las 40 semanas 94%, que fue exclusiva en 67% y en 51%, respectivamente. La anemia y la enfermedad por reflujo gastroesofágico fueron las principales causas de consulta por urgencias. Fue necesario rehospitalizar 3 (4.5% niños, dos para crioterapia y uno por apnea, ninguno murió. Conclusiones: Hasta el cumplimiento de las 40 semanas de edad gestacional, el programa mostró ser una alternativa segura para el manejo de niños con bajo peso al nacer, pues les garantiza un egreso temprano, contacto piel a piel, un crecimiento adecuado y una alimentación inicial basada en leche materna.

  19. Behavioural effects of fixed speed cameras on motorways: overall improved speed compliance or kangaroo jumps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pauw, Ellen; Daniels, Stijn; Brijs, Tom; Hermans, Elke; Wets, Geert

    2014-12-01

    The present study evaluates the speed effects of fixed speed cameras on motorways. Two locations with speed cameras were extensively examined in a quasi-experiment: (1) a two-lane motorway and (2) a three-lane motorway, each with a posted speed limit of 120 km/h and sited in Flanders, Belgium. The effect is analysed through a before-and-after comparison of travel speeds. General time trends and fluctuations were controlled through the analysis of the speeds at comparison locations. At each of the two roads, data were gathered at five measurement points from 3 km upstream to 3.8 km downstream of the camera. Three outcomes were analysed: (1) average speed, (2) the odds of drivers exceeding the speed limit and (3) the odds of drivers exceeding the speed limit by more than 10%. Speeds decreased on average by 6.4 km/h at the camera locations. Both the odds of drivers exceeding the speed limit (-80%) and the odds of drivers exceeding the speed limit by more than 10% (-86%) decreased considerably. However, before and beyond the cameras the speeds hardly, if at all, reduced. Moreover, the analyses of the speed profiles before and beyond the cameras show that drivers do slow down quite abruptly before the camera and speed up again after passing the camera. It is concluded that a V-profile is found in the spatial speed distribution for both locations.

  20. Kangaroo Mother Care: Usi11gApp1'0p11'ate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mother care (KMC) was developed in 1978 in Colombia by the duo of Rey ... in hospitals caring for low birth weight (LBW) infants Currently, this method of care consists ... benefits, limitations and possibility of\\the practice of KMC in Nigeria.

  1. Dermatophytosis in zoo macropods: a questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, Katie Alyce; Vogelnest, Linda Jean; Vogelnest, Larry

    2013-09-01

    Limited published data are available on dermatophytosis in zoo macropods, despite anecdotal reports of disease occurrence and recurrent mob outbreaks. The aim of this questionnaire study was to analyze data from Australian and international zoos to evaluate estimated disease prevalence in zoos housing macropods, affected macropod species, causative organisms, predisposing factors, clinical presentations, diagnostics, treatments, and disease risk management. Two questionnaires (initial detailed and subsequent brief) were distributed via email to zoo veterinarians, with an estimated response rate of 23%. The overall estimated disease prevalence from responding zoos was 28%, with 73% of responding Australian zoos and 14% of responding non-Australian zoos reporting disease. The first cases of confirmed and suspected dermatophytosis in several macropod species and in association with Trichophyton verrucosum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. nodulare are reported, with young red kangaroos (Macropus rufus) appearing predisposed. Diagnosis was most commonly based on fungal culture or presumptively on typical clinical signs of minimally/nonpruritic alopecia, crusting, and scaling distributed most frequently on the tail, pinnae, and hind limbs. Both disease resolution without treatment and resolution after an average of 1 to 2 mo of treatment were reported.

  2. Isolation and characterization of marsupial IL5 genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawken, R J; Maccarone, P; Toder, R; Marshall Graves, J A; Maddox, J F

    1999-10-01

    The genomic nucleotide sequence and chromosomal position of the interleukin 5 (IL5) gene has been described for the model marsupial Macropus eugenii (tammar wallaby). A 272 base pair genomic IL5 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product spanning exon 3, intron 3, and exon 4 was generated using stripe-faced dunnart (Sminthopsis macroura) DNA. This PCR product was used to isolate a genomic lambda clone containing the complete IL5 gene from a tammar wallaby EMBL3 lambda library. Sequencing revealed that the tammar wallaby IL5 gene consists of four exons separated by three introns. Comparison of the marsupial coding sequence with coding sequences from eutherian species revealed 61 to 69% identity at the nucleotide level and 48 to 63% identity at the amino acid (aa) level. A polymorphic complex compound microsatellite was identified within intron 2 of the tammar wallaby IL5 gene. This microsatellite was also found in other marsupials including the swamp wallaby, tree kangaroo, stripe-faced dunnart, South American opossum, brushtail possum, and koala. Fluorescence in situ hybridization using DNA from the IL5 clone on tammar wallaby chromosomes indicated that the IL5 gene is located on Chromosome 1.

  3. Breastfeeding practices after Kangaroo Mother Method in Rio de Janeiro: the necessity for he alth education and nursing intervention at homea La práctica de amamantar después del Método Mamá Canguro en Río de Janeiro: La necesidad de educación en salud e intervención de enfermería en el domicilio A prática da amamentação após o método mãe canguru no Rio de Janeiro: a necessidade de educação em saúde e intervenção de Enfermagem no domicílio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivone Evangelista Cabral

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available IThe "teaching-leaning" is part of the Brazilian Kangaroo Mother Method with the objective of increasing skills of mother's breastfeeding infants with special health needs. Nevertheless, we do not know if this knowledge was embodied in the family inner circle, so we aimed at identifying and analyzing how this medical knowledge was incorporated in the context of infants' homes. Participatory research was developed at home with eleven groups of mother, family members and neighbors. Local knowledge of neighbors' and family members' replaced the medical knowledge and changed infant feeding practices. Health education should be implemented beyond hospital and include family members.La "enseñanza-aprendizaje" integra el Método Mamá Canguro brasileño para promover las habilidades maternas en la acción de amamantar a bebés prematuros o con bajo peso. Por desconocer si lo que fue enseñado integró al círculo interno de la familia, nuestro objetivo fue el de analizar como ese conocimiento sobre lactancia exclusiva fue incorporado en el contexto de los domicilios. La investigación sucidió en el domicilio de 11 grupos de madres, familiares y vecinos. El saber local de los vecinos y familiares substituyó el conocimiento enseñado a la madre en el Método y cambió la alimentación de esos bebés. La educación en salud debe extenderse más allá del hospital e incluir a los familiares y personas significativas.O "ensino-aprendizagem" integra o Método Mãe Canguru (MMC brasileiro para promover as habilidades maternas na amamentação de bebês prematuros ou baixo peso. Por desconhecermos se o que foi ensinado integrou o círculo interno da família, nosso objetivo foi analisar como esse conhecimento sobre amamentação exclusiva foi incorporado no contexto dos domicílios. A pesquisa participante aconteceu no domicilio de 11 grupos de mães, familiares e vizinhos. O saber local dos vizinhos e familiares substituiu o conhecimento ensinado à m

  4. The timing and cause of megafauna mass deaths at Lancefield Swamp, south-eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dortch, Joe; Cupper, Matt; Grün, Rainer; Harpley, Bernice; Lee, Kerrie; Field, Judith

    2016-08-01

    Lancefield Swamp, south-eastern Australia, was one of the earliest sites to provoke interest in Pleistocene faunal extinctions in Sahul (Pleistocene Australia-New Guinea). The systematic investigation of the deposit in the early 1970s identified megafaunal remains dominated by the 100-200 kg kangaroo Macropus giganteus titan. Associated radiocarbon ages indicated that the species was extant until c.30,000 BP, suggesting significant overlap with human settlement of Sahul. This evidence was inconsistent with contemporary models of rapid human-driven extinctions. Instead, researchers inferred ecological tethering of fauna at Lancefield Swamp due to intense drought precipitated localised mass deaths, consistent with Late Pleistocene climatic variability. Later investigations in another part of the swamp, the Mayne Site, remote to the initial investigations, concluded that mass flow disturbed this area, and Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) analyses on megafauna teeth returned wide-ranging ages. To clarify site formation processes and dating of Lancefield Swamp, we excavated new test-pits next to previous trenches in the Classic and Mayne Sites. We compared absolute chronologies for sediments and teeth, sedimentology, palaeo-topography, taphonomy, and macropod age at death across the swamp. Luminescence dating of sediments and ESR analysis of teeth returned ages between c.80,000 and 45,000 years ago. We found no archaeological remains in the bone beds, and evidence of carnivore activity and fluvial action, in the form of reactivated spring flow. The latter disturbed limited parts of the site and substantial areas of the bone beds remained intact. The faunal assemblage is dominated by megafaunal adult Macropus, consistent with mass die-offs due to severe drought. Such droughts appear to have recurred over millennia during the climatic variability of Marine Isotope Stages 4 and 3. These events began tens of millennia before the first appearance of Aboriginal people in Sahul

  5. Pengaruh Musik Keroncong selama Pelaksanaan Kangaroo Mother Care terhadap Respons Fisiologis dan Lama Rawat Bayi dengan Berat Badan Lahir Rendah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Rahmawati

    2015-11-01

    (LBW infants. Some care interventions in neonatal intensive care unit, such as infant massage, KMC and listening to music have advantage for infant growth in form of physiological responses and reduce LBW infant-nursing length. This study aimed to determine advantage of keroncong music toward LBW infant’s response during KMC and nursing length. The study design was quasi experimental using pretest and posttest using control group design. Population was mothers and LBW infants implementing KMC. Samples were 60 infants taken by purposive sampling. Inclusion criteria determined for LBW infants were having weight 1,500 – 2,499 gram, without considering pregnancy age, having ability to suckle though still weak, not suffering breathing distress. Meanwhile, exclusion criteria were infants with congenital disorder, sepsis symptoms and infants during therapy photo. Statistical test used paired t-test, independent t-test with p value 0.05. In conclusion, keroncong music influences on decrease of pulse, respiration during KMC and length of infant nursing.

  6. A >46,000-year-old kangaroo bone implement from Carpenter's Gap 1 (Kimberley, northwest Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Michelle C.; O'Connor, Sue; Aplin, Ken

    2016-12-01

    Here we describe the oldest shaped and utilised bone implement recovered from an Australian context. Dated to beyond 46,000 years cal. BP and recovered from Carpenter's Gap 1 rockshelter, in the Kimberley region of northern Western Australia, this artefact demonstrates not only that Australian osseous technology has a time depth almost 25,000 years older than previously believed, but that bone technology was present in the opposite corner of the country from which it was proposed to have been innovated around 20,000 years ago. Comparison of this artefact with ethnographic implements found that the CG1 point was most consistent with an awl or a 'nose-bone'. If the implement was an awl it provides evidence for intangible behaviours such as leather working or basketry being enacted more than 46,000 years cal. BP ago, while the alternative - a nose-bone - would constitute the earliest piece of personal ornamentation in Sahul. In either case, this single artefact provides rare insights into the culture and technology of Australia's earliest peoples.

  7. Health care professionals' perspectives on the requirements facilitating the roll-out of kangaroo mother care in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma ten Ham

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Although certain requirements, such as personal alignment and reinforcing structures can be used in the roll-out of best practices, further research is desirable to promote fuller understanding of how to devise and apply the requirements in the wider adoption of best practices in South African health care settings.

  8. Description of a new species of the Rhynchophorous genus Oxyrhynchus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, W.

    1880-01-01

    Elongatus, fuliginosus, opacus, fossulis luteo-pulverosis sparsutus. Sutura alba, prothoracis basi atomis albis adspersa. — Long. 10 mm. rostr. excl. Of a narrower shape than the other known species of the genus.

  9. Four Helvella (Ascomycota: Pezizales: Helvellaceae species from the Cold Desert of Leh, Ladakh, Jammu and Kashmir, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Dorjey

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with four Helvella species namely Helvella acetabulum, H.corium, H.queletii and H.macropus from Leh district in Ladakh region of the state of Jammu and Kashmir. Of these, the first three species are new fungus records for India while H.macropus constitutes first authentic record from Ladakh.

  10. AcEST: DK945021 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available -like growth factor II receptor (Fragment) OS=Macropus rufogriseus Align length 2...e-6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor II receptor (Fragment) OS=Macropus rufogriseus GN=m6p/igf2r PE=2 SV

  11. Simulation of Vegetation Recovery from Military Disturbances on Fort Bliss

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-01

    distinguished: Pinyon juniper, Mesa grassland, Black grama grasslands, Whitethorn acacia , Creosotebush, Sandsage, and Mes- quite (Pidgeon 2000). However, a GIS...Granivory Insects Rodents kangaroo rats Ants IV.5. Digging Rodents kangaroo rats Lagomorphs IV.6. Extreme events Drought

  12. 让牛羊放"袋鼠屁"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Eco-friendly kangaroo farts could help global warming:scientists Australian scientists are trying to give kangaroo-style stomachs to cattle and sheep in a bid to cut the emission of greenhouse gases blamed for global warming.

  13. Microstructural and compositional features of the fibrous and hyaline cartilage on the medial tibial plateau imply a unique role for the hopping locomotion of kangaroo

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    He, Bo; Wu, Jian Ping; Xu, Jiake; Day, Robert E; Kirk, Thomas Brett

    2013-01-01

    .... However, the influences of the microstructure, composition and mechanical properties of the central fibrous and peripheral hyaline cartilage on the function of the knee joints are still to be defined...

  14. Método canguru e aleitamento materno: uma revisão integrativa da literatura nacional = Kangaroo method and breastfeeding: an integrative review of national literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souto, Danielle da Costa

    2014-01-01

    Conclusão: Entre as conclusões, destaca-se a necessidade de pesquisas que investiguem aspectos psicológicos e suas variáveis no MC, além dos físicos e biológicos. São escassos os estudos sobre a experiência materna malsucedida, por diferentes motivos, na prática da amamentação durante o MC. Atenta-se para a necessidade de disseminação do modelo hegemônico de maternidade que atravessa a experiência feminina

  15. Mmatshilo Motsei 2007: The kanga and the kangaroo court – reflections on the rape trial of Jacob Zuma. Jacana, Cape Town

    OpenAIRE

    Simphiwe Sesanti

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary interpretations of African culture are responsible for objectifying women. This is Mmatshilo Motsei’s conclusion after profound reflections on the implications of Jacob Zuma’s rape trial in which he was accused of raping the daughter of his comrade who died in exile.
    In the trial Zuma claimed that the sexual encounter was consensual. When explaining his submission to passion and failing to use a condom, he said that had he left the woman sexually unfulfilled, in Zulu c...

  16. The economic benefits of increasing kangaroo skin-to-skin care and breastfeeding in neonatal units : analysis of a pragmatic intervention in clinical practice.

    OpenAIRE

    Lowson, K.; Offer, C; Watson, Julie; McGuire, B; Renfrew, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background A number of significant recent research studies have used techniques of economic modelling to demonstrate the potential benefits of increasing breastfeeding rates in the UK overall, and specifically in neonatal care. This paper complements this growing body of evidence by presenting an economic analysis of data from an actual intervention, the ?Getting It Right From the Start? programme, which took place in the north of the UK during 2011?12, with the aim of increasing breastfeedin...

  17. Biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles via indigenous Anigozanthos manglesii, (red and green kangaroo paw leaf extract and its potential antibacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monaliben Shah

    2016-08-01

    Results: Characterisation revealed the nanoparticles ranged in size from 50 nm up to 150 nm, and their morphologies included cubes, triangular plates and hexagonal plates. Antibacterial studies revealed Deinococcus was sensitive and susceptible to the biosynthesised nanoparticles. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus Epidermis strains were also found to be less susceptible to the silver nanoparticles. Conclusions: The present study has shown that silver nanoparticles biosynthesised using Anigozanthos manglesii leaf extracts have antibacterial activity against Deinococcus, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus Epidermis bacterial strains [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(8.000: 3427-3432

  18. Molecular evolution of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA in Ungulata (mammalia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douzery, E; Catzeflis, F M

    1995-11-01

    The complete 12S rRNA gene has been sequenced in 4 Ungulata (hoofed eutherians) and 1 marsupial and compared to 38 available mammalian sequences in order to investigate the molecular evolution of the mitochondrial small-subunit ribosomal RNA molecule. Ungulata were represented by one artiodactyl (the collared peccary, Tayassu tajacu, suborder Suiformes), two perissodactyls (the Grevy's zebra, Equus grevyi, suborder Hippomorpha; the white rhinoceros, Ceratotherium simum, suborder Ceratomorpha), and one hyracoid (the tree hyrax, Dendrohyrax dorsalis). The fifth species was a marsupial, the eastern gray kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). Several transition/transversion biases characterized the pattern of changes between mammalian 12S rRNA molecules. A bias toward transitions was found among 12S rRNA sequences of Ungulata, illustrating the general bias exhibited by ribosomal and protein-encoding genes of the mitochondrial genome. The derivation of a mammalian 12S rRNA secondary structure model from the comparison of 43 eutherian and marsupial sequences evidenced a pronounced bias against transversions in stems. Moreover, transversional compensatory changes were rare events within double-stranded regions of the ribosomal RNA. Evolutionary characteristics of the 12S rRNA were compared with those of the nuclear 18S and 28S rRNAs. From a phylogenetic point of view, transitions, transversions and indels in stems as well as transversional and indels events in loops gave congruent results for comparisons within orders. Some compensatory changes in double-stranded regions and some indels in single-stranded regions also constituted diagnostic events. The 12S rRNA molecule confirmed the monophyly of infraorder Pecora and order Cetacea and demonstrated the monophyly of the suborder Ruminantia was not supported and the branching pattern between Cetacea and the artiodacytyl suborders Ruminantia and Suiformes was not established. The monophyly of the order Perissodactyla was evidenced

  19. Evaluación auditiva neurosensorial en un grupo de prematuros del programa madre conguro Sensorineural auditory evaluation in a group of preterm neonates from the "Kangaroo mother" program

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Hernández; Diego Bustamante; Jorge Restrepo; Rafael J. Manotas Cabarcas

    1997-01-01

    Entre agosto de 1989 y diciembre de 1991 se buscó asociación entre algunos factores de riesgo comunes a los prematuros con peso menor de 1.500 g al nacer y el hecho de presentar disminución de la agudeza auditiva, medida con los potenciales evocados del tallo cerebral a los 4 meses y luego entre los 8 y los 14 meses. Los factores de riesgo tenidos en cuenta en 133 prematuros del ";Programa madre canguro"; del Instituto de los Seguros Sociales, en Medellín, fueron: Peso inferior a 1.500 g, hip...

  20. 袋鼠摩根氏菌生物特性鉴定及系统发育分析%Phylogenetic Analysis and Identification of Biological Characterization of Morganella Morganii in Kangaroo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵耘; 李伟杰; 杜昕波; 陈敏; 康凯; 陈永林

    2010-01-01

    本研究利用Biolog快速鉴定系统、16S rRNA序列分析及传统细菌鉴定方法对3株分离自北京动物园袋鼠肺脏的菌株进行形态学、培养特性、生化特性、小鼠致病性等生物特性的鉴定及系统发育分析.结果表明,3株菌株均为摩根氏菌,对昆明小鼠有强致病性;3株袋鼠摩根氏菌16S rRNA序列与LMG7874模式株同源性均为99.8%,且位于系统发育树的同一分支.

  1. Accumulation of plutonium in mammalian wildlife tissues: comparison of recent data with the ICRP distribution models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, M.; Child, D.; Davis, E.; Hotchkis, M.; Payne, T. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Org. (Australia); Ikeda-Ohno, A. [University of New South Wales (Australia); Twining, J. [Austral Radioecology (Australia)

    2014-07-01

    We examined the distribution of plutonium (Pu) in the tissues of mammalian wildlife to address the paucity of such data under environmental exposure conditions. Pu activity concentrations were measured in Macropus rufus (red kangaroo), Oryctolagus cuniculus (European rabbit), and Pseudomys hermannsburgensis (sandy inland mouse)inhabiting the relatively undisturbed, semi-arid conditions at the former Taranaki weapons test site at Maralinga, Australia. Of the absorbed Pu (distributed via circulatory and lymph systems) accumulation was foremost in bone (83% ±10% SD), followed by muscle (9% ±10%), liver (7% ±7%), kidneys (0.5% ±0.3%), and heart (0.4% ±0.4%). The bone values are higher than those reported in ICRP 19 and 48 (45-50% bone), while the liver values are lower than ICRP values (30-45% liver). The ICRP values were based on data dominated by relatively soluble forms of Pu, including prepared solutions and single-atom ions produced by decay following the volatilisation of uranium during nuclear detonation (fallout Pu, ICRP 1986). In contrast, the Maralinga data relates to low-soluble forms of Pu used in tests designed to simulate accidental release and dispersal. We measured Pu in lung, GI-tract and the skin and fur as distinct from the absorbed Pu in bone, liver, muscle, and kidneys. Compared with the mean absorbed activity concentrations, the results for lung tissues were higher by up to one order of magnitude, and those in the GI tract contents and the washed skin/fur were higher by more than two orders of magnitude. These elevated levels are consistent with the presence of low-soluble Pu, including particulate forms, which pass through, or adhere upon, certain organs, but are not readily absorbed into the bloodstream. This more transitory Pu can provide dose to the lung and GI tract organs, as well as provide potential transfer of contamination when consumed in predator-prey food chains, or during human foodstuff consumption. For example, activity

  2. Development of non-lethal methods for investigation of actinide uptake by wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, M.; Child, D.; Davis, E.; Harrison, J.; Hotchkis, M.; Payne, T.; Thiruvoth, S. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Org. (Australia); Wood, M. [University of Salford (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    There is growing interest in the use of non-lethal methods in radioecology and an International Union of Radioecology Task Group has been established to facilitate international cooperation in this field (http://iur-uir.org/en/task-groups/id-19-non-lethal-methods-in-radioecology). In this paper, we evaluate the use of lethally-, and non-lethally obtained samples (various body tissues, excreta and blood withdrawals as well as parasites and found bones) as indicators of contamination. Samples of mammals and reptiles were collected from the semi-arid former weapons test site at Maralinga, Australia and analysed for thorium, plutonium, and uranium isotopes by accelerator mass spectrometry and alpha-spectrometry. Most samples were of low mass and presented analytical challenges as a result. The plutonium concentrations in blood withdrawn from the marginal ear veins of Oryctolagus cuniculus (European rabbit) were successfully analysed using small samples (0.2 -7.9 ml, below the ∼10 ml threshold for safe extraction of blood from these rabbits). The results demonstrate that small-volume blood samples can serve as indicators of the presence of plutonium absorbed within other tissues (e.g., muscle, bone). However, the magnitude of the blood plutonium masses were poorly correlated with those in muscle and bone due to the presence of a small number of outliers (without the outliers, correlations improved to r = +0.66 and r = +0.51 for muscle and bone respectively). The activity concentrations in parasitic ticks were relatively high compared with those of their hosts Pseudomys hermannsburgensis (sandy inland mouse) and Ctenophorus cristatus (crested dragon lizard). Successful measurement of tick samples indicates a potential for use of parasites as general indicators of contamination within host organisms. The concentrations of actinides in found bones of Macropus rufus (red kangaroo) and O. cuniculus demonstrated potential for their use as indicators of the areal extent of

  3. 77 FR 19311 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... guarantee that we will be able to do so. II. Background To help us carry out our conservation... crocodile) Testudinidae Varanidae Species: Parma wallaby (Macropus parma) Applicant: The Maryland Zoo... (Spheniscus demersus) Dama gazelle (Nanger dama) Applicant: Northeastern Wisconsin Zoo, Green Bay, WI;...

  4. Core reserve expansion requirement/Long-term SKR HCP

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This letter is regarding the Stephens Kangaroo Rat Habitat Conservation Plan (SKR HCP) which requires that the Riverside County Habitat Conservation Agency establish...

  5. Eksootikat suusatajaile / Priit Pullerits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pullerits, Priit, 1965-

    2013-01-01

    Worldloppeti sõitude koordinaatori ametit pidav Epp Paal uudistas sarja ihkavaid suusamaratone Kangaroo Hoppetit Austraalias Falls Creekis ja Merino Musteri maratoni Uus-Meremaal. Tabel: Uued eksootilised suusamaratonid Worldloppeti sarjas

  6. Eksootikat suusatajaile / Priit Pullerits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pullerits, Priit, 1965-

    2013-01-01

    Worldloppeti sõitude koordinaatori ametit pidav Epp Paal uudistas sarja ihkavaid suusamaratone Kangaroo Hoppetit Austraalias Falls Creekis ja Merino Musteri maratoni Uus-Meremaal. Tabel: Uued eksootilised suusamaratonid Worldloppeti sarjas

  7. Analysis of Orange Pigments Produced by Two Different Monascus Submerged in Rice Powder Cultures%用喷雾质谱法分析2种红曲霉所产橙色素的组成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连喜军; 陈学军; 罗庆丰; 林旭辉

    2005-01-01

    分析了红色红曲霉(Monascus ruber)和烟色红曲霉(Monascus fuliginosus)发酵米粉所产橙色素的喷雾质谱图,发现烟色红曲霉所产橙色素与文献报道的相同;而红色红曲霉所产色素与文献报道不同,其主要组分是分子量分别为340.3和312.3的2种物质.

  8. Disruption of Ant-Aphid Mutualism in Canopy Enhances the Abundance of Beetles on the Forest Floor

    OpenAIRE

    Shuang Zhang; Yuxin Zhang; Keming Ma

    2012-01-01

    Ant-aphid mutualism is known to play a key role in the structure of the arthropod community in the tree canopy, but its possible ecological effects for the forest floor are unknown. We hypothesized that aphids in the canopy can increase the abundance of ants on the forest floor, thus intensifying the impacts of ants on other arthropods on the forest floor. We tested this hypothesis in a deciduous temperate forest in Beijing, China. We excluded the aphid-tending ants Lasius fuliginosus from th...

  9. Shirley Bricout. L’itinéraire d’un prophète en fuite ou Le texte biblique et la réflexion politique dans Aaron’s Rod, Kangaroo et The Plumed Serpent de D.H. Lawrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine ZARATSIAN

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available L’écrivain britannique D.H. Lawrence se définit par son errance, sa soif d’absolu. Artiste fécond, il a laissé une œuvre visionnaire, inspirée par une longue et incessante quête existentielle souvent qualifiée par les critiques de « pèlerinage sauvage ». L’univers imaginaire de Lawrence est un lieu complexe où s’exerce une critique virulente de l’industrialisation et de la mécanisation qui conduit au rejet d’une société stérile et moribonde. Le captivant ouvrage de Shirley Bricout, Itinéraire...

  10. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12856-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available A sequence *** SEQUENCING IN PROGRESS *** f... 48 0.065 2 ( AC135938 ) Rattus norvegicus clone CH230-345C4, WORK...ING DRAF... 48 0.065 1 ( AC118493 ) Rattus norvegicus clone CH230-354I10, WORK...ING DRA... 48 0.065 1 ( AC107542 ) Rattus norvegicus clone CH230-221J16, WORKING DRA... 48 0.065 1 ( AC0980...48 ) Rattus norvegicus clone CH230-115I10, WORKING DRA... 48 0.065 1 ( AQ714021 ) HS_5397_B2_C10_SP6E RPCI-1...0.26 1 ( AC147858 ) Macropus eugenii clone ME_KBa-270F7, WORKING DRAF... 46 0.26 1 ( AC147734 ) Macropus eug

  11. The Genus Culex, Subgenus Eumelanomyia Theobald in Southeast Asia and Adjacent Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Bore1 1930, Mon. Coil. Sot. Path. exot. 3: 365 (d*, ?, L*). Culex macropus Blanchard 1905, Les Moustiques :327. New name for Culex Zongifies Theobald...Spec. Pub. 111, 147 pp. BOREL, E. 1926. Les Moustiques de la Cochinchine et du Sud-Annam. (I), Arch. Inst. Pasteur d’Indochine. 47 pp. 1930. Les... Moustiques de la Cochinchine et du Sud-Annam. Mon. Coll. Sot. Pat. exot. 3, 423 pp. BRAM, R A. 1967. Contributions to the mosquitoes of Southeast Asia

  12. Shedding light on the microbial community of the macropod foregut using 454-amplicon pyrosequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa-Maree Gulino

    Full Text Available Twenty macropods from five locations in Queensland, Australia, grazing on a variety of native pastures were surveyed and the bacterial community of the foregut was examined using 454-amplicon pyrosequencing. Specifically, the V3/V4 region of 16S rRNA gene was examined. A total of 5040 OTUs were identified in the data set (post filtering. Thirty-two OTUs were identified as 'shared' OTUS (i.e. present in all samples belonging to either Firmicutes or Bacteroidetes (Clostridiales/Bacteroidales. These phyla predominated the general microbial community in all macropods. Genera represented within the shared OTUs included: unclassified Ruminococcaceae, unclassified Lachnospiraceae, unclassified Clostridiales, Peptococcus sp. Coprococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Blautia sp., Ruminoccocus sp., Eubacterium sp., Dorea sp., Oscillospira sp. and Butyrivibrio sp. The composition of the bacterial community of the foregut samples of each the host species (Macropus rufus, Macropus giganteus and Macropus robustus was significantly different allowing differentiation between the host species based on alpha and beta diversity measures. Specifically, eleven dominant OTUs that separated the three host species were identified and classified as: unclassified Ruminococcaceae, unclassified Bacteroidales, Prevotella spp. and a Syntrophococcus sucromutans. Putative reductive acetogens and fibrolytic bacteria were also identified in samples. Future work will investigate the presence and role of fibrolytics and acetogens in these ecosystems. Ideally, the isolation and characterization of these organisms will be used for enhanced feed efficiency in cattle, methane mitigation and potentially for other industries such as the biofuel industry.

  13. Soccer players' fitting perception of different upper boot materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaso Melis, J C; Priego Quesada, J I; Lucas-Cuevas, A G; González García, J C; Puigcerver Palau, S

    2016-07-01

    The present study assessed the influence of upper boot materials on fitting perception. Twenty players tested three soccer boots only differing in the upper boot material (natural calf leather, natural kangaroo leather and synthetic leather). Players reported fitting perception and preference on specific foot areas using a perceived fitting scale. Ratings were averaged for every foot area. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to analyze the differences between boots. The kangaroo leather boots were perceived tighter and closer to the preferred fitting in general fitting, metatarsals area and instep area. The synthetic leather boots were perceived as the loosest and as the most distant boot from the preferred fitting in medial front area and instep area. In conclusion, the type of upper boot material influences the fitting perception of soccer players. The kangaroo leather was the material whose fitting was perceived closest to the players fitting preference.

  14. Onsager coefficients for systems with periodic potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Alexandre; Van den Broeck, Christian; Lindenberg, Katja

    2016-11-01

    We carry out the thermodynamic analysis of a Markovian stochastic engine, driven by a spatially and temporally periodic modulation in a d -dimensional space. We derive the analytic expressions for the Onsager coefficients characterizing the linear response regime for the isothermal transfer of one type of work (a driver) to another (a load), mediated by a stochastic time-periodic machine. As an illustration, we obtain the explicit results for a Markovian kangaroo process coupling two orthogonal directions and find extremely good agreement with numerical simulations. In addition, we obtain and discuss expressions for the entropy production, power, and efficiency for the kangaroo process.

  15. 现实版“马达加斯加”德国上演

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    A kangaroo is on the lam(在潜逃中)in Germany after breaking out of a wildlife park,with the help of a fox and a wild boar(野猪).Michael Hoffmann,assistant head of the Hochwildschutzpark,says the kangaroos got out of their cage after a young fox snuck into the park and dug a hole next to the cage’s fencing.Two of the three were then able to get out of the park entirely through

  16. Thomas George Lee - Implantation and early development of North American rodents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony Michael

    2011-01-01

    A century ago Thomas G. Lee amassed an unparalleled collection of developmental series of North American rodents such as the thirteen-lined ground squirrel, the Plains pocket gopher and Merriam's kangaroo rat. He was the first to describe the initial attachment of the squirrel blastocyst to the a......A century ago Thomas G. Lee amassed an unparalleled collection of developmental series of North American rodents such as the thirteen-lined ground squirrel, the Plains pocket gopher and Merriam's kangaroo rat. He was the first to describe the initial attachment of the squirrel blastocyst...

  17. A influência do método mãe-canguru na recuperação do recém-nascido em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal: uma revisão de literatura - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v25i1.2250 The influence of kangaroo-mother approach on the newborn recovery at neonatal intensive care unit: a literature review - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v25i1.2250

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loide Ferreira

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A separação da mãe e recém-nascido (RN logo após o parto, decorrente da hospitalização, influencia na continuidade da formação do apego, podendo afetar RN e/ou sua mãe. Com isso, buscou-se, a partir do método mãe-canguru, identificar a influência deste na relação mãe-filho internado em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI Neonatal; conhecer como ocorre a formação do apego, mediante a utilização do método, e como o apego pode influenciar no prognóstico do RN internado e na atitude da mãe frente à hospitalização foram os objetivos. A pesquisa foi de cunho bibliográfico, realizada uma revisão no período de 1983 a 2002. Procurou-se observar a eficácia do método como facilitador do apego, promovendo um melhor prognóstico do RN internado e aumento da confiança e adaptação materna diante da situação. A indissolubilidade da relação de apego entre mãe e filho é de grande importância e as intervenções de enfermagem devem visar amenizar a separação da díade, prevenindo seqüelas imediatas e futuras para os envolvidos.The mother’s separation from the newborn after birth due to hospital admission influences in the continuity of the affectionate bond, affecting both, the newborn and the mother. The aim of this study is to identify this influence in the relation mother-son admitted in the neonatal intensive care unit; to know how the affectionate bond occurs by means of the utilization of the approach and how the attachment can influence in the prognostic of the newborn interned and the mother’s attitude facing the hospitalisation. This study used a bibliographical research in the period from 1983 to 2002. Observing the efficacy of the approach as a facilitator of the attachment, promoting a better prognostic of the newborn interned and increasing confidence and maternal adaptation facing the situation. The relation of attachment between mother and son is inseparable and very important and the nursing interventions should lessen the mother and newborn separation, preventing future and immediate sequels to the ones involved.

  18. Monitoring of Federally Threatened and Endangered Species on U.S. Army Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    Clam E 0 1 0 Dipodomys stephensi Stephen’s Kangaroo Rat Mammal E 0 1 0 Dromus dromas Dromedary Pearlymussel Clam E 0 1 0 Epioblasma florentina...N Onsite Dromus dromas Dromedary Pearlymussel Clam E Contiguous Epioblasma florentina walkeri Tan Riffleshell Clam E Contiguous Myotis grisescens

  19. Effects of trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene on wild rodents at Edwards Air Force Base, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Sarah E; Miles, A Keith; Anderson, Michael J

    2004-09-01

    Effects of inhalation of volatilized trichloroethylene (TCE) or perchloroethylene (PCE) were assessed based on the health and population size of wild, burrowing mammals at Edwards Air Force Base (CA, USA). Organic soil-vapor concentrations were measured at three sites with aquifer contamination of TCE or PCE of 5.5 to 77 mg/L and at two uncontaminated reference sites. Population estimates of kangaroo rats (Dipodomys merriami and D. panamintinus) as well as hematology, blood chemistry, and histopathology of kangaroo rats and deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) were compared between contaminated and uncontaminated populations. Maximum soil-gas concentrations associated with groundwater contamination were less than 1.5 microl/L of TCE and 0.07 microl/L of PCE. Population estimates of kangaroo rats were similar at contaminated and reference sites. Hematology, blood chemistry, and histopathology of kangaroo rats and deer mice indicated no evidence of health effects caused by exposure. Trichloroethylene or PCE in groundwater and in related soil gas did not appear to reduce the size of small mammal populations or impair the health of individuals.

  20. Small population size and extremely low levels of genetic diversity in island populations of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, Elise; Stoklosa, J; Griffiths, J; Gust, N; Ellis, R; Huggins, R M; Weeks, A R

    2012-04-01

    Genetic diversity generally underpins population resilience and persistence. Reductions in population size and absence of gene flow can lead to reductions in genetic diversity, reproductive fitness, and a limited ability to adapt to environmental change increasing the risk of extinction. Island populations are typically small and isolated, and as a result, inbreeding and reduced genetic diversity elevate their extinction risk. Two island populations of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, exist; a naturally occurring population on King Island in Bass Strait and a recently introduced population on Kangaroo Island off the coast of South Australia. Here we assessed the genetic diversity within these two island populations and contrasted these patterns with genetic diversity estimates in areas from which the populations are likely to have been founded. On Kangaroo Island, we also modeled live capture data to determine estimates of population size. Levels of genetic diversity in King Island platypuses are perilously low, with eight of 13 microsatellite loci fixed, likely reflecting their small population size and prolonged isolation. Estimates of heterozygosity detected by microsatellites (H(E)= 0.032) are among the lowest level of genetic diversity recorded by this method in a naturally outbreeding vertebrate population. In contrast, estimates of genetic diversity on Kangaroo Island are somewhat higher. However, estimates of small population size and the limited founders combined with genetic isolation are likely to lead to further losses of genetic diversity through time for the Kangaroo Island platypus population. Implications for the future of these and similarly isolated or genetically depauperate populations are discussed.

  1. A jump forwards with mathematics and physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Heck; P. Uylings

    2011-01-01

    We jump on human body motions such as bouncing on a jumping stick, hopping, and making kangaroo jumps. Students can record the movements with a digital camera and use their video clips to investigate the motions with suitable video analysis and modelling software. We discuss some mathematical models

  2. 75 FR 51204 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To Remove the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-19

    ... considered nonviable. Corona/Norco unknown considered nonviable. Anza/Cahuilla (i.e., Silverado unknown...' native range, despite fragmentation. Since listing, additional populations have been found near Corona... as the ``baseline Stephens' kangaroo rat occupied habitat'' throughout this finding. The total...

  3. Lamb deaths associated with administration of oral minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-22

    Deaths in preweaned lambs associated with administering oral minerals containing copperCongenital malformations in calvesIdiopathic necrotising enteritis in calvesAbomasal obstruction due to trichobezoars in suckled calvesRadial neuropathy (kangaroo gait) in a ewe These are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for July 2016 from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS).

  4. Collision-based mechanics of bipedal hopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, Anne K; Lee, David V; McGowan, Craig P

    2013-08-23

    The muscle work required to sustain steady-speed locomotion depends largely upon the mechanical energy needed to redirect the centre of mass and the degree to which this energy can be stored and returned elastically. Previous studies have found that large bipedal hoppers can elastically store and return a large fraction of the energy required to hop, whereas small bipedal hoppers can only elastically store and return a relatively small fraction. Here, we consider the extent to which large and small bipedal hoppers (tammar wallabies, approx. 7 kg, and desert kangaroo rats, approx. 0.1 kg) reduce the mechanical energy needed to redirect the centre of mass by reducing collisions. We hypothesize that kangaroo rats will reduce collisions to a greater extent than wallabies since kangaroo rats cannot elastically store and return as high a fraction of the mechanical energy of hopping as wallabies. We find that kangaroo rats use a significantly smaller collision angle than wallabies by employing ground reaction force vectors that are more vertical and center of mass velocity vectors that are more horizontal and thereby reduce their mechanical cost of transport. A collision-based approach paired with tendon morphometry may reveal this effect more generally among bipedal runners and quadrupedal trotters.

  5. Mother and Child Health Pmp Report: 2011-2012 Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpak, Nathalie; Ruiz-Pelaez, Juan G.; de Leon-Mendoza, Socorro

    2014-07-01

    The following sections are included: * REMINDER: THE MOTHER AND CHILD PMP MANIFESTO (ERICE 2002) * SUMMARY OF THE WORK OF THE KANGAROO FOUNDATION FOR THE PAST 20 YEARS * WHAT ARE WE EXPECTING FROM 2014? * SOME NEWS FROM THE PHILIPPINES AND ASIA KMC NETWORK. * CONCLUSION

  6. 76 FR 12683 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Texas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... resembled D. ornatus based on bacular (penis bone) measurements. Measurements taken from the baculum, a bone found in the penis of some mammals, varies in shape and size by species and its characteristics are... kangaroo rat has an average total length of approximately 290 millimeters (mm) (11.4 inches (in))...

  7. Boycotts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    1 Adidas Football Cleats and Shoes Despite increasing complaints from consumers or potential consumers,the Adidas shoe company continues to use kangaroo skin in the production of a specific line of football cleats(防滑鞋).What started as a small consumer boycott is rapidly turning into a nationwide scandal.

  8. Nevada Test and Training Range Depleted Uranium Target Disposal Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    licensed area (Air Force 1999). Common small mammals include white-tailed antelope squirrel (Ammospermophilus leucurus), Merriam’s kangaroo rat...Richard Arnold Pahrump Paiute Tribe Pahrump NV 89041 Carmen Bradley Kaibab Band of Southern Paiutes Pipe Springs AZ 86022 Gloria... Kaibab Band of Southern Paiutes Fredonia AZ 86022 Maurice Frank-Churchill Yomba Shoshone Tribe Austin NV 89310 James Birchim Yomba Shoshone

  9. How To Dance through Time. Volume II: Dances of the Ragtime Era, 1910-1920. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teten, Carol

    This 59-minute VHS videotape is the second in a series of "How To Dance Through Time" videos. It provides 44 step combinations and how-to instructions to help viewers learn to dance the most popular dances of the early 20th century (the ragtime era), including: the wild animal dances (fox trot, horse trot, kangaroo hop, duck waddle, squirrel,…

  10. Functions in Biological Kind Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombrozo, Tania; Rehder, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Biological traits that serve functions, such as a zebra's coloration (for camouflage) or a kangaroo's tail (for balance), seem to have a special role in conceptual representations for biological kinds. In five experiments, we investigate whether and why functional features are privileged in biological kind classification. Experiment 1…

  11. Functions in Biological Kind Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombrozo, Tania; Rehder, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Biological traits that serve functions, such as a zebra's coloration (for camouflage) or a kangaroo's tail (for balance), seem to have a special role in conceptual representations for biological kinds. In five experiments, we investigate whether and why functional features are privileged in biological kind classification. Experiment 1…

  12. Hospital celebrates skin to skin contact to raise awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    NEONATAL nurses at Birmingham's City Hospital have been celebrating the benefits of skin to skin contact with premature babies. They held a week of celebrations in the unit last month, in which they promoted the kangaroo care technique and breastfeeding to parents.

  13. The Molecular Identification and Flavor Compounds Preliminary Analysis of a Thermophilic Monascus Strain%一株嗜热红曲霉的分子鉴定及其风味物质初步分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周健; 姚霞; 崔小亮; 方春玉; 王洋

    2016-01-01

    To identify the thermophilic monascus strain screened from Luzhou-flavor Daqu by molecular method combining with its morphological,physiological characteristics,and construct phylogenetic tree.And then take the monascus strain to do liquid-state and solid-state fermentation respectively.Use headspace solid-phase micro extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS)to analyze the flavor substances of thermophilic monascus strain's metabolism products.The result shows that the monascus strain is Monascus fuliginosus mutant strain.There are 11 kinds of flavor substances in liquid-state fermentation,including alcohol,pyrazine,alkane. There are 19 kinds of flavor substances in solid-state fermentation,including alcohol,pyrazine, alkane,ester,aldehyde.%对浓香型大曲中筛选的一株嗜热红曲霉 MH-WLY 提取 DNA,并构建系统发育树,结合它的形态、生理特征对其进行鉴定;再将这株红曲霉分别进行液态发酵和固态发酵,利用顶空固相微萃取-气相色谱-质谱联用(HS-SPME-GC-MS)分析其代谢的风味物质。结果认定这株红曲霉为烟色红曲霉(Monascus fuliginosus )突变株;液态发酵的主要风味物质有11种,分为醇、吡嗪、烷烃3大类,固态发酵的主要风味物质有19种,包含醇、吡嗪、烷烃、酯、醛5大类。

  14. AcEST: DK959854 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tr|Q64ID6|Q64ID6_MACEU Alpha thalassaemia mental retardation X-linked protein OS=Macropus eugenii Align len...g significant alignments: (bits) Value tr|Q64ID6|Q64ID6_MACEU Alpha thalassaemia mental retardation X-l... 4...ylori GN... 36 1.9 tr|B7JPC8|B7JPC8_BACCE TMP repeat protein OS=Bacillus cereus AH8... 36 1.9 >tr|Q64ID6|Q64ID6_MACEU Alpha thalassa

  15. Undermethylation associated with retroelement activation and chromosome remodelling in an interspecific mammalian hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, R J; O'Neill, M J; Graves, J A

    1998-05-07

    Genetic models predict that genomic rearrangement in hybrids can facilitate reproductive isolation and the formation of new species by preventing gene flow between the parent species and hybrid (sunflowers are an example). The mechanism underlying hybridization-induced chromosome remodelling is as yet unknown, although mobile element activity has been shown to be involved in DNA rearrangement in some dysgenic Drosophila hybrids. It has been proposed that DNA methylation evolved as a means of repressing the movement of mobile elements (the host defence model). If such a protective mechanism were to fail, mobile elements could be activated, and could cause major and rapid genome alterations. Here we demonstrate the occurrence of genome-wide undermethylation, retroviral element amplification and chromosome remodelling in an interspecific mammalian hybrid (Macropus eugenii x Wallabia bicolor). Atypically extended centromeres of Macropus eugenii derived autosomes in the hybrid were composed primarily of an unmethylated, amplified retroviral element not detectable in either parent species. These results, taken with the observation of deficient methylation and de novo chromosome change in other mammalian hybrids, indicate that the failure of DNA methylation and subsequent mobile-element activity in hybrids could facilitate rapid karyotypic evolution.

  16. Dental fluorosis and skeletal fluoride content as biomarkers of excess fluoride exposure in marsupials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Death, Clare; Coulson, Graeme; Kierdorf, Uwe; Kierdorf, Horst; Morris, William K; Hufschmid, Jasmin

    2015-11-15

    Particulate and gaseous fluoride emissions contaminate vegetation near fluoride-emitting industries, potentially impacting herbivorous wildlife in neighboring areas. Dental fluorosis has been associated with consumption of fluoride-contaminated foliage by juvenile livestock and wildlife in Europe and North America. For the first time, we explored the epidemiology and comparative pathology of dental fluorosis in Australian marsupials residing near an aluminium smelter. Six species (Macropus giganteus, Macropus rufogriseus, Wallabia bicolor, Phascolarctos cinereus, Trichosurus vulpecula, Pseudocheirus peregrinus) demonstrated significantly higher bone fluoride levels in the high (n=161 individuals), compared to the low (n=67 individuals), fluoride areas (pdental lesions considered characteristic of dental fluorosis in eutherian mammals. Within the high-fluoride area, 67% of individuals across the six species showed dental enamel lesions, compared to 3% in the low-fluoride areas. Molars that erupted before weaning were significantly less likely to display pathological lesions than those developing later, and molars in the posterior portion of the dental arcade were more severely fluorotic than anterior molars in all six species. The severity of dental lesions was positively associated with increasing bone fluoride levels in all species, revealing a potential biomarker of excess fluoride exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Subtype distribution of Blastocystis isolates from a variety of animals from New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Tamalee; Stark, Damien; Harkness, Jock; Ellis, John

    2013-09-01

    A total of 438 stool samples from 38 different species of animal from seven different locations were studied for the presence of Blastocystis. PCR analysis was completed on all samples and DNA sequence data from the rDNA were submitted to subtype allocation. There was a total of 80 (18%) sequences from 18 species, and nine different subtypes were identified - ST1, ST2, ST3, ST4, ST5, ST7, ST11, ST12 and ST13. This is the first report of Blastocystis from the eastern grey kangaroo, red kangaroo, wallaroo, snow leopard and ostrich. This study highlights the need for further investigation into the genetic diversity of Blastocystis which could help show the zoonotic potential of Blastocystis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [The midwife-child health nurse collaboration, a link between the maternity unit and neonatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallaro, Audrey; Polzin, Karine

    2016-01-01

    Collaborative work forms part of the well-treatment and improvement of quality of care approach. It is also of benefit to the medical and paramedical teams. Within the parent-child unit of Libourne hospital, the midwife and child health nurse collaborate throughout the pregnancy, and especially during the post-partum period. The teams work together notably around the care of "high-risk" births and in particular when the newborn is hospitalised in a kangaroo care unit.

  19. A New Leanchoiliid Megacheiran Arthropod from the Lower Cambrian Emu Bay Shale, South Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Edgecombe, Gregory D; Diego C. García-Bellido; Paterson, John R

    2011-01-01

    The Leanchoiliidae is well-known from abundant material of Leanchoilia, from the Burgess Shale and Chengjiang Konservat-Lagerstätten. The first Australian member of the group is Oestokerkus megacholix gen. et sp. nov., described from the Emu Bay Shale (Cambrian Series 2, Stage 4), at Buck Quarry, Kangaroo Island, South Australia, and is intermediate in age between the well known leanchoiliid species from the Burgess Shale and Chengjiang. Phylogenetic analysis of “short great appendage” arthro...

  20. Jaynes's View on the Meaning of ``Uninformative'' Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blower, David J.

    2009-12-01

    Jaynes analyzed the impact of the parameters appearing in the Dirichlet distribution on our understanding of what an uninformative probability distribution might mean. These results appeared in the mid 1980s in a little read and even lesser understood paper entitled, "Monkeys, Kangaroos and N." In his discussion, Jaynes provided some revealing insights into the subtleties surrounding the so-called "ignorance priors." Ignorance must be interpreted within the context of the different spaces that crop up in inferential problems.

  1. Improved Distance Learning Environment For Marine Forces Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Windows Laptop Kangaroo Pi MiniPC Windows Dell Surface Tablet Windows iPad 2 iPad Mini Insignia Tablet Android Wi-Fi Benchmark Ping Test w/ app ...forms of education) to serve a varied education-related purpose” (p. 12). Other emerging technologies such as smart TVs, digital media gadgets, Android ...Apple smartphones and tablets, and other high-tech devices, have increased the possibilities for 6 better synchronous and asynchronous mobile

  2. Composición, abundancia y riqueza de especies de la comunidad de murciélagos en bosques de galería en la Serranía de la Macarena (Meta - Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Palomino Pedro

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available In the northern part of the Serranía de La Macarena (Colombia were collected 919 bats of 39 species from the gallery foresf. This number plus previous reports give a total of 44 species, equivalent to 25% of total number of species reported for the country and 15.25% for the neotropical region. This is the highest number of bat species given for any tropical ecosystem up to now. One of the 39 species found (Carollia perspicillata represent the bulk of the relative abundance in all the samples with relative abundances between 44.4% and 69.4%; one species is common (Artibeus planirostris with relative abundaces higher than 5%; five species are common in sorne samples but not in all of them (Artibeus fuliginosus, Carollia castanea, Desmodus rotundus, Uroderma bilobatum and Uroderma magnirostrum and they are a great number(32 ofrare species, with very low relative abundance values. In the pattern of temporal assemblage in the community are changes in the species present and its numbers.En bosques de galería en el sector norte de la Serranía de La Macarena (Colombia, se capturaron 919 individuos de 39 especies de murciélagos. Esta cifra se adiciona a reportes anteriores para un estimativo total de 44 especies que equivale a 125% de todas las especies presentes en el país y al 15.25% de la fauna de quirópteros reportada para la región neotropical, siendo el número más alto de especies hasta ahora encontrado en ecosistemas tropicales. De las 39 especies estudiadas una es muy abundante (Carollia perspicillata en todos los muestreos, con abundancias relativas entre 44.4% y 69.4%; una especie es común (Artibeus planirostris en todos los muestreos, con abundancias relativas mayores de 5%, cinco especies son comunes en algunos muestreos, más no en todos (Artibeus fuliginosus, Carollia castanea, Desmodus rotundus, Uroderma bilobatumy Uroderma magnirostrum y hay un gran número de especies (32 raras, con abundancias relativas muy bajas. En el

  3. Eight new species of Macvicaria Gibson and Bray, 1982 (Digenea: Opecoelidae from temperate marine fishes of Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Aken’Ova

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Nine morphologically distinct species of Macvicaria Gibson & Bray, 1982 were recovered from six families, ten genera and twelve species of marine fishes in the waters off the coast of Queensland, Western Australia and South Australia: M. shotteri n. sp. in Apogon fasciatus (type-host, Sillaginodes punctatus and Sillago bassensis from Moreton Bay (type-locality, off southern Western Australia and off Kangaroo Island, South Australia; M. mekistomorphe n. sp. in Sillago maculata from Moreton Bay; M. mutovitellina n. sp. in Dactylophora nigricans from off southern Western Australia; M. flexuomeatus n. sp. in Goniistius gibbosus (type-host and Cheilodactylus rubrolabiatus from southern Western Australia; M. vitellocopiosa n. sp. in Sillaginodes punctatus from off Kangaroo Island, South Australia; M. dextrocaula n. sp. in Notolabrus parilus (type-host and N. fucicola (Richardson (Labridae from off southern Western Australia (type-locality and Kangaroo Island, South Australia; M. heronensis Bray & Cribb, 1989 in Trachinotus coppingeri off Stradbroke Island, Queensland; M. adomeae n. sp. in Sillaginodes punctatus off Kangaroo Island, South Australia; M. kingscotensis n. sp. in Neoodax balteatus (type-host and Haletta semifasciata off Kangaroo Island, South Australia. We have used the following characters to distinguish between the species of Macvicaria: general body form; length/width ratio; size of cirrussac; length of forebody; post-testicular extent of caeca; egg size; and the position of the genital pore. Most of the species of Macvicaria showed interspecific differences in all of the characters enumerated, the most dramatic being in the position of the genital pore in one species. All 11 specimens recovered from 2 species of Notolabrus were found to have a dextral genital pore. This is the second report of amphitypy in the Opecoelidae. All of the host species, apart from Apogon fasciatus, are endemic to Australian or Australian and New Zealand

  4. Progamotaenia capricorniensis sp. nov. (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae from wallabies (Marsupialia: Macropodidae from Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beveridge I.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Progamotaenia capricorniensis sp. nov. (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae is described from the wallabies Macropus dorsalis (Gray, 1837] and Petrogale assimilis Ramsay, 1877 from Queensland, Australia. The new species is characterised by a fimbriated velum composed of 26-32 digitiform to triangular projections on each side of the proglottis, paired uteri and 140-190 testes distributed in a single band across the medulla. Minor variation occurs in the distribution of the testes. The above characters distinguish the new species from its most closely related congeners P. lagorchestis (Lewis, 1914, P. proterogyna (Fuhrmann, 1932, P. spearei Beveridge, 1980 and P. villosa (Lewis, 1914. P. capricorniensis appears to exhibit a highly disjunct distribution within its usual host, M. dorsalis.

  5. Natural epigenetic variation in bats and its role in evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sen; Sun, Keping; Jiang, Tinglei; Feng, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    When facing the challenges of environmental change, such as habitat fragmentation, organisms have to adjust their phenotype to adapt to various environmental stresses. Recent studies show that epigenetic modifications could mediate environmentally induced phenotypic variation, and this epigenetic variance could be inherited by future generations, indicating that epigenetic processes have potential evolutionary effects. Bats living in diverse environments show geographic variations in phenotype, and the females usually have natal philopatry, presenting an opportunity to explore how environments shape epigenetic marks on the genome and the evolutionary potential of epigenetic variance in bat populations for adaptation. We have explored the natural epigenetic diversity and structure of female populations of the great roundleaf bat (Hipposideros armiger), the least horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus pusillus) and the eastern bent-winged bat (Miniopterus fuliginosus) using a methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism technique. We have also estimated the effects of genetic variance and ecological variables on epigenetic diversification. All three bat species have a low level of genomic DNA methylation and extensive epigenetic diversity that exceeds the corresponding genetic variance. DNA sequence divergence, epigenetic drift and environmental variables contribute to the epigenetic diversities of each species. Environment-induced epigenetic variation may be inherited as a result of both mitosis and meiosis, and their potential roles in evolution for bat populations are also discussed in this review.

  6. Modeling the effects of anthropogenic habitat change on savanna snake invasions into African rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Adam H; Buermann, Wolfgang; Lebreton, Matthew; Chirio, Laurent; Smith, Thomas B

    2009-02-01

    We used a species-distribution modeling approach, ground-based climate data sets, and newly available remote-sensing data on vegetation from the MODIS and Quick Scatterometer sensors to investigate the combined effects of human-caused habitat alterations and climate on potential invasions of rainforest by 3 savanna snake species in Cameroon, Central Africa: the night adder (Causus maculatus), olympic lined snake (Dromophis lineatus), and African house snake (Lamprophis fuliginosus). Models with contemporary climate variables and localities from native savanna habitats showed that the current climate in undisturbed rainforest was unsuitable for any of the snake species due to high precipitation. Limited availability of thermally suitable nest sites and mismatches between important life-history events and prey availability are a likely explanation for the predicted exclusion from undisturbed rainforest. Models with only MODIS-derived vegetation variables and savanna localities predicted invasion in disturbed areas within the rainforest zone, which suggests that human removal of forest cover creates suitable microhabitats that facilitate invasions into rainforest. Models with a combination of contemporary climate, MODIS- and Quick Scatterometer-derived vegetation variables, and forest and savanna localities predicted extensive invasion into rainforest caused by rainforest loss. In contrast, a projection of the present-day species-climate envelope on future climate suggested a reduction in invasion potential within the rainforest zone as a consequence of predicted increases in precipitation. These results emphasize that the combined responses of deforestation and climate change will likely be complex in tropical rainforest systems.

  7. Overt vs. covert speed cameras in combination with delayed vs. immediate feedback to the offender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciano, Hadas; Setter, Pe'erly; Norman, Joel

    2015-06-01

    Speeding is a major problem in road safety because it increases both the probability of accidents and the severity of injuries if an accident occurs. Speed cameras are one of the most common speed enforcement tools. Most of the speed cameras around the world are overt, but there is evidence that this can cause a "kangaroo effect" in driving patterns. One suggested alternative to prevent this kangaroo effect is the use of covert cameras. Another issue relevant to the effect of enforcement countermeasures on speeding is the timing of the fine. There is general agreement on the importance of the immediacy of the punishment, however, in the context of speed limit enforcement, implementing such immediate punishment is difficult. An immediate feedback that mediates the delay between the speed violation and getting a ticket is one possible solution. This study examines combinations of concealment and the timing of the fine in operating speed cameras in order to evaluate the most effective one in terms of enforcing speed limits. Using a driving simulator, the driving performance of the following four experimental groups was tested: (1) overt cameras with delayed feedback, (2) overt cameras with immediate feedback, (3) covert cameras with delayed feedback, and (4) covert cameras with immediate feedback. Each of the 58 participants drove in the same scenario on three different days. The results showed that both median speed and speed variance were higher with overt than with covert cameras. Moreover, implementing a covert camera system along with immediate feedback was more conducive to drivers maintaining steady speeds at the permitted levels from the very beginning. Finally, both 'overt cameras' groups exhibit a kangaroo effect throughout the entire experiment. It can be concluded that an implementation strategy consisting of covert speed cameras combined with immediate feedback to the offender is potentially an optimal way to motivate drivers to maintain speeds at the

  8. A multi-scale distribution model for non-equilibrium populations suggests resource limitation in an endangered rodent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William T Bean

    Full Text Available Species distributions are known to be limited by biotic and abiotic factors at multiple temporal and spatial scales. Species distribution models, however, frequently assume a population at equilibrium in both time and space. Studies of habitat selection have repeatedly shown the difficulty of estimating resource selection if the scale or extent of analysis is incorrect. Here, we present a multi-step approach to estimate the realized and potential distribution of the endangered giant kangaroo rat. First, we estimate the potential distribution by modeling suitability at a range-wide scale using static bioclimatic variables. We then examine annual changes in extent at a population-level. We define "available" habitat based on the total suitable potential distribution at the range-wide scale. Then, within the available habitat, model changes in population extent driven by multiple measures of resource availability. By modeling distributions for a population with robust estimates of population extent through time, and ecologically relevant predictor variables, we improved the predictive ability of SDMs, as well as revealed an unanticipated relationship between population extent and precipitation at multiple scales. At a range-wide scale, the best model indicated the giant kangaroo rat was limited to areas that received little to no precipitation in the summer months. In contrast, the best model for shorter time scales showed a positive relation with resource abundance, driven by precipitation, in the current and previous year. These results suggest that the distribution of the giant kangaroo rat was limited to the wettest parts of the drier areas within the study region. This multi-step approach reinforces the differing relationship species may have with environmental variables at different scales, provides a novel method for defining "available" habitat in habitat selection studies, and suggests a way to create distribution models at spatial and

  9. Effects of rodent species, seed species, and predator cues on seed fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivy, Kelly J.; Ostoja, Steven M.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Durham, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Seed selection, removal and subsequent management by granivorous animals is thought to be a complex interaction of factors including qualities of the seeds themselves (e.g., seed size, nutritional quality) and features of the local habitat (e.g. perceived predator risk). At the same time, differential seed selection and dispersal is thought to have profound effects on seed fate and potentially vegetation dynamics. In a feeding arena, we tested whether rodent species, seed species, and indirect and direct predation cues influence seed selection and handling behaviors (e.g., scatter hoarding versus larder hoarding) of two heteromyid rodents, Ord's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ordii) and the Great Basin pocket mouse (Perognathus parvus). The indirect cue was shrub cover, a feature of the environment. Direct cues, presented individually, were (1) control, (2) coyote (Canis latrans) vocalization, (3) coyote scent, (4) red fox (Vulpes vulpes) scent, or (5) short-eared owl (Asio flammeus) vocalization. We offered seeds of three sizes: two native grasses, Indian ricegrass (Achnatherum hymenoides) and bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata), and the non-native cereal rye (Secale cereale), each in separate trays. Kangaroo rats preferentially harvested Indian ricegrass while pocket mice predominately harvested Indian ricegrass and cereal rye. Pocket mice were more likely to scatter hoard preferred seeds, whereas kangaroo rats mostly consumed and/or larder hoarded preferred seeds. No predator cue significantly affected seed preferences. However, both species altered seed handling behavior in response to direct predation cues by leaving more seeds available in the seed pool, though they responded to different predator cues. If these results translate to natural dynamics on the landscape, the two rodents are expected to have different impacts on seed survival and plant recruitment via their different seed selection and seed handling behaviors.

  10. Effects of rodent species, seed species, and predator cues on seed fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivy, Kelly J.; Ostoja, Steven M.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Durham, Susan

    2011-07-01

    Seed selection, removal and subsequent management by granivorous animals is thought to be a complex interaction of factors including qualities of the seeds themselves (e.g., seed size, nutritional quality) and features of the local habitat (e.g. perceived predator risk). At the same time, differential seed selection and dispersal is thought to have profound effects on seed fate and potentially vegetation dynamics. In a feeding arena, we tested whether rodent species, seed species, and indirect and direct predation cues influence seed selection and handling behaviors (e.g., scatter hoarding versus larder hoarding) of two heteromyid rodents, Ord's kangaroo rat ( Dipodomys ordii) and the Great Basin pocket mouse ( Perognathus parvus). The indirect cue was shrub cover, a feature of the environment. Direct cues, presented individually, were (1) control, (2) coyote ( Canis latrans) vocalization, (3) coyote scent, (4) red fox ( Vulpes vulpes) scent, or (5) short-eared owl ( Asio flammeus) vocalization. We offered seeds of three sizes: two native grasses, Indian ricegrass ( Achnatherum hymenoides) and bluebunch wheatgrass ( Pseudoroegneria spicata), and the non-native cereal rye ( Secale cereale), each in separate trays. Kangaroo rats preferentially harvested Indian ricegrass while pocket mice predominately harvested Indian ricegrass and cereal rye. Pocket mice were more likely to scatter hoard preferred seeds, whereas kangaroo rats mostly consumed and/or larder hoarded preferred seeds. No predator cue significantly affected seed preferences. However, both species altered seed handling behavior in response to direct predation cues by leaving more seeds available in the seed pool, though they responded to different predator cues. If these results translate to natural dynamics on the landscape, the two rodents are expected to have different impacts on seed survival and plant recruitment via their different seed selection and seed handling behaviors.

  11. Moving Forward: The Power of Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lothian, Judith A.

    2013-01-01

    In this column, the associate editor of The Journal of Perinatal Education (JPE) discusses the joint statement of the American College of Nurse-Midwives (ACNM), Midwives Alliance of North America (MANA), and National Association of Certified Professional Midwives (NCPM)—“Supporting Healthy and Normal Physiologic Childbirth: A Consensus Statement by ACNM, MANA, and NCPM.” The statement is presented as a model of collaboration that has the potential to create needed change in maternity care. The associate editor also highlights the contents of this issue, which include birth stories (one, an autoethnography) as well as research on doulas, kangaroo mother care, and partners’ perceptions of prenatal care.

  12. [Technology and humanization of the neonatal intensive care unit: reflections in the context of the health-illness process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Laura Johanson; da Silva, Leila Rangel; Christoffel, Marialda Moreira

    2009-09-01

    This article reflects on technology and humanization in care of newborns, having as theoretical premise the health-illness process. Some parallels are established among the several conceptions of health and illness, and their influences in the way we behave and think about the care spaces as subjects of the neonatal care. The Kangaroo Mother Care is presented as a relational technology that proposes to shelter the family-baby unity in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, valuing experiences and major needs of affection and comprehension.

  13. Contacto piel con piel entre padre y recién nacido y la construcción del rol paternal

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Avilés, María Sol

    2014-01-01

    Trabajo de fin de grado en Enfermería Objetivo: Identificar la repercusión del contacto piel con piel entre el recién nacido (prematuro o a término) y el padre en la construcción del rol paternal. Estrategia metodológica: Revisión narrativa cuya metodología de búsqueda ha consistido en realizar búsquedas bibliográficas en diferentes bases de datos de Ciencias de la Salud (PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Plus y CUIDEN), utilizando los descriptores: “Kangaroo-Mother Care Method”, “Skin Care”, “F...

  14. Endangered Species Program, Naval Petroleum Reserves in California. Annual report FY93

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    The Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC) are operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Chevron USA. Production Company (CPDN). Four federally-listed endangered animal species and one federally-threatened plant species are known to occur on NPRC: San Joaquin kit fox, blunt-nosed leopard lizard, giant kangaroo rat, Tipton kangaroo rat, and Hoover`s wooly-star. All five are protected under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, which declares that it is ``...the policy of Congress that all Federal departments and agencies shall seek to conserve endangered species and threatened species and shall utilize their authorities in furtherance of the purposes of the Act.`` DOE is also obliged to determine whether actions taken by their lessees on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2 will have any effects on endangered species or their habitats. The major objective of the EG&G Energy Measurements, Inc. Endangered Species Program on NPRC is to provide DOE with the scientific expertise necessary for compliance with the Endangered Species Act. The specific objective of this report is to summarize progress and results of the Endangered Species Program made during fiscal year 1993.

  15. Short-Term Fire Effects on Small Mammal Populations and Vegetation of the Northern Chihuahuan Desert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony J. Monasmith

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fire is an important ecological factor in semidesert grass-shrub community dynamics, but there is a lack of designed field experiments documenting effects on vegetation and small mammals. We document effects of June prescribed fire on vegetation and small mammals on 20, 25-ha study areas in the Northern Chihuahuan Desert of Southern New Mexico, USA one month and one year posttreatment. Canopy cover of shrubs and grasses recovered to 68 and 27% of the preburn canopy cover, respectively, after one year. Prescribed burns during June enhanced short-term forb production by reducing competition from grasses and shrubs. Thirty thousand trap-nights yielded 1744 captures of 766 individuals of 15 small mammal species. Burns did not affect small mammal species richness and species diversity. Relative abundance of Merriam's kangaroo rats (Dipodomys merriami was 91% greater on burned sites than on control sites one year postburn. Silky pocket mouse (Perognathus flavus relative abundance was 221% greater on burned sites one year postburn. Chihuahuan Desert pocket mice (Chaetodipus eremicus responded negatively to the fire, with relative abundance 170% greater on control sites (=.080. Burning produced short-term benefits for two heteromyids, Merriam's kangaroo rats and silky pocket mice.

  16. Individual heterogeneity and offspring sex affect the growth-reproduction trade-off in a mammal with indeterminate growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gélin, Uriel; Wilson, Michelle E; Cripps, Jemma; Coulson, Graeme; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Reproduction can lead to a trade-off with growth, particularly when individuals reproduce before completing body growth. Kangaroos have indeterminate growth and may always face this trade-off. We combined an experimental manipulation of reproductive effort and multi-year monitoring of a large sample size of marked individuals in two populations of eastern grey kangaroos to test the predictions (1) that reproduction decreases skeletal growth and mass gain and (2) that mass loss leads to reproductive failure. We also tested if sex-allocation strategies influenced these trade-offs. Experimental reproductive suppression revealed negative effects of reproduction on mass gain and leg growth from 1 year to the next. Unmanipulated females, however, showed a positive correlation between number of days lactating and leg growth over periods of 2 years and longer, suggesting that over the long term, reproductive costs were masked by individual heterogeneity in resource acquisition. Mass gain was necessary for reproductive success the subsequent year. Although mothers of daughters generally lost more mass than females nursing sons, mothers in poor condition experienced greater mass gain and arm growth if they had daughters than if they had sons. The strong links between individual mass changes and reproduction suggest that reproductive tactics are strongly resource-dependent.

  17. Endangered species and cultural resources program, Naval Petroleum Reserves in California, annual report FY97

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC) are oil fields administered by the DOE in the southern San Joaquin Valley of California. Four federally endangered animal species and one federally threatened plant species are known to occur on NPRC: San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica), blunt-nosed leopard lizard (Gambelia silus), giant kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ingens), Tipton kangaroo rat (Dipodomys nitratoides), and Hoover`s wooly-star (Eriastrum hooveri). All five are protected under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973. The DOE/NPRC is obliged to determine whether actions taken by their lessees on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2 (NPR-2) will have any effects on endangered species or their habitats. The primary objective of the Endangered Species and Cultural Resources Program is to provide NPRC with the scientific expertise necessary for compliance with the ESA, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), and the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA). The specific objective of this report is to summarize progress, results, and accomplishments of the program during fiscal year 1997 (FY97).

  18. Genetic diversity, recombination, and divergence in animal associated Penicillium dipodomyis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Henk

    Full Text Available Penicillium dipodomyis is thought to be an exclusively asexual fungus associated with Kangaroo Rats, Dipodomys species, and is unique among Penicillium species in growing at 37°C but producing no known toxins. Lack of recombination within P. dipodomyis would result in limited adaptive flexibility but possibly enhance local adaptation and host selection via maintenance of favourable genotypes. Here, analysis of DNA sequence data from five protein-coding genes shows that recombination occurs within P. dipodomyis on a small spatial scale. Furthermore, detection of mating-type alleles supports outcrossing and a sexual cycle in P. dipodomyis. P. dipodomyis was a weaker competitor in in vitro assays with other Penicillium species found in association with Kanagaroo rats. Bayesian species level analysis suggests that the P. dipodomyis lineage diverged from closely related species also found in cheek pouches of Kangaroo Rats and their stored seeds about 11 million years ago, a similar divergence time as Dipodomys from its sister rodent taxa.

  19. Changes in seed dispersal processes and the potential for between-patch connectivity for an arid land daisy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerson, Louise M; Facelli, José M; Chesson, Peter; Possingham, Hugh; Day, Jemery R

    2012-03-01

    Dispersal is a major and critical process in population biology that has been particularly challenging to study. Animals can have major roles in seed dispersal even in species that do not appear specifically adapted to animal-aided dispersal. This can occur by two processes: direct movement of diaspores by animals and modification of landscape characteristics by animals in ways that greatly influence dispersal. We exploited the production of large, persistent dispersal structures (seed heads, henceforth) by Erodiophyllum elderi (Asteraceae), a daisy from arid Australia, to further understand secondary dispersal. Seed head dispersal on and off animal tracks in eight E. elderi patches was monitored for 9.5 months by periodically recording the location of marked seed heads. Sites were located inside a reserve that excludes sheep but not kangaroos, and in a nearby area with both kangaroos and sheep. The distance moved and likelihood of seed head movement was higher in areas with sheep, and especially along animal tracks. There was clear evidence that seed heads were channeled down animal tracks during large rainfall events. Seed head dispersal away from patches occurred to a limited extent via their physical contact with sheep and potentially via wind dispersal. Thus, the advantages of this study system allowed us to demonstrate the two postulated effects of herbivores on dispersal via direct movement of seed heads, and two distinct indirect effects through landscape modification by herbivores from the creation of animal tracks and the denudation of vegetation.

  20. The effect of music on weight gain of preterm infants older than 32 weeks: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Maria L. Auto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of recorded music with multimodal stimulation on the weight gain of preterm infants included in the Kangaroo-Mother Program. Methods: Randomized clinical trial with 61 premature infants, of both sexes, with postconceptional age greater or equal to 32 weeks and at least ten days of life, without detected abnormalities in the visual and hearing systems, and hospitalized in the Kangaroo-Mother Unit. Patients were randomized in two groups: of 31 preterm infants received multimodal stimulation with music daily, for seven days; 30 preterm infants received only multimodal stimulation. The following characteristics were evaluated: weight gain, energy consumption, heart rate and respiratory rate, stress signs and feeding method. Comparison between groups was made by Student’s t-test, Mann Whitney test and chi-square test, being significant p<0.05. Results: The two groups did not present significant differences in relation to the feeding method and energy consumption (p=0.46; however, weight gain was greater in the Experimental Group (p=0.002, which also presented better stability in cardiac and respiratory rates (p<0.001 and a significant reduction of stress signs (p=0.007, compared with the Control Group. Conclusions: The recorded music with multimodal stimulation is associated with a greater gain in body weight of hospitalized preterm infants as well as presents a positive influence on vital and stress signs (Clinical Trials Registry - UTN: U1111-1153-9301.

  1. East-west genetic differentiation in Musk Ducks (Biziura lobata) of Australia suggests late Pleistocene divergence at the Nullarbor Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, P.-J.; Chesser, R.T.; Mulder, R.A.; Afton, A.D.; Paton, D.C.; McCracken, K.G.

    2010-01-01

    Musk Ducks (Biziura lobata) are endemic to Australia and occur as two geographically isolated populations separated by the Nullarbor Plain, a vast arid region in southern Australia. We studied genetic variation in Musk Duck populations at coarse (eastern versus western Australia) and fine scales (four sites within eastern Australia). We found significant genetic structure between eastern and western Australia in the mtDNA control region (??ST = 0. 747), one nuclear intron (??ST = 0.193) and eight microsatellite loci (FST = 0.035). In contrast, there was little genetic structure between Kangaroo Island and adjacent mainland regions within eastern Australia. One small population of Musk Ducks in Victoria (Lake Wendouree) differed from both Kangaroo Island and the remainder of mainland eastern Australia, possibly due to genetic drift exacerbated by inbreeding and small population size. The observed low pairwise distance between the eastern and western mtDNA lineages (0.36%) suggests that they diverged near the end of the Pleistocene, a period characterised by frequent shifts between wet and arid conditions in central Australia. Our genetic results corroborate the display call divergence and Mathews' (Austral Avian Record 2:83-107, 1914) subspecies classification, and confirm that eastern and western populations of Musk Duck are currently isolated from each other. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  2. A felsic MASH zone of crustal magmas - Feedback between granite magma intrusion and in situ crustal anatexis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwindinger, Martin; Weinberg, Roberto F.

    2017-07-01

    Magma mixing and mingling are described from different tectonic environments and are key mechanisms in the evolution of granitoids. The literature focuses on the interaction between mafic and felsic magmas with only limited research on the interaction between similar magmas. Here, we investigate instead hybridization processes between felsic magmas formed during the 500 Ma Delamerian Orogeny on the south coast of Kangaroo Island. Field relations suggest that a coarse, megacrystic granite intruded and interacted with a fine-grained diatexite that resulted from combined muscovite dehydration and water-fluxed melting of Kanmantoo Group turbidites. The two magmas hybridized during syn-magmatic deformation, explaining the complexity of relationships and variability of granitoids exposed. We suggest that granite intrusion enhanced melting of the turbidites by bringing in heat and H2O. With rising melt fraction, intrusive magmas became increasingly unable to traverse the partially molten terrane, creating a positive feedback between intrusion and anatexis. This feedback loop generated the exposed mid-crustal zone where magmas mixed and homogenized. Thus, the outcrops on Kangaroo Island represent a crustal and felsic melting-assimilation-storage-homogenization (felsic MASH) zone where, instead of having direct mantle magma involvement, as originally proposed, these processes developed in a purely crustal environment formed by felsic magmas.

  3. Naval Petroleum Reserves in California site environmental report for calendar year 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    This summary for Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC) is divided into NPR-1 and NPR-2. Monitoring efforts at NPR-1 include handling and disposal of oilfield wastes; environmental preactivity surveys for the protection of endangered species and archaeological resources; inspections of topsoil stockpiling; monitoring of revegetated sites; surveillance of production facilities for hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) emissions; monitoring of oil spill prevention and cleanup; and monitoring of wastewater injection. No major compliance issues existed for NPR-1 during 1989. Oil spills are recorded, reviewed for corrective action, and reported. Environmental preactivity surveys for proposed projects which may disturb or contaminate the land are conducted to prevent damage to the federally protected San Joaquin kit fox, blunt-nosed leopard lizard, Tipton kangaroo rat and the giant kangaroo rat. Projects are adjusted or relocated as necessary to avoid impact to dens, burrows, or flat-bottomed drainages. A major revegetation program was accomplished in 1989 for erosion control enhancement of endangered species habitat. The main compliance issue on NPR-2 was oil and produced water discharges into drainages by lessees. An additional compliance issue on NPR-2 is surface refuse from past oilfield operations. 17 refs.

  4. Entanglement of Australian sea lions and New Zealand fur seals in lost fishing gear and other marine debris before and after Government and industry attempts to reduce the problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Brad; McKenzie, Jane; McIntosh, Rebecca; Baylis, Alastair; Morrissey, Adam; Calvert, Norna; Haase, Tami; Berris, Mel; Dowie, Dave; Shaughnessy, Peter D; Goldsworthy, Simon D

    2004-07-01

    In recent years, Australian governments and fishing industry associations have developed guiding principles aimed at reducing the impact of fishing on non-target species and the benthos and increasing community awareness of their efforts. To determine whether they reduced seal entanglement in lost fishing gear and other marine debris, we analysed Australian sea lion and New Zealand fur seal entanglement data collected from Kangaroo Island, South Australia. Contrary to our expectations, we found that entanglement rates did not decrease in recent years. The Australian sea lion entanglement rate (1.3% in 2002) and the New Zealand fur seal entanglement rate (0.9% in 2002) are the third and fourth highest reported for any seal species. Australian sea lions were most frequently entangled in monofilament gillnet that most likely originated from the shark fishery, which operates in the region where sea lions forage--south and east of Kangaroo Island. In contrast, New Zealand fur seals were most commonly entangled in loops of packing tape and trawl net fragments suspected to be from regional rock lobster and trawl fisheries. Based on recent entanglement studies, we estimate that 1478 seals die from entanglement each year in Australia. We discuss remedies such as education programs and government incentives that may reduce entanglements.

  5. Nutritional status and functional digestive histology of the carnivorous Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stannard, Hayley J; Tong, Lydia; Shaw, Michelle; Van Sluys, Monique; McAllan, Bronwyn; Raubenheimer, David

    2017-03-01

    Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) are the largest carnivorous marsupial in Australia. Currently many animals are being held in captivity as a management procedure to combat Devil Facial Tumor Disease. Only one published study thus far has investigated nutrition in Tasmanian devils, determining their maintenance energy requirements and digestibility on a rodent diet. More information is needed on Tasmanian devil nutritional and gastrointestinal function to aid in their management. Our study aimed to investigate the current nutritional status of Tasmanian devils in a captive population and functional morphology and histology of their gastrointestinal tract. Animals were maintained on a diet of kangaroo, rabbit, quail and chicken wings and digestibility of these items by the devils was high (>85% for dry matter, protein and lipid). Kangaroo and rabbit were high protein diet items while the quail and chicken wings provided high lipid to the diet, and carbohydrates were minimal (≤3% energy). Maintenance energy requirements were determined to be 620kJkg(-0.75)d(-1) with no significant difference between males and females. Opportunistic samples for gastrointestinal morphology were obtained from captive specimens. Tasmanian devils have a simple digestive tract similar to other dasyurid species. Both the morphology and histology of the gastrointestinal tract show specialization for a high protein carnivorous diet. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of depleted uranium in the environment at Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Maryland and Yuma Proving Grounds, Arizona. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, P.L.; Clements, W.H.; Myers, O.B.; Bestgen, H.T.; Jenkins, D.G. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Fishery and Wildlife Biology

    1995-01-01

    This report represents an evaluation of depleted uranium (DU) introduced into the environment at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds (APG), Maryland and Yuma Proving Grounds (YPG) Arizona. This was a cooperative project between the Environmental Sciences and Statistical Analyses Groups at LANL and with the Department of Fishery and Wildlife Biology at Colorado State University. The project represents a unique approach to assessing the environmental impact of DU in two dissimilar ecosystems. Ecological exposure models were created for each ecosystem and sensitivity/uncertainty analyses were conducted to identify exposure pathways which were most influential in the fate and transport of DU in the environment. Research included field sampling, field exposure experiment, and laboratory experiments. The first section addresses DU at the APG site. Chapter topics include bioenergetics-based food web model; field exposure experiments; bioconcentration by phytoplankton and the toxicity of U to zooplankton; physical processes governing the desorption of uranium from sediment to water; transfer of uranium from sediment to benthic invertebrates; spead of adsorpion by benthic invertebrates; uptake of uranium by fish. The final section of the report addresses DU at the YPG site. Chapters include the following information: Du transport processes and pathway model; field studies of performance of exposure model; uptake and elimination rates for kangaroo rates; chemical toxicity in kangaroo rat kidneys.

  7. 三种蝙蝠线粒体解偶联蛋白2(UCP2)基因的克隆和进化分析%Cloning and evolutionary analysis of UCP2 in bats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左学国; 何灵江; 张俊鹏; 原丽红

    2009-01-01

    根据几种哺乳动物UCP2基因的保守区设计一对简并引物,扩增马铁菊头蝠(Rhinolo-phus ferrumequinum)、长翼蝠(Miniopterus fuliginosus)和犬蝠(Cynopterus sphinx)的UCP2 基因的全部编码区序列.测序结果表明,三种蝙蝠UCP2编码区全长930 bp,编码309个氨基酸,推测的氨基酸序列包含线粒体内膜载体蛋白的3个特征结构及解偶联蛋白(UCPs)的特征序列.序列分析表明,蝙蝠与其它哺乳动物UCP2的氨基酸推导序列有很高的同源性,为90.6%~97.0%.进化分析表明,UCP2基因在哺乳动物中进化过程中非常保守,受到强烈的纯化选择压力作用(ω=0.063).Branch-specific模型分析表明,UCP2基因在蝙蝠支系与其它不能飞行的哺乳动物、冬眠蝙蝠与非冬眠蝙蝠的进化过程所受到的选择压力无明显差异(P>0.05).这说明在整个哺乳动物进化过程中UCP2对其能量代澍的调控均起到了重要作用.然而,UCP2如何参与哺乳动物能量调控仍有待于进一步研究.%A pair of degenerated primers was designed based on the conserved region of UCP2 among human, mouse, horse and dog. Then, cDNA fragments encoding the complete coding do-main sequence (CDS) of UCP2 were amplified from three bat species (orders), Rhinolophus ferrumequinum (Rhinolophidae), Miniopterus fuliginosus (Miniopteridae) and Cynopterus sphinx (Pteropodidae). The CDS of UCP2 from three different bat species contain 930 bp encoding 309 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of bat UCP2 consist three signature motifs of mitochondrial transporter protein and UCP-specific sequences. Our results showed that UCP2 gene of bats and other mammals shared high homology (90.6% to 97.0%). Evolutionary analysis indicated that UCP2 gene is highly conserved and has undergone strong purifying selected pressure during the evolution of mammals (w = 0. 063). In addition, by comparing the difference of selected pressure on UCP2 between bats and other mammals, non

  8. Revision of the family Listropsoralgidae Fain, 1965 (Acariformes: Sarcoptoidea)-skin parasites of marsupials and rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochkov, Andre V; Oconnor, Barry M; Grootaert, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The family Listropsoralgidae Fain, 1965 (Acariformes: Sarcoptoidea) is represented by the permanent skin ectoparasites associated with the South American and Australian marsupials (12 species) and the South American rodents of the family Echimyidae (1 species). The phylogenetic relationships of these mites (12 ingroup and 2 outgroup species) are reconstructed on the basis of the maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian analyses (BA) of 76 morphological characters. MP analysis confirmed monophyly of the listropsoralgid genera, the strict consensus of 18 trees generated by MP has the following pattern: Petauralges (Listropsoralgoides, Didelphialges, Listropsoralges) with poor resolution among species of the genus Listropsoralges. The same tree was generated by BA. Both successive and implied weighting strategies resulted in 7 MP trees: Petauralges (Listropsoralgoides (Didelphialges (Listropsoralges))). The relationships between species of the genus Listropsoralges received the poorest resolution: L. caenolestes (L. monodelphis, L. vossi, L. faini, L. brevisetosa (L. thylamys (L. marmosa-L. caluromys))). The host-parasite relationships of listropsoralgids are briefly discussed. The family Listropsoralgidae is taxonomically revised and to date includes 13 species in 4 genera. Six species and one genus are described as new: Listropsoralges brevisetosus sp. n. from Marmosa murina (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae) from Peru, Listropsoralges similis sp. n. from Caluromys derbianus (Didelphidae) from Panama, Listropsoralges thylamys sp. n. from Thylamys venustus (Didelphidae) from Bolivia, Listropsoralges vossi sp. n. from Monodelphis domestica (Didelphidae) from Brazil, Listropsoralges caenolestes sp. n. from Caenolestes fuliginosus (Paucituberculata: Caenolestidae) from Ecuador, and Didelphialges metachirus gen. n., sp. n. from Metachirus nudicaudatus (Didelphidae) from Peru. The female of Listropsoralges faini Bochkov and Wauthy, 2009 is described for the first time.

  9. Cutaneous and Subcutaneous Soft Tissue Tumours in Snakes: A Retrospective Study of 33 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, J; Heckers, K O; Aupperle, H; Pees, M

    2016-07-01

    Cutaneous and subcutaneous soft tissue tumours have been rarely described in detail in snakes. Several malignant entities show strikingly similar histological patterns and therefore the term soft tissue sarcoma (STS) has become a standard histopathological diagnosis. The present study characterizes soft tissue tumours in 33 snakes. Samples included 29 surgically excised masses and four carcasses. Additionally, six animals were humanely destroyed and submitted for necropsy examination following tumour recurrence. Benign neoplasms (n = 8) were described as lipomas of varying differentiation. Recurrence was observed in two of five snakes in which the clinical course was recorded. Malignant neoplasms (n = 25) were diagnosed as STS and graded according to a three-point system previously applied to canine STS. Five (20%) of the primary tumours were classified as grade 1, eleven (44%) as grade 2 and nine (36%) as grade 3 sarcomas. Clinically, recurrence of STS was observed in 11 of 17 cases with available follow-up information. Pathologically, multiple cutaneous metastases were found in one grass snake (Natrix natrix), while visceral metastases were observed in one carpet python (Morelia spilota) and two corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus). Metastatic risk appears to increase with histological grade. Surgical excision generally represents the current therapy of choice for STS. This study includes the first reports of conventional lipomas in a ribbon snake (Thamnophis radix), angiolipomas in a black-headed python (Aspidites melanocephalus) and a corn snake as well as of STS in a Jamaican boa (Epicrates subflavus), emerald tree boa (Corallus caninus), grass snake (N. natrix), African house snake (Lamprophis fuliginosus), California kingsnake (Lampropeltis getula californiae) and common garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis).

  10. Traditional and scientific conceptions of snakes in Kenya: Alternative perspectives for teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnowski, David

    A 3-month qualitative study was conducted mid-September through mid-December 2005 to investigate rural southeast Kenyan teachers' conceptions of snakes. Teachers from five villages near Mt. Kasigau were interviewed to obtain an overall sense of what they thought about snakes (n = 60). Of those 60 teachers, 28 attended a 6-hour seminar on reptiles and amphibians. From these 28 teachers, 8 teachers from three villages were afforded additional educational opportunities about snakes, and 2 teachers from this group of 8 were teamed with 2 herpetologists as mentors during the last 2 months of the study. In turn, seven of these eight teachers presented lessons about snakes using live specimens to their fellow teachers and students. Observations of teacher participants during workshops and field outings were documented as well as teacher classroom pedagogy involving snakes before, during, and after the institute. Semi-structured and open-ended interviews were conducted with the eight core teacher participants and field notes were used to document participant observations during serendipitous live snake encounters, of which, there were many. In addition, village elders, including medicine men, one education administrator and one minister were interviewed to obtain a historical cultural backdrop, which teachers expressed as being an important influence while formulating their own conceptions about snakes. Findings suggest that teachers' conceptions of snakes, within a culture where all snakes are feared and killed onsite, can change toward a more favorable orientation when given the opportunity to learn about snakes, witness positive modeling of snake handling through mentoring by herpetologists, and experience direct contact with live harmless nonaggressive snakes (e.g., the Brown House Snake [Lamprohis fuliginosus] and Kenyan Sand Boa [ Eryx colubrinus]).

  11. Effects of feeding on luminal pH and morphology of the gastroesophageal junction of snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessler, Scott M; Secor, Stephen M

    2012-10-01

    At the gastroesophageal junction, most vertebrates possess a functional lower esophageal sphincter (LES) which may serve to regulate the passage of liquids and food into the stomach and prevent the reflux of gastric contents into the esophagus. Snakes seemingly lack an LES and consume meals large enough to extend anteriorly from the stomach into the esophagus thereby providing the opportunity for the reflux of gastric juices. To explore whether snakes experience or can prevent gastric reflux, we examined post-feeding changes of luminal pH of the distal esophagus and stomach, the fine scale luminal pH profile at the gastroesophageal junction, and the morphology of the gastroesophageal junction for the Burmese python (Python molurus), the African brown house snake (Lamprophis fuliginosus), and the diamondback water snake (Nerodia rhombifer). For each species fasted, there was no distension of the gastroesophageal junction and only modest changes in luminal pH from the distal esophagus into the stomach. Feeding resulted in marked distension and changes in tissue morphology of the gastroesophageal junction. Simultaneously, there was a significant decrease in luminal pH of the distal esophagus for pythons and house snakes, and for all three species a steep gradient in luminal pH decreasing across a 3-cm span from the distal edge of the esophagus into the proximal edge of the stomach. The moderate acidification of the distal most portion of the esophagus for pythons and house snakes suggests that there is some anterior movement of gastric juices across the gastroesophageal junction. Given that this modest reflux of gastric fluid is localized to the most distal region of the esophagus, snakes are apparently able to prevent and protect against acid reflux in the absence of a functional LES.

  12. Disruption of ant-aphid mutualism in canopy enhances the abundance of beetles on the forest floor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Zhang

    Full Text Available Ant-aphid mutualism is known to play a key role in the structure of the arthropod community in the tree canopy, but its possible ecological effects for the forest floor are unknown. We hypothesized that aphids in the canopy can increase the abundance of ants on the forest floor, thus intensifying the impacts of ants on other arthropods on the forest floor. We tested this hypothesis in a deciduous temperate forest in Beijing, China. We excluded the aphid-tending ants Lasius fuliginosus from the canopy using plots of varying sizes, and monitored the change in the abundance of ants and other arthropods on the forest floor in the treated and control plots. We also surveyed the abundance of ants and other arthropods on the forest floor to explore the relationships between ants and other arthropods in the field. Through a three-year experimental study, we found that the exclusion of ants from the canopy significantly decreased the abundance of ants on the forest floor, but increased the abundance of beetles, although the effect was only significant in the large ant-exclusion plot (80*60 m. The field survey showed that the abundance of both beetles and spiders was negatively related to the abundance of ants. These results suggest that aphids located in the tree canopy have indirect negative effects on beetles by enhancing the ant abundance on the forest floor. Considering that most of the beetles in our study are important predators, the ant-aphid mutualism can have further trophic cascading effects on the forest floor food web.

  13. Disruption of ant-aphid mutualism in canopy enhances the abundance of beetles on the forest floor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuang; Zhang, Yuxin; Ma, Keming

    2012-01-01

    Ant-aphid mutualism is known to play a key role in the structure of the arthropod community in the tree canopy, but its possible ecological effects for the forest floor are unknown. We hypothesized that aphids in the canopy can increase the abundance of ants on the forest floor, thus intensifying the impacts of ants on other arthropods on the forest floor. We tested this hypothesis in a deciduous temperate forest in Beijing, China. We excluded the aphid-tending ants Lasius fuliginosus from the canopy using plots of varying sizes, and monitored the change in the abundance of ants and other arthropods on the forest floor in the treated and control plots. We also surveyed the abundance of ants and other arthropods on the forest floor to explore the relationships between ants and other arthropods in the field. Through a three-year experimental study, we found that the exclusion of ants from the canopy significantly decreased the abundance of ants on the forest floor, but increased the abundance of beetles, although the effect was only significant in the large ant-exclusion plot (80*60 m). The field survey showed that the abundance of both beetles and spiders was negatively related to the abundance of ants. These results suggest that aphids located in the tree canopy have indirect negative effects on beetles by enhancing the ant abundance on the forest floor. Considering that most of the beetles in our study are important predators, the ant-aphid mutualism can have further trophic cascading effects on the forest floor food web.

  14. 合成氨废热锅炉结构设计%Structure designing of waste heat boiler with synthesis ammonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李磊磊; 郭勇; 秦娜娜

    2012-01-01

    According to the biological structure and kinematic characteristics of kangaroo, we establish a model for uniped hopping mechanism of bionic kangaroo with underactuated joint.Based on this model,the dynamic coupling effects of the acceleration coupling between active joints and passive ones are an-alyzed,and dynamics equations are established with adopting lagrange method.With practical example and using Matlab simulation analysis for the robot is made so that the changing rule of the global individual joint coupling are obtained.The result indicates that a large coupling between the ankle joint and underactuated joint of the hopping kangaroo robot is available, thus it is possible to control the position of the under-actuated joint via the dynamics coupling, which index plays an important role in structure design and actuator placement of underacluated robots system.%首先介绍了化工行业余热利用的重要性以及废热锅炉在余热回收方面的巨大潜力.同时介绍了依照国内相关标准设计制造的高温高压卧式前置废热锅炉的结构特点.结合废热锅炉的特殊工况以及管壳程内介质流动情况,在管程入口处设置单程波纹管,换热管采用三重套管式换热,管箱密封采用Q型密封,支座采用可变弹簧支座,根据各部位操作温度的不同,使用了低碳钢、耐热钢不锈钢等.对上述几个方面进行了详细分析,以期为前置废热锅炉结构设计提供借鉴和帮助.

  15. Dichromatic colour vision in an Australian marsupial, the tammar wallaby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmi, J M

    1999-12-01

    Despite earlier assertions that most mammals are colour blind, colour vision has in recent years been demonstrated in a variety of eutherian mammals from a wide range of different orders. This paper presents the first behavioural evidence from colour discrimination experiments, that an Australian marsupial, the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii), has dichromatic colour vision. In addition, the experiments show that the wallabies readily learn the relationship between the presented colours rather than the absolute hues. This provides a sensitive method to measure the location of the neutral-point, which is the wavelength of monochromatic light that is indistinguishable from white. This point is a diagnostic feature for dichromats. The spectral sensitivity of the wallabies' middle-wavelength-sensitive photoreceptor is known (peak: 539 nm) and the behavioural results imply that the sensitivity of the short-wavelength-sensitive receptor must be near 420 nm. These spectral sensitivities are similar to those found in eutherian mammals, supporting the view that the earliest mammals had dichromatic colour vision.

  16. PULMONARY ARTERIAL DISEASE ASSOCIATED WITH RIGHT-SIDED CARDIAC HYPERTROPHY AND CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE IN ZOO MAMMALS HOUSED AT 2,100 M ABOVE SEA LEVEL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan-Sallés, Carles; Martínez, Liliana Sofía; Rosas-Rosas, Arely G; Parás, Alberto; Martínez, Osvaldo; Hernández, Alejandra; Garner, Michael M

    2015-12-01

    Subacute and chronic mountain sickness of humans and the related brisket disease of cattle are characterized by right-sided congestive heart failure in individuals living at high altitudes as a result of sustained hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. Adaptations to high altitude and disease resistance vary among species, breeds, and individuals. The authors conducted a retrospective survey of right-sided cardiac hypertrophy associated with pulmonary arterial hypertrophy or arteriosclerosis in zoo mammals housed at Africam Safari (Puebla, México), which is located at 2,100 m above sea level. Seventeen animals with detailed pathology records matched the study criterion. Included were 10 maras (Dolichotis patagonum), 2 cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus oedipus), 2 capybaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris), and 1 case each of Bennet's wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus), nilgai antelope (Boselaphus tragocamelus), and scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah). All had right-sided cardiac hypertrophy and a variety of arterial lesions restricted to the pulmonary circulation and causing arterial thickening with narrowing of the arterial lumen. Arterial lesions most often consisted of medial hypertrophy or hyperplasia of small and medium-sized pulmonary arteries. All maras also had single or multiple elevated plaques in the pulmonary arterial trunk consisting of fibrosis, accompanied by chondroid metaplasia in some cases. Both antelopes were juvenile and died with right-sided congestive heart failure associated with severe pulmonary arterial lesions. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first description of cardiac and pulmonary arterial disease in zoo mammals housed at high altitudes.

  17. Identification of tammar wallaby SIRH12, derived from a marsupial-specific retrotransposition event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Ryuichi; Kuroki, Yoko; Naruse, Mie; Ishii, Masayuki; Iwasaki, Sawa; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Shaw, Geoff; Renfree, Marilyn B.; Kaneko-Ishino, Tomoko; Ishino, Fumitoshi

    2011-01-01

    In humans and mice, there are 11 genes derived from sushi-ichi related retrotransposons, some of which are known to play essential roles in placental development. Interestingly, this family of retrotransposons was thought to exist only in eutherian mammals, indicating their significant contributions to the eutherian evolution, but at least one, PEG10, is conserved between marsupials and eutherians. Here we report a novel sushi-ichi retrotransposon-derived gene, SIRH12, in the tammar wallaby, an Australian marsupial species of the kangaroo family. SIRH12 encodes a protein highly homologous to the sushi-ichi retrotransposon Gag protein in the tammar wallaby, while SIRH12 in the South American short-tailed grey opossum is a pseudogene degenerated by accumulation of multiple nonsense mutations. This suggests that SIRH12 retrotransposition occurred only in the marsupial lineage but acquired and retained some as yet unidentified novel function, at least in the lineage of the tammar wallaby. PMID:21636603

  18. Short interspersed elements (SINEs) of the Geomyoidea superfamily rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogolevsky, Konstantin P; Kramerov, Dmitri A

    2006-05-24

    A new short interspersed element (SINE) was isolated from the genome of desert kangaroo rat (Dipodomys deserti) using single-primer PCR. This SINE consists of two monomers: the left monomer (IDL) resembles rodent ID element and other tRNAAla(CGC)-derived SINEs, whereas the right one (Geo) shows no similarity with known SINE sequences. PCR and hybridization analyses demonstrated that IDL-Geo SINE is restricted to the rodent superfamily Geomyoidea (families Geomyidea and Heteromyidea). Isolation and analysis of IDL-Geo from California pocket mouse (Chaetodipus californicus) and Botta's pocket gopher (Thomomys bottae) revealed some species-specific features of this SINE family. The structure and evolution of known dimeric SINEs are discussed.

  19. Necklace making and placedness in Tasmania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Norman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper has been written against the backdrop of John B. Hawkins’ paper, A Suggested History of Tasmanian Aboriginal Kangaroo Skin or Sinew, Human Bone, Shell, Feather, Apple Seed & Wombat Necklaces, published in Australiana, November 2008, and the research it sparked. Hawkins proffered some contentious propositions concerning unlikely and speculative connections between Tasmanian Aboriginal shell necklace making and the making of so-called “Tasmanian Appleseed necklaces”. Within the acknowledgements section of his paper Hawkins said that he “[looked] forward to a response to [his] article by the museum authorities, for it is only by the cut and thrust of debate that knowledge can be further enhanced”. This paper takes up that challenge albeit from outside the Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery and totally independent of any institutional sponsorship.

  20. Animal Communications Through Seismic Vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Peggy (University of Tulsa)

    2001-05-02

    Substrate vibration has been important to animals as a channel of communication for millions of years, but our literature on vibration in this context of biologically relevant information is only decades old. The jaw mechanism of the earliest land vertebrates allowed them to perceive substrate vibrations as their heads lay on the ground long before airborne sounds could be heard. Although the exact mechanism of vibration production and the precise nature of the wave produced are not always understood, recent development of affordable instrumentation to detect and measure vibrations has allowed researchers to answer increasingly sophisticated questions about how animals send and receive vibration signals. We now know that vibration provides information used in predator defense, prey detection, recruitment to food, mate choice, intrasexual competition, and maternal/brood social interactions in a variety of insect orders, spiders, crabs, scorpions, chameleons, frogs, golden moles, mole rats, kangaroos rats, wallabies, elephants and bison.

  1. Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepikin, Alexei V

    2017-01-01

    In the title of this part of the book, the tail is wagging not just in a single dog but multiple dogs; in other words, a single process SOCE (tail) somehow involves a cross talk of (wagging) large and powerful organelle and cellular compartments (dogs). So how is this possible? Is this really necessary? Is the title actually appropriate?SOCE is a rather special process, it allows efficient signaling based on a ubiquitous second messenger (Ca(2+)) in multiple cell and tissue types, it has specific signaling modality (i.e., some downstream reactions depend specifically on SOCE and not just on global Ca(2+) increase), it is vital for the normal functioning of multiple types of cells and tissues, and when misregulated it induces important pathological processes. The reader hopefully agree that such an important "tail" is more appropriate for a kangaroo than for a Chihuahua and that it has awesome wagging capacity.

  2. 动物奇闻趣事

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁小明

    2011-01-01

    如果袋鼠的尾巴离开地面,袋鼠就跳不起来。它要靠尾巴推动才能离开地面。 华盛顿特区动物问题研究所的试验表明,狗和猫像人一样,也有右撇子和左撇子——即有些喜欢用右爪,有些喜欢用左爪。%A kangaroo cannot jump if its tail is lifted off the ground. It needs its tail for pushing off. According to tests made at the Institute (研究所) for the Study of Animal Problems in Washington, D.C., dogs and cats, like people, are either right-handed or left-handed, that is, these animals favor either their right or left paws

  3. CRISPR Diversity in E. coli Isolates from Australian Animals, Humans and Environmental Waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim S Sheludchenko

    Full Text Available Seventy four SNP genotypes and 54 E. coli genomes from kangaroo, Tasmanian devil, reptile, cattle, dog, horse, duck, bird, fish, rodent, human and environmental water sources were screened for the presence of the CRISPR 2.1 loci flanked by cas2 and iap genes. CRISPR 2.1 regions were found in 49% of the strains analysed. The majority of human E. coli isolates lacked the CRISPR 2.1 locus. We described 76 CRISPR 2.1 positive isolates originating from Australian animals and humans, which contained a total of 764 spacer sequences. CRISPR arrays demonstrated a long history of phage attacks especially in isolates from birds (up to 40 spacers. The most prevalent spacer (1.6% was an ancient spacer found mainly in human, horse, duck, rodent, reptile and environmental water sources. The sequence of this spacer matched the intestinal P7 phage and the pO111 plasmid of E. coli.

  4. Assessment of impacts and evaluation of restoration methods on areas affected by a well blowout, Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warrick, G.D.; Kato, T.T.; Phillips, M.V. [and others

    1996-12-01

    In June 1994, an oil well on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 blew-out and crude oil was deposited downwind. After the well was capped, information was collected to characterize the release and to assess effects to wildlife and plants. Oil residue was found up to 13.7 km from the well site, but deposition was relatively light and the oil quickly dried to form a thin crust on the soil surface. Elevated levels of hydrocarbons were found in livers collected from Heermann`s kangaroo rats (Dipodomys heermanni) from the oiled area but polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (known carcinogens or mutagens) were not detected in the livers. Restoration techniques (surface modification and bioremediation) and natural recovery were evaluated within three portions of the oiled area. Herbaceous cover and production, and survival and vigor of desert saltbush (Atriplex polycarpa) were also monitored within each trapping grid.

  5. Divergence in sink contributions to population persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, Julie A; Lawler, Joshua J; Schumaker, Nathan H; Wilsey, Chad B; Bender, Darren J

    2015-12-01

    Population sinks present unique conservation challenges. The loss of individuals in sinks can compromise persistence; but conversely, sinks can improve viability by improving connectivity and facilitating the recolonization of vacant sources. To assess the contribution of sinks to regional population persistence of declining populations, we simulated source-sink dynamics for 3 very different endangered species: Black-capped Vireos (Vireo atricapilla) at Fort Hood, Texas, Ord's kangaroo rats (Dipodomys ordii) in Alberta, and Northern Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) in the northwestern United States. We used empirical data from these case studies to parameterize spatially explicit individual-based models. We then used the models to quantify population abundance and persistence with and without long-term sinks. The contributions of sink habitats varied widely. Sinks were detrimental, particularly when they functioned as strong sinks with few emigrants in declining populations (e.g., Alberta's Ord's kangaroo rat) and benign in robust populations (e.g., Black-capped Vireos) when Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) parasitism was controlled. Sinks, including ecological traps, were also crucial in delaying declines when there were few sources (e.g., in Black-capped Vireo populations with no Cowbird control). Sink contributions were also nuanced. For example, sinks that supported large, variable populations were subject to greater extinction risk (e.g., Northern Spotted Owls). In each of our case studies, new context-dependent sinks emerged, underscoring the dynamic nature of sources and sinks and the need for frequent re-assessment. Our results imply that management actions based on assumptions that sink habitats are generally harmful or helpful risk undermining conservation efforts for declining populations.

  6. Fortifier and Cream Improve Fat Delivery in Continuous Enteral Infant Feeding of Breast Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika Tabata

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Premature and high-risk infants require accurate delivery of nutrients to promote appropriate growth. Continuous enteral feeding methods may result in significant fat and micronutrient loss. This study evaluated fat loss in enteral nutrition using current strategies for providing high-risk infants fortified human milk (HM. The fat content of HM was measured by IR analyzer in a simulated feeding system using the Kangaroo epumpTM and the MedFusionTM 2010 pump. Comparisons in fat loss were made between HM, HM supplemented with donor HM-derived fortifier Prolacta + H2MFTM (H2MF, and HM supplemented with H2MF and donor HM-derived cream ProlactCRTM (cream. When using the Kangaroo epumpTM, the addition of H2MF and cream to HM increased fat delivery efficiency from 75.0% ± 1.2% to 83.7% ± 1.0% (p < 0.0001. When using the MedFusionTM 2010 pump, the addition of H2MF to HM increased fat delivery efficiency from 83.2% ± 2.8% to 88.8% ± 0.8% (p < 0.05, and the addition of H2MF and cream increased fat delivery efficiency to 92.0% ± 0.3% (p < 0.01. The addition of H2MF and cream to HM provides both the benefits of bioactive elements from mother’s milk and increased fat delivery, making the addition of H2MF and cream an appropriate method to improve infant weight gain.

  7. Cacti supply limited nutrients to a desert rodent community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Teri J; Newsome, Seth D; Wolf, Blair O

    2015-08-01

    In the Sonoran Desert, cacti represent a potentially important source of nutrients and water for consumers. Columnar cacti, in particular, produce a large pulse of flowers and succulent fruit during hot summer months. The importance of cactus stems, flowers and fruit to the small mammal community has not been quantified. We exploited natural variation in the carbon isotope (δ(13)C) values of cacti (CAM) versus C3 plants to quantify the relative use of these resources by a diverse desert small mammal community. We also estimated trophic level by measuring nitrogen isotope (δ(15)N) values. We hypothesized that (H1) granivorous heteromyids (kangaroo rats, pocket mice) would exploit the summer pulse of seeds and pulp; (H2) folivorous and omnivorous cactus mice, wood rats, and ground squirrels would exploit cacti stems year-round and seeds when available; and (H3) kangaroo rats and pocket mice would shift from seeds to insects during hot dry months. We found that heteromyids made minimal use of seeds during the period of heavy seed rain. Of the cricetids, only the folivore Neotoma albigula made continuous but highly variable use of cacti resources (annual mean = 32%, range 0-81%), whereas the omnivore Peromyscus eremicus ignored cacti except during the summer, when it exploited seeds and/or fruit pulp (June-July mean = 39%, range 20-64%). We also found little evidence for a shift to greater consumption of insects by heteromyids during the hot dry months. Overall, use of cactus resources by the small mammal community is very limited and highly variable among species.

  8. Permeability of roads to movement of scrubland lizards and small mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehme, Cheryl S; Tracey, Jeff A; McClenaghan, Leroy R; Fisher, Robert N

    2013-08-01

    A primary objective of road ecology is to understand and predict how roads affect connectivity of wildlife populations. Road avoidance behavior can fragment populations, whereas lack of road avoidance can result in high mortality due to wildlife-vehicle collisions. Many small animal species focus their activities to particular microhabitats within their larger habitat. We sought to assess how different types of roads affect the movement of small vertebrates and to explore whether responses to roads may be predictable on the basis of animal life history or microhabitat preferences preferences. We tracked the movements of fluorescently marked animals at 24 sites distributed among 3 road types: low-use dirt, low-use secondary paved, and rural 2-lane highway. Most data we collected were on the San Diego pocket mouse (Chaetodipus fallax), cactus mouse (Peromyscus eremicus), western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis), orange-throated whiptail (Aspidoscelis hyperythra), Dulzura kangaroo rat (Dipodomys simulans) (dirt, secondary paved), and deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) (highway only). San Diego pocket mice and cactus mice moved onto dirt roads but not onto a low-use paved road of similar width or onto the highway, indicating they avoid paved road substrate. Both lizard species moved onto the dirt and secondary paved roads but avoided the rural 2-lane rural highway, indicating they may avoid noise, vibration, or visual disturbance from a steady flow of traffic. Kangaroo rats did not avoid the dirt or secondary paved roads. Overall, dirt and secondary roads were more permeable to species that prefer to forage or bask in open areas of their habitat, rather than under the cover of rocks or shrubs. However, all study species avoided the rural 2-lane highway. Our results suggest that microhabitat use preferences and road substrate help predict species responses to low-use roads, but roads with heavy traffic may deter movement of a much wider range of small animal

  9. Newborn care practices and home-based postnatal newborn care programme – Mewat, Haryana, India, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latika Nath Sinha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In India, the Home Based Postnatal Newborn Care programme by Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs under the National Rural Health Mission was initiated in 2011 to reduce neonatal mortality rates (NMRs. ASHAs get cash incentives for six postnatal home visits for newborn care. We studied newborn care practices among mothers in Mewat, Haryana, having a high NMR and determined risk factors for unsafe practices and described the knowledge and skills of ASHAs during home visits. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among mothers who had delivered a child during the previous seven months using cluster sampling. We interviewed mothers and ASHAs in the selected subcentres using semi–structured questionnaires on the six safe newborn care practices, namely safe breastfeeding, keeping cord and eyes clean, wrapping baby, kangaroo care, delayed bathing and hand washing. Results: We interviewed 320 mothers, 61 ASHAs and observed 19 home visits. Overall, 60% of mothers adopted less than three safe practices. Wrapping newborns (96% and delayed bathing (64% were better adopted than cord care (49%, safe breastfeeding (48%, hand washing (30%, kangaroo care (20% and eye care (9%. Cultural beliefs and traditional birth attendants influenced the mother’s practices. The lack of supervision by auxiliary nurse midwives (ANM, delayed referral and transportation were the other challenges. Conclusion: Knowledge–practice gaps existed among mothers counselled by ASHAs. Poor utilization of reproductive and child health services decreased opportunities for ASHA–mother dialogue on safe practices. Recommendations included training ANMs, training TBAs as ASHAs, innovative communication strategies for ASHAs and improved referral system.

  10. Community-based interventions to optimize early childhood development in low resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulik, P K; Darmstadt, G L

    2009-08-01

    Interventions targeting the early childhood period (0 to 3 years) help to improve neuro-cognitive functioning throughout life. Some of the more low cost, low resource-intensive community practices for this age-group are play, reading, music and tactile stimulation. This research was conducted to summarize the evidence regarding the effectiveness of such strategies on child development, with particular focus on techniques that may be transferable to developing countries and to children at risk of developing secondary impairments. PubMed, PsycInfo, Embase, ERIC, CINAHL and Cochrane were searched for studies involving the above strategies for early intervention. Reference lists of these studies were scanned and other studies were incorporated based on snow-balling. Overall, 76 articles corresponding to 53 studies, 24 of which were randomized controlled trials, were identified. Sixteen of those studies were from low- and middle-income countries. Play and reading were the two commonest interventions and showed positive impact on intellectual development of the child. Music was evaluated primarily in intensive care settings. Kangaroo Mother Care, and to a lesser extent massage, also showed beneficial effects. Improvement in parent-child interaction was common to all the interventions. Play and reading were effective interventions for early childhood interventions in low- and middle-income countries. More research is needed to judge the effectiveness of music. Kangaroo Mother Care is effective for low birth weight babies in resource poor settings, but further research is needed in community settings. Massage is useful, but needs more rigorous research prior to being advocated for community-level interventions.

  11. Ticks of Australia. The species that infest domestic animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Stephen C; Walker, Alan R

    2014-06-18

    The book Australian Ticks by F.H.S. Roberts (1970) is a land-mark in Australian tick biology. But it is time for a new and improved book on the ticks of Australia. The present book has identification guides and accounts of the biology and diseases associated with the 16 species of ticks that may feed on domestic animals and humans in Australia. These comprise five argasid (soft) ticks: Argas persicus (poultry tick), Argas robertsi (Robert's bird tick), Ornithodoros capensis (seabird soft tick), O. gurneyi (kangaroo soft tick), Otobius megnini (spinose ear tick); and 11 ixodid (hard) ticks, Amblyomma triguttatum (ornate kangaroo tick), Bothriocroton auruginans (wombat tick), B. hydrosauri (southern reptile tick), Haemaphysalis bancrofti (wallaby tick), H. longicornis (bush tick), Ixodes cornuatus (southern paralysis tick), I. hirsti (Hirst's marsupial tick), I. holocyclus (paralysis tick), I. tasmani (common marsupial tick), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) australis (Australian cattle tick) and R. sanguineus (brown dog tick).  We use an image-matching system to identify ticks, much like the image-matching systems used in field-guides for birds and flowers. Ticks may be identified by drawings that emphasise unique matrices of uniformly defined morphological characters that, together, allow these 16 ticks to be identified by morphology unequivocally. The species accounts have seven sections: (i) General; (ii)  Differential diagnosis; (iii) Hosts; (iv) Life-cycle and seasonality; (v) Disease; (vi) Habitat and geographic distribution; (vii) Genes and genomes; and (viii) Other information. There are 71 figures and tables, including a glossary character matrices, drawings of life-cycles, drawings of genera, species, and colour photographs of tick biology.

  12. 考虑柔性关节的仿袋鼠跳跃机器人落地稳定性研究%Research on landing stability of hopping robot considering flexible joint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈朋威; 葛文杰; 董海军

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the stance stability of hopping robot considering flexible joint, we establish the model for uniped hopping mechanism of bionic kangaroo with flexible joint. Adopt Lagrange method to establish dynamics and kinematics equations for its touchdown phase. With practical example and using Matlab and Adams to make simulation analysis, we obtain the changing rule of each joint angle, joint driving torque, the ground pressure and ZMP with time of the touchdown phase. The result indicate that knee joint, especially ankle joint introducing flexible joint, can not only significantly absorb enough energy of landing to get buffer capacity and reduced joint torque peak to reduce the driving element power, but also effectively improve the jumping ability and landing stability of bionic kangaroo robot.%对具有柔性关节的仿袋鼠跳跃机器人落地稳定性进行了研究.用拉格朗日方法建立了机构在着地阶段的动力学方程.结合实例,运用Matlab和Adams软件对机器人进行仿真分析,给出了机器人在着地阶段的各关节转角、关节驱动力矩、着地压力及ZMP随时间的变化规律.分析结果表明:膝关节,特别是踝关节引入柔性关节,不仅能显著地吸收落地能量而获得落地缓冲能力和降低关节输入力矩峰值而减小驱动元件的功率,而且能有效地提高跳跃机构的弹跳能力和落地稳定性.

  13. Neonatal infrared thermography imaging: Analysis of heat flux during different clinical scenarios

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    Abbas, Abbas K.; Heimann, Konrad; Blazek, Vladimir; Orlikowsky, Thorsten; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2012-11-01

    IntroductionAn accurate skin temperature measurement of Neonatal Infrared Thermography (NIRT) imaging requires an appropriate calibration process for compensation of external effects (e.g. variation of environmental temperature, variable air velocity or humidity). Although modern infrared cameras can perform such calibration, an additional compensation is required for highly accurate thermography. This compensation which corrects any temperature drift should occur during the NIRT imaging process. We introduce a compensation technique which is based on modeling the physical interactions within the measurement scene and derived the detected temperature signal of the object. Materials and methodsIn this work such compensation was performed for different NIRT imaging application in neonatology (e.g. convective incubators, kangaroo mother care (KMC), and an open radiant warmer). The spatially distributed temperatures of 12 preterm infants (average gestation age 31 weeks) were measured under these different infant care arrangements (i.e. closed care system like a convective incubator, and open care system like kangaroo mother care, and open radiant warmer). ResultsAs errors in measurement of temperature were anticipated, a novel compensation method derived from infrared thermography of the neonate's skin was developed. Moreover, the differences in temperature recording for the 12 preterm infants varied from subject to subject. This variation could be arising from individual experimental setting applied to the same region of interest over the neonate's body. The experimental results for the model-based corrections is verified over the selected patient group. ConclusionThe proposed technique relies on applying model-based correction to the measured temperature and reducing extraneous errors during NIRT. This application specific method is based on different heat flux compartments present in neonatal thermography scene. Furthermore, these results are considered to be

  14. Generic classification of the Archiborborinae (Diptera: Sphaeroceridae), with a revision of Antrops Enderlein, Coloantrops gen. nov., Maculantrops gen. nov., Photoantrops gen. nov., and Poecilantrops gen. nov.

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    Kits, Joel H; Marshall, Stephen A

    2013-01-01

    The Archiborborinae comprise a diverse clade of flies in the family Sphaeroceridae. We here revise the generic classification, redefining the genus Antrops Enderlein and naming 5 new genera: Boreantrops gen. nov., Coloantrops gen. nov., Maculantrops gen. nov., Photoantrops gen. nov., and Poecilantrops gen. nov. The genus Archiborborus, until recently a paraphyletic assemblage including most of the described species in the subfamily, is treated as a junior synonym of Antrops (syn. nov.) We revise the genera Antrops (53 species, including 40 sp. nov.: Antrops anovariegatus, Antrops aurantifemur, Antrops baeza, Antrops bellavista, Antrops biflavus, Antrops bucki, Antrops carpishensis, Antrops cochabamba, Antrops cochinoca, Antrops coniobaptos, Antrops coroico, Antrops cotopaxi, Antrops didactylos, Antrops diversipennis, Antrops eurus, Antrops fulgiceps, Antrops fuliginosus, Antrops guandera, Antrops guaramacalensis, Antrops inca, Antrops juninensis, Antrops mucarensis, Antrops niger, Antrops papallacta, Antrops pecki, Antrops podocarpus, Antrops quadrilobus, Antrops siberia, Antrops sierrazulensis, Antrops tachira, Antrops tequendama, Antrops tetrastichus, Antrops tumbrensis, Antrops unduavi, Antrops variegatus, Antrops versabilis, Antrops vittatus, Antrops yungas, and Antrops zongo and the following comb. nov.: Antrops annulatus (Richards), Antrops chaetosus (Richards), Antrops femoralis (Blanchard), Antrops hirtus (Bigot), Antrops maculipennis (Duda), Antrops maximus (Richards), Antrops microphthalmus (Richards), Antrops quadrinotus (Bigot), Antrops setosus (Duda), Antrops simplicimanus (Richards), Antrops nitidicollis (Becker), and Antrops orbitalis (Duda)), Coloantrops (1 species: Coloantrops daedalus, sp. nov.), Maculantrops (2 species, Maculantrops hirtipes (Macquart) comb. nov. and Maculantrops altiplanus, sp. nov.), Photoantrops (1 species: Pho-toantrops echinus sp. nov.), and Poecilantrops (10 species: Poecilantrops baorucensis, Poecilantrops boraceiensis

  15. Joint loads in marsupial ankles reflect habitual bipedalism versus quadrupedalism.

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    Kristian J Carlson

    Full Text Available Joint surfaces of limb bones are loaded in compression by reaction forces generated from body weight and musculotendon complexes bridging them. In general, joints of eutherian mammals have regions of high radiodensity subchondral bone that are better at resisting compressive forces than low radiodensity subchondral bone. Identifying similar form-function relationships between subchondral radiodensity distribution and joint load distribution within the marsupial postcranium, in addition to providing a richer understanding of marsupial functional morphology, can serve as a phylogenetic control in evaluating analogous relationships within eutherian mammals. Where commonalities are established across phylogenetic borders, unifying principles in mammalian physiology, morphology, and behavior can be identified. Here, we assess subchondral radiodensity patterns in distal tibiae of several marsupial taxa characterized by different habitual activities (e.g., locomotion. Computed tomography scanning, maximum intensity projection maps, and pixel counting were used to quantify radiodensity in 41 distal tibiae of bipedal (5 species, arboreal quadrupedal (4 species, and terrestrial quadrupedal (5 species marsupials. Bipeds (Macropus and Wallabia exhibit more expansive areas of high radiodensity in the distal tibia than arboreal (Dendrolagus, Phascolarctos, and Trichosurus or terrestrial quadrupeds (Sarcophilus, Thylacinus, Lasiorhinus, and Vombatus, which may reflect the former carrying body weight only through the hind limbs. Arboreal quadrupeds exhibit smallest areas of high radiodensity, though they differ non-significantly from terrestrial quadrupeds. This could indicate slightly more compliant gaits by arboreal quadrupeds compared to terrestrial quadrupeds. The observed radiodensity patterns in marsupial tibiae, though their statistical differences disappear when controlling for phylogeny, corroborate previously documented patterns in primates and

  16. Distinct retroelement classes define evolutionary breakpoints demarcating sites of evolutionary novelty

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    Longo, Mark S; Carone, Dawn M; Green, Eric D; O'Neill, Michael J; O'Neill, Rachel J

    2009-01-01

    Background Large-scale genome rearrangements brought about by chromosome breaks underlie numerous inherited diseases, initiate or promote many cancers and are also associated with karyotype diversification during species evolution. Recent research has shown that these breakpoints are nonrandomly distributed throughout the mammalian genome and many, termed "evolutionary breakpoints" (EB), are specific genomic locations that are "reused" during karyotypic evolution. When the phylogenetic trajectory of orthologous chromosome segments is considered, many of these EB are coincident with ancient centromere activity as well as new centromere formation. While EB have been characterized as repeat-rich regions, it has not been determined whether specific sequences have been retained during evolution that would indicate previous centromere activity or a propensity for new centromere formation. Likewise, the conservation of specific sequence motifs or classes at EBs among divergent mammalian taxa has not been determined. Results To define conserved sequence features of EBs associated with centromere evolution, we performed comparative sequence analysis of more than 4.8 Mb within the tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii, derived from centromeric regions (CEN), euchromatic regions (EU), and an evolutionary breakpoint (EB) that has undergone convergent breakpoint reuse and past centromere activity in marsupials. We found a dramatic enrichment for long interspersed nucleotide elements (LINE1s) and endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) and a depletion of short interspersed nucleotide elements (SINEs) shared between CEN and EBs. We analyzed the orthologous human EB (14q32.33), known to be associated with translocations in many cancers including multiple myelomas and plasma cell leukemias, and found a conserved distribution of similar repetitive elements. Conclusion Our data indicate that EBs tracked within the class Mammalia harbor sequence features retained since the divergence of marsupials

  17. Distinct retroelement classes define evolutionary breakpoints demarcating sites of evolutionary novelty

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    Green Eric D

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-scale genome rearrangements brought about by chromosome breaks underlie numerous inherited diseases, initiate or promote many cancers and are also associated with karyotype diversification during species evolution. Recent research has shown that these breakpoints are nonrandomly distributed throughout the mammalian genome and many, termed "evolutionary breakpoints" (EB, are specific genomic locations that are "reused" during karyotypic evolution. When the phylogenetic trajectory of orthologous chromosome segments is considered, many of these EB are coincident with ancient centromere activity as well as new centromere formation. While EB have been characterized as repeat-rich regions, it has not been determined whether specific sequences have been retained during evolution that would indicate previous centromere activity or a propensity for new centromere formation. Likewise, the conservation of specific sequence motifs or classes at EBs among divergent mammalian taxa has not been determined. Results To define conserved sequence features of EBs associated with centromere evolution, we performed comparative sequence analysis of more than 4.8 Mb within the tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii, derived from centromeric regions (CEN, euchromatic regions (EU, and an evolutionary breakpoint (EB that has undergone convergent breakpoint reuse and past centromere activity in marsupials. We found a dramatic enrichment for long interspersed nucleotide elements (LINE1s and endogenous retroviruses (ERVs and a depletion of short interspersed nucleotide elements (SINEs shared between CEN and EBs. We analyzed the orthologous human EB (14q32.33, known to be associated with translocations in many cancers including multiple myelomas and plasma cell leukemias, and found a conserved distribution of similar repetitive elements. Conclusion Our data indicate that EBs tracked within the class Mammalia harbor sequence features retained since the

  18. Functional gene analysis suggests different acetogen populations in the bovine rumen and tammar wallaby forestomach.

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    Gagen, Emma J; Denman, Stuart E; Padmanabha, Jagadish; Zadbuke, Someshwar; Al Jassim, Rafat; Morrison, Mark; McSweeney, Christopher S

    2010-12-01

    Reductive acetogenesis via the acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) pathway is an alternative hydrogen sink to methanogenesis in the rumen. Functional gene-based analysis is the ideal approach for investigating organisms capable of this metabolism (acetogens). However, existing tools targeting the formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase gene (fhs) are compromised by lack of specificity due to the involvement of formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase (FTHFS) in other pathways. Acetyl-CoA synthase (ACS) is unique to the acetyl-CoA pathway and, in the present study, acetyl-CoA synthase genes (acsB) were recovered from a range of acetogens to facilitate the design of acsB-specific PCR primers. fhs and acsB libraries were used to examine acetogen diversity in the bovine rumen and forestomach of the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii), a native Australian marsupial demonstrating foregut fermentation analogous to rumen fermentation but resulting in lower methane emissions. Novel, deduced amino acid sequences of acsB and fhs affiliated with the Lachnospiraceae in both ecosystems and the Ruminococcaeae/Blautia group in the rumen. FTHFS sequences that probably originated from nonacetogens were identified by low "homoacetogen similarity" scores based on analysis of FTHFS residues, and comprised a large proportion of FTHFS sequences from the tammar wallaby forestomach. A diversity of FTHFS and ACS sequences in both ecosystems clustered between the Lachnospiraceae and Clostridiaceae acetogens but without close sequences from cultured isolates. These sequences probably originated from novel acetogens. The community structures of the acsB and fhs libraries from the rumen and the tammar wallaby forestomach were different (LIBSHUFF, P < 0.001), and these differences may have significance for overall hydrogenotrophy in both ecosystems.

  19. INFECCIÓN POR PROTOZOARIOS EN INDIVIDUOS DE TITÍ BEBE LECHE -S. fuscicollis-, TITÍ CABEZA BLANCA -S. oedipus-, TITÍ ARDILLA -S. sciureus-, SURICATO -S. suricatta- Y WALLABIE DE BENNETT -M. rufogriseus-: DESCRIPCIÓN DE CASOS

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    G. L. K. López

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La toxoplasmosis es una de las zoonosis parasitarias más comunes y de especial atención en medicina humana y veterinaria en todo el mundo. Toxoplasma gondii comparte mu - chos de sus parámetros biológicos con otros parásitos apicomplexa, pero es único por su extremadamente amplio rango de huéspedes y su especificidad tisular. La susceptibilidad en especies de primates del Nuevo Mundo y diprotodontos a la infección por protozoarios es alta. Bajo condiciones de cautiverio la toxoplasmosis es una de las infecciones más comunes en macrópodos australianos. En el presente trabajo se exponen los hallazgos clínicos y postmortem de 11 individuos de primates ( Saguinus oedipus, S. fuscicollis, Saimiri sciureus , carnívoros ( Suricata suricatta y diprotodontos ( Macropus rufogriseus , de la Fundación Zoológica de Cali, diagnosticados con toxoplasmosis mediante métodos paraclínicos e histopatológicos. En la mayoría de los casos el cuadro clínico se caracterizó principalmente por disnea, secreción nasal espumosa y signos neurológicos. Los hallazgos más importantes de la necropsia fueron lesiones en pulmón, hígado y encéfalo. Los casos aquí descritos corresponden a cuadros clínicos de ocurrencia natural y permiten entender el desarrollo fisiopatológico y la presentación clínica de las infecciones por protozoarios en especies de fauna silvestre, a pesar de la falta de un diagnóstico definitivo mediante técnicas específicas de inmunohistoquímica para las distintas etiologías.

  20. Evolution of coding and non-coding genes in HOX clusters of a marsupial

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    Yu Hongshi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The HOX gene clusters are thought to be highly conserved amongst mammals and other vertebrates, but the long non-coding RNAs have only been studied in detail in human and mouse. The sequencing of the kangaroo genome provides an opportunity to use comparative analyses to compare the HOX clusters of a mammal with a distinct body plan to those of other mammals. Results Here we report a comparative analysis of HOX gene clusters between an Australian marsupial of the kangaroo family and the eutherians. There was a strikingly high level of conservation of HOX gene sequence and structure and non-protein coding genes including the microRNAs miR-196a, miR-196b, miR-10a and miR-10b and the long non-coding RNAs HOTAIR, HOTAIRM1 and HOXA11AS that play critical roles in regulating gene expression and controlling development. By microRNA deep sequencing and comparative genomic analyses, two conserved microRNAs (miR-10a and miR-10b were identified and one new candidate microRNA with typical hairpin precursor structure that is expressed in both fibroblasts and testes was found. The prediction of microRNA target analysis showed that several known microRNA targets, such as miR-10, miR-414 and miR-464, were found in the tammar HOX clusters. In addition, several novel and putative miRNAs were identified that originated from elsewhere in the tammar genome and that target the tammar HOXB and HOXD clusters. Conclusions This study confirms that the emergence of known long non-coding RNAs in the HOX clusters clearly predate the marsupial-eutherian divergence 160 Ma ago. It also identified a new potentially functional microRNA as well as conserved miRNAs. These non-coding RNAs may participate in the regulation of HOX genes to influence the body plan of this marsupial.

  1. Método piel a piel: Repercusión sobre el desarrollo físico-intelectual a la edad preescolar

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    Ramón Acosta Díaz

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Con la finalidad de evaluar el desarrollo físico-intelectual de los niños tratados con el método piel a piel al alcanzar los 6 años de edad, se realizó una investigación prospectiva de carácter analítico del tipo caso-control, en el Hospital General Universitario "Abel Santamaría" de Pinar del Río, desde marzo de 2001 hasta marzo de 2002. Se seleccionó una muestra de 100 niños y se clasificaron en casos (n = 50 los pretérminos tratados con el método piel a piel y en controles (n = 50 un grupo de recién nacidos a término; se les aplicó el test de Ravens donde se les evaluó el cociente de inteligencia y se les realizaron mediciones antropométricas (peso y talla para valorarles el desarrollo físico. A las madres se les aplicó un formulario para relacionar algunos factores sociopsicológicos y ambientales que pudieran influir en estas variables. Se realizó un procesamiento estadístico con la utilización de la media porcentual y la prueba de independencia entre variables con un nivel de significación de p To evaluate the physical and intellectual development of children treated by Kangaroo mother care method at 6 years of age, a prospective analytical case-control study was carried out in "Abel Santamaría" general university hospital in Pinar del Rio province from March 2001 to March 2002. The sample was composed by 100 children of whom 50 preterm infants treated by Kangaroo mother care method were taken as cases and the other 50 were term newborns taken as controls; all of them were applied Ravens´test to evaluate their intelligence quotient and anthropometric measurements (weight and height to assess their physical development. A form was administered to the mothers so as to relate some socio-psychological and environmental factors that may influence these variables. All data was statistically processed by using percentage mean and the independence test among variables, with a level of significance of p < 0,05. No

  2. Método piel a piel: Evaluación del neurocomportamiento hasta el año de edad corregida

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    Ramón Acosta Díaz

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar el neurocomportamiento al aplicar el test de Bayley en prematuros atendidos por el método piel a piel durante su primer año de vida, se analizaron 120 nacidos vivos en el Hospital Ginecoobstétrico "Justo Legón Padilla" de Pinar del Río, desde el 1 de enero hasta el 30 de junio de 2000 (grupo de estudio. El grupo control estuvo formado por los niños prematuros nacidos vivos entre el 1 de julio y el 31 de diciembre de 2000, atendidos por el método tradicional. A toda la muestra se le aplicó un formulario donde se recogieron todos los resultados de la historia clínica, principalmente morbilidad y asfixia perinatal, además de su seguimiento nutricional y neurológico en consulta, donde se les aplicó el test de Bayley a los 6 y 12 meses de edad gestacional corregida. Se elaboró una base de datos en Microsoft Excel-2000; se aplicó la prueba de chi cuadrado, con un intervalo de confianza de p With the objective of evaluating the neurodevelopment on applying the Bailey´s test in preterm infants cared for by the Kangaroo mother care method at their fist year of life, 120 neonates, who were born at "Justo Legón Padilla" gynecological and obstetric hospital in Pinar del Río from January 1st to June 30th 2000, were analyzed (the study group. The control group was made up of preterm children born at this hospital from July 1st to December 31st 2000,cared for by the traditional method. The whole sample was applied a form in which all the results of the clinical history mainly morbidity and perinatal asphyxia were included in addition to the nutritional and neurological follow-up at the doctor´s office where Bayley´s test was applied to them at 6 and 12 months of corrected gestational age. A database in Microsoft Excel-2000 was prepared; Chi square test was used, with a confidence internal equal to p < 0,05. It was observed that there were significant differences between the neurodevelopment of preterm infants cared

  3. Poor birth weight recovery among low birth weight/preterm infants following hospital discharge in Kampala, Uganda

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    Namiiro Flavia B

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthy infants typically regain their birth weight by 21 days of age; however, failure to do so may be due to medical, nutritional or environmental factors. Globally, the incidence of low birth weight deliveries is high, but few studies have assessed the postnatal weight changes in this category of infants, especially in Africa. The aim was to determine what proportion of LBW infants had not regained their birth weight by 21 days of age after discharge from the Special Care Unit of Mulago hospital, Kampala. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted assessing weight recovery of 235 LBW infants attending the Kangaroo Clinic in the Special Care Unit of Mulago Hospital between January and April 2010. Infants aged 21 days with a documented birth weight and whose mothers gave consent to participate were included in the study. Baseline information was collected on demographic characteristics, history on pregnancy, delivery and postnatal outcome through interviews. Pertinent infant information like gestation age, diagnosis and management was obtained from the medical records and summarized in the case report forms. Results Of the 235 LBW infants, 113 (48.1% had not regained their birth weight by 21 days. Duration of hospitalization for more than 7 days (AOR: 4.2; 95% CI: 2.3 - 7.6; p value Conclusion Failure to regain birth weight among LBW infants by 21 days of age is a common problem in Mulago Hospital occurring in almost half of the neonates attending the Kangaroo clinic. Currently, the burden of morbidity in this group of high-risk infants is undetected and unaddressed in many developing countries. Measures for consideration to improve care of these infants would include; discharge after regaining birth weight and use of total parenteral nutrition. However, due to the pressure of space, keeping the baby and mother is not feasible at the moment hence the need for a strong community system to boost care of the infant. Close

  4. Vertical leaping mechanics of the Lesser Egyptian Jerboa reveal specialization for maneuverability rather than elastic energy storage.

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    Moore, Talia Y; Rivera, Alberto M; Biewener, Andrew A

    2017-01-01

    Numerous historical descriptions of the Lesser Egyptian jerboa, Jaculus jaculus, a small bipedal mammal with elongate hindlimbs, make special note of their extraordinary leaping ability. We observed jerboa locomotion in a laboratory setting and performed inverse dynamics analysis to understand how this small rodent generates such impressive leaps. We combined kinematic data from video, kinetic data from a force platform, and morphometric data from dissections to calculate the relative contributions of each hindlimb muscle and tendon to the total movement. Jerboas leapt in excess of 10 times their hip height. At the maximum recorded leap height (not the maximum observed leap height), peak moments for metatarso-phalangeal, ankle, knee, and hip joints were 13.1, 58.4, 65.1, and 66.9 Nmm, respectively. Muscles acting at the ankle joint contributed the most work (mean 231.6 mJ / kg Body Mass) to produce the energy of vertical leaping, while muscles acting at the metatarso-phalangeal joint produced the most stress (peak 317.1 kPa). The plantaris, digital flexors, and gastrocnemius tendons encountered peak stresses of 25.6, 19.1, and 6.0 MPa, respectively, transmitting the forces of their corresponding muscles (peak force 3.3, 2.0, and 3.8 N, respectively). Notably, we found that the mean elastic energy recovered in the primary tendons of both hindlimbs comprised on average only 4.4% of the energy of the associated leap. The limited use of tendon elastic energy storage in the jerboa parallels the morphologically similar heteromyid kangaroo rat, Dipodomys spectabilis. When compared to larger saltatory kangaroos and wallabies that sustain hopping over longer periods of time, these small saltatory rodents store and recover less elastic strain energy in their tendons. The large contribution of muscle work, rather than elastic strain energy, to the vertical leap suggests that the fitness benefit of rapid acceleration for predator avoidance dominated over the need to enhance

  5. Augmenting superpopulation capture-recapture models with population assignment data

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    Wen, Zhi; Pollock, Kenneth; Nichols, James; Waser, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Ecologists applying capture-recapture models to animal populations sometimes have access to additional information about individuals' populations of origin (e.g., information about genetics, stable isotopes, etc.). Tests that assign an individual's genotype to its most likely source population are increasingly used. Here we show how to augment a superpopulation capture-recapture model with such information. We consider a single superpopulation model without age structure, and split each entry probability into separate components due to births in situ and immigration. We show that it is possible to estimate these two probabilities separately. We first consider the case of perfect information about population of origin, where we can distinguish individuals born in situ from immigrants with certainty. Then we consider the more realistic case of imperfect information, where we use genetic or other information to assign probabilities to each individual's origin as in situ or outside the population. We use a resampling approach to impute the true population of origin from imperfect assignment information. The integration of data on population of origin with capture-recapture data allows us to determine the contributions of immigration and in situ reproduction to the growth of the population, an issue of importance to ecologists. We illustrate our new models with capture-recapture and genetic assignment data from a population of banner-tailed kangaroo rats Dipodomys spectabilis in Arizona.

  6. Born too soon: accelerating actions for prevention and care of 15 million newborns born too soon.

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    Lawn, Joy E; Kinney, Mary V; Belizan, José M; Mason, Elizabeth Mary; McDougall, Lori; Larson, Jim; Lackritz, Eve; Friberg, Ingrid K; Howson, Christopher P

    2013-01-01

    Preterm birth complication is the leading cause of neonatal death resulting in over one million deaths each year of the 15 million babies born preterm. To accelerate change, we provide an overview of the comprehensive strategy required, the tools available for context-specifi c health system implementation now, and the priorities for research and innovation. There is an urgent need for action on a dual track: (1) through strategic research to advance the prevention of preterm birth and (2) improved implementation and innovation for care of the premature neonate. We highlight evidence-based interventions along the continuum of care, noting gaps in coverage, quality, equity and implications for integration and scale up. Improved metrics are critical for both burden and tracking programmatic change. Linked to the United Nation’s Every Women Every Child strategy, a target was set for 50% reduction in preterm deaths by 2025. Three analyses informed this target: historical change in high income countries, recent progress in best performing countries, and modelling of mortality reduction with high coverage of existing interventions. If universal coverage of selected interventions were to be achieved, then 84% or more than 921,000 preterm neonatal deaths could be prevented annually, with antenatal corticosteroids and Kangaroo Mother Care having the highest impact. Everyone has a role to play in reaching this target including government leaders, professionals, private sector, and of course families who are aff ected the most and whose voices have been critical for change in many of the countries with the most progress.

  7. A Review of CAM for Procedural Pain in Infancy: Part II. Other Interventions

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    Jennie C. I. Tsao

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is the second in a two-part series reviewing the empirical evidence for complementary and alternative medicine (CAM approaches for the management of pain related to medical procedures in infants up to 6 weeks of age. Part I of this series investigated the effects of sucrose with or without non-nutritive sucking (NNS. The present article examines other CAM interventions for procedural pain including music-based interventions, olfactory stimulation, kangaroo care and swaddling. Computerized databases were searched for relevant studies including prior reviews and primary trials. Preliminary support was revealed for the analgesic effects of the CAM modalities reviewed. However, the overall quality of the evidence for these approaches remains relatively weak. Additional well-designed trials incorporating rigorous methodology are required. Such investigations will assist in the development of evidence-based guidelines on the use of CAM interventions either alone or in concert with conventional approaches to provide safe, reliable analgesia for infant procedural pain.

  8. Evaluating the Effect of Mother – Baby Skin- to- Skin Care on Neonatal Outcomes in Preterm Infants

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    M Kalhor

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Involving the parents in caring of premature newborns is one of the best and effective manners for preventing the hospitalization of premature newborns. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of mother – baby skin- to- skin care on neonatal outcomes in preterm infants, in Kosar hospital. Methods: This was a descriptive comparative study conducted on 400 nulliparous women with premature infants admitted to neonatal intensive care unit of Kosar hospital during April 2012 and March 2015. Sampling was performed via convenience sampling. Sample population divided into two groups, one of them 200, the kangaroo care and non- care groups. The data were obtained by a researcher prepared check list, including mother’s demographic characteristics and neonatal outcomes. Both descriptive and statistical analysis methods were applied. For analyzing the data, chi-square test, t-test, and logistic regression tests was applied (P 0.05. In the intervention group, the relationship between maternal variables and neonatal outcome was significant (P <0.05. Conclusion: Mother – baby skin- to- skin care has a positive effect on neonatal outcomes. Thus, supporting and awareness of premature infants’ mothers in order to implement this type of care can reduce the neonatal complications. Moreover, it is effective in decreasing the treatment costs.

  9. Contrasting diversity dynamics of phoretic mites and beetles associated with vertebrate carrion.

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    Barton, Philip S; Weaver, Haylee J; Manning, Adrian D

    2014-05-01

    Carrion is an ephemeral and nutrient-rich resource that attracts a diverse array of arthropods as it decomposes. Carrion-associated mites often disperse between animal carcasses using phoresy, the transport of one species by another. Yet few studies have contrasted the dynamics of mite assemblages with other insect taxa present at carrion. We examined and compared the changes in abundance, species richness and composition of mite and beetle assemblages sampled at kangaroo carcasses in a grassy eucalypt woodland at four different times over a 6-month period. We found that the majority of mites were phoretic, with the mesostigmatid genera Uroseius (Uropodidae), Macrocheles (Macrochelidae) and Parasitus (Parasitidae) the most abundant taxa (excluding astigmatid mites). Abundance and richness patterns of mites and beetles were very different, with mites reaching peak abundance and richness at weeks 6 and 12, and beetles at weeks 1 and 6. Both mites and beetles showed clear successional patterns via changes in species presence and relative abundance. Our study shows that mesostigmatid mite assemblages have a delay in peak abundance and richness relative to beetle assemblages. This suggests that differences in dispersal and reproductive traits of arthropods may contribute to the contrasting diversity dynamics of carrion arthropod communities, and further highlights the role of carrion as a driver of diversity and heterogeneity in ecosystems.

  10. Turning Disaster into an Opportunity for Quality Improvement in Essential Intrapartum and Newborn Care Services in the Philippines: Pre- to Posttraining Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Castillo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. On 8 November 2013, supertyphoon Haiyan made landfall in the Philippines, severely disrupting health service delivery. Reestablishment of essential services for birthing mothers and their newborns became high priority. Methodology. Following a baseline assessment, an Essential Intrapartum and Newborn Care (EINC training package was implemented and posttraining assessments (1 and 3 months after training were undertaken. Results. Baseline assessments (n=56 facilities revealed gaps in provider’s skill and shortage of life-saving commodities. Facilities lacked newborn bags/masks (9%, towels (6%, and magnesium sulfate (39%. Service providers lacked skills in partograph use (54%, antenatal steroid (44% use, and breastfeeding initiation (50%. At 3 months after training (n=51 facilities, dramatic increases in correct partograph use (to 92%, antenatal steroid use (to 98%, breastfeeding initiation (to 86%, kangaroo mother care (to 94%, availability of magnesium sulfate (to 94%, and bag/masks (to 88% were documented. Gaps persisted for skills in assisted vaginal delivery and removal of placental fragments. Conclusion. Health services were severely disrupted after supertyphoon Haiyan. Our study demonstrates that essential birthing services and quality improvements to strengthen local health systems can be restored in a timely manner even in immediate postdisaster settings.

  11. Molecular epidemiology of imported cases of leishmaniasis in Australia from 2008 to 2014.

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    Tamalee Roberts

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a vector borne disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. Human leishmaniasis is not endemic in Australia though imported cases are regularly encountered. This study aimed to provide an update on the molecular epidemiology of imported leishmaniasis in Australia. Of a total of 206 biopsies and bone marrow specimens submitted to St Vincent's Hospital Sydney for leishmaniasis diagnosis by PCR, 55 were found to be positive for Leishmania DNA. All PCR products were subjected to restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis for identification of the causative species. Five Leishmania species/species complexes were identified with Leishmania tropica being the most common (30/55. Travel or prior residence in a Leishmania endemic region was the most common route of acquisition with ~47% of patients having lived in or travelled to Afghanistan. Cutaneous leishmaniasis was the most common manifestation (94% with only 3 cases of visceral leishmaniasis and no cases of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis encountered. This report indicates that imported leishmaniasis is becoming increasingly common in Australia due to an increase in global travel and immigration. As such, Australian clinicians must be made aware of this trend and consider leishmaniasis in patients with suspicious symptoms and a history of travel in endemic areas. This study also discusses the recent identification of a unique Leishmania species found in native kangaroos and a potential vector host which could create the opportunity for the establishment of a local transmission cycle within humans.

  12. [The well-being of the newborn infant in neonatal intensive care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancora, G

    2010-06-01

    Patients referred to Neonatal Intensive Care Units are particularly vulnerable because they are in a critical or sensitive period of development. When physicians were first able to really save preemies 40 years ago, not much thought was given to their brain development. The babies we care for are so early that the brain cells are still migrating to where they will finally rest in developed brain. We are shaped, to an extent, by our environment. In early life, the environment takes on a particularly important role. So treatments may over-stimulate areas of the brain with unknown consequences. For this reason minimally invasive treatments together with attention to the environment will favour a care developmentally appropriate for pre-term babies. Use of nasalCPAP, early rescue surfactant, synchronized mechanical ventilation, together with temperature, light and noise control could help to obtain these results. Pain control, music therapy, massage, kangaroo care and a family centred care are essential to optimize results obtained from the intensive care.

  13. A review of large animal vehicle accidents with special focus on Arabian camels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Al Shimemeri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Traffic accidents resulting from the collision of motor vehicles with wildlife occur worldwide. In the United States, Canada, Europe, the Middle East and Australia these collisions usually involve deer, moose, camels and kangaroos. Because these are large animals, the collisions are frequently associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Camel-vehicle collisions in the Middle East—especially Saudi Arabia—have risen to such disturbing proportions that definitive action is necessary for mitigating the trend. Arabian camels, weighing up to 726 kg, form a crucial part of the socio-cultural experience in Saudi Arabia, where about half a million of them are found. Saudi Arabia presents a case of habitat fragmentation, especially in rural communities, where good road systems coexist with domesticated camels. This environment has made camel-vehicle collisions inevitable, and in 2004 alone two hundred such cases were reported. Injuries are directly related to the size of the camel, the speed of the vehicle, passengers' use or avoidance of seat belts, and the protective reflex movements taken to avoid collision. Cervical and dorsal spinal injuries, especially fractured discs, head and chest injuries, are the most commonly reported injuries, and the fatality rate is four times higher than for other causes of traffic accidents. Various mitigation measures are considered in the present work, including measures to improve driver's visibility; the construction of highway fencing; under- and over-passes allowing free movement of camels; the use of reflective warning signs, and awareness programs.

  14. [Developmental centered care. Situation in Spanish neonatal units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Maestro, M; Melgar Bonis, A; de la Cruz-Bertolo, J; Perapoch López, J; Mosqueda Peña, R; Pallás Alonso, C

    2014-10-01

    Developmental centered care (DC) is focused on sensorineural and emotional development of the newborns. In Spain we have had information on the application of DC since 1999, but the extent of actual implementation is unknown. To determine the level of implementation of DC in Spanish neonatal units where more than 50 infants weighing under 1500g were cared for in 2012. A comparison was made with previous data published in 2006. A descriptive observational cross-sectional study was performed using a survey with seven questions as in the 2006 questionnaire. The survey was sent to 27 units. The response rate was 81% in 2012 versus 96% in 2006. Noise control measures were introduced in 73% of units in 2012 versus 11% in 2006 (P<.01). The use of saccharose was 50% in 2012 versus 46% in 2006 (P=.6). Parents free entry was 82% in 2012 versus 11% in 2006 (P<.01). Kangaroo care was used without restriction by 82% in 2012 compared to 31% in 2006 (P<.01). The implementation of the DC in Spain has improved. There is still room for improvement in areas, such as the use of saccharose or noise control. However, it is important to highlight the positive change that has occurred in relation to unrestricted parental visits. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. [Delay in the acquisition of sucking-swallowing-breathing in the preterm; efects of early stimulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Orden Izquierdo, E; Salcedo Lobato, E; Cuadrado Pérez, I; Herráez Sánchez, M S; Cabanillas Vilaplana, L

    2012-01-01

    Premature baby's oral feeding is not possible until the reflex of sucking-swallowing-breathing adquisition. Its delay extends hospital stay and increases the incidence of oral motor disorders in early childhood. To analyze the transition from enteral to oral nutrition, the comorbidity associated with its delay and the impact of an early suction stimulation in a cohort of premature babies. Retrospective checking of 95 infants less than 32 gestation weeks (GW) admitted to a neonatal ICU in the last 4 years. It was revised the gestational age, anthropometric at birth and discharge, comorbidity, duration of mechanical ventilation, oxygen requirements, time of beginning and end of enteral/oral nutrition, beginning of Kangaroo method and the suction stimulation and the daily weight gain average. Suction stimulation began between weeks 29 and 40 GW (average and median 32 GW). Oral nutrition was initiated between 31-40 GW (average and median 33 GW) and completed between 33-44 GW (average and median 35 GW). Oral nutrition was delayed in patients who required longer mechanical ventilation and oxygen therapy. There was a positive correlation between the beginning of suction stimulation and the time of acquisition of a complete oral nutrition (84% Spearman correlation test) and length of hospital stay (80% Spearman correlation test). [corrected] Early suction stimulation in a preterm patient seems to facilitate full oral nutrition at an early stage and it is associated with a hospital stay decrease and the improvement in the daily weight gain average.

  16. Newly discovered young CORE-SINEs in marsupial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munemasa, Maruo; Nikaido, Masato; Nishihara, Hidenori; Donnellan, Stephen; Austin, Christopher C; Okada, Norihiro

    2008-01-15

    Although recent mammalian genome projects have uncovered a large part of genomic component of various groups, several repetitive sequences still remain to be characterized and classified for particular groups. The short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs) distributed among marsupial genomes are one example. We have identified and characterized two new SINEs from marsupial genomes that belong to the CORE-SINE family, characterized by a highly conserved "CORE" domain. PCR and genomic dot blot analyses revealed that the distribution of each SINE shows distinct patterns among the marsupial genomes, implying different timing of their retroposition during the evolution of marsupials. The members of Mar3 (Marsupialia 3) SINE are distributed throughout the genomes of all marsupials, whereas the Mac1 (Macropodoidea 1) SINE is distributed specifically in the genomes of kangaroos. Sequence alignment of the Mar3 SINEs revealed that they can be further divided into four subgroups, each of which has diagnostic nucleotides. The insertion patterns of each SINE at particular genomic loci, together with the distribution patterns of each SINE, suggest that the Mar3 SINEs have intensively amplified after the radiation of diprotodontians, whereas the Mac1 SINE has amplified only slightly after the divergence of hypsiprimnodons from other macropods. By compiling the information of CORE-SINEs characterized to date, we propose a comprehensive picture of how SINE evolution occurred in the genomes of marsupials.

  17. The Evolution of Trypanosomes Infecting Humans and Primates

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    Stevens Jamie

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA sequences and clade taxon composition, this paper adopts a biogeographical approach to understanding the evolutionary relationships of the human and primate infective trypanosomes, Trypanosoma cruzi, T. brucei, T. rangeli and T. cyclops. Results indicate that these parasites have divergent origins and fundamentally different patterns of evolution. T. cruzi is placed in a clade with T. rangeli and trypanosomes specific to bats and a kangaroo. The predominantly South American and Australian origins of parasites within this clade suggest an ancient southern super-continent origin for ancestral T. cruzi, possibly in marsupials. T. brucei clusters exclusively with mammalian, salivarian trypanosomes of African origin, suggesting an evolutionary history confined to Africa, while T. cyclops, from an Asian primate appears to have evolved separately and is placed in a clade with T. (Megatrypanum species. Relating clade taxon composition to palaeogeographic evidence, the divergence of T. brucei and T. cruzi can be dated to the mid-Cretaceous, around 100 million years before present, following the separation of Africa, South America and Euramerica. Such an estimate of divergence time is considerably more recent than those of most previous studies based on molecular clock methods. Perhaps significantly, Salivarian trypanosomes appear, from these data, to be evolving several times faster than Schizotrypanum species, a factor which may have contributed to previous anomalous estimates of divergence times.

  18. 'I never thought that this baby would survive; I thought that it would die any time': perceptions and care for preterm babies in eastern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waiswa, Peter; Nyanzi, Stella; Namusoko-Kalungi, Sarah; Peterson, Stefan; Tomson, Goran; Pariyo, George W

    2010-10-01

    To explore the current care for and perceptions about preterm babies among community members in eastern Uganda. A neonatal midwife observed care of preterm babies in one general hospital and 15 health centres using a checklist and a field diary. In-depth interviews were conducted with 11 community health workers (CHWs) and also with 10 mothers, six fathers and three grandmothers of preterm babies. Three focus group discussions were conducted with midwives and women and men in the community. Content analysis of data was performed. Community members mentioned many features which may correctly be used to identify preterm babies. Care practices for preterm babies at health facilities and community level were inadequate and potentially harmful. Health facilities lacked capacity for care of preterm babies in terms of protocols, health workers' skills, basic equipment, drugs and other supplies. However, community members and CHWs stated that they accepted the introduction of preterm care practices such as skin-to-skin and kangaroo mother care. In this setting, care for preterm babies is inadequate at both health facility and community level. However, acceptance of the recommended newborn care practices indicated by the community is a window of opportunity for introducing programmes for preterm babies. In doing so, consideration needs to be given to the care provided at health facilities as well as to the gaps in community care that are largely influenced by beliefs, perceptions and lack of awareness. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. The Beaver’s Phylogenetic Lineage Illuminated by Retroposon Reads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doronina, Liliya; Matzke, Andreas; Churakov, Gennady; Stoll, Monika; Huge, Andreas; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Solving problematic phylogenetic relationships often requires high quality genome data. However, for many organisms such data are still not available. Among rodents, the phylogenetic position of the beaver has always attracted special interest. The arrangement of the beaver’s masseter (jaw-closer) muscle once suggested a strong affinity to some sciurid rodents (e.g., squirrels), placing them in the Sciuromorpha suborder. Modern molecular data, however, suggested a closer relationship of beaver to the representatives of the mouse-related clade, but significant data from virtually homoplasy-free markers (for example retroposon insertions) for the exact position of the beaver have not been available. We derived a gross genome assembly from deposited genomic Illumina paired-end reads and extracted thousands of potential phylogenetically informative retroposon markers using the new bioinformatics coordinate extractor fastCOEX, enabling us to evaluate different hypotheses for the phylogenetic position of the beaver. Comparative results provided significant support for a clear relationship between beavers (Castoridae) and kangaroo rat-related species (Geomyoidea) (p < 0.0015, six markers, no conflicting data) within a significantly supported mouse-related clade (including Myodonta, Anomaluromorpha, and Castorimorpha) (p < 0.0015, six markers, no conflicting data). PMID:28256552

  20. Tick-borne infectious diseases in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Stephen R; Stenos, John

    2017-04-17

    Tick bites in Australia can lead to a variety of illnesses in patients. These include infection, allergies, paralysis, autoimmune disease, post-infection fatigue and Australian multisystem disorder. Rickettsial (Rickettsia spp.) infections (Queensland tick typhus, Flinders Island spotted fever and Australian spotted fever) and Q fever (Coxiella burnetii) are the only systemic bacterial infections that are known to be transmitted by tick bites in Australia. Three species of local ticks transmit bacterial infection following a tick bite: the paralysis tick (Ixodes holocyclus) is endemic on the east coast of Australia and causes Queensland tick typhus due to R. australis and Q fever due to C. burnetii; the ornate kangaroo tick (Amblyomma triguttatum) occurs throughout much of northern, central and western Australia and causes Q fever; and the southern reptile tick (Bothriocroton hydrosauri) is found mainly in south-eastern Australia and causes Flinders Island spotted fever due to R. honei. Much about Australian ticks and the medical outcomes following tick bites remains unknown. Further research is required to increase understanding of these areas.

  1. Isolation of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 strain from fecal samples of zoo animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed Hamzah, Aseel; Mohammed Hussein, Aseel; Mahmoud Khalef, Jenan

    2013-01-01

    The isolation and characterization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains from 22 out of 174 fecal samples from petting zoo animals representing twenty-two different species (camel, lion, goats, zebra, bear, baboon monkey, Siberian monkey, deer, elk, llama, pony, horses, fox, kangaroo, wolf, porcupine, chickens, tiger, ostrich, hyena, dogs, and wildcats) were investigated. One petting Al-Zawraa zoological society of Baghdad was investigated for E. coli O157:H7 over a 16-month period that spanned two summer and two autumn seasons. Variation in the occurrence of E. coli O157:H7-positive petting zoo animals was observed, with animals being culture positive only in the summer months but not in the spring, autumn, or winter. E. coli O157:H7 isolates were distinguished by agglutination with E. coli O157:H7 latex reagent (Oxoid), identified among the isolates, which showed that multiple E. coli strains were isolated from one petting zoo animal, in which a single animal simultaneously shed multiple E. coli strains; E. coli O157:H7 was isolated only by selective enrichment culture of 2 g of petting zoo animal feces. In contrast, strains other than O157:H7 were cultured from feces of petting zoo animals without enrichment.

  2. Molecular characterization of Blastocystis isolates from zoo animals and their animal-keepers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkar, Unaiza; Traub, Rebecca J; Vitali, Simone; Elliot, Aileen; Levecke, Bruno; Robertson, Ian; Geurden, Thomas; Steele, Jan; Drake, Bev; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2010-04-19

    Blastocystis is an enteric protist and one of the most frequently reported parasitic infections in humans and a variety of animal hosts. It has also been reported in numerous parasite surveys of animals in zoological gardens and in particular in non-human primate species. PCR-based methods capable of the direct detection of Blastocystis in faeces were used to detect Blastocystis from various hosts, including non-human primates, Australian native fauna, elephants and giraffes, as well as their keepers from a Western Australian zoo. Additional faecal samples were also collected from elephants and giraffes from four other zoos in Amsterdam (The Netherlands), Antwerp (Belgium), Melbourne and Werribee (Australia). Information regarding the general health and lifestyle of the human volunteers were obtained by questionnaire. Overall, 42% and 63% of animals and zoo-keepers sampled from the Western Australian zoo were positive for Blastocystis, respectively. The occurrence of Blastocystis in elephants and giraffes from other cities was similar. This is the first report of Blastocystis found in the elephant, giraffe, quokka, southern hairy nosed wombat and western grey kangaroo. Three novel and what appear to be highly host-specific subtypes (STs) of Blastocystis in the elephant, giraffe and quokka are also described. These findings indicate that further exploration of the genetic diversity of Blastocystis is crucial. Most zoo-keepers at the Perth Zoo were harbouring Blastocystis. Four of these zoo-keeper isolates were identical to the isolates from the southern hairy nosed wombat and five primate species.

  3. Endangered species and cultural resources program Naval petroleum Reserves in California. Annual report FY96

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    In FY96, Enterprise Advisory Services, Inc. (EASI) continued to support efforts to protect endangered species and cultural resources at the Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC). These efforts are conducted to ensure NPRC compliance with regulations regarding the protection of listed species and cultural resources on federal properties. Population monitoring activities were conducted for San Joaquin kit foxes, giant kangaroo rats, blunt-nosed leopard lizards, and Hoover`s wooly-star. Kit fox abundance and distribution was assessed by live-trapping over a 329-km{sup 2} area. Kit fox reproduction and mortality were assessed by radiocollaring and monitoring 22 adults and two pups. Reproductive success and litter size were determined through live-trapping and den observations. Rates and sources of kit fox mortality were assessed by recovering dead radiocollared kit foxes and conducting necropsies to determine cause of death. Abundance of coyotes and bobcats, which compete with kit foxes, was determined by conducting scent station surveys. Kit fox diet was assessed through analysis of fecal samples collected from live-trapped foxes. Abundance of potential prey for kit foxes was determined by conducting transect surveys for lagornorphs and live-trapping small mammals.

  4. Comparison of the Effects of Attachment Training for Mothers on the Behavioral Responses of Premature Infants: A Randomized Clinical Trial

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    Mitra Edraki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Premature infants are among high-risk groups in community who need to be hospitalized at intensive care units for survival and receiving basic or special care. Hospitalization at neonatal intensive care units (NICUs unsettles the family and leads to the separation of parents from their infants. This study aimed to determine the effects of maternal attachment behaviors on the behavioral responses of premature infants, hospitalized at NICUs. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 64 premature infants, who were hospitalized at NICUs and were eligible for the study, were randomly allocated to study and control groups. Attachment behaviors including touching, massage and kangaroo care were applied for the study group, while the conventional attachment method was adopted for the control group. Behavioral responses were evaluated two hours before and two hours after training attachment behaviors. Data were analyzed, using Chi-square and student’s t-test. Results: The mean difference in the duration of deep sleep and consciousness was more significant in the study group, compared to the control group. Furthermore, the duration of drowsiness was significantly less in the study group, compared to the control group. Conclusion: The implementation of attachment training at NICUs decreased the time of drowsiness and improved behavioral responses, deep sleep time and consciousness.

  5. Barriers and facilitators to preparing families with premature infants for discharge home from the neonatal unit. Perceptions of health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffray, Marie; Semenic, Sonia; Osorio Galeano, Sandra; Ochoa Marín, Sandra Catalina

    2014-01-01

    To explore Colombian health care provider perceptions of barriers and facilitators to preparing families with premature infants for discharge home from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Using a qualitative descriptive design, in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with fifteen neonatal health care providers (HCPs) in Colombia. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Participant responses centered on three main themes: 1) establishment of the parent-infant bond, 2) acquisition of parenting skills, and 3) getting ready for the transition from hospital to home. Barreirs to preparing parents for NICU discharge included obstacles to parental visiting in the NICU, communication barriers, difficulties related to the establishment of successful breastfeeding, insufficient human resources and poor links between hospital and community-based resources. Facilitators included the availability of social aids for vulnerable families, 24-hour telephone access to the neonatal units, tailored educational materials and group sessions, continuing education for staff and the community-based Kangaroo Program available to parents post-discharge. Adolescent mothers, indigenous parent and working fathers were identified as particularly challenging to reach and engage in discharge preparation. Neonatal HCPs identified numerous challenges as well as helpful strategies for preparing families for hospital discharge. Additional studies are needed on the experience of neonatal discharge from the perspective of parents of premature infants in Colombia, to help inform optimal interventions for supporting families during the transition from hospital to home.

  6. Barriers and facilitators to preparing families with premature infants for discharge home from the neonatal unit. Perceptions of health care providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Raffray

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To explore Colombian health care provider perceptions of barriers and facilitators to preparing families with premature infants for discharge home from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. Methodology. Using a qualitative descriptive design, in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with fifteen neonatal health care providers (HCPs in Colombia. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results. Participant responses centered on three main themes: 1 establishment of the parent-infant bond, 2 acquisition of parenting skills, and 3 getting ready for the transition from hospital to home. Barreirs to preparing parents for NICU discharge included obstacles to parental visiting in the NICU, communication barriers, difficulties related to the establishment of successful breastfeeding, insufficient human resources and poor links between hospital and community-based resources. Facilitators included the availability of social aids for vulnerable families, 24-hour telephone access to the neonatal units, tailored educational materials and group sessions, continuing education for staff and the community-based Kangaroo Program available to parents post-discharge. Adolescent mothers, indigenous parent and working fathers were identified as particularly challenging to reach and engage in discharge preparation. Conclusion. Neonatal HCPs identified numerous challenges as well as helpful strategies for preparing families for hospital discharge. Additional studies are needed on the experience of neonatal discharge from the perspective of parents of premature infants in Colombia, to help inform optimal interventions for supporting families during the transition from hospital to home.

  7. Community Health Workers Providing Government Community Case Management for Child Survival in Sub-Saharan Africa: Who Are They and What Are They Expected to Do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Asha; Young, Mark; Nefdt, Rory; Basu, Roshni; Sylla, Mariame; Clarysse, Guy; Bannicq, Marika Yip; de Sousa, Alexandra; Binkin, Nancy; Diaz, Theresa

    2012-01-01

    We describe community health workers (CHWs) in government community case management (CCM) programs for child survival across sub-Saharan Africa. In sub-Saharan Africa, 91% of 44 United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) offices responded to a cross-sectional survey in 2010. Frequencies describe CHW profiles and activities in government CCM programs (N = 29). Although a few programs paid CHWs a salary or conversely, rewarded CHWs purely on a non-financial basis, most programs combined financial and non-financial incentives and had training for 1 week. Not all programs allowed CHWs to provide zinc, use timers, dispense antibiotics, or use rapid diagnostic tests. Many CHWs undertake health promotion, but fewer CHWs provide soap, water treatment products, indoor residual spraying, or ready-to-use therapeutic foods. For newborn care, very few promote kangaroo care, and they do not provide antibiotics or resuscitation. Even if CHWs are as varied as the health systems in which they work, more work must be done in terms of the design and implementation of the CHW programs for them to realize their potential. PMID:23136282

  8. Gradients in cytoarchitectural landscapes of the isocortex: Diprotodont marsupials in comparison to eutherian mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charvet, Christine J; Stimpson, Cheryl D; Kim, Young Do; Raghanti, Mary Ann; Lewandowski, Albert H; Hof, Patrick R; Gómez-Robles, Aida; Krienen, Fenna M; Sherwood, Chet C

    2017-06-01

    Although it has been claimed that marsupials possess a lower density of isocortical neurons compared with other mammals, little is known about cross-cortical variation in neuron distributions in this diverse taxonomic group. We quantified upper-layer (layers II-IV) and lower-layer (layers V-VI) neuron numbers per unit of cortical surface area in three diprotodont marsupial species (two macropodiformes, the red kangaroo and the parma wallaby, and a vombatiform, the koala) and compared these results to eutherian mammals (e.g., xenarthrans, rodents, primates). In contrast to the notion that the marsupial isocortex contains a low density of neurons, we found that neuron numbers per unit of cortical surface area in several marsupial species overlap with those found in eutherian mammals. Furthermore, neuron numbers vary systematically across the isocortex of the marsupial mammals examined. Neuron numbers under a unit of cortical surface area are low toward the frontal cortex and high toward the caudo-medial (occipital) pole. Upper-layer neurons (i.e., layers II-IV) account for most of the variation in neuron numbers across the isocortex. The variation in neuron numbers across the rostral to the caudal pole resembles primates. These findings suggest that diprotodont marsupials and eutherian mammals share a similar cortical architecture despite their distant evolutionary divergence. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Weird mammals provide insights into the evolution of mammalian sex chromosomes and dosage compensation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jennifer A. Marshall Graves

    2015-12-01

    The deep divergence of mammalian groups 166 and 190 million years ago (MYA) provide genetic variation to explore the evolution of DNA sequence, gene arrangement and regulation of gene expression in mammals. With encouragement from the founder of the field, Mary Lyon, techniques in cytogenetics and molecular biology were progressively adapted to characterize the sex chromosomes of kangaroos and other marsupials, platypus and echidna—and weird rodent species. Comparative gene mapping reveals the process of sex chromosome evolution from their inception 190 MYA (they are autosomal in platypus) to their inevitable end (the Y has disappeared in two rodent lineages). Our X and Y are relatively young, getting their start with the evolution of the sex-determining gene, which triggered progressive degradation of the Y chromosome. Even more recently, sex chromosomes of placental mammals fused with an autosomal region which now makes up most of the Y. Exploration of gene activity patterns over four decades showed that dosage compensation via X-chromosome inactivation is unique to therian mammals, and that this whole chromosome control process is different in marsupials and absent in monotremes and reptiles, and birds. These differences can be exploited to deduce how mammalian sex chromosomes and epigenetic silencing evolved.

  10. Controversial cuisine: A global account of the demand, supply and acceptance of "unconventional" and "exotic" meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawthorn, Donna-Mareè; Hoffman, Louwrens C

    2016-10-01

    In most societies, meat is more highly prized, yet more frequently tabooed, than any other food. The reasons for these taboos are complex and their origins have been the focus of considerable research. In this paper, we illustrate this complexity by deliberating on several "unconventional" or "exotic" animals that are eaten around the world, but whose consumption evokes strong emotions, controversy and even national discourse: dogs, equids, kangaroos, marine mammals, primates, rodents and reptiles. We take a systematic approach, reflecting on the historical and current demand for the meat, the manner in which this demand is met, and how individual and societal attitudes towards these species shape their approval as food. What emerges from this synthesis is that conflicting views on the aforementioned species exist not only between Western societies and elsewhere, but also in nations where these animals are readily consumed. Moreover, such taboos are seldom based on functionalist explanations alone, but rather have overwhelming symbolic and psychological groundings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The evolution of relative brain size in marsupials is energetically constrained but not driven by behavioral complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbecker, Vera; Blomberg, Simon; Goldizen, Anne W; Brown, Meredeth; Fisher, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary increases in mammalian brain size relative to body size are energetically costly but are also thought to confer selective advantages by permitting the evolution of cognitively complex behaviors. However, many suggested associations between brain size and specific behaviors - particularly related to social complexity - are possibly confounded by the reproductive diversity of placental mammals, whose brain size evolution is the most frequently studied. Based on a phylogenetic generalized least squares analysis of a data set on the reproductively homogenous clade of marsupials, we provide the first quantitative comparison of two hypotheses based on energetic constraints (maternal investment and seasonality) with two hypotheses that posit behavioral selection on relative brain size (social complexity and environmental interactions). We show that the two behavioral hypotheses have far less support than the constraint hypotheses. The only unambiguous associates of brain size are the constraint variables of litter size and seasonality. We also found no association between brain size and specific behavioral complexity categories within kangaroos, dasyurids, and possums. The largest-brained marsupials after phylogenetic correction are from low-seasonality New Guinea, supporting the notion that low seasonality represents greater nutrition safety for brain maintenance. Alternatively, low seasonality might improve the maternal support of offspring brain growth. The lack of behavioral brain size associates, found here and elsewhere, supports the general 'cognitive buffer hypothesis' as the best explanatory framework of mammalian brain size evolution. However, it is possible that brain size alone simply does not provide sufficient resolution on the question of how brain morphology and cognitive capacities coevolve.

  12. Wild rodents (Dipodomys merriami) used as biomonitors in contaminated mining sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Reyes, Guillermo; Torres-Dosal, Arturo; Ilizaliturri, Cesar; Gonzalez-Mille, Donaji; Diaz-Barriga, Fernando; Mejia-Saavedra, Jesus

    2010-01-01

    Mining is one of the most important industrial activities globally; however, mining processes have critical environmental impacts, as mining is a major source of metals and metalloids that contribute significantly to the pollution of soil, sediment, water and air. Heavy metals can impact the health of exposed human populations and nonhuman receptors. This study focused on arsenic because its genotoxicity is well-known. Previously, we proposed a methodology to evaluate and integrate risk from a single source affecting different biologic receptors. Here, we propose an alternative approach estimating arsenic exposure in children and kangaroo rats using probabilistic simulation with Monte Carlo modeling. The estimates are then associated to measured DNA damage and compared to both populations of children and rodents living in contaminated and in reference areas. Finally, based on the integrated analysis of the generated information, we evaluate the potential use of wild rodents (Dipodomys merriami) as a biomonitor at mining sites. Results indicate that the variation of genotoxicity in children of the reference site is approximately 2 units when compared to the children of the contaminated site. In the rodents we observed a variation of approximately 4 units between those of the reference site when compared to those living on the contaminated site. We propose that D. merriami can be used as a biomonitor organism in sites with mining activity, and that a non-lethal test can be used to evaluate risk from metal exposure.

  13. Perinatal stress: characteristics and effects on adult eating behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Cesiana da Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have pointed out the importance of mother-child interaction in the early months of life. A few decades ago, a method called kangaroo care was developed and its main goal was to keep underweight or premature newborns in direct contact with the mother. This method has reduced the morbidity and mortality of these newborns, increasing their growth rate, breastfeeding time and mother-child contact. In rodents, the dam's presence is crucial for avoiding aggression factors that may trigger phenotypic adaptations in the pups with irreversible morphological, functional and behavioral consequences. Eating behavior is an adaptive response stemming from the external environment demand and modulated by opportunities and limitations imposed by the external environment. This behavior is regulated by a complex interaction of peripheral and central mechanisms that control hunger and satiety. The hypothalamus is a brain structure that integrates central and peripheral signals to regulate energy homeostasis and body weight. The hypothalamic nucleus have orexigenic peptides, such as neuropeptide Y and the Agouti-related peptide, and anorexigenic peptides, such as cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript and proopiomelanocortin. An innovative study of eating behavior in experimental models of neonatal stress separates the mother from the offspring during lactation. This review describes the effects of stress during the neonatal period on general physiological factors, particularly on the control of eating behavior.

  14. Convergent maternal care strategies in ungulates and macropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, D O; Blomberg, S P; Owens, I P F

    2002-01-01

    Mammals show extensive interspecific variation in the form of maternal care. Among ungulates, there is a dichotomy between species in which offspring follow the mother ("following" strategy) versus species in which offspring remain concealed ("hiding" strategy). Here we reveal that the same dichotomy exists among macropods (kangaroos, wallabies and allies). We test three traditional adaptive explanations and one new life history hypothesis, and find very similar patterns among both ungulates and macropods. The three traditional explanations that we tested were that a "following" strategy is associated with (1) open habitat, (2) large mothers, and (3) gregariousness. Our new life-history hypothesis is that a "following strategy" is associated with delayed weaning, and thus with the "slow" end of the slow-fast mammalian life-history continuum, because offspring devote resources to locomotion rather than rapid growth. Our comparative test strongly supports the habitat structure hypothesis and provides some support for this new delayed weaning hypothesis for both ungulates and macropods. We propose that sedentary young in closed habitats benefit energetically by having milk brought to them. In open habitats, predation pressure will select against hiding. Followers will suffer slower growth to independence. Taken together, therefore, our results provide the first quantitative evidence that macropods and ungulates are convergent with respect to interspecific variation in maternal care strategy. In both clades, differences between species in the form of parental care are due to a similar interaction between habitat, social behavior, and life history.

  15. Turning Disaster into an Opportunity for Quality Improvement in Essential Intrapartum and Newborn Care Services in the Philippines: Pre- to Posttraining Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, M. S.; Corsino, M. A.; Calibo, A. P.; Zeck, W.; Capili, D. S.; Andrade, L. C.; Reyes, K. A.; Alfonso, R. C.; Ponferrada, M. B.; Silvestre, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. On 8 November 2013, supertyphoon Haiyan made landfall in the Philippines, severely disrupting health service delivery. Reestablishment of essential services for birthing mothers and their newborns became high priority. Methodology. Following a baseline assessment, an Essential Intrapartum and Newborn Care (EINC) training package was implemented and posttraining assessments (1 and 3 months after training) were undertaken. Results. Baseline assessments (n = 56 facilities) revealed gaps in provider's skill and shortage of life-saving commodities. Facilities lacked newborn bags/masks (9%), towels (6%), and magnesium sulfate (39%). Service providers lacked skills in partograph use (54%), antenatal steroid (44%) use, and breastfeeding initiation (50%). At 3 months after training (n = 51 facilities), dramatic increases in correct partograph use (to 92%), antenatal steroid use (to 98%), breastfeeding initiation (to 86%), kangaroo mother care (to 94%), availability of magnesium sulfate (to 94%), and bag/masks (to 88%) were documented. Gaps persisted for skills in assisted vaginal delivery and removal of placental fragments. Conclusion. Health services were severely disrupted after supertyphoon Haiyan. Our study demonstrates that essential birthing services and quality improvements to strengthen local health systems can be restored in a timely manner even in immediate postdisaster settings. PMID:27403432

  16. Running springs: speed and animal size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, C T; Glasheen, J; McMahon, T A

    1993-12-01

    Trotting and hopping animals use muscles, tendons and ligaments to store and return elastic energy as they bounce along the ground. We examine how the musculoskeletal spring system operates at different speeds and in animals of different sizes. We model trotting and hopping as a simple spring-mass system which consists of a leg spring and a mass. We find that the stiffness of the leg spring (k(leg)) is nearly independent of speed in dogs, goats, horses and red kangaroos. As these animals trot or hop faster, the leg spring sweeps a greater angle during the stance phase, and the vertical excursion of the center of mass during the ground contact phase decreases. The combination of these changes to the spring system causes animals to bounce off the ground more quickly at higher speeds. Analysis of a wide size range of animals (0.1-140 kg) at equivalent speeds reveals that larger animals have stiffer leg springs (k(leg) [symbol: see text] M0.67, where M is body mass), but that the angle swept by the leg spring is nearly independent of body mass. As a result, the resonant period of vertical vibration of the spring-mass system is longer in larger animals. The length of time that the feet are in contact with the ground increases with body mass in nearly the same way as the resonant period of vertical vibration.

  17. Plasma biochemistry and urinalysis variables of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) with and without oxalate nephrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speight, K Natasha; Haynes, Julie I; Boardman, Wayne; Breed, William G; Taggart, David A; Rich, Brian; Woolford, Lucy

    2014-06-01

    Oxalate nephrosis is a highly prevalent disease in the Mount Lofty Ranges koala population in South Australia, but associated clinicopathologic findings remain undescribed. The aims of this study were to determine plasma biochemical and urinalysis variables, particularly for renal function and urinary crystal morphology and composition, in koalas with oxalate nephrosis. Blood and urine samples from Mount Lofty Ranges koalas with oxalate nephrosis were compared with those unaffected by renal oxalate crystal deposition from Mount Lofty and Kangaroo Island, South Australia and Moggill, Queensland. Plasma and urine biochemistry variables were analyzed using a Cobas Bio analyzer, and urinary oxalate by high-performance liquid chromatography. Urinary crystal composition was determined by infrared spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Azotemia (urea > 6.6 mmol/L, creatinine > 150 μmol/L) was found in 93% of koalas with oxalate nephrosis (n = 15). All azotemic animals had renal insufficiency (urine specific gravity [USG] Koalas with oxalate nephrosis were hyperoxaluric compared with Queensland koalas (P koalas with oxalate nephrosis had atypical morphology and were composed of calcium oxalate. Mount Lofty Ranges koalas unaffected by renal oxalate crystal deposition had renal insufficiency (43%), although only 14% had USG koalas were hyperoxaluric compared with Queensland koalas (P Koalas with oxalate nephrosis from the Mount Lofty Ranges had renal insufficiency, hyperoxaluria, and pathognomonic urinary crystals. The findings of this study will aid veterinary diagnosis of this disease. © 2014 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology and European Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  18. Is the modern koala ( Phascolarctos cinereus) a derived dwarf of a Pleistocene giant? Implications for testing megafauna extinction hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Gilbert J.

    2008-12-01

    The modern Australian koala ( Phascolarctos cinereus) is commonly regarded as a dwarf descendent of a Late Pleistocene giant koala ( Ph. stirtoni). The implication of that hypothesis is that the giant koala survived the Late Pleistocene megafaunal extinction "event", albeit as a smaller body-sized form. It is important to be able to constrain rates of Late Pleistocene faunal turnover, an aspect reliant on having accurate taxonomic information of extinct species. The koala dwarfing hypothesis is tested here by using a temporally-constrained biogeographical record of fossil koalas, and a morphological character analysis. The contemporary occurrence of both taxa in pre-Late Pleistocene deposits and significant differences in dental morphologies between those forms suggests that the modern koala is not a derived dwarf of the Pleistocene giant koala. Thus, the giant-form was among a number of other giant mammals, lizards and birds that suffered extinction sometime during the Late Pleistocene. The potential phenomenon of dwarfing of other Late Pleistocene and Recent faunas, such as grey kangaroos, is commonly used as a test for or against various megafaunal extinction hypotheses. However, the results of this study also demonstrate that the dwarfing hypothesis has not been adequately tested for a suite of other taxa. Thus, until the dwarfing hypothesis can be more fully tested, a clear understanding of the fate of Late Pleistocene faunas that apparently survived the extinction "event", and the origins of many extant forms will remain elusive.

  19. Impact of manikin based training in intern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Pramila Menon,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Newborn care is a crucial challenge that is faced by every health professional dealing with maternal and child health. Navjaat Shishu Suraksha Karyakram (NSSK" a simple training module on Basic Newborn Care and Resuscitation using manikins. Training of Doctors, Nurses and ANMs with appropriate knowledge and skill base of neonatal resuscitation is very important to improve the quality of newborn survival. Material and Methods: We conducted NSSK training for interns at Maharashtra University of Health Sciences, Pune Regional Centre. (n= 69 .They were given pre Test which included written evaluation and Performance evaluation Part .The workshop methodology included lecture PowerPoint presentation , demonstration, videos of the same and individual practice . There was introduction and demonstration of performance evaluation (mega code followed by practice performance evaluation (mega code at respective stations .The workshop concluded with post test written test and Performance evaluation test.Results: There were good suggestions and students liked the programme very much. Majority of them expressed their confidence in handling newborns improved after this training and commented about the methodology of training as excellent. They liked the videos, demonstration, systematic and individual approach. The best part of the training was Kangaroo mother care .The participants opined that this type of training given in initial period of internship will be really useful. Conclusion: manikin based workshops along with videos and demonstrations helped the participants to increase the confidence level in handling newborns and also helped in active thinking.

  20. Phylogenetic relationships of Asian and European pig breeds determined by mitochondrial DNA D-loop sequence polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K I; Lee, J H; Li, K; Zhang, Y P; Lee, S S; Gongora, J; Moran, C

    2002-02-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among Asian and European pig breeds were assessed using 1036 bp of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequences. An unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) tree was constructed on the basis of maximum likelihood distances using sequences determined for three Cheju (Korea), 11 Chinese, one Westran (Australian feral origin) and two European pigs (Berkshire and Welsh), and also published sequences for four Japanese (including two Wild Boars), one Yucatan miniature, five European (including Large White, Landrace, Duroc, Swedish and Wild Boar) and two Meishan pigs. The Colombian collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) sequence was also determined and used as an outgroup. The maximum parsimony with heuristic search method was used to determine bootstrap support values. Asian-type pigs clustered together (bootstrap support 33%), but were separate from European-type pigs that also clustered together (93%). The Westran pig, derived from the feral descendants of pigs inhabiting Kangaroo Island of South Australia, clustered with Asian pigs, demonstrating Asian origin of their mitochondria. Berkshire and Large White clustered with Asian pigs, indicating that Asian pigs were involved in the development of these breeds. Our findings clearly demonstrate that pigs indigenous to China, Korea and Japan are only recently diverged from each other and distinctly different from European-type pigs. European pig breeds consist of pigs with mitochondria of Asian and non-Asian type, some of which were formed from closely related maternal ancestors, if not from a single ancestor.

  1. Elapid Snake Venom Analyses Show the Specificity of the Peptide Composition at the Level of Genera Naja and Notechis

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    Aisha Munawar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Elapid snake venom is a highly valuable, but till now mainly unexplored, source of pharmacologically important peptides. We analyzed the peptide fractions with molecular masses up to 10 kDa of two elapid snake venoms—that of the African cobra, N. m. mossambica (genus Naja, and the Peninsula tiger snake, N. scutatus, from Kangaroo Island (genus Notechis. A combination of chromatographic methods was used to isolate the peptides, which were characterized by combining complimentary mass spectrometric techniques. Comparative analysis of the peptide compositions of two venoms showed specificity at the genus level. Three-finger (3-F cytotoxins, bradykinin-potentiating peptides (BPPs and a bradykinin inhibitor were isolated from the Naja venom. 3-F neurotoxins, Kunitz/basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI-type inhibitors and a natriuretic peptide were identified in the N. venom. The inhibiting activity of the peptides was confirmed in vitro with a selected array of proteases. Cytotoxin 1 (P01467 from the Naja venom might be involved in the disturbance of cellular processes by inhibiting the cell 20S-proteasome. A high degree of similarity between BPPs from elapid and viperid snake venoms was observed, suggesting that these molecules play a key role in snake venoms and also indicating that these peptides were recruited into the snake venom prior to the evolutionary divergence of the snakes.

  2. Car Accident Due to Horse Crossing the Motorway: Two Case Reports

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    Serbülent Kılıç

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Basic Commercial Court in Ankara wanted a report from our department of forensic medicine about two injury cases due to animal vehicle collision. The reports should include the disability rate and the duration of unfunctionality. After the examination we prepared the reports. Both vehicle collisions happened due to free ranging horse crossing the motorway. Both cases had different types of injury due to trauma. Vehicle collision due to horse crossing the motorway is rarely met in Turkey. Our first case is a man that had upper extremity and facial injury. He uses prothesis due to ear amputation. He has a scar tissue on the right side of his face and left forearm. The other case is three-years-old boy that had cranial bone fracture and cranial hematoma. He has also hemiparesis of the right side of body. Both cases have neurologic sequels but they have no psychiatric sequels.  In literature, animal vehicle collisions involve lots of animal species such as kangaroo, deer, camel and moose. Animal vehicle collision involving the horses is rarely met. Forensic medicine specialists should state the causal link between traumatic events and disabilities in order to help justice. Our aim to present the current two cases is investigation of injuries of animal related collision and makes forensic medicine specialists pay attention to the subject of preparing reports about such cases. Key words: Animal vehicle collision; death; disability; horse; injury; motorway.

  3. Differentiation of meat according to species by the electrophoretic separation of muscle lactate dehydrogenase and esterase isoenzymes and isoelectric focusing of soluble muscle proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, W J; Sinclair, A J

    1983-02-01

    Species identification of fresh meat can be readily achieved by serological techniques with the limitation that closely related species, such as sheep/goat, cattle/buffalo and horse/donkey, cannot be differentiated. We have examined electrophoretic techniques with particular reference to the identification of meat from closely related species. The results showed that beef and buffalo meat and meat from red and grey kangaroos could be clearly distinguished by isoelectric focusing on polyacrylamide gel or agarose in the pH range 5.5 to 8.5. Sheep and goat meat, and horse and donkey meat could not be differentiated by this technique, but were clearly distinguished from each other by their esterase isoenzyme profiles obtained after electrophoretic separation on cellulosic membrane strips. Results from this latter technique were available in one hour. We believe that species identification of fresh meat should involve an initial screening test by serological techniques followed by confirmation of the identity of suspect samples by electrophoretic techniques.

  4. Availability and Quality of Emergency Obstetric and Newborn Care in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichaidit, Wit; Alam, Mahbub-Ul; Halder, Amal K; Unicomb, Leanne; Hamer, Davidson H; Ram, Pavani K

    2016-08-03

    Bangladesh's maternal mortality and neonatal mortality remain unacceptably high. We assessed the availability and quality of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) and emergency newborn care (EmNC) services at health facilities in Bangladesh. We randomly sampled 50 rural villages and 50 urban neighborhoods throughout Bangladesh and interviewed the director of eight and nine health facilities nearest to each sampled area. We categorized health facilities into different quality levels (high, moderate, low, and substandard) based on staffing, availability of a phone or ambulance, and signal functions (six categories for EmOC and four categories for EmNC). We interviewed the directors of 875 health facilities. Approximately 28% of health facilities did not have a skilled birth attendant on call 24 hours per day. The least commonly performed EmOC signal function was administration of anticonvulsants (67%). The quality of EmOC services was high in 33% and moderate in 52% of the health facilities. The least common EmNC signal function was kangaroo mother care (7%). The quality of EmNC was high in 2% and moderate in 33% of the health facilities. Approximately one-third of health facilities lack 24-hour availability of skilled birth attendants, increasing the risk of peripartum complications. Most health facilities offered moderate to high quality services for EmOC and low to substandard quality for EmNC.

  5. Natural selection and the genetic basis of osmoregulation in heteromyid rodents as revealed by RNA-seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Nicholas J; Romero, Andrea; DeWoody, J Andrew

    2014-06-01

    One adaptation of ecological and evolutionary interest is the extraordinary ability of desert rodents to retain water during waste production. Much is known regarding the unique kidney physiology of kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spp.) and their ability to retain water during waste production, yet the genetic basis of these physiological adaptations is relatively unknown. Herein, we utilized RNA-seq data to conduct a comparative study to identify osmoregulatory genes expressed in heteromyid rodents. We sequenced kidney tissue from two temperate desert species (Dipodomys spectabilis and Chaetodipus baileyi) from two separate subfamilies of the Heteromyidae and compared these transcriptomes to a tropical mesic species (Heteromys desmarestianus) from a third subfamily. The evolutionary history of these subfamilies provided a robust phylogenetic control that allowed us to separate shared evolutionary history from convergence. Using two methods to detect differential expression (DE), we identified 1890 genes that showed consistent patterns of DE between the arid and mesic species. A three-species reciprocal BLAST analysis revealed 3511 sets of putative orthologues that, upon comparison to known Mus musculus sequences, revealed 323 annotated and full-length genic regions. Selection tests displayed evidence of positive selection (dn/ds > 1) on six genes in the two desert species and remained significant for one of these genes after correction for multiple testing. Thus, our data suggest that both the coding sequence and expression of genes have been shaped by natural selection to provide the genetic architecture for efficient osmoregulation in desert-adapted heteromyid rodents.

  6. Ecosystem services from keystone species: diversionary seeding and seed-caching desert rodents can enhance Indian ricegrass seedling establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longland, William; Ostoja, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    Seeds of Indian ricegrass (Achnatherum hymenoides), a native bunchgrass common to sandy soils on arid western rangelands, are naturally dispersed by seed-caching rodent species, particularly Dipodomys spp. (kangaroo rats). These animals cache large quantities of seeds when mature seeds are available on or beneath plants and recover most of their caches for consumption during the remainder of the year. Unrecovered seeds in caches account for the vast majority of Indian ricegrass seedling recruitment. We applied three different densities of white millet (Panicum miliaceum) seeds as “diversionary foods” to plots at three Great Basin study sites in an attempt to reduce rodents' over-winter cache recovery so that more Indian ricegrass seeds would remain in soil seedbanks and potentially establish new seedlings. One year after diversionary seed application, a moderate level of Indian ricegrass seedling recruitment occurred at two of our study sites in western Nevada, although there was no recruitment at the third site in eastern California. At both Nevada sites, the number of Indian ricegrass seedlings sampled along transects was significantly greater on all plots treated with diversionary seeds than on non-seeded control plots. However, the density of diversionary seeds applied to plots had a marginally non-significant effect on seedling recruitment, and it was not correlated with recruitment patterns among plots. Results suggest that application of a diversionary seed type that is preferred by seed-caching rodents provides a promising passive restoration strategy for target plant species that are dispersed by these rodents.

  7. Usage of EMBRACETM in Gujarat, India: Survey of Paediatricians

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    Somashekhar Nimbalkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. EMBRACETM is an innovative, low cost infant warmer for use in neonates. It contains phase change material, which stays at constant temperature for 6 hours. We surveyed paediatricians using EMBRACETM regarding benefits, risks, and setup in which it was used in Gujarat. Methods. Questionnaire was administered telephonically to 52 out of 53 paediatricians. Results. EMBRACETM was used for an average of 8.27 (range of 3–18, SD = 3.84 months by paediatricians. All used it for thermoregulation during transfers, for average (SD duration of 42 (0.64 m per transfer, 62.7% used it at mother’s side for average (SD 11.06 (7.89 h per day, and 3.9% prescribed it at home. It was used in low birth weight neonates only by 56.9% while 43.1% used it for all neonates. While hyperthermia was not reported, 5.9% felt that EMBRACETM did not prevent hypothermia. About 54.9% felt that they could not monitor the newborn during EMBRACETM use. Of paediatricians who practiced kangaroo mother care (KMC, 7.7% have limited/stopped/decreased the practice of KMC and substituted it with EMBRACETM. Conclusions. EMBRACETM was acceptable to most but concerns related to monitoring neonates and disinfection remained. Most paediatricians felt that it did not hamper KMC practice.

  8. Minimizing inter-microscope variability in dental microwear texture analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arman, Samuel D.; Ungar, Peter S.; Brown, Christopher A.; DeSantis, Larisa R. G.; Schmidt, Christopher; Prideaux, Gavin J.

    2016-06-01

    A common approach to dental microwear texture analysis (DMTA) uses confocal profilometry in concert with scale-sensitive fractal analysis to help understand the diets of extinct mammals. One of the main benefits of DMTA over other methods is the repeatable, objective manner of data collection. This repeatability, however, is threatened by variation in results of DMTA of the same dental surfaces yielded by different microscopes. Here we compare DMTA data of five species of kangaroos measured on seven profilers of varying specifications. Comparison between microscopes confirms that inter-microscope differences are present, but we show that deployment of a number of automated treatments to remove measurement noise can help minimize inter-microscope differences. Applying these same treatments to a published hominin DMTA dataset shows that they alter some significant differences between dietary groups. Minimising microscope variability while maintaining interspecific dietary differences requires then that these factors are balanced in determining appropriate treatments. The process outlined here offers a solution for allowing comparison of data between microscopes, which is essential for ongoing DMTA research. In addition, the process undertaken, including considerations of other elements of DMTA protocols also promises to streamline methodology, remove measurement noise and in doing so, optimize recovery of a reliable dietary signature.

  9. Characterizing depth-dependent refractive index of articular cartilage subjected to mechanical wear or enzymic degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kuyu; Wu, Jianping; Day, Robert; Kirk, Thomas Brett; Hu, Xiaozhi

    2016-09-01

    Utilizing a laser scanning confocal microscope system, the refractive indices of articular cartilage (AC) with mechanical or biochemical degenerations were characterized to investigate whether potential correlations exist between refractive index (RI) and cartilage degeneration. The cartilage samples collected from the medial femoral condyles of kangaroo knees were mechanically degenerated under different loading patterns or digested in trypsin solution with different concentrations. The sequences of RI were then measured from cartilage surface to deep region and the fluctuations of RI were quantified considering combined effects of fluctuating frequency and amplitude. The compositional and microstructural alterations of cartilage samples were assessed with histological methods. Along with the loss of proteoglycans, the average RI of cartilage increased and the local fluctuation of RI became stronger. Short-term high-speed test induced little influence to both the depth fluctuation and overall level of RI. Long-term low-speed test increased the fluctuation of RI but the average RI was barely changed. The results substantially demonstrate that RI of AC varies with both compositional and structural alterations and is potentially an indicator for the degeneration of AC.

  10. Study on Identification of 6 Wild Animal Fur Types%6种野生杂皮动物毛皮种类鉴别的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李维红; 吴建平

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the study is to determine the scale structure and elemental composition, and the cross-section microstructures by electron microscope of 6 kinds of wild animal fibers (Macro-pus, Lepus sinensis , Castor fiber, Meles meles , Canis lupus and Martes flavigula) . The results indicate that the physicochemical properties of fibers of 6 kinds of wild animals were significantly different (P<0. 05), in which the cross-section microstructures were different too. The height, the thickness and the rake angle of scale of hair fibers in the 6 kinds of wild miscellaneous leathe animals were different each other. To the same animal, the height, the thickness and the rake angle of scale were different between hair fibers and cashmere fibers. Both of the needle and wool contained 4 kinds of elements, such as C, O, S, Ca. The ratios of C and O were not significantly different. The Ca content of needle was higher than wool, but the content of S was lower. Based on that, it can identify the 6 kinds of animal fur category by microstructure characteristic of wool fiber.%以6种野生杂皮类动物毛纤维为试验材料,测定其鳞片结构及元素组成,并利用扫描电镜比较其超微结构特征.结果显示:6种动物的鳞片结构均有差异(P<0.05),其横截面特征各异.6种野生杂皮动物毛纤维的鳞片高度、鳞片厚度、鳞片翘角等指标各异,同一种动物的毛纤维和绒纤维的鳞片层的鳞片高度、鳞片厚度、鳞片翘角等指标也不尽相同;针、绒毛中均含C、O、S、Ca,而C、O的含量比例均差异不大,针毛所含的Ca较多,而S元素较少,绒毛所含的S较多,而Ca元素较少.可依据毛纤维超微结构特征进行6种动物毛皮种类的鉴别.

  11. Molecular Cloning and Characteristics of Sheep C3d Gene%绵羊C3d基因克隆及分子特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳耀敬; 焦硕; 郭宪; 冯瑞林

    2008-01-01

    从绵羊(Ovis aries)肝脏组织克隆到了补体C3d基因并对其核苷酸序列和推导的氨基酸序列以及蛋白结构进行了分析.绵羊补体C3d基因的编码区含有909个核苷酸,编码303个氨基酸残基(GenBank No.EF681138).绵羊C3d与人(Homo sapiens)、牛(Bos taurus)、山羊(Capra hircus)、野猪(Sus scrofa)、金仓鼠(Mesocricetus auratus)、小鼠(Mus musculus)、褐鼠(Rattus norvegicus)、大袋鼠(Macropus eugenii)、兔(Oryctolagus cuniculus)和原鸡(Gallus gallus)推导出的C3d氨基酸序列的一致性分别为80.4%,94.7%,96.9%,82.8%,81.1%,80.6%,80.2%,71.0%,75.2%和60.3%.绵羊与原鸡C3d的一致性最低为60.3%,而与其它动物C3d之间的一致性则较高为71.0%~96.9%.生物学软件分析发现,绵羊C3d蛋白有2个蛋白激酶C磷酸化位点,1个氨基葡聚糖附着位点,1个酪蛋白激酶Ⅱ磷酸化位点,1个酪氨酸激酶磷酸化位点,1个十四(烷)酰化位点.绵羊C3d二级结构中螺旋和转角交替出现,其中α螺旋占55.12%,β折叠为2.31%,转角区域为42.57%,这样的结构有利于其桶状结构的形成.ESyPred3D同源建模预测可知绵羊C3d三级结构与人C3d一样也形成由核心和外层构成的桶状分子结构.

  12. Non-pharmacological management of infant and young child procedural pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai Riddell, Rebecca R; Racine, Nicole M; Gennis, Hannah G; Turcotte, Kara; Uman, Lindsay S; Horton, Rachel E; Ahola Kohut, Sara; Hillgrove Stuart, Jessica; Stevens, Bonnie; Lisi, Diana M

    2015-12-02

    Infant acute pain and distress is commonplace. Infancy is a period of exponential development. Unrelieved pain and distress can have implications across the lifespan.  This is an update of a previously published review in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 10 2011 entitled 'Non-pharmacological management of infant and young child procedural pain'. To assess the efficacy of non-pharmacological interventions for infant and child (up to three years) acute pain, excluding kangaroo care, and music. Analyses were run separately for infant age (preterm, neonate, older) and pain response (pain reactivity, immediate pain regulation).  For this update, we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library (Issue 2 of 12, 2015), MEDLINE-Ovid platform (March 2015), EMBASE-OVID platform (April 2011 to March 2015), PsycINFO-OVID platform (April 2011 to February 2015), and CINAHL-EBSCO platform (April 2011 to March 2015). We also searched reference lists and contacted researchers via electronic list-serves. New studies were incorporated into the review. We refined search strategies with a Cochrane-affiliated librarian. For this update, nine articles from the original 2011 review pertaining to Kangaroo Care were excluded, but 21 additional studies were added. Participants included infants from birth to three years. Only randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or RCT cross-overs that had a no-treatment control comparison were eligible for inclusion in the analyses. However, when the additive effects of a non-pharmacological intervention could be assessed, these studies were also included. We examined studies that met all inclusion criteria except for study design (e.g. had an active control) to qualitatively contextualize results. There were 63 included articles in the current update. Study quality ratings and risk of bias were based on the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool and GRADE approach. We analysed the standardized mean

  13. A gene transfer agent and a dynamic repertoire of secretion systems hold the keys to the explosive radiation of the emerging pathogen Bartonella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel Guy

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Gene transfer agents (GTAs randomly transfer short fragments of a bacterial genome. A novel putative GTA was recently discovered in the mouse-infecting bacterium Bartonella grahamii. Although GTAs are widespread in phylogenetically diverse bacteria, their role in evolution is largely unknown. Here, we present a comparative analysis of 16 Bartonella genomes ranging from 1.4 to 2.6 Mb in size, including six novel genomes from Bartonella isolated from a cow, two moose, two dogs, and a kangaroo. A phylogenetic tree inferred from 428 orthologous core genes indicates that the deadly human pathogen B. bacilliformis is related to the ruminant-adapted clade, rather than being the earliest diverging species in the genus as previously thought. A gene flux analysis identified 12 genes for a GTA and a phage-derived origin of replication as the most conserved innovations. These are located in a region of a few hundred kb that also contains 8 insertions of gene clusters for type III, IV, and V secretion systems, and genes for putatively secreted molecules such as cholera-like toxins. The phylogenies indicate a recent transfer of seven genes in the virB gene cluster for a type IV secretion system from a cat-adapted B. henselae to a dog-adapted B. vinsonii strain. We show that the B. henselae GTA is functional and can transfer genes in vitro. We suggest that the maintenance of the GTA is driven by selection to increase the likelihood of horizontal gene transfer and argue that this process is beneficial at the population level, by facilitating adaptive evolution of the host-adaptation systems and thereby expansion of the host range size. The process counters gene loss and forces all cells to contribute to the production of the GTA and the secreted molecules. The results advance our understanding of the role that GTAs play for the evolution of bacterial genomes.

  14. Bone histology in Dysalotosaurus lettowvorbecki (Ornithischia: Iguanodontia)--variation, growth, and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, Tom R

    2012-01-01

    Dysalotosaurus lettowvorbecki is a small ornithopod dinosaur known from thousands of bones and several ontogenetic stages. It was found in a single locality within the Tendaguru Formation of southeastern Tanzania, possibly representing a single herd. Dysalotosaurus provides an excellent case study for examining variation in bone microstructure and life history and helps to unravel the still mysterious growth pattern of small ornithopods. Five different skeletal elements were sampled, revealing microstructural variation between individuals, skeletal elements, cross sectional units, and ontogenetic stages. The bone wall consists of fibrolamellar bone with strong variability in vascularization and development of growth cycles. Larger bones with a high degree of utilization have high relative growth rates and seldom annuli/LAGs, whereas small and less intensively used bones have lower growth rates and a higher number of these resting lines. Due to the scarcity of annuli/LAGs, the reconstruction of the life history of Dysalotosaurus was carried out using regularly developed and alternating slow and fast growing zones. Dysalotosaurus was a precocial dinosaur, which experienced sexual maturity at ten years, had an indeterminate growth pattern, and maximum growth rates comparable to a large kangaroo. The variation in the bone histology of Dysalotosaurus demonstrates the influence of size, utilization, and shape of bones on relative growth rates. Annuli/LAGs are not the only type of annual growth cycles that can be used to reconstruct the life history of fossil vertebrates, but the degree of development of these lines may be of importance for the reconstruction of paleobehavior. The regular development of annuli/LAGs in subadults and adults of large ornithopods therefore reflects higher seasonal stress due to higher food demands, migration, and altricial breeding behavior. Small ornithopods often lack regularly developed annuli/LAGs due to lower food demands, no need for

  15. Bone Histology in Dysalotosaurus lettowvorbecki (Ornithischia: Iguanodontia) – Variation, Growth, and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, Tom R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Dysalotosaurus lettowvorbecki is a small ornithopod dinosaur known from thousands of bones and several ontogenetic stages. It was found in a single locality within the Tendaguru Formation of southeastern Tanzania, possibly representing a single herd. Dysalotosaurus provides an excellent case study for examining variation in bone microstructure and life history and helps to unravel the still mysterious growth pattern of small ornithopods. Methodology/Principal Findings Five different skeletal elements were sampled, revealing microstructural variation between individuals, skeletal elements, cross sectional units, and ontogenetic stages. The bone wall consists of fibrolamellar bone with strong variability in vascularization and development of growth cycles. Larger bones with a high degree of utilization have high relative growth rates and seldom annuli/LAGs, whereas small and less intensively used bones have lower growth rates and a higher number of these resting lines. Due to the scarcity of annuli/LAGs, the reconstruction of the life history of Dysalotosaurus was carried out using regularly developed and alternating slow and fast growing zones. Dysalotosaurus was a precocial dinosaur, which experienced sexual maturity at ten years, had an indeterminate growth pattern, and maximum growth rates comparable to a large kangaroo. Conclusions/Significance The variation in the bone histology of Dysalotosaurus demonstrates the influence of size, utilization, and shape of bones on relative growth rates. Annuli/LAGs are not the only type of annual growth cycles that can be used to reconstruct the life history of fossil vertebrates, but the degree of development of these lines may be of importance for the reconstruction of paleobehavior. The regular development of annuli/LAGs in subadults and adults of large ornithopods therefore reflects higher seasonal stress due to higher food demands, migration, and altricial breeding behavior. Small ornithopods often lack

  16. Severe events in the first 6 months of life in a cohort of HIV-unexposed infants from South Africa: effects of low birthweight and breastfeeding status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Tanya; Jackson, Debra; Swanevelder, Sonja; Lombard, Carl; Engebretsen, Ingunn M S; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Goga, Ameena; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte; Sanders, David

    2014-10-01

    To report on risk factors for severe events (hospitalisation or infant death) within the first half of infancy amongst HIV-unexposed infants in South Africa. South African data from the multisite community-based cluster-randomised trial PROMISE EBF promoting exclusive breastfeeding in three sub-Saharan countries from 2006 to 2008 were used. The South African sites were Paarl in the Western Cape Province, and Umlazi and Rietvlei in KwaZulu-Natal. This analysis included 964 HIV-negative mother-infant pairs. Data on severe events and infant feeding practices were collected at 3, 6, 12 and 24 weeks post-partum. We used a stratified extended Cox model to examine the association between the time to the severe event and covariates including birthweight, with breastfeeding status as a time-dependent covariate. Seventy infants (7%) experienced a severe event. The median age at first hospitalisation was 8 weeks, and the two main reasons for hospitalisation were cough and difficult breathing followed by diarrhoea. Stopping breastfeeding before 6 months (HR 2.4; 95% CI 1.2-5.1) and low birthweight (HR 2.4; 95% CI 1.3-4.3) were found to increase the risk of a severe event, whilst maternal completion of high school education was protective (HR 0.3; 95% CI 0.1-0.7). A strengthened primary healthcare system incorporating promotion of breastfeeding and appropriate caring practices for low birthweight infants (such as kangaroo mother care) are critical. Given the leading reasons for hospitalisation, early administration of oral rehydration therapy and treatment of suspected pneumonia are key interventions needed to prevent hospitalisation in young infants. © 2014 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. GenGIS 2: Geospatial Analysis of Traditional and Genetic Biodiversity, with New Gradient Algorithms and an Extensible Plugin Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Donovan H.; Mankowski, Timothy; Zangooei, Somayyeh; Porter, Michael S.; Armanini, David G.; Baird, Donald J.; Langille, Morgan G. I.; Beiko, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    GenGIS is free and open source software designed to integrate biodiversity data with a digital map and information about geography and habitat. While originally developed with microbial community analyses and phylogeography in mind, GenGIS has been applied to a wide range of datasets. A key feature of GenGIS is the ability to test geographic axes that can correspond to routes of migration or gradients that influence community similarity. Here we introduce GenGIS version 2, which extends the linear gradient tests introduced in the first version to allow comprehensive testing of all possible linear geographic axes. GenGIS v2 also includes a new plugin framework that supports the development and use of graphically driven analysis packages: initial plugins include implementations of linear regression and the Mantel test, calculations of alpha-diversity (e.g., Shannon Index) for all samples, and geographic visualizations of dissimilarity matrices. We have also implemented a recently published method for biomonitoring reference condition analysis (RCA), which compares observed species richness and diversity to predicted values to determine whether a given site has been impacted. The newest version of GenGIS supports vector data in addition to raster files. We demonstrate the new features of GenGIS by performing a full gradient analysis of an Australian kangaroo apple data set, by using plugins and embedded statistical commands to analyze human microbiome sample data, and by applying RCA to a set of samples from Atlantic Canada. GenGIS release versions, tutorials and documentation are freely available at http://kiwi.cs.dal.ca/GenGIS, and source code is available at https://github.com/beiko-lab/gengis. PMID:23922841

  18. Performing international outreach: PhUn Week in an Australian primary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, Patricia A

    2017-03-01

    Physiology Understanding (PhUn) Week is an annual science outreach program sponsored by the American Physiological Society in which K-12 students learn about physiology through meeting a physiologist and performing an experiment. Performing PhUn Week at an Australian private primary school during a family vacation in 2014 enabled me to receive a fellowship to return the following year for further implementation. To set up the outreach, I contacted the assistant principal of a public primary school, and she connected me with the physical education (PE) teacher. Together, the PE teacher and I planned the event. Over the course of 2 days, I taught eight classes, a total of 176 K-12 students. I started each lesson by explaining the role of a physiologist. The scientific method was described and explained. A hypothesis, "Exercise increases heart rate," was designed and tested. The students measured their heart rates, exercised, and measured their heart rates again. After data collection, results were reported, and the students all agreed that their hypothesis was supported. We then discussed heart function and why heart rate increases with exercise. The students then performed a pedometer challenge, where they estimated the number of steps during walking, running, and kangaroo hopping. They enjoyed testing their predictions and repeated these experiments several times. The students then made suggestions of ways they could continue this lesson outside of school. This first report of an international PhUn week confirmed that these events form partnerships among educators and inspire K-12 students to think about becoming scientists. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Dynamics and Control for a One-Legged Hopping Robot in Stance Phase%单腿跳跃机器人支撑相的动力学与控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颖; 刘菲; 何广平

    2012-01-01

    A novel hopping robot with articulated leg is proposed.The proposed hopping robot is a non-SLIP model system,which generally shows more biological characteristics of kangaroo.This underactu ated system is a second order nonholonomic constraints system.Thanks to the special design,it is proved that the dynamics of the presented hopping robot mechanism can be transformed into the strict feedback normal form.Then a sliding model backstepping control is proposed and proved for stabilizing the nonlinear dynamic system in stance phase.%提出一种新型关节腿仿生欠驱动单腿跳跃机器人机构系统模型.该跳跃机器人模型具有仿袋鼠骨骼结构特征,其机构动力学模型可视为二阶非完整约束系统.由于切换线性控制器只能实现该模型在动态周期运动中的动态稳定,而不能实现站立平衡控制.因此采用积分反步控制方法,使机器人机构模型在支撑相能实现不稳定平衡位置的镇定控制.由于严反馈规范形存在反步控制器设计方法,因此基于动力学非线性规范形综合,将机构动力学模型转化为严反馈规范形,从而使其具有严反馈规范形特征.

  20. Receptors and cGMP signalling mechanism for E. coli enterotoxin in opossum kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forte, L.R.; Krause, W.J.; Freeman, R.H. (Univ. of Missouri, Columbia (USA) Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans Medical Center, Columbia, MO (USA))

    1988-11-01

    Receptors for the heat-stable enterotoxin produced by Escherichia coli were found in the kidney and intestine of the North American opossum and in cultured renal cell lines. The enterotoxin markedly increased guanosine 3{prime},5{prime}-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) production in slices of kidney cortex and medulla, in suspensions of intestinal mucosa, and in the opossum kidney (OK) and rat kangaroo kidney (PtK-2) cell lines. In contrast, atrial natriuretic factor elicited much smaller increases in cGMP levels of kidney, intestine, or cultured kidney cell lines. The enterotoxin receptors in OK cells had a molecular mass of approximately 120 kDa when measured by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of receptors crosslinked with {sup 125}I-enterotoxin. The occurrence of receptors for the E. coli peptide in OK implies that these receptors may be involved in the regulation of renal tubular function in the opossum. E. coli enterotoxin caused a much larger increase in urine cGMP excretion than did atrial natriuretic factor when these peptides were injected intravenously into opossums. However, atrial natriuretic factor elicited a marked diuresis, natriuresis, and increased urinary excretion of calcium, phosphate, potassium, and magnesium. In contrast, the enterotoxin did not acutely influence OK fluid and electrolyte excretion. Thus the substantial increase in cGMP synthesis produced by the bacterial peptide in OK cortex and medulla in vitro and the increased renal excretion of cGMP in vivo were not associated with changes in electrolyte or water excretion. Whether cGMP represents a second messenger molecule in the kidney is an interesting question that was raised but not answered in this series of experiments.

  1. Utilization of postnatal care for newborns and its association with neonatal mortality in India: An analytical appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Abhishek

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 39% of neonatal deaths in India occur on the first day of life, and 57% during the first three days of births. However, the association between postnatal care (PNC for newborns and neonatal mortality has not hitherto been examined. The paper aims to examine the association of PNC for newborns with neonatal mortality in India. Methods Data from District Level Household Survey, waive three (DLHS-3 conducted in 2007–08 is utilized in the study. We used conditional logit regression models to examine the association of PNC with neonatal mortality. The matching variables included birth order and the age of the mother at the birth of the newborn. Results The findings suggest no association between check-up of newborns within 24 hours of birth and neonatal mortality. However, the place where the newborns were examined was significantly associated with neonatal mortality. Moreover, findings do reveal that children of mothers who were advised on ‘keeping baby warm (kangaroo care after birth’ during their antenatal sessions were significantly less likely to die during the neonatal period compared to those children whose mothers were not advised about the same. Conclusions The findings are relevant because ‘keeping baby warm’ is one of the most cost-effective and easiest interventions to save babies from dying during the neonatal period. Though randomized controlled trials have already demonstrated the effectiveness of ‘keeping baby warm’, for the first time this has been found effective in a large-scale population-based study. The findings are of immense value for a country like India where the neonatal mortality rates are unacceptably high.

  2. Ecological baseline studies at the site of the Barstow 10 MWe pilot solar thermal power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, F.B. (ed.)

    1979-11-01

    Baseline ecological measurements and observations were made in 1978 and 1979 at the site of the Barstow pilot 10 MWe solar thermal power system. The station will be constructed on Southern California Edison's Coolwater property. The climate of the area is typical of the Mojave Desert, with high summer temperatures (monthly means of up to 31/sup 0/C), and low rainfall (annual mean of 94 mm). About 66% of the rain falls in winter and spring. About 75% of winds are from the west-southwest to northwest, and mean monthly wind velocities during spring and summer are around 15 to 20 km hr/sup -1/. Surface soils of the site are sandy, but soils below 3 m are generally well graded sand with some silt and gravel. Some of the soils are highly saline, to an extent precluding plant growth. All soils are alkaline, with pH values as high as 9. Over 130 species of plants have been identified on the site, 18 of which are non-native. Estimated aggregate densities of annual plants range from around 600 to almost 9000 m/sup -2/, depending on sampling locale. Aggregate densities of perennials (including herbaceous species) range from as low as 0.2 to 4.4 m/sup -2/. Creosotebush supports a varied assemblage of sap-feeding and defoliating insects, principally homopterans and orthopterans. Other shrubs are populated with hemipterans, mealybugs, thrips, phytophagous beetles and moth larvae. Common ground-dwelling species are ants, tenebrionid beetles, weevils, various orthopterans, and predatory arachnids. Some 300 different kinds of arthropods were distinguished in samples from the site. The most commonly trapped rodents were kangaroo rats (Dipodomys merriami, D. deserti), pocket mice (Perognathus formosus) and ground squirrels (Spermophilus tereticaudus). Over 60 kinds of birds were observed around the site, many associated with evaporating ponds adjoining the Coolwater Generating Station.

  3. Endangered species and cultural resources program, Naval Petroleum Reserves in California: Annual report FY95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    In FY95, EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG and G/EM) continued to support efforts to protect endangered species and cultural resources at the Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC). These efforts are conducted to ensure NPRC compliance with regulations regarding the protection of listed species and cultural resources on Federal properties. Population monitoring activities are conducted annually for San Joaquin kit foxes, giant kangaroo rats, blunt-nosed leopard lizards, and Hoover`s wooly-star. To mitigate impacts of oil field activities on listed species, 674 preactivity surveys covering approximately 211 hectares (521 acres) were conducted in FY95. EG and G/EM also assisted with mitigating effects from third-party projects, primarily by conducting biological and cultural resource consultations with regulatory agencies. EG and G/EM has conducted an applied habitat reclamation program at NPRC since 1985. In FY95, an evaluation of revegetation rates on reclaimed and non-reclaimed disturbed lands was completed, and the results will be used to direct future habitat reclamation efforts at NPRC. In FY95, reclamation success was monitored on 50 sites reclaimed in 1985. An investigation of factors influencing the distribution and abundance of kit foxes at NPRC was initiated in FY94. Factors being examined include habitat disturbance, topography, grazing, coyote abundance, lagomorph abundance, and shrub density. This investigation continued in FY95 and a manuscript on this topic will be completed in FY96. Also, Eg and G/EM completed collection of field data to evaluate the effects of a well blow-out on plant and animal populations. A final report will be prepared in FY96. Finally, EG and G/EM completed a life table analysis on San Joaquin kit foxes at NPRC.

  4. The neural code for auditory space depends on sound frequency and head size in an optimal manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicol S Harper

    Full Text Available A major cue to the location of a sound source is the interaural time difference (ITD-the difference in sound arrival time at the two ears. The neural representation of this auditory cue is unresolved. The classic model of ITD coding, dominant for a half-century, posits that the distribution of best ITDs (the ITD evoking a neuron's maximal response is unimodal and largely within the range of ITDs permitted by head-size. This is often interpreted as a place code for source location. An alternative model, based on neurophysiology in small mammals, posits a bimodal distribution of best ITDs with exquisite sensitivity to ITDs generated by means of relative firing rates between the distributions. Recently, an optimal-coding model was proposed, unifying the disparate features of these two models under the framework of efficient coding by neural populations. The optimal-coding model predicts that distributions of best ITDs depend on head size and sound frequency: for high frequencies and large heads it resembles the classic model, for low frequencies and small head sizes it resembles the bimodal model. The optimal-coding model makes key, yet unobserved, predictions: for many species, including humans, both forms of neural representation are employed, depending on sound frequency. Furthermore, novel representations are predicted for intermediate frequencies. Here, we examine these predictions in neurophysiological data from five mammalian species: macaque, guinea pig, cat, gerbil and kangaroo rat. We present the first evidence supporting these untested predictions, and demonstrate that different representations appear to be employed at different sound frequencies in the same species.

  5. An assessment of maternal, newborn and child health implementation studies in Nigeria: implications for evidence informed policymaking and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chigozie Jesse Uneke

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The introduction of implementation science into maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH research has facilitated better methods to improve uptake of research findings into practices. With increase in implementation research related to MNCH world-wide, stronger scientific evidence are now available and have improved MNCH policies in many countries including Nigeria. The purpose of this study was to review MNCH implementation studies undertaken in Nigeria in order to understand the extent the evidence generated informed better policy. Methods: This study was a systematic review. A MEDLINE Entrez PubMed search was performed in August 2015 and implementation studies that investigated MNCH in Nigeria from 1966 to 2015 in relation to health policy were sought. Search key words included Nigeria, health policy,maternal, newborn, and child health. Only policy relevant studies that were implementation or intervention research which generated evidence to improve MNCH in Nigeria were eligible and were selected. Results: A total of 18 relevant studies that fulfilled the study inclusion criteria were identified out of 471 studies found. These studies generated high quality policy relevance evidence relating to task shifting, breastfeeding practices, maternal nutrition, childhood immunization, kangaroo mother care (KMC, prevention of maternal to child transmission of HIV, etc. These indicated significant improvements in maternal health outcomes in localities and health facilities where the studies were undertaken. Conclusion: There is a dire need for more implementation research related to MNCH in low income settings because the priority for improved MNCH outcome is not so much the development of new technologies but solving implementation issues, such as how to scale up and evaluate interventions within complex health systems.

  6. A Study to Assess The Implementation and Effectiveness of IMNCI Program and Evaluation of Skills of Rural Anganwadi Workers in Vadodara Taluka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharani Sheela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: IMNCI is an integrated approach to decrease morbidity and mortality amongst children between 0-5 years. Training to pre-service level during medical, nursing-education and anganwadi worker (AWW is the first fundamental stage of IMNCI. Objectives: To evaluate the skills of AWWs trained under the IMNCI program and to identify the problems in implementation of IMNCI program in rural areas. Methods: A cross sectional study including 50 AWWs of Vadodara taluka, selected by random sampling technique. Results: Most of the AWWs were ?40 years of age. Out of 50 AWWs, 18 (36% underwent IMNCI training between 1-2 years duration and 32 (64% underwent training between 2-5 years period from the date of interview. Around 72% AWWs undertook 3 visits of young infants. All AWWs were equipped with weighing scales but were not having supplies like, ORS (70%, Cotrimoxazole (94% and IFA (56%. Out of 46 (96% who had maintained the register, only 9 (18% had completed them. Lack of motivation and supervision with overburden due to other programs and inadequate stocks of drugs were major difficulties found in this program. Convulsions, lack of active body movements and nasal flare in young infants were the signs missed by 36%, 22% and 20% AWWs respectively. About 50% AWWs had knowledge about Kangaroo mother care. Breast-feeding problems were identified by 54% AWWs. Only 8% AWWs had checked immunization cards. Conclusion: The study identified a number of programme-related and external constraints that, if taken care of, might improve implementation and effectiveness of IMNCI program.

  7. Genomics and museum specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachman, Michael W

    2013-12-01

    Nearly 25 years ago, Allan Wilson and colleagues isolated DNA sequences from museum specimens of kangaroo rats (Dipodomys panamintinus) and compared these sequences with those from freshly collected animals (Thomas et al. 1990). The museum specimens had been collected up to 78 years earlier, so the two samples provided a direct temporal comparison of patterns of genetic variation. This was not the first time DNA sequences had been isolated from preserved material, but it was the first time it had been carried out with a population sample. Population geneticists often try to make inferences about the influence of historical processes such as selection, drift, mutation and migration on patterns of genetic variation in the present. The work of Wilson and colleagues was important in part because it suggested a way in which population geneticists could actually study genetic change in natural populations through time, much the same way that experimentalists can do with artificial populations in the laboratory. Indeed, the work of Thomas et al. (1990) spawned dozens of studies in which museum specimens were used to compare historical and present-day genetic diversity (reviewed in Wandeler et al. 2007). All of these studies, however, were limited by the same fundamental problem: old DNA is degraded into short fragments. As a consequence, these studies mostly involved PCR amplification of short templates, usually short stretches of mitochondrial DNA or microsatellites. In this issue, Bi et al. (2013) report a breakthrough that should open the door to studies of genomic variation in museum specimens. They used target enrichment (exon capture) and next-generation (Illumina) sequencing to compare patterns of genetic variation in historic and present-day population samples of alpine chipmunks (Tamias alpinus) (Fig. 1). The historic samples came from specimens collected in 1915, so the temporal span of this comparison is nearly 100 years.

  8. Mammals from ‘down under’: a multi-gene species-level phylogeny of marsupial mammals (Mammalia, Metatheria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, C. William; Agnarsson, Ingi

    2015-01-01

    Marsupials or metatherians are a group of mammals that are distinct in giving birth to young at early stages of development and in having a prolonged investment in lactation. The group consists of nearly 350 extant species, including kangaroos, koala, possums, and their relatives. Marsupials are an old lineage thought to have diverged from early therian mammals some 160 million years ago in the Jurassic, and have a remarkable evolutionary and biogeographical history, with extant species restricted to the Americas, mostly South America, and to Australasia. Although the group has been the subject of decades of phylogenetic research, the marsupial tree of life remains controversial, with most studies focusing on only a fraction of the species diversity within the infraclass. Here we present the first Methaterian species-level phylogeny to include 80% of the extant marsupial species and five nuclear and five mitochondrial markers obtained from Genbank and a recently published retroposon matrix. Our primary goal is to provide a summary phylogeny that will serve as a tool for comparative research. We evaluate the extent to which the phylogeny recovers current phylogenetic knowledge based on the recovery of “benchmark clades” from prior studies—unambiguously supported key clades and undisputed traditional taxonomic groups. The Bayesian phylogenetic analyses recovered nearly all benchmark clades but failed to find support for the suborder Phalagiformes. The most significant difference with previous published topologies is the support for Australidelphia as a group containing Microbiotheriidae, nested within American marsupials. However, a likelihood ratio test shows that alternative topologies with monophyletic Australidelphia and Ameridelphia are not significantly different than the preferred tree. Although further data are needed to solidify understanding of Methateria phylogeny, the new phylogenetic hypothesis provided here offers a well resolved and detailed tool

  9. Prevalence of koala retrovirus in geographically diverse populations in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, G S; Young, P R; Hanger, J J; Jones, K; Clarke, D; McKee, J J; Meers, J

    2012-10-01

    To determine the prevalence of koala retrovirus (KoRV) in selected koala populations and to estimate proviral copy number in a subset of koalas. Blood or tissue samples from 708 koalas in Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria and South Australia were tested for KoRV pol provirus gene using standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nested PCR and real-time PCR (qPCR). Prevalence of KoRV provirus-positive koalas was 100% in four regions of Queensland and New South Wales, 72.2% in mainland Victoria, 26.6% on four Victorian islands and 14.8% on Kangaroo Island, South Australia. Estimated proviral copy number per cell in four groups of koalas from Queensland and Victoria showed marked variation, ranging from a mean of 165 copies per cell in the Queensland group to 1.29 × 10(-4) copies per cell in one group of Victorian koalas. The higher prevalence of KoRV-positive koalas in the north of Australia and high proviral loads in Queensland koalas may indicate KoRV entered and became endogenous in the north and is spreading southwards. It is also possible there are genetic differences between koalas in northern and southern Australia that affect susceptibility to KoRV infection or endogenisation, or that environmental factors affecting transmission in northern states are absent or uncommon in southern regions. Although further studies are required, the finding of proviral copy numbers orders of magnitude lower than what would be expected for the presence of a single copy in every cell for many Victorian animals suggests that KoRV is not endogenous in these animals and likely reflects ongoing exogenous infection. © 2012 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2012 Australian Veterinary Association.

  10. The immune response and fertility of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) immunised with porcine zonae pellucidae or recombinant brushtail possum ZP3 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchener, Anne L; Kay, David J; Walters, Bryan; Menkhorst, Peter; McCartney, Carmen A; Buist, Janine A; Mate, Karen E; Rodger, John C

    2009-10-01

    To evaluate the potential contraceptive effect of immunisation with zona pellucida antigens, 50 free-ranging koalas were immunised with either porcine zonae pellucidae (PZP), recombinant brushtail possum ZP3 (recBP-ZP3) or buffer, in complete Freund's adjuvant. A single booster immunisation in incomplete Freund's adjuvant was administered 3-5 months later. Where possible animals were recaptured, reproductive status was assessed and blood was collected at 1-3-month intervals for the next 33 months. Forty-three koalas were recaptured at least three times allowing reliable assessments of their fertility. Fourteen animals were observed never to have a pouch young. Of the remaining 29 animals the reproductive productivity of PZP treated females was reduced compared with control and recBP-ZP3 treated females, in terms of both total number of young produced, and failure to produce further young in females of proven fertility. One month after the initial immunisation, serum antigen-specific antibody titres were higher in animals immunised with PZP or recBP-ZP3 compared to controls, and reached a plateau by 4 months. Antibody against the relevant immunising antigen was also detected in ovarian follicular fluid, uterine fluid and vaginal secretions. Epitope analysis suggested that immune responses other than antibodies directed against the ZP3 amino acid sequence were responsible for mediating infertility. The results demonstrate that the fertility of female koalas can be compromised by immunisation against zona pellucida antigens. However, unlike in the eastern grey kangaroo and the brushtail possum, immunisation with bacterial recombinant brushtail possum ZP3 did not compromise fertility in the koala.

  11. The neural code for auditory space depends on sound frequency and head size in an optimal manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Nicol S; Scott, Brian H; Semple, Malcolm N; McAlpine, David

    2014-01-01

    A major cue to the location of a sound source is the interaural time difference (ITD)-the difference in sound arrival time at the two ears. The neural representation of this auditory cue is unresolved. The classic model of ITD coding, dominant for a half-century, posits that the distribution of best ITDs (the ITD evoking a neuron's maximal response) is unimodal and largely within the range of ITDs permitted by head-size. This is often interpreted as a place code for source location. An alternative model, based on neurophysiology in small mammals, posits a bimodal distribution of best ITDs with exquisite sensitivity to ITDs generated by means of relative firing rates between the distributions. Recently, an optimal-coding model was proposed, unifying the disparate features of these two models under the framework of efficient coding by neural populations. The optimal-coding model predicts that distributions of best ITDs depend on head size and sound frequency: for high frequencies and large heads it resembles the classic model, for low frequencies and small head sizes it resembles the bimodal model. The optimal-coding model makes key, yet unobserved, predictions: for many species, including humans, both forms of neural representation are employed, depending on sound frequency. Furthermore, novel representations are predicted for intermediate frequencies. Here, we examine these predictions in neurophysiological data from five mammalian species: macaque, guinea pig, cat, gerbil and kangaroo rat. We present the first evidence supporting these untested predictions, and demonstrate that different representations appear to be employed at different sound frequencies in the same species.

  12. Precipitation alters interactions in a grassland ecological community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguines, Nicolas; Brashares, Justin S; Prugh, Laura R

    2017-03-01

    Climate change is transforming precipitation regimes world-wide. Changes in precipitation regimes are known to have powerful effects on plant productivity, but the consequences of these shifts for the dynamics of ecological communities are poorly understood. This knowledge gap hinders our ability to anticipate and mitigate the impacts of climate change on biodiversity. Precipitation may affect fauna through direct effects on physiology, behaviour or demography, through plant-mediated indirect effects, or by modifying interactions among species. In this paper, we examined the response of a semi-arid ecological community to a fivefold change in precipitation over 7 years. We examined the effects of precipitation on the dynamics of a grassland ecosystem in central California from 2007 to 2013. We conducted vegetation surveys, pitfall trapping of invertebrates, visual surveys of lizards and capture-mark-recapture surveys of rodents on 30 plots each year. We used structural equation modelling to evaluate the direct, indirect and modifying effects of precipitation on plants, ants, beetles, orthopterans, kangaroo rats, ground squirrels and lizards. We found pervasive effects of precipitation on the ecological community. Although precipitation increased plant biomass, direct effects on fauna were often stronger than plant-mediated effects. In addition, precipitation altered the sign or strength of consumer-resource and facilitative interactions among the faunal community such that negative or neutral interactions became positive or vice versa with increasing precipitation. These findings indicate that precipitation influences ecological communities in multiple ways beyond its recognized effects on primary productivity. Stochastic variation in precipitation may weaken the average strength of biotic interactions over time, thereby increasing ecosystem stability and resilience to climate change.

  13. Skin-to-skin care for procedural pain in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Celeste; Campbell-Yeo, Marsha; Disher, Timothy; Benoit, Britney; Fernandes, Ananda; Streiner, David; Inglis, Darlene; Zee, Rebekah

    2017-02-16

    Skin-to-skin care (SSC), often referred to as 'kangaroo care' (KC) due to its similarity with marsupial behaviour of ventral maternal-infant contact, is one non-pharmacological intervention for pain control in infants. The primary objectives were to determine the effect of SSC alone on pain from medical or nursing procedures in neonates compared to no intervention, sucrose or other analgesics, or additions to simple SSC such as rocking; and to determine the effects of the amount of SSC (duration in minutes), method of administration (e.g. who provided the SSC) of SSC in reducing pain from medical or nursing procedures in neonatesThe secondary objectives were to determine the safety of SSC care for relieving procedural pain in infants; and to compare the SSC effect in different postmenstrual age subgroups of infants. For this update, we used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review group to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 1); MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 25 February 2016); Embase (1980 to 25 February 2016); and CINAHL (1982 to 25 February 2016). We also searched clinical trials' databases, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomized controlled trials and quasi-randomized trials. Studies with randomisation or quasi-randomisation, double- or single-blinded, involving term infants (≥ 37 completed weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA) to a maximum of 44 weeks' PMA and preterm infants (term effects of SSC are needed. Of interest would be to study synergistic effects of SSC with other interventions.

  14. Measuring coverage in MNCH: indicators for global tracking of newborn care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allisyn C Moran

    Full Text Available Neonatal mortality accounts for 43% of under-five mortality. Consequently, improving newborn survival is a global priority. However, although there is increasing consensus on the packages and specific interventions that need to be scaled up to reduce neonatal mortality, there is a lack of clarity on the indicators needed to measure progress. In 2008, in an effort to improve newborn survival, the Newborn Indicators Technical Working Group (TWG was convened by the Saving Newborn Lives program at Save the Children to provide a forum to develop the indicators and standard measurement tools that are needed to measure coverage of key newborn interventions. The TWG, which included evaluation and measurement experts, researchers, individuals from United Nations agencies and non-governmental organizations, and donors, prioritized improved consistency of measurement of postnatal care for women and newborns and of immediate care behaviors and practices for newborns. In addition, the TWG promoted increased data availability through inclusion of additional questions in nationally representative surveys, such as the United States Agency for International Development-supported Demographic and Health Surveys and the United Nations Children's Fund-supported Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys. Several studies have been undertaken that have informed revisions of indicators and survey tools, and global postnatal care coverage indicators have been finalized. Consensus has been achieved on three additional indicators for care of the newborn after birth (drying, delayed bathing, and cutting the cord with a clean instrument, and on testing two further indicators (immediate skin-to-skin care and applications to the umbilical cord. Finally, important measurement gaps have been identified regarding coverage data for evidence-based interventions, such as Kangaroo Mother Care and care seeking for newborn infection.

  15. Expansion of the baby-friendly hospital initiative ten steps to successful breastfeeding into neonatal intensive care: expert group recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyqvist, Kerstin H; Häggkvist, Anna-Pia; Hansen, Mette N; Kylberg, Elisabeth; Frandsen, Annemi L; Maastrup, Ragnhild; Ezeonodo, Aino; Hannula, Leena; Haiek, Laura N

    2013-08-01

    In the World Health Organization/United Nations Children's Fund document Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative: Revised, Updated and Expanded for Integrated Care, neonatal care is mentioned as 1 area that would benefit from expansion of the original Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding. The different situations faced by preterm and sick infants and their mothers, compared to healthy infants and their mothers, necessitate a specific breastfeeding policy for neonatal intensive care and require that health care professionals have knowledge and skills in lactation and breastfeeding support, including provision of antenatal information, that are specific to neonatal care. Facilitation of early, continuous, and prolonged skin-to-skin contact (kangaroo mother care), early initiation of breastfeeding, and mothers' access to breastfeeding support during the infants' whole hospital stay are important. Mother's own milk or donor milk (when available) is the optimal nutrition. Efforts should be made to minimize parent-infant separation and facilitate parents' unrestricted presence with their infants. The initiation and continuation of breastfeeding should be guided only by infant competence and stability, using a semi-demand feeding regimen during the transition to exclusive breastfeeding. Pacifiers are appropriate during tube-feeding, for pain relief, and for calming infants. Nipple shields can be used for facilitating establishment of breastfeeding, but only after qualified support and attempts at the breast. Alternatives to bottles should be used until breastfeeding is well established. The discharge program should include adequate preparation of parents, information about access to lactation and breastfeeding support, both professional and peer support, and a plan for continued follow-up.

  16. Newborn Care Training and Perinatal Mortality in Communities in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo, Waldemar A.; Goudar, Shivaprasad S.; Jehan, Imtiaz; Chomba, Elwyn; Tshefu, Antoinette; Garces, Ana; Parida, Sailajanandan; Althabe, Fernando; McClure, Elizabeth M.; Derman, Richard J.; Goldenberg, Robert L.; Bose, Carl; Krebs, Nancy F.; Panigrahi, Pinaki; Buekens, Pierre; Chakraborty, Hrishikesh; Hartwell, Tyler D.; Wright, Linda L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Ninety-eight percent of the 3.7 million neonatal deaths and 3.3 million stillbirths per year occur in developing countries, and evaluation of community-based interventions is needed. Methods Using a train-the-trainer model, local instructors trained birth attendants from rural communities in six countries (Argentina, Democratic Republic of Congo, Guatemala, India, Pakistan, and Zambia) in the World Health Organization Essential Newborn Care course (routine neonatal care, resuscitation, thermoregulation, breastfeeding, kangaroo care, care of the small baby, and common illnesses), and in a modified version of the American Academy of Pediatrics Neonatal Resuscitation Program (in depth basic resuscitation), except in Argentina. The Essential Newborn Care intervention was assessed with a before and after design (N=57, 643). The Neonatal Resuscitation Program intervention was assessed as a cluster randomized controlled trial (N=62,366). The primary outcome was 7-day neonatal mortality. Results The 7-day follow-up rate was 99.2%. Following Essential Newborn Care training, there was no significant reduction from baseline in all-cause 7-day neonatal (RR 0.99; CI 0.81, 1.22) or perinatal mortality; there was a significant reduction in the stillbirth rate (RR 0.69; CI 0.54, 0.88; p<0.01). Seven-day neonatal mortality, stillbirth, and perinatal mortality were not reduced in clusters randomized to Neonatal Resuscitation Program training as compared with control clusters. Conclusions Seven-day neonatal mortality did not decrease following the introduction of Essential Newborn Care training of community-based birth attendants, although the rate of stillbirths was reduced following this intervention. Subsequent training in the Neonatal Resuscitation Program did not significantly reduce the mortality rates. (clinicaltrials.gov number, NCT00136708). PMID:20164485

  17. Short-term responses of reptile assemblages to fire in native and weedy tropical savannah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rickard Abom

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fire is frequently used as a management tool to reduce the cover of weeds, to reduce the amount of fuel available for future fires, and to create succession mosaics that may enhance biodiversity. We determined the influence of fire on wildlife, by quantifying reptile assemblage composition in response to fire in a weedy environment characterised by very short-term fire return intervals (<2 years. We used reptiles because they are often understudied, and are only moderately vagile compared to other vertebrates, and they respond strongly to changes in vegetation structure. We repeatedly sampled 24 replicate sampling sites after they had been unburned for two years, just prior to burning (pre-burnt, just after burning (post-burnt, and up to 15 months after burning (revegetated and monitored vegetation structure and reptile richness, abundance and assemblage composition. Our sites were not spatially auto-correlated, and were covered by native kangaroo grass (Themeda triandra, black spear grass (Heteropogon contortus, or an invasive weed (grader grass, Themeda quadrivalvis. Reptile abundance and richness were highest when sites had been unburned for 2 years, and greatly reduced in all areas post burning. The lowest reptile abundances occurred in sites dominated by the weed. Reptile abundance and richness had recovered in all grass types 15 months after burning, but assemblage composition changed. Some species were present only in before our focus fire in native grass, and their populations did not recover even 15 months post-burning. Even in fire-prone, often-burnt habitats such as our study sites, in which faunal richness and abundance were not strongly influenced by fire, reptile assemblage composition was altered. To maintain faunal biodiversity in fire-prone systems, we suggest reducing the frequency of prescribed fires, and (if possible excluding fire from weedy invasions if it allows native grasses to return.

  18. Long-term fate of depleted uranium at Aberdeen and Yuma Proving Grounds: Human health and ecological risk assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebinger, M.H.; Beckman, R.J.; Myers, O.B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Kennedy, P.L.; Clements, W.; Bestgen, H.T. [Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Fishery and Wildlife Biology

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate and long-term consequences of depleted uranium (DU) in the environment at Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) and Yuma Proving Ground (YPG) for the Test and Evaluation Command (TECOM) of the US Army. Specifically, we examined the potential for adverse radiological and toxicological effects to humans and ecosystems caused by exposure to DU at both installations. We developed contaminant transport models of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems at APG and terrestrial ecosystems at YPG to assess potential adverse effects from DU exposure. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses of the initial models showed the portions of the models that most influenced predicted DU concentrations, and the results of the sensitivity analyses were fundamental tools in designing field sampling campaigns at both installations. Results of uranium (U) isotope analyses of field samples provided data to evaluate the source of U in the environment and the toxicological and radiological doses to different ecosystem components and to humans. Probabilistic doses were estimated from the field data, and DU was identified in several components of the food chain at APG and YPG. Dose estimates from APG data indicated that U or DU uptake was insufficient to cause adverse toxicological or radiological effects. Dose estimates from YPG data indicated that U or DU uptake is insufficient to cause radiological effects in ecosystem components or in humans, but toxicological effects in small mammals (e.g., kangaroo rats and pocket mice) may occur from U or DU ingestion. The results of this study were used to modify environmental radiation monitoring plans at APG and YPG to ensure collection of adequate data for ongoing ecological and human health risk assessments.

  19. GenGIS 2: geospatial analysis of traditional and genetic biodiversity, with new gradient algorithms and an extensible plugin framework.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donovan H Parks

    Full Text Available GenGIS is free and open source software designed to integrate biodiversity data with a digital map and information about geography and habitat. While originally developed with microbial community analyses and phylogeography in mind, GenGIS has been applied to a wide range of datasets. A key feature of GenGIS is the ability to test geographic axes that can correspond to routes of migration or gradients that influence community similarity. Here we introduce GenGIS version 2, which extends the linear gradient tests introduced in the first version to allow comprehensive testing of all possible linear geographic axes. GenGIS v2 also includes a new plugin framework that supports the development and use of graphically driven analysis packages: initial plugins include implementations of linear regression and the Mantel test, calculations of alpha-diversity (e.g., Shannon Index for all samples, and geographic visualizations of dissimilarity matrices. We have also implemented a recently published method for biomonitoring reference condition analysis (RCA, which compares observed species richness and diversity to predicted values to determine whether a given site has been impacted. The newest version of GenGIS supports vector data in addition to raster files. We demonstrate the new features of GenGIS by performing a full gradient analysis of an Australian kangaroo apple data set, by using plugins and embedded statistical commands to analyze human microbiome sample data, and by applying RCA to a set of samples from Atlantic Canada. GenGIS release versions, tutorials and documentation are freely available at http://kiwi.cs.dal.ca/GenGIS, and source code is available at https://github.com/beiko-lab/gengis.

  20. SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS OF ASHAS WITH RESPECT TO COMPREHENSIVE CHILD SURVIVAL PROGRAMME: A STUDY FROM CHIRAIGAON BLOCK OF DISTRICT VARANASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archisman Mohapatra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What proportions of the ASHAs are performing according to the training they have received under the Comprehensive Child Survival Programme (CCSP? Objective: To analyze the ASHAs’ practice with respect to CCSP in related situations. Study design: Cross-sectional study. Study location: Chiraigaon Community Development Block, Varanasi Material and method: 173 out of the total 240 ASHAs (~72% in the selected Chiraigaon Community Development Block of Varanasi were randomly selected and interviewed using a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire pertinent to CCSP. Only the first response was recorded. Results: All the ASHAs interviewed claimed that the CCSP training has helped them perform better in the community. Ninety-eight percent of the ASHAs knew that a new born weighing >2.5 kgs at birth is considered to be normal. Only ~ 63% (109 of the ASHAs were found to be home-visiting such newborns as per the CCSP recommendation. The percentage was found to be just 43% for the properly scheduled home visits of LBW newborns. The difference was found to be statistically significant (p<0.001. Almost 80% ASHAs estimated that their average home visit spans for at least 30 minutes. Just about a third of the interviewees suggested that a baby should be bathed only after the first 6 days while one-third said that they advise massaging for the newborn only after the first week. ASHAs rarely used a thermometer to assess the baby’s temperature. Around 56% were confident about using a thermometer. Nearly 90% participants claimed of explaining about Kangaroo Mother Care to the parturient and/or family. Majority of the ASHAs (92% emphasized upon non-discontinuation of breast feeding for the baby during diarrhoeal episodes. However, only 44% revisited such babies. Conclusion: In most cases it is well evident that CCSP training has been taken up well by the ASHAs. The training may be refreshed.

  1. Algal biochar enhances the re-vegetation of stockpiled mine soils with native grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David A; Cole, Andrew J; Paul, Nicholas A; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-09-15

    In most countries the mining industry is required to rehabilitate disturbed land with native vegetation. A typical approach is to stockpile soils during mining and then use this soil to recreate landforms after mining. Soil that has been stockpiled for an extended period typically contains little or no organic matter and nutrient, making soil rehabilitation a slow and difficult process. Here, we take freshwater macroalgae (Oedogonium) cultivated in waste water at a coal-fired power station and use it as a feedstock for the production of biochar, then use this biochar to enhance the rehabilitation of two types of stockpiled soil - a ferrosol and a sodosol - from the adjacent coal mine. While the biomass had relatively high concentrations of some metals, due to its cultivation in waste water, the resulting biochar did not leach metals into the pore water of soil-biochar mixtures. The biochar did, however, contribute essential trace elements (particularly K) to soil pore water. The biochar had very strong positive effects on the establishment and growth of a native plant (Kangaroo grass, Themeda australis) in both of the soils. The addition of the algal biochar to both soils at 10 t ha(-1) reduced the time to germination by the grass and increased the growth and production of plant biomass. Somewhat surprisingly, there was no beneficial effect of a higher application rate (25 t ha(-1)) of the biochar in the ferrosol, which highlights the importance of matching biochar application rates to the requirements of different types of soil. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that algal biochar can be produced from biomass cultivated in waste water and used at low application rates to improve the rehabilitation of a variety of soils typical of coal mines. This novel process links biomass production in waste water to end use of the biomass in land rehabilitation, simultaneously addressing two environmental issues associated with coal-mining and processing. Copyright © 2015

  2. 新生儿疼痛管理方法与培训现状%The Method and Train Status of Neonatal Pain Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓玲; 龚苏苏; 谢晓炜

    2013-01-01

    To summarizes the method and training status of neonatal pain management at present.Pain management methods include analgesic method without drug such as oral sucrose water,non nutritional sucking,infant package and kangaroo care,etc,analgesia such as rui fentanyl and propofol used in pediatric endotracheal intubation and others.Training status include lack of authoritative teaching book about a newborn pain management knowledge,lack of specificity questionnaire,and lack of professional teachers and training institutions.We consider that health care workers should adhere to the epistemology of science,grasp the requirements of medical ethics and reflect humanistic care of newborn during the care of the newborn.%总结了目前新生儿疼痛管理方法与培训现状.疼痛管理方法包括非药物性止痛方法如口服蔗糖水、非营养性吸吮、襁褓包裹及袋鼠式护理等,药物镇痛如瑞芬太尼与丙泊酚用于小儿气管插管及其他;培训现状包括权威教科书上缺少关于新生儿疼痛管理知识、缺乏特异性调查问卷、缺乏专业师资及培训机构.认为在新生儿的治疗护理中医护人员要坚持科学的认识论,把握医学伦理学的要求,在日常的治疗护理中体现对新生儿的人文关怀,才能进一步提高医疗护理质量,达到医院与患者的双赢.

  3. Molecular Survey of Bartonella Species and Yersinia pestis in Rodent Fleas (Siphonaptera) From Chihuahua, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-González, Adriana M; Kosoy, Michael Y; Rubio, André V; Graham, Christine B; Montenieri, John A; Osikowicz, Lynn M; Bai, Ying; Acosta-Gutiérrez, Roxana; Ávila-Flores, Rafael; Gage, Kenneth L; Suzán, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Rodent fleas from northwestern Chihuahua, Mexico, were analyzed for the presence of Bartonella and Yersinia pestis. In total, 760 fleas belonging to 10 species were tested with multiplex polymerase chain reaction analysis targeting the gltA (338-bp) and pla genes (478-bp) of Bartonella and Y. pestis, respectively. Although none was positive for Y. pestis, 307 fleas were infected with Bartonella spp., resulting in an overall prevalence of 40.4%. A logistic regression analysis indicated that the presence of Bartonella is more likely to occur in some flea species. From a subset of Bartonella-positive fleas, phylogenetic analyses of gltA gene sequences revealed 13 genetic variants clustering in five phylogroups (I–V), two of which were matched with known pathogenic Bartonella species (Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis and Bartonella washoensis) and two that were not related with any previously described species or subspecies of Bartonella. Variants in phylogroup V, which were mainly obtained from Meringis spp. fleas, were identical to those reported recently in their specific rodent hosts (Dipodomys spp.) in the same region, suggesting that kangaroo rats and their fleas harbor other Bartonella species not reported previously. Considering the Bartonella prevalence and the flea genotypes associated with known pathogenic Bartonella species, we suggest that analysis of rodent and flea communities in the region should continue for their potential implications for human health. Given that nearby locations in the United States have reported Y. pestis in wild animals and their fleas, we suggest conducting larger-scale studies to increase our knowledge of this bacterium.

  4. The types of Palaearctic species of the families Apionidae, Rhynchitidae, Attelabidae and Curculionidae in the collection of Étienne Louis Geoffroy (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso-Zarazaga, M. A.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of 131 more or less complete Curculionoid specimens of the collection Étienne Louis Geoffroy, conserved in the Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de Paris (Entomologie has permitted the identification of several nominal species that were nomina dubia and the establishment of several new synonymies and combinations, and, in some cases, the reversion of precedence following Art. 23.9 of the Code, declaring nomina protecta and nomina oblita. New synonymies are (the first term is the valid name: Lixus filiformis (Fabricius, 1781 = Curculio longus Gmelin, 1790; Lasiorhynchites cavifrons (Gyllenhal, 1833 nom. protectum = Rhinomacer viridis Geoffroy, 1785, nom. oblitum; Byctiscus betulae (Linnaeus, 1758 = Rhinomacer auratus Geoffroy, 1785; Neocoenorrhinus pauxillus (Germar, 1824 nom. protectum = Rhinomacer caeruleus Geoffroy, 1785, nom. oblitum; Deporaus betulae (Linnaeus, 1758 = Curculio nigrostriatus Goeze, 1777 = Rhinomacer niger Geoffroy, 1785 = Curculio fuliginosus Gmelin, 1790; Coniocleonus hollbergii (F√•hraeus, 1842 = Curculio sulcatus Goeze, 1777 = Curculio sulcatus Geoffroy, 1785 = Curculio sulcatus Gmelin, 1790; Larinus iaceae (Fabricius, 1775 = Curculio carduelis Goeze, 1777; Hypera postica (Gyllenhal, 1813, nom. protectum = Curculio fasciolatus Geoffroy, 1785, nom. oblitum; Charagmus griseus (Fabricius, 1775 = Curculio cupreosquamosus Goeze, 1777 = Curculio intersectus Geoffroy, 1785 = Curculio squamosus Gmelin, 1790; Sitona hispidulus (Fabricius, 1777 = Curculio griseus Goeze, 1777 = Curculio modestus Geoffroy, 1785 = Curculio geoffroaei Gmelin, 1790; Aulacobaris cuprirostris (Fabricius, 1787 = Curculio viridisericeus Goeze, 1777; Cleopomiarus plantarum (Germar, 1824, nom. protectum =

  5. Connecting landscape function to hyperspectral reflectance in a dry sub-humid native grassland in southern Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Wendy; Apan, Armando; Alchin, Bruce

    2016-04-01

    Native grasslands cover over 80% of significant ecosystems in Australia, stretching across arid, semi-arid, tropical, sub-tropical and savannah landscapes. Scales of pastoral operations in Australia range from hundreds of hectares to thousands of square kilometres and are predominately found in regions with highly variable rainfall. Land use is governed by the need to cope with droughts, floods and fires. Resilience to climatic extremes can be attained through effective soil management. Connecting landscape function on the fine scale to broad land management objectives is a critical step in evaluation and requires an understanding of the relevant spectral properties in remotely sensed images. The aim of this study was to assess key landscape function indices across spatial scales in order to examine their correlation with hyperspectral reflectance measurements. The results from this study could be applied as a model for land management centred on remote sensing. The study site is located at Stonehenge (southern Queensland) on a moderately deep texture contrast soil with hard setting gravelly topsoil. Mean annual rainfall of 667 mm supports open forest and native perennial pastures with a diverse biocrust dominated by N-fixing cyanobacteria. Land use history is continuous grazing however; it had been destocked for several years prior to our study. There was some evidence of cattle, kangaroos and feral herbivores (rabbits, deer and goats) although impacts appeared to be minimal. We established four land cover types: native pasture - NP1 (~100% FPC - foliage projective cover), native pasture - NP2 (~50% FPC, 50% biocrust), natural bare soil - BC (>80% biocrust), bare and eroded soil - BE (conditions and, with FPC removed in order to record the presence of biocrusts. For each micro-transect, soil samples were taken at 0-1 cm and 1-5 cm depths for isotopic C and N, C:N ratio, and plant-available N analysis. The results were adapted at a landscape scale to represent

  6. On observation distributions for state space models of population survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knape, Jonas; Jonzén, Niclas; Sköld, Martin

    2011-11-01

    1. State space models are starting to replace more simple time series models in analyses of temporal dynamics of populations that are not perfectly censused. By simultaneously modelling both the dynamics and the observations, consistent estimates of population dynamical parameters may be obtained. For many data sets, the distribution of observation errors is unknown and error models typically chosen in an ad-hoc manner. 2. To investigate the influence of the choice of observation error on inferences, we analyse the dynamics of a replicated time series of red kangaroo surveys using a state space model with linear state dynamics. Surveys were performed through aerial counts and Poisson, overdispersed Poisson, normal and log-normal distributions may all be adequate for modelling observation errors for the data. We fit each of these to the data and compare them using AIC. 3. The state space models were fitted with maximum likelihood methods using a recent importance sampling technique that relies on the Kalman filter. The method relaxes the assumption of Gaussian observation errors required by the basic Kalman filter. Matlab code for fitting linear state space models with Poisson observations is provided. 4. The ability of AIC to identify the correct observation model was investigated in a small simulation study. For the parameter values used in the study, without replicated observations, the correct observation distribution could sometimes be identified but model selection was prone to misclassification. On the other hand, when observations were replicated, the correct distribution could typically be identified. 5. Our results illustrate that inferences may differ markedly depending on the observation distributions used, suggesting that choosing an adequate observation model can be critical. Model selection and simulations show that for the models and parameter values in this study, a suitable observation model can typically be identified if observations are

  7. Distribution models for koalas in South Australia using citizen science-collected data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequeira, Ana M M; Roetman, Philip E J; Daniels, Christopher B; Baker, Andrew K; Bradshaw, Corey J A

    2014-06-01

    The koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) occurs in the eucalypt forests of eastern and southern Australia and is currently threatened by habitat fragmentation, climate change, sexually transmitted diseases, and low genetic variability throughout most of its range. Using data collected during the Great Koala Count (a 1-day citizen science project in the state of South Australia), we developed generalized linear mixed-effects models to predict habitat suitability across South Australia accounting for potential errors associated with the dataset. We derived spatial environmental predictors for vegetation (based on dominant species of Eucalyptus or other vegetation), topographic water features, rain, elevation, and temperature range. We also included predictors accounting for human disturbance based on transport infrastructure (sealed and unsealed roads). We generated random pseudo-absences to account for the high prevalence bias typical of citizen-collected data. We accounted for biased sampling effort along sealed and unsealed roads by including an offset for distance to transport infrastructures. The model with the highest statistical support (wAIC c ∼ 1) included all variables except rain, which was highly correlated with elevation. The same model also explained the highest deviance (61.6%), resulted in high R (2)(m) (76.4) and R (2)(c) (81.0), and had a good performance according to Cohen's κ (0.46). Cross-validation error was low (∼ 0.1). Temperature range, elevation, and rain were the best predictors of koala occurrence. Our models predict high habitat suitability in Kangaroo Island, along the Mount Lofty Ranges, and at the tips of the Eyre, Yorke and Fleurieu Peninsulas. In the highest-density region (5576 km(2)) of the Adelaide-Mount Lofty Ranges, a density-suitability relationship predicts a population of 113,704 (95% confidence interval: 27,685-199,723; average density = 5.0-35.8 km(-2)). We demonstrate the power of citizen science data for predicting species

  8. Morbidity and mortality of low birth weight infants in the new born unit of Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simiyu, D E

    2004-07-01

    breast milk, formula or pasteurized cows milk by nasogastric tube, breast feeding or cup feeding. Except for dextrose water, parenteral nutrition was not utilised. Of 63 infants dying with associated anaemia, 43(68%) were not transfused due to lack of reliable blood supply. Compared to previous studies, mortality of LBW infants in KNH- NBU has increased over the years. Improvement in supportive care as regards nutrition, temperature regulation, laboratory back up and respiratory support is recommended. There is a place for trial of kangaroo mother care and simple continous positive airways pressure administration methods. There is a need to ascertain the efficacy of the method of aminophyline administration.

  9. Lecithin decreases human milk fat loss during enteral pumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Melissa M; Nohara, Masaru; Chan, Benjamin R; Curtis, Julie; Chan, Gary M

    2003-05-01

    The fat content of human milk provides the majority of calories for infants. However, large fat losses in human milk have been observed using enteral pump systems, causing poor growth in infants. The fat may adhere in the pump system. Lecithin, a phospholipid, has been used in the food industry as a lipophilic emulsifier of fats. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of lecithin on the delivery of human milk fat from an enteral pump. It is hypothesized that the addition of lecithin would decrease the fat loss during human milk delivery. Six mothers at a mature stage of lactation (>4 weeks of lactation) donated human milk. The human milk samples were stored separately at -20 degrees C before analysis and evaluated individually. The fat content of the milk samples was estimated by the creamatocrit method, in which the samples were centrifuged in a standard hematocrit tube and the fat layer read with vernier calipers and expressed as a percentage of the length of the milk column to the nearest 0.5%. The accuracy of this method is 92%. The Kangaroo 324 Feeding Pump (Sherwood Medical, St. Louis, MO) was used as the continuous pump system. The human milk samples were divided into either control samples without lecithin or with lecithin (1 or 0.5 g soy lecithin dissolved in 50 mL milk). All samples were pumped at 10 to 50 mL/h for at least 4 hours. The pumped milk was collected in an iced container, and creamatocrits were determined in duplicate. There was significant fat loss in the control milk samples compared with the milk samples with added lecithin. The average fat loss was 58% +/- 13% for control samples and 55% +/- 26% for the milk with 0.5 g soy lecithin. Milk with 1 g soy lecithin averaged 2% +/- 2% fat loss. The pumping rate had no effect on fat loss. The greatest fat loss (70% +/- 6%)occurred during the first 4 hours of pumping. The addition of 1 g soy lecithin per 50 mL milk decreased the human milk fat loss during intermittent pumping and may

  10. Energy Homeostasis in Monotremes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart C. Nicol

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1803, the French anatomist Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire decided that the newly described echidna and platypus should be placed in a separate order, the monotremes, intermediate between reptiles and mammals. The first physiological observations showed monotremes had low body temperatures and metabolic rates, and the consensus was that they were at a stage of physiological development intermediate between “higher mammals” and “lower vertebrates.” Subsequent studies demonstrated that platypuses and echidnas are capable of close thermoregulation in the cold although less so under hot conditions. Because the short-beaked echidna Tachyglossus aculeatus, may show very large daily variations in body temperature, as well as seasonal hibernation, it has been suggested that it may provide a useful model of protoendotherm physiology. Such analysis is complicated by the very significant differences in thermal relations between echidnas from different climates. In all areas female echidnas regulate Tb within 1°C during egg incubation. The lactation period is considered to be the most energetically expensive time for most female mammals but lactating echidnas showed no measurable difference in field metabolic rate from non-lactating females, while the lactation period is more than 200 days for Kangaroo Island echidnas but only 150 days in Tasmania. In areas with mild winters echidnas show reduced activity and shallow torpor in autumn and early winter, but in areas with cold winters echidnas enter true hibernation with Tb falling as low as 4.5°C. Monotremes do not possess brown adipose tissue and maximum rates of rewarming from hibernation in echidnas were only half those of marmots of the same mass. Although echidnas show very large seasonal variations in fat stores associated with hibernation there is no relationship between plasma leptin and adiposity. Leptin levels are lowest during post-reproductive fattening, supporting suggestions that in

  11. Setting research priorities to reduce global mortality from preterm birth and low birth weight by 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahl, Rajiv; Martines, Jose; Bhandari, Nita; Biloglav, Zrinka; Edmond, Karen; Iyengar, Sharad; Kramer, Michael; Lawn, Joy E; Manandhar, D S; Mori, Rintaro; Rasmussen, Kathleen M; Sachdev, H P S; Singhal, Nalini; Tomlinson, Mark; Victora, Cesar; Williams, Anthony F; Chan, Kit Yee; Rudan, Igor

    2012-06-01

    This paper aims to identify health research priorities that could improve the rate of progress in reducing global neonatal mortality from preterm birth and low birth weight (PB/LBW), as set out in the UN's Millennium Development Goal 4. We applied the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) methodology for setting priorities in health research investments. In the process coordinated by the World Health Organization in 2007-2008, 21 researchers with interest in child, maternal and newborn health suggested 82 research ideas that spanned across the broad spectrum of epidemiological research, health policy and systems research, improvement of existing interventions and development of new interventions. The 82 research questions were then assessed for answerability, effectiveness, deliverability, maximum potential for mortality reduction and the effect on equity using the CHNRI method. The top 10 identified research priorities were dominated by health systems and policy research questions (eg, identification of LBW infants born at home within 24-48 hours of birth for additional care; approaches to improve quality of care of LBW infants in health facilities; identification of barriers to optimal home care practices including care seeking; and approaches to increase the use of antenatal corticosteriods in preterm labor and to improve access to hospital care for LBW infants). These were followed by priorities for improvement of the existing interventions (eg, early initiation of breastfeeding, including feeding mode and techniques for those unable to suckle directly from the breast; improved cord care, such as chlorhexidine application; and alternative methods to Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) to keep LBW infants warm in community settings). The highest-ranked epidemiological question suggested improving criteria for identifying LBW infants who need to be cared for in a hospital. Among the new interventions, the greatest support was shown for the development of

  12. Método piel a piel: Evaluación clínica-humoral durante el primer año de edad corregida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Acosta Díaz

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de conocer la influencia del método piel a piel sobre el estado clínico-humoral en prematuros atendidos por este método durante su primer año de vida, se analizaron 120 nacidos vivos en el Hospital Ginecoobstétrico Provincial Docente "Justo Legón Padilla" de Pinar del Río, desde el 1 de enero al 30 de junio de 2000 (grupo estudio. El grupo control estuvo formado por los niños con iguales características, nacidos entre el 1 de julio al 31 de diciembre de 2000 y atendidos por el método tradicional. A toda la muestra se le confeccionó una planilla donde se recogieron todos los resultados de la historia clínica y su seguimiento nutricional e inmunológico en consulta, incluyendo 2 extracciones sanguíneas para la determinación de inmunoglobulinas (6 y 12 meses. Se elaboró una base de datos en Microsoft Excel-2000; se aplicó la prueba de Student con el objetivo de comparar las medias de ambos grupos, además de la prueba de chi cuadrado, ambos con un intervalo de confianza de p To find out the influence of the Kangaroo mother care method on the clinical and humoral status of preterm infants cared for by this method during their first year of life, 120 neonates born at "Justo Legón Padilla" gynecological and obstetric hospital of Pínar del Río province from January 1st to June 30th, 2000 were analyzed (the study group. The control group was formed by children with the same characteristics but born from July 1st to December 31st and cared for by the traditional method. A form was prepared to be administered to the whole sample where results of the clinical history and information from the nutritional and immune follow-up at the doctor´s office including two blood extractions for determining the level of immunoglobulins (at 6 and 12 months of age were collected. A database in Microsoft Excel-2000 was made; Student´s test was applied to the sample to compare the means of both groups in addition to the Chi square test

  13. Comparative cortical bone thickness between the long bones of humans and five common non-human mammal taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croker, Sarah L; Reed, Warren; Donlon, Denise

    2016-03-01

    The task of identifying fragments of long bone shafts as human or non-human is difficult but necessary, for both forensic and archaeological cases, and a fast simple method is particularly useful. Previous literature suggests there may be differences in the thickness of the cortical bone between these two groups, but this has not been tested thoroughly. The aim of this study was not only to test this suggestion, but also to provide data that could be of practical assistance for future comparisons. The major limb bones (humerus, radius, femur and tibia) of 50 Caucasoid adult skeletons of known age and sex were radiographed, along with corresponding skeletal elements from sheep, pigs, cattle, large dogs and kangaroos. Measurements were taken from the radiographs at five points along the bone shaft, of shaft diameter, cortical bone thickness, and a cortical thickness index (sum of cortices divided by shaft diameter) in both anteroposterior and mediolateral orientations. Each variable for actual cortical bone thickness as well as cortical thickness indices were compared between the human group (split by sex) and each of the non-human groups in turn, using Student's t-tests. Results showed that while significant differences did exist between the human groups and many of the non-human groups, these were not all in the same direction. That is, some variables in the human groups were significantly greater than, and others were significantly less than, the corresponding variable in the non-human groups, depending on the particular non-human group, sex of the human group, or variable under comparison. This was the case for measurements of both actual cortical bone thickness and cortical thickness index. Therefore, for bone shaft fragments for which the skeletal element is unknown, the overlap in cortical bone thickness between different areas of different bones is too great to allow identification using this method alone. However, by providing extensive cortical bone

  14. Global report on preterm birth and stillbirth (4 of 7: delivery of interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Craig E

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The efficacious interventions identified in the previous article of this report will fail unless they are delivered at high and equitable coverage. This article discusses critical delivery constraints and strategies. Barriers to scaling up interventions Achieving universal coverage entails addressing major barriers at many levels. An overarching constraint is the lack of political will, resulting from the dearth of preterm birth and stillbirth data and the lack of visibility. Other barriers exist at the household and community levels, such as insufficient demand for interventions or sociocultural barriers; at the health services level, such as a lack of resources and trained healthcare providers; and at the health sector policy and management level, such as poorly functioning, centralized systems. Additional constraints involve weak governance and accountability, political instability, and challenges in the physical environment. Strategies and examples Scaling up maternal, newborn and child health interventions requires strengthening health systems, but there is also a role for focused, targeted interventions. Choosing a strategy involves identifying appropriate channels for reaching high coverage, which depends on many factors such as access to and attendance at healthcare facilities. Delivery channels vary, and may include facility- and community-based healthcare providers, mass media campaigns, and community-based approaches and marketing strategies. Issues related to scaling up are discussed in the context of four interventions that may be given to mothers at different stages throughout pregnancy or to newborns: (1 detection and treatment of syphilis; (2 emergency Cesarean section; (3 newborn resuscitation; and (4 kangaroo mother care. Systematic reviews of the literature and large-scale implementation studies are analyzed for each intervention. Conclusion Equitable and successful scale-up of preterm birth and stillbirth

  15. Strengthening health facilities for maternal and newborn care: experiences from rural eastern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertrude Namazzi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Uganda maternal and neonatal mortality remains high due to a number of factors, including poor quality of care at health facilities. Objective: This paper describes the experience of building capacity for maternal and newborn care at a district hospital and lower-level health facilities in eastern Uganda within the existing system parameters and a robust community outreach programme. Design: This health system strengthening study, part of the Uganda Newborn Study (UNEST, aimed to increase frontline health worker capacity through district-led training, support supervision, and mentoring at one district hospital and 19 lower-level facilities. A once-off supply of essential medicines and equipment was provided to address immediate critical gaps. Health workers were empowered to requisition subsequent supplies through use of district resources. Minimal infrastructure adjustments were provided. Quantitative data collection was done within routine process monitoring and qualitative data were collected during support supervision visits. We use the World Health Organization Health System Building Blocks to describe the process of district-led health facility strengthening. Results: Seventy two per cent of eligible health workers were trained. The mean post-training knowledge score was 68% compared to 32% in the pre-training test, and 80% 1 year later. Health worker skills and competencies in care of high-risk babies improved following support supervision and mentoring. Health facility deliveries increased from 3,151 to 4,115 (a 30% increase in 2 years. Of 547 preterm babies admitted to the newly introduced kangaroo mother care (KMC unit, 85% were discharged alive to continue KMC at home. There was a non-significant declining trend for in-hospital neonatal deaths across the 2-year study period. While equipment levels remained high after initial improvement efforts, maintaining supply of even the most basic medications was a challenge, with

  16. Tecnologia e humanização na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal: reflexões no contexto do processo saúde-doença Tecnología y humanización en la Unidad de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal: reflexiones sobre el contexto del proceso salud enfermedad Technology and humanization of the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: reflections in the context of the health-illness process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Johanson da Silva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de reflexão acerca da tecnologia e da humanização do cuidado ao recém-nascido, tendo como preceito teórico o processo saúde-doença. São estabelecidos alguns paralelos entre as concepções de saúde e de doença, e suas influências em nosso modelo de agir e pensar nos espaços da assistência, como sujeitos do cuidado neonatal. O método mãe-canguru é apresentado como tecnologia relacional, que propõe o acolhimento da unidade família-bebê na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal, valorizando as vivências e necessidades primordiais de afetividade e compreensão.Se trata de reflexión acerca de la tecnología y de la humanización del cuidado al recién nacido, teniendo como marco teórico el proceso salud enfermedad. Son establecidos algunos paralelos entre las concepciones de salud y de enfermedad y sus influencias en nuestro modelo de actuar y pensar en los espacios de la asistencia, como sujetos del cuidado neonatal. El método madre canguro es presentado como tecnología relacional que propone el acogimiento de la unidad familia bebé en la Unidad de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal, valorizando las vivencias y necesidades primordiales de afectividad y comprensión.This article reflects on technology and humanization in care of newborns, having as theoretical premise the health-illness process. Some parallels are established among the several conceptions of health and illness, and their influences in the way we behave and think about the care spaces as subjects of the neonatal care. The Kangaroo Mother Care is presented as a relational technology that proposes to shelter the family-baby unity in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, valuing experiences and major needs of affection and comprehension.

  17. Interspecies allometric scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Robert P

    2010-01-01

    Lack of approved pharmaceutical agents and very limited pharmacokinetic data in the scientific literature for exotic, wildlife, and zoo species are a major issue for veterinarians treating these species. There are fewer than 15 compounds approved in the United States for zoo and wildlife species compared to nearly 300 drugs licensed for cattle. Zoo veterinarians are therefore required to extrapolate the use of approved agents (veterinary or human) to nonapproved species, often with little or no scientific basis to support drug or dose schedule selection. In general, species differences in drug absorption, metabolism, distribution, and excretion have been well documented for domestic species. However, there has been limited research to provide similar data for nondomestic species. Consequently, with the possible exception of pet bird species, there is little published information on the pharmacokinetic parameters of drugs in nondomestic species. Additionally, because of the commercial value of many zoo species, the traditional method of "trial and error" for drug and dose selection and related compliance issues is often inappropriate. There is an understandable concern, whereby the zoo veterinarian does not wish to be the first to administer an agent or formulation in an untested species. "One medicine" is a central concept in treating zoo species, in that vertebrate species are generally more similar than dissimilar. However, drug absorption can vary within as well as between species. Considering the anatomical differences between true monogastrics (canine and feline species), hind-gut fermentors (rodents, rabbits, horses, and elephants), fore-gut fermentors (Colobus monkeys and kangaroos), and ruminants (cattle, goats, sheep, and antelope), the potential for differences in pharmacokinetic profiles are marked. Moreover, there are potential differences between organisms in a single class. An example is the ability of several snake species to up- and down

  18. Molecular Investigations of Bacteroides as Microbial Source Tracking Tools in Southeast Louisiana Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, C. J.; Childers, G. W.; Engel, A. S.

    2006-12-01

    Microbial Source Tracking (MST) is a developing field that is gaining increased attention. MST refers to a host of techniques that discriminates among the origins of fecal material found in natural waters from different sources (e.g. human, livestock, and wildlife) by using microbial indicator species with specificity to only certain host organisms. The development of species-specific molecular markers would allow for better evaluation of public health risks and tracking of nutrient sources impacting a watershed. Although several MST methods have been reported with varying levels of success, few offer general applicability for natural waters due to spatial and temporal constraints associated with these methods. One group of molecular MST markers that show promise for broad environmental applications are molecular 16S rDNA probes for Bacteroides. This method is based on 16S rDNA detection directly from environmental samples without the need for a preliminary cultivation step. In this study we have expanded previous sampling efforts to compile a database of over 1000 partial 16S rRNA Bacteroides genes retrieved from the fecal material of 15 different host species (human, cat, dog, pig, kangaroo). To characterize survival of Bacteroides outside of the host, survival time of the Bacteroides marker was compared to that of E.coli under varying natural environmental conditions (temperature and salinity). Bacteroides displayed a survival curve with shouldering and tailing similar to that of E.coli, but log reduction times differed with treatment. In summary, MST marker stability was identified within host species and the overall Bacteroides community structure correlated to host diet, suggesting that detection of a Bacteroides community could confidently identify fecal contamination point sources. Natural water samples from southeast Louisiana were collected for MST including the Tangipahoa River watershed where the source of fecal contamination has been hotly debated. The

  19. 朱天心小说中的边缘主妇形象%The Marginalized Housewives in Zhu Tianxin’s Novels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅燕婷

    2015-01-01

    台湾当代女作家朱天心的《袋鼠族物语》、《鹤妻》,以动物寓言的方式,塑造了一群现代都市中心灵枯竭、独自啃噬寂寞的家庭主妇。不同于以往底层都市女性挣扎在生活的琐碎和温饱之中,也不同于张爱玲笔下的女性纠缠在与男性的爱情游戏中。袋鼠妈妈、洞窟女性都是受过高等教育的现代女性,然而袋鼠妈妈在有了小兽成为专职母亲后,远离丈夫、朋友、社会,内心幽闭,失去自我最终走向自杀。洞窟女性在物价不断上涨的危机中,在物质文明和消费社会挤压下,不断囤货,穷凶极恶般经营着自己的巢穴,内心无名的挣扎和焦虑,犹如置身荒原。%Taiwan contemporary writer Zhu Tianxin,in her works “Kangaroos Story”,“Wives like Crane”and “Butterfly Women”,shaped a group of exhaustion,solitude housewives and wives in mod-ern city in parable way.Unlike previous female images such as the women struggling against poverty, or the women entangled themselves in love game with men,the three types of women written by Zhu Tianxin focus on the women who are with high education in modern city.But when they became a full-time housewives,they were away from their husbands,friends and society,and they lost themselves and committed suicide in the end.

  20. Species' traits help predict small mammal responses to habitat homogenization by an invasive grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceradini, Joseph P; Chalfoun, Anna D

    2017-07-01

    Invasive plants can negatively affect native species, however, the strength, direction, and shape of responses may vary depending on the type of habitat alteration and the natural history of native species. To prioritize conservation of vulnerable species, it is therefore critical to effectively predict species' responses to invasive plants, which may be facilitated by a framework based on species' traits. We studied the population and community responses of small mammals and changes in habitat heterogeneity across a gradient of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) cover, a widespread invasive plant in North America. We live-trapped small mammals over two summers and assessed the effect of cheatgrass on native small mammal abundance, richness, and species-specific and trait-based occupancy, while accounting for detection probability and other key habitat elements. Abundance was only estimated for the most common species, deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus). All species were pooled for the trait-based occupancy analysis to quantify the ability of small mammal traits (habitat association, mode of locomotion, and diet) to predict responses to cheatgrass invasion. Habitat heterogeneity decreased with cheatgrass cover. Deer mouse abundance increased marginally with cheatgrass. Species richness did not vary with cheatgrass, however, pocket mouse (Perognathus spp.) and harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys spp.) occupancy tended to decrease and increase, respectively, with cheatgrass cover, suggesting a shift in community composition. Cheatgrass had little effect on occupancy for deer mice, 13-lined ground squirrels (Spermophilus tridecemlineatus), and Ord's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ordii). Species' responses to cheatgrass primarily corresponded with our a priori predictions based on species' traits. The probability of occupancy varied significantly with a species' habitat association but not with diet or mode of locomotion. When considered within the context of a rapid habitat change

  1. The determinants of the step frequency in running, trotting and hopping in man and other vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagna, G A; Franzetti, P; Heglund, N C; Willems, P

    1988-05-01

    1. During each step of running, trotting or hopping part of the gravitational and kinetic energy of the body is absorbed and successively restored by the muscles as in an elastic rebound. In this study we analysed the vertical motion of the centre of gravity of the body during this rebound and defined the relationship between the apparent natural frequency of the bouncing system and the step frequency at the different speeds. 2. The step period and the vertical oscillation of the centre of gravity during the step were divided into two parts: a part taking place when the vertical force exerted on the ground is greater than body weight (lower part of the oscillation) and a part taking place when this force is smaller than body weight (upper part of the oscillation). This analysis was made on running humans and birds; trotting dogs, monkeys and rams; and hopping kangaroos and springhares. 3. During trotting and low-speed running the rebound is symmetric, i.e. the duration and the amplitude of the lower part of the vertical oscillation of the centre of gravity are about equal to those of the upper part. In this case, the step frequency equals the frequency of the bouncing system. 4. At high speeds of running and in hopping the rebound is asymmetric, i.e. the duration and the amplitude of the upper part of the oscillation are greater than those of the lower part, and the step frequency is lower than the frequency of the system. 5. The asymmetry is due to a relative increase in the vertical push. At a given speed, the asymmetric bounce requires a greater power to maintain the motion of the centre of gravity of the body, Wext, than the symmetric bounce. A reduction of the push would decrease Wext but the resulting greater step frequency would increase the power required to accelerate the limbs relative to the centre of gravity, Wint. It is concluded that the asymmetric rebound is adopted in order to minimize the total power, Wext + Wint.

  2. Demonstration of Two Portable Scanning LiDAR Systems Flown at Low-Altitude for Investigating Coastal Sea Surface Topography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorg Hacker

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the efficacy of a commercial portable 2D laser scanner (operating at a wavelength close to 1,000 nm deployed from a fixed-wing aircraft for measuring the sea surface topography and wave profiles over coastal waters. The LiDAR instrumentation enabled simultaneous measurements of the 2D laser scanner with two independent inertial navigation units, and also simultaneous measurements with a more advanced 2D laser scanner (operating at a wavelength near 1,500 nm. The latter scanner is used routinely for accurately measuring terrestrial topography and was used as a benchmark in this study. We present examples of sea surface topography and wave profiles based on low altitude surveys (< ~300 m over coastal waters in the vicinity of Cape de Couedic, Kangaroo Island, South Australia and over the surf zone adjacent to the mouth of the Murray River, South Australia. Relative wave heights in the former survey are shown to be consistent with relative wave heights observed from a waverider buoy located near Cape de Couedic during the LiDAR survey. The sea surface topography of waves in the surf zone was successfully mapped with both laser scanners resolving relative wave height variations and fine structure of the sea surface to within approximately 10 cm. A topographic map of the sea surface referenced to the airborne sensor frame transforms to an accurate altimetry map which may be used with airborne electromagnetic instrumentation to provide an averaged altimetry covering a portion of the larger electromagnetic footprint. This averaged altimetry is deemed to be significantly more reliable as a measurement of altimetry than spot measurements using a nadir-looking laser altimeter and would therefore improve upon the use of airborne electromagnetic methods for bathymetric mapping in surf-zone waters. The aperture range of the scanner does not necessarily determine the swath. We observed that instead, the maximum swath at a given altitude was

  3. Grassland Degradation Alters Soil Carbon Turnover through Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamer, C.; Prober, S. M.; Chappell, A.; Farrell, M.; Baldock, J.

    2015-12-01

    Ecosystem degradation is widespread and changes in aboveground plant communities alter belowground soil processes. In Australia, grassy eucalyptus woodlands dominated by kangaroo grasses (Themeda trianda) were widely cleared during European settlement for agriculture, with only fragments remaining of this now threatened ecosystem. As remnant grassland fragments are used for livestock grazing, Themeda transitions through states of degradation, starting with red grasses (Bothriochloa spp) and then proceeding to less productive, increasingly degraded states dominated by either annual exotic weeds or native wallaby grasses (Rytidosperma spp) and spear grasses (Austrastipa spp). The aim of our experiment was to determine how soil organic matter dynamics (including erosion, root biomass, C storage and turnover) have been altered by the transition from deeply-rooted Themeda grass systems to more shallowly-rooted annual exotic weeds and wallaby/spear grass states. We sampled soils in five depth-based increments (0-5, 5-15, 15-30, 30-60, 60-100 cm) across this ecosystem transition at five sites across New South Wales, Australia. Caseium-137 analysis indicated erosion rates were similar among all ecosystems and were consistent with levels for grasslands in the region. Compared to the remnant Themeda grass systems, the degraded states had lower root biomass, lower carbon stocks and C:N ratios in the coarse fraction (> 50 μm), lower fungal : bacterial ratios, higher available phosphate, higher alkyl : O-alkyl C ratios, and faster mineralization of synthetic root-exudate carbon. All these metrics indicate the surprising finding of more microbially processed OM and faster turnover of newly added C in the degraded sites. Compared to one another, the two degraded sites differed in both C and N turnover, with the exotic weeds having higher dissolved organic N, inorganic N, and coarse fraction N, higher fine fraction C stocks, and greater microbial biomass. These differences likely

  4. Evidence based review: positive versus negative effects of livestock grazing on wildlife. What do we really know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieltz, Jennifer M.; Rubenstein, Daniel I.

    2016-11-01

    More than a quarter of earth’s land surface is used for grazing domestic livestock. Livestock grazing is generally assumed to negatively affect wildlife, however, a number of studies have found positive impacts as well. We conducted an evidence-based review of the existing literature using a series of livestock- and wildlife-related search words to systematically query Google Scholar and Web of Science. A total of 807 sources were included in the final list, including 646 primary sources which reported original data. The majority of studies were conducted in North America (338) or Europe (123), with many fewer from Africa (57), Australia (54), Central/South America (43), or Asia (31). Most studies examined birds (330) and mammals (262), with fewer including reptiles (91) or amphibians (58). We extracted further information from studies that included mammals on positive, negative, and neutral effects of livestock grazing on mammals. We found that livestock change vegetation structure and cover in ways important to small mammals, while ungulates may be affected more by interference competition and changes in forage quantity and quality. Community-level total abundance of small mammals typically declines with grazing. Species richness of small mammals either declines or stays the same, as many studies found a change in species composition from ungrazed to grazed sites while the number of species remained similar. Individual species responses of small mammals vary. Voles, harvest mice, cotton rats, and shrews show consistently negative responses to grazing while deer mice, kangaroo rats, ground squirrels, and lagomorphs show positive or variable responses. In general, species adapted to open habitats are often positively affected by grazing, while species needing denser cover are negatively affected. Studies of wild ungulates are more variable in methodology and quality than those for small mammals. We found more negative (n = 86) than positive (n = 34) ungulate

  5. Visión de las madres en el cuidado del hijo prematuro en el hogar Visão das mães no cuidado do filho prematuro em casa Vision of mothers in care of premature babies at home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia Castiblanco López

    2011-07-01

    e analisada segundo a entrevista e análises etnográficos de James Spradley. Participantes: oito mães de recém nascidos prematuros que compareceram para controle no Programa Mãe Canguru Integral, Hospital Universitário São Ignácio, entre novembro de 2007 e maio de 2008. Resultados: surgem duas questões: cuidados diretos ao recém nascido prematuro e o caminho até a adaptação. O cuidado direto ao recém nascido prematuro em casa implica para a mãe carregar, massagear, proteger do frio, alimentar à criança, manter a higiene, conservar a proteção do médio, dar amor, suprir oxigeno suplementar ao bebê quando o precisar e saber sobre os sinais da criança. O caminho para a adaptação materna está dirigido a um objetivo para as mães: "criar a criança". Elas expressam que as noites são muito difíceis e expressam seus sentimentos e finalmente descrevem a adaptação materna ao hábito. Conclusão: a visão das mães sobre o cuidado do recém nascido prematuro é universal: "cuidar muito da criança" e ficar sempre atenta; por outro lado, a conotação de cuidado é diversa porque cada mãe o cataloga, desde sua própria percepção, como cuidado extremo, básico, essencial e especial. Também as mães compartilharam crenças, valores, tradições e mitos.Purpose: To describe the significance of taking care of premature babies at home for mothers, from their cultural context. Design: qualitative ethnographic study based on Madeleine Leininger's theory. Sample: Information obtained from observation and 23 interviews to mothers at home was collected and analyzed in accordance to the interview and James Spradley ethnographic analysis. Participants: eight mothers of premature newborns attending control at the Integral Kangaroo Mother Program (Programa Madre Canguro Integral, Hospital Universitario San Ignacio, between November 2007 and May 2008. Results: Two subjects arise: premature newborn care and the way to adaptation. Direct care to premature

  6. Reproduction and embryonic diapause in a marsupial: insights from captive female Honey possums, Tarsipes rostratus (Tarsipedidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, J E; Bradshaw, F J; Bradshaw, S D; Stead-Richardson, E J; Philippe, D L

    2007-02-01

    The reproductive physiology of the polyoestrous Honey possum (Tarsipes rostratus) is virtually unknown except that it shares with the kangaroos and wallabies the phenomenon of embryonic diapause. Its tiny size necessitates an alternate approach to study their reproductive cycle. We have accordingly utilised faecal steroid analysis. Baseline faecal cortisol levels in the Honey possum, at 4.1+/-0.3 mug g-1, are approximately 100-fold those of other mammals and are associated with adrenal glands that, on a mass-specific basis, are almost 10 times larger than the adrenals of other mammalian, including marsupial, species. Histological examination of the adrenal glands revealed no abnormalities, however, but their hypertrophy and the peaks recorded in faecal levels following disturbance suggest that the Honey possum is vulnerable to chronic stressors in the captive situation. Mean faecal progestagens (124.4+/-107.3 ng g-1) and oestradiol-17beta (4.1+/-1.1 ng g-1) in 4 non-pregnant females maintained long term were not different from those of 5 pregnant females (101.4+/-61.0 ng g-1 and 4.3+/-1.5 ng g-1, respectively) and, on analysis, revealed a cyclicity of 24+/-1.2 days. We would predict from this evidence that the gestation period, in the absence of lactation, is approximately 23 days. Four of the pregnant females, monitored from July to November under conditions of 10:14 L:D photoperiod, showed a fall in levels of progestagens from 175.9+/-10.8 ng g-1 in July and August to 30.9+/-9.4 ng g-1 in October, while mean faecal levels of oestradiol-17beta increased from 3.8+/-0.4 ng g-1 in July to 5.7+/-0.3 ng g-1 in October. September and October are months of peak reproductive activity in the wild and we suggest that these hormonal modulations may represent an entrained reproductive rhythm. Blastocysts appear to develop at varying rates, both within the one uterus, and between the two uteri of a single female. In addition, the time taken to reach the blastocyst stage may be

  7. Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Brian F.; Albrecht, Eric W.; Halvorson, William L.; Schmidt, Cecilia A.; Docherty, Kathleen; Anning, Pamela

    2006-01-01

    the species richness at the monument. Also important is the wide range of conditions at the site. The diversity of plants results from a wide variety of soil types and aspects (from the cool, moist Cliff Dweller Canyon to dry mesa slopes) and an abundance of water from the West Fork of the Gila River. In turn, the vertebrate communities respond to this diversity of vegetation, topography, and microsites. For example, for each taxonomic group we found species that were only associated with a single community type, most often the riparian areas along the West and Middle forks of the Gila River. We found cause for significant concern with regard to loss of species in the last few decades. One species of amphibian (Chiricahua leopard frog) is certainly extirpated from the area. Three other species of amphibians (Mexican spadefoot, Woodhouse's toad, and red-spotted toad), reported as being 'common' in the area in 1971, were not found during our surveys. In addition, we did not find three species of rodents that were found in 1965: silky pocket mouse, Ord's kangaroo rat, and southern grasshopper mouse. The monument's aquatic vertebrate component, in particular, may be at a critical juncture whereby other species, such as gartersnakes, may be poised for extirpation. Declining abundance of native fish species has been demonstrated from long-term monitoring of these communities along the Middle Fork of the Gila River. This report includes lists of species recorded by us or species likely to be recorded with additional survey effort. It also includes management implications from our work - how the monument staff might better maintain or enhance the unique biological resources of the monument. This study is the first step in a long-term process of compiling information on the biological resources of the monument and its surrounding areas. We recommend additional inventory and monitoring studies and identify components of our effort that could be improved upon

  8. The sequence, structure and evolutionary features of HOTAIR in mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    . Conclusions HOTAIR exists in mammals, has poorly conserved sequences and considerably conserved structures, and has evolved faster than nearby HoxC genes. Exons of HOTAIR show distinct evolutionary features, and a 239 bp domain in the 1804 bp exon6 is especially conserved. These features, together with the absence of some exons and sequences in mouse, rat and kangaroo, suggest ab initio generation of HOTAIR in marsupials. Structure prediction identifies two fragments in the 5' end exon1 and the 3' end domain B of exon6, with sequence and structure invariably occurring in various predicted structures of exon1, the domain B of exon6 and the full HOTAIR. PMID:21496275

  9. Nasal bots...a fascinating world!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo-Valadez, Carlos E; Scholl, Philip J; Cepeda-Palacios, Ramón; Jacquiet, Philippe; Dorchies, Philippe

    2010-11-24

    Larvae causing obligatory myiasis are numerous and they may affect cutaneous and subcutaneous tissues, wounds, nasopharyngeal cavities (nasal bots), internal organs and the digestive tract (bots) of domestic and wild animals and humans as well. Nasal bots belong to the Family Oestridae, Subfamily Oestrinae, which includes several important genera: Oestrus, Kirkioestrus, and Gedoelstia infecting Artiodactyla (except Cervidae) in Africa and Eurasia, Cephenemyia and Pharyngomyia infecting Cervidae, Rhinoestrus infecting horses, Cephalopina infecting camels, Pharyngobolus infecting African elephants, and Tracheomyia infecting Australian kangaroos. Nasal bots are widespread in Mediterranean and tropical areas and in affected animals they induce sneezing and nasal discharge which may become caked with dust making breathing very difficult. The aforementioned species of larvae are host-specific but sometimes the may be deposited in human eyes inducing a painful opthalmomyiasis of short duration. The first fascinating trait of these parasites is the very efficient morphological and biological adaptations to parasitism they show either as larvae or as adults, in order to facilitate their survival and search for a suitable host. Nasal bots have reached different degrees of complexity in their life cycles. Indeed, while for some species (e.g., Oestrus ovis, Rhinoestrus usbekistanicus) larvae are injected by flies directly into nostrils and develop in the sinuses before being ejected for external pupation, some other species migrate from eyes to blood before returning to nasal cavities either through the ethmoid bone (Gedoelstia hässleri) or via lungs and bronchi (Gedoelstia cristata). Moreover, larvae are very well-adapted to their environment being able to undergo through hypobiosis either inside or outside the host, according to the climatic environmental conditions and seasonality. The second fascinating trait of nasal bots is related to host behavioural and immune

  10. A maternidade prematura: o suporte emocional através da fé e religiosidade Maternitad prematura: el apoyo emocional por la fe y religiosidad Prematurely motherhood: the emotional support through faith and religiosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Meira Véras

    2010-06-01

    .This article aimed to develop reflection about the spirituality and religiosity use by mothers, users of Kangaroo Method in a Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde maternity in Rio Grande do Norte State. The approach used was the qualitative research, using participant observation, informal chats, semi directed interviews, and mothers' life story as procedure to data collection. Data were collected through meetings in Mothers in prayer (Mães em Oração, group developed by nursing team in this maternity. As the result, the analysis showed that the spiritual practice and the religiosity were used as a support in difficult situations at Neonatal Intensive Therapy Unit, as well as allowed the possibility to speak about spirituality in this maternity. This practice, even unconnected with everyday health care, contributes to humanize health care assistance, tightening the bond among mother, child, family and multidisciplinary team as well.

  11. 哺乳动物的消化策略(英文)%DIGESTIVE STRATEGIES OF MAMMALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Understanding an animal's nutritional niche is fundamental to a full appreciation of its ecology,and is important for both pest control and species conservation purposes.Carnivores have digestive systems dominated by the small intestine,which can be related to the generally high digestibility of their food.Omnivores have more complex gastrointestinal tracts,with a hindgut caecum in which some microbial fermentation takes place,and they have longer mean retention times (MRTs) of digesta.The longest MRTs are found in herbivores,in which digesta are retained and fermented by dense microbial populations in one or more regions of relative stasis.However,not all herbivores have digestive systems that maximise fibre digestibility; only ruminants,camelids and very large hindgut fermenters (rhinos,elephants) achieve this.Instead,many other herbivores (foregut fermenters such as kangaroos and small hindgut fermenters such as rabbits,voles and possums) have digestive systems that sacrifice maximal fibre digestibility for a capacity to process large amounts of forage,even when forage fibre content becomes very high.These different digestive strategies result in the wide range of nutritional niches found among mammals.%理解动物的营养生态位是充分理解其整个生态学的基础,对于害兽控制和物种保护也很重要.食肉动物的小肠很发达,这可能与对食物的高消化能力有关;杂食性动物有更复杂的胃肠器官,其后端有可进行发酵的盲肠,消化物的平均滞留时间(mean retention times,MRTs)更长;最长的平均滞留时间见于食草动物,其消化道内高密度的微生物种群对不同滞留区内的消化物进行发酵.但是,并不是所有的食草动物都能够最大程度地消化植物纤维,只有反刍动物、骆驼和个体较大的后肠发酵动物(hindgut fermenter)能够具有这种能力.对比而言,许多其它的食草动物,如前肠发酵的有袋类和小型的后肠发酵动物如兔子、

  12. A systematic mapping review of effective interventions for communicating with, supporting and providing information to parents of preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Jo; Staniszewska, Sophie; Newburn, Mary; Jones, Nicola; Taylor, Lesley

    2011-06-02

    Background and objective The birth of a preterm infant can be an overwhelming experience of guilt, fear and helplessness for parents. Provision of interventions to support and engage parents in the care of their infant may improve outcomes for both the parents and the infant. The objective of this systematic review is to identify and map out effective interventions for communication with, supporting and providing information for parents of preterm infants. Design Systematic searches were conducted in the electronic databases Medline, Embase, PsychINFO, the Cochrane library, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Midwives Information and Resource Service, Health Management Information Consortium, and Health Management and Information Service. Hand-searching of reference lists and journals was conducted. Studies were included if they provided parent-reported outcomes of interventions relating to information, communication and/or support for parents of preterm infants prior to the birth, during care at the neonatal intensive care unit and after going home with their preterm infant. Titles and abstracts were read for relevance, and papers judged to meet inclusion criteria were included. Papers were data-extracted, their quality was assessed, and a narrative summary was conducted in line with the York Centre for Reviews and Dissemination guidelines. Studies reviewed Of the 72 papers identified, 19 papers were randomised controlled trials, 16 were cohort or quasi-experimental studies, and 37 were non-intervention studies. Results Interventions for supporting, communicating with, and providing information to parents that have had a premature infant are reported. Parents report feeling supported through individualised developmental and behavioural care programmes, through being taught behavioural assessment scales, and through breastfeeding, kangaroo-care and baby-massage programmes. Parents also felt supported through organised support groups and

  13. O método mãe-canguru sob o olhar problematizador de uma equipe neonatal El método madre-canguro bajo la mira problematizadora de un equipo neonatal The kangoroo-mother method under the problem-solving look of a neonatal team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Costa

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo relatar a experiência do desenvolvimento de um processo educativo com uma equipe de saúde neonatal, sobre as potencialidades do Método Mãe-Canguru na assistência ao recém-nascido e família, a partir do referencial teórico-metodológico problematizador. Foram desenvolvidas doze oficinas, visando proporcionar ao grupo de profissionais a oportunidade de refletir sobre sua realidade, analisá-la de forma crítica, buscando compreendê-la e transformá-la. Os resultados apontaram a necessidade da criação de espaços para reflexões entre os profissionais da equipe neonatal sobre sua prática, possibilitando a transformação do modelo assistencial vigente e favorecendo o cuidado integral e individualizado aos recém-nascidos pré-termos e suas famílias.Este estudio tuvo como objetivo relatar la experiencia del desarrollo de un proceso educativo con un equipo de la salud neonatal, en las potencialidades del método madre-canguro en la en la asistencia al recién-nacido y familia, a partir del referencial teórico-metodológico problematizador. Fueron desarrollados doce encuentros, visando proporcionar al grupo de los profesionales, la oportunidad de socializar sus ideas y experiencias, que reflejen sobre su realidad, analizarla de forma crítica, recogiendo comprenderla y transformarla. Los resultados apuntaron la necesidad de la creación de espacios para reflexiones entre los profesionales del equipo sobre su práctica, de modo que los profesionales compartan sus ideas, opiniones, vivencias y sentimientos, provocando cambios en la manera de pensar y actuar del grupo, posibilitando la transformación del modelo asistencial vigente y favoreciendo de esta forma el cuidado integral e individualizado prestado al recién-nacido y familia.This article has as objective to tell the experience of the development of an educative process with a team of neonatal health, on the potentialities of the kangaroo-Mother Method

  14. Retraso de la adquisición de la succión-deglución-respiración en el pretérmino: efectos de una estimulación precoz Delay in the acquisition of sucking-swallowing-breathing in the preterm: efects of early stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. La Orden Izquierdo

    2012-08-01

    disorders in early childhood. Aims: To analyze the transition from enteral to oral nutrition, the comorbidity associated with its delay and the impact of an early suction stimulation in a cohort of premature babies. Patients and methods: Retrospective checking of 95 infants less than 32 gestation weeks (GW admitted to a neonatal ICU in the last 4 years. It was revised the gestational age, anthropometric at birth and discharge, comorbidity, duration of mechanical ventilation, oxygen requirements, time of beginning and end of enteral/oral nutrition, beginning of Kangaroo method and the suction stimulation and the daily weight gain average. Results: Suction stimulation began between weeks 29 and 40 GW (average and median 32 GW. Oral nutrition was initiated between 31-40 GW (average and median 33 GW and completed between 33-44 GW (average and median 35 GW. Oral nutrition was delayed in patients who required longer mechanical ventilation and oxygen therapy. There was a positive correlation between the beginning of suction stimulation and the time of acquisition of a complete oral nutrition (84% Spearman correlation test and length of hospital stay (80% Spearman correlation test. Conclussions: Early suction stimulation in a preterm patient seems to facilitate full oral nutrition at an early stage and it is associated with a hospital stay decrease and the improvement in the daily weight gain average.

  15. The effectiveness of music on pain among preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pölkki, Tarja; Korhonen, Anne

    2012-01-01

    BA), and music as an auditory stimulus not exceed 75 dB in NICU. If earphones or other devices are used, sound sources should be kept at reasonable distances from the infant's ear, played for brief periods and at levels below 55 dB.Music listening can be initiated with or without the involvement of a music therapist. In this review, music can be implemented for premature infants by a music therapist or any health care providers and it will include both recorded and live music. Regardless of the type of music, several studies have investigated the short term effects of music on preterm infants, including the improvement in physiological outcomes (e.g. oxygen saturation, heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood pressure), as well as in behavioural state (e.g. crying, facial expression, body movements) and pain scores. For example, Chou et al. showed that premature infants receiving recorded music, that was the combination of womb sounds and the mother singing, with endotracheal suctioning had significantly higher oxygen saturation than when they did not receive music. Butt & Kisilewsky compared recorded music involving both the vocal and instrumental version of Brahms lullaby versus no music, and found that infants older than 31 weeks demonstrated significant reduction in heart rate, behavioral state and pain.In the study of Arnon et al. the infants receiving live music, compared with infants receiving recorded music or no music, had significantly reduced heart rate and behavioral scores during the post-intervention period. Live music comprised of a lullaby sang by the female voice with frame drum and an accompanying harp. The same music was played by a tape recorder. Live music showed significant benefits, whereas no statistically significant changes were found for the recorded music and control groups. Teckenberg-Jansson et al. indicated that music therapy combined with kangaroo care decreased the pulse, slowed down the respiration and increased the transcutaneous oxygen

  16. The 26th International Physics Olympiad: On top down under!

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    As they opened the plane door on arrival at Canberra it was like stepping inside a freezer. I had escaped from the heatwave in Britain to experience winter in Australia. I have not found anyone who believes that there was really frost! The Australian welcome did its best to combat the cold, however, and Professor Rod Jury had soon introduced our guides and got us settled in on the campus of Canberra University. The British team of five students, selected through the British Physics Olympiad, were: Alan Bain of Birkenhead School, Chris Blake of King Edward VI School, Southampton, Richard Davies of Dulwich College, Tom Down of Embley Park School, Romsey and Chris Webb of Royal Grammar School, Worcester. The two Leaders of the party were Cyril Isenberg of the University of Kent and Guy Bagnall of Harrow School. Chris Robson of St Bee's School and myself from Stoke on Trent Sixth form College were interested Observers and Guy's wife, Jenny, completed the party. For the old hands there were many friendships stretching back years to renew, and with 51 countries this year many new ones to be made. Â Photo Figure 1. Photograph taken by C Robson of the British Physics Team immediately after the Awards Ceremony in Canberra in July 1995. From left to right: Chris Webb, Richard Davies, Tom Down, Alan Bain and Chris Blake. In addition to the confusion caused by the Sun being in the North and the Moon appearing to lie on its back, we had to get used to the flocks of chattering parrots browsing on the lawns and the kangaroos on campus! Everyone was presented with a boomerang and there were several sessions introducing the art of throwing them, even in the dark! The Opening Ceremony was colourful and a good mix of ceremony and fun with the Aboriginal entertainment and the Flame of Science to be lit. This was followed by my first examiners' meeting. Once the questions have been introduced no one is allowed to leave the group until ten hours later when the students are in bed! The

  17. Selected Lectures of the XXIII National Congress of the Italian Society of Neonatology (Società Italiana di Neonatologia, SIN; Milan (Italy; September 25-28, 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Selected Lectures of the XXIII National Congress of the Italian Society of Neonatology (Società Italiana di Neonatologia, SIN; Milan (Italy; September 25-28, 2017Guest Editor: Mauro StronatiLECT 1. COMPLEMENTARY FEEDING IN PRETERM IN­FANTS: MYTHS AND FACTS • A. AcetiLECT 2. NEONATAL HYDRONEPHROSIS • R. AgostinianiLECT 3. WHEN A NEWBORN DIES IN NICU • M. Susi, S. Dosso, A. Anselmi, A. Bertolini, P. BibanLECT 4. RED REFLEX TESTING IMPLEMENTATION IN THE NURSERY: COMPARING EXPERIENCES • G. Araimo, S.G. Osnaghi, M. Colombo, G. Regiroli, L. Colombo, F. MoscaLECT 5. PAIN MANAGEMENT IN PREMATURE IN­FANTS. PAIN SEMIOLOGY AND ASSESS­MENT. ANALGESIA FOR SKIN BREAKING PROCEDURES • I. ArengaLECT 6. VISUAL EVOKED POTENTIALS: WHY AND WHEN PERFORM THEM • A. Baldascino, G. Amorelli, D. Lepore, F. Molle, G. D’Amico, A. CaporossiLECT 7. NURSING NEONATES SUPPORTED ON ECMO: ORGANIZATIONAL FEATURES AND CARING ASPECTS • C. Baracetti, G. Cavallaro, G. Raffaeli, L. Plevani, F. MoscaLECT 8. NEONATAL HYPO- AND HYPERGLYCEMIA: WHAT TO KNOW, WHAT TO DO • G. Barera, G. CassanoLECT 9. THE ESSENTIAL CARE LEVELS: INDICATIONS FOR THE NEWBORN • S. BattilomoLECT 10. VITAMIN D: OLD AND NEW • A. Boldrini, M. Del PistoiaLECT 11. NURSING-SENSITIVE OUTCOMES IN NEONA­TOLOGY • L. Boni, G. GarganoLECT 12. REQUIREMENTS OF MACRONUTRIENTS AND MINERALS IN PARENTERAL NUTRITION OF PRE­TERM INFANTS • V. Bozzetti, P.E. TagliabueLECT 13. KANGAROO MOTHER CARE (KMC AND NEU­ROPROTECTION • G. Calciolari, C. Artese, N. Bertoncelli, E. Beccaria, V. Chiandotto, G. Colombo, S. De Marca, R. Montirosso, G. Paterlini, N. Simeone, F. FerrariLECT 14. HEMODYNAMIC PRINCIPLES AND MANAGE­MENT OF EXTRACORPOREAL MEMBRANE OXYGENATION SUPPORT • F. Canesi, F. Conigliaro, R. Fierro, G. Cavallaro, G. Raffaeli, F. MoscaLECT 15. THE STABILIZATION OF THE NEWBORN BEFORE THE TRANSPORT • V. Cardilli, P. Repole, S. Caoci, R. CellittiLECT 16. NEONATAL EXTRACORPOREAL MEMBRANE OXYGENATION

  18. Selected Abstracts of the 1st Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2015; Budapest (Hungary; September 16-20, 2015; Session “Pulmonology”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Various Authors

    2015-09-01

    A TERTIARY NEONATAL UNIT • D. Fouad, S. Mulla, D. Sava, M. Kulkarni, R. RoyABS 18. RESPIRATORY MORBIDITY AFTER NICU DISCHARGE OF PRETERM BABIES WITH CHRONIC LUNG DISEASE • C. McKnight, S. SomisettyABS 19. A RANDOMISED CLINICAL TRIAL: ORAL VITAMIN A SUPPLEMENTATION FOR PREVENTING BRONCHOPULMONARY DYSPLASIA IN VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANTS • E. Calisici, E. Yarci, S.S. Oguz, N. Uras, U.  DilmenABS 20. CLINICAL COURSE AND PROGNOSIS AT ONE YEAR OF CORRECTED AGE OF A 6,135 COLOMBIAN LOW BIRTH WEIGHT (LBW INFANTS COHORT DISCHARGED HOME IN KANGAROO POSITION WITH AMBULATORY OXYGEN: A 15 YEARS EXPERIENCE • E. Rodriguez, A. Montealegre, L. Rosero, N. Charpak, S. Fernandez, A. ParraABS 21. BRONCHODILATOR RESPONSE TO SALBUTAMOL MODIFIES LUNG VENTILATION PATTERN IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN WITH BPD, BUT NOT IN PRESCHOOL EX-PREMATURELY BORN CHILDREN WITHOUT BPD • W. Durlak, M. Klimek, A. Sudoł, P. KwintaABS 22. OBSERVATIONAL STUDY IN PREMATURE INFANTS EVALUATING THE ROLE OF U. UREALYTICUM ON CHRONIC LUNG DISEASE • A. Olariu, H. GowdaABS 23. THE ANTIOXIDANT DEFENSE OF PRETERM NEWBORNS WITH RESPIRATORY DISTRESS • M. Matyas, L. Blaga, G. ZaharieABS 24. URINARY N-TERMINAL PRO-B TYPE NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE PREDICTS MODERATE OR SEVERE BRONCHOPULMONARY DYSPLASIA IN PRETERM INFANTS • C. Czernik, S. Hartenstein, B. Metze, C. BührerABS 25. LOW CONCENTRATIONS OF CLUB CELL SECRETORY PROTEIN (CC16 IN GASTRIC FLUID AT BIRTH IS ASSOCIATED WITH LUNG INFLAMMATION AND MORE SEVERE LUNG DISEASE IN VERY PRETERM INFANTS • C. Hagman, L. Björklund, E. Tufvesson, I. Hansen PuppABS 26. LOCAL INFLAMMATORY REACTIONS AND DEVELOPMENT OF BRONCHOPULMONARY DYSPLASIA IN VERY PRETERM INFANTS WHO REQUIRED MECHANICAL VENTILATION SHORTLY AFTER BIRTH • O. Borysiuk, D. Dobryanskyy, Y. KuzminovABS 27. ANIMAL MODEL FOR THE BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF BRONCHOPULMONARY DYSPLASIA • M. Tolnai, Zs. Helyes, T. Ertl, P. KissABS 28.OPTIMISING ENDOTRACHEAL TUBE (ETT  LENGTH IN NEONATES: PRE-CUT STRATEGY OR UNCUT