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Sample records for kangaroo-like gait consistent

  1. Enhanced data consistency of a portable gait measurement system

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    Lin, Hsien-I.; Chiang, Y. P.

    2013-11-01

    A gait measurement system is a useful tool for rehabilitation applications. Such a system is used to conduct gait experiments in large workplaces such as laboratories where gait measurement equipment can be permanently installed. However, a gait measurement system should be portable if it is to be used in clinics or community centers for aged people. In a portable gait measurement system, the workspace is limited and landmarks on a subject may not be visible to the cameras during experiments. Thus, we propose a virtual-marker function to obtain positions of unseen landmarks for maintaining data consistency. This work develops a portable clinical gait measurement system consisting of lightweight motion capture devices, force plates, and a walkway assembled from plywood boards. We evaluated the portable clinic gait system with 11 normal subjects in three consecutive days in a limited experimental space. Results of gait analysis based on the verification of within-day and between-day coefficients of multiple correlations show that the proposed portable gait system is reliable.

  2. Inter-laboratory consistency of gait analysis measurements.

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    Benedetti, M G; Merlo, A; Leardini, A

    2013-09-01

    The dissemination of gait analysis as a clinical assessment tool requires the results to be consistent, irrespective of the laboratory. In this work a baseline assessment of between site consistency of one healthy subject examined at 7 different laboratories is presented. Anthropometric and spatio-temporal parameters, pelvis and lower limb joint rotations, joint sagittal moments and powers, and ground reaction forces were compared. The consistency between laboratories for single parameters was assessed by the median absolute deviation and maximum difference, for curves by linear regression. Twenty-one lab-to-lab comparisons were performed and averaged. Large differences were found between the characteristics of the laboratories (i.e. motion capture systems and protocols). Different values for the anthropometric parameters were found, with the largest variability for a pelvis measurement. The spatio-temporal parameters were in general consistent. Segment and joint kinematics consistency was in general high (R2>0.90), except for hip and knee joint rotations. The main difference among curves was a vertical shift associated to the corresponding value in the static position. The consistency between joint sagittal moments ranged form R2=0.90 at the ankle to R2=0.66 at the hip, the latter was increasing when comparing separately laboratories using the same protocol. Pattern similarity was good for ankle power but not satisfactory for knee and hip power. The force was found the most consistent, as expected. The differences found were in general lower than the established minimum detectable changes for gait kinematics and kinetics for healthy adults.

  3. Increased neuromuscular consistency in gait and balance after partnered, dance-based rehabilitation in Parkinson's disease.

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    Allen, Jessica L; McKay, J Lucas; Sawers, Andrew; Hackney, Madeleine E; Ting, Lena H

    2017-07-01

    Here we examined changes in muscle coordination associated with improved motor performance after partnered, dance-based rehabilitation in individuals with mild to moderate idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Using motor module (a.k.a. muscle synergy) analysis, we identified changes in the modular control of overground walking and standing reactive balance that accompanied clinically meaningful improvements in behavioral measures of balance, gait, and disease symptoms after 3 wk of daily Adapted Tango classes. In contrast to previous studies that revealed a positive association between motor module number and motor performance, none of the six participants in this pilot study increased motor module number despite improvements in behavioral measures of balance and gait performance. Instead, motor modules were more consistently recruited and distinctly organized immediately after rehabilitation, suggesting more reliable motor output. Furthermore, the pool of motor modules shared between walking and reactive balance increased after rehabilitation, suggesting greater generalizability of motor module function across tasks. Our work is the first to show that motor module distinctness, consistency, and generalizability are more sensitive to improvements in gait and balance function after short-term rehabilitation than motor module number. Moreover, as similar differences in motor module distinctness, consistency, and generalizability have been demonstrated previously in healthy young adults with and without long-term motor training, our work suggests commonalities in the structure of muscle coordination associated with differences in motor performance across the spectrum from motor impairment to expertise.NEW & NOTEWORTHY We demonstrate changes in neuromuscular control of gait and balance in individuals with Parkinson's disease after short-term, dance-based rehabilitation. Our work is the first to show that motor module distinctness, consistency, and generalizability across

  4. Acoustic Gaits: Gait Analysis With Footstep Sounds.

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    Altaf, M Umair Bin; Butko, Taras; Juang, Biing-Hwang Fred

    2015-08-01

    We describe the acoustic gaits-the natural human gait quantitative characteristics derived from the sound of footsteps as the person walks normally. We introduce the acoustic gait profile, which is obtained from temporal signal analysis of sound of footsteps collected by microphones and illustrate some of the spatio-temporal gait parameters that can be extracted from the acoustic gait profile by using three temporal signal analysis methods-the squared energy estimate, Hilbert transform and Teager-Kaiser energy operator. Based on the statistical analysis of the parameter estimates, we show that the spatio-temporal parameters and gait characteristics obtained using the acoustic gait profile can consistently and reliably estimate a subset of clinical and biometric gait parameters currently in use for standardized gait assessments. We conclude that the Teager-Kaiser energy operator provides the most consistent gait parameter estimates showing the least variation across different sessions and zones. Acoustic gaits use an inexpensive set of microphones with a computing device as an accurate and unintrusive gait analysis system. This is in contrast to the expensive and intrusive systems currently used in laboratory gait analysis such as the force plates, pressure mats and wearable sensors, some of which may change the gait parameters that are being measured.

  5. Effectiveness of slow motion video compared to real time video in improving the accuracy and consistency of subjective gait analysis in dogs.

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    Lane, D M; Hill, S A; Huntingford, J L; Lafuente, P; Wall, R; Jones, K A

    2015-01-01

    Objective measures of canine gait quality via force plates, pressure mats or kinematic analysis are considered superior to subjective gait assessment (SGA). Despite research demonstrating that SGA does not accurately detect subtle lameness, it remains the most commonly performed diagnostic test for detecting lameness in dogs. This is largely because the financial, temporal and spatial requirements for existing objective gait analysis equipment makes this technology impractical for use in general practice. The utility of slow motion video as a potential tool to augment SGA is currently untested. To evaluate a more accessible way to overcome the limitations of SGA, a slow motion video study was undertaken. Three experienced veterinarians reviewed video footage of 30 dogs, 15 with a diagnosis of primary limb lameness based on history and physical examination, and 15 with no indication of limb lameness based on history and physical examination. Four different videos were made for each dog, demonstrating each dog walking and trotting in real time, and then again walking and trotting in 50% slow motion. For each video, the veterinary raters assessed both the degree of lameness, and which limb(s) they felt represented the source of the lameness. Spearman's rho, Cramer's V, and t-tests were performed to determine if slow motion video increased either the accuracy or consistency of raters' SGA relative to real time video. Raters demonstrated no significant increase in consistency or accuracy in their SGA of slow motion video relative to real time video. Based on these findings, slow motion video does not increase the consistency or accuracy of SGA values. Further research is required to determine if slow motion video will benefit SGA in other ways.

  6. A simple method to obtain consistent and clinically meaningful pelvic angles from euler angles during gait analysis.

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    Wren, Tishya A L; Mitiguy, Paul C

    2007-08-01

    Clinical gait analysis usually describes joint kinematics using Euler angles, which depend on the sequence of rotation. Studies have shown that pelvic obliquity angles from the traditional tilt-obliquity-rotation (TOR) Euler angle sequence can deviate considerably from clinical expectations and have suggested that a rotation-obliquity-tilt (ROT) Euler angle sequence be used instead. We propose a simple alternate approach in which clinical joint angles are defined and exactly calculated in terms of Euler angles from any rotation sequence. Equations were derived to calculate clinical pelvic elevation, progression, and lean angles from TOR and ROT Euler angles. For the ROT Euler angles, obliquity was exactly the same as the clinical elevation angle, rotation was similar to the clinical progression angle, and tilt was similar to the clinical lean angle. Greater differences were observed for TOR. These results support previous findings that ROT is preferable to TOR for calculating pelvic Euler angles for clinical interpretation. However, we suggest that exact clinical angles can and should be obtained through a few extra calculations as demonstrated in this technical note.

  7. Capability of 2 gait measures for detecting response to gait training in stroke survivors: Gait Assessment and Intervention Tool and the Tinetti Gait Scale.

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    Zimbelman, Janice; Daly, Janis J; Roenigk, Kristen L; Butler, Kristi; Burdsall, Richard; Holcomb, John P

    2012-01-01

    To characterize the performance of 2 observational gait measures, the Tinetti Gait Scale (TGS) and the Gait Assessment and Intervention Tool (G.A.I.T.), in identifying improvement in gait in response to gait training. In secondary analysis from a larger study of multimodal gait training for stroke survivors, we measured gait at pre-, mid-, and posttreatment according to G.A.I.T. and TGS, assessing their capability to capture recovery of coordinated gait components. Large medical center. Cohort of stroke survivors (N=44) greater than 6 months after stroke. All subjects received 48 sessions of a multimodal gait-training protocol. Treatment consisted of 1.5 hours per session, 4 sessions per week for 12 weeks, receiving these 3 treatment aspects: (1) coordination exercise, (2) body weight-supported treadmill training, and (3) overground gait training, with 46% of subjects receiving functional electrical stimulation. All subjects were evaluated with the G.A.I.T. and TGS before and after completing the 48-session intervention. An additional evaluation was performed at midtreatment (after session 24). For the total subject sample, there were significant pre-/post-, pre-/mid-, and mid-/posttreatment gains for both the G.A.I.T. and the TGS. According to the G.A.I.T., 40 subjects (91%) showed improved scores, 2 (4%) no change, and 2 (4%) a worsening score. According to the TGS, only 26 subjects (59%) showed improved scores, 16 (36%) no change, and 1 (2%) a worsening score. For 1 treatment group of chronic stroke survivors, the TGS failed to identify a significant treatment response to gait training, whereas the G.A.I.T. measure was successful. The G.A.I.T. is more sensitive than the TGS for individual patients and group treatment response in identifying recovery of volitional control of gait components in response to gait training. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Terminology and forensic gait analysis.

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    Birch, Ivan; Vernon, Wesley; Walker, Jeremy; Young, Maria

    2015-07-01

    The use of appropriate terminology is a fundamental aspect of forensic gait analysis. The language used in forensic gait analysis is an amalgam of that used in clinical practice, podiatric biomechanics and the wider field of biomechanics. The result can often be a lack of consistency in the language used, the definitions used and the clarity of the message given. Examples include the use of 'gait' and 'walking' as synonymous terms, confusion between 'step' and 'stride', the mixing of anatomical, positional and pathological descriptors, and inability to describe appropriately movements of major body segments such as the torso. The purpose of this paper is to share the well-established definitions of the fundamental parameters of gait, common to all professions, and advocate their use in forensic gait analysis to establish commonality. The paper provides guidance on the selection and use of appropriate terminology in the description of gait in the forensic context. This paper considers the established definitions of the terms commonly used, identifies those terms which have the potential to confuse readers, and suggests a framework of terminology which should be utilised in forensic gait analysis.

  9. Human gait recognition via deterministic learning.

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    Zeng, Wei; Wang, Cong

    2012-11-01

    Recognition of temporal/dynamical patterns is among the most difficult pattern recognition tasks. Human gait recognition is a typical difficulty in the area of dynamical pattern recognition. It classifies and identifies individuals by their time-varying gait signature data. Recently, a new dynamical pattern recognition method based on deterministic learning theory was presented, in which a time-varying dynamical pattern can be effectively represented in a time-invariant manner and can be rapidly recognized. In this paper, we present a new model-based approach for human gait recognition via the aforementioned method, specifically for recognizing people by gait. The approach consists of two phases: a training (learning) phase and a test (recognition) phase. In the training phase, side silhouette lower limb joint angles and angular velocities are selected as gait features. A five-link biped model for human gait locomotion is employed to demonstrate that functions containing joint angle and angular velocity state vectors characterize the gait system dynamics. Due to the quasi-periodic and symmetrical characteristics of human gait, the gait system dynamics can be simplified to be described by functions of joint angles and angular velocities of one side of the human body, thus the feature dimension is effectively reduced. Locally-accurate identification of the gait system dynamics is achieved by using radial basis function (RBF) neural networks (NNs) through deterministic learning. The obtained knowledge of the approximated gait system dynamics is stored in constant RBF networks. A gait signature is then derived from the extracted gait system dynamics along the phase portrait of joint angles versus angular velocities. A bank of estimators is constructed using constant RBF networks to represent the training gait patterns. In the test phase, by comparing the set of estimators with the test gait pattern, a set of recognition errors are generated, and the average L(1) norms

  10. Wireless accelerometer iPod application for quantifying gait characteristics.

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    LeMoyne, Robert; Mastroianni, Timothy; Grundfest, Warren

    2011-01-01

    The capability to quantify gait characteristics through a wireless accelerometer iPod application in an effectively autonomous environment may alleviate the progressive strain on highly specific medical resources. The iPod consists of the inherent attributes imperative for robust gait quantification, such as a three dimensional accelerometer, data storage, flexible software, and the capacity for wireless transmission of the gait data through email. Based on the synthesis of the integral components of the iPod, a wireless accelerometer iPod application for quantifying gait characteristics has been tested and evaluated in an essentially autonomous environment. The quantified gait acceleration waveforms were wirelessly transmitted using email for postprocessing. The site for the gait experiment occurred in a remote location relative to the location where the postprocessing was conducted. The wireless accelerometer iPod application for quantifying gait characteristics demonstrated sufficient accuracy and consistency.

  11. GaitKeeper: A System for Measuring Canine Gait

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    Cassim Ladha

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available It is understood gait has the potential to be used as a window into neurodegenerative disorders, identify markers of subclinical pathology, inform diagnostic algorithms of disease progression and measure the efficacy of interventions. Dogs’ gaits are frequently assessed in a veterinary setting to detect signs of lameness. Despite this, a reliable, affordable and objective method to assess lameness in dogs is lacking. Most described canine lameness assessments are subjective, unvalidated and at high risk of bias. This means reliable, early detection of canine gait abnormalities is challenging, which may have detrimental implications for dogs’ welfare. In this paper, we draw from approaches and technologies used in human movement science and describe a system for objectively measuring temporal gait characteristics in dogs (step-time, swing-time, stance-time. Asymmetries and variabilities in these characteristics are of known clinical significance when assessing lameness but presently may only be assessed on coarse scales or under highly instrumented environments. The system consists an inertial measurement unit, containing a 3-axis accelerometer and gyroscope coupled with a standardized walking course. The measurement unit is attached to each leg of the dog under assessment before it is walked around the course. The data by the measurement unit is then processed to identify steps and subsequently, micro-gait characteristics. This method has been tested on a cohort of 19 healthy dogs of various breeds ranging in height from 34.2 cm to 84.9 cm. We report the system as capable of making precise step delineations with detections of initial and final contact times of foot-to-floor to a mean precision of 0.011 s and 0.048 s, respectively. Results are based on analysis of 12,678 foot falls and we report a sensitivity, positive predictive value and F-score of 0.81, 0.83 and 0.82 respectively. To investigate the effect of gait on system performance

  12. Improved Gait Classification with Different Smoothing Techniques

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    Hu Ng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gait as a biometric has received great attention nowadays as it can offer human identification at a distance without any contact with the feature capturing device. This is motivated by the increasing number of synchronised closed-circuit television (CCTV cameras which have been installed in many major towns, in order to monitor and prevent crime by identifying the criminal or suspect. This paper present a method to improve gait classification results by applying smoothing techniques on the extracted gait features. The proposed approach is consisted of three parts: extraction of human gait features from enhanced human silhouette, smoothing process on extracted gait features and classification by fuzzy k-nearest neighbours (KNN. The extracted gait features are height, width, crotch height, step-size of the human silhouette and joint trajectories. To improve the recognition rate, two of these extracted gait features are smoothened before the classification process in order to alleviate the effect of outliers. The proposed approach has been applied on a dataset of nine subjects walking bidirectionally on an indoor pathway with twelve different covariate factors. From the experimental results, it can be concluded that the proposed approach is effective in gait classification.

  13. Gait analysis: clinical facts.

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    Baker, Richard; Esquenazi, Alberto; Benedetti, Maria G; Desloovere, Kaat

    2016-08-01

    Gait analysis is a well-established tool for the quantitative assessment of gait disturbances providing functional diagnosis, assessment for treatment planning, and monitoring of disease progress. There is a large volume of literature on the research use of gait analysis, but evidence on its clinical routine use supports a favorable cost-benefit ratio in a limited number of conditions. Initially gait analysis was introduced to clinical practice to improve the management of children with cerebral palsy. However, there is good evidence to extend its use to patients with various upper motor neuron diseases, and to lower limb amputation. Thereby, the methodology for properly conducting and interpreting the exam is of paramount relevance. Appropriateness of gait analysis prescription and reliability of data obtained are required in the clinical environment. This paper provides an overview on guidelines for managing a clinical gait analysis service and on the principal clinical domains of its application: cerebral palsy, stroke, traumatic brain injury and lower limb amputation.

  14. Gait variability and basal ganglia disorders: stride-to-stride variations of gait cycle timing in Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease

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    Hausdorff, J. M.; Cudkowicz, M. E.; Firtion, R.; Wei, J. Y.; Goldberger, A. L.

    1998-01-01

    The basal ganglia are thought to play an important role in regulating motor programs involved in gait and in the fluidity and sequencing of movement. We postulated that the ability to maintain a steady gait, with low stride-to-stride variability of gait cycle timing and its subphases, would be diminished with both Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD). To test this hypothesis, we obtained quantitative measures of stride-to-stride variability of gait cycle timing in subjects with PD (n = 15), HD (n = 20), and disease-free controls (n = 16). All measures of gait variability were significantly increased in PD and HD. In subjects with PD and HD, gait variability measures were two and three times that observed in control subjects, respectively. The degree of gait variability correlated with disease severity. In contrast, gait speed was significantly lower in PD, but not in HD, and average gait cycle duration and the time spent in many subphases of the gait cycle were similar in control subjects, HD subjects, and PD subjects. These findings are consistent with a differential control of gait variability, speed, and average gait cycle timing that may have implications for understanding the role of the basal ganglia in locomotor control and for quantitatively assessing gait in clinical settings.

  15. Recognition using gait.

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    Koch, Mark William

    2007-09-01

    Gait or an individual's manner of walking, is one approach for recognizing people at a distance. Studies in psychophysics and medicine indicate that humans can recognize people by their gait and have found twenty-four different components to gait that taken together make it a unique signature. Besides not requiring close sensor contact, gait also does not necessarily require a cooperative subject. Using video data of people walking in different scenarios and environmental conditions we develop and test an algorithm that uses shape and motion to identify people from their gait. The algorithm uses dynamic time warping to match stored templates against an unknown sequence of silhouettes extracted from a person walking. While results under similar constraints and conditions are very good, the algorithm quickly degrades with varying conditions such as surface and clothing.

  16. Animal Gaits and Symmetry

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    Golubitsky, Martin

    2012-04-01

    Many gaits of four-legged animals are described by symmetry. For example, when a horse paces it moves both left legs in unison and then both right legs and so on. The motion is described by two symmetries: Interchange front and back legs, and swap left and right legs with a half-period phase shift. Biologists postulate the existence of a central pattern generator (CPG) in the neuronal system that sends periodic signals to the legs. CPGs can be thought of as electrical circuits that produce periodic signals and can be modeled by systems with symmetry. In this lecture we discuss animal gaits; use gait symmetries to construct a simplest CPG architecture that naturally produces quadrupedal gait rhythms; and make several testable predictions about gaits.

  17. How Crouch Gait Can Dynamically Induce Stiff-Knee Gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Krogt, M.M.; Bregman, D.J.J.; Wisse, M.; Doorenbosch, C.A.M.; Harlaar, J.; Collins, S.H.

    Children with cerebral palsy frequently experience foot dragging and tripping during walking due to a lack of adequate knee flexion in swing (stiff-knee gait). Stiff-knee gait is often accompanied by an overly flexed knee during stance (crouch gait). Studies on stiff-knee gait have mostly focused on

  18. How Crouch Gait Can Dynamically Induce Stiff-Knee Gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Krogt, M.M.; Bregman, D.J.J.; Wisse, M.; Doorenbosch, C.A.M.; Harlaar, J.; Collins, S.H.

    Children with cerebral palsy frequently experience foot dragging and tripping during walking due to a lack of adequate knee flexion in swing (stiff-knee gait). Stiff-knee gait is often accompanied by an overly flexed knee during stance (crouch gait). Studies on stiff-knee gait have mostly focused on

  19. Toward understanding the limits of gait recognition

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    Liu, Zongyi; Malave, Laura; Osuntogun, Adebola; Sudhakar, Preksha; Sarkar, Sudeep

    2004-08-01

    Most state of the art video-based gait recognition algorithms start from binary silhouettes. These silhouettes, defined as foreground regions, are usually detected by background subtraction methods, which results in holes or missed parts due to similarity of foreground and background color, and boundary errors due to video compression artifacts. Errors in low-level representation make it hard to understand the effect of certain conditions, such as surface and time, on gait recognition. In this paper, we present a part-level, manual silhouette database consisting of 71 subjects, over one gait cycle, with differences in surface, shoe-type, carrying condition, and time. We have a total of about 11,000 manual silhouette frames. The purpose of this manual silhouette database is twofold. First, this is a resource that we make available at http://www.GaitChallenge.org for use by the gait community to test and design better silhouette detection algorithms. These silhouettes can also be used to learn gait dynamics. Second, using the baseline gait recognition algorithm, which was specified along with the HumanID Gait Challenge problem, we show that performance from manual silhouettes is similar and only sometimes better than that from automated silhouettes detected by statistical background subtraction. Low performances when comparing sequences with differences in walking surfaces and time-variation are not fully explained by silhouette quality. We also study the recognition power in each body part and show that recognition based on just the legs is equal to that from the whole silhouette. There is also significant recognition power in the head and torso shape.

  20. Computational intelligent gait-phase detection system to identify pathological gait.

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    Senanayake, Chathuri M; Senanayake, S M N Arosha

    2010-09-01

    An intelligent gait-phase detection algorithm based on kinematic and kinetic parameters is presented in this paper. The gait parameters do not vary distinctly for each gait phase; therefore, it is complex to differentiate gait phases with respect to a threshold value. To overcome this intricacy, the concept of fuzzy logic was applied to detect gait phases with respect to fuzzy membership values. A real-time data-acquisition system was developed consisting of four force-sensitive resistors and two inertial sensors to obtain foot-pressure patterns and knee flexion/extension angle, respectively. The detected gait phases could be further analyzed to identify abnormality occurrences, and hence, is applicable to determine accurate timing for feedback. The large amount of data required for quality gait analysis necessitates the utilization of information technology to store, manage, and extract required information. Therefore, a software application was developed for real-time acquisition of sensor data, data processing, database management, and a user-friendly graphical-user interface as a tool to simplify the task of clinicians. The experiments carried out to validate the proposed system are presented along with the results analysis for normal and pathological walking patterns.

  1. Symmetrical gait descriptions

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    Dunajewski, Adam; Dusza, Jacek J.; Rosado Muñoz, Alfredo

    2014-11-01

    The article presents a proposal for the description of human gait as a periodic and symmetric process. Firstly, the data for researches was obtained in the Laboratory of Group SATI in the School of Engineering of University of Valencia. Then, the periodical model - Mean Double Step (MDS) was made. Finally, on the basis of MDS, the symmetrical models - Left Mean Double Step and Right Mean Double Step (LMDS and RMDS) could be created. The method of various functional extensions was used. Symmetrical gait models can be used to calculate the coefficients of asymmetry at any time or phase of the gait. In this way it is possible to create asymmetry, function which better describes human gait dysfunction. The paper also describes an algorithm for calculating symmetric models, and shows exemplary results based on the experimental data.

  2. Importance of Gait Training

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    ... amputation exercises done under the supervision of a physical therapist, the initial training is provided by the prosthetist ... this stage, it is best to involve a physical therapist for regular gait training sessions. Once it is ...

  3. Gait Phase Recognition for Lower-Limb Exoskeleton with Only Joint Angular Sensors

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    Du-Xin Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Gait phase is widely used for gait trajectory generation, gait control and gait evaluation on lower-limb exoskeletons. So far, a variety of methods have been developed to identify the gait phase for lower-limb exoskeletons. Angular sensors on lower-limb exoskeletons are essential for joint closed-loop controlling; however, other types of sensors, such as plantar pressure, attitude or inertial measurement unit, are not indispensable.Therefore, to make full use of existing sensors, we propose a novel gait phase recognition method for lower-limb exoskeletons using only joint angular sensors. The method consists of two procedures. Firstly, the gait deviation distances during walking are calculated and classified by Fisher’s linear discriminant method, and one gait cycle is divided into eight gait phases. The validity of the classification results is also verified based on large gait samples. Secondly, we build a gait phase recognition model based on multilayer perceptron and train it with the phase-labeled gait data. The experimental result of cross-validation shows that the model has a 94.45% average correct rate of set (CRS and an 87.22% average correct rate of phase (CRP on the testing set, and it can predict the gait phase accurately. The novel method avoids installing additional sensors on the exoskeleton or human body and simplifies the sensory system of the lower-limb exoskeleton.

  4. Gait Phase Recognition for Lower-Limb Exoskeleton with Only Joint Angular Sensors.

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    Liu, Du-Xin; Wu, Xinyu; Du, Wenbin; Wang, Can; Xu, Tiantian

    2016-09-27

    Gait phase is widely used for gait trajectory generation, gait control and gait evaluation on lower-limb exoskeletons. So far, a variety of methods have been developed to identify the gait phase for lower-limb exoskeletons. Angular sensors on lower-limb exoskeletons are essential for joint closed-loop controlling; however, other types of sensors, such as plantar pressure, attitude or inertial measurement unit, are not indispensable.Therefore, to make full use of existing sensors, we propose a novel gait phase recognition method for lower-limb exoskeletons using only joint angular sensors. The method consists of two procedures. Firstly, the gait deviation distances during walking are calculated and classified by Fisher's linear discriminant method, and one gait cycle is divided into eight gait phases. The validity of the classification results is also verified based on large gait samples. Secondly, we build a gait phase recognition model based on multilayer perceptron and train it with the phase-labeled gait data. The experimental result of cross-validation shows that the model has a 94.45% average correct rate of set (CRS) and an 87.22% average correct rate of phase (CRP) on the testing set, and it can predict the gait phase accurately. The novel method avoids installing additional sensors on the exoskeleton or human body and simplifies the sensory system of the lower-limb exoskeleton.

  5. Gait Phase Recognition for Lower-Limb Exoskeleton with Only Joint Angular Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Du-Xin; Wu, Xinyu; Du, Wenbin; Wang, Can; Xu, Tiantian

    2016-01-01

    Gait phase is widely used for gait trajectory generation, gait control and gait evaluation on lower-limb exoskeletons. So far, a variety of methods have been developed to identify the gait phase for lower-limb exoskeletons. Angular sensors on lower-limb exoskeletons are essential for joint closed-loop controlling; however, other types of sensors, such as plantar pressure, attitude or inertial measurement unit, are not indispensable.Therefore, to make full use of existing sensors, we propose a novel gait phase recognition method for lower-limb exoskeletons using only joint angular sensors. The method consists of two procedures. Firstly, the gait deviation distances during walking are calculated and classified by Fisher’s linear discriminant method, and one gait cycle is divided into eight gait phases. The validity of the classification results is also verified based on large gait samples. Secondly, we build a gait phase recognition model based on multilayer perceptron and train it with the phase-labeled gait data. The experimental result of cross-validation shows that the model has a 94.45% average correct rate of set (CRS) and an 87.22% average correct rate of phase (CRP) on the testing set, and it can predict the gait phase accurately. The novel method avoids installing additional sensors on the exoskeleton or human body and simplifies the sensory system of the lower-limb exoskeleton. PMID:27690023

  6. Gait analysis using wearable sensors.

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    Tao, Weijun; Liu, Tao; Zheng, Rencheng; Feng, Hutian

    2012-01-01

    Gait analysis using wearable sensors is an inexpensive, convenient, and efficient manner of providing useful information for multiple health-related applications. As a clinical tool applied in the rehabilitation and diagnosis of medical conditions and sport activities, gait analysis using wearable sensors shows great prospects. The current paper reviews available wearable sensors and ambulatory gait analysis methods based on the various wearable sensors. After an introduction of the gait phases, the principles and features of wearable sensors used in gait analysis are provided. The gait analysis methods based on wearable sensors is divided into gait kinematics, gait kinetics, and electromyography. Studies on the current methods are reviewed, and applications in sports, rehabilitation, and clinical diagnosis are summarized separately. With the development of sensor technology and the analysis method, gait analysis using wearable sensors is expected to play an increasingly important role in clinical applications.

  7. Gait Analysis Using Wearable Sensors

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    Hutian Feng

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Gait analysis using wearable sensors is an inexpensive, convenient, and efficient manner of providing useful information for multiple health-related applications. As a clinical tool applied in the rehabilitation and diagnosis of medical conditions and sport activities, gait analysis using wearable sensors shows great prospects. The current paper reviews available wearable sensors and ambulatory gait analysis methods based on the various wearable sensors. After an introduction of the gait phases, the principles and features of wearable sensors used in gait analysis are provided. The gait analysis methods based on wearable sensors is divided into gait kinematics, gait kinetics, and electromyography. Studies on the current methods are reviewed, and applications in sports, rehabilitation, and clinical diagnosis are summarized separately. With the development of sensor technology and the analysis method, gait analysis using wearable sensors is expected to play an increasingly important role in clinical applications.

  8. DRAG: a database for recognition and analasys of gait

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    Kuchi, Prem; Hiremagalur, Raghu Ram V.; Huang, Helen; Carhart, Michael; He, Jiping; Panchanathan, Sethuraman

    2003-11-01

    A novel approach is proposed for creating a standardized and comprehensive database for gait analysis. The field of gait analysis is gaining increasing attention for applications such as visual surveillance, human-computer interfaces, and gait recognition and rehabilitation. Numerous algorithms have been developed for analyzing and processing gait data; however, a standard database for their systematic evaluation does not exist. Instead, existing gait databases consist of subsets of kinematic, kinetic, and electromyographic activity recordings by different investigators, at separate laboratories, and under varying conditions. Thus, the existing databases are neither homogenous nor sufficiently populated to statistically validate the algorithms. In this paper, a methodology for creating a database is presented, which can be used as a common ground to test the performance of algorithms that rely upon external marker data, ground reaction loading data, and/or video images. The database consists of: (1) synchronized motion-capture data (3D marker data) obtained using external markers, (2) computed joint angles, and (3) ground reaction loading acquired with plantar pressure insoles. This database could be easily expanded to include synchronized video, which will facilitate further development of video-based algorithms for motion tracking. This eventually could lead to the realization of markerless gait tracking. Such a system would have extensive applications in gait recognition, as well as gait rehabilitation. The entire database (marker, angle, and force data) will be placed in the public domain, and made available for downloads over the World Wide Web.

  9. Least Action Principle in Gait

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Yifang; Fan, Yubo; Xu, Zongxiang; Li, Zhiyu; Luo, Donglin

    2009-01-01

    We apply the laws of human gait vertical ground reaction force and discover the existence of the phenomenon of least action principle in gait. Using a capacitive mat transducer system, we obtain the variations of human gait vertical ground reaction force and establish a structure equation for the resultant of such a force. Defining the deviation of vertical force as an action function, we observe from our gait optimization analysis the least action principle at half of the stride time. We develop an evaluation index of mechanical energy consumption based upon the least action principle in gait. We conclude that these observations can be employed to enhance the accountability of gait evaluation.

  10. Regulation of Gait in Long Jumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David N.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The way in which skilled long jumpers regulate their gait during their run-up to the takeoff board was investigated. The run-up consists of (1) an initial accelerative phase, and (2) a zeroing-in phase. Their skill varied with the adjustment of the impulse of their steps toward the end of the run-up. (Author/BW)

  11. Kinematic gait analyses in healthy Golden Retrievers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela C.A. Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kinematic analysis relates to the relative movement between rigid bodies and finds application in gait analysis and other body movements, interpretation of their data when there is change, determines the choice of treatment to be instituted. The objective of this study was to standardize the march of Dog Golden Retriever Healthy to assist in the diagnosis and treatment of musculoskeletal disorders. We used a kinematic analysis system to analyse the gait of seven dogs Golden Retriever, female, aged between 2 and 4 years, weighing 21.5 to 28 kg, clinically normal. Flexion and extension were described for shoulder, elbow, carpal, hip, femorotibialis and tarsal joints. The gait was characterized lateral and had accepted hypothesis of normality for all variables, except for the stance of hip and elbow, considering a confidence level of 95%, significance level α = 0.05. Variations have been attributed to displacement of the stripes during movement and the duplicated number of reviews. The kinematic analysis proved to be a consistent method of evaluation of the movement during canine gait and the data can be used in the diagnosis and evaluation of canine gait in comparison to other studies and treatment of dogs with musculoskeletal disorders.

  12. Climbing favours the tripod gait over alternative faster insect gaits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdya, Pavan; Thandiackal, Robin; Cherney, Raphael; Asselborn, Thibault; Benton, Richard; Ijspeert, Auke Jan; Floreano, Dario

    2017-02-01

    To escape danger or catch prey, running vertebrates rely on dynamic gaits with minimal ground contact. By contrast, most insects use a tripod gait that maintains at least three legs on the ground at any given time. One prevailing hypothesis for this difference in fast locomotor strategies is that tripod locomotion allows insects to rapidly navigate three-dimensional terrain. To test this, we computationally discovered fast locomotor gaits for a model based on Drosophila melanogaster. Indeed, the tripod gait emerges to the exclusion of many other possible gaits when optimizing fast upward climbing with leg adhesion. By contrast, novel two-legged bipod gaits are fastest on flat terrain without adhesion in the model and in a hexapod robot. Intriguingly, when adhesive leg structures in real Drosophila are covered, animals exhibit atypical bipod-like leg coordination. We propose that the requirement to climb vertical terrain may drive the prevalence of the tripod gait over faster alternative gaits with minimal ground contact.

  13. Gait Variability and Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Socie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gait variability, that is, fluctuations in movement during walking, is an indicator of walking function and has been associated with various adverse outcomes such as falls. In this paper, current research concerning gait variability in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS is discussed. It is well established that persons with MS have greater gait variability compared to age and gender matched controls without MS. The reasons for the increase in gait variability are not completely understood. Evidence indicates that disability level, assistive device use, attentional requirement, and fatigue are related to gait variability in persons with MS. Future research should address the time-evolving structure (i.e., temporal characteristics of gait variability, the clinical importance of gait variability, and underlying mechanisms that drive gait variability in individuals with MS.

  14. What is a waddling gait?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iersel, M.B. van; Mulley, G.P.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: A patient's gait can provide important diagnostic and functional information. Though 'waddling gait' is a long-established concept, we question whether this description is precise or clinically useful. METHODS: We searched 'waddling gait' in all main medical specialties core textbooks, in a

  15. Gait as evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Larsen, Peter Kastmand

    2014-01-01

    This study examines what in Denmark may constitute evidence based on forensic anthropological gait analyses, in the sense of pointing to a match (or not) between a perpetrator and a suspect, based on video and photographic imagery. Gait and anthropometric measures can be used when direct facial...... comparison is not possible because of perpetrators masking their faces. The nature of judicial and natural scientific forms of evidence is discussed, and rulings dealing with the admissibility of video footage and forensic evidence in general are given. Technical issues of video materials are discussed...

  16. Gait adjustments in obstacle crossing, gait initiation and gait termination after a recent lower limb amputation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, Aline H.; van Keeken, Helco G.; Schoppen, Tanneke; Hof, At L.; Otten, Bert; Halbertsma, Jan P. K.; Postema, Klaas

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To describe the adjustments in gait characteristics of obstacle crossing, gait initiation and gait termination that occur in subjects with a recent lower limb amputation during the rehabilitation process. Design: Prospective and descriptive study. Subjects: Fourteen subjects with a recent

  17. Field evaluation of broiler gait score using different sampling methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AFS Cordeiro

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is today the world's largest broiler meat exporter; however, in order to keep this position, it must comply with welfare regulations while maintaining low production costs. Locomotion problems restrain bird movements, limiting their access to drinking and feeding equipment, and therefore their survival and productivity. The objective of this study was to evaluate locomotion deficiency in broiler chickens reared under stressful temperature conditions using three different sampling methods of birds from three different ages. The experiment consisted in determining the gait score of 28, 35, 42 and 49-day-old broilers using three different known gait scoring methods: M1, birds were randomly selected, enclosed in a circle, and then stimulated to walk out of the circle; M2, ten birds were randomly selected and gait scored; and M3, birds were randomly selected, enclosed in a circle, and then observed while walking away from the circle without stimulus to walking. Environmental temperature, relative humidity, and light intensity inside the poultry houses were recorded. No evidence of interaction between scoring method and age was found however, both method and age influenced gait score. Gait score was found to be lower at 28 days of age. The evaluation using the ten randomly selected birds within the house was the method that presented the less reliable results. Gait score results when birds were stimulated to walk were lower than when they were not simulated, independently of age. The gait scores obtained with the three tested methods and ages were higher than those considered acceptable. The highest frequency of normal gait score (0 represented 50% of the flock. These results may be related to heat stress during rearing. Average gait score incresead with average ambient temperature, relative humidity, and light intensity. The evaluation of gait score to detect locomotion problems of broilers under rearing conditions seems subjective and

  18. Gait Deviation Index, Gait Profile Score and Gait Variable Score in children with spastic cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Helle Mätzke; Nielsen, Dennis Brandborg; Pedersen, Niels Wisbech;

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Gait Deviation Index (GDI) and Gait Profile Score (GPS) are the most used summary measures of gait in children with cerebral palsy (CP). However, the reliability and agreement of these indices have not been investigated, limiting their clinimetric quality for research and clinical...... practice. The aim of this study was to investigate the intra-rater reliability and agreement of summary measures of gait (GDI; GPS; and the Gait Variable Score (GVS) derived from the GPS). The intra-rater reliability and agreement were investigated across two repeated sessions in 18 children aged 5...

  19. Symmetry in locomotor central pattern generators and animal gaits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubitsky, Martin; Stewart, Ian; Buono, Pietro-Luciano; Collins, J. J.

    1999-10-01

    Animal locomotion is controlled, in part, by a central pattern generator (CPG), which is an intraspinal network of neurons capable of generating a rhythmic output. The spatio-temporal symmetries of the quadrupedal gaits walk, trot and pace lead to plausible assumptions about the symmetries of locomotor CPGs. These assumptions imply that the CPG of a quadruped should consist of eight nominally identical subcircuits, arranged in an essentially unique matter. Here we apply analogous arguments to myriapod CPGs. Analyses based on symmetry applied to these networks lead to testable predictions, including a distinction between primary and secondary gaits, the existence of a new primary gait called `jump', and the occurrence of half-integer wave numbers in myriapod gaits. For bipeds, our analysis also predicts two gaits with the out-of-phase symmetry of the walk and two gaits with the in-phase symmetry of the hop. We present data that support each of these predictions. This work suggests that symmetry can be used to infer a plausible class of CPG network architectures from observed patterns of animal gaits.

  20. A portable measurement system for the evaluation of human gait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanović Filip

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A tool has been developed which can be used to evaluate human gait in a more detailed manner. Its purpose is to record data from an individual during gait then categorize and analyze the intrinsic phases with neuro-fuzzy techniques. The system is simple to use, adaptive, highly mobile, and does not require calibration. The hardware consists of four accelerometers and four force sensitive resistors to record data during walking which is then prepared and collected by a digital device and PDA computer. The gait data is passed into an intelligent fuzzy inference system managed by custom defined fuzzy rules to be classified into four stance phases (heel strike, flat foot, heel lift, toe push-off, and three swing phases (initial flexion, terminal flexion, and terminal extension. After the fuzzy system was trained using data from five healthy subjects, the system's representative gait classification root mean squared error dropped from 0.2975 to 0.1200, showing a much improved ability to categorize human gait, despite its varied nature. The system represents a robust tool, which can be used in a clinical environment for the analysis of human gait in rehabilitative applications such as rule based control generation for functional electrical stimulation, and gait quality analysis.

  1. Turtle mimetic soft robot with two swimming gaits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sung-Hyuk; Kim, Min-Soo; Rodrigue, Hugo; Lee, Jang-Yeob; Shim, Jae-Eul; Kim, Min-Cheol; Chu, Won-Shik; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2016-05-04

    This paper presents a biomimetic turtle flipper actuator consisting of a shape memory alloy composite structure for implementation in a turtle-inspired autonomous underwater vehicle. Based on the analysis of the Chelonia mydas, the flipper actuator was divided into three segments containing a scaffold structure fabricated using a 3D printer. According to the filament stacking sequence of the scaffold structure in the actuator, different actuating motions can be realized and three different types of scaffold structures were proposed to replicate the motion of the different segments of the flipper of the Chelonia mydas. This flipper actuator can mimic the continuous deformation of the forelimb of Chelonia mydas which could not be realized in previous motor based robot. This actuator can also produce two distinct motions that correspond to the two different swimming gaits of the Chelonia mydas, which are the routine and vigorous swimming gaits, by changing the applied current sequence of the SMA wires embedded in the flipper actuator. The generated thrust and the swimming efficiency in each swimming gait of the flipper actuator were measured and the results show that the vigorous gait has a higher thrust but a relatively lower swimming efficiency than the routine gait. The flipper actuator was implemented in a biomimetic turtle robot, and its average swimming speed in the routine and vigorous gaits were measured with the vigorous gait being capable of reaching a maximum speed of 11.5 mm s(-1).

  2. The effect of Tai Chi exercise on gait initiation and gait performance in persons with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Shinichi; Nocera, Joe R; Vallabhajosula, Srikant; Juncos, Jorge L; Gregor, Robert J; Waddell, Dwight E; Wolf, Steven L; Hass, Chris J

    2013-11-01

    Gait dysfunction and postural instability are two debilitating symptoms in persons with Parkinson's disease (PD). Tai Chi exercise has recently gained attention as an attractive intervention for persons with PD because of its known potential to reduce falls and improve postural control, walking abilities, and safety at a low cost. The purpose of this report is to investigate the effect of Tai Chi exercise on dynamic postural control during gait initiation and gait performance in persons with idiopathic PD, and to determine whether these benefits could be replicated in two different environments, as complementary projects. In these two separate projects, a total of 45 participants with PD were randomly assigned to either a Tai Chi group or a control group. The Tai Chi groups in both projects completed a 16-week Tai Chi exercise session, while the control groups consisted of either a placebo (i.e., Qi-Gong) or non-exercise group. Tai Chi did not significantly improve Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part III score, selected gait initiation parameters or gait performance in either project. Combined results from both projects suggest that 16 weeks of class-based Tai Chi were ineffective in improving either gait initiation, gait performance, or reducing parkinsonian disability in this subset of persons with PD. Thus the use of short-term Tai Chi exercise should require further study before being considered a valuable therapeutic intervention for these domains in PD.

  3. The effect of gait training with shoe inserts on the improvement of pain and gait in sacroiliac joint patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Byung-Yun; Yoon, Jung-Gyu

    2015-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the current research was to identify how gait training with shoe inserts affects the pain and gait of sacroiliac joint dysfunction patients. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty subjects were randomly selected and assigned to be either the experimental group (gait training with shoe insert group) or control group. Each group consisted of 15 patients. Pain was measured by Visual Analogue Scale, and foot pressure in a standing position and during gait was measured with a Gateview AFA-50 system (Alpus, Seoul, Republic of Korea). A paired sample t-test was used to compare the pain and gait of the sacroiliac joint before and after the intervention. Correlation between pain and walking after gait training with shoe inserts was examined by Pearson test. The level of significance was set at α=0.05. [Results] It was found that application of the intervention to the experimental group resulted in a significant decrease in sacroiliac joint pain. It was also found that there was a significant correlation between Visual Analogue Scale score and dynamic asymmetric index (r= 0.796) and that there was a negative correlation between Visual Analogue Scale score and forefoot/rear foot peak pressure ratio (r=-0.728). [Conclusion] The results of our analysis lead us to conclude that the intervention with shoe inserts had a significant influence on the pain and gait of sacroiliac joint patients.

  4. Observational gait assessment tools in paediatrics--a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathinam, Chandrasekar; Bateman, Andrew; Peirson, Janet; Skinner, Jane

    2014-06-01

    Instrumented gait analysis (IGA) is an expensive technique used to objectively detect gait abnormalities in children. Observational gait assessment is considered as a cost effective alternate for IGA in regular clinical practice. This article is aimed at systematically reviewing the available paediatric gait analysis tools and examines their reliability and validity compared to IGA. This review also examines the structure of these tools, their clinical use and limitations. Articles were searched from PubMed, CINHL, AMED, BNI, EMBASE, PEDro and Cochrane library from the earliest record on the database to December 2012. Hand searches were carried out in a few journals. Studies that examined children's gait using a structured assessment tool were included and analysed for their quality, reliability and validity. Pre-established criteria were used to judge the quality of methodology and reliability and validity. Five observational gait tools for children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) and one for children with Downs Syndrome were identified. Nine studies related to children with CP were enrolled for this review. None of the tools have accomplished the level of IGA's consistency. Edinburgh Visual Gait Score (EVGS) was found to have better reliability and validity than the other tools. Very limited studies were available for most of the gait assessment tools therefore their clinical use cannot be judged based on the existing evidence. EVGS was found to have better concurrent validity and reliability and it should be considered to assess CP gait in regular practice. Future work to investigate the use of low cost technology to improve observers' accuracy of EVGS is suggested.

  5. Gait as evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Larsen, Peter Kastmand

    2014-01-01

    This study examines what in Denmark may constitute evidence based on forensic anthropological gait analyses, in the sense of pointing to a match (or not) between a perpetrator and a suspect, based on video and photographic imagery. Gait and anthropometric measures can be used when direct facial...... comparison is not possible because of perpetrators masking their faces. The nature of judicial and natural scientific forms of evidence is discussed, and rulings dealing with the admissibility of video footage and forensic evidence in general are given. Technical issues of video materials are discussed......, and the study also discusses how such evidence may be presented, both in written statements and in court. © The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2014....

  6. Balzac and human gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Vázquez, S; Carrillo, J M

    2015-05-01

    People have been interested in movement analysis in general, and gait analysis in particular, since ancient times. Aristotle, Hippocrates, Galen, Leonardo da Vinci and Honoré de Balzac all used observation to analyse the gait of human beings. The purpose of this study is to compare Honoré de Balzac's writings with a scientific analysis of human gait. Honoré de Balzac's Theory of walking and other works by that author referring to gait. Honoré de Balzac had an interest in gait analysis, as demonstrated by his descriptions of characters which often include references to their way of walking. He also wrote a treatise entitled Theory of walking (Théorie de la demarche) in which he employed his keen observation skills to define gait using a literary style. He stated that the walking process is divided into phases and listed the factors that influence gait, such as personality, mood, height, weight, profession and social class, and also provided a description of the correct way of walking. Balzac considered gait analysis to be very important and this is reflected in both his character descriptions and Theory of walking, his analytical observation of gait. In our own technology-dominated times, this serves as a reminder of the importance of observation. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Microprocessor-based gait analysis system to retrain Trendelenburg gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrofsky, J S

    2001-01-01

    A microprocessor-based gait analysis system is described that uses two electromyogram (EMG) amplifiers, two foot switches and an audio feedback device to allow the retraining of one type of improper gait, where the hip abductors (gluteus medius muscles) are weak on one side of the body, causing the opposite hip to drop during the swing phase of gait (Trendelenburg gait). As the abnormality is strictly on one side of the body in most people, the circuitry is minimised, as gait can be analysed by only comparing muscle activity in the affected gluteus medius muscle with that in the unaffected gluteus medius muscle, through the EMG. Two foot contact switches are used to help assess timing of the step cycle. If gait is different on the two sides of the body, an audio cue directs the patient to correct the abnormality by increasing activity on the affected side. The device is tested on five patients. Trendelenburg gait is reduced by an average of 29 degrees through the use of the device. The average stride length at the beginning of the study is 0.32 +/- 0.3 m. By the end of the study, the stride length is increased to 0.45 +/- 0.2 m for the entire group of five subjects. The speed of gait has increased from 1.6 +/- 0.4 kmh(-1) to 3.1 +/- 0.5km h(-1).

  8. Estimation of Temporal Gait Parameters Using a Wearable Microphone-Sensor-Based System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Wang, Xiangdong; Long, Zhou; Yuan, Jing; Qian, Yueliang; Li, Jintao

    2016-12-17

    Most existing wearable gait analysis methods focus on the analysis of data obtained from inertial sensors. This paper proposes a novel, low-cost, wireless and wearable gait analysis system which uses microphone sensors to collect footstep sound signals during walking. This is the first time a microphone sensor is used as a wearable gait analysis device as far as we know. Based on this system, a gait analysis algorithm for estimating the temporal parameters of gait is presented. The algorithm fully uses the fusion of two feet footstep sound signals and includes three stages: footstep detection, heel-strike event and toe-on event detection, and calculation of gait temporal parameters. Experimental results show that with a total of 240 data sequences and 1732 steps collected using three different gait data collection strategies from 15 healthy subjects, the proposed system achieves an average 0.955 F1-measure for footstep detection, an average 94.52% accuracy rate for heel-strike detection and 94.25% accuracy rate for toe-on detection. Using these detection results, nine temporal related gait parameters are calculated and these parameters are consistent with their corresponding normal gait temporal parameters and labeled data calculation results. The results verify the effectiveness of our proposed system and algorithm for temporal gait parameter estimation.

  9. Estimation of Temporal Gait Parameters Using a Wearable Microphone-Sensor-Based System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Most existing wearable gait analysis methods focus on the analysis of data obtained from inertial sensors. This paper proposes a novel, low-cost, wireless and wearable gait analysis system which uses microphone sensors to collect footstep sound signals during walking. This is the first time a microphone sensor is used as a wearable gait analysis device as far as we know. Based on this system, a gait analysis algorithm for estimating the temporal parameters of gait is presented. The algorithm fully uses the fusion of two feet footstep sound signals and includes three stages: footstep detection, heel-strike event and toe-on event detection, and calculation of gait temporal parameters. Experimental results show that with a total of 240 data sequences and 1732 steps collected using three different gait data collection strategies from 15 healthy subjects, the proposed system achieves an average 0.955 F1-measure for footstep detection, an average 94.52% accuracy rate for heel-strike detection and 94.25% accuracy rate for toe-on detection. Using these detection results, nine temporal related gait parameters are calculated and these parameters are consistent with their corresponding normal gait temporal parameters and labeled data calculation results. The results verify the effectiveness of our proposed system and algorithm for temporal gait parameter estimation.

  10. Stability of an underactuated bipedal gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, S; Sangwan, V; Taneja, A; Seth, B

    2007-01-01

    A self-excited biped walking mechanism consisting of two legs that are connected in series at the hip joint through a servomotor is studied as a cyclic system with collisions. A torque proportional to angle between the shank of the swinging leg and the vertical is seen to sustain a gait. Each leg has a thigh and a shank connected at a passive knee joint that has a knee stopper restricting hyperextension similar to the human knee. A mathematical model for the dynamics of the system including the impact equations is used to analyse the stability of the system through examination of phase plane plots. Attractor lines along which the system approaches stability have been identified. A leg length for optimal stability has been identified. The biological basis for the proposed system has been identified by comparison with human gait.

  11. Invariant Classification of Gait Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fihl, Preben; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a method of classifying human gait in an invariant manner based on silhouette comparison. A database of artificially generated silhouettes is created representing the three main types of gait, i.e. walking, jogging, and running. Silhouettes generated from different camera angles...

  12. FreeWalker: a smart insole for longitudinal gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baitong; Rajput, Kuldeep Singh; Tam, Wing-Kin; Tung, Anthony K H; Yang, Zhi

    2015-08-01

    Gait analysis is an important diagnostic measure to investigate the pattern of walking. Traditional gait analysis is generally carried out in a gait lab, with equipped force and body tracking sensors, which needs a trained medical professional to interpret the results. This procedure is tedious, expensive, and unreliable and makes it difficult to track the progress across multiple visits. In this paper, we present a smart insole called FreeWalker, which provides quantitative gait analysis outside the confinement of traditional lab, at low- cost. The insole consists of eight pressure sensors and two motion tracking sensors, i.e. 3-axis accelerometer and 3-axis gyroscope. This enables measurement of under-foot pressure distribution and motion sequences in real-time. The insole is enabled with onboard SD card as well as wireless data transmission, which help in continuous gait-cycle analysis. The data is then sent to a gateway, for analysis and interpretation of data, using a user interface where gait features are graphically displayed. We also present validation result of a subject's left foot, who was asked to perform a specific task. Experiment results show that we could achieve a data-sampling rate of over 1 KHz, transmitting data up to a distance of 20 meter and maintain a battery life of around 24 hours. Taking advantage of these features, FreeWalker can be used in various applications, like medical diagnosis, rehabilitation, sports and entertainment.

  13. Quantifying dynamic characteristics of human walking for comprehensive gait cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mummolo, Carlotta; Mangialardi, Luigi; Kim, Joo H

    2013-09-01

    Normal human walking typically consists of phases during which the body is statically unbalanced while maintaining dynamic stability. Quantifying the dynamic characteristics of human walking can provide better understanding of gait principles. We introduce a novel quantitative index, the dynamic gait measure (DGM), for comprehensive gait cycle. The DGM quantifies the effects of inertia and the static balance instability in terms of zero-moment point and ground projection of center of mass and incorporates the time-varying foot support region (FSR) and the threshold between static and dynamic walking. Also, a framework of determining the DGM from experimental data is introduced, in which the gait cycle segmentation is further refined. A multisegmental foot model is integrated into a biped system to reconstruct the walking motion from experiments, which demonstrates the time-varying FSR for different subphases. The proof-of-concept results of the DGM from a gait experiment are demonstrated. The DGM results are analyzed along with other established features and indices of normal human walking. The DGM provides a measure of static balance instability of biped walking during each (sub)phase as well as the entire gait cycle. The DGM of normal human walking has the potential to provide some scientific insights in understanding biped walking principles, which can also be useful for their engineering and clinical applications.

  14. Validity of the Kinect for Gait Assessment: A Focused Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Shmuel; Yogev Seligmann, Galit

    2016-02-04

    Gait analysis may enhance clinical practice. However, its use is limited due to the need for expensive equipment which is not always available in clinical settings. Recent evidence suggests that Microsoft Kinect may provide a low cost gait analysis method. The purpose of this report is to critically evaluate the literature describing the concurrent validity of using the Kinect as a gait analysis instrument. An online search of PubMed, CINAHL, and ProQuest databases was performed. Included were studies in which walking was assessed with the Kinect and another gold standard device, and consisted of at least one numerical finding of spatiotemporal or kinematic measures. Our search identified 366 papers, from which 12 relevant studies were retrieved. The results demonstrate that the Kinect is valid only for some spatiotemporal gait parameters. Although the kinematic parameters measured by the Kinect followed the trend of the joint trajectories, they showed poor validity and large errors. In conclusion, the Kinect may have the potential to be used as a tool for measuring spatiotemporal aspects of gait, yet standardized methods should be established, and future examinations with both healthy subjects and clinical participants are required in order to integrate the Kinect as a clinical gait analysis tool.

  15. A method to standardize gait and balance variables for gait velocity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iersel, M.B. van; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Borm, G.F.

    2007-01-01

    Many gait and balance variables depend on gait velocity, which seriously hinders the interpretation of gait and balance data derived from walks at different velocities. However, as far as we know there is no widely accepted method to correct for effects of gait velocity on other gait and balance mea

  16. Extraction of human gait signatures: an inverse kinematic approach using Groebner basis theory applied to gait cycle analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barki, Anum; Kendricks, Kimberly; Tuttle, Ronald F.; Bunker, David J.; Borel, Christoph C.

    2013-05-01

    This research highlights the results obtained from applying the method of inverse kinematics, using Groebner basis theory, to the human gait cycle to extract and identify lower extremity gait signatures. The increased threat from suicide bombers and the force protection issues of today have motivated a team at Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT) to research pattern recognition in the human gait cycle. The purpose of this research is to identify gait signatures of human subjects and distinguish between subjects carrying a load to those subjects without a load. These signatures were investigated via a model of the lower extremities based on motion capture observations, in particular, foot placement and the joint angles for subjects affected by carrying extra load on the body. The human gait cycle was captured and analyzed using a developed toolkit consisting of an inverse kinematic motion model of the lower extremity and a graphical user interface. Hip, knee, and ankle angles were analyzed to identify gait angle variance and range of motion. Female subjects exhibited the most knee angle variance and produced a proportional correlation between knee flexion and load carriage.

  17. Interface Consistency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    This paper proposes that Interface Consistency is an important issue for the development of modular designs. Byproviding a precise specification of component interfaces it becomes possible to check that separately developedcomponents use a common interface in a coherent matter thus avoiding a very...... significant source of design errors. Awide range of interface specifications are possible, the simplest form is a syntactical check of parameter types.However, today it is possible to do more sophisticated forms involving semantic checks....

  18. Solid consistency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordin, Lorenzo; Creminelli, Paolo; Mirbabayi, Mehrdad; Noreña, Jorge

    2017-03-01

    We argue that isotropic scalar fluctuations in solid inflation are adiabatic in the super-horizon limit. During the solid phase this adiabatic mode has peculiar features: constant energy-density slices and comoving slices do not coincide, and their curvatures, parameterized respectively by ζ and Script R, both evolve in time. The existence of this adiabatic mode implies that Maldacena's squeezed limit consistency relation holds after angular average over the long mode. The correlation functions of a long-wavelength spherical scalar mode with several short scalar or tensor modes is fixed by the scaling behavior of the correlators of short modes, independently of the solid inflation action or dynamics of reheating.

  19. An Ambulatory Method of Identifying Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstructed Gait Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Patterson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of inertial sensors to characterize pathological gait has traditionally been based on the calculation of temporal and spatial gait variables from inertial sensor data. This approach has proved successful in the identification of gait deviations in populations where substantial differences from normal gait patterns exist; such as in Parkinsonian gait. However, it is not currently clear if this approach could identify more subtle gait deviations, such as those associated with musculoskeletal injury. This study investigates whether additional analysis of inertial sensor data, based on quantification of gyroscope features of interest, would provide further discriminant capability in this regard. The tested cohort consisted of a group of anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed (ACL-R females and a group of non-injured female controls, each performed ten walking trials. Gait performance was measured simultaneously using inertial sensors and an optoelectronic marker based system. The ACL-R group displayed kinematic and kinetic deviations from the control group, but no temporal or spatial deviations. This study demonstrates that quantification of gyroscope features can successfully identify changes associated with ACL-R gait, which was not possible using spatial or temporal variables. This finding may also have a role in other clinical applications where small gait deviations exist.

  20. Gait Dynamics and Locomotor Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    field settings from simple technologies such as gps monitors and pedometers. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Locomotion, gait, metabolism, body size, load...a reduction in exercise intensity. REFERENCES: 1. Alexander, RM. Sprinting and endurance for runners and cyclists . American Journal of

  1. Gait phase varies over velocities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yancheng; Lu, Kun; Yan, Songhua; Sun, Ming; Lester, D Kevin; Zhang, Kuan

    2014-02-01

    We sought to characterize the percent (PT) of the phases of a gait cycle (GC) as velocity changes to establish norms for pathological gait characteristics with higher resolution technology. Ninety five healthy subjects (49 males and 46 females with age 34.9 ± 11.8 yrs, body weight 64.0 ± 11.7 kg and BMI 23.5 ± 3.6) were enrolled and walked comfortably on a 10-m walkway at self-selected slower, normal, and faster velocities. Walking was recorded with a high speed camera (250 frames per second) and the eight phases of a GC were determined by examination of individual frames for each subject. The correlation coefficients between the mean PT of the phases of the three velocities gaits and PT defined by previous publications were all greater than 0.99. The correlation coefficient between velocity and PT of gait phases is -0.83 for loading response (LR), -0.75 for mid stance (MSt), and -0.84 for pre-swing (PSw). While the PT of the phases of three velocities from this study are highly correlated with PT described by Dr. Jacquenlin Perry decades ago, actual PT of each phase varied amongst these individuals with the largest coefficient variation of 24.31% for IC with slower velocity. From slower to faster walk, the mean PT of MSt diminished from 35.30% to 25.33%. High resolution recording revealed ambiguity of some gait phase definitions, and these data may benefit GC characterization of normal and pathological gait in clinical practice. The study results indicate that one should consider individual variations and walking velocity when evaluating gaits of subjects using standard gait phase classification.

  2. [Clinical gait analysis: user guide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armand, Stéphane; Bonnefoy-Mazure, Alice; Hoffmeyer, Pierre; De Coulon, Geraldo

    2015-10-14

    Clinical gait analysis has become an indispensable medical examination for the management of patients with complex gait disorders. As its name suggests, the purpose of this examination is to assess patients whilst they are walking in a laboratory setting. Measurements include: 3 dimensional joint motion, forces applied to joints, and electromyographic muscle activity. This quantitative data allows identification of walking deviations and to deduce the likely causes of these deviations thanks to the clinical data available for each patient.

  3. Effect of gait speed on gait rhythmicity in Parkinson's disease: variability of stride time and swing time respond differently

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peretz Chava

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to maintain a steady gait rhythm is impaired in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD. This aspect of locomotor dyscontrol, which likely reflects impaired automaticity in PD, can be quantified by measuring the stride-to-stride variability of gait timing. Previous work has shown an increase in both the variability of the stride time and swing time in PD, but the origins of these changes are not fully understood. Patients with PD also generally walk with a reduced gait speed, a potential confounder of the observed changes in variability. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between walking speed and gait variability. Methods Stride time variability and swing time variability were measured in 36 patients with PD (Hoehn and Yahr stage 2–2.5 and 30 healthy controls who walked on a treadmill at four different speeds: 1 Comfortable walking speed (CWS, 2 80% of CWS 3 90% of CWS, and 4 110% of CWS. In addition, we studied the effects of walking slowly on level ground, both with and without a walker. Results Consistent with previous findings, increased variability of stride time and swing time was observed in the patients with PD in CWS, compared to controls. In both groups, there was a small but significant association between treadmill gait speed and stride time variability such that higher speeds were associated with lower (better values of stride time variability (p = 0.0002. In contrast, swing time variability did not change in response to changes in gait speed. Similar results were observed with walking on level ground. Conclusion The present results demonstrate that swing time variability is independent of gait speed, at least over the range studied, and therefore, that it may be used as a speed-independent marker of rhythmicity and gait steadiness. Since walking speed did not affect stride time variability and swing time variability in the same way, it appears that these two aspects of

  4. Gait Analysis in Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Nishimura, Hirosuke; Endo, Kenji; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Tanaka, Hidetoshi; Shishido, Takaaki; Yamamoto, Kengo

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Gait analysis of patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) by using a sheet-type gait analysis system. Purpose The aim of this study was to compare the gait patterns of patients with CSM, evaluated by the Nurick grades, and to determine the threshold values of gait parameters predicting the occurrence of a fall by using a gait recorder. Overview of Literature Gait disorder due to CSM may progress to severe paraplegia, following even a minor trauma such as a fall. The in...

  5. Secure and Privacy Enhanced Gait Authentication on Smart Phone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thang Hoang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Smart environments established by the development of mobile technology have brought vast benefits to human being. However, authentication mechanisms on portable smart devices, particularly conventional biometric based approaches, still remain security and privacy concerns. These traditional systems are mostly based on pattern recognition and machine learning algorithms, wherein original biometric templates or extracted features are stored under unconcealed form for performing matching with a new biometric sample in the authentication phase. In this paper, we propose a novel gait based authentication using biometric cryptosystem to enhance the system security and user privacy on the smart phone. Extracted gait features are merely used to biometrically encrypt a cryptographic key which is acted as the authentication factor. Gait signals are acquired by using an inertial sensor named accelerometer in the mobile device and error correcting codes are adopted to deal with the natural variation of gait measurements. We evaluate our proposed system on a dataset consisting of gait samples of 34 volunteers. We achieved the lowest false acceptance rate (FAR and false rejection rate (FRR of 3.92% and 11.76%, respectively, in terms of key length of 50 bits.

  6. Secure and privacy enhanced gait authentication on smart phone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Thang; Choi, Deokjai

    2014-01-01

    Smart environments established by the development of mobile technology have brought vast benefits to human being. However, authentication mechanisms on portable smart devices, particularly conventional biometric based approaches, still remain security and privacy concerns. These traditional systems are mostly based on pattern recognition and machine learning algorithms, wherein original biometric templates or extracted features are stored under unconcealed form for performing matching with a new biometric sample in the authentication phase. In this paper, we propose a novel gait based authentication using biometric cryptosystem to enhance the system security and user privacy on the smart phone. Extracted gait features are merely used to biometrically encrypt a cryptographic key which is acted as the authentication factor. Gait signals are acquired by using an inertial sensor named accelerometer in the mobile device and error correcting codes are adopted to deal with the natural variation of gait measurements. We evaluate our proposed system on a dataset consisting of gait samples of 34 volunteers. We achieved the lowest false acceptance rate (FAR) and false rejection rate (FRR) of 3.92% and 11.76%, respectively, in terms of key length of 50 bits.

  7. Reliability of 3D gait data across multiple laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Kenton; Miller, Emily; Kingsbury, Trevor; Russell Esposito, Elizabeth; Wolf, Erik; Wilken, Jason; Wyatt, Marilynn

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the repeatability of gait analysis studies performed across multiple trials, sessions, and laboratories. Ten healthy participants (6 male/4 female, mean age of 30, mean BMI of 24kg/m(2)) were assessed in 3 sessions conducted at each of the three Centers of Excellence for Amputee Care within the Department of Defense. For each test session, kinematic and kinetic parameters were collected during five walking trials for each limb. One independent examiner at each site placed markers on the subjects. Biomechanical data were collected at two walking speeds: self-selected and Froude speed. Variability of the gait data was attributed to inter-trial, inter-session, and inter-lab errors for each subject. These error sources were averaged across all ten subjects to obtain a pooled error estimate. The kinematic errors were fairly consistent at the two walking speeds tested. Median inter-lab kinematic errors were gait laboratories, particularly when gait speed is standardized across testing sessions. A key similarity between sites was the use of identical anatomical segment definitions for the respective gait models.

  8. How crouch gait can dynamically induce stiff-knee gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Krogt, Marjolein M; Bregman, Daan J J; Wisse, Martijn; Doorenbosch, Caroline A M; Harlaar, Jaap; Collins, Steven H

    2010-04-01

    Children with cerebral palsy frequently experience foot dragging and tripping during walking due to a lack of adequate knee flexion in swing (stiff-knee gait). Stiff-knee gait is often accompanied by an overly flexed knee during stance (crouch gait). Studies on stiff-knee gait have mostly focused on excessive knee muscle activity during (pre)swing, but the passive dynamics of the limbs may also have an important effect. To examine the effects of a crouched posture on swing knee flexion, we developed a forward-dynamic model of human walking with a passive swing knee, capable of stable cyclic walking for a range of stance knee crouch angles. As crouch angle during stance was increased, the knee naturally flexed much less during swing, resulting in a 'stiff-knee' gait pattern and reduced foot clearance. Reduced swing knee flexion was primarily due to altered gravitational moments around the joints during initial swing. We also considered the effects of increased push-off strength and swing hip flexion torque, which both increased swing knee flexion, but the effect of crouch angle was dominant. These findings demonstrate that decreased knee flexion during swing can occur purely as the dynamical result of crouch, rather than from altered muscle function or pathoneurological control alone.

  9. Stability in skipping gaits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrada, Emanuel; Müller, Roy; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2016-11-01

    As an alternative to walking and running, humans are able to skip. However, adult humans avoid it. This fact seems to be related to the higher energetic costs associated with skipping. Still, children, some birds, lemurs and lizards use skipping gaits during daily locomotion. We combined experimental data on humans with numerical simulations to test whether stability and robustness motivate this choice. Parameters for modelling were obtained from 10 male subjects. They locomoted using unilateral skipping along a 12 m runway. We used a bipedal spring loaded inverted pendulum to model and to describe the dynamics of skipping. The subjects displayed higher peak ground reaction forces and leg stiffness in the first landing leg (trailing leg) compared to the second landing leg (leading leg). In numerical simulations, we found that skipping is stable across an amazing speed range from skipping on the spot to fast running speeds. Higher leg stiffness in the trailing leg permits longer strides at same system energy. However, this strategy is at the same time less robust to sudden drop perturbations than skipping with a stiffer leading leg. A slightly higher stiffness in the leading leg is most robust, but might be costlier.

  10. Human Gait Feature Extraction Including a Kinematic Analysis Toward Robotic Power Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario I. Chacon-Murguia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work proposes a method for human gait and kinematic analysis. Gait analysis consists of the determination of hip, knee and ankle positions through video analysis. Gait kinematic for the thigh and knee is then generated from this data. Evaluations of the gait analysis method indicate an acceptable performance of 86.66% for hip and knee position estimation, and comparable findings with other reported works for gait kinematic. A coordinate systems assignment is performed according to the DH algorithm and a direct kinematic model of the legs is obtained. The legs’ angles obtained from the video analysis are applied to the kinematic model in order to revise the application of this model to robotic legs in a power assisted system.

  11. Abnormalities of the First Three Steps of Gait Initiation in Patients with Parkinson's Disease with Freezing of Gait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Okada

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate abnormalities of the first three steps of gait initiation in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD with freezing of gait (FOG. Ten PD patients with FOG and 10 age-matched healthy controls performed self-generated gait initiation. The center of pressure (COP, heel contact positions, and spatiotemporal parameters were estimated from the vertical pressures on the surface of the force platform. The initial swing side of gait initiation was consistent among the trials in healthy controls but not among the trials in PD patients. The COP and the heel contact position deviated to the initial swing side during the first step, and the COP passed medial to each heel contact position during the first two steps in PD patients. Medial deviation of the COP from the first heel contact position had significant correlation with FOG questionnaire item 5. These findings indicate that weight shifting between the legs is abnormal and that medial deviation of the COP from the first heel contact position sensitively reflects the severity of FOG during the first three steps of gait initiation in PD patients with FOG.

  12. Multiple gait parameters derived from iPod accelerometry predict age-related gait changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosse, Nienke; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Lamoth, Claude

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Normative data of how natural aging affects gait can serve as a frame of reference for changes in gait dynamics due to pathologies. Therefore, the present study aims (1) to identify gait variables sensitive to age-related changes in gait over the adult life span using the iPod and (2) t

  13. The effect of treadmill exercise on gait efficiency during overground walking in adults with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, On-Yoo; Shin, Yoon-Kyum; Yoon, Young Kwon; Ko, Eu Jeong; Cho, Sung-Rae

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the effect of treadmill walking exercise as a treatment method to improve gait efficiency in adults with cerebral palsy (CP) and to determine gait efficiency during overground walking after the treadmill walking exercise. Fourteen adults with CP were recruited in the experimental group of treadmill walking exercise. A control group of 7 adults with CP who attended conventional physical therapy were also recruited. The treadmill walking exercise protocol consisted of 3-5 training sessions per week for 1-2 months (total 20 sessions). Gait distance, velocity, VO2, VCO2, O2 rate (mL/kg·min), and O2 cost (mL/kg·m) were assessed at the beginning and at the end of the treadmill walking exercise. The parameters were measured by KB1-C oximeter. After the treadmill walking exercise, gait distance during overground walking up to 6 minutes significantly increased from 151.29±91.79 to 193.93±79.01 m, and gait velocity increased from 28.09±14.29 to 33.49±12.69 m/min (pexercise. On the other hand, gait velocity and O2 cost during overground walking were not significantly changed in the control group. Treadmill walking exercise improved the gait efficiency by decreased energy expenditure during overground walking in adults with CP. Therefore, treadmill walking exercise can be an important method for gait training in adults with CP who have higher energy expenditure.

  14. A Global Gait Asymmetry Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Silvia; Resende, Renan A; Clansey, Adam C; Deluzio, Kevin J; Selbie, W Scott; Veloso, António P

    2016-04-01

    High levels of gait asymmetry are associated with many pathologies. Our long-term goal is to improve gait symmetry through real-time biofeedback of a symmetry index. Symmetry is often reported as a single metric or a collective signature of multiple discrete measures. While this is useful for assessment, incorporating multiple feedback metrics presents too much information for most subjects to use as visual feedback for gait retraining. The aim of this article was to develop a global gait asymmetry (GGA) score that could be used as a biofeedback metric for gait retraining and to test the effectiveness of the GGA for classifying artificially-induced asymmetry. Eighteen participants (11 males; age 26.9 y [SD = 7.7]; height 1.8 m [SD = 0.1]; body mass 72.7 kg [SD = 8.9]) walked on a treadmill in 3 symmetry conditions, induced by wearing custom-made sandals: a symmetric condition (identical sandals) and 2 asymmetric conditions (different sandals). The GGA score was calculated, based on several joint angles, and compared between conditions. Significant differences were found among all conditions (P asymmetry, and may be useful for rehabilitation and assessment.

  15. Normative Spatiotemporal Gait Parameters in Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Hollman, John H; McDade, Eric M.; Petersen, Ronald C.

    2011-01-01

    While factor analyses have characterized pace, rhythm and variability as factors that explain variance in gait performance in older adults, comprehensive analyses incorporating many gait parameters have not been undertaken and normative data for many of those parameters are lacking. The purposes of this study were to conduct a factor analysis on nearly two dozen spatiotemporal gait parameters and to contribute to the normative database of gait parameters from healthy, able-bodied men and wome...

  16. Evaluation of the elderly patient with an abnormal gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Moe R; Huang, Russel C; Wu, Anita; Girardi, Federico P; Cammisa, Frank P

    2007-02-01

    Distinguishing between the normal gait of the elderly and pathologic gaits is often difficult. Pathologic gaits with neurologic causes include frontal gait, spastic hemiparetic gait, parkinsonian gait, cerebellar ataxic gait, and sensory ataxic gait. Pathologic gaits with combined neurologic and musculoskeletal causes include myelopathic gait, stooped gait of lumbar spinal stenosis, and steppage gait. Pathologic gaits with musculoskeletal causes include antalgic gait, coxalgic gait, Trendelenburg gait, knee hyperextension gait, and other gaits caused by inadequate joint mobility. A working knowledge of the characteristics of these gaits and a systematic approach to observational gait examination can help identify the causes of abnormal gait. Patients with abnormal gait can benefit from the treatment of the primary cause of the disorder as well as by general fall-prevention interventions. Treatable causes of gait disturbance are found in a substantial proportion of patients and include normal-pressure hydrocephalus, vitamin B(12) deficiency, Parkinson's disease, alcoholism, medication toxicity, cervical spondylotic myelopathy, lumbar spinal stenosis, joint contractures, and painful disorders of the lower extremity.

  17. Gait Stability in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruijn, Sjoerd M.; Millard, Matthew; van Gestel, Leen; Meyns, Pieter; Jonkers, Ilse; Desloovere, Kaat

    2013-01-01

    Children with unilateral Cerebral Palsy (CP) have several gait impairments, amongst which impaired gait stability may be one. We tested whether a newly developed stability measure (the foot placement estimator, FPE) which does not require long data series, can be used to asses gait stability in typically developing (TD) children as well as…

  18. A mechanical energy analysis of gait initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. A.; Verstraete, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    The analysis of gait initiation (the transient state between standing and walking) is an important diagnostic tool to study pathologic gait and to evaluate prosthetic devices. While past studies have quantified mechanical energy of the body during steady-state gait, to date no one has computed the mechanical energy of the body during gait initiation. In this study, gait initiation in seven normal male subjects was studied using a mechanical energy analysis to compute total body energy. The data showed three separate states: quiet standing, gait initiation, and steady-state gait. During gait initiation, the trends in the energy data for the individual segments were similar to those seen during steady-state gait (and in Winter DA, Quanbury AO, Reimer GD. Analysis of instantaneous energy of normal gait. J Biochem 1976;9:253-257), but diminished in amplitude. However, these amplitudes increased to those seen in steady-state during the gait initiation event (GIE), with the greatest increase occurring in the second step due to the push-off of the foundation leg. The baseline level of mechanical energy was due to the potential energy of the individual segments, while the cyclic nature of the data was indicative of the kinetic energy of the particular leg in swing phase during that step. The data presented showed differences in energy trends during gait initiation from those of steady state, thereby demonstrating the importance of this event in the study of locomotion.

  19. Gait Stability in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruijn, Sjoerd M.; Millard, Matthew; van Gestel, Leen; Meyns, Pieter; Jonkers, Ilse; Desloovere, Kaat

    2013-01-01

    Children with unilateral Cerebral Palsy (CP) have several gait impairments, amongst which impaired gait stability may be one. We tested whether a newly developed stability measure (the foot placement estimator, FPE) which does not require long data series, can be used to asses gait stability in typically developing (TD) children as well as…

  20. Skeleton-Based Abnormal Gait Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trong-Nguyen Nguyen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Human gait analysis plays an important role in musculoskeletal disorder diagnosis. Detecting anomalies in human walking, such as shuffling gait, stiff leg or unsteady gait, can be difficult if the prior knowledge of such a gait pattern is not available. We propose an approach for detecting abnormal human gait based on a normal gait model. Instead of employing the color image, silhouette, or spatio-temporal volume, our model is created based on human joint positions (skeleton in time series. We decompose each sequence of normal gait images into gait cycles. Each human instant posture is represented by a feature vector which describes relationships between pairs of bone joints located in the lower body. Such vectors are then converted into codewords using a clustering technique. The normal human gait model is created based on multiple sequences of codewords corresponding to different gait cycles. In the detection stage, a gait cycle with normality likelihood below a threshold, which is determined automatically in the training step, is assumed as an anomaly. The experimental results on both marker-based mocap data and Kinect skeleton show that our method is very promising in distinguishing normal and abnormal gaits with an overall accuracy of 90.12%.

  1. Nonstandard Gaits in Unsteady Hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Michael; Rowley, Clarence

    2016-11-01

    Marine biology has long inspired the design and engineering of underwater vehicles. The literature examining the kinematics and dynamics of fishes, ranging from undulatory anguilliform swimmers to oscillatory ostraciiform ones, is vast. Past numerical studies of these organisms have principally focused on gaits characterized by sinusoidal pitching and heaving motions. It is conceivable that more sophisticated gaits could perform better in some respects, for example as measured by thrust generation or by cost of transport. This work uses an unsteady boundary-element method to numerically investigate the hydrodynamics and propulsive efficiency of high-Reynolds-number swimmers whose gaits are encoded by Fourier series or by Jacobi elliptic functions. Numerical results are presented with an emphasis on identifying particular wake structures and modes of motion that are associated with optimal swimming. This work was supported by the Office of Naval Research through MURI Grant N00014-14-1-0533.

  2. Gait analysis in forensic medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter K; Simonsen, Erik B; Lynnerup, Niels

    2008-01-01

    Recordings from video surveillance systems are used as evidence from crime scenes. It would be useful to perform comparisons between disguised perpetrators and suspects based on their gait. We applied functional anatomical and biomechanical knowledge to analyze the gait of perpetrators, as recorded...... than the other. Based on these characteristic features, we are able to state with reasonable certainty whether the suspect could be the perpetrator, but it is not possible to identify the perpetrator positively. Nevertheless, we have been involved in several cases where the court has found...

  3. Clinical gait evaluation of patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jun; Liu, Yancheng; Yan, Songhua; Cao, Guanglei; Wang, Shasha; Lester, D Kevin; Zhang, Kuan

    2017-08-16

    Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is the most common osteoarthritis in lower limbs, and gait measurement is important to evaluate walking function of KOA patients before and after treatment. The third generation Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity (IDEEA3) is a portable gait analysis system to evaluate gaits. This study is to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of IDEEA3 for gait measurement of KOA patients. Meanwhile, gait differences between KOA patients and healthy subjects are examined. Twelve healthy volunteers were recruited for measurement comparison of gait cycle (GC), cadence, step length, velocity and step counts between a motion analysis system and a high-speed camera (GoPro Hero3). Twenty-three KOA patients were recruited for measurement comparison of former five parameters between GoPro Hero3 and IDEEA3. Paired t-test, Concordance Correlation Coefficient (CCC) and Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) were used for data analysis. All p-values of paired t-tests for GC, cadence, step length and velocity were greater than 0.05 while all CCC and ICC results were above 0.95. The measurements of GC, cadence, step length, velocity and step counts by motion analysis system are highly consistent with the measurements by GoPro Hero3. The measurements of former parameters by GoPro Hero3 are not statistically different from the measurements by IDEEA3. IDEEA3 can be effectively used for the measurement of GC, cadence, step length, velocity and step counts in KOA patients. The KOA patients walk with longer GC, lower cadence, shorter step length and slower speed compared with healthy subjects in natural speed with flat shoes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Improved kinect-based spatiotemporal and kinematic treadmill gait assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltoukhy, Moataz; Oh, Jeonghoon; Kuenze, Christopher; Signorile, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    A cost-effective, clinician friendly gait assessment tool that can automatically track patients' anatomical landmarks can provide practitioners with important information that is useful in prescribing rehabilitative and preventive therapies. This study investigated the validity and reliability of the Microsoft Kinect v2 as a potential inexpensive gait analysis tool. Ten healthy subjects walked on a treadmill at 1.3 and 1.6m·s(-1), as spatiotemporal parameters and kinematics were extracted concurrently using the Kinect and three-dimensional motion analysis. Spatiotemporal measures included step length and width, step and stride times, vertical and mediolateral pelvis motion, and foot swing velocity. Kinematic outcomes included hip, knee, and ankle joint angles in the sagittal plane. The absolute agreement and relative consistency between the two systems were assessed using interclass correlations coefficients (ICC2,1), while reproducibility between systems was established using Lin's Concordance Correlation Coefficient (rc). Comparison of ensemble curves and associated 90% confidence intervals (CI90) of the hip, knee, and ankle joint angles were performed to investigate if the Kinect sensor could consistently and accurately assess lower extremity joint motion throughout the gait cycle. Results showed that the Kinect v2 sensor has the potential to be an effective clinical assessment tool for sagittal plane knee and hip joint kinematics, as well as some spatiotemporal temporal variables including pelvis displacement and step characteristics during the gait cycle.

  5. Gait and Functional Mobility Deficits in Fragile X-Associated Tremor/Ataxia Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Joan A; Robertson-Dick, Erin E; Hall, Deborah A; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth

    2016-08-01

    Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) results from a "premutation" (PM) size CGG repeat expansion in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene. Cerebellar gait ataxia is the primary feature in some FXTAS patients causing progressive disability. However, no studies have quantitatively characterized gait and mobility deficits in FXTAS. We performed quantitative gait and mobility analysis in seven FMR1 PM carriers with FXTAS and ataxia, six PM carriers without FXTAS, and 18 age-matched controls. We studied four independent gait domains, trunk range of motion (ROM), and movement transitions using an instrumented Timed Up and Go (i-TUG). We correlated these outcome measures with FMR1 molecular variables and clinical severity scales. PM carriers with FXTAS were globally impaired in every gait performance domain except trunk ROM compared to controls. These included total i-TUG duration, stride velocity, gait cycle time, cadence, double-limb support and swing phase times, turn duration, step time before turn, and turn-to-sit duration, and increased gait variability on several measures. Carriers without FXTAS did not differ from controls on any parameters, but double-limb support time was close to significance. Balance and disability scales correlated with multiple gait and movement transition parameters, while the FXTAS Rating Scale did not. This is the first study to quantitatively examine gait and movement transitions in FXTAS patients. Gait characteristics were consistent with those from previous cohorts with cerebellar ataxia. Sensitive measures like the i-TUG may help determine efficacy of interventions, characterize disease progression, and provide early markers of disease in FXTAS.

  6. Difficulties in post-stroke gait improvement caused by post-stroke depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stanislaw Kijowski

    2014-01-01

    Background Depression is a common problem impeding post-stroke rehabilitation.Up to 70% of patients show depression symptoms during the first twelve months after stroke onset.However,the depression and its effect on functional recovery can be difficult to diagnose.The purpose of this study was to use gait analysis as a tool to compare the recovery after stroke in patients with and without depression and to assess the impact of the initiation time of rehabilitation after stroke onset.Methods One hundred and forty five consecutive patients after first ever stroke admitted for designed rehabilitation program within 2 to 31 months after stroke onset participated.All patients received 4 weeks treatment program included comprehensive rehabilitation consisted of multipurpose activities 5 days a week.These included individual and group exercises,physiotherapy,occupational therapy and gait training.Gait analysis with Kistler force plates was employed to assess gait pattern symmetry before and after the treatment.Gait symmetry was evaluated based on seven gait parameters.Regaining of gait pattern symmetry was assumed as a measure of rehabilitation outcome.Results After rehabilitation program gait symmetry w()ined in patients without depression.Gait asymmetry remained unchanged in patients diagnosed with depression.No major differences in outcome from rehabilitation were noted in regards to the initiation time of rehabilitation after the stroke onset.Conclusions Depression limits gait recovery after stroke.The time of initiation of rehabilitation after stroke onset does not limit the motor recovery after rehabilitation program.

  7. Evaluation of a Gait Assessment Module Using 3D Motion Capture Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskwill, Amanda J.; Belli, Patricia; Kelleher, Leila

    2017-01-01

    Background Gait analysis is the study of human locomotion. In massage therapy, this observation is part of an assessment process that informs treatment planning. Massage therapy students must apply the theory of gait assessment to simulated patients. At Humber College, the gait assessment module traditionally consists of a textbook reading and a three-hour, in-class session in which students perform gait assessment on each other. In 2015, Humber College acquired a three-dimensional motion capture system. Purpose The purpose was to evaluate the use of 3D motion capture in a gait assessment module compared to the traditional gait assessment module. Participants Semester 2 massage therapy students who were enrolled in Massage Theory 2 (n = 38). Research Design Quasi-experimental, wait-list comparison study. Intervention The intervention group participated in an in-class session with a Qualisys motion capture system. Main Outcome Measure(s) The outcomes included knowledge and application of gait assessment theory as measured by quizzes, and students’ satisfaction as measured through a questionnaire. Results There were no statistically significant differences in baseline and post-module knowledge between both groups (pre-module: p = .46; post-module: p = .63). There was also no difference between groups on the final application question (p = .13). The intervention group enjoyed the in-class session because they could visualize the content, whereas the comparison group enjoyed the interactivity of the session. The intervention group recommended adding the assessment of gait on their classmates to their experience. Both groups noted more time was needed for the gait assessment module. Conclusions Based on the results of this study, it is recommended that the gait assessment module combine both the traditional in-class session and the 3D motion capture system. PMID:28293329

  8. An Efficient Gait Recognition with Backpack Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heesung; Hong, Sungjun; Kim, Euntai

    2009-12-01

    Gait-based human identification is a paradigm to recognize individuals using visual cues that characterize their walking motion. An important requirement for successful gait recognition is robustness to variations including different lighting conditions, poses, and walking speed. Deformation of the gait silhouette caused by objects carried by subjects also has a significant effect on the performance of gait recognition systems; a backpack is the most common of these objects. This paper proposes methods for eliminating the effect of a carried backpack for efficient gait recognition. We apply simple, recursive principal component analysis (PCA) reconstructions and error compensation to remove the backpack from the gait representation and then conduct gait recognition. Experiments performed with the CASIA database illustrate the performance of the proposed algorithm.

  9. Implementation of an iPhone as a wireless accelerometer for quantifying gait characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoyne, Robert; Mastroianni, Timothy; Cozza, Michael; Coroian, Cristian; Grundfest, Warren

    2010-01-01

    The capacity to quantify and evaluate gait beyond the general confines of a clinical environment under effectively autonomous conditions may alleviate rampant strain on limited and highly specialized medical resources. An iPhone consists of a three dimensional accelerometer subsystem with highly robust and scalable software applications. With the synthesis of the integral iPhone features, an iPhone application, which constitutes a wireless accelerometer system for gait quantification and analysis, has been tested and evaluated in an autonomous environment. The acquired gait cycle data was transmitted wireless and through email for subsequent post-processing in a location remote to the location where the experiment was conducted. The iPhone application functioning as a wireless accelerometer for the acquisition of gait characteristics has demonstrated sufficient accuracy and consistency.

  10. Gait and Balance in Treatment-Naive Active Alcoholics with and without a Lifetime Drug Codependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fein, George; Smith, Stan; Greenstein, David

    2012-01-01

    Background Disturbed gait and balance are among the most consistent sequelae of chronic alcoholism. However, although a majority of alcoholics have never sought treatment, most investigations showing ataxia in alcohol dependent individuals have relied on samples drawn from treated populations. In addition, few studies have addressed the associations of codependence on other drugs with alcoholic gait and balance disturbance. Methods The present study employed the Walk-a-line Ataxia Battery (Fregly et al. 1972) to assess gait and balance in treatment-naive, actively drinking alcohol dependent men and women (TNA; n = 69) who were dependent on alcohol only (ALC; n = 43), or who also had a lifetime drug dependence (ALC+DRG; n = 26; i.e., methamphetamine, cocaine, opiates, and/or marijuana), compared with non-substance abusing controls (NSAC; n = 74). We also examined associations between lifetime alcohol use and age with gait and balance measures. Results Our main findings were 1) no evidence of disturbed gait and balance in ALC vs. NSAC and 2) significantly disturbed gait and balance in ALC+DRG, relative to both NSAC and ALC, along with steeper age-associated decline in gait and balance performance in ALC vs. ALC+DRG. Conclusions Our results provide evidence consistent with previous studies that TNA (without a lifetime drug codependence) may represent a population that is different and less impaired (including in gait and balance) than treated alcoholics. Additionally, we provide evidence that ALC+DRG, with greater alcohol use and family drinking density than ALC, have an accelerated effect of age on gait and balance disturbance compared to both NSAC and ALC. The ALC+DRG group likely represents a subset of TNA with different characteristics than ALC. PMID:22390787

  11. Interactive Gait Rehabilitation System with a Locomotion Interface for Training Patients to Climb Stairs

    OpenAIRE

    Yano, Hiroaki; Tamefusa, Shintaro; TANAKA, Naoki; Saito, Hideyuki; Iwata, Hiroo

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a gait rehabilitation system with a locomotion interface (LI) for training patients to climb stairs. The LI consists of two 2-DOF manipulators equipped with footpads. These can move the patient's feet while his or her body remains stationary. The footpads follow the prerecorded motion of the feet of healthy individuals. For gait training, the patient progresses sequentially through successively more advanced modes. In this study, two modes, the enforced...

  12. Gait Impairment in a Rat Model of Focal Cerebral Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saara Parkkinen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The availability of proper tests for gait evaluation following cerebral ischemia in rats has been limited. The automated, quantitative CatWalk system, which was initially designed to measure gait in models of spinal cord injury, neuropathic pain, and peripheral nerve injury, is said to be a useful tool for the study of motor impairment in stroke animals. Here we report our experiences of using CatWalk XT with rats subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO, during their six-week followup. Large corticostriatal infarct was confirmed by MRI in all MCAO rats, which was associated with severe sensorimotor impairment. In contrast, the gait impairment was at most mild, which is consistent with seemingly normal locomotion of MCAO rats. Many of the gait parameters were affected by body weight, walking speed, and motivation despite the use of a goal box. In addition, MCAO rats showed bilateral compensation, which was developed to stabilize proper locomotion. All of these interferences may confound the data interpretation. Taken together, the translational applicability of CatWalk XT in evaluating motor impairment and treatment efficacy remains to be limited at least in rats with severe corticostriatal infarct and loss of body weight.

  13. Gait Training in Chronic Stroke Using Walk-Even Feedback Device: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Krishnan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetrical gait and a reduction in weight bearing on the affected side are a common finding in chronic stroke survivors. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the effectiveness of a shoe insole device that we developed, called Walk-Even, in correcting asymmetric gait in chronic stroke survivors. Six individuals with chronic (>6 months stroke underwent 8 weeks of intervention with 2 sessions/week, each consisting of 20 minutes of gait training and 20 minutes of lower-extremity strength training. The 2 control participants underwent conventional gait training, while 4 participants underwent gait training using the Walk-Even. Following intervention, all the participants improved on most of the gait measures: peak pressure of the foot, time of transfer of weight from heel-to-forefoot, center of pressure (COP trajectory, COP velocity, asymmetry ratio of stance, mean-force-heel, mean-force-metatarsals, Timed “Up and Go,” and Activities-specific Balance Scale. The improvement was more pronounced in the 4 participants that underwent training with Walk-Even compared to the control participants. This pilot study suggests that a combination of strength and gait training with real-time feedback may reduce temporal asymmetry and enhance weight-bearing on the affected side in chronic stroke survivors. A large randomized controlled study is needed to confirm its efficacy.

  14. Toward a low-cost gait analysis system for clinical and free-living assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladha, Cassim; Del Din, Silvia; Nazarpour, Kianoush; Hickey, Aodhan; Morris, Rosie; Catt, Michael; Rochester, Lynn; Godfrey, Alan

    2016-08-01

    Gait is an important clinical assessment tool since changes in gait may reflect changes in general health. Measurement of gait is a complex process which has been restricted to bespoke clinical facilities until recently. The use of inexpensive wearable technologies is an attractive alternative and offers the potential to assess gait in any environment. In this paper we present the development of a low cost analysis gait system built using entirely open source components. The system is used to capture spatio-temporal gait characteristics derived from an existing conceptual model, sensitive to ageing and neurodegenerative pathology (e.g. Parkinson's disease). We demonstrate the system is suitable for use in a clinical unit and will lead to pragmatic use in a free-living (home) environment. The system consists of a wearable (tri-axial accelerometer and gyroscope) with a Raspberry Pi module for data storage and analysis. This forms ongoing work to develop gait as a low cost diagnostic in modern healthcare.

  15. Allometric control of human gait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Lori Ann

    The purpose of the study was to extract the information contained in the fluctuations in the stride interval time series and the correlation properties of walking. To determine if the time series had memory or long-time correlation properties, the decay (loss) of correlation of the data across time was studied. The information acquired was to determine if control of walking could be better understood, by studying statistics of stride intervals. Furthermore, it was determined if the time series for walking was stable enough to establish a baseline for future studies. Allometric analysis was done on relaxed walking for 10 individuals. The data obtained during the experiments consisted of the time interval for a given stride and the number of strides in the sequence of steps. The maximal extension of the right leg, the ``stride interval'' versus the stride number, yielded a graph that has all the characteristics of a time series. Insight into the stride interval time series was obtained using relative dispersion, also know as the coefficient of variation, the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean. The results indicated memory in the control of walking for all subjects. Furthermore, memory was not maintained once the data was randomized suggesting the order of strides is important. The amount of memory differed for each subject, whereby some subjects had significant memory (high correlation coefficients = 0.693) while others showed low correlation coefficients. The relative dispersion for all subjects decreased with increasing aggregation number. This straight line with a negative slope depicted an inverse power-law relation between the relative dispersion and the aggregation number. The data does not have a dominant scale and can be evaluated on many scales without information lost. Although these data alone do not establish a baseline, the data analyzed using allometric analysis appears sufficiently stable to establish a baseline norm for walking. Finally, the

  16. Biofeedback for robotic gait rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colombo Gery

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Development and increasing acceptance of rehabilitation robots as well as advances in technology allow new forms of therapy for patients with neurological disorders. Robot-assisted gait therapy can increase the training duration and the intensity for the patients while reducing the physical strain for the therapist. Optimal training effects during gait therapy generally depend on appropriate feedback about performance. Compared to manual treadmill therapy, there is a loss of physical interaction between therapist and patient with robotic gait retraining. Thus, it is difficult for the therapist to assess the necessary feedback and instructions. The aim of this study was to define a biofeedback system for a gait training robot and test its usability in subjects without neurological disorders. Methods To provide an overview of biofeedback and motivation methods applied in gait rehabilitation, previous publications and results from our own research are reviewed. A biofeedback method is presented showing how a rehabilitation robot can assess the patients' performance and deliver augmented feedback. For validation, three subjects without neurological disorders walked in a rehabilitation robot for treadmill training. Several training parameters, such as body weight support and treadmill speed, were varied to assess the robustness of the biofeedback calculation to confounding factors. Results The biofeedback values correlated well with the different activity levels of the subjects. Changes in body weight support and treadmill velocity had a minor effect on the biofeedback values. The synchronization of the robot and the treadmill affected the biofeedback values describing the stance phase. Conclusion Robot-aided assessment and feedback can extend and improve robot-aided training devices. The presented method estimates the patients' gait performance with the use of the robot's existing sensors, and displays the resulting biofeedback

  17. Gait analysis methods in rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baker Richard

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Brand's four reasons for clinical tests and his analysis of the characteristics of valid biomechanical tests for use in orthopaedics are taken as a basis for determining what methodologies are required for gait analysis in a clinical rehabilitation context. Measurement methods in clinical gait analysis The state of the art of optical systems capable of measuring the positions of retro-reflective markers placed on the skin is sufficiently advanced that they are probably no longer a significant source of error in clinical gait analysis. Determining the anthropometry of the subject and compensating for soft tissue movement in relation to the under-lying bones are now the principal problems. Techniques for using functional tests to determine joint centres and axes of rotation are starting to be used successfully. Probably the last great challenge for optical systems is in using computational techniques to compensate for soft tissue measurements. In the long term future it is possible that direct imaging of bones and joints in three dimensions (using MRI or fluoroscopy may replace marker based systems. Methods for interpreting gait analysis data There is still not an accepted general theory of why we walk the way we do. In the absence of this, many explanations of walking address the mechanisms by which specific movements are achieved by particular muscles. A whole new methodology is developing to determine the functions of individual muscles. This needs further development and validation. A particular requirement is for subject specific models incorporating 3-dimensional imaging data of the musculo-skeletal anatomy with kinematic and kinetic data. Methods for understanding the effects of intervention Clinical gait analysis is extremely limited if it does not allow clinicians to choose between alternative possible interventions or to predict outcomes. This can be achieved either by rigorously planned clinical trials or using

  18. Sensory feedback plays a significant role in generating walking gait and in gait transition in salamanders: A simulation study

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    Nalin eHarischandra

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Here, we use a three-dimensional, neuro-musculo-mechanical model of a salamander with realistic physical parameters in order to investigate the role of sensory feedback in gait generation and transition. Activation of limb and axial muscles were driven by neural output patterns obtained from a central pattern generator (CPG which is composed of simulated spiking neurons with adaptation. The CPG consists of a body CPG and four limb CPGs that are interconnected via synapses both ipsilateraly and contralaterally. We use the model both with and without sensory modulation and for different combinations of ipsilateral and contralateral coupling between the limb CPGs. We found that the proprioceptive sensory inputs are essential in obtaining a coordinated walking gait. The sensory feedback includes the signals coming from the stretch receptor like intraspinal neurons located in the girdle regions and the limb stretch receptors residing in the hip and scapula regions of the salamander. On the other hand, coordinated motor output patterns for the trotting gait were obtainable without the sensory inputs. We found that the gait transition from walking to trotting can be induced by increased activity of the descending drive coming from the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR and is helped by the sensory inputs at the hip and scapula regions detecting the late stance phase. More neurophysiological experiments are required to identify the precise type of mechanoreceptors in the salamander and the neural mechanisms mediating the sensory modulation.

  19. Preferred gait and walk-run transition speeds in ostriches measured using GPS-IMU sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Monica A; Channon, Anthony J; Nolan, Grant S; Hall, Jade

    2016-10-15

    The ostrich (Struthio camelus) is widely appreciated as a fast and agile bipedal athlete, and is a useful comparative bipedal model for human locomotion. Here, we used GPS-IMU sensors to measure naturally selected gait dynamics of ostriches roaming freely over a wide range of speeds in an open field and developed a quantitative method for distinguishing walking and running using accelerometry. We compared freely selected gait-speed distributions with previous laboratory measures of gait dynamics and energetics. We also measured the walk-run and run-walk transition speeds and compared them with those reported for humans. We found that ostriches prefer to walk remarkably slowly, with a narrow walking speed distribution consistent with minimizing cost of transport (CoT) according to a rigid-legged walking model. The dimensionless speeds of the walk-run and run-walk transitions are slower than those observed in humans. Unlike humans, ostriches transition to a run well below the mechanical limit necessitating an aerial phase, as predicted by a compass-gait walking model. When running, ostriches use a broad speed distribution, consistent with previous observations that ostriches are relatively economical runners and have a flat curve for CoT against speed. In contrast, horses exhibit U-shaped curves for CoT against speed, with a narrow speed range within each gait for minimizing CoT. Overall, the gait dynamics of ostriches moving freely over natural terrain are consistent with previous lab-based measures of locomotion. Nonetheless, ostriches, like humans, exhibit a gait-transition hysteresis that is not explained by steady-state locomotor dynamics and energetics. Further study is required to understand the dynamics of gait transitions.

  20. Health monitors for chronic disease by gait analysis with mobile phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juen, Joshua; Cheng, Qian; Prieto-Centurion, Valentin; Krishnan, Jerry A; Schatz, Bruce

    2014-11-01

    We have developed GaitTrack, a phone application to detect health status while the smartphone is carried normally. GaitTrack software monitors walking patterns, using only accelerometers embedded in phones to record spatiotemporal motion, without the need for sensors external to the phone. Our software transforms smartphones into health monitors, using eight parameters of phone motion transformed into body motion by the gait model. GaitTrack is designed to detect health status while the smartphone is carried during normal activities, namely, free-living walking. The current method for assessing free-living walking is medical accelerometers, so we present evidence that mobile phones running our software are more accurate. We then show our gait model is more accurate than medical pedometers for counting steps of patients with chronic disease. Our gait model was evaluated in a pilot study involving 30 patients with chronic lung disease. The six-minute walk test (6 MWT) is a major assessment for chronic heart and lung disease, including congestive heart failure and especially chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), affecting millions of persons. The 6 MWT consists of walking back and forth along a measured distance for 6 minutes. The gait model using linear regression performed with 94.13% accuracy in measuring walk distance, compared with the established standard of direct observation. We also evaluated a different statistical model using the same gait parameters to predict health status through lung function. This gait model has high accuracy when applied to demographic cohorts, for example, 89.22% accuracy testing the cohort of 12 female patients with ages 50-64 years.

  1. Biomechanics of Gait during Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. During pregnancy women experience several changes in the body’s physiology, morphology, and hormonal system. These changes may affect the balance and body stability and can cause discomfort and pain. The adaptations of the musculoskeletal system due to morphological changes during pregnancy are not fully understood. Few studies clarify the biomechanical changes of gait that occur during pregnancy and in postpartum period. Purposes. The purpose of this re...

  2. Advanced Prosthetic Gait Training Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    distance up spine near T7 spinous process Spine_Rigid Intersection of spine and the point between the shoulder joints LowNeck Base of the neck near C7...spinous process UpperNeck Top of the neck near C1 spinous process LCLAV, RCLAV Approximately one-fourth distance between manubrium and acromion...capture data between the human subjects and the Santos biomechanical model that may affect the way clinicians score the gait data when using Santos

  3. Silhouette extraction from human gait images sequence using cosegmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinyan; Zhang, Yi

    2012-11-01

    Gait based human identification is very useful for automatic person recognize through visual surveillance and has attracted more and more researchers. A key step in gait based human identification is to extract human silhouette from images sequence. Current silhouette extraction methods are mainly based on simple color subtraction. These methods have a very poor performance when the color of some body parts is similar to the background. In this paper a cosegmentation based human silhouette extraction method is proposed. Cosegmentation is typically defined as the task of jointly segmenting "something similar" in a given set of images. We can divide the human gait images sequence into several step cycles and every step cycle consist of 10-15 frames. The frames in human gait images sequence have following similarity: every frame is similar to the next or previous frame; every frame is similar to the corresponding frame in the next or previous step cycle; every pixel can find similar pixel in other frames. The progress of cosegmentation based human silhouette extraction can be described as follows: Initially only points which have high contrast to background are used as foreground kernel points, the points in the background are used as background kernel points, then points similar to foreground points will be added to foreground points set and the points similar to background points will be added to background points set. The definition of the similarity consider the context of the point. Experimental result shows that our method has a better performance comparing to traditional human silhouette extraction methods. Keywords: Human gait

  4. Functional Neuroanatomy for Posture and Gait Control

    OpenAIRE

    Takakusaki, Kaoru

    2017-01-01

    Here we argue functional neuroanatomy for posture-gait control. Multi-sensory information such as somatosensory, visual and vestibular sensation act on various areas of the brain so that adaptable posture-gait control can be achieved. Automatic process of gait, which is steady-state stepping movements associating with postural reflexes including headeye coordination accompanied by appropriate alignment of body segments and optimal level of postural muscle tone, is mediated by the descending p...

  5. The Pathomechanics Of Calcaneal Gait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, David H.; Cooper, Les

    1980-07-01

    The data acquisition system employed in our laboratory includes optical, electronic and computer subsystems. Three movie camera freeze the motion for analysis. The film is displayed on a motion analyzer, and the body segment positions are recorded in a three dimensional coordinate system with Graf/pen sonic digitizer. The angular rotations are calculated by computer and automatically plotted. The force plate provides measurements of vertical force, foreaft shear, medial-lateral shear, torque, and center of pressure. Electromyograms are superimposed upon gait movies to permit measurement of muscle phasic activity. The Hycam movie camera si-multaneously films (through separate lens) the subject and oscilloscope. Movement measurements, electromyograms, and floor reaction forces provide the data base for analysis. From a study of the gait changes in five normal subjects following tibial nerve block, and from additional studies of patients with paralysis of the ankle plantar flexors, the pathomechanics of calcaneal gait can be described. Inability to transfer weight to the forward part of the foot produces ankle instability and reduction of contralateral step length. Excessive drop of the center of mass necessitates com-pensatory increased lift energy output through the sound limb to restore the height of the center of mass. Excessive stance phase ankle dorsiflexion produces knee instability requiring prolonged quadriceps muscle phasic activity.

  6. Gait and upper limb variability in Parkinson's disease patients with and without freezing of gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barbe, M.T.; Amarell, M.; Snijders, A.H.; Florin, E.; Quatuor, E.L.; Schonau, E.; Fink, G.R.; Bloem, B.R.; Timmermann, L.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and freezing of gait (FOG) (freezers) demonstrate high gait variability. The objective of this study was to determine whether freezers display a higher variability of upper limb movements and elucidate if these changes correlate with gait. We were the first gro

  7. Seven phases of gait detected in real-time using shank attached gyroscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behboodi, A; Wright, H; Zahradka, N; Lee, S C K

    2015-08-01

    A new gyroscope-based gait phase detection system (GPDS) with ability to detect all seven phases of gait was proposed in this study. Gyroscopes were attached to each shank. Shank angular velocity, about the medio-lateral axis, was streamed to a PC and a rule-based algorithm was used to identify characteristics of the signals. Five subjects were asked to walk on treadmill at their self-selected speed while using this system. All 7 phases of gait: LR, MSt, TSt, PSw, ISw, MSw, and TSw were detected in real-time using only shank angular velocities. To quantify system performance, sensor data was compared to simultaneously collected motion capture data. Average gait phase detection delays of the system were less than 40ms except TSw (74ms). The present system, consisting of minimal sensors and decreased processing, is precise, cosmetic, economical, and a good alternative for portable stand-alone applications.

  8. Principal Component Analysis of Gait Kinematics Data in Acute and Chronic Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Milovanović

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the joint angles analysis by means of the principal component analysis (PCA. The data from twenty-seven acute and chronic hemiplegic patients were used and compared with data from five healthy subjects. The data were collected during walking along a 10-meter long path. The PCA was applied on a data set consisting of hip, knee, and ankle joint angles of the paretic and the nonparetic leg. The results point to significant differences in joint synergies between the acute and chronic hemiplegic patients that are not revealed when applying typical methods for gait assessment (clinical scores, gait speed, and gait symmetry. The results suggest that the PCA allows classification of the origin for the deficit in the gait when compared to healthy subjects; hence, the most appropriate treatment can be applied in the rehabilitation.

  9. Equine Assisted Therapy and Changes in Gait for a Young Adult Female with Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine J. Coffey

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of equine assisted therapy on selected gait parameters in a person with Down syndrome. One female participant with Down syndrome completed two therapeutic horseback riding programs, each consisting of six riding sessions. Specific gait characteristics were analyzed with a trend analysis of the data by examining the means of the different variables. The trend analysis revealed a difference in stride length as well as hip and knee angle. These results indicate that over the course of the two therapeutic horseback riding programs, changes in gait occurred. Therefore, therapeutic horseback riding may have the potential to benefit gait characteristics and stability in young adult females with Down syndrome; however, further research is warranted.

  10. Optics in gait analysis and anthropometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Moreno, Alejandra Alicia

    2013-11-01

    Since antiquity, human gait has been studied to understand human movement, the kind of gait, in some cases, can cause musculoskeletal disorders or other health problems; in addition, also from antiquity, anthropometry has been important for the design of human items such as workspaces, tools, garments, among others. Nowadays, thanks to the development of optics and electronics, more accurate studies of gait and anthropometry can be developed. This work will describe the most important parameters for gait analysis, anthropometry and the optical systems used.

  11. Segmentation and classification of gait cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Valentina; Balestra, Gabriella; Knaflitz, Marco

    2014-09-01

    Gait abnormalities can be studied by means of instrumented gait analysis. Foot-switches are useful to study the foot-floor contact and for timing the gait phases in many gait disorders, provided that a reliable foot-switch signal may be collected. Considering long walks allows reducing the intra-subject variability, but requires automatic and user-independent methods to analyze a large number of gait cycles. The aim of this work is to describe and validate an algorithm for the segmentation of the foot-switch signal and the classification of the gait cycles. The performance of the algorithm was assessed comparing its results against the manual segmentation and classification performed by a gait analysis expert on the same signal. The performance was found to be equal to 100% for healthy subjects and over 98% for pathological subjects. The algorithm allows determining the atypical cycles (cycles that do not match the standard sequence of gait phases) for many different kinds of pathological gait, since it is not based on pathology-specific templates.

  12. Gait, posture and cognition in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ferreira Barbosa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Gait disorders and postural instability are the leading causes of falls and disability in Parkinson's disease (PD. Cognition plays an important role in postural control and may interfere with gait and posture assessment and treatment. It is important to recognize gait, posture and balance dysfunctions by choosing proper assessment tools for PD. Patients at higher risk of falling must be referred for rehabilitation as early as possible, because antiparkinsonian drugs and surgery do not improve gait and posture in PD.

  13. Gait-related cerebral alterations in patients with Parkinson's disease with freezing of gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijders, Anke H; Leunissen, Inge; Bakker, Maaike; Overeem, Sebastiaan; Helmich, Rick C; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Toni, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Freezing of gait is a common, debilitating feature of Parkinson's disease. We have studied gait planning in patients with freezing of gait, using motor imagery of walking in combination with functional magnetic resonance imaging. This approach exploits the large neural overlap that exists between planning and imagining a movement. In addition, it avoids confounds introduced by brain responses to altered motor performance and somatosensory feedback during actual freezing episodes. We included 24 patients with Parkinson's disease: 12 patients with freezing of gait, 12 matched patients without freezing of gait and 21 matched healthy controls. Subjects performed two previously validated tasks--motor imagery of gait and a visual imagery control task. During functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning, we quantified imagery performance by measuring the time required to imagine walking on paths of different widths and lengths. In addition, we used voxel-based morphometry to test whether between-group differences in imagery-related activity were related to structural differences. Imagery times indicated that patients with freezing of gait, patients without freezing of gait and controls engaged in motor imagery of gait, with matched task performance. During motor imagery of gait, patients with freezing of gait showed more activity than patients without freezing of gait in the mesencephalic locomotor region. Patients with freezing of gait also tended to have decreased responses in mesial frontal and posterior parietal regions. Furthermore, patients with freezing of gait had grey matter atrophy in a small portion of the mesencephalic locomotor region. The gait-related hyperactivity of the mesencephalic locomotor region correlated with clinical parameters (freezing of gait severity and disease duration), but not with the degree of atrophy. These results indicate that patients with Parkinson's disease with freezing of gait have structural and functional alterations in the

  14. Application of the Gillette Gait Index, Gait Deviation Index and Gait Profile Score to multiple clinical pediatric populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMulkin, Mark L; MacWilliams, Bruce A

    2015-02-01

    Gait indices are now commonly used to assess overall pathology and outcomes from studies with instrumented gait analyses. There are differences in how these indices are calculated and therefore inherent differences in their sensitivities to detect changes or differences between groups. The purpose of the current study was to examine the three most commonly used gait indices, Gillette Gait Index (GGI), Gait Deviation Index (GDI), and Gait Profile Score (GPS), comparing the statistical sensitivity and the ability to make meaningful interpretations of the clinical results. In addition, the GDI*, a log transformed and scaled version of the GPS score which closely matches the GDI was examined. For seven previous or ongoing studies representing varying gait pathologies seen in clinical laboratories, the GGI, GDI, and GPS/GDI* were calculated retrospectively. The GDI and GPS/GDI* proved to be the most sensitive measures in assessing differences pre/post-treatment or from a control population. A power analysis revealed the GDI and GDI* to be the most sensitive statistical measures (lowest sample sizes required). Subjectively, the GDI and GDI* interpretation seemed to be the most intuitive measure for assessing clinical changes. However, the gait variable sub-scores of the GPS determined several statistical differences which were not previously noted and was the only index tool for quantifying the relative contributions of specific joints or planes of motion. The GGI did not offer any advantages over the other two indices.

  15. Comparison of Upright Gait with Supine Bungee-Cord Gait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boda, Wanda L.; Hargens, Alan R.; Campbell, J. A.; Yang, C.; Holton, Emily M. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Running on a treadmill with bungee-cord resistance is currently used on the Russian space station MIR as a countermeasure for the loss of bone and muscular strength which occurs during spaceflight. However, it is unknown whether ground reaction force (GRF) at the feet using bungee-cord resistance is similar to that which occurs during upright walking and running on Earth. We hypothesized-that the DRAMs generated during upright walking and running are greater than the DRAMs generated during supine bungee-cord gait. Eleven healthy subjects walked (4.8 +/- 0.13 km/h, mean +/- SE) and ran (9.1 +/- 0.51 km/h) during upright and supine bungee-cord exercise on an active treadmill. Subjects exercised for 3 min in each condition using a resistance of 1 body weight calibrated during an initial, stationary standing position. Data were sampled at a frequency of 500Hz and the mean of 3 trials was analyzed for each condition. A repeated measures analysis of variance tested significance between the conditions. Peak DRAMs during upright walking were significantly greater (1084.9 +/- 111.4 N) than during supine bungee-cord walking (770.3 +/- 59.8 N; p less than 0.05). Peak GRFs were also significantly greater for upright running (1548.3 +/- 135.4 N) than for supine bungee-cord running (1099.5 +/- 158.46 N). Analysis of GRF curves indicated that forces decreased throughout the stance phase for bungee-cord gait but not during upright gait. These results indicate that bungee-cord exercise may not create sufficient loads at the feet to counteract the loss of bone and muscular strength that occurs during long-duration exposure to microgravity.

  16. Variability and similarity of gait as evaluated by joint angles: implications for forensic gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sylvia X M; Larsen, Peter K; Alkjær, Tine; Simonsen, Erik B; Lynnerup, Niels

    2014-03-01

    Closed-circuit television (CCTV) footage is used in criminal investigations to compare perpetrators with suspects. Usually, incomplete gait cycles are collected, making evidential gait analysis challenging. This study aimed to analyze the discriminatory power of joint angles throughout a gait cycle. Six sets from 12 men were collected. For each man, a variability range VR (mean ± 1SD) of a specific joint angle at a specific time point (a gait cycle was 100 time points) was calculated. In turn, each individual was compared with the 11 others, and whenever 1 of these 11 had a value within this individual’s VR, it counted as positive. By adding the positives throughout the gait cycle, we created simple bar graphs; tall bars indicated a small discriminatory power, short bars indicated a larger one. The highest discriminatory power was at time points 60–80 in the gait cycle. We show how our data can assess gait data from an actual case.

  17. Walking (Gait), Balance, and Coordination Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Seeking Services: Questions to Ask d Employment Disclosure Decisions Career Options Accommodations d Resources for Specific Populations Pediatric ... MS Navigator Program Patient Resources Contact Us d Careers in MS ... MS Symptoms Walking (Gait) Difficulties Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Walking (Gait) ...

  18. Gait analysis by high school students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heck, A.; van Dongen, C.

    2008-01-01

    Human walking is a complicated motion. Movement scientists have developed various research methods to study gait. This article describes how a high school student collected and analysed high quality gait data in much the same way that movement scientists do, via the recording and measurement of

  19. Gait Analysis by High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Andre; van Dongen, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    Human walking is a complicated motion. Movement scientists have developed various research methods to study gait. This article describes how a high school student collected and analysed high quality gait data in much the same way that movement scientists do, via the recording and measurement of motions with a video analysis tool and via…

  20. Lateral balance control for robotic gait training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, B.; Meuleman, J.H.; Asseldonk, van E.H.F.; Kooij, van der H.

    2013-01-01

    For the rehabilitation of neurological patients robot-aided gait training is increasingly being used. Lack of balance training in these robotic gait trainers might contribute to the fact that they do not live up to the expectations. Therefore, in this study we developed and evaluated an algorithm to

  1. THE GAIT OF UNILATERAL TRANSFEMORAL AMPUTEES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOONSTRA, AM; SCHRAMA, J; FIDLER, [No Value; EISMA, WH

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the gait of persons with a unilateral transfemoral amputation by means of a questionnaire, gait analysis and measurement of energy expenditure, and to find correlations among the variables studied. The study included 29 transfemoral amputees amputated for other

  2. THE GAIT OF UNILATERAL TRANSFEMORAL AMPUTEES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOONSTRA, AM; SCHRAMA, J; FIDLER, [No Value; EISMA, WH

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the gait of persons with a unilateral transfemoral amputation by means of a questionnaire, gait analysis and measurement of energy expenditure, and to find correlations among the variables studied. The study included 29 transfemoral amputees amputated for other

  3. Average Gait Differential Image Based Human Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyan Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The difference between adjacent frames of human walking contains useful information for human gait identification. Based on the previous idea a silhouettes difference based human gait recognition method named as average gait differential image (AGDI is proposed in this paper. The AGDI is generated by the accumulation of the silhouettes difference between adjacent frames. The advantage of this method lies in that as a feature image it can preserve both the kinetic and static information of walking. Comparing to gait energy image (GEI, AGDI is more fit to representation the variation of silhouettes during walking. Two-dimensional principal component analysis (2DPCA is used to extract features from the AGDI. Experiments on CASIA dataset show that AGDI has better identification and verification performance than GEI. Comparing to PCA, 2DPCA is a more efficient and less memory storage consumption feature extraction method in gait based recognition.

  4. Foot kinematics and kinetics during adolescent gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacWilliams, Bruce A; Cowley, Matthew; Nicholson, Diane E

    2003-06-01

    Gait analysis models typically analyze the ankle joint complex and treat the foot as a rigid segment. Such models are inadequate for clinical decision making for patients with foot impairments. While previous multisegment foot models have been presented, no comprehensive kinematic and kinetic databases for normal gait exist. This study provides normative foot joint angles, moments and powers during adolescent gait. Eighteen subjects were evaluated using 19 retroreflective markers, six cameras, a pressure platform and a force plate. A nine-segment model determined 3D angles, 3D moments, and powers in eight joints or joint complexes. A complete sets of sagittal, coronal and frontal plane results are presented. Results indicate that single link models of the foot significantly overestimate ankle joint powers during gait. Understanding normal joint kinematics and kinetics during gait will provide a baseline for documenting impairments in patients with foot disorders.

  5. Impaired Economy of Gait and Decreased Six-Minute Walk Distance in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie I. Katzel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the biomechanics of gait may alter the energy requirements of walking in Parkinson's Disease (PD. This study investigated economy of gait during submaximal treadmill walking in 79 subjects with mild to moderate PD and the relationship between gait economy and 6-minute walk distance (6 MW. Oxygen consumption (VO2 at the self-selected treadmill walking speed averaged 64% of peak oxygen consumption (VO2 peak. Submaximal VO2 levels exceeded 70% of VO2 peak in 30% of the subjects. Overall the mean submaximal VO2 was 51% higher than VO2 levels expected for the speed and grade consistent with severe impairment in economy of gait. There was an inverse relationship between economy of gait and 6MW (r=−0.31, P<0.01 and with the self-selected walking speed (r=−0.35, P<0.01. Thus, the impairment in economy of gait and decreased physiologic reserve result in routine walking being performed at a high percentage of VO2 peak.

  6. Dual task interference during gait in patients with unilateral vestibular disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nascimbeni Alberto

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vestibular patients show slower and unsteady gait; they have also been shown to need greater cognitive resources when carrying out balance and cognitive dual tasks (DT. This study investigated DT interference during gait in a middle-aged group of subjects with dizziness and unsteadiness after unilateral vestibular neuronitis and in a healthy control group. Methods Fourteen individuals with subacute unilateral vestibular impairment after neuronitis and seventeen healthy subjects performed gait and cognitive tasks in single and DT conditions. A statistical gait analysis system was used and spatio-temporal parameters were considered. The cognitive task, consisting of backward counting by three, was tape recorded and the number of right figures was then calculated. Results Both patients and controls showed a more conservative gait during DT and between groups significant differences were not found. A significant decrease in cognitive performance during DT was found only in the vestibular group. Conclusions Results suggest that less attentional resources are available during gait in vestibular patients compared to controls, and that a priority is given in keeping up the motor task to the detriment of a decrease of the cognitive performance during DT.

  7. Walking pattern classification and walking distance estimation algorithms using gait phase information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jeen-Shing; Lin, Che-Wei; Yang, Ya-Ting C; Ho, Yu-Jen

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents a walking pattern classification and a walking distance estimation algorithm using gait phase information. A gait phase information retrieval algorithm was developed to analyze the duration of the phases in a gait cycle (i.e., stance, push-off, swing, and heel-strike phases). Based on the gait phase information, a decision tree based on the relations between gait phases was constructed for classifying three different walking patterns (level walking, walking upstairs, and walking downstairs). Gait phase information was also used for developing a walking distance estimation algorithm. The walking distance estimation algorithm consists of the processes of step count and step length estimation. The proposed walking pattern classification and walking distance estimation algorithm have been validated by a series of experiments. The accuracy of the proposed walking pattern classification was 98.87%, 95.45%, and 95.00% for level walking, walking upstairs, and walking downstairs, respectively. The accuracy of the proposed walking distance estimation algorithm was 96.42% over a walking distance.

  8. Should One Measure Balance or Gait to Best Predict Falls among People with Parkinson Disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan P. Duncan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We aimed to determine whether gait velocity is as useful as a balance test, a self-report measure of freezing of gait (FOG, and/or a measure of motor symptom severity for predicting falls among people with Parkinson Disease (PD. Methods. Fifty-six individuals with idiopathic PD completed a baseline assessment consisting of these measures: (1 MDS-UPDRS III, (2 Mini-BESTest, (3 gait velocity (forward, backward, dual task, and fast, and (4 FOGQ. Retrospective fall history was collected at baseline and six months later. Participants were considered fallers if they had two or more falls in the surveillance period. Ability of the tests to discriminate between fallers and nonfallers was determined using ROC curves followed by pairwise statistical noninferiority comparisons (P=.05 of the area under the ROC curve (AUC for each test. Results. At six months, 22% (n=21 of the sample were fallers. Fallers differed significantly from nonfallers on the MDS-UPDRS III, Mini-BESTest, backward gait velocity, and FOGQ. The Mini-BESTest had the highest AUC and was superior to all gait velocity measures at identifying fallers. Conclusion. A single measure of gait velocity, even in a challenging condition, may not be as effective as the Mini-BESTest in identifying fallers among people with PD.

  9. Joint kinematic calculation based on clinical direct kinematic versus inverse kinematic gait models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainz, H; Modenese, L; Lloyd, D G; Maine, S; Walsh, H P J; Carty, C P

    2016-06-14

    Most clinical gait laboratories use the conventional gait analysis model. This model uses a computational method called Direct Kinematics (DK) to calculate joint kinematics. In contrast, musculoskeletal modelling approaches use Inverse Kinematics (IK) to obtain joint angles. IK allows additional analysis (e.g. muscle-tendon length estimates), which may provide valuable information for clinical decision-making in people with movement disorders. The twofold aims of the current study were: (1) to compare joint kinematics obtained by a clinical DK model (Vicon Plug-in-Gait) with those produced by a widely used IK model (available with the OpenSim distribution), and (2) to evaluate the difference in joint kinematics that can be solely attributed to the different computational methods (DK versus IK), anatomical models and marker sets by using MRI based models. Eight children with cerebral palsy were recruited and presented for gait and MRI data collection sessions. Differences in joint kinematics up to 13° were found between the Plug-in-Gait and the gait 2392 OpenSim model. The majority of these differences (94.4%) were attributed to differences in the anatomical models, which included different anatomical segment frames and joint constraints. Different computational methods (DK versus IK) were responsible for only 2.7% of the differences. We recommend using the same anatomical model for kinematic and musculoskeletal analysis to ensure consistency between the obtained joint angles and musculoskeletal estimates.

  10. Applications of markerless motion capture in gait recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandau, Martin

    2016-03-01

    This thesis is based on four manuscripts where two of them were accepted and two were submitted to peer-reviewed journals. The experimental work behind the thesis was conducted at the Institute of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen. The purpose of the studies was to explore the variability of human gait and to conduct new methods for precise estimation of the kinematic parameters applied in forensic gait analysis. The gait studies were conducted in a custom built gait laboratory designed to obtain optimal conditions for markerless motion analysis. The set-up consisted of eight synchronised cameras located in the corners of the laboratory, which were connected to a single computer. The captured images were processed with stereovision-based algorithms to provide accurate 3D reconstructions of the participants. The 3D reconstructions of the participants were obtained during normal walking and the kinematics were extracted with manual and automatic methods. The kinematic results from the automatic approach were compared to marker-based motion capture to validate the precision. The results showed that the proposed markerless motion capture method had a precision comparable to marker-based methods in the frontal plane and the sagittal plane. Similar markerless motion capture methods could therefore provide the basis for reliable gait recognition based on kinematic parameters. The manual annotations were compared to the actual anthropometric measurements obtained from MRI scans and the intra- and inter-observer variability was also quantified to observe the associated effect on recognition. The results showed not only that the kinematics in the lower extremities were important but also that the kinematics in the shoulders had a high discriminatory power. Likewise, the shank length was also highly discriminatory, which has not been previously reported. However, it is important that the same expert performs all annotations, as the inter

  11. Assessment of gait in subcortical vascular encephalopathy by computerized analysis: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäzner, H; Oster, M; Daffertshofer, M; Hennerici, M

    2000-11-01

    In subcortical vascular encephalopathy (SVE) gait disturbance is a common and early clinical sign which might be used to monitor disease progression. In the absence of reliable scales and with regard to the equivocal results of highly complex gait imaging devices we assessed the natural course of SVE in a prospective study, using a new straight forward technique to quantify and compare sequential gait studies. We report the results of 300 computerized gait analyses in 119 patients with SVE and 63 age-matched controls. Thirty-nine SVE patients were re-evaluated to monitor the natural course of the disease and to study the correlation of gait disturbances with MRI changes and neuropsychological findings. The system consists of a set of shoes containing 16 load sensors and a measuring-unit reading each sensor at 20-ms intervals. By off-line analysis we graded each recording on a Gait Disorder Score (GDS) with six variables indicating gait steadiness: step frequency, length of gait lines (which represent the movement of the centre of gravity during heel to toe movement), length of single support lines, variability of single and of double support lines, and double support time. In cross-sectional analysis, patients with SVE showed cadence (steps/min) to be reduced at 87.3 +/- 19.5 (96.4 +/- 7.8 in controls, P gait lines was significantly less: 0.70 +/- 0.13 vs. 0.80 +/- 0.05 in controls, with length of single support gait lines reduced at 0.42 +/- 0.14 in SVE (0.58 +/- 0.06 in controls, P phases was increased (0.19 +/- 0.10 s vs. 0.13 +/- 0.02 s in controls, P gait disorder who were re-investigated after a mean interval of 26 months (5.4 +/- 4.5 vs. 8.4 +/- 5.5, P gait analysis system for the evaluation of gait disorders and it quantifies the deterioration of gait in SVE patients.

  12. Fractal gait patterns are retained after entrainment to a fractal stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhea, Christopher K; Kiefer, Adam W; Wittstein, Matthew W; Leonard, Kelsey B; MacPherson, Ryan P; Wright, W Geoffrey; Haran, F Jay

    2014-01-01

    Previous work has shown that fractal patterns in gait can be altered by entraining to a fractal stimulus. However, little is understood about how long those patterns are retained or which factors may influence stronger entrainment or retention. In experiment one, participants walked on a treadmill for 45 continuous minutes, which was separated into three phases. The first 15 minutes (pre-synchronization phase) consisted of walking without a fractal stimulus, the second 15 minutes consisted of walking while entraining to a fractal visual stimulus (synchronization phase), and the last 15 minutes (post-synchronization phase) consisted of walking without the stimulus to determine if the patterns adopted from the stimulus were retained. Fractal gait patterns were strengthened during the synchronization phase and were retained in the post-synchronization phase. In experiment two, similar methods were used to compare a continuous fractal stimulus to a discrete fractal stimulus to determine which stimulus type led to more persistent fractal gait patterns in the synchronization and post-synchronization (i.e., retention) phases. Both stimulus types led to equally persistent patterns in the synchronization phase, but only the discrete fractal stimulus led to retention of the patterns. The results add to the growing body of literature showing that fractal gait patterns can be manipulated in a predictable manner. Further, our results add to the literature by showing that the newly adopted gait patterns are retained for up to 15 minutes after entrainment and showed that a discrete visual stimulus is a better method to influence retention.

  13. Gait: the role of the ankle and foot in walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    Evaluation of gait and its associated deviations from normal requires an in-depth evaluation of the patient and an appreciation for the complexity of the task. Understanding gait starts with an appreciation of the basic determinants of gait. Foot drop is a common gait deviation. Functionally, a foot drop results in a long limb. This will result in alterations of the gait cycle during swing phase. The common compensations for a foot drop include steppage gait, circumduction, and a persistently abducted limb. Noninterventional options for management of common gait deviations secondary to ankle/foot dysfunction present challenges.

  14. First metatarsophalangeal arthrodesis: a clinical, pedobarographic and gait analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFrino, Paul Francis; Brodsky, James White; Pollo, Fabian E; Crenshaw, Stephanie J; Beischer, Andrew D

    2002-06-01

    This study investigated the results of first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) arthrodesis in terms of clinical outcome measures, plantar pressure distribution, and gait patterns. Ten feet in nine patients with severe hallux rigidus (HR) who underwent first MTP arthrodesis were studied. The preoperative evaluation included a subjective questionnaire, physical exam, AOFAS hallux score, radiographs and dynamic pedobarography (EMED). At follow-up (average 34 months) these were repeated, and gait analysis studies were obtained. Patients showed significant clinical improvement based on the subjective criteria. The mean AOFAS score improved from 38 preoperatively to 90 postoperatively. Postoperative EMED analysis showed restoration of the weightbearing function of the first ray, with greater maximum force carried by the distal hallux at toe-off. Kinematic and kinetic gait analysis from each patient's operative limb were compared to the unaffected contralateral limb and to age- and sex-matched healthy subjects. The kinematic data indicated a significantly shorter step length with some loss in ankle plantar flexion at toe-off on the fused side. The kinetic data indicated a reduction in both ankle torque and ankle power at push-off. Clinical results indicated effective pain relief and a high level of patient satisfaction, consistent with previous reports in patients with symptomatic Hallux Rigidus.

  15. Arbitrary Symmetric Running Gait Generation for an Underactuated Biped Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Mohammad; Macnab, Chris

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates generating symmetric trajectories for an underactuated biped during the stance phase of running. We use a point mass biped (PMB) model for gait analysis that consists of a prismatic force actuator on a massless leg. The significance of this model is its ability to generate more general and versatile running gaits than the spring-loaded inverted pendulum (SLIP) model, making it more suitable as a template for real robots. The algorithm plans the necessary leg actuator force to cause the robot center of mass to undergo arbitrary trajectories in stance with any arbitrary attack angle and velocity angle. The necessary actuator forces follow from the inverse kinematics and dynamics. Then these calculated forces become the control input to the dynamic model. We compare various center-of-mass trajectories, including a circular arc and polynomials of the degrees 2, 4 and 6. The cost of transport and maximum leg force are calculated for various attack angles and velocity angles. The results show that choosing the velocity angle as small as possible is beneficial, but the angle of attack has an optimum value. We also find a new result: there exist biped running gaits with double-hump ground reaction force profiles which result in less maximum leg force than single-hump profiles. PMID:28118401

  16. Gait patterns in COPD: the Rotterdam Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahousse, Lies; Verlinden, Vincentius J A; van der Geest, Jos N; Joos, Guy F; Hofman, Albert; Stricker, Bruno H C; Brusselle, Guy G; Ikram, M Arfan

    2015-07-01

    Gait disturbances in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may lead to disability and falls. As studies assessing gait kinematics in COPD are sparse, we investigated associations of COPD with various gait domains and explored a potential link with falling. Gait was measured within the prospective, population-based Rotterdam Study (age ≥55 years) using an electronic walkway and summarised into seven gait domains: Rhythm, Variability, Phases, Pace, Tandem, Turning and Base of Support. Rhythm is a temporal gait aspect that includes cadence and reflects how quickly steps are taken. Persons with COPD (n=196) exhibited worse Rhythm (-0.21 SD, 95% CI -0.36- -0.06 SD) compared with persons with normal lung function (n=898), independent of age, sex, height, education, smoking or analgesic use, especially when dyspnoea and severe airflow limitation or frequent exacerbations (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease group D: -0.83 SD, 95% CI -1.25- -0.41 SD) were present. A lower forced expiratory volume in 1 s was associated with worse Rhythm and Pace, including lower cadence and gait velocity, respectively. Importantly, fallers with COPD had significantly worse Rhythm than nonfallers with COPD. This study demonstrates that persons with COPD exhibit worse Rhythm, especially fallers with COPD. The degree of Rhythm deterioration was associated with the degree of airflow limitation, symptoms and frequency of exacerbations.

  17. Gait variability: methods, modeling and meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hausdorff Jeffrey M

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study of gait variability, the stride-to-stride fluctuations in walking, offers a complementary way of quantifying locomotion and its changes with aging and disease as well as a means of monitoring the effects of therapeutic interventions and rehabilitation. Previous work has suggested that measures of gait variability may be more closely related to falls, a serious consequence of many gait disorders, than are measures based on the mean values of other walking parameters. The Current JNER series presents nine reports on the results of recent investigations into gait variability. One novel method for collecting unconstrained, ambulatory data is reviewed, and a primer on analysis methods is presented along with a heuristic approach to summarizing variability measures. In addition, the first studies of gait variability in animal models of neurodegenerative disease are described, as is a mathematical model of human walking that characterizes certain complex (multifractal features of the motor control's pattern generator. Another investigation demonstrates that, whereas both healthy older controls and patients with a higher-level gait disorder walk more slowly in reduced lighting, only the latter's stride variability increases. Studies of the effects of dual tasks suggest that the regulation of the stride-to-stride fluctuations in stride width and stride time may be influenced by attention loading and may require cognitive input. Finally, a report of gait variability in over 500 subjects, probably the largest study of this kind, suggests how step width variability may relate to fall risk. Together, these studies provide new insights into the factors that regulate the stride-to-stride fluctuations in walking and pave the way for expanded research into the control of gait and the practical application of measures of gait variability in the clinical setting.

  18. Asymmetry of Anticipatory Postural Adjustment During Gait Initiation

    OpenAIRE

    Hiraoka Koichi; Hatanaka Ryota; Nikaido Yasutaka; Jono Yasutomo; Nomura Yoshifumi; Tani Keisuke; Chujo Yuta

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the asymmetry of anticipatory postural adjustment (APA) during gait initiation and to determine whether the process of choosing the initial swing leg affects APA during gait initiation. The participants initiated gait with the leg indicated by a start tone or initiated gait with the leg spontaneously chosen. The dependent variables of APA were not significantly different among the condition of initiating gait with the preferred leg indicated by the...

  19. Gait and balance in treatment-naïve active alcoholics with and without a lifetime drug codependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fein, George; Smith, Stan; Greenstein, David

    2012-09-01

    Disturbed gait and balance are among the most consistent sequelae of chronic alcoholism. However, although a majority of alcoholics have never sought treatment, most investigations showing ataxia in alcohol-dependent individuals have relied on samples drawn from treated populations. In addition, few studies have addressed the associations of codependence on other drugs with alcoholic gait and balance disturbance. This study employed the Walk-a-Line Ataxia Battery (Fregly et al. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1972;43:395-399) to assess gait and balance in treatment-naïve, actively drinking alcohol-dependent men and women (TNA; n = 69) who were dependent on alcohol only (ALC; n = 43), or who also had a lifetime drug dependence (ALC + DRG; n = 26; i.e., methamphetamine, cocaine, opiates, and/or marijuana), compared with nonsubstance abusing controls (NSAC; n = 74).We also examined associations between lifetime alcohol use and age with gait and balance measures. Our main findings were (i) no evidence of disturbed gait and balance in ALC versus NSAC and (ii) significantly disturbed gait and balance in ALC + DRG, relative to both NSAC and ALC, along with steeper age-associated decline in gait and balance performance in ALC versus ALC + DRG. Our results provide evidence consistent with previous studies that TNA (without a lifetime drug codependence) may represent a population that is different and less impaired (including in gait and balance) than treated alcoholics. Additionally, we provide evidence that ALC + DRG, with greater alcohol use and family drinking density than ALC, have an accelerated effect of age on gait and balance disturbance compared with both NSAC and ALC. The ALC + DRG group likely represents a subset of TNA with different characteristics than ALC. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  20. Biomechanics and analysis of running gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Sheila A; Bhat, Krishna P

    2005-08-01

    Physical activity, including running, is important to general health by way of prevention of chronic illnesses and their precursors. To keep runners healthy, it is paramount that one has sound knowledge of the biomechanics of running and assessment of running gait. More so, improving performance in competitive runners is based in sound training and rehabilitation practices that are rooted firmly in biomechanical principles. This article summarized the biomechanics of running and the means with which one can evaluate running gait. The gait assessment techniques for collecting and analyzing kinetic and kinematic data can provide insights into injury prevention and treatment and performance enhancement.

  1. A robotic gait training system integrating split-belt treadmill, footprint sensing and synchronous EEG recording for neuro-motor recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi-Hung; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Quanquan; Hsu, Wei-Chun; Hsiao, Yu-Tsung; Su, Jui-Yiao; Kobayashi, Yo; Fujie, Masakatsu G

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a robotic gait training system for neuro-motor rehabilitation of hemiplegic stroke survivors. The system is composed of a treadmill consisting of two separated belts, footprint array sensor attached below each belt for gait data acquisition, and an electroencephalography (EEG) device for monitoring brain activities during gait training. The split belt treadmill allow physical therapists to set different treadmill belt velocities to modify physical workload of the patients during walking, thus being able to better improve the symmetry of gait phases between affected and unaffected (sound) legs in comparison with conventional treadmills where there is only one single belt. In contrast to in-shoe pressure sensors, the under-belt footprint sensor array designed in this study not only reduces the preparation complexity of gait training but also collects more gait data for motion analysis. Recorded EEG is segmented synchronously with gait-related events. The processed EEG data can be used for monitoring brain-activities during gait training, providing a neurological approach for motion assessment. One subject with simulated stroke using an ankle-foot orthosis participated in this study. Preliminary results indicate the feasibility of the proposed system to improve gait function and monitor neuro-motor recovery.

  2. Comparison between clinical gait and daily-life gait assessments of fall risk in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Matthew A; Coppens, Milou J; Ejupi, Andreas; Gschwind, Yves J; Annegarn, Janneke; Schoene, Daniel; Wieching, Rainer; Lord, Stephen R; Delbaere, Kim

    2017-02-08

    Falls are a leading cause of disability in older people. Here we investigate if daily-life gait assessments are better than clinical gait assessments at discriminating between older people with and without a history of falls. A total of 96 independent-living participants (age 75.5 ± 7.8) underwent sensorimotor, psychological and cognitive assessments, and the Timed Up and Go and 10-m walk tests. Participants wore a small pendant sensor device for a week in their home environment, from which the new remote assessments of daily-life gait were determined. During daily-life, fallers had significantly lower gait quality (lower gait endurance, higher within-walk variability and lower between-walk adaptability), but not reduced gait quantity (total steps) or gait intensity (mean cadence). In the clinic, fallers had slower Timed Up and Go, but not 10-m walk test times. After adjusting for demographics, only the daily-life assessments of gait endurance and within-walk variability remained significant. Reduced daily-life gait assessments were significantly correlated with older age, higher body mass index, multiple medications, disability, more concern about falling, poor executive function and higher physiological fall risk. The new daily-life gait assessments were better than the clinical gait assessments at identifying fall risk in our sample of independent living older people. However, further research is required to validate these findings in other populations or those living in residential aged care. Daily-life gait was not only associated with demographics and physiological capacity, but also general health, executive function and the ability to undertake a variety of activities of daily living without excessive concern about falling. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2016; ••: ••-••. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  3. Variations in kinematics during clinical gait analysis in stroke patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Boudarham

    Full Text Available In addition to changes in spatio-temporal and kinematic parameters, patients with stroke exhibit fear of falling as well as fatigability during gait. These changes could compromise interpretation of data from gait analysis. The aim of this study was to determine if the gait of hemiplegic patients changes significantly over successive gait trials. Forty two stroke patients and twenty healthy subjects performed 9 gait trials during a gait analysis session. The mean and variability of spatio-temporal and kinematic joint parameters were analyzed during 3 groups of consecutive gait trials (1-3, 4-6 and 7-9. Principal component analysis was used to reduce the number of variables from the joint kinematic waveforms and to identify the parts of the gait cycle which changed during the gait analysis session. The results showed that i spontaneous gait velocity and the other spatio-temporal parameters significantly increased, and ii gait variability decreased, over the last 6 gait trials compared to the first 3, for hemiplegic patients but not healthy subjects. Principal component analysis revealed changes in the sagittal waveforms of the hip, knee and ankle for hemiplegic patients after the first 3 gait trials. These results suggest that at the beginning of the gait analysis session, stroke patients exhibited phase of adaptation,characterized by a "cautious gait" but no fatigue was observed.

  4. Variations in kinematics during clinical gait analysis in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudarham, Julien; Roche, Nicolas; Pradon, Didier; Bonnyaud, Céline; Bensmail, Djamel; Zory, Raphael

    2013-01-01

    In addition to changes in spatio-temporal and kinematic parameters, patients with stroke exhibit fear of falling as well as fatigability during gait. These changes could compromise interpretation of data from gait analysis. The aim of this study was to determine if the gait of hemiplegic patients changes significantly over successive gait trials. Forty two stroke patients and twenty healthy subjects performed 9 gait trials during a gait analysis session. The mean and variability of spatio-temporal and kinematic joint parameters were analyzed during 3 groups of consecutive gait trials (1-3, 4-6 and 7-9). Principal component analysis was used to reduce the number of variables from the joint kinematic waveforms and to identify the parts of the gait cycle which changed during the gait analysis session. The results showed that i) spontaneous gait velocity and the other spatio-temporal parameters significantly increased, and ii) gait variability decreased, over the last 6 gait trials compared to the first 3, for hemiplegic patients but not healthy subjects. Principal component analysis revealed changes in the sagittal waveforms of the hip, knee and ankle for hemiplegic patients after the first 3 gait trials. These results suggest that at the beginning of the gait analysis session, stroke patients exhibited phase of adaptation,characterized by a "cautious gait" but no fatigue was observed.

  5. Robust Gait Recognition by Integrating Inertial and RGBD Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Qin; Ni, Lihao; Wang, Qian; Li, Qingquan; Wang, Song

    2017-03-29

    Gait has been considered as a promising and unique biometric for person identification. Traditionally, gait data are collected using either color sensors, such as a CCD camera, depth sensors, such as a Microsoft Kinect, or inertial sensors, such as an accelerometer. However, a single type of sensors may only capture part of the dynamic gait features and make the gait recognition sensitive to complex covariate conditions, leading to fragile gait-based person identification systems. In this paper, we propose to combine all three types of sensors for gait data collection and gait recognition, which can be used for important identification applications, such as identity recognition to access a restricted building or area. We propose two new algorithms, namely EigenGait and TrajGait, to extract gait features from the inertial data and the RGBD (color and depth) data, respectively. Specifically, EigenGait extracts general gait dynamics from the accelerometer readings in the eigenspace and TrajGait extracts more detailed subdynamics by analyzing 3-D dense trajectories. Finally, both extracted features are fed into a supervised classifier for gait recognition and person identification. Experiments on 50 subjects, with comparisons to several other state-of-the-art gait-recognition approaches, show that the proposed approach can achieve higher recognition accuracy and robustness.

  6. Autonomous Gait Event Detection with Portable Single-Camera Gait Kinematics Analysis System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory-based nonwearable motion analysis systems have significantly advanced with robust objective measurement of the limb motion, resulting in quantified, standardized, and reliable outcome measures compared with traditional, semisubjective, observational gait analysis. However, the requirement for large laboratory space and operational expertise makes these systems impractical for gait analysis at local clinics and homes. In this paper, we focus on autonomous gait event detection with our bespoke, relatively inexpensive, and portable, single-camera gait kinematics analysis system. Our proposed system includes video acquisition with camera calibration, Kalman filter + Structural-Similarity-based marker tracking, autonomous knee angle calculation, video-frame-identification-based autonomous gait event detection, and result visualization. The only operational effort required is the marker-template selection for tracking initialization, aided by an easy-to-use graphic user interface. The knee angle validation on 10 stroke patients and 5 healthy volunteers against a gold standard optical motion analysis system indicates very good agreement. The autonomous gait event detection shows high detection rates for all gait events. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system can automatically measure the knee angle and detect gait events with good accuracy and thus offer an alternative, cost-effective, and convenient solution for clinical gait kinematics analysis.

  7. Multilevel orthopedic surgery for crouch gait in cerebral palsy: An evaluation using functional mobility and energy cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhiren Ganjwala

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The evidence for the effectiveness of orthopaedic surgery to correct crouch gait in cerebral diplegic is insufficient. The crouch gait is defined as walking with knee flexion and ankle dorsiflexion through out the stance phase. Severe crouch gait in patients with spastic diplegia causes excessive loading of the patellofemoral joint and may result in anterior knee pain, gait deterioration, and progressive loss of function. We retrospectively evaluated the effect of surgery on the mobility and energy consumption at one year or more with the help of validated scales and scores. Materials and Methods: 18 consecutive patients with mean age of 14.6 years with cerebral diplegia with crouched gait were operated for multilevel orthopaedic surgery. Decisions for surgery were made with the observations on gait analysis and physical examination. The surgical intervention consisted of lengthening of short muscle-tendon units, shortening of long muscles and correction of osseous deformities. The paired samples t test was used to compare values of physical examination findings, walking speed and physiological cost index. Two paired sample Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare functional walking scales. Results: After surgery, improvements in functional mobility, walking speed and physiological cost index were found. No patient was able to walk 500 meters before surgery while all were able to walk after surgery. The improvements that were noted at one year were maintained at two years. Conclusions: Multilevel orthopedic surgery for older children and adolescents with crouch gait is effective for improving function and independence.

  8. Gait termination in lower limb amputees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, A. H.; van Keeken, H. G.; Schoppen, T.; Otten, E.; Halbertsma, J. P. K.; Hof, A. L.; Postema, K.

    Objective: To study the limitations in function and adjustment strategies of lower limb amputees in gait termination. Design: Observational cohort study. Setting: University Medical Centre. Participants: Unilateral transfemoral and transtibial amputees, and able-bodied control subjects. Main outcome

  9. Gait initiation in lower limb amputees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, A.H.; van Keeken, H.G.; Schoppen, T.; Otten, E.; Halbertsma, J.P.; Hof, A.L.; Postema, K.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study limitations in function and adjustment strategies in lower limb amputees during gait initiation. Design: Observational cohort study. Setting: University Medical Center. Participants: Amputees with a unilateral transfemoral or transtibial amputation, and able-bodied subjects. Main

  10. Modification of spastic gait through mechanical damping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, B E; Rosen, M J; Simon, S R

    1985-01-01

    The effect of dissipative mechanical loads on spastic gait has been studied, to evaluate the feasibility of using mechanically damped orthoses to effect functional improvements in the gait of spastic patients. This concept is based on a hypothesis citing uninhibited, velocity-dependent stretch reflexes as a possible causal factor in spastic gait abnormalities, such as equinus and back-kneeing. In order to screen potential experimental subjects and to quantify velocity-dependent reflex behaviour, ankle rotation experiments and filmed gait analysis were performed. The results supported the existence of a velocity threshold. Orthosis simulation experiments were performed with one spastic subject, using a wearable, computer-controlled, electromechanical, below-knee orthosis simulator to apply a variety of damping loads to the ankle as the subject walked. Results indicated that appropriate damping can improve local joint kinematics. The damping causes a reduction in muscle stretch velocity which apparently results in reduced spastic reflex activity.

  11. Gait termination in lower limb amputees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, A. H.; van Keeken, H. G.; Schoppen, T.; Otten, E.; Halbertsma, J. P. K.; Hof, A. L.; Postema, K.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the limitations in function and adjustment strategies of lower limb amputees in gait termination. Design: Observational cohort study. Setting: University Medical Centre. Participants: Unilateral transfemoral and transtibial amputees, and able-bodied control subjects. Main outcome

  12. Speed-dependent reference joint trajectory generation for robotic gait support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, B; van Asseldonk, E H F; van der Kooij, H

    2014-04-11

    For the control of actuated orthoses, or gait rehabilitation robotics, kinematic reference trajectories are often required. These trajectories, consisting of joint angles, angular velocities and accelerations, are highly dependent on walking-speed. We present and evaluate a novel method to reconstruct body-height and speed-dependent joint trajectories. First, we collected gait kinematics in fifteen healthy (middle) aged subjects (47-68), at a wide range of walking-speeds (0.5-5 kph). For each joint trajectory multiple key-events were selected (among which its extremes). Second, we derived regression-models that predict the timing, angle, angular velocity and acceleration for each key-event, based on walking-speed and the subject׳s body-height. Finally, quintic splines were fitted between the predicted key-events to reconstruct a full gait cycle. Regression-models were obtained for hip ab-/adduction, hip flexion/extension, knee flexion/extension and ankle plantar-/dorsiflexion. Results showed that the majority of the key-events were dependent on walking-speed, both in terms of timing and amplitude, whereas the body-height had less effect. The reconstructed trajectories matched the measured trajectories very well, in terms of angle, angular velocity and acceleration. For the angles the RMSE between the reconstructed and measured trajectories was 2.6°. The mean correlation coefficient between the reconstructed and measured angular trajectories was 0.91. The method and the data presented in this paper can be used to generate speed-dependent gait patterns. These patterns can be used for the control of several robotic gait applications. Alternatively they can assist the assessment of pathological gait, where they can serve as a reference for "normal" gait.

  13. In Vivo Gait Analysis During Bone Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Macías, J; Reina-Romo, E; Morgaz, J; Domínguez, J

    2015-09-01

    The load bearing characteristics of the intervened limb over time in vivo are important to know in distraction osteogenesis and bone healing for the characterization of the bone maturation process. Gait analyses were performed for a group of sheep in which bone transport was carried out. The ground reaction force was measured by means of a force platform, and the gait parameters (i.e., the peak, the mean vertical ground reaction force and the impulse) were calculated during the stance phase for each limb. The results showed that these gait parameters decreased in the intervened limb and interestingly increased in the other limbs due to the implantation of the fixator. Additionally, during the process, the gait parameters exponentially approached the values for healthy animals. Corresponding radiographies showed an increasing level of ossification in the callus. This study shows, as a preliminary approach to be confirmed with more experiments, that gait analysis could be used as an alternative method to control distraction osteogenesis or bone healing. For example, these analyses could determine the appropriate time to remove the fixator. Furthermore, gait analysis has advantages over other methods because it provides quantitative data and does not require instrumented fixators.

  14. Gait Partitioning Methods: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juri Taborri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, gait phase partitioning has come to be a challenging research topic due to its impact on several applications related to gait technologies. A variety of sensors can be used to feed algorithms for gait phase partitioning, mainly classifiable as wearable or non-wearable. Among wearable sensors, footswitches or foot pressure insoles are generally considered as the gold standard; however, to overcome some inherent limitations of the former, inertial measurement units have become popular in recent decades. Valuable results have been achieved also though electromyography, electroneurography, and ultrasonic sensors. Non-wearable sensors, such as opto-electronic systems along with force platforms, remain the most accurate system to perform gait analysis in an indoor environment. In the present paper we identify, select, and categorize the available methodologies for gait phase detection, analyzing advantages and disadvantages of each solution. Finally, we comparatively examine the obtainable gait phase granularities, the usable computational methodologies and the optimal sensor placements on the targeted body segments.

  15. Gait Disorders In Patients After Polytrauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakušonoka Ruta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of the gait of patients after polytrauma is important, as it indicates the ability of patients to the previous activities and work. The aim of our study was to evaluate the gait of patients with lower limb injuries in the medium-term after polytrauma. Three-dimensional instrumental gait analysis was performed in 26 polytrauma patients (16 women and 10 men; mean age 38.6 years, 14 to 41 months after the trauma. Spatio-temporal parameters, motions in pelvis and lower extremities joints in sagittal plane and vertical load ground reaction force were analysed. Gait parameters in polytrauma patients were compared with a healthy control group. Polytrauma patients in the injured side had decreased step length, cadence, hip extension, maximum knee flexion, vertical load ground reaction force, and increased stance time and pelvic anterior tilt; in the uninjured side they had decreased step length, cadence, maximum knee flexion, vertical load ground reaction force and increased stance time (p < 0.05. The use of the three-dimensional instrumental gait analysis in the evaluation of polytrauma patients with lower limb injuries consequences makes it possible to identify the gait disorders not only in the injured, but also in the uninjured side.

  16. Gait Partitioning Methods: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taborri, Juri; Palermo, Eduardo; Rossi, Stefano; Cappa, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    In the last years, gait phase partitioning has come to be a challenging research topic due to its impact on several applications related to gait technologies. A variety of sensors can be used to feed algorithms for gait phase partitioning, mainly classifiable as wearable or non-wearable. Among wearable sensors, footswitches or foot pressure insoles are generally considered as the gold standard; however, to overcome some inherent limitations of the former, inertial measurement units have become popular in recent decades. Valuable results have been achieved also though electromyography, electroneurography, and ultrasonic sensors. Non-wearable sensors, such as opto-electronic systems along with force platforms, remain the most accurate system to perform gait analysis in an indoor environment. In the present paper we identify, select, and categorize the available methodologies for gait phase detection, analyzing advantages and disadvantages of each solution. Finally, we comparatively examine the obtainable gait phase granularities, the usable computational methodologies and the optimal sensor placements on the targeted body segments. PMID:26751449

  17. Gait Recognition Using Wearable Motion Recording Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davrondzhon Gafurov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an alternative approach, where gait is collected by the sensors attached to the person's body. Such wearable sensors record motion (e.g. acceleration of the body parts during walking. The recorded motion signals are then investigated for person recognition purposes. We analyzed acceleration signals from the foot, hip, pocket and arm. Applying various methods, the best EER obtained for foot-, pocket-, arm- and hip- based user authentication were 5%, 7%, 10% and 13%, respectively. Furthermore, we present the results of our analysis on security assessment of gait. Studying gait-based user authentication (in case of hip motion under three attack scenarios, we revealed that a minimal effort mimicking does not help to improve the acceptance chances of impostors. However, impostors who know their closest person in the database or the genders of the users can be a threat to gait-based authentication. We also provide some new insights toward the uniqueness of gait in case of foot motion. In particular, we revealed the following: a sideway motion of the foot provides the most discrimination, compared to an up-down or forward-backward directions; and different segments of the gait cycle provide different level of discrimination.

  18. Gait parameters in patients with diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Elena Prado Teles Fregonesi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that results in sensorimotor alterations. These changes affect balance and walking and predispose affected patients to falls. The aim of this review was to identify studies in the recent literature that assess gait parameters and aspects involved in walking. The MEDLINE, SciELO, LILACS and PEDro databases were searched using the following combination of keywords: diabetic neuropathies x gait; diabetes mellitus x gait, and diabetic foot x gait. After the application of selection criteria, 15 articles were retrieved, summarized, discussed, and are included in this review. Diabetic neuropathy was found to lead to deficits in step amplitude, gait velocity and gait cadence on flat surfaces, without sudden changes in direction or stops, and to balance and coordination deficits on inclined and uneven terrain. Diabetic neuropathies also increase plantar pressure rates and lead to difficulties in the terminal stance phase and pre-swing phase due to changes in triceps surae activation. Thus, the next initial contact occurs in an inadequate manner, with the forefoot and without absorption of shocks.

  19. Gait Recognition Using Wearable Motion Recording Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafurov, Davrondzhon; Snekkenes, Einar

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents an alternative approach, where gait is collected by the sensors attached to the person's body. Such wearable sensors record motion (e.g. acceleration) of the body parts during walking. The recorded motion signals are then investigated for person recognition purposes. We analyzed acceleration signals from the foot, hip, pocket and arm. Applying various methods, the best EER obtained for foot-, pocket-, arm- and hip- based user authentication were 5%, 7%, 10% and 13%, respectively. Furthermore, we present the results of our analysis on security assessment of gait. Studying gait-based user authentication (in case of hip motion) under three attack scenarios, we revealed that a minimal effort mimicking does not help to improve the acceptance chances of impostors. However, impostors who know their closest person in the database or the genders of the users can be a threat to gait-based authentication. We also provide some new insights toward the uniqueness of gait in case of foot motion. In particular, we revealed the following: a sideway motion of the foot provides the most discrimination, compared to an up-down or forward-backward directions; and different segments of the gait cycle provide different level of discrimination.

  20. Agency, gait and self-consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannape, O A; Blanke, O

    2012-02-01

    Agency is an important aspect of bodily self-consciousness, allowing us to separate own movements from those induced by the environment and to distinguish own movements from those of other agents. Unsurprisingly, theoretical frameworks for agency such as central monitoring are closely tied to computational models of sensorimotor control. Until recently agency research has largely focussed on goal-directed movements of the upper limbs. In particular, the influence of performance-related sensory cues and the relevance of prediction signals for agency judgements have been studied through a variety of spatio-temporal mismatches between movement and the sensory consequences of movement. However, agents often perform a different type of movement; highly automated movements that involve the entire body such as walking, cycling, and swimming with potentially different agency mechanisms. Here, we review recent work about agency for full-body movements such as gait, highlighting the effects of performance-related visual and auditory cues on gait agency. Gait movements differ from upper limb actions. Gait is cyclic, more rarely immediately goal-directed, and is generally considered one of the most automatic and unconscious actions. We discuss such movement differences with respect to the functional mechanisms of full-body agency and body-part agency by linking these gait agency paradigms to computational models of motor control. This is followed by a selective review of gait control, locomotion, and models of motor control relying on prediction signals and underlining their relevance for full-body agency.

  1. Variations In Gait Patterns Of Runners: Relationship To Anthropometric Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelsberg, S.; Tauber, C.; Au, J.; Pugh, J.

    1983-07-01

    High-speed computerized motion analysis was used to assess the running parameters of a group of runners. Anthropometric measurements were taken on the group of runners in an effort to provide possible correlations between running style, speed, and anthropometry. The most consistent correlation was between speed and stride length. Femur length and stride length was only highly correlated for the runners at the fastest speeds. The faster runners also had a gait pattern characterized by significantly lower ground contact time than that of the slower runners. Of prime importance in running is behavior of the body during float phase, and mediated by anthropometry and the biomechanical characteristics of the stance phase.

  2. Gait dynamics in Parkinson's disease: Common and distinct behavior among stride length, gait variability, and fractal-like scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.

    2009-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common, debilitating neurodegenerative disease. Gait disturbances are a frequent cause of disability and impairment for patients with PD. This article provides a brief introduction to PD and describes the gait changes typically seen in patients with this disease. A major focus of this report is an update on the study of the fractal properties of gait in PD, the relationship between this feature of gait and stride length and gait variability, and the effects of different experimental conditions on these three gait properties. Implications of these findings are also briefly described. This update highlights the idea that while stride length, gait variability, and fractal scaling of gait are all impaired in PD, distinct mechanisms likely contribute to and are responsible for the regulation of these disparate gait properties.

  3. Is Freezing of Gait in Parkinson's Disease a Result of Multiple Gait Impairments? Implications for Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meir Plotnik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several gait impairments have been associated with freezing of gait (FOG in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD. These include deteriorations in rhythm control, gait symmetry, bilateral coordination of gait, dynamic postural control and step scaling. We suggest that these seemingly independent gait features may have mutual interactions which, during certain circumstances, jointly drive the predisposed locomotion system into a FOG episode. This new theoretical framework is illustrated by the evaluation of the potential relationships between the so-called “sequence effect”, that is, impairments in step scaling, and gait asymmetry just prior to FOG. We further discuss what factors influence gait control to maintain functional gait. “Triggers”, for example, such as attention shifts or trajectory transitions, may precede FOG. We propose distinct categories of interventions and describe examples of existing work that support this idea: (a interventions which aim to maintain a good level of locomotion control especially with respect to aspects related to FOG; (b those that aim at avoiding FOG “triggers”; and (c those that merely aim to escape from FOG once it occurs. The proposed theoretical framework sets the stage for testable hypotheses regarding the mechanisms that lead to FOG and may also lead to new treatment ideas.

  4. Characterization of gait pattern by 3D angular accelerations in hemiparetic and healthy gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueterbories, Jan; Spaich, Erika G; Andersen, Ole K

    2013-02-01

    Characterization of gait pattern is of interest for clinical gait assessment. Past developments of ambulatory measurement systems have still limitations for daily usage in the clinical environment. This study investigated the potential of 3D angular accelerations of foot, shank, and thigh to characterize gait events and phases of ten healthy and ten hemiparetic subjects. The key feature of the system was the use of angular accelerations obtained by differential measurement. Further, the effect of sensor position and walking cadence on the signal was investigated. We found that gait phases are characterized as modulated amplitudes of angular accelerations of foot, shank, and thigh. Increasing the gait cadence from 70 steps/min to 100 steps/min caused an amplitude increase of the magnitude of the vector, summing all 3D angular accelerations on the sensor position (pgait showed a lower mean of the magnitude of the vector during the loading response in the hemiparetic gait (pgait were observed. A comparison of the tangential acceleration component in the frontal plane showed no statistically significant difference between healthy and hemiparetic gait. Further, no statistically significant difference between the tangential components was found for both groups. This method demonstrated promising results for a possible use for gait assessment.

  5. A body-worn gait analysis system for evaluating hemiplegic gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granat, M.H.; Maxwell, D.J.; Bosch, C.J.; Ferguson, A.C.B.; Lees, K.R.; Barbenel, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a system for measuring the temporal parameters of hemiplegic gait. This system uses shoe insoles with sensors, acting as switches, placed under the heel, head of the first metatarsal, head of the fifth metatarsal and the big toe. This system is able to monitor gait for up to 10

  6. Changes in Post-Stroke Gait Biomechanics Induced by One Session of Gait Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesar, T M; Reisman, D S; Higginson, J S; Awad, L N; Binder-Macleod, S A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether one session of targeted locomotor training can induce measurable improvements in the post-stroke gait impairments. Thirteen individuals with chronic post-stroke hemiparesis participated in one locomotor training session combining fast treadmill training and functional electrical stimulation (FES) of ankle dorsi- and plantar-flexor muscles. Three dimensional gait analysis was performed to assess within-session changes (after versus before training) in gait biomechanics at the subject's self-selected speed without FES. Our results showed that one session of locomotor training resulted in significant improvements in peak anterior ground reaction force (AGRF) and AGRF integral for the paretic leg. Additionally, individual subject data showed that a majority of study participants demonstrated improvements in the primary outcome variables following the training session. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that a single session of intense, targeted post-stroke locomotor retraining can induce significant improvements in post-stroke gait biomechanics. We posit that the within-session changes induced by a single exposure to gait training can be used to predict whether an individual is responsive to a particular gait intervention, and aid with the development of individualized gait retraining strategies. Future studies are needed to determine whether these single-session improvements in biomechanics are accompanied by short-term changes in corticospinal excitability, and whether single-session responses can serve as predictors for the longer-term effects of the intervention with other targeted gait interventions.

  7. The Use of Accelerometers and Gyroscopes to Estimate Hip and Knee Angles on Gait Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Alonge

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the performance of a sensor system, which has been developed to estimate hip and knee angles and the beginning of the gait phase, have been investigated. The sensor system consists of accelerometers and gyroscopes. A new algorithm was developed in order to avoid the error accumulation due to the gyroscopes drift and vibrations due to the ground contact at the beginning of the stance phase. The proposed algorithm have been tested and compared to some existing algorithms on over-ground walking trials with a commercial device for assisted gait. The results have shown the good accuracy of the angles estimation, also in high angle rate movement.

  8. Speed-dependent reference joint trajectory generation for robotic gait support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, B.; Asseldonk, van E.H.F.; Kooij, van der H.

    2014-01-01

    For the control of actuated orthoses, or gait rehabilitation robotics, kinematic reference trajectories are often required. These trajectories, consisting of joint angles, angular velocities and accelerations, are highly dependent on walking-speed. We present and evaluate a novel method to reconstru

  9. The effects of rhythmic sensory cues on the temporal dynamics of human gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejdić, Ervin; Fu, Yingying; Pak, Alison; Fairley, Jillian A; Chau, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Walking is a complex, rhythmic task performed by the locomotor system. However, natural gait rhythms can be influenced by metronomic auditory stimuli, a phenomenon of particular interest in neurological rehabilitation. In this paper, we examined the effects of aural, visual and tactile rhythmic cues on the temporal dynamics associated with human gait. Data were collected from fifteen healthy adults in two sessions. Each session consisted of five 15-minute trials. In the first trial of each session, participants walked at their preferred walking speed. In subsequent trials, participants were asked to walk to a metronomic beat, provided through visually, aurally, tactile or all three cues (simultaneously and in sync), the pace of which was set to the preferred walking speed of the first trial. Using the collected data, we extracted several parameters including: gait speed, mean stride interval, stride interval variability, scaling exponent and maximum Lyapunov exponent. The extracted parameters showed that rhythmic sensory cues affect the temporal dynamics of human gait. The auditory rhythmic cue had the greatest influence on the gait parameters, while the visual cue had no statistically significant effect on the scaling exponent. These results demonstrate that visual rhythmic cues could be considered as an alternative cueing modality in rehabilitation without concern of adversely altering the statistical persistence of walking.

  10. The effects of rhythmic sensory cues on the temporal dynamics of human gait.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ervin Sejdić

    Full Text Available Walking is a complex, rhythmic task performed by the locomotor system. However, natural gait rhythms can be influenced by metronomic auditory stimuli, a phenomenon of particular interest in neurological rehabilitation. In this paper, we examined the effects of aural, visual and tactile rhythmic cues on the temporal dynamics associated with human gait. Data were collected from fifteen healthy adults in two sessions. Each session consisted of five 15-minute trials. In the first trial of each session, participants walked at their preferred walking speed. In subsequent trials, participants were asked to walk to a metronomic beat, provided through visually, aurally, tactile or all three cues (simultaneously and in sync, the pace of which was set to the preferred walking speed of the first trial. Using the collected data, we extracted several parameters including: gait speed, mean stride interval, stride interval variability, scaling exponent and maximum Lyapunov exponent. The extracted parameters showed that rhythmic sensory cues affect the temporal dynamics of human gait. The auditory rhythmic cue had the greatest influence on the gait parameters, while the visual cue had no statistically significant effect on the scaling exponent. These results demonstrate that visual rhythmic cues could be considered as an alternative cueing modality in rehabilitation without concern of adversely altering the statistical persistence of walking.

  11. Microprocessor-controlled optical stimulating device to improve the gait of patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarin, M; Brambilla, M; Garavello, L; Di Candia, A; Pedotti, A; Rabuffetti, M

    2004-05-01

    Different types of visual cue for subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) produced an improvement in gait and helped some of them prevent or overcome freezing episodes. The paper describes a portable gait-enabling device (optical stimulating glasses (OSGs) that provides, in the peripheral field of view, different types of continuous optic flow (backward or forward) and intermittent stimuli synchronised with external events. The OSGs are a programmable, stand-alone, augmented reality system that can be interfaced with a PC for program set-up. It consists of a pair of non-corrective glasses, equipped with two matrixes of 70 micro light emitting diodes, one on each side, controlled by a microprocessor. Two foot-switches are used to synchronise optical stimulation with specific gait events. A pilot study was carried out on three PD patients and three controls, with different types of optic flow during walking along a fixed path. The continuous optic flow in the forward direction produced an increase in gait velocity in the PD patients (up to + 11% in average), whereas the controls had small variations. The stimulation synchronised with the swing phase, associated with an attentional strategy, produced a remarkable increase in stride length for all subjects. After prolonged testing, the device has shown good applicability and technical functionality, it is easily wearable and transportable, and it does not interfere with gait.

  12. Comparison of Gait Aspects According to FES Stimulation Position Applied to Stroke Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Mun, Byeong-mu; Kim, Tae-ho; Lee, Jin-hwan; Lim, Jin-youg; Seo, Dong-kwon; Lee, Dong-Jin

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study sought to identify the gait aspects according to the FES stimulation position in stroke patients during gait training. [Subjects and Methods] To perform gait analysis, ten stroke patients were grouped based on 4 types of gait conditions: gait without FES stimulation (non-FES), gait with FES stimulation on the tibialis anterior (Ta), gait with FES stimulation on the tibialis anterior and quadriceps (TaQ), and gait with FES stimulation on the tibialis anterior and gluteus m...

  13. Intra-individual gait pattern variability in specific situations: Implications for forensic gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Oliver; Dillinger, Steffen; Marschall, Franz

    2016-07-01

    In this study, inter- and intra-individual gait pattern differences are examined in various gait situations by means of phase diagrams of the extremity angles (cyclograms). 8 test subjects walked along a walking distance of 6m under different conditions three times each: barefoot, wearing sneakers, wearing combat boots, after muscular fatigue, and wearing a full-face motorcycle helmet restricting vision. The joint angles of foot, knee, and hip were recorded in the sagittal plane. The coupling of movements was represented by time-adjusted cyclograms, and the inter- and intra-individual differences were captured by calculating the similarity between different gait patterns. Gait pattern variability was often greater between the defined test situations than between the individual test subjects. The results have been interpreted considering neurophysiological regulation mechanisms. Footwear, masking, and fatigue were interpreted as disturbance parameters, each being a cause for gait pattern variability and complicating the inference of identity of persons in video recordings.

  14. Gait initiation in children with Rett syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Ugo Isaias

    Full Text Available Rett syndrome is an X-linked neurodevelopmental condition mainly characterized by loss of spoken language and a regression of purposeful hand use, with the development of distinctive hand stereotypies, and gait abnormalities. Gait initiation is the transition from quiet stance to steady-state condition of walking. The associated motor program seems to be centrally mediated and includes preparatory adjustments prior to any apparent voluntary movement of the lower limbs. Anticipatory postural adjustments contribute to postural stability and to create the propulsive forces necessary to reach steady-state gait at a predefined velocity and may be indicative of the effectiveness of the feedforward control of gait. In this study, we examined anticipatory postural adjustments associated with gait initiation in eleven girls with Rett syndrome and ten healthy subjects. Muscle activity (tibialis anterior and soleus muscles, ground reaction forces and body kinematic were recorded. Children with Rett syndrome showed a distinctive impairment in temporal organization of all phases of the anticipatory postural adjustments. The lack of appropriate temporal scaling resulted in a diminished impulse to move forward, documented by an impairment in several parameters describing the efficiency of gait start: length and velocity of the first step, magnitude and orientation of centre of pressure-centre of mass vector at the instant of (swing-toe off. These findings were related to an abnormal muscular activation pattern mainly characterized by a disruption of the synergistic activity of antagonistic pairs of postural muscles. This study showed that girls with Rett syndrome lack accurate tuning of feedforward control of gait.

  15. Gait initiation in children with Rett syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaias, Ioannis Ugo; Dipaola, Mariangela; Michi, Marlies; Marzegan, Alberto; Volkmann, Jens; Rodocanachi Roidi, Marina L; Frigo, Carlo Albino; Cavallari, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Rett syndrome is an X-linked neurodevelopmental condition mainly characterized by loss of spoken language and a regression of purposeful hand use, with the development of distinctive hand stereotypies, and gait abnormalities. Gait initiation is the transition from quiet stance to steady-state condition of walking. The associated motor program seems to be centrally mediated and includes preparatory adjustments prior to any apparent voluntary movement of the lower limbs. Anticipatory postural adjustments contribute to postural stability and to create the propulsive forces necessary to reach steady-state gait at a predefined velocity and may be indicative of the effectiveness of the feedforward control of gait. In this study, we examined anticipatory postural adjustments associated with gait initiation in eleven girls with Rett syndrome and ten healthy subjects. Muscle activity (tibialis anterior and soleus muscles), ground reaction forces and body kinematic were recorded. Children with Rett syndrome showed a distinctive impairment in temporal organization of all phases of the anticipatory postural adjustments. The lack of appropriate temporal scaling resulted in a diminished impulse to move forward, documented by an impairment in several parameters describing the efficiency of gait start: length and velocity of the first step, magnitude and orientation of centre of pressure-centre of mass vector at the instant of (swing-)toe off. These findings were related to an abnormal muscular activation pattern mainly characterized by a disruption of the synergistic activity of antagonistic pairs of postural muscles. This study showed that girls with Rett syndrome lack accurate tuning of feedforward control of gait.

  16. Modeling and simulation of normal and hemiparetic gait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengas, Lely A.; Camargo, Esperanza; Sanchez, Giovanni

    2015-09-01

    Gait is the collective term for the two types of bipedal locomotion, walking and running. This paper is focused on walking. The analysis of human gait is of interest to many different disciplines, including biomechanics, human-movement science, rehabilitation and medicine in general. Here we present a new model that is capable of reproducing the properties of walking, normal and pathological. The aim of this paper is to establish the biomechanical principles that underlie human walking by using Lagrange method. The constraint forces of Rayleigh dissipation function, through which to consider the effect on the tissues in the gait, are included. Depending on the value of the factor present in the Rayleigh dissipation function, both normal and pathological gait can be simulated. First of all, we apply it in the normal gait and then in the permanent hemiparetic gait. Anthropometric data of adult person are used by simulation, and it is possible to use anthropometric data for children but is necessary to consider existing table of anthropometric data. Validation of these models includes simulations of passive dynamic gait that walk on level ground. The dynamic walking approach provides a new perspective of gait analysis, focusing on the kinematics and kinetics of gait. There have been studies and simulations to show normal human gait, but few of them have focused on abnormal, especially hemiparetic gait. Quantitative comparisons of the model predictions with gait measurements show that the model can reproduce the significant characteristics of normal gait.

  17. Dynamic stability and phase resetting during biped gait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Taishin; Kawa, Kazuyoshi; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Nakanishi, Masao; Yamasaki, Taiga

    2009-06-01

    Dynamic stability during periodic biped gait in humans and in a humanoid robot is considered. Here gait systems of human neuromusculoskeletal system and a humanoid are simply modeled while keeping their mechanical properties plausible. We prescribe periodic gait trajectories in terms of joint angles of the models as a function of time. The equations of motion of the models are then constrained by one of the prescribed gait trajectories to obtain types of periodically forced nonlinear dynamical systems. Simulated gait of the models may or may not fall down during gait, since the constraints are made only for joint angles of limbs but not for the motion of the body trunk. The equations of motion can exhibit a limit cycle solution (or an oscillatory solution that can be considered as a limit cycle practically) for each selected gait trajectory, if an initial condition is set appropriately. We analyze the stability of the limit cycle in terms of Poincaré maps and the basin of attraction of the limit cycle in order to examine how the stability depends on the prescribed trajectory. Moreover, the phase resetting of gait rhythm in response to external force perturbation is modeled. Since we always prescribe a gait trajectory in this study, reacting gait trajectories during the phase resetting are also prescribed. We show that an optimally prescribed reacting gait trajectory with an appropriate amount of the phase resetting can increase the gait stability. Neural mechanisms for generation and modulation of the gait trajectories are discussed.

  18. Markedly impaired bilateral coordination of gait in post-stroke patients: Is this deficit distinct from asymmetry? A cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Lummel Rob C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple aspects of gait are typically impaired post-stroke. Asymmetric gait is common as a consequence of unilateral brain lesions. The relationship between the resulting asymmetric gait and impairments in the ability to properly coordinate the reciprocal stepping activation of the legs is not clear. The objective of this exploratory study is to quantify the effects of hemiparesis on two putatively independent aspects of the bilateral coordination of gait to gain insight into mechanisms and their relationship and to assess their potential as clinical markers. Methods Twelve ambulatory stroke patients and age-matched healthy adults wore a tri-axial piezo-resistive accelerometer and walked back and forth along a straight path in a hall at a comfortable walking speed during 2 minutes. Gait speed, gait asymmetry (GA, and aspects of the bilateral coordination of gait (BCG were determined. Bilateral coordination measures included the left-right stepping phase for each stride φi, consistency in the phase generation φ_CV, accuracy in the phase generation φ_ABS, and Phase Coordination Index (PCI, a combination of accuracy and consistency of the phase generation. Results Group differences (p Conclusions In ambulatory post-stroke patients, two gait coordination properties, GA and PCI, are markedly impaired. Although these features are not related to each other in healthy controls, they are strongly related in stroke patients, which is a novel finding. A measurement approach based on body-fixed sensors apparently may provide sensitive markers that can be used for clinical assessment and for enhancing rehabilitation targeting in post-stroke patients.

  19. Robotic Device May Help Gait in Kids with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Robotic Device May Help Gait in Kids With Cerebral Palsy Those with condition known as 'crouch gait' had ... helped improve the walking ability of children with cerebral palsy who suffer from a condition known as "crouch ...

  20. Spatial asymmetry of post-stroke hemiparetic gait: assessment and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spatial asymmetry of post-stroke hemiparetic gait: assessment and recommendations for physical rehabilitation. ... objective and easy to apply tools suitable for the assessment of symmetry of spatial gait parameters in clinical and rehabilitation ...

  1. Robot-Crawler: Statically Balanced Gaits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Parasuraman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new statically balanced walking technique for a robot‐crawler. The gait design and the control of the robot crawler aim to achieve stability while walking. This statically balanced gait has to be designed in a different fashion to a wheeled robot, as there are discrete changes in the support of the robot when its legs are lifted or placed on the ground. The stability of the robot depends on how the legs are positioned relative to the body and also on the sequence and timing with which the legs are lifted and placed. In order to reduce the risk of stability loss while walking, a measure for the robot stability (so‐called stability margin is typically used in the gait and motion planning. In this paper different biological behaviours of four‐legged animals are studied and mapped on a quad-legrobot‐crawler. Experiments were carried out on the forward walking gaits of lizards and horses. Based on these results, the stability margins of different gaits are discussed and compared.

  2. Gait abnormalities following slipped capital femoral epiphysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kit M; Halliday, Suzanne; Reilly, Chris; Keezel, William

    2004-01-01

    The authors evaluated 30 subjects with treated unilateral slipped capital femoral epiphysis and a range of severity from mild to severe to characterize gait and strength abnormalities using instrumented three-dimensional gait analysis and isokinetic muscle testing. For slip angles less than 30 degrees, kinematic, kinetic, and strength variables were not significantly different from age- and weight-matched controls. For moderate to severe slips, as slip angle increased, passive hip flexion, hip abduction, and internal rotation in the flexed and extended positions decreased significantly. Persistent pelvic obliquity, medial lateral trunk sway, and trunk obliquity in stance increased, as did extension, adduction, and external rotation during gait. Gait velocity and step length decreased with increased amount of time spent in double limb stance. Hip abductor moment, hip extension moment, knee flexion moment, and ankle dorsiflexion moment were all decreased on the involved side. Hip and knee strength also decreased with increasing slip severity. All of these changes were present on the affected and to a lesser degree the unaffected side. Body center of mass translation or pelvic obliquity in mid-stance greater than one standard deviation above normal correlated well with the impression of compensated or uncompensated Trendelenburg gait.

  3. Quantitative evaluation of gait ataxia by accelerometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Shinichi; Yabe, Ichiro; Matsushima, Masaaki; Ito, Yoichi M; Yoneyama, Mitsuru; Sasaki, Hidenao

    2015-11-15

    An appropriate biomarker for spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD) has not been identified. Here, we performed gait analysis on patients with pure cerebellar type SCD and assessed whether the obtained data could be used as a neurophysiological biomarker for cerebellar ataxia. We analyzed 25 SCD patients, 25 patients with Parkinson's disease as a disease control, and 25 healthy control individuals. Acceleration signals during 6 min of walking and 1 min of standing were measured by two sets of triaxial accelerometers that were secured with a fixation vest to the middle of the lower and upper back of each subject. We extracted two gait parameters, the average and the coefficient of variation of motion trajectory amplitude, from each acceleration component. Then, each component was analyzed by correlation with the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA) and the Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Compared with the gait control of healthy subjects and concerning correlation with severity and disease specificity, our results suggest that the average amplitude of medial-lateral (upper back) of straight gait is a physiological biomarker for cerebellar ataxia. Our results suggest that gait analysis is a quantitative and concise evaluation scale for the severity of cerebellar ataxia.

  4. Gait Symmetry in Children with Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria L. Chester

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most studies examining gait asymmetry have focused on infants and toddlers and have tended to use subjective methods of evaluating movement. No previous studies have examined gait symmetry in older children with autism using objective motion capture systems. The purpose of this paper was to quantify gait symmetry in children with autism versus age-matched controls. Fourteen children with autism (N=14 and twenty-two (N=22 age, height, and weight-matched controls participated in the study. An eight camera Vicon motion capture system and four Kistler force plates were used to compute temporal-spatial parameters and symmetry indices during walking. Group differences in these measures were tested using MANOVAs. No significant differences between the autism and control group were found for any of the temporal-spatial measures or symmetry indices. Therefore, results suggest that children with autism demonstrate typical symmetry or interlimb movement during gait. Further research is needed to examine the use of different gait inputs to the symmetry indices (e.g., joint angles and moments. A greater awareness of the movement patterns associated with autism may increase our understanding of this disorder and have important implications for treatment planning.

  5. Sporadic hyperekplexia presenting with an ataxic gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouco, Idoia; Bilbao, Iker; Losada, Jose; Maestro, Iratxe; Zarranz, Juan Jose

    2014-02-01

    We describe a 62-year-old man with a sporadic form of hyperekplexia who presented with an unsteady gait, present since the age of 47. His clinical examination revealed an insecure broad-based gait and difficulty with tandem walking but no other abnormalities. For nearly a decade the patient was misdiagnosed with an idiopathic ataxia. A video electroencephalogram combined with an electromyogram during sudden auditory stimulus demonstrated an excessive startle response. An extensive work-up ruled out all the known causes of symptomatic hyperekplexia including anti-glycine receptor antibodies. Treatment with clonazepam markedly reduced the threshold and intensity of the startle response, enabling him to recover independence. Hyperekplexia is frequently associated with an awkward and hesitating gait, but these gait abnormalities might be confused with other causes of gait disorders if one is not aware of this disease. We report this patient to highlight that a correct diagnosis of hyperekplexia is crucial, because its treatment may change quality of life.

  6. Multidirectional transparent support for overground gait training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallery, H; Lutz, P; von Zitzewitz, J; Rauter, G; Fritschi, M; Everarts, C; Ronsse, R; Curt, A; Bolliger, M

    2013-06-01

    Gait and balance training is an essential ingredient for locomotor rehabilitation of patients with neurological impairments. Robotic overhead support systems may help these patients train, for example by relieving them of part of their body weight. However, there are only very few systems that provide support during overground gait, and these suffer from limited degrees of freedom and/or undesired interaction forces due to uncompensated robot dynamics, namely inertia. Here, we suggest a novel mechanical concept that is based on cable robot technology and that allows three-dimensional gait training while reducing apparent robot dynamics to a minimum. The solution does not suffer from the conventional drawback of cable robots, which is a limited workspace. Instead, displaceable deflection units follow the human subject above a large walking area. These deflection units are not actuated, instead they are implicitly displaced by means of the forces in the cables they deflect. This leads to an underactuated design, because the deflection units cannot be moved arbitrarily. However, the design still allows accurate control of a three-dimensional force vector acting on a human subject during gait. We describe the mechanical concept, the control concept, and we show first experimental results obtained with the device, including the force control performance during robot-supported overground gait of five human subjects without motor impairments.

  7. Gait training in hemiparetic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauritz, K H

    2004-09-01

    The major goal of neurological rehabilitation includes restoration of mobility. In mobility we include walking, standing up, sitting down, weight shifting from one leg to the other, turning around, initiating and stopping locomotion, as well as climbing stairs. The therapeutic procedures include: different concepts of physiotherapy stressing different features, like force exercise, reduction of spasticity, gait symmetry, utilization of equilibrium reflexes, stepping automation, endurance training, repetition of rhythmic movements etc. The spectrum of available therapies was recently widened by treadmill training with partial body-weight support, gait machines, by functional electrical stimulation (FES), locomotor pharmacotherapy, selective reduction of spasticity by botulinum-toxin (BTX) injections, acoustic and visual cuing and biofeedback. These methods pertaining to gait improvement will also be described. Technical aids should be prescribed earlier, since their costs are usually almost negligible if compared to the costs for a prolonged inpatient treatment. Treadmill training with partial body-weight support in a parachute harness allows early training of postural reactions and stepping. The gait pattern can be considerably improved by FES. A new approach includes mechanical and computer controlled training machines to enable the repetitive training of complex gait cycles without overstressing therapists. First results demonstrate positive effects beyond the classical retraining procedures.

  8. Scrunching: a novel escape gait in planarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochet-Escartin, Olivier; Mickolajczyk, Keith J.; Collins, Eva-Maria S.

    2015-10-01

    The ability to escape a predator or other life-threatening situations is central to animal survival. Different species have evolved unique strategies under anatomical and environmental constraints. In this study, we describe a novel musculature-driven escape gait in planarians, ‘scrunching’, which is quantitatively different from other planarian gaits, such as gliding and peristalsis. We show that scrunching is a conserved gait among different flatworm species, underlying its importance as an escape mechanism. We further demonstrate that it can be induced by a variety of physical stimuli, including amputation, high temperature, electric shock and low pH. We discuss the functional basis for scrunching as the preferential gait when gliding is impaired due to a disruption of mucus production. Finally, we show that the key mechanical features of scrunching are adequately captured by a simple biomechanical model that is solely based on experimental data from traction force microscopy and tissue rheology without fit parameters. Together, our results form a complete description of this novel form of planarian locomotion. Because scrunching has distinct dynamics, this gait can serve as a robust behavioral readout for studies of motor neuron and muscular functions in planarians and in particular the restoration of these functions during regeneration.

  9. Gait Recognition Using Image Self-Similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cutler Ross G

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Gait is one of the few biometrics that can be measured at a distance, and is hence useful for passive surveillance as well as biometric applications. Gait recognition research is still at its infancy, however, and we have yet to solve the fundamental issue of finding gait features which at once have sufficient discrimination power and can be extracted robustly and accurately from low-resolution video. This paper describes a novel gait recognition technique based on the image self-similarity of a walking person. We contend that the similarity plot encodes a projection of gait dynamics. It is also correspondence-free, robust to segmentation noise, and works well with low-resolution video. The method is tested on multiple data sets of varying sizes and degrees of difficulty. Performance is best for fronto-parallel viewpoints, whereby a recognition rate of 98% is achieved for a data set of 6 people, and 70% for a data set of 54 people.

  10. Kinematic evaluation of mobile robotic platforms for overground gait neurorehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alias, N. Akmal; Huq, M. Saiful; Ibrahim, B. S. K. K.; Omar, Rosli

    2017-09-01

    Gait assistive devices offer a great solution to the walking re-education which reduce patients theoretical limit by aiding the anatomical joints to be in line with the rehabilitation session. Overground gait training, which is differs significantly from body-weight supported treadmill training in many aspects, essentially consists of a mobile robotic base to support the subject securely (usually with overhead harness) while its motion and orientation is controlled seamlessly to facilitate subjects free movement. In this study, efforts have been made for evaluation of both holonomic and nonholonomic drives, the outcome of which may constitute the primarily results to the effective approach in designing a robotic platform for the mobile rehabilitation robot. The sets of kinematic equations are derived using typical geometries of two different drives. The results indicate that omnidirectional mecanum wheel platform is capable for more sophisticated discipline. Although the differential drive platform happens to be more simple and easy to construct, but it is less desirable as it has limited number of motions applicable to the system. The omnidirectional robot consisting of mecanum wheels, which is classified as holonomic is potentially the best solution in terms of its capability to move in arbitrary direction without concerning the changing of wheel's direction.

  11. Chip Multithreaded Consistency Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zu-Song Li; Dan-Dan Huan; Wei-Wu Hu; Zhi-Min Tang

    2008-01-01

    Multithreaded technique is the developing trend of high performance processor. Memory consistency model is essential to the correctness, performance and complexity of multithreaded processor. The chip multithreaded consistency model adapting to multithreaded processor is proposed in this paper. The restriction imposed on memory event ordering by chip multithreaded consistency is presented and formalized. With the idea of critical cycle built by Wei-Wu Hu, we prove that the proposed chip multithreaded consistency model satisfies the criterion of correct execution of sequential consistency model. Chip multithreaded consistency model provides a way of achieving high performance compared with sequential consistency model and ensures the compatibility of software that the execution result in multithreaded processor is the same as the execution result in uniprocessor. The implementation strategy of chip multithreaded consistency model in Godson-2 SMT processor is also proposed. Godson-2 SMT processor supports chip multithreaded consistency model correctly by exception scheme based on the sequential memory access queue of each thread.

  12. DeepGait: A Learning Deep Convolutional Representation for View-Invariant Gait Recognition Using Joint Bayesian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Human gait, as a soft biometric, helps to recognize people through their walking. To further improve the recognition performance, we propose a novel video sensor-based gait representation, DeepGait, using deep convolutional features and introduce Joint Bayesian to model view variance. DeepGait is generated by using a pre-trained “very deep” network “D-Net” (VGG-D without any fine-tuning. For non-view setting, DeepGait outperforms hand-crafted representations (e.g., Gait Energy Image, Frequency-Domain Feature and Gait Flow Image, etc.. Furthermore, for cross-view setting, 256-dimensional DeepGait after PCA significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art methods on the OU-ISR large population (OULP dataset. The OULP dataset, which includes 4007 subjects, makes our result reliable in a statistically reliable way.

  13. Can gait deviation index be used efectively for the evaluation of gait pathology in total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten; Rosenlund, Signe; Nielsen, Dennis Brandborg;

    to determine changes in gait quality in participants walking at self-selected speed. Upon completion of the first assessment, the participants were randomly assigned to either resurfacing hip arthroplasty or conventional hip arthroplasty. The outcome was changes in overall gait quality measured with GDI during......, there was no additional effect of resurfacing hip arthroplasty on gait quality compared with conventional hip arthroplasty. Participants with the most pathological preoperative gait pattern improved the most. The GDI increased, which indicates an overall improvement in gait quality after surgery.......In this poster, the Gait Deviation Index (GDI) was used as a convenient method to evaluate pre-to-postoperative gait quality changes after total hip arthroplasty and identify factors which might be predictive of outcome. Design: Three-dimensional gait data from a randomized clinical trial was used...

  14. Brain imaging in patients with freezing of gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, Anna L.; Leenders, Klaus L.

    2008-01-01

    Freezing of gait (FOG) is a disabling gait disturbance with unknown cerebral pathophysiology. In this review, we discuss the functional brain imaging Studies that address gait physiology and pathophysiology of FOG. Radiotracer metabolic studies show basal ganglia-cortical circuitry involvement in di

  15. Variability and Similarity of Gait as Evaluated by Joint Angles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Sylvia X M; Larsen, Peter Kastmand; Alkjær, Tine

    2014-01-01

    Closed-circuit television (CCTV) footage is used in criminal investigations to compare perpetrators with suspects. Usually, incomplete gait cycles are collected, making evidential gait analysis challenging. This study aimed to analyze the discriminatory power of joint angles throughout a gait cycle...

  16. Asymmetry of Anticipatory Postural Adjustment During Gait Initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiraoka Koichi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the asymmetry of anticipatory postural adjustment (APA during gait initiation and to determine whether the process of choosing the initial swing leg affects APA during gait initiation. The participants initiated gait with the leg indicated by a start tone or initiated gait with the leg spontaneously chosen. The dependent variables of APA were not significantly different among the condition of initiating gait with the preferred leg indicated by the start tone, the condition of initiating gait with the non-preferred leg indicated by the start tone, and the condition of initiating gait with the leg spontaneously chosen. These findings fail to support the view that the process of choosing the initial swing leg affects APA during gait initiation. The lateral displacement of the center of pressure in the period in which shifting the center of pressure to the initial swing phase before initiating gait with the left leg indicated by the external cue was significantly larger than that when initiating gait with the right leg indicated by the external cue, and significantly larger than that when initiating gait with the leg spontaneously chosen. Weight shift to the initial swing side during APA during gait initiation was found to be asymmetrical when choosing the leg in response to an external cue

  17. Residual gait abnormalities in surgically treated spondylolisthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelokov, A; Haideri, N; Roach, J

    1993-11-01

    The authors retrospectively studied seven patients who had in situ fusion as adolescents for high-grade (IV, V) spondylolisthesis unresponsive to more conservative means. All patients achieved solid bony union; their pain was relieved; and hamstring spasm had resolved. The authors sought to determine whether crouch gait or any other abnormalities could be demonstrated in patients exhibiting clinical parameters of success. Each patient underwent gait analysis, radiographic analysis, and a physical examination. Four of seven patients demonstrated slight degrees of forward trunk lean during varying phases of gait accompanied by increased hip flexion. One patient demonstrated increased trunk extension accompanied by limited hip flexion. Two patients were essentially normal. The authors were unable to quantify residual crouch in these patients with solidly fused high-grade spondylolisthesis.

  18. Gait analysis using gravitational acceleration measured by wearable sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Ryo; Tadano, Shigeru; Todoh, Masahiro; Morikawa, Manabu; Nakayasu, Minoru; Yoshinari, Satoshi

    2009-02-09

    A novel method for measuring human gait posture using wearable sensor units is proposed. The sensor units consist of a tri-axial acceleration sensor and three gyro sensors aligned on three axes. The acceleration and angular velocity during walking were measured with seven sensor units worn on the abdomen and the lower limb segments (both thighs, shanks and feet). The three-dimensional positions of each joint are calculated from each segment length and joint angle. Joint angle can be estimated mechanically from the gravitational acceleration along the anterior axis of the segment. However, the acceleration data during walking includes three major components; translational acceleration, gravitational acceleration and external noise. Therefore, an optimization analysis was represented to separate only the gravitational acceleration from the acceleration data. Because the cyclic patterns of acceleration data can be found during constant walking, a FFT analysis was applied to obtain some characteristic frequencies in it. A pattern of gravitational acceleration was assumed using some parts of these characteristic frequencies. Every joint position was calculated from the pattern under the condition of physiological motion range of each joint. An optimized pattern of the gravitational acceleration was selected as a solution of an inverse problem. Gaits of three healthy volunteers were measured by walking for 20s on a flat floor. As a result, the acceleration data of every segment was measured simultaneously. The characteristic three-dimensional walking could be shown by the expression using a stick figure model. In addition, the trajectories of the knee joint in the horizontal plane could be checked by visual imaging on a PC. Therefore, this method provides important quantitive information for gait diagnosis.

  19. The effects of a suspended-load backpack on gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xu; Hsiang, Simon M; Mirka, Gary A

    2009-01-01

    A suspended-load backpack is a device that is designed to capture the mechanical energy created as a suspended backpack load oscillates vertically on the back during gait. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of a suspended-load backpack system on selected temporal and kinetics parameters describing gait. Nine male participants carried a suspended-load backpack as they walked on an instrumented treadmill with varied levels of load (no backpack, 22.5 kg, and 29.3 kg) and walking speed (1.16 m/s, 1.43 m/s, 1.70 m/s). As the participants performed this treadmill task, ground reaction forces were collected from an instrumented treadmill system. From these data, temporal variables (cycle time, single support time, and double support time) and kinetic variables (normalized weight acceptance force, normalized push-off force, and normalized mid-stance force) were derived. The results showed that the response of the temporal variables were consistent with previous studies of conventional (i.e. stable load) backpacks. The response of the normalized push-off force, however, showed that increasing walking speed significantly (pbackpacks where this force has been shown to significantly increase. Further evaluation revealed that this reduction in force was the result of a phase shift between the movement of the carried load and the movement of the torso. This suggests that the motion of the load in a suspended-load backpack influences the gait biomechanics and should be considered as this technology advances.

  20. Footwear Decreases Gait Asymmetry during Running.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Hoerzer

    Full Text Available Previous research on elderly people has suggested that footwear may improve neuromuscular control of motion. If footwear does in fact improve neuromuscular control, then such an influence might already be present in young, healthy adults. A feature that is often used to assess neuromuscular control of motion is the level of gait asymmetry. The objectives of the study were (a to develop a comprehensive asymmetry index (CAI that is capable of detecting gait asymmetry changes caused by external boundary conditions such as footwear, and (b to use the CAI to investigate whether footwear influences gait asymmetry during running in a healthy, young cohort. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected for both legs of 15 subjects performing five barefoot and five shod over-ground running trials. Thirty continuous gait variables including ground reaction forces and variables of the hip, knee, and ankle joints were computed for each leg. For each individual, the differences between the variables for the right and left leg were calculated. Using this data, a principal component analysis was conducted to obtain the CAI. This study had two main outcomes. First, a sensitivity analysis suggested that the CAI had an improved sensitivity for detecting changes in gait asymmetry caused by external boundary conditions. The CAI may, therefore, have important clinical applications such as monitoring the progress of neuromuscular diseases (e.g. stroke or cerebral palsy. Second, the mean CAI for shod running (131.2 ± 48.5; mean ± standard deviation was significantly lower (p = 0.041 than the CAI for barefoot running (155.7 ± 39.5. This finding suggests that in healthy, young adults gait asymmetry is reduced when running in shoes compared to running barefoot, which may be a result of improved neuromuscular control caused by changes in the afferent sensory feedback.

  1. Effect of Global Postural Rehabilitation program on spatiotemporal gait parameters of parkinsonian patients: a three-dimensional motion analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Carmine; Agosti, Valeria; Avella, Dario; Santangelo, Gabriella; Amboni, Marianna; Rucco, Rosaria; Barone, Paolo; Corato, Francesco; Sorrentino, Giuseppe

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a Global Postural Rehabilitation (GPR) program on motor symptoms and gait parameters of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) by means of three-dimensional motion analysis study. Ten subjects with clinical diagnosis of PD were enrolled (study group). Age-, sex- and disease duration-matched PD patients were recruited as a control group (no treatment). Three-dimensional motion analysis was conducted by means of a stereophotogrammetric system. After basal evaluation, the study group underwent a specific rehabilitation program consisting of individual 40 min GPR daily sessions, 3 days a week for 4 consecutive weeks. Neurological status and spatiotemporal gait parameters of the two groups were evaluated at study entry (t (0)), at 4 weeks (t (1), end of rehabilitation protocol) and at 8 and 12 weeks (t (2) and t (3), follow-up evaluation). At baseline evaluation, the two groups did not differ in clinical features and gait parameters. At the end of rehabilitation protocol (t (1)) and at follow-up evaluation (t (2) and t (3)), a significant improvement in temporal gait parameters and UPDRS scores was observed in all treated patients as compared to baseline and controls. Our preliminary findings showed that significant improvements in mobility and gait parameters of PD patients can be obtained through GPR treatment, with a parallel improvement in clinical status. Quantitative analysis of gait pattern can be considered a useful tool to assess the efficacy of rehabilitation interventions in patients affected by PD.

  2. Novel challenges to gait in Parkinson's disease: the effect of concurrent music in single- and dual-task contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lesley A; de Bruin, Natalie; Doan, Jon B; Suchowersky, Oksana; Hu, Bin

    2009-09-01

    To investigate the effect of concurrent music on parkinsonian gait in single- and dual-task contexts. A counterbalanced repeated-measure design. A university balance research laboratory. People with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) (n=10) (67+/-7 y) and healthy age-matched (65+/-6 y) control subjects (n=10). Subjects walked at a self-selected pace along an unobstructed walkway in 4 differing test conditions. Test conditions were differentiated by the presence of music accompaniment (no music/music) and the presence of a secondary cognitive task (single/dual). Single- and dual-task conditions were randomized; trials were blocked by the presence of music and counterbalanced between subjects. Music was self-selected by subjects. The cognitive task consisted of serial subtractions (3's). Subjects were not instructed to attend to the music nor were they provided with instructions regarding task prioritization. Mean gait velocity, stride length, and the percentage of the gait cycle spent in double-limb support. Gait among the PD patients was adversely affected by concurrent music. In contrast, gait performance in the control subjects showed no significant difference between no music and music conditions. The added requirement of a cognitive task differentially influenced gait performance in PD patients and control subjects, with PD patients displaying a further decrease in spatiotemporal parameters of gait and control subjects displaying a marginal improvement. Gait impairments associated with PD are exacerbated in the presence of concurrent music, an effect that is further exaggerated by the addition of a cognitive task. These results have implications for patient safety in multitasking situations.

  3. Muscle-skeletal model of the thigh: a tool for understanding the biomechanics of gait in patients with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravera, Emiliano Pablo; Catalfamo Formento, Paola Andrea; José Crespo, Marcos; Andrés Braidot, Ariel

    2011-12-01

    Cerebral Palsy represents the most common cause of physical disability in modern world and within the pediatrics orthopedics units. The gait analysis provides great contributions to the understanding of gait disorders in CP. Giving a more comprehensive treatment plan, including or excluding surgical procedures that can potentially decrease the number of surgical interventions in the life of these patients. Recommendations for orthopedic surgery may be based on a quantitative description of how to alter the properties probably muscle force generation, and how this affects the action of the muscle to determine how these muscles, impaired by disease or surgery, contributing to the movement of the segments of the limb during crouch gait. So the causes and appropriate treatment of gait abnormalities are difficult to determine because the movements generated by the muscular forces of these patients are not clearly understood. A correct determination of the etiology of abnormal patterns of the knee is the key to select the appropriate therapy, presenting a major challenge at present since there is no theoretical basis to determine the biomechanical causes of abnormal gait of these patients. The potential and necessity of using correct biomechanical models that consistently study the abnormalities becomes clear. Reinforcing and correcting a simple gait analysis and eliminating the unknowns when selecting the appropriate treatment is crucial in clinical settings. In this paper a computer muscle-skeletal model is proposed. The model represents a person's thigh simulating the six most representative muscles and joints of the hip and knee. In this way you can have a better understanding of gait abnormalities present in these patients. So the quality of these estimates of individual muscle dynamics facilitate better understanding of the biomechanics of gait pathologies helping to reach better diagnosis prior to surgery and rehabilitation treatments.

  4. Associations between results of post-stroke NDT-Bobath rehabilitation in gait parameters, ADL and hand functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikołajewska, Emilia

    2013-01-01

    In patients after a stroke there are variable disorders. These patients often need rehabilitation in more than one area beceause of multiple limitations of the ability to perform everyday activities. The aim of the study was to assess correlations - statistical relationships between observed gait parameters, ADL and hand functions - results of rehabilitation of patients after ischaemic stroke according to the NDTBobath method for adults. The investigated group consisted of 60 patients after ischaemic stroke, who participated in the rehabilitation programme. 10 sessions of the NDT-Bobath therapy were provided in 2 weeks (10 days of the therapy). The calculation of correlations was made based on changes of parameters: Bobath Scale (to assess hand functions), Barthel Index (to assess ADL), gait velocity, cadence and stride lenght. Measurements were performed in every patient twice: on admission (before the therapy) and after last session of the therapy to assess rehabilitation effects. The main statistically relevant corellations observed in the study were as follows: in the whole group of patients: poor and moderate (negative) correlation between changes of gait parameters and Bobath Scale and Barthel Index, moderate and severe (negative) correlation between changes of gait parameters and Bobath Scale and Barthel Index in the group of women, correlation between changes in Bobath Scale and Barthel Index in the group of patients with left side of paresis, (negative) correlation between changes of gait parameters and Bobath Scale in group of patients younger than 68 years, moderate, high and very high correlations between changes in gait parameters in groups of women, men, younger than 68 years and older than 68 years. There have been observed statistically significant and favourable changes in the health status of patients, described by gait parameters, changes in hand functions and ADL. Based on the presented correlations there is an assumption that it is hard to

  5. A stochastic model of human gait dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenazy, Yosef; M. Hausdorff, Jeffrey; Ch. Ivanov, Plamen; Eugene Stanley, H.

    2002-12-01

    We present a stochastic model of gait rhythm dynamics, based on transitions between different “neural centers”, that reproduces distinctive statistical properties of normal human walking. By tuning one model parameter, the transition (hopping) range, the model can describe alterations in gait dynamics from childhood to adulthood-including a decrease in the correlation and volatility exponents with maturation. The model also generates time series with multifractal spectra whose broadness depends only on this parameter. Moreover, we find that the volatility exponent increases monotonically as a function of the width of the multifractal spectrum, suggesting the possibility of a change in multifractality with maturation.

  6. Gait Recognition Based on Convolutional Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, A.; Konushin, A.

    2017-05-01

    In this work we investigate the problem of people recognition by their gait. For this task, we implement deep learning approach using the optical flow as the main source of motion information and combine neural feature extraction with the additional embedding of descriptors for representation improvement. In order to find the best heuristics, we compare several deep neural network architectures, learning and classification strategies. The experiments were made on two popular datasets for gait recognition, so we investigate their advantages and disadvantages and the transferability of considered methods.

  7. Periodic gaits for the CMU ambler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalingam, Swaminathan; Dwivedi, Suren N.

    1989-01-01

    The configuration of the Carnegie Mellon University Ambler, a six legged autonomous walking vehicle for exploring Mars, enables the recovery of a trailing leg past the leading leg to reduce the energy expenditure in terrain interactions. Gaits developed for this unprecedented configuration are described. A stability criterion was developed which ensures stability of the vehicle in the event of failure of any one of the supporting legs. Periodic gaits developed for the Ambler utilize the Ambler's unique abilities, and continuously satisfy the stability criterion.

  8. Entrainment to a real time fractal visual stimulus modulates fractal gait dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhea, Christopher K; Kiefer, Adam W; D'Andrea, Susan E; Warren, William H; Aaron, Roy K

    2014-08-01

    Fractal patterns characterize healthy biological systems and are considered to reflect the ability of the system to adapt to varying environmental conditions. Previous research has shown that fractal patterns in gait are altered following natural aging or disease, and this has potential negative consequences for gait adaptability that can lead to increased risk of injury. However, the flexibility of a healthy neurological system to exhibit different fractal patterns in gait has yet to be explored, and this is a necessary step toward understanding human locomotor control. Fifteen participants walked for 15min on a treadmill, either in the absence of a visual stimulus or while they attempted to couple the timing of their gait with a visual metronome that exhibited a persistent fractal pattern (contained long-range correlations) or a random pattern (contained no long-range correlations). The stride-to-stride intervals of the participants were recorded via analog foot pressure switches and submitted to detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to determine if the fractal patterns during the visual metronome conditions differed from the baseline (no metronome) condition. DFA α in the baseline condition was 0.77±0.09. The fractal patterns in the stride-to-stride intervals were significantly altered when walking to the fractal metronome (DFA α=0.87±0.06) and to the random metronome (DFA α=0.61±0.10) (both p<.05 when compared to the baseline condition), indicating that a global change in gait dynamics was observed. A variety of strategies were identified at the local level with a cross-correlation analysis, indicating that local behavior did not account for the consistent global changes. Collectively, the results show that a gait dynamics can be shifted in a prescribed manner using a visual stimulus and the shift appears to be a global phenomenon.

  9. Attempt toward a development of aquatic exercise device for gait disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Tasuku; Komatsu, Fumie; Takagi, Motoki; Kawashima, Noritaka

    2014-05-23

    Abstract Purpose: To develop an aquatic exercise device to facilitate locomotive motor output and achieve repetitive physiological gait patterns to improve movement dysfunctions. Methods: A custom designed leg movement apparatus (LMA) consisted of closed 4-linkage mechanisms and one-length changeable link using a spring. Three-dimensional motions and electromyographic (EMG) activities were recorded in eight healthy subjects to evaluate the reproducibility of the physiological gait patterns using the LMA with or without a spring apparatus in water. Results: Using the LMA with a spring apparatus compared to walking in water, the foot trajectories and the time course of the elevation angles in each lower limb joint kinematics were preserved. The time-series of the EMG showed reciprocal modulation between agonist and antagonist muscle groups in the hip and ankle joints. However, the amplitudes of the tibialis anterior muscle in the first half and rectus femoris in the last half of the movement cycle were reduced using the LMA with a spring apparatus. Conclusion: We developed a novel aquatic exercise device to reproduce physiological gait patterns. The LMA with a spring apparatus would be particularly valuable in therapy for movement dysfunctions to facilitate locomotive motor outputs. Implications for Rehabilitation The leg movement apparatus with spring for underwater use (LMA) would be effective gait training to induce the locomotor-like EMG activities. Hydrotherapy with the LMA has advantages over the partial body weight support treadmill training on land with a robotic device; (1) the LMA is electrically and mechanically safe, and (2) the LMA would require self-effort to generate the gait pattern for movement disorders, or also enable passive gait training by the physiotherapists.

  10. Critical Appraisal of Evidence for Improving Gait Speed in People with Multiple Sclerosis: Dalfampridine Versus Gait Training

    OpenAIRE

    Plummer, Prudence

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research has not yet compared the treatment effects of dalfampridine with traditional rehabilitation of gait impairments in multiple sclerosis (MS). The purpose of this review was to critically appraise the evidence for dalfampridine and gait training for increasing gait speed in people with MS.

  11. Study on Gait Efficiency and Energy Cost of Below Knee Amputees After Therapeutic Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durbadal Biswas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available An earlier research advocated that a below knee amputee (BK with conventional trans-tibial prosthesis attains higher gait efficiency at lower energy cost with therapeutic practices of proper time and co-ordination in compare to normal subjects of similar physical parameters and quality of life. The present study focused on comparative analysis of energy cost and gait efficiency between a group of below knee amputees and a control group (normal subjects without amputation to indicate the consistency of the earlier findings. The subjects were selected with similar physical parameters and quality of life. Oxygen Uptake (VO2 and Heart Rate (HR were measured by Cosmed® k4 b2 analyzer system. Gait efficiency (p < 0.0001 was found higher with lower energy cost for BK amputees after therapeutic practices than control group. The therapeutic activities contributed to efficient gait pattern for amputees ensuring proper time and co-ordination with balance in consistence to the earlier research.

  12. Gait assessment using the Microsoft Xbox One Kinect: Concurrent validity and inter-day reliability of spatiotemporal and kinematic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentiplay, Benjamin F; Perraton, Luke G; Bower, Kelly J; Pua, Yong-Hao; McGaw, Rebekah; Heywood, Sophie; Clark, Ross A

    2015-07-16

    The revised Xbox One Kinect, also known as the Microsoft Kinect V2 for Windows, includes enhanced hardware which may improve its utility as a gait assessment tool. This study examined the concurrent validity and inter-day reliability of spatiotemporal and kinematic gait parameters estimated using the Kinect V2 automated body tracking system and a criterion reference three-dimensional motion analysis (3DMA) marker-based camera system. Thirty healthy adults performed two testing sessions consisting of comfortable and fast paced walking trials. Spatiotemporal outcome measures related to gait speed, speed variability, step length, width and time, foot swing velocity and medial-lateral and vertical pelvis displacement were examined. Kinematic outcome measures including ankle flexion, knee flexion and adduction and hip flexion were examined. To assess the agreement between Kinect and 3DMA systems, Bland-Altman plots, relative agreement (Pearson's correlation) and overall agreement (concordance correlation coefficients) were determined. Reliability was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients, Cronbach's alpha and standard error of measurement. The spatiotemporal measurements had consistently excellent (r≥0.75) concurrent validity, with the exception of modest validity for medial-lateral pelvis sway (r=0.45-0.46) and fast paced gait speed variability (r=0.73). In contrast kinematic validity was consistently poor to modest, with all associations between the systems weak (rKinect V2 body tracking may not accurately obtain lower body kinematic data, it shows great potential as a tool for measuring spatiotemporal aspects of gait.

  13. Robotic Pectoral Fin Thrust Vectoring Using Weighted Gait Combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S. Palmisano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A method was devised to vector propulsion of a robotic pectoral fin by means of actively controlling fin surface curvature. Separate flapping fin gaits were designed to maximize thrust for each of three different thrust vectors: forward, reverse, and lift. By using weighted combinations of these three pre-determined main gaits, new intermediate hybrid gaits for any desired propulsion vector can be created with smooth transitioning between these gaits. This weighted gait combination (WGC method is applicable to other difficult-to-model actuators. Both 3D unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD and experimental results are presented.

  14. Gait analysis in lower-limb amputation and prosthetic rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquenazi, Alberto

    2014-02-01

    Gait analysis combined with sound clinical judgment plays an important role in elucidating the factors involved in the pathologic prosthetic gait and the selection and effects of available interventions to optimize it. Detailed clinical evaluation of walking contributes to the analysis of the prosthetic gait, but evaluation in the gait laboratory using kinetic and kinematic data is often necessary to quantify and identify the particular contributions of the variables impacting the gait with confidence and assess the results of such intervention. The same approach can be considered when selecting prosthetic components and assessing leg length in this patient population.

  15. Technological advances in interventions to enhance poststroke gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffler, Lynne R; Chae, John

    2013-05-01

    Neurologic rehabilitation interventions may be either therapeutic or compensatory. Included in this article are lower extremity functional electrical stimulation, body weight-supported treadmill training, and lower extremity robotic-assisted gait training. These poststroke gait training therapies are predicated on activity-dependent neuroplasticity. All three interventions have been trialed extensively in research and clinical settings to show a positive effect on various gait parameters and measures of walking performance. This article provides an overview of evidence-based research that supports the efficacy of these three interventions to improve gait, as well as providing perspective on future developments to enhance poststroke gait in neurologic rehabilitation.

  16. [Three-Dimensional Ultrasonic Gait Analysis in Schizophrenic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putzhammer, Albert; Heindl, Bernhard; Müller, Jürgen; Broll, Karin; Pfeiff, Liane; Perfahl, Maria; Hess, Linda; Koch, Horst

    2003-05-01

    Schizophrenic disorders as well as neuroleptic treatment can affect locomotion. The study assessed the influence of neuroleptic treatment on human gait via ultrasonic topometric gait analysis. In a control sample the test system proved high test-retest-reliability. Spatial and temporal gait parameters were assessed in schizophrenic patients without neuroleptic treatment (n = 12) and under treatment with conventional neuroleptics (n = 14) and re-assessed after treatment change to the atypical neuroleptic olanzapine in a repeated measures design. After switch from conventional neuroleptics to olanzapine patients showed an increase of gait velocity (p step length (p gait analysis.

  17. Fluctuation and synchronization of gait intervals and gait force profiles distinguish stages of Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Ronny; Plotnik, Meir; Kantelhardt, Jan W.; Havlin, Shlomo; Giladi, Nir; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.

    2007-09-01

    We study the effects of Parkinson's disease (PD) on the long-term fluctuation and phase synchronization properties of gait timing (series of interstride intervals) as well as gait force profiles (series characterizing the morphological changes between the steps). We find that the fluctuations in the gait timing are significantly larger for PD patients and early PD patients, who were not treated yet with medication, compared to age-matched healthy controls. Simultaneously, the long-term correlations and the phase synchronization of right and left leg are significantly reduced in both types of PD patients. Surprisingly, long-term correlations of the gait force profiles are relatively weak for treated PD patients and healthy controls, while they are significantly larger for early PD patients. The results support the idea that timing and morphology of recordings obtained from a complex system can contain complementary information.

  18. The effects of high custom made shoes on gait characteristics and patient satisfaction in hemiplegic gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eckhardt, Martine M.; Mulder, Mascha C. Borgerhoff; Horemans, Herwin L.; van der Woude, Luc H.; Ribbers, Gerard M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of a temporary high custom made orthopaedic shoe on functional mobility, walking speed, and gait characteristics in hemiplegic stroke patients. In addition, interference of attentional demands and patient satisfaction were studied. Design: Clinical experimental st

  19. The effects of high custom made shoes on gait characteristics and patient satisfaction in hemiplegic gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eckhardt, Martine M; Mulder, Mascha C Borgerhoff; Horemans, Herwin L; van der Woude, Lucas; Ribbers, Gerard M

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of a temporary high custom made orthopaedic shoe on functional mobility, walking speed, and gait characteristics in hemiplegic stroke patients. In addition, interference of attentional demands and patient satisfaction were studied. DESIGN: Clinical experimental st

  20. Gait identification from invisible shadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwashita, Yumi; Uchino, Koji; Kurazume, Ryo; Stoica, Adrian

    2012-06-01

    This paper introduces a person identification system that uses as input the shadow images of a walking person, as projected by multiple lights(in this application invisible/infrared lights); the system uses a database of examples of shadows images of a number of people who walk. While it is accepted that personal identification has a higher correct classification rate if views from multiple cameras are used, most systems use only one camera, mainly because (i) Installation in real-world environments is easier, less cameras and no need to synchronize cameras, (ii) Computational cost is reduced. In the proposed system, we obtain the advantages of multiple viewpoints with a single camera and additional light sources. More specific, we install multiple infrared lights to project shadows of a subject on the ground and a camera with an infrared transmitting filter mounted in the ceiling inside of a building. Shadow areas, which are projections of one's body on the ground by multiple lights, can be considered as body areas captured from different viewpoints; thus, the proposed system is able to capture multiple projections of the body from a single camera. We explored in other papers the use of sunproduced shadow for identification of people walking freely in the outdoor. In this paper the application scenario is a system installed at the airport in the areas that precedes the immigration checkpoint. Japan already has health monitoring cameras focused on approaching individuals, to determine their health condition; the here described system would also be installed in such a controlled area with restricted walk corridors of walk and controlled lighting. Gait is a remote biometrics and can provide early warning; on another hand it can be used as corroborating evidence in a multi-modal biometrics system. A database of images including shadows for a set of 28 walking people was collected, and the features extracted from shadow areas by affine moment invariants, after which

  1. Fractal gait patterns are retained after entrainment to a fractal stimulus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher K Rhea

    Full Text Available Previous work has shown that fractal patterns in gait can be altered by entraining to a fractal stimulus. However, little is understood about how long those patterns are retained or which factors may influence stronger entrainment or retention. In experiment one, participants walked on a treadmill for 45 continuous minutes, which was separated into three phases. The first 15 minutes (pre-synchronization phase consisted of walking without a fractal stimulus, the second 15 minutes consisted of walking while entraining to a fractal visual stimulus (synchronization phase, and the last 15 minutes (post-synchronization phase consisted of walking without the stimulus to determine if the patterns adopted from the stimulus were retained. Fractal gait patterns were strengthened during the synchronization phase and were retained in the post-synchronization phase. In experiment two, similar methods were used to compare a continuous fractal stimulus to a discrete fractal stimulus to determine which stimulus type led to more persistent fractal gait patterns in the synchronization and post-synchronization (i.e., retention phases. Both stimulus types led to equally persistent patterns in the synchronization phase, but only the discrete fractal stimulus led to retention of the patterns. The results add to the growing body of literature showing that fractal gait patterns can be manipulated in a predictable manner. Further, our results add to the literature by showing that the newly adopted gait patterns are retained for up to 15 minutes after entrainment and showed that a discrete visual stimulus is a better method to influence retention.

  2. Changes in Gait symmetry, Gait velocity and self-reported function following total hip replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Hodt-Billington, Caroline; Jorunn L. Helbostad; Vervaat, Willemijn; Rognsvåg, Turid; Moe-Nilssen, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the magnitude of change at different time points in measures of gait symmetry, gait velocity and self-reported function following total hip replacement. Design: Longitudinal with test occasions pre-surgery and 3, 6 and 12 months post-surgery. Subjects: Thirty-four patients with hip osteoarthritis (mean age 63 years, standard deviation 11 years). Methods: Subjects walked back and forth along a 7-m walkway at slow, preferred and fast speed. Ante...

  3. Consistent model driven architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niepostyn, Stanisław J.

    2015-09-01

    The goal of the MDA is to produce software systems from abstract models in a way where human interaction is restricted to a minimum. These abstract models are based on the UML language. However, the semantics of UML models is defined in a natural language. Subsequently the verification of consistency of these diagrams is needed in order to identify errors in requirements at the early stage of the development process. The verification of consistency is difficult due to a semi-formal nature of UML diagrams. We propose automatic verification of consistency of the series of UML diagrams originating from abstract models implemented with our consistency rules. This Consistent Model Driven Architecture approach enables us to generate automatically complete workflow applications from consistent and complete models developed from abstract models (e.g. Business Context Diagram). Therefore, our method can be used to check practicability (feasibility) of software architecture models.

  4. Benchmarking Foot Trajectory Estimation Methods for Mobile Gait Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Hannink

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mobile gait analysis systems based on inertial sensing on the shoe are applied in a wide range of applications. Especially for medical applications, they can give new insights into motor impairment in, e.g., neurodegenerative disease and help objectify patient assessment. One key component in these systems is the reconstruction of the foot trajectories from inertial data. In literature, various methods for this task have been proposed. However, performance is evaluated on a variety of datasets due to the lack of large, generally accepted benchmark datasets. This hinders a fair comparison of methods. In this work, we implement three orientation estimation and three double integration schemes for use in a foot trajectory estimation pipeline. All methods are drawn from literature and evaluated against a marker-based motion capture reference. We provide a fair comparison on the same dataset consisting of 735 strides from 16 healthy subjects. As a result, the implemented methods are ranked and we identify the most suitable processing pipeline for foot trajectory estimation in the context of mobile gait analysis.

  5. Basic gait analysis based on continuous wave radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun

    2012-09-01

    A gait analysis method based on continuous wave (CW) radar is proposed in this paper. Time-frequency analysis is used to analyze the radar micro-Doppler echo from walking humans, and the relationships between the time-frequency spectrogram and human biological gait are discussed. The methods for extracting the gait parameters from the spectrogram are studied in depth and experiments on more than twenty subjects have been performed to acquire the radar gait data. The gait parameters are calculated and compared. The gait difference between men and women are presented based on the experimental data and extracted features. Gait analysis based on CW radar will provide a new method for clinical diagnosis and therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Human Gait Recognition Based on Kernel PCA Using Projections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Murat Ekinci; Murat Aykut

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for human identification at a distance using gait recognition. Recog- nition of a person from their gait is a biometric of increasing interest. The proposed work introduces a nonlinear machine learning method, kernel Principal Component Analysis (PCA), to extract gait features from silhouettes for individual recognition. Binarized silhouette of a motion object is first represented by four 1-D signals which are the basic image features called the distance vectors. Fourier transform is performed to achieve translation invariant for the gait patterns accumulated from silhouette sequences which are extracted from different circumstances. Kernel PCA is then used to extract higher order relations among the gait patterns for future recognition. A fusion strategy is finally executed to produce a final decision. The experiments are carried out on the CMU and the USF gait databases and presented based on the different training gait cycles.

  7. Gait speed and survival in older adults.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Studenski, S.A.; Perera, S.; Patel, K.; Rosano, C.; Faulkner, K.; Inzitari, M.; Brach, J.; Chandler, J.; Cawthon, P.; Connor, E.B.; Nevitt, M.; Visser, M.C.H. de; Kritchevsky, S.; Badinelli, S.; Harris, T.; Newman, A.B.; Cauley, J.; Ferrucci, L.; Guralnik, J.

    2011-01-01

    CONTEXT: Survival estimates help individualize goals of care for geriatric patients, but life tables fail to account for the great variability in survival. Physical performance measures, such as gait speed, might help account for variability, allowing clinicians to make more individualized estimates

  8. Milestones in gait, balance, and falling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nutt, J.G.; Horak, F.B.; Bloem, B.R.

    2011-01-01

    Gait, balance, and falls have become increasingly common topics of published articles in the Movement Disorders journal since its launch in 1986. This growth represents an increasing awareness of the importance of mobility to patients' quality of life. New methods have become available that allow fo

  9. Motor Control: CRF Regulates Coordination and Gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manto, Mario

    2017-09-11

    The function of the olivo-cerebellar tract is not restricted to the supervision of plasticity in the cerebellar cortex. There is growing evidence that the climbing fibers also tune motor commands. A novel study unravels a role of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in motor coordination and gait control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Functional Neuroanatomy for Posture and Gait Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakusaki, Kaoru

    2017-01-01

    Here we argue functional neuroanatomy for posture-gait control. Multi-sensory information such as somatosensory, visual and vestibular sensation act on various areas of the brain so that adaptable posture-gait control can be achieved. Automatic process of gait, which is steady-state stepping movements associating with postural reflexes including headeye coordination accompanied by appropriate alignment of body segments and optimal level of postural muscle tone, is mediated by the descending pathways from the brainstem to the spinal cord. Particularly, reticulospinal pathways arising from the lateral part of the mesopontine tegmentum and spinal locomotor network contribute to this process. On the other hand, walking in unfamiliar circumstance requires cognitive process of postural control, which depends on knowledges of self-body, such as body schema and body motion in space. The cognitive information is produced at the temporoparietal association cortex, and is fundamental to sustention of vertical posture and construction of motor programs. The programs in the motor cortical areas run to execute anticipatory postural adjustment that is optimal for achievement of goal-directed movements. The basal ganglia and cerebellum may affect both the automatic and cognitive processes of posturegait control through reciprocal connections with the brainstem and cerebral cortex, respectively. Consequently, impairments in cognitive function by damages in the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia and cerebellum may disturb posture-gait control, resulting in falling.

  11. Functional Neuroanatomy for Posture and Gait Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoru Takakusaki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we argue functional neuroanatomy for posture- gait control. Multi-sensory information such as somatosensory, visual and vestibular sensation act on various areas of the brain so that adaptable posture- gait control can be achieved. Automatic process of gait, which is steady-state stepping movements associating with postural reflexes including headeye coordination accompanied by appropriate alignment of body segments and optimal level of postural muscle tone, is mediated by the descending pathways from the brainstem to the spinal cord. Particularly, reticulospinal pathways arising from the lateral part of the mesopontine tegmentum and spinal locomotor network contribute to this process. On the other hand, walking in unfamiliar circumstance requires cognitive process of postural control, which depends on knowledges of self-body, such as body schema and body motion in space. The cognitive information is produced at the temporoparietal association cortex, and is fundamental to sustention of vertical posture and construction of motor programs. The programs in the motor cortical areas run to execute anticipatory postural adjustment that is optimal for achievement of goal-directed movements. The basal ganglia and cerebellum may affect both the automatic and cognitive processes of posturegait control through reciprocal connections with the brainstem and cerebral cortex, respectively. Consequently, impairments in cognitive function by damages in the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia and cerebellum may disturb posture-gait control, resulting in falling.

  12. The gait of unilateral transfemoral amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonstra, A M; Schrama, J; Fidler, V; Eisma, W H

    1994-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the gait of persons with a unilateral transfemoral amputation by means of a questionnaire, gait analysis and measurement of energy expenditure, and to find correlations among the variables studied. The study included 29 transfemoral amputees amputated for other reasons than a chronic vascular disease. The patients were assessed using the following methods: 1) A questionnaire rating the walking distance and walking difficulty in different circumstances. 2) Gait analysis measuring temporal variables and goniometry of hips and knees. 3) Measurement of energy expenditure during sitting and walking. Scores on the questionnaire showed a correlation with socket design, a negative correlation with age and energy expenditure, and a positive correlation with fast speed. The gait of transfemoral amputees was asymmetrical as far as temporal variables were concerned, and for most amputees also for the range of motion of hip and knee. The walking speed of the amputees was lower than that of non-amputees and showed a positive correlation with hip extension-flexion range of motion and a negative correlation with age and stride time. The energy expenditure of the amputees during ambulation was higher than that of non-amputees, and seemed to correlate with residual limb length and the hip abduction-adduction range of motion.

  13. Functional Neuroanatomy for Posture and Gait Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakusaki, Kaoru

    2017-01-01

    Here we argue functional neuroanatomy for posture-gait control. Multi-sensory information such as somatosensory, visual and vestibular sensation act on various areas of the brain so that adaptable posture-gait control can be achieved. Automatic process of gait, which is steady-state stepping movements associating with postural reflexes including headeye coordination accompanied by appropriate alignment of body segments and optimal level of postural muscle tone, is mediated by the descending pathways from the brainstem to the spinal cord. Particularly, reticulospinal pathways arising from the lateral part of the mesopontine tegmentum and spinal locomotor network contribute to this process. On the other hand, walking in unfamiliar circumstance requires cognitive process of postural control, which depends on knowledges of self-body, such as body schema and body motion in space. The cognitive information is produced at the temporoparietal association cortex, and is fundamental to sustention of vertical posture and construction of motor programs. The programs in the motor cortical areas run to execute anticipatory postural adjustment that is optimal for achievement of goal-directed movements. The basal ganglia and cerebellum may affect both the automatic and cognitive processes of posturegait control through reciprocal connections with the brainstem and cerebral cortex, respectively. Consequently, impairments in cognitive function by damages in the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia and cerebellum may disturb posture-gait control, resulting in falling. PMID:28122432

  14. Milestones in gait, balance, and falling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nutt, J.G.; Horak, F.B.; Bloem, B.R.

    2011-01-01

    Gait, balance, and falls have become increasingly common topics of published articles in the Movement Disorders journal since its launch in 1986. This growth represents an increasing awareness of the importance of mobility to patients' quality of life. New methods have become available that allow

  15. Estimating Instantaneous Energetic Cost During Gait Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-31

    cost during gait adaptation Jessica C. Selinger and J. Maxwell Donelan Department of Biomedical Physiology and Kinesiology Simon Fraser University...4986 jessica_selinger@sfu.ca     Simon Fraser University Biomedical Physiology and Kinesiology Shrum Science Center- Building K 8888

  16. No consistent bimetric gravity?

    CERN Document Server

    Deser, S; Waldron, A

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the prospects for a consistent, nonlinear, partially massless (PM), gauge symmetry of bimetric gravity (BMG). Just as for single metric massive gravity, ultimate consistency of both BMG and the putative PM BMG theory relies crucially on this gauge symmetry. We argue, however, that it does not exist.

  17. Gait analysis in anorexia and bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimolin, Veronica; Galli, Manuela; Vismara, Luca; Vimercati, Sara Laura; Precilios, Helmer; Cattani, Laila; Fabris De Souza, Shirley; Petroni, Maria Letizia; Capodaglio, Paolo

    2013-09-13

    Anorexia (AN) and Bulimia Nervosa (BN) are two common eating disorders, which appear to share some reduced motor capacities, such as a reduced balance. The presence and the extent of other motor disorders have not been investigated in a comprehensive way. The aim of this study was to quantify gait pattern in AN and BN individuals in order to ascertain possible differences from the normality range and provide novel data for developing some evidence-based rehabilitation strategies. Nineteen AN patients (age 30.16+9.73) and 20 BN patients (age 26.8+8.41) were assessed with quantitative 3D computerized Gait Analysis. Results were compared with a group of healthy controls (CG; 30.7+5.6). AN and BN patients were characterized by different gait strategies compared to CG. Spatio-temporal parameters indicated shorter step length, with AN showing the shortest values. AN walked slower than BN and CG. As for kinematics, AN and BN showed a nonphysiologic pattern at pelvis and hip level on the sagittal and frontal plane, with BN yielding the most abnormal values. Both AN and BN patients were characterized by high ankle plantar flexion capacity at toe-off when compared to CG. As for ankle kinetics, both AN and BN showed physiologic patterns. Stiffness at hip level was close to CG in both pathologic groups; at the ankle level, stiffness was significantly decreased in both groups, with AN displaying lower values. Both AN and BN were characterized by an altered gait pattern compared to CG. Biomechanical differences were evident mainly at pelvis and hip level. Loss of lean mass may lead to musculoskeletal adaptation, ultimately causing alterations in the gait pattern.

  18. Can Gait Deviation Index be used effectively for the evaluation of gait pathology in total hip arthroplasty?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten; Rosenlund, Signe; Nielsen, Dennis Brandborg;

    trial was used to determine changes in gait quality in participants walking at self-selected speed. Upon completion of the first assessment, the participants were randomly assigned to either resurfacing hip arthroplasty or conventional hip arthroplasty. The outcome was changes in overall gait ‘quality......, there was no additional effect of resurfacing hip arthroplasty on GDI scores compared with conventional hip arthroplasty. Participants with the most pathological preoperative gait pattern improved the most. The GDI increased, which indicates an overall improvement in gait pathology after surgery. Trial registration: NCT......Introduction: In this paper, the Gait Deviation Index (GDI) was used as a convenient method to evaluate pre-to-postoperative gait pattern changes after total hip arthroplasty and identify factors which might be predictive of outcome. Design: Three-dimensional gait data from a randomized clinical...

  19. Reliability and Validity Study of the Chamorro Assisted Gait Scale for People with Sprained Ankles, Walking with Forearm Crutches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Chamorro-Moriana

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to design and validate a functional assessment scale for assisted gait with forearm crutches (Chamorro Assisted Gait Scale-CHAGS and to assess its reliability in people with sprained ankles.Thirty subjects who suffered from sprained ankle (anterior talofibular ligament first and second degree were included in the study. A modified Delphi technique was used to obtain the content validity. The selected items were: pelvic and scapular girdle dissociation(1, deviation of Center of Gravity(2, crutch inclination(3, steps rhythm(4, symmetry of step length(5, cross support(6, simultaneous support of foot and crutch(7, forearm off(8, facing forward(9 and fluency(10. Two raters twice visualized the gait of the sample subjects which were recorded. The criterion-related validity was determined by correlation between CHAGS and Coding of eight criteria of qualitative gait analysis (Viel Coding. Internal consistency and inter and intra-rater reliability were also tested.CHAGS obtained a high and negative correlation with Viel Coding. We obtained a good internal consistency and the intra-class correlation coefficients oscillated between 0.97 and 0.99, while the minimal detectable changes were acceptable.CHAGS scale is a valid and reliable tool for assessing assisted gait with crutches in people with sprained ankles to perform partial relief of lower limbs.

  20. The influence of valgus heel position on foot loading in a child's gait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliška Martinásková

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Flat foot is a typical clinical sign in childhood, expressed as valgus positioning of the heel during vertical foot loading. This may lead to medial deviation of the foot axis and cause overloading of some foot areas. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of valgus position of the heel (both bilateral and unilateral on foot loading during gait. METHODS: An experimental group consisting of children with bilateral heel valgus deformity (16 children, age 5.3 ± 1.3 years and children with unilateral heel valgus deformity (14 children, age 5.6 ± 1.6 years. The control group comprised of 14 children (age 4.5 ± 1.2 years. For measuring foot loading during gait, the Footscan (RSScan International, Olen, Belgium pressure plate was used. Each subject went through 8 trials of gait measurement. From each trial, 8 foot areas were evaluated. Data processing with mean values for each subject was performed by non-parametric tests (Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon tests, Spearman correlation in the STATISTICA programme (StatSoft, Inc., Tulsa, USA. RESULTS: Pressure peak and pressure impulse in the first metatarsal was greater for the bilateral valgus group (p CONCLUSION: The results show that valgus positioning of the heel influences foot loading in children during gait. The findings of this study suggest the necessity of a complex solution to the problem of preventing further progression of pathological changes.

  1. Characterization of gait parameters in patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuruvilla A

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The gait of five patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth(CMT disease was analyzed using light-emitting diodes and a force plate. The flexion-extension motions of the hips, knees, and ankles, as well as their moments (vector sums of forces acting at the joints in the flexion-extension and abduction-adduction planes, were quantified. The gait of the CMT patients showed abnormalities consistent with both distal weakness (ankle dorsi- and plantar-flexors and weakness of the hip abductor muscles. The latter weakness appeared to produce asymmetric hip moments and truncal instability in the mediolateral plane during ambulation. However, the extent to which the gait was abnormal appeared not to be exclusively related to the severity of the sensorimotor conduction deficits in the peripheral nerves. In the four patients for whom nerve conduction velocity studies were available, decrease in the lower-extremity distal conduction velocities and evoked motor amplitude potentials did not correlate with the severity and extent of the gait abnormalities.

  2. Gluteus minimus: an intramuscular EMG investigation of anterior and posterior segments during gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semciw, Adam I; Green, Rodney A; Murley, George S; Pizzari, Tania

    2014-02-01

    Gluteus minimus is believed to consist of two structurally and functionally unique segments (anterior and posterior); however there is a lack of electromyography (EMG) research that attempts to verify current theoretical knowledge of this muscle. The purpose of this study was therefore to evaluate the function of gluteus minimus during gait, and to determine whether anterior and posterior segments are functionally independent. Bipolar fine wire intramuscular EMG electrodes were inserted into anterior and posterior gluteus minimus segments of fifteen healthy volunteers (9 males) according to previously verified guidelines. Participants completed a series of four walking trials, followed by maximum voluntary isometric contractions in five different positions. Temporal and amplitude variables for each segment were compared across the gait cycle with independent t-tests. The relative contribution of each segment to the maximum resisted trials was compared with Mann-Whitney U tests (α = 0.05). Anterior and posterior segments were contracting at different relative intensities for three of the five maximum resisted trials (effect size = 0.39 to 0.62, P gait cycle (effect size = 0.96 to 1.03, P phase (effect size = 0.83, P = 0.034). Gluteus minimus is therefore composed of functionally independent segments. These results build on contemporary theoretical knowledge and may signify hip stabilising roles for each segment across different phases of the gait cycle.

  3. The effect of backpack load on the gait of normal adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Daniel H K; Kwok, Monica L Y; Au-Yang, Alexander C K; Holmes, Andrew D; Cheng, Jack C Y; Yao, Fiona Y D; Wong, M S

    2005-05-15

    Concerns regarding the effects of load carriage have led to recommendations that backpacks be limited to 10?-?15% of body weight, based on significant changes in physical performance. However, gait responses to backpack loads are not entirely consistent and there is a particular lack of data regarding load-bearing gait in adolescent females. Gait patterns of 22 normal adolescent girls were recorded at backpack loads of 0, 7.5, 10.0, 12.5 and 15.0% body weight. Temporal-distance, ground reaction force and joint kinematic, moment and power parameters were analysed by repeated measures ANOVA with factors of backpack load and side (left or right). Walking speed and cadence decreased significantly with increasing backpack load, while double support time increased. Kinematic changes were most marked at the proximal joints, with a decreased pelvic motion but a significant increase in the hip sagittal plane motion. Increased moments and power at the hip, knee and ankle showed increasing demand with backpack load. Parameters showed different responses to increasing load, and those that suggested a critical load indicated this to be approximately 10% body weight. While this may be due to a change in gait due to increased demand, further work is required to verify this and also to examine the cumulative effects of backpack load on the musculoskeletal system, which may be more appropriate in determining recommended load limits.

  4. The impact of vision on the dynamic characteristics of the gait: strategies in children with blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzellini, Simone; Lispi, Maria Luisa; Castelli, Enrico; Trombetti, Alessandro; Carniel, Sacha; Vasco, Gessica; Napolitano, Antonio; Petrarca, Maurizio

    2016-09-01

    Visually impaired persons present an atypical gait pattern characterized by slower walking speed, shorter stride length and longer time of stance. Three explanatory hypotheses have been advanced in the literature: balance deficit, lack of an anticipatory mechanisms and foot probing the ground. In the present study, we compared the three hypotheses by applying their predictions to gait analysis and posturography of blind children without neurological impairment and compared their performance with that of an age-matched control group. The gait analysis results documented that blind children presented reduced walking velocity and step length, increased step width and external rotation of the foot progression angle, reduced ground reaction force and ankle maximum angle, moment and power in late stance, increased head flexion, decreased thorax flexion and pelvis anteversion, compared with the control group. The posturographic analysis showed equal skill level between blind children and normally sighted children when they close their eyes. The results are consistent with only one of the three hypotheses: namely, they prove that blind children's gait is influenced only by the absence of visually driven anticipatory control mechanisms. Finally, rehabilitative recommendations for children with blindness are advanced in discussion.

  5. Wireless prototype based on pressure and bending sensors for measuring gait [corrected] quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenez, Florent; Viqueira Villarejo, María; García Zapirain, Begoña; Méndez Zorrilla, Amaia

    2013-07-29

    This paper presents a technological solution based on sensors controlled remotely in order to monitor, track and evaluate the gait quality in people with or without associated pathology. Special hardware simulating a shoe was developed, which consists of three pressure sensors, two bending sensors, an Arduino mini and a Bluetooth module. The obtained signals are digitally processed, calculating the standard deviation and establishing thresholds obtained empirically. A group of users was chosen with the aim of executing two modalities: natural walking and dragging the left foot. The gait was parameterized with the following variables: as far as pressure sensors are concerned, one pressure sensor under the first metatarsal (right sensor), another one under the fifth metatarsal (left) and a third one under the heel were placed. With respect to bending sensors, one bending sensor was placed for the ankle movement and another one for the foot sole. The obtained results show a rate accuracy oscillating between 85% (right sensor) and 100% (heel and bending sensors). Therefore, the developed prototype is able to differentiate between healthy gait and pathological gait, and it will be used as the base of a more complex and integral technological solution, which is being developed currently.

  6. The Application Of A Videometric Analysis System To Biomechanical Gait Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Paul A.

    1984-11-01

    In biomechanics research and in many sports medicine applications, it is desirable to make precise measurements of the kinematic parameters of body motions. An analysis of these parameters can be used to refine athletic performance, to design sports equipment, to develop orthotics, and to improve the practice of sports medicine. In this paper a videometric analysis system is described that can meet the requirements of a broad range of clinical and research applications. This system consists of state-of-the-art video components, including a shuttered video camera and a high resolution electronic cursor system, as well as a microcomputer and appropriate software for interactively making measurements, displaying results and producing reports. The use of this system for making gait measurements of athletes running on a treadmill is described. Time series of rearfoot angle measurements, made during the support phase of a gait are produced by the system. Individual gaits can be analyzed, or a number of gaits from one or more athletes can be grouped for statistical evaluation. An archival storage and retrieval facility permits the development and use of an extensive data base.

  7. Three Dimensional Gait Analysis Using Wearable Acceleration and Gyro Sensors Based on Quaternion Calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Miyagawa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method for three dimensional gait analysis using wearable sensors and quaternion calculations. Seven sensor units consisting of a tri-axial acceleration and gyro sensors, were fixed to the lower limbs. The acceleration and angular velocity data of each sensor unit were measured during level walking. The initial orientations of the sensor units were estimated using acceleration data during upright standing position and the angular displacements were estimated afterwards using angular velocity data during gait. Here, an algorithm based on quaternion calculation was implemented for orientation estimation of the sensor units. The orientations of the sensor units were converted to the orientations of the body segments by a rotation matrix obtained from a calibration trial. Body segment orientations were then used for constructing a three dimensional wire frame animation of the volunteers during the gait. Gait analysis was conducted on five volunteers, and results were compared with those from a camera-based motion analysis system. Comparisons were made for the joint trajectory in the horizontal and sagittal plane. The average RMSE and correlation coefficient (CC were 10.14 deg and 0.98, 7.88 deg and 0.97, 9.75 deg and 0.78 for the hip, knee and ankle flexion angles, respectively.

  8. Prizes for consistency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiscock, S.

    1986-07-01

    The importance of consistency in coal quality has become of increasing significance recently, with the current trend towards using coal from a range of sources. A significant development has been the swing in responsibilities for coal quality. The increasing demand for consistency in quality has led to a re-examination of where in the trade and transport chain the quality should be assessed and where further upgrading of inspection and preparation facilities are required. Changes are in progress throughout the whole coal transport chain which will improve consistency of delivered coal quality. These include installation of beneficiation plant at coal mines, export terminals, and on the premises of end users. It is suggested that one of the keys to success for the coal industry will be the ability to provide coal of a consistent quality.

  9. Consistent sets contradict

    CERN Document Server

    Kent, A

    1996-01-01

    In the consistent histories formulation of quantum theory, the probabilistic predictions and retrodictions made from observed data depend on the choice of a consistent set. We show that this freedom allows the formalism to retrodict several contradictory propositions which correspond to orthogonal commuting projections and which all have probability one. We also show that the formalism makes contradictory probability one predictions when applied to generalised time-symmetric quantum mechanics.

  10. Kinematic analysis quantifies gait abnormalities associated with lameness in broiler chickens and identifies evolutionary gait differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplen, Gina; Hothersall, Becky; Murrell, Joanna C; Nicol, Christine J; Waterman-Pearson, Avril E; Weeks, Claire A; Colborne, G Robert

    2012-01-01

    This is the first time that gait characteristics of broiler (meat) chickens have been compared with their progenitor, jungle fowl, and the first kinematic study to report a link between broiler gait parameters and defined lameness scores. A commercial motion-capturing system recorded three-dimensional temporospatial information during walking. The hypothesis was that the gait characteristics of non-lame broilers (n = 10) would be intermediate to those of lame broilers (n = 12) and jungle fowl (n = 10, tested at two ages: immature and adult). Data analysed using multi-level models, to define an extensive range of baseline gait parameters, revealed inter-group similarities and differences. Natural selection is likely to have made jungle fowl walking gait highly efficient. Modern broiler chickens possess an unbalanced body conformation due to intense genetic selection for additional breast muscle (pectoral hypertrophy) and whole body mass. Together with rapid growth, this promotes compensatory gait adaptations to minimise energy expenditure and triggers high lameness prevalence within commercial flocks; lameness creating further disruption to the gait cycle and being an important welfare issue. Clear differences were observed between the two lines (short stance phase, little double-support, low leg lift, and little back displacement in adult jungle fowl; much double-support, high leg lift, and substantial vertical back movement in sound broilers) presumably related to mass and body conformation. Similarities included stride length and duration. Additional modifications were also identified in lame broilers (short stride length and duration, substantial lateral back movement, reduced velocity) presumably linked to musculo-skeletal abnormalities. Reduced walking velocity suggests an attempt to minimise skeletal stress and/or discomfort, while a shorter stride length and time, together with longer stance and double-support phases, are associated with

  11. Kinematic analysis quantifies gait abnormalities associated with lameness in broiler chickens and identifies evolutionary gait differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Caplen

    Full Text Available This is the first time that gait characteristics of broiler (meat chickens have been compared with their progenitor, jungle fowl, and the first kinematic study to report a link between broiler gait parameters and defined lameness scores. A commercial motion-capturing system recorded three-dimensional temporospatial information during walking. The hypothesis was that the gait characteristics of non-lame broilers (n = 10 would be intermediate to those of lame broilers (n = 12 and jungle fowl (n = 10, tested at two ages: immature and adult. Data analysed using multi-level models, to define an extensive range of baseline gait parameters, revealed inter-group similarities and differences. Natural selection is likely to have made jungle fowl walking gait highly efficient. Modern broiler chickens possess an unbalanced body conformation due to intense genetic selection for additional breast muscle (pectoral hypertrophy and whole body mass. Together with rapid growth, this promotes compensatory gait adaptations to minimise energy expenditure and triggers high lameness prevalence within commercial flocks; lameness creating further disruption to the gait cycle and being an important welfare issue. Clear differences were observed between the two lines (short stance phase, little double-support, low leg lift, and little back displacement in adult jungle fowl; much double-support, high leg lift, and substantial vertical back movement in sound broilers presumably related to mass and body conformation. Similarities included stride length and duration. Additional modifications were also identified in lame broilers (short stride length and duration, substantial lateral back movement, reduced velocity presumably linked to musculo-skeletal abnormalities. Reduced walking velocity suggests an attempt to minimise skeletal stress and/or discomfort, while a shorter stride length and time, together with longer stance and double-support phases, are associated

  12. Characterization of gait in late onset Pompe disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Paul T; Case, Laura E; Chan, Justin M; Austin, Stephanie L; Kishnani, Priya

    2015-11-01

    The skeletal muscle manifestations of late-onset Pompe disease (LOPD) cause significant gait impairment. However, the specific temporal and spatial characteristics of abnormal gait in LOPD have not been objectively analyzed or described in the literature. This pilot study evaluated the gait of 22 individuals with LOPD using the GAITRite® temporospatial gait analysis system. The gait parameters were compared to normal reference values, and correlations were made with standard measures of disease progression. The LOPD population demonstrated significant abnormalities in temporospatial parameters of gait including a trend towards decreased velocity and cadence, a prolonged stance phase, prolonged time in double limb support, shorter step and stride length, and a wider base of support. Precise descriptions and analyses of gait abnormalities have much potential in increasing our understanding of LOPD, especially in regards to how its natural history may be modified by the use of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and other interventions. Gait analysis may provide a sensitive early marker of the onset of clinical symptoms and signs, offer an additional objective measure of disease progression and the impact of intervention, and serve as a potentially important clinical endpoint. The additional data from comprehensive gait analysis may personalize and optimize physical therapy management, and the clarification of specific gait patterns in neuromuscular diseases could be of clinical benefit in the ranking of a differential diagnosis.

  13. Ataxic gait following total gastrectomy for gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Chang Ho; Park, Dong Jin; Kim, Gyu Yeol

    2016-01-01

    A 58-year-old woman, who had undergone total gastrectomy for early gastric cancer 9 years previously, visited the outpatient clinic complaining of progressive difficulty in walking for 15 d. Laboratory examinations showed macrocytic anemia and a decreased serum vitamin B12 concentration and increased serum concentrations of folate, vitamin E and copper. Magnetic resonance imaging showed multifocal high signal intensities along the posterior column of the cervical and thoracic spinal cord. Treatment consisted of intramuscular injections of vitamin B12 for 7 d, which increased her serum level of vitamin B12 to normal. This was followed by weekly intramuscular injections of vitamin B12 for another 2 wk and oral administration of vitamin B12 three times per day. After comprehensive rehabilitation for 4 wk, she showed sufficient improvements in strength and ataxic gait, enabling her to return to her normal daily activities. PMID:27729749

  14. Gait analysis using floor markers and inertial sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Tri Nhut; Suh, Young Soo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a gait analysis system which estimates step length and foot angles is proposed. A measurement unit, which consists of a camera and inertial sensors, is installed on a shoe. When the foot touches the floor, markers are recognized by the camera to obtain the current position and attitude. A simple planar marker with 4,096 different codes is used. These markers printed on paper are placed on the floor. When the foot is moving off the floor, the position and attitude are estimated using an inertial navigation algorithm. For accurate estimation, a smoother is proposed, where vision information and inertial sensor data are combined. Through experiments, it is shown that the proposed system can both track foot motion and estimate step length.

  15. Gait Analysis Using Floor Markers and Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Soo Suh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a gait analysis system which estimates step length and foot angles is proposed. A measurement unit, which consists of a camera and inertial sensors, is installed on a shoe. When the foot touches the floor, markers are recognized by the camera to obtain the current position and attitude. A simple planar marker with 4,096 different codes is used. These markers printed on paper are placed on the floor. When the foot is moving off the floor, the position and attitude are estimated using an inertial navigation algorithm. For accurate estimation, a smoother is proposed, where vision information and inertial sensor data are combined. Through experiments, it is shown that the proposed system can both track foot motion and estimate step length.

  16. Clock-turning gait synthesis for humanoid robots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhe TANG; Zengqi SUN; Hongbo LIU; Meng Joo ER

    2007-01-01

    Turning gait is a basic motion for humanoid robots.This paper presents a method for humanoid turning.i.e.clock-turning.The objective of clock-turning is to change robot direction at a stationary spot.The clock-turning planning consists of four steps:ankle trajectory generation,hip trajectory generation,knee trajectory generation,and inverse kinematics calculation.Our proposed method is based on a typical humanoid structure with 12 DOFs(degrees of freedom).The final output of clock-turning planning is 12 reference trajectories.which are used to control a humanoid robot wim 12 DOFs.ZMP(zero moment point)is used as stability criterion for the planning.Simulation experiments are conducted to verify the effectiveness of our proposed clock-turning method.

  17. The golden ratio of gait harmony: repetitive proportions of repetitive gait phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iosa, Marco; Fusco, Augusto; Marchetti, Fabio; Morone, Giovanni; Caltagirone, Carlo; Paolucci, Stefano; Peppe, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    In nature, many physical and biological systems have structures showing harmonic properties. Some of them were found related to the irrational number φ known as the golden ratio that has important symmetric and harmonic properties. In this study, the spatiotemporal gait parameters of 25 healthy subjects were analyzed using a stereophotogrammetric system with 25 retroreflective markers located on their skin. The proportions of gait phases were compared with φ, the value of which is about 1.6180. The ratio between the entire gait cycle and stance phase resulted in 1.620 ± 0.058, that between stance and the swing phase was 1.629 ± 0.173, and that between swing and the double support phase was 1.684 ± 0.357. All these ratios did not differ significantly from each other (F = 0.870, P = 0.422, repeated measure analysis of variance) or from φ (P = 0.670, 0.820, 0.422, resp., t-tests). The repetitive gait phases of physiological walking were found in turn in repetitive proportions with each other, revealing an intrinsic harmonic structure. Harmony could be the key for facilitating the control of repetitive walking. Harmony is a powerful unifying factor between seemingly disparate fields of nature, including human gait.

  18. The Golden Ratio of Gait Harmony: Repetitive Proportions of Repetitive Gait Phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Iosa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In nature, many physical and biological systems have structures showing harmonic properties. Some of them were found related to the irrational number known as the golden ratio that has important symmetric and harmonic properties. In this study, the spatiotemporal gait parameters of 25 healthy subjects were analyzed using a stereophotogrammetric system with 25 retroreflective markers located on their skin. The proportions of gait phases were compared with , the value of which is about 1.6180. The ratio between the entire gait cycle and stance phase resulted in 1.620 ± 0.058, that between stance and the swing phase was 1.629 ± 0.173, and that between swing and the double support phase was 1.684 ± 0.357. All these ratios did not differ significantly from each other (, , repeated measure analysis of variance or from (, resp., t-tests. The repetitive gait phases of physiological walking were found in turn in repetitive proportions with each other, revealing an intrinsic harmonic structure. Harmony could be the key for facilitating the control of repetitive walking. Harmony is a powerful unifying factor between seemingly disparate fields of nature, including human gait.

  19. The effects of gait velocity on the gait characteristics of hemiplegic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Young Youl; Chung, Sin Ho

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] The present study investigated the effects of gait speed on temporal and spatial gait characteristics of hemiplegic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty post-stroke hemiplegic patients participated in the present study. To enhance the reliability of the analysis of the gait characteristics, the assessments were conducted three days per week at the same time every day. Each subject walked maintaining a comfortable speed for the first minute, and measurement was conducted for 30 seconds at a treadmill speed of 1 km/hour thereafter. Then, the subjects walked at a treadmill speed of 2 km/hour for 30 seconds after a 30-minute rest. The differences in the measurements were tested for significance using the paired t-test. [Results] The measures of foot rotation, step width, load response, mid stance, pre-swing, swing phase, and double stance phase showed significant difference between the gait velocities. [Conclusion] The present study provides basic data for gait velocity changes for hemiplegic patients.

  20. Locomotion gaits of a rotating cylinder pair

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rees, Wim M.; Novati, Guido; Koumoutsakos, Petros; Mahadevan, L.

    2015-11-01

    Using 2D numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations, we demonstrate that a simple pair of rotating cylinders can display a range of locomotion patterns of biological and engineering interest. Steadily counter-rotating the cylinders causes the pair to move akin to a vortex dipole for low rotation rates, but as the rotational velocity is increased the direction of motion reverses. Unsteady rotations lead to different locomotion gaits that resemble jellyfish (for in-phase rotations) and undulating swimmers (for out-of-phase rotations). The small number of parameters for this simple system allows us to systematically map the phase space of these gaits, and allows us to understand the underlying physical mechanisms using a minimal model with implications for biological locomotion and engineered analogs.

  1. Deterioration of gait and balance over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreisel, Stefan H; Blahak, Christian; Bäzner, Hansjörg

    2013-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies have shown an association between the severity of age-related white matter change (ARWMC) and lower body motor function. However, the association between prevalent ARWMC and incident deterioration of balance and gait remains insufficiently investigated. This study...... relevance: given the increasing use of neuroimaging, incidental white matter pathology is common; being able to delineate natural trajectories of balance and gait function given ARWMC may improve patient advice and help optimize allocation of care....... investigates if the degree of prevalent ARWMC has a differential effect on lower body motor function as it changes over time, hypothesizing that individuals with more severe baseline white matter pathology experience greater clinical deterioration independent of potential confounders. This is of clinical...

  2. Neglected Alkaptonuric Patient Presenting with Steppage Gait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Mirzashahi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Even though intervertebral disc degeneration can be found in the natural course of alkaptonuria, detection of the disease by black disc color change in a patient without any other presentation of alkaptonuria is an exceptionally rare condition. We have reported a very rare case of alkaptonuria presented with low back pain and steppage gait in a 51-year-old male with a complaint of chronic low-back pain and steppage gait who was operated on for prolapsed lumbar disc herniation. Intraoperatively his lumbar disk was discovered to be black. The alkaptonuria diagnosis was considered after histopathological examination of the black disc material and elevated urinary concentration of homogentisic acid confirmed the diagnosis. To our knowledge, this presentation has not been reported previously in literature.

  3. Treatment of Gait Ignition Failure with Ropinirole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis N. Cohen-Oram

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gait ignition failure (GIF is a syndrome characterized by hesitation or inability to initiate gait from a static position. It may occur in a variety of conditions, including normal pressure hydrocephalus, subcortical vascular disease, parkinsonian syndromes and a variety of focal lesions. Previous information on the treatment of GIF has been primarily anecdotal, but there have been a few reports of response to dopamine agonists. We report a 63-year-old man with anoxic encephalopathy who developed GIF nine years after the initial anoxic insult. The patient’s GIF responded robustly, albeit transiently, to ropinirole. MRI was unrevealing, but a positron emission tomography scan showed hypometabolism in the deep frontal ACA/MCA watershed area; this may have disconnected the basal ganglia from the motor cortex and/or interrupted dopaminergic mesocortical transmission. Our understanding of the pathophysiology and the treatment of GIF remains limited, but there may be at least a limited therapeutic role for dopamine agonists.

  4. A gait planning method applied to hexapod biomimetic robot locomotion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Fu; Yan Jihong; Zang Xizhe; Zhao Jie

    2009-01-01

    In order to fulfill the goal of autonomous walking on rough terrain, a distributed gait planning method applied to hexapod biomimetic robot locomotion is proposed based on the research effort of gait coordination mechanism of stick insect. The mathematical relation of walking velocity and gait pattern was depicted, a set of local rules operating between adjacent legs were put forward, and a distributed network of local rules for gait control was constructed. With the interaction of adjacent legs, adaptive adjustment of phase sequence fluctuation of walking legs resulting from change of terrain conditions or variety of walking speed was implemented to generate statically stable gait. In the simulation experiments, adaptive adjustment of inter-leg phase sequence and smooth transition of velocity and gait pattern were realized, and static stableness was ensured simultaneously, which provided the hexapod robot with the capability of walking on rough terrain stably and expeditiously.

  5. Gait analysis in prosthetics: opinions, ideas and conclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietman, J S; Postema, K; Geertzen, J H B

    2002-04-01

    A review was performed of the literature of the last eleven years (1990-2000) with the topic: "clinical use of instrumented gait analysis in patients wearing a prosthesis of the lower limb". To this end a literature search was performed in Embase, Medline and Recal. Forty-five (45) articles were identified for study from which 34 were reviewed. The reviews were divided into five subtopics: 1) adaptive strategies in gait (12 studies); 2) the influence of different parts of the prosthesis on gait (12 studies); 3) pressure measurements in the socket in gait studies (4 studies); 4) the influence of the mass of the prostheses on gait (5 studies); 5) energy considerations in gait (2 studies). A considerable part of the studies concerned the adaptive strategies of the amputee in walking and running and the evaluation of different prosthetic feet. All aspects and outcomes were reviewed concerning the clinical relevance.

  6. Network Consistent Data Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Anirban; Das, Abir; Roy-Chowdhury, Amit K

    2016-09-01

    Existing data association techniques mostly focus on matching pairs of data-point sets and then repeating this process along space-time to achieve long term correspondences. However, in many problems such as person re-identification, a set of data-points may be observed at multiple spatio-temporal locations and/or by multiple agents in a network and simply combining the local pairwise association results between sets of data-points often leads to inconsistencies over the global space-time horizons. In this paper, we propose a Novel Network Consistent Data Association (NCDA) framework formulated as an optimization problem that not only maintains consistency in association results across the network, but also improves the pairwise data association accuracies. The proposed NCDA can be solved as a binary integer program leading to a globally optimal solution and is capable of handling the challenging data-association scenario where the number of data-points varies across different sets of instances in the network. We also present an online implementation of NCDA method that can dynamically associate new observations to already observed data-points in an iterative fashion, while maintaining network consistency. We have tested both the batch and the online NCDA in two application areas-person re-identification and spatio-temporal cell tracking and observed consistent and highly accurate data association results in all the cases.

  7. Effects of conventional overground gait training and a gait trainer with partial body weight support on spatiotemporal gait parameters of patients after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byoung-Sun; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Yang, Seung-Min; Lee, Won-Deok; Noh, Ji-Woong; Shin, Yong-Sub; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Junghwan

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to confirm the effects of both conventional overground gait training (CGT) and a gait trainer with partial body weight support (GTBWS) on spatiotemporal gait parameters of patients with hemiparesis following chronic stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty stroke patients were alternately assigned to one of two treatment groups, and both groups underwent CGT and GTBWS. [Results] The functional ambulation classification on the affected side improved significantly in the CGT and GTBWS groups. Walking speed also improved significantly in both groups. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the GTBWS in company with CGT may be, in part, an effective method of gait training for restoring gait ability in patients after a stroke.

  8. Smartphone User Identity Verification Using Gait Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Robertas Damaševičius; Rytis Maskeliūnas; Algimantas Venčkauskas; Marcin Woźniak

    2016-01-01

    Smartphone-based biometrics offers a wide range of possible solutions, which could be used to authenticate users and thus to provide an extra level of security and theft prevention. We propose a method for positive identification of smartphone user’s identity using user’s gait characteristics captured by embedded smartphone sensors (gyroscopes, accelerometers). The method is based on the application of the Random Projections method for feature dimensionality reduction to just two dimensions. ...

  9. The role of frontostriatal impairment in freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease

    OpenAIRE

    James M. Shine; Ahmed A. Moustafa; Matar, Elie; Frank, Michael J.; Lewis, Simon J. G.

    2013-01-01

    Freezing of gait (FOG) is a disabling symptom of advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) that leads to an increased risk of falls and nursing home placement. Interestingly, multiple lines of evidence suggest that the manifestation of FOG is related to specific deficits in cognition, such as set shifting and the ability to process conflict-related signals. These findings are consistent with the specific patterns of abnormal cortical processing seen during functional neuroimaging experiments of FOG, ...

  10. Functional resources to increase gait speed in people with stroke: strategies adopted compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsdottir, J; Recalcati, M; Rabuffetti, M; Casiraghi, A; Boccardi, S; Ferrarin, M

    2009-04-01

    Thirty-nine adult individuals with stroke in the stable phase were asked to walk at their preferred speed and then as fast as possible. A set of gait indexes were computed, including spatial temporal parameters, ankle and hip mechanical work, and timing of ankle push-off onset, for comparison with normal velocity-dependent profiles. Algorithms were used to classify the resulting gait patterns when the patients walked at their preferred speed and fast and to identify the patients' strategies to maximise speed. Patients' strategies were characterised by a variation in the parameters, which were reduced, equal or increased, in relation to normal patterns. At both speeds, stroke individuals tended to walk at higher cadence and with shorter stride length. At the preferred speed the investigated parameters for all patients were mostly within the normal profile (71.8-94.9%). The exception was the finding of positive work at the ankle where 64% of the stroke individuals showed reduced work production. At fast speed (increments to 36%BH/s) fewer patients presented values within the normal profile for all the parameters (17.9-74.4%), with the exception of negative work at the ankle and hip. The parameter variations showed a more consistently abnormal picture. The results indicate that, in order to increase gait speed, patients with hemiparesis have different functional resources on which to draw, and these vary from individual to individual. Thus, gait analysis at different gait speed should be adopted to develop individualised programs that will improve quality of life for the patients.

  11. Reliability of videotaped observational gait analysis in patients with orthopedic impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunnekreef, J.J.; Uden, C. van; Moorsel, S. van; Kooloos, J.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In clinical practice, visual gait observation is often used to determine gait disorders and to evaluate treatment. Several reliability studies on observational gait analysis have been described in the literature and generally showed moderate reliability. However, patients with orthopedic

  12. Zernike moments features for shape-based gait recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Huanfeng; Qin, Lan; Liu, Jun; Chao, Jiang

    2011-12-01

    The paper proposes a new spatio-temporal gait representation, called cycles gait Zernike moments (CGZM), to characterize human walking properties for individual recognition. Firstly, Zernike moments as shape descriptors are used to characterize gait silhouette shape. Secondly, we generate CGZM from Zernike moments of silhouette sequences. Finally, the phase and magnitude coefficientsof CGZM are utilized to perform classification by the modified Hausdorff distance (MHD) classifier. Experimental results show that the proposed approach have an encouraging recognition performance.

  13. Locomotion Gait Planning of Climber Snake-Like Robot

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In this article a novel breed of snake-like climber robots has been introduced. Structure and operation of the first generation of snake-like climber robot "Marak I" has been discussed. The gait planning for two dimensional locomotion of a novel snake-like climber robot "Marak I" is presented. The types of locomotion investigated were rectilinear and wheeling gaits. The gaits of locomotion were experimented and their suitability for various applications has been mentioned. Some encountered pr...

  14. Controlling patient participation during robot-assisted gait training

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmerli Lukas; Bergmann Jeannine; Omlin Ximena; Koenig Alexander; Bolliger Marc; Müller Friedemann; Riener Robert

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The overall goal of this paper was to investigate approaches to controlling active participation in stroke patients during robot-assisted gait therapy. Although active physical participation during gait rehabilitation after stroke was shown to improve therapy outcome, some patients can behave passively during rehabilitation, not maximally benefiting from the gait training. Up to now, there has not been an effective method for forcing patient activity to the desired level t...

  15. GAIT VARIATION IN PATIENTS WITH KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS: A CONTROLLED STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Jayalath J.L.R; Dassanayake T.D.M.S.B; Dissanayake M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is one of the most common chronic diseases which increase the individual’s disability and affects the patients gait as the disease progress. Thus identifying the changes in gait variables in knee osteoarthritis patients is important. Objectives: To compare the gait variables such as walking velocity, cadence, step length, walking base, and single support time, in both control group of people and in the disease group. Method: This descriptive cross sectional study conduc...

  16. Gait signal analysis with similarity measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sanghyuk; Shin, Seungsoo

    2014-01-01

    Human gait decision was carried out with the help of similarity measure design. Gait signal was selected through hardware implementation including all in one sensor, control unit, and notebook with connector. Each gait signal was considered as high dimensional data. Therefore, high dimensional data analysis was considered via heuristic technique such as the similarity measure. Each human pattern such as walking, sitting, standing, and stepping up was obtained through experiment. By the results of the analysis, we also identified the overlapped and nonoverlapped data relation, and similarity measure analysis was also illustrated, and comparison with conventional similarity measure was also carried out. Hence, nonoverlapped data similarity analysis provided the clue to solve the similarity of high dimensional data. Considered high dimensional data analysis was designed with consideration of neighborhood information. Proposed similarity measure was applied to identify the behavior patterns of different persons, and different behaviours of the same person. Obtained analysis can be extended to organize health monitoring system for specially elderly persons.

  17. Gait Signal Analysis with Similarity Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghyuk Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human gait decision was carried out with the help of similarity measure design. Gait signal was selected through hardware implementation including all in one sensor, control unit, and notebook with connector. Each gait signal was considered as high dimensional data. Therefore, high dimensional data analysis was considered via heuristic technique such as the similarity measure. Each human pattern such as walking, sitting, standing, and stepping up was obtained through experiment. By the results of the analysis, we also identified the overlapped and nonoverlapped data relation, and similarity measure analysis was also illustrated, and comparison with conventional similarity measure was also carried out. Hence, nonoverlapped data similarity analysis provided the clue to solve the similarity of high dimensional data. Considered high dimensional data analysis was designed with consideration of neighborhood information. Proposed similarity measure was applied to identify the behavior patterns of different persons, and different behaviours of the same person. Obtained analysis can be extended to organize health monitoring system for specially elderly persons.

  18. Gait patterns for crime fighting: statistical evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulovská, Kateřina; Bělašková, Silvie; Adámek, Milan

    2013-10-01

    The criminality is omnipresent during the human history. Modern technology brings novel opportunities for identification of a perpetrator. One of these opportunities is an analysis of video recordings, which may be taken during the crime itself or before/after the crime. The video analysis can be classed as identification analyses, respectively identification of a person via externals. The bipedal locomotion focuses on human movement on the basis of their anatomical-physiological features. Nowadays, the human gait is tested by many laboratories to learn whether the identification via bipedal locomotion is possible or not. The aim of our study is to use 2D components out of 3D data from the VICON Mocap system for deep statistical analyses. This paper introduces recent results of a fundamental study focused on various gait patterns during different conditions. The study contains data from 12 participants. Curves obtained from these measurements were sorted, averaged and statistically tested to estimate the stability and distinctiveness of this biometrics. Results show satisfactory distinctness of some chosen points, while some do not embody significant difference. However, results presented in this paper are of initial phase of further deeper and more exacting analyses of gait patterns under different conditions.

  19. Gait Recognition based on Dynamic Texture descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Abdolahi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The human movement analysis is an attractive topic in biometric research. Recent studies indicate that people have considerable ability to recognize others by their natural walking. Therefore, gait recognition has obtained great interest in biometric systems. The common biometrics is usually time-consuming, limited and collaborative. These drawbacks pose major challenges to the recognition process. Gait analysis is inconspicuous, needs no contact, is difficult to hide and can be evaluated at distance. This paper presents a bag of word method for gait recognition based on dynamic textures. Dynamic textures combine appearance and motion information. Since human walking has statistical variations in both spatial and temporal space, it can be described with dynamic texture features. To obtain these features, we extract spatiotemporal interest points and describe them by a dynamic texture descriptor. Afterwards, the hierarchical K-means as a clustering algorithm is applied to obtain the visual dictionary of video-words. As a result, human walking is represented as a histogram of video-words occurrences. The performance of our method is evaluated on two dataset: the KTH and IXMAS multiview datasets.

  20. Fractional Langevin model of gait variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latka Miroslaw

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The stride interval in healthy human gait fluctuates from step to step in a random manner and scaling of the interstride interval time series motivated previous investigators to conclude that this time series is fractal. Early studies suggested that gait is a monofractal process, but more recent work indicates the time series is weakly multifractal. Herein we present additional evidence for the weakly multifractal nature of gait. We use the stride interval time series obtained from ten healthy adults walking at a normal relaxed pace for approximately fifteen minutes each as our data set. A fractional Langevin equation is constructed to model the underlying motor control system in which the order of the fractional derivative is itself a stochastic quantity. Using this model we find the fractal dimension for each of the ten data sets to be in agreement with earlier analyses. However, with the present model we are able to draw additional conclusions regarding the nature of the control system guiding walking. The analysis presented herein suggests that the observed scaling in interstride interval data may not be due to long-term memory alone, but may, in fact, be due partly to the statistics.

  1. Gait Correlation Analysis Based Human Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyan Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human gait identification aims to identify people by a sequence of walking images. Comparing with fingerprint or iris based identification, the most important advantage of gait identification is that it can be done at a distance. In this paper, silhouette correlation analysis based human identification approach is proposed. By background subtracting algorithm, the moving silhouette figure can be extracted from the walking images sequence. Every pixel in the silhouette has three dimensions: horizontal axis (x, vertical axis (y, and temporal axis (t. By moving every pixel in the silhouette image along these three dimensions, we can get a new silhouette. The correlation result between the original silhouette and the new one can be used as the raw feature of human gait. Discrete Fourier transform is used to extract features from this correlation result. Then, these features are normalized to minimize the affection of noise. Primary component analysis method is used to reduce the features’ dimensions. Experiment based on CASIA database shows that this method has an encouraging recognition performance.

  2. Long-term donor-site morbidity after vascularized free fibula flap harvesting: Clinical and gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuvrier, Damien; Sagawa, Yoshimasa; Béliard, Samuel; Pauchot, Julien; Decavel, Pierre

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the clinical morbidity and changes in gait temporal spatial parameters after harvesting of a vascularized free fibula flap. This study included 11 patients (mean age: 52 ± 17 years) and 11 healthy controls (mean age: 50 ± 14 years). The patients were assessed between 5 and 104 months post surgery. The study consisted of a subjective functional evaluation with two validated clinical scores (Kitaoka Score and Point Evaluation System (PES) score), clinical and neurological examination of the legs, and evaluation of gait temporal spatial parameters while walking at a comfortable speed. The mean functional Kitaoka score was 78/100, and the mean PES score of 12.18 was considered average. At the time of the review, five patients had sensory disorders, two had toe deformities, and eight had pain at the donor site. The gait analysis showed that the patient's comfortable walking speed was significantly lower in comparison to that of the controls, and that stride length and cadence were reduced. In addition, most of the gait-specific parameters were significantly different. The donor leg displayed greater variability during walking. To reduce the risk of falling, this study revealed that the patients' gait pattern had changed as they took a more cautious approach during walking. Early rehabilitation is expected to help improve and/or restore the physical abilities of patients after harvesting of the vascularized free fibula flap.

  3. The effects of aquatic trunk exercise on gait and muscle activity in stroke patients: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byoung-Sun; Noh, Ji-Woong; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Yang, Seung-Min; Lee, Won-Deok; Shin, Yong-Sub; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Park, Jaehong; Kim, Junghwan

    2015-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between muscle activity and gait function following aquatic trunk exercise in hemiplegic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] This study's participants included thirteen hemiplegic patients (ten males and three females). The aquatic therapy consisted of administering concentrative aquatic therapy for four weeks in a therapeutic pool. Gait parameters were measured using a gait analysis system adjusted to each subject's comfortable walking speed. Electromyographic signals were measured for the rectus abdominis, external abdominal oblique, transversus abdominis/internal-abdominal oblique, and erector spine of each patients. [Results] The pre- and post-training performances of the transversus abdominis/internal-abdominal oblique were compared statistically. There was no statistical difference between the patients' pre- and post-training values of maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the rectus abdominis, but the external abdominal oblique values tended to improve. Furthermore, gait factors improved significantly in terms of walking speeds, walking cycles, affected-side stance phases, affected-stride lengths, and stance-phase symmetry indices, respectively. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the trunk exercise during aquatic therapy may in part contribute to clinically relevant improvements in muscle activities and gait parameters.

  4. Motor imagery group practice for gait rehabilitation in individuals with post-stroke hemiparesis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickstein, Ruth; Levy, Sandra; Shefi, Sara; Holtzman, Sarit; Peleg, Sara; Vatine, Jean-Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is the leading cause of adult disability, with walking impairment being a devastating indicator of chronic post-stroke hemiparesis. Limited resources exist for individual treatments; therefore, the delivery of safe group exercise therapy is highly desired. To examine whether the application of group-based motor imagery practice to community-dwelling individuals with chronic hemiparesis improves gait. Sixteen individuals with chronic hemiparesis from two community centers participated in the study, with eight from each center. Four participants in each center received five weeks of the experimental intervention, consisting of group-based motor imagery exercises of gait tasks, followed by five weeks of control treatment of motor imagery exercises for the affected upper extremity. Four other subjects in each center received the same treatments in reverse order. Pre- and post intervention measurements included clinical and biomechanical gait parameters. Comparisons within (pre- vs. post) and between treatments (experimental vs. control) indicated no significant change in any gait variable. Nevertheless, the verbal reports of most participants alluded to satisfaction with the experimental intervention and to an increase in self-confidence. Despite the lack of evidence for the effectiveness of group-based motor imagery practice in improving gait among individuals with chronic hemiparesis, the contrast between the measured outcomes and the positive verbal reports merits further inquiry.

  5. Reporting consistently on CSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Christa; Nielsen, Anne Ellerup

    2006-01-01

    of a case study showing that companies use different and not necessarily consistent strategies for reporting on CSR. Finally, the implications for managerial practice are discussed. The chapter concludes by highlighting the value and awareness of the discourse and the discourse types adopted......This chapter first outlines theory and literature on CSR and Stakeholder Relations focusing on the different perspectives and the contextual and dynamic character of the CSR concept. CSR reporting challenges are discussed and a model of analysis is proposed. Next, our paper presents the results...... in the reporting material. By implementing consistent discourse strategies that interact according to a well-defined pattern or order, it is possible to communicate a strong social commitment on the one hand, and to take into consideration the expectations of the shareholders and the other stakeholders...

  6. A Magnetic Consistency Relation

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Rajeev Kumar

    2012-01-01

    If cosmic magnetic fields are indeed produced during inflation, they are likely to be correlated with the scalar metric perturbations that are responsible for the Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropies and Large Scale Structure. Within an archetypical model of inflationary magnetogenesis, we show that there exists a new simple consistency relation for the non-Gaussian cross correlation function of the scalar metric perturbation with two powers of the magnetic field in the squeezed limit where the momentum of the metric perturbation vanishes. We emphasize that such a consistency relation turns out to be extremely useful to test some recent calculations in the literature. Apart from primordial non-Gaussianity induced by the curvature perturbations, such a cross correlation might provide a new observational probe of inflation and can in principle reveal the primordial nature of cosmic magnetic fields.

  7. Detection of abnormalities in a human gait using smart shoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Kyoungchul; Bae, Joonbum; Tomizuka, Masayoshi

    2008-03-01

    Health monitoring systems require a means for detecting and quantifying abnormalities from measured signals. In this paper, a new method for detecting abnormalities in a human gait is proposed for an improved gait monitoring system for patients with walking problems. In the previous work, we introduced a fuzzy logic algorithm for detecting phases in a human gait based on four foot pressure sensors for each of the right and left foot. The fuzzy logic algorithm detects the gait phases smoothly and continuously, and retains all information obtained from sensors. In this paper, a higher level algorithm for detecting abnormalities in the gait phases obtained from the fuzzy logic is discussed. In the proposed algorithm, two major abnormalities are detected 1) when the sensors measure improper foot pressure patterns, and 2) when the human does not follow a natural sequence of gait phases. For mathematical realization of the algorithm, the gait phases are dealt with by a vector analysis method. The proposed detection algorithm is verified by experiments on abnormal gaits as well as normal gaits. The experiment makes use of the Smart Shoes that embeds four bladders filled with air, the pressure changes in which are detected by pressure transducers.

  8. Behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia with dominant gait disturbances - case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Guenter

    2016-04-01

    Presented case emphasises the significance of accurately gathered anamnesis with patient and his family. Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia should be considered in cases of unexplained gait abnormalities.

  9. Cognitive contributions to gait and falls: evidence and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amboni, Marianna; Barone, Paolo; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M

    2013-09-15

    Dementia and gait impairments often coexist in older adults and patients with neurodegenerative disease. Both conditions represent independent risk factors for falls. The relationship between cognitive function and gait has recently received increasing attention. Gait is no longer considered merely automated motor activity but rather an activity that requires executive function and attention as well as judgment of external and internal cues. In this review, we intend to: (1) summarize and synthesize the experimental, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging evidence that supports the role played by cognition in the control of gait; and (2) briefly discuss the implications deriving from the interplay between cognition and gait. In recent years, the dual task paradigm has been widely used as an experimental method to explore the interplay between gait and cognition. Several neuropsychological investigations have also demonstrated that walking relies on the use of several cognitive domains, including executive-attentional function, visuospatial abilities, and even memory resources. A number of morphological and functional neuroimaging studies have offered additional evidence supporting the relationship between gait and cognitive resources. Based on the findings from 3 lines of studies, it appears that a growing body of evidence indicates a pivotal role of cognition in gait control and fall prevention. The interplay between higher-order neural function and gait has a number of clinical implications, ranging from integrated assessment tools to possible innovative lines of interventions, including cognitive therapy for falls prevention on one hand and walking program for reducing dementia risk on the other.

  10. Consistency in Distributed Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kemme, Bettina; Ramalingam, Ganesan; Schiper, André; Shapiro, Marc; Vaswani, Kapil

    2013-01-01

    International audience; In distributed systems, there exists a fundamental trade-off between data consistency, availability, and the ability to tolerate failures. This trade-off has significant implications on the design of the entire distributed computing infrastructure such as storage systems, compilers and runtimes, application development frameworks and programming languages. Unfortunately, it also has significant, and poorly understood, implications for the designers and developers of en...

  11. Geometrically Consistent Mesh Modification

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, A.

    2010-01-01

    A new paradigm of adaptivity is to execute refinement, coarsening, and smoothing of meshes on manifolds with incomplete information about their geometry and yet preserve position and curvature accuracy. We refer to this collectively as geometrically consistent (GC) mesh modification. We discuss the concept of discrete GC, show the failure of naive approaches, and propose and analyze a simple algorithm that is GC and accuracy preserving. © 2010 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  12. Consistent wind Facilitates Vection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Ogawa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We examined whether a consistent haptic cue suggesting forward self-motion facilitated vection. We used a fan with no blades (Dyson, AM01 providing a wind of constant strength and direction (wind speed was 6.37 m/s to the subjects' faces with the visual stimuli visible through the fan. We used an optic flow of expansion or contraction created by positioning 16,000 dots at random inside a simulated cube (length 20 m, and moving the observer's viewpoint to simulate forward or backward self-motion of 16 m/s. we tested three conditions for fan operation, which were normal operation, normal operation with the fan reversed (ie, no wind, and no operation (no wind and no sound. Vection was facilitated by the wind (shorter latency, longer duration and larger magnitude values with the expansion stimuli. The fan noise did not facilitate vection. The wind neither facilitated nor inhibited vection with the contraction stimuli, perhaps because a headwind is not consistent with backward self-motion. We speculate that the consistency between multi modalities is a key factor in facilitating vection.

  13. Hysteresis in the gait transition of a quadruped investigated using simple body mechanical and oscillator network models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoi, Shinya; Yamashita, Tsuyoshi; Tsuchiya, Kazuo

    2011-06-01

    We investigated the dynamics of quadrupedal locomotion by constructing a simple quadruped model that consists of a body mechanical model and an oscillator network model. The quadruped model has front and rear bodies connected by a waist joint with a torsional spring and damper system and four limbs controlled by command signals from the oscillator network model. The simulation results reveal that the quadruped model produces various gait patterns through dynamic interactions among the body mechanical system, the oscillator network system, and the environment. They also show that it undergoes a gait transition induced by changes in the waist joint stiffness and the walking speed. In addition, the gait pattern transition exhibits a hysteresis similar to that observed in human and animal locomotion. We examined the hysteresis mechanism from a dynamic viewpoint.

  14. Analysis and Classification of Stride Patterns Associated with Children Development Using Gait Signal Dynamics Parameters and Ensemble Learning Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meihong; Liao, Lifang; Luo, Xin; Ye, Xiaoquan; Yao, Yuchen; Chen, Pinnan; Shi, Lei; Huang, Hui; Wu, Yunfeng

    2016-01-01

    Measuring stride variability and dynamics in children is useful for the quantitative study of gait maturation and neuromotor development in childhood and adolescence. In this paper, we computed the sample entropy (SampEn) and average stride interval (ASI) parameters to quantify the stride series of 50 gender-matched children participants in three age groups. We also normalized the SampEn and ASI values by leg length and body mass for each participant, respectively. Results show that the original and normalized SampEn values consistently decrease over the significance level of the Mann-Whitney U test (p algorithms were used to effectively distinguish the children's gait patterns. These ensemble learning algorithms both provided excellent gait classification results in terms of overall accuracy (≥90%), recall (≥0.8), and precision (≥0.8077).

  15. 基于Kinect和确定学习的步态识别%A New Method for Gait Recognition via Kinect and Deterministic Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凤琳; 王颖; 王清辉; 王宇松

    2016-01-01

    Gait, as biometric information obtained by one's walking, is widely used to identify individuals. Based on the thinking that moving joints and body trajectories contain rich identification information for individuals, this paper presents a new side-view gait recognition method based on joint angle data via deterministic learning. These skeletal kinematic features captured by Microsoft Kinect describe the motion trajectories of human gait and contain rich information for human identification. The gait recognition approach consists of a training phase and a recognition phase. In the training phase, gait dynamics underlying different individuals' gaits are represented by the shoulder, elbows, hip and knee joint angles features, and are locally accurately approximated by radial basis function ( RBF) neural networks. The obtained knowledge of approximated gait dynamics is stored in constant RBF networks. In the recognition phase, a bank of dynamical estimators is constructed for all the training gait patterns. Prior knowledge of human gait dynamics is embedded in the estimators. By comparing the set of estimators with a test gait pattern, a set of recognition errors are generated. Then a quick gait recognition scheme is presented. Finally, comprehensive experiments are carried out on the self-constructed Kinect-based gait database to demonstrate the recognition performance of the proposed algorithm.%步态作为生物特征,可广泛应用于人的身份识别。基于“行走运动的关节及肢体运动轨迹包含着丰富的个体识别信息”的思想,提出一种基于确定学习理论和关节角度的侧面视角下的步态识别新方法。该步态识别方法分为训练和识别两个阶段,训练阶段建立步态特征函数,采用径向基函数( RBF)神经网络局部精确逼近,获取的步态动力学信息存储于常值RBF网络;识别阶段构建估计器,将待识别人的测试步态模式与估计器求差,生成识别

  16. Infanticide and moral consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahan, Jeff

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this essay is to show that there are no easy options for those who are disturbed by the suggestion that infanticide may on occasion be morally permissible. The belief that infanticide is always wrong is doubtfully compatible with a range of widely shared moral beliefs that underlie various commonly accepted practices. Any set of beliefs about the morality of abortion, infanticide and the killing of animals that is internally consistent and even minimally credible will therefore unavoidably contain some beliefs that are counterintuitive.

  17. The Rucio Consistency Service

    CERN Document Server

    Serfon, Cedric; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    One of the biggest challenge with Large scale data management system is to ensure the consistency between the global file catalog and what is physically on all storage elements. To tackle this issue, the Rucio software which is used by the ATLAS Distributed Data Management system has been extended to automatically handle lost or unregistered files (aka Dark Data). This system automatically detects these inconsistencies and take actions like recovery or deletion of unneeded files in a central manner. In this talk, we will present this system, explain the internals and give some results.

  18. A novel biomechanical analysis of gait changes in the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner J. Geldenhuys

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is an age-associated neurodegenerative disorder hallmarked by a loss of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons. Accurate recapitulation of the PD movement phenotype in animal models of the disease is critical for understanding disease etiology and developing novel therapeutic treatments. However, most existing behavioral assays currently applied to such animal models fail to adequately detect and subsequently quantify the subtle changes associated with the progressive stages of PD. In this study, we used a video-based analysis system to develop and validate a novel protocol for tracking locomotor performance in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP mouse model of PD. We anticipated that (1 treated mice should use slower, shorter, and less frequent strides and (2 that gait deficits should monotonically increase following MPTP administration, as the effects of neurodegeneration become manifest. Video-based biomechanical analyses, utilizing behavioral measures motivated by the comparative biomechanics literature, were used to quantify gait dynamics over a seven-day period following MPTP treatment. Analyses revealed shuffling behaviors consistent with the gait symptoms of advanced PD in humans. Here we also document dramatic gender-based differences in locomotor performance during the progression of the MPTP-induced lesion, despite male and female mice showing similar losses of striatal dopaminergic cells following MPTP administration. Whereas female mice appeared to be protected against gait deficits, males showed multiple changes in gait kinematics, consistent with the loss of locomotor agility and stability. Overall, these data show that the novel video analysis protocol presented here is a robust method capable of detecting subtle changes in gait biomechanics in a mouse model of PD. Our findings indicate that this method is a useful means by which to easily and economically screen preclinical therapeutic

  19. Gait patterns comparison of children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy to those of control subjects considering the effect of gait velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreault, Nathaly; Gravel, Denis; Nadeau, Sylvie; Houde, Sylvie; Gagnon, Denis

    2010-07-01

    3D analysis of the gait of children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) was the topic of only a few studies and none of these considered the effect of gait velocity on the gait parameters of children with DMD. Gait parameters of 11 children with DMD were compared to those of 14 control children while considering the effect of gait velocity using 3D biomechanical analysis. Kinematic and kinetic gait parameters were measured using an Optotrak motion analysis system and AMTI force plates embedded in the floor. The data profiles of children with DMD walking at natural gait velocity were compared to those of the control children who walked at both natural and slow gait velocities. When both groups walked at similar velocity, children with DMD had higher cadence and shorter step length. They demonstrated a lower hip extension moment as well as a minimal or absent knee extension moment. At the ankle, a dorsiflexion moment was absent at heel strike due to the anterior location of the center of pressure. The magnitude of the medio-lateral ground reaction force was higher in children with DMD. Despite this increase, the hip abductor moment was lower. Hip power generation was also observed at the mid-stance in DMD children. These results suggest that most of the modifications observed are strategies used by children with DMD to cope with possible muscle weakness in order to provide support, propulsion and balance of the body during gait.

  20. When is holography consistent?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInnes, Brett, E-mail: matmcinn@nus.edu.sg [National University of Singapore (Singapore); Ong, Yen Chin, E-mail: yenchin.ong@nordita.org [Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-09-15

    Holographic duality relates two radically different kinds of theory: one with gravity, one without. The very existence of such an equivalence imposes strong consistency conditions which are, in the nature of the case, hard to satisfy. Recently a particularly deep condition of this kind, relating the minimum of a probe brane action to a gravitational bulk action (in a Euclidean formulation), has been recognized; and the question arises as to the circumstances under which it, and its Lorentzian counterpart, is satisfied. We discuss the fact that there are physically interesting situations in which one or both versions might, in principle, not be satisfied. These arise in two distinct circumstances: first, when the bulk is not an Einstein manifold and, second, in the presence of angular momentum. Focusing on the application of holography to the quark–gluon plasma (of the various forms arising in the early Universe and in heavy-ion collisions), we find that these potential violations never actually occur. This suggests that the consistency condition is a “law of physics” expressing a particular aspect of holography.

  1. Consistent quantum measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Robert B.

    2015-11-01

    In response to recent criticisms by Okon and Sudarsky, various aspects of the consistent histories (CH) resolution of the quantum measurement problem(s) are discussed using a simple Stern-Gerlach device, and compared with the alternative approaches to the measurement problem provided by spontaneous localization (GRW), Bohmian mechanics, many worlds, and standard (textbook) quantum mechanics. Among these CH is unique in solving the second measurement problem: inferring from the measurement outcome a property of the measured system at a time before the measurement took place, as is done routinely by experimental physicists. The main respect in which CH differs from other quantum interpretations is in allowing multiple stochastic descriptions of a given measurement situation, from which one (or more) can be selected on the basis of its utility. This requires abandoning a principle (termed unicity), central to classical physics, that at any instant of time there is only a single correct description of the world.

  2. Validity of DynaPort GaitMonitor for assessment of spatiotemporal parameters in amputee gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houdijk, Han; Appelman, Franka M; Van Velzen, Judith M; Van der Woude, Lucas H V; Van Bennekom, Coen A M

    2008-01-01

    Accelerometry can be used to objectively assess the walking ability of people with a lower-limb prosthesis inside and outside the laboratory setting. In this study, the validity of the DynaPort GaitMonitor software (McRoberts, The Hague, the Netherlands) for assessing spatiotemporal parameters of am

  3. Classification of Gait Types Based on the Duty-factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fihl, Preben; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with classification of human gait types based on the notion that different gait types are in fact different types of locomotion, i.e., running is not simply walking done faster. We present the duty-factor, which is a descriptor based on this notion. The duty-factor is independent...

  4. Functional electrical stimulation of the triceps surae during gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monaghan, Colleen Christine

    2009-01-01

    Every year stroke affects approximately 15 million people worldwide. It is the leading cause of disability in the western world. Gait relearning has high priority for stroke survivors. One of the most commonly treated effects of stroke gait is drop-foot (the inability to raise the toes during the

  5. Effect of a textured insole on balance and gait symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruin, Alexander S; Kanekar, Neeta

    2013-11-01

    Asymmetry of standing balance and gait is common in individuals with neurological disorders, and achieving symmetrical stance and gait is an important goal of rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a novel discomfort-induced approach (that is based on using a single textured insole) on the alteration in the symmetry of gait and balance. Eleven healthy subjects (6 females and 5 males, mean age of 28.0 ± 4.1 years) were tested using the Computerized Dynamic Posturography and GaitRite systems when standing or walking while wearing standard footwear with the textured insole positioned either in the left or in the right shoe, and without the insole. Significant immediate effect of the textured insole was seen in the outcome measures of static (weight bearing) and dynamic (weight symmetry index, strength symmetry) balance tests (p gait symmetry (single support and swing phases) (p gait in healthy individuals. Pilot data from individuals with stroke also showed a reduction in the asymmetry of gait when walking with the single textured insole in the shoe on the unaffected side. This outcome provides support for future studies on the efficacy of the textured insole in minimizing asymmetry of gait and posture in individuals in need.

  6. Influence of Velocity on Variability in Gait Kinematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Sylvia X M; Larsen, Peter K; Alkjær, Tine;

    2014-01-01

    Closed circuit television (CCTV) footage is often available from crime scenes and may be used to compare perpetrators with suspects. Usually, the footage comprises incomplete gait cycles at different velocities, making gait pattern identification from crimes difficult. This study investigated the...

  7. PROSTHETIC GAIT OF UNILATERAL TRANSFEMORAL AMPUTEES - A KINEMATIC STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JAEGERS, SMHJ; ARENDZEN, JH; DEJONGH, HJ

    1995-01-01

    Objective: The prosthetic gait of unilateral transfemoral amputees. Design: Case series. Setting: Laboratory of Gait Analysis (GIGA-system of K-lab) in the Department of Rehabilitation of a university hospital. Patients: Eleven men with transfemoral amputation (mean age 35.7 years) participated. The

  8. Gait in elderly with cerebral small vessel disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laat, K.F. de; Norden, A.G.W. van; Gons, R.A.R.; Oudheusden, L.J. van; Uden, I.W. van; Bloem, B.R.; Zwiers, M.P.; Leeuw, F.E. de

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Gait disorders are common in the elderly and are related to loss of functional independence and death. White matter lesions (WMLs) may be related, but only a minority of individuals with WMLs has gait disorders. Probably other factors are involved, including location and the

  9. Parameters of gait in Down syndrome versus matched obese and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samah A. Elshemy

    2012-12-29

    Dec 29, 2012 ... negative effects on several common daily movements, such as standing up .... visual feedbacks to facilitate gait training. It is composed of ... analysis of the gait parameters including total distance, aver- ... to the mass of the body without making a contribution to force. 0. 0.2. 0.4 .... The resistance offered by.

  10. Use of Photogrammetry and Biomechanical Gait analysis to Identify Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter Kastmand; Simonsen, Erik Bruun; Lynnerup, Niels

    Photogrammetry and recognition of gait patterns are valuable tools to help identify perpetrators based on surveillance recordings. We have found that stature but only few other measures have a satisfying reproducibility for use in forensics. Several gait variables with high recognition rates were...

  11. Human Gait Gender Classification in Spatial and Temporal Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics technology already becomes one of many application needs for identification. Every organ in the human body might be used as an identification unit because they tend to be unique characteristics. Many researchers had their focus on human organ biometrics physical characteristics such as fingerprint, human face, palm print, eye iris, DNA, and even behavioral characteristics such as a way of talk, voice and gait walking. Human Gait as the recognition object is the famous biometrics system recently. One of the important advantage in this recognition compare to other is it does not require observed subject’s attention and assistance. This paper proposed Gender classification using Human Gait video data. There are many human gait datasets created within the last 10 years. Some databases that widely used are University of South Florida (USF Gait Dataset, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CASIA Gait Dataset, and Southampton University (SOTON Gait Dataset. This paper classifies human gender in Spatial Temporal reasoning using CASIA Gait Database. Using Support Vector Machine as a Classifier, the classification result is 97.63% accuracy.

  12. Modulation of the startle response during human gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuijzen, P.H.J.A.; Schillings, A.M.; Galen, G.P. van; Duysens, J.E.J.

    2000-01-01

    While many studies have shown that there is a phase-dependent modulation of proprioceptive and exteroceptive reflexes during gait, little is known about such modulation for auditory reflexes. To examine how startle reactions are incorporated in an ongoing gait pattern, unexpected auditory stimuli we

  13. Dependence of gait parameters on height in typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Valentina; Nascimbeni, Alberto; Di Nardo, Francesco; Fioretti, Sandro; Burattini, Laura; Knaflitz, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In clinical gait analysis is fundamental to have access to normative data, to be used as a reference in the interpretation of pathological walking. In a paediatric population this may be complicated by the dependence of gait parameters on child growth. The aim of this work is to provide the correlations of spatial-temporal gait parameters with children's height. We obtained the regression lines of cadence, double support, and gait phases, with respect to height, from a sample of 85 normally typically developing children aged 6 to 11. Our analysis of gait phases was not limited to the traditional analysis of stance and swing, but rather focused on the sub-phases of stance - heel contact, flat foot contact, push off - which proved to be an innovative approach to gait analysis. Heel contact decreased, flat foot contact increased and push off remained essentially unchanged with respect to children's height. These results may be useful in the interpretation of gait data in developing children, and the regression lines obtained may be used to normalize their gait parameters.

  14. Asymmetry in gait pattern following tibial shaft fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter; Læssøe, Uffe; Rasmussen, Sten

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Despite the high number of studies evaluating the outcomes following tibial shaft fractures, the literature lacks studies including objective assessment of patients' recovery regarding gait pattern. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether gait patterns at 6 and 12 m...

  15. Biomechanical analysis of gait adaptation in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang-Yen, Christopher; Wyart, Matthieu; Xie, Julie; Kawai, Risa; Kodger, Tom; Chen, Sway; Wen, Quan; Samuel, Aravinthan D. T.

    2010-01-01

    To navigate different environments, an animal must be able to adapt its locomotory gait to its physical surroundings. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, between swimming in water and crawling on surfaces, adapts its locomotory gait to surroundings that impose approximately 10,000-fold differences in mechanical resistance. Here we investigate this feat by studying the undulatory movements of C. elegans in Newtonian fluids spanning nearly five orders of magnitude in viscosity. In these fluids, the worm undulatory gait varies continuously with changes in external load: As load increases, both wavelength and frequency of undulation decrease. We also quantify the internal viscoelastic properties of the worm’s body and their role in locomotory dynamics. We incorporate muscle activity, internal load, and external load into a biomechanical model of locomotion and show that (i) muscle power is nearly constant across changes in locomotory gait, and (ii) the onset of gait adaptation occurs as external load becomes comparable to internal load. During the swimming gait, which is evoked by small external loads, muscle power is primarily devoted to bending the worm’s elastic body. During the crawling gait, evoked by large external loads, comparable muscle power is used to drive the external load and the elastic body. Our results suggest that C. elegans locomotory gait continuously adapts to external mechanical load in order to maintain propulsive thrust. PMID:21048086

  16. SensorShoe: Mobile Gait Analysis for Parkinson's Disease Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kauw-A-Tjoe, R.; Thalen, J.; Marin-Perianu, M.; Havinga, P.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    We present the design and initial evaluation of a mobile gait analysis system, SensorShoe. The target user group is represented by Parkinson's Disease patients, which need continuous assistance with the physical therapy in their home environment. SensorShoe analyses the gait by using a low-power sen

  17. SensorShoe: Mobile Gait Analysis for Parkinson's Disease Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, P.J.M.; Kauw-A-Tjoe, R.G.; Marin-Perianu, M.; Thalen, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    We present the design and initial evaluation of a mobile gait analysis system, SensorShoe. The target user group is represented by Parkinson's Disease patients, which need continous assistance with the physical therapy in their home environment. SensorShoe analyses the gait by using a low-power sens

  18. Biomechanical analysis of gait adaptation in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang-Yen, Christopher; Wyart, Matthieu; Xie, Julie; Kawai, Risa; Kodger, Tom; Chen, Sway; Wen, Quan; Samuel, Aravinthan D T

    2010-11-23

    To navigate different environments, an animal must be able to adapt its locomotory gait to its physical surroundings. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, between swimming in water and crawling on surfaces, adapts its locomotory gait to surroundings that impose approximately 10,000-fold differences in mechanical resistance. Here we investigate this feat by studying the undulatory movements of C. elegans in Newtonian fluids spanning nearly five orders of magnitude in viscosity. In these fluids, the worm undulatory gait varies continuously with changes in external load: As load increases, both wavelength and frequency of undulation decrease. We also quantify the internal viscoelastic properties of the worm's body and their role in locomotory dynamics. We incorporate muscle activity, internal load, and external load into a biomechanical model of locomotion and show that (i) muscle power is nearly constant across changes in locomotory gait, and (ii) the onset of gait adaptation occurs as external load becomes comparable to internal load. During the swimming gait, which is evoked by small external loads, muscle power is primarily devoted to bending the worm's elastic body. During the crawling gait, evoked by large external loads, comparable muscle power is used to drive the external load and the elastic body. Our results suggest that C. elegans locomotory gait continuously adapts to external mechanical load in order to maintain propulsive thrust.

  19. Gait coordination after stroke: Benefits of acoustically paced treadmill walking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, Melvyn; Lamoth, Claudine J.C.; Kwakkel, Gert; Van Wieringen, Piet C.W.; Beek, Peter J.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Gait coordination often is compromised after stroke. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of acoustically paced treadmill walking as a method for improving gait coordination in people after stroke. Participants: Ten people after stroke volunteered for the st

  20. Gait coordination after stroke: benefits of acoustically paced treadmill walking.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, M.; Lamoth, C.J.; Kwakkel, G.; Wieringen, P.C. van; Beek, P.J.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Gait coordination often is compromised after stroke. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of acoustically paced treadmill walking as a method for improving gait coordination in people after stroke. PARTICIPANTS: Ten people after stroke volunteered for the st

  1. Gait in elderly with cerebral small vessel disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laat, K.F. de; Norden, A.G.W. van; Gons, R.A.R.; Oudheusden, L.J. van; Uden, I.W. van; Bloem, B.R.; Zwiers, M.P.; Leeuw, F.E. de

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Gait disorders are common in the elderly and are related to loss of functional independence and death. White matter lesions (WMLs) may be related, but only a minority of individuals with WMLs has gait disorders. Probably other factors are involved, including location and the

  2. When Is Holography Consistent?

    CERN Document Server

    McInnes, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Holographic duality relates two radically different kinds of theory: one with gravity, one without. The very existence of such an equivalence imposes strong consistency conditions which are, in the nature of the case, hard to satisfy. Recently a particularly deep condition of this kind, relating the minimum of a probe brane action to a gravitational bulk action (in a Euclidean formulation), has been recognised; and the question arises as to the circumstances under which it, and its Lorentzian counterpart, are satisfied. We discuss the fact that there are physically interesting situations in which one or both versions might, in principle, \\emph{not} be satisfied. These arise in two distinct circumstances: first, when the bulk is not an Einstein manifold, and, second, in the presence of angular momentum. Focusing on the application of holography to the quark-gluon plasma (of the various forms arising in the early Universe and in heavy-ion collisions), we find that these potential violations never actually occur...

  3. Detecting Gait Asymmetry with Wearable Accelerometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-18

    T. Rognsv̊ag, and R. Moe-Nilssen, “Criteria of gait asymmetry in patients with hip osteoarthritis,” Physiotherapy Theory and Practice 28(2), 134–141...injury problem among military personnel,” Amer- ican Journal of Preventive Medicine 38(1), S61–S70 (2010). [12] B.C. Nindl, T.J. Williams, P.A. Deuster...N.L. Butler, and B.H. Jones, “Strategies for optimiz- ing military physical readiness and preventing musculoskeletal injuries in the 21st century

  4. Gait analysis and validation using voxel data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Stone, Erik; Dai, Wenqing; Skubic, Marjorie; Keller, James

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method for extracting gait parameters including walking speed, step time and step length from a three-dimensional voxel reconstruction, which is built from two calibrated camera views. These parameters are validated with a GAITRite Electronic mat and a Vicon motion capture system. Experiments were conducted in which subjects walked across the GAITRite mat at various speeds while the Vicon cameras recorded the motion of reflective markers attached to subjects' shoes, and our two calibrated cameras captured the images. Excellent agreements were found for walking speed. Step time and step length were also found to have good agreement given the limitation of frame rate and voxel resolution.

  5. Gait analysis of stapling for genu valgum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Peter M; MacWilliams, Bruce; Mohr, R Alexander

    2004-01-01

    Many authors have advocated stapling or epiphysiodesis of the distal medial femur as a means of correcting genu valgum. However, in the literature, aside from clinical improvement (appearance, pain, function), objective evidence of kinetic and kinematic improvement is lacking. Therefore, the authors undertook a prospective gait analysis evaluation of a series of patients treated for genu valgum, comparing pre- and postsurgical measurements to document the benefits of normalizing the mechanical axis. These results indicate that after surgery knee and hip angles and knee moments were returned to within the normal range for a similarly aged control group.

  6. A Grassmann graph embedding framework for gait analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connie, Tee; Goh, Michael Kah Ong; Teoh, Andrew Beng Jin

    2014-12-01

    Gait recognition is important in a wide range of monitoring and surveillance applications. Gait information has often been used as evidence when other biometrics is indiscernible in the surveillance footage. Building on recent advances of the subspace-based approaches, we consider the problem of gait recognition on the Grassmann manifold. We show that by embedding the manifold into reproducing kernel Hilbert space and applying the mechanics of graph embedding on such manifold, significant performance improvement can be obtained. In this work, the gait recognition problem is studied in a unified way applicable for both supervised and unsupervised configurations. Sparse representation is further incorporated in the learning mechanism to adaptively harness the local structure of the data. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed method can tolerate variations in appearance for gait identification effectively.

  7. Locomotion Gait Planning of Climber Snake-Like Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nezaminia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article a novel breed of snake-like climber robots has been introduced. Structure and operation of the first generation of snake-like climber robot "Marak I" has been discussed. The gait planning for two dimensional locomotion of a novel snake-like climber robot "Marak I" is presented. The types of locomotion investigated were rectilinear and wheeling gaits. The gaits of locomotion were experimented and their suitability for various applications has been mentioned. Some encountered practical problems plus solutions were addressed. Finally we found out that: the vertical motion was producing more fault than horizontal locomotion, and notably the fastest gait of locomotion was the wheeling gait

  8. Optimality principles for model-based prediction of human gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Marko; van den Bogert, Antonie J

    2010-04-19

    Although humans have a large repertoire of potential movements, gait patterns tend to be stereotypical and appear to be selected according to optimality principles such as minimal energy. When applied to dynamic musculoskeletal models such optimality principles might be used to predict how a patient's gait adapts to mechanical interventions such as prosthetic devices or surgery. In this paper we study the effects of different performance criteria on predicted gait patterns using a 2D musculoskeletal model. The associated optimal control problem for a family of different cost functions was solved utilizing the direct collocation method. It was found that fatigue-like cost functions produced realistic gait, with stance phase knee flexion, as opposed to energy-related cost functions which avoided knee flexion during the stance phase. We conclude that fatigue minimization may be one of the primary optimality principles governing human gait.

  9. Summary measures for clinical gait analysis: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimolin, Veronica; Galli, Manuela

    2014-04-01

    Instrumented 3D-gait analysis (3D-GA) is an important method used to obtain information that is crucial for establishing the level of functional limitation due to pathology, observing its evolution over time and evaluating rehabilitative intervention effects. However, a typical 3D-GA evaluation produces a vast amount of data, and despite its objectivity, its use is complicated, and the data interpretation is difficult. It is even more difficult to obtain an overview on patient cohorts for a comparison. Moreover, there is a growing awareness of the need for a concise index, specifically, a single measure of the 'quality' of a particular gait pattern. Several gait summary measures, which have been used in conjunction with 3D-GA, have been proposed to objectify clinical impression, quantify the degree of gait deviation from normal, stratify the severity of pathology, document the changes in gait patterns over time and evaluate interventions.

  10. Boosting Discriminant Learners for Gait Recognition Using MPCA Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiping Lu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a boosted linear discriminant analysis (LDA solution on features extracted by the multilinear principal component analysis (MPCA to enhance gait recognition performance. Three-dimensional gait objects are projected in the MPCA space first to obtain low-dimensional tensorial features. Then, lower-dimensional vectorial features are obtained through discriminative feature selection. These feature vectors are then fed into an LDA-style booster, where several regularized and weakened LDA learners work together to produce a strong learner through a novel feature weighting and sampling process. The LDA learner employs a simple nearest-neighbor classifier with a weighted angle distance measure for classification. The experimental results on the NIST/USF “Gait Challenge” data-sets show that the proposed solution has successfully improved the gait recognition performance and outperformed several state-of-the-art gait recognition algorithms.

  11. Use of an instrumented treadmill for real-time gait symmetry evaluation and feedback in normal and trans-tibial amputee subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingwell, J B; Davis, B L; Frazier, D M

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate a newly developed system for assessing and providing feedback of gait symmetry information in real time to subjects walking on a motorised treadmill (the CCF Treadmill). The advantages of the system are that it allows the rapid collection and comparison of temporal and kinetic parameters of gait for multiple successive strides, at a constant known speed, without forcing subjects to target their footsteps. Gait asymmetries of six normal (mean age 42.7 years) and six unilateral transtibial amputee subjects (mean age 41.7, and average 6.0 years using a prosthesis) were quantified. The amputee group was the reevaluated after receiving five minutes of training with each of three different types of real-time visual feedback (RTVF). Asymmetries in the measured parameters before feedback were 4.6 times greater in the amputee population than in the normal group, and were consistent with the finding of previous authors. Significant decreases in gait asymmetry were demonstrated for all forms of feedback after amputees received feedback training. Results, however, indicated that gait asymmetries for different variables are not necessarily related, and that more work needs to be done to identify those variables for which attaining a more symmetrical gait pattern is most beneficial. Further work also needs to be done to determine the long term effects of such RTVF training. The CCF Treadmill and RTVF were shown to be potentially useful tools both for defining rehabilitation targets and for quantifying patients' progress towards those goals.

  12. Immediate Effect of Postural Insoles on Gait Performance of Children with Cerebral Palsy: Preliminary Randomized Controlled Double-blind Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Hugo Pasini; Grecco, Luanda André Collange; Duarte, Natália Almeida Carvalho; Christovão, Thaluanna Calil Lourenço; Franco de Oliveira, Luis Vicente; Dumont, Arislander Jonathan Lopes; Galli, Manuela; Oliveira, Claudia Santos

    2014-07-01

    [Purpose] Improved gait efficiency is one of the goals of therapy for children with cerebral palsy (CP). Postural insoles can allow more efficient gait by improving biomechanical alignment. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of postural insoles on gait performance of children with CP classified as levels I or II of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). [Subjects and Methods] the study was a randomized controlled double-blind clinical trial. After meeting the legal aspects and the eligibility criteria, 10 children between four and 12 years old were randomly divided into a two groups: a control group (n=5), and an experimental group (n=5). Children in the control group used a placebo insoles, and children in the experimental group used postural insoles. Evaluation consisted of three-dimensional gait analysis under three conditions: barefoot, shoes without insoles and shoes with postural insoles or shoes with placebo insoles. [Results] Regarding the immediate effects of insole use, significant improvements in gait velocity and cadence were observed in the experimental group in comparison to the control group. [Conclusion] The use of postural insoles led to improvements in gait velocity and cadence of the children with cerebral palsy classified as levels I or II of the GMFCS.

  13. Placebo-controlled study of rTMS combined with Lokomat(®) gait training for treatment in subjects with motor incomplete spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumru, Hatice; Benito-Penalva, Jesus; Valls-Sole, Josep; Murillo, Narda; Tormos, Josep M; Flores, Cecilia; Vidal, Joan

    2016-12-01

    High-frequency rTMS combined with gait training improves lower extremity motor score (LEMS) and gait velocity in SCI subjects who are able to walk over ground. The aim of this study was to optimize the functional outcome in early phases of gait rehabilitation in SCI using rTMS as an additional treatment to physical therapy. The present study included 31 motor incomplete SCI subjects randomized to receive real or sham rTMS, just before Lokomat gait training (15 subjects for real, 16 for sham rTMS). rTMS consisted of one daily session for 20 days over vertex (at 20 Hz). The subjects were evaluated using modified Ashworth scale (MAS) for spasticity, upper and lower extremity motor score (UEMS and LEMS, respectively), ten meters walking test (10MWT) and Walking Index for SCI (WISCI-II) for gait at baseline, after last rTMS session, and during follow-up. UEMS and LEMS improved significantly after last session in both groups and during follow-up period. The improvement was greater in real than in sham rTMS group. At follow-up, 71.4 % of the subjects after real rTMS and 40 % of the subjects after sham rTMS could perform 10MWT without significant differences in gait velocity, cadence, step length and WISCI-II between both groups. We conclude that 20 sessions of daily high-frequency rTMS combined with Lokomat gait training can lead to clinical improvement of gait in motor incomplete SCI. Such combined treatment improved motor strength in lower extremity in incomplete SCI subjects and in upper extremity in those with cervical SCI.

  14. Gait in children with cerebral palsy - Observer reliability of Physician Rating Scale and Edinburgh Visual Gait Analysis Interval Testing Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maathuis, KGB; van der Schans, CP; van Iperen, A; Rietman, HS; Geertzen, JHB

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the inter- and intra-observer reliability of the Physician Rating Scale (PRS) and the Edinburgh Visual Gait Analysis Interval Testing (GAIT) scale for use in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Both assessment scales are quantitative observational scales, evaluating

  15. Gait in children with cerebral palsy : observer reliability of Physician Rating Scale and Edinburgh Visual Gait Analysis Interval Testing scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maathuis, KGB; van der Schans, CP; van Iperen, A; Rietman, HS; Geertzen, JHB

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the inter- and intra-observer reliability of the Physician Rating Scale (PRS) and the Edinburgh Visual Gait Analysis Interval Testing (GAIT) scale for use in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Both assessment scales are quantitative observational scales, evaluating

  16. DMRT3 is associated with gait type in Mangalarga Marchador horses, but does not control gait ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, L; Staiger, E A; Brooks, S A

    2015-04-01

    The Mangalarga Marchador (MM) is a Brazilian horse breed known for a uniquely smooth gait. A recent publication described a mutation in the DMRT3 gene that the authors claim controls the ability to perform lateral patterned gaits (Andersson et al. 2012). We tested 81 MM samples for the DMRT3 mutation using extracted DNA from hair bulbs using a novel RFLP. Horses were phenotypically categorized by their gait type (batida or picada), as recorded by the Brazilian Mangalarga Marchador Breeders Association (ABCCMM). Statistical analysis using the plink toolset (Purcell, 2007) revealed significant association between gait type and the DMRT3 mutation (P = 2.3e-22). Deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium suggests that selective pressure for gait type is altering allele frequencies in this breed (P = 1.00e-5). These results indicate that this polymorphism may be useful for genotype-assisted selection for gait type within this breed. As both batida and picada MM horses can perform lateral gaits, the DMRT3 mutation is not the only locus responsible for the lateral gait pattern. © 2015 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  17. Alterations in gait speed and age do not fully explain the changes in gait mechanics associated with healthy older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcock, L; Vanicek, N; O'Brien, T D

    2013-04-01

    Older adults exhibit modified gait patterns compared to the young, adopting movement strategies in response to changes in musculoskeletal function. Investigating the functional mobility of older women is particularly important because of their increased life expectancy and greater falls risk compared to men. We explored the relationships between gait parameters and age in healthy older women whilst accounting for declining gait speeds. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected from thirty-nine women (60-83 years) whilst walking at a comfortable cadence. Regression analysis assessed the capacity of gait speed and age to explain the variance in gait associated with older age. Speed explained the majority of variance in many gait parameters. By including age in the regression, the total explained variance (R2) for foot clearance (70%), ankle plantarflexion angle (30%), peak ankle plantarflexor moment (58%), and hip power generation (56%) were significantly (pgait mechanics associated with older age and other contributing factors must exist. Losses of 1.2%/year in gait speed were predicted by age, exceeding previous predictions of -0.7%/year. Furthermore, the accumulation of apparently small decreases of 0.2 cm/year in peak foot-to-ground clearance has clinical implications and offers insight into the mechanisms by which gait becomes hazardous in older age.

  18. Gait and cognition : The relationship between gait stability and variability with executive function in persons with and without dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ijmker, Trienke; Lamoth, Claudine J. C.

    2012-01-01

    Besides cognitive decline, dementia is characterized by gait changes and increased fall risk, also in early stages of the disease. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in the relationship between executive function and gait variability and stability during single task and dual task w

  19. On vision in birds: coordination of head-bobbing and gait stabilises vertical head position in quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Head-bobbing in birds is a conspicuous behaviour related to vision comprising a hold phase and a thrust phase. The timing of these phases has been shown in many birds, including quail, to be coordinated with footfall during locomotion. We were interested in the biomechanics behind this phenomenon. During terrestrial locomotion in birds, the trunk is subjected to gait-specific vertical oscillations. Without compensation, these vertical oscillations conflict with the demands of vision (i.e., a vertically stable head position). We tested the hypothesis that the coordination between head-bobbing and trunk movement is a means of reconciling the conflicting demands of vision and locomotion which should thus vary according to gait. Results Significant differences in the timing of head-bobbing were found between gaits. The thrust phase was initiated just prior to the double support phase in walking (vaulting) trials, whereas in running (bouncing) trials, thrust started around midstance. Altering the timing of head-trunk-coordination in simulations showed that the timing naturally favoured by birds minimizes the vertical displacement of the head. When using a bouncing gait the timing of head bobbing had a compensatory effect on the fluctuation of the potential energy of the bird’s centre of mass. Conclusion The results are consistent with expectations based on the vertical trunk fluctuations observed in biomechanical models of vaulting and bouncing locomotion. The timing of the head-bobbing behaviour naturally favoured by quail benefits vision during vaulting and bouncing gaits and potentially helps reducing the mechanical cost associated with head bobbing when using a bouncing gait. PMID:24666790

  20. Tai Chi and vestibular rehabilitation improve vestibulopathic gait via different neuromuscular mechanisms: Preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker Stephen W

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vestibular rehabilitation (VR is a well-accepted exercise program intended to remedy balance impairment caused by damage to the peripheral vestibular system. Alternative therapies, such as Tai Chi (TC, have recently gained popularity as a treatment for balance impairment. Although VR and TC can benefit people with vestibulopathy, the degree to which gait improvements may be related to neuromuscular adaptations of the lower extremities for the two different therapies are unknown. Methods We examined the relationship between lower extremity neuromuscular function and trunk control in 36 older adults with vestibulopathy, randomized to 10 weeks of either VR or TC exercise. Time-distance measures (gait speed, step length, stance duration and step width, lower extremity sagittal plane mechanical energy expenditures (MEE, and trunk sagittal and frontal plane kinematics (peak and range of linear and angular velocity, were measured. Results Although gait time-distance measures were improved in both groups following treatment, no significant between-groups differences were observed for the MEE and trunk kinematic measures. Significant within groups changes, however, were observed. The TC group significantly increased ankle MEE contribution and decreased hip MEE contribution to total leg MEE, while no significant changes were found within the VR group. The TC group exhibited a positive relationship between change in leg MEE and change in trunk velocity peak and range, while the VR group exhibited a negative relationship. Conclusion Gait function improved in both groups consistent with expectations of the interventions. Differences in each group's response to therapy appear to suggest that improved gait function may be due to different neuromuscular adaptations resulting from the different interventions. The TC group's improvements were associated with reorganized lower extremity neuromuscular patterns, which appear to promote a faster

  1. Distal femoral extension osteotomy and patellar tendon advancement to treat persistent crouch gait in cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Jean L; Gage, James R; Schwartz, Michael H; Novacheck, Tom F

    2008-11-01

    Hallmarks of a persistent crouched walking pattern exhibited by individuals with cerebral palsy usually include loss of an adequate plantar flexion/knee extension couple, hamstring and/or psoas tightness, or contracture in conjunction with quadriceps insufficiency. Traditional treatment addresses the muscle-tightness component, but not the contracture or the muscle insufficiency. This study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of distal femoral extension osteotomy and/or patellar tendon advancement in the treatment of crouch gait in patients with cerebral palsy. A retrospective, nonrandomized, repeated-measures design was used. Individuals with a diagnosis of cerebral palsy were included if they had had (1) a distal femoral extension osteotomy in combination with a distal patellar tendon advancement (thirty-three patients), (2) a distal femoral extension osteotomy without patellar tendon advancement (sixteen), or (3) a distal patellar tendon advancement only (twenty-four). All subjects were evaluated with preoperative and postoperative gait analysis. Gait, radiographic, strength, and functional measures were included in the analysis to assess changes in knee function. Seventy-three individuals met the criteria for inclusion. A single side was chosen for the analysis of each subject. Ninety percent of the subjects had additional, concurrent surgery. Improvements were noted in the index assessing the level of gait pathology and in functional variables across all groups, and pain was consistently decreased. All preoperative stress fractures healed. Strength levels were maintained across all groups. The Koshino index of patellar height improved from 1.4 to -2.3 in the group treated with patellar tendon advancement only and from 1.5 to -2.9 in the group treated with both osteotomy and tendon advancement. The range of knee flexion improved an average of 15 degrees to 20 degrees, and stance-phase knee flexion was restored to the typical range (9 degrees to 10

  2. Delayed gait recovery in a stroke patient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeong Pyo Seo; Mi Young Lee; Yong Hyun Kwon; Sung Ho Jang

    2013-01-01

    We report on a stroke patient who showed delayed gait recovery between 8 and 11 months after the onset of intracerebral hemorrhage. This 32-year-old female patient underwent craniotomy and drainage for right intracerebral hemorrhage due to rupture of an arteriovenous malformation. Brain MR images revealed a large leukomalactic lesion in the right fronto-parietal cortex. Diffusion tensor tractography at 8 months after onset revealed that the right corticospinal tract was severely injured. At this time, the patient could not stand or walk despite undergoing rehabilitation from 2 months after onset. It was believed that severe spasticity of the left leg and right ankle was largely responsible, and thus, antispastic drugs, antispastic procedures (alcohol neurolysis of the motor branch of the tibial nerve and an intramuscular alcohol wash of both tibialis posterior muscles) and physical therapy were tried to control the spasticity. These measures relieved the severe spasticity, with the result that the patient was able to stand at 3 months. In addition, the improvements in sensorimotor function, visuospatial function, and cognition also seemed to contribute to gait recovery. As a result, she gained the ability to walk independently on even floor with a left ankle foot orthosis at 11 months after onset. This case illustrates that clinicians should attempt to find the months after onset.

  3. Smartphone User Identity Verification Using Gait Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertas Damaševičius

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Smartphone-based biometrics offers a wide range of possible solutions, which could be used to authenticate users and thus to provide an extra level of security and theft prevention. We propose a method for positive identification of smartphone user’s identity using user’s gait characteristics captured by embedded smartphone sensors (gyroscopes, accelerometers. The method is based on the application of the Random Projections method for feature dimensionality reduction to just two dimensions. Then, a probability distribution function (PDF of derived features is calculated, which is compared against known user PDF. The Jaccard distance is used to evaluate distance between two distributions, and the decision is taken based on thresholding. The results for subject recognition are at an acceptable level: we have achieved a grand mean Equal Error Rate (ERR for subject identification of 5.7% (using the USC-HAD dataset. Our findings represent a step towards improving the performance of gait-based user identity verification technologies.

  4. Subliminal gait initiation deficits in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder: A harbinger of freezing of gait?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibiglou, Laila; Videnovic, Aleksandar; Planetta, Peggy J; Vaillancourt, David E; MacKinnon, Colum D

    2016-11-01

    Muscle activity during rapid eye movement sleep is markedly increased in people with rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and people with Parkinson's disease (PD) who have freezing of gait. This study examined whether individuals with rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder who do not have a diagnosis of PD show abnormalities in gait initiation that resemble the impairments observed in PD and whether there is a relationship between these deficits and the level of rapid eye movement sleep without atonia. Gait initiation and polysomnography studies were conducted in 4 groups of 10 participants: rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, PD with and without freezing of gait, and controls. Significant reductions were seen in the posterior shift of the center of pressure during the propulsive phase of gait initiation in the groups with rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and PD with freezing of gait when compared with controls and PD nonfreezers. These reductions negatively correlated with the amount of rapid eye movement sleep without atonia. The duration of the initial dorsiflexor muscle burst during gait initiation was significantly reduced in both PD groups and the rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder cohort. These results provide evidence that people with rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, prior to a diagnosis of a degenerative neurologic disorder, show alterations in the coupling of posture and gait similar to those seen in PD. The correlation between increased rapid eye movement sleep without atonia and deficits in forward propulsion during the push-off phase of gait initiation suggests that abnormities in the regulation of muscle tone during rapid eye movement sleep may be related to the pathogenesis of freezing of gait. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  5. Effects of robot-assisted gait training on the balance and gait of chronic stroke patients: focus on dependent ambulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Duk Youn; Park, Si-Woon; Lee, Min Jin; Park, Dae Sung; Kim, Eun Joo

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to confirm the effect of robot-assisted gait training on the balance and gait ability of stroke patients who were dependent ambulators. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty stroke patients participated in this study. The participants were allocated to either group 1, which received robot-assisted gait training for 4 weeks followed by conventional physical therapy for 4 weeks, or group 2, which received the same treatments in the reverse order. Robot-assisted gait training was conducted for 30 min, 3 times a week for 4 weeks. The Berg Balance Scale, Modified Functional Reach Test, Functional Ambulation Category, Modified Ashworth Scale, Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Motricity Index, and Modified Barthel Index were assessed before and after treatment. To confirm the characteristics of patients who showed a significant increase in Berg Balance Scale after robot-assisted gait training as compared with physical therapy, subgroup analysis was conducted. [Results] Only lateral reaching and the Functional Ambulation Category were significantly increased following robot-assisted gait training. Subscale analyses identified 3 patient subgroups that responded well to robot-assisted gait training: a subgroup with hemiplegia, a subgroup in which the guidance force needed to be decreased to needed to be decreased to ≤45%, and a subgroup in which weight bearing was decreased to ≤21%. [Conclusion] The present study showed that robot-assisted gait training is not only effective in improving balance and gait performance but also improves trunk balance and motor skills required by high-severity stroke patients to perform activities daily living. Moreover, subscale analyses identified subgroups that responded well to robot-assisted gait training.

  6. Self-reported gait unsteadiness in mildly impaired neurological patients: an objective assessment through statistical gait analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetti Maria

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-reported gait unsteadiness is often a problem in neurological patients without any clinical evidence of ataxia, because it leads to reduced activity and limitations in function. However, in the literature there are only a few papers that address this disorder. The aim of this study is to identify objectively subclinical abnormal gait strategies in these patients. Methods Eleven patients affected by self-reported unsteadiness during gait (4 TBI and 7 MS and ten healthy subjects underwent gait analysis while walking back and forth on a 15-m long corridor. Time-distance parameters, ankle sagittal motion, and muscular activity during gait were acquired by a wearable gait analysis system (Step32, DemItalia, Italy on a high number of successive strides in the same walk and statistically processed. Both self-selected gait speed and high speed were tested under relatively unconstrained conditions. Non-parametric statistical analysis (Mann–Whitney, Wilcoxon tests was carried out on the means of the data of the two examined groups. Results The main findings, with data adjusted for velocity of progression, show that increased double support and reduced velocity of progression are the main parameters to discriminate patients with self-reported unsteadiness from healthy controls. Muscular intervals of activation showed a significant increase in the activity duration of the Rectus Femoris and Tibialis Anterior in patients with respect to the control group at high speed. Conclusions Patients with a subjective sensation of instability, not clinically documented, walk with altered strategies, especially at high gait speed. This is thought to depend on the mechanisms of postural control and coordination. The gait anomalies detected might explain the symptoms reported by the patients and allow for a more focused treatment design. The wearable gait analysis system used for long distance statistical walking assessment was able to detect

  7. Probabilistic Gait Classification in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Bayesian Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gestel, Leen; De Laet, Tinne; Di Lello, Enrico; Bruyninckx, Herman; Molenaers, Guy; Van Campenhout, Anja; Aertbelien, Erwin; Schwartz, Mike; Wambacq, Hans; De Cock, Paul; Desloovere, Kaat

    2011-01-01

    Three-dimensional gait analysis (3DGA) generates a wealth of highly variable data. Gait classifications help to reduce, simplify and interpret this vast amount of 3DGA data and thereby assist and facilitate clinical decision making in the treatment of CP. CP gait is often a mix of several clinically accepted distinct gait patterns. Therefore,…

  8. Online gait event detection using a large force platform embedded in a treadmill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, Melvyn; Coolen, Bert (H.); Clairbois, Bert (H.)E.; Lamoth, Claudine J.C.; Beek, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    Gait research and clinical gait training may benefit from movement-dependent event control, that is, technical applications in which events such as obstacle appearance or visual/acoustic cueing are (co)determined online on the basis of current gait properties. A prerequisite for successful gait-depe

  9. Effect of dual task type on gait and dynamic stability during stair negotiation at different inclinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madehkhaksar, F.; Egges, J.

    2016-01-01

    Stair gait is a common daily activity with great potential risk for falls. Stairs have varying inclinations and people may perform other tasks concurrently with stair gait. This study investigated dual-task interference in the context of complex gait tasks, such as stair gait at different inclinatio

  10. Gait Patterns in Twins with Cerebral Palsy: Similarities and Development over Time after Multilevel Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Drongelen, Stefan; Dreher, Thomas; Heitzmann, Daniel W. W.; Wolf, Sebastian I.

    2013-01-01

    To examine gait patterns and gait quality, 7 twins with cerebral palsy were measured preoperatively and after surgical intervention. The aim was to study differences and/or similarities in gait between twins, the influence of personal characteristics and birth conditions, and to describe the development of gait over time after single event…

  11. Probabilistic Gait Classification in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Bayesian Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gestel, Leen; De Laet, Tinne; Di Lello, Enrico; Bruyninckx, Herman; Molenaers, Guy; Van Campenhout, Anja; Aertbelien, Erwin; Schwartz, Mike; Wambacq, Hans; De Cock, Paul; Desloovere, Kaat

    2011-01-01

    Three-dimensional gait analysis (3DGA) generates a wealth of highly variable data. Gait classifications help to reduce, simplify and interpret this vast amount of 3DGA data and thereby assist and facilitate clinical decision making in the treatment of CP. CP gait is often a mix of several clinically accepted distinct gait patterns. Therefore,…

  12. Gait Patterns in Hemiplegic Children with Cerebral Palsy: Comparison of Right and Left Hemiplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Manuela; Cimolin, Veronica; Rigoldi, Chiara; Tenore, Nunzio; Albertini, Giorgio

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study are to compare quantitatively the gait strategy of the right and left hemiplegic children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) using gait analysis. The gait strategy of 28 right hemiparetic CP (RHG) and 23 left hemiparetic CP (LHG) was compared using gait analysis (spatio-temporal and kinematic parameters) and considering the hemiplegic…

  13. Effect of dual task type on gait and dynamic stability during stair negotiation at different inclinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madehkhaksar, F.; Egges, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304822779

    Stair gait is a common daily activity with great potential risk for falls. Stairs have varying inclinations and people may perform other tasks concurrently with stair gait. This study investigated dual-task interference in the context of complex gait tasks, such as stair gait at different

  14. Individual Patient Support on Lower Leg Orthoses by Continuous Control over the Whole Gait Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthias Braun, Jan; Manoonpong, Poramate; Wörgötter, Florentin

    2016-01-01

    with gait samples. It allows continuous control over the whole gait cycle based on the tracking of gait progress and makes no assumption on the patient’s abilities. We conclude that the smoothness and linearity of the gait progress tracking allows continuous control which enhances the patient group....

  15. Gait impairment in cervical spondylotic myelopathy: comparison with age- and gender-matched healthy controls.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Malone, Ailish

    2012-12-01

    Gait impairment is a primary symptom of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM); however, little is known about specific kinetic and kinematic gait parameters. The objectives of the study were: (1) to compare gait patterns of people with untreated CSM to those of age- and gender-matched healthy controls; (2) to examine the effect of gait speed on kinematic and kinetic parameters.

  16. Gait Patterns in Twins with Cerebral Palsy: Similarities and Development over Time after Multilevel Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Drongelen, Stefan; Dreher, Thomas; Heitzmann, Daniel W. W.; Wolf, Sebastian I.

    2013-01-01

    To examine gait patterns and gait quality, 7 twins with cerebral palsy were measured preoperatively and after surgical intervention. The aim was to study differences and/or similarities in gait between twins, the influence of personal characteristics and birth conditions, and to describe the development of gait over time after single event…

  17. Gait and Lower Limb Observation of Paediatrics (GALLOP): development of a consensus based paediatric podiatry and physiotherapy standardised recording proforma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranage, Simone; Banwell, Helen; Williams, Cylie M

    2016-01-01

    Paediatric gait and lower limb assessments are frequently undertaken in podiatry and physiotherapy clinical practice and this is a growing area of expertise within Australia. No concise paediatric standardised recording proforma exists to assist clinicians in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to develop a gait and lower limb standardised recording proforma guided by the literature and consensus, for assessment of the paediatric foot and lower limb in children aged 0-18 years. Expert Australian podiatrists and physiotherapists were invited to participate in a three round Delphi survey panel using the online Qualtrics(©) survey platform. The first round of the survey consisted of open-ended questions on paediatric gait and lower limb assessment developed from existing templates and a literature search of standardised lower limb assessment methods. Rounds two and three consisted of statements developed from the first round responses. Questions and statements were included in the final proforma if 70 % or more of the participants indicated consensus or agreement with the assessment method and if there was support within the literature for paediatric age-specific normative data with acceptable reliability of outcome measures. There were 17 of the 21 (81 %) participants who completed three rounds of the survey. Consensus was achieved for 41 statements in Round one, 54 statements achieved agreement in two subsequent rounds. Participants agreed on 95 statements relating to birth history, developmental history, hip measurement, rotation of the lower limb, ankle range of motion, foot posture, balance and gait. Assessments with acceptable validity and reliability were included within the final Gait and Lower Limb Observation of Paediatrics (GALLOP) proforma. The GALLOP proforma is a consensus based, systematic and standardised way to collect information and outcome measures in paediatric lower limb assessment. This standardised recording proforma will assist

  18. Muscle strength training to improve gait function in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eek, Meta Nyström; Tranberg, Roy; Zügner, Roland; Alkema, Kristina; Beckung, Eva

    2008-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of muscle strength training on gait outcomes in children with cerebral palsy. Sixteen children (two females, 14 males, Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I-II, mean age 12y 6mo, range 9y 4mo-15y 4mo) underwent muscle strength measurement using a handheld device, Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) assessment, three-dimensional gait analysis, joint range of motion assessment, and grading of spasticity before and after 8 weeks of training. All participants had a diagnosis of spastic diplegia and could walk without aids. Training consisted of exercises for lower extremity muscles with free weights, rubber bands, and body weight for resistance, three times a week. Values for muscle strength below normal were identified in all children; this was most pronounced at the ankle, followed by the hip muscles. After training, muscle strength and GMFM scores increased, velocity was unchanged, stride length increased, and cadence was reduced. There was an increase in hip extensor moment and power generated at push off. Eight weeks of muscle strength training can increase muscle strength and improve gait function.

  19. A novel biofeedback cycling training to improve gait symmetry in stroke patients: a case series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosini, Emilia; Ferrante, Simona; Pedrocchi, Alessandra; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Guanziroli, Eleonora; Molteni, Franco

    2011-01-01

    The restoration of walking ability is crucial for maximizing independent mobility among patients with stroke. Leg cycling is becoming an established intervention to supplement ambulation training for stroke patients with problems of unbalance and weakness. The aim of the study was to explore the feasibility of a biofeedback pedaling treatment and its effects on cycling and walking ability in chronic stroke patients. Three patients were included in the study. The training consisted of a 2-week treatment of 6 sessions, during which a visual biofeedback helped the participants in maintaining a symmetrical pedaling. Participants were assessed before, after training and at follow-up, by means of a pedaling test and gait analysis. Outcome measurements were the unbalance during pedaling, the temporal, spatial and symmetry parameters during walking. An intra-subject statistical analysis (ANOVA, p<;0.05) showed that all patients significantly decreased pedaling unbalance after treatment and maintained the improvements at follow-up. The training induced some gait pattern modifications in two patients: one significantly improved mean velocity and gait symmetry, while the other one reduced the compensation strategy of the healthy leg. The results demonstrated the feasibility of the treatment. If further trials on a larger and controlled scale confirmed the same results, this treatment, thanks to its safety and low price, could have a significant impact as a home-rehabilitation treatment.

  20. Repeatability of phasic muscle activity: performance of surface and intramuscular wire electrodes in gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadaba, M P; Wootten, M E; Gainey, J; Cochran, G V

    1985-01-01

    Repeatability is an important consideration for gait analysis data that are being used as an adjunct to clinical decision making. An index of repeatability may be based on a statistical criterion (variance ratio) that reflects similarity of wave forms over a number of identical cycles. The purpose of this study was to use the variance ratio to assess the repeatability of phasic muscle activity recorded with surface and bipolar intramuscular wire electrodes during gait on 10 normal subjects. Variance ratios were calculated using rectified and smoothed electromyographic data recorded simultaneously from the two types of electrodes. Three measures of repeatability (reproducibility, reliability, and constancy--defined as the cycle-to-cycle, run-to-run, and day-to-day repeatability of phasic muscle activity) were used to compare the performance of the two electrode techniques. Results show that the reproducibility and reliability were better for surface electrodes than for intramuscular wire electrodes, and constancy was good for surface electrodes and poor for intramuscular wire electrodes. Repeatability improved with increasing smoothing window lengths but was better for surface electrodes than wire electrodes, irrespective of the smoothing window. This study indicates that surface electrode data represent a more consistent measure of activity of superficial muscles, if comparisons are to be made between gait data from different test days.

  1. A short investigation of the effect of an energy harvesting backpack on the human gait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papatheou, Evangelos; Green, Peter; Racic, Vitomir; Brownjohn, James M. W.; Sims, Neil D.

    2012-04-01

    Exploiting human motion for the purpose of energy harvesting has been a popular idea for some time. Many of the approaches proposed can be uncomfortable or they impose a significant burden on the person's gait. In the current paper a hardware in-the-loop simulator of an energy harvesting backpack is employed in order to investigate the effect of a suspended-load backpack on the human gait. The idea is based on the energy produced by a suspended-load which moves vertically on a backpack while a person walks. The energy created from such a linear system can be maximised when it resonates with the walking frequency of the person. However, such a configuration can also cause great forces to be applied on the back of the user. The system which is presented here consists of a mass attached on a rucksack, which is controlled by a motor in order to simulate the suspended-load backpack. The advantage of this setup is the ability to test different settings, regarding the spring stiffness or the damping coefficient, of the backpack harvester, and study their effect on the energy harvesting potential, as well as on the human gait. The present contribution describes the preliminary results and analysis of the testing of the system with the help of nine male volunteers who carried it on a treadmill.

  2. MEMS-based sensing and algorithm development for fall detection and gait analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Piyush; Ramirez, Gabriel; Lie, Donald Y. C.; Dallas, Tim; Banister, Ron E.; Dentino, Andrew

    2010-02-01

    Falls by the elderly are highly detrimental to health, frequently resulting in injury, high medical costs, and even death. Using a MEMS-based sensing system, algorithms are being developed for detecting falls and monitoring the gait of elderly and disabled persons. In this study, wireless sensors utilize Zigbee protocols were incorporated into planar shoe insoles and a waist mounted device. The insole contains four sensors to measure pressure applied by the foot. A MEMS based tri-axial accelerometer is embedded in the insert and a second one is utilized by the waist mounted device. The primary fall detection algorithm is derived from the waist accelerometer. The differential acceleration is calculated from samples received in 1.5s time intervals. This differential acceleration provides the quantification via an energy index. From this index one may ascertain different gait and identify fall events. Once a pre-determined index threshold is exceeded, the algorithm will classify an event as a fall or a stumble. The secondary algorithm is derived from frequency analysis techniques. The analysis consists of wavelet transforms conducted on the waist accelerometer data. The insole pressure data is then used to underline discrepancies in the transforms, providing more accurate data for classifying gait and/or detecting falls. The range of the transform amplitude in the fourth iteration of a Daubechies-6 transform was found sufficient to detect and classify fall events.

  3. A quantitative comparison of two kinematic protocols for lumbar segment motion during gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, D; Malone, A; O'Brien, T; Simms, C K

    2015-02-01

    During gait analysis, motion of the lumbar region is tracked either by means of a 2-dimensional assessment with markers placed along the spine or a 3-dimensional assessment treating the lumbar region as a rigid segment. The rigid segment assumption is necessary for inverse dynamic calculations further up the kinematic chain. In the absence of a reference standard, the choice of model is mostly based on clinical experience. However, the potential exists for large differences in kinematic output if different protocols are used. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of using two 3-dimensional lumbar segment protocols on the resultant kinematic output during gait. The first protocol was a skin surface rigid protocol with markers placed across the lumbar region while the second consisted of a rigid cluster utilizing active markers applied over the 3rd lumbar vertebra. Data from both protocols were compared through simultaneous recording during gait. Overall variability was lower in 4 out of 6 measures for the skin surface protocol. Ensemble average graphs demonstrated similar mean profiles between protocols. However, Functional Limits of Agreement demonstrated only a poor to moderate agreement. This trend was confirmed with a poor to moderate waveform similarity (CMC range 0.29-0.71). This study demonstrates that the protocol used to track lumbar segment kinematics is an important consideration for clinical and research purposes. Greater variability recorded by the rigid cluster during lumbar rotation suggests the skin surface protocol may be more suited to studies where axial rotation is a consideration.

  4. Gait generation and control in a climbing hexapod robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, A. A.; Haynes, G. C.; Full, R. J.; Koditschek, D. E.

    2006-05-01

    We discuss the gait generation and control architecture of a bioinspired climbing robot that presently climbs a variety of vertical surfaces, including carpet, cork and a growing range of stucco-like surfaces in the quasi-static regime. The initial version of the robot utilizes a collection of gaits (cyclic feed-forward motion patterns) to locomote over these surfaces, with each gait tuned for a specific surface and set of operating conditions. The need for more flexibility in gait specification (e.g., adjusting number of feet on the ground), more intricate shaping of workspace motions (e.g., shaping the details of the foot attachment and detachment trajectories), and the need to encode gait "transitions" (e.g., tripod to pentapod gait structure) has led us to separate this trajectory generation scheme into the functional composition of a phase assigning transformation of the "clock space" (the six dimensional torus) followed by a map from phase into leg joints that decouples the geometric details of a particular gait. This decomposition also supports the introduction of sensory feedback to allow recovery from unexpected event and to adapt to changing surface geometries.

  5. Gait biometrics under spoofing attacks: an experimental investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadid, Abdenour; Ghahramani, Mohammad; Kellokumpu, Vili; Feng, Xiaoyi; Bustard, John; Nixon, Mark

    2015-11-01

    Gait is a relatively biometric modality which has a precious advantage over other modalities, such as iris and voice, in that it can be easily captured from a distance. Although it has recently become a topic of great interest in biometric research, there has been little investigation into gait spoofing attacks where a person tries to imitate the clothing or walking style of someone else. We recently analyzed for the first time the effects of spoofing attacks on silhouette-based gait biometric systems and showed that it was indeed possible to spoof gait biometric systems by clothing impersonation and the deliberate selection of a target that has a similar build to the attacker. To gain deeper insight into the performance of current gait biometric systems under spoofing attacks, we provide a thorough investigation on how clothing can be used to spoof a target and evaluate the performance of two state-of-the-art recognition methods on a gait spoofing database recorded at the University of Southampton. Furthermore, we describe and evaluate an initial solution coping with gait spoofing attacks. The obtained results are very promising and point out interesting findings which can be used for future investigations.

  6. The integrative role of the pedunculopontine nucleus in human gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Brian; Welter, Marie-Laure; Belaid, Hayat; Fernandez Vidal, Sara; Bardinet, Eric; Grabli, David; Karachi, Carine

    2015-05-01

    The brainstem pedunculopontine nucleus has a likely, although unclear, role in gait control, and is a potential deep brain stimulation target for treating resistant gait disorders. These disorders are a major therapeutic challenge for the ageing population, especially in Parkinson's disease where gait and balance disorders can become resistant to both dopaminergic medication and subthalamic nucleus stimulation. Here, we present electrophysiological evidence that the pedunculopontine and subthalamic nuclei are involved in distinct aspects of gait using a locomotor imagery task in 14 patients with Parkinson's disease undergoing surgery for the implantation of pedunculopontine or subthalamic nuclei deep brain stimulation electrodes. We performed electrophysiological recordings in two phases, once during surgery, and again several days after surgery in a subset of patients. The majority of pedunculopontine nucleus neurons (57%) recorded intrasurgically exhibited changes in activity related to different task components, with 29% modulated during visual stimulation, 41% modulated during voluntary hand movement, and 49% modulated during imaginary gait. Pedunculopontine nucleus local field potentials recorded post-surgically were modulated in the beta and gamma bands during visual and motor events, and we observed alpha and beta band synchronization that was sustained for the duration of imaginary gait and spatially localized within the pedunculopontine nucleus. In contrast, significantly fewer subthalamic nucleus neurons (27%) recorded intrasurgically were modulated during the locomotor imagery, with most increasing or decreasing activity phasically during the hand movement that initiated or terminated imaginary gait. Our data support the hypothesis that the pedunculopontine nucleus influences gait control in manners extending beyond simply driving pattern generation. In contrast, the subthalamic nucleus seems to control movement execution that is not likely to be gait

  7. Identification of muscle synergies associated with gait transition in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shota eHagio

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There is no theoretical or empirical evidence to suggest how the central nervous system (CNS controls a variety of muscles associated with gait transition between walking and running. Here, we examined the motor control during a gait transition based on muscle synergies, which modularly organize functionally similar muscles. To this end, the subjects walked or ran on a treadmill and performed a gait transition spontaneously as the treadmill speed increased or decreased (a changing speed condition or voluntarily following an experimenter’s instruction at constant treadmill speed (a constant speed condition. Surface electromyograms (EMGs were recorded from 11 lower limb muscles bilaterally. We then extracted the muscle weightings of synergies and their activation coefficients from the EMG data using non-negative matrix factorization. As a result, the gait transition was controlled by approximately 9 muscle synergies, which were common during a walking and running, and their activation profiles were changed before and after a gait transition. Near a gait transition, the peak activation phases of the synergies, which were composed of plantar flexor muscles, were shifted to an earlier phase at the walk-to-run transition, and vice versa. The shifts were gradual in the changing speed condition, but an abrupt change was observed in the constant speed condition. These results suggest that the CNS low-dimensionally regulate the activation profiles of the specific synergies based on afferent information (spontaneous gait transition or by changing only the descending neural input to the muscle synergies (voluntary gait transition to achieve a gait transition.

  8. Compass gait mechanics account for top walking speeds in ducks and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usherwood, James R; Szymanek, Katie L; Daley, Monica A

    2008-12-01

    The constraints to maximum walking speed and the underlying cause of the walk-run transition remains controversial. However, the motions of the body and legs can be reduced to a few mechanical principles, which, if valid, impose simple physics-based limits to walking speed. Bipedal walking may be viewed as a vaulting gait, with the centre of mass (CoM) passing over a stiff stance leg (an 'inverted pendulum'), while the swing leg swings forward (as a pendulum). At its simplest, this forms a 'compass gait' walker, which has a maximum walking speed constrained by simple mechanics: walk too fast, or with too high a step length, and gravity fails to keep the stance foot attached to the floor. But how useful is such an extremely reductionist model? In the present study, we report measurements on a range of duck breeds as example unspecialized, non-planar, crouch-limbed walkers and contrast these findings with previous measurements on humans, using the theoretical framework of compass gait walking. Ducks walked as inverted pendulums with near-passive swing legs up to relative velocities around 0.5, remarkably consistent with the theoretical model. By contrast, top walking speeds in humans cannot be achieved with passive swing legs: humans, while still constrained by compass gait mechanics, extend their envelope of walking speeds by using relatively high step frequencies. Therefore, the capacity to drive the swing leg forward by walking humans may be a specialization for walking, allowing near-passive vaulting of the CoM at walking speeds 4/3 that possible with a passive (duck-like) swing leg.

  9. Muscle co-contraction during gait in individuals with articular cartilage defects in the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Louise M; McNally, Michael P; Chaudhari, Ajit M; Flanigan, David C; Best, Thomas M; Siston, Robert A; Schmitt, Laura C

    2016-07-01

    Increased muscle co-contraction during gait is common in individuals with knee pathology, and worrisome as it is known to amplify tibiofemoral compressive forces. While knees with articular cartilage defects (ACD) are more vulnerable to compressive forces, muscle co-contraction has never been reported in this population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent to which individuals with ACDs in the knee demonstrate elevated quadriceps to hamstrings muscle co-contraction on the involved limb during gait compared to the uninvolved limb and to healthy controls. We also explored the impact of participant characteristics and knee impairments on co-contraction. Twenty-nine individuals with full-thickness knee ACDs (ACD group) and 19 healthy adults (control group) participated in this study. Participants performed five gait trials at self-selected speed, during which activity of the quadriceps and hamstrings muscles were collected with surface electromyography. Three-dimensional motion capture was used to define phases of gait. Quadriceps strength and self-reported outcomes were also assessed in the same session. There were no differences in quadriceps: hamstrings co-contraction between the ACD and control groups, or between the involved and uninvolved limb for the ACD group. For both ACD and control groups, co-contraction was highest in early stance and lowest in late stance. Quadriceps strength was consistently the strongest predictor of muscle co-contraction in both the ACD and the control groups, with individuals with lower strength demonstrating greater co-contraction. Further study is needed to understand the effect of increased muscle co-contraction on joint compressive forces in the presence of varied quadriceps strength.

  10. Preliminary gait analysis results after posterior tibial tendon reconstruction: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, James W

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect on gait in patients who underwent reconstruction for stage II posterior tibial tendon (PTT) dysfunction. Twelve patients with stage II PTT dysfunction underwent surgical reconstruction consisting of debridement of the posterior tibial tendon, flexor digitorum longus tendon transfer to the navicular tuberosity, medial displacement calcaneal osteotomy, and spring ligament reconstruction. Midfoot arthrodesis was performed in six patients and gastrocnemius recession in three. Gait analysis was performed 2 weeks prior to surgery and 1 year postoperatively. Preoperative and postoperative data were compared to determine differences in temporal-spatial parameters, lower limb kinematics, and ankle push-off power. Step length for the operated side increased from 52.6 +/- 9.6 cm before the surgery to 57.5 +/- 7.1 cm after the surgery (p =.048). Cadence improved from 100.2 +/- 10.7 steps/min to 109.1 +/- 8.5 steps/min (p =.05), thus increasing velocity from 87.6 +/- 22.6 cm/s to 103.4 +/- 15.9 cm/s (p =.042). Single support percentage was unchanged. Maximum sagittal ankle joint power at push-off increased from 0.79 +/- 0.35 W before surgery to 1.2 +/- 0.5 W after surgery (p =.042). There were statistically significant improvements in all radiographic parameters studied. This is the first prospective study to evaluate the in vivo effects on gait in patients undergoing this common surgical procedure. Analysis demonstrated statistically significant improvement in kinetic and kinematic parameters of gait function.

  11. Locomotor training through a novel robotic platform for gait rehabilitation in pediatric population: short report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayón, C; Lerma, S; Ramírez, O; Serrano, J I; Del Castillo, M D; Raya, R; Belda-Lois, J M; Martínez, I; Rocon, E

    2016-11-14

    Cerebral Palsy (CP) is a disorder of posture and movement due to a defect in the immature brain. The use of robotic devices as alternative treatment to improve the gait function in patients with CP has increased. Nevertheless, current gait trainers are focused on controlling complete joint trajectories, avoiding postural control and the adaptation of the therapy to a specific patient. This paper presents the applicability of a new robotic platform called CPWalker in children with spastic diplegia. CPWalker consists of a smart walker with body weight and autonomous locomotion support and an exoskeleton for joint motion support. Likewise, CPWalker enables strategies to improve postural control during walking. The integrated robotic platform provides means for testing novel gait rehabilitation therapies in subjects with CP and similar motor disorders. Patient-tailored therapies were programmed in the device for its evaluation in three children with spastic diplegia for 5 weeks. After ten sessions of personalized training with CPWalker, the children improved the mean velocity (51.94 ± 41.97 %), cadence (29.19 ± 33.36 %) and step length (26.49 ± 19.58 %) in each leg. Post-3D gait assessments provided kinematic outcomes closer to normal values than Pre-3D assessments. The results show the potential of the novel robotic platform to serve as a rehabilitation tool. The autonomous locomotion and impedance control enhanced the children's participation during therapies. Moreover, participants' postural control was substantially improved, which indicates the usefulness of the approach based on promoting the patient's trunk control while the locomotion therapy is executed. Although results are promising, further studies with bigger sample size are required.

  12. Improvement of Freezing of Gait in Patients with Parkinson's Disease by Imagining Bicycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akio Kikuchi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Freezing of gait (FOG is one of the factors that reduce the quality of life in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD. Imagining bicycling before gait start provided improvement in FOG in 2 PD patients. Imagining and mimicking bicycling after the initiation of gait allowed the rhythmic gait to continue without interruption. We suggest that imagining and mimicking bicycling, which are nonexternal cues, could serve as a helpful therapeutic approach for the intractable freezing and interruption of gait of PD patients.

  13. Spatiotemporal Characteristics of Freezing of Gait in Patients After Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Seo Yeon; Lee, Sang Chul; Kim, Yong Wook

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate spatiotemporal characteristics with gait variability in patients with freezing of gait (FOG) after hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HIBI). Eleven patients showing FOG after HIBI and 15 normal controls were consecutively enrolled. We performed gait analysis using a computerized gait system (VICON MX-T10 Motion Analysis System) and compared spatiotemporal characteristics and gait variability in both groups. Additionally, we performed correla...

  14. Identity Recognition Algorithm Using Improved Gabor Feature Selection of Gait Energy Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, LIANG; Ling-yao, JIA; Dong-cheng, SHI

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes an effective gait recognition approach based on Gabor features of gait energy image. In this paper, the kernel Fisher analysis combined with kernel matrix is proposed to select dominant features. The nearest neighbor classifier based on whitened cosine distance is used to discriminate different gait patterns. The approach proposed is tested on the CASIA and USF gait databases. The results show that our approach outperforms other state of gait recognition approaches in terms of recognition accuracy and robustness.

  15. Quantitative gait analysis following hemispherotomy for Rasmussen′s encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhosh George Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Peri-insular hemispherotomy is a form of disconnective hemispherectomy involving complete disconnection of all ascending / descending and commisural connections of one hemisphere. We report a case of a seven and a half year old child with intractable epilepsy due to Rasmussen′s encephalitis who underwent peri-insular hemispherotomy and achieved complete freedom from seizures. Quantitative gait analysis was used to describe the changes in the kinematic and kinetic parameters of gait with surface electromyographs 18 months after surgery. The focus of this paper is to highlight the utility of gait analysis following hemispherotomy with a view to directing postsurgical motor training and rehabilitation.

  16. Measuring medial longitudinal arch deformation during gait. A reliability study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bencke, Jesper; Christiansen, Ditte; Jensen, Anne Kathrine Bendrup;

    2012-01-01

    during gait and to compare this method with a static measure and a 2D dynamic method. Fifty-two feet (26 healthy male participants) were tested twice 4-9 days apart in a biomechanical gait analysis laboratory using a 3D three-marker foot model, a 2D video-based model for the measurement of MLAD during...... and showed that ND obtained during quiet standing could not predict the MLAD during gait. The 3D method, or alternatively the 2D method, may be used in clinical settings as reliable methods for easy estimation of the foot longitudinal stability....

  17. Predictors of Gait Speeds and the Relationship of Gait Speeds to Falls in Men and Women with Parkinson Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel T. Nemanich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gait difficulties and falls are commonly reported in people with Parkinson disease (PD. Reduction in gait speed is a major characteristic of Parkinsonian gait, yet little is known about its underlying determinants, its ability to reflect an internal reservation about walking, or its relationship to falls. To study these issues, we selected age, disease severity, and nonmotor factors (i.e., depression, quality of life, balance confidence, and exercise beliefs and attitudes to predict self-selected (SELF, fast-as-possible (FAST, and the difference (DIFF between these walking speeds in 78 individuals with PD. We also examined gender differences in gait speeds and evaluated how gait speeds were related to a retrospective fall report. Age, disease severity, and balance confidence were strong predictors of SELF, FAST, and, to a lesser extent, DIFF. All three parameters were strongly associated with falling. DIFF was significantly greater in men compared to women and was significantly associated with male but not female fallers. The results supported the clinical utility of using a suite of gait speed parameters to provide insight into the gait difficulties and differentiating between fallers in people with PD.

  18. Microsoft Kinect can distinguish differences in over-ground gait between older persons with and without Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltoukhy, Moataz; Kuenze, Christopher; Oh, Jeonghoon; Jacopetti, Marco; Wooten, Savannah; Signorile, Joseph

    2017-06-01

    Gait patterns differ between healthy elders and those with Parkinson's disease (PD). A simple, low-cost clinical tool that can evaluate kinematic differences between these populations would be invaluable diagnostically; since gait analysis in a clinical setting is impractical due to cost and technical expertise. This study investigated the between group differences between the Kinect and a 3D movement analysis system (BTS) and reported validity and reliability of the Kinect v2 sensor for gait analysis. Nineteen subjects participated, eleven without (C) and eight with PD (PD). Outcome measures included spatiotemporal parameters and kinematics. Ankle range of motion for C was significantly less during ankle swing compared to PD (p=0.04) for the Kinect. Both systems showed significant differences for stride length (BTS (C 1.24±0.16, PD=1.01±0.17, p=0.009), Kinect (C=1.24±0.17, PD=1.00±0.18, p=0.009)), gait velocity (BTS (C=1.06±0.14, PD=0.83±0.15, p=0.01), Kinect (C=1.06±0.15, PD=0.83±0.16, p=0.01)), and swing velocity (BTS (C=2.50±0.27, PD=2.12±0.36, p=0.02), Kinect (C=2.32±0.25, PD=1.95±0.31, p=0.01)) between groups. Agreement (RangeICC =0.93-0.99) and consistency (RangeICC =0.94-0.99) were excellent between systems for stride length, stance duration, swing duration, gait velocity, and swing velocity. The Kinect v2 can was sensitive enough to detect between group differences and consistently produced results similar to the BTS system. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of a short walking exercise on gait kinematics in children with cerebral palsy who walk in a crouch gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Audrey; Raison, Maxime; Pouliot-Laforte, Annie; Marois, Pierre; Maltais, Désirée B; Ballaz, Laurent

    2016-05-01

    Crouch gait results in an increase of the joint stress due to an excessive knee flexion. Daily walking exercises, even when performed at a self-selected speed, may result in a decrease of the extensor muscle strength which could lead to a more severe crouch gait pattern. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a short walking exercise on gait kinematics in children with cerebral palsy who walk with a crouch gait. Seven children with cerebral palsy who walk with a crouch gait were asked to walk for 6min at a self-selected speed. The spatio-temporal and kinematic measures, as well as the center of mass position were compared before and after the exercise. There was no significant difference between walking speed before and after the walking exercise. Knee flexion and the maximal ankle dorsiflexion increased after the walking exercise. The vertical position of the center of mass decreased. No significant difference was found at the hip. Children with cerebral palsy who walk with a crouch gait were more crouched after a 6-min walking exercise performed at their self-selected speed. These gait modifications could be due to fatigue of the extensor muscle groups. This study highlighted that a short walking exercise, corresponding to daily mobility, results in gait pattern modifications. Since therapies in children with cerebral palsy aim to improve motor function in everyday life situations, it could be relevant to evaluate gait adaptation after a few minutes of walking exercise. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Gait and Equilibrium in Subcortical Vascular Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Moretti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Subcortical vascular dementia is a clinical entity, widespread, even challenging to diagnose and correctly treat. Patients with this diagnosis are old, frail, often with concomitant pathologies, and therefore, with many drugs in therapy. We tried to diagnose and follow up for three years more than 600 patients. Study subjects were men and women, not bedridden, aged 68–94 years, outpatients, recruited from June, 1st 2007 to June, 1st 2010. We examined them clinically, neurologically, with specific consideration on drug therapies. Our aim has been to define gait and imbalance problem, if eventually coexistent with the pathology of white matter and/or with the worsening of the deterioration. Drug intake interference has been detected and considered.

  1. On using gait in forensic biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchrika, Imed; Goffredo, Michaela; Carter, John; Nixon, Mark

    2011-07-01

    Given the continuing advances in gait biometrics, it appears prudent to investigate the translation of these techniques for forensic use. We address the question as to the confidence that might be given between any two such measurements. We use the locations of ankle, knee, and hip to derive a measure of the match between walking subjects in image sequences. The Instantaneous Posture Match algorithm, using Harr templates, kinematics, and anthropomorphic knowledge is used to determine their location. This is demonstrated using real CCTV recorded at Gatwick International Airport, laboratory images from the multiview CASIA-B data set, and an example of real scene of crime video. To access the measurement confidence, we study the mean intra- and inter-match scores as a function of database size. These measures converge to constant and separate values, indicating that the match measure derived from individual comparisons is considerably smaller than the average match measure from a population.

  2. Contributions to the understanding of gait control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Erik Bruun

    2014-04-01

    This thesis is based on ten published articles. The experimental work was carried out at the Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen. The aim was to investigate and describe a number of basic mechanical and physiological mechanisms behind human walking. The methodologies used were biomechanical movement analysis and electrophysiology. The walking experiments were carried out in a gait lab, where the subjects were video recorded while they walked across two force platforms, which measured the ground reaction forces. Net joint moments about the hip-, knee- and ankle joint were calculated by combining the movement data and the external reaction forces (inverse dynamics). Muscle activity and sensory input to the spinal cord were measured by electromyography (EMG) and electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves. The results showed that the gait pattern varies to a great degree between individuals. Some people choose to exert the highest forces about the ankle joint while others prefer to use the knee joint. By use of a cluster analysis, fifteen healthy subjects could be divided into two groups. The extensor moment about the knee joint was the main factor for separating the two gait patterns, but the group with the highest extensor moments about the knee joint also walked with more flexed knee joints, higher EMG activity in the quadriceps muscle and higher bone-on-bone forces. This may lead to development of osteoarthritis over the years. Walking on high-heeled shoes reduced the ankle joint moment significantly either because of reduced muscle fiber length and/or increased co-contraction about the joint. On the contrary, the extensor moment about the knee joint was almost doubled in the high-heeled condition compared to bare footed walking at the same velocity. Also the EMG activity increased in the leg muscles. This could be an explanation pertaining to the higher incidence of osteoarthritis in women than in men. Patients with a drop-foot cannot put the

  3. Comparison of a clinical gait analysis method using videography and temporal-distance measures with 16-mm cinematography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuberg, W A; Colerick, V L; Blanke, D J; Bruce, W

    1988-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare a clinical gait analysis method using videography and temporal-distance measures with 16-mm cinematography in a gait analysis laboratory. Ten children with a diagnosis of cerebral palsy (means age = 8.8 +/- 2.7 years) and 9 healthy children (means age = 8.9 +/- 2.4 years) participated in the study. Stride length, walking velocity, and goniometric measurements of the hip, knee, and ankle were recorded using the two gait analysis methods. A multivariate analysis of variance was used to determine significant differences between the data collected using the two methods. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients were determined to examine the relationship between the measurements recorded by the two methods. The consistency of performance of the subjects during walking was examined by intraclass correlation coefficients. No significant differences were found between the methods for the variables studied. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients ranged from .79 to .95, and intraclass coefficients ranged from .89 to .97. The clinical gait analysis method was found to be a valid tool in comparison with 16-mm cinematography for the variables that were studied.

  4. Validation of Inter-Subject Training for Hidden Markov Models Applied to Gait Phase Detection in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juri Taborri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gait-phase recognition is a necessary functionality to drive robotic rehabilitation devices for lower limbs. Hidden Markov Models (HMMs represent a viable solution, but they need subject-specific training, making data processing very time-consuming. Here, we validated an inter-subject procedure to avoid the intra-subject one in two, four and six gait-phase models in pediatric subjects. The inter-subject procedure consists in the identification of a standardized parameter set to adapt the model to measurements. We tested the inter-subject procedure both on scalar and distributed classifiers. Ten healthy children and ten hemiplegic children, each equipped with two Inertial Measurement Units placed on shank and foot, were recruited. The sagittal component of angular velocity was recorded by gyroscopes while subjects performed four walking trials on a treadmill. The goodness of classifiers was evaluated with the Receiver Operating Characteristic. The results provided a goodness from good to optimum for all examined classifiers (0 < G < 0.6, with the best performance for the distributed classifier in two-phase recognition (G = 0.02. Differences were found among gait partitioning models, while no differences were found between training procedures with the exception of the shank classifier. Our results raise the possibility of avoiding subject-specific training in HMM for gait-phase recognition and its implementation to control exoskeletons for the pediatric population.

  5. Children and adults minimise activated muscle volume by selecting gait parameters that balance gross mechanical power and work demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubel, Tatjana Y; Usherwood, James R

    2015-09-01

    Terrestrial locomotion on legs is energetically expensive. Compared with cycling, or with locomotion in swimming or flying animals, walking and running are highly uneconomical. Legged gaits that minimise mechanical work have previously been identified and broadly match walking and running at appropriate speeds. Furthermore, the 'cost of muscle force' approaches are effective in relating locomotion kinetics to metabolic cost. However, few accounts have been made for why animals deviate from either work-minimising or muscle-force-minimising strategies. Also, there is no current mechanistic account for the scaling of locomotion kinetics with animal size and speed. Here, we report measurements of ground reaction forces in walking children and adult humans, and their stance durations during running. We find that many aspects of gait kinetics and kinematics scale with speed and size in a manner that is consistent with minimising muscle activation required for the more demanding between mechanical work and power: spreading the duration of muscle action reduces activation requirements for power, at the cost of greater work demands. Mechanical work is relatively more demanding for larger bipeds--adult humans--accounting for their symmetrical M-shaped vertical force traces in walking, and relatively brief stance durations in running compared with smaller bipeds--children. The gaits of small children, and the greater deviation of their mechanics from work-minimising strategies, may be understood as appropriate for their scale, not merely as immature, incompletely developed and energetically sub-optimal versions of adult gaits.

  6. Effect of treadmill gait training on static and functional balance in children with cerebral palsy: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luanda A. C. Grecco

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Treadmill gait training as a therapeutic resource in the rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy has recently been the focus of many studies; however, little is still known regarding its effect on static and functional balance in children. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of treadmill training and over ground gait training in children with cerebral palsy. METHOD: A randomized controlled trial with blinded evaluator was conducted with children with cerebral palsy between three and 12 years of age categorized in Levels I to III of the Gross Motor Function Classification System. Assessments were performed before and after the intervention and involved the Berg balance scale as well as the determination of oscillations from the center of pressure in the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions with eyes open and closed. The experimental group was submitted to treadmill training and the control group performed gait training over the ground. The intervention consisted of two 30-minute sessions per week for seven weeks. RESULTS: Both groups exhibited better functional balance after the protocol. The experimental group had higher Berg balance scale scores and exhibited lesser mediolateral oscillation with eyes open in comparison to the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Treadmill training had a greater effect on functional balance and mediolateral oscillation in comparison to over ground gait training in children with cerebral palsy. Trial registration: RBR-5v3kg9.(Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials.

  7. Analysis and Classification of Stride Patterns Associated with Children Development Using Gait Signal Dynamics Parameters and Ensemble Learning Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meihong Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Measuring stride variability and dynamics in children is useful for the quantitative study of gait maturation and neuromotor development in childhood and adolescence. In this paper, we computed the sample entropy (SampEn and average stride interval (ASI parameters to quantify the stride series of 50 gender-matched children participants in three age groups. We also normalized the SampEn and ASI values by leg length and body mass for each participant, respectively. Results show that the original and normalized SampEn values consistently decrease over the significance level of the Mann-Whitney U test (p<0.01 in children of 3–14 years old, which indicates the stride irregularity has been significantly ameliorated with the body growth. The original and normalized ASI values are also significantly changing when comparing between any two groups of young (aged 3–5 years, middle (aged 6–8 years, and elder (aged 10–14 years children. Such results suggest that healthy children may better modulate their gait cadence rhythm with the development of their musculoskeletal and neurological systems. In addition, the AdaBoost.M2 and Bagging algorithms were used to effectively distinguish the children’s gait patterns. These ensemble learning algorithms both provided excellent gait classification results in terms of overall accuracy (≥90%, recall (≥0.8, and precision (≥0.8077.

  8. Effects of Continuous and Interval Training on Running Economy, Maximal Aerobic Speed and Gait Kinematics in Recreational Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Mohíno, Fernando; González-Ravé, José M; Juárez, Daniel; Fernández, Francisco A; Barragán Castellanos, Rubén; Newton, Robert U

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects on running economy (RE), V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, maximal aerobic speed (MAS), and gait kinematics (step length [SL] and frequency, flight and contact time [CT]) in recreational athletes, with 2 different training methods, Interval and Continuous (CON). Eleven participants were randomly distributed in an interval training group (INT; n = 6) or CON training group (CON; n = 5). Interval training and CON performed 2 different training programs (95-110% and 70-75% of MAS, respectively), which consisted of 3 sessions per week during 6 weeks with the same external workload (%MAS × duration). An incremental test to exhaustion was performed to obtain V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, MAS, RE, and gait variables (high speed camera) before and after the training intervention. There was a significant improvement (p ≤ 0.05) in RE at 60 and 90% of MAS by the CON group; without changes in gait. The INT group significantly increased MAS and higher stride length at 80, 90, and 100% of MAS and lower CT at 100% of MAS. As expected, training adaptations are highly specific to the overload applied with CON producing improvements in RE at lower percentage of MAS whereas INT produces improvements in MAS. The significantly increased stride length and decreased CT for the INT group are an important outcome of favorable changes in running gait.

  9. Comparing executive function, evoked hemodynamic response, and gait as predictors of variations in mobility for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Drew W R; Hundza, Sandra R; Garcia-Barrera, Mauricio A; Klimstra, Marc; Commandeur, Drew; Lukyn, Timothy V; Stawski, Robert S; MacDonald, Stuart W S

    2017-05-31

    Falls represent a major concern for older adults and may serve as clinically salient index events for those presenting in the prodromal stages of mild cognitive impairment. Declines in executive function performance and in gait consistency have shown promise in predicting fall risk; however, associated neurophysiological underpinnings have received less attention. In this study, we used a multimodal approach to assess fall risk in a group of older adults with and without a previous fall history. Processing speed, inductive reasoning, verbal fluency, crystallized ability, episodic memory, and executive functioning were assessed using standardized neuropsychological tests. Cognitive interference was assessed using the Multi-Source Interference Task. Spatiotemporal gait parameters were assessed with and without cognitive load using a 6.4-m instrumented walkway. Hemodynamic responses were measured using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. Whereas no group differences were observed in cognitive behavioral performance, during a cognitive interference task fallers displayed more oxygenated hemoglobin across the prefrontal cortex than nonfallers, suggesting that engaging in the cognitive task was more effortful for them overall, therefore eliciting greater cortical activation. Between-group differences in spatial as well as temporal gait parameters were also observed. These results are in keeping with assertions that diminished executive control is related to fall risk. Notably, the group differences observed in prefrontal cortical activation and in gait parameters may ultimately precede those observed in cognitive behavioral performance, with implications for measurement sensitivity and early identification.

  10. Gait Characteristics, Symptoms, and Function in Persons With Hip Osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eitzen, I.; Fernandes, L.; Kallerud, H.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal laboratory study. OBJECTIVES: (1) To compare gait characteristics between individuals with early-stage hip osteoarthritis who underwent total hip replacement (THR) and those who did not undergo THR, and (2) to evaluate whether gait characteristics, function, and symptoms...... declined among individuals who did not undergo THR during a 6- to 7-year follow-up. BACKGROUND: The natural history of symptoms, function, and gait changes secondary to hip osteoarthritis, including potential differences at an early stage of disease, is unknown. METHODS: Forty-three individuals (mean age......, 58.9 years) with radiographic and symptomatic hip osteoarthritis participated. Outcome measures included 3-D gait analysis; self-reported pain; stiffness, and function; hip range of motion; and the six-minute walk test. Baseline comparisons between individuals who later underwent THR and those who...

  11. Gait Dynamics Sensing Using IMU Sensor Array System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavomir Kardos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a progressive approach in gait sensing. It is incorporated by IMU (Inertia Measurement Unit complex sensors whose field of acting is mainly the motion sensing in medicine, automotive and other industry, self-balancing systems, etc. They allow acquiring the position and orientation of an object in 3D space. Using several IMU units the sensing array for gait dynamics was made. Based on human gait analysis the 7-sensor array was designed to build a gait motion dynamics sensing system with the possibility of graphical interpretation of data from the sensing modules in real-time graphical application interface under the LabVIEW platform. The results of analyses can serve as the information for medical diagnostic purposes. The main control part of the system is microcontroller, whose function is to control the data collection and flow, provide the communication and power management.

  12. Auditive Discrimination of Equine Gaits by Parade Horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duilio Cruz-Becerra

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine parade horses’ auditory discriminationamong four types of equine gaits: paso-fino (“fine step”, trote-reunido(“two-beat trot”, trocha (“trot”, and galope-reunido (“gallop”. Two experimentallynaïve horses were trained to discriminate the sound of their owngait (paso-fino or fine step, through an experimental module that dispensedfood if the subject pressed a lever after hearing a sound reproduction of aparticular gait. Three experimental phases were developed, defined by theperiod of exposure to the sounds (20, 10, and 5 seconds, respectively. Thechoice between pairs of sounds including the horse’s own gait (fine stepand two-beat trot; fine step and gallop; and fine step and trot was reinforceddifferentially. The results indicate that the fine step horses are able todiscriminate their own gait from others, and that receptivity to their ownsounds could be included in their training regime.

  13. Invariant Gait Continuum Based on the Duty-Factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fihl, Preben; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present a method to describe the continuum of human gait in an invariant manner. The gait description is based on the duty-factor which is adopted from the biomechanics literature. We generate a database of artificial silhouettes representing the three main types of gait, i.......e. walking, jogging, and running. By generating silhouettes from different camera angles we make the method invariant to camera viewpoint and to changing directions of movement. Silhouettes are extracted using the Code-book method and represented in a scale- and translation-invariant manner by using shape...... contexts and tangent orientations. Input silhouettes are matched to the database using the Hungarian method. We define a classifier based on the dissimilarity between the input silhouettes and the gait actions of the database. This classification achieves an overall recognition rate of 87.1% on a diverse...

  14. Scientists Zero in On Brain Area Linked to 'Parkinson's Gait'

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Scientists Zero in on Brain Area Linked to 'Parkinson's Gait' Discovery could lead to new treatments for ... play a role in walking difficulties that afflict Parkinson's disease patients, new research suggests. The prefrontal cortex ...

  15. Freezing of gait: a practical approach to management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonnekes, Jorik; Snijders, Anke H; Nutt, John G; Deuschl, Günter; Giladi, Nir; Bloem, Bastiaan R

    2015-07-01

    Freezing of gait is a common and disabling symptom in patients with parkinsonism, characterised by sudden and brief episodes of inability to produce effective forward stepping. These episodes typically occur during gait initiation or turning. Treatment is important because freezing of gait is a major risk factor for falls in parkinsonism, and a source of disability to patients. Various treatment approaches exist, including pharmacological and surgical options, as well as physiotherapy and occupational therapy, but evidence is inconclusive for many approaches, and clear treatment protocols are not available. To address this gap, we review medical and non-medical treatment strategies for freezing of gait and present a practical algorithm for the management of this disorder, based on a combination of evidence, when available, and clinical experience of the authors. Further research is needed to formally establish the merits of our proposed treatment protocol.

  16. Muscle Activity of the Gluteus Medius at Different Gait Speeds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Su-Kyoung; Lee, Sang-Yeol; Jung, Jae-Min

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study aimed to determine the changes in the muscle activities of the gluteus medius, latissimus dorsi, and gluteus maximus at different gait speeds, to collect basic data for the study of the gluteus medius...

  17. A wireless gait analysis system by digital textile sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chang-Ming; Chou, Chun-Mei; Hu, Jwu-Sheng; Hung, Shu-Hui; Yang, Chang-Hwa; Wu, Chih-Chung; Hsu, Ming-Yang; Yang, Tsi-Lin

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the feasibility of spatio-temporal gait analysis based upon digital textile sensors. Digitized legs and feet patterns of healthy subjects and their relations with spatio-temporal gait parameters were analyzed. In the first experiment, spatio-temporal gait parameters were determined during over ground walking. In the second experiment, predicted running, backward walking, walking up stairs and walking down stairs parameters were determined. From the results of the experiments, it is concluded that, for healthy subjects, the duration of subsequent stride cycles and left/right steps, the estimations of step length, cadence, walking speed, central of pressure and central of mass trajectory, can be obtained by analyzing the digital signals from the textile sensors on pants and socks. These parameters are easily displayed in several different graphs allowing the user to view the parameters during gait. Finally, the digital data are easily to analyze the feature of activity recognition.

  18. Theory analysis and structure optimization design of powered gait orthosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Ning

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Patients suffering from paraplegia are special disabled groups in society. In order to help them with lower-limb rehabilitation, a kind of power-assisted gait orthosis is designed. In consideration of the crutches that are rather necessary to keep balance when walking, the effects of crutches on analysis of mechanism cannot be ignored. Based on the gait characteristics, this gait orthosis mechanism is designed, of which the structure is optimized by genetic algorithm and the dynamical model is generated. The periodic movement of hip joints, knee joints, and ankle joints in corrected gait are achieved and the torque can be transferred to the driving force of the back motor and the pushrod according to the orthosis structure. Finally, a verification test shows this design is reasonable and practical.

  19. Low Power Shoe Integrated Intelligent Wireless Gait Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, Y.; Mazalan, M.; Bakar, N. A.; Anuar, A. F.; Zainol, M. Z.; Hamzah, F.

    2014-04-01

    Gait analysis measurement is a method to assess and identify gait events and the measurements of dynamic, motion and pressure parameters involving the lowest part of the body. This significant analysis is widely used in sports, rehabilitation as well as other health diagnostic towards improving the quality of life. This paper presents a new system empowered by Inertia Measurement Unit (IMU), ultrasonic sensors, piezoceramic sensors array, XBee wireless modules and Arduino processing unit. This research focuses on the design and development of a low power ultra-portable shoe integrated wireless intelligent gait measurement using MEMS and recent microelectronic devices for foot clearance, orientation, error correction, gait events and pressure measurement system. It is developed to be cheap, low power, wireless, real time and suitable for real life in-door and out-door environment.

  20. Interpolation function for approximating knee joint behavior in human gait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth-Taşcǎu, Mirela; Pater, Flavius; Stoia, Dan Ioan

    2013-10-01

    Starting from the importance of analyzing the kinematic data of the lower limb in gait movement, especially the angular variation of the knee joint, the paper propose an approximation function that can be used for processing the correlation among a multitude of knee cycles. The approximation of the raw knee data was done by Lagrange polynomial interpolation on a signal acquired using Zebris Gait Analysis System. The signal used in approximation belongs to a typical subject extracted from a lot of ten investigated subjects, but the function domain of definition belongs to the entire group. The study of the knee joint kinematics plays an important role in understanding the kinematics of the gait, this articulation having the largest range of motion in whole joints, in gait. The study does not propose to find an approximation function for the adduction-abduction movement of the knee, this being considered a residual movement comparing to the flexion-extension.

  1. Asymmetry in gait pattern following tibial shaft fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter; Læssøe, Uffe; Rasmussen, Sten

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Despite the high number of studies evaluating the outcomes following tibial shaft fractures, the literature lacks studies including objective assessment of patients' recovery regarding gait pattern. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether gait patterns at 6 and 12...... months post-operatively following intramedullary nailing of a tibial shaft fracture are different compared with a healthy reference population. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study design was a prospective cohort study. The primary outcome measurement was the gait patterns at 6 and 12 months post...... fracture, gait asymmetry accompanied with slower speed and cadence are common during the first 6 months and become normalized compared with a healthy reference population between 6 and 12 months post-operatively....

  2. Gait development on Minitaur, a direct drive quadrupedal robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Daniel J.; Nicholson, John V.; Ordonez, Camilo; Miller, Bruce D.; Clark, Jonathan E.

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes the development of a dynamic, quadrupedal robot designed for rapid traversal and interaction in human environments. We explore improvements to both physical and control methods to a legged robot (Minitaur) in order to improve the speed and stability of its gaits and increase the range of obstacles that it can overcome, with an eye toward negotiating man-made terrains such as stairs. These modifications include an analysis of physical compliance, an investigation of foot and leg design, and the implementation of ground and obstacle contact sensing for inclusion in the control schemes. Structural and mechanical improvements were made to reduce undesired compliance for more consistent agreement with dynamic models, which necessitated refinement of foot design for greater durability. Contact sensing was implemented into the control scheme for identifying obstacles and deviations in surface level for negotiation of varying terrain. Overall the incorporation of these features greatly enhances the mobility of the dynamic quadrupedal robot and helps to establish a basis for overcoming obstacles.

  3. Investigation of factors impacting mobility and gait in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofoletti, Gustavo; McNeely, Marie E; Campbell, Meghan C; Duncan, Ryan P; Earhart, Gammon M

    2016-10-01

    Mobility and gait limitations are major issues for people with Parkinson disease (PD). Identification of factors that contribute to these impairments may inform treatment and intervention strategies. In this study we investigated factors that predict mobility and gait impairment in PD. Participants with mild to moderate PD and without dementia (n=114) were tested in one session 'off' medication. Mobility measures included the 6-Minute Walk test and Timed-Up-and-Go. Gait velocity was collected in four conditions: forward preferred speed, forward dual task, forward fast as possible and backward walking. The predictors analyzed were age, gender, disease severity, balance, balance confidence, fall history, self-reported physical activity, and executive function. Multiple regression models were used to assess the relationships between predictors and outcomes. The predictors, in different combinations for each outcome measure, explained 55.7% to 66.9% of variability for mobility and 39.5% to 52.8% for gait velocity. Balance was the most relevant factor (explaining up to 54.1% of variance in mobility and up to 45.6% in gait velocity). Balance confidence contributed to a lesser extent (2.0% to 8.2% of variance) in all models. Age explained a small percentage of variance in mobility and gait velocity (up to 2.9%). Executive function explained 3.0% of variance during forward walking only. The strong predictive relationships between balance deficits and mobility and gait impairment suggest targeting balance deficits may be particularly important for improving mobility and gait in people with PD, regardless of an individual's age, disease severity, fall history, or other demographic features.

  4. Gait Patterns in Patients with Hereditary Spastic Paraparesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranavolo, Alberto; Lacquaniti, Francesco; Martino, Giovanni; Leonardi, Luca; Conte, Carmela; Varrecchia, Tiwana; Draicchio, Francesco; Coppola, Gianluca; Casali, Carlo; Pierelli, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Background Spastic gait is a key feature in patients with hereditary spastic paraparesis, but the gait characterization and the relationship between the gait impairment and clinical characteristics have not been investigated. Objectives To describe the gait patterns in hereditary spastic paraparesis and to identify subgroups of patients according to specific kinematic features of walking. Methods We evaluated fifty patients by computerized gait analysis and compared them to healthy participants. We computed time-distance parameters of walking and the range of angular motion at hip, knee, and ankle joints, and at the trunk and pelvis. Lower limb joint moments and muscle co-activation values were also evaluated. Results We identified three distinct subgroups of patients based on the range of motion values. Subgroup one was characterized by reduced hip, knee, and ankle joint range of motion. These patients were the most severely affected from a clinical standpoint, had the highest spasticity, and walked at the slowest speed. Subgroup three was characterized by an increased hip joint range of motion, but knee and ankle joint range of motion values close to control values. These patients were the most mildly affected and had the highest walking speed. Finally, subgroup two showed reduced knee and ankle joint range of motion, and hip range of motion values close to control values. Disease severity and gait speed in subgroup two were between those of subgroups one and three. Conclusions We identified three distinctive gait patterns in patients with hereditary spastic paraparesis that correlated robustly with clinical data. Distinguishing specific features in the gait patterns of these patients may help tailor pharmacological and rehabilitative treatments and may help evaluate therapeutic effects over time. PMID:27732632

  5. Hexapod Walking Robot Energy Consumption Dependence On Different Gaits And Speed While Moving On Even Terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindaugas Luneckas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of robotic energetics while moving on rough terrain becomes a difficult task without having the information about the movement on even terrain. The problem appears in selection of gaits depending on how much power robot consumes. In this paper, energy consumption of a hexapod walking robot dependence on different gaits and speed is observed. Three most common gaits were used in this experiment: tripod gait, bipod gait and wave gait. Results clearly show that while moving at slow speed, the least energy is consumed by wave gait. As the speed increases, bipod gait selection is required to lower energy consumption. Finally, tripod gait must be selected at even higher speed.

  6. A Multiple Regression Approach to Normalization of Spatiotemporal Gait Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahid, Ferdous; Begg, Rezaul; Lythgo, Noel; Hass, Chris J; Halgamuge, Saman; Ackland, David C

    2016-04-01

    Normalization of gait data is performed to reduce the effects of intersubject variations due to physical characteristics. This study reports a multiple regression normalization approach for spatiotemporal gait data that takes into account intersubject variations in self-selected walking speed and physical properties including age, height, body mass, and sex. Spatiotemporal gait data including stride length, cadence, stance time, double support time, and stride time were obtained from healthy subjects including 782 children, 71 adults, 29 elderly subjects, and 28 elderly Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Data were normalized using standard dimensionless equations, a detrending method, and a multiple regression approach. After normalization using dimensionless equations and the detrending method, weak to moderate correlations between walking speed, physical properties, and spatiotemporal gait features were observed (0.01 normalization using the multiple regression method reduced these correlations to weak values (|r| normalization using dimensionless equations and detrending resulted in significant differences in stride length and double support time of PD patients; however the multiple regression approach revealed significant differences in these features as well as in cadence, stance time, and stride time. The proposed multiple regression normalization may be useful in machine learning, gait classification, and clinical evaluation of pathological gait patterns.

  7. The use of electromyogram biofeedback to reduce Trendelenburg gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrofsky, J S

    2001-09-01

    Ten subjects suffering from incomplete spinal cord injuries, clinically diagnosed as walking with Trendelenburg gait, underwent a 2 month therapy program to strengthen their muscles and reduce their gait abnormalities. Therapy involved muscle strengthening and gait training for 2 h a day, 5 days a week in a clinic. Biofeedback was also accomplished for 30 min each training day on all subjects. In addition, five of the subjects wore a two-channel electromyogram (EMG) biofeedback training device at home to see if neuromuscular re-education outside of the clinical setting could speed their recovery. The difference for these five subjects was that they would have continuous biofeedback therapy every time they walked and not biofeedback limited to only 30 min a day. Since weakness of the gluteus medius muscles is the prime contributor to Trendelenburg gait, the device provided warning tones giving feedback of improper gait through bilateral assessment of the use of the gluteus medius muscles. If too little gluteus medius activity was seen on the affected side or the step was too short in duration, the microprocessor provided an audio cue to the subjects alerting them to correct the deficit. Subjects only undergoing clinical therapy showed about a 50% reduction in hip drop due to therapy. However, the group that used the home training device showed almost normal gait after the 2 month period.

  8. Three-dimensional gait analysis in spina bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, C M; Hill, A E; Cosgrove, A P; Corry, I S; Mollan, R A; Graham, H K

    1996-01-01

    This study was designed to determine gait patterns in children with lumbar and sacral neurologic level spina bifida. We studied a group of 28 children: 10 had L4-level lesions and a mean age of 11 years; eight had L5-level lesions and a mean age of 8 years; and 10 had S1-level lesions with a mean age of 12 years. A group of 15 normal children, mean age 10 years, was used for comparison. Each child underwent three-dimensional gait analysis using the Vicon system. We found that there were recognisable gait patterns for each level of spina bifida and that the abnormalities accurately reflected the muscle deficiencies present. The gait patterns approximated more closely to those of the normal group as the neurological level descended. The most important findings were of increased pelvic obliquity and rotation with hip abduction in stance (reflecting the gross Trendelenburg-type gait seen in these children) and persistent knee flexion throughout stance as a result of the absence of the plantar flexion-knee extension couple. We found that gait was not improved by tendon transfers performed either at the hip (posterolateral psoas transfer) or at the ankle (tibialis anterior transfer).

  9. Adaptive changes in spatiotemporal gait characteristics in women during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błaszczyk, Janusz W; Opala-Berdzik, Agnieszka; Plewa, Michał

    2016-01-01

    Spatiotemporal gait cycle characteristics were assessed at early (P1), and late (P2) pregnancy, as well as at 2 months (PP1) and 6 months (PP2) postpartum. A substantial decrease in walking speed was observed throughout the pregnancy, with the slowest speed (1±0.2m/s) being during the third trimester. Walking at slower velocity resulted in complex adaptive adjustments to their spatiotemporal gait pattern, including a shorter step length and an increased duration of both their stance and double-support phases. Duration of the swing phase remained the least susceptible to changes. Habitual walking velocity (1.13±0.2m/s) and the optimal gait pattern were fully recovered 6 months after childbirth. Documented here adaptive changes in the preferred gait pattern seem to result mainly from the altered body anthropometry leading to temporary balance impairments. All the observed changes within stride cycle aimed to improve gait safety by focusing on its dynamic stability. The pregnant women preferred to walk at a slower velocity which allowed them to spend more time in double-support compared with their habitual pattern. Such changes provided pregnant women with a safer and more tentative ambulation that reduced the single-support period and, hence, the possibility of instability. As pregnancy progressed a significant increase in stance width and a decrease in step length was observed. Both factors allow also for gait stability improvement.

  10. Temporal and spatial organization of gait-related electrocortical potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaepen, Kristel; Mierau, Andreas; Tellez, Helio Fernandez; Lefeber, Dirk; Meeusen, Romain

    2015-07-10

    To advance gait rehabilitation research it is of great importance to understand the supraspinal control of walking. In this study, the temporal and spatial characteristics of averaged electrocortical activity during treadmill walking in healthy subjects was assessed. Electroencephalography data were recorded from 32 scalp locations, averaged across trials, and related to phases of the gait cycle based on the detection of left heel strike. A characteristic temporal pattern of positive and negative potentials, similar to movement-related cortical potentials, and related to the gait cycle was observed over the cortical leg representation area. Source localization analysis revealed that mainly the primary somatosensory, somatosensory association, primary motor and cingulate cortex were activated during walking. The negative peaks of the gait-related cortical potential were associated with activity predominantly in the cingulate and prefrontal cortex, while the primary motor, primary somatosensory and somatosensory association cortex were mainly active during the positive peaks. This study identified gait-related cortical potentials during walking. The results indicate a widely distributed cortical network involved in gait control.

  11. Kinetic Gait Analysis Using a Low-Cost Insole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Adam M; Kobayashi, Toshiki; Hayes, Heather A; Foreman, K Bo; Bamberg, Stacy J Morris

    2013-12-01

    Abnormal gait caused by stroke or other pathological reasons can greatly impact the life of an individual. Being able to measure and analyze that gait is often critical for rehabilitation. Motion analysis labs and many current methods of gait analysis are expensive and inaccessible to most individuals. The low-cost, wearable, and wireless insole-based gait analysis system in this study provides kinetic measurements of gait by using low-cost force sensitive resistors. This paper describes the design and fabrication of the insole and its evaluation in six control subjects and four hemiplegic stroke subjects. Subject-specific linear regression models were used to determine ground reaction force plus moments corresponding to ankle dorsiflexion/plantarflexion, knee flexion/extension, and knee abduction/adduction. Comparison with data simultaneously collected from a clinical motion analysis laboratory demonstrated that the insole results for ground reaction force and ankle moment were highly correlated (all >0.95) for all subjects, while the two knee moments were less strongly correlated (generally >0.80). This provides a means of cost-effective and efficient healthcare delivery of mobile gait analysis that can be used anywhere from large clinics to an individual's home.

  12. Efficacy of clinical gait analysis: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, Tishya A L; Gorton, George E; Ounpuu, Sylvia; Tucker, Carole A

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate and summarize the current evidence base related to the clinical efficacy of gait analysis. A literature review was conducted to identify references related to human gait analysis published between January 2000 and September 2009 plus relevant older references. The references were assessed independently by four reviewers using a hierarchical model of efficacy adapted for gait analysis, and final scores were agreed upon by at least three of the four reviewers. 1528 references were identified relating to human instrumented gait analysis. Of these, 116 original articles addressed technical accuracy efficacy, 89 addressed diagnostic accuracy efficacy, 11 addressed diagnostic thinking and treatment efficacy, seven addressed patient outcomes efficacy, and one addressed societal efficacy, with some of the articles addressing multiple levels of efficacy. This body of literature provides strong evidence for the technical, diagnostic accuracy, diagnostic thinking and treatment efficacy of gait analysis. The existing evidence also indicates efficacy at the higher levels of patient outcomes and societal cost-effectiveness, but this evidence is more sparse and does not include any randomized controlled trials. Thus, the current evidence supports the clinical efficacy of gait analysis, particularly at the lower levels of efficacy, but additional research is needed to strengthen the evidence base at the higher levels of efficacy.

  13. Gait Deviations in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre Kindregan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, it has become clear that children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs have difficulty with gross motor function and coordination, factors which influence gait. Knowledge of gait abnormalities may be useful for assessment and treatment planning. This paper reviews the literature assessing gait deviations in children with ASD. Five online databases were searched using keywords “gait” and “autism,” and 11 studies were found which examined gait in childhood ASD. Children with ASD tend to augment their walking stability with a reduced stride length, increased step width and therefore wider base of support, and increased time in the stance phase. Children with ASD have reduced range of motion at the ankle and knee during gait, with increased hip flexion. Decreased peak hip flexor and ankle plantar flexor moments in children with ASD may imply weakness around these joints, which is further exhibited by a reduction in ground reaction forces at toe-off in children with ASD. Children with ASD have altered gait patterns to healthy controls, widened base of support, and reduced range of motion. Several studies refer to cerebellar and basal ganglia involvement as the patterns described suggest alterations in those areas of the brain. Further research should compare children with ASD to other clinical groups to improve assessment and treatment planning.

  14. Gait Patterns in Hemiplegic Patients with Equinus Foot Deformity

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    M. Manca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Equinus deformity of the foot is a common feature of hemiplegia, which impairs the gait pattern of patients. The aim of the present study was to explore the role of ankle-foot deformity in gait impairment. A hierarchical cluster analysis was used to classify the gait patterns of 49 chronic hemiplegic patients with equinus deformity of the foot, based on temporal-distance parameters and joint kinematic measures obtained by an innovative protocol for motion assessment in the sagittal, frontal, and transverse planes, synthesized by parametrical analysis. Cluster analysis identified five subgroups of patients with homogenous levels of dysfunction during gait. Specific joint kinematic abnormalities were found, according to the speed of progression in each cluster. Patients with faster walking were those with less ankle-foot complex impairment or with reduced range of motion of ankle-foot complex, that is with a stiff ankle-foot complex. Slow walking was typical of patients with ankle-foot complex instability (i.e., larger motion in all the planes, severe equinus and hip internal rotation pattern, and patients with hip external rotation pattern. Clustering of gait patterns in these patients is helpful for a better understanding of dysfunction during gait and delivering more targeted treatment.

  15. Gait Planning and Stability Control of a Quadruped Robot

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    Junmin Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to realize smooth gait planning and stability control of a quadruped robot, a new controller algorithm based on CPG-ZMP (central pattern generator-zero moment point is put forward in this paper. To generate smooth gait and shorten the adjusting time of the model oscillation system, a new CPG model controller and its gait switching strategy based on Wilson-Cowan model are presented in the paper. The control signals of knee-hip joints are obtained by the improved multi-DOF reduced order control theory. To realize stability control, the adaptive speed adjustment and gait switch are completed by the real-time computing of ZMP. Experiment results show that the quadruped robot’s gaits are efficiently generated and the gait switch is smooth in the CPG control algorithm. Meanwhile, the stability of robot’s movement is improved greatly with the CPG-ZMP algorithm. The algorithm in this paper has good practicability, which lays a foundation for the production of the robot prototype.

  16. Self-calibrating view-invariant gait biometrics.

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    Goffredo, Michela; Bouchrika, Imed; Carter, John N; Nixon, Mark S

    2010-08-01

    We present a new method for viewpoint independent gait biometrics. The system relies on a single camera, does not require camera calibration, and works with a wide range of camera views. This is achieved by a formulation where the gait is self-calibrating. These properties make the proposed method particularly suitable for identification by gait, where the advantages of completely unobtrusiveness, remoteness, and covertness of the biometric system preclude the availability of camera information and specific walking directions. The approach has been assessed for feature extraction and recognition capabilities on the SOTON gait database and then evaluated on a multiview database to establish recognition capability with respect to view invariance. Moreover, tests on the multiview CASIA-B database, composed of more than 2270 video sequences with 65 different subjects walking freely along different walking directions, have been performed. The obtained results show that human identification by gait can be achieved without any knowledge of internal or external camera parameters with a mean correct classification rate of 73.6% across all views using purely dynamic gait features. The performance of the proposed method is particularly encouraging for application in surveillance scenarios.

  17. A reinforcement learning approach to gait training improves retention.

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    Hasson, Christopher J; Manczurowsky, Julia; Yen, Sheng-Che

    2015-01-01

    Many gait training programs are based on supervised learning principles: an individual is guided towards a desired gait pattern with directional error feedback. While this results in rapid adaptation, improvements quickly disappear. This study tested the hypothesis that a reinforcement learning approach improves retention and transfer of a new gait pattern. The results of a pilot study and larger experiment are presented. Healthy subjects were randomly assigned to either a supervised group, who received explicit instructions and directional error feedback while they learned a new gait pattern on a treadmill, or a reinforcement group, who was only shown whether they were close to or far from the desired gait. Subjects practiced for 10 min, followed by immediate and overnight retention and over-ground transfer tests. The pilot study showed that subjects could learn a new gait pattern under a reinforcement learning paradigm. The larger experiment, which had twice as many subjects (16 in each group) showed that the reinforcement group had better overnight retention than the supervised group (a 32% vs. 120% error increase, respectively), but there were no differences for over-ground transfer. These results suggest that encouraging participants to find rewarding actions through self-guided exploration is beneficial for retention.

  18. Knee joint dysfunctions that influence gait in cerebrovascular injury

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    Paulo Roberto Garcia Lucareli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: There is still no consensus among different specialists on the subject of kinematic variation during the hemiparetic gait, including the main changes that take place during the gait cycle and whether the gait velocity changes the patterns of joint mobility. One of the most frequently discussed joints is the knee. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to evaluate the variables found in the angular kinematics of knee joint, and to describe the alterations found in the hemiparetic gait resulting from cerebrovascular injury. METHODS: This study included 66 adult patients of both genders with a diagnosis of either right or left hemiparesis resulting from ischemic cerebrovascular injury. All the participants underwent three-dimensional gait evaluation, an the angular kinematics of the joint knee were selected for analysis. RESULTS: The results were distributed into four groups formed based on the median of the gait speed and the side of hemiparesis. CONCLUSIONS: The relevant clinical characteristics included the important mechanisms of loading response in the stance, knee hyperextension in single stance, and reduction of the peak flexion and movement amplitude of the knee in the swing phase. These mechanisms should be taken into account when choosing the best treatment. We believe that the findings presented here may aid in preventing the occurrence of the problems found, and also in identifying the origin of these problems.

  19. Gait analysis using accelerometry in dystrophin-deficient dogs.

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    Barthélémy, Inès; Barrey, Eric; Thibaud, Jean-Laurent; Uriarte, Ane; Voit, Thomas; Blot, Stéphane; Hogrel, Jean-Yves

    2009-11-01

    Dogs affected with Golden Retriever Muscular Dystrophy (GRMD) exhibit striking clinical similarities with patients suffering from Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), particularly gait impairments. The purpose of this study was to describe the use and reliability of accelerometry in gait assessment of dogs with muscular dystrophy. Eight healthy and 11 GRMD adult dogs underwent three gait assessment sessions, using accelerometry. Three-axial recordings of accelerations were performed, and gait variables calculated. Total power, force and regularity of accelerations, stride length and speed, normalized by height at withers, stride frequency, and cranio-caudal power were significantly decreased, whereas medio-lateral power was significantly increased in GRMD dogs. Moreover, these variables were repeatable within and between sessions. Accelerometry provides reliable variables which highlight specific gait patterns of GRMD dogs, describing objectively and quantitatively their slow, short-stepped, and swaying gait. As it is easy to set-up, quick to perform and inexpensive, accelerometry represents a useful tool, to assess locomotion during pre-clinical trials.

  20. Knee Joint Dysfunctions That Influence Gait in Cerebrovascular Injury

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    Lucareli, Paulo Roberto Garcia; Greve, Julia Maria D’Andrea

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION There is still no consensus among different specialists on the subject of kinematic variation during the hemiparetic gait, including the main changes that take place during the gait cycle and whether the gait velocity changes the patterns of joint mobility. One of the most frequently discussed joints is the knee. OBJECTIVES This study aims to evaluate the variables found in the angular kinematics of knee joint, and to describe the alterations found in the hemiparetic gait resulting from cerebrovascular injury. METHODS This study included 66 adult patients of both genders with a diagnosis of either right or left hemiparesis resulting from ischemic cerebrovascular injury. All the participants underwent three-dimensional gait evaluation, an the angular kinematics of the joint knee were selected for analysis. RESULTS The results were distributed into four groups formed based on the median of the gait speed and the side of hemiparesis. CONCLUSIONS The relevant clinical characteristics included the important mechanisms of loading response in the stance, knee hyperextension in single stance, and reduction of the peak flexion and movement amplitude of the knee in the swing phase. These mechanisms should be taken into account when choosing the best treatment. We believe that the findings presented here may aid in preventing the occurrence of the problems found, and also in identifying the origin of these problems. PMID:18719753

  1. The effect of substrate size on the locomotion and gait patterns of the kinkajou (Potos flavus).

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    Lemelin, Pierre; Cartmill, Matt

    2010-03-01

    Diagonal-sequence (DS) gaits, which are very rare among mammals, are common and well documented in primates and some arboreal marsupials. DS walking gaits have been reported in the kinkajou (Potos flavus), which shows ecological similarities with primates and arboreal opossums but lacks prehensile specializations of the hindfoot. Nevertheless, the actual frequency of DS gaits and the functional context in which these gaits occur in this highly arboreal mammal remain unknown. We examined the effect of substrate size on the locomotion and gait patterns of kinkajous by recording gaits in two individuals walking and running on poles of two different diameters and on a runway. Diagonality and limb duty factors were calculated for 534 gait cycles. Kinkajous relied mostly on DS gaits and trots during walking, and increased the diagonality of their gait patterns on thinner substrates. The proposed functional link between locomotion on thin branches and the presence of a grasping, primate-like hindfoot is not supported by these data. However, further analysis of kinkajou gait cycles showed that DS gaits may have advantages overlooked earlier. DS gaits, during walking, minimize the distance between two ipsilateral feet during short periods of unilateral bipedality, and per corollary maximize the distance between two contralateral feet during the much longer periods of diagonal bipedality. Such foot positioning during the gait cycle could be beneficial in walking on a relatively thin substrate and could explain why kinkajous adopt DS walking gaits, especially on thinner poles, despite lacking prehensile specializations of the hindfoot.

  2. Reliability of spatiotemporal and kinetic gait parameters determined by a new instrumented treadmill system.

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    Reed, Lloyd F; Urry, Stephen R; Wearing, Scott C

    2013-08-21

    consistent than spatial parameters. The 95% repeatability coefficient for vertical force peaks ranged between ± 53 and ± 63 N. The limits of agreement in spatial parameters and ground reaction forces for the treadmill system encompass previously reported changes with neuromuscular pathology and footwear interventions. These findings provide clinicians and researchers with an indication of the repeatability and sensitivity of the Zebris treadmill system to detect changes in common spatiotemporal gait parameters and vertical ground reaction forces.

  3. Differences in gait patterns, pain, function and quality of life between males and females with knee osteoarthritis: a clinical trial

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    Agar Gabriel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the gender differences in knee osteoarthritis (OA by evaluating the differences in gait spatio-temporal parameters and the differences in pain, quality of life and function between males and females suffering from knee OA. Methods 49 males and 85 females suffering from bilateral medial compartment knee OA participated in this study. Each patient underwent a computerized gait test and completed the WOMAC questionnaire and the SF-36 health survey. Independent t-tests were performed to examine the differences between males and females in age, BMI, spatio-temporal parameters, the WOMAC questionnaire and the SF-36 health survey. Results Males and females had different gait patterns. Although males and females walked at the same walking speed, cadence and step length, they presented significant differences in the gait cycle phases. Males walked with a smaller stance and double limb support, and with a larger swing and single limb support compared to females. In addition, males walked with a greater toe out angle compared to females. While significant differences were not found in the WOMAC subscales, females consistently reported higher levels of pain and disability. Conclusion The spatio-temporal differences between genders may suggest underlying differences in the gait strategies adopted by males and females in order to reduce pain and cope with the loads acting on their affected joints, two key aspects of knee OA. These gender effects should therefore be taken into consideration when evaluating patients with knee OA. Trial Registration The study is registered in the NIH clinical trial registration, protocol No. NCT00599729.

  4. Cognitive processes affect the gait of subjects with Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease in dual tasks

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    Gustavo Christofoletti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the relation between gait parameters and cognitive impairments in subjects with Parkinson’s disease (PD and Alzheimer’s disease (AD during the performance of dual tasks. Methods This was a cross-sectional study involving 126 subjects divided into three groups: Parkinson group (n = 43, Alzheimer group (n = 38, and control group (n = 45. The subjects were evaluated using the Timed Up and Go test administered with motor and cognitive distracters. Gait analyses consisted of cadence and speed measurements, with cognitive functions being assessed by the Brief Cognitive Screening Battery and the Clock Drawing Test. Statistical procedures included mixed-design analyses of variance to observe the gait patterns between groups and tasks and the linear regression model to investigate the influence of cognitive functions in this process. A 5% significant level was adopted. Results Regarding the subjects’ speed, the data show a significant difference between group vs task interaction (p = 0.009, with worse performance of subjects with PD in motor dual task and of subjects with AD in cognitive dual task. With respect to cadence, no statistical differences was seen between group vs task interaction (p = 0.105, showing low interference of the clinical conditions on such parameter. The linear regression model showed that up to 45.79%, of the variance in gait can be explained by the interference of cognitive processes. Conclusion Dual task activities affect gait pattern in subjects with PD and AD. Differences between groups reflect peculiarities of each disease and show a direct interference of cognitive processes on complex tasks.

  5. Differences in lower limb transverse plane joint moments during gait when expressed in two alternative reference frames.

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    Schache, Anthony G; Baker, Richard; Vaughan, Christopher L

    2007-01-01

    When comparing previous studies that have measured the three-dimensional moments acting about the lower limb joints (either external moments or opposing internal joint moments) during able-bodied adult gait, significant variation is apparent in the profiles of the reported transverse plane moments. This variation cannot be explained on the basis of adopted convention (i.e. external versus internal joint moment) or inherent variability in gait strategies. The aim of the current study was to determine whether in fact the frame in which moments are expressed has a dominant effect upon transverse plane moments and thus provides a valid explanation for the observed inconsistency in the literature. Kinematic and ground reaction force data were acquired from nine able-bodied adult subjects walking at a self-selected speed. Three-dimensional hip, knee and ankle joint moments during gait were calculated using a standard inverse dynamics approach. In addition to calculating internal joint moments, the components of the external moment occurring in the transverse plane at each of the lower limb joints were calculated to determine their independent effects. All moments were expressed in both the laboratory frame (LF) as well as the anatomical frame (AF) of the distal segment. With the exception of the ankle rotation moment in the foot AF, lower limb transverse plane joint moments during gait were found to display characteristic profiles that were consistent across subjects. Furthermore, lower limb transverse plane joint moments during gait differed when expressed in the distal segment AF compared to the LF. At the hip, the two alternative reference frames produced near reciprocal joint moment profiles. The components of the external moment revealed that the external ground reaction force moment was primarily responsible for this result. Lower limb transverse plane joint moments during gait were therefore found to be highly sensitive to a change in reference frame. These

  6. Sistema GaitGrabber na captação de dados cinemáticos durante a marcha GaitGrabber system on kinematic gait analyses

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    Renata Noce Kirkwood

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi desenvolver e testar a confiabilidade e validade do Sistema GaitGrabber na obtenção de dados cinemáticos no plano sagital durante a marcha. Dezoito indivíduos participaram do estudo de confiabilidade e 28 do estudo de validade concorrente. O Sistema Qualisys Pro-Reflex foi usado como padrão ouro. O GaitGrabber calcula os ângulos relativos de quadril, joelho e tornozelo no plano sagital. O Coeficiente de Correlação Intraclasse (CCI foi usado para comparação das médias dos picos angulares entre visitas. Para a validade, foi aplicada a análise de componentes principais. Os CCI variaram de moderados a excelentes e a validade do sistema foi comprovada para o tornozelo. Foi demonstrada diferença significativa na amplitude de movimento de quadril e joelho, a qual foi atribuída a características técnicas dos instrumentos. O Sistema GaitGrabber é válido e confiável e pode ser usado na clínica para análise cinemática da marcha no plano sagital.The purpose of this study was to develop and test the validity and reliability of the GaitGrabber System in measuring kinematic variables in the sagittal plane during gait. Eighteen individuals participated in the reliability study and 28 in the concurrent validity study. The Qualisys Pro-Reflex System used as a gold standard reference system. The GaitGrabber calculates the relative angles at the hip, knee and ankle in the sagittal plane. The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC was used to compare the average of the angular peaks between visits. The principal component analysis was used to test the validity of the system. The ICC ranged from moderate to excellent and the validity of the system was proved for the ankle. There were significant differences in the range of motion for the hip and knee joints which were attributed to different instrumental characteristics. The GaitGrabber system is valid and reliable and can be clinically used to analyze

  7. Differential neural activation patterns in patients with Parkinson's disease and freezing of gait in response to concurrent cognitive and motor load.

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    James M Shine

    Full Text Available Freezing of gait is a devastating symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD that is exacerbated by the processing of cognitive information whilst walking. To date, no studies have explored the neural correlates associated with increases in cognitive load whilst performing a motor task in patients with freezing. In this experiment, 14 PD patients with and 15 PD patients without freezing of gait underwent 3T fMRI while performing a virtual reality gait task. Directions to walk and stop were presented on the viewing screen as either direct cues or as more cognitively indirect pre-learned cues. Both groups showed a consistent pattern of BOLD response within the Cognitive Control Network during performance of the paradigm. However, a between group comparison revealed that those PD patients with freezing of gait were less able to recruit the bilateral anterior insula, ventral striatum and the pre-supplementary motor area, as well as the left subthalamic nucleus when responding to indirect cognitive cues whilst maintaining a motor output. These results suggest that PD patients with freezing of gait are unable to properly recruit specific cortical and subcortical regions within the Cognitive Control Network during the performance of simultaneous motor and cognitive functions.

  8. Differential Neural Activation Patterns in Patients with Parkinson's Disease and Freezing of Gait in Response to Concurrent Cognitive and Motor Load

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    Shine, James M.; Matar, Elie; Ward, Philip B.; Bolitho, Samuel J.; Pearson, Mark; Naismith, Sharon L.; Lewis, Simon J. G.

    2013-01-01

    Freezing of gait is a devastating symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD) that is exacerbated by the processing of cognitive information whilst walking. To date, no studies have explored the neural correlates associated with increases in cognitive load whilst performing a motor task in patients with freezing. In this experiment, 14 PD patients with and 15 PD patients without freezing of gait underwent 3T fMRI while performing a virtual reality gait task. Directions to walk and stop were presented on the viewing screen as either direct cues or as more cognitively indirect pre-learned cues. Both groups showed a consistent pattern of BOLD response within the Cognitive Control Network during performance of the paradigm. However, a between group comparison revealed that those PD patients with freezing of gait were less able to recruit the bilateral anterior insula, ventral striatum and the pre-supplementary motor area, as well as the left subthalamic nucleus when responding to indirect cognitive cues whilst maintaining a motor output. These results suggest that PD patients with freezing of gait are unable to properly recruit specific cortical and subcortical regions within the Cognitive Control Network during the performance of simultaneous motor and cognitive functions. PMID:23382821

  9. Effects of Aging on Arm Swing during Gait: The Role of Gait Speed and Dual Tasking.

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    Anat Mirelman

    Full Text Available Healthy walking is characterized by pronounced arm swing and axial rotation. Aging effects on gait speed, stride length and stride time variability have been previously reported, however, less is known about aging effects on arm swing and axial rotation and their relationship to age-associated gait changes during usual walking and during more challenging conditions like dual tasking. Sixty healthy adults between the ages of 30-77 were included in this study designed to address this gap. Lightweight body fixed sensors were placed on each wrist and lower back. Participants walked under 3 walking conditions each of 1 minute: 1 comfortable speed, 2 walking while serially subtracting 3's (Dual Task, 3 walking at fast speed. Aging effects on arm swing amplitude, range, symmetry, jerk and axial rotation amplitude and jerk were compared between decades of age (30-40; 41-50; 51-60; 61-77 years. As expected, older adults walked slower (p = 0.03 and with increased stride variability (p = 0.02. Arm swing amplitude decreased with age under all conditions (p = 0.04. In the oldest group, arm swing decreased during dual task and increased during the fast walking condition (p<0.0001. Similarly, arm swing asymmetry increased during the dual task in the older groups (p<0.004, but not in the younger groups (p = 0.67. Significant differences between groups and within conditions were observed in arm swing jerk (p<0.02, axial rotation amplitude (p<0.02 and axial jerk (p<0.001. Gait speed, arm swing amplitude of the dominant arm, arm swing asymmetry and axial rotation jerk were all independent predictors of age in a multivariate model. These findings suggest that the effects of gait speed and dual tasking on arm swing and axial rotation during walking are altered among healthy older adults. Follow-up work is needed to examine if these effects contribute to reduced stability in aging.

  10. Implementation of a smartphone as a wireless gyroscope platform for quantifying reduced arm swing in hemiplegie gait with machine learning classification by multilayer perceptron neural network.

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    LeMoyne, Robert; Mastroianni, Timothy

    2016-08-01

    Natural gait consists of synchronous and rhythmic patterns for both the lower and upper limb. People with hemiplegia can experience reduced arm swing, which can negatively impact the quality of gait. Wearable and wireless sensors, such as through a smartphone, have demonstrated the ability to quantify various features of gait. With a software application the smartphone (iPhone) can function as a wireless gyroscope platform capable of conveying a gyroscope signal recording as an email attachment by wireless connectivity to the Internet. The gyroscope signal recordings of the affected hemiplegic arm with reduced arm swing arm and the unaffected arm are post-processed into a feature set for machine learning. Using a multilayer perceptron neural network a considerable degree of classification accuracy is attained to distinguish between the affected hemiplegic arm with reduced arm swing arm and the unaffected arm.

  11. Do the chaotic features of gait change in Parkinson's disease?

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    Sarbaz, Yashar; Towhidkhah, Farzad; Jafari, Ayyoob; Gharibzadeh, Shahriar

    2012-08-21

    Some previous studies have focused on chaotic properties of Parkinson's disease (PD). It seems that considering PD from dynamical systems perspective is a relevant method that may lead to better understanding of the disease. There is some ambiguity about chaotic nature in PD symptoms and normal behaviour. Some studies claim that normal gait has somehow a chaotic behaviour and disturbed gait in PD has decreased chaotic nature. However, it is worth noting that the basis of this idea is the difference of fractal behaviour in gait of normal and PD patients, which is concluded from Long Range Correlation (LRC) indices. Our primary calculations show that a large number of normal persons and patients have similar LRC. It seems that chaotic studies on PD need a different view. Because of short time recording of symptoms, accurate calculation of chaotic features is tough. On the other hand, long time recording of symptoms is experimentally difficult. In this research, we have first designed a physiologically plausible model for normal and PD gait. Then, after validating the model with neural network classifier, we used the model for extracting long time simulation of stride in normal and PD persons. These long time simulations were then used for calculating the chaotic features of gait. According to change of phase space behaviour and alteration of three largest lyapunov exponents, it was observed that simulated normal persons act as chaotic systems in stride production, but simulated PD does not have chaotic dynamics and is stochastic. Based on our results, it may be claimed that normal gait has chaotic nature which is disturbed in PD state. Surely, long time real recordings from gait signal in normal persons and PD patients are necessary to warranty this hypothesis.

  12. Meaningful improvement in gait speed in hip fracture recovery.

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    Alley, Dawn E; Hicks, Gregory E; Shardell, Michelle; Hawkes, William; Miller, Ram; Craik, Rebecca L; Mangione, Kathleen K; Orwig, Denise; Hochberg, Marc; Resnick, Barbara; Magaziner, Jay

    2011-09-01

    To estimate meaningful improvements in gait speed observed during recovery from hip fracture and to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of gait speed changes in detecting change in self-reported mobility. Secondary longitudinal data analysis from two randomized controlled trials Twelve hospitals in the Baltimore, Maryland, area. Two hundred seventeen women admitted with hip fracture. Usual gait speed and self-reported mobility (ability to walk 1 block and climb 1 flight of stairs) measured 2 and 12 months after fracture. Effect size-based estimates of meaningful differences were 0.03 for small differences and 0.09 for substantial differences. Depending on the anchor (stairs vs walking) and method (mean difference vs regression), anchor-based estimates ranged from 0.10 to 0.17 m/s for small meaningful improvements and 0.17 to 0.26 m/s for substantial meaningful improvement. Optimal gait speed cutpoints yielded low sensitivity (0.39-0.62) and specificity (0.57-0.76) for improvements in self-reported mobility. Results from this sample of women recovering from hip fracture provide only limited support for the 0.10-m/s cut point for substantial meaningful change previously identified in community-dwelling older adults experiencing declines in walking abilities. Anchor-based estimates and cut points derived from receiver operating characteristic curve analysis suggest that greater improvements in gait speed may be required for substantial perceived mobility improvement in female hip fracture patients. Furthermore, gait speed change performed poorly in discriminating change in self-reported mobility. Estimates of meaningful change in gait speed may differ based on the direction of change (improvement vs decline) or between patient populations. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2011, The American Geriatrics Society.

  13. Effects of obesity and chronic low back pain on gait.

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    Cimolin, Veronica; Vismara, Luca; Galli, Manuela; Zaina, Fabio; Negrini, Stefano; Capodaglio, Paolo

    2011-09-26

    Obesity is often associated with low back pain (LBP). Despite empirical evidence that LBP induces gait abnormalities, there is a lack of quantitative analysis of the combined effect of obesity and LBP on gait. The aim of our study was to quantify the gait pattern of obese subjects with and without LBP and normal-mass controls by using Gait Analysis (GA), in order to investigate the cumulative effects of obesity and LBP on gait. Eight obese females with chronic LBP (OLG; age: 40.5 ± 10.1 years; BMI: 42.39 ± 5.47 Kg/m(2)), 10 obese females (OG; age: 33.6 ± 5.2 years; BMI: 39.26 ± 2.39 Kg/m(2)) and 10 healthy female subjects (CG; age: 33.4 ± 9.6 years; BMI: 22.8 ± 3.2 Kg/m(2)), were enrolled in this study and assessed with video recording and GA. OLG showed longer stance duration and shorter step length when compared to OG and CG. They also had a low pelvis and hip ROM on the frontal plane, a low knee flexion in the swing phase and knee range of motion, a low dorsiflexion in stance and swing as compared to OG. No statistically significant differences were found in ankle power generation at push-off between OLG and OG, which appeared lower if compared to CG. At hip level, both OLG and OG exhibited high power generation levels during stance, with OLG showing the highest values. Our results demonstrated that the association of obesity and LBP affects more the gait pattern than obesity alone. OLG were in fact characterised by an altered knee and ankle strategy during gait as compared to OG and CG. These elements may help optimizing rehabilitation planning and treatment in these patients.

  14. Effects of obesity and chronic low back pain on gait

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    Galli Manuela

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is often associated with low back pain (LBP. Despite empirical evidence that LBP induces gait abnormalities, there is a lack of quantitative analysis of the combined effect of obesity and LBP on gait. The aim of our study was to quantify the gait pattern of obese subjects with and without LBP and normal-mass controls by using Gait Analysis (GA, in order to investigate the cumulative effects of obesity and LBP on gait. Methods Eight obese females with chronic LBP (OLG; age: 40.5 ± 10.1 years; BMI: 42.39 ± 5.47 Kg/m2, 10 obese females (OG; age: 33.6 ± 5.2 years; BMI: 39.26 ± 2.39 Kg/m2 and 10 healthy female subjects (CG; age: 33.4 ± 9.6 years; BMI: 22.8 ± 3.2 Kg/m2, were enrolled in this study and assessed with video recording and GA. Results and Discussion OLG showed longer stance duration and shorter step length when compared to OG and CG. They also had a low pelvis and hip ROM on the frontal plane, a low knee flexion in the swing phase and knee range of motion, a low dorsiflexion in stance and swing as compared to OG. No statistically significant differences were found in ankle power generation at push-off between OLG and OG, which appeared lower if compared to CG. At hip level, both OLG and OG exhibited high power generation levels during stance, with OLG showing the highest values. Conclusions Our results demonstrated that the association of obesity and LBP affects more the gait pattern than obesity alone. OLG were in fact characterised by an altered knee and ankle strategy during gait as compared to OG and CG. These elements may help optimizing rehabilitation planning and treatment in these patients.

  15. Automated quantitative gait analysis in animal models of movement disorders

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    Vandeputte Caroline

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate and reproducible behavioral tests in animal models are of major importance in the development and evaluation of new therapies for central nervous system disease. In this study we investigated for the first time gait parameters of rat models for Parkinson's disease (PD, Huntington's disease (HD and stroke using the Catwalk method, a novel automated gait analysis test. Static and dynamic gait parameters were measured in all animal models, and these data were compared to readouts of established behavioral tests, such as the cylinder test in the PD and stroke rats and the rotarod tests for the HD group. Results Hemiparkinsonian rats were generated by unilateral injection of the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine in the striatum or in the medial forebrain bundle. For Huntington's disease, a transgenic rat model expressing a truncated huntingtin fragment with multiple CAG repeats was used. Thirdly, a stroke model was generated by a photothrombotic induced infarct in the right sensorimotor cortex. We found that multiple gait parameters were significantly altered in all three disease models compared to their respective controls. Behavioural deficits could be efficiently measured using the cylinder test in the PD and stroke animals, and in the case of the PD model, the deficits in gait essentially confirmed results obtained by the cylinder test. However, in the HD model and the stroke model the Catwalk analysis proved more sensitive than the rotarod test and also added new and more detailed information on specific gait parameters. Conclusion The automated quantitative gait analysis test may be a useful tool to study both motor impairment and recovery associated with various neurological motor disorders.

  16. Massive weight loss-induced mechanical plasticity in obese gait.

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    Hortobágyi, Tibor; Herring, Cortney; Pories, Walter J; Rider, Patrick; Devita, Paul

    2011-11-01

    We examined the hypothesis that metabolic surgery-induced massive weight loss causes mass-driven and behavioral adaptations in the kinematics and kinetics of obese gait. Gait analyses were performed at three time points over ∼1 yr in initially morbidly obese (mass: 125.7 kg; body mass index: 43.2 kg/m(2)) but otherwise healthy adults. Ten obese adults lost 27.1% ± 5.1 (34.0 ± 9.4 kg) weight by the first follow-up at 7.0 mo (±0.7) and 6.5 ± 4.2% (8.2 ± 6.0 kg) more by the second follow-up at 12.8 mo (±0.9), with a total weight loss of 33.6 ± 8.1% (42.2 ± 14.1 kg; P = 0.001). Subjects walked at a self-selected and a standard 1.5 m/s speed at the three time points and were also compared with an age- and gender-matched comparison group at the second follow-up. Weight loss increased swing time, stride length, gait speed, hip range of motion, maximal knee flexion, and ankle plantarflexion. Weight loss of 27% led to 3.9% increase in gait speed. An additional 6.5% weight loss led to an additional 7.3% increase in gait speed. Sagittal plane normalized knee torque increased and absolute ankle and frontal plane knee torques decreased after weight loss. We conclude that large weight loss produced mechanical plasticity by modifying ankle and knee torques and gait behavior. There may be a weight loss threshold of 30 kg limiting changes in gait kinematics. Implications for exercise prescription are also discussed.

  17. Mechanical and neuromuscular changes with lateral trunk lean gait modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Shawn M; Teoli, Anthony; Preuss, Richard A

    2016-09-01

    Lateral trunk lean (LTL) is a proposed intervention for knee osteoarthritis but increased muscular demands have not been considered. The objective was to compare lower extremity and trunk muscle activation and joint mechanics between normal and increased LTL gait in healthy adults. Participants (n=20, mean age 22 years) were examined under two gait conditions: normal and increased LTL. A motion capture system and force plates sampled at 100 and 2000Hz respectively were used to determine joint angles and external moments including LTL angle and external knee adduction moment (KAM). Surface electromyography, sampled at 2000Hz, measured activation of six trunk/hip muscles bilaterally. Peak LTL angle, peak KAM, gait speed, and mean values from electromyography waveforms were compared between normal and LTL conditions using paired t-tests or 2-way analysis of variance. There was a significant (p<0.05) increase in peak LTL angle, decrease in first but not second peak KAM, and decrease in gait speed during LTL gait. There were significant (p<0.01) increases in external oblique and iliocostalis muscle activation during LTL gait. There was no change in activation for internal oblique, rectus abdominis, longissimus, and gluteus medius. LTL gait decreased early/mid-stance KAM demonstrating its ability to decrease medial compartment knee loading. Increases in external oblique and iliocostalis activation were present but small to moderate in size and unlikely to lead to short term injury. Longitudinal studies should evaluate the effectiveness of increased LTL for knee osteoarthritis and if the increase in muscular demands leads to negative long term side effects.

  18. Does anxiety cause freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaylena A Ehgoetz Martens

    Full Text Available Individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD commonly experience freezing of gait under time constraints, in narrow spaces, and in the dark. One commonality between these different situations is that they may all provoke anxiety, yet anxiety has never been directly examined as a cause of FOG. In this study, virtual reality was used to induce anxiety and evaluate whether it directly causes FOG. Fourteen patients with PD and freezing of gait (Freezers and 17 PD without freezing of gait (Non-Freezers were instructed to walk in two virtual environments: (i across a plank that was located on the ground (LOW, (ii across a plank above a deep pit (HIGH. Multiple synchronized motion capture cameras updated participants' movement through the virtual environment in real-time, while their gait was recorded. Anxiety levels were evaluated after each trial using self-assessment manikins. Freezers performed the experiment on two separate occasions (in their ON and OFF state. Freezers reported higher levels of anxiety compared to Non-Freezers (p < 0.001 and all patients reported greater levels of anxiety when walking across the HIGH plank compared to the LOW (p < 0.001. Freezers experienced significantly more freezing of gait episodes (p = 0.013 and spent a significantly greater percentage of each trial frozen (p = 0.005 when crossing the HIGH plank. This finding was even more pronounced when comparing Freezers in their OFF state. Freezers also had greater step length variability in the HIGH compared to the LOW condition, while the step length variability in Non-Freezers did not change. In conclusion, this was the first study to directly compare freezing of gait in anxious and non-anxious situations. These results present strong evidence that anxiety is an important mechanism underlying freezing of gait and supports the notion that the limbic system may have a profound contribution to freezing in PD.

  19. Withdrawal reflexes examined during human gait by ground reaction forces: site and gait phase dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emborg, Jonas; Spaich, Erika G; Andersen, Ole K

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the modulation of the nociceptive withdrawal reflex during gait measured using Force Sensitive Resistors (FSR). Electrical stimulation was delivered to four locations on the sole of the foot at three different time points between heel-off and toe-off. Peak force changes were measured by FSRs attached to the big toe, distal to the first and fourth metatarsophalangeal joints, and the medial process of the calcaneus on both feet. Force changes were assessed in five gait sub-phases. The painful stimulation led to increased ipsilateral unloading (10 +/- 1 N) and contralateral loading (12 +/- 1 N), which were dependent on stimulation site and phase. In contrast, the hallux of the ipsilateral foot plantar flexed, thus facilitating the push-off. The highest degree of plantar flexion (23 +/- 10 N; range, 8-44 N) was seen in the second double support phase following the stimulation. Site and phase modulation of the reflex were detected in the force signals from all selected anatomical landmarks. In the kinematic responses, both site and phase modulation were observed. For stimulations near toe-off, withdrawal was primarily accomplished by ankle dorsiflexion, while the strategy for stimulations at heel-off was flexion of the knee and hip joints.

  20. A biofeedback cycling training to improve locomotion: a case series study based on gait pattern classification of 153 chronic stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molteni Franco

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The restoration of walking ability is the main goal of post-stroke lower limb rehabilitation and different studies suggest that pedaling may have a positive effect on locomotion. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of a biofeedback pedaling treatment and its effects on cycling and walking ability in chronic stroke patients. A case series study was designed and participants were recruited based on a gait pattern classification of a population of 153 chronic stroke patients. Methods In order to optimize participants selection, a k-means cluster analysis was performed to subgroup homogenous gait patterns in terms of gait speed and symmetry. The training consisted of a 2-week treatment of 6 sessions. A visual biofeedback helped the subjects in maintaining a symmetrical contribution of the two legs during pedaling. Participants were assessed before, after training and at follow-up visits (one week after treatment. Outcome measures were the unbalance during a pedaling test, and the temporal, spatial, and symmetry parameters during gait analysis. Results and discussion Three clusters, mainly differing in terms of gait speed, were identified and participants, representative of each cluster, were selected. An intra-subject statistical analysis (ANOVA showed that all patients significantly decreased the pedaling unbalance after treatment and maintained significant improvements with respect to baseline at follow-up. The 2-week treatment induced some modifications in the gait pattern of two patients: one, the most impaired, significantly improved mean velocity and increased gait symmetry; the other one reduced significantly the over-compensation of the healthy limb. No benefits were produced in the gait of the last subject who maintained her slow but almost symmetrical pattern. Thus, this study might suggest that the treatment can be beneficial for patients having a very asymmetrical and inefficient gait and for those

  1. Combined robotic-aided gait training and 3D gait analysis provide objective treatment and assessment of gait in children and adolescents with Acquired Hemiplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molteni, Erika; Beretta, Elena; Altomonte, Daniele; Formica, Francesca; Strazzer, Sandra

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of a fully objective rehabilitative and assessment process of the gait abilities in children suffering from Acquired Hemiplegia (AH), we studied the combined employment of robotic-aided gait training (RAGT) and 3D-Gait Analysis (GA). A group of 12 patients with AH underwent 20 sessions of RAGT in addition to traditional manual physical therapy (PT). All the patients were evaluated before and after the training by using the Gross Motor Function Measures (GMFM), the Functional Assessment Questionnaire (FAQ), and the 6 Minutes Walk Test. They also received GA before and after RAGT+PT. Finally, results were compared with those obtained from a control group of 3 AH children who underwent PT only. After the training, the GMFM and FAQ showed significant improvement in patients receiving RAGT+PT. GA highlighted significant improvement in stance symmetry and step length of the affected limb. Moreover, pelvic tilt increased, and hip kinematics on the sagittal plane revealed statistically significant increase in the range of motion during the hip flex-extension. Our data suggest that the combined program RAGT+PT induces improvements in functional activities and gait pattern in children with AH, and it demonstrates that the combined employment of RAGT and 3D-GA ensures a fully objective rehabilitative program.

  2. Gait characteristic analysis and identification based on the iPhone's accelerometer and gyrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bing; Wang, Yang; Banda, Jacob

    2014-09-12

    Gait identification is a valuable approach to identify humans at a distance. In this paper, gait characteristics are analyzed based on an iPhone's accelerometer and gyrometer,and a new approach is proposed for gait identification. Specifically, gait datasets are collected by the triaxial accelerometer and gyrometer embedded in an iPhone. Then, the datasets are processed to extract gait characteristic parameters which include gait frequency, symmetry coefficient, dynamic range and similarity coefficient of characteristic curves. Finally, a weighted voting scheme dependent upon the gait characteristic parameters is proposed forgait identification. Four experiments are implemented to validate the proposed scheme. The attitude and acceleration solutions are verified by simulation. Then the gait characteristics are analyzed by comparing two sets of actual data, and the performance of the weighted voting identification scheme is verified by 40 datasets of 10 subjects.

  3. Gait disorders and balance disturbances in Parkinson's disease: clinical update and pathophysiology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, T.A.; Kooij, H. van der; Munneke, M.; Bloem, B.R.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gait disorders and balance impairments are one of the most incapacitating symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Here, we discuss the latest findings regarding epidemiology, assessment, pathophysiology and treatment of gait and balance impairments in Parkinson's disease. RECENT FINDINGS

  4. A new classification of hemiplegia gait patterns based on bicluster analysis of joint moments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauk, Jolanta; Minta-Bielecka, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Hemiplegia is a paralysis on one side of the body resulting from disease or injury to the motor centers of the brain that may lead to difficulty in walking and problems in balance. A new methodology for hemiplegia gait patterns classification based on bicluster analysis, which aims to identify a group of patients with similar gait patterns, and verify if spatial-temporal gait parameters are correlated with the Barthel Index, has been proposed. Eighteen hemiplegia patients were recruited. Measurements included spatialtemporal gait parameters and joint moments. Gait data were measured using a motion tracking system and two force platforms. Bicluster analysis was used to classify the subjects' gait patterns. The relation between Barthel Index and spatial-temporal gait parameters was determined based on the Spearman correlation. A high correlation between spatial-temporal gait parameters and Barthel Index (r>0.5, p rehabilitation strategies at the patient's individual needs.

  5. The Effect of a Vertical Load on Gluteus Medius Activity and Gait Characteristics during Walking

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Su-kyoung

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study examined the activity and the gait characteristics of the gluteus medius and the trunk stability muscles during the stance phase of gait on level ground when a vertical load corresponding to 0%, 1%, or 2...

  6. Use of osteopathic manipulative treatment to manage compensated trendelenburg gait caused by sacroiliac somatic dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliss, Adam C; Swanson, Randel L; Janora, Deanna; Venkataraman, Venkat

    2010-02-01

    Gait dysfunctions are commonly encountered in the primary care setting. Compensated Trendelenburg gait is a gait dysfunction that was originally described in patients with weakness of ipsilateral hip abduction. This condition is thought to result from neuronal injury or myopathy. No treatment modalities currently exist for compensated Trendelenburg gait. The authors present a case in which osteopathic manipulative treatment may have improved a Trendelenburg gait dysfunction in a man aged 65 years with multiple sclerosis. Evidence of this improvement was obtained with the GaitMat II system for measuring numerous gait parameters. Based on the results reported in the present case, the authors propose that compensated Trendelenburg gait may arise from somatic dysfunction and may be corrected by osteopathic manipulative treatment.

  7. Gait Characteristic Analysis and Identification Based on the iPhone’s Accelerometer and Gyrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Sun

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Gait identification is a valuable approach to identify humans at a distance. In thispaper, gait characteristics are analyzed based on an iPhone’s accelerometer and gyrometer,and a new approach is proposed for gait identification. Specifically, gait datasets are collectedby the triaxial accelerometer and gyrometer embedded in an iPhone. Then, the datasets areprocessed to extract gait characteristic parameters which include gait frequency, symmetrycoefficient, dynamic range and similarity coefficient of characteristic curves. Finally, aweighted voting scheme dependent upon the gait characteristic parameters is proposed forgait identification. Four experiments are implemented to validate the proposed scheme. Theattitude and acceleration solutions are verified by simulation. Then the gait characteristicsare analyzed by comparing two sets of actual data, and the performance of the weightedvoting identification scheme is verified by 40 datasets of 10 subjects.

  8. The value of the NDT-Bobath method in post-stroke gait training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mikołajewska, Emilia

    2013-01-01

    .... Following a stroke, patients suffer from gait disorders. The aim of this paper is to present the outcomes of a study of post-stroke gait reeducation using the NeuroDevelopmental Treatment-Bobath (NDT-Bobath) method...

  9. Gait and Computerized Dynamic Posturography (CDP Aspects in Early Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP - A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douaa M. Mosalem

    2014-12-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Both CDP and gait analysis are important quantitative tools in the assessment of posture and gait instability as well as allow for early disclosure of the failure of the postural control system in early PSP.

  10. Gait disorders and balance disturbances in Parkinson's disease: clinical update and pathophysiology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, T.A.; Kooij, H. van der; Munneke, M.; Bloem, B.R.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gait disorders and balance impairments are one of the most incapacitating symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Here, we discuss the latest findings regarding epidemiology, assessment, pathophysiology and treatment of gait and balance impairments in Parkinson's disease. RECENT FINDINGS

  11. Emotion recognition using Kinect motion capture data of human gaits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shun; Cui, Liqing; Zhu, Changye; Li, Baobin

    2016-01-01

    Automatic emotion recognition is of great value in many applications, however, to fully display the application value of emotion recognition, more portable, non-intrusive, inexpensive technologies need to be developed. Human gaits could reflect the walker’s emotional state, and could be an information source for emotion recognition. This paper proposed a novel method to recognize emotional state through human gaits by using Microsoft Kinect, a low-cost, portable, camera-based sensor. Fifty-nine participants’ gaits under neutral state, induced anger and induced happiness were recorded by two Kinect cameras, and the original data were processed through joint selection, coordinate system transformation, sliding window gauss filtering, differential operation, and data segmentation. Features of gait patterns were extracted from 3-dimentional coordinates of 14 main body joints by Fourier transformation and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The classifiers NaiveBayes, RandomForests, LibSVM and SMO (Sequential Minimal Optimization) were trained and evaluated, and the accuracy of recognizing anger and happiness from neutral state achieved 80.5% and 75.4%. Although the results of distinguishing angry and happiness states were not ideal in current study, it showed the feasibility of automatically recognizing emotional states from gaits, with the characteristics meeting the application requirements. PMID:27672492

  12. Kinematic gait patterns in healthy runners: A hierarchical cluster analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phinyomark, Angkoon; Osis, Sean; Hettinga, Blayne A; Ferber, Reed

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated distinct clusters of gait patterns in both healthy and pathological groups, suggesting that different movement strategies may be represented. However, these studies have used discrete time point variables and usually focused on only one specific joint and plane of motion. Therefore, the first purpose of this study was to determine if running gait patterns for healthy subjects could be classified into homogeneous subgroups using three-dimensional kinematic data from the ankle, knee, and hip joints. The second purpose was to identify differences in joint kinematics between these groups. The third purpose was to investigate the practical implications of clustering healthy subjects by comparing these kinematics with runners experiencing patellofemoral pain (PFP). A principal component analysis (PCA) was used to reduce the dimensionality of the entire gait waveform data and then a hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) determined group sets of similar gait patterns and homogeneous clusters. The results show two distinct running gait patterns were found with the main between-group differences occurring in frontal and sagittal plane knee angles (Pgait strategies. These results suggest care must be taken when selecting samples of subjects in order to investigate the pathomechanics of injured runners.

  13. Robust Gait-Based Person Identification against Walking Speed Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqmar, Muhammad Rasyid; Shinoda, Koichi; Furui, Sadaoki

    Variations in walking speed have a strong impact on gait-based person identification. We propose a method that is robust against walking-speed variations. It is based on a combination of cubic higher-order local auto-correlation (CHLAC), gait silhouette-based principal component analysis (GSP), and a statistical framework using hidden Markov models (HMMs). The CHLAC features capture the within-phase spatio-temporal characteristics of each individual, the GSP features retain more shape/phase information for better gait sequence alignment, and the HMMs classify the ID of each gait even when walking speed changes nonlinearly. We compared the performance of our method with other conventional methods using five different databases, SOTON, USF-NIST, CMU-MoBo, TokyoTech A and TokyoTech B. The proposed method was equal to or better than the others when the speed did not change greatly, and it was significantly better when the speed varied across and within a gait sequence.

  14. Frequency-velocity mismatch: a fundamental abnormality in parkinsonian gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Catherine; Kunin, Mikhail; Kudo, Koji; Osaki, Yasuhiro; Olanow, C Warren; Cohen, Bernard; Raphan, Theodore

    2010-03-01

    Gait dysfunction and falling are major sources of disability for patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). It is presently thought that the fundamental defect is an inability to generate normal stride length. Our data suggest, however, that the basic problem in PD gait is an impaired ability to match step frequency to walking velocity. In this study, foot movements of PD and normal subjects were monitored with an OPTOTRAK motion-detection system while they walked on a treadmill at different velocities. PD subjects were also paced with auditory stimuli at different frequencies. PD gait was characterized by step frequencies that were faster and stride lengths that were shorter than those of normal controls. At low walking velocities, PD stepping had a reduced or absent terminal toe lift, which truncated swing phases, producing shortened steps. Auditory pacing was not able to normalize step frequency at these lower velocities. Peak forward toe velocities increased with walking velocity and PD subjects could initiate appropriate foot dynamics during initial phases of the swing. They could not control the foot appropriately in terminal phases, however. Increased treadmill velocity, which matched the natural PD step frequency, generated a second toe lift, normalizing step size. Levodopa increased the bandwidth of step frequencies, but was not as effective as increases in walking velocity in normalizing gait. We postulate that the inability to control step frequency and adjust swing phase dynamics to slower walking velocities are major causes for the gait impairment in PD.

  15. Quality of Life and Gait in Elderly Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taguchi, Carlos Kazuo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The process of aging could lead to seniors being more prone to falls, which affects their quality of life. Objective The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between quality of life and gait in the elderly. Methods We used World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief (WHOQOL-Brief Brazilian version and the Dynamic Gait Index to assess fifty-six volunteers from the northeast of Brazil. Ages ranged from 60 to 85 years. Results The Dynamic Gait Index, which indicates the probability of falls, resulted in 36.3% of the sample presenting abnormal results. There was correlation between domain 2 (psychological and domain 4 (environment with domain 1(Physical and domain 3 (Social; a negative correlation between age and Domain 2; correlation between Question 1 (How would you rate your quality of life? and domains 1, 2, and 4 and no correlation between questions 1 and 2 (How satisfied are you with your health?. Question 2 was correlated with all of the domains. There was negative association between question 1 and falls, and a slight correlation between the Dynamic Gait Index scores and Question 1. Conclusion The self-perception of the study group about their quality of life was either good or very good, even though a considerable percentage of individuals had suffered falls or reported gait disturbances.

  16. Analysis of foot load during ballet dancers' gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochazkova, Marketa; Tepla, Lucie; Svoboda, Zdenek; Janura, Miroslav; Cieslarová, Miloslava

    2014-01-01

    Ballet is an art that puts extreme demands on the dancer's musculoskeletal system and therefore significantly affects motor behavior of the dancers. The aim of our research was to compare plantar pressure distribution during stance phase of gait between a group of professional ballet dancers and non-dancers. Thirteen professional dancers (5 men, 8 women; mean age of 24.1 ± 3.8 years) and 13 nondancers (5 men, 8 women; mean age of 26.1 ± 5.3 years) participated in this study. Foot pressure analysis during gait was collected using a 2 m pressure plate. The participants were instructed to walk across the platform at a self-selected pace barefoot. Three gait cycles were necessary for the data analysis. The results revealed higher (p < 0.05) pressure peaks in medial edge of forefoot during gait for dancers in comparison with nondancers. Furthermore, differences in total foot loading and foot loading duration of rearfoot was higher (p < 0.05) in dancers as well. We can attribute these differences to long-term and intensive dancing exercises that can change the dancer's gait stereotype.

  17. Muscle Activation during Gait in Children with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuillerot, Carole; Tiffreau, Vincent; Peudenier, Sylviane; Cuisset, Jean-Marie; Pereon, Yann; Leboeuf, Fabien; Delporte, Ludovic; Delpierre, Yannick; Gross, Raphaël

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to investigate changes in muscle activity during gait in children with Duchenne muscular Dystrophy (DMD). Dynamic surface electromyography recordings (EMGs) of 16 children with DMD and pathological gait were compared with those of 15 control children. The activity of the rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), medial hamstrings (HS), tibialis anterior (TA) and gastrocnemius soleus (GAS) muscles was recorded and analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. The overall muscle activity in the children with DMD was significantly different from that of the control group. Percentage activation amplitudes of RF, HS and TA were greater throughout the gait cycle in the children with DMD and the timing of GAS activity differed from the control children. Significantly greater muscle coactivation was found in the children with DMD. There were no significant differences between sides. Since the motor command is normal in DMD, the hyper-activity and co-contractions likely compensate for gait instability and muscle weakness, however may have negative consequences on the muscles and may increase the energy cost of gait. Simple rehabilitative strategies such as targeted physical therapies may improve stability and thus the pattern of muscle activity. PMID:27622734

  18. Emotion recognition using Kinect motion capture data of human gaits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shun; Cui, Liqing; Zhu, Changye; Li, Baobin; Zhao, Nan; Zhu, Tingshao

    2016-01-01

    Automatic emotion recognition is of great value in many applications, however, to fully display the application value of emotion recognition, more portable, non-intrusive, inexpensive technologies need to be developed. Human gaits could reflect the walker's emotional state, and could be an information source for emotion recognition. This paper proposed a novel method to recognize emotional state through human gaits by using Microsoft Kinect, a low-cost, portable, camera-based sensor. Fifty-nine participants' gaits under neutral state, induced anger and induced happiness were recorded by two Kinect cameras, and the original data were processed through joint selection, coordinate system transformation, sliding window gauss filtering, differential operation, and data segmentation. Features of gait patterns were extracted from 3-dimentional coordinates of 14 main body joints by Fourier transformation and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The classifiers NaiveBayes, RandomForests, LibSVM and SMO (Sequential Minimal Optimization) were trained and evaluated, and the accuracy of recognizing anger and happiness from neutral state achieved 80.5% and 75.4%. Although the results of distinguishing angry and happiness states were not ideal in current study, it showed the feasibility of automatically recognizing emotional states from gaits, with the characteristics meeting the application requirements.

  19. Quality of Life and Gait in Elderly Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Carlos Kazuo; Teixeira, Jacqueline Pitanga; Alves, Lucas Vieira; Oliveira, Priscila Feliciano; Raposo, Oscar Felipe Falcão

    2015-01-01

    Introduction  The process of aging could lead to seniors being more prone to falls, which affects their quality of life. Objective  The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between quality of life and gait in the elderly. Methods  We used World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief (WHOQOL-Brief) Brazilian version and the Dynamic Gait Index to assess fifty-six volunteers from the northeast of Brazil. Ages ranged from 60 to 85 years. Results  The Dynamic Gait Index, which indicates the probability of falls, resulted in 36.3% of the sample presenting abnormal results. There was correlation between domain 2 (psychological) and domain 4 (environment) with domain 1(Physical) and domain 3 (Social); a negative correlation between age and Domain 2; correlation between Question 1 (How would you rate your quality of life?) and domains 1, 2, and 4 and no correlation between questions 1 and 2 (How satisfied are you with your health?). Question 2 was correlated with all of the domains. There was negative association between question 1 and falls, and a slight correlation between the Dynamic Gait Index scores and Question 1. Conclusion  The self-perception of the study group about their quality of life was either good or very good, even though a considerable percentage of individuals had suffered falls or reported gait disturbances. PMID:27413405

  20. Gait instability in patients with small acoustic neuroma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan; JIANG Hai-yang; GUAN Chao; JIANG Xue-jun; Ishikawa Kazuo; ZHOU Hong-wu

    2011-01-01

    Background Small acoustic neuromas seldom result in typical vestibular symptoms, despite the tumor arising from the vestibular nerve. In this study, we have shown that abnormal gait in eleven patients with small acoustic neuroma could be detected in gait analysis by the use of tactile sensor. Patients displayed no oculomotor abnormality and had tumors less than 10 mm from the porus acoustics.Methods Gait related parameters including the coefficients of variations (CV) of stance, swing, double support, area ratio of trajectories of center of force (TCOF), in addition to the foot pressure difference between both feet, were used for assessment of gait.Results The CV of swing and the area ratio of TCOF were greater in patients than those in the control group (P <0.05).The values of these two parameters became greater under an eyes closed condition compared to eyes open (P<0.05) in the patient group.Conclusion These results indicate that gait analysis may be helpful to assess vestibulospinal function of patients with small acoustic neuroma, the slight vestibular deficits of which can not be detected by visual observation.

  1. Gait analysis of elderly women after total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Aenon; Park, Junhyuck; Lee, Seungwon

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate ability and muscle activities of elderly women after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and compare them with those of healthy ones. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen female patients with TKA due to advanced degenerative arthritis of the measured on knee joint and 19 healthy elderly females participated. Tibiofemoral angles of TKA patients were using a gait analysis system anterioposterior X-rays of the weight-bearing knee. The knee flexion angle and gait parameters were measured. Muscle activities and prolongation time were EMG system. The gait of the treated limb of each participant was evaluated in three consecutive trials at fast speed and comfortable speed. [Results] The knee flexion angle %stance phase, stride length, step length, speed, cadence, and gait cycle significantly decreased at both the fast speed and comfortable speeds, and the onset and duration time of rectus femoris activity was significantly increased at the comfortable speed in the TKA group. [Conclusion] In conclusion, elderly women who received TKA showed decreased gait ability and muscle activity compared to the healthy elderly women.

  2. Effect of Interpersonal Interaction on Festinating Gait Rehabilitation in Patients with Parkinson's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Uchitomi

    Full Text Available Although human walking gait rhythms are generated by native individual gait dynamics, these gait dynamics change during interactions between humans. A typical phenomenon is synchronization of gait rhythms during cooperative walking. Our previous research revealed that fluctuation characteristics in stride interval of subjects with Parkinson's disease changed from random to 1/f fluctuation as fractal characteristics during cooperative walking with the gait assist system Walk-Mate, which emulates a human interaction using interactive rhythmic cues. Moreover, gait dynamics were relearned through Walk-Mate gait training. However, the system's clinical efficacy was unclear because the previous studies did not focus on specific gait rhythm disorder symptoms. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of Walk-Mate on festinating gait among subjects with Parkinson's disease. Three within-subject experimental conditions were used: (1 preinteraction condition, (2 interaction condition, and (3 postinteraction condition. The only difference between conditions was the interactive rhythmic cues generated by Walk-Mate. Because subjects with festinating gait gradually and involuntarily decreased their stride interval, the regression slope of stride interval as an index of severity of preinteraction festinating gait was elevated. The regression slope in the interaction condition was more gradual than during the preinteraction condition, indicating that the interactive rhythmic cues contributed to relieving festinating gait and stabilizing gait dynamics. Moreover, the gradual regression slope was carried over to the postinteraction condition, indicating that subjects with festinating gait have the potential to relearn stable gait dynamics. These results suggest that disordered gait dynamics are clinically restored through interactive rhythmic cues and that Walk-Mate may have the potential to assist therapists in more effective rehabilitation.UMIN Clinical

  3. Detecting Gait Phases from RGB-D Images Based on Hidden Markov Model

    OpenAIRE

    Heravi, Hamed; Ebrahimi, Afshin; Olyaee, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    Gait contains important information about the status of the human body and physiological signs. In many medical applications, it is important to monitor and accurately analyze the gait of the patient. Since walking shows the reproducibility signs in several phases, separating these phases can be used for the gait analysis. In this study, a method based on image processing for extracting phases of human gait from RGB-Depth images is presented. The sequence of depth images from the front view h...

  4. Perception of Gait Patterns that Deviate from Normal and Symmetric Biped Locomotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismet eHandzic

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the range of gait patterns that are perceived as healthy and human-like with the goal of understanding how much asymmetry is allowable in a gait pattern before other people start to notice a gait impairment. Specifically, this study explores if certain abnormal walking patterns can be dismissed as unimpaired or not uncanny. Altering gait biomechanics is generally done in the fields of prosthetics and rehabilitation, however the perception of gait is often neglected. Although a certain gait can be functional, it may not be considered as normal by observers. On the other hand, an abnormally perceived gait may be more practical or necessary in some situations, such as limping after an injury or stroke and when wearing a prosthesis. This research will help to find the balance between the form and function of gait. Gait patterns are synthetically created using a passive dynamic walker (PDW model that allows gait patterns to be systematically changed without the confounding influence from human sensorimotor feedback during walking. This standardized method allows the perception of specific changes in gait to be studied. The PDW model was used to produce walking patterns that showed a degree of abnormality in gait cadence, knee height, step length, and swing time created by changing the foot roll-over-shape, knee damping, knee location, and leg masses. The gait patterns were shown to participants who rated them according to separate scales of impairment and uncanniness. The results indicate that some pathological and asymmetric gait patterns are perceived as unimpaired and normal. Step time and step length asymmetries less than 5%, small knee location differences, and gait cadence changes of 25% do not result in a change in perception. The results also show that the parameters of a pathologically or uncanny perceived gait can be beneficially altered by increasing other independent parameters, in some sense masking the initial

  5. Effects of therapeutic horse riding on gait cycle parameters and some aspects of behavior of children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, H; Kertesz, Zs

    2015-09-01

    We studied effects of therapeutic riding on the development of children with autism. Experiments in walking is appropriate for assessing the coordination of movement and for following the changes. We found that therapeutic riding should be considered as a new form of rehabilitation. Twenty-six pupils (12 boys and 14 girls) of a special needs school participated in therapeutic riding. We analyzed walking twice during a school-term: full body analyses each time before and after one-month therapy. The research included a non-riding control group. All together 104 analyses were performed. We measured mental skills using Pedagogical Analysis and Curriculum (PAC) test consisting of four parts being communication, self care, motor skills and socialization. The Gait Cycle Analysis consists of the time-series analysis, the analysis of part of the gait cycle and the measurement of joint angles in each plane. We found significant differences between before and after the therapy in the length of the gait cycle that became more stable in the sagital plane and concluded that our results proved that horse therapy may be successfully used as an additional therapy for children with autism, and it may be a form of rehabilitation in cases when other therapies are not successful.

  6. Consistency of trace norm minimization

    CERN Document Server

    Bach, Francis

    2007-01-01

    Regularization by the sum of singular values, also referred to as the trace norm, is a popular technique for estimating low rank rectangular matrices. In this paper, we extend some of the consistency results of the Lasso to provide necessary and sufficient conditions for rank consistency of trace norm minimization with the square loss. We also provide an adaptive version that is rank consistent even when the necessary condition for the non adaptive version is not fulfilled.

  7. High SNR Consistent Compressive Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Kallummil, Sreejith; Kalyani, Sheetal

    2017-01-01

    High signal to noise ratio (SNR) consistency of model selection criteria in linear regression models has attracted a lot of attention recently. However, most of the existing literature on high SNR consistency deals with model order selection. Further, the limited literature available on the high SNR consistency of subset selection procedures (SSPs) is applicable to linear regression with full rank measurement matrices only. Hence, the performance of SSPs used in underdetermined linear models ...

  8. Effect of Task Specific Exercises, Gait Training, and Visual Biofeedback on Equinovarus Gait among Individuals with Stroke: Randomized Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Elsayed Khallaf

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose. Equinovarus foot is a common sign after stroke. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of task specific exercises, gait training, and visual biofeedback on correcting equinovarus gait among individuals with stroke. Subjects and Methods. Sixteen subjects with ischemic stroke were randomly assigned to two equal groups (G1 and G2. All the patients were at stage 4 of motor recovery of foot according to Chedoke-McMaster Stroke Assessment without any cognitive dysfunction. E-med pedography was used to measure contact time, as well as force underneath hind and forefoot during walking. Outcome measures were collected before randomization, one week after the last session, and four weeks later. Participants in G1 received task specific exercises, gait training, and visual biofeedback and a traditional physical therapy program was applied for participants in G2 for 8 weeks. Results. Significant improvement was observed among G1 patients (P≤0.05 which lasts one month after therapy termination. On the other hand, there were no significant differences between measurements of the participants in G2. Between groups comparison also revealed a significant improvement in G1 with long lasting effect. Conclusion. The results of this study showed a positive long lasting effect of the task specific exercises, gait training, and visual biofeedback on equinovarus gait pattern among individuals with stroke.

  9. Gait pattern in myotonic dystrophy (Steinert disease): a kinematic, kinetic and EMG evaluation using 3D gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Manuela; Cimolin, Veronica; Crugnola, Veronica; Priano, Lorenzo; Menegoni, Francesco; Trotti, Claudio; Milano, Eva; Mauro, Alessandro

    2012-03-15

    We investigated the gait pattern of 10 patients with myotonic dystrophy (Steinert disease; 4 females, 6 males; age: 41.5+7.6 years), compared to 20 healthy controls, through manual muscle test and gait analysis, in terms of kinematic, kinetic and EMG data. In most of patients (80%) distal muscle groups were weaker than proximal ones. Weakness at lower limbs was in general moderate to severe and MRC values evidenced a significant correlation between tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius medialis (R=0.91). An overall observation of gait pattern in patients when compared to controls showed that most spatio-temporal parameters (velocity, step length and cadence) were significantly different. As concerns kinematics, patients' pelvic tilt was globally in a higher position than control group, with reduced hip extension ability in stance phase and limited range of motion; 60% of the limbs revealed knee hyperextension during midstance and ankle joints showed a quite physiological position at initial contact and higher dorsiflexion during stance phase if compared to healthy individuals. Kinetic plots evidenced higher hip power during loading response and lower ankle power generation in terminal stance. The main EMG abnormalities were seen in tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius medialis muscles. In this study gait analysis gives objective and quantitative information about the gait pattern and the deviations due to the muscular situation of these patients; these results are important from a clinical point of view and suggest that rehabilitation programs for them should take these findings into account.

  10. Effect of arm swing strategy on local dynamic stability of human gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt, Michiel; Bruijn, Sjoerd; Wittink, Harriët; Dieen, Jaap van

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Falling causes long term disability and can even lead to death. Most falls occur during gait. Therefore improving gait stability might be beneficial for people at risk of falling. Recently arm swing has been shown to influence gait stability. However at present it remains unknown which

  11. Frequencies of initial gait disturbances and falls in 100 Wilson's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzieżyc, Karolina; Litwin, Tomasz; Chabik, Grzegorz; Członkowska, Anna

    2015-10-01

    Wilson's disease (WD) is an inherited copper metabolism disorder. Gait disturbances may present with both extrapyramidal and cerebellar patterns. The frequencies of particular types of gait abnormalities have not been established; thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the occurrence of initial gait disturbances among our neurological WD patients. We analyzed 103 WD patients with neurological features at the time of diagnosis, between 2005 and 2014. The neurological and gait assessments were based on the Unified Wilson's Disease Score Scale (UWDRS), from which, we distinguished three main patterns of gait: dystonic, ataxic, or Parkinsonian. All types of gait impairment were assessed using four stages of severity (0=normal, 4=severe). We also obtained each patient's history of falls. Three patients had severe dystonia of limbs and were unable to stand or walk. Gait abnormalities were noted in 59% (59/100) of the remaining group of patients. The most common observed pattern was ataxic gait (45%; 27/59), which presented as impaired tandem in most cases. A mixed gait impairment was observed in 25% (15/59) of patients (ataxic, dystonic, and Parkinsonian, n=8; ataxic and Parkinsonian, n=7), a Parkinsonian gait in 18% (11/59), and a dystonic gait in 10% (6/59) of patients. Falls were noted in 35% of patients, but were occasionally observed in most cases. Gait disturbances are frequent in WD, and reflect the involvement of many brain structures.

  12. Cueing training in the home improves gait-related mobility in Parkinson's disease: the RESCUE trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwboer, A.; Kwakkel, G.; Rochester, L.; Jones, D.; Wegen, E. van; Willems, A.M.; Chavret, F.; Hetherington, V.; Baker, K.; Lim, I.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Gait and mobility problems are difficult to treat in people with Parkinson's disease. The Rehabilitation in Parkinson's Disease: Strategies for Cueing (RESCUE) trial investigated the effects of a home physiotherapy programme based on rhythmical cueing on gait and gait-related activity. M

  13. Quantifying gait quality in patients with large-head and conventional total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten; Penny, Jeannette Østergaard; Nielsen, Dennis Brandborg;

    2015-01-01

    We used the Gait Deviation Index (GDI) as method to compare preoperative to postoperative gait changes after uncemented 50mm(median) large-head and 28/32mmtotal hip arthroplasty (THA). We also identified predictors of improvements in GDI. Gait analysis and patient-reported (WOMAC) datawere record...

  14. Gait variability in people with neurological disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Yaejin; Sung, JongHun; An, Ruopeng; Hernandez, Manuel E; Sosnoff, Jacob J

    2016-06-01

    There has been growing evidence showing gait variability provides unique information about gait characteristics in neurological disorders. This study systemically reviewed and quantitatively synthesized (via meta-analysis) existing evidence on gait variability in various neurological diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), cerebellar ataxia (CA), Huntington's disease (HD), multiple sclerosis (MS), and Parkinson's disease (PD). Keyword search were conducted in PubMed, Web of science, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and Cochrane Library. Meta-analysis was performed to estimate the pooled effect size for gait variability for each neurological group. Meta-regression was performed to compare gait variability across multiple groups with neurological diseases. Gait variability of 777 patients with AD, ALS, CA, HD, MS, or PD participating in 25 studies was included in meta-analysis. All pathological groups had increased amount of gait variability and loss of fractal structure of gait dynamics compared to healthy controls, and gait variability differentiated distinctive neurological conditions. The HD groups had the highest alterations in gait variability among all pathological groups, whereas the PD, AD and MS groups had the lowest. Interventions that aim to improve gait function in patients with neurological disorders should consider the heterogeneous relationship between gait variability and neurological conditions.

  15. Gait pattern differences between children with mild scoliosis and children with unilateral cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagalska-Szopa, Małgorzata; Szopa, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of asymmetrical body posture alone, i.e., the effects seen in children with mild scoliosis, vs. the effects of body posture control impairment, i.e., those seen in children with unilateral cerebral palsy on gait patterns. Three-dimensional instrumented gait analysis (3DGA) was conducted in 45 children with hemiplegia and 51 children with mild scoliosis. All the children were able to walk without assistance devices. A set of 35 selected spatiotemporal gait and kinematics parameters were evaluated when subjects walked on a treadmill. A cluster analysis revealed 3 different gait patterns: a scoliotic gait pattern and 2 different hemiplegic gait patterns. The results showed that the discrepancy in gait patterns was not simply a lower limb kinematic deviation in the sagittal plane, as expected. Additional altered kinematics, such as pelvic misorientation in the coronal plane in both the stance and swing phases and inadequate stance phase hip ad/abduction, which resulted from postural pattern features, were distinguished between the 3 gait patterns. Our study provides evidence for a strong correlation between postural and gait patterns in children with unilateral cerebral palsy. Information on differences in gait patterns may be used to improve the guidelines for early therapy for children with hemiplegia before abnormal gait patterns are fully established. The gait pathology characteristic of scoliotic children is a potential new direction for treating scoliosis that complements the standard posture and walking control therapy exercises with the use of biofeedback.

  16. Gait pattern differences between children with mild scoliosis and children with unilateral cerebral palsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Domagalska-Szopa

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of asymmetrical body posture alone, i.e., the effects seen in children with mild scoliosis, vs. the effects of body posture control impairment, i.e., those seen in children with unilateral cerebral palsy on gait patterns. Three-dimensional instrumented gait analysis (3DGA was conducted in 45 children with hemiplegia and 51 children with mild scoliosis. All the children were able to walk without assistance devices. A set of 35 selected spatiotemporal gait and kinematics parameters were evaluated when subjects walked on a treadmill. A cluster analysis revealed 3 different gait patterns: a scoliotic gait pattern and 2 different hemiplegic gait patterns. The results showed that the discrepancy in gait patterns was not simply a lower limb kinematic deviation in the sagittal plane, as expected. Additional altered kinematics, such as pelvic misorientation in the coronal plane in both the stance and swing phases and inadequate stance phase hip ad/abduction, which resulted from postural pattern features, were distinguished between the 3 gait patterns. Our study provides evidence for a strong correlation between postural and gait patterns in children with unilateral cerebral palsy. Information on differences in gait patterns may be used to improve the guidelines for early therapy for children with hemiplegia before abnormal gait patterns are fully established. The gait pathology characteristic of scoliotic children is a potential new direction for treating scoliosis that complements the standard posture and walking control therapy exercises with the use of biofeedback.

  17. A Review of Balance and Gait Capacities in Relation to Falls in Persons with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkelaar, Lotte; Smulders, Ellen; van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, Henny; Geurts, Alexander C. H.; Weerdesteyn, Vivian

    2012-01-01

    Limitations in mobility are common in persons with intellectual disabilities (ID). As balance and gait capacities are key aspects of mobility, the prevalence of balance and gait problems is also expected to be high in this population. The objective of this study was to critically review the available literature on balance and gait characteristics…

  18. Objective detection of subtle freezing of gait episodes in Parkinson's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delval, A.; Snijders, A.H.; Weerdesteijn, V.G.M.; Duysens, J.E.J.; Defebvre, L.; Giladi, N.; Bloem, B.R.

    2010-01-01

    Freezing of gait (FOG) is a clinically defined phenomenon of Parkinson's disease (PD). Recent evidence suggests that subtle FOG episodes can be elicited in a gait laboratory using suddenly appearing obstacles during treadmill walking. We evaluated which quantitative gait parameters identify such sub

  19. Analysis of gait using a treadmill and a Time-of-flight camera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Larsen, Rasmus

    2009-01-01

    We present a system that analyzes human gait using a treadmill and a Time-of-flight camera. The camera provides spatial data with local intensity measures of the scene, and data are collected over several gait cycles. These data are then used to model and analyze the gait. For each frame...

  20. Analysis of Gait Pattern to Recognize the Human Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Prakash Gupta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Human activity recognition based on the computer vision is the process of labelling image sequences with action labels. Accurate systems for this problem are applied in areas such as visual surveillance, human computer interaction and video retrieval. The challenges are due to variations in motion, recording settings and gait differences. Here we propose an approach to recognize the human activities through gait. Activity recognition through Gait is the process of identifying an activity by the manner in which they walk. The identification of human activities in a video, such as a person is walking, running, jumping, jogging etc are important activities in video surveillance. We contribute the use of Model based approach for activity recognition with the help of movement of legs only. Experimental results suggest that our method are able to recognize the human activities with a good accuracy rate and robust to shadows present in the videos.

  1. Gait variability and motor control in people with knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkjaer, Tine; Raffalt, Peter C; Dalsgaard, Helle

    2015-01-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a common disease that impairs walking ability and function. We compared the temporal gait variability and motor control in people with knee OA with healthy controls. The purpose was to test the hypothesis that the temporal gait variability would reflect a more...... fluctuation analysis. The motor control was assessed by the soleus (SO) Hoffmann (H)-reflex modulation and muscle co-activation during walking. The results showed no statistically significant mean group differences in any of the gait variability measures or muscle co-activation levels. The SO H......-reflex amplitude was significantly higher in the knee OA group around heel strike when compared with the controls. The mean group difference in the H-reflex in the initial part of the stance phase (control-knee OA) was -6.6% Mmax (95% CI: -10.4 to -2.7, p=0.041). The present OA group reported relatively small...

  2. Online gait programming of humanoid walking via NMPC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Zhi-bin; WANG Yan; CHEN Xing-lin

    2010-01-01

    In order to satisfy the requirement of realtime gait programming of humanoid walking with foot rotation,a kind of modified Nonlinear Model Predictive Control(NMPC)scheme was proposed.Based on setting suitable kinetic and kinematic virtual constraints of Single Support Phase(SSP)and three subphases of Double Support Phase(DSP),complex realtime gait programming problem was simplified to four online NMPC dynamic optimization problems.A numerical approach was proposed to transform the dynamical optimization problem to the finite dimensional static optimization problem which can be solved by Sequential Quadratic Programming(SQP).It can be concluded from simulation that using this method on BIP model can realize online gait programming of dynamic walking with foot rotation and the biped stability can be satisfied such that there is no sliding during walking.

  3. Regional neuromuscular regulation within human rectus femoris muscle during gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kohei; Kouzaki, Motoki; Moritani, Toshio

    2014-11-01

    The spatial distribution pattern of neuromuscular activation within the human rectus femoris (RF) muscle was investigated during gait by multi-channel surface electromyography (surface EMG). Eleven healthy men walked on a treadmill with three gait speeds (4, 5, and 6 km/h) and gradients (0°, 12.5°, and 25°). The spatial distribution of surface EMG was tested by central locus activation (CLA), which is calculated from 2-D multi-channel surface EMG with 46 surface electrodes. For all conditions, CLA was around the middle regions during the swing-to-stance transition and moved in a proximal direction during the stance phase and stance-to-swing transition (pphase significantly moved to proximal site with increasing gait speed (pphases, with increasing grade, CLA significantly moved distally (pgait cycle and is non-uniformly regulated longitudinally.

  4. A wearable walking monitoring system for gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Tsung-Han; Tsai, An-Chih; Chang, Cha-Wei; Ho, Ka-Hou; Hsu, Wei-Li; Lin, Ta-Te

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, both hardware and software design to develop a wearable walking monitoring system for gait analysis are presented. For hardware, the mechanism proposed is adaptive to different individuals to wear, and the portability of the design makes it easy to perform outdoor experiments. Four force sensors and two angle displacement sensors were used to measure plantar force distribution and the angles of hip and knee joints. For software design, a novel algorithm was developed to detect different gait phases and the four gait periods during the stance phase. Furthermore, the center of ground contact force was calculated based on the relationships of the force sensors. The results were compared with the VICON motion capture system and a force plate for validation. Experiments showed the behavior of the joint angles are similar to VICON system, and the average error in foot strike time is less than 90 ms.

  5. Active Shape Model-Based Gait Recognition Using Infrared Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daehee Kim

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a gait recognition system using infra-red (IR images. Since an IR camera is not affected by the intensity of illumination, it is able to provide constant recognition performance regardless of the amount of illumination. Model-based object tracking algorithms enable robust tracking with partial occlusions or dynamic illumination. However, this algorithm often fails in tracking objects if strong edge exists near the object. Replacementof the input image by an IR image guarantees robust object region extraction because background edges do not affect the IR image. In conclusion, the proposed gait recognition algorithm improves accuracy in object extraction by using IR images and the improvementsfinally increase the recognition rate of gaits.

  6. Analysis of Gait Disturbance in Glut 1 Deficiency Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenschine, Michelle; Montes, Jacqueline; Rao, Ashwini K; Engelstad, Kristin; De Vivo, Darryl C

    2016-11-01

    Anticipating potential therapies for Glut 1 deficiency syndrome (Glut1DS) emphasizes the need for effective clinical outcome measures. The 6-minute walk test is a well-established outcome measure that evaluates walking ability in neurological diseases. Twenty-one children with Glut 1 deficiency syndrome and 21 controls performed the 6-minute walk test. Fatigue was determined by comparing distance walked in the first and sixth minutes. Gait was analyzed by stride length, velocity, cadence, base of support, and percentage time in double support. Independent sample t-tests examined differences between group. Repeated-measures analysis of variance evaluated gait parameters over time. Glut 1 deficiency syndrome patients walked less (P Glut 1 deficiency syndrome patients have impaired motor performance, walk more slowly, and have poor balance. The 6-minute walk test with gait analysis may serve as a useful outcome measure in clinical trials in Glut 1 deficiency syndrome.

  7. Gait impairment in neurological disorders: a new technological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semprini, Roberta; Sale, Patrizio; Foti, Calogero; Fini, Massimo; Franceschini, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Gait recovery is considered one of the main objectives of rehabilitation interventions in neurological disabilities, as restricted movement can significantly reduce an individual's ability to take part in normal activities of daily living. Locomotor training has been shown to improve gait rehabilitation. Studies have recently been published on the use of robots and other devices in patients with gait disabilities, particularly in the rehabilitation of the lower limbs. However, analysis of the recent literature reveals a relative paucity of strong methodological studies. The evidence that is available, while strong, is not yet sufficient to allow definite conclusions to be drawn regarding the efficacy of these devices. From these considerations, it is clear that validated and standardized methods need to be adopted for each of the different systems available. This would help to clarify the indications for and correct use of robotic devices in the different neurological disorders.

  8. Bracing of the trunk and neck has a differential effect on head control during gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, S; Russell, D M; Kelleran, K; Walker, M L

    2015-09-01

    During gait, the trunk and neck are believed to play an important role in dissipating the transmission of forces from the ground to the head. This attenuation process is important to ensure head control is maintained. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of externally restricting the motion of the trunk and/or neck segments on acceleration patterns of the upper body and head and related trunk muscle activity. Twelve healthy adults performed three walking trials on a flat, straight 65-m walkway, under four different bracing conditions: 1) control-no brace; 2) neck-braced; 3) trunk-braced; and 4) neck-trunk braced. Three-dimensional acceleration from the head, neck (C7) and lower trunk (L3) were collected, as was muscle activity from trunk. Results revealed that, when the neck and/or trunk were singularly braced, an overall decrease in the ability of the trunk to attenuate gait-related oscillations was observed, which led to increases in the amplitude of vertical acceleration for all segments. However, when the trunk and neck were braced together, acceleration amplitude across all segments decreased in line with increased attenuation from the neck to the head. Bracing was also reflected by increased activity in erector spinae, decreased abdominal muscle activity and lower trunk muscle coactivation. Overall, it would appear that the neuromuscular system of young, healthy individuals was able to maintain a consistent pattern of head acceleration, irrespective of the level of bracing, and that priority was placed over the control of vertical head accelerations during these gait tasks. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Differences in hip-knee joint coupling during gait after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribbin, Timothy C; Slater, Lindsay V; Herb, C Collin; Hart, Joseph M; Chapman, Ryan M; Hertel, Jay; Kuenze, Christopher M

    2016-02-01

    After anterior cruciate ligament injury, patients have increased risk for developing degenerative osteoarthritis, potentially due to the kinematic changes that persist after surgical reconstruction. Current research only describes single joint kinematic differences rather than the way in which two joints behave concurrently, termed joint coupling. The purpose of this study was to compare knee motion relative to hip motion in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed and healthy limbs during walking and jogging. Thirty-seven recreationally active volunteers (22 reconstructed, 15 healthy) walked and jogged at 4.83 km/h and 9.66 km/h respectively. Vector coding methods were used to calculate stride-to-stride variability, magnitude, and vector angle of 6 joint couples during walking and jogging: hip frontal-knee frontal planes, hip frontal-knee sagittal, hip frontal-knee transverse, hip sagittal-knee frontal, hip sagittal-knee transverse, and hip transverse-knee frontal planes. The hip sagittal-knee frontal and hip sagittal-knee transverse joint couples had decreased variability during mid-stance, and all other couples had increased variability during the stance phase in the reconstructed group. The reconstructed group had decreased magnitude of joint excursion in the hip frontal-knee sagittal couple during all phases of gait during walking. Vector angles of the hip frontal-knee transverse couple increased in the reconstructed group during the loading, middle, and terminal stance phases, and swing phase of gait during walking. The increased variability and decreased magnitude of joint excursion indicate that movement patterns were less consistent during walking gait despite employing a more constrained system during movement in the reconstructed limb compared to healthy controls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Modulation of anticipatory postural adjustments of gait using a portable powered ankle-foot orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucci, Matthew N; MacKinnon, Colum D; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T

    2013-06-01

    Prior to taking a step, properly coordinated anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) are generated to control posture and balance as the body is propelled forward. External cues (audio, visual, somatosensory) have been shown to facilitate gait initiation by improving the magnitude and timing of APAs in Parkinson's disease (PD), but the efficacy of these cueing strategies has been limited by their inability to produce the forces required to generate an appropriate APA. To date, mechanical cueing paradigms have been relatively underexplored. Using healthy young adults, we investigated the use of a portable powered ankle-foot orthosis (PPAFO) to provide a modest torque at the ankle as a mechanical cue to initiate gait. Subjects were instructed to initiate gait in five test conditions: (1) self-initiated in running shoes [baseline-shoe], (2) self-initiated trial in unpowered passive PPAFO [baseline-passive], (3) with acoustic go-cue in passive PPAFO [acoustic-passive], (4) acoustic go-cue and simultaneous mechanical assist from powered PPAFO [acoustic-assist], and (5) mechanical assist cue only [assist]. APA characteristics were quantified using ground reaction force (GRF), center of pressure (COP), and electromyography (EMG) data. Mechanical cueing significantly increased medial-lateral COP and GRF peak amplitude, and decreased GRF time to peak amplitude, COP and GRF onset times, and time to toe off. Mechanical cueing conditions also demonstrated consistent bimodal EMG behaviors across all subjects. Overall, these data suggest that the mechanical assist from the PPAFO can significantly improve APA timing parameters and increase APA force production in healthy young adults.

  11. Multi-scale complexity analysis of muscle coactivation during gait in children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen eTao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to characterize complexity of lower-extremity muscle coactivation and coordination during gait in children with cerebral palsy (CP, children with typical development (TD and healthy adults, by applying recently developed multivariate multi-scale entropy (MMSE analysis to surface EMG signals. Eleven CP children (CP group, eight TD children and seven healthy adults (consider as an entire control group were asked to walk while surface EMG signals were collected from 5 thigh muscles and 3 lower leg muscles on each leg (16 EMG channels in total. The 16-channel surface EMG data, recorded during a series of consecutive gait cycles, were simultaneously processed by multivariate empirical mode decomposition (MEMD, to generate fully aligned data scales for subsequent MMSE analysis. In order to conduct extensive examination of muscle coactivation complexity using the MEMD-enhanced MMSE, 14 data analysis schemes were designed by varying partial muscle combinations and time durations of data segments. Both TD children and healthy adults showed almost consistent MMSE curves over multiple scales for all the 14 schemes, without any significant difference (p > 0.09. However, quite diversity in MMSE curve was observed in the CP group when compared with those in the control group. There appears to be diverse neuropathological processes in CP that may affect dynamical complexity of muscle coactivation and coordination during gait. The abnormal complexity patterns emerging in CP group can be attributed to different factors such as motor control impairments, loss of muscle couplings, and spasticity or paralysis in individual muscles. All these findings expand our knowledge of neuropathology of CP from a novel point of view of muscle co-activation complexity, also indicating the potential to derive a quantitative index for assessing muscle activation characteristics as well as motor function in CP.

  12. GAIT VARIATION IN PATIENTS WITH KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS: A CONTROLLED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayalath J.L.R

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis is one of the most common chronic diseases which increase the individual’s disability and affects the patients gait as the disease progress. Thus identifying the changes in gait variables in knee osteoarthritis patients is important. Objectives: To compare the gait variables such as walking velocity, cadence, step length, walking base, and single support time, in both control group of people and in the disease group. Method: This descriptive cross sectional study conducted at physical therapy department National Hospital Sri Lanka. 120 participants were included for the study if they fulfill the inclusion criteria. The participants were divided in to Osteoarthritis and a control group. A walk way was used to collect data from the subjects. Participants were asked to walk once in a single direction in the walkway in their normal speed. Results: The group of females with knee osteoarthritis had significant levels between means of single support time, step length, walking velocity and cadence. Males with osteoarthritis showed significance in walking velocity. Healthy males and females showed a significant gait variation in step length and walking velocity. Osteoarthritis has an effect on the group of patients compared to healthy females. The single support time (15.62%, step length (8.5%, walking velocity (15.19% and cadence (9.25% showed reductions in gait parameters. Males with osteoarthritis showed a significant reduction in walking velocity (10.91%. Females with osteoarthritis has reduce single support time, step length, walking velocity and cadence and increase walking base compared to healthy control group of females. In the comparison among males, males with osteoarthritis have reduced step length, walking velocity, cadence and walking base but have same single support time, compared to healthy control group of males Conclusion: Osteoarthritis shows different patterns of affection in gait between genders.

  13. Normalisation of gait EMGs: a re-examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, A M; Trew, M; Baltzopoulos, V

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare four different methods of normalising electromyograms (EMGs) recorded during normal gait. Comparisons were made between the amplitude, intra-individual variability and inter-individual variability of EMGs. Surface EMGs were recorded from the biceps femoris, semitendinosus, vastus lateralis and vastus medialis of ten males and two females while they walked on a treadmill at a self-selected speed. EMGs from the same muscles were subsequently recorded during isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) and concentric, isokinetic MVCs that were performed between 0.52 and 7.85 rad x s(-1) on a BIODEX dynamometer. EMGs were also recorded during eccentric, isokinetic MVCs between 0.52 and 2.62 rad x s(-1). Gait EMGs were then normalised at 2% intervals of the gait cycle by expressing them as a percentage of the following reference values: the mean (mean dynamic method) and the peak (peak dynamic method) EMG from the intra-individual ensemble average; the EMG from an isometric MVC (isometric MVC method); and the EMG from an isokinetic MVC that occurred with the same muscle action, length and velocity of musculotendinous unit as the gait EMGs (isokinetic MVC method). The isokinetic MVC method produced significantly greater (PMVC method. The pattern and amplitude of EMGs normalised using the isometric MVC method and the isokinetic MVC method were very similar (root mean square difference and absolute difference both less than 3%). It was concluded that the isokinetic MVC method should not be adopted by gait researchers or clinicians as it does not reduce intra- or inter-individual variability anymore than existing normalisation methods, nor does it provide a more representative measure of muscle activation during gait than the isometric MVC method.

  14. Gait speed and related factors in Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paker, Nurdan; Bugdayci, Derya; Goksenoglu, Goksen; Demircioğlu, Demet Tekdöş; Kesiktas, Nur; Ince, Nurhan

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between gait speed and various factors in ambulatory patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease. [Subjects] Fifty ambulatory patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease who were admitted to an outpatient clinic were included in this cross-sectional study. [Methods] The Hoehn and Yahr Scale was used for measurement of the disease severity. Gait speed was measured by the 10-Meter Walk Test. Mobility status was assessed by Timed Up and Go Test. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used for evaluation of emotional state. Cognitive status was examined with the Mini-Mental State Examination. The Downton Index was used for fall risk assessment. Balance was evaluated with the Berg Balance Scale. Comorbidity was measured with the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale. The 36-Item Short Form Health Survey was completed for measurement of quality of life. [Results] The mean age was 66.7 (47–83) years. Twenty-eight (56%) patients were men. Gait speed was correlated positively with height, male gender, Mini-Mental Examination score, Berg Balance Scale score and physical summary scores of the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey. On the other hand, there was a negative correlation between gait speed and age, disease severity, TUG time, Downton Index, fear of falling, previous falls and the anxiety and depression scores of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. There was no correlation between gait speed and comorbidity. [Conclusion] The factors related with the slower gait speed are, elder age, clinically advanced disease, poor mobility, fear of falling, falling history, higher falling risk, and mood disorder. PMID:26834330

  15. Objective assessment of gait in xylazine-induced ataxic horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nout-Lomas, Y S; Page, K M; Kang, H G; Aanstoos, M E; Greene, H M

    2017-05-01

    There is poor agreement between observers of equine neurological gait abnormalities using the modified Mayhew grading scale. To stimulate a dose-dependent ataxia in horses through xylazine administration and identify quantifiable relevant gait parameters. Balanced, randomised, 2-way crossover design. Eight horses were assessed before and after administration of xylazine (low dose and high dose). Gait analyses performed before and after xylazine administration included: 1) kinematic data collected on an equine high-speed treadmill (flat and 10% decline) and from accelerometers placed on head and sacrum; and 2) kinetic data collected on a force plate. All horses developed dose-dependent ataxia. Horses developed a dose-dependent increased stride time, stride length, and time of contact (Pwalked on the treadmill, this movement decreased when walking over ground after administration of xylazine (P<0.05). Furthermore, centre of pressure and path length indices changed significantly in horses following administration of xylazine (P<0.05). This study examined one breed of horse (Arabian), all of similar height and weight. Accelerometers were attached to skin, not bone; no correction was made for artefacts from skin displacement. The sedative drug effect is of certain duration, limiting the data collection period. Administration of xylazine induced a dose-dependent ataxia in horses and resulted in significant changes of gait parameters, pelvic accelerations, and stabilographic variables, some of which changed in a dose-dependent fashion. Some of the altered gait parameters in this model were probably a result of overall slowing down of the stride cycle secondary to the sedative effect. Continued efforts to discover and evaluate quantifiable gait parameters that are susceptible to change following development of clinical neurological disease in horses is warranted. © 2016 EVJ Ltd.

  16. Gait post-stroke: Pathophysiology and rehabilitation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyaert, C; Vasa, R; Frykberg, G E

    2015-11-01

    We reviewed neural control and biomechanical description of gait in both non-disabled and post-stroke subjects. In addition, we reviewed most of the gait rehabilitation strategies currently in use or in development and observed their principles in relation to recent pathophysiology of post-stroke gait. In both non-disabled and post-stroke subjects, motor control is organized on a task-oriented basis using a common set of a few muscle modules to simultaneously achieve body support, balance control, and forward progression during gait. Hemiparesis following stroke is due to disruption of descending neural pathways, usually with no direct lesion of the brainstem and cerebellar structures involved in motor automatic processes. Post-stroke, improvements of motor activities including standing and locomotion are variable but are typically characterized by a common postural behaviour which involves the unaffected side more for body support and balance control, likely in response to initial muscle weakness of the affected side. Various rehabilitation strategies are regularly used or in development, targeting muscle activity, postural and gait tasks, using more or less high-technology equipment. Reduced walking speed often improves with time and with various rehabilitation strategies, but asymmetric postural behaviour during standing and walking is often reinforced, maintained, or only transitorily decreased. This asymmetric compensatory postural behaviour appears to be robust, driven by support and balance tasks maintaining the predominant use of the unaffected side over the initially impaired affected side. Based on these elements, stroke rehabilitation including affected muscle strengthening and often stretching would first need to correct the postural asymmetric pattern by exploiting postural automatic processes in various particular motor tasks secondarily beneficial to gait.

  17. Gait patterns in Prader-Willi and Down syndrome patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albertini Giorgio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prader-Willi (PWS and Down Syndrome (DS are two genetic disorders characterised by some common clinical and functional features. A quantitative description and comparison of their patterns would contribute to a deeper understanding of the determinants of motor disability in these two syndromes. The aim of this study was to measure gait pattern in PWS and DS in order to provide data for developing evidence-based deficit-specific or common rehabilitation strategies. Methods 19 PWS patients (17.7-40 yr and 21 DS patients (18-39 yr were evaluated with an optoelectronic system and force platforms for measuring kinematic and kinetic parameters during walking. The results were compared with those obtained in a group of normal-weight controls (Control Group: CG; 33.4 + 9.6 yr. Results and Discussion The results show that PWS and DS are characterised by different gait strategies. Spatio-temporal parameters indicated a cautious, abnormal gait in both groups, but DS walked with a less stable strategy than PWS. As for kinematics, DS showed a significantly reduced hip and knee flexion, especially at initial contact and ankle range of motion than PWS. DS were characterised by lower ranges of motion (p Conclusions Our data show that DS walk with a less physiological gait pattern than PWS. Based on our results, PWS and DS patients need targeted rehabilitation and exercise prescription. Common to both groups is the aim to improve hypotonia, muscle strength and motor control during gait. In DS, improving pelvis and hip range of motion should represent a major specific goal to optimize gait pattern.

  18. Gait planning for a quadruped robot with one faulty actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xianbao; Gao, Feng; Qi, Chenkun; Tian, Xinghua

    2015-01-01

    Fault tolerance is essential for quadruped robots when they work in remote areas or hazardous environments. Many fault-tolerant gaits planning method proposed in the past decade constrained more degrees of freedom(DOFs) of a robot than necessary. Thus a novel method to realize the fault-tolerant walking is proposed. The mobility of the robot is analyzed first by using the screw theory. The result shows that the translation of the center of body(CoB) can be kept with one faulty actuator if the rotations of the body are controlled. Thus the DOFs of the robot body are divided into two parts: the translation of the CoB and the rotation of the body. The kinematic model of the whole robot is built, the algorithm is developed to actively control the body orientations at the velocity level so that the planned CoB trajectory can be realized in spite of the constraint of the faulty actuator. This gait has a similar generation sequence with the normal gait and can be applied to the robot at any position. Simulations and experiments of the fault-tolerant gait with one faulty actuator are carried out. The CoB errors and the body rotation angles are measured. Comparing to the traditional fault-tolerant gait they can be reduced by at least 50%. A fault-tolerant gait planning algorithm is presented, which not only realizes the walking of a quadruped robot with a faulty actuator, but also efficiently improves the walking performances by taking full advantage of the remaining operational actuators according to the results of the simulations and experiments.

  19. Gait Planning for a Quadruped Robot with One Faulty Actuator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xianbao; GAO Feng; QI Chenkun; TIAN Xinghua

    2015-01-01

    Fault tolerance is essential for quadruped robots when they work in remote areas or hazardous environments. Many fault-tolerant gaits planning method proposed in the past decade constrained more degrees of freedom(DOFs) of a robot than necessary. Thus a novel method to realize the fault-tolerant walking is proposed. The mobility of the robot is analyzed first by using the screw theory. The result shows that the translation of the center of body(CoB) can be kept with one faulty actuator if the rotations of the body are controlled. Thus the DOFs of the robot body are divided into two parts:the translation of the CoB and the rotation of the body. The kinematic model of the whole robot is built, the algorithm is developed to actively control the body orientations at the velocity level so that the planned CoB trajectory can be realized in spite of the constraint of the faulty actuator. This gait has a similar generation sequence with the normal gait and can be applied to the robot at any position. Simulations and experiments of the fault-tolerant gait with one faulty actuator are carried out. The CoB errors and the body rotation angles are measured. Comparing to the traditional fault-tolerant gait they can be reduced by at least 50%. A fault-tolerant gait planning algorithm is presented, which not only realizes the walking of a quadruped robot with a faulty actuator, but also efficiently improves the walking performances by taking full advantage of the remaining operational actuators according to the results of the simulations and experiments.

  20. Effect of Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation on Hemiplegic Gait Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yoon-Kyum; Chong, Hyun Ju

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of our study was to investigate the effect of gait training with rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) on both kinematic and temporospatial gait patterns in patients with hemiplegia. Materials and Methods Eighteen hemiplegic patients diagnosed with either cerebral palsy or stroke participated in this study. All participants underwent the 4-week gait training with RAS. The treatment was performed for 30 minutes per each session, three sessions per week. RAS was provided with rhythmic beats using a chord progression on a keyboard. Kinematic and temporospatial data were collected and analyzed using a three-dimensional motion analysis system. Results Gait training with RAS significantly improved both proximal and distal joint kinematic patterns in hip adduction, knee flexion, and ankle plantar flexion, enhancing the gait deviation index (GDI) as well as ameliorating temporal asymmetry of the stance and swing phases in patients with hemiplegia. Stroke patients with previous walking experience demonstrated significant kinematic improvement in knee flexion in mid-swing and ankle dorsiflexion in terminal stance. Among stroke patients, subacute patients showed a significantly increased GDI score compared with chronic patients. In addition, household ambulators showed a significant effect on reducing anterior tilt of the pelvis with an enhanced GDI score, while community ambulators significantly increased knee flexion in mid-swing phase and ankle dorsiflexion in terminal stance phase. Conclusion Gait training with RAS has beneficial effects on both kinematic and temporospatial patterns in patients with hemiplegia, providing not only clinical implications of locomotor rehabilitation with goal-oriented external feedback using RAS but also differential effects according to ambulatory function. PMID:26446657