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Sample records for kangaroo rats living

  1. Kangaroo rats: intraspecific variation in Dipodomys spectabilis Merriam and Dipodomys deserti Stephens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nader, Iyad A

    1978-01-01

    Twenty morpholoigcl characters in addition to color were studied throughout the geographic range of two species of kangaroo rats, the banner-tailed kangaroo rat Dipodomys spectabilis and the desert...

  2. Parents\\' lived experience of providing kangaroo care to their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Premature and low birthweight infants pose particular challenges to health services in South Africa. While there is good evidence to demonstrate the benefits of kangaroo care in low birthweight infants, limited research has been conducted locally on the experiences of parents who provide kangaroo care to their preterm ...

  3. Locomotion energetics and gait characteristics of a rat-kangaroo, Bettongia penicillata, have some kangaroo-like features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, K N; Dawson, T J

    2003-09-01

    The locomotory characteristics of kangaroos and wallabies are unusual, with both energetic costs and gait parameters differing from those of quadrupedal running mammals. The kangaroos and wallabies have an evolutionary history of only around 5 million years; their closest relatives, the rat-kangaroos, have a fossil record of more than 26 million years. We examined the locomotory characteristics of a rat-kangaroo, Bettongia penicillata. Locomotory energetics and gait parameters were obtained from animals exercising on a motorised treadmill at speeds from 0.6 m s(-1) to 6.2 m s(-1). Aerobic metabolic costs increased as hopping speed increased, but were significantly different from the costs for a running quadruped; at the fastest speed, the cost of hopping was 50% of the cost of running. Therefore B. penicillata can travel much faster than quadrupedal runners at similar levels of aerobic output. The maximum aerobic output of B. penicillata was 17 times its basal metabolism. Increases in speed during hopping were achieved through increases in stride length, with stride frequency remaining constant. We suggest that these unusual locomotory characteristics are a conservative feature among the hopping marsupials, with an evolutionary history of 20-30 million years.

  4. Positive interactions between desert granivores: localized facilitation of harvester ants by kangaroo rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Edelman

    Full Text Available Facilitation, when one species enhances the environment or performance of another species, can be highly localized in space. While facilitation in plant communities has been intensely studied, the role of facilitation in shaping animal communities is less well understood. In the Chihuahuan Desert, both kangaroo rats and harvester ants depend on the abundant seeds of annual plants. Kangaroo rats, however, are hypothesized to facilitate harvester ants through soil disturbance and selective seed predation rather than competing with them. I used a spatially explicit approach to examine whether a positive or negative interaction exists between banner-tailed kangaroo rat (Dipodomys spectabilis mounds and rough harvester ant (Pogonomyrmex rugosus colonies. The presence of a scale-dependent interaction between mounds and colonies was tested by comparing fitted spatial point process models with and without interspecific effects. Also, the effect of proximity to a mound on colony mortality and spatial patterns of surviving colonies was examined. The spatial pattern of kangaroo rat mounds and harvester ant colonies was consistent with a positive interspecific interaction at small scales (<10 m. Mortality risk of vulnerable, recently founded harvester ant colonies was lower when located close to a kangaroo rat mound and proximity to a mound partly predicted the spatial pattern of surviving colonies. My findings support localized facilitation of harvester ants by kangaroo rats, likely mediated through ecosystem engineering and foraging effects on plant cover and composition. The scale-dependent effect of kangaroo rats on abiotic and biotic factors appears to result in greater founding and survivorship of young colonies near mounds. These results suggest that soil disturbance and foraging by rodents can have subtle impacts on the distribution and demography of other species.

  5. Influence of small-scale disturbances by kangaroo rats on Chihuahuan Desert ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. L. Schooley; B. T. Bestelmeyer; J. F. Kelly

    2000-01-01

    Banner-tailed kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spectabilis) are prominent ecosystem engineers that build large mounds that influence the spatial structuring of fungi, plants, and some ground-dwelling animals. Ants are diverse and functionally important components of arid ecosystems; some species are also ecosystem engineers. We investigated the effects of...

  6. Derivation of soil screening thresholds to protect chisel-toothed kangaroo rat from uranium mine waste in northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, Jo E.; Linder, Greg L.; Otton, James K.; Finger, Susan E.; Little, Edward E.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical data from soil and weathered waste material samples collected from five uranium mines north of the Grand Canyon (three reclaimed, one mined but not reclaimed, and one never mined) were used in a screening-level risk analysis for the Arizona chisel-toothed kangaroo rat (Dipodomys microps leucotis); risks from radiation exposure were not evaluated. Dietary toxicity reference values were used to estimate soil-screening thresholds presenting risk to kangaroo rats. Sensitivity analyses indicated that body weight critically affected outcomes of exposed-dose calculations; juvenile kangaroo rats were more sensitive to the inorganic constituent toxicities than adult kangaroo rats. Species-specific soil-screening thresholds were derived for arsenic (137 mg/kg), cadmium (16 mg/kg), copper (1,461 mg/kg), lead (1,143 mg/kg), nickel (771 mg/kg), thallium (1.3 mg/kg), uranium (1,513 mg/kg), and zinc (731 mg/kg) using toxicity reference values that incorporate expected chronic field exposures. Inorganic contaminants in soils within and near the mine areas generally posed minimal risk to kangaroo rats. Most exceedances of soil thresholds were for arsenic and thallium and were associated with weathered mine wastes.

  7. Parents’ lived experience of providing kangaroo care to their preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Leonard

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Premature and low birthweight infants pose particular challenges to health services in South Africa. While there is good evidence to demonstrate the benefits of kangaroo care in low birthweight infants, limited research has been conducted locally on the experiences of parents who provide kangaroo care to their preterm infants. This phenomenological study explores the lived experience of parents who provided their preterm infants with kangaroo care at a tertiary-level maternity centre in the Western Cape. In-depth interviews were conducted with six parents: four mothers and two fathers. Data was analysed using an adaptation of the approaches described by Colaizzi (1978:48-71 and Hycner (1985:280-294. To ensure trustworthiness, the trustworthiness criteria described by Guba and Lincoln (1989:242-243 were applied. Kangaroo care is a phased process, each phase bringing a unique set of experiences. The eight themes that emerged are described: unforeseen, unprepared and uncertain - the experience of birth; anxiety and barriers; an intimate connection; adjustments, roles and responsibilities; measuring success; a network of encouragement and support; living-in challenges; and living with the infant outside of hospital. Challenges facing health care providers are described and recommendations for information about kangaroo care and support for parents are made. Opsomming Vroeggebore babas en babas met ’n lae geboortegewig stel besondere uitdagings vir Suid-Afrikaanse gesondhiedsdienste. Daar bestaan goeie bewyse dat die kangaroesorgmetode voordelig is vir babas met ’n laegeboortegewig, dog is minimale plaaslike navorsing gedoen oor die ondervindinge van ouers wat hierdie metode gebruik om vir hul vroeggebore babas te sorg. Hierdie fenomenologiese studie verken die geleefde ervaringe van ouers wat vir hulle vroeggebore babas deur middel van die kangaroesorgmetode in ’n tersiêre kraamsentrum in die Weskaap gesorg het. Data is ingesamel deur in

  8. Plasma cholinesterase activity of rats, western grey kangaroos, alpacas, sheep, cattle, and horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayberry, Chris; Mawson, Peter; Maloney, Shane K

    2015-01-01

    Plasma cholinesterase activity levels of various species may be of interest to toxicologists or pathologists working with chemicals that interfere with the activity of plasma cholinesterase. We used a pH titration method to measure the plasma cholinesterase activity of six mammalian species. Plasma cholinesterase activity varied up to 50-fold between species: sheep (88 ± 45 nM acetylcholine degraded per ml of test plasma per minute), cattle (94 ± 35), western grey kangaroos (126 ± 92), alpaca (364 ± 70), rats (390 ± 118) and horses (4539 ± 721). We present a simple, effective technique for the assay of plasma cholinesterase activity levels from a range of species. Although labour-intensive, it requires only basic laboratory equipment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Energy, water and space use by free-living red kangaroos Macropus rufus and domestic sheep Ovis aries in an Australian rangeland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, A J; Dawson, T J; McLeod, S R; Dennis, T; Maloney, S K

    2013-08-01

    We used doubly labelled water to measure field metabolic rates (FMR) and water turnover rates (WTR) in one of Australia's largest native herbivores, the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) and one of Australia's dominant livestock species, the wool-breed Merino sheep, under free-living conditions in a typical Australian rangeland. Also, we used GPS technology to examine animal space use, along with the comparisons of urine concentration, diet, diet digestibility, and subsequent grazing pressures. We found smaller space-use patterns than previously reported for kangaroos, which were between 14 and 25 % those of sheep. The FMR of a 25-kg kangaroo was 30 % that of a 45-kg sheep, while WTR was 15 % and both were associated with smaller travel distances, lower salt intakes, and higher urine concentration in kangaroos than sheep. After accounting for differences in dry matter digestibility of food eaten by kangaroos (51 %) and sheep (58 %), the relative grazing pressure of a standard (mature, non-reproductive) 25-kg kangaroo was 35 % that of a 45-kg sheep. Even for animals of the same body mass (35 kg), the relative grazing pressure of the kangaroo was estimated to be only 44 % that of the sheep. After accounting for the energetic costs of wool growth by sheep, the FMRs of our sheep and kangaroos were 2-3 times their expected BMRs, which is typical for mammalian FMR:BMRs generally. Notably, data collected from our free-living animals were practically identical to those from animals confined to a semi-natural enclosure (collected in an earlier study under comparable environmental conditions), supporting the idea that FMRs are relatively constrained within species.

  10. Characterization of a mutant rat kangaroo cell line with alterations in the cell cycle and DNA repair

    OpenAIRE

    Miyaji, E.N.; Johnson, R.T.; Downes, C.S.; Eveno, E.; Mezzina, M.; Sarasin, A.; Menck, C.F.M.

    2000-01-01

    Using a positive selection system for isolating DNA replication and repair related mutants, we isolated a clone from a rat kangaroo cell line (PtK2) that has increased sensitivity to UV light. Characterization of this clone indicated normal post-replication repair after UV irradiation, and normal removal rates of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and pyrimidine(6-4)pyrimidone photoproducts by excision repair. However, this cell line has decreased ability to make early incisions on damaged DNA, po...

  11. The effects of thyroxine on metabolism and water balance in a desert-dwelling rodent, Merriam's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys merriami).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, Marilyn R; Holcombe, Dale W

    2002-01-01

    Desert-dwelling mammals such as Merriam's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys merriani) need to conserve both energy and water to survive desert conditions characterized by aridity and low productivity. The thyroid hormone thyroxine increases both basal metabolic rate and urinary water loss in mammals. Increases in basal metabolism and urinary water loss are likely to be detrimental to D. merriami, therefore the regulation of this hormone may be important. To examine the effects of thyroxine in this species, we implanted adult kangaroo rats with pellets designed to release specific doses of thyroxine at a constant rate for 90 days or a placebo pellet. We measured plasma thyroxine concentration, basal metabolic rate, food consumption, urine concentration and water loss in all implanted animals. Thyroxine implants significantly increased both plasma thyroxine and basal metabolic rate in a relatively dose-dependent manner. In response to thyroxine. kangaroo rats increased food consumption only slightly, but this small increase was sufficient to compensate for their elevated metabolic rates. Neither urine concentration nor water loss varied among treatment groups. Thyroxine increased energy expenditure but not water loss in this species.

  12. Characterization of a mutant rat kangaroo cell line with alterations in the cell cycle and DNA repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyaji E.N.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a positive selection system for isolating DNA replication and repair related mutants, we isolated a clone from a rat kangaroo cell line (PtK2 that has increased sensitivity to UV light. Characterization of this clone indicated normal post-replication repair after UV irradiation, and normal removal rates of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and pyrimidine(6-4pyrimidone photoproducts by excision repair. However, this cell line has decreased ability to make early incisions on damaged DNA, possibly indicating a defect in preferential repair of actively transcribed genes, and a slower cell proliferation rate, including a longer S-phase. This phenotype reinforces the present notion that control of key mechanisms in cell metabolism, such as cell cycle control, repair, transcription and cell death, can be linked.

  13. The high aerobic capacity of a small, marsupial rat-kangaroo (Bettongia penicillata) is matched by the mitochondrial and capillary morphology of its skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Koa N; Dawson, Terence J

    2012-09-15

    We examined the structure-function relationships that underlie the aerobic capacities of marsupial mammals that hop. Marsupials have relatively low basal metabolic rates (BMR) and historically were seen as 'low energy' mammals. However, the red kangaroo, Macropus rufus (family Macropodidae), has aerobic capacities equivalent to athletic placentals. It has an extreme aerobic scope (fAS) and its large locomotor muscles feature high mitochondrial and capillary volumes. M. rufus belongs to a modern group of kangaroos and its high fAS is not general for marsupials. However, other hopping marsupials may have elevated aerobic capacities. Bettongia penicillata, a rat-kangaroo (family Potoroidae), is a small (1 kg), active hopper whose fAS is somewhat elevated. We examined the oxygen delivery system in its muscles to ascertain links with hopping. An elevated fAS of 23 provided a relatively high maximal aerobic oxygen consumption ( ) in B. penicillata; associated with this is a skeletal muscle mass of 44% of body mass. Ten muscles were sampled to estimate the total mitochondrial and capillary volume of the locomotor muscles. Values in B. penicillata were similar to those in M. rufus and in athletic placentals. This small hopper had high muscle mitochondrial volume densities (7.1-11.9%) and both a large total capillary volume (6 ml kg(-1) body mass) and total capillary erythrocyte volume (3.2 ml kg(-1)). Apparently, a considerable aerobic capacity is required to achieve the benefits of the extended stride in fast hopping. Of note, the ratio of to total muscle mitochondrial volume in B. penicillata was 4.9 ml O(2) min(-1) ml(-1). Similar values occur in M. rufus and also placental mammals generally, not only athletic species. If such relationships occur in other marsupials, a fundamental structure-function relationship for oxygen delivery to muscles likely originated with or before the earliest mammals.

  14. Polycyclic hydrocarbon biomarkers confirm selective incorporation of petroleum in soil and kangaroo rat liver samples near an oil well blowout site in the western San Joaquin Valley, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, I.; Lu, S.T.; Lee, R.P.; Warrick, G.

    1996-01-01

    Following an accidental oil well blow out at an oil field in the western part of the San Joaquin Valley, soil samples and specimens of Heermann's kangaroo rats (Dipodomys heermanni) were collected from two oil-impacted areas and one control area. Fingerprinting by GC-MS and quantitative evaluation of metabolized petroleum hydrocarbons was performed on oil, soil extracts, and rat livers. A liver from a domestically raised rabbit was used as an experimental control. The results show that there is no significant incorporation of PAHs or low molecular weight n-alkanes (C 13 --C 25 ) into the liver tissues. The C 25 --C 35 n-alkane range for all soil samples, kangaroo rat livers, and rabbit liver, is dominated by a high abundance of C 27 , C 29 , C 31 , and C 33 hydrocarbons typical of epicuticular plant waxes. In all liver tissue samples, squalene, the cholesterol precursor, is the dominant hydrocarbon. Although evidence is lacking for metabolism of PAHs and paraffinic petroleum hydrocarbons, very strong evidence is available for incorporation of a set of polycyclic hydrocarbons (biomarkers) belonging to the terpane, sterane, and monoaromatic and triaromatic sterane families, identified by ion monitoring at 191, 217, 253, and 231 m/z, respectively. Because these hydrocarbons are not known to exist in the biosphere, but are only synthesized during oil- and coal-forming processes, their presence in the liver samples constitutes proof for crude oil incorporation into tissues. This conclusion is further substantiated by the selective incorporation of only the 20S enantiomer of C 28 and C 29 steranes and aromatic steranes into the livers, with the exclusion of the 20R enantiomer. The results from the study conclusively demonstrate that polycyclic hydrocarbon biomarkers provide excellent indices for proof of petroleum exposure and metabolism in some terrestrial herbivores

  15. The Impact of Kangaroo Care on Premature Infant Weight Gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evereklian, Melvina; Posmontier, Bobbie

    Preterm births occur among 11.4% of all live infant births. Without steady weight gain, premature infants may experience lengthy hospitalizations, neurodevelopmental deficits and hospital readmissions, which can increase the financial burden on the health care system and their families. The total U.S. health-related costs linked to preterm infant deliveries are estimated at $4.33 billion. Kangaroo care is a feasible practice that can improve preterm infant weight gain. However, this intervention is utilized less often throughout the U.S. due to numerous barriers including a lack of consistent protocols, inadequate knowledge, and decreased level of confidence in demonstrating the proper kangarooing technique. An integrative review was conducted to evaluate the impact of kangaroo care on premature infant weight gain in order to educate nurses about its efficacy among preterm infants. A literature search was conducted using CINAHL, PubMed, Cochrane Reviews, ClinicalKey and Google Scholar. Large volume searches were restricted using appropriate filters and limiters. Most of the evaluated studies determined that weight gain was greater among the kangarooing premature infants. Kangaroo care is a low-tech low-cost modality that can facilitate improved preterm infant weight gain even in low-resource settings. Despite its current efficacy, kangaroo care is not widely utilized due to several barriers including an absence of standardized protocols and a lack of knowledge about its benefits. Kangaroo care can become a widespread formalized practice after nurses and parents learn about the technique and its numerous benefits for premature infants, including its association with improved weight gain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. How Does a Hopping Kangaroo Breathe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliodori, Mauricio J.; Lujan, Heidi L.; Janbaih, Hussein; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    We developed a model to demonstrate how a hopping kangaroo breathes. Interestingly, a kangaroo uses less energy to breathe while hopping than while standing still. This occurs, in part, because rather than using muscle power to move air into and out of the lungs, air is pulled into (inspiration) and pushed out of (expiration) the lungs as the…

  17. Observations on kangaroo baby care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukasa, G K

    1992-01-01

    The author's visit to "kangaroo care" programs in Guatemala and Colombia has led Uganda's University of Kampala to consider the introduction of this innovation in its neonatal special care unit. Such programs, which place premature infants in direct contact with their mother's skin during breastfeeding, represents a simple, inexpensive strategy for infant survival in developing countries and eliminates the need for mechanical incubators. Research conducted at the Hospital Universitario de Valle in Cali, Colombia, found that falls in the infant's body temperature. In the Latin American programs, premature infants are entered into the breastfeeding program immediately after delivery.

  18. Unlike Kangaroo care, mechanically simulated Kangaroo care does not change heart rate variability in preterm neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kommers, Deedee; Joshi, Rohan; van Pul, Carola; Feijs, Loe; Oei, Guid; Oetomo, Sidarto Bambang; Andriessen, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Background: While numerous positive effects of Kangaroo care (KC) have been reported, the duration that parents can spend kangarooing is often limited. Aim: To investigate whether a mattress that aims to mimic breathing motion and the sounds of heartbeats (BabyBe GMBH, Stuttgart, Germany) can

  19. Ventilatory accommodation of oxygen demand and respiratory water loss in kangaroos from mesic and arid environments, the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus) and the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, T J; Munn, A J; Blaney, C E; Krockenberger, A; Maloney, S K

    2000-01-01

    We studied ventilation in kangaroos from mesic and arid environments, the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus) and the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus), respectively, within the range of ambient temperatures (T(a)) from -5 degrees to 45 degrees C. At thermoneutral temperatures (Ta=25 degrees C), there were no differences between the species in respiratory frequency, tidal volume, total ventilation, or oxygen extraction. The ventilatory patterns of the kangaroos were markedly different from those predicted from the allometric equation derived for placentals. The kangaroos had low respiratory frequencies and higher tidal volumes, even when adjustment was made for their lower basal metabolism. At Ta>25 degrees C, ventilation was increased in the kangaroos to facilitate respiratory water loss, with percent oxygen extraction being markedly lowered. Ventilation was via the nares; the mouth was closed. Differences in ventilation between the two species occurred at higher temperatures, and at 45 degrees C were associated with differences in respiratory evaporative heat loss, with that of M. giganteus being higher. Panting in kangaroos occurred as a graded increase in respiratory frequency, during which tidal volume was lowered. When panting, the desert red kangaroo had larger tidal volumes and lower respiratory frequencies at equivalent T(a) than the eastern grey kangaroo, which generally inhabits mesic forests. The inference made from this pattern is that the red kangaroo has the potential to increase respiratory evaporative heat loss to a greater level.

  20. Student Preferences for Live versus Virtual Rats in a Learning Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elcoro, Mirari; Trundle, Melissa B.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the preference of undergraduate students for a live or a virtual rat when learning about concepts of operant conditioning. Students were provided with the opportunity to directly compare a virtual and a live rat in a supplemental exercise for Learning courses. We argue that the design of teaching exercises should involve a systematic…

  1. Kangaroo Mother Care Management of a 750 Ggrammes Baby: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the successful management of 750 grammes low birth weight baby using kangaroo mother care in the hospital and at home. The baby had suffered a variety of morbidities associated with prematurity in the early neonatal period. Key words: Kangaroo mother care, low birth weight babies ...

  2. Transparency and communication can improve wildlife welfare outcomes: A case of kangaroos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simmons Peter

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available All countries manage human and wildlife coexistence. Where traditionally humans may have killed animals perceived to be a problem, this is often no longer legal or socially acceptable. Decision-makers tend to feel less strongly about coexistence issues than the people who attempt to influence them on behalf of human or wildlife interests. It has been argued that links between human interests and decisions affecting wildlife should be transparent, and that open decision making processes involving a range of local stakeholders will improve outcomes for humans and wildlife. This paper examines one case incident in an ongoing conflict between an international car racing track and kangaroos that have occasionally been found on the track during a race, causing danger to themselves and race participants. A secret local government report and plan to cull kangaroos was obtained using Freedom of Information legislation. When released to the media the subsequent public discussion showed a much greater concern for kangaroo stress, harm and right to live than the official report, and called for consideration of a range of alternatives to culling. This led to postponement of culling plans, and commitment to a more open community discussion of options. The case clearly supports claims that greater transparency and local stakeholder participation in management decision processes can improve welfare outcomes for non-human animals.

  3. Kangaroo mother care: a systematic review of barriers and enablers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Grace J; Labar, Amy S; Wall, Stephen; Atun, Rifat

    2016-02-01

    To investigate factors influencing the adoption of kangaroo mother care in different contexts. We searched PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science and the World Health Organization's regional databases, for studies on "kangaroo mother care" or "kangaroo care" or "skin-to-skin care" from 1 January 1960 to 19 August 2015, without language restrictions. We included programmatic reports and hand-searched references of published reviews and articles. Two independent reviewers screened articles and extracted data on carers, health system characteristics and contextual factors. We developed a conceptual model to analyse the integration of kangaroo mother care in health systems. We screened 2875 studies and included 112 studies that contained qualitative data on implementation. Kangaroo mother care was applied in different ways in different contexts. The studies show that there are several barriers to implementing kangaroo mother care, including the need for time, social support, medical care and family acceptance. Barriers within health systems included organization, financing and service delivery. In the broad context, cultural norms influenced perceptions and the success of adoption. Kangaroo mother care is a complex intervention that is behaviour driven and includes multiple elements. Success of implementation requires high user engagement and stakeholder involvement. Future research includes designing and testing models of specific interventions to improve uptake.

  4. Vivendo no método canguru a tríade mãe-filho-família Viviendo en el método canguru la tríade madre-hijo-familia Living the mother-child-family triad in the kangaroo method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laise Conceição Caetano

    2005-08-01

    con el hijo en el método canguro o con la familia.This study focuses on the experience of families in the Kangaroo Mother Method (KM and aims to understand the functioning of the family dynamics and to apprehend the family transformations as a result of their experience in the method. The study used Symbolic Interactionism as a theoretical and Grounded Theory as a methodological reference framework. Data revealed the following phenomena: having an unexpected evolution and outcome of pregnancy, which is a phase in which the parents go through a pregnancy and suffer due to its premature interruption; coping with the prematurity of the child, in which the parents get into the world of prematurity and face the need to act for the child's survival; and living with the decision and the experience together with the child, which reveals the possibility of staying in hospital in the KM or not. These phenomena led to the central category: weighing the risks and benefits between staying with the child in the kangaroo method or with the family.

  5. Multi-proxy monitoring approaches at Kangaroo Island, South Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Bronwyn; Drysdale, Russell; Tyler, Jonathan; Goodwin, Ian

    2017-04-01

    Interpretations of geochemical signals preserved in young speleothems are greatly enhanced by comprehensive cave-site monitoring. In the light of this, a cave monitoring project is being conducted concurrently with the development of a new palaeoclimate record from Kelly Hill Cave (Kangaroo Island, South Australia). The site is strategically located because it is situated between longer-lived monitoring sites in southeastern and southwestern Australia, as well as being climatically 'upstream' from major population and agricultural centres. This study aims to understand possible controls on speleothem δ18O in Kelly Hill Cave through i. identification of local and regional δ18O drivers in precipitation; and ii. preservation and modification of climatic signals within the epikarst as indicated by dripwater δ18O. These aims are achieved through analysis of a five-year daily rainfall (amount and δ18O) dataset in conjunction with in-cave drip monitoring. Drivers of precipitation δ18O were identified through linear regression between δ18O values and local meteorological variables, air-parcel back trajectories, and synoptic-typing. Synoptically driven moisture sources were identified through the use of NCEP/NCAR climate reanalysis sea-level pressure, precipitable moisture, and outgoing longwave radiation data in order to trace moisture sources and travel mechanisms from surrounding ocean basins. Local controls on δ18O at Kelly Hill Cave are consistent with published interpretations of southern Australia sites, with oxygen isotopes primarily controlled by rainfall amount on both daily and monthly time scales. Back-trajectory analysis also supports previous observations that the Southern Ocean is the major source for moisture-bearing cold-front systems. However, synoptic typing of daily rainfall δ18O and amount extremes reveals a previously unreported tropical connection and moisture source. This tropical connection appears to be strongest in summer and autumn, but

  6. Hypoxic Living and Exercise Training Alter Adipose Tissue Leptin/Leptin Receptor in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingli Lu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypobaric hypoxia results in weight loss in obese individuals, and exercise training is advocated for the treatment of obesity and its related metabolic dysfunctions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of hypoxic living and exercise training on obesity and adipose tissue leptin/leptin receptor in dietary-induced obese rats. Methods: One hundred and thirty high-fat diet fed Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned into one of the following groups (n=10 each: control, sedentary hypoxic living for 1 to 4 weeks (SH1, SH2, SH3, and SH4, living and exercise training in normoxic conditions for 1 to 4 weeks (TN1, TN2, TN3, and TN4, and living and exercise training in hypoxic conditions for 1 to 4 weeks (TN1, TN2, TN3, and TN4. Epididymal adipose tissue expression levels of leptin and leptin receptor were determined. Results: Compared to hypoxic living and living and exercise training in normoxic conditions, living and exercise training in hypoxic conditions for 3-4 weeks resulted in lower Lee index (P<0.05 to P<0.01, and higher expression of leptin and leptin receptor (P<0.05 to P<0.01 in adipose tissue. Conclusion: In a rodent model of altitude training, living and exercise training in hypoxic conditions resulted in greater alterations in obesity and adipose tissue leptin/leptin receptor than hypoxic living alone and living and exercise training in normoxic conditions.

  7. Kangaroo Care Education Effects on Nurses' Knowledge and Skills Confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almutairi, Wedad Matar; Ludington-Hoe, Susan M

    2016-11-01

    Less than 20% of the 996 NICUs in the United States routinely practice kangaroo care, due in part to the inadequate knowledge and skills confidence of nurses. Continuing education improves knowledge and skills acquisition, but the effects of a kangaroo care certification course on nurses' knowledge and skills confidence are unknown. A pretest-posttest quasi-experiment was conducted. The Kangaroo Care Knowledge and Skills Confidence Tool was administered to 68 RNs at a 2.5-day course about kangaroo care evidence and skills. Measures of central tendency, dispersion, and paired t tests were conducted on 57 questionnaires. The nurses' characteristics were varied. The mean posttest Knowledge score (M = 88.54, SD = 6.13) was significantly higher than the pretest score (M = 78.7, SD = 8.30), t [54] = -9.1, p = .000), as was the posttest Skills Confidence score (pretest M = 32.06, SD = 3.49; posttest M = 26.80, SD = 5.22), t [53] = -8.459, p = .000). The nurses' knowledge and skills confidence of kangaroo care improved following continuing education, suggesting a need for continuing education in this area. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2016;47(11):518-524. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Mechanism design and optimization of a bionic kangaroo jumping robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y. H.; Zheng, L.; Ge, W. J.; Zou, Z. H.

    2018-03-01

    Hopping robots have broad application prospects in the fields of military reconnaissance, field search or life rescue. However, current hopping robots still face the problems of weak jumping ability and load bearing. Inspired by the jumping of kangaroo, we design a Kangaroo hopping robot “Zbot”, which has two degrees of freedom and three joints. The geared five-bar mechanism is used to decouple the knee and ankle joints of the robot. In order to get a bionic performance, the coupling mechanism parameters are optimized. The simulation and experiments show that the robot has an excellent jumping ability and load capacity.

  9. Comparative jaw muscle anatomy in kangaroos, wallabies, and rat-kangaroos (marsupialia: macropodoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Natalie Marina

    2009-06-01

    The jaw muscles were studied in seven genera of macropodoid marsupials with diets ranging from mainly fungi in Potorous to grass in Macropus. Relative size, attachments, and lamination within the jaw adductor muscles varied between macropodoid species. Among macropodine species, the jaw adductor muscle proportions vary with feeding type. The relative mass of the masseter is roughly consistent, but grazers and mixed-feeders (Macropus and Lagostrophus) had relatively larger medial pterygoids and smaller temporalis muscles than the browsers (Dendrolagus, Dorcopsulus, and Setonix). Grazing macropods show similar jaw muscle proportions to "ungulate-grinding" type placental mammals. The internal architecture of the jaw muscles also varies between grazing and browsing macropods, most significantly, the anatomy of the medial pterygoid muscle. Potoroines have distinctly different jaw muscle proportions to macropodines. The masseter muscle group, in particular, the superficial masseter is enlarged, while the temporalis group is relatively reduced. Lagostrophus fasciatus is anatomically distinct from other macropods with respect to its masticatory muscle anatomy, including enlarged superficial medial pterygoid and deep temporalis muscles, an anteriorly inflected masseteric process, and the shape of the mandibular condyle. The enlarged triangular pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone, in particular, is distinctive of Lagsotrophus. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Features of Heart Rate Variability Capture Regulatory Changes During Kangaroo Care in Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kommers, Deedee R; Joshi, Rohan; van Pul, Carola; Atallah, Louis; Feijs, Loe; Oei, Guid; Bambang Oetomo, Sidarto; Andriessen, Peter

    2017-03-01

    To determine whether heart rate variability (HRV) can serve as a surrogate measure to track regulatory changes during kangaroo care, a period of parental coregulation distinct from regulation within the incubator. Nurses annotated the starting and ending times of kangaroo care for 3 months. The pre-kangaroo care, during-kangaroo care, and post-kangaroo care data were retrieved in infants with at least 10 accurately annotated kangaroo care sessions. Eight HRV features (5 in the time domain and 3 in the frequency domain) were used to visually and statistically compare the pre-kangaroo care and during-kangaroo care periods. Two of these features, capturing the percentage of heart rate decelerations and the extent of heart rate decelerations, were newly developed for preterm infants. A total of 191 kangaroo care sessions were investigated in 11 preterm infants. Despite clinically irrelevant changes in vital signs, 6 of the 8 HRV features (SD of normal-to-normal intervals, root mean square of the SD, percentage of consecutive normal-to-normal intervals that differ by >50 ms, SD of heart rate decelerations, high-frequency power, and low-frequency/high-frequency ratio) showed a visible and statistically significant difference (P heart rate decelerations. HRV-based features may be clinically useful for capturing the dynamic changes in autonomic regulation in response to kangaroo care and other changes in environment and state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Energetics and biomechanics of locomotion by red kangaroos (Macropus rufus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kram, R; Dawson, T J

    1998-05-01

    As red kangaroos hop faster over level ground, their rate of oxygen consumption (indicating metabolic energy consumption) remains nearly the same. This phenomenon has been attributed to exceptional elastic energy storage and recovery via long compliant tendons in the legs. Alternatively, red kangaroos may have exceptionally efficient muscles. To estimate efficiency, we measured the metabolic cost of uphill hopping, where muscle fibers must perform mechanical work against gravity. We found that uphill hopping was much more expensive than level hopping. The maximal rate of oxygen consumption measured (3 ml O2 kg-1 s-1) exceeds all but a few vertebrate species. However, efficiency values were normal, approximately 30%. At faster level hopping speeds the effective mechanical advantage of the extensor muscles of the ankle joint remained the same. Thus, kangaroos generate the same muscular force at all speeds but do so more rapidly at faster hopping speeds. This contradicts a recent hypothesis for what sets the cost of locomotion. The cost of transport (J kg-1 m-1) decreases at faster hopping speeds, yet red kangaroos prefer to use relatively slow speeds that avoid high levels of tendon stress.

  12. Implementation of Kangaroo mother care by health workers in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-08-04

    Aug 4, 2016 ... thermia, hypoglycemia and nosocomial sepsis in neo- nates with birth weight ... for care for preterm babies with few neonatal care units, located often in .... Fig 2: Reasons for not practicing Kangaroo Mother Care in facilities of ...

  13. Kangaroo Care: Experiences and Needs of Parents in Neonatal Intensive Care: A Systematic Review ‘Parents’ Experience of Kangaroo Care’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gabriels, karlijn; Brouwer, AJ; maat, Jessica; van den Hoogen, Agnes

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This review is focusing on the experiences and needs of parents with infants within NICU regarding Kangaroo Care. Ten studies with qualitative designs were included. Kangaroo Care was overall experienced as positive; giving parents the opportunity to get to know their babies and (re-)

  14. Effect of kangaroo method on the risk of hypothermia and duration of birth weight regain in low birth weight infants: A randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    I G. A. P. Eka Pratiwi; Soetjiningsih Soetjiningsih; I Made Kardana

    2009-01-01

    Background In Indonesia, the infant mortality rate in 2001 was 50 per 1000 live births, with 34.7% due to perinatal death. This perinatal death was associated with low birth weight (LBW) newborn, which was caused by prematurity, infection, birth asphyxia, hypothermia, and inadequate breast feeding. In developing countries, lack of facilities of LBW infant care leads to the utilization of kangaroo method as care to prevent hypothermia in LBW newborn. Objective To evaluate the differences of...

  15. Endocrine function and neurobiology of the longest-living rodent, the naked mole-rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edrey, Yael H; Park, Thomas J; Kang, Hyesin; Biney, Adriana; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2011-01-01

    Animals that have evolved exceptional capabilities, such as extraordinary longevity may reveal pertinent and potentially critical insights into biomedical research that are not readily apparent in standard laboratory animals. Naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber; NMRs) are extremely long-lived (30 years) mouse-sized rodents. They clearly have evolved superior anti-aging mechanisms as evident by the markedly attenuated age-related decline in physiological function, sustained reproductive capacity and pronounced cancer resistance throughout their long-lives. These eusocial rodents, like the social insects, live in colonies with breeding restricted to one female and a few males. Subordinates are sexually monomorphic, yet retain the ability to become breeders, and can undergo growth surges and neural modifications at any time throughout their life. This plasticity in physiological and behavioral aspects may have contributed to their long-lives. Naked mole-rats show numerous adaptations to life underground including extreme tolerance of hypoxia, acid insensitivity, as well as independence of photoendocrine systems. Here we review what is known about their unique social structure, sensory systems, endocrinology and neurobiology, and highlight areas that may be pertinent to biogerontology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Kangaroo – A pattern-matching program for biological sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betel Doron

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biologists are often interested in performing a simple database search to identify proteins or genes that contain a well-defined sequence pattern. Many databases do not provide straightforward or readily available query tools to perform simple searches, such as identifying transcription binding sites, protein motifs, or repetitive DNA sequences. However, in many cases simple pattern-matching searches can reveal a wealth of information. We present in this paper a regular expression pattern-matching tool that was used to identify short repetitive DNA sequences in human coding regions for the purpose of identifying potential mutation sites in mismatch repair deficient cells. Results Kangaroo is a web-based regular expression pattern-matching program that can search for patterns in DNA, protein, or coding region sequences in ten different organisms. The program is implemented to facilitate a wide range of queries with no restriction on the length or complexity of the query expression. The program is accessible on the web at http://bioinfo.mshri.on.ca/kangaroo/ and the source code is freely distributed at http://sourceforge.net/projects/slritools/. Conclusion A low-level simple pattern-matching application can prove to be a useful tool in many research settings. For example, Kangaroo was used to identify potential genetic targets in a human colorectal cancer variant that is characterized by a high frequency of mutations in coding regions containing mononucleotide repeats.

  17. Features of heart rate variability capture regulatory changes during kangaroo care in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kommers, D.R.; Joshi, R.; van Pul, C.; Atallah, N.L.; Feijs, L.M.G.; Oei, S.G.; Bambang Oetomo, S.; Andriessen, P.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether heart rate variability (HRV) can serve as a surrogate measure to track regulatory changes during kangaroo care, a period of parental coregulation distinct from regulation within the incubator. Study design: Nurses annotated the starting and ending times of kangaroo

  18. Good short-term outcome of kangaroo mother care in low birth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Good short-term outcome of kangaroo mother care in low birth weight infants in a rural South African hospital. A N Rodriguez, M Nel, H Dippenaar, E A Prinsloo. Abstract. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the outcome of kangaroo mother care (KMC) in low birth weight infants at a community hospital. Methods ...

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in a red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) with otitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeson, Danelle M; Coke, Rob L; Kochunov, Peter; Davis, M Duff

    2008-12-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on an adult, male Red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) with a history of nonspecific neurologic signs and acute discharge from the left ear. MRI revealed findings consistent with otitis and possible osteomyelitis of the temporal and mastoid bones. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of otitis and MRI findings in a kangaroo.

  20. Impacts of visitor number on Kangaroos housed in free-range exhibits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwen, Sally L; Hemsworth, Paul H; Butler, Kym L; Fanson, Kerry V; Magrath, Michael J L

    2015-01-01

    Free range exhibits are becoming increasingly popular in zoos as a means to enhance interaction between visitors and animals. However very little research exists on the impacts of visitors on animal behaviour and stress in free range exhibits. We investigated the effects of visitor number on the behaviour and stress physiology of Kangaroo Island (KI) Kangaroos, Macropus fuliginosus fuliginosus, and Red Kangaroos, Macropus rufus, housed in two free range exhibits in Australian zoos. Behavioural observations were conducted on individual kangaroos at each site using instantaneous scan sampling to record activity (e.g., vigilance, foraging, resting) and distance from the visitor pathway. Individually identifiable faecal samples were collected at the end of each study day and analysed for faecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM) concentration. When visitor number increased, both KI Kangaroos and Red Kangaroos increased the time spent engaged in visitor-directed vigilance and KI Kangaroos also increased the time spent engaged in locomotion and decreased the time spent resting. There was no effect of visitor number on the distance kangaroos positioned themselves from the visitor pathway or FGM concentration in either species. While there are limitations in interpreting these results in terms of fear of visitors, there was no evidence of adverse effects animal welfare in these study groups based on avoidance behaviour or stress physiology under the range of visitor numbers that we studied. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. In vivo detection of dynamics of elements in a living rat using multitracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Ken-ichiro; Ui, Iori; Endo, Kazutoyo [Showa Pharmaceutical Univ., Dept. of Physical Chemistry, Machida, Tokyo (Japan); Hirunuma, Rieko; Enomoto, Shuichi [The Inst. of Physical and Chemical Research, Cyclotron Center, Division of Radioisotope Technology, Wako, Saitama (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    In vivo detection technique for radioactivity of the nuclide in the multitracer intravenously administered to a living rat was proposed using a special setting of lead slit and high-purity Ge semiconducting detector. In vivo time courses of the relative distribution of {sup 7}Be, 4{sup 8}V, {sup 54}Mn, {sup 58}Co, {sup 65}Zn, {sup 74}As, {sup 75}Se, {sup 83}Rb, {sup 85}Sr, and {sup 88}Y in upper abdomen and head of six week old male Wistar rats were analyzed. The dynamics of the elements were estimated using the relative distribution of {sup 74}As as base line of blood concentration, since exogenous arsenic tracer is mainly taken into red blood cell. In the head, elements distributed mainly in bones or muscles except for Co and Se, while these elements in blood. In the upper abdomen, Mn, Co, Zn, Se, Rb, V, and Y are distributed in to the liver, which is a main organ for accumulating metals. It is the first report that dynamics of biotrace elements within an hour after administration was non-invasively obtained in living animal. (author)

  2. In vivo detection of dynamics of elements in a living rat using multitracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Ken-ichiro; Ui, Iori; Endo, Kazutoyo; Hirunuma, Rieko; Enomoto, Shuichi

    2002-01-01

    In vivo detection technique for radioactivity of the nuclide in the multitracer intravenously administered to a living rat was proposed using a special setting of lead slit and high-purity Ge semiconducting detector. In vivo time courses of the relative distribution of 7 Be, 4 8 V, 54 Mn, 58 Co, 65 Zn, 74 As, 75 Se, 83 Rb, 85 Sr, and 88 Y in upper abdomen and head of six week old male Wistar rats were analyzed. The dynamics of the elements were estimated using the relative distribution of 74 As as base line of blood concentration, since exogenous arsenic tracer is mainly taken into red blood cell. In the head, elements distributed mainly in bones or muscles except for Co and Se, while these elements in blood. In the upper abdomen, Mn, Co, Zn, Se, Rb, V, and Y are distributed in to the liver, which is a main organ for accumulating metals. It is the first report that dynamics of biotrace elements within an hour after administration was non-invasively obtained in living animal. (author)

  3. CLINICOPATHOLOGIC CORRELATES OF FASCIOLIASIS IN TWO EASTERN GREY KANGAROOS (MACROPUS GIGANTEUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portas, Timothy J; Taylor, David

    2015-12-01

    Infection with the introduced trematode Fasciola hepatica was associated with anemia, mild to moderate azotemia, hypoalbuminemia, and elevated liver enzymes and creatine kinase values in two free-ranging eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus). Both kangaroos were euthanized because of the severity of clinical signs associated with infection. Histopathologic changes included severe cholangiohepatitis, biliary hyperplasia, and fibrosis. Hepatic, splenic, and intestinal amyloidosis was present in one kangaroo and hepatic abscessation in the other; neither histologic change has been reported in macropodids with fascioliasis previously.

  4. Disparate patterns of age-related changes in lipid peroxidation in long-lived naked mole-rats and shorter-lived mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andziak, Blazej; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2006-12-01

    A key tenet of the oxidative stress theory of aging is that levels of accrued oxidative damage increase with age. Differences in damage generation and accumulation therefore may underlie the natural variation in species longevity. We compared age-related profiles of whole-organism lipid peroxidation (urinary isoprostanes) and liver lipid damage (malondialdehyde) in long living naked mole-rats [maximum lifespan (MLS) > 28.3 years] and shorter-living CB6F1 hybrid mice (MLS approximately 3.5 years). In addition, we compared age-associated changes in liver non-heme iron to assess how intracellular conditions, which may modulate oxidative processes, are affected by aging. Surprisingly, even at a young age, concentrations of both markers of lipid peroxidation, as well as of iron, were at least twofold (P naked mole tats than in mice. This refutes the hypothesis that prolonged naked mole-rat longevity is due to superior protection against oxidative stress. The age-related profiles of all three parameters were distinctly species specific. Rates of lipid damage generation in mice were maintained throughout adulthood, while accrued damage in old animals was twice that of young mice. In naked mole-rats, urinary isoprostane excretion declined by half with age (P naked mole-rats is independent of oxidative stress parameters.

  5. Inferring kangaroo phylogeny from incongruent nuclear and mitochondrial genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Phillips

    Full Text Available The marsupial genus Macropus includes three subgenera, the familiar large grazing kangaroos and wallaroos of M. (Macropus and M. (Osphranter, as well as the smaller mixed grazing/browsing wallabies of M. (Notamacropus. A recent study of five concatenated nuclear genes recommended subsuming the predominantly browsing Wallabia bicolor (swamp wallaby into Macropus. To further examine this proposal we sequenced partial mitochondrial genomes for kangaroos and wallabies. These sequences strongly favour the morphological placement of W. bicolor as sister to Macropus, although place M. irma (black-gloved wallaby within M. (Osphranter rather than as expected, with M. (Notamacropus. Species tree estimation from separately analysed mitochondrial and nuclear genes favours retaining Macropus and Wallabia as separate genera. A simulation study finds that incomplete lineage sorting among nuclear genes is a plausible explanation for incongruence with the mitochondrial placement of W. bicolor, while mitochondrial introgression from a wallaroo into M. irma is the deepest such event identified in marsupials. Similar such coalescent simulations for interpreting gene tree conflicts will increase in both relevance and statistical power as species-level phylogenetics enters the genomic age. Ecological considerations in turn, hint at a role for selection in accelerating the fixation of introgressed or incompletely sorted loci. More generally the inclusion of the mitochondrial sequences substantially enhanced phylogenetic resolution. However, we caution that the evolutionary dynamics that enhance mitochondria as speciation indicators in the presence of incomplete lineage sorting may also render them especially susceptible to introgression.

  6. Toxoplasmosis in the Eastern Grey Kangaroo, Macropus giganteus and the Cape Hyrax, Procavis capensis in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Mohamed El-Dakhly1,4, Nagwan El-Habashi2, El-Shaymaa El-Nahass3,4, Hiroki Sakai4 and Tokuma Yanai4,*

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis was investigated in an eastern grey kangaroo, Macropus giganteus, and four cape hyraxes, Procavia capensis, in a Japanese zoo. Clinically, the kangaroo showed neurological signs, emaciation, diarrhea, elevated AST and CK, and subjected to coma before death. One young cape hyrax had severe anorexia, while the other three died without exhibiting clinical signs. Grossly, lungs of the kangaroo were dark red in color, while hyraxes, besides, showed hepatic multifocal white foci, and intestinal multifocal hemorrhages. Histologically, the kangaroo had frequent Toxoplasma gondii pseudocysts in brain, heart and skeletal muscles. All hyraxes had multifocal necrosis with cysts containing numerous bradyzoites in liver and spleen, along with necrotic gastroenteritis and intestinal hemorrhages. Immunohistochemically, cysts showed positive reaction to anti-T. gondii antibodies. These findings indicate possible outbreaks of toxoplasmosis in eastern grey kangaroos and cape hyraxes, zoo habitants; therefore, they could be susceptible intermediate hosts for T. gondii in terms of zoonosis. This is the first report of toxoplasmosis in eastern grey kangaroos and cape hyraxes in Japanese zoos.

  7. Effect of Kangaroo care combined with music on the mother–premature neonate attachment: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Vahdati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Premature birth may complicate the development and quality of the mother–infant attachment relationship. Music and kangaroo care are two common complementary cares performed in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. The present study investigated the effect of kangaroo care combined with music on the mother–premature neonate attachment. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, 64 mothers with premature neonates were selected and assigned to the control and study groups through random allocation. In the control group, kangaroo care, and in the study group, kangaroo care combined with music was adopted. The level of mother–premature neonate attachment was measured and compared before and after the intervention in both the groups using Avant's Maternal Attachment Assessment Scale. Results: There was a significant increase in the mean overall score of attachment in the kangaroo care combined with music group (70.72 (11.46 after the intervention compared to the kangaroo care without music group (53.61 (9.76. Conclusions: The mean overall score of mother–neonate attachment in the kangaroo care combined with music group was higher than the kangaroo care group. This difference can be related to the effectiveness of music combined with kangaroo care.

  8. Understanding kangaroo care and its benefits to preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell-Yeo ML

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Marsha L Campbell-Yeo,1–4 Timothy C Disher,1 Britney L Benoit,1 C Celeste Johnston,2,4,5 1School of Nursing, Dalhousie University, 2Department of Pediatrics, IWK Health Centre, 3Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Dalhousie University, 4Centre for Pediatric Pain Research, IWK Health Centre, Halifax, NS, 5Ingram School of Nursing, McGill University, Montréal, QC, Canada Abstract: The holding of an infant with ventral skin-to-skin contact typically in an upright position with the swaddled infant on the chest of the parent, is commonly referred to as kangaroo care (KC, due to its simulation of marsupial care. It is recommended that KC, as a feasible, natural, and cost-effective intervention, should be standard of care in the delivery of quality health care for all infants, regardless of geographic location or economic status. Numerous benefits of its use have been reported related to mortality, physiological (thermoregulation, cardiorespiratory stability, behavioral (sleep, breastfeeding duration, and degree of exclusivity domains, as an effective therapy to relieve procedural pain, and improved neurodevelopment. Yet despite these recommendations and a lack of negative research findings, adoption of KC as a routine clinical practice remains variable and underutilized. Furthermore, uncertainty remains as to whether continuous KC should be recommended in all settings or if there is a critical period of initiation, dose, or duration that is optimal. This review synthesizes current knowledge about the benefits of KC for infants born preterm, highlighting differences and similarities across low and higher resource countries and in a non-pain and pain context. Additionally, implementation considerations and unanswered questions for future research are addressed. Keywords: kangaroo care, skin-to-skin contact, infant, preterm, review

  9. Spatial requirements of free-ranging Huon tree kangaroos, Dendrolagus matschiei (Macropodidae, in upper montane forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Porolak

    Full Text Available Tree kangaroos (Macropodidae, Dendrolagus are some of Australasia's least known mammals. However, there is sufficient evidence of population decline and local extinctions that all New Guinea tree kangaroos are considered threatened. Understanding spatial requirements is important in conservation and management. Expectations from studies of Australian tree kangaroos and other rainforest macropodids suggest that tree kangaroos should have small discrete home ranges with the potential for high population densities, but there are no published estimates of spatial requirements of any New Guinea tree kangaroo species. Home ranges of 15 Huon tree kangaroos, Dendrolagus matschiei, were measured in upper montane forest on the Huon Peninsula, Papua New Guinea. The home range area was an average of 139.6±26.5 ha (100% MCP; n = 15 or 81.8±28.3 ha (90% harmonic mean; n = 15, and did not differ between males and females. Home ranges of D. matschiei were 40-100 times larger than those of Australian tree kangaroos or other rainforest macropods, possibly due to the impact of hunting reducing density, or low productivity of their high altitude habitat. Huon tree kangaroos had cores of activity within their range at 45% (20.9±4.1 ha and 70% (36.6±7.5 ha harmonic mean isopleths, with little overlap (4.8±2.9%; n = 15 pairs between neighbouring females at the 45% isopleth, but, unlike the Australian species, extensive overlap between females (20.8±5.5%; n = 15 pairs at the complete range (90% harmonic mean. Males overlapped each other and females to a greater extent than did pairs of females. From core areas and overlap, the density of female D. matschiei was one per 19.4 ha. Understanding the cause of this low density is crucial in gaining greater understanding of variations in density of tree kangaroos across the landscape. We consider the potential role of habitat fragmentation, productivity and hunting pressure in limiting tree kangaroo

  10. Cytochrome P450 CYP3A in marsupials: cloning and identification of the first CYP3A subfamily member, isoform 3A70 from Eastern gray kangaroo (Macropus giganteus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Merhibi, Adaweyah; Ngo, Suong N T; Marchant, Ceilidh L; Height, Tamara A; Stupans, Ieva; McKinnon, Ross A

    2012-09-15

    Australian marsupials are unique fauna that have evolved and adapted to unique environments and thus it is likely that their detoxification systems differ considerably from those of well-studied eutherian mammals. Knowledge of these processes in marsupials is therefore vital to understanding the consequences of exposure to xenobiotics. Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are critically important in the oxidative metabolism of a diverse array of both xenobiotics and endogenous substrates. In this study we have cloned and characterized CYP3A70, the first identified member of the CYP3A gene subfamily from Eastern gray kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). A 1665 base pair kangaroo hepatic CYP3A complete cDNA, designated CYP3A70, was cloned by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction approaches, which encodes a protein of 506 amino acids. The CYP3A70 cDNA shares approximately 71% nucleotide and 65% amino acid sequence homology to human CYP3A4 and displays high sequence similarity to other published mammalian CYP3As from human, monkey, cow, pig, dog, rat, rabbit, mouse, hamster, and guinea pig. Transfection of the CYP3A70 cDNAs into 293T cells resulted in stable cell lines expressing a CYP3A immuno-reactive protein that was recognized by a goat anti-human CYP3A4 polyclonal antibody. The anti-human CYP3A4 antibody also detected immunoreactive proteins in liver microsomes from all test marsupials, including the kangaroo, koala, wallaby, and wombat, with multiple CYP3A immunoreactive bands observed in kangaroo and wallaby tissues. Relatively, very low CYP catalytic activity was detected for the kangaroo CYP3A70 cDNA-expressed proteins (19.6 relative luminescent units/μg protein), which may be due to low protein expression levels. Collectively, this study provides primary molecular data regarding the Eastern kangaroo hepatic CYP3A70 gene and enables further functional analyses of CYP3A enzymes in marsupials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Insulin-Like Growth Factor System in the Long-Lived Naked Mole-Rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malene Brohus

    Full Text Available Naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber (NMRs are the longest living rodents known. They show negligible senescence, and are resistant to cancers and certain damaging effects associated with aging. The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs have pluripotent actions, influencing growth processes in virtually every system of the body. They are established contributors to the aging process, confirmed by the demonstration that decreased IGF signaling results in life-extending effects in a variety of species. The IGFs are likewise involved in progression of cancers by mediating survival signals in malignant cells. This report presents a full characterization of the IGF system in the NMR: ligands, receptors, IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs, and IGFBP proteases. A particular emphasis was placed on the IGFBP protease, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A, shown to be an important lifespan modulator in mice. Comparisons of IGF-related genes in the NMR with human and murine sequences indicated no major differences in essential parts of the IGF system, including PAPP-A. The protease was shown to possess an intact active site despite the report of a contradictory genome sequence. Furthermore, PAPP-A was expressed and translated in NMRs cells and retained IGF-dependent proteolytic activity towards IGFBP-4 and IGF-independent activity towards IGFBP-5. However, experimental data suggest differential regulatory mechanisms for PAPP-A expression in NMRs than those described in humans and mice. This overall description of the IGF system in the NMR represents an initial step towards elucidating the complex molecular mechanisms underlying longevity, and how these animals have evolved to ensure a delayed and healthy aging process.

  12. The Insulin-Like Growth Factor System in the Long-Lived Naked Mole-Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brohus, Malene; Gorbunova, Vera; Faulkes, Chris G; Overgaard, Michael T; Conover, Cheryl A

    2015-01-01

    Naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber) (NMRs) are the longest living rodents known. They show negligible senescence, and are resistant to cancers and certain damaging effects associated with aging. The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) have pluripotent actions, influencing growth processes in virtually every system of the body. They are established contributors to the aging process, confirmed by the demonstration that decreased IGF signaling results in life-extending effects in a variety of species. The IGFs are likewise involved in progression of cancers by mediating survival signals in malignant cells. This report presents a full characterization of the IGF system in the NMR: ligands, receptors, IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs), and IGFBP proteases. A particular emphasis was placed on the IGFBP protease, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), shown to be an important lifespan modulator in mice. Comparisons of IGF-related genes in the NMR with human and murine sequences indicated no major differences in essential parts of the IGF system, including PAPP-A. The protease was shown to possess an intact active site despite the report of a contradictory genome sequence. Furthermore, PAPP-A was expressed and translated in NMRs cells and retained IGF-dependent proteolytic activity towards IGFBP-4 and IGF-independent activity towards IGFBP-5. However, experimental data suggest differential regulatory mechanisms for PAPP-A expression in NMRs than those described in humans and mice. This overall description of the IGF system in the NMR represents an initial step towards elucidating the complex molecular mechanisms underlying longevity, and how these animals have evolved to ensure a delayed and healthy aging process.

  13. Interpersonal relationships between professionals and mothers of premature from Kangaroo-Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Eliene de Oliveira Callou

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To understand the interpersonal relationships between professionals and mothers of premature newborns of the Kangaroo Unit. Methods: This was an exploratory study of qualitative approach. The interviews were conducted with 10 mothers and 7 professionals who joined in Kangaroo Program and then analyzed by the content analysis technique. The guiding questions used were related to feelings perceived in relation to the Kangaroo method, related to mother-child dyad and interpersonal relationships. Results: Mothers reported on their speeches: “safe to be with the baby in Kangaroo Method” and “sense of maternal feeling during breastfeeding”, while in the professionals’ discourses have emerged: “guidelines on caring for the babies”, “the embracement by the team” and “the importance of family support.” Conclusions: The interaction between professionals and mothers of Kangaroo Unit facilitates the permanence of the binomial in the method, therefore develops feelings of security, tranquility and confidence to take care of the baby. It is important that the team be aware of the difficulties, supporting them in the weakest moments and sharing their fears, doubts and concerns over the baby’s hospitalization.

  14. Kangaroo position: Immediate effects on the physiological variables of preterm and low birth weight newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Cesário Defilipo

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC method is a significant neonatal alternative that ensures better quality humanized care for preterm and low birth weight newborns. Objective: To analyze the immediate physiological effects of the kangaroo position in critically ill newborns. Methods: Open clinical trial with parallel interventions, involving preterm (up to 28 days old low or very low birth weight newborns (minimum weight of 1,250 grams of both sexes, that were clinically stable and undergoing enteral nutrition. The degree of respiratory distress was assessed and quantified using the Silverman-Anderson scoring system. Heart rate and peripheral oxygen saturation were collected using a pulse oximeter. Respiratory rate was determined by auscultation for one minute. The newborns were submitted to the kangaroo position once only, for 90 minutes. Results: Participants were 30 newborns, 56.7% of which were girls. Comparison of the variables before and after application of the kangaroo position using the Wilcoxon test showed a statistically significant reduction in respiratory rate (p = 0.02 and Silverman-Anderson score (p < 0.01. The remaining variables showed no significant differences: heart rate (p = 0.21, peripheral oxygen saturation (p = 0.26 and axillary temperature (p = 0.12. Conclusion: There was a decline in the respiratory rate and Silverman-Anderson score after application of the kangaroo position, while peripheral oxygen saturation, axillary temperature and heart rate remained stable.

  15. Diagnosis and treatment of mesenteric volvulus in a red kangaroo (Macropus rufus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knafo, S Emmanuelle; Rosenblatt, Alana J; Morrisey, James K; Flanders, James A; Thompson, Margret S; Knapp-Hoch, Heather M

    2014-04-01

    An 8-year-old male red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) was evaluated with a 2-week history of vomiting and anorexia. Four days prior, the patient became refractory to medical management. The kangaroo was admitted for diagnostic testing and treatment including whole body CT, blood work, and emergency laparotomy. CT findings of a severely enlarged stomach, splenic displacement, and a whirl sign were indicative of mesenteric volvulus with gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV). Contrast enhancement of abdominal viscera suggested intact arterial blood supply; however, compression of the caudal vena cava and portal vein indicated venous obstruction. Results of preoperative blood work suggested biliary stasis without evidence of inflammation. Additionally, a tooth root abscess was diagnosed on the basis of results of CT. Exploratory laparotomy confirmed the diagnosis of mesenteric volvulus and GDV. The volvuli were corrected by clockwise derotation, and a gastropexy was performed. Tissue samples were obtained from the spleen and liver for evaluation. The kangaroo recovered from surgery, and the abscessed tooth was extracted 6 days later. Eight days after initial evaluation, the kangaroo was discharged. In the present report, the CT whirl sign was used to diagnose volvulus of the abdominal viscera, which suggests that this diagnostic indicator has utility in veterinary patients. Mesenteric volvulus with GDV was successfully treated in a nondomestic species. The tooth root abscess, a common condition in macropods, may explain the historic episodes of anorexia reported by the owner and may have contributed to the development of mesenteric volvulus and GDV in this kangaroo.

  16. Decreasing methane yield with increasing food intake keeps daily methane emissions constant in two foregut fermenting marsupials, the western grey kangaroo and red kangaroo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendl, Catharina; Clauss, Marcus; Stewart, Mathew; Leggett, Keith; Hummel, Jürgen; Kreuzer, Michael; Munn, Adam

    2015-11-01

    Fundamental differences in methane (CH4) production between macropods (kangaroos) and ruminants have been suggested and linked to differences in the composition of the forestomach microbiome. Using six western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus) and four red kangaroos (Macropus rufus), we measured daily absolute CH4 production in vivo as well as CH4 yield (CH4 per unit of intake of dry matter, gross energy or digestible fibre) by open-circuit respirometry. Two food intake levels were tested using a chopped lucerne hay (alfalfa) diet. Body mass-specific absolute CH4 production resembled values previously reported in wallabies and non-ruminant herbivores such as horses, and did not differ with food intake level, although there was no concomitant proportionate decrease in fibre digestibility with higher food intake. In contrast, CH4 yield decreased with increasing intake, and was intermediate between values reported for ruminants and non-ruminant herbivores. These results correspond to those in ruminants and other non-ruminant species where increased intake (and hence a shorter digesta retention in the gut) leads to a lower CH4 yield. We hypothesize that rather than harbouring a fundamentally different microbiome in their foregut, the microbiome of macropods is in a particular metabolic state more tuned towards growth (i.e. biomass production) rather than CH4 production. This is due to the short digesta retention time in macropods and the known distinct 'digesta washing' in the gut of macropods, where fluids move faster than particles and hence most likely wash out microbes from the forestomach. Although our data suggest that kangaroos only produce about 27% of the body mass-specific volume of CH4 of ruminants, it remains to be modelled with species-specific growth rates and production conditions whether or not significantly lower CH4 amounts are emitted per kg of meat in kangaroo than in beef or mutton production. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Unusual ratio between free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine in a long-lived mole-rat species with bimodal ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Yoshiyuki; Vole, Christiane; Begall, Sabine; Bens, Martin; Broecker-Preuss, Martina; Sahm, Arne; Szafranski, Karol; Burda, Hynek; Dammann, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Ansell's mole-rats (Fukomys anselli) are subterranean, long-lived rodents, which live in eusocial families, where the maximum lifespan of breeders is twice as long as that of non-breeders. Their metabolic rate is significantly lower than expected based on allometry, and their retinae show a high density of S-cone opsins. Both features may indicate naturally low thyroid hormone levels. In the present study, we sequenced several major components of the thyroid hormone pathways and analyzed free and total thyroxine and triiodothyronine in serum samples of breeding and non-breeding F. anselli to examine whether a) their thyroid hormone system shows any peculiarities on the genetic level, b) these animals have lower hormone levels compared to euthyroid rodents (rats and guinea pigs), and c) reproductive status, lifespan and free hormone levels are correlated. Genetic analyses confirmed that Ansell's mole-rats have a conserved thyroid hormone system as known from other mammalian species. Interspecific comparisons revealed that free thyroxine levels of F. anselli were about ten times lower than of guinea pigs and rats, whereas the free triiodothyronine levels, the main biologically active form, did not differ significantly amongst species. The resulting fT4:fT3 ratio is unusual for a mammal and potentially represents a case of natural hypothyroxinemia. Comparisons with total thyroxine levels suggest that mole-rats seem to possess two distinct mechanisms that work hand in hand to downregulate fT4 levels reliably. We could not find any correlation between free hormone levels and reproductive status, gender or weight. Free thyroxine may slightly increase with age, based on sub-significant evidence. Hence, thyroid hormones do not seem to explain the different ageing rates of breeders and non-breeders. Further research is required to investigate the regulatory mechanisms responsible for the unusual proportion of free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine.

  18. Unusual ratio between free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine in a long-lived mole-rat species with bimodal ageing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Henning

    Full Text Available Ansell's mole-rats (Fukomys anselli are subterranean, long-lived rodents, which live in eusocial families, where the maximum lifespan of breeders is twice as long as that of non-breeders. Their metabolic rate is significantly lower than expected based on allometry, and their retinae show a high density of S-cone opsins. Both features may indicate naturally low thyroid hormone levels. In the present study, we sequenced several major components of the thyroid hormone pathways and analyzed free and total thyroxine and triiodothyronine in serum samples of breeding and non-breeding F. anselli to examine whether a their thyroid hormone system shows any peculiarities on the genetic level, b these animals have lower hormone levels compared to euthyroid rodents (rats and guinea pigs, and c reproductive status, lifespan and free hormone levels are correlated. Genetic analyses confirmed that Ansell's mole-rats have a conserved thyroid hormone system as known from other mammalian species. Interspecific comparisons revealed that free thyroxine levels of F. anselli were about ten times lower than of guinea pigs and rats, whereas the free triiodothyronine levels, the main biologically active form, did not differ significantly amongst species. The resulting fT4:fT3 ratio is unusual for a mammal and potentially represents a case of natural hypothyroxinemia. Comparisons with total thyroxine levels suggest that mole-rats seem to possess two distinct mechanisms that work hand in hand to downregulate fT4 levels reliably. We could not find any correlation between free hormone levels and reproductive status, gender or weight. Free thyroxine may slightly increase with age, based on sub-significant evidence. Hence, thyroid hormones do not seem to explain the different ageing rates of breeders and non-breeders. Further research is required to investigate the regulatory mechanisms responsible for the unusual proportion of free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine.

  19. Imaging of dihydrofolate reductase fusion gene expression in xenografts of human liver metastases of colorectal cancer in living rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer-Kuckuk, Philipp; Bertino, Joseph R.; Banerjee, Debabrata [Molecular Pharmacology and Therapeutics Program, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); The Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School/UMDNJ, 195 Little Albany Street, NJ 08903, New Brunswick (United States); Doubrovin, Mikhail; Blasberg, Ronald; Tjuvajev, Juri Gelovani [Department of Neurooncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Gusani, Niraj J.; Fong, Yuman [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Gade, Terence; Koutcher, Jason A. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Balatoni, Julius; Finn, Ronald [Radiochemistry/Cyclotron Core Facility, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Akhurst, Tim; Larson, Steven [Nuclear Medicine Service, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2003-09-01

    Radionuclide imaging has been demonstrated to be feasible to monitor transgene expression in vivo. We hypothesized that a potential application of this technique is to non-invasively detect in deep tissue, such as cancer cells metastatic to the liver, a specific molecular response following systemic drug treatment. Utilizing human colon adenocarcinoma cells derived from a patient's liver lesion we first developed a nude rat xenograft model for colorectal cancer metastatic to the liver. Expression of a dihydrofolate reductase-herpes simplex virus 1 thymidine kinase fusion (DHFR-HSV1 TK) transgene in the hepatic tumors was monitored in individual animals using the tracer [{sup 124}I]2'-fluoro-2'-deoxy-5-iodouracil-{beta}-d-arabinofuranoside (FIAU) and a small animal micro positron emission tomograph (microPET), while groups of rats were imaged using the tracer [{sup 131}I]FIAU and a clinical gamma camera. Growth of the human metastatic colorectal cancer cells in the rat liver was detected using magnetic resonance imaging and confirmed by surgical inspection. Single as well as multiple lesions of different sizes and sites were observed in the liver of the animals. Next, using a subset of rats bearing hepatic tumors, which were retrovirally bulk transduced to express the DHFR-HSV1 TK transgene, we imaged the fusion protein expression in the hepatic tumor of living rats using the tracer [{sup 124}I]FIAU and a microPET. The observed deep tissue signals were highly specific for the tumors expressing the DHFR-HSV1 TK fusion protein compared with parental untransduced tumors and other tissues as determined by gamma counting of tissue samples. A subsequent study used the tracer [{sup 131}I]FIAU and a gamma camera to monitor two groups of transduced hepatic tumor-bearing rats. Prior to imaging, one group was treated with trimetrexate to exploit DHFR-mediated upregulation of the fusion gene product. Imaging in the living animal as well as subsequent gamma

  20. Live attenuated Francisella novicida vaccine protects against Francisella tularensis pulmonary challenge in rats and non-human primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Chu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis causes the disease tularemia. Human pulmonary exposure to the most virulent form, F. tularensis subsp. tularensis (Ftt, leads to high morbidity and mortality, resulting in this bacterium being classified as a potential biothreat agent. However, a closely-related species, F. novicida, is avirulent in healthy humans. No tularemia vaccine is currently approved for human use. We demonstrate that a single dose vaccine of a live attenuated F. novicida strain (Fn iglD protects against subsequent pulmonary challenge with Ftt using two different animal models, Fischer 344 rats and cynomolgus macaques (NHP. The Fn iglD vaccine showed protective efficacy in rats, as did a Ftt iglD vaccine, suggesting no disadvantage to utilizing the low human virulent Francisella species to induce protective immunity. Comparison of specific antibody profiles in vaccinated rat and NHP sera by proteome array identified a core set of immunodominant antigens in vaccinated animals. This is the first report of a defined live attenuated vaccine that demonstrates efficacy against pulmonary tularemia in a NHP, and indicates that the low human virulence F. novicida functions as an effective tularemia vaccine platform.

  1. A Test of Kangaroo Care on Preterm Infant Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Kristin P.; Holditch-Davis, Diane; White-Traut, Rosemary C.; David, Richard; O’Shea, T. Michael; Geraldo, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test the effects of kangaroo care (KC) on breastfeeding outcomes in preterm infants compared to two control groups and to explore whether maternal-infant characteristics and the mother’s choice to use KC were related to breastfeeding measures. Design Secondary analysis of a multisite, stratified, and randomized 3-arm trial. The treatment groups used KC, auditory-tactile-visual-vestibular (ATVV) intervention, or preterm infant care information. Setting Neonatal intensive care units from 4 hospitals in the United States from 2006–2011. Participants Racially diverse mothers (N=231) and their preterm infants born weighing breastfeeding, and breastfeeding exclusivity after hospital discharge did not differ statistically among the treatment groups. Regardless of group assignment, married, older, and more educated women were more likely to feed at the breast during hospitalization. Mothers who practiced KC, regardless of randomly allocated group, were more likely to provide their milk than those who did not practice KC. Breastfeeding duration was greatest among more educated women. Conclusion As implemented in this study, assignment to KC did not appear to influence the measured breastfeeding outcomes. PMID:26815798

  2. THE EFFECT OF KANGAROO METHOD APPLICATION TO BODY TEMPERATURE OF BABY WITH LOW BIRTH WEIGHT (LBW)

    OpenAIRE

    Kadek Ayu Erika, Kadek Ayu Erika

    2012-01-01

    - Background: Low Birth Weight (LBW) care in Indonesia is still prioritizing the use of incubators but its presence is still very limited. Kangaroo method is now starting to be used as an alternative to incubator that is economically efficient and effective. Purpose: This study aimed to determine the effect of the application of the kangaroo method to body temperature of baby with LBW. Method: This research was conducted at the Hospital Prof. DR. W.Z. Johannes Kupang with a sample of 25 lo...

  3. Negligible senescence in the longest living rodent, the naked mole-rat: insights from a successfully aging species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2008-05-01

    Aging refers to a gradual deterioration in function that, over time, leads to increased mortality risk, and declining fertility. This pervasive process occurs in almost all organisms, although some long-lived trees and cold water inhabitants reportedly show insignificant aging. Negligible senescence is characterized by attenuated age-related change in reproductive and physiological functions, as well as no observable age-related gradual increase in mortality rate. It was questioned whether the longest living rodent, the naked mole-rat, met these three strict criteria. Naked mole-rats live in captivity for more than 28.3 years, approximately 9 times longer than similar-sized mice. They maintain body composition from 2 to 24 years, and show only slight age-related changes in all physiological and morphological characteristics studied to date. Surprisingly breeding females show no decline in fertility even when well into their third decade of life. Moreover, these animals have never been observed to develop any spontaneous neoplasm. As such they do not show the typical age-associated acceleration in mortality risk that characterizes every other known mammalian species and may therefore be the first reported mammal showing negligible senescence over the majority of their long lifespan. Clearly physiological and biochemical processes in this species have evolved to dramatically extend healthy lifespan. The challenge that lies ahead is to understand what these mechanisms are.

  4. Kangaroo mother care: a multi-country analysis of health system bottlenecks and potential solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesel, Linda; Bergh, Anne-Marie; Kerber, Kate J; Valsangkar, Bina; Mazia, Goldy; Moxon, Sarah G; Blencowe, Hannah; Darmstadt, Gary L; de Graft Johnson, Joseph; Dickson, Kim E; Ruiz Peláez, Juan; von Xylander, Severin; Lawn, Joy E

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth is now the leading cause of under-five child deaths worldwide with one million direct deaths plus approximately another million where preterm is a risk factor for neonatal deaths due to other causes. There is strong evidence that kangaroo mother care (KMC) reduces mortality among babies with birth weight Asia as part of the Every Newborn Action Plan process. Country workshops involved technical experts to complete the survey tool, which is designed to synthesise and grade health system "bottlenecks", factors that hinder the scale-up, of maternal-newborn intervention packages. We used quantitative and qualitative methods to analyse the bottleneck data, combined with literature review, to present priority bottlenecks and actions relevant to different health system building blocks for KMC. Marked differences were found in the perceived severity of health system bottlenecks between Asian and African countries, with the former reporting more significant or very major bottlenecks for KMC with respect to all the health system building blocks. Community ownership and health financing bottlenecks were significant or very major bottlenecks for KMC in both low and high mortality contexts, particularly in South Asia. Significant bottlenecks were also reported for leadership and governance and health workforce building blocks. There are at least a dozen countries worldwide with national KMC programmes, and we identify three pathways to scale: (1) champion-led; (2) project-initiated; and (3) health systems designed. The combination of all three pathways may lead to more rapid scale-up. KMC has the potential to save lives, and change the face of facility-based newborn care, whilst empowering women to care for their preterm newborns.

  5. Investigation of the microbial metabolism of carbon dioxide and hydrogen in the kangaroo foregut by stable isotope probing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, Scott; Kang, Alicia; Gulino, Lisa-Maree; Manefield, Mike; Gutierrez-Zamora, Maria-Luisa; Kienzle, Marco; Ouwerkerk, Diane; Dawson, Kerri; Klieve, Athol V

    2014-09-01

    Kangaroos ferment forage material in an enlarged forestomach analogous to the rumen, but in contrast to ruminants, they produce little or no methane. The objective of this study was to identify the dominant organisms and pathways involved in hydrogenotrophy in the kangaroo forestomach, with the broader aim of understanding how these processes are able to predominate over methanogenesis. Stable isotope analysis of fermentation end products and RNA stable isotope probing (RNA-SIP) were used to investigate the organisms and biochemical pathways involved in the metabolism of hydrogen and carbon dioxide in the kangaroo forestomach. Our results clearly demonstrate that the activity of bacterial reductive acetogens is a key factor in the reduced methane output of kangaroos. In in vitro fermentations, the microbial community of the kangaroo foregut produced very little methane, but produced a significantly greater proportion of acetate derived from carbon dioxide than the microbial community of the bovine rumen. A bacterial operational taxonomic unit closely related to the known reductive acetogen Blautia coccoides was found to be associated with carbon dioxide and hydrogen metabolism in the kangaroo foregut. Other bacterial taxa including members of the genera Prevotella, Oscillibacter and Streptococcus that have not previously been reported as containing hydrogenotrophic organisms were also significantly associated with metabolism of hydrogen and carbon dioxide in the kangaroo forestomach.

  6. [Assessing the impact of kangaroo care on preterm infant stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collados-Gómez, Laura; Aragonés-Corral, Belén; Contreras-Olivares, Inmaculada; García-Feced, Elena; Vila-Piqueras, Maria Encarnación

    2011-01-01

    To assess the efficacy of Kangaroo Care (KC) in decreasing stress in newborns of 29-34 weeks' post-menstrual age (PMA). Quasi-experimental pre-post without control group analytical study conducted in the Gregorio Marañón University Hospital Neonatal Unit. The inclusion criteria were: infants 29 to 34 weeks' PMA, in an incubator, did not have neurological pathology, were not post-surgical, and with a Spanish-speaking mother and/or father. The sample size was fifty-one premature infants. The study variables selected were: clinical variables (additional oxygen and pathology), socio-demographical variables (PMA, KC duration) and the outcome variable, premature infant stress, which consisted of two variables: the physiological stress signal and the behavioural stress response. The variables were collected at three different times: basal stress, during KC and after KC completion, making a comparison analysis between the basal stress and after KC. The response rate was 100%, without registering any loss. The stress variables that changed after the intervention (statistically significant) were: irregular breathing, trunk arching or hyperextension, very open fingers, contraction of the face muscles, apnea, irritability and exaggerated and sustained extension of arms and legs. O(2) saturation was 94.73%±3.05% before KC and 95.92%±2.97% after the intervention. The heart rate (HR) ranged from 158.14±17.48 bpm (beats per minute) before the KC to 151.47±4.47 bpm after it. KC is related to the decrease in the occurrence of neonatal variables of stress, helping to organize motor and physiological systems to achieve a state of tranquility. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  7. Water use and the thermoregulatory behaviour of kangaroos in arid regions: insights into the colonisation of arid rangelands in Australia by the Eastern Grey Kangaroo (Macropus giganteus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Terence J; McTavish, Kirsten J; Munn, Adam J; Holloway, Joanne

    2006-01-01

    The Eastern Grey Kangaroo (Macropus giganteus) occurs mostly in the wetter regions of eastern Australia. However, in the past 30-40 years it has moved into more arid regions (rainfall Kangaroo (Macropus rufus). An increased access to water (supplied for domestic stock) may explain this range extension, but changes in the availability of preferred feed could also be involved. The water use, drinking patterns and thermoregulatory behaviour of these two species of kangaroo have been examined in a semi-free range study, during summer at an arid rangeland site. Foraging was largely nocturnal in both species and during the day they behaved to reduce heat loads. This was especially so for M. giganteus, which showed greater shade seeking. However, it still used more water (72 +/- 2.6 mL kg(-1) day(-1), mean +/- SE) than M. rufus (56 +/- 7.6 mL kg(-1) day(-1)) and drank twice as frequently. Although M. giganteus produced a less concentrated urine (1422 +/- 36 mosmol kg(-1)) than M. rufus (1843 +/- 28 mosmol kg(-1)), kidney physiology did not explain all of the differences in water metabolism between the species. Water from the feed and faecal water retention also appear to be involved. Broadly, a better access to reliable water and the utilisation of mesic microhabitats has enabled M. giganteus to make inroads into the changing rangelands of eastern Australia. However, changes in the vegetation, due to stock grazing, have also favoured M. giganteus, which is a grass eating specialist.

  8. Parental involvement and kangaroo care in European neonatal intensive care units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallás-Alonso, Carmen R; Losacco, Valentina; Maraschini, Alice

    2012-01-01

    To compare, in a large representative sample of European neonatal intensive care units, the policies and practices regarding parental involvement and holding babies in the kangaroo care position as well as differences in the tasks mothers and fathers are allowed to carry out....

  9. Phylogeography of Eastern Grey Kangaroos, Macropus giganteus, Suggests a Mesic Refugium in Eastern Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett A Coghlan

    Full Text Available Phylogeographic studies around the world have identified refugia where fauna were able to persist during unsuitable climatic periods, particularly during times of glaciation. In Australia the effects of Pleistocene climate oscillations on rainforest taxa have been well studied but less is known about the effects on mesic-habitat fauna, such as the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus. The eastern grey kangaroo is a large mammal that is common and widespread throughout eastern Australia, preferring dry mesic habitat, rather than rainforest. As pollen evidence suggests that the central-eastern part of Australia (southeast Queensland and northern New South Wales experienced cycles of expansion in mesic habitat with contraction in rainforests, and vice versa during glacial and interglacial periods, respectively, we hypothesise that the distribution of the eastern grey kangaroo was affected by these climate oscillations and may have contracted to mesic habitat refugia. From 375 mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from across the distribution of eastern grey kangaroos we obtained 108 unique haplotypes. Phylogenetic analysis identified two clades in Queensland, one of which is newly identified and restricted to a small coastal region in southern Queensland north of Brisbane, known as the Sunshine Coast. The relatively limited geographic range of this genetically isolated clade suggests the possibility of a mesic habitat refugium forming during rainforest expansion during wetter climate cycles. Other potential, although less likely, reasons for the genetic isolation of the highly distinct clade include geographic barriers, separate northward expansions, and strong local adaptation.

  10. To kill a kangaroo: understanding the decision to pursue high-risk/high-gain resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, James Holland; Bird, Rebecca Bliege; Bird, Douglas W

    2013-09-22

    In this paper, we attempt to understand hunter-gatherer foraging decisions about prey that vary in both the mean and variance of energy return using an expected utility framework. We show that for skewed distributions of energetic returns, the standard linear variance discounting (LVD) model for risk-sensitive foraging can produce quite misleading results. In addition to creating difficulties for the LVD model, the skewed distributions characteristic of hunting returns create challenges for estimating probability distribution functions required for expected utility. We present a solution using a two-component finite mixture model for foraging returns. We then use detailed foraging returns data based on focal follows of individual hunters in Western Australia hunting for high-risk/high-gain (hill kangaroo) and relatively low-risk/low-gain (sand monitor) prey. Using probability densities for the two resources estimated from the mixture models, combined with theoretically sensible utility curves characterized by diminishing marginal utility for the highest returns, we find that the expected utility of the sand monitors greatly exceeds that of kangaroos despite the fact that the mean energy return for kangaroos is nearly twice as large as that for sand monitors. We conclude that the decision to hunt hill kangaroos does not arise simply as part of an energetic utility-maximization strategy and that additional social, political or symbolic benefits must accrue to hunters of this highly variable prey.

  11. Phylogeography of Eastern Grey Kangaroos, Macropus giganteus, Suggests a Mesic Refugium in Eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coghlan, Brett A; Goldizen, Anne W; Thomson, Vicki A; Seddon, Jennifer M

    2015-01-01

    Phylogeographic studies around the world have identified refugia where fauna were able to persist during unsuitable climatic periods, particularly during times of glaciation. In Australia the effects of Pleistocene climate oscillations on rainforest taxa have been well studied but less is known about the effects on mesic-habitat fauna, such as the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). The eastern grey kangaroo is a large mammal that is common and widespread throughout eastern Australia, preferring dry mesic habitat, rather than rainforest. As pollen evidence suggests that the central-eastern part of Australia (southeast Queensland and northern New South Wales) experienced cycles of expansion in mesic habitat with contraction in rainforests, and vice versa during glacial and interglacial periods, respectively, we hypothesise that the distribution of the eastern grey kangaroo was affected by these climate oscillations and may have contracted to mesic habitat refugia. From 375 mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from across the distribution of eastern grey kangaroos we obtained 108 unique haplotypes. Phylogenetic analysis identified two clades in Queensland, one of which is newly identified and restricted to a small coastal region in southern Queensland north of Brisbane, known as the Sunshine Coast. The relatively limited geographic range of this genetically isolated clade suggests the possibility of a mesic habitat refugium forming during rainforest expansion during wetter climate cycles. Other potential, although less likely, reasons for the genetic isolation of the highly distinct clade include geographic barriers, separate northward expansions, and strong local adaptation.

  12. Nitroxide free radical clearance in the live rat monitored by radio-frequency CW-EPR and PEDRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alecci, Marcello; Seimenis, Ioannis; McCallum, Stephen J.; Lurie, David J.; Foster, Margaret A.

    1998-01-01

    The use of RF (100 to 300 MHz) PEDRI and CW-EPR techniques allows the in vivo study of large animals such as whole rats and rabbits. Recently a PEDRI instrument was modified to also allow CW-EPR spectroscopy with samples of similar size and under the same experimental conditions. In the present study, this CW-EPR and PEDRI apparatus was used to assess the feasibility of the detection of a pyrrolidine nitroxide free radical (2,2,5,5,-tetramethylpyrrolidine-1-oxyl-3-carboxylic acid, PCA) in the abdomen of rats. In particular, we have shown that after the PCA administration (4 mmol kg -1 b.w.): (i) the PCA EPR linewidth does not show line broadening due to concentration effects; (ii) a similar PCA up-take phase is observed by EPR and PEDRI; and (iii) the PCA half-lives in the whole abdomen of rats measured with the CW-EPR (T 1/2 =26±4 min, mean±sd, n=10) and PEDRI (T 1/2 =29±4 min, mean±sd, n=4) techniques were not significantly different (p>0.05). These results show, for the first time, that information about PCA pharmacokinetics obtained by CW-EPR is the same as that from PEDRI under the same experimental conditions. (author)

  13. Walking the oxidative stress tightrope: a perspective from the naked mole-rat, the longest-living rodent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Karl A; Wywial, Ewa; Perez, Viviana I; Lambert, Adriant J; Edrey, Yael H; Lewis, Kaitlyn N; Grimes, Kelly; Lindsey, Merry L; Brand, Martin D; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2011-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS), by-products of aerobic metabolism, cause oxidative damage to cells and tissue and not surprisingly many theories have arisen to link ROS-induced oxidative stress to aging and health. While studies clearly link ROS to a plethora of divergent diseases, their role in aging is still debatable. Genetic knock-down manipulations of antioxidants alter the levels of accrued oxidative damage, however, the resultant effect of increased oxidative stress on lifespan are equivocal. Similarly the impact of elevating antioxidant levels through transgenic manipulations yield inconsistent effects on longevity. Furthermore, comparative data from a wide range of endotherms with disparate longevity remain inconclusive. Many long-living species such as birds, bats and mole-rats exhibit high-levels of oxidative damage, evident already at young ages. Clearly, neither the amount of ROS per se nor the sensitivity in neutralizing ROS are as important as whether or not the accrued oxidative stress leads to oxidative-damage-linked age-associated diseases. In this review we examine the literature on ROS, its relation to disease and the lessons gleaned from a comparative approach based upon species with widely divergent responses. We specifically focus on the longest lived rodent, the naked mole-rat, which maintains good health and provides novel insights into the paradox of maintaining both an extended healthspan and lifespan despite high oxidative stress from a young age.

  14. Hopping Down the Main Street: Eastern Grey Kangaroos at Home in an Urban Matrix

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    Graeme Coulson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Most urban mammals are small. However, one of the largest marsupials, the Eastern Grey Kangaroo Macropus giganteus, occurs in some urban areas. In 2007, we embarked on a longitudinal study of this species in the seaside town of Anglesea in southern Victoria, Australia. We have captured and tagged 360 individuals to date, fitting each adult with a collar displaying its name. We have monitored survival, reproduction and movements by resighting, recapture and radio-tracking, augmented by citizen science reports of collared individuals. Kangaroos occurred throughout the town, but the golf course formed the nucleus of this urban population. The course supported a high density of kangaroos (2–5/ha, and approximately half of them were tagged. Total counts of kangaroos on the golf course were highest in summer, at the peak of the mating season, and lowest in winter, when many males but not females left the course. Almost all tagged adult females were sedentary, using only part of the golf course and adjacent native vegetation and residential blocks. In contrast, during the non-mating season (autumn and winter, many tagged adult males ranged widely across the town in a mix of native vegetation remnants, recreation reserves, vacant blocks, commercial properties and residential gardens. Annual fecundity of tagged females was generally high (≥70%, but survival of tagged juveniles was low (54%. We could not determine the cause of death of most juveniles. Vehicles were the major (47% cause of mortality of tagged adults. Road-kills were concentrated (74% in autumn and winter, and were heavily male biased: half of all tagged males died on roads compared with only 20% of tagged females. We predict that this novel and potent mortality factor will have profound, long-term impacts on the demography and behavior of the urban kangaroo population at Anglesea.

  15. Kangaroo care by fathers and mothers: comparison of physiological and stress responses in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinath, B K; Shah, J; Kumar, P; Shah, P S

    2016-05-01

    To compare physiological and biochemical responses in stable preterm neonates and their parents following kangaroo mother care (KMC) and kangaroo father care (KFC). We conducted a prospective cross-over design study of stable preterm neonates of KFC for 1 h on consecutive days in a random order. Heart rate, temperature, blood pressure, oxygen saturation and salivary cortisol in infants before and after kangaroo care and heart rate, temperature and salivary cortisol in parents before and after kangaroo care were measured. Pairwise comparisons of changes in these measures were analyzed. Twenty-six sets of neonates and their parents were studied for physiological parameters, of which 19 had adequate samples for salivary cortisol assessment. The infants had a mean birth weight of 1096 g (s.d.=217) and a mean postmenstrual age at study of 32 weeks (s.d.=2). There were no significant differences in the changes in mean heart rate (P=0.51), temperature (P=0.37), oxygen saturation (P=0.50), systolic blood pressure (P=0.32), mean blood pressure (0.10) and salivary cortisol (P=0.50) before and after KMC or KFC in the neonates. The changes in mean heart rate (P=0.62), temperature (P=0.28) and salivary cortisol (P=0.59) before and after kangaroo care were similar between mothers and fathers. No significant differences in physiological and stress responses were identified following KMC or KFC in preterm neonates. KFC may be as safe and as effective as KMC.

  16. Complete genomic characterisation of two novel poxviruses (WKPV and EKPV) from western and eastern grey kangaroos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Mark; Tu, Shin-Lin; Upton, Chris; McArtor, Cassie; Gillett, Amber; Laird, Tanya; O'Dea, Mark

    2017-10-15

    Poxviruses have previously been detected in macropods with cutaneous papillomatous lesions, however to date, no comprehensive analysis of a poxvirus from kangaroos has been performed. Here we report the genome sequences of a western grey kangaroo poxvirus (WKPV) and an eastern grey kangaroo poxvirus (EKPV), named for the host species from which they were isolated, western grey (Macropus fuliginosus) and eastern grey (Macropus giganteus) kangaroos. Poxvirus DNA from WKPV and EKPV was isolated and entire coding genome regions determined through Roche GS Junior and Illumina Miseq sequencing, respectively. Viral genomes were assembled using MIRA and SPAdes, and annotations performed using tools available from the Viral Bioinformatics Resource Centre. Histopathology and transmission electron microscopy analysis was also performed on WKPV and its associated lesions. The WKPV and EKPV genomes show 96% identity (nucleotide) to each other and phylogenetic analysis places them on a distinct branch between the established Molluscipoxvirus and Avipoxvirus genera. WKPV and EKPV are 170 kbp and 167 kbp long, containing 165 and 162 putative genes, respectively. Together, their genomes encode up to 47 novel unique hypothetical proteins, and possess virulence proteins including a major histocompatibility complex class II inhibitor, a semaphorin-like protein, a serpin, a 3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/δ 5→4 isomerase, and a CD200-like protein. These viruses also encode a large putative protein (WKPV-WA-039 and EKPV-SC-038) with a C-terminal domain that is structurally similar to the C-terminal domain of a cullin, suggestive of a role in the control of host ubiquitination. The relationship of these viruses to members of the Molluscipoxvirus and Avipoxvirus genera is discussed in terms of sequence similarity, gene content and nucleotide composition. A novel genus within subfamily Chordopoxvirinae is proposed to accommodate these two poxvirus species from kangaroos; we suggest

  17. Induction by mercury compounds of brain metallothionein in rats: Hg{sup 0} exposure induces long-lived brain metallothionein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasutake, Akira; Nakano, Atsuhiro [Biochemistry Section, National Institute for Minamata Disease, Kumamoto (Japan); Hirayama, Kimiko [Kumamoto University, College of Medical Science (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    Metallothionein (MT) is one of the stress proteins which can easily be induced by various kind of heavy metals. However, MT in the brain is difficult to induce because of blood-brain barrier impermeability to most heavy metals. In this paper, we have attempted to induce brain MT in rats by exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) or metallic mercury vapor, both of which are known to penetrate the blood-brain barrier and cause neurological damage. Rats treated with MeHg (40 {mu}mol/kg per day x 5 days, p.o.) showed brain Hg levels as high as 18 {mu}g/g with slight neurological signs 10 days after final administration, but brain MT levels remained unchanged. However, rats exposed to Hg vapor for 7 days showed 7-8 {mu}g Hg/g brain tissue 24 h after cessation of exposure. At that time brain MT levels were about twice the control levels. Although brain Hg levels fell gradually with a half-life of 26 days, MT levels induced by Hg exposure remained unchanged for >2 weeks. Gel fractionation revealed that most Hg was in the brain cytosol fraction and thus bound to MT. Hybridization analysis showed that, despite a significant increase in MT-I and -II mRNA in brain, MT-III mRNA was less affected. Although significant Hg accumulation and MT induction were observed also in kidney and liver of Hg vapor-exposed rats, these decreased more quickly than in brain. The long-lived MT in brain might at least partly be accounted for by longer half-life of Hg accumulated there. The present results showed that exposure to Hg vapor might be a suitable procedure to provide an in vivo model with enhanced brain MT. (orig.) With 4 figs., 1 tab., 27 refs.

  18. Investigation of the microbial metabolism of carbon dioxide and hydrogen in the kangaroo foregut by stable isotope probing

    OpenAIRE

    Godwin, Scott; Kang, Alicia; Gulino, Lisa-Maree; Manefield, Mike; Gutierrez-Zamora, Maria-Luisa; Kienzle, Marco; Ouwerkerk, Diane; Dawson, Kerri; Klieve, Athol V

    2014-01-01

    Kangaroos ferment forage material in an enlarged forestomach analogous to the rumen, but in contrast to ruminants, they produce little or no methane. The objective of this study was to identify the dominant organisms and pathways involved in hydrogenotrophy in the kangaroo forestomach, with the broader aim of understanding how these processes are able to predominate over methanogenesis. Stable isotope analysis of fermentation end products and RNA stable isotope probing (RNA-SIP) were used to ...

  19. Molecular characterization and multi-locus genotypes of Enterocytozoon bieneusi from captive red kangaroos (Macropus Rufus in Jiangsu province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Zhong

    Full Text Available Enterocytozoon bieneusi is the most common pathogen of microsporidian species infecting humans worldwide. Although E. bieneusi has been found in a variety of animal hosts, information on the presence of E. bieneusi in captive kangaroos in China is limited. The present study was aimed at determining the occurrence and genetic diversity of E. bieneusi in captive kangaroos. A total of 61 fecal specimens (38 from red kangaroos and 23 from grey kangaroos were collected from Nanjing Hongshan Forest Zoo and Hongshan Kangaroo Breeding Research Base, Jiangsu province, China. Using the nested PCR amplification ITS gene of rRNA of E. bieneusi, totally 23.0% (14/61 of tested samples were PCR-positive with three genotypes (i.e. one known genotype, CHK1, and two novel genotypes, CSK1 and CSK2. Multi-locus sequence typing using three microsatellites (MS1, MS3, and MS7 and one minisatellite (MS4 revealed one, five, two, and one types at these four loci, respectively. In phylogenetic analysis, the two genotypes, CHK1 and CSK1, were clustered into a new group of unknown zoonotic potential, and the novel genotype CSK2 was clustered into a separate clade with PtEb and PtEbIX. To date, this is the first report on the presence of E. bieneusi in captive red kangaroos in Jiangsu province, China. Furthermore, a high degree of genetic diversity was observed in the E. bieneusi genotype and seven MLGs (MLG1-7 were found in red kangaroos. Our findings suggest that infected kangaroo may act as potential reservoirs of E. bieneusi and be source to transmit infections to other animal.

  20. Trial of Repeated Analgesia with Kangaroo Mother Care (TRAKC Trial)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Skin-to-skin contact (SSC) between mother and infant, commonly referred to as Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC), is recommended as an intervention for procedural pain. Evidence demonstrates its consistent efficacy in reducing pain for a single painful procedure. The purpose of this study is to examine the sustained efficacy of KMC, provided during all routine painful procedures for the duration of Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) hospitalization, in diminishing behavioral pain response in preterm neonates. The efficacy of KMC alone will be compared to standard care of 24% oral sucrose, as well as the combination of KMC and 24% oral sucrose. Methods/design Infants admitted to the NICU who are less than 36 6/7 weeks gestational age (according to early ultrasound), that are stable enough to be held in KMC, will be considered eligible (N = 258). Using a single-blinded randomized parallel group design, participants will be assigned to one of three possible interventions: 1) KMC, 2) combined KMC and sucrose, and 3) sucrose alone, when they undergo any routine painful procedure (heel lance, venipuncture, intravenous, oro/nasogastric insertion). The primary outcome is infant’s pain intensity, which will be assessed using the Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP). The secondary outcome will be maturity of neurobehavioral functioning, as measured by the Neurobehavioral Assessment of the Preterm Infant (NAPI). Gestational age, cumulative exposure to KMC provided during non-pain contexts, and maternal cortisol levels will be considered in the analysis. Clinical feasibility will be accounted for from nurse and maternal questionnaires. Discussion This will be the first study to examine the repeated use of KMC for managing procedural pain in preterm neonates. It is also the first to compare KMC to sucrose, or the interventions in combination, across time. Based on the theoretical framework of the brain opioid theory of attachment, it is expected that KMC will be a

  1. An NBD derivative of the selective rat toxicant norbormide as a new probe for living cell imaging.

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    Claudio D'amore

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Norbormide (NRB is a unique compound that acts directly on rat vascular myocytes to trigger a contractile process, through an as yet unknown mechanism, which results in the selective contraction of rat peripheral arteries. To gain insight into the mechanisms involved in NRB rat-selective activity, we investigated the subcellular distribution of NRB-AF12, a nitrobenzodiazole (NBD-derivative of NRB, in living NRB-sensitive and NRB-insensitive cells. In both cell types, NRB-AF12 localised to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria, lysosomes and endosomes; however, in NRB-sensitive cells, the fluorescence also extended to the plasma membrane. NRB-AF12 was rapidly internalised into the cells, could easily be washed out and then reloaded back into the same cells, all with a high degree of reproducibility. Cells exposed for 24 h to NRB-AF12 did not show apparent signs of toxicity, even at concentrations of the dye (10 µM much higher than those required for fluorescence labelling (500 ηM. The distribution pattern of NRB-AF12 fluorescence was near identical to that of ER-Tracker® (Er-Tr, a fluorescent derivative of glibenclamide, a known KATP channel blocker. Displacement tests did not demonstrate, but at the same time did not rule out the possibility of a common target for ER-Tr, NRB-AF12, NRB and glibenclamide. On the basis of these results we hypothesize a common target site for NRB-AF12 and ER-Tr, and a similar target profile for norbormide and glibenclamide, and propose NRB-AF12 as an alternative fluorescence probe to ER-Tracker. Furthermore, NRB-based fluorescence derivatives could be designed to selectively label single cellular structures.

  2. Resistance to experimental tumorigenesis in cells of a long-lived mammal, the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Sitai; Mele, James; Wu, Yuehong; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Hornsby, Peter J

    2010-08-01

    The naked mole-rat (NMR, Heterocephalus glaber) is a long-lived mammal in which spontaneous cancer has not been observed. To investigate possible mechanisms for cancer resistance in this species, we studied the properties of skin fibroblasts from the NMR following transduction with oncogenes that cause cells of other mammalian species to form malignant tumors. Naked mole-rat fibroblasts were transduced with a retrovirus encoding SV40 large T antigen and oncogenic Ras(G12V). Following transplantation of transduced cells into immunodeficient mice, cells rapidly entered crisis, as evidenced by the presence of anaphase bridges, giant cells with enlarged nuclei, multinucleated cells, and cells with large number of chromosomes or abnormal chromatin material. In contrast, similarly transduced mouse and rat fibroblasts formed tumors that grew rapidly without crisis. Crisis was also observed after > 40 population doublings in SV40 TAg/Ras-expressing NMR cells in culture. Crisis in culture was prevented by additional infection of the cells with a retrovirus encoding hTERT (telomerase reverse transcriptase). SV40 TAg/Ras/hTERT-expressing NMR cells formed tumors that grew rapidly in immunodeficient mice without evidence of crisis. Crisis could also be induced in SV40 TAg/Ras-expressing NMR cells by loss of anchorage, but after hTERT transduction, cells were able to proliferate normally following loss of anchorage. Thus, rapid crisis is a response of oncogene-expressing NMR cells to growth in an in vivo environment, which requires anchorage independence, and hTERT permits cells to avoid crisis and to achieve malignant tumor growth. The unique reaction of NMR cells to oncogene expression may form part of the cancer resistance of this species.

  3. Metabolic clues to salubrious longevity in the brain of the longest-lived rodent: the naked mole-rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triplett, Judy C; Swomley, Aaron; Kirk, Jessime; Lewis, Katilyn; Orr, Miranda; Rodriguez, Karl; Cai, Jian; Klein, Jon B; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Butterfield, D Allan

    2015-08-01

    Naked mole-rats (NMRs) are the oldest-living rodent species. Living underground in a thermally stable ecological niche, NMRs have evolved certain exceptional traits, resulting in sustained health spans, negligible cognitive decline, and a pronounced resistance to age-related disease. Uncovering insights into mechanisms underlying these extraordinary traits involved in successful aging may conceivably provide crucial clues to extend the human life span and health span. One of the most fundamental processes inside the cell is the production of ATP, which is an essential fuel in driving all other energy-requiring cellular activities. Not surprisingly, a prominent hallmark in age-related diseases, such as neurodegeneration and cancer, is the impairment and dysregulation of metabolic pathways. Using a two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis proteomics approach, alterations in expression and phosphorylation levels of metabolic proteins in the brains of NMRs, aged 2-24 years, were evaluated in an age-dependent manner. We identified 13 proteins with altered levels and/or phosphorylation states that play key roles in various metabolic pathways including glycolysis, β-oxidation, the malate-aspartate shuttle, the Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle (TCA) cycle, the electron transport chain, NADPH production, as well as the production of glutamate. New insights into potential pathways involved in metabolic aspects of successful aging have been obtained by the identification of key proteins through which the NMR brain responds and adapts to the aging process and how the NMR brain adapted to resist age-related degeneration. This study examines the changes in the proteome and phosphoproteome in the brain of the naked mole-rat aged 2-24 years. We identified 13 proteins (labeled in red) with altered expression and/or phosphorylation levels that are conceivably associated with sustained metabolic functions in the oldest NMRs that may promote a sustained health span and life span.

  4. Biological half-lives and organ distribution of tritiated 8-lysine-vasopressin and 1-deamino-8-D-arginine-vasopressin in Brattleboro rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janaky, T.; Laczi, F.; Laszlo, F.A.

    1982-01-01

    The biological half-lives and organ distribution of tritiated 8-lysine-vasopressin and 1-deamino-8-D-arginine-vasopressin were determined in R-Amsterdam rats and in homozygous and heterozygous Brattleboro rats with hereditary central diabetes insipidus. It was found that the biological half-lives of [ 3 H]LVP and [ 3 H]dDAVP in the Brattleboro rats did not differ significantly from that found in the control R-Amsterdam rats. The half-life of [ 3 H]dDAVP proved longer than that of [ 3 H]LVP in all three groups of animals. In the case of [ 3 H]LVP the highest radioactivities were observed in the neurohypophyses, adenohypophyses, and kidneys of both the R-Amsterdam and Brattleboro rats. The accumulation of tritiated material was higher in the small intestine of the Brattleboro rats than in that of the R-Amsterdam animals. In all three groups of rats, [ 3 H]dDAVP was accumulated to the greatest extent in the kidney and the small intestine. The kidney and small intestine contained less radioactivity in homozygous Brattleboro rats than in the controls. There was only a slight radioactivity accumulation in the adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis. From the results it was concluded that the decrease in the rate of enzymatic decomposition may play a role in the increased duration of antidiuretic action of dDAVP. The results have led to the conclusion that the accelerated elimination of vasopressin and its pathologic organ accumulation are probably not involved in the water metabolism disturbance of Brattleboro rats with hereditary diabetes insipidus

  5. RNA sequencing reveals differential expression of mitochondrial and oxidation reduction genes in the long-lived naked mole-rat when compared to mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chuanfei; Li, Yang; Holmes, Andrew; Szafranski, Karol; Faulkes, Chris G; Coen, Clive W; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Platzer, Matthias; de Magalhães, João Pedro; Church, George M

    2011-01-01

    The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a long-lived, cancer resistant rodent and there is a great interest in identifying the adaptations responsible for these and other of its unique traits. We employed RNA sequencing to compare liver gene expression profiles between naked mole-rats and wild-derived mice. Our results indicate that genes associated with oxidoreduction and mitochondria were expressed at higher relative levels in naked mole-rats. The largest effect is nearly 300-fold higher expression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (Epcam), a tumour-associated protein. Also of interest are the protease inhibitor, alpha2-macroglobulin (A2m), and the mitochondrial complex II subunit Sdhc, both ageing-related genes found strongly over-expressed in the naked mole-rat. These results hint at possible candidates for specifying species differences in ageing and cancer, and in particular suggest complex alterations in mitochondrial and oxidation reduction pathways in the naked mole-rat. Our differential gene expression analysis obviated the need for a reference naked mole-rat genome by employing a combination of Illumina/Solexa and 454 platforms for transcriptome sequencing and assembling transcriptome contigs of the non-sequenced species. Overall, our work provides new research foci and methods for studying the naked mole-rat's fascinating characteristics.

  6. RNA sequencing reveals differential expression of mitochondrial and oxidation reduction genes in the long-lived naked mole-rat when compared to mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanfei Yu

    Full Text Available The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber is a long-lived, cancer resistant rodent and there is a great interest in identifying the adaptations responsible for these and other of its unique traits. We employed RNA sequencing to compare liver gene expression profiles between naked mole-rats and wild-derived mice. Our results indicate that genes associated with oxidoreduction and mitochondria were expressed at higher relative levels in naked mole-rats. The largest effect is nearly 300-fold higher expression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (Epcam, a tumour-associated protein. Also of interest are the protease inhibitor, alpha2-macroglobulin (A2m, and the mitochondrial complex II subunit Sdhc, both ageing-related genes found strongly over-expressed in the naked mole-rat. These results hint at possible candidates for specifying species differences in ageing and cancer, and in particular suggest complex alterations in mitochondrial and oxidation reduction pathways in the naked mole-rat. Our differential gene expression analysis obviated the need for a reference naked mole-rat genome by employing a combination of Illumina/Solexa and 454 platforms for transcriptome sequencing and assembling transcriptome contigs of the non-sequenced species. Overall, our work provides new research foci and methods for studying the naked mole-rat's fascinating characteristics.

  7. Complex living conditions impair behavioral inhibition but improve attention in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rixt evan der Veen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid adaptation to changes, while maintaining a certain level of behavioral inhibition is an important feature in every day functioning. How environmental context and challenges in life can impact on the development of this quality is still unknown. In the present study, we examined the effect of a complex rearing environment during adolescence on attention and behavioral inhibition in adult male rats. We also tested whether these effects were affected by an adverse early life challenge, maternal deprivation. We found that animals that were raised in large, two floor MarlauTM cages, together with 10 conspecifics, showed improved attention, but impaired behavioral inhibition in the 5-choice serial reaction time task. The early life challenge of 24h maternal deprivation on postnatal day 3 led to a decline in bodyweight during adolescence, but did not by itself influence responses in the 5-choice task in adulthood, nor did it moderate the effects of complex housing. Our data suggest that a complex rearing environment leads to a faster adaptation to changes in the environment, but at the cost of lower behavioral inhibition.

  8. High-frequency sarcomeric auto-oscillations induced by heating in living neonatal cardiomyocytes of the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shintani, Seine A.; Oyama, Kotaro [Department of Pure and Applied Physics, School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan); Fukuda, Norio, E-mail: noriof@jikei.ac.jp [Department of Cell Physiology, The Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Ishiwata, Shin’ichi, E-mail: ishiwata@waseda.jp [Department of Pure and Applied Physics, School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan); WASEDA Bioscience Research Institute in Singapore (WABIOS) (Singapore)

    2015-02-06

    Highlights: • We tested the effects of infra-red laser irradiation on cardiac sarcomere dynamics. • A rise in temperature (>∼38 °C) induced high-frequency sarcomeric auto-oscillations. • These oscillations occurred with and without blockade of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} stores. • Cardiac sarcomeres can play a role as a temperature-dependent rhythm generator. - Abstract: In the present study, we investigated the effects of infra-red laser irradiation on sarcomere dynamics in living neonatal cardiomyocytes of the rat. A rapid increase in temperature to >∼38 °C induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}-independent high-frequency (∼5–10 Hz) sarcomeric auto-oscillations (Hyperthermal Sarcomeric Oscillations; HSOs). In myocytes with the intact sarcoplasmic reticular functions, HSOs coexisted with [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}-dependent spontaneous beating in the same sarcomeres, with markedly varying frequencies (∼10 and ∼1 Hz for the former and latter, respectively). HSOs likewise occurred following blockade of the sarcoplasmic reticular functions, with the amplitude becoming larger and the frequency lower in a time-dependent manner. The present findings suggest that in the mammalian heart, sarcomeres spontaneously oscillate at higher frequencies than the sinus rhythm at temperatures slightly above the physiologically relevant levels.

  9. Altered composition of liver proteasome assemblies contributes to enhanced proteasome activity in the exceptionally long-lived naked mole-rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Karl A; Edrey, Yael H; Osmulski, Pawel; Gaczynska, Maria; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2012-01-01

    The longest-lived rodent, the naked mole-rat (Bathyergidae; Heterocephalus glaber), maintains robust health for at least 75% of its 32 year lifespan, suggesting that the decline in genomic integrity or protein homeostasis routinely observed during aging, is either attenuated or delayed in this extraordinarily long-lived species. The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) plays an integral role in protein homeostasis by degrading oxidatively-damaged and misfolded proteins. In this study, we examined proteasome activity in naked mole-rats and mice in whole liver lysates as well as three subcellular fractions to probe the mechanisms behind the apparently enhanced effectiveness of UPS. We found that when compared with mouse samples, naked mole-rats had significantly higher chymotrypsin-like (ChT-L) activity and a two-fold increase in trypsin-like (T-L) in both whole lysates as well as cytosolic fractions. Native gel electrophoresis of the whole tissue lysates showed that the 20S proteasome was more active in the longer-lived species and that 26S proteasome was both more active and more populous. Western blot analyses revealed that both 19S subunits and immunoproteasome catalytic subunits are present in greater amounts in the naked mole-rat suggesting that the observed higher specific activity may be due to the greater proportion of immunoproteasomes in livers of healthy young adults. It thus appears that proteasomes in this species are primed for the efficient removal of stress-damaged proteins. Further characterization of the naked mole-rat proteasome and its regulation could lead to important insights on how the cells in these animals handle increased stress and protein damage to maintain a longer health in their tissues and ultimately a longer life.

  10. Altered composition of liver proteasome assemblies contributes to enhanced proteasome activity in the exceptionally long-lived naked mole-rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl A Rodriguez

    Full Text Available The longest-lived rodent, the naked mole-rat (Bathyergidae; Heterocephalus glaber, maintains robust health for at least 75% of its 32 year lifespan, suggesting that the decline in genomic integrity or protein homeostasis routinely observed during aging, is either attenuated or delayed in this extraordinarily long-lived species. The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS plays an integral role in protein homeostasis by degrading oxidatively-damaged and misfolded proteins. In this study, we examined proteasome activity in naked mole-rats and mice in whole liver lysates as well as three subcellular fractions to probe the mechanisms behind the apparently enhanced effectiveness of UPS. We found that when compared with mouse samples, naked mole-rats had significantly higher chymotrypsin-like (ChT-L activity and a two-fold increase in trypsin-like (T-L in both whole lysates as well as cytosolic fractions. Native gel electrophoresis of the whole tissue lysates showed that the 20S proteasome was more active in the longer-lived species and that 26S proteasome was both more active and more populous. Western blot analyses revealed that both 19S subunits and immunoproteasome catalytic subunits are present in greater amounts in the naked mole-rat suggesting that the observed higher specific activity may be due to the greater proportion of immunoproteasomes in livers of healthy young adults. It thus appears that proteasomes in this species are primed for the efficient removal of stress-damaged proteins. Further characterization of the naked mole-rat proteasome and its regulation could lead to important insights on how the cells in these animals handle increased stress and protein damage to maintain a longer health in their tissues and ultimately a longer life.

  11. Development of controlled release silicone adhesive-based mupirocin patch demonstrates antibacterial activity on live rat skin against Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Sheba R; Malek, Nurafiqah; Mahadi, Abdul Hanif; Chakravarthi, Srikumar; Rajabalaya, Rajan

    2018-01-01

    reduced the migration of S. aureus on the live rat skin effectively, however, a longer duration of study is required to determine the effectiveness of the patch on a suitable peritonitis-induced animal model.

  12. The Effect of Kangaroo Mother Care on Fuss and Crying Time in Colicky Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Akbarian Rad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Infantile colic is a common complaint in the first few weeks of life. On the other hand, because of its unknown etiology, there is not a specific therapy for this complaint, but various therapeutic options for reducing pain and restlessness of these infants are recommended. Skin to skin contact by Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC increases in pain threshold and it seems to be a suitable method for the care of these infants. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of KMC on infantile colic.Methods: This case- control study was performed between March 2012 and March 2013. Subjects were 55 infants with exclusive breast fed infant, aged 15-60 days with excessive fuss and crying, referred to Infant and Child Clinic in Ayatollah Rohani Hospital in Babol, north of Iran. Babies whose weights were less than 2500 Grams and with inheritance and clinical diseases excluded from the study. Infants were subjected to KMC at least 2 hours a day. Standard questionnaire and Barr Scale were filled by interview. Data was analyzed by SPSS v.11.5 and T-test, a P- value less than 0.05 considered being significant.Results:The fuss and crying time before the KMC was 2.21±1.54 hours per day and decreased to 1.16±1.3 hours per day after the implementation of KMC. (p=0.001Conclusions:Kangaroo mother care at home can be used as a simple and safe method for decreasing of cry and fussiness in colicky infants. Keywords: Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC, fussiness, Colicky Infants, colic

  13. A Reproductive Management Program for an Urban Population of Eastern Grey Kangaroos (Macropus giganteus

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    Andrew Tribe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, culling has been the expedient, most common, and in many cases, the only tool used to control free-ranging kangaroo populations. We applied a reproductive control program to a population of eastern grey kangaroos confined to a golf course in South East Queensland. The program aimed to reduce fecundity sufficiently for the population to decrease over time so that overgrazing of the fairways and the frequency of human–animal conflict situations were minimised. In 2003, 92% of the female kangaroos above 5 kg bodyweight were implanted with the GnRH agonist deslorelin after darting with a dissociative anaesthetic. In 2007, 86% of the females above 5 kg were implanted with deslorelin and also 87% of the males above 5 kg were sterilised by either orchidectomy or vasectomy. In 2005, 2008 and 2009, the population was censused to assess the effect of each treatment. The 2003 deslorelin program resulted in effective zero population growth for approximately 2.5 years. The combined deslorelin–surgery program in 2007 reduced the birth rate from 0.3 to 0.06%/year for 16 months, resulting in a 27% population reduction by November 2009. The results were consistent with implants conferring contraception to 100% of implanted females for at least 12 months. The iatrogenic mortality rates for each program were 10.5% and 4.9%, respectively, with 50% of all mortalities due to darting-related injuries, exertional myopathy/hyperthermia or recovery misadventure. The short term sexual and agonistic behaviour of the males was assessed for the 2007 program: no significant changes were seen in adult males given the vasectomy procedure, while sexual behaviours’ were decreased in adult males given the orchidectomy procedure. It is concluded that female reproduction was effectively controlled by implantation with deslorrelin and male reproductive behaviour was reduced by orchidectomy, which together achieved population control.

  14. The Effect of Kangaroo Mother Care on Fuss and Crying Time in Colicky Infants

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    Zahra Akbarian Rad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infantile colic is a common complaint in the first few weeks of life. On the other hand, because of its unknown etiology, there is not a specific therapy for this complaint, but various therapeutic options for reducing pain and restlessness of these infants are recommended. Skin to skin contact by Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC increases in pain threshold and it seems to be a suitable method for the care of these infants. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of KMC on infantile colic. Methods: This case- control study was performed between March 2012 and March 2013. Subjects were 55 infants with exclusive breast fed infant, aged 15-60 days with excessive fuss and crying, referred to Infant and Child Clinic in Ayatollah Rohani Hospital in Babol, north of Iran. Babies whose weights were less than 2500 Grams and with inheritance and clinical diseases excluded from the study. Infants were subjected to KMC at least 2 hours a day. Standard questionnaire and Barr Scale were filled by interview. Data was analyzed by SPSS v.11.5 and T-test, a P- value less than 0.05 considered being significant. Results: The fuss and crying time before the KMC was 2.21±1.54 hours per day and decreased to 1.16±1.3 hours per day after the implementation of KMC. (p=0.001 Conclusions: Kangaroo mother care at home can be used as a simple and safe method for decreasing of cry and fussiness in colicky infants. Keywords: Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC, fussiness, Colicky Infants, colic

  15. Effect of Kangaroo Mother Care on Growth and Morbidity Pattern in Low Birth Weight Infants

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    Keerti Swarnkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC is dened as skin-to-skin contact between a mother and her newborn baby derived from practical similarities to marsupial care giving, proximately exclusive breastfeeding and early discharge from hospital. This concept was proposed as an alternative to conventional methods of care for low birth weight (LBW infants, and in replication to quandaries of earnest overcrowding in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs. KMC essentially utilizes the mother as a natural incubator Aim and Objectives: The aim was to assess the feasibility, acceptability and the effectiveness of KMC in LBW infants. It avoids agitation routinely experienced in busy ward. Material and Methods: A pilot open-labeled quasi-randomised clinical trial was conducted in Level III NICU of a teaching institution. 60 newborn infants <2500 g, meeting inclusion criteria were alternatively randomised into two groups: Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC and Conventional Methods of Care (CMC. Kangaroo mother care was practiced with minimum total period of eight hours a day intermittently for the intervention group while the controls remained in incubators or cots. Weight, head circumference, length, morbidity episodes, hospital stay, feeding patterns were monitored for all infants till postmenstrual age of 42 weeks in preterm babies or till a weight of 2500 g is achieved in term SGA babies. Results: The pilot study conrmed that trial processes were efcient, the intervention was acceptable (to mothers and nurses and that the outcome measures were appropriate; KMC babies achieved signicantly better growth at the end of the study (For preterm babies, weight, length and head circumference gain were signicantly higher in the KMC group (weight 19.28±2.9g/day, length 0.99±0.56cm/week and head circumference 0.72±0.07 cm/week than in the CMC group (P <0.001. A signicantly higher number of babies in the CMC group suffered from hypothermia, hypoglycemia, and

  16. The physics of articulated toys—a jumping and rotating kangaroo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Güémez, J; Fiolhais, M

    2014-01-01

    We describe the physics of an articulated toy with an internal source of energy provided by a spiral spring. The toy is a funny low cost kangaroo which jumps and rotates. The study consists of mechanical and thermodynamical analyses that make use of the Newton and centre of mass equations, the rotational equations and the first law of thermodynamics. This amazing toy provides a nice demonstrative example of how new physics insights can be brought about when links with thermodynamics are established in the study of mechanical systems. (papers)

  17. Using faecal DNA to determine consumption by kangaroos of plants considered palatable to sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, K W; Krebs, G L; McCafferty, P; van Wyngaarden, S P; Addison, J

    2010-02-01

    Disagreement exists within the scientific community with regards to the level of competition for feed between sheep and kangaroos in the Australian rangelands. The greatest challenge to solving this debate is finding effective means of determining the composition of the diets of these potential grazing competitors. An option is to adopt a non-invasive approach that combines faecal collection and molecular techniques that focus on faecal DNA as the primary source of dietary information. As proof-of-concept, we show that a DNA reference data bank on plant species can be established. This DNA reference data bank was then used as a library to identify plant species in kangaroo faeces collected in the southern rangelands of Western Australia. To enhance the method development and to begin the investigation of competitive grazing between sheep and kangaroos, 16 plant species known to be palatable to sheep were initially targeted for collection. To ensure that only plant sequences were studied, PCR amplification was performed using a universal primer pair previously shown to be specific to the chloroplast transfer RNA leucine (trnL) UAA gene intron. Overall, genus-specific, single and differently sized amplicons were reliably and reproducibly generated; enabling the differentiation of reference plants by PCR product length heterogeneity. However, there were a few plants that could not be clearly differentiated on the basis of size alone. This prompted the adoption of a post-PCR step that enabled further differentiation according to base sequence variation. Restriction endonucleases make sequence-specific cleavages on DNA to produce discrete and reproducible fragments having unique sizes and base compositions. Their availability, affordability and simplicity-of-use put restriction enzyme sequence (RES) profiling as a logical post-PCR step for confirming plant species identity. We demonstrate that PCR-RES profiling of plant and faecal matter is useful for the identification

  18. Kangaroo care for adoptive parents and their critically ill preterm infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Leslie; Anderson, Gene Cranston

    2002-01-01

    In this case study kangaroo care (KC) was facilitated for an adoptive mother and father who were planning to attend the birth of the infant they had arranged to adopt. Unexpectedly, the birth mother delivered at 27 weeks gestation. The infant was critically ill and required mechanical ventilation. However, in this neonatal intensive care unit where all adoptive parents and parents of mechanically ventilated infants are offered KC, these adoptive parents began KC on Day 3 while their infant daughter was still mechanically ventilated. She thrived thereafter and the entire experience was profoundly beneficial for this beginning family both at the hospital and after discharge home.

  19. They live in the land down under: thyroid function and basal metabolic rate in the Blind Mole Rat, Spalax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avivi, Aaron; Nevo, Eviatar; Cohen, Keren; Sotnichenko, Nick; Hercbergs, Aleck; Band, Mark; Davis, Paul J; Ellis, Martin; Ashur-Fabian, Osnat

    2014-01-01

    The Israeli blind subterranean mole rat (Spalax ehrenbergi superspecies) lives in sealed underground burrows under extreme, hypoxic conditions. The four Israeli Spalax allospecies have adapted to different climates, the cool-humid (Spalax galili, 2 n = 52 chromosomes), semihumid (S. golani, 2 n = 54) north regions, warm-humid (S. carmeli, 2 n = 58) central region and the warm-dry S. judaei, 2 n = 60) southern regions. A dramatic interspecies decline in basal metabolic rate (BMR) from north to south, even after years of captivity, indicates a genetic basis for this BMR trait. We examined the possibility that the genetically-conditioned interspecies BMR difference was expressed via circulating thyroid hormone. An unexpected north to south increase in serum free thyroxine (FT4) and total 3, 5, 3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) (p BMR measurements. The increases in serum FT4 and T3 were symmetrical, so that the T3:FT4 ratio - interpretable as an index of conversion of T4 to T3 in nonthyroidal tissues - did not support relative decrease in production of T3 as a contributor to BMR. Increased north-to-south serum FT4 and T3 levels also correlated negatively with hemoglobin/hematocrit. North-to-south adaptations in spalacids include decreased BMR and hematocrit/hemoglobin in the face of increasing thyroid hormone levels, arguing for independent control of hormone secretion and BMR/hematocrit/hemoglobin. But the significant inverse relationship between thyroid hormone levels and BMR/hematocrit/hemoglobin is also consistent with a degree of cellular resistance to thyroid hormone action that protects against hormone-induced increase in oxygen consumption in a hostile, hypoxic environment.

  20. Seasonal variation in kangaroo tooth enamel oxygen and carbon isotopes in southern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookman, Tom H.; Ambrose, Stanley H.

    2012-09-01

    Serial sampling of tooth enamel growth increments for carbon and oxygen isotopic analyses of Macropus (kangaroo) teeth was performed to assess the potential for reconstructing paleoseasonality. The carbon isotope composition of tooth enamel apatite carbonate reflects the proportional intake of C3 and C4 vegetation. The oxygen isotopic composition of enamel reflects that of ingested and metabolic water. Tooth enamel forms sequentially from the tip of the crown to the base, so dietary and environmental changes during the tooth's formation can be detected. δ13C and δ18O values were determined for a series of enamel samples drilled from the 3rd and 4th molars of kangaroos that were collected along a 900 km north-south transect in southern Australia. The serial sampling method did not yield pronounced seasonal isotopic variation patterns in Macropus enamel. The full extent of dietary isotopic variation may be obscured by attenuation of the isotopic signal during enamel mineralisation. Brachydont (low-crowned) Macropus teeth may be less sensitive to seasonal variation in isotopic composition due to time-averaging during mineralisation. However, geographic variations observed suggest that there may be potential for tracking latitudinal shifts in vegetation zones and seasonal environmental patterns in response to climate change.

  1. Morphological and morphometric characteristics of gastric mucosa in western grey kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus

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    Mahmoud Badran Shoeib

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to investigate the morphology and histomorphometry of stomach and gastric mucosa in western grey kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus. The stomach was composed of three indistinctive separate parts namely sacciform forestomach, tubiform forestomach, and hindstomach. The tubiform forestomach was the main tubular section of the organ. The stomach had a compound lining. The non-glandular mucosa occupied the medial blind sac (MBS of the sacciform forestomach; the layer covered about one-third of the tubiform forestomach (non-glandular region and the entire length of the gastric sulcus. The glandular part lined the parietal blind sac (PBS of sacciform forestomach and the cardiac gland region of tubiform forestomach as well as fundic and pyloric gland regions of the hindstomach. The cardiac mucosa had smooth and folded areas; these were filled with mixed glands. In the fundic glands, the parietal cells outnumbered the chief cells. The pyloric glands were of serous-like in characteristics. In conclusion, gross and histological structures of the stomach of western grey kangaroo are adaptive with its food habitat, which allows thorough mixing of highly fibrous grasses.

  2. Studies on the in vitro cultivation of ciliate protozoa from the kangaroo forestomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehority, Burk A; Wright, André-Denis G

    2014-08-01

    The methods used for culturing rumen protozoa were found to be unsatisfactory for growth of ciliate protozoa from the kangaroo forestomach. Based on published measurements of physical parameters in the marsupial forestomach, several modifications were incorporated into the procedure, i.e., an increase in % hydrogen in the gas phase, adjustment of initial pH of the medium to 6.9-7.0 range, feed only forage as a substrate and incubate at a lower temperature (33-36 °C). Only incubation at the lower temperature increased survival time of the kangaroo protozoa. Two species of Bitricha were still viable after 28 d in culture. Cultures had to be terminated at that time. One of the species differed considerably in size and shape from previously described species and based on 18S rRNA data, may represent a new species of Bitricha. The second species, present in low numbers was identified as Bitricha oblata. In a separate trial, Macropodinium yalanbense survived for 11 d, at which time these cultures also had to be terminated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Low sulfide levels and a high degree of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) activation by S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) in the long-lived naked mole-rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziegelewska, Maja; Holtze, Susanne; Vole, Christiane; Wachter, Ulrich; Menzel, Uwe; Morhart, Michaela; Groth, Marco; Szafranski, Karol; Sahm, Arne; Sponholz, Christoph; Dammann, Philip; Huse, Klaus; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Platzer, Matthias

    2016-08-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gaseous signalling molecule involved in many physiological and pathological processes. There is increasing evidence that H2S is implicated in aging and lifespan control in the diet-induced longevity models. However, blood sulfide concentration of naturally long-lived species is not known. Here we measured blood sulfide in the long-lived naked mole-rat and five other mammalian species considerably differing in lifespan and found a negative correlation between blood sulfide and maximum longevity residual. In addition, we show that the naked mole-rat cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), an enzyme whose activity in the liver significantly contributes to systemic sulfide levels, has lower activity in the liver and is activated to a higher degree by S-adenosylmethionine compared to other species. These results add complexity to the understanding of the role of H2S in aging and call for detailed research on naked mole-rat transsulfuration. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Low sulfide levels and a high degree of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS activation by S-adenosylmethionine (SAM in the long-lived naked mole-rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Dziegelewska

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S is a gaseous signalling molecule involved in many physiological and pathological processes. There is increasing evidence that H2S is implicated in aging and lifespan control in the diet-induced longevity models. However, blood sulfide concentration of naturally long-lived species is not known. Here we measured blood sulfide in the long-lived naked mole-rat and five other mammalian species considerably differing in lifespan and found a negative correlation between blood sulfide and maximum longevity residual. In addition, we show that the naked mole-rat cystathionine β-synthase (CBS, an enzyme whose activity in the liver significantly contributes to systemic sulfide levels, has lower activity in the liver and is activated to a higher degree by S-adenosylmethionine compared to other species. These results add complexity to the understanding of the role of H2S in aging and call for detailed research on naked mole-rat transsulfuration.

  5. Development of controlled release silicone adhesive–based mupirocin patch demonstrates antibacterial activity on live rat skin against Staphylococcus aureus

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    David SR

    2018-03-01

    . The highest percentage of drug release at 8 hours was 47.94%. The highest zone of inhibition obtained was 28.3 mm against S. aureus. The in vivo studies showed that the bacterial colonies were fewer at 1 cm (7×101 CFU/mL than at 2 cm (1.3×102 CFU/mL over a 24-hour period. The patches were nonirritant to the skin, and histopathologic results also showed no toxic or damaging effects to the skin. Conclusion: The in vitro and in vivo studies indicated that controlled release patches reduced the migration of S. aureus on the live rat skin effectively, however, a longer duration of study is required to determine the effectiveness of the patch on a suitable peritonitis-induced animal model. Keywords: transdermal delivery, matrix patch, peritonitis, antibacterial, dialysis infection, histopathology

  6. Original article The effects of kangaroo mother care in a sample of preterm, preschool aged children

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    Magdalena Chrzan-Dętkoś

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The research has shown that kangaroo mother care has a protective impact both on health and future cognitive skills of prematurely born babies. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between the early skin-to-skin contact and the cognitive and emotional-social functioning of preschool aged preterm babies. Participants and procedure The study group included 99 preterm babies. The children participated in a psychological examination conducted using the Columbia Mental Maturity Scale and the Terman-Merrill Test. The data concerning the skin-to-skin contact during the child’s hospitalisation were acquired during interviews with mothers. The emotional development was assessed on the basis of interviews with mothers, conducted using the Rescorla DSM-IV Orientation Scale (2005. Results The study showed no relation between kangaroo mother care and cognitive development. Nevertheless the early skin-to-skin contact turned out to be connected with the emotional functioning of the subjects. Preterm babies who used to experience kangaroo mother care experienced fewer anxiety and depressive disorders than those who did not. In addition it was revealed that the children who suffered from early damage to the brain in the forms of intraventricular and periventricular haemorrhages and experienced kangaroo mother care demonstrated less intense depressive symptoms than those who did not. Conclusions The obtained results, combined with the review of the foreign literature of the subject, indicate the usefulness of introducing kangaroo mother care to neonatal wards and encouraging parents to care about their prematurely born babies in such a way.

  7. Energy requirements of the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus): impacts of age, growth and body size in a large desert-dwelling herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, A J; Dawson, T J

    2003-09-01

    Generally, young growing mammals have resting metabolic rates (RMRs) that are proportionally greater than those of adult animals. This is seen in the red kangaroo ( Macropus rufus), a large (>20 kg) herbivorous marsupial common to arid and semi-arid inland Australia. Juvenile red kangaroos have RMRs 1.5-1.6 times those expected for adult marsupials of an equivalent body mass. When fed high-quality chopped lucerne hay, young-at-foot (YAF) kangaroos, which have permanently left the mother's pouch but are still sucking, and recently weaned red kangaroos had digestible energy intakes of 641+/-27 kJ kg(-0.75) day(-1) and 677+/-26 kJ kg(-0.75) day(-1), respectively, significantly higher than the 385+/-37 kJ kg(-0.75) day(-1) ingested by mature, non-lactating females. However, YAF and weaned red kangaroos had maintenance energy requirements (MERs) that were not significantly higher than those of mature, non-lactating females, the values ranging between 384 kJ kg(-0.75) day(-1) and 390 kJ kg(-0.75) day(-1) digestible energy. Importantly, the MER of mature female red kangaroos was 84% of that previously reported for similarly sized, but still growing, male red kangaroos. Growth was the main factor affecting the proportionally higher energy requirements of the juvenile red kangaroos relative to non-reproductive mature females. On a good quality diet, juvenile red kangaroos from permanent pouch exit until shortly after weaning (ca. 220-400 days) had average growth rates of 55 g body mass day(-1). At this level of growth, juveniles had total daily digestible energy requirements (i.e. MER plus growth energy requirements) that were 1.7-1.8 times the MER of mature, non-reproductive females. Our data suggest that the proportionally higher RMR of juvenile red kangaroos is largely explained by the additional energy needed for growth. Energy contents of the tissue gained by the YAF and weaned red kangaroos during growth were estimated to be 5.3 kJ g(-1), within the range found for

  8. Camels, Cormorants, and Kangaroo Rats: Integration and Synthesis in Organismal Biology After World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Joel B

    2015-01-01

    During the decades following World War II diverse groups of American biologists established a variety of distinctive approaches to organismal biology. Rhetorically, organismal biology could be used defensively to distinguish established research traditions from perceived threats from newly emerging fields such as molecular biology. But, organismal biologists were also interested in integrating biological disciplines and using a focus on organisms to synthesize levels of organization from molecules and cells to populations and communities. Part of this broad movement was the development of an area of research variously referred to as physiological ecology, environmental physiology, or ecophysiology. This area of research was distinctive in its self-conscious blend of field and laboratory practices and its explicit integration with other areas of biology such as ecology, animal behavior, and evolution in order to study adaptation. Comparing the intersecting careers of Knut Schmidt-Nielsen and George Bartholomew highlights two strikingly different approaches to physiological ecology. These alternative approaches to studying the interactions of organisms and environments also differed in important ways from the organismal biology championed by leading figures in the modern synthesis.

  9. Imaging of human sodium-iodide symporter gene expression mediated by recombinant adenovirus in skeletal muscle of living rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hyun Suk; Park, Seong-Wook [Department of Internal Medicine (Cardiology), Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1 Pungnap-dong, Songpa-gu, 138-736, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Heuiran; Kim, Sung Jin [Department of Microbiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Won Woo [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Yang, You-Jung; Moon, Dae Hyuk [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea)

    2004-09-01

    We evaluated the feasibility of non-invasive imaging of recombinant adenovirus-mediated human sodium-iodide symporter (hNIS) gene expression by {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} scintigraphy in skeletal muscle of rats. Replication-defective recombinant adenovirus encoding hNIS gene [Rad-CMV-hNIS 5 x 10{sup 7}, 2 x 10{sup 8} or 1 x 10{sup 9} plaque forming units (pfu)] or {beta}-galactosidase gene (Rad-CMV-LacZ 1 x 10{sup 9} pfu) was injected into the right biceps femoris muscle of rats (n=5-6 for each group). Three days after gene transfer, scintigraphy was performed using a gamma camera 30 min after injection of {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} (1.85 MBq). An additional two rats injected with 1 x 10{sup 9} pfu of Rad-CMV-hNIS underwent {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} scintigraphy with sodium perchlorate. After the imaging studies, rats were sacrificed for assessment of the biodistribution of {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} and measurement of hNIS mRNA expression. In all the rats injected with 1 x 10{sup 9} pfu of Rad-CMV-hNIS, hNIS expression was successfully imaged by {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} scintigraphy, while rats injected with Rad-CMV-LacZ or lower doses of Rad-CMV-hNIS failed to show uptake. The biodistribution studies indicated that a significantly different amount of {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} was retained in the liver (p<0.001) and the right muscle (p<0.05), with the highest uptake in rats injected with 1 x 10{sup 9} pfu of Rad-CMV-hNIS. The muscular hNIS mRNA level quantified by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was significantly higher in rats injected with 1 x 10{sup 9} pfu of Rad-CMV-hNIS (p<0.05), with a positive correlation with the imaging counts (r=0.810, p<0.05) and the biodistribution (r=0.847, p<0.001). Hot spots in rats injected with 1 x 10{sup 9} pfu of Rad-CMV-hNIS were specifically inhibited by sodium perchlorate. This study illustrated that {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} scintigraphy can monitor Rad-CMV-hNIS-mediated gene expression in

  10. Extended postnatal brain development in the longest-lived rodent: prolonged maintenance of neotenous traits in the naked mole-rat brain

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    Miranda E. Orr

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The naked mole-rat (NMR is the longest-lived rodent with a maximum lifespan >31 years. Intriguingly, fully-grown naked mole-rats (NMRs exhibit many traits typical of neonatal rodents. However, little is known about NMR growth and maturation, and we question whether sustained neotenous features when compared to mice, reflect an extended developmental period, commensurate with their exceptionally long life. We tracked development from birth to three years of age in the slowest maturing organ, the brain, by measuring mass, neural stem cell proliferation, axonal and dendritic maturation, synaptogenesis and myelination. NMR brain maturation was compared to data from similar sized rodents, mice, and to that of long-lived mammals, humans and non-human primates. We found that at birth, NMR brains are significantly more developed than mice, and rather are more similar to those of newborn primates, with clearly laminated hippocampi and myelinated white matter tracts. Despite this more mature brain at birth than mice, postnatal NMR brain maturation occurs at a far slower rate than mice, taking four-times longer than required for mice to fully complete brain development. At four months of age, NMR brains reach 90% of adult size with stable neuronal cytostructural protein expression whereas myelin protein expression does not plateau until nine months of age in NMRs, and synaptic protein expression continues to change throughout the first three years of life. Intriguingly, NMR axonal composition is more similar to humans than mice whereby NMRs maintain expression of three-repeat (3R tau even after brain growth is complete; mice experience an abrupt downregulation of 3R tau by postnatal day 8 which continues to diminish through six weeks of age. We have identified key ages in NMR cerebral development and suggest that the long-lived NMR may provide neurobiologists an exceptional model to study brain developmental processes that are compressed in common short-lived

  11. Extended Postnatal Brain Development in the Longest-Lived Rodent: Prolonged Maintenance of Neotenous Traits in the Naked Mole-Rat Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Miranda E; Garbarino, Valentina R; Salinas, Angelica; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2016-01-01

    The naked mole-rat (NMR) is the longest-lived rodent with a maximum lifespan >31 years. Intriguingly, fully-grown naked mole-rats (NMRs) exhibit many traits typical of neonatal rodents. However, little is known about NMR growth and maturation, and we question whether sustained neotenous features when compared to mice, reflect an extended developmental period, commensurate with their exceptionally long life. We tracked development from birth to 3 years of age in the slowest maturing organ, the brain, by measuring mass, neural stem cell proliferation, axonal, and dendritic maturation, synaptogenesis and myelination. NMR brain maturation was compared to data from similar sized rodents, mice, and to that of long-lived mammals, humans, and non-human primates. We found that at birth, NMR brains are significantly more developed than mice, and rather are more similar to those of newborn primates, with clearly laminated hippocampi and myelinated white matter tracts. Despite this more mature brain at birth than mice, postnatal NMR brain maturation occurs at a far slower rate than mice, taking four-times longer than required for mice to fully complete brain development. At 4 months of age, NMR brains reach 90% of adult size with stable neuronal cytostructural protein expression whereas myelin protein expression does not plateau until 9 months of age in NMRs, and synaptic protein expression continues to change throughout the first 3 years of life. Intriguingly, NMR axonal composition is more similar to humans than mice whereby NMRs maintain expression of three-repeat (3R) tau even after brain growth is complete; mice experience an abrupt downregulation of 3R tau by postnatal day 8 which continues to diminish through 6 weeks of age. We have identified key ages in NMR cerebral development and suggest that the long-lived NMR may provide neurobiologists an exceptional model to study brain developmental processes that are compressed in common short-lived laboratory animal models.

  12. Imaging of human sodium-iodide symporter gene expression mediated by recombinant adenovirus in skeletal muscle of living rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hyun Suk; Park, Seong-Wook; Lee, Heuiran; Kim, Sung Jin; Lee, Won Woo; Yang, You-Jung; Moon, Dae Hyuk

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the feasibility of non-invasive imaging of recombinant adenovirus-mediated human sodium-iodide symporter (hNIS) gene expression by 99m TcO 4 - scintigraphy in skeletal muscle of rats. Replication-defective recombinant adenovirus encoding hNIS gene [Rad-CMV-hNIS 5 x 10 7 , 2 x 10 8 or 1 x 10 9 plaque forming units (pfu)] or β-galactosidase gene (Rad-CMV-LacZ 1 x 10 9 pfu) was injected into the right biceps femoris muscle of rats (n=5-6 for each group). Three days after gene transfer, scintigraphy was performed using a gamma camera 30 min after injection of 99m TcO 4 - (1.85 MBq). An additional two rats injected with 1 x 10 9 pfu of Rad-CMV-hNIS underwent 99m TcO 4 - scintigraphy with sodium perchlorate. After the imaging studies, rats were sacrificed for assessment of the biodistribution of 99m TcO 4 - and measurement of hNIS mRNA expression. In all the rats injected with 1 x 10 9 pfu of Rad-CMV-hNIS, hNIS expression was successfully imaged by 99m TcO 4 - scintigraphy, while rats injected with Rad-CMV-LacZ or lower doses of Rad-CMV-hNIS failed to show uptake. The biodistribution studies indicated that a significantly different amount of 99m TcO 4 - was retained in the liver (p 9 pfu of Rad-CMV-hNIS. The muscular hNIS mRNA level quantified by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was significantly higher in rats injected with 1 x 10 9 pfu of Rad-CMV-hNIS (p 9 pfu of Rad-CMV-hNIS were specifically inhibited by sodium perchlorate. This study illustrated that 99m TcO 4 - scintigraphy can monitor Rad-CMV-hNIS-mediated gene expression in skeletal muscle of rats, non-invasively and quantitatively. (orig.)

  13. Familiarity breeds contempt: kangaroos persistently avoid areas with experimentally deployed dingo scents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Michael H; Blumstein, Daniel T

    2010-05-05

    Whether or not animals habituate to repeated exposure to predator scents may depend upon whether there are predators associated with the cues. Understanding the contexts of habituation is theoretically important and has profound implication for the application of predator-based herbivore deterrents. We repeatedly exposed a mixed mob of macropod marsupials to olfactory scents (urine, feces) from a sympatric predator (Canis lupus dingo), along with a control (water). If these predator cues were alarming, we expected that over time, some red kangaroos (Macropus rufous), western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus) and agile wallabies (Macropus agilis) would elect to not participate in cafeteria trials because the scents provided information about the riskiness of the area. We evaluated the effects of urine and feces independently and expected that urine would elicit a stronger reaction because it contains a broader class of infochemicals (pheromones, kairomones). Finally, we scored non-invasive indicators (flight and alarm stomps) to determine whether fear or altered palatability was responsible for the response. Repeated exposure reduced macropodid foraging on food associated with 40 ml of dingo urine, X = 986.75+/-3.97 g food remained as compared to the tap water control, X = 209.0+/-107.0 g (P0.5). Macropodids did not habituate to repeated exposure to predator scents, rather they avoided the entire experimental area after 10 days of trials (R(2) = 83.8; P<0.001). Responses to urine and feces were indistinguishable; both elicited fear-based responses and deterred foraging. Despite repeated exposure to predator-related cues in the absence of a predator, macropodids persistently avoided an area of highly palatable food. Area avoidance is consistent with that observed from other species following repeated anti-predator conditioning, However, this is the first time this response has been experimentally observed among medium or large vertebrates - where a local response

  14. Familiarity breeds contempt: kangaroos persistently avoid areas with experimentally deployed dingo scents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H Parsons

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Whether or not animals habituate to repeated exposure to predator scents may depend upon whether there are predators associated with the cues. Understanding the contexts of habituation is theoretically important and has profound implication for the application of predator-based herbivore deterrents. We repeatedly exposed a mixed mob of macropod marsupials to olfactory scents (urine, feces from a sympatric predator (Canis lupus dingo, along with a control (water. If these predator cues were alarming, we expected that over time, some red kangaroos (Macropus rufous, western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus and agile wallabies (Macropus agilis would elect to not participate in cafeteria trials because the scents provided information about the riskiness of the area.We evaluated the effects of urine and feces independently and expected that urine would elicit a stronger reaction because it contains a broader class of infochemicals (pheromones, kairomones. Finally, we scored non-invasive indicators (flight and alarm stomps to determine whether fear or altered palatability was responsible for the response. Repeated exposure reduced macropodid foraging on food associated with 40 ml of dingo urine, X = 986.75+/-3.97 g food remained as compared to the tap water control, X = 209.0+/-107.0 g (P0.5. Macropodids did not habituate to repeated exposure to predator scents, rather they avoided the entire experimental area after 10 days of trials (R(2 = 83.8; P<0.001.Responses to urine and feces were indistinguishable; both elicited fear-based responses and deterred foraging. Despite repeated exposure to predator-related cues in the absence of a predator, macropodids persistently avoided an area of highly palatable food. Area avoidance is consistent with that observed from other species following repeated anti-predator conditioning, However, this is the first time this response has been experimentally observed among medium or large vertebrates - where a local

  15. Reproductive implications of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus ocydromus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayberry, Chris; Maloney, Shane K; Mitchell, Jeff; Mawson, Peter R; Bencini, Roberta

    2014-04-01

    Australian marsupials are thought to be particularly vulnerable to pathologic impacts of Toxoplasma gondii, and they may be similarly affected by Neospora caninum. Pathology due to either organism could be expressed as reduced female reproductive performance. We studied adult female western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus ocydromus) from suburban Perth, Western Australia, between May 2006 and October 2008. We used indirect fluorescent antibody tests to look for evidence of exposure to T. gondii and N. caninum in M. fuliginosus ocydromus and tested the association between their reproductive performance and a positive test result. Although 20% of plasma samples collected from 102 female kangaroos were positive for T. gondii and 18% were positive for N. caninum, we found no association between positive results and reproductive performance. Further study will be required to clarify if, and under what circumstances, T. gondii and N. caninum are pathogenic to macropod marsupials.

  16. CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS VAR. GRUBII-ASSOCIATED RENAL AMYLOIDOSIS CAUSING PROTEIN-LOSING NEPHROPATHY IN A RED KANGAROO (MACROPUS RUFUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Mary Irene; Gjeltema, Jenessa; Sheley, Matthew; Wack, Ray F

    2017-09-01

    A 10-year-old male castrated red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) presented with mandibular swelling. Examination findings included pitting edema with no dental disease evident on examination or radiographs. The results of blood work were moderate azotemia, hypoalbuminemia, and severely elevated urine protein:creatinine ratio (9.9). Radiographs showed an interstitial pattern of the caudal right lung, and an abdominal ultrasound demonstrated scant effusion. Symptomatic and empirical therapy with antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs, and an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor did not resolve clinical signs. Due to poor prognosis and declining quality of life, euthanasia was elected. Necropsy revealed chronic granulomatous pneumonia of the caudal right lung lobe with intralesional Cryptococcus, identified as C. neoformans var. grubii by DNA sequencing. Severe bilateral glomerular and tubulointerstitial amyloidosis induced protein-losing nephropathy, leading to tri-cavitary effusion, subcutaneous edema, and cachexia. The authors speculate that renal amyloidosis was associated with chronic cryptococcal pneumonia in this red kangaroo.

  17. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE USE OF KANGAROO POSITION ON PRETERM BABIES AND MOTHER-CHILD INTERACTION UPON DISCHARGE

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, Cynthia Ribeiro do Nascimento; Campos, Lu?s Gustavo; Lucena, Aline Moreira; Pereira, Janser Moura; da Costa, Patr?cia Rodrigues; de Lima, Fl?via Aparecida Felipe; Azevedo, Vivian Mara Gon?alves de Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the influence of the Kangaroo Position duration in the initial interactions between mothers and preterm infants. Methods: This is an exploratory prospective observational study that analyzed the mother-infant interaction during breastfeeding, before hospital discharge. All eligible newborns, with a gestational age of 28-32 weeks and a birth weight of 1,000-1,800 g from June 11 to September 31, 2014 were included. The films of the interaction were evaluated by th...

  18. The Effect of Kangaroo Mother Care Immediately after Delivery on Mother-infant Attachment 3 Months after Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Zahra Karimi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background  The aim of this study was determine the effect of kangaroo mother care (KMC immediately after delivery on mother-infant attachment 3-month after delivery. Materials and Methods: In this RCT study, 72 mother-infant pairs were randomly divided in to kangaroo mother care and routine care groups.The intervention group received kangaroo mother care (KMC in the first two hours post birth. The control group just received routine hospital care. Mothers in the intervention group were encouraged to keep the baby in KMC as much as possible during the day and night throughout the neonatal period. Participants were followed up for three months after birth. The Main outcome measure was mother-infant attachment at 3 months postpartum and maternal anxiety about the baby at the same time. The data was collected by questionnaire (demographic information of parents and neonates and maternal attachment scale. Analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 14. Results: There was no significant difference between two groups regarding their baseline data. Mean maternal attachment score in the KMC group and in the routine care group at three months after delivery was 52.40±3.30 and 49.86±4.18 respectively, which was significantly higher in the KMC group (P

  19. Bringing compassion to the ethical dilemma in killing kangaroos for conservation: comment on "Conservation through sustainable use" by Rob Irvine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramp, Daniel

    2013-06-01

    Ethical debate on the killing of kangaroos has polarised conservation and animal welfare science, yet at the heart of these scientific disciplines is the unifying aim of reducing harm to non-human animals. This aim provides the foundation for common ground, culminating in the development of compassionate conservation principles that seek to provide mechanisms for achieving both conservation and welfare goals. However, environmental decision-making is not devoid of human interests, and conservation strategies are commonly employed that suit entrenched positions and commercial gain, rather than valuing the needs of the non-human animals in need of protection. The case study on the wild kangaroo harvest presents just such a dilemma, whereby a conservation strategy is put forward that can only be rationalised by ignoring difficulties in the potential for realising conservation benefits and the considerable welfare cost to kangaroos. Rather than an open debate on the ethics of killing game over livestock, in this response I argue that efforts to bring transparency and objectivity to the public debate have to date been obfuscated by those seeking to maintain entrenched interests. Only by putting aside these interests will debate about the exploitation of wildlife result in humane, compassionate, and substantive conservation benefits.

  20. Parental involvement and kangaroo care in European neonatal intensive care units: a policy survey in eight countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallás-Alonso, Carmen R; Losacco, Valentina; Maraschini, Alice; Greisen, Gorm; Pierrat, Veronique; Warren, Inga; Haumont, Dominique; Westrup, Björn; Smit, Bert J; Sizun, Jacques; Cuttini, Marina

    2012-09-01

    To compare, in a large representative sample of European neonatal intensive care units, the policies and practices regarding parental involvement and holding babies in the kangaroo care position as well as differences in the tasks mothers and fathers are allowed to carry out. Prospective multicenter survey. Neonatal intensive care units in eight European countries (Belgium, Denmark, France, Italy, The Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom). Patients were not involved in this study. None. A structured questionnaire was mailed to 362 units (response rate 78%); only units with ≥50 very-low-birth-weight annual admissions were considered for this study. Facilities for parents such as reclining chairs near the babies' cots, beds, and a dedicated room were common, but less so in Italy and Spain. All units in Sweden, Denmark, the United Kingdom, and Belgium reported encouraging parental participation in the care of the babies, whereas policies were more restrictive in Italy (80% of units), France (73%), and Spain (41%). Holding babies in the kangaroo care position was widespread. However, in the United Kingdom, France, Italy, and Spain, many units applied restrictions regarding its frequency (sometimes or on parents request only, rather than routinely), method (conventional rather than skin-to-skin), and clinical conditions (especially mechanical ventilation and presence of umbilical lines) that would prevent its practice. In these countries, fathers were routinely offered kangaroo care less frequently than mothers (p involvement as well as the role played by mothers and fathers varied within and between countries.

  1. Effect of phenobarbital pretreatment on benzene biotransformation in the rat. Pt. 2. 9. 000 g supernatant and isolated perfused liver versus living rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gut, I.; Hatle, K.; Zizkova, L.

    1981-03-01

    Factors responsible for different quantitative effect of phenobarbital (PB) pretreatment on benzene metabolism to phenol in vivo and in vitro were studied in male Wistar rats. A more than 4-fold increase of benzene metabolism was observed with 9,000 g supernatant of liver homogenate, 2.8- to 4-fold increase with isolated perfused liver; phenol formation in vivo after oral benzene was increased by PB 2-fold, but only shortly following benzene administration and the enhancement rapidly diminished to 1.15-fold increase in the total excreted phenol. Benzene concentrations in 9,000 g supernatant incubations were 2 mM, those with isolated perfused livers were up to 4 mM, but those in blood in vivo were below 0.3 mM; the effect of PB induction in vivo disappeared along with decreasing benzene and increasing phenol blood concentrations which surpassed benzene 2-3 h after oral benzene administration. The effect of benzene concentration on the manifestation of PB induction is also supported by almost a 2-fold increased phenol formation in PB rats over controls in vivo after repeated administration of benzene. The elimination of radioactive metabolites of orally administered benzene-/sup 14/C, in urine was markedly inhibited by intraperitoneal administration of phenol, but not by pyrocatechol, resorcinol or hydroquinol suggesting that phenol might inhibit benzene metabolism in vivo especially when its concentration exceeds that of benzene.

  2. Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kondrashov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR.

  3. The Effects of Kangaroo Care in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit on the Physiological Functions of Preterm Infants, Maternal-Infant Attachment, and Maternal Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eun-Sook; Kim, Shin-Jeong; Kwon, Myung Soon; Cho, Haeryun; Kim, Eun Hye; Jun, Eun Mi; Lee, Sunhee

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify the effects of kangaroo care on the physiological functions of preterm infants, maternal-infant attachment, and maternal stress. For this study, a quasi-experiment design was used with a nonequivalent control group, and a pre- and post-test. Data were collected from preterm infants with corrected gestational ages of ≥33weeks who were hospitalized between May and October 2011. Twenty infants were assigned to the experimental group and 20 to the control group. As an intervention, kangaroo care was provided in 30-min sessions conducted thrice a week for a total of 10 times. The collected data were analyzed by using the t test, repeated-measures ANOVA, and the ANCOVA test. After kangaroo care, the respiration rate significantly differed between the two groups (F=5.701, p=.020). The experimental group had higher maternal-infant attachment scores (F=25.881, pinfant physiological functions such as respiration rate, increasing maternal-infant attachment, and reducing maternal stress. This study suggests that kangaroo care can be used to promote emotional bonding and support between mothers and their babies, and to stabilize the physiological functions of premature babies. Kangaroo care may be one of the most effective nursing interventions in the neonatal intensive care unit for the care of preterm infants and their mothers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Reaching Out to Send a Message: Proteins Associated with Neurite Outgrowth and Neurotransmission are Altered with Age in the Long-Lived Naked Mole-Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triplett, Judy C; Swomley, Aaron M; Kirk, Jessime; Grimes, Kelly M; Lewis, Kaitilyn N; Orr, Miranda E; Rodriguez, Karl A; Cai, Jian; Klein, Jon B; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Butterfield, D Allan

    2016-07-01

    Aging is the greatest risk factor for developing neurodegenerative diseases, which are associated with diminished neurotransmission as well as neuronal structure and function. However, several traits seemingly evolved to avert or delay age-related deterioration in the brain of the longest-lived rodent, the naked mole-rat (NMR). The NMR remarkably also exhibits negligible senescence, maintaining an extended healthspan for ~75 % of its life span. Using a proteomic approach, statistically significant changes with age in expression and/or phosphorylation levels of proteins associated with neurite outgrowth and neurotransmission were identified in the brain of the NMR and include: cofilin-1; collapsin response mediator protein 2; actin depolymerizing factor; spectrin alpha chain; septin-7; syntaxin-binding protein 1; synapsin-2 isoform IIB; and dynamin 1. We hypothesize that such changes may contribute to the extended lifespan and healthspan of the NMR.

  5. EFFECT OF KANGAROO MOTHER CARE ON OUTCOME IN PRETERM AND LOW BIRTH WEIGHT NEONATES

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    Chandra Sekhar Kondapalli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The aim of the study is to study the effect of kangaroo mother care(KMC on preterm and LBW neonates’ vital parameters like temperature, respiratory rate, heart rate and oxygen saturation, establishment of breastfeeding and weight gain, morbidity and mortality, outcome in intramural and extramural neonates. MATERIALS AND METHODS Hospital-based prospective study, Katuri Medical College and Hospital, 300 newborns shifted to KMC ward. In our study group, female newborns were more than male newborns. Inborn were more than outborn, late preterm more than early preterm and term neonates. A significant increase in axillary temperature, increase in respiratory rate, decrease in heart rate and increase in oxygen saturation was seen in neonates. Higher proportion of neonates achieved transition from predominant expressed breast milk consumption to predominant direct breastfeeding during hospital stay. RESULTS The study showed significantly mean weight gain per day during in hospital KMC of 20 g/kg/day. Mean age when neonates started to gain weight was 8.5 days. Neonates were discharged early as they met our discharge criteria with mean age being 11.6 days. Morbidity of neonates requiring NICU admissions apart from LBW in our study were hyperbilirubinaemia (49.9%, sepsis (19.4%, respiratory illness (7.8% and hypothermia (6.4%. During KMC stay, sepsis and NEC seen in 2 each, apnoea, PDA, jaundice in one each and maternal acceptance of KMC was good. During follow up, it was observed that all neonates were exclusively breastfed and the rate of weight gain (148 g/week was satisfactory with an exception that only 8 requiring hospitalisation and only 1 death due to severe infection. The response of the family and/or the father was supportive. CONCLUSION KMC sustains improvement in LBW neonates’ physiological parameters and accelerates growth pattern. Practice of KMC promote breastfeeding, shorten hospital stay without compromising survival, growth

  6. Living at high altitude in combination with sea-level sprint training increases hematological parameters but does not improve performance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Bello, Vladimir Essau; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Nascimento, Ana Lucia; Pallardo, Federico V; Ibañez-Sania, Sandra; Olaso-Gonzalez, Gloria; Calbet, Jose Antonio; Gomez-Cabrera, Mari Carmen; Viña, Jose

    2011-06-01

    The regimen of aerobic training at sea level with recovery at high altitude has been used by athletes to improve performance. However, little is known about the effects of hypoxia when combined with sprint interval training on performance. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of a "living high-sprint training low" strategy on hemoglobin, hematocrit and erythropoietin levels in rats. We also wanted to test whether the addition of a hypoxic stress to the program of daily treadmill running at high speeds induces expressional adaptations in skeletal muscle and affects performance. The protein content of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), cytochrome C, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK1), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and citrate synthase activity were determined in different muscle fiber types in our animals (red and white gastrocnemius muscle). We also determined the maximal aerobic velocity (MAV) before and after the training period. A total of 24 male Wistar rats (3 month old) were randomly divided into four experimental groups: the normoxic control group (n = 6), the normoxic trained group (n = 6), the hypoxic control group (12 h pO(2) 12%/12 h pO(2) 21%) (n = 6) and the hypoxic trained group (12 h pO(2) 12%/12 h pO(2) 21%). Living in normobaric hypoxia condition for 21 days significantly increased hemoglobin, hematocrit and erythropoietin levels in both the rest and the trained groups. The trained animals (normoxia and hypoxia) significantly increased their maximal aerobic velocity. No changes were found in the skeletal muscle in PGC-1α, cytochrome C, PDK1, HSP70, MnSOD protein content and in the citrate synthase activity in any experimental group. Regardless of whether it is combined with sprint interval training or not, after 21 days of living at high altitude we found a significant increase in the hematological values determined in our study. However, contrary to

  7. Spatial and temporal activity patterns of the free-living giant mole-rat (Fukomys mechowii, the largest social bathyergid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matěj Lövy

    Full Text Available Despite the considerable attention devoted to the biology of social species of African mole-rats (Bathyergidae, Rodentia, knowledge is lacking about their behaviour under natural conditions. We studied activity of the largest social bathyergid, the giant mole-rat Fukomys mechowii, in its natural habitat in Zambia using radio-telemetry. We radio-tracked six individuals during three continuous 72-h sessions. Five of these individuals, including a breeding male, belonged to a single family group; the remaining female was probably a solitary disperser. The non-breeders of the family were active (i.e. outside the nest 5.8 hours per 24h-day with the activity split into 6.5 short bouts. The activity was more concentrated in the night hours, when the animals also travelled longer distances from the nest. The breeding male spent only 3.2 hours per day outside the nest, utilizing less than 20% of the whole family home range. The dispersing female displayed a much different activity pattern than the family members. Her 8.0 hours of outside-nest activity per day were split into 4.6 bouts which were twice as long as in the family non-breeders. Her activity peak in the late afternoon coincided with the temperature maximum in the depth of 10 cm (roughly the depth of the foraging tunnels. Our results suggest that the breeding individuals (at least males contribute very little to the work of the family group. Nevertheless, the amount of an individual's activity and its daily pattern are probably flexible in this species and can be modified in response to actual environmental and social conditions.

  8. Maternal singing during kangaroo care led to autonomic stability in preterm infants and reduced maternal anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnon, Shmuel; Diamant, Chagit; Bauer, Sofia; Regev, Rivka; Sirota, Gisela; Litmanovitz, Ita

    2014-10-01

    Kangaroo care (KC) and maternal singing benefit preterm infants, and we investigated whether combining these benefitted infants and mothers. A prospective randomised, within-subject, crossover, repeated-measures study design was used, with participants acting as their own controls. We evaluated the heart rate variability (HRV) of stable preterm infants receiving KC, with and without maternal singing. This included low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF) and the LF/HF ratio during baseline (10 min), singing or quiet phases (20 min) and recovery (10 min). Physiological parameters, maternal anxiety and the infants' behavioural state were measured. We included 86 stable preterm infants, with a postmenstrual age of 32-36 weeks. A significant change in LF and HF, and lower LF/HF ratio, was observed during KC with maternal singing during the intervention and recovery phases, compared with just KC and baseline (all p-values singing than just KC (p = 0.04). No differences in the infants' behavioural states or physiological parameters were found, with or without singing. Maternal singing during KC reduces maternal anxiety and leads to autonomic stability in stable preterm infants. This effect is not detected in behavioural state or physiological parameters commonly used to monitor preterm infants. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Kangaroo Mother Care in Colombia: A Subaltern Health Innovation against For-profit Biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadía-Barrero, César Ernesto

    2018-01-24

    This ethnographic study presents the origins, growth, and collapse of the first Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) program, a well-established practice for neonatal care created in 1978 in Colombia. The WHO and UNICEF praised this zero-cost revolutionary technique for its promotion of skin-to-skin contact between premature and low-birth-weight newborns and family members. KMC facilitates early hospital discharge, brings many clinical and psychological benefits, and constitutes an excellent alternative to placing babies in incubators. However, these benefits and political potential against biomedical interventions were undermined after being relabeled as a "reverse innovation," a business concept that encourages corporate investments in low-income countries to develop technologies that can both solve global health problems and boost multinational corporations profits. In response, I propose "subaltern health innovations" as a label for KMC that accounts for the power dynamics in global health between health care initiatives that originate in the Global South and neoliberal configurations of for-profit biomedicine. © 2018 by the American Anthropological Association.

  10. The Effect of Kangaroo Mother Care on Neonatal Outcomes in Iranian Hospitals: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Sarparast

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC is a supportive technique that beings at the neonatal period and is one of the skin-to-skin contact methods of holding neonate by mother. This method has an important role in exclusive breastfeeding and thermal care of neonates. This study aimed to investigate the application of KMC and evaluate the effect of this technique in different neonatal outcomes, particularly in Iranian neonates. Moreover, this review can be a tool for formative evaluation for this newly introduced treatment intervention in Iran. Evidence Acquisition: This review was conducted in national and international databases concerning experience with KMC on term and preterm neonates admitted in Iranian hospitals from 2006 to 2014. The measured outcomes included physiologic, psychologic, and clinical effects of this practice on newborn infants. Results: In this study, 42 Persian and English language papers were reviewed and finally 26 articles were selected. Various effects of KMC on different factors such as analgesia; physiological effects, breastfeeding, icterus, length of hospitalization, infection, psychologic effects, and weight gain were found. Conclusions: The results showed that as a simple and suitable strategy for increasing the health status of the mothers and newborns, KMC had an important role in improvement of neonatal outcomes in neonatal wards of Iranian hospitals in recent ten years. Therefore, promoting this technique in all neonatal wards of the country can promote health status of this population.

  11. Uncovering the secret lives of sewer rats (Rattus norvegicus): Movements, distribution and population dynamics revealed by a capture-mark-recapture study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte; Sluydts, Vincent; Leirs, Herwig E.l.

    2012-01-01

    Context.: In many parts of the world, brown rats have colonised sewer systems and the rat populations in sewers are often thought to be a source of problems with rats on the surface. The management of sewer rat populations is usually performed with little, if any, knowledge of the dynamics and be...

  12. Degenerative changes and cell death in long-living homo- and heterotopic transplants from embryonic germ layers of rat neocortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, E S; Otellin, V A

    2003-09-01

    Morphological study of allotransplants of rat embryonic neocortex 14-18 months after transplantation into the neocortex, lateral cerebral ventricle, and sciatic nerve of adult animals revealed death of nerve and glial cells in the delayed postoperation period independently on the site of transplantation. After heterotopic transplantation the count of degenerated neurons was 2 times higher that after homotopic transplantation. In heterotopic transplants a considerable number of grafted neurons underwent reversible and irreversible degenerative changes accompanied by their premature aging. Neuronal death is probably determined by insufficiency of trophic influence from afferent structures and target tissues. We hypothesized that antiapoptotic preparations can be used for prevention of transplanted cell death. It was also found that degeneration of neurons was associated with impaired vascularization of transplants and pronounced immune reaction of the recipient in late posttransplantation period. Transplantation of embryonic brain structures can serve as a model system in studies concerning involutive and pathological processes in the central nervous system and in the search for factors improving survival of neurons.

  13. Mucosal immunization with live attenuated Francisella novicida U112ΔiglB protects against pulmonary F. tularensis SCHU S4 in the Fischer 344 rat model.

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    Aimee L Signarovitz

    Full Text Available The need for an efficacious vaccine against Francisella tularensis is a consequence of its low infectious dose and high mortality rate if left untreated. This study sought to characterize a live attenuated subspecies novicida-based vaccine strain (U112ΔiglB in an established second rodent model of pulmonary tularemia, namely the Fischer 344 rat using two distinct routes of vaccination (intratracheal [i.t.] and oral. Attenuation was verified by comparing replication of U112ΔiglB with wild type parental strain U112 in F344 primary alveolar macrophages. U112ΔiglB exhibited an LD(50>10(7 CFU compared to the wild type (LD(50 = 5 × 10(6 CFU i.t.. Immunization with 10(7 CFU U112ΔiglB by i.t. and oral routes induced antigen-specific IFN-γ and potent humoral responses both systemically (IgG2a>IgG1 in serum and at the site of mucosal vaccination (respiratory/intestinal compartment. Importantly, vaccination with U112ΔiglB by either i.t. or oral routes provided equivalent levels of protection (50% survival in F344 rats against a subsequent pulmonary challenge with ~25 LD(50 (1.25 × 10(4 CFU of the highly human virulent strain SCHU S4. Collectively, these results provide further evidence on the utility of a mucosal vaccination platform with a defined subsp. novicida U112ΔiglB vaccine strain in conferring protective immunity against pulmonary tularemia.

  14. Detection of radiation-induced brain necrosis in live rats using label-free time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl, Brad A.; Ma, Htet S. W.; Sridharan, Shamira; Hansen, Katherine; Klich, Melanie; Perks, Julian; Kent, Michael; Kim, Kyoungmi; Fragoso, Ruben; Marcu, Laura

    2017-02-01

    Differentiating radiation-induced necrosis from recurrent tumor in the brain remains a significant challenge to the neurosurgeon. Clinical imaging modalities are not able to reliably discriminate the two tissue types, making biopsy location selection and surgical management difficult. Label-free fluorescence lifetime techniques have previously been shown to be able to delineate human brain tumor from healthy tissues. Thus, fluorescence lifetime techniques represent a potential means to discriminate the two tissues in real-time during surgery. This study aims to characterize the endogenous fluorescence lifetime signatures from radiation induced brain necrosis in a tumor-free rat model. Fischer rats received a single fraction of 60 Gy of radiation to the right hemisphere using a linear accelerator. Animals underwent a terminal live surgery after gross necrosis had developed, as verified with MRI. During surgery, healthy and necrotic brain tissue was measured with a fiber optic needle connected to a multispectral fluorescence lifetime system. Measurements of the necrotic tissue showed a 48% decrease in intensity and 20% increase in lifetimes relative to healthy tissue. Using a support vector machine classifier and leave-one-out validation technique, the necrotic tissue was correctly classified with 94% sensitivity and 97% specificity. Spectral contribution analysis also confirmed that the primary source of fluorescence contrast lies within the redox and bound-unbound population shifts of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. A clinical trial is presently underway to measure these tissue types in humans. These results show for the first time that radiation-induced necrotic tissue in the brain contains significantly different metabolic signatures that are detectable with label-free fluorescence lifetime techniques.

  15. OBSERVATION ON INCREASE IN WEIGHT OF LOW BIRTH WEIGHT (LBW) BABIES BY IMPLEMENTING KANGAROO MOTHER CARE (KMC) TECHNIQUE

    OpenAIRE

    Purnendu Kumar Singh; Kumar Amritanshu; Bijoy Mukherjee

    2014-01-01

    Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) is a practical technique for nursing of low birth weight babies by direct skin to contact with the mother. This study was undertaken to observe and record the effect of KMC with focus on increase in weight of at term low birth weight (LBW) babies weighing less than 2000 grams. The study was conducted over thirty six month’s period from July 2011 to June 2014. The method of care consisted of skin to skin contact between the mother and the infant along ...

  16. Kangaroo mother care in resource-limited settings: implementation, health benefits, and cost-effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwaezuoke SN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Samuel N Uwaezuoke Department of Pediatrics, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku–Ozalla, Enugu, Nigeria Abstract: Kangaroo mother care (KMC represents an intervention in low birth weight infants for resource-limited settings which aims to reduce mortality rates by thermoregulation, supporting breastfeeding, and promoting early hospital discharge. In terms of cost and impact on neonatal survival, it has comparative advantages over the conventional method of care (CMC. This paper aimed to review the evidence concerning the progress of KMC implementation, its health benefits, and its cost-effectiveness, especially in developing countries. From the synthesized evidence, KMC was shown to be a useful adjunct to CMC particularly with respect to improving neonatal survival, supporting breastfeeding, and promoting early discharge from the hospital. Substantial progress has been made in its implementation in many developing countries where facility-based KMC has been institutionalized. Despite the cost-effectiveness of KMC in neonatal care, its global implementation is bedeviled with country-specific, multifaceted challenges. In developed countries, there is an implementation gap due to easy accessibility to technology-based CMC. Nevertheless, many developing countries have initiated national policies to scale up KMC services in their domain. Given the major constraints to program implementation peculiar to these resource-limited countries, it has become imperative to boost caregiver confidence and experience using dedicated spaces in the hospital, as well as dedicated staff meant for adequate ambulatory follow-up and continuous health education. Capacity training for health professionals and provision of space infrastructure thus constitute the basic needs which could be funded by International Aid Agencies in order to scale up the program in these settings. Keywords: neonatal care, low birth weight infants, thermoregulation, breastfeeding

  17. Maternal mood and concordant maternal and infant salivary cortisol during heel lance while in kangaroo care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castral, T C; Warnock, F; Dos Santos, C B; Daré, M F; Moreira, A C; Antonini, S R R; Scochi, C G S

    2015-03-01

    Maternal kangaroo care (MKC) is a naturalistic intervention that alleviates neonatal pain, and mothers are assumed to play a stress regulatory role in MKC. Yet, no MKC infant pain study has examined relationship between maternal and infant stress reactivity concurrently, or whether post-partum depression and/or anxiety (PPDA) alters maternal and neonatal stress response and the regulatory effects of MKC. To examine the concordance of salivary cortisol reactivity between 42 mothers and their stable preterm infants during routine infant heel lance (HL) while in MKC and to compare salivary cortisol between groups of mothers with and without PPDA and their infants. Maternal and infant salivary cortisol samples were collected pre-HL and 20 min post-HL with two additional maternal samples at night and in the morning. Mothers and infants were allocated to with PPDA versus without PPDA study groups on the basis of maternal post-natal mental health assessment scores. Higher mothers' cortisol pre-HL was weakly associated with higher infants' salivary cortisol in response to the HL procedure. Maternal depression and/or anxiety were not associated with infants' cortisol. During HL, both groups of mothers and infants showed no change in salivary cortisol. Concordance between mother and infant salivary cortisol supports the maternal stress regulatory role in MKC. MKC may have stress regulatory benefits for mothers and their preterm infants during HL independent of PPDA. Future MKC studies that target mothers with altered mood will help to build on these findings. © 2014 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  18. Increasing Confidence and Ability in Implementing Kangaroo Mother Care Method Among Young Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenanga Purbasary, Eleni; Rustina, Yeni; Budiarti, Tri

    Mothers giving birth to low birth weight babies (LBWBs) have low confidence in caring for their babies because they are often still young and may lack the knowledge, experience, and ability to care for the baby. This research aims to determine the effect of education about kangaroo mother care (KMC) on the confidence and ability of young mothers to implement KMC. The research methodology used was a controlled-random experimental approach with pre- and post-test equivalent groups of 13 mothers and their LBWBs in the intervention group and 13 mothers and their LBWBs in the control group. Data were collected via an instrument measuring young mothers' confidence, the validity and reliability of which have been tested with a resulting r value of .941, and an observation sheet on KMC implementation. After conducting the education, the confidence score of young mothers and their ability to perform KMC increased meaningfully. The score of confidence of young mothers before education was 37 (p = .1555: and the ability score for KMC Implementation before education was 9 (p = .1555). The median score of confidence of young mothers after education in the intervention group was 87 and in the control group was 50 (p = .001, 95% CI 60.36-75.56), and ability median score for KMC implementation after education in the intervention group was 16 and in the control group was 12 (p = .001, 95% CI 1.50-1.88). KMC education should be conducted gradually, and it is necessary to involve the family, in order for KMC implementation to continue at home. A family visit can be done for LBWBs to evaluate the ability of the young mothers to implement KMC.

  19. Comparison of skin-to-skin (kangaroo) and traditional care: parenting outcomes and preterm infant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Ruth; Eidelman, Arthur I; Sirota, Lea; Weller, Aron

    2002-07-01

    To examine whether the kangaroo care (KC) intervention in premature infants affects parent-child interactions and infant development. Seventy-three preterm infants who received KC in the neonatal intensive care unit were matched with 73 control infants who received standard incubator care for birth weight, gestational age (GA), medical severity, and demographics. At 37 weeks' GA, mother-infant interaction, maternal depression, and mother perceptions were examined. At 3 months' corrected age, infant temperament, maternal and paternal sensitivity, and the home environment (with the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment [HOME]) were observed. At 6 months' corrected age, cognitive development was measured with the Bayley-II and mother-infant interaction was filmed. Seven clusters of outcomes were examined at 3 time periods: at 37 weeks' GA, mother-infant interaction and maternal perceptions; at 3-month, HOME mothers, HOME fathers, and infant temperament; at 6 months, cognitive development and mother-infant interaction. After KC, interactions were more positive at 37 weeks' GA: mothers showed more positive affect, touch, and adaptation to infant cues, and infants showed more alertness and less gaze aversion. Mothers reported less depression and perceived infants as less abnormal. At 3 months, mothers and fathers of KC infants were more sensitive and provided a better home environment. At 6 months, KC mothers were more sensitive and infants scored higher on the Bayley Mental Developmental Index (KC: mean: 96.39; controls: mean: 91.81) and the Psychomotor Developmental Index (KC: mean: 85.47; controls: mean: 80.53). KC had a significant positive impact on the infant's perceptual-cognitive and motor development and on the parenting process. We speculate that KC has both a direct impact on infant development by contributing to neurophysiological organization and an indirect effect by improving parental mood, perceptions, and interactive behavior.

  20. The mood variation in mothers of preterm infants in Kangaroo mother care and conventional incubator care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macedo, Elizeu Coutinho; Cruvinel, Fernando; Lukasova, Katerina; D'Antino, Maria Eloisa Famá

    2007-10-01

    Preterm babies are more prone to develop disorders and so require immediate intensive care. In the conventional neonatal intensive care, the baby is kept in the incubator, separated from the mother. Some actions have been taken in order to make this mother-child separation less traumatic. One of these actions is the Kangaroo mother care (KMC) characterized by skin-to-skin contact between a mother and her newborn. The objective of this study was to compare the mood variation of mothers enrolled in the KMC program to those in the conventional incubator care. In one general hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil, 90 mothers were evaluated before and after contact with the baby in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. The participants were divided into three groups: 30 mothers of term newborns (TG), 30 mothers of preterm infants included in KMC program (PGK) and 30 preterms with incubator placement (PGI). The Brazilian version of the Visual Analogue Mood Scale (VAMS) was used for the assessment before and after the infant's visit. Results showed that TG mothers reported fewer occurrences of depressive states than PGK and PGI mothers. A significant mood variation was observed for PGK and PGI after the infant's visit. PGK mothers reported feeling calmer, stronger, well-coordinated, energetic, contented, tranquil, quick-witted, relaxed, proficient, happy, friendly and clear-headed. The only variation showed by PGI mothers was an increase in feeling clumsy. This study shows a positive effect of the KMC on the mood variation of preterm mothers and points to the need of a more humane experience during the incubator care.

  1. Amyloid beta and the longest-lived rodent: the naked mole-rat as a model for natural protection from Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edrey, Yael H; Medina, David X; Gaczynska, Maria; Osmulski, Pawel A; Oddo, Salvatore; Caccamo, Antonella; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2013-10-01

    Amyloid beta (Aβ) is implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) as an integral component of both neural toxicity and plaque formation. Brains of the longest-lived rodents, naked mole-rats (NMRs) approximately 32 years of age, had levels of Aβ similar to those of the 3xTg-AD mouse model of AD. Interestingly, there was no evidence of extracellular plaques, nor was there an age-related increase in Aβ levels in the individuals examined (2-20+ years). The NMR Aβ peptide showed greater homology to the human sequence than to the mouse sequence, differing by only 1 amino acid from the former. This subtle difference led to interspecies differences in aggregation propensity but not neurotoxicity; NMR Aβ was less prone to aggregation than human Aβ. Nevertheless, both NMR and human Aβ were equally toxic to mouse hippocampal neurons, suggesting that Aβ neurotoxicity and aggregation properties were not coupled. Understanding how NMRs acquire and tolerate high levels of Aβ with no plaque formation could provide useful insights into AD, and may elucidate protective mechanisms that delay AD progression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Rate equation for creatine kinase predicts the in vivo reaction velocity: 31P NMR surface coil studies in brain, heart, and skeletal muscle of the living rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittl, J.A.; DeLayre, J.; Ingwall, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    Brain, heart, and skeletal muscle contain four different creatine kinase isozymes and various concentrations of substrates for the creatine kinase reaction. To identify if the velocity of the creatine kinase reaction under cellular conditions is regulated by enzyme activity and substrate concentrations as predicted by the rate equation, the authors used 31 P NMR and spectrophotometric techniques to measure reaction velocity, enzyme content, isozyme distribution, and concentrations of substrates in brain, heart, and skeletal muscle of living rat under basal or resting conditions. The total tissue activity of creatine kinase in the direction of MgATP synthesis provided an estimate for V/sub max/ and exceeded the NMR-determined in vivo reaction velocities by an order of magnitude. The isozyme composition varied among the three tissues: >99% BB for brain; 14% MB, 61% MM, and 25% mitochondrial for heart; and 98% MM and 2% mitochondrial for skeletal muscle. The NMR-determined reaction velocities agreed with predicted values from the creatine kinase rate equation. The concentrations of free creatine and cytosolic MgADP, being less than or equal to the dissociation constants for each isozyme, were dominant terms in the creatine kinase rate equation for predicting the in vivo reaction velocity. Thus, they observed that the velocity of the creatine kinase reaction is regulated by total tissue enzyme activity and by the concentrations of creatine and MgADP in a manner that is independent of isozyme distribution

  3. Dynamic changes in glucose metabolism of living rat brain slices induced by hypoxia and neurotoxic chemical-loading revealed by positron autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omata, N.; Fujibayashi, Y.; Waki, A.; Sadato, N.; Yano, R.; Yoshimoto, M.; Yonekura, Y.; Murata, T.; Yoshida, S.

    1999-01-01

    Fresh rat brain slices were incubated with 2-deoxy-2-[ 18 F]-fluoro-D-glucose ([ 18 F]FDG) in oxygenated Krebs-Ringer solution at 36 degree C, and serial two-dimensional time-resolved images of [ 18 F]FDG uptake were obtained from these specimens on imaging plates. The fractional rate constant (= k3*) of [ 18 F]FDG proportional to the cerebral glucose metabolic rate (CMRglc) was evaluated by applying the Gjedde-Patlak graphical method to the image data. With hypoxia loading (oxygen deprivation) or glucose metabolism inhibitors acting on oxidative phosphorylation, the k3* value increased dramatically suggesting enhanced glycolysis. After relieving hypoxia ≤10-min, the k3* value returned to the pre-loading level. In contrast, with ≥20-min hypoxia only partial or no recovery was observed, indicating that irreversible neuronal damage had been induced. However, after loading with tetrodotoxin (TTX), the k3* value also decreased but returned to the pre-loading level even after 70-min TTX-loading, reflecting a transient inhibition of neuronal activity. This technique provides a new means of quantifying dynamic changes in the regional CMRglc in living brain slices in response to various interventions such as hypoxia and neurotoxic chemical-loading as well as determining the viability and prognosis of brain tissues. (author)

  4. Aerobic characteristics of red kangaroo skeletal muscles: is a high aerobic capacity matched by muscle mitochondrial and capillary morphology as in placental mammals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Terence J; Mifsud, Brock; Raad, Matthew C; Webster, Koa N

    2004-07-01

    Marsupials and placentals together comprise the Theria, the advanced mammals, but they have had long independent evolutionary histories, with the last common ancestor occurring more than 125 million years ago. Although in the past the marsupials were considered to be metabolically 'primitive', the red kangaroo Macropus rufus has been reported to have an aerobic capacity (VO2max) comparable to that of the most 'athletic' of placentals such as dogs. However, kangaroos travel at moderate speeds with lower relative cost than quadrupedal placentals. Given the long independent evolution of the two therian groups, and their unusual locomotor energetics, do kangaroos achieve their high aerobic capacity using the same structural and functional mechanisms used by (athletic) placentals? Red kangaroo skeletal muscle morphometry matched closely the general aerobic characteristics of placental mammals. The relationship between total mitochondrial volume in skeletal muscle and VO2max during exercise was identical to that in quadrupedal placentals, and differed from that in bipedal humans. As for placentals generally, red kangaroo mitochondrial oxygen consumption at VO2max was 4.7 ml O2 min(-1) ml(-1) of mitochondria. Also, the inner mitochondrial membrane densities were 35.8 +/- 0.7 m2 ml(-1) of mitochondria, which is the same as for placental mammals, and the same pattern of similarity was seen for capillary densities and volumes. The overall data for kangaroos was equivalent to that seen in athletic placentals such as dogs and pronghorns. Total skeletal muscle mass was high, being around 50% of body mass, and was concentrated around the pelvis and lower back. The majority of the muscles sampled had relatively high mitochondrial volume densities, in the range 8.8-10.6% in the major locomotor muscles. Again, capillary densities and capillary blood volumes followed the pattern seen for mitochondria. Our results indicate that the red kangaroo, despite its locomotion and extreme

  5. A micro case study of the legal and administrative arrangements for river health in the Kangaroo River (NSW).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, C; Farrier, D

    2002-01-01

    Kangaroo Valley is a drinking water supply catchment for Kangaroo Valley village, parts of the Southern Highlands and Sydney. It is also a popular recreation area both for swimming and canoeing. Land use has traditionally been dominated by dairy farming but there has been significant and continuing development of land for hobby farms and rural residential subdivision. Dairy industry restructuring has affected the viability of some farms in the Valley and created additional pressure for subdivision. River health is a function of flows, water quality, riparian vegetation, geomorphology and aquatic habitat and riverine biota. River flows in the Kangaroo River are affected by water extraction and storage for urban water supply and extraction by commercial irrigators and riparian land holders which have a significant impact at low flows. Current water quality often does not meet ANZECC Guidelines for primary contact and recreation and the river is a poor source of raw drinking water. Key sources of contaminants are wastewater runoff from agriculture, and poorly performing on-site sewage management systems. Riparian vegetation, which is critical to the maintenance of in-stream ecosystems suffers from uncontrolled stock access and weed infestation. The management of land use and resulting diffuse pollution sources is critical to the long term health of the river. The Healthy Rivers Commission of New South Wales Independent Inquiry into the Shoalhaven River System Final Report July, 1999 found that the longer term protection of the health of the Kangaroo River is contingent upon achievement of patterns of land use that have regard to land capability and also to the capability of the river to withstand the impacts of inappropriate or poorly managed land uses. This micro case study of Kangaroo Valley examines the complex legal and administrative arrangements with particular reference to the management of diffuse pollution for river health. In the past, diffuse pollution has

  6. Kangaroo supported diagonal flexion positioning: New insights into skin-to-skin contact for communication between mothers and very preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buil, A; Carchon, I; Apter, G; Laborne, F X; Granier, M; Devouche, E

    2016-09-01

    Skin-to-skin contact shows benefits in the relationship developed between a mother and her premature infant. In the skin-to-skin session, face-to-face exchanges are impossible in vertical infant positioning. We therefore undertook an observational, prospective, single-center study using kangaroo "supported diagonal flexion" (SDF) positioning. The first aim was to evaluate the safety of kangaroo SDF positioning compared to the usual vertical positioning. The second aim was to evaluate SDF positioning on early communication between the mother and her infant and to improve their well-being. Fifteen mothers and their very premature infants (birth 26communication with their infant were assessed through questionnaires. In terms of the infant's physiology, no negative effects were associated with SDF positioning in comparison with the usual vertical positioning. SDF positioning led to fewer disorganized gestures, negative vocalizations, and drowsiness, in favor of more deep sleep. SDF led to more mother-infant eye-to-eye contact as well as maternal vocalizations, smiles, and caressing, although these differences did not reach significance. The score for the risk of postnatal depression decreased significantly between the first and the last session in the SDF group, whereas it did not change in the vertical positioning group. These results support the idea that the kangaroo SDF positioning technique is physiologically safe, has obvious immediate benefits on mothers' infant-directed communicative behaviors, and respects the baby's naturally flexed and asymmetrical tonic neck posture. It is an innovative, inexpensive, easy-to-use technique in daily practice, by all healthcare professionals working in a neonatal intensive care unit. These data suggest that the current kangaroo positioning technique could be improved. More studies are needed to confirm the benefits and safety of the kangaroo SDF positioning in larger groups of preterm infants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson

  7. Starting the conversation: community perspectives on preterm birth and kangaroo mother care in southern Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydon, Megan; Longwe, Monica; Likomwa, Dyson; Lwesha, Victoria; Chimtembo, Lydia; Donohue, Pamela; Guenther, Tanya; Valsangar, Bina

    2018-06-01

    Despite introduction of Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) in Malawi over a decade ago, preterm birth remains the leading cause of neonatal mortality. Although KMC is initiated in the health care facility, robust community follow-up is critical for survival and optimal development of preterm and low birth weight infants post-discharge. The objective of this qualitative study was to gain insight into community and health worker understanding, attitudes, beliefs and practices around preterm and low birth weight babies and KMC in Malawi. A total of 152 participants were interviewed in two districts in southern Malawi, Machinga and Thyolo, in April 2015. Focus group discussions (groups = 11, n = 132) were conducted with pregnant women, community members and women who have practiced KMC. In-depth interviews (n = 20) were conducted with fathers who have practiced KMC, community and religious leaders, and health workers. Purposive and snowball sampling were employed to identify participants. Thematic content analysis was conducted. KMC mothers and fathers only learned about KMC and care for preterm newborns after delivery of a child in need of this care. Men typically were not included in KMC counseling due to societal gender roles. Health facilities were the main source of information on KMC, however informal networks among women provided some degree of knowledge exchange. Community leaders were regarded as major facilitators of health information, conveners, key influencers, and policy-makers. Religious leaders were regarded as advocates and emotional support for families with preterm infants. Finally, while many participants initially had negative feelings towards preterm births and KMC, the large majority saw a shift in their perceptions through health counseling, peer modeling, and personal success with KMC. The findings offer several opportunities to improve KMC implementation including 1) earlier introduction of KMC to pregnant women and their families that are

  8. Translating research findings into practice – the implementation of kangaroo mother care in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergh Anne-Marie

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kangaroo mother care (KMC is a safe and effective method of caring for low birth weight infants and is promoted for its potential to improve newborn survival. Many countries find it difficult to take KMC to scale in healthcare facilities providing newborn care. KMC Ghana was an initiative to scale up KMC in four regions in Ghana. Research findings from two outreach trials in South Africa informed the design of the initiative. Two key points of departure were to equip healthcare facilities that conduct deliveries with the necessary skills for KMC practice and to single out KMC for special attention instead of embedding it in other newborn care initiatives. This paper describes the contextualisation and practical application of previous research findings and the results of monitoring the progress of the implementation of KMC in Ghana. Methods A three-phase outreach intervention was adapted from previous research findings to suit the local setting. A more structured system of KMC regional steering committees was introduced to drive the process and take the initiative forward. During Phase I, health workers in regions and districts were oriented in KMC and received basic support for the management of the outreach. Phase II entailed the strengthening of the regional steering committees. Phase III comprised a more formal assessment, utilising a previously validated KMC progress-monitoring instrument. Results Twenty-six out of 38 hospitals (68 % scored over 10 out of 30 and had reached the level of ‘evidence of practice’ by the end of Phase III. Seven hospitals exceeded expected performance by scoring at the level of ‘evidence of routine and institutionalised practice.’ The collective mean score for all participating hospitals was 12.07. Hospitals that had attained baby-friendly status or had been re-accredited in the five years before the intervention scored significantly better than the rest, with a mean score of 14

  9. And the beat goes on: maintained cardiovascular function during aging in the longest-lived rodent, the naked mole-rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Kelly M; Reddy, Anilkumar K; Lindsey, Merry L; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2014-08-01

    The naked mole-rat (NMR) is the longest-lived rodent known, with a maximum lifespan potential (MLSP) of >31 years. Despite such extreme longevity, these animals display attenuation of many age-associated diseases and functional changes until the last quartile of their MLSP. We questioned if such abilities would extend to cardiovascular function and structure in this species. To test this, we assessed cardiac functional reserve, ventricular morphology, and arterial stiffening in NMRs ranging from 2 to 24 years of age. Dobutamine echocardiography (3 μg/g ip) revealed no age-associated changes in left ventricular (LV) function either at baseline or with exercise-like stress. Baseline and dobutamine-induced LV pressure parameters also did not change. Thus the NMR, unlike other mammals, maintains cardiac reserve with age. NMRs showed no cardiac hypertrophy, evidenced by no increase in cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area or LV dimensions with age. Age-associated arterial stiffening does not occur since there are no changes in aortic blood pressures or pulse-wave velocity. Only LV interstitial collagen deposition increased 2.5-fold from young to old NMRs (P < 0.01). However, its effect on LV diastolic function is likely minor since NMRs experience attenuated age-related increases in diastolic dysfunction in comparison with other species. Overall, these findings conform to the negligible senescence phenotype, as NMRs largely stave off cardiovascular changes for at least 75% of their MLSP. This suggests that using a comparative strategy to find factors that change with age in other mammals but not NMRs could provide novel targets to slow or prevent cardiovascular aging in humans.

  10. Amor y tragedia de los “Abuelos canguros”: un estudio fenomenológico, Cumaná, estado Sucre, Venezuela | Love and tragedy of “Kangaroo grandparents”: a phenomenological study. Cumaná, Sucre state, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonne Rodríguez Hernández

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The current increase of the population with older age poses new urgencies in social aspects, which leads us to redefine our generational identity. The world of the elderly has changed, increasingly taking more active roles within the family dynamics where, with adjustments for mutual assistance, have led to a considerable number of them to become “caregiver grandparents” or “kangaroo grandparents”, to get in charge of their grandchildren. This task, which involves devotion from the grandparent’s part, also involves impacts on his physical and mental health that complicate his living conditions (material and symbolic. To understand this dynamic, this study aimed to interpret the experiences of three “kanguroo grandparents” from Cumana, Sucre State, Venezuela, under a phenomenological qualitative approach, with field design and descriptive-interpretatiive level. The techniques used were observation and in-depth interviews with three grandparents and their families, to deconstruct reality through categorized protocols and triangulated, which allowed the construction of a global structure of the phenomenon. As main findings, it was revealed the existence of a close relationship between the formation of matriarchal families, with a progressive process of feminization of poverty. Filial piety became the suitable channel to keep hogging and exploitative relations, that created stress and various conflicts. In addition, the displacement of patterns of breeding was evidenced that not only redefines parenting roles, but distorts the foreseeable development of families.

  11. OBSERVATION ON INCREASE IN WEIGHT OF LOW BIRTH WEIGHT (LBW BABIES BY IMPLEMENTING KANGAROO MOTHER CARE (KMC TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purnendu Kumar Singh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC is a practical technique for nursing of low birth weight babies by direct skin to contact with the mother. This study was undertaken to observe and record the effect of KMC with focus on increase in weight of at term low birth weight (LBW babies weighing less than 2000 grams. The study was conducted over thirty six month’s period from July 2011 to June 2014. The method of care consisted of skin to skin contact between the mother and the infant along with exclusive breast milk. Upon implementation of KMC babies under observation showed satisfactory gain in weight of average 25grams per day and an average hospital stay of 10 days. KMC aims towards achieving good weight gain in LBW babies. It is a simple hassle free technique which can be implemented at all levels of health care.

  12. [Effects of Kangaroo Care on anxiety, maternal role confidence, and maternal infant attachment of mothers who delivered preterm infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Bok; Shin, Hye Sook

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Kangaroo Care(KC) on anxiety, maternal role confidence, and maternal infant attachment of mothers who delivered preterm infants. The research design was a nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest. Data was collected from September 1. 2006 to June 20. 2007. The participants were 22 mothers in the experimental group and 21 in the control group. KC was applied three times per day, for a total of ten times in 4 days to the experimental group. The degree of anxiety was statistically significantly different between the two groups but maternal role confidence and maternal infant attachment was statistically insignificant. This data suggests that KC was effective for mothers anxiety relief but it was not effective for maternal role confidence and maternal infant attachment of mothers. The implications for nursing practice and directions for future research need to be discussed.

  13. Chromosome evolution in kangaroos (Marsupialia: Macropodidae): cross species chromosome painting between the tammar wallaby and rock wallaby spp. with the 2n = 22 ancestral macropodid karyotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, R J; Eldridge, M D; Toder, R; Ferguson-Smith, M A; O'Brien, P C; Graves, J A

    1999-06-01

    Marsupial mammals show extraordinary karyotype stability, with 2n = 14 considered ancestral. However, macropodid marsupials (kangaroos and wallabies) exhibit a considerable variety of karyotypes, with a hypothesised ancestral karyotype of 2n = 22. Speciation and karyotypic diversity in rock wallabies (Petrogale) is exceptional. We used cross species chromosome painting to examine the chromosome evolution between the tammar wallaby (2n = 16) and three 2n = 22 rock wallaby species groups with the putative ancestral karyotype. Hybridization of chromosome paints prepared from flow sorted chromosomes of the tammar wallaby to Petrogale spp., showed that this ancestral karyotype is largely conserved among 2n = 22 rock wallaby species, and confirmed the identity of ancestral chromosomes which fused to produce the bi-armed chromosomes of the 2n = 16 tammar wallaby. These results illustrate the fission-fusion process of karyotype evolution characteristic of the kangaroo group.

  14. Analysis of Alpha-2 Macroglobulin from the Long-Lived and Cancer-Resistant Naked Mole-Rat and Human Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, René; Kurz, Susanne; Kolb, Marlen; Debebe, Tewodros; Holtze, Susanne; Morhart, Michaela; Huse, Klaus; Szafranski, Karol; Platzer, Matthias; Hildebrandt, Thomas B; Birkenmeier, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    The naked mole-rat (NMR) is a long-lived and cancer resistant species. Identification of potential anti-cancer and age related mechanisms is of great interest and makes this species eminent to investigate anti-cancer strategies and understand aging mechanisms. Since it is known that the NMR expresses higher liver mRNA-levels of alpha 2-macroglobulin than mice, nothing is known about its structure, functionality or expression level in the NMR compared to the human A2M. Here we show a comprehensive analysis of NMR- and human plasma-A2M, showing a different prediction in glycosylation of NMR-A2M, which results in a higher molecular weight compared to human A2M. Additionally, we found a higher concentration of A2M (8.3±0.44 mg/mL vs. and 4.4±0.20 mg/mL) and a lower total plasma protein content (38.7±1.79 mg/mL vs. 61.7±3.20 mg/mL) in NMR compared to human. NMR-A2M can be transformed by methylamine and trypsin resulting in a conformational change similar to human A2M. NMR-A2M is detectable by a polyclonal antibody against human A2M. Determination of tryptic and anti-tryptic activity of NMR and human plasma revealed a higher anti-tryptic activity of the NMR plasma. On the other hand, less proteolytic activity was found in NMR plasma compared to human plasma. We found transformed NMR-A2M binding to its specific receptor LRP1. We could demonstrate lower protein expression of LRP1 in the NMR liver tissue compared to human but higher expression of A2M. This was accompanied by a higher EpCAM protein expression as central adhesion molecule in cancer progression. NMR-plasma was capable to increase the adhesion in human fibroblast in vitro most probably by increasing CD29 protein expression. This is the first report, demonstrating similarities as well as distinct differences between A2M in NMR and human plasma. This might be directly linked to the intriguing phenotype of the NMR and suggests that A2M might probably play an important role in anti-cancer and the anti

  15. Analysis of Alpha-2 Macroglobulin from the Long-Lived and Cancer-Resistant Naked Mole-Rat and Human Plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Thieme

    Full Text Available The naked mole-rat (NMR is a long-lived and cancer resistant species. Identification of potential anti-cancer and age related mechanisms is of great interest and makes this species eminent to investigate anti-cancer strategies and understand aging mechanisms. Since it is known that the NMR expresses higher liver mRNA-levels of alpha 2-macroglobulin than mice, nothing is known about its structure, functionality or expression level in the NMR compared to the human A2M.Here we show a comprehensive analysis of NMR- and human plasma-A2M, showing a different prediction in glycosylation of NMR-A2M, which results in a higher molecular weight compared to human A2M. Additionally, we found a higher concentration of A2M (8.3±0.44 mg/mL vs. and 4.4±0.20 mg/mL and a lower total plasma protein content (38.7±1.79 mg/mL vs. 61.7±3.20 mg/mL in NMR compared to human. NMR-A2M can be transformed by methylamine and trypsin resulting in a conformational change similar to human A2M. NMR-A2M is detectable by a polyclonal antibody against human A2M. Determination of tryptic and anti-tryptic activity of NMR and human plasma revealed a higher anti-tryptic activity of the NMR plasma. On the other hand, less proteolytic activity was found in NMR plasma compared to human plasma.We found transformed NMR-A2M binding to its specific receptor LRP1. We could demonstrate lower protein expression of LRP1 in the NMR liver tissue compared to human but higher expression of A2M. This was accompanied by a higher EpCAM protein expression as central adhesion molecule in cancer progression. NMR-plasma was capable to increase the adhesion in human fibroblast in vitro most probably by increasing CD29 protein expression. This is the first report, demonstrating similarities as well as distinct differences between A2M in NMR and human plasma. This might be directly linked to the intriguing phenotype of the NMR and suggests that A2M might probably play an important role in anti-cancer and the

  16. Microstructural and compositional features of the fibrous and hyaline cartilage on the medial tibial plateau imply a unique role for the hopping locomotion of kangaroo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo He

    Full Text Available Hopping provides efficient and energy saving locomotion for kangaroos, but it results in great forces in the knee joints. A previous study has suggested that a unique fibrous cartilage in the central region of the tibial cartilage could serve to decrease the peak stresses generated within kangaroo tibiofemoral joints. However, the influences of the microstructure, composition and mechanical properties of the central fibrous and peripheral hyaline cartilage on the function of the knee joints are still to be defined. The present study showed that the fibrous cartilage was thicker and had a lower chondrocyte density than the hyaline cartilage. Despite having a higher PG content in the middle and deep zones, the fibrous cartilage had an inferior compressive strength compared to the peripheral hyaline cartilage. The fibrous cartilage had a complex three dimensional collagen meshwork with collagen bundles parallel to the surface in the superficial zone, and with collagen bundles both parallel and perpendicular to the surface in the middle and deep zones. The collagen in the hyaline cartilage displayed a typical Benninghoff structure, with collagen fibres parallel to the surface in the superficial zone and collagen fibres perpendicular to the surface in the deep zone. Elastin fibres were found throughout the entire tissue depth of the fibrous cartilage and displayed a similar alignment to the adjacent collagen bundles. In comparison, the elastin fibres in the hyaline cartilage were confined within the superficial zone. This study examined for the first time the fibrillary structure, PG content and compressive properties of the central fibrous cartilage pad and peripheral hyaline cartilage within the kangaroo medial tibial plateau. It provided insights into the microstructure and composition of the fibrous and peripheral hyaline cartilage in relation to the unique mechanical properties of the tissues to provide for the normal activities of kangaroos.

  17. Microstructural and compositional features of the fibrous and hyaline cartilage on the medial tibial plateau imply a unique role for the hopping locomotion of kangaroo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bo; Wu, Jian Ping; Xu, Jiake; Day, Robert E; Kirk, Thomas Brett

    2013-01-01

    Hopping provides efficient and energy saving locomotion for kangaroos, but it results in great forces in the knee joints. A previous study has suggested that a unique fibrous cartilage in the central region of the tibial cartilage could serve to decrease the peak stresses generated within kangaroo tibiofemoral joints. However, the influences of the microstructure, composition and mechanical properties of the central fibrous and peripheral hyaline cartilage on the function of the knee joints are still to be defined. The present study showed that the fibrous cartilage was thicker and had a lower chondrocyte density than the hyaline cartilage. Despite having a higher PG content in the middle and deep zones, the fibrous cartilage had an inferior compressive strength compared to the peripheral hyaline cartilage. The fibrous cartilage had a complex three dimensional collagen meshwork with collagen bundles parallel to the surface in the superficial zone, and with collagen bundles both parallel and perpendicular to the surface in the middle and deep zones. The collagen in the hyaline cartilage displayed a typical Benninghoff structure, with collagen fibres parallel to the surface in the superficial zone and collagen fibres perpendicular to the surface in the deep zone. Elastin fibres were found throughout the entire tissue depth of the fibrous cartilage and displayed a similar alignment to the adjacent collagen bundles. In comparison, the elastin fibres in the hyaline cartilage were confined within the superficial zone. This study examined for the first time the fibrillary structure, PG content and compressive properties of the central fibrous cartilage pad and peripheral hyaline cartilage within the kangaroo medial tibial plateau. It provided insights into the microstructure and composition of the fibrous and peripheral hyaline cartilage in relation to the unique mechanical properties of the tissues to provide for the normal activities of kangaroos.

  18. Short-Lived Human Umbilical Cord-Blood-Derived Neural Stem Cells Influence the Endogenous Secretome and Increase the Number of Endogenous Neural Progenitors in a Rat Model of Lacunar Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonska, Anna; Drela, Katarzyna; Wojcik-Stanaszek, Luiza; Janowski, Miroslaw; Zalewska, Teresa; Lukomska, Barbara

    2016-11-01

    Stroke is the leading cause of severe disability, and lacunar stroke is related to cognitive decline and hemiparesis. There is no effective treatment for the majority of patients with stroke. Thus, stem cell-based regenerative medicine has drawn a growing body of attention due to the capabilities for trophic factor expression and neurogenesis enhancement. Moreover, it was shown in an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model that even short-lived stem cells can be therapeutic, and we have previously observed that phenomenon indirectly. Here, in a rat model of lacunar stroke, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the positive therapeutic effects of short-lived human umbilical cord-blood-derived neural stem cells (HUCB-NSCs) through the distinct measurement of exogenous human and endogenous rat trophic factors. We have also evaluated neurogenesis and metalloproteinase activity as cellular components of therapeutic activity. As expected, we observed an increased proliferation and migration of progenitors, as well as metalloproteinase activity up to 14 days post transplantation. These changes were most prominent at the 7-day time point when we observed 30 % increases in the number of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cells in HUCB-NSC transplanted animals. The expression of human trophic factors was present until 7 days post transplantation, which correlated well with the survival of the human graft. For these 7 days, the level of messenger RNA (mRNA) in the analyzed trophic factors was from 300-fold for CNTF to 10,000-fold for IGF, much higher compared to constitutive expression in HUCB-NSCs in vitro. What is interesting is that there was no increase in the expression of rat trophic factors during the human graft survival, compared to that in non-transplanted animals. However, there was a prolongation of a period of increased trophic expression until 14 days post transplantation, while, in non-transplanted animals, there was a

  19. Scaling up kangaroo mother care in South Africa: 'on-site' versus 'off-site' educational facilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Rooyen Elise

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scaling up the implementation of new health care interventions can be challenging and demand intensive training or retraining of health workers. This paper reports on the results of testing the effectiveness of two different kinds of face-to-face facilitation used in conjunction with a well-designed educational package in the scaling up of kangaroo mother care. Methods Thirty-six hospitals in the Provinces of Gauteng and Mpumalanga in South Africa were targeted to implement kangaroo mother care and participated in the trial. The hospitals were paired with respect to their geographical location and annual number of births. One hospital in each pair was randomly allocated to receive either 'on-site' facilitation (Group A or 'off-site' facilitation (Group B. Hospitals in Group A received two on-site visits, whereas delegates from hospitals in Group B attended one off-site, 'hands-on' workshop at a training hospital. All hospitals were evaluated during a site visit six to eight months after attending an introductory workshop and were scored by means of an existing progress-monitoring tool with a scoring scale of 0–30. Successful implementation was regarded as demonstrating evidence of practice (score >10 during the site visit. Results There was no significant difference between the scores of Groups A and B (p = 0.633. Fifteen hospitals in Group A and 16 in Group B demonstrated evidence of practice. The median score for Group A was 16.52 (range 00.00–23.79 and that for Group B 14.76 (range 07.50–23.29. Conclusion A previous trial illustrated that the implementation of a new health care intervention could be scaled up by using a carefully designed educational package, combined with face-to-face facilitation by respected resource persons. This study demonstrated that the site of facilitation, either on site or at a centre of excellence, did not influence the ability of a hospital to implement KMC. The choice of outreach

  20. Variability of space-use patterns in a free living eusocial rodent, Ansell’s mole-rat indicates age-based rather than caste polyethism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šklíba, Jan; Lövy, M.; Burda, H.; Šumbera, R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, DEC 06 (2016), č. článku 37497. ISSN 2045-2322 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 669609 - Diversity6continents Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : eusocial rodent * mole-rats * Fukomys anselli Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016 https://www.nature.com/articles/srep37497

  1. The effect of linoleic acid on the whole body synthesis rates of polyunsaturated fatty acids from α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid in free-living rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenichiello, Anthony F; Kitson, Alex P; Chen, Chuck T; Trépanier, Marc-Olivier; Stavro, P Mark; Bazinet, Richard P

    2016-04-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is thought to be important for brain function. The main dietary source of DHA is fish, however, DHA can also be synthesized from precursor omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), the most abundantly consumed being α-linolenic acid (ALA). The enzymes required to synthesize DHA from ALA are also used to synthesize longer chain omega-6 (n-6) PUFA from linoleic acid (LNA). The large increase in LNA consumption that has occurred over the last century has led to concern that LNA and other n-6 PUFA outcompete n-3 PUFA for enzymes involved in DHA synthesis, and therefore, decrease overall DHA synthesis. To assess this, rats were fed diets containing LNA at 53 (high LNA diet), 11 (medium LNA diet) or 1.5% (low LNA diet) of the fatty acids with ALA being constant across all diets (approximately 4% of the fatty acids). Rats were maintained on these diets from weaning for 8 weeks, at which point they were subjected to a steady-state infusion of labeled ALA and LNA to measure DHA and arachidonic acid (ARA) synthesis rates. DHA and ARA synthesis rates were generally highest in rats fed the medium and high LNA diets, while the plasma half-life of DHA was longer in rats fed the low LNA diet. Therefore, increasing dietary LNA, in rats, did not impair DHA synthesis; however, low dietary LNA led to a decrease in DHA synthesis with tissue concentrations of DHA possibly being maintained by a longer DHA half-life. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Kangaroo care and behavioral and physiologic pain responses in very-low-birth-weight twins: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Xiaomei; Cusson, Regina M; Hussain, Naveed; Zhang, Di; Kelly, Sharon P

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this case study was to describe pain responses in three study conditions: longer (30 minutes) kangaroo care (KC) before and throughout heel stick (KC30), shorter (15 minutes) KC before and throughout heel stick (KC15), and incubator care throughout heel stick (IC) in 28-week gestational age twins. Pain responses were measured by crying time, Preterm Infant Pain Profile (PIPP), and heart rate variability indexes, including low-frequency power (LF, representing sympathetic activity), high-frequency power (HF, parasympathetic activity), and LF/HF ratio (sympathetic-parasympathetic balance). Both twins cried more and had higher PIPP pain scores and tachycardia during heel stick in the IC condition. Infant B had an incident of apnea and tachycardia by the end of the heel stick and a bradycardia episode during recovery in the IC condition. The twins had lower LF/HF ratios (better autonomic nervous system balance) during recovery in both longer and shorter KC conditions compared with the IC condition. Infant B had difficulty returning to LF/HF ratio baseline level after the painful procedure in the IC condition. These data suggest that both longer and shorter KC before and throughout painful procedures can be helpful in reducing behavioral and physiologic pain responses in preterm infants. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Lysine and glutamate transport in the erythrocytes of common brushtail possum, Tammar Wallaby and eastern grey, kangaroo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, E; Kuchel, P W; Agar, N S

    1998-04-01

    It was recently coincidentally discovered, using 1H NMR spectroscopy, that the erythrocytes of two species of Australian marsupials, Tammar Wallaby (Macropus eugenii) and Bettong (Bettongia penicillata), contain relatively high concentrations of the essential amino acid lysine (Agar NS, Rae CD, Chapman BE, Kuchel PW. Comp Biochem Physiol 1991;99B:575-97). Hence, in the present work the rates of transport of lysine into the erythrocytes from the Common Brushtail Possum (Dactylopsilia trivirgata) and Eastern Grey Kangaroo (Macropus giganteus) (which both have low lysine concentrations), and Tammar Wallaby were studied, to explore the mechanistic basis of this finding. The concentration-dependence of the uptake was studied with lysine alone and in the presence of arginine, which may be a competitor of the transport in some species. In relation to GSH metabolism, glutamate uptake was determined in the presence and absence of Na+. The data was analysed to yield estimates of the maximal velocity (Vmax) and the Km in each of the species. Erythrocytes from Tammar Wallaby lacked saturable lysine transport in contrast to the other two species. The glutamate uptake was normal in all three animals for adequate GSH biosynthesis.

  4. Infection with Toxoplasma gondii in a red kangaroo (Macropus rufus and a Patagonian mara (Dolichotis patagonum in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataly Díaz-Ayala

    Full Text Available Abstract Toxoplasmosis is an infectious, zoonotic and parasitic disease, caused by Toxoplasma gondii. In this manucript, two cases of infection with T. gondii in captive animals from a zoological park in the central region of Chile are described. One case was a red kangaroo (Macropus rufus, which is highly susceptible to the infection, and the other was a Patagonian mara (Dolichotis patagonum, a rodent in which there is no previous report of the infection. Both animals had myocarditis, with the presence of intralesional tachizoites and cysts suggestive of infection with T. gondii. This infection was confirmed by immunohistochemistry in both animals. The origin of the infection is unknown, but it is likely that free ranging domestic felines were associated with the dissemination of the parasites. This highlights the importance of controlling the domestic animal populations in zoological parks. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that T. gondii infection is described in a Patagonian mara, adding a new host for this infectious agent.

  5. Evalvacija šolskega matematičnega tekmovanja Kenguru = Evaluation of the Kangaroo School Mathematical Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Komel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Each year Slovene students of secondary vocational schools, among them also the Construction and Service School in Kranj (Economics and Service Educational Centre Kranj, compete in knowledge in the Kangaroo International Mathematical Competition . We decided to evaluate two points of view of the competition, namely processional in the sense of extra-curricular activities, i.e. preparation for the competition, and interpersonal in the sense of deepening the relations between teachers and students. One of the main aims of our evaluation, besides deepening the relations, was to motivate and prepare as many students as possible for the competition. While carrying out the project, there was a growing conviction that the process of evaluation is more important than its results, because it has united and brought closer all the participants, students as well as teacher-mentors. An extremely positive consequence of evaluation is the fact that the understanding of the competition itself has improved and it has also boosted its own efficiency. School climate has become friendlier, while the project group of mathematicians gained new guidelines for further work.

  6. A new species of the basal "kangaroo" Balbaroo and a re-evaluation of stem macropodiform interrelationships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen H Black

    Full Text Available Exceptionally well-preserved skulls and postcranial elements of a new species of the plesiomorphic stem macropodiform Balbaroo have been recovered from middle Miocene freshwater limestone deposits in the Riversleigh World Heritage Area of northwestern Queensland, Australia. This constitutes the richest intraspecific sample for any currently known basal "kangaroo", and, along with additional material referred to Balbaroo fangaroo, provides new insights into structural variability within the most prolific archaic macropodiform clade--Balbaridae. Qualitative and metric evaluations of taxonomic boundaries demonstrate that the previously distinct species Nambaroo bullockensis is a junior synonym of B. camfieldensis. Furthermore, coupled Maximum Parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses reveal that our new Balbaroo remains represent the most derived member of the Balbaroo lineage, and are closely related to the middle Miocene B. camfieldensis, which like most named balbarid species is identifiable only from isolated jaws. The postcranial elements of Balbaroo concur with earlier finds of the stratigraphically oldest balbarid skeleton, Nambaroo gillespieae, and suggest that quadrupedal progression was a primary gait mode as opposed to bipedal saltation. All Balbaroo spp. have low-crowned bilophodont molars, which are typical for browsing herbivores inhabiting the densely forested environments envisaged for middle Miocene northeastern Australia.

  7. Secretion of whey acidic protein and cystatin is down regulated at mid-lactation in the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, K.R.; Fisher, J.A.; Muths, E.; Trott, J.; Janssens, P.A.; Reich, C.; Shaw, D.C.

    2001-01-01

    Milk collected from the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) between day 100 and 260 of lactation showed major changes in milk composition at around day 200 of lactation, the time at which the pouch young begins to temporarily exit the pouch and eat herbage. The carbohydrate content of milk declined abruptly at this time and although there was only a small increase in total protein content, SDS PAGE analysis of milk revealed asynchrony in the secretory pattern of individual proteins. The levels of ??-lactalbumin, ??-lactoglobulin, serum albumin and transferrin remain unchanged during lactation. In contrast, the protease inhibitor cystatin, and the putative protease inhibitor whey acidic protein (WAP) first appeared in milk at elevated concentrations after approximately 150 days of lactation and then ceased to be secreted at approximately 200 days. In addition, a major whey protein, late lactation protein, was first detected in milk around the time whey acidic protein and cystatin cease to be secreted and was present at least until day 260 of lactation. The co-ordinated, but asynchronous secretion of putative protease inhibitors in milk may have several roles during lactation including tissue remodelling in the mammary gland and protecting specific proteins in milk required for physiological development of the dependent young. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science Inc.

  8. Health care professionals' perspectives on the requirements facilitating the roll-out of kangaroo mother care in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma ten Ham

    2016-10-01

    Purpose of the research: To explore and describe the perspectives of health professionals on the requirements for the rolling-out process of KMC as a best practice in South Africa. Methodology: Twelve semi-structured individual interviews were conducted in 2012 with health professionals from various South African healthcare levels, involved in the implementation and the rolling-out process of kangaroo mother care. Content analysis were guided in terms of the four requirements for roll-out of best practices, identified in Edwards and Grinspun's Evidence Informed Model of Care. Results: The requirements for the successful rollout of best practices mentioned by the participants in this study concur with the requirements of Edwards and Grinspun: personal alignment and protocol/policy alignment with the best practice; a roll-out plan; leadership; and supporting and reinforcing structures such as: resources, communicating, education and development regarding the best practice, and the organisational structure. The requirements were identified at four different levels: individual level (e.g. the nurse and medical specialists, management level (of the hospital, provincial level and national level.

  9. Long live the liver: immunohistochemical and stereological study of hepatocytes, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, Kupffer cells and hepatic stellate cells of male and female rats throughout ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, Ricardo; Correia-Gomes, Carla

    2016-12-01

    Male/female differences in enzyme activity and gene expression in the liver are known to be attenuated with ageing. Nevertheless, the effect of ageing on liver structure and quantitative cell morphology remains unknown. Male and female Wistar rats aged 2, 6, 12 and 18 months were examined by means of stereological techniques and immunohistochemical tagging of hepatocytes (HEP), liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC), Kupffer cells (KC) and hepatic stellate cells (HSC) in order to assess the total number and number per gram of these cells throughout life. The mean cell volume of HEP and HSC, the lobular position and the collagen content of the liver were also evaluated with stereological techniques. The number per gram of HSC was similar for both genders and was maintained throughout ageing. The mean volume of HSC was also conserved but differences in the cell body and lobular location were observed. Statistically significant gender differences in HEP were noted in young rats (females had smaller and more binucleated HEP) but were attenuated with ageing. The same occurred for KC and LSEC, since the higher number per gram in young females disappeared in older animals. Liver collagen increased with ageing but only in males. Thus, the numbers of these four cell types are related throughout ageing, with well-defined cell ratios. The shape and lobular position of HSC change with ageing in both males and females. Gender dimorphism in HEP, KC and LSEC of young rat liver disappears with ageing.

  10. High Antifouling Property of Ion-Selective Membrane: toward In Vivo Monitoring of pH Change in Live Brain of Rats with Membrane-Coated Carbon Fiber Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jie; Xiao, Tongfang; Wu, Fei; Yu, Ping; Mao, Lanqun

    2016-11-15

    In vivo monitoring of pH in live brain remains very essential to understanding acid-base chemistry in various physiological processes. This study demonstrates a potentiometric method for in vivo monitoring of pH in the central nervous system with carbon fiber-based proton-selective electrodes (CF-H + ISEs) with high antifouling property. The CF-H + ISEs are prepared by formation of a H + -selective membrane (H + ISM) with polyvinyl chloride polymeric matrixes containing plasticizer bis(2-ethylhexyl)sebacate, H + ionophore tridodecylamine, and ion exchanger potassium tetrakis(4-chlorophenyl)borate onto carbon fiber electrodes (CFEs). Both in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrate that the H + ISM exhibits strong antifouling property against proteins, which enables the CF-H + ISEs to well maintain the sensitivity and reversibility for pH sensing after in vivo measurements. Moreover, the CF-H + ISEs exhibit a good response to pH changes within a narrow physiological pH range from 6.0 to 8.0 in quick response time with high reversibility and selectivity against species endogenously existing in the central nervous system. The applicability of the CF-H + ISEs is illustrated by real-time monitoring of pH changes during acid-base disturbances, in which the brain acidosis is induced by CO 2 inhalation and brain alkalosis is induced by bicarbonate injections. The results demonstrate that brain pH value rapidly decreases in the amygdaloid nucleus by ca. 0.14 ± 0.01 (n = 5) when the rats breath in pure CO 2 gas, while increases in the cortex by about 0.77 ± 0.12 (n = 3) following intraperitoneal injection of 5 mmol/kg NaHCO 3 . This study demonstrates a new potentiometric method for in vivo measurement of pH change in the live brain of rats with high reliability.

  11. Healthy Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Menu Topics Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works The Natural World Games ... Lessons Topics Expand Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works The Natural World Games ...

  12. Newborn care practices in rural Bangladesh: Implications for the adaptation of kangaroo mother care for community-based interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Erin C; Callaghan-Koru, Jennifer A; Al Mahmud, Abdullah; Shah, Rashed; Farzin, Azadeh; Cristofalo, Elizabeth A; Akhter, Sadika; Baqui, Abdullah H

    2014-12-01

    Bangladesh has one of the world's highest rates of low birth weight along with prevalent traditional care practices that leave newborns highly vulnerable to hypothermia, infection, and early death. We conducted formative research to explore existing newborn care practices in rural Bangladesh with an emphasis on thermal protection, and to identify potential facilitators, barriers, and recommendations for the community level delivery of kangaroo mother care (CKMC). Forty in-depth interviews and 14 focus group discussions were conducted between September and December 2012. Participants included pregnant women and mothers, husbands, maternal and paternal grandmothers, traditional birth attendants, village doctors, traditional healers, pharmacy men, religious leaders, community leaders, and formal healthcare providers. Audio recordings were transcribed and translated into English, and the textual data were analyzed using the Framework Approach. We find that harmful newborn care practices, such as delayed wrapping and early initiation of bathing, are changing as more biomedical advice from formal healthcare providers is reaching the community through word-of-mouth and television campaigns. While the goal of CKMC was relatively easily understood and accepted by many of the participants, logistical and to a lesser extent ideological barriers exist that may keep the practice from being adopted easily. Women feel a sense of inevitable responsibility for household duties despite the desire to provide the best care for their new babies. Our findings showed that participants appreciated CKMC as an appropriate treatment method for ill babies, but were less accepting of it as a protective method of caring for seemingly healthy newborns during the first few days of life. Participants highlighted the necessity of receiving help from family members and witnessing other women performing CKMC with positive outcomes if they are to adopt the behavior themselves. Focusing intervention

  13. Assisted Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it, too. Back to top What is the Cost for Assisted Living? Although assisted living costs less than nursing home ... Primarily, older persons or their families pay the cost of assisted living. Some health and long-term care insurance policies ...

  14. A retrospective study of Babesia macropus associated with morbidity and mortality in eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus and agile wallabies (Macropus agilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon L. Donahoe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This is a retrospective study of 38 cases of infection by Babesia macropus, associated with a syndrome of anaemia and debility in hand-reared or free-ranging juvenile eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus from coastal New South Wales and south-eastern Queensland between 1995 and 2013. Infection with B. macropus is recorded for the first time in agile wallabies (Macropus agilis from far north Queensland. Animals in which B. macropus infection was considered to be the primary cause of morbidity had marked anaemia, lethargy and neurological signs, and often died. In these cases, parasitised erythrocytes were few or undetectable in peripheral blood samples but were sequestered in large numbers within small vessels of visceral organs, particularly in the kidney and brain, associated with distinctive clusters of extraerythrocytic organisms. Initial identification of this piroplasm in peripheral blood smears and in tissue impression smears and histological sections was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy and molecular analysis. Samples of kidney, brain or blood were tested using PCR and DNA sequencing of the 18S ribosomal RNA and heat shock protein 70 gene using primers specific for piroplasms. The piroplasm detected in these samples had 100% sequence identity in the 18S rRNA region with the recently described Babesia macropus in two eastern grey kangaroos from New South Wales and Queensland, and a high degree of similarity to an unnamed Babesia sp. recently detected in three woylies (Bettongia penicillata ogilbyi in Western Australia.

  15. Living Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    This book is aimed at anyone who is interested in learning more about living technology, whether coming from business, the government, policy centers, academia, or anywhere else. Its purpose is to help people to learn what living technology is, what it might develop into, and how it might impact...... our lives. The phrase 'living technology' was coined to refer to technology that is alive as well as technology that is useful because it shares the fundamental properties of living systems. In particular, the invention of this phrase was called for to describe the trend of our technology becoming...... increasingly life-like or literally alive. Still, the phrase has different interpretations depending on how one views what life is. This book presents nineteen perspectives on living technology. Taken together, the interviews convey the collective wisdom on living technology's power and promise, as well as its...

  16. Live Staining and Isolation of Specific Hormone-Producing Cells from Rat Anterior Pituitary by Cytochemistry with Lectins and Cholera Toxin B Subunit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Motoshi; Kusumoto, Kenji; Fujiwara, Ken; Takahashi, Kozue; Tando, Yukiko; Yashiro, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Anterior pituitary glands contain five types of hormone-producing cells. Distinguishing and isolating specific types of living cells are essential for studying their function. Although many such attempts have been made, the results have been disappointing. In the present study, we labeled specific types of living hormone-producing cells by using potential differences in sugar chains on the cell surfaces. Cytochemical analysis with lectins and cholera toxin B subunit revealed that PNA, S-WGA, and cholera toxin B subunit recognized sugar chains specific to prolactin cells, ACTH cells, and GH cells, respectively, and that UEA-I recognized most of prolactin cells and GH cells. Next, fluorescence-activated cell sorting was used to isolate GH cells labeled by fluoresceinated cholera toxin B. The purity of the GH cell fraction estimated by immunocytochemistry and quantitative real-time PCR for cell type-specific genes was more than 98%, which was higher than that reported in earlier studies, including those using transgenic animals. We conclude that cytochemistry with lectins and cholera toxin B subunit is a straightforward, acceptable method of isolating specific types of anterior pituitary cells and that the cells isolated by this method can serve as useful materials in the study of anterior pituitary cells

  17. Kangaroo mother care for clinically unstable neonates weighing ≤2000 g: Is it feasible at a hospital in Uganda?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Melissa C; Nambuya, Harriet; Waiswa, Peter; Tann, Cally; Elbourne, Diana; Seeley, Janet; Allen, Elizabeth; Lawn, Joy E

    2018-06-01

    Kangaroo mother care (KMC) for stable neonates ≤2000 g (g) is associated with decreased mortality, sepsis, hypothermia, and length of stay compared to conventional care. The World Health Organization states that KMC "should be initiated… as soon as newborns are clinically stable " [12]. However, the majority of deaths occur in unstable neonates. We aimed to determine the proportion of admitted neonates meeting proposed instability criteria, assess the feasibility of providing KMC to unstable neonates, and evaluate the acceptability of this intervention to parents and providers at Jinja Regional Referral Hospital in Uganda. This was a mixed-methods study. We recorded data including birthweight, chronological age, and treatments administered from medical charts, and calculated the percentage of clinically unstable neonates, defined as the need for ≥2 medical therapies in the first 48 hours of admission. We enrolled a sample of neonates meeting pre-defined instability criteria. Mothers were counselled to provide KMC as close to continuously as possible. We calculated the median duration of KMC per episode and per day. To explore acceptability, we conducted semi-structured interviews with parents and newborn unit care providers, and analysed data using the thematic content approach. We included 254 neonates in the audit, 10 neonates in the feasibility sub-study, and 20 participants in the acceptability sub-study. Instability criteria were easily implementable, identifying 89% of neonates as unstable in the audit. The median duration of individual KMC episodes ranged from 115 to 134 minutes. The median daily duration ranged from 4.5 to 9.7 hours. Seventy-five percent of interviewees felt KMC could be used in neonates concurrently receiving other medical therapies. Barriers included lack of resources (beds/space, monitoring devices), privacy issues, inadequate education, and difficulties motivating mothers to devote time to KMC. Recommendations included staff

  18. The three waves in implementation of facility-based kangaroo mother care: a multi-country case study from Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergh, Anne-Marie; de Graft-Johnson, Joseph; Khadka, Neena; Om'Iniabohs, Alyssa; Udani, Rekha; Pratomo, Hadi; De Leon-Mendoza, Socorro

    2016-01-27

    Kangaroo mother care has been highlighted as an effective intervention package to address high neonatal mortality pertaining to preterm births and low birth weight. However, KMC uptake and service coverage have not progressed well in many countries. The aim of this case study was to understand the institutionalisation processes of facility-based KMC services in three Asian countries (India, Indonesia and the Philippines) and the reasons for the slow uptake of KMC in these countries. Three main data sources were available: background documents providing insight in the state of implementation of KMC in the three countries; visits to a selection of health facilities to gauge their progress with KMC implementation; and data from interviews and meetings with key stakeholders. The establishment of KMC services at individual facilities began many years before official prioritisation for scale-up. Three major themes were identified: pioneers of facility-based KMC; patterns of KMC knowledge and skills dissemination; and uptake and expansion of KMC services in relation to global trends and national policies. Pioneers of facility-based KMC were introduced to the concept in the 1990s and established the practice in a few individual tertiary or teaching hospitals, without further spread. A training method beneficial to the initial establishment of KMC services in a country was to send institutional health-professional teams to learn abroad, notably in Colombia. Further in-country cascading took place afterwards and still later on KMC was integrated into newborn and obstetric care programs. The patchy uptake and expansion of KMC services took place in three phases aligned with global trends of the time: the pioneer phase with individual champions while the global focus was on child survival (1998-2006); the newborn-care phase (2007-2012); and lastly the current phase where small babies are also included in action plans. This paper illustrates the complexities of implementing a

  19. Live Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions Live Well Mental Health Substance Use Smoking Healthy Diet Physical Activity Family Planning Living with HIV: Travel ... to his or her health and well-being. Smoking - Tobacco use is the ... year. Healthy Diet - No matter your HIV status, healthy eating is ...

  20. Healthy living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... living URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002393.htm Healthy living To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Good health habits can allow you to avoid illness and improve your quality of life. The following steps will help you ...

  1. Whole-body DHA synthesis-secretion kinetics from plasma eicosapentaenoic acid and alpha-linolenic acid in the free-living rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metherel, Adam H; Domenichiello, Anthony F; Kitson, Alex P; Hopperton, Kathryn E; Bazinet, Richard P

    2016-09-01

    Whole body docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) synthesis from α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3) is considered to be very low, however, the daily synthesis-secretion of DHA may be sufficient to supply the adult brain. The current study aims to assess whether whole body DHA synthesis-secretion kinetics are different when comparing plasma ALA versus eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) as the precursor. Male Long Evans rats (n=6) were fed a 2% ALA in total fat diet for eight weeks, followed by surgery to implant a catheter into each of the jugular vein and carotid artery and 3h of steady-state infusion with a known amount of (2)H-ALA and (13)C-eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n3). Blood samples were collected at thirty-minute intervals and plasma enrichment of (2)H- and (13)C EPA, n-3 docosapentaenoic acid (DPAn-3, 22:5n-3) and DHA were determined for assessment of synthesis-secretion kinetic parameters. Results indicate a 13-fold higher synthesis-secretion coefficient for DHA from EPA as compared to ALA. However, after correcting for the 6.6 fold higher endogenous plasma ALA concentration, no significant differences in daily synthesis-secretion (nmol/day) of DHA (97.6±28.2 and 172±62), DPAn-3 (853±279 and 1139±484) or EPA (1587±592 and 1628±366) were observed from plasma unesterified ALA and EPA sources, respectively. These results suggest that typical diets which are significantly higher in ALA compared to EPA yield similar daily DHA synthesis-secretion despite a significantly higher synthesis-secretion coefficient from EPA. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Real-time monitoring of drug-induced changes in the stomach acidity of living rats using improved pH-sensitive nitroxides and low-field EPR techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapenko, Dmitrii I.; Foster, Margaret A.; Lurie, David J.; Kirilyuk, Igor A.; Hutchison, James M. S.; Grigor'ev, Igor A.; Bagryanskaya, Elena G.; Khramtsov, Valery V.

    2006-09-01

    New improved pH-sensitive nitroxides were applied for in vivo studies. An increased stability of the probes towards reduction was achieved by the introduction of the bulky ethyl groups in the vicinity of the paramagnetic N sbnd O fragment. In addition, the range of pH sensitivity of the approach was extended by the synthesis of probes with two ionizable groups, and, therefore, with two p Ka values. Stability towards reduction and spectral characteristics of the three new probes were determined in vitro using 290 MHz radiofrequency (RF)- and X-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), longitudinally detected EPR (LODEPR), and field-cycled dynamic nuclear polarization (FC-DNP) techniques. The newly synthesized probe, 4-[bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]-2-pyridine-4-yl-2,5,5-triethyl-2,5-dihydro-1 H-imidazol-oxyl, was found to be the most appropriate for the application in the stomach due to both higher stability and convenient pH sensitivity range from pH 1.8 to 6. LODEPR, FC-DNP and proton-electron double resonance imaging (PEDRI) techniques were used to detect the nitroxide localization and acidity in the rat stomach. Improved probe characteristics allowed us to follow in vivo the drug-induced perturbation in the stomach acidity and its normalization afterwards during 1 h or longer period of time. The results show the applicability of the techniques for monitoring drug pharmacology and disease in the living animals.

  3. Living PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, M.G.K.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this presentation is to gain an understanding of the requirements for a PSA to be considered a Living PSA. The presentation is divided into the following topics: Definition; Planning/Documentation; Task Performance; Maintenance; Management. 4 figs

  4. Developmental and Post-Eruptive Defects in Molar Enamel of Free-Ranging Eastern Grey Kangaroos (Macropus giganteus Exposed to High Environmental Levels of Fluoride.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Kierdorf

    Full Text Available Dental fluorosis has recently been diagnosed in wild marsupials inhabiting a high-fluoride area in Victoria, Australia. Information on the histopathology of fluorotic marsupial enamel has thus far not been available. This study analyzed the developmental and post-eruptive defects in fluorotic molar enamel of eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus from the same high-fluoride area using light microscopy and backscattered electron imaging in the scanning electron microscope. The fluorotic enamel exhibited a brownish to blackish discolouration due to post-eruptive infiltration of stains from the oral cavity and was less resistant to wear than normally mineralized enamel of kangaroos from low-fluoride areas. Developmental defects of enamel included enamel hypoplasia and a pronounced hypomineralization of the outer (sub-surface enamel underneath a thin rim of well-mineralized surface enamel. While the hypoplastic defects denote a disturbance of ameloblast function during the secretory stage of amelogenesis, the hypomineralization is attributed to an impairment of enamel maturation. In addition to hypoplastic defects, the fluorotic molars also exhibited numerous post-eruptive enamel defects due to the flaking-off of portions of the outer, hypomineralized enamel layer during mastication. The macroscopic and histopathological lesions in fluorotic enamel of M. giganteus match those previously described for placental mammals. It is therefore concluded that there exist no principal differences in the pathogenic mechanisms of dental fluorosis between marsupial and placental mammals. The regular occurrence of hypomineralized, opaque outer enamel in the teeth of M. giganteus and other macropodids must be considered in the differential diagnosis of dental fluorosis in these species.

  5. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF COMBINATION OF KANGAROO MOTHER CARE METHOD AND LULLABY MUSIC THERAPY ON VITAL SIGN CHANGE IN INFANTS WITH LOW BIRTH WEIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuuva Yusuf

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kangaroo mother care (KMC and lullaby music methods have been considered as the alternative treatment for vital sign changes in low birth weight infants. However, little is known about the combination of the two methods. Objective: To identify effectiveness of combinations of Kangaroo mother care and Lullaby music methods on changes in vital signs in low birth weight infants. Methods: A quasi experiment with non-equivalent control group design. This study was conducted on October– December 2016 at the General Hospital of Ambarawa and General Hospital of Ungaran, Semarang. There were 36 samples selected using consecutive sampling divided into three groups, namely: 1 a group of LBW infants with the combination of KMC and lullaby music, 2 a LBW infant group with the lullaby music intervention, and 3 a control group given standard care in LBW infants by KMC method. Paired t-test and MANOVA test were used to analyzed the data. Results: Findings revealed that there were significant differences between the combination group, lullaby music group, and control group in temperature (p=0.003, pulse (p=0.001, respiration (p=0.001, and oxygen saturation (p=0.014 with significant value of <0.05, which indicated that there was a statistically significant difference in vital sign changes among the three groups. Conclusion: The combination of KMC method and Lullaby music intervention was effective on vital sign changes (temperature, pulse, respiration, and oxygen saturation compared with the lullaby music group alone and control group with KMC method in low birth weight infants. It is suggested that the combination of KMC and Lullaby music methods can be used as an alternative to improve LBW care for mothers in the NICU and at home and to reach the stability of the baby's vital signs.

  6. Developmental and Post-Eruptive Defects in Molar Enamel of Free-Ranging Eastern Grey Kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) Exposed to High Environmental Levels of Fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierdorf, Uwe; Death, Clare; Hufschmid, Jasmin; Witzel, Carsten; Kierdorf, Horst

    2016-01-01

    Dental fluorosis has recently been diagnosed in wild marsupials inhabiting a high-fluoride area in Victoria, Australia. Information on the histopathology of fluorotic marsupial enamel has thus far not been available. This study analyzed the developmental and post-eruptive defects in fluorotic molar enamel of eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) from the same high-fluoride area using light microscopy and backscattered electron imaging in the scanning electron microscope. The fluorotic enamel exhibited a brownish to blackish discolouration due to post-eruptive infiltration of stains from the oral cavity and was less resistant to wear than normally mineralized enamel of kangaroos from low-fluoride areas. Developmental defects of enamel included enamel hypoplasia and a pronounced hypomineralization of the outer (sub-surface) enamel underneath a thin rim of well-mineralized surface enamel. While the hypoplastic defects denote a disturbance of ameloblast function during the secretory stage of amelogenesis, the hypomineralization is attributed to an impairment of enamel maturation. In addition to hypoplastic defects, the fluorotic molars also exhibited numerous post-eruptive enamel defects due to the flaking-off of portions of the outer, hypomineralized enamel layer during mastication. The macroscopic and histopathological lesions in fluorotic enamel of M. giganteus match those previously described for placental mammals. It is therefore concluded that there exist no principal differences in the pathogenic mechanisms of dental fluorosis between marsupial and placental mammals. The regular occurrence of hypomineralized, opaque outer enamel in the teeth of M. giganteus and other macropodids must be considered in the differential diagnosis of dental fluorosis in these species. PMID:26895178

  7. In vivo polymerization of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) in the living rat hippocampus does not cause a significant loss of performance in a delayed alternation task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Liangqi; Shaw, Crystal L.; Kuo, Chin-chen; Griffin, Amy L.; Martin, David C.

    2014-04-01

    After extended implantation times, traditional intracortical neural probes exhibit a foreign-body reaction characterized by a reactive glial sheath that has been associated with increased system impedance and signal deterioration. Previously, we have proposed that the local in vivo polymerization of an electronically and ionically conducting polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), might help to rebuild charge transport pathways across the glial scar between the device and surrounding parenchyma (Richardson-Burns et al 2007 J. Neural Eng. 4 L6-13). The EDOT monomer can be delivered via a microcannula/electrode system into the brain tissue of living animals followed by direct electrochemical polymerization, using the electrode itself as a source of oxidative current. In this study, we investigated the long-term effect of local in vivo PEDOT deposition on hippocampal neural function and histology. Rodent subjects were trained on a hippocampus-dependent task, delayed alternation (DA), and implanted with the microcannula/electrode system in the hippocampus. The animals were divided into four groups with different delay times between the initial surgery and the electrochemical polymerization: (1) control (no polymerization), (2) immediate (polymerization within 5 min of device implantation), (3) early (polymerization within 3-4 weeks after implantation) and (4) late (polymerization 7-8 weeks after polymerization). System impedance at 1 kHz was recorded and the tissue reactions were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. We found that under our deposition conditions, PEDOT typically grew at the tip of the electrode, forming an ˜500 µm cloud in the tissue. This is much larger than the typical width of the glial scar (˜150 µm). After polymerization, the impedance amplitude near the neurologically important frequency of 1 kHz dropped for all the groups; however, there was a time window of 3-4 weeks for an optimal decrease in impedance. For all surgery

  8. Assisted Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a resident's needs depends as much on the philosophy and services of the assisted living facility as it does on the quality of care. The Administration on Aging, a part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), offers these suggestions to help you ...

  9. Easier living?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholt, Stine

    2005-01-01

    I ph.d.-projektet: "Easier Living? Streamline design og den æstetiserede livsverden" analyseres 1930'ernes Streamline-bevægelse, som tilhører den amerikanske modernisme inden for industrielt produktdesign. Bevægelsens glatte, strømlinede produkter bliver med deres enorme udbredelse det historiske...

  10. Austrian Lives

    OpenAIRE

    Bischof, Günter; Plasser, Fritz; Maltschnig, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Writing biographies for a long time had been a male hegemonic project. Ever since Plutarch and Sueton composed their vitae of the greats of classical antiquity, to the medieval obsession with the hagiographies of holy men (and a few women) and saints, Vasari's lives of great Renaissance artists, down to the French encyclopedists, Dr. Johnson and Lytton Strachey, as well as Ranke and Droysen the genre of biographical writing has become increasingly more refined. In the twentieth century male p...

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from time series observations using Bubble type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from HERON ISLAND, KANGAROO ISLAND and others in the Coral Sea, Great Australian Bight and Tasman Sea from 2009-10-09 to 2012-11-28 (NODC Accession 0100062)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0100062 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and time series data collected from HERON ISLAND, KANGAROO ISLAND, MARIA ISLAND, MOORING_HERON...

  12. Living Lands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Suna Møller

    2015-01-01

    , hunters attended to questions like safe-journeying on ice or the role of natural surroundings in children’s education, in ways revealing a relational perception of ‘nature’ and dissolving culture-nature dualisms. Hunters’ experiences in living the land afforded children a dwelling position from which...... to grow with the features of the land. Framed this way, ‘nature’ was regarded as part of the social world. I suggest that learning among Arctic hunters is social and twofold. First, we can learn how human-environment relations influence individual life trajectories. Secondly, ‘nature’ as part...

  13. Lively package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaremko, G.

    1997-01-01

    Progress on the Lloydminster Heavy Oil Interpretive Centre, sponsored by the Lloydminster Oilfield Technical Society and expected to open in late 1998, was discussed. Some $150,000 of the $750,000 budget is already in the bank, and another $150,000 is in the pipeline. The Centre will be added to an existing and well-established visitor's site. It is reported to contain a lively and imaginatively-designed exhibit package, and promises to become a combination of educational tool and tourist attraction for the town of Lloydminster, Saskatchewan, in the heart of heavy oil country

  14. Environmental Assessment for Routine and Recurring Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Flight Operations at Edwards Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    Kern County. The giant kangaroo rat and Tipton kangaroo rat are both state and 8 federally listed as endangered species. The giant kangaroo rat occurs...on or just outside the western limits 9 of the R-2508 Complex in Kern County. The Tipton kangaroo rat once ranged throughout much of the 10 southern...overflight of the desert tortoise resulted in a 12 “slight freeze” response with no long term ill effects or changes in metabolic rates. No adverse

  15. Randomized Controlled Trial on Effect of Intermittent Early Versus Late Kangaroo Mother Care on Human Milk Feeding in Low-Birth-Weight Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, Dhaarani; Mukhopadhyay, Kanya; Bhalla, Anil Kumar; Dhaliwal, Lakhbir Kaur

    2017-08-01

    Breastfeeding at discharge among sick low-birth-weight (LBW) infants is low despite counseling and intervention like kangaroo mother care (KMC). Research aim: The aim was to study the effects of early initiation of KMC on exclusive human milk feeding, growth, mortality, and morbidities in LBW neonates compared with late initiation of KMC during the hospital stay and postdischarge. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in level 2 and 3 areas of a tertiary care neonatal unit over 15 months. Inborn neonates weighing 1 to 1.8 kg and hemodynamically stable were randomized to receive either early KMC, initiated within the first 4 days of life, or late KMC (off respiratory support and intravenous fluids). Follow-up was until 1 month postdischarge. Outcomes were proportion of infants achieving exclusive human milk feeding and direct breastfeeding, growth, mortality and morbidities during hospital stay, and postdischarge feeding and KMC practices until 1 month. The early KMC group ( n = 80) achieved significantly higher exclusive human milk feeding (86% vs. 45%, p milk feeding (73% vs. 36%, p milk feeding and direct breastfeeding in LBW infants.

  16. [The kangaroo mothers' programme: a simple and cost-effective alternative for protecting the premature newborn or low-birth-weight babies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizarazo-Medina, Jenny P; Ospina-Diaz, Juan M; Ariza-Riaño, Nelly E

    2012-06-01

    Describing the efficacy and achievements of the kangaroo mothers' programme (KMP) regarding preterm or low-birth-weight babies' health and development in Hospital San Rafael in Tunja from November 2007 to December 2009. This was a retrospective observational cohort study; 374 infants born prematurely or having low-birth-weight were included to assess household socio-demographic factors, maternal and obstetric history, delivery characteristics and complications and follow-up until 40 weeks post-conception age. There was a high prevalence of teenage pregnancy (17.5 %) and in women older than 35 years (12.6 %), unwanted pregnancy (40.6 %), low quality and poor availability of food in families, complications such as preeclampsia, infection and premature rupture of membranes, 1,969 grams average birth weight, 2,742.9 grams average weight on discharge and 22 grams average weight gain per day. It was found that KMP methodology substantially improved the mothers' psychological aspects and health status and the newborns' prognosis and led to stabilising body temperature and weight gain rate while decreasing risks of complications and nosocomial infection. It also lowered health care costs and shortened hospital stay.

  17. Comparative Effect of Massage Therapy versus Kangaroo Mother Care on Body Weight and Length of Hospital Stay in Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Singh Rangey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Massage therapy (MT and kangaroo mother care (KMC are both effective in increasing the weight and reducing length of hospital stay in low birth weight preterm infants but they have not been compared. Aim. Comparison of effectiveness of MT and KMC on body weight and length of hospital stay in low birth weight preterm (LBWPT infants. Method. 30 LBWPT infants using convenience sampling from Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, V.S. hospital, were randomly divided into 2 equal groups. Group 1 received MT and Group 2 received KMC for 15 minutes, thrice daily for 5 days. Medically stable babies with gestational age < 37 weeks and birth weight < 2500 g were included. Those on ventilators and with congenital, orthopedic, or genetic abnormality were excluded. Outcome measures, body weight and length of hospital stay, were taken before intervention day 1 and after intervention day 5. Level of significance was 5%. Result. Data was analyzed using SPSS16. Both MT and KMC were found to be effective in improving body weight (P = 0.001, P = 0.001. Both were found to be equally effective for improving body weight (P = 0.328 and reducing length of hospital stay (P = 0.868. Conclusion. MT and KMC were found to be equally effective in improving body weight and reducing length of hospital stay. Limitation. Long term follow-up was not taken.

  18. The impact of the method Kangaroo Mother Care in the learning process of low-birth-weight preterm infants: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana de Paiva Franco

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Technology advances and scientific studies in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU have contributed significantly to reduce mortality and morbidity of at-risk newborns (NB. However, they are more likely to present neurological and/or developmental psychomotor delay with neurological and sensory alterations. Therefore, proposals for neonatal intervention were developed with the aim of protecting the baby and offering appropriate incentives to minimize the effects of hospital intervention. To this end, programs of protective measures such as the Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC were developed. Given the relevance of the issue described, this systematic review critically appraises articles from the national and international literature, published in recent years (from 2000 to 2011, that describe whether the KMC can be a protective factor for the development of writing in premature infants. The textual search was conducted using the Virtual Health Library (VHL, a website that covers publications worldwide, allowing access to articles from health science, including LILACS, IBECS, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library and SciELO, as database. The findings revealed that infants who participated in the KMC program showed improvements in their development and that factors such as low-birth-weight prematurity and learning disorders have close relationship with the onset of motor impairments and changes in psychomotor development. The findings showed no articles describing the KMC as a protective factor for the incidence of dysgraphia. Thus, we emphasize the importance of conducting further studies on these topics.

  19. Kangaroo mother method: randomised controlled trial of an alternative method of care for stabilised low-birthweight infants. Maternidad Isidro Ayora Study Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, N L; Camacho, L W; Rojas, E P; Stern, C

    1994-09-17

    Because resources for care of low-birthweight (LBW) infants in developing countries are scarce, the Kangaroo mother method (KMM) was developed. The infant is kept upright in skin-to-skin contact with the mother's breast. Previous studies reported several benefits with the KMM but interpretation of their findings is limited by small size and design weaknesses. We have done a longitudinal, randomised, controlled trial at the Isidro Ayora Maternity Hospital in Quito, Ecuador. Infants with LBW (groups (n = 128 and 147, respectively). During 6 months of follow-up the KMM group had a significantly lower rate than the control group of serious illness (lower-respiratory-tract disorders, apnoea, aspiration, pneumonia, septicaemia, general infections; 7 [5%] vs 27 [18%], p groups in less severe morbidity were not significant. There was no significant difference in growth or in the proportion of women breastfeeding, perhaps because the proportion breastfeeding was high in both groups owing to strong promotion. Mortality was the same in both groups; most deaths occurred during the stabilisation period before randomisation. KMM mothers made more unscheduled clinic visits than control mothers but their infants had fewer re-admissions and so the cost of care was lower with the KMM. Since the eligibility criteria excluded nearly 50% of LBW infants from the study, the KMM is not universally applicable to these infants. The benefits might be greater in populations where breastfeeding is not so common.

  20. Possible use of wild-living rats (Rattus norvegicus) as bioindicators for heavy metal pollution. Part 2. Body burden calculations for identification of depot compartments; Untersuchungen zur Eignung wildlebender Wanderratten (Rattus norvegicus) als Indikatoren der Schwermetallbelastung. Teil 2. Die Berechnung der Koerperlast zur Identifikation von Depotkompartimenten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuenschmann, S. [Internationales Hochschulinstitut Zittau, Lehrstuhl Umweltverfahrenstechnik, Zittau (Germany); Hochschule Zittau/Goerlitz, Fachbereich Mathematik/Naturwissenschaften, Zittau (Germany); Oehlmann, J. [J.W. Goethe-Univ. Frankfurt, Zoologisches Inst., Frankfurt/M. (Germany); Delakowitz, B. [Hochschule Zittau/Goerlitz, Fachbereich Mathematik/Naturwissenschaften, Zittau (Germany); Markert, B. [Internationales Hochschulinstitut Zittau, Lehrstuhl Umweltverfahrenstechnik, Zittau (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Background concentrations of eleven elements in tissues and organs of wild-living rats (Rattus norvegicus) obtained from a region (Euroregion Neisse, around the trilateral border region of Germany, Poland and the Czech Republic) distinguished by low to intermediate levels of environmental contaminations are given in part I of this work. In order to identify the most important depot compartments for certain elements, a body burden method was applied. Differences of affinity due to sex and age of analyzed rats are discussed, as are the suitability of specific organs and tissues with regard to bioaccumulation measurements concerning metals. The principal depot compartments for the heavy metals Cu, Mn, Cd, (in adult rats) and Tl are the liver and kidneys, whereas the elements Ni, Sr, Pb (for adult animals) and Ti are more affinitively to bones. Co and Zn displayed a more pronounced affinity towards tissues of the bones and liver. The analysis revealed large differences in Cd and Pb distributions both among young and adult rats, and with respect to sexes. It can be concluded that the distribution of the elements investigated in this study in free-living rats agrees with that in man, except for that of Ni. The above agreement gives proof of the possibility to use depot organs of rats for bioindication which was already mentioned in part I of this work. (Sex and age-related quantification of Al, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, Ti, Tl and Zn in liver, heart, lung, kidney, muscle, brain and bones and establishment of distribution patterns'). (orig.) [German] Die in Teil I quantifizierten Hintergrundkonzentrationen von 11 Elementen in Geweben und Organen wildlebender Ratten (Rattus norvegicus) aus einem gering bis maessig belasteten Untersuchungsgebiet (Euroregion Neisse) werden im 2. Teil fuer die Berechnung ihres relativen Beitrags zur Gesamtkoerperbelastung (Koerperlast oder Bodyburden) verwendet, um bevorzugte Depotkompartimente fuer die untersuchten Elemente

  1. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Environmental Impact Statement, Flight Operations in the Sells Airspace Overlying the Tohono O’Odham Indian Reservation & Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Southern Arizona. Revised Draft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-06

    al. 1970. Endocrine and metabolic effects of noise in normal, hypertensive and psychotic subjects. IN: Physiological Effects of Noise. Welch, B. L...Perognathus baileyi Bannertail Kangaroo Rat Dipodomys spectabilis Cactus Mouse Peromyscus eremicus Canyon Mousea Peromyscus crinitus Desert Kangaroo Rat...Dipodomys deserti Desert Pocket Mouse Perognathus penicillatus Desert Woodrat Neotoma lepida Merriam Kangaroo Rat Dipodomys merriami Merriam Mouse

  2. [Living better or living longer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvy, A

    1987-01-01

    It has been just 2 centuries since France began to struggle seriously against mortality and excess fertility. Life expectancy, which for millenia had been under 30 years at birth, began to increase because of the discovery of effective treatments, improved production and standards of living, and access of large numbers of persons to health care. France, in the 2nd half of the 18th century, became the first country in which fertility regulation was achieved on a wide scale. The failure of England, a country of similar culture, to follow suit until a century later remains unexplained. After World War II, simple and fairly inexpensive means of mortality control, such as vaccines and water purifiers, became widely distributed throughout the developing world. These countries, which traditionally had mortality rates of 35 or 40/1000 and fertility of 40-45/1000, experienced rapid declines in mortality rates while their fertility remained constant or even increased. Because antinatal techniques diffused so much more slowly, the equilibrium of births and deaths was disturbed as rates of increase of 2 or 3% per year became common. Although the inhabitants of poor countries were not concerned, perhaps through ignorance of what was occurring, the rich countries were alarmed by the increase. Their principal objective became to spread contraception in the poor countries. The available methods at the time, however, were none too reliable. When oral contraceptive pills became available, fertility dropped to very low levels in Europe but such factors as cost and illiteracy discouraged use in many underdeveloped countries. Fertility declined in a few insular states such as Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Singapore even before the appearance of pills. Life expectancies in developing countries except a few in Africa have increased since World War II and are now higher than in Europe at the turn of the century. "Health for all by the year 2000" is an astonishing slogan for a serious

  3. Efeitos do Método Mãe Canguru nos sinais vitais de recém-nascidos pré-termo de baixo peso Effects of Kangaroo Mother Care on the vital signs of low-weight preterm newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CM Almeida

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as freqüências cardíaca e respiratória, a pressão arterial média, a temperatura e a saturação periférica de oxigênio dos recém-nascidos pré-termo (RNPT de baixo peso, antes e após a aplicação do MMC. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 22 RNPT de baixo peso, saudáveis, de ambos os sexos, não portadores de deficiências neurológicas, cardíacas e/ou respiratórias. A avaliação foi realizada após trinta minutos de permanência do RNPT em berço comum e após trinta minutos de aplicação do MMC, por 3 dias consecutivos. Para a avaliação, foram utilizados monitor cardíaco com dispositivo para medida da pressão arterial média de forma não invasiva e sensor para a oximetria de pulso, termômetro e cronômetro. RESULTADOS: Os resultados não mostraram alterações significativas quanto à pressão arterial média (p> 0,05 e freqüência cardíaca (p> 0,05 após a aplicação do MMC, mas, por outro lado, houve aumento significativo da temperatura axilar (pOBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the heart and respiration rates, mean arterial pressure, temperature and peripheral oxygen saturation of low-weight preterm newborns, before and after the application of kangaroo mother care. METHOD: Twenty-two healthy low-weight preterm newborns of both sexes were studied. None of them had neurological, cardiac and/or respiratory deficiencies. Assessments were made after the newborn had been left in an ordinary cot for 30 minutes and after 30 minutes of kangaroo mother care, on three consecutive days. For these evaluations, a heart monitor with a device for non-invasively measuring mean arterial pressure, a sensor for pulse oximetry, a thermometer and a chronometer were utilized. RESULTS: There were no significant changes in mean arterial pressure (p> 0.05 or heart rate (p> 0.05 after applying kangaroo mother care. However, there were significant increases in axillary temperature (p< 0.05 and peripheral oxygen

  4. Living with endometriosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelvic pain - living with endometriosis; Endometrial implant - living with endometriosis; Endometrioma - living with endometriosis ... counter pain relievers can reduce the pain of endometriosis. These include: Ibuprofen (Advil) Naproxen (Aleve) Acetaminophen (Tylenol) ...

  5. Allergy, living and learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chivato, T; Valovirta, E; Dahl, R

    2012-01-01

    Allergy Living and Learning (ALL) is a European initiative designed to increase knowledge and understanding of people living with allergies in order to improve respiratory allergy care.......Allergy Living and Learning (ALL) is a European initiative designed to increase knowledge and understanding of people living with allergies in order to improve respiratory allergy care....

  6. Modulation of rat behaviour by using a rat-like robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Qing; Ishii, Hiroyuki; Kinoshita, Shinichi; Takanishi, Atsuo; Okabayashi, Satoshi; Iida, Naritoshi; Kimura, Hiroshi; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study the response of a rat to a rat-like robot capable of generating different types of behaviour (stressful, friendly, neutral). Experiments are conducted in an open-field where a rat-like robot called WR-4 is put together with live rats. The activity level of each rat subject is evaluated by scoring its locomotor activity and frequencies of performing rearing (rising up on its hind limbs) and body grooming (body cuddling and head curling) actions, whereas the degree of preference of that is indicated by the robot–rat distance and the frequency of contacting WR-4. The moving speed and behaviour of WR-4 are controlled in real-time based on the feedback from rat motion. The activity level and degree of preference of rats for each experimental condition are analysed and compared to understand the influence of robot behaviour. The results of this study show that the activity level and degree of preference of the rat decrease when exposed to a stressful robot, and increase when the robot exhibit friendly behaviour, suggesting that a rat-like robot can modulate rat behaviour in a controllable, predictable way. (paper)

  7. Living Gluten Free

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease" Articles Celiac Disease Changes Everything / What is Celiac Disease? / Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment / Four Inches and Seven Pounds… / Learning to Live Well with Celiac Disease / Living Gluten-Free Spring 2015 Issue: Volume 10 ...

  8. Modelling live forensic acquisition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, MM

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the development of a South African model for Live Forensic Acquisition - Liforac. The Liforac model is a comprehensive model that presents a range of aspects related to Live Forensic Acquisition. The model provides forensic...

  9. Reproductive history of cane rat: a review of the reproduction and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluates in a review the reproduction and reproductive performance of cane rat. Breeding time in cane rat depends on which part of Africa the Animal is found and the weather. In the wild, cane rat lives in groups of males and females during the breeding season. The wet season of the year is the usual breeding ...

  10. Live your questions now

    OpenAIRE

    Brownrigg, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    'Live Your Questions Now' is a case study for Cubitt Education's publication 'Aging in Public: creative practice in ageing and the public realm from across the UK', edited by Daniel Baker and published by Cubitt Gallery, Studios and Education, London in 2016. The publication was linked to Cubitt's programme 'Public Wisdom' (2011-2015). My case study is about 'Live your questions now', a group exhibition I curated in 2011 for Mackintosh Museum, The Glasgow School of Art. 'Live your questions n...

  11. Administration for Community Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 15, 2017 Grants from the National Institute on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research ... integration, and inclusion throughout life Other ACL Sites Eldercare Locator OlderIndians. ...

  12. Living the Utopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, John; Warring, Anette Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    This article examines experiments in communal living in Britain and Denmark in the early 1970s, using life-story interviews from seventeen members of two British and two Danish communes. It examines communal living as a fusion of radical political principles with the practice of experimental...... collective living. It concludes that the movement's egalitarian principles of resource-sharing, gender equality and the avoidance of hierarchies were broadly achieved, even if the movement obviously did not realize its more ambitious objective of undermining the bourgeois family. Though none...... of the interviewees lives communally now, most remain faithful to the principles behind the movement....

  13. Produção de sentidos sobre a maternidade: uma experiência no Programa Mãe Canguru Senses production upon motherhood: an experience at the Kangaroo Mother Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Maria Sobottka Rolim de Moura

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa, sob a perspectiva da relação entre a família e instituições de saúde, os sentidos produzidos sobre a maternidade em um programa de saúde neonatal desenvolvido na rede pública - o Programa Mãe Canguru. A partir de entrevistas e observações feitas com usuárias durante sua participação no programa, buscamos apreender como as práticas discursivas e não discursivas sobre maternidade e maternagem, difundidas nesse processo, se articulam com as experiências concretas dessas mulheres para produzir novas configurações subjetivas. Na interpretação dos dados, realizada através de análise do discurso, os aspectos mais significativos das falas das entrevistadas foram agrupados em quatro núcleos de sentido: família e religião; o impacto do nascimento prematuro; desconfiança e resistência nas relações com instituições e profissionais de saúde; e a experiência com o Programa Mãe Canguru. Ao final, procurou-se identificar as principais estratégias e formas de singularização utilizadas por essas mulheres ao atribuírem sentidos ao papel materno.This article analises, under the perspective of the relationship between the family and health institutions, the senses produced upon motherhood on a neonatal health program developed at the public system - The Kangaroo Mother Program. As from interviews and observations made with users during their involvement on the program, we tried to perceive how discursive and non discursive practices about motherhood and maternal care, spreaded on this process, become linked with the factual experiences of this women in order to produce new subjective configurations. On data interpretation, realized through speech analysis, the most significant aspects of interviewees talks were gathered in four senses nucleus: family and religion; the impact of a premature birth; distrust and resistance on relations with institutions and health professionals; and the experience with the

  14. Live and Dead Nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sune Lehman; Jackson, A. D.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the consequences of a distinction between `live' and `dead' network nodes; `live' nodes are able to acquire new links whereas `dead' nodes are static. We develop an analytically soluble growing network model incorporating this distinction and show that it can provide...

  15. Evaluating Living Standard Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birčiaková Naďa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the evaluation of selected available indicators of living standards, divided into three groups, namely economic, environmental, and social. We have selected six countries of the European Union for analysis: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Luxembourg, France, and Great Britain. The aim of this paper is to evaluate indicators measuring living standards and suggest the most important factors which should be included in the final measurement. We have tried to determine what factors influence each indicator and what factors affect living standards. We have chosen regression analysis as our main method. From the study of factors, we can deduce their impact on living standards, and thus the value of indicators of living standards. Indicators with a high degree of reliability include the following factors: size and density of population, health care and spending on education. Emissions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere also have a certain lower degree of reliability.

  16. Living with others

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zabiliute, Emilija

    Living with Others’ is an ethnographic study of everyday lives and health-seeking practices among urban poor living in a settlement in the margins of Delhi, India.By exploring subjectivities, lived experiences of poverty, and relations through a prism ofhealth, the inquiry aims to move beyond...... the explorations of precarity embedded in political economies and urban governance that dominate discussions on urban poor neighbourhoods in India.Empirically, the study draws on long-term ethnographic fieldwork and interviews among urban poor,mostly women;and formal and informal health practitioners, abundant...... in the area. Among these are governmental interventions,run under a maternal health developmental programme, National Rural Health Mission.The study argues that the vulnerabilities characterisingthe lives of the urban poor unfold and are negotiated through relations with kin, neighbours, and political patrons...

  17. Latin American Clinical Epidemiology Network Series - Paper 4: Economic evaluation of Kangaroo Mother Care: cost utility analysis of results from a randomized controlled trial conducted in Bogotá.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Juan Gabriel; Charpak, Nathalie; Castillo, Mario; Bernal, Astrid; Ríos, John; Trujillo, Tammy; Córdoba, María Adelaida

    2017-06-01

    Although kangaroo mother care (KMC) has been shown to be safe and effective in randomized controlled trials (RCTs), there are no published complete economic evaluations including the three components of the full intervention. A cost utility analysis performed on the results of an RCT conducted in Bogotá, Colombia between 1993 and 1996. Hospital and ambulatory costs were estimated by microcosting in a sample of preterm infants from a University Hospital in Bogotá in 2011 and at a KMC clinic in the same period. Utility scores were assigned by experts by means of (1) direct ordering and scoring discrete health states and (2) constructing a multi-attribute utility function. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals (CIs) for the incremental cost-utility ratios (ICURs) were computed by the Fiellers theorem method. One-way sensitivity analysis on price estimates for valuing costs was performed. ICUR at 1 year of corrected age was $ -1,546 per extra quality-adjusted life year gained using the KMC method (95% CI $ -7,963 to $ 4,910). In Bogotá, the use of KMC is dominant: more effective and cost-saving. Although results from an economic analysis should not be extrapolated to different systems and communities, this dominant result suggests that KMC could be cost-effective in similar low and middle income countries settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Método Mãe Canguru: aplicação no Brasil, evidências científicas e impacto sobre o aleitamento materno Kangaroo Mother Care: scientific evidences and impact on breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Isoyama Venancio

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever o histórico do Método Mãe Canguru e apresentar evidências científicas sobre os benefícios dessa prática para os bebês de baixo peso no tocante a morbimortalidade, desenvolvimento psicoafetivo, neurossensorial e amamentação. FONTES DE DADOS: Foram consultadas publicações sobre o Método Mãe Canguru abrangendo o período de 1983 até 2004, identificadas nas bases de dados MEDLINE e Lilacs, bem como livros, teses e publicações técnicas do Ministério da Saúde. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Desde sua primeira descrição, o Método Mãe Canguru tem sido amplamente estudado. A análise de experimentos randomizados mostrou que o mesmo consiste em fator de proteção para a amamentação exclusiva no momento da alta hospitalar (RR 0,41; IC95% 0,25-0,68. O método também está associado a redução do risco de infecção hospitalar com 41 semanas de idade gestacional corrigida (RR 0,49; IC95% 0,25-0,93; redução de enfermidades graves (RR 0,30; IC95% 0,14-0,67; redução de infecções do trato respiratório inferior aos 6 meses (RR 0,37; IC95% 0,15-0,89; e maior ganho ponderal diário (diferença de médias de 3,6 g/dia; IC95% 0,8-6,4. O desenvolvimento psicomotor foi semelhante entre bebês submetidos ao Método Mãe Canguru e controles aos 12 meses, e não houve evidências de impacto sobre a mortalidade infantil. CONCLUSÃO: Há evidências de impacto positivo do Método Mãe Canguru sobre a prática da amamentação. Embora o método pareça reduzir a morbidade infantil, as evidências são ainda insuficientes para que o mesmo seja recomendado rotineiramente. Por outro lado, não existem relatos sobre efeitos deletérios da aplicação do método. Há a necessidade de se realizar estudos sobre a efetividade, aplicabilidade e aceitabilidade do Método Mãe Canguru em nosso meio.OBJECTIVE: To describe the history of the Kangaroo Mother Care and present scientific evidence about benefits of this practice on morbidity and

  19. Interventions in everyday lives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreier, Ole

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of psychotherapy is to help clients address and overcome problems troubling them in their everyday lives. Therapy can therefore only work if clients include it in their ongoing lives to deal with their problems. Detailed, systematic research is needed on how clients do so...... clients change their everyday lives to overcome their troubles. They also highlight what it involves for clients to accomplish this. It is concluded that we need more research on how to understand intervention; on the interaction between interventions and clients’ conduct of their everyday life...

  20. Digital Living at Home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Pernille Viktoria Kathja; Christiansen, Ellen Tove

    2013-01-01

    of these user voices has directed us towards a ‘home-keeping’ design discourse, which opens new horizons for design of digital home control systems by allowing users to perform as self-determined controllers and groomers of their habitat. The paper concludes by outlining the implications of a ‘home......Does living with digital technology inevitably lead to digital living? Users talking about a digital home control system, they have had in their homes for eight years, indicate that there is more to living with digital technology than a functional-operational grip on regulation. Our analysis......-keeping’ design discourse....

  1. High prevalence of Leptospira spp. in sewer rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøjgaard, L H; Villumsen, S; Markussen, M D K

    2009-01-01

    Earlier studies on the ecology of leptospirosis in temperate regions focused mainly on free-ranging rats in rural areas. Here we report on the occurrence of Leptospira spp. in Rattus norvegicus living in sewers in a suburban area in Copenhagen, Denmark. In 2006-2007, about 30 rats were captured...... in sewers at each of six different locations. Rat kidneys were screened by PCR for pathogenic Leptospira spp. In one location no infected rats were found, whereas the prevalence in the remaining five locations ranged between 48% and 89%. Micro-agglutination tests showed that serogroup Pomona, Sejroe...

  2. treated rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2014-01-08

    Jan 8, 2014 ... nucleus, bizarre segmentation; (I) shows hypersegmentation, bizarre segmentation of neutrophils in the shape of ring nucleus with polychromatophilic RBCs. 1998; Muller and Tobin, 1980). The current study shows that rats administered C. edulis hydro-ethanol extract, orally for 28 days, developed anemia, ...

  3. Radiation-induced PKC signaling system in cultured rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Tetsuo; Yukawa, Osami

    1998-01-01

    Radiation effects on living organisms are mainly caused through reactive oxygen species (ROS) on living cells. It is known that ROS damages various membranes and the bio membranes play an important role in cellular signal transduction pathways. The effects of radiation on cellular signal transduction pathways in cultured rat hepatocytes have been studied

  4. Tooele Army Depot Revised Final Site-Wide Ecological Risk Assessment. Volume II (Appendices A through D).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-02-01

    diet of higher trophic level species, such as raptors. Ord’s Kangaroo Rat (Dipodomys ordii). The Ord’s kangaroo rat is chiefly a nocturnal mammal...sandy soils. The entrances of these burrow systems are plugged during the day to maintain humidity and coolness. The kangaroo rat can obtain...sufficient quantities of water from the metabolism of food in their diet, but will drink water when it is available. TSK 0003/SWERA/Rev Final Rpt/November

  5. Living with COPD: Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > COPD > Living With COPD Nutrition and COPD Most people are surprised to learn ... asking your doctor or visiting the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics at EatRight.org . Be sure to ...

  6. Living Day by Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Rachel L.; Khoury, Cynthia El; Field, Emily R. S.; Mokhbat, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    We examined the meaning of living with HIV/AIDS among women in Lebanon. Ten women living with HIV/AIDS (WLWHA) described their experiences via semistructured in-depth interviews. They navigated a process of HIV diagnosis acceptance that incorporated six overlapping elements: receiving the news, accessing care, starting treatment, navigating disclosure decisions, negotiating stigma, and maintaining stability. Through these elements, we provide a framework for understanding three major themes that were constructed during data analysis: Stand by my side: Decisions of disclosure; Being “sick” and feeling “normal”: Interacting with self, others, and society; and Living day by day: focusing on the present. We contribute to the existing literature by providing a theoretical framework for understanding the process of diagnosis and sero-status acceptance among WLWHA. This was the first study of its kind to examine the meaning of living with HIV/AIDS among women in a Middle Eastern country. PMID:28462340

  7. Living Day by Day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L. Kaplan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We examined the meaning of living with HIV/AIDS among women in Lebanon. Ten women living with HIV/AIDS (WLWHA described their experiences via semistructured in-depth interviews. They navigated a process of HIV diagnosis acceptance that incorporated six overlapping elements: receiving the news, accessing care, starting treatment, navigating disclosure decisions, negotiating stigma, and maintaining stability. Through these elements, we provide a framework for understanding three major themes that were constructed during data analysis: Stand by my side: Decisions of disclosure; Being “sick” and feeling “normal”: Interacting with self, others, and society; and Living day by day: focusing on the present. We contribute to the existing literature by providing a theoretical framework for understanding the process of diagnosis and sero-status acceptance among WLWHA. This was the first study of its kind to examine the meaning of living with HIV/AIDS among women in a Middle Eastern country.

  8. Living With Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Problems Diabetes, Sexual, & Bladder Problems Clinical Trials Managing Diabetes You can manage your diabetes and live a ... you have diabetes. How can I manage my diabetes? With the help of your health care team, ...

  9. Thalassemia: Healthy Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thalassemia” More What can a person living with thalassemia do to stay healthy? A healthy lifestyle is ... disorder”, as well as making healthy choices. Managing Thalassemia Thalassemia is a treatable disorder that can be ...

  10. Writing lives in sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh

    dealing with anonymous individuals, whose anonymity results from the confidentiality requirements of a social scientific research methodology, to those leaning more towards the literary-historical traditions of 'conventional' biographical writing. However, these examples are polar extremes and none...... in the academis world of sport studies. It does not set out to be a methodological treatise but through the writing of lives in sports does raise questions of method. Each essay in this collection deals with problems of writing sports-people's lives. These essays could be said to fall along a spectrum from those......Writing lives in sport is a book of stories about sports-persons. The people concerned include sports stars, sports people who are not quite so famous, and relatively unknown physical education teachers and sports scientists.Writing lives in sport raises questions about writing biographies...

  11. Living with Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > Tuberculosis (TB) Living With Tuberculosis What to Expect You will need regular checkups ... XML file."); } }); } } --> Blank Section Header Lung Disease Lookup Tuberculosis (TB) Learn About Tuberculosis Tuberculosis Symptoms, Causes & Risk ...

  12. Tips for Daily Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Simple Techniques Can Help Memory after a Stroke Self-Esteem after Stroke Cognitive Challenges After Stroke Depression Trumps ... Living Driving Finding Support You Are Not Alone Online Support Recovery and Support after Stroke Stroke Family ...

  13. Our Urban Living Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortshøj, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    Our Urban Living Room is an exhibition and a book, created by Cobe. The theme is based on Cobe’s ten years of practice, grounded in social livability and urban democracy, and our aim to create buildings and spaces that invite Copenhageners to use and define them; as an extended living room, where...... the boundaries between private and public space become fluid. Based on specific Cobe projects, Our Urban Living Room tells stories about the architectural development of Copenhagen, while exploring the progression of the Danish Capital - from an industrial city into an urban living room, known as one...... of the world’s most livable places. Photography by Rasmus Hjortshøj....

  14. Prenatal Caffeine Exposure Impairs Pregnancy in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Yadegari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, concerns have been raised about human reproductive disorders. Caffeine consumption is increasing by the world’s population and there is a relationship between caffeine intake and adverse reproductive outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of caffeine on implantation sites, number of live births, birth weight, crown-rump length (CRL and abnormality in pregnant rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 female albino rats (170-190 g were randomly divided into two experimental and two control groups (n=10/each group. In both experimental groups, animals received caffeine intraperitoneally (IP: 150 mg/kg/day on days 1-5 of pregnancy. In experimental group 1, treated animals were euthanized on day 7of pregnancy and the number of implantation sites was counted. In experimental group 2, treated animals maintained pregnant and after delivery, the number of live births, birth weight, CRL and abnormality of neonates were investigated. In control group, animals received IP injections of distilled water. Data were analyzed by independent t test. Results: Results showed that administration of caffeine significantly decreased the number of implantation sites, number of live births and CRL as compared with control group (P<0.05. There were no significant differences regarding birth weight and abnormality of neonate rats between experimental and control groups. Conclusion: These results suggest that caffeine caused anti-fertility effect and significantly decreased CRL in neonate rats.

  15. Living with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV/AIDS Living With HIV Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ...

  16. Adults Living with OI

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wheel Regional Conference 50,000 Laps, One Unbreakable Spirit® OI Golf Classic Awareness Week Fine Wines Strong Bones Bone China Tea Blue Jeans for Better Bones Upcoming Events Online Store Adults Living with OI Write to us with your suggestions for what we should include on this page; your input ...

  17. Readiness for Living Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peronard, Jean-Paul

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a comparative analysis between workers in healthcare with high and low degree of readiness for living technology such as robotics. To explore the differences among workers’ readiness for robotics in healthcare, statistical analysis was conducted in the data set obtained from 200...

  18. Live-cell imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Richard

    2014-01-01

    It would be hard to argue that live-cell imaging has not changed our view of biology. The past 10 years have seen an explosion of interest in imaging cellular processes, down to the molecular level. There are now many advanced techniques being applied to live cell imaging. However, cellular health is often under appreciated. For many researchers, if the cell at the end of the experiment has not gone into apoptosis or is blebbed beyond recognition, than all is well. This is simply incorrect. There are many factors that need to be considered when performing live-cell imaging in order to maintain cellular health such as: imaging modality, media, temperature, humidity, PH, osmolality, and photon dose. The wavelength of illuminating light, and the total photon dose that the cells are exposed to, comprise two of the most important and controllable parameters of live-cell imaging. The lowest photon dose that achieves a measureable metric for the experimental question should be used, not the dose that produces cover photo quality images. This is paramount to ensure that the cellular processes being investigated are in their in vitro state and not shifted to an alternate pathway due to environmental stress. The timing of the mitosis is an ideal canary in the gold mine, in that any stress induced from the imaging will result in the increased length of mitosis, thus providing a control model for the current imagining conditions.

  19. Living or Nonliving?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legaspi, Britt; Straits, William

    2011-01-01

    Categorizing organisms as living or nonliving things may seem to be intuitive by nature. Yet, it is regulated by scientific criteria. Students come to school with rules already in place. Their categorizing criteria have already been influenced by their personal experiences, also known as observations and inferences. They believe that all things…

  20. Living with Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stine Maria Louring; Mullins, Michael Finbarr

    2018-01-01

    in their daily lives. It is argued that these patterns are largely shaped by the elderly’s bodily, social and cultural experiences and contexts, so a framework encompassing four major themes is proposed: 1. Traditions, Economy and Environment; 2. Quality of Life and Independence; 3. Health; and 4. Security...

  1. The Living Periodic Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

    2005-01-01

    To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

  2. Gun control saves lives

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gun control legislation. One study estimated that more than 4 500 lives were saved across five SA cities from 2001 to 2005.[5] Pro-gun interest groups seeking to promote gun ownership and diffusion have attacked these findings, suggesting that stricter gun control was only enacted in 2004 following the publication of ...

  3. Old men living alone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristian Frausing; Munk, Karen Pallesgaard

    . 1. An electronic survey is distributed nationwide to municipal preventive home visitors in order to obtain information about their views on the men’s particular needs and the suitability of current health care services. 2. A group of elderly men living alone is interviewed about their own opinions...

  4. Living Systems Energy Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-26

    The Living Systems Energy Module, renamed Voyage from the Sun, is a twenty-lesson curriculum designed to introduce students to the major ways in which energy is important in living systems. Voyage from the Sun tells the story of energy, describing its solar origins, how it is incorporated into living terrestrial systems through photosynthesis, how it flows from plants to herbivorous animals, and from herbivores to carnivores. A significant part of the unit is devoted to examining how humans use energy, and how human impact on natural habitats affects ecosystems. As students proceed through the unit, they read chapters of Voyage from the Sun, a comic book that describes the flow of energy in story form (Appendix A). During the course of the unit, an ``Energy Pyramid`` is erected in the classroom. This three-dimensional structure serves as a classroom exhibit, reminding students daily of the importance of energy and of the fragile nature of our living planet. Interactive activities teach students about adaptations that allow plants and animals to acquire, to use and to conserve energy. A complete list of curricular materials and copies of all activity sheets appear in Appendix B.

  5. Evidence of the factors that influence the utilisation of Kangaroo Mother Care by parents with low-birth-weight infants in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs): a scoping review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Christina T; Mianda, Solange; Ginindza, Themba G

    2018-04-05

    The Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 3 emphasises on reducing neonatal deaths caused by low birth weight (LBW) complications by the implementation and utilisation of Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Despite the empirical evidence of KMC optimising low-birth-weight infants' (LBWIs') survival, its advantages and the LMICs implementing the service, studies have shown that LBW infant deaths occurring in LMICs are largely contributing to global child mortality. The aim of this scoping review is to map out the literature on barriers, challenges and facilitators of KMC utilisation by parents with LBWIs. This scoping review will use Endnote X7 reference management software to manage articles. The review search strategy will use SCIELO and LILACS databases. Other databases will be used via EBSCOHost search engine and these are Academic search complete, CINAHL with full text, Education source, Health source: Nursing/Academic Edition, Medline with full text and Medline. We will also use Google Scholar, JSTOR, Open grey search engines and reference lists. A two-phase search mapping out process will be done. In phase 1, one reviewer will perform the title screening and removal of duplicates. Two reviewers will do a parallel abstract screening according to eligibility criteria. Phase 2 will involve the reading of full articles and exclusion of articles, in accordance with the eligibility criteria. Data extraction from the articles will be done by two reviewers independently and parallel to the data extraction form. The data quality assessment of the eligible studies will be done using the Mixed Method Appraisal Tool (MMAT). The extraction of the synthesised results and thematic content analysis of the studies will be done by NVIVO version 10. We expect to find studies on barriers, challenges and facilitating factors of KMC utilisation by parents with LBWIs in LMICs. The review outcomes will guide future research and practice and inform

  6. Intelligence-Augmented Rat Cyborgs in Maze Solving.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yipeng Yu

    Full Text Available Cyborg intelligence is an emerging kind of intelligence paradigm. It aims to deeply integrate machine intelligence with biological intelligence by connecting machines and living beings via neural interfaces, enhancing strength by combining the biological cognition capability with the machine computational capability. Cyborg intelligence is considered to be a new way to augment living beings with machine intelligence. In this paper, we build rat cyborgs to demonstrate how they can expedite the maze escape task with integration of machine intelligence. We compare the performance of maze solving by computer, by individual rats, and by computer-aided rats (i.e. rat cyborgs. They were asked to find their way from a constant entrance to a constant exit in fourteen diverse mazes. Performance of maze solving was measured by steps, coverage rates, and time spent. The experimental results with six rats and their intelligence-augmented rat cyborgs show that rat cyborgs have the best performance in escaping from mazes. These results provide a proof-of-principle demonstration for cyborg intelligence. In addition, our novel cyborg intelligent system (rat cyborg has great potential in various applications, such as search and rescue in complex terrains.

  7. Intelligence-Augmented Rat Cyborgs in Maze Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yipeng; Pan, Gang; Gong, Yongyue; Xu, Kedi; Zheng, Nenggan; Hua, Weidong; Zheng, Xiaoxiang; Wu, Zhaohui

    2016-01-01

    Cyborg intelligence is an emerging kind of intelligence paradigm. It aims to deeply integrate machine intelligence with biological intelligence by connecting machines and living beings via neural interfaces, enhancing strength by combining the biological cognition capability with the machine computational capability. Cyborg intelligence is considered to be a new way to augment living beings with machine intelligence. In this paper, we build rat cyborgs to demonstrate how they can expedite the maze escape task with integration of machine intelligence. We compare the performance of maze solving by computer, by individual rats, and by computer-aided rats (i.e. rat cyborgs). They were asked to find their way from a constant entrance to a constant exit in fourteen diverse mazes. Performance of maze solving was measured by steps, coverage rates, and time spent. The experimental results with six rats and their intelligence-augmented rat cyborgs show that rat cyborgs have the best performance in escaping from mazes. These results provide a proof-of-principle demonstration for cyborg intelligence. In addition, our novel cyborg intelligent system (rat cyborg) has great potential in various applications, such as search and rescue in complex terrains.

  8. Being a Living Donor: Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to know FAQ Living donation What is living donation? Organs Types Being a living donor First steps Being ... are considering one of these types of living donation, please talk to your transplant center about the organ-specific risks. Psychological concerns You may also have ...

  9. Atenção humanizada ao recém-nascido de baixo-peso. Método Canguru e cuidado centrado na família: correspondências e especificidades Humanized care for low birth weight newborns. The Kangaroo care Method and family-centered care: correspondence and specificities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia de Abreu e Silva Hennig

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta a Atenção Humanizada ao Recém-Nascido de Baixo-Peso - Método Canguru - como uma diretriz clínica na assistência neonatal, e busca traçar um paralelo com outro importante componente do cuidado infantil descrito na literatura internacional: o cuidado centrado na família. O artigo propõe que a Atenção Humanizada ao Recém-Nascido de Baixo-Peso - Método Canguru seja vista como uma boa prática e seja considerada também no campo das tecnologias em saúde.The main purpose of this paper is to introduce the Human Attention of Low Birth Weight-Kangaroo Care as clinical guidelines in neonatal intensive care. It will also try to link this clinical guideline and another component of neonatal infant care: the Family-Centered Care. Based on this relationship, this paper proposes that Human Attention of Low Birth Weight-Kangaroo Care should be catalogued as a Potentially Better Practices and also, considered as a Health Care Technology.

  10. Living in history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Norman R.; Lee, Peter J.; Krslak, Mirna

    2009-01-01

    Foreslår et paradigme - "Living in history" - til undersøgelse af forholdet mellem samtidshistorie og selvbiografisk hukommelse. Metoden spørger ikke direkte og altså ikke til den anknytning, man bevidst ville vælge at fremhæve, men undersøger indirekte, om der spontant associeres til samtidsbegi......Foreslår et paradigme - "Living in history" - til undersøgelse af forholdet mellem samtidshistorie og selvbiografisk hukommelse. Metoden spørger ikke direkte og altså ikke til den anknytning, man bevidst ville vælge at fremhæve, men undersøger indirekte, om der spontant associeres til...

  11. More Years Better Lives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Tine

    2014-01-01

    Europe and the rest of the world, which may help offset the effects of ageing in some counties or regions, but which brings its own challenges. Alongside this change in the structure of the population, we are seeing a reshaping of the lifecourse, from a fairly simple one with three stages – childhood...... and assistive technologies are enabling people to live longer and healthier lives, but sometimes at a substantial cost. Communication technologies are transforming how people interact, how business is done and how public services are delivered. These changes have positive and negative dimensions and can present......Demographic change is changing the shape of Europe. Rising life expectancy, combined with low fertility rates and complex patterns of migration, mean that while the size of the population remains stable, its distribution and average age is rising steadily. At the same time general health...

  12. Living the (codesign) lab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binder, Thomas; Brandt, Eva; Halse, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Design research environments are becoming visible in many places, in universities, in design schools, in companies and in public organizations. What most of them have in common is a commitment to the exploration of the possible rather than the factual. In this paper we will discuss what define su...... that the laboratories of design research must have a consistent portfolio yet design researchers still have to mobilize and join forces with the many “living labs” of the everyday....

  13. Corticosterone, but not Glucose, Treatment Enables Fasted Adrenalectomized Rats to Survive Moderate Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlington, Daniel N.; Chew, Gordon; Ha, Taryn; Keil, Lanny C.; Dallman, Mary F.

    1990-01-01

    Fed adrenalectomized rats survive the stress of hemorrhage and hypovolemia, whereas fasted adrenalectomized rats become hypotensive and hypoglycemic after the first 90 min and die within 4 hours (h). We have studied the effects of glucose and corticosterone (B) infusions after hemorrhage as well as treatment with B at the time of adrenalectomy on the capacity of chronically prepared, conscious, fasted, adrenalectomized rats to survive hemorrhage. We have also measured the magnitudes of vasoactive hormone responses to hemorrhage. Maintenance of plasma glucose concentrations did not sustain life; however, treatment of rats at the time of adrenalectomy with B allowed 100 percent survival, and acute treatment of adrenalectomized rats at the time of hemorrhage allowed about 50 percent survival during the 5-h posthemorrhage observation period. Rats in the acute B infusion group that died exhibited significantly increased plasma B and significantly decreased plasma glucose concentrations by 2 h compared to the rats that lived. Plasma vasopressin, renin, and norepinephrine responses to hemorrhage were markedly augmented in the adrenalectomized rats not treated with B, and plasma vasopressin concentrations were significantly elevated at 1 and 2 h in all of the rats that subsequently died compared to values in those that lived. We conclude that: 1) death after hemorrhage in fasted adrenalectomized rats is not a result of lack of glucose; 2) chronic and, to an extent, acute treatment of fasted adrenalectomized rats with B enables survival; 3) fasted adrenalectomized rats exhibit strong evidence of hepatic insufficiency which is not apparent in either fed adrenalectomized rats or B-treated fasted adrenalectomized rats; 4) death after hemorrhage in fasted adrenalectomized rats may result from hepatic failure as a consequence of marked splanchnic vasoconstriction mediated bv the actions of extraordinarily high levels of vasoactive hormones after hemorrhage; and 5) B appears to

  14. [Living kidney donation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timsit, M-O; Kleinclauss, F; Mamzer Bruneel, M F; Thuret, R

    2016-11-01

    To review ethical, legal and technical aspects of living kidney donor surgery. An exhaustive systematic review of the scientific literature was performed in the Medline database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) and Embase (http://www.embase.com) using different associations of the following keywords: Donor nephrectomy; Kidney paired donation; Kidney transplantation; Laparoscopic nephrectomy; Living donor; Organs trafficking; Robotic assisted nephrectomy; Vaginal extraction. French legal documents have been reviewed using the government portal (http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr). Articles were selected according to methods, language of publication and relevance. A total of 6421 articles were identified; after careful selection, 161 publications were considered of interest and were eligible for our review. The ethical debate focuses on organ shortage, financial incentive, organ trafficking and the recent data suggesting a small but significant increase risk for late renal disease in donor population. Legal decisions aim to increase the number of kidneys available for donation, such as kidney-paired donation that faces several obstacles in France. Laparoscopic approach became widely used, while robotic-assisted donor nephrectomy failed to demonstrate improved outcome as compared with other minimal invasive techniques. Minimally invasive living donor nephrectomy aims to limit side effects in the donor without increasing the morbidity in this specific population of healthy persons; long term surveillance to prevent the onset of renal disease in mandatory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Canada: Living with radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Canadians are exposed daily to a variety of naturally occurring radiation. Heat and light from the sun, are familiar examples. Radium and uranium are naturally occurring materials which have been found to emit radiation and so have been called radioactive. There are also various types of artificially produced forms of radiation that are employed routinely in modern living, such as radio and television waves and microwaves. X-rays, another common type of radiation, are widely used in medicine as are some man-made radioactive substances. These emit radiation just like naturally occurring radioactive materials. Surveys have shown that many people have a poor understanding of the risks associated with the activities of modern living. Exposure to ionizing radiation from radioactive materials is also considered by many persons to have a high risk, This booklet attempts to inform the readers about ionizing radiation, its uses and the risks associated with it, and to put these risks in perspective with the risks of other activities and practices. A range of topics from medical uses of radiation to emergency planning, from biological effects of radiation to nuclear power, each topic is explained to relate radiation to our everyday lives. 44 figs

  16. Canada: Living with radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Canadians are exposed daily to a variety of naturally occurring radiation. Heat and light from the sun, are familiar examples. Radium and uranium are naturally occurring materials which have been found to emit radiation and so have been called radioactive. There are also various types of artificially produced forms of radiation that are employed routinely in modern living, such as radio and television waves and microwaves. X-rays, another common type of radiation, are widely used in medicine as are some man-made radioactive substances. These emit radiation just like naturally occurring radioactive materials. Surveys have shown that many people have a poor understanding of the risks associated with the activities of modern living. Exposure to ionizing radiation from radioactive materials is also considered by many persons to have a high risk, This booklet attempts to inform the readers about ionizing radiation, its uses and the risks associated with it, and to put these risks in perspective with the risks of other activities and practices. A range of topics from medical uses of radiation to emergency planning, from biological effects of radiation to nuclear power, each topic is explained to relate radiation to our everyday lives. 44 figs.

  17. RatMap--rat genome tools and data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Greta; Johnson, Per; Andersson, Lars; Klinga-Levan, Karin; Gómez-Fabre, Pedro M; Ståhl, Fredrik

    2005-01-01

    The rat genome database RatMap (http://ratmap.org or http://ratmap.gen.gu.se) has been one of the main resources for rat genome information since 1994. The database is maintained by CMB-Genetics at Goteborg University in Sweden and provides information on rat genes, polymorphic rat DNA-markers and rat quantitative trait loci (QTLs), all curated at RatMap. The database is under the supervision of the Rat Gene and Nomenclature Committee (RGNC); thus much attention is paid to rat gene nomenclature. RatMap presents information on rat idiograms, karyotypes and provides a unified presentation of the rat genome sequence and integrated rat linkage maps. A set of tools is also available to facilitate the identification and characterization of rat QTLs, as well as the estimation of exon/intron number and sizes in individual rat genes. Furthermore, comparative gene maps of rat in regard to mouse and human are provided.

  18. Live from the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnick, W. K.; Haines-Stiles, G.; Warburton, J.; Sunwood, K.

    2003-12-01

    For reasons of geography and geophysics, the poles of our planet, the Arctic and Antarctica, are places where climate change appears first: they are global canaries in the mine shaft. But while Antarctica (its penguins and ozone hole, for example) has been relatively well-documented in recent books, TV programs and journalism, the far North has received somewhat less attention. This project builds on and advances what has been done to date to share the people, places, and stories of the North with all Americans through multiple media, over several years. In a collaborative project between the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS) and PASSPORT TO KNOWLEDGE, Live from the Arctic will bring the Arctic environment to the public through a series of primetime broadcasts, live and taped programming, interactive virtual field trips, and webcasts. The five-year project will culminate during the 2007-2008 International Polar Year (IPY). Live from the Arctic will: A. Promote global understanding about the value and world -wide significance of the Arctic, B. Bring cutting-edge research to both non-formal and formal education communities, C. Provide opportunities for collaboration between arctic scientists, arctic communities, and the general public. Content will focus on the following four themes. 1. Pan-Arctic Changes and Impacts on Land (i.e. snow cover; permafrost; glaciers; hydrology; species composition, distribution, and abundance; subsistence harvesting) 2. Pan-Arctic Changes and Impacts in the Sea (i.e. salinity, temperature, currents, nutrients, sea ice, marine ecosystems (including people, marine mammals and fisheries) 3. Pan-Arctic Changes and Impacts in the Atmosphere (i.e. precipitation and evaporation; effects on humans and their communities) 4. Global Perspectives (i.e. effects on humans and communities, impacts to rest of the world) In The Earth is Faster Now, a recent collection of comments by members of indigenous arctic peoples, arctic

  19. Keeping Up the Live: Recorded Television as Live Experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Es, Karin; Keilbach, Judith

    2018-01-01

    textabstractIncreasingly new media platforms are making claims to liveness. Looking back in television history we also find programmes that were recorded, but kept up the claims of being live. This raises the question as to what accounts for the attraction of the live? Focusing on Ein Platz für

  20. Possible use of wild-living rats (Rattus norvegicus) as bioindicators for heavy metal pollution. Part I. Sex and age-related quantification of Al, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, Ti, Tl and Zn in liver, heart, lung, kidney, muscle, brain and bones, and the establishment of distribution patterns; Untersuchungen zur Eignung wildlebender Wanderratten (Rattus norvegicus) als Indikatoren der Schwermetallbelastung. T. I. Alters- und geschlechtsspezifische Quantifizierung der Verteilung von Al, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, Ti, Tl und Zn in den Organen Herz, Leber, Lunge, Niere, Muskulatur, Gehirn und Knochen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuenschmann, S. [Internationales Hochschulinstitut Zittau (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Umweltverfahrenstechnik; Hochschule fuer Technik, Wirtschaft und Sozialwesen Zittau/Goerlitz (FH), Zittau (Germany). Fachbereich Mathematik/Naturwissenschaften; Oehlmann, J. [J. W. Goethe-Univ. Frankfurt, Zoologisches Inst., Frankfurt/M. (Germany); Delakowitz, B. [Hochschule fuer Technik, Wirtschaft und Sozialwesen Zittau/Goerlitz (FH), Zittau (Germany). Fachbereich Mathematik/Naturwissenschaften; Markert, B. [Internationales Hochschulinstitut Zittau (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Umweltverfahrenstechnik

    2001-07-01

    The objective of the current attempt was to investigate the suitability of wild-living rats (Rattus norvegicus) as a passive bioindicator using quantitative determinations of 12 chemical elements in different organs taken from rats which were caught in the Zoological Garden of Zittau. Aside from the determinations of so-called background levels, the focus of interest was with accumulations of certain elements within the organs depending on either sex or age of the rats. There were different affinities of the elements towards certain organs. Because of apparent sex and age-related differences in element concentrations and accumulation features, a well-planned sampling strategy for the use of rats as possible passive bioindicators is indeed required. The consideration of element distribution patterns within the organ system of Rattus norvegicus (based on body burden calculations (in part 2 of this work)) allows an effective use of the rat for purposes of integrative monitoring. (orig.) [German] Durch die Quantifizierung von 12 chemischen Elementen im Organsystem von wildlebenden Ratten (Rattus norvegicus) aus dem Tierpark Zittau (Sachsen) sollte die Eignung dieser Spezies als passiver Bioindikator untersucht werden. Neben der Ermittlung von sogenannten Hintergrundkonzentrationen standen insbesondere Fragen zur geschlechts- und altersspezifischen Akkumulation einzelner Elemente im Organsystem von Rattus norvegicus im Vordergrund. Spezifisch zeigten dabei einzelne Elemente unterschiedliche Affinitaeten zu den entsprechenden Geweben und Organen. Insbesondere die hierbei ermittelten geschlechts- und altersspezifischen Charakteristika einzelner Elemente macht eine detaillierte Ausarbeitung einer Beprobungsstrategie fuer den spaeteren Einsatz als passiver Bioindikator zwingend. Unter Beruecksichtigung des durch die Berechnung des Body Burden (Koerperlast) im 2. Teil der Arbeit ermittelten typischen Verteilungsmusters einzelner Elemente ist Rattus norvegicus zum

  1. Healthy living after Chernobyl?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartau, S.; Rosenkranz, B.

    1987-01-01

    Our food today is endangered not only through environmental poisons and the machinations of profit-hungry manufacturers but also, after the reactor disaster of Chernobyl, by radioactive materials. There is great uncertainty amongst consumers: Whan can I still eat? How can I best protect my children from food products contaminated by radioactivity or enriched with pollutants? Does it still make sense to buy organically produced foodstuffs? Which food products are low in pollutants? With this book the authors want to counteract general helplessness and help the reader with comprehensible and sound information as well as practical tips for eating and living healthily after Chernobyl. (orig.) [de

  2. On The Living Room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Richards

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This text discusses the work The Living Room, directed by the author, and reflects on its meanings and functions. The article confronts problems performance raises in relation to contemporary social life, bringing forward the isolation of life today and the possibilities performance offers to fight it. We problematise the crisis experienced by the author and the consequent creation of the work as a mobile performative device in relation to the staging space. Finally, the work questions the forms of interaction and type of participation possible in performance.

  3. Live and let die

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter

    2004-01-01

    , increased consumption in wealthy countries will reduce the possibility of meeting the needs of a growing population in developing countries within the limits set by the Earth`s ecological carrying capacity. Today, the willingness among the decision makers in rich countries to pursue a sustainable...... article ?Living on a Lifeboat?. Below, Hardin`s ?Lifeboat ethic? is reviewed and critically discussed, focusing on the hidden premises embedded in Hardin`s position. In the final part of the paper, the environmental consequences of economic growth and increasing consumption levels in wealthy nations...

  4. Microencapsulation Of Living Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Manchium; Kendall, James M.; Wang, Taylor G.

    1989-01-01

    In experimental technique, living cells and other biological materials encapsulated within submillimeter-diameter liquid-filled spheres. Sphere material biocompatible, tough, and compliant. Semipermeable, permitting relatively small molecules to move into and out of sphere core but preventing passage of large molecules. New technique promises to make such spherical capsules at high rates and in uniform, controllable sizes. Capsules injected into patient through ordinary hypodermic needle. Promising application for technique in treatment of diabetes. Also used to encapsulate pituitary cells and thyroid hormone adrenocortical cells for treatment of other hormonal disorders, to encapsulate other secreting cells for transplantation, and to package variety of pharmaceutical products and agricultural chemicals for controlled release.

  5. Extreme hypoxia tolerance of naked mole-rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, John; Park, Thomas J

    2009-12-09

    Mammalian brains have extremely high levels of aerobic metabolism and typically suffer irreversible damage after brief periods of oxygen deprivation such as occur during stroke or cardiac arrest. Here we report that brain tissue from naked mole-rats, rodents that live in a chronically low-oxygen environment, is remarkably resistant to hypoxia: naked mole-rat neurons maintain synaptic transmission much longer than mouse neurons and can recover from periods of anoxia exceeding 30 min. We suggest that brain tolerance to hypoxia may result from slowed or arrested brain development in these extremely long-lived animals.

  6. Metallothionein metabolism in the streptozotocin-diabetic rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, M.L.; Failla, M.L.

    1986-01-01

    Earlier reports from their laboratory showed the induction of the insulin-deficient diabetic state in adult rats was associated with an accumulation of zinc, copper, and a metallothionein-like zinc and copper binding protein in the soluble fraction of liver and kidney. Based upon chromatographic and electrophoretic properties, -SH to metal ratio and amino acid composition, they now report that elevated concentrations of metallothioneins (MT)-I and -II are indeed present in diabetic rat liver and kidney cytosol. The relative rates of MT synthesis in tissues from diabetic and control rats were measured by comparing incorporation of 35 S-cysteine into MT vs. total cytoplasmic proteins at 5 h after injection of the precursor. The relative rates of MT synthesis in livers from rats diabetic for 10 d and fed either chow or purified diet containing 13 or 35 ppm copper were 1.4, 2.3 and 2.8 times greater, respectively, than control rats fed the same diets. Higher relative rates of MT synthesis were also observed in kidneys from diabetic rats fed purified diets compared to controls. Maximal relative rates of MT synthesis in diabetic liver and kidney were observed at 4 and 10 d, respectively, after onset of diabetes. The half-lives of cytoplasmic MT in liver and kidney from diabetic (10 d) rats were 1.3 and 2.6 days, respectively; half-lives of MT in control liver and kidney were 5.0 and 2.1 days, respectively

  7. Genome Stability Maintenance in Naked Mole-Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruseva, I O; Evdokimov, A N; Lavrik, O I

    2017-01-01

    The naked mole-rat ( Heterocephalus glaber ) is one of the most promising models used to study genome maintenance systems, including the effective repair of damage to DNA. The naked mole-rat is the longest lived rodent species, which is extraordinarily resistant to cancer and has a number of other unique phenotypic traits. For at least 80% of its lifespan, this animal shows no signs of aging or any increased likelihood of death and retains the ability to reproduce. The naked mole-rat draws the heightened attention of researchers who study the molecular basis of lengthy lifespan and cancer resistance. Despite the fact that the naked mole-rat lives under genotoxic stress conditions (oxidative, etc.), the main characteristics of its genome and proteome are a high stability and effective functioning. Replicative senescence in the somatic cells of naked mole-rats is missing, while an additional p53/pRb-dependent mechanism of early contact inhibition has been revealed in its fibroblasts, which controls cell proliferation and its mechanism of arf- dependent aging. The unique traits of phenotypic and molecular adaptations found in the naked mole-rat speak to a high stability and effective functioning of the molecular machinery that counteract damage accumulation in its genome. This review analyzes existing results in the study of the molecular basis of longevity and high cancer resistance in naked mole-rats.

  8. Temperature - Live Hauling of Fish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In certain markets, live fish can be sold for substantially higher prices than fresh dressed fish. A significant live-haul industry has developed in the U.S. and...

  9. KLA - Live Hauling of Fish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In certain markets, live fish can be sold for substantially higher prices than fresh dressed fish. A significant live-haul industry has developed in the U.S. and...

  10. Tips for Living with Scleroderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patients Tips for Living Tips for Living with Scleroderma Ways to help manage your symptoms The Scleroderma ... help find improved therapies and a cure for scleroderma! Your gift today will be matched to have ...

  11. Living with Lupus (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Living With Lupus KidsHealth / For Parents / Living With Lupus What's in ... disease for both doctors and their patients. About Lupus A healthy immune system produces proteins called antibodies ...

  12. CERN's live webcasts

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2012-01-01

    You may well have noticed when watching the seminar on 4 July that the CERN webcast site has had a makeover.   The new-look site went live on 26 June and provides a detailed schedule of upcoming webcasts as well as easy access to those of recent events.  It is fully compatible with Smartphones and tablets - which wasn't the case until now – and enables viewers to see both the speaker and the presentation, thanks to two separate video recordings. Another innovation: permanent webcasts. In a single click, you can access and view all the channels run by the ATLAS collaboration, including Public Outreach channel, Technical channel and Public Development channel.   And if you want to add your own event to the schedule and broadcast it live via the web,  just go to this address. You can also restrict access to your webcasts to a pre-defined audience. Behind the scenes, the webcast service has also been busy modernising its infrastructure:...

  13. Exotic Long - Lived Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Jørgensen, Morten Dam

    A search for hadronising long-lived massive particles at the Large Hadron Collider is conducted with the ATLAS detector. No excess events are found. Based on statistical analysis, upper limits on the production cross section are observed to be between $0.01$ pb and $0.006$ pb for colour octet particles (gluinos) with masses ranging from $300 \\ \\mathrm{GeV/c}^2$ to $1400 \\ \\mathrm{GeV/c}^2$, and $0.01$ pb to $0.004$ pb for colour triplet particles (stops and sbottoms) with masses ranging from $200 \\ \\mathrm{GeV/c}^2$ to $900 \\ \\mathrm{GeV/c}^2$. In the context of Supersymmetry with decoupled sfermion and sboson sectors (Split-SUSY), this gives a lower limit on the gluino mass of $989 \\ \\mathrm{GeV/c}^2$, and $683 \\ \\mathrm{GeV/c}^2$ for the stop mass and $618 \\ \\mathrm{GeV/c}^2$ for the sbottom mass. In addition, a new method is presented that improves the speed ($\\beta$) estimation for long-lived particles in the ATLAS tile calorimeter with a factor of $7$ improvement in resolution at low-$\\beta$ and ...

  14. Adaptation in Living Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Yuhai; Rappel, Wouter-Jan

    2018-03-01

    Adaptation refers to the biological phenomenon where living systems change their internal states in response to changes in their environments in order to maintain certain key functions critical for their survival and fitness. Adaptation is one of the most ubiquitous and arguably one of the most fundamental properties of living systems. It occurs throughout all biological scales, from adaptation of populations of species over evolutionary time to adaptation of a single cell to different environmental stresses during its life span. In this article, we review some of the recent progress made in understanding molecular mechanisms of cellular-level adaptation. We take the minimalist (or the physicist) approach and study the simplest systems that exhibit generic adaptive behaviors, namely chemotaxis in bacterium cells (Escherichia coli) and eukaryotic cells (Dictyostelium). We focus on understanding the basic biochemical interaction networks that are responsible for adaptation dynamics. By combining theoretical modeling with quantitative experimentation, we demonstrate universal features in adaptation as well as important differences in different cellular systems. Future work in extending the modeling framework to study adaptation in more complex systems such as sensory neurons is also discussed.

  15. Enhanced reality live role playing

    OpenAIRE

    Söderberg, Jonas; Waern, Annika; Åkesson, Karl-Petter; Björk, Staffan; Falk, Jennica

    2004-01-01

    Live role-playing is a form of improvisational theatre played for the experience of the performers and without an audience. These games form a challenging application domain for ubiquitous technology. We discuss the design options for enhanced reality live role-playing and the role of technology in live role-playing games.

  16. MEART: the semi-living artist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas J Bakkum

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Here, we and others describe an unusual neurorobotic project, a merging of art and science called MEART, the semi-living artist.We built a pneumatically actuated robotic arm to create drawings, as controlled by a living network of neurons from rat cortex grown on a multielectrode array (MEA. Such embodied cultured networks formed a real-time closed-loop system which could now behave and receive electrical stimulation as feedback on its behavior.We used MEART and simulated embodiments, or animats, to study the network mechanisms that produce adaptive, goal-directed behavior. This approach to neural interfacing will help instruct the design of other hybrid neuralrobotic systems we call hybrots. The interfacing technologies and algorithms developed have potential applications in responsive deep brain stimulation systems and for motor prosthetics using sensory components. In a broader context, MEART educates the public about neuroscience, neural interfaces, and robotics. It has paved the way for critical discussions on the future of bio-art and of biotechnology.

  17. Rat Genome Database (RGD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Rat Genome Database (RGD) is a collaborative effort between leading research institutions involved in rat genetic and genomic research to collect, consolidate,...

  18. Living with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasic, Kim

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide an insider's account of what it is like to live with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), a genetic cardiovascular illness that carries the risk for sudden cardiac death. This study aims to reveal how HCM impacts the family and guides the decision whether or not to pursue genetic testing, how the physical limitations associated with HCM alter being-in-the-world, and how HCM alters social relationships. Fifteen adults with HCM were recruited for a longitudinal, phenomenological, qualitative study through purposive sampling and word of mouth. A total of 45 interviews were conducted by the researcher at a time and place designated by the participant between August 2011 and January 2012. The first interview with each participant was conducted in person. While efforts were made to conduct all interviews in person, a total of three interviews were conducted by telephone as requested by three participants due to scheduling conflicts. Through methods of interpretive phenomenology, three audio-recorded, semistructured interviews occurred over the course of 3 months. Detailed narratives were solicited and transcribed verbatim. Methodological and analytical documentation was supported with the identification of key phrases, similar experiences, themes, and documentation of the rationale for decisions throughout the research process. Participation in genetic testing carries a multitude of personal, familial, financial, and emotional implications. The results of a genetic test elicited an emotional response regardless of whether the results were negative, positive, or inconclusive. Living with a potentially life-threatening illness altered identity, disrupted social relationships, and generated chronic fear and uncertainty. A new normal was re-ordered or transformed by the demands and limitations posed by HCM, and by the person's concerns, priorities, and the meaning of the illness. Results from this study underscore the need for healthcare

  19. New Homes, New Lives?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolling, Marie

    2016-01-01

    This PhD thesis by Marie Kolling is an ethnography of forced resettlement in the urban periphery of Salvador, Northeast Brazil, and the new lives the families tried to make for themselves in its aftermath in new state-built social housing. The resettlement was part of state-led slum upgrading...... interventions under the urban development project Better Days (Dias Melhores), a name that alludes to the optimism it evoked. As a woman expressed before she was resettled: “a new house, a new life”. The thesis portrays contemporary Brazil and its massive transformations since the beginning of the new...... an analytical framework of four modes of doing housing. It is argued that for the former slum dwellers, doing housing was about doing away with the life in the slum and the stigma pertaining to being a slum dweller. This stigma persisted in the new neighbourhood even though they had moved away from the slum...

  20. Living hours under pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna; Larsen, Trine Pernille; Felbo-Kolding, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of part-time work on absolute wages. The empirical focus is wages and working hours in three selected sectors within private services in the Danish labour market – industrial cleaning, retail, hotels and restaurants – and their agreem......Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of part-time work on absolute wages. The empirical focus is wages and working hours in three selected sectors within private services in the Danish labour market – industrial cleaning, retail, hotels and restaurants...... in industrial cleaning includes a minimum floor of 15 weekly working hours – this is not the case in retail, hotels and restaurants. This creates a loophole in the latter two sectors that can be exploited by employers to gain wage flexibility through part-time work. Originality/value The living wage literature...

  1. Can lean save lives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillingham, David

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show how over the last 18 months Bolton Hospitals NHS Trust have been exploring whether or not lean methodologies, often known as the Toyota Production System, can indeed be applied to healthcare. This paper is a viewpoint. One's early experience is that lean really can save lives. The Toyota Production System is an amazingly successful way of manufacturing cars. It cannot be simply translated unthinkingly into a hospital but lessons can be learned from it and the method can be adapted and developed so that it becomes owned by healthcare staff and focused towards the goal of improved patient care. Working in healthcare is a stressful and difficult thing. Everyone needs a touch of inspiration and encouragement. Applying lean to healthcare in Bolton seems to be achieving just that for those who work there.

  2. Chernobyl's living legacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mettler, F.

    2006-01-01

    Twenty years later, the April 1986 Chernobyl accident lives on in different ways: in fact and fiction. Today, national and international experts from eight United Nations agencies including the IAEA are working to sift fact from fiction. They are teamed with Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine to evaluate, document and report the accident's true scale. Known as the Chernobyl Forum, the group issued its comprehensive report in September 2005. It covers health and environmental consequences, and includes recommendations to channel assistance to where it is most needed. Dr. Fred Mettler is a member of the Forum, and a Chernobyl veteran researcher who served as the health team leader in an IAEA-led international project that first presented on-site assessments of Chernobyl's effects in the early 1990s, and participated in the International Chernobyl Conference in 1996 that summed up what was scientifically known then. In this essay, he revisits Chernobyl's health picture from personal and professional perspectives

  3. Living on the edge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichsen, D

    1989-01-01

    A brief update on the destruction of the environment is given. The concern is for the coastal waters and rivers which are polluted daily by raw sewage, industrial waste, and sedimentation, e.g., the Juru in Malaysia, the Pasig in the Philippines, and the Chao Phraya in Thailand are open sewers by the time the rivers reach the sea or bay. Metropolitan Manila's river is said to be biologically dead from pollution, and the bays of Manila and Jakarta suffer from oxygen depletion. Unfortunately, the coastal area maintains population as well as the wealth of marine life. In the US in 1990, 75% of the population will live within 50 miles of a shore including the Great Lakes. 30 southeast Asia's 50 largest cities are located on or near a coast. Over fishing, over population, over developing, and over exploitation are unacceptable; the alternative is for man to correct his mistakes.

  4. He Lived among us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrovsky, V. L.

    2013-06-01

    I initially got acquainted with Anatoly Larkin at the first Odessa theoretical school, probably in 1959. Amid the brilliant company gathered in Odessa (Abrikosov, Khalatnikov, Gorkov, Keldysh, Perel, Pitaevsky), he astonished me at the time with his fundamentality, the soundness of his judgment and the ease of his receptiveness to new ideas. Later in Novosibirsk, where I lived then, Roald Sagdeev told me A. B. Migdal, Tolya's research supervisor for graduate work, had invited Tolya to move with him to Novosibirsk, to the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, with the promise of a fast-track academic career. Tolya refused, and then A.B., who held Tolya's opinion and collaboration in high regard, also decided to stay in Moscow...

  5. Living with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Kirsten Tarri

    2004-01-01

    Living with psoriasis is a considerable burden and quality of life in patients is deeply affected, yet compliance with therapy is a major problem. The literature is abundant in quantitative studies stating the incidence of decrease in quality of life and related, measurable terms, and in efforts...... directed at the improvement of therapies. However, it is sparse concerning the experiences of patients. This study aims to promote an understanding of the daily life of patients with psoriasis with particular regard to how they manage the disease, ultimately to improve nursing care to these patients....... A qualitative, collective case study design was applied. The participants were 4 adult patients with a long and complicated psoriasis history. They were interviewed in depth focusing on their experiences related to psoriasis and its treatment. The patients suffered physically from itch and pain. However...

  6. Living with a disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Louise Norman; Michelsen, Susan Ishøy; Tjørnhøj-thomsen, Tine

    2018-01-01

    highlighted as affecting quality of life. The use of social tactics to avoid confrontation with certain aspects of their disability was common among participants. Conclusions: Across disabilities, caregiving, dependency, understanding and acceptance, and discrimination and prejudice were all important aspects......Purpose: We explored which shared aspects of social relations were considered important to the quality of life of persons between the ages of 10 and 40 years living with a disability. We examined how social relations were experienced as affecting quality of life and social participation. Materials...... and methods: Fifteen focus groups involving 48 persons with disabilities were conducted using photo elicitation, preference ranking and props. Focus group interviews were supplemented with seven individual interviews with individuals unable to participate in focus groups. All focus group interviews...

  7. Health and urban living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Christopher

    2008-02-08

    The majority of people now live in urban areas and will do so for the foreseeable future. As a force in the demographic and health transition, urbanization is associated with falling birth and death rates and with the shift in burden of illness from acute childhood infections to chronic, noncommunicable diseases of adults. Urban inhabitants enjoy better health on average than their rural counterparts, but the benefits are usually greater for the rich than for the poor, thus magnifying the differences between them. Subject to better evidence, I suggest that the main obstacles to improving urban health are not technical or even financial, but rather are related to governance and the organization of civil society.

  8. Living with radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tymen, G.

    1999-01-01

    This editorial article discusses the various forms of radiation that we live with. In particular, the general public's lack of knowledge on the subject is mentioned and the concentration of the media on radiation accidents and emissions is looked at critically. The various forms of radiation - ionising and non-ionising - are briefly discussed. Natural ionising radiation sources and in particular radon are described and the increasing proportion of doses attributed to cosmic radiation met in high-flying aircraft and radiation doses resulting from medical examination and treatment are discussed. Non-ionising radiation such as electromagnetic fields generated by power lines, mobile telephones and kitchen equipment and their implications on health are also looked at

  9. Experiencing Liveness in Contemporary Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    bring qualities of (a)liveness into being through the nature of their attention - and how it becomes materialized in acts of performance, acts of making, acts of archiving, and acts of remembering. Theoretical chapters and practice-based reflections explore liveness, eventness and nowness as key......This volume brings together dynamic perspectives on the concept of liveness in the performing arts, engaging with the live through the particular analytical focus of audiences and experience. The status and significance of the live in performance has become contested: perceived as variously...... of making. Drawing together contributions from theatre, music, dance, and performance art, it takes an interdisciplinary approach in asking not what liveness is, but how it matters and to whom. The book invites readers to consider how liveness is produced through processes of audiencing - as spectators...

  10. Automated registration of tail bleeding in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Peter B; Henriksen, Lars; Andresen, Per R; Lauritzen, Brian; Jensen, Kåre L; Juhl, Trine N; Tranholm, Mikael

    2008-05-01

    An automated system for registration of tail bleeding in rats using a camera and a user-designed PC-based software program has been developed. The live and processed images are displayed on the screen and are exported together with a text file for later statistical processing of the data allowing calculation of e.g. number of bleeding episodes, bleeding times and bleeding areas. Proof-of-principle was achieved when the camera captured the blood stream after infusion of rat whole blood into saline. Suitability was assessed by recording of bleeding profiles in heparin-treated rats, demonstrating that the system was able to capture on/off bleedings and that the data transfer and analysis were conducted successfully. Then, bleeding profiles were visually recorded by two independent observers simultaneously with the automated recordings after tail transection in untreated rats. Linear relationships were found in the number of bleedings, demonstrating, however, a statistically significant difference in the recording of bleeding episodes between observers. Also, the bleeding time was longer for visual compared to automated recording. No correlation was found between blood loss and bleeding time in untreated rats, but in heparinized rats a correlation was suggested. Finally, the blood loss correlated with the automated recording of bleeding area. In conclusion, the automated system has proven suitable for replacing visual recordings of tail bleedings in rats. Inter-observer differences can be eliminated, monotonous repetitive work avoided, and a higher through-put of animals in less time achieved. The automated system will lead to an increased understanding of the nature of bleeding following tail transection in different rodent models.

  11. Live videotransmitteret undervisning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikke Ørngreen

    2013-11-01

    På Bioanalytikeruddannelsen i Aarhus, VIAs sundhedsfaglige højskole, har man i en længere periode haft et kombi-hold, hvor man kombinerer traditionel og live transmitteret undervisning (via et innovativt valg af videokonferencesystem. På de såkaldte netdage er der mulighed for enten at møde op til undervisningen, som man plejer, eller at deltage i undervisningen hjemmefra. Artiklen præsenterer et deltagende aktionsforskningsprojekt mellem projektteamet på udannelsen og forskere fra Aalborg Universitet. Målet var at: afdække potentialer og barrierer ud fra et it-støttet læringsperspektiv; udvikle robuste didaktiske undervisningsscenarier; samt kvalificere underviserne og hermed forankringen af projektet. Forskningsdata blev indsamlet gennem videooptagelser, ”dagens spørgsmål” til de studerende, fokusgruppeinterview med lærerne, og Pædagogisk Dag-workshop. Analysen sætter fokus på erfaringerne under anvendelse af professionshøjskolernes Rektorkollegiums Studieaktivitetsmodel. Slutteligt samles der i artiklen op på de teknologsike, sociale og didaktiske-pædagogiske relationer set i lyset af projektets mål og resultater. Abstract in English At the education for Biomedical Laboratory Scientist at Aarhus, VIA's healthcare college, they have a combi-class, combining traditional and live broadcast teaching (via an innovative choice of video conferencing system. In the so-called net-days, there is the option to either attend the classes as usual, or to attend classes from home. This paper presents a participatory action research project between the project team at VIA and researchers from Aalborg University. The objectives were to: identify potentials and barriers from an IT-supported learning perspective; develop robust didactic teaching scenarios; qualify teachers, and secure the anchoring of the project. Research data were collected through video recordings, "questions of the day" to the students, focus group interviews with teachers and

  12. Social status and sex effects on neural morphology in Damaraland mole-rats, Fukomys damarensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyan, Jeff J; Seney, Marianne L; Holley, Amanda; Bengston, Lynn; Goldman, Bruce D; Forger, Nancy G; Holmes, Melissa M

    2011-01-01

    We previously reported that in a eusocial rodent, the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber), traditional neural sex differences were absent; instead, neural dimorphisms were associated with breeding status. Here we examined the same neural regions previously studied in naked mole-rats in a second eusocial species, the Damaraland mole-rat (Fukomys damarensis). Damaraland mole-rats live in social groups with breeding restricted to a small number of animals. However, colony sizes are much smaller in Damaraland mole-rats than in naked mole-rats and there is consequently less reproductive skew. In this sense, Damaraland mole-rats may be considered intermediate in social organization between naked mole-rats and more traditional laboratory rodents. We report that, as in naked mole-rats, breeding Damaraland mole-rats have larger volumes of the principal nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus than do subordinates, with no effect of sex on these measures. Thus, these structures may play special roles in breeders of eusocial species. However, in contrast to what was seen in naked mole-rats, we also found sex differences in Damaraland mole-rats: volume of the medial amygdala and motoneuron number in Onuf's nucleus were both greater in males than in females, with no significant effect of breeding status. Thus, both sex and breeding status influence neural morphology in Damaraland mole-rats. These findings are in accord with the observed sex differences in body weight and genitalia in Damaraland but not naked mole-rats. We hypothesize that the increased sexual dimorphism in Damaraland mole-rats relative to naked mole-rats is related to reduced reproductive skew. 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Creating living machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamm, Roger D.; Bashir, Rashid

    2015-01-01

    Development of increasingly complex integrated cellular systems will be a major challenge for the next decade and beyond, as we apply the knowledge gained from the sub-disciplines of tissue engineering, synthetic biology, micro-fabrication and nanotechnology, systems biology, and developmental biology. In this prospective, we describe the current state-of-the-art in the context of differentiating source cells from more primitive, pluripotent cells, and organizing these cells into populations of a single cell type to produce the components or building blocks of higher order systems and finally, combining multiple cell types, possibly in combination with scaffolds possessing specific physical or chemical properties, to produce greater functionality. As these “living machines” increase in capabilities, exhibit emergent behavior and potentially reveal the ability for self-assembly, self-repair, and even self-replication, questions arise regarding the ethical implications of this work. Future prospects as well as ways of addressing these complex ethical questions will be addressed. PMID:24006130

  14. Energy - quality of living

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutsch, K.

    1981-01-01

    In order to develop the new potentials in life - short working hours, ample leisure time, high quantity of production - logically a tremendous multiplication of labour productivity is necessary. It was the 'industrial revolution' which created our present world by blending the powers of the mind with the powers of nature. Without the current means of energy release our mode of life is unthinkable. The Conservation Commission of the World Energy Conference comes to the conclusion that under the premisses of a doupling of the world population by the year 2020 the demand for primary energy will increase 3.6 fold to 34 billion SKE (units of mineral coal). The outlook on world energy supply shows that even providing for all means of energy saving and application of alternative sources of energy the energy demand can not be satisfied without nuclear power. Without sufficient supply of energy securing a living of a certain quality for the increasing world population is not possible. Every progress, however, has its dangers. There is no technology without risk. (orig.) [de

  15. Percepção dos pais sobre a vivência no método mãe-canguru La percepción de los padres en la vivencia del método madre-canguro Perception of parents in experiencing the kangaroo mother method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Elisângela Fernandes Bis Furlan

    2003-08-01

    institucional del equipo de salud como de la relación con la clientela, posibilitando la comprensión de las dificultades y significados atribuidos a la vivencia y a la optimización del cuidado de enfermería.This study aimed at analyzing the perception of pre-term babies' parents in experiencing the Kangaroo Mother Method. It is a descriptive study with a qualitative approach. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews with 10 parents, held in the first 60 days after the discharge of the pre-term baby from the Kangaroo method, in a philanthropic hospital in the interior of São Paulo State. The parents' perception concerning the experience was grouped in four thematic units: making maternal stay in the Kangaroo Method flexible; favoring the mother-child and family relationship; completing the pre-term newborn's growth and development and developing skills in caring for the child. The obtained data provided information for the organization of care in the Kangaroo Mother Method, from the institutional perspective of the health care team as well as the relationship with clients, which enabled understanding about the difficulties and meanings attributed to the experience and optimization of nursing care.

  16. Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection in normal and athymic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, H K; Espersen, F; Pedersen, S S

    1993-01-01

    We have compared a chronic lung infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa embedded in alginate beads in normal and athymic rats with an acute infection with free live P. aeruginosa bacteria. The following parameters were observed and described: mortality, macroscopic and microscopic pathologic changes...

  17. Municipal landfill leachates induced chromosome aberrations in rat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical and heavy metal analysis of the test samples showed that they contained high concentrations of toxic anions and cations that are capable of inducing mutation in living cells. The interaction of these constituents with the genetic material in the bone marrow cells of rat caused the observed chromosome ...

  18. Genome sequencing reveals insights into physiology and longevity of the naked mole rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Eun Bae; Fang, Xiaodong; Fushan, Alexey A

    2011-01-01

    The naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a strictly subterranean, extraordinarily long-lived eusocial mammal. Although it is the size of a mouse, its maximum lifespan exceeds 30 years, making this animal the longest-living rodent. Naked mole rats show negligible senescence, no age......-related increase in mortality, and high fecundity until death. In addition to delayed ageing, they are resistant to both spontaneous cancer and experimentally induced tumorigenesis. Naked mole rats pose a challenge to the theories that link ageing, cancer and redox homeostasis. Although characterized...... by significant oxidative stress, the naked mole rat proteome does not show age-related susceptibility to oxidative damage or increased ubiquitination. Naked mole rats naturally reside in large colonies with a single breeding female, the 'queen', who suppresses the sexual maturity of her subordinates. They also...

  19. Liveness Redux: On Media and Their Claim to be Live

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Es, K.F.

    2017-01-01

    Increasingly media are asserting themselves as live. In television, this has been an important strategy and recently it has been employed by new media platforms such as Facebook, Periscope and Snapchat. This commentary explains the revival of live media by exploring the meaning and operations of the

  20. The living publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terwilliger, Thomas C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-04

    Within the ICSTI Insights Series we offer three articles on the 'living publication' that is already available to practitioners in the important field of crystal structure determination and analysis. While the specific examples are drawn from this particular field, we invite readers to draw parallels in their own fields of interest. The first article describes the present state of the crystallographic living publication, already recognized by an ALPSP (Association of Learned and Professional Society Publishers) Award for Publishing Innovation in 2006. The second article describes the potential impact on the record of science as greater post-publication analysis becomes more common within currently accepted data deposition practices, using processed diffraction data as the starting point. The third article outlines a vision for the further improvement of crystallographic structure reports within potentially achievable enhanced data deposition practices, based upon raw (unprocessed) diffraction data. The IUCr in its Commissions and Journals has for many years emphasized the importance of publications being accompanied by data and the interpretation of the data in terms of atomic models. This has been followed as policy by numerous other journals in the field and its cognate disciplines. This practice has been well served by databases and archiving institutions such as the Protein Data Bank (PDB), the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC), and the Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD). Normally the models that are archived are interpretations of the data, consisting of atomic coordinates with their displacement parameters, along with processed diffraction data from X-ray, neutron or electron diffraction studies. In our current online age, a reader can not only consult the printed word, but can display and explore the results with molecular graphics software of exceptional quality. Furthermore, the routine availability of processed diffraction

  1. The living publication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terwilliger, Thomas C.

    2012-01-01

    Within the ICSTI Insights Series we offer three articles on the 'living publication' that is already available to practitioners in the important field of crystal structure determination and analysis. While the specific examples are drawn from this particular field, we invite readers to draw parallels in their own fields of interest. The first article describes the present state of the crystallographic living publication, already recognized by an ALPSP (Association of Learned and Professional Society Publishers) Award for Publishing Innovation in 2006. The second article describes the potential impact on the record of science as greater post-publication analysis becomes more common within currently accepted data deposition practices, using processed diffraction data as the starting point. The third article outlines a vision for the further improvement of crystallographic structure reports within potentially achievable enhanced data deposition practices, based upon raw (unprocessed) diffraction data. The IUCr in its Commissions and Journals has for many years emphasized the importance of publications being accompanied by data and the interpretation of the data in terms of atomic models. This has been followed as policy by numerous other journals in the field and its cognate disciplines. This practice has been well served by databases and archiving institutions such as the Protein Data Bank (PDB), the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC), and the Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD). Normally the models that are archived are interpretations of the data, consisting of atomic coordinates with their displacement parameters, along with processed diffraction data from X-ray, neutron or electron diffraction studies. In our current online age, a reader can not only consult the printed word, but can display and explore the results with molecular graphics software of exceptional quality. Furthermore, the routine availability of processed diffraction data allows

  2. Liveness redux: on media and their claim to be live.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Es, Karin

    2017-11-01

    Increasingly media are asserting themselves as live. In television, this has been an important strategy and recently it has been employed by new media platforms such as Facebook, Periscope and Snapchat. This commentary explains the revival of live media by exploring the meaning and operations of the concept and argues the continued relevance of the concept for the study of social media. Traditionally, there have been three main approaches to the live in academic writing (i.e. liveness as ontology, as phenomenology and as rhetoric): each has its particular shortcoming. This paper proposes that it is more productive to understand the live as a construction that assists to secure media a central role in everyday life.

  3. The Presence Of Rat And House Sanitation Associated With Leptospira sp. Bacterial Infection In Rats (A Cross Sectional Study In Semarang, Central Java Province, Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiyani, Endang; Martini, Martini; Saraswati, Lintang Dian

    2018-02-01

    The Gajah Mungkur sub-district in Semarang, Indonesia had highest leptospirosis cases (reported in human with seven infected and one dead) in 2015. The purpose of this study was to analyze the association between house sanitation and density of rats with Leptospira sp. infection in rats. The study design was cross sectional observational analytic. The number of 308 trapswere placed in study sites over three consecutive nights afterwards. Every houses were placed with four traps, inside and outside. Trapped rats were anesthetized with atropine dose from 0.02 to 0.05 mg/kg body weight of rats continued with Ketamine HCL dose of 50-100 mg/kg body weight of rats by injecting in the thick thigh muscle of it. After that, identification of rats by species and gender then continues with surgery in which a kidney sample was taken to confirm the presence of bacteria Leptospirasp using PCR techniques. The trap installed in 77 houses which later had further observation on house sanitation which includes the existence of a pile of used goods, food storage, garbage can, and the presence of the ceiling, windows and other ventilation.Data was analyzed using distribution frequency and bivariate chi-square test. We had 100 rats captured with live traps as the samples.The proportion of Rattusnorvegicuswas 27% (14.8% positive Leptospira sp.infection) and Rattustanezumi 73% (11%positive Leptospira sp.infection). The proportion of male and female rats were almost equal. The statistic test result was significant between the density of rats (p = 0.0001, OR 12.833, 95%CI: 1.565-105.261) and sex of rats (p = 0.019, OR 0.095, 95%CI: 0.012-0.769) with Leptospira sp. infection in rats. The number of rats may increase the infection of Leptospirasp., especially female rats and poor condition of house sanitation. It is recommended to improve house sanitation and regularly trapping rats.

  4. Introduction: Teaching Black Lives Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Austin; Erica Cardwell; Christopher Kennedy; Robyn Spencer

    2016-01-01

    An introduction to Radical Teacher, Issue 106: Teaching Black Lives Matter. This issue brings together a diverse collection of articles exploring educator’s responses, strategies, and stories on how #BlackLivesMatter has informed their teaching practice, the content of their courses, and their personal relationship to colleagues, family, friends, and self.

  5. Introduction: Teaching Black Lives Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Austin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An introduction to Radical Teacher, Issue 106: Teaching Black Lives Matter. This issue brings together a diverse collection of articles exploring educator’s responses, strategies, and stories on how #BlackLivesMatter has informed their teaching practice, the content of their courses, and their personal relationship to colleagues, family, friends, and self.

  6. Community Living Skills Guide: Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol, Sheila; Kreps, Alice Roelofs

    One of twenty course guides in the Community Living Skills Guide for the College for Living series, this document provides guidelines and workbook activities for the course, Art. The series of courses for developmentally disabled adults is intended to supplement residential programs and to aid in orienting institutionalized persons to eventual…

  7. Evaluación auditiva neurosensorial en un grupo de prematuros del programa madre conguro Sensorineural auditory evaluation in a group of preterm neonates from the "Kangaroo mother" program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Hernández

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre agosto de 1989 y diciembre de 1991 se buscó asociación entre algunos factores de riesgo comunes a los prematuros con peso menor de 1.500 g al nacer y el hecho de presentar disminución de la agudeza auditiva, medida con los potenciales evocados del tallo cerebral a los 4 meses y luego entre los 8 y los 14 meses. Los factores de riesgo tenidos en cuenta en 133 prematuros del ";Programa madre canguro"; del Instituto de los Seguros Sociales, en Medellín, fueron: Peso inferior a 1.500 g, hiperbilirrubinemia superior a 10 mg/ml, sufrimiento fetal, membranas hialinas, uso de aminoglicósidos, hipoglucemia, hemorragia del tercer trimestre e hipertensión arterial materna. Se halló pérdida de la agudeza auditiva en la evaluación inicial en 54 nifíos (40.6% mientras en la final sólo la presentaban 10 (7.5%; no pudo detectarse asociación entre los factores de riesgo y la disminución de la agudeza auditiva en la evaluación inicial ni en la final. La mejoría de resultados de agudeza auditiva entre las pruebas iniciales y las finales puede explicarse, entre otras razones, por la maduración cerebral del prematuro. Se debe investigar más la razón de los déficits finales y, ojalá, establecer programas de seguimiento con pruebas auditivas en este grupo de niños en riesgo. A study was carried out to investigate the association between risk factors commonly found in preterm neonates with very low birth-weight (Iess than 1.500 g and decreased auditory acuteness; the latter was measured according to brain stem evoked potentiaJs (BERA test In 133 preterm neonates belonging to the "Kangaroo mother program", in 'Medellín,Colombla. The following risk factors we~ evaluated: Hyperbilirrubinemia, hyaline membrane, birth weight lower than 1.500g, fetal distress, hypoglycemia, use of aminoglycosldes, thlrd trimester hemorrhage, and maternal high blood presssure. Abnormal results in BERA test were found in 54 cases (40.6% at 4 months and in only 10 (7

  8. Solo Living - the meaning of home for persons living alone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Toke Haunstrup

    observed. Firstly, solo livers emphasize independence from others as important. Several of the informants have had negative experiences with living together with a partner, and they like the feeling of being independent. At the same time, most informants also keep a door open for the possibility of moving...... together with "the right one", which indicates that ambiguity is related to the situation of solo living. Secondly, some of the solo livers spend more time outside home (occupied by leisure activities or together with friends) compared to people living in family households in general, which suggests...... a different balance between time at home and outside home for some solo livers....

  9. Immunology taught by rats

    OpenAIRE

    Klenerman, P; Barnes, EJ

    2017-01-01

    Immunology may be best taught by viruses, and possibly by humans, but the rats of New York City surprisingly also have plenty to offer. A survey published in 2014 of the pathogens carried by rats trapped in houses and parks in Manhattan identified a huge burden of infectious agents in these animals, including several novel viruses. Among these are Norway rat hepaciviruses (NrHVs), which belong to the same family as hepatitis C virus (HCV). NrHVs were found in rat livers, raising the possibili...

  10. Living labs design and assessment of sustainable living

    CERN Document Server

    Guerra-Santin, Olivia; Lockton, Dan

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the results of a multi-annual project with sustainable Living Labs in the United Kingdom, Sweden, Germany and the Netherlands. Living Labs – as initiated by the authors – have proved to be very promising research, design, co-creation and communication facilities for the development and implementation of sustainable innovations in the home. The book provides an inspiring introduction to both the methodology and business modelling for the Living Lab facilities. Understanding daily living at home is key to designing products and services that support households in their transition to more sustainable lifestyles. This book not only explores new ways of gaining insights into daily practices, but also discusses developing and testing design methods to create sustainable solutions for households. These new methods and tools are needed because those available are either ineffective or cause rebound-effects. Intended for researchers and designers with an interest in the transition to sustainable...

  11. LiveCode mobile development

    CERN Document Server

    Lavieri, Edward D

    2013-01-01

    A practical guide written in a tutorial-style, ""LiveCode Mobile Development Hotshot"" walks you step-by-step through 10 individual projects. Every project is divided into sub tasks to make learning more organized and easy to follow along with explanations, diagrams, screenshots, and downloadable material.This book is great for anyone who wants to develop mobile applications using LiveCode. You should be familiar with LiveCode and have access to a smartphone. You are not expected to know how to create graphics or audio clips.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of vinyl chloride in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolt, H.M.; Laib, R.J.; Kappus, H.; Buchter, A.

    1977-01-01

    When rats are exposed to [ 14 C]vinyl chloride in a closed system, the vinyl chloride present in the atmosphere equilibrates with the animals' organism within 15 min. The course of equilibration could be determined using rats which had been given 6-nitro-1,2,3-benzothiadiazole. This compound completely blocks metabolism of vinyl chloride. The enzymes responsible for metabolism of vinyl chloride are saturated at an atmospheric concentration of vinyl chloride of 250 ppm. Pharmacokinetic analysis shows that no significant cumulation of vinyl chloride or its major metabolites is to be expected on repeated administration of vinyl chlorides. This may be consistent with the theory that a reactive, shortly living metabolite which occurs in low concentration only, may be responsible for the toxic effects of vinyl chloride

  13. High Autophagy in the Naked Mole Rat may Play a Significant Role in Maintaining Good Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmin Zhao

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The maximum lifespan of the naked mole rat is over 28.3 years, which exceeds that of any other rodent species, suggesting that age-related changes in its body composition and functionality are either attenuated or delayed in this extraordinarily long-lived species. However, the mechanisms underlying the aging process in this species are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated whether long-lived naked mole rats display more autophagic activity than short-lived mice. Methods: Hepatic stellate cells isolated from naked mole rats were treated with 50 nM rapamycin or 20 mM 3-methyladenine (3-MA for 12 or 24 h. Expression of the autophagy marker proteins LC3-II and beclin 1 was measured with western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The induction of apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. Results: Our results demonstrate that one-day-old naked mole rats have higher levels of autophagy than one-day-old short-lived C57BL/6 mice, and that both adult naked mole rats (eight months old and adult C57BL/6 mice (eight weeks old have high basal levels of autophagy, which may be an important mechanism inhibiting aging and reducing the risk of age-related diseases. Conclusion: Here, we report that autophagy facilitated the survival of hepatic stellate cells from the naked mole rat, and that treatment with 3-MA or rapamycin increased the ratio of apoptotic cells to normal hepatic stellate cells.

  14. The naked mole-rat response to oxidative stress: just deal with it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kaitlyn N; Andziak, Blazej; Yang, Ting; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2013-10-20

    The oxidative stress theory of aging has been the most widely accepted theory of aging providing insights into why we age and die for over 50 years, despite mounting evidence from a multitude of species indicating that there is no direct relationship between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and longevity. Here we explore how different species, including the longest lived rodent, the naked mole-rat, have defied the most predominant aging theory. In the case of extremely long-lived naked mole-rat, levels of ROS production are found to be similar to mice, antioxidant defenses unexceptional, and even under constitutive conditions, naked mole-rats combine a pro-oxidant intracellular milieu with high, steady state levels of oxidative damage. Clearly, naked mole-rats can tolerate this level of oxidative stress and must have mechanisms in place to prevent its translation into potentially lethal diseases. In addition to the naked mole-rat, other species from across the phylogenetic spectrum and even certain mouse strains do not support this theory. Moreover, overexpressing or knocking down antioxidant levels alters levels of oxidative damage and even cancer incidence, but does not modulate lifespan. Perhaps, it is not oxidative stress that modulates healthspan and longevity, but other cytoprotective mechanisms that allow animals to deal with high levels of oxidative damage and stress, and nevertheless live long, relatively healthy lifespans. Studying these mechanisms in uniquely long-lived species, like the naked mole-rat, may help us tease out the key contributors to aging and longevity.

  15. Microangiography in Living Mice Using Synchrotron Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Falei; Wang Yongting; Xie Bohua; Tang Yaohui; Guan Yongjing; Lu Haiyan; Yang Guoyuan; Xie Honglan; Du Guohao; Xiao Tiqiao

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally, there are no methods available to detect the fine morphologic changes of cerebrovasculature in small living animals such as rats and mice. Newly developed synchrotron radiation microangiography can achieve a fine resolution of several micrometers and had provided us with a powerful tool to study the cerebral vasculature in small animals. The purpose of this study is to identify the morphology of cerebrovasculature especially the structure of Lenticulostriate arteries (LSAs) in living mice using the synchrotron radiation source at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) in Shanghai, China. Adult CD-1 mice weighing 35-40 grams were anesthetized. Nonionic iodine (Omnipaque, 350 mg I /mL) was used as a contrast agent. The study was performed at the BL13W1 beam line at SSRF. The beam line was derived from a storage ring of electrons with an accelerated energy of 3.5 GeV and an average beam current of 200 mA. X-ray energy of 33.3 keV was used to produce the highest contrast image. Images were acquired every 172 ms by a x-ray camera (Photonic-Science VHR 1.38) with a resolution of 13 μm/pixel. The optimal dose of contrast agent is 100 μl per injection and the injecting rate is 33 μl/sec. The best position for imaging is to have the mouse lay on its right or left side, with ventral side facing the X-ray source. We observed the lenticulostriate artery for the first time in living mice. Our result show that there are 4 to 5 lenticulostriate branches originating from the root of middle cerebral artery in each hemisphere. LSAs have an average diameter of 43±6.8 μm. There were no differences between LSAs from the left and right hemisphere (p<0.05). These results suggest that synchrotron radiation may provide a unique tool for experimental stroke research.

  16. Microangiography in Living Mice Using Synchrotron Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Falei; Wang, Yongting; Guan, Yongjing; Lu, Haiyan; Xie, Bohua; Tang, Yaohui; Xie, Honglan; Du, Guohao; Xiao, Tiqiao; Yang, Guo-Yuan

    2010-07-01

    Traditionally, there are no methods available to detect the fine morphologic changes of cerebrovasculature in small living animals such as rats and mice. Newly developed synchrotron radiation microangiography can achieve a fine resolution of several micrometers and had provided us with a powerful tool to study the cerebral vasculature in small animals. The purpose of this study is to identify the morphology of cerebrovasculature especially the structure of Lenticulostriate arteries (LSAs) in living mice using the synchrotron radiation source at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) in Shanghai, China. Adult CD-1 mice weighing 35-40 grams were anesthetized. Nonionic iodine (Omnipaque, 350 mg I /mL) was used as a contrast agent. The study was performed at the BL13W1 beam line at SSRF. The beam line was derived from a storage ring of electrons with an accelerated energy of 3.5 GeV and an average beam current of 200 mA. X-ray energy of 33.3 keV was used to produce the highest contrast image. Images were acquired every 172 ms by a x-ray camera (Photonic-Science VHR 1.38) with a resolution of 13 μm/pixel. The optimal dose of contrast agent is 100 μl per injection and the injecting rate is 33 μl/sec. The best position for imaging is to have the mouse lay on its right or left side, with ventral side facing the X-ray source. We observed the lenticulostriate artery for the first time in living mice. Our result show that there are 4 to 5 lenticulostriate branches originating from the root of middle cerebral artery in each hemisphere. LSAs have an average diameter of 43±6.8 μm. There were no differences between LSAs from the left and right hemisphere (p<0.05). These results suggest that synchrotron radiation may provide a unique tool for experimental stroke research.

  17. Living with HIV: Patients Perspective

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast showcases three people who are living with HIV. The patients share their experiences of being diagnosed with HIV, of the treatments they are undergoing, and on taking responsibility for their health.

  18. Radiation effects on living systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, N.J.

    1980-10-01

    This bibliography includes papers and reports by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited scientists concerning radiation effects on living systems. It is divided into three sections: Radiobiology, Radiation Biochemistry and Radiation Chemistry. (auth)

  19. Advanced Melanoma Facebook Live Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    In case you missed it, watch this recent Facebook Live event about the current state of research and treatment for advanced stage melanoma. To learn more, see our evidence-based information about skin cancer, including melanoma.

  20. Disability and Health: Healthy Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About CDC.gov . Disability & Health Home Disability Overview Disability Inclusion Barriers to Inclusion Inclusion Strategies Inclusion in Programs & Activities Resources Healthy Living Disability & Physical Activity Disability & Obesity Disability & Smoking Disability & Breast ...

  1. History: A Great Lives Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, F. Washington

    1973-01-01

    After examining the drawbacks of some of the currently popular teaching methods, the author proposes an approach to the teaching of high school history focusing on the matter of history -- the lives of men and ideas of the past. (SM)

  2. Living with a Single Parent

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kids in the United States live with one parent. Separation and divorce are the most common reasons for ... Who Are Moving Should Do What Is a Divorce? Getting Along With Parents Going to a Therapist View more About Us ...

  3. Walking and Sensing Mobile Lives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Mads; Meinhardt, Nina Dam

    In this position paper, we discuss how mindful walking with people allow us to explore sensory aspects of mobile lives that are typically absent from research. We present an app that aids researchers collect impressions from a walk.......In this position paper, we discuss how mindful walking with people allow us to explore sensory aspects of mobile lives that are typically absent from research. We present an app that aids researchers collect impressions from a walk....

  4. Living antennas on communication satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lumholt, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Crises change the global pattern of communication. The communications problems occur because the satellites are optimized to cover specific geographic areas, and these areas cannot be altered once the satellites are in Earth orbit. An effective solution to the problem is to equip communication sa...... satellites with "living" antennas that can adjust their radiation coverage areas according to the new demands. The development of living antennas is, therefore, among the focus areas identified and supported by the European Space Agency, ESA....

  5. RatMap—rat genome tools and data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Greta; Johnson, Per; Andersson, Lars; Klinga-Levan, Karin; Gómez-Fabre, Pedro M.; Ståhl, Fredrik

    2005-01-01

    The rat genome database RatMap (http://ratmap.org or http://ratmap.gen.gu.se) has been one of the main resources for rat genome information since 1994. The database is maintained by CMB–Genetics at Göteborg University in Sweden and provides information on rat genes, polymorphic rat DNA-markers and rat quantitative trait loci (QTLs), all curated at RatMap. The database is under the supervision of the Rat Gene and Nomenclature Committee (RGNC); thus much attention is paid to rat gene nomenclature. RatMap presents information on rat idiograms, karyotypes and provides a unified presentation of the rat genome sequence and integrated rat linkage maps. A set of tools is also available to facilitate the identification and characterization of rat QTLs, as well as the estimation of exon/intron number and sizes in individual rat genes. Furthermore, comparative gene maps of rat in regard to mouse and human are provided. PMID:15608244

  6. SWEEP Project RAT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Madsen, Søren; Petersen, L. B.

    This report presents the results from the design analyses made for the clustered suction caisson used as foundation for a Riser Access Tower (RAT). The RAT is intended built next to the K15-FA-1 Platform in the Dutch Sector of the North Sea....

  7. Colon of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstroem, C.G.; Rosengren, J.-E.; Fork, F.-T.

    1979-01-01

    The anatomy and radiologic appearance of the colon in rats are described on the basis of 300 animals treated with carcinogenic agents and 40 normal rats. The macroscopic and microscopic appearance of the mucosa varies in the different parts of the colon. Lymphoid plaques are normal structures. The results justify a new anatomic nomenclature. (Auth.)

  8. An Efficient Method for Generation of Transgenic Rats Avoiding Embryo Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhola Shankar Pradhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although rats are preferred over mice as an animal model, transgenic animals are generated predominantly using mouse embryos. There are limitations in the generation of transgenic rat by embryo manipulation. Unlike mouse embryos, most of the rat embryos do not survive after male pronuclear DNA injection which reduces the efficiency of generation of transgenic rat by this method. More importantly, this method requires hundreds of eggs collected by killing several females for insertion of transgene to generate transgenic rat. To this end, we developed a noninvasive and deathless technique for generation of transgenic rats by integrating transgene into the genome of the spermatogonial cells by testicular injection of DNA followed by electroporation. After standardization of this technique using EGFP as a transgene, a transgenic disease model displaying alpha thalassemia was successfully generated using rats. This efficient method will ease the generation of transgenic rats without killing the lives of rats while simultaneously reducing the number of rats used for generation of transgenic animal.

  9. [Passive euthanasia and living will].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julesz, Máté

    2014-07-06

    This article deals with the intentional distinction between murder of first degree and passive euthanasia. In Hungary, active euthanasia is considered to be a murder of first degree, whilst the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxemburg and Switzerland have legalized the active form of mercy killing in Europe. The palliative terminal care, when e.g. giving pain-killer morphine to the patient, might result in decreasing the patient's life-span, and thus causing indirect euthanasia. However, the legal institution of living will exists in several counter-euthanasia countries. The living will allows future patients to express their decision in advance to refuse a life-sustaining treatment, e.g. in case of irreversible coma. The institution of living will exists in Germany and in Hungary too. Nevertheless, the formal criteria of living will make it hardly applicable. The patient ought to express his/her will before a notary public in advance, and he/she should hand it over when being hospitalized. If the patient is not able to present his/her living will to his/her doctor in the hospital, then his/her only hope remains that he/she has given a copy of the living will to the family doctor previously, and the family doctor will notify the hospital.

  10. A comparative in vivo and in vitro L-band EPR study of irradiated rat incisors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zdravkova, M.; Gallez, B.; Debuyst, R.

    2005-01-01

    L-band (∼1GHz) EPR has the potential to measure the absorbed radiation dose in human teeth inside the mouth (in vivo analyses). One crucial point in the development of the method is to know if dosimetry evaluation carried out in vivo after accidental exposures can be reliably based on calibration curves built in vitro. The aim of the present work is to specifically address this point. First, we compared L-band in vitro and in vivo analyses in irradiated rat teeth and estimated the possible loss in in vivo experiments due to rat movements and mouth proximity. Second, the lower pair of rat incisors were analysed by L-band EPR before and after irradiation (50Gy), first on the living rat, then on the same dead rat, finally after extraction of the teeth. X-band powder spectra were also taken after crushing of the two teeth. Irradiations of dead rats and extracted teeth were also carried out. Comparing L-band spectra obtained with living rats and removed heads does not show any significant difference due to possible small rat movements or breathing. Relative standard deviations of the amplitudes of the dosimetric signal are quite high (27-54%). Nevertheless, it seems to be a tendency to have higher signals in irradiated extracted teeth than in irradiated animals

  11. Trading new neurons for status: Adult hippocampal neurogenesis in eusocial Damaraland mole-rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosthuizen, M K; Amrein, I

    2016-06-02

    Diversity in social structures, from solitary to eusocial, is a prominent feature of subterranean African mole-rat species. Damaraland mole-rats are eusocial, they live in colonies that are characterized by a reproductive division of labor and a subdivision into castes based on physiology and behavior. Damaraland mole-rats are exceptionally long lived and reproductive animals show delayed aging compared to non-reproductive animals. In the present study, we described the hippocampal architecture and the rate of hippocampal neurogenesis of wild-derived, adult Damaraland mole-rats in relation to sex, relative age and social status or caste. Overall, Damaraland mole-rats were found to have a small hippocampus and low rates of neurogenesis. We found no correlation between neurogenesis and sex or relative age. Social status or caste was the most prominent modulator of neurogenesis. An inverse relationship between neurogenesis and social status was apparent, with queens displaying the lowest neurogenesis while the worker mole-rats had the most. As there is no natural progression from one caste to another, social status within a colony was relatively stable and is reflected in the level of neurogenesis. Our results correspond to those found in the naked mole-rat, and may reflect an evolutionary and environmentally conserved trait within social mole-rat species. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Women's lived experiences of learning to live with osteoporosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carrinna A; Abrahamsen, Bo; Konradsen, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    qualitative interviews were conducted with fifteen recently diagnosed Danish women. A longitudinal design was chosen since this allows an investigation of the perspective over time. The interviews were conducted in the period of March 2011 to August 2012. Data were analyzed using a phenomenological......BACKGROUND: A vast amount of literature exists concerning pharmaceutical adherence in osteoporosis. However, the process of learning to live with osteoporosis over time remains largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the continued process of how women learn...... to live with osteoporosis. Our objective was to explore what characterizes women's experiences of living with osteoporosis during the first year after diagnosis, when patients are prescribed anti-osteoporotic treatment, without having experienced an osteoporotic fracture. METHODS: Forty-two narrative...

  13. The Living Challenges of Ambient Assisted Living - A Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygholm, Ann; Kanstrup, Anne Marie

    2015-01-01

    Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) is a rapidly evolving research and development area propelled by scarcity of health resources caused by an aging workforce and increase of Citizens in need of health care and health assistance on a regular basis. This paper presents a literature review of the current...... state-of-the-art of AAL. The objective is to point towards methodological actions to be taken into account in AAL research on this basis. Searches were conducted in five research databases. The search identified 86 papers. 10 of these papers were review papers chosen for analysis. The analysis presents...... an overview of the current status of AAL within the following categories: technology, users, application domains, rationales, successes and challenges of AAL. The paper concludes that the living part, i.e. the everyday practice of people living with Assistive Technology, is the primary challenge to the field...

  14. Conhecimentos e práticas dos profissionais de saúde sobre a "atenção humanizada ao recém-nascido de baixo peso - método canguru" Health professional's knowledge and practices about "human attention of low birth weight- kangaroo care"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia de Abreu e Silva Hennig

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: identificar os conhecimentos e as práticas sobre a Atenção Humanizada ao Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso - Método Canguru (AHRNBP-MC de profissionais médicos e de enfermagem em maternidades públicas da cidade do Rio de Janeiro. MÉTODO: estudo descritivo transversal realizado através de questionário. Participaram das entrevistas 148 médicos e enfermeiros atuantes nestas unidades. Destes, os 116 profissionais que atuam exclusivamente na unidade intensiva responderam sobre quesitos específicos das práticas assistenciais sobre a perspectiva da AHRNBP-MC. RESULTADOS: em relação às estratégias apontadas para minimizar ruído e luminosidade, 39% dos profissionais referiram atender rapidamente aos alarmes/cuidados no uso dos equipamentos e 88% apontaram a diminuição da luminosidade em pelo menos 1 período em 24h. Como estratégias para dor/desconforto, 34% referiram usar a sucção não-nutritiva e 9% citaram utilizar glicose. Oitenta e três porcento relataram serem as informações do quadro clínico as principais informações aos pais na 1ª visita. O exame físico é o procedimento em que é permitida a presença da mãe para 73% dos entrevistados. Cinquenta e nove porcento usavam a estabilidade clínica como critério para a ida do bebê ao colo materno pela primeira vez. CONCLUSÃO: apesar do conhecimento teórico sobre a Atenção Humanizada, os profissionais ainda não o utilizam plenamente em sua prática clínica, sugerindo que ainda não está completamente assimilada a abrangência dessa forma de cuidado neonatal.OBJECTIVE: to identify knowledge and practices related to Low Weight Newborn Humane Care - the Kangaroo Method by the medical and nursing staff in public maternity hospitals located in the city of Rio de Janeiro. METHOD: a cross cutting descriptive method performed by questionnaire application aiming at the management of eleven public maternity hospitals in the city of Rio de Janeiro, selected for the

  15. Strategies for Living in Houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Ripley

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of queer housing can never go away because it is a central component of queerness. Queer housing is a contradiction in terms: not even a queer architect can design a queer house. But where does this leave us, as queer people living in a straight hegemony? Where does it leave us as humans with bodies, craving shelter and safety and a place to live that is in accordance with our experience of self and of living in the world? In this article the author proposes eight architectural strategies for re-occupying the Levittown Cape Cod house from 1947 for queer bodies, minds and hearts. These strategies offer modes by which the key programmatic formal and material components of the Cape Cod House can be attacked, made invalid, or détourned for queer uses, to make of the Cape Cod House a site for our pain, our longing, our anger.

  16. The Naked Mole Rat Genome Resource : facilitating analyses of cancer and longevity-related adaptations

    OpenAIRE

    Keane, Michael; Craig, Thomas; Alfoldi, Jessica; Berlin, Aaron M; Johnson, Jeremy; Seluanov, Andrei; Gorbunova, Vera; Di Palma, Federica; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Church, George M; de Magalhaes, Joao Pedro

    2014-01-01

    MOTIVATION: The naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is an exceptionally long-lived and cancer-resistant rodent native to East Africa. Although its genome was previously sequenced, here we report a new assembly sequenced by us with substantially higher N50 values for scaffolds and contigs. RESULTS: We analyzed the annotation of this new improved assembly and identified candidate genomic adaptations which may have contributed to the evolution of the naked mole rat's extraordinary traits, inc...

  17. [The influence of interfered circadian rhythm on pregnancy and neonatal rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Jun; Sheng, Wen-Jie; Guo, Yin-Hua; Tan, Yong

    2015-10-25

    The aim of this study was to observe the influence of interfered circadian rhythm on pregnancy of rats and growth of neonatal rats, and to explore the relationship between the interfered circadian rhythm and the changes of melatonin and progesterone. Continuous light was used to inhibit melatonin secretion and therefore the interfered circadian rhythm animal model was obtained. The influence of interfered circadian rhythm on delivery of pregnant rats was observed. Serum was collected from rats during different stages of pregnancy to measure the concentrations of melatonin and progesterone. In order to observe the embryo resorption rate, half of pregnant rats were randomly selected to undergo a laparotomy, and the remainder was used to observe delivery and assess the growth of neonatal rats after delivery. The results showed that the interfered circadian rhythm induced adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes, including an increase of embryo resorption rate and a decrease in the number of live births; inhibited the secretion of melatonin along with decreased serum progesterone level; prolonged the stage of labor, but not the duration of pregnancy; and disturbed the fetal intrauterine growth and the growth of neonatal rats. The results suggest that interfered circadian rhythm condition made by continuous light could make adverse effects on both pregnant rats and neonatal rats. The results of our study may provide a way to modulate pregnant women's circadian rhythm and a possibility of application of melatonin on pregnant women.

  18. Individually reared rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraeuchi, K.; Gentsch, C.; Feer, H.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of social isolation in rats on postsynaptic alpha 1 - and beta-adrenergic receptors, on the cAMP generating system and on the presynaptic uptake mechanism in the central noradrenergic system was examined in different brain regions. Rearing rats in isolation from the 19th day of life for 12 weeks leads in all regions to a general tendency for a reduction in 3 H-DHA binding, to an enhanced 3 H-WB4101 binding and to a decreased responsiveness of the noradrenaline sensitive cAMP generating system. These changes reach significance only in the pons-medulla-thallamusregion. Isolated rats showed an increased synaptosomal uptake of noradrenaline, most pronounced and significant in the hypothalamus. Our data provide further support for a disturbance in central noradrenergic function in isolated rats. (author)

  19. Different positions of uncertain lives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenum, Helle

    On the basis of my ethnographic research in Denmark and Spain, I will investigate and compare four different positions of illegality in two different national contexts. Legal and institutional practices on the one hand produce the conditions for migrant illegality as such, but are also decisive...... for both the lived experience as irregular migrant and the opportunities for agency and strategizing among migrants....

  20. Resensi Buku: The Living Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayu Chairina Laksmi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Book ReviewJudul buku    : The Living CompanyPenulis    : Arie de GeusPengantar    : Peter M. SengePenerbit    : Harvard Business School PressTahun terbit    : 1997Tebal    : xiv + 214 hal

  1. Radiation effects on living systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, N.J.

    1984-04-01

    This bibliography includes papers and reports by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited scientists concerning radiation effects on living systems. It is divided into three sections: Radiobiology, Radiation Biochemistry and Radiation Chemistry. It is intended that the bibliography will be updated regularly

  2. Live chat alternative security protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, J. P. R.; Nugraha, E.; Febriany, A.

    2018-05-01

    Indonesia is one of the largest e-commerce markets in Southeast Asia, as many as 5 million people do transactions in e-commerce, therefore more and more people use live chat service to communicate with customer service. In live chat, the customer service often asks customers’ data such as, full name, address, e-mail, transaction id, which aims to verify the purchase of the product. One of the risks that will happen is sniffing which will lead to the theft of confidential information that will cause huge losses to the customer. The anticipation that will be done is build an alternative security protocol for user interaction in live chat by using a cryptographic algorithm that is useful for protecting confidential messages. Live chat requires confidentiality and data integration with encryption and hash functions. The used algorithm are Rijndael 256 bits, RSA, and SHA256. To increase the complexity, the Rijndael algorithm will be modified in the S-box and ShiftRow sections based on the shannon principle rule, the results show that all pass the Randomness test, but the modification in Shiftrow indicates a better avalanche effect. Therefore the message will be difficult to be stolen or changed.

  3. Attitude toward living kidney donation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez-Alarcón, L.; Ramis, G.; Gómez-Laguna, J.; Quereda, J.J.; Herrero-Medrano, J.M.; Mrowiec, A.; Mendonça, L.; López-Navas, A.; Ríos, A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Due to the current deficit of organs for transplantation, living kidney related donations (LKRD) should be promoted. Veterinarians often hold decision-making positions in the public health care system, and therefore can influence public opinion about organ donation. The objective was

  4. Our Lives with Electric Things

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schick, Lea

    2017-01-01

    Our lives with electric things are positively charged with meaning. Our bodies pulse with electrical activity. The electric appliances, devices, and technologies around us bring hope and anxiety, possibility and danger. Some have transformed our possibilities for reproducing, nurturing, and susta......Our lives with electric things are positively charged with meaning. Our bodies pulse with electrical activity. The electric appliances, devices, and technologies around us bring hope and anxiety, possibility and danger. Some have transformed our possibilities for reproducing, nurturing......, and sustaining life. Some mediate human sociality across time and space, while others knit ecological and interspecies relationships together. Still others create possibilities for controlling, managing, exploiting, and ending life. Against this backdrop any anthropology of electricity seems to require electric...... things. Can we still imagine the possibility of lives without electric things? Can electric things help us to address the possibilities and limits of life with electricity? Can our lives with electricity ever be disentangled from electric things? What are the unique capacities and material politics...

  5. The Living Rainforest Sustainable Greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bot, G.P.A.; Zwart, de H.F.; Hansen, K.; Logan, A.; Witte Groenholland, H.

    2008-01-01

    The Living Rainforest (www.livingrainforest.org) is an educational charity that uses rainforest ecology as a metaphor for communicating general sustainability issues to the public. Its greenhouses and office buildings are to be renovated using the most sustainable methods currently available. This

  6. Where You Live: Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Where you live page shows visitors to the risk assessment website how to contact their local regional office by state. Since these link to pages maintained by the local offices they will have the most up-to-date contact information.

  7. Are trees long-lived?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Trees and tree care can capture the best of people's motivations and intentions. Trees are living memorials that help communities heal at sites of national tragedy, such as Oklahoma City and the World Trade Center. We mark the places of important historical events by the trees that grew nearby even if the original tree, such as the Charter Oak in Connecticut or...

  8. Living with wildfire in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia A. Champ; Nicholas Flores; Hannah Brenkert-Smith

    2010-01-01

    In this presentation, we describe results of a survey to homeowners living in wildfire-prone areas of two counties along the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado. The survey was designed to elicit information on homeowners' experience with wildfire, perceptions of wildfire risk on their property and neighboring properties, mitigation efforts undertaken...

  9. Living History: Elsworth R. Buskirk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Charles M.

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the American Physiological Society (APS) initiated the Living History of Physiology Archival Program to recognize senior members who have made significant contributions during their career to the advancement of the discipline and the profession of physiology. Subsequently, the leadership of the APS Section of Environmental and Exercise…

  10. Living History: Clark M. Blatteis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Ning

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the American Physiological Society (APS) initiated the Living History Project to recognize senior members who have made extraordinary contributions during their career to the advancement of the discipline and profession of physiology. During 2007, the APS Section of Environmental and Exercise Physiology selected Clark M. Blatteis to be…

  11. Interactions between radiofrequency signals and living organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudin, F.; Hours, M.; Lacronique, J.F.; Conil, E.; Hadjem, A.; El Habachi, A.; Wiart, K.; Mann, S.; Kundi, M.; Marc-Vergnes, J.P.; Roosli, M.; Mohler, E.; Frei, P.; Davis, Ch.C.; Balzano, Q.; Ait-Aissa, S.; Billaudel, B.; Poulletier De Gannes, F.; Hurtier, A.; Haro, E.; Taxile, M.; Veyret, B.; Lagroye, I.; Ait-Aissa, S.; Poulletier De Gannes, F.; Athane, A.; Veyret, B.; Lagroye, I.; Yardin, C.; Perrin, A.; Freire, M.; Bachelet, Ch.; Collin, A.; Pla, S.; Debouzy, J.C.; Leveque, Ph.; Van Nierop, L.E.; Huss, A.; Roosli, M.; Egger, M.; Calvez, M.; Salomon, D.

    2010-01-01

    This dossier is composed of 13 articles dealing with the interactions between radio-frequencies and living organisms. It is an overview of various scientific approaches to the field and is of interest for all citizens as the use of mobile phones is widely spread. In the first article it is shown how a model has been built to assess the distribution of the whole body exposure of the population. The second article reviews the state of the art in personal exposure measurements at radio-frequencies. The third article shows that the knowledge of the mechanism of action by which exposure increases the risk of health hazards is necessary. The fourth article shows that individual neuro-psychic factors take a prominent but maybe not unique, part in electromagnetic hypersensitivity. The fifth article shows that no evidence was found to link health disturbances of electromagnetic hypersensitive individuals with radiofrequency exposure. The sixth article shows that the wireless phone is not an athermal hazard to the brain. The seventh article shows that the in utero and post-natal exposure to Wi-Fi does not damage the brains of young rats. The eighth article concludes that recent studies provide no convincing proof of deleterious effects of radiofrequency exposure on the integrity of the blood-brain barrier for specific absorption rates up to 6 W/kg. The ninth article shows that no co-genotoxic effect of radiofrequency was found at levels of exposure that did not induce heating. The tenth article confirms that industry-sponsored studies were least likely to report results suggesting effects. The last article shows that general practitioners are increasingly questioned by their patients about the issue of electromagnetic waves. (A.C.)

  12. The Naked Mole Rat Genome Resource: facilitating analyses of cancer and longevity-related adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Michael; Craig, Thomas; Alföldi, Jessica; Berlin, Aaron M; Johnson, Jeremy; Seluanov, Andrei; Gorbunova, Vera; Di Palma, Federica; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Church, George M; de Magalhães, João Pedro

    2014-12-15

    The naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is an exceptionally long-lived and cancer-resistant rodent native to East Africa. Although its genome was previously sequenced, here we report a new assembly sequenced by us with substantially higher N50 values for scaffolds and contigs. We analyzed the annotation of this new improved assembly and identified candidate genomic adaptations which may have contributed to the evolution of the naked mole rat's extraordinary traits, including in regions of p53, and the hyaluronan receptors CD44 and HMMR (RHAMM). Furthermore, we developed a freely available web portal, the Naked Mole Rat Genome Resource (http://www.naked-mole-rat.org), featuring the data and results of our analysis, to assist researchers interested in the genome and genes of the naked mole rat, and also to facilitate further studies on this fascinating species. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  13. The uremic environment and muscle dysfunction in man and rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Adrian Paul; Nielsen, Arne Høj; Eidemak, I.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Patients reaching end-stage renal disease experience debilitating fatigue, with progression of this disease, rendering patients dysfunctional in their everyday lives. Methods: In vivo measurements of muscle function, assessed using surface electromyography (EMG), were made on 25...... patients prior to and after a session of hemodialysis (HD) treatment, alongside in vitro measurements of muscle function in isolated rat muscles incubated in normal or uremic conditions approximating to those found in uremic rats (rat uremic: RU) or uremic humans (human uremic: HU). Results: HD...... significantly affected plasma values, e.g. reducing urea (69%), creatinine (62%), potassium (23%) and phosphate (48%) concentrations in patients (all pimproved the EMG frequency of 2nd dorsal interosseous (fast-twitch) (p

  14. Effect of TheraCyte-encapsulated parathyroid cells on lumbar fusion in a rat model

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Sung-Hsiung; Huang, Shun-Chen; Lui, Chun-Chung; Lin, Tzu-Ping; Chou, Fong-Fu; Ko, Jih-Yang

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Implantation of TheraCyte 4 × 106 live parathyroid cells can increase the bone marrow density of the spine of ovariectomized rats. There has been no published study examining the effect of such implantation on spinal fusion outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of TheraCyte-encapsulated parathyroid cells on posterolateral lumbar fusions in a rat model. Materials and methods Forty Sprague-Dawley rats underwent single-level, intertransverse process spinal fu...

  15. Don Quixote an Celia: the desire to live other lives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jesús Fraga Fernández-Cuevas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study explores the parallelisms between Don Quixote and Elena Fortun’s novels Celia. First, it enumerates the various activities that prove the author’s interest in Cervantes and his work, as well as the possible intervention of her mentor, Maria Martinez Sierra, in the genesis of the child’s character. Both novels, of dialogical nature, share an episodic structure articulated by a weak storyline. Its protagonists are animated by the desire to live the lives of the characters of their favorite readings. They confuse fantasy and reality causing situations whose results are almost always adverse. If Don Quixote dies back to the reason, so will Celia, the girl, with her entry into adulthood by resigning her fantasies, which will be taken up by new generations of children.

  16. Enhanced living environments from models to technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Dobre, Ciprian; Ganchev, Ivan; Garcia, Nuno; Goleva, Rossitza Ivanova

    2017-01-01

    Enhanced living environments employ information and communications technologies to support true ambient assisted living for people with disabilities. This book provides an overview of today's architectures, techniques, protocols, components, and cloud-based solutions related to ambient assisted living and enhanced living environments.

  17. Piloted ignition of live forest fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. McAllister; I. Grenfell; A. Hadlow; W. M. Jolly; M. Finney; J. Cohen

    2012-01-01

    The most unpredictable and uncontrollable wildfires are those that burn in the crowns of live vegetation. The fuels that feed these crown fires are mostly live, green foliage. Unfortunately, little is known about how live fuels combust. To understand how live fuels burn, piloted ignition experiments were performed with lodgepole pine and Douglas-fir. The thermal...

  18. 'Living between two worlds': who is living in whose worlds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Brian

    2009-08-01

    Indigenous people have often been depicted as 'living between two worlds'. They have been described as living neither in their 'Indigenous' world nor in the 'Western' world but in some middle, liminal, or in-between 'world'. People in such situations are often described as 'caught' or 'suspended' and with obvious negative social, emotional and health consequences. What is this cultural space that is often described as 'being between two worlds'? Can Indigenous people develop their identity within the demands and values of contemporary Australian society? Most people who live within the context of modernity move across a mixture of different social, spiritual and cultural 'worlds'. By projecting particular and negative meanings onto Indigenous people and their journey of identity, non-Indigenous people diminish the value of Indigenous energies and initiatives in attempting to cope with life's diverse pressures and expectations. The perpetuation of such attitudes serves to undermine the efforts that Indigenous people make to engage modernity while at the same time attempting to maintain values that are of critical importance for their health and wellbeing. Consequently, non-Indigenous people can end up diminishing the importance of their own life transitions.

  19. Women's lives in times of Zika: mosquito-controlled lives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Ana Rosa; Siqueira, Carlos Eduardo

    2018-05-10

    Zika virus infection during pregnancy is a cause of congenital brain abnormalities. Its consequences to pregnancies has made governments, national and international agencies issue advices and recommendations to women. There is a clear need to investigate how the Zika outbreak affects the decisions that women take concerning their lives and the life of their families, as well as how women are psychologically and emotionally dealing with the outbreak. We conducted a qualitative study to address the impact of the Zika epidemic on the family life of women living in Brazil, Puerto Rico, and the US, who were affected by it to shed light on the social repercussions of Zika. Women were recruited through the snowball sampling technique and data was collected through semi-structured interviews. We describe the effects in mental health and the coping strategies that women use to deal with the Zika epidemic. Zika is taking a heavy toll on women's emotional well-being. They are coping with feelings of fear, helplessness, and uncertainty by taking drastic precautions to avoid infection that affect all areas of their lives. Coping strategies pose obstacles in professional life, lead to social isolation, including from family and partner, and threaten the emotional and physical well-being of women. Our findings suggest that the impacts of the Zika epidemic on women may be universal and global. Zika infection is a silent and heavy burden on women's shoulders.

  20. Actual situation analyses of rat-run traffic on community streets based on car probe data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuragi, Yuki; Matsuo, Kojiro; Sugiki, Nao

    2017-10-01

    Lowering of so-called "rat-run" traffic on community streets has been one of significant challenges for improving the living environment of neighborhood. However, it has been difficult to quantitatively grasp the actual situation of rat-run traffic by the traditional surveys such as point observations. This study aims to develop a method for extracting rat-run traffic based on car probe data. In addition, based on the extracted rat-run traffic in Toyohashi city, Japan, we try to analyze the actual situation such as time and location distribution of the rat-run traffic. As a result, in Toyohashi city, the rate of using rat-run route increases in peak time period. Focusing on the location distribution of rat-run traffic, in addition, they pass through a variety of community streets. There is no great inter-district bias of the route frequently used as rat-run traffic. Next, we focused on some trips passing through a heavily used route as rat-run traffic. As a result, we found the possibility that they habitually use the route as rat-run because their trips had some commonalities. We also found that they tend to use the rat-run route due to shorter distance than using the alternative highway route, and that the travel speeds were faster than using the alternative highway route. In conclusions, we confirmed that the proposed method can quantitatively grasp the actual situation and the phenomenal tendencies of the rat-run traffic.

  1. Adult neurogenesis and its anatomical context in the hippocampus of three mole-rat species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irmgard eAmrein

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available African mole-rats (family Bathyergidae are small to medium sized, long-lived and strictly subterranean rodents that became valuable animal models as a result of their longevity and diversity in social organization. The formation and integration of new hippocampal neurons in adult mammals (adult hippocampal neurogenesis, AHN correlates negatively with age and positively with habitat complexity. Here we present quantitative data on AHN in wild-derived mole-rats of one year and older, and briefly describe its anatomical context including markers of neuronal function (calbindin and parvalbumin. Solitary Cape mole-rats (Georychus capensis, social highveld mole-rats (Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae, and eusocial naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber were assessed. Compared to other rodents, the hippocampal formation in mole-rats is small, but shows a distinct cytoarchitecture in the dentate gyrus and CA1. Distributions of the calcium-binding proteins differ from those seen in rodents; e.g., calbindin in CA3 of naked mole-rats distributes similar to the pattern seen in early primate development, and calbindin staining extends into the stratum lacunosum-moleculare of Cape mole-rats. Proliferating cells and young neurons are found in low numbers in the hippocampus of all three mole-rat species. Resident granule cell numbers are low as well. Proliferating cells expressed as a percentage of resident granule cells are in the range of other rodents, while the percentage of young neurons is lower than that observed in surface dwelling rodents. Between mole-rat species, we observed no difference in the percentage of proliferating cells. The percentages of young neurons are high in social highveld and naked mole-rats, and low in solitary Cape mole-rats. The findings support that proliferation is regulated independently of average life expectancy and habitat. Instead, neuronal differentiation reflects species-specific demands, which appear lower in subterranean

  2. Adult neurogenesis and its anatomical context in the hippocampus of three mole-rat species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrein, Irmgard; Becker, Anton S; Engler, Stefanie; Huang, Shih-Hui; Müller, Julian; Slomianka, Lutz; Oosthuizen, Maria K

    2014-01-01

    African mole-rats (family Bathyergidae) are small to medium sized, long-lived, and strictly subterranean rodents that became valuable animal models as a result of their longevity and diversity in social organization. The formation and integration of new hippocampal neurons in adult mammals (adult hippocampal neurogenesis, AHN) correlates negatively with age and positively with habitat complexity. Here we present quantitative data on AHN in wild-derived mole-rats of 1 year and older, and briefly describe its anatomical context including markers of neuronal function (calbindin and parvalbumin). Solitary Cape mole-rats (Georychus capensis), social highveld mole-rats (Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae), and eusocial naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber) were assessed. Compared to other rodents, the hippocampal formation in mole-rats is small, but shows a distinct cytoarchitecture in the dentate gyrus and CA1. Distributions of the calcium-binding proteins differ from those seen in rodents; e.g., calbindin in CA3 of naked mole-rats distributes similar to the pattern seen in early primate development, and calbindin staining extends into the stratum lacunosum-moleculare of Cape mole-rats. Proliferating cells and young neurons are found in low numbers in the hippocampus of all three mole-rat species. Resident granule cell numbers are low as well. Proliferating cells expressed as a percentage of resident granule cells are in the range of other rodents, while the percentage of young neurons is lower than that observed in surface dwelling rodents. Between mole-rat species, we observed no difference in the percentage of proliferating cells. The percentages of young neurons are high in social highveld and naked mole-rats, and low in solitary Cape mole-rats. The findings support that proliferation is regulated independently of average life expectancy and habitat. Instead, neuronal differentiation reflects species-specific demands, which appear lower in subterranean rodents.

  3. Os efeitos da posição canguru em resposta aos procedimentos dolorosos em recém-nascidos pré-termo: uma revisão da literatura Effects of kangaroo care during painful procedures in preterm infants: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda de Almeida Maia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Apesar de ser conhecido que recém-nascidos de baixo peso são capazes de vivenciar a dor, muitos procedimentos de rotina ainda são realizados sem o uso de analgésicos farmacológicos ou não farmacológicos. A posição canguru é uma estratégia de baixo custo e pode ser utilizado como medida de escolha no manejo da dor de recém-nascidos pré-termos. Torna-se importante encorajar a prática desse método pelas mães, uma vez que é fácil e pode ser realizado antes e durante procedimentos dolorosos invasivos em unidades neonatais contribuindo para a redução álgicaAlthough low-birth neonates are acknowledged to experience pain, many routine procedures continue to be conducted without proper pharmacological or non-pharmacological analgesia. Kangaroo care is a low-cost strategy that can be used in the preterm newborn. Mothers should be encouraged to use this easy-to-perform method, which is feasible both before and during neonatal units' invasive procedures, therefore contributing to pain reduction

  4. Perspectives on Living With Fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Gill Taylor

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Perceptions of people living with chronic illness change over time, contributing to health-related stress that necessitates coping skills. Paterson’s shifting perspectives model provides an explanation of chronically ill people’s variations in attention to their symptoms. In this qualitative study, 20 people with fibromyalgia living in a rural setting were interviewed in 2013 with the aim of gaining insight into their experiences and the meaning-making associated with their chronic condition. Analysis of the interview data categorized five recurrent, or common, themes: experiences of loss, feelings of fear and uncertainty, influence of stress, stigmatization of the disease, and coping through courage. Difficulties attendant to losses, distress, and stigma associated with this chronic condition led the participants to report poor health-related quality of life. The study findings can be useful across clinical settings to nurses and other health care providers in understanding those diagnosed with fibromyalgia and their care needs.

  5. Living in a Flexible Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canepa, Simona

    2017-10-01

    How long does a space or an object have to last? If in the past an object or a building manufacturing was designed to last as much as possible, nowadays it is designed to have a life related to the time in which it will be used. Flexibility is what characterizes a space, it’s the ability to be variable and adaptable to changes in the lives of users or in relation to the use which these will make over time. The evolution of the labour market, the difficulty of inserting within it and the need to push more and more frequent move today in the trial of living space models increasingly flexible: people, especially young people, are forced to move on territory outlining a new condition to which the flexible nomadic dwellings offer an adequate response, ensuring high functional performance in confined spaces.

  6. Complexity for survival of livings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zak, Michail

    2007-01-01

    A connection between survivability of livings and complexity of their behavior is established. New physical paradigms-exchange of information via reflections, and chain of abstractions-explaining and describing progressive evolution of complexity in living (active) systems are introduced. A biological origin of these paradigms is associated with a recently discovered mirror neuron that is able to learn by imitation. As a result, an active element possesses the self-nonself images and interacts with them creating the world of mental dynamics. Three fundamental types of complexity of mental dynamics that contribute to survivability are identified. Mathematical model of the corresponding active systems is described by coupled motor-mental dynamics represented by Langevin and Fokker-Planck equations, respectively, while the progressive evolution of complexity is provided by nonlinear evolution of probability density. Application of the proposed formalism to modeling common-sense-based decision-making process is discussed

  7. Complexity for survival of livings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zak, Michail [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Advance Computing Algorithms and IVHM Group, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)]. E-mail: Michail.Zak@jpl.nasa.gov

    2007-05-15

    A connection between survivability of livings and complexity of their behavior is established. New physical paradigms-exchange of information via reflections, and chain of abstractions-explaining and describing progressive evolution of complexity in living (active) systems are introduced. A biological origin of these paradigms is associated with a recently discovered mirror neuron that is able to learn by imitation. As a result, an active element possesses the self-nonself images and interacts with them creating the world of mental dynamics. Three fundamental types of complexity of mental dynamics that contribute to survivability are identified. Mathematical model of the corresponding active systems is described by coupled motor-mental dynamics represented by Langevin and Fokker-Planck equations, respectively, while the progressive evolution of complexity is provided by nonlinear evolution of probability density. Application of the proposed formalism to modeling common-sense-based decision-making process is discussed.

  8. Living your own life, together

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerling, Allan

    This paper discusses the impact of modernization and individualization on family life. It does so by tracing changes in configurations of family life and social networks between 2003 and 2014, and by analyzing transformations of social practices of everyday life. Initial findings from this study...... the configuration of the individual/social relationship in everyday family life. The paper examines the concepts about the ‘post familial family’ as well as ‘the network family’ and their usefulness in the study of contemporary family practices....... show that 81% of the respondents who lived with a partner in 2014 lived with the same partner in 2003. This paper analyzes this stability in couple relationship. The empirical focus is on social and emotional support, on the character of the social networks as well as gender equality among partners...

  9. Social Work and Lived Citizenship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming, Hanne; Fahnøe, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    Warming and Fahnøe offers, through introduction of the sensitising concept of lived citizenship and a socio-spatial perspective, a much needed renewal of the rights and strength based approach to social work practice and research towards an almost anthropological understanding of the social...... of meaning and power as (re-) producing practices through which clients experience and negotiate rights, responsibilities, participation, identity and belonging, and thereby of dynamics of inclusion and exclusion related to social work....... situation of vulnerable groups. Indeed, they show how the concept of lived citizenship, and four supporting concepts (disciplinary versus inclusive identity shaping; intimate citizenship; space; community governance) enables contextualized analyses of the complexities of social work as a social space...

  10. Living with HIV: Patients Perspective

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-06-04

    This podcast showcases three people who are living with HIV. The patients share their experiences of being diagnosed with HIV, of the treatments they are undergoing, and on taking responsibility for their health.  Created: 6/4/2009 by Division of HIV and AIDS Prevention (DHAP), National Center for HIV, Hepatitis, STD, and Tuberculosis Prevention ( NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 6/4/2009.

  11. NPP Krsko Living PSA Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrbanic, I.; Spiler, J.

    2000-01-01

    NPP Krsko developed PSA model of internal and external initiators within the frame of the Individual Plant Examination (IPE) project. Within this project PSA model was used to examine the existing plant design features. In order to continue with use of this PSA model upon the completion of IPE in various risk-informed applications in support of plant operation and evaluations of design changes, an appropriate living PSA concept needed to be defined. The Living PSA concept is in NPP Krsko considered as being a set of activities pursued in order to update existing PSA model in a manner that it appropriately represents the plant design, operation practice and history. Only a PSA model which is being updated in this manner can serve as a platform for plant-specific risk informed applications. The NPP Krsko living PSA concept is based on the following major ponts. First, the baseline PSA model is defined, which is to be maintained and updated and which is to be reference point for any risk-informed application. Second, issues having a potential for impact on baseline PSA model are identified and procedure and responsibilities for their permanent monitoring and evaluation are established. Third, manner is defined in which consequential changes to baseline PSA model are implemented and controlled, together with associated responsibilities. Finally, the process is defined by which the existing version of baseline PSA model is superseded by a new one. Each time a new version of baseline PSA model is released, it would be re-quantified and the results evaluated and interpreted. By documenting these re-quantifications and evaluations of results in a sequence, the track is being kept of changes in long-term averaged risk perspective, represented by long-term averaged frequencies of core damage and pre-defined release categories. These major topics of NPP Krsko living PSA concept are presented and discussed in the paper. (author)

  12. Living related donor liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C L; Chen, Y S; Liu, P P; Chiang, Y C; Cheng, Y F; Huang, T L; Eng, H L

    1997-10-01

    Living related liver transplantation (LRLT) has been developed in response to the paediatric organ donor shortage. According to the International Living Donor Registry, 521 transplants had been performed in 515 patients between December 8 1988 and January 19 1996 in 30 centres worldwide. The overall actuarial patient and graft survival rates were 82.7 and 80%, respectively. Between June 17 1994 and November 30 1996, the authors performed 11 LRLT at the Chung Gung Memorial Hospital. The living donors consisted of 10 mothers and one father. The mean graft weight was 303 g and the mean graft recipient weight ratio was 2.2%. Donor hepatectomy was performed without vascular inflow occlusion. The intra-operative blood loss ranged from 30 mL to 120 mL with an average of 61 mL, and blood transfusion was not required in all donors both intra-operatively and during the postoperative period. Underlying diseases of the recipients were biliary atresia (n = 10) and glycogen storage disease (n = 1). The mean graft cold ischaemia time was 106 min, the mean second warm ischaemia time was 51 min and the mean interval between portal and arterial reperfusion was 81 min. The initial LRLT results were promising with all donors having been discharged without complication. The recipients experienced a few complications, all of which were manageable with early intervention. All 11 recipients are alive and well. These are encouraging results and the authors hope to expand the use of live donors for liver transplantation to cope with demand.

  13. Jump-starting urban rat research: Conspecific pheromones recruit wild rats into a behavioral and pathogen-monitoring assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H Parsons

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Wild rats, Rattus spp, have adapted so well to urbanization that humans may be obligatory to their survival. Consequently, rats foul human food sources, predate threatened fauna and serve as reservoirs for disease, costing the US economy $19 billion in losses year -1. Urban rat ecology however, remains vastly unexplored because these animals are cryptic, crepuscular, difficult to identify, and hazardous to handle. Additionally, the high-rise buildings that block satellite link-ups, underground sewers and subway tunnels, and rebar enforced concrete covered landscape make it difficult—if not impossible— to track urban animals using traditional radio telemetry. Consequently, there are few ecological studies with free-ranging urban rats. Therefore, we set out to monitor the behaviors and health of free-ranging rats in metropolitan New York. Recognizing that wild rats are attracted to live laboratory-reared conspecifics and that they are sensitive to pheromones, we used soiled rat bedding to repeatedly attract animals to a Remote Frequency Identification (RFID- based antenna with camera-trap and load cell (scale for collecting weights. We captured and micro-chipped 13 rats within 50, 30 and 10 m from our antenna and followed their movements. Seven of the 8 animals released within 10 m of the antenna, visited the RFID antenna lure 398 times over 41 standardized days. Males (2.7 visits day-1 visited the antenna at the same frequency as females (2.7 visits day-1; P>0.5, and both sexes spent similar time dwelling at the pheromones (M, 2.9±0.9 sec; F, 2.4.±0.4 sec; P>0.05. The passive integrated transponder (PIT-tag worked free on the lone individual that did not participate. Within our population, female activity peaked between 6am and 7pm, while males visited throughout the day. Our results demonstrate the potential to safely overcome the primary barriers that have impeded urban rat ecological studies. We used pheromone-based lures to attract

  14. Effect of TheraCyte-encapsulated parathyroid cells on lumbar fusion in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sung-Hsiung; Huang, Shun-Chen; Lui, Chun-Chung; Lin, Tzu-Ping; Chou, Fong-Fu; Ko, Jih-Yang

    2012-09-01

    Implantation of TheraCyte 4 × 10(6) live parathyroid cells can increase the bone marrow density of the spine of ovariectomized rats. There has been no published study examining the effect of such implantation on spinal fusion outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of TheraCyte-encapsulated parathyroid cells on posterolateral lumbar fusions in a rat model. Forty Sprague-Dawley rats underwent single-level, intertransverse process spinal fusions using iliac crest autograft. The rats were randomly assigned to two groups: Group 1 rats received sham operations on their necks (control; N = 20); Group 2 rats were implanted with TheraCyte-encapsulated 4 × 10(6) live parathyroid cells into the subcutis of their necks (TheraCyte; N = 20). Six weeks after surgery the rats were killed. Fusion was assessed by inspection, manual palpation, radiography, and histology. Blood was drawn to measure the serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH). Based on manual palpation, the control group had a fusion rate of 33 % (6/18) and the TheraCyte group had a fusion rate of 72 % (13/18) (P = 0.044). Histology confirmed the manual palpation results. Serum iPTH levels were significantly higher in the TheraCyte group compared with the control group (P TheraCyte-encapsulated 4 × 10(6) live parathyroid cells than in control rats without significant change in serum calcium or phosphorus concentrations. As with any animal study, the results may not extrapolate to a higher species. Further studies are needed to determine if these effects are clinically significant.

  15. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Gallium arsenide in mice and rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, T.J.; Greenspan, B.J.; Dill, J.A.; Stoney, K.H.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.

    1990-12-01

    Gallium arsenide is a crystalline compound used extensively in the semiconductor industry. Workers preparing solar cells and gallium arsenide ingots and wafers are potentially at risk from the inhalation of gallium arsenide dust. The potential for gallium arsenide to cause developmental toxicity was assessed in Sprague- Dawley rats and CD-1 (Swiss) mice exposed to 0, 10, 37, or 75 mg/m{sup 3} gallium arsenide, 6 h/day, 7 days/week. Each of the four treatment groups consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and {approx}30 positively mated rats or {approx}24 positively mated mice. Mice were exposed on 4--17 days of gestation (dg), and rats on 4--19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as 0 dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. Gallium and arsenic concentrations were determined in the maternal blood and uterine contents of the rats (3/group) at 7, 14, and 20 dg. 37 refs., 11 figs., 30 tabs.

  16. Laparoscopic nephrectomy in live donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitre Anuar I.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To present the initial experience of videolaparoscopic nephrectomy in live renal donor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the period from April 2000 to August 2003, 50 left nephrectomies in live donor were performed by videolaparoscopy for transplantation. Twenty-eight patients were male (56% and 22 female (44%. Mean age was 37.2 years, and the mean body mass index (BMI was 27.1 kg/m². RESULTS: Mean surgical time was 179.5 minutes, and warm ischemia time of the graft was 3.79 minutes. The mean estimated bleeding was 141 mL. There was no need of blood transfusion or conversion to open surgery. In 42 cases (84%, the vascular portion of the graft was considered good by the recipient's surgical team and in all cases, the ureter was considered of proper size, though in one of them (2% its vascularization was considered improper. The transplanted kidneys produced urine still in the surgical room in 46 of the 50 transplantations considered. In only 2 cases opioid was required for analgesia. In average, 3.1 doses of dipyrone were used for each patient during hospital stay, and hospital discharge occurred, in average, after 3.2 days post-operatively. Two patients required re-operations and one of them evolved to death. CONCLUSIONS: The laparoscopic nephrectomy in live donor for renal transplantation is an alternative to conventional open surgery. In relation to the graft, no alteration, either anatomic or functional, was detected. Though there is already a large documentation in the international literature regarding this procedure, in our setting a prospective randomized study with the usual surgical study is still necessary in order to prove the advantages and disadvantages of the method.

  17. Laparoscopic nephrectomy in live donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar I. Mitre

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To present the initial experience of videolaparoscopic nephrectomy in live renal donor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the period from April 2000 to August 2003, 50 left nephrectomies in live donor were performed by videolaparoscopy for transplantation. Twenty-eight patients were male (56% and 22 female (44%. Mean age was 37.2 years, and the mean body mass index (BMI was 27.1 kg/m². RESULTS: Mean surgical time was 179.5 minutes, and warm ischemia time of the graft was 3.79 minutes. The mean estimated bleeding was 141 mL. There was no need of blood transfusion or conversion to open surgery. In 42 cases (84%, the vascular portion of the graft was considered good by the recipient's surgical team and in all cases, the ureter was considered of proper size, though in one of them (2% its vascularization was considered improper. The transplanted kidneys produced urine still in the surgical room in 46 of the 50 transplantations considered. In only 2 cases opioid was required for analgesia. In average, 3.1 doses of dipyrone were used for each patient during hospital stay, and hospital discharge occurred, in average, after 3.2 days post-operatively. Two patients required re-operations and one of them evolved to death. CONCLUSIONS: The laparoscopic nephrectomy in live donor for renal transplantation is an alternative to conventional open surgery. In relation to the graft, no alteration, either anatomic or functional, was detected. Though there is already a large documentation in the international literature regarding this procedure, in our setting a prospective randomized study with the usual surgical study is still necessary in order to prove the advantages and disadvantages of the method.

  18. Writing the Live Coding Book

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackwell, Alan; Cox, Geoff; Lee, Sang Wong

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a speculation on the relationship between coding and writing, and the ways in which technical innovations and capabilities enable us to rethink each in terms of the other. As a case study, we draw on recent experiences of preparing a book on live coding, which integrates a wide range...... of personal, historical, technical and critical perspectives. This book project has been both experimental and reflective, in a manner that allows us to draw on critical understanding of both code and writing, and point to the potential for new practices in the future....

  19. Structure of the vitreoretinal border region in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR rats)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Steffen

    1993-01-01

    Øjenpatologi, vitreoretinal border region, inner limiting membrane of the retina, spontaneously hypertensive rats, SHR rats, ultrastructure......Øjenpatologi, vitreoretinal border region, inner limiting membrane of the retina, spontaneously hypertensive rats, SHR rats, ultrastructure...

  20. Radiolabeling of gemifloxacin with technetium-99m and biological evaluation in artificially Streptococcus pneumoniae infected rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Qaiser Shah; Muhammad Rafiullah Khan

    2011-01-01

    In the current investigation complexation of the gemifloxacin (GIN) with technetium-99 m ( 99m Tc) and its biological evaluation in artificially Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) infected rats was assessed as potential S. pneumoniae infection radiotracer. Radiochemically the 99m Tc-GIN complex was further analyzed in terms of stability in saline, in vitro stability in serum at 37 deg C, in vitro binding with S. pneumoniae and biodistribution in artificially S. pneumoniae (living and heat killed) infected rats. The complex was found 97.25 ± 0.25% radiochemically stable in saline at 30 min after reconstitution. The stability of the 99m Tc-GIN complex was decreased to 90.50 ± 0.20% within 240 min after reconstitution. In serum the 99m Tc-GIN complex showed stable profile with the appearance of 18.85% free tracer within 16 h of incubation. The 99m Tc-GIN complex showed saturated in vitro binding with S. pneumoniae after different intervals. Almost five fold uptake was observed in living S. pneumoniae infected muscle of the rats as compared to the inflamed and normal muscle. No significant difference in the uptake of heat killed S. pneumoniae infected, inflamed and normal muscles of the rats. The high RCP yield in saline, in vitro permanence in serum, in vitro binding with living S. pneumoniae and biodistribution in artificially S. pneumoniae infected rats we recommend the 99m Tc-GIN as potential S. pneumoniae infection radiotracer. (author)

  1. Learning to Live Well with Celiac Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Foundation Celiac Disease Foundation Read More "Celiac Disease" Articles Celiac Disease Changes Everything / What is Celiac Disease? / Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment / Four Inches and Seven Pounds… / Learning to Live Well with Celiac Disease / Living Gluten- ...

  2. Live recombinant BHV/BRSV vaccine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keil, G.M.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention refers to synthetic Bovine Respiratory Syncytium virus genes. Also the invention relates to live attenuated Bovine Herpesvirus recombinants carrying such synthetic genes. Furthermore, the invention relates to vaccines based on these live attenuated recombinants, for the

  3. Live feed culture - Problems and perspectives

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Royan, J.P.

    The importance of live feed in aquaculture is stressed. Organisms currently cultured as live feed are microalgae, turbellarians, tanaidaceans, annelids, brine shrimps, fairy shrimps, rotifers, cladocerans and copepods. Their culture methods...

  4. Oxygen Uptake - Live Hauling of Fish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In certain markets, live fish can be sold for substantially higher prices than fresh dressed fish. A significant live-haul industry has developed in the U.S. and...

  5. Dissolved Oxygen - Live Hauling of Fish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In certain markets, live fish can be sold for substantially higher prices than fresh dressed fish. A significant live-haul industry has developed in the U.S. and...

  6. Living with a depressed person in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jeppe Oute; Buus, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Strategies for coping with the burdens of living with a depressed person affect a family's psychosocial environment.......Strategies for coping with the burdens of living with a depressed person affect a family's psychosocial environment....

  7. Effect of live Salmonella Ty21a in Dextran Sulfate Sodium-induced Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Nysœter

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Intestinal microbiota seems to play an essential role in the development of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD. We hypothesised that an oral vaccine based on live Salmonella typhi would be well tolerated and could even attenuate dextran sulfate sodium (DSS induced colitis in rats, an animal model of IBD. Methods Nine male Wistar rats was used for an initial tolerance study, in which we used 3 dose-levels of Salmonella Ty21a, 0.5 × 10 9 , 1 × 10 9 , and 2 × 10 9 CFU, each dose being tested in 3 rats. Four treatment groups consisting of 8 male Wistar rats per group: 1 control group given standard food and water, 2 control group given four daily administrations of Salmonella Ty21a 1 × 10 9 CFU, 3 water with 5% DSS the last 7 days, 4 four daily administrations of Salmonella Ty21a before water with 5% DSS the last 7 days. The Salmonella Ty21a was administered by gastric gavage on day 1, 3, 5 and 16, while DSS was given with the drinking water from day 15 to 22. The animals were sacrificed and colonic tissue removed for analysis 22 days after gavage of the first vaccine dose. Results The animals in the tolerance study got no signs of disease. In the treatment study, all animals receiving DSS had histologic indications of colitis, particularly in the distal part of the colon. Administration of Salmonella Ty21a had no significant effect on crypt and inflammation scores (p > 0.05. Conclusion Gastric administration of live vaccine strain Salmonella Ty21a was well tolerated, but did not provide any significant protection against development of DSS induced colitis in rats.

  8. Live Fire Range Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1993-08-01

    The Central Training Academy (CTA) is a DOE Headquarters Organization located in Albuquerque, New Mexico, with the mission to effectively and efficiently educate and train personnel involved in the protection of vital national security interests of DOE. The CTA Live Fire Range (LFR), where most of the firearms and tactical training occurs, is a complex separate from the main campus. The purpose of the proposed action is to expand the LFR to allow more options of implementing required training. The Department of Energy has prepared this Environmental Assessment (EA) for the proposed construction and operation of an expanded Live Fire Range Facility at the Central Training Academy in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  9. Marine living thing processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyoshi, Takanori; Yanagisawa, Takao; Nakamura, Toshio; Ueda, Kiyokatsu; Terada, Takeshi.

    1994-01-01

    Marine living things collected upon cleaning of a seawater intake channel are sent to a solid/liquid separator. Discharged liquids containing separated sludges enter a coagulation/precipitation vessel. Condensed sludges precipitated in the vessel are sent to a dehydrator and converted into dehydrated cakes. On the other hand, supernatants discharged from the coagulation/precipitation vessel are sent to an ultra-filtration vessel and an active carbon vessel and then discharged to the sea area at improved the water quality. Further, the dehydrated cakes comprising condensed sluges are dried by a dryer, burnt in an incinerator and then processed as wastes. On the other hand, solid materials separated by the solid/liquid separator such as shells, are crushed finely by the crusher, then dried by an air stream dryer, baked in a high temperature baking furnace to form quick lime. The quick lime is sent to a digester and modified by hydration into slaked lime and it is shipped as slaked lime products. This can simplify the control for the operation and reduce the running cost. Further, resources of marine living (shells) can be utilized. (I.N.)

  10. The Living Indian Critical Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar Dwivedi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to establish the identity of something that is often considered to be missing – a living Indian critical tradition. I refer to the tradition that arises out of the work of those Indians who write in English. The chief architects of this tradition are Sri Aurobindo, C.D. Narasimhaiah, Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak and Homi K. Bhabha. It is possible to believe that Indian literary theories derive almost solely from ancient Sanskrit poetics. Or, alternatively, one can be concerned about the sad state of affairs regarding Indian literary theories or criticism in English. There have been scholars who have raised the question of the pathetic state of Indian scholarship in English and have even come up with some positive suggestions. But these scholars are those who are ignorant about the living Indian critical tradition. The significance of the Indian critical tradition lies in the fact that it provides the real focus to the Indian critical scene. Without an awareness of this tradition Indian literary scholarship (which is quite a different thing from Indian literary criticism and theory as it does not have the same impact as the latter two do can easily fail to see who the real Indian literary critics and theorists are.

  11. Living probabilistic safety assessment (LPSA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-08-01

    Over the past few years many nuclear power plant organizations have performed probabilistic safety assessments (PSAs) to identify and understand key plant vulnerabilities. As a result of the availability of these PSA studies, there is a desire to use them to enhance plant safety and to operate the nuclear stations in the most efficient manner. PSA is an effective tool for this purpose as it assists plant management to target resources where the largest benefit to plant safety can be obtained. However, any PSA which is to be used in this way must have a credible and defensible basis. Thus, it is very important to have a high quality 'living PSA' accepted by the plant and the regulator. With this background in mind, the IAEA has prepared this report on Living Probabilistic Safety Assessment (LPSA) which addresses the updating, documentation, quality assurance, and management and organizational requirements for LPSA. Deficiencies in the areas addressed in this report would seriously reduce the adequacy of the LPSA as a tool to support decision making at NPPs. This report was reviewed by a working group during a Technical Committee Meeting on PSA Applications to Improve NPP Safety held in Madrid, Spain, from 23 to 27 February 1998

  12. Exotic Long-lived Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Morten Dam

    A search for hadronising long-lived massive particles at the Large Hadron Collider is conducted with the ATLAS detector. No excess events are found. Based on statistical analysis, upper limits on the production cross section are observed to be between 0.01 pb and 0.006 pb for colour octet particles...... (gluinos) with masses ranging from 300 GeV/c2 to 1400 GeV/c2, and 0.01 pb to 0.004 pb for colour triplet particles (stops and sbottoms) with masses ranging from 200 GeV/c2 to 900 GeV/c2. In the context of Supersymmetry with decoupled sfermion and sboson sectors (Split-SUSY), this gives a lower limit...... on the gluino mass of 989 GeV/c2, and 683 GeV/c2 for the stop mass and 618 GeV/c2 for the sbottom mass. In addition, a new method is presented that improves the speed (b ) estimation for long-lived particles in the ATLAS tile calorimeter with a factor of 7 improvement in resolution at low-b and a factor of 2...

  13. Living well in the Neuropolis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Des; Rose, Nikolas; Singh, Ilina

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This paper is about the relationship between cities and brains: it charts the back‐and‐forth between the hectic, stressful lives of urban citizens, and a psychological and neurobiological literature that claims to make such stress both visible and knowable. But beyond such genealogical labour, the paper also asks: what can a sociology concerned with the effects of ‘biosocial’ agencies take from a scientific literature on the urban brain? What might sociology even contribute to that literature, in its turn? To investigate these possibilities, the paper centres on the emergence and description of what it calls ‘the Neuropolis’ – a term it deploys to hold together both an intellectual and scientific figure and a real, physical enclosure. The Neuropolis is an image of the city embedded in neuropsychological concepts and histories, but it also describes an embodied set of (sometimes pathological) relations and effects that take places between cities and the people who live in them. At the heart of the paper is an argument that finding a way to thread these phenomena together might open up new paths for thinking about ‘good’ life in the contemporary city. Pushing at this claim, the paper argues that mapping the relations, histories, spaces, and people held together by this term is a vital task for the future of urban sociology. PMID:27397945

  14. The Presence Of Rat And House Sanitation Associated With Leptospira sp. Bacterial Infection In Rats (A Cross Sectional Study In Semarang, Central Java Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setiyani Endang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gajah Mungkur sub-district in Semarang, Indonesia had highest leptospirosis cases (reported in human with seven infected and one dead in 2015. The purpose of this study was to analyze the association between house sanitation and density of rats with Leptospira sp. infection in rats. The study design was cross sectional observational analytic. The number of 308 trapswere placed in study sites over three consecutive nights afterwards. Every houses were placed with four traps, inside and outside. Trapped rats were anesthetized with atropine dose from 0.02 to 0.05 mg/kg body weight of rats continued with Ketamine HCL dose of 50-100 mg/kg body weight of rats by injecting in the thick thigh muscle of it. After that, identification of rats by species and gender then continues with surgery in which a kidney sample was taken to confirm the presence of bacteria Leptospirasp using PCR techniques. The trap installed in 77 houses which later had further observation on house sanitation which includes the existence of a pile of used goods, food storage, garbage can, and the presence of the ceiling, windows and other ventilation.Data was analyzed using distribution frequency and bivariate chi-square test. We had 100 rats captured with live traps as the samples.The proportion of Rattusnorvegicuswas 27% (14.8% positive Leptospira sp.infection and Rattustanezumi 73% (11%positive Leptospira sp.infection. The proportion of male and female rats were almost equal. The statistic test result was significant between the density of rats (p = 0.0001, OR 12.833, 95%CI: 1.565-105.261 and sex of rats (p = 0.019, OR 0.095, 95%CI: 0.012–0.769 with Leptospira sp. infection in rats. The number of rats may increase the infection of Leptospirasp., especially female rats and poor condition of house sanitation. It is recommended to improve house sanitation and regularly trapping rats.

  15. Real goods solar living sourcebook your complete guide to living beyond the grid with renewable energy technologies and sustainable living

    CERN Document Server

    Schaeffer, John

    2014-01-01

    What book would you want if you were stranded on a desert island? Widely regarded as the ""bible"" of off-grid living, Real Goods Solar Living Source Book might be your best choice. With over six hundred thousand copies in print worldwide, it is the most comprehensive resource available for anyone interested in lessening their environmental footprint or increasing their energy independence. The Solar Living Sourcebook, Fourteenth Edition is the ultimate guide to renewable energy, sustainable living, natural and green building, off-grid living, and alternative transporta

  16. Living Free: A Teacher Information Booklet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Robin

    This workbook helps adolescents learn how to take charge of their own lives and happiness. The underlying idea is to teach them how to live responsibly. By learning to live responsibly, adolescents have the best chance of avoiding drugs, alcohol, and other addictive behaviors such as overeating and overspending. The workbook explains the steps to…

  17. Live Streaming | Events | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Live Streaming. Watch Academy events live here! There are no live events currently happening. Watch out this space for updates or suscribe to our YouTube channel by clicking here. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. 29th Mid-year meeting. Posted on 19 January 2018. The 29th Mid-year ...

  18. Rat bite fever.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaastra, W.; Boot, R.G.A.; Ho, H.; Lipman, L.J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Rat bite fever (RBF) is a bacterial zoonosis for which two causal bacterial species have been identified: Streptobacillis moniliformis and Spirillum minus. Haverhill fever (HF) is a form of S. moniliformis infection believed to develop after ingestion of contaminated food or water. Here the

  19. In vitro dynamics of supra-posomal structures in RSK4 rat sarcoma cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Veselý, Pavel; Blase, C.; Matoušková, Eva; Sukhorukov, V.; Bereiter-Hahn, J.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 1 (2005), s. 36 ISSN 0035-9017. [Cytokinematics 2004. International Symposium on Microscopy of Live Cells in the Post Genomics Era /8./. 05.09.2004-07.09.2004, Hradec Králové] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : RSK4 rat sarcoma cells * podosomes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  20. Synthesis of [11C]citalopram and brain distribution studies in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ram, S.; Krishnan, K.R.R.; Bissette, G.; Knight, D.L.; Coleman, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    The study of serotonin uptake sites in the living human brain by PET with [ 11 C]citalopram may be valuable in investigating the anatomic locus and the therapeutic role of depression and prevention of suicide. For this purpose, the authors have synthesized [ 11 C]citalopram. In vivo biodistribution in rats has been determined

  1. Disposition of allylic oxidation pathway metabolites of racemic hexobarbital in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Graaff, M; Vermeulen, N P; Vinks, M H; Breimer, D D

    1986-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics in blood of the major metabolites of hexobarbital (HB), 3'-hydroxyhexobarbital (OH-HB) and 3'-ketohexobarbital (K-HB) were studied in rats. In addition urinary excretion of OH-HB and K-HB and 1,5-dimethylbarbituric acid (DMBA) was determined. Half-lives of OH-HB and K-HB were

  2. Defining beta adrenoreceptors in the living heart with iodocyanopindolol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisson, J.C.; Wieland, D.M.; Koeppe, R.A.; Frey, K.A.; Normolle, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    Beta adrenoreceptors in the heart are integral to the regulation of myocardial function by the sympathetic nervous system and are important in adaptations to physiologic stress and disease. However, these adrenoreceptors have not been defined throughout the living heart. Iodocyanopindolol (ICYP), a nonselective beta antagonist, binds with high affinity to beta adrenoreceptors and, when radiolabeled, offers a method for portraying the receptors quantitatively. When administered intravenously to rats, [ 125 I]ICYP in the heart was fitted with a mathematical model. The T 1/2 of offset of binding from the heart was several hours, and metabolism of ICYP in blood and heart was modest. ICYP in the heart fulfilled the following criteria for binding to beta adrenoreceptors: Patterns of inhibition produced by a beta agonist and beta antagonists were according to dose and potency; binding of (-)ICYP and (±)ICYP were stereospecific; and binding was saturable. When administered intravenously to dogs at 3-5 mCi, [ 123 I]ICYP distributed diffusely in the myocardium, as seen in scintigraphic tomographs of the heart. A small quantity of another beta antagonist selectively reduced lung binding to improve image quality. Thus, [ 123 I]ICYP portrays beta adrenoreceptors in the living heart. With newer detection instruments, dynamic data of [ 123 I]ICYP can be acquired to quantify the adrenoreceptors

  3. Dependence of the average life span, mortality and osteosarcoma occurence in rats on the radiation dose absorbed (Sr 90)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvedov, V.L.; Panteleev, L.I.

    1975-01-01

    The dose dependence of mortality and osteosarcoma development frequency is studied in white rats which have received 0.00005-5.0μCi/day of strontium-90 throughout their lives. It is shown that total mortality in the dose range 0-10 krad is a more sensitive test than osteosarcoma frequency, osteosarcomatosis hardly reducing the mean life span of the irradiated rats. (author)

  4. IDENTIFICATION OF RATS AND SHREW IN ARGASOKA AND KUTABANJAR VILLAGE BANJARNEGARA SUB DISTRICT BANJARNEGARA DISTRICT 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendri Anggi Widayani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKTikus (Ordo Rodentia merupakan hewan yang mempunyai peranan penting dalam kehidupan manusia baik bersifatmenguntungkan maupun merugikan. Spesies tikus mempunyai habitat masing-masing untuk berkembangbiak. Pemukimanmerupakan habitat tikus untuk memperoleh makanan. Tujuan penelitian untuk menggambarkan keberhasilan penangkapantikus dan mengidentifikasi tikus yang tertangkap di Kelurahan Argasoka dan Kutabanjarnegara. Metode penelitianmenggunakan survei dengan pendekatan cross sectional. Populasi adalah tikus yang berada di Kelurahan Argasoka danKelurahan Kutabanjarnegara. Sampel adalah tikus yang tertangkap menggunakan perangkap sebanyak 100 perangkapyang dipasang di lokasi penelitian selama 2 malam,dengan menggunakan umpan kelapa bakar dan ikan asin. Analisis datasecara deskriptif disajikan dalam bentuk narasi dan tabel distribusi frekuensi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan keberhasilanpenangkapan tikus di Kelurahan Argasoka sebesar 10,5% dan di Kelurahan Kutabanjarnegara sebesar 6%. Tikus yangtertangkap 25 ekor Rattus tanezumi (75,76%, 1ekor R. tiomanicus (3,03%, dan 7 ekor Suncus murinus (21,21%. Tikus dancecurut berjenis kelamin jantan lebih banyak ditemukan (54,54 % daripada betina (45,45 %.Kata kunci: tikus, keberhasilan penangkapan, identifikasiABSTRACTRat is an animal that have important role to human being, even its profitable or adverse. This species have their own habitatto each depression. The community settlement is one of rat habitat to get food. The research purpose is to measure the trapsuccess of rat and to identify rat species in Argasoka and Kutabanjar Village, Banjarnegara. The research used surveymethod with cross sectional approach. Population were rats those lived in Argasoka and Kutabanjar Village. The samplewere rats those caught using single live traps in Argasoka and Kutabanjar Village, Banjarnegara. Rat trapping wasconducted for 2 nights using 100 single live traps with the roasted coconut and salted fish. Technical

  5. ATLAS Live: Collaborative Information Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldfarb, Steven [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Collaboration: ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-12-23

    I report on a pilot project launched in 2010 focusing on facilitating communication and information exchange within the ATLAS Collaboration, through the combination of digital signage software and webcasting. The project, called ATLAS Live, implements video streams of information, ranging from detailed detector and data status to educational and outreach material. The content, including text, images, video and audio, is collected, visualised and scheduled using digital signage software. The system is robust and flexible, utilizing scripts to input data from remote sources, such as the CERN Document Server, Indico, or any available URL, and to integrate these sources into professional-quality streams, including text scrolling, transition effects, inter and intra-screen divisibility. Information is published via the encoding and webcasting of standard video streams, viewable on all common platforms, using a web browser or other common video tool. Authorisation is enforced at the level of the streaming and at the web portals, using the CERN SSO system.

  6. ATLAS Live: Collaborative Information Streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldfarb, Steven

    2011-01-01

    I report on a pilot project launched in 2010 focusing on facilitating communication and information exchange within the ATLAS Collaboration, through the combination of digital signage software and webcasting. The project, called ATLAS Live, implements video streams of information, ranging from detailed detector and data status to educational and outreach material. The content, including text, images, video and audio, is collected, visualised and scheduled using digital signage software. The system is robust and flexible, utilizing scripts to input data from remote sources, such as the CERN Document Server, Indico, or any available URL, and to integrate these sources into professional-quality streams, including text scrolling, transition effects, inter and intra-screen divisibility. Information is published via the encoding and webcasting of standard video streams, viewable on all common platforms, using a web browser or other common video tool. Authorisation is enforced at the level of the streaming and at the web portals, using the CERN SSO system.

  7. ATLAS Live: Collaborative Information Streams

    CERN Document Server

    Goldfarb, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    I report on a pilot project launched in 2010 focusing on facilitating communication and information exchange within the ATLAS Collaboration, through the combination of digital signage software and webcasting. The project, called ATLAS Live, implements video streams of information, ranging from detailed detector and data status to educational and outreach material. The content, including text, images, video and audio, is collected, visualised and scheduled using digital signage software. The system is robust and flexible, utilizing scripts to input data from remote sources, such as the CERN Document Server, Indico, or any available URL, and to integrate these sources into professional-quality streams, including text scrolling, transition effects, inter and intra-screen divisibility. Information is published via the encoding and webcasting of standard video streams, viewable on all common platforms, using a web browser or other common video tool. Authorisation is enforced at the level of the streaming and at th...

  8. ATLAS Live: Collaborative Information Streams

    CERN Document Server

    Goldfarb, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    I report on a pilot project launched in 2010 focusing on facilitating communication and information exchange within the ATLAS Collaboration, through the combination of digital signage software and webcasting. The project, called ATLAS Live, implements video streams of information, ranging from detailed detector and data status to educational and outreach material. The content, including text, images, video and audio, is collected, visualised and scheduled using the SCALA digital signage software system. The system is robust and flexible, allowing for the usage of scripts to input data from remote sources, such as the CERN Document Server, Indico, or any available URL, and to integrate these sources into professional-quality streams, including text scrolling, transition effects, inter and intrascreen divisibility. The video is made available to the collaboration or public through the encoding and webcasting of standard video streams, viewable on all common platforms, using a web browser or other common video t...

  9. Age estimation in the living

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tangmose, Sara; Thevissen, Patrick; Lynnerup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    A radiographic assessment of third molar development is essential for differentiating between juveniles and adolescents in forensic age estimations. As the developmental stages of third molars are highly correlated, age estimates based on a combination of a full set of third molar scores...... are statistically complicated. Transition analysis (TA) is a statistical method developed for estimating age at death in skeletons, which combines several correlated developmental traits into one age estimate including a 95% prediction interval. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of TA...... in the living on a full set of third molar scores. A cross sectional sample of 854 panoramic radiographs, homogenously distributed by sex and age (15.0-24.0 years), were randomly split in two; a reference sample for obtaining age estimates including a 95% prediction interval according to TA; and a validation...

  10. Living with Mentally Ill Parent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Buldukoglu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present review seeks to identify and analyze qualitative studies that examined experiences of children whose parents have a mental illness. This study reported that children whose parents have a mental illness had some common experiences. These experiences may have negative effects on children’s coping skills, resilience to tough living conditions and ability to maintain their mental health. In spite of these negative conditions, some of these children have much more self-confidence, resilience and independence because of inner development and early maturation. Some effective intervention programs are needed to promote information to children and other family members about mental illness, coping behaviors. Availability of such psychiatric services and nation-wide programs with professionals to deal with these problems should be organized properly to increase quality of life of these children. Furthermore, qualitative researches that explore the experiences of children whose parents with mental illness should also be conducted in our country.

  11. Living with a parastomal bulge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard, Marianne; Thomsen, Thordis; Vinther, Anders

    2017-01-01

    was performed using a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach. FINDINGS: The bulge caused different unfamiliar bodily sensations that interacted with patients' everyday lives. Some but not all of these sensations were modifiable. As the bulge and the ostomy changed size and shape, patients had to adjust...... and readjust stoma care continuously. The physical change called for patients' awareness and posed a threat to patients' control of the ostomy and challenged stoma self-care. The bulge caused a bodily asymmetry that deformed the patients' bodies in a way that exceeded the perceived alteration already caused...... is limited and highly warranted to improve clinical outcome. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: The ever-changing bulge posed a threat to patients' control of the ostomy and required specific care from the stoma therapist. Needs-based access to counselling, advice and supplementary materials is important....

  12. Semiotic Scaffolding in Living Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    The apparently purposeful nature of living systems is obtained through a sophisticated network of semiotic controls whereby biochemical, physiological and behavioral processes become tuned to the needs of the system. The operation of these semiotic controls takes place and is enabled across...... a diversity of levels. Such semiotic controls may be distinguished from ordinary deterministic control mechanisms through an inbuilt anticipatory capacity based on a distinct kind of causation that I call here "semiotic causation" to denote the bringing about of changes under the guidance of interpretation...... in a local .context. Anticipation through the skilled interpretation of indicators of temporal relations in the context of a particular survival project (or life strategy) guides organismic behavior towards local ends. This network of semiotic controls establishes an enormously complex semiotic scaffolding...

  13. Neutron effects on living things

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    Scientific interest in neutrons and protons - two fundamental particles of the atomic nucleus - has grown in recent years as the technology of peaceful uses of atomic energy has progressed. Such interest also has increased because both protons and neutrons are encountered in outer space. However, only recently has a thorough study of the biological effects of neutrons and protons become possible, as a result of progress in making physical measurements of the radiation dose absorbed in biological systems (of plants and animals, for example). Reports of work in that field were presented in December 1962, when IAEA sponsored at Harwell Laboratory in the United Kingdom the first international symposium on detection dosimetry (measurement) and standardization of neutron radiation sources. The Harwell meeting was followed in October 1963 at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Long Island, New York, by the first scientific meeting sponsored by IAEA in the U. S. Entitled 'Biological Effects of Neutron Irradiations', the Symposium continued the review of problems of measuring radiation absorption in living things and provided in addition for several reports dealing with the effects of radiation on living organisms - plant, animal and human - and with delayed consequences of exposure to radiation, such as: change in life span; tumour incidence; and fertility. Eighteen countries were represented. Although much has been learned about X-ray and gamma-ray effects, comparatively little is known about the biological effects of neutrons, and therefore many of the Symposium papers reviewed the various aspects of neutron experimentation. Similarly, since there is increasing interest in the biological effects of protons, papers were given on that related subject.

  14. Stress Resistance in the Naked Mole-Rat: The Bare Essentials – A Mini-Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kaitlyn N.; Mele, James; Hornsby, Peter J.; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies comparing similar-sized species with disparate longevity may elucidate novel mechanisms that abrogate aging and prolong good health. We focus on the longest living rodent, the naked mole-rat. This mouse-sized mammal lives ∼8 times longer than do mice and, despite high levels of oxidative damage evident at a young age, it is not only very resistant to spontaneous neoplasia but also shows minimal decline in age-associated physiological traits. Objectives We assess the current status of stress resistance and longevity, focusing in particular on the molecular and cellular responses to cytotoxins and other stressors between the short-lived laboratory mouse and the naked mole-rat. Results Like other experimental animal models of lifespan extension, naked mole-rat fibroblasts are extremely tolerant of a broad spectrum of cytotoxins including heat, heavy metals, DNA-damaging agents and xenobiotics, showing LD50 values between 2- and 20-fold greater than those of fibroblasts of shorter-lived mice. Our new data reveal that naked mole-rat fibroblasts stop proliferating even at low doses of toxin whereas those mouse fibroblasts that survive treatment rapidly re-enter the cell cycle and may proliferate with DNA damage. Naked mole-rat fibroblasts also show significantly higher constitutive levels of both p53 and Nrf2 protein levels and activity, and this increases even further in response to toxins. Conclusion Enhanced cell signaling via p53 and Nrf2 protects cells against proliferating with damage, augments clearance of damaged proteins and organelles and facilitates the maintenance of both genomic and protein integrity. These pathways collectively regulate a myriad of mechanisms which may contribute to the attenuated aging profile and sustained healthspan of the naked mole-rat. Understanding how these are regulated may be also integral to sustaining positive human healthspan well into old age and may elucidate novel therapeutics for delaying the onset and

  15. Stress resistance in the naked mole-rat: the bare essentials - a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kaitlyn N; Mele, James; Hornsby, Peter J; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2012-01-01

    Studies comparing similar-sized species with disparate longevity may elucidate novel mechanisms that abrogate aging and prolong good health. We focus on the longest living rodent, the naked mole-rat. This mouse-sized mammal lives ~8 times longer than do mice and, despite high levels of oxidative damage evident at a young age, it is not only very resistant to spontaneous neoplasia but also shows minimal decline in age-associated physiological traits. We assess the current status of stress resistance and longevity, focusing in particular on the molecular and cellular responses to cytotoxins and other stressors between the short-lived laboratory mouse and the naked mole-rat. Like other experimental animal models of lifespan extension, naked mole-rat fibroblasts are extremely tolerant of a broad spectrum of cytotoxins including heat, heavy metals, DNA-damaging agents and xenobiotics, showing LD(50) values between 2- and 20-fold greater than those of fibroblasts of shorter-lived mice. Our new data reveal that naked mole-rat fibroblasts stop proliferating even at low doses of toxin whereas those mouse fibroblasts that survive treatment rapidly re-enter the cell cycle and may proliferate with DNA damage. Naked mole-rat fibroblasts also show significantly higher constitutive levels of both p53 and Nrf2 protein levels and activity, and this increases even further in response to toxins. Enhanced cell signaling via p53 and Nrf2 protects cells against proliferating with damage, augments clearance of damaged proteins and organelles and facilitates the maintenance of both genomic and protein integrity. These pathways collectively regulate a myriad of mechanisms which may contribute to the attenuated aging profile and sustained healthspan of the naked mole-rat. Understanding how these are regulated may be also integral to sustaining positive human healthspan well into old age and may elucidate novel therapeutics for delaying the onset and progression of physiological declines

  16. Probiotics and Probiotic Metabolic Product Improved Intestinal Function and Ameliorated LPS-Induced Injury in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Bo; Wu, Jie; Li, Xiaohui; Men, Xiaoming; Xu, Ziwei

    2017-11-01

    In the present study, we sought to determine the effects of Bacillus subtilis (BAS) and Bacillus licheniformis (BAL) in rats after lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute intestinal inflammation. We also determined whether the B. subtilis metabolic product (BASM) is as effective as the live-cell probiotic. 60 male SD rats were randomly assigned to five groups and administered a diet containing 0.05% B. licheniformis (BAL group), 0.05% B. subtilis (BAS group), 0.5% B. subtilis metabolic product (BASM group), or a basic diet (PC group and NC group) for 40 days. On day 40, BAL, BAS, BASM, and NC groups were injected with 4 mg/kg body weight LPS. 4 h later, all rats were anesthetized and sacrificed. The results showed that the administration of B. licheniformis and B. subtilis improved intestinal function as evidenced by histology, increased enzyme activity, and mucosal thickness. They also increased the number of intraepithelial lymphocytes and decreased mucosal myeloperoxidase activity and plasma TNF-α. In addition, the cecal content of B. subtilis-treated rats had significantly increased microbial diversity, decreased numbers of Firmicutes, and increased numbers of Bacteroidetes as compared to rats fed basic diets. Similar to BAS group, the cecal content of B. licheniformis-treated rats decreased the number of Firmicutes. Administration of B. subtilis metabolic product had similar effects on intestinal function, inflammation response, and microbial diversity as B. subtilis but these effects were attenuated. In conclusion, administration of probiotic strains B. licheniformis or B. subtilis improved intestinal function, ameliorated the inflammation response, and modulated microflora after LPS-induced acute inflammation in rats. Non-living cells also exerted probiotic properties but live cells tended to function better.

  17. Radiocesium uptake by a population of cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) inhabitating the banks of a radioactive liquid waste pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garten, C.T. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    A mean population of 20 cotton rats inhabited the banks of a small radioactive liquid waste pond (approximately 0.39 ha) in Tennessee during the summer of 1977. Radiocesium concentrations in common shoreline plants (Eleocharis, Juncus, Typha, and Polygonum) ranged from 80pCi/dry g in Juncus to 35,800 pCi/dry g in Eleocharis. The mean (+-S.E.) 137 Cs concentration in cotton rat GI tracts was 2283 (+-591) pCi/dry g (N=14). The mean (+-S.E.) whole-body burden of 137 Cs in 14 rats sampled from June to September was 44467 (+-13,142) pCi. Mean 137 Cs body burdens in cotton rats increased from 32 pCi/g live weight in May to 208 pCi/g live weight in August and declined to 3 pCi/g live weight in December. The mean (+-S.D.) percent distribution of the whole-body contents among pelt, GI tract and carcass was 12(+-3), 28(+-12), and 60(+-9), respectively. The calculated mean (+-S.E.) ingestion rate of 137 Cs, assuming rats recaptured on the pond's banks for longer than 42 days were at equilibrium, was 1792(+-504) pCi/day. The concentration of 137 Cs in shoreline plants, rat GI tracts, and rat bodies indicated that cotton rats, which are herbivores, accumulated their body burdens by foraging along the contamination zone bordering the pond shoreline. A maximum mean estimate of the amount of 137 Cs annually exported by cotton rats from the pond is 8719 nCi or approximately 10 -6 % of the total amount estimated to be present in the pond's sediments. (author)

  18. The global need for lived experience leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Louise; Stratford, Anthony; Davidson, Larry

    2018-03-01

    Common challenges and experiences of the lived experience/peer workforce globally are considered, with an emphasis on ensuring that future developments both protect and promote the unique lived experience perspective. In the Western world, rapid growth in lived experience roles has led to an urgent need for training and workforce development. However, research indicates the roles risk being coopted without clear lived experience leadership, which is often not occurring. In developing countries and in many Western contexts, the lived experience role has not yet been accepted within the mental health workforce. The need for lived experience leadership to guide these issues is highlighted. Peer-reviewed research, relevant gray literature, and professional experience in countries where little published material currently exists. A window of opportunity currently exists to maximize lived experience leadership, and that window may be closing fast if broad-based actions are not initiated now. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Whole-body retention of 60Co incorporated into a seaweed in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Jiro; Nishimura, Yoshikazu; Ichikawa, Ryushi

    1979-01-01

    The objective of this study is to compare whole-body retention in the rat of radiocobalt incorporated into a marine green alga with that of 60 Co in inorganic form. Ulva pertusa was incubated in aerated seawater containing 60 Co under fluorescent lamp for 7 days. The radioactive seaweed was homogenated and was given to rats via a stomach tube. The control group of rats was given 60 CoCl 2 with homogenate of non-radioactive seaweed. Whole-body retention of the radionuclide was determined by in vivo counting of the living animal. The result revealed that rats absorbed and retained much more 60 Co incorporated into the seaweed than 60 CoCl 2 . This fact should be taken into account in the estimation of internal dose due to radiocobalt released into marine environment. (author)

  20. Living arrangements and mental health in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joutsenniemi, Kaisla; Martelin, Tuija; Martikainen, Pekka; Pirkola, Sami; Koskinen, Seppo

    2006-01-01

    Background Non‐married persons are known to have poor mental health compared with married persons. Health differences between marital status groups may largely arise from corresponding differences in interpersonal social bonds. However, official marital status mirrors the social reality of persons to a decreasing extent, and living arrangements may be a better measure of social bonds. Little is known about mental health in different living arrangement groups. This study aims to establish the extent and determinants of mental health differences by living arrangement in terms of psychological distress (GHQ) and DSM‐IV psychiatric disorders (CIDI). Methods Data were used from the nationally representative cross sectional health 2000 survey, conducted in 2000–1 in Finland. Altogether 4685 participants (80%) aged 30–64 years were included in these analyses; comprehensive information was available on measures of mental health and living arrangements. Living arrangements were measured as follows: married, cohabiting, living with other(s) than a partner, and living alone. Results Compared with the married, persons living alone and those living with other(s) than a partner were approximately twice as likely to have anxiety or depressive disorders. Cohabiters did not differ from the married. In men, psychological distress was similarly associated with living arrangements. Unemployment, lack of social support, and alcohol consumption attenuated the excess psychological distress and psychiatric morbidity of persons living alone and of those living with other(s) than a partner by about 10%–50% each. Conclusions Living arrangements are strongly associated with mental health, particularly among men. Information on living arrangements, social support, unemployment, and alcohol use may facilitate early stage recognition of poor mental health in primary health care. PMID:16698975

  1. Long-lived cancer-resistant rodents as new model species for cancer research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge eAzpurua

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Most rodents are small and short-lived, but several lineages have independently evolved long lifespans without a concomitant increase in body mass. Most notably, the two subterranean species naked mole rat (NMR and blind mole rat (BMR which have maximum lifespans of 32 and 21 years respectively. The longevity of these species has sparked interest in the tumor suppression strategies that may have also evolved, because for many rodent species (including mice, rats, guinea pigs, gerbils and hamsters tumors are major source of late-life mortality. Here, we review the recent literature on anticancer mechanisms in long-lived rodents. Both NMR and BMR seem to have developed tumor defenses that rely on extra-cellular signals. However, while the NMR relies on a form of contact inhibition to suppress growth, the BMR evolved a mechanism mediated by the release of interferon and rapid necrotic cell death. Although both organisms ultimately rely on canonical downstream tumor suppressors (pRB and p53 the studies reveal species can evolve different strategies to achieve tumor-resistance. Importantly, studies of these cancer-resistant rodents may benefit human health if such mechanisms can be activated in human cells.

  2. Living science: Science as an activity of living beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLennan, Bruce J

    2015-12-01

    The philosophy of science should accommodate itself to the facts of human existence, using all aspects of human experience to adapt more effectively, as individuals, species, and global ecosystem. This has several implications: (1) Our nature as sentient beings interacting with other sentient beings requires the use of phenomenological methods to investigate consciousness. (2) Our embodied, situated, purposeful physical interactions with the world are the foundation of scientific understanding. (3) Aristotle's four causes are essential for understanding living systems and, in particular, the final cause aids understanding the role of humankind, and especially science, in the global ecosystem. (4) In order to fulfill this role well, scientists need to employ the full panoply of human faculties. These include the consciousness faculties (thinking, sensation, feeling, intuition), and therefore, as advocated by many famous scientists, we should cultivate our aesthetic sense, emotions, imagination, and intuition. Our unconscious faculties include archetypal structures common to all humans, which can guide scientific discovery. By striving to engage the whole of human nature, science will fulfill better its function for humans and the global ecosystem. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Late effects of in utero exposure to carcinogens in rats, with special reference to postnatal growth and tumorigenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naito, Y; Takizawa, S; Watanabe, H; Hirose, F [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology

    1976-11-01

    Fifteen-day pregnant Wistar/Furth rats were irradiated with 100 rads of x ray of fast neutron (14.1 MeV). Fast neutron was found to be more effective than x rays in reducing the number of live-births and in retarding the postnatal growth of the offspring. Among the various organs examined, the brain, uterus, spleen and gonads were highly radiosensitive in terms of organ weight. Microscopic examination revealed a marked dysplasia of the ovary in the fast neutron-irradiated rats. Pre-conception irradiation did not cause any deleterious effects on the offspring. No substantial difference was noted in the peripheral blood pictures or on the tumor incidence in rats born from the irradiated female rats. On the other hand, it was noteworthy that N-butylnitrosourea given transplacentally induced 3 cases of brain tumor. The incidence of leukemia and mammary tumor was significantly higher in the irradiated or carcinogen-treated pregnant rats.

  4. Effects of enoxaparin and unfractionated heparin in prophylactic and therapeutic doses on the fertility of female Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiró-Filho, Ernesto Antonio; Aydos, Ricardo Dutra; Senefonte, Flávio Renato de Almeida; Ferreira, Cristiane Munaretto; Pereira, Erica Freire de Vasconcelos; Oliveira, Vanessa Marcon de; Menezes, Giovanna Pádoa de; Bósio, Marco Antonio Costa

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the effects of exposure of enoxaparin and unfractionated heparin (UFH) in prophylactic and therapeutic doses on the fertility rates of pregnant healthy Wistar rats. Enoxaparin and UFH were administered in prophylactic doses 1 mg/Kg/day 72 UI/Kg/day, and in therapeutic doses at 2 mg/kg/day 400UI/Kg/day. The rats were divided into five groups. The number of live and dead foetuses was quantified. The uterine horns were dissected and the presence of early and late reabsorptions (abortions) was determined. A peffect on fertility with the use of anticoagulant drugs in pregnant healthy Wistar rats.

  5. Altitude training induced alterations in erythrocyte rheological properties: a controlled comparison study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bor-Kucukatay, Melek; Colak, Ridvan; Erken, Gülten; Kilic-Toprak, Emine; Kucukatay, Vural

    2014-01-01

    Altitude training is frequently used by athletes to improve sea-level performance. However, the objective benefits of altitude training are controversial. This study aimed to investigate the possible alterations in hemorheological parameters in response to altitude training. Sprague Dawley rats, were divided into 6 groups: live low-train low (LLTL), live high-train high (LHTH), live high-train low (LHTL) and their controls live high and low (LHALC), live high (LHC), live low (LLC). LHC and LHTH groups were exposed to hypoxia (15% O2, altitudes of 3000 m), 4 weeks. LHALC and LHTL were exposed to 12 hours hypoxia/normoxia per day, 4 weeks. Hypoxia was maintained by a hypoxic tent. The training protocol corresponded to 60-70% of maximal exercise capacity. Rats of training groups ran on treadmill for 20-30 min/day, 4 days/week, 4 weeks. Erythrocyte deformability of LHC group was increased compared to LHALC and LLC. Deformability of LHTH group was higher than LHALC and LLTL groups. No statistically significant alteration in erythrocyte aggregation parameters was observed. There were no significant relationships between RBC deformability and exercise performance. The results of this study show that, living (LHC) and training at altitude (LHTH) seems more advantageous in hemorheological point of view.

  6. Forecasting the Relative and Cumulative Effects of Multiple Stressors on At-risk Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    applied to model populations of Ord’s kangaroo rat, Spotted Owls, and elk. Although the model was recently demonstrated to members of the DoD...C. C. Peterson, I. R. Wallis, K. H. Berry, and K. A. Nagy. 1998. Effects of climatic variation on field metabolism and water relations of desert...simulation experiment with endangered kangaroo rats. International Association for Landscape Ecology Annual Meeting, April 2009. A. 2 A. 3

  7. Effects of Simultaneous Radiofrequency Radiation and Chemical Exposure of Mammalian Cells. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    chromosome - - - - - - -I aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges (SCE). Yao (1982) exposed rat kangaroo RH5 and RH1l6 cells to 2.45 GHz radiation, and...control was reported in chromosome aberrations. Yac (1982) investigated the cytogenetic consequences of chronic microwave exposure on rat kangaroo RH5...was said to be 280C. The cells were exposed both as conidia, which are "rather inactive metabolically ," and also after DNA replication had been

  8. Litigation Technical Support and Services, Rocky Mountain Arsenal. Biota Remedial Investigation, Version 3.2. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    significantly. while isodrin is an analog of endrtr and is converted metabolically to that compound. Analyses were also performed for I *l.-dichloro-2,2-bis...abundant are the deer mouse, prairie and meadow voles, and Ord’s kangaroo rat. Larger, more conspicuous rodents include the black-tailed prairie dog...meadow vole, Ord’s kangaroo rat, hispid pocket mouse, and silky pocket mouse(MKE, 1988). Tall weedy forb$, yucca, sand sagebrush, and cattails are

  9. Living Arrangements of Young Adults in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Schwanitz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Comparative research suggests that there are great cross-national and cross-temporal differences in living arrangements of young adults aged 18-34 in Europe. In this paper, we examine young adults’ living arrangements (1 across several European countries and different national contexts, and (2 by taking into account cross-time variability. In doing so, we pay careful attention to a comprehensive conceptualisation of living arrangements (including extended and non-family living arrangements. The aim of this paper is to deepen our understanding of family structure and household arrangements in Europe by examining and mapping the cross-national and cross-temporal variety of young adults’ living arrangements. For our analysis we use data from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series International (IPUMSi for the census rounds 1980, 1990, and 2000 for eight European countries (Austria, France, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Portugal, Romania, and Switzerland. We employ log-linear models to ascertain the influence of individual and contextual factors on living arrangements. The analyses lend further support to a North/West – South/East divide in living arrangements and general gender differentials in extended family living. Other interesting results are the heterogeneity in the living arrangements of single mothers across geographic areas, and the upward trend of extended household living for young men and women between 1980 and 2000.

  10. Dynamical Signatures of Living Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, M.

    1999-01-01

    One of the main challenges in modeling living systems is to distinguish a random walk of physical origin (for instance, Brownian motions) from those of biological origin and that will constitute the starting point of the proposed approach. As conjectured, the biological random walk must be nonlinear. Indeed, any stochastic Markov process can be described by linear Fokker-Planck equation (or its discretized version), only that type of process has been observed in the inanimate world. However, all such processes always converge to a stable (ergodic or periodic) state, i.e., to the states of a lower complexity and high entropy. At the same time, the evolution of living systems directed toward a higher level of complexity if complexity is associated with a number of structural variations. The simplest way to mimic such a tendency is to incorporate a nonlinearity into the random walk; then the probability evolution will attain the features of diffusion equation: the formation and dissipation of shock waves initiated by small shallow wave disturbances. As a result, the evolution never "dies:" it produces new different configurations which are accompanied by an increase or decrease of entropy (the decrease takes place during formation of shock waves, the increase-during their dissipation). In other words, the evolution can be directed "against the second law of thermodynamics" by forming patterns outside of equilibrium in the probability space. Due to that, a specie is not locked up in a certain pattern of behavior: it still can perform a variety of motions, and only the statistics of these motions is constrained by this pattern. It should be emphasized that such a "twist" is based upon the concept of reflection, i.e., the existence of the self-image (adopted from psychology). The model consists of a generator of stochastic processes which represents the motor dynamics in the form of nonlinear random walks, and a simulator of the nonlinear version of the diffusion

  11. Measurements of half-lives of short-lived nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmali, A.

    2001-01-01

    In this work 19 F(n,p) 19 O (26.94 sec.), 76 Ge(n,2n) 75m Ge(47.73 sec.), 23 Na(n,p) 23 Ne (37.24 sec.) 23 Na(n,α) 20 F (11.12 sec.), 68 Zn(n,p) 68g Cu (31.11 sec.), 46 Ti(n,P) 46m Sc (18.70 sec.), 19 F(n,α) 16 N (7.13 sec.) and 92 Mo(n,2n) 91m Mo (65.40 sec.) half lives were determined. The half life measurements were performed utilizing the Sames T-400 neutron generator at the Physics Department of Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center, Istanbul. Fast neutrons (∼ 14 MeV) were produced via T(d,n)He reaction in a TIT target which was bombarded by 300 KeV deuterons. The samples bombarded with 14 MeV neutrons were transferred with a fast sample transport system from neutron source to the HPGe detector were the gamma measurements are performed. The time elapsed during the transport of the sample between the two stations were about 0.5 sec. in the experimental data, corrections were made for coincidence summing, pules pile up, dead time and background elimination. In order to test the accuracy and the sensitivity of the half-life measurement system used in this work, the 19 O half life form the 19 F(n,p) 19 O reaction were measured first and compared with the data given in a recently published JAERI report

  12. Proliferative and morphologic changes in rat colon following bypass surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkla, D H; Tutton, P J

    1985-06-01

    In this study the proliferative and morphologic changes that occur in the colon of normal and dimethylhydrazine-treated rats following surgical bypass of the middle third of the colon are reported. Proliferative changes were measured by estimating accumulated mitotic indexes following vinblastine treatment and morphologic changes were observed with the use of light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Data were collected on Days 0, 7, 14, 30, and 72 after surgery. The results show that surgical bypass produces contrasting effects in the segments proximal to and distal to the suture line. In the proximal segment there was morphologic evidence of hyperplasia, although proliferative activity was unchanged except for an increase at 7 days in normal rats. In the distal segment there was a long-lived increase in the mitotic index, although morphologic changes were not seen. The results for DMH-treated rats were similar to those in normal rats. Groups of isolated dysplastic epithelial cells were often seen in the submucosa adjacent to sutures up to 72 days after surgery. Increased lymphoid infiltration was seen in segments proximal to but not distal to the suture line. It is hypothesized that the different responses of the proximal and distal segments may be related to the different embryologic origins of those segments. It is also hypothesized that the seeding of the submucosa with epithelial cells during suturing may be a factor in tumor recurrence.

  13. Laughing rats are optimistic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafal Rygula

    Full Text Available Emotions can bias human decisions- for example depressed or anxious people tend to make pessimistic judgements while those in positive affective states are often more optimistic. Several studies have reported that affect contingent judgement biases can also be produced in animals. The animals, however, cannot self-report; therefore, the valence of their emotions, to date, could only be assumed. Here we present the results of an experiment where the affect-contingent judgement bias has been produced by objectively measured positive emotions. We trained rats in operant Skinner boxes to press one lever in response to one tone to receive a food reward and to press another lever in response to a different tone to avoid punishment by electric foot shock. After attaining a stable level of discrimination performance, the animals were subjected to either handling or playful, experimenter-administered manual stimulation - tickling. This procedure has been confirmed to induce a positive affective state in rats, and the 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalisations (rat laughter emitted by animals in response to tickling have been postulated to index positive emotions akin to human joy. During the tickling and handling sessions, the numbers of emitted high-frequency 50-kHz calls were scored. Immediately after tickling or handling, the animals were tested for their responses to a tone of intermediate frequency, and the pattern of their responses to this ambiguous cue was taken as an indicator of the animals' optimism. Our findings indicate that tickling induced positive emotions which are directly indexed in rats by laughter, can make animals more optimistic. We demonstrate for the first time a link between the directly measured positive affective state and decision making under uncertainty in an animal model. We also introduce innovative tandem-approach for studying emotional-cognitive interplay in animals, which may be of great value for understanding the emotional

  14. Reducing consumption through communal living

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herring, Horace [The Open Univ., Milton Keynes (United Kingdom). Energy and Environment Research Unit

    2003-07-01

    This paper examines ways consumers and communities can voluntarily adopt a low consumption (or low carbon) lifestyle, often termed 'voluntary simplicity' or a policy of 'sufficiency'. There is an increasing academic literature within Europe in the last five years on the whole question of 'sustainable consumption', and the relationship between income levels and consumption particularly at the household. This debate has moved beyond 'green consumerism' to look at building 'new concepts of prosperity' through local community actions, or reducing working time to allow more time for the creation of social capital. The paper will concentrate on one aspect of the quest for sustainable communities, the relevance of communal living to reducing consumption through examining energy consumption (both direct and indirect) in one such community in the UK. The results from this preliminary study reveal that it is not the sharing of resources that reduces consumption but the mutual reinforcement of attitudes towards a low consumption lifestyle. Thus it is the creation of social capital in a community that is its key to its ecological lifestyle.

  15. Tuning SERS for living erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brazhe, Nadezda; Parshina, E.Y.; Khabanova, V.V.

    2013-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a unique technique to study submembrane hemoglobin (Hbsm) in erythrocytes. We report the detailed design of SERS experiments on living erythrocytes to estimate dependence of the enhancemen t factor for main Raman bands of Hbsm on silver nanoparticle (Ag......NP) properties. We demonstrate that the enhancement factor for 4/A1g, 10/B1g and A2g Raman bands of Hbsm varies from 105 to 107 under proposed experimental conditions with 473 nm laser excitation. For the first time we show that the enhancement of Raman scattering increases with the increase in the relative...... between small AgNPs and Hbsm and, consequently, leads to the higher enhancement of Raman scattering of Hbsm. The enhancement of higher wavenumber bands 10/B1g and A2g is more sensitive to AgNPs' size and the relative amount of small AgNPs than the enhancement of the lower wavenumber band 4/A1g. This can...

  16. Live broadcast from the Globe

    CERN Multimedia

    La tête au carréTuesday, 17 June 2008 between 2.00 and 3.00 p.m.“La tête au carré”, a France Inter radio programme devoted to science, will set up its sound booth at CERN for a special broadcast on the LHC.The journalist Mathieu Vidard will interview the following guests: - Pierre Van Hove, an experimental physicist working on CMS. He is a CNRS research scientist from the Institut Hubert Curien in Strasbourg, France.- Abdelhak Djouadi is a theoretical physicist. He is a research director at the CNRS’s Laboratoire de physique théorique at Orsay, France and holder of the CNRS silver medal.- Magali Gruwe, one of the engineers in charge of LHC operations at CERN.» To take part in this live broadcast, which is open to the public, come to the Globe at 1:30 p.m. The number of places is limited.» No specialist knowledge required.» See the programme's homepage

  17. Face Liveness Detection Using Defocus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sooyeon Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop security systems for identity authentication, face recognition (FR technology has been applied. One of the main problems of applying FR technology is that the systems are especially vulnerable to attacks with spoofing faces (e.g., 2D pictures. To defend from these attacks and to enhance the reliability of FR systems, many anti-spoofing approaches have been recently developed. In this paper, we propose a method for face liveness detection using the effect of defocus. From two images sequentially taken at different focuses, three features, focus, power histogram and gradient location and orientation histogram (GLOH, are extracted. Afterwards, we detect forged faces through the feature-level fusion approach. For reliable performance verification, we develop two databases with a handheld digital camera and a webcam. The proposed method achieves a 3.29% half total error rate (HTER at a given depth of field (DoF and can be extended to camera-equipped devices, like smartphones.

  18. Living technology: exploiting life's principles in technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedau, Mark A; McCaskill, John S; Packard, Norman H; Rasmussen, Steen

    2010-01-01

    The concept of living technology-that is, technology that is based on the powerful core features of life-is explained and illustrated with examples from artificial life software, reconfigurable and evolvable hardware, autonomously self-reproducing robots, chemical protocells, and hybrid electronic-chemical systems. We define primary (secondary) living technology according as key material components and core systems are not (are) derived from living organisms. Primary living technology is currently emerging, distinctive, and potentially powerful, motivating this review. We trace living technology's connections with artificial life (soft, hard, and wet), synthetic biology (top-down and bottom-up), and the convergence of nano-, bio-, information, and cognitive (NBIC) technologies. We end with a brief look at the social and ethical questions generated by the prospect of living technology.

  19. Live recombinant BHV/BRSV vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Keil, G.M.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention refers to synthetic Bovine Respiratory Syncytium virus genes. Also the invention relates to live attenuated Bovine Herpesvirus recombinants carrying such synthetic genes. Furthermore, the invention relates to vaccines based on these live attenuated recombinants, for the protection of cattle against both Bovine herpesvirus infection and against Bovine Respiratory Syncytium virus infection. Also the invention relates to methods for the preparation of such live attenuated r...

  20. Risk measures in living probabilistic safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, J.; Niemelae, I.

    1993-05-01

    The main objectives of the study are: to define risk measures and suggested uses of them in various living PSA applications for the operational safety management and to describe specific model features required for living PSA applications. The report is based on three case studies performed within the Nordic research project Safety Evaluation by Use of Living PSA and Safety Indicators. (48 refs., 11 figs., 17 tabs.)

  1. Live-action Virtual Reality Games

    OpenAIRE

    Valente, Luis; Clua, Esteban; Silva, Alexandre Ribeiro; Feijó, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes the concept of "live-action virtual reality games" as a new genre of digital games based on an innovative combination of live-action, mixed-reality, context-awareness, and interaction paradigms that comprise tangible objects, context-aware input devices, and embedded/embodied interactions. Live-action virtual reality games are "live-action games" because a player physically acts out (using his/her real body and senses) his/her "avatar" (his/her virtual representation) in t...

  2. Systema Naturae. Classification of living things.

    OpenAIRE

    Alexey Shipunov

    2007-01-01

    Original classification of living organisms containing four kingdoms (Monera, Protista, Vegetabilia and Animalia), 60 phyla and 254 classes, is presented. The classification is based on latest available information.

  3. Getting to know patients’ lived space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norlyk, Annelise; Martinsen, Bente; Dahlberg, Karen

    2013-01-01

    .g. the role of the good patient and the ambiance of hospitals. Home, on the other hand, offers familiar lived space in which patients feel protected and safe. Further, the paper relates patients’ experience of lived space to a phenomenological view of lived space in order to illustrate the radical influence...... as a theoretical framework for an excursive analysis. The paper demonstrates that existential dimensions of lived space at the hospital and at home differ significantly. For the patients, the hospital space means alien territory as opposed to the familiar territory of home. To some extent the experienced...

  4. Prisoners as Living Donors: A Vulnerabilities Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lainie Friedman; Thistlethwaite, J Richard

    2018-01-01

    Although national guidelines exist for evaluating the eligibility of potential living donors and for procuring their informed consent, no special protections or considerations exist for potential living donors who are incarcerated. Human research subject protections in the United States are codified in the Federal Regulations, 45 CFR 46, and special protections are given to prisoners. Living donor transplantation has parallels with human subject research in that both activities are performed with the primary goal of benefiting third parties. In this article, we describe what special considerations should be provided to prisoners as potential living donors using a vulnerabilities approach adapted from the human research subject protection literature.

  5. Dominant lethals following administration of tritium (THO) to rat males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagova, A.; Baev, I.; Bajrakova, A.

    1976-01-01

    Adult rat males were given a single intraperitoneal tritium (THO) injection at 0,01 or 0,001 mCi/g body weight (1/100 or 1/1000 of LDsub(50/30), respectively). Twelve days after treatment each male was mated to 3-5 intact females, and the latter were replaced by fresh ones every 12 following days over a 120-day period. Mated females were killed to score conceptions, corpora lutea, and live and dead embryos. Estimations were made of F 1 prenatal death rate (according to Bateman, 1958) and the frequency of induction of dominant lethal mutations (according to Roehrborn, 1970). The results observed indicated paternal exposure to tritium (THO) to produce dominant lethals both in pre- and post-meiotic germ cells in the rat. The extent of the genetic damage studied was found to depend on the amount of activity administered as well as on the time interval between treatment and conception. (author)

  6. The radiations and the living

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The radiation and the living is divided in five parts: biological radiation effects, early response to ionizing radiation, molecular and cellular effects, external radiotherapy, internal radiotherapy, principles of NMR imaging. About the biological radiation effects, whereas first models of biological effects were based on the sole dose at the cell nucleus, it now appears that the origin of the effects lies in the production of scarce critical events -micro energy-deposits overlapping the DNA. Recent theories have successively examined the role of track-end ionization clusters and of core ionizations in DNA atoms. About the molecular and cellular radiation effects, because of the important role of the DNA molecule, radio-induced DNA lesions are more studied. Many cells are able to respond effectively to the DNA lesions in the minutes, the hours, the days which follow the aggression: early response. This respond can lead, in the case of cells irradiated in mitotic activity, to the stop at critical stages of cell cycle, time to activate the systems of repair of genomic lesions. However, when the badly or not repaired DNA lesions durably persist, this state creates a risk of passage of mutations in the daughter cells. The persistence of these lesions can also engage cells towards processes of cellular death by apoptosis or necrosis. In this lecture will be developed different classes of identified lesions, cellular antioxidant defenses, then the various key molecules involved in the early response after irradiation. The third part devoted to external radiotherapy tell us that radiotherapy is naturally at the edge between medicine and physics. Over the past twenty years, where external radiation therapy moved towards an increased conformation of the dose distribution (conformal therapy), major improvements (extensive use of MRI and PET for tumor imaging and delineation, beam optimization methods to improve the dose distribution, on line imaging) originally came from

  7. Living in a Sustainable World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, K. M.

    1998-01-01

    Many would argue that sustainable development is a very simple idea. It is about ensuring a better quality of life for everyone, now and for generations to come. Deeply embedded in the whole concept is the prudent use of natural resources and this very much includes consideration of renewable forms of energy. Historically, in the UK and some other parts of europe the emphasis on development has been towards large scale energy production facilities. This has been seen as a logical progression within an energy industry which has evolved around the centralised, 'big is beautiful' model. Such thinking has lead to renewables being disadvantaged in many ways. Renewables are a disparate resource and often at their peak in rural, isolated and environmentally sensitive areas. Harnessing them may more easily fit with a local community based approach. This airflow's the greater involvement of the local communities themselves, their local Government and industry. It also presents the best opportunity for the protection of the environment and for the change to focus on local agendas. In terms of 'living within a sustainable world' following Kyoto such a community based strategy for the future is more likely to yield success, turning as it must on achieving a fundamental change of attitude within the wider population to energy provision and use. Noteworthy in this respect is the recent White Paper from the European Commission (entitled 'Energy for the Future: Renewable Sources of Energy') which champions the idea of 100 communities in the EU which might be self sufficient in the use of renewable sources of energy. (author)

  8. Local effects of living windbreaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souto, L.F.M.A.R.; Meneses, J.F.

    2004-01-01

    The primary purpose of living windbreaks is the reduction of the wind speed. Changes in the velocity and direction of airflow lead to changes in the microclimate. Microclimate is the result of various interacting factors, most of which can be affected by shelter at detectable levels. The effectiveness of windbreaks depends upon their internal and external structure. The most important structural feature is porosity. Maximum wind reductions are closely related to low porosity. However, barriers with low porosity generate more turbulence to leeward then medium or high ones. The horizontal extent of windbreak effects is proportional to windbreak height (h). Wind reductions are detectable on the windward side of the barrier from 2 h to 5 h, and extend to leeward about 20 h, if significant reductions of the normal wind speed (10% - 30%) occur. The principal effects of natural windbreaks on microclimate are reviewed. These are: wind speed, turbulence and their dependence on the porosity and height of the barrier; solar and thermal radiation around the windbreak; air temperature during the day and at night; humidity and snow deposition. Complementary effects of windbreaks are discussed, such as wind and hydraulic erosion, crop protection and plant growth, livestock protection of buildings and people. Disadvantages of windbreaks result from tree-crop competition and pests. Windbreaks allow the practice of agriculture in many regions of the world, namely on island and coastal areas, which are particularly sensitive due to the high wind speeds and salt content of the wind. Windbreaks contribute to sustainable agricultural systems by maintaining biological diversity and improving the aesthetic value of the landscape. A better understanding of their dynamics will certainly contribute to the improvement of sheltered areas and to the establishment of more efficient windbreaks, with less negative impacts to the countryside

  9. Glutathione turnover in 14 rat tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, D.W.; Tran, T.

    1990-01-01

    GSH is a tripeptide found in all tissues and is important in maintaining cellular redox status. First-order rate constants for GSH turnover were determined for various tissues of Fischer male rats. Animals were administered [ 35 S]Cys by tail vein injection and GSH turnover was estimated by the decrease in GSH specific activity following incorporation of Cys, 1-102 hr after administration. Tissue nonprotein sulfhydryls (NPSH) were detected by Ellman's assay and compared with GSH and Cys concentrations determined by HPLC with electrochemical detection. [ 35 S]GSH was analyzed by HPLC equipped with a flow-through radioactivity detector. Although total GSH and Cys were usually slightly lower than NPSH concentrations for the tissues examined, both assay systems gave comparable results. An exception was the glandular stomach which had approximately 2-fold higher NPSH. Liver and kidney had rapid turnover rates with GSH half-lives between 2-5 hr, while heart and skeletal muscle tissue had half-lives of 80-90 hr. Turnover in the blood was slowest, with a half-life of 170 hr. Gastrointestinal tract tissues were shown to have intermediate turnover rates of the following order: glandular stomach > duodenum = small intestine = caecum = large intestine = colon > forestomach. GSH half-life in lung and skin was approximately 45 hr. These studies indicate that tissues utilize GSH at markedly different rates

  10. Living Well with Living Wills: Application of Protection Motivation Theory to Living Wills Among Older Caucasian and African American Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Rebecca S; Phillips, Laura L; Pekmezi, Dorothy; Crowther, Martha R; Prentice-Dunn, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Using protection motivation theory, we examined racial differences in intent to complete a living will, rational problem solving (e.g., information seeking), and maladaptive coping responses (i.e., wishful thinking) to a health crisis. Sixty healthy, older adults without living wills responded to written vignettes, including information about living wills as an effective coping mechanism to avoid a health crisis. Use of adaptive coping responses predicted intent to execute a living will. A significant race-by-threat interaction predicted use of rational problem solving, with Caucasians more likely to seek information in response to perceived threat in comparison with African Americans. A significant race-by-adaptive-coping interaction predicted maladaptive coping, indicating that Caucasians were more variable in their maladaptive responses. The effectiveness of health care messages regarding living wills for older adults may be enhanced by focusing on racial differences in response to perceived health threat and perceived adaptive coping information.

  11. Observation of rat's colon polyps in real time by mini-endoscopy and raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriana, Bibin Bintang; Mahardika, Anggara; Taketani, Akihiro; Sato, Hidetoshi

    2018-02-01

    Colorectal adenoma (CA) is a disease caused by various factors (such as genetic factors or environmental exposures). The appearance of colon polyp (CP) within colorectal might indicate the hint of CA development. Ball-lens hollow fiber Raman probe (BHRP) may has a high capability for detection of CA in living experimental animal and have already tested to rat's CP in this study, which was designed to collaborate between BHRP with mini-endoscopy to observe the biochemical alteration within normal colon tissue and rat's colon polyps in real time. BHRP and mini-endoscopy can distinguish the differences in their finger print spectra and make pictures the control and CP in the real time. At the first step, the real situation of normal colon and Rat's CP were washed by saline and observed with mini-endoscopy. BHRP was introduced to Dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced Rat's CP to detect some of biochemical alteration. The main purpose of this study was to introduce mini-endoscopy to guide the BHRP for diagnosing of CP in real time and to compare it with spectra of normal colon (control group) in living rat. As the result, BHRP can provide the differences in band of control and CP group, which can inform that the biochemical of normal and CP has changed. As a major parameter to distinct normal and CP tissue were phosphatidylinositol, phosphodiester group, lipid, and collagen. Mini endoscopy and BHRP is very sensitive devices for diagnosing of CP in real time.

  12. Central visual system of the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crish, Samuel D; Dengler-Crish, Christine M; Catania, Kenneth C

    2006-02-01

    Naked mole-rats are fossorial rodents native to eastern Africa that spend their lives in extensive subterranean burrows where visual cues are poor. Not surprisingly, they have a degenerated eye and optic nerve, suggesting they have poor visual abilities. However, little is known about their central visual system. To investigate the organization of their central visual system, we injected a neuronal tracer into the eyes of naked mole-rats and mice to compare the neural structures mediating vision. We found that the superior colliculus and lateral geniculate nucleus were severely atrophied in the naked mole-rat. The olivary pretectal nucleus was reduced but still retained its characteristic morphology, possibly indicating a role in light detection. In addition, the suprachiasmatic nucleus is well innervated and resembles the same structure in other rodents. The naked mole-rat appears to have selectively lost structures that mediate form vision while retaining structures needed for minimal entrainment of circadian rhythms. Similar results have been reported for other mole-rat species. Taken together, these data suggest that light detection may still play an important role in the lives of these "blind" animals: most likely for circadian entrainment or setting seasonal rhythms.

  13. Cypermethrin induced reproductive toxicity in male Wistar rats: protective role of Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Poonam; Huq, Amir Ul; Singh, Rambir

    2013-09-01

    The present study was designed to investigate role of ethanolic extract of Tribulus terrestris (EETT) against alpha-cypermethrin induced reproductive toxicity in male Wistar rats. 24 male Wistar rats weighing about 250-300g were divided in four groups. Group-I was control. alpha-cypermethrin (3.38 mg kg-1b.wt.) was given to group-IlI for 28 days. In Group-Ill, alpha-cypermethrin and EETT (100 mg kg -1b.wt.) were administered in combination for 28 days. Rats in group-IV were given EETT for 28 days. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed, testes and epididymis were removed and sperm characteristics, sex hormones and various biochemical parameters were studied. Decrease in weight of testes and epididymis, testicular sperm head count, sperm motility, live sperm count, serum testosterone (T), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), leutinizing hormone (LH), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), total protein content and increase in sperm abnormalities and lipid peroxidation (LPO) level was observed in rats exposed to cypermethrin. In combination group-Ill, EETT treatment ameliorated alpha-cypermethrin induced damage. EETT treatment in group-IV increased testes and epididymis weight, sperm head counts, sperm motility, live sperm counts, testosterone, FSH, LH, GSH, CAT, SOD, GST, GR, GPx and total protein content. The study suggested that Tribulus terrestris plant possess reproductive system enhancement and antioxidant activity.

  14. Interação mãe-bebê pré-termo e mudança no estado de humor: comparação do Método Mãe-Canguru com visita na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal Interaction between mothers and pre-term infants and mood changes: a comparison between the Kangaroo Mother Method and those observed on a visit to a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Guimarães Cruvinel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar mudanças nos estados de humor de mães de bebês pré-termo em função do tipo de contato com o seu filho: Método Mãe-Canguru (MMC e visita ao filho na incubadora da Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal. MÉTODOS: foi aplicada a Escala Analógica de Humor em 60 mães divididas em 2 grupos: mães que participam do Método Mãe-Canguru (GC e mães que acompanharam o bebê na incubadora (GI. Os grupos foram pareados em função da idade das mães, número de gestações e tipo de parto. As mães foram avaliadas antes e depois de uma das visitas ao filho na incubadora ou sessão de MMC. RESULTADOS: as mães do GC melhoraram o humor, relatando: sentirem-se mais calmas, fortes, com idéias claras, ágeis, dinâmicas, satisfeitas, tranqüilas, perspicazes, relaxadas, atentas, competentes, alegres e amistosas. As mães do GI não apresentaram melhora no estado de humor em nenhum item, mas pioraram no item "sentindo-se desajeitada". CONCLUSÕES: o Método Mãe-Canguru mostrou-se eficaz na melhora nos estados de humor de mães de bebês pré-termo, contribuindo assim para a minimização dos efeitos negativos da internação neonatal.OBJECTIVE: to assess changes in the subjective state of mood of mothers of pre-term babies, comparing different kinds of mother-infant interaction: the Kangaroo Mother Method (KMM and those observed on a visit to a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. METHODS: the Visual Analogue Mood Scale was used with 60 mothers divided into two groups: mothers included in the Kangaroo Program (KG and mothers with a baby on an incubator (IG. The groups were matched for the mothers' age, number of pregnancies and kind of delivery. The mothers were evaluated before and after a visit to the baby on an incubator or a KMM session. RESULTS: it was found that KG mothers were in a better mood, reporting that they felt calmer, stronger, more clear-headed, more agile, dynamic, satisfied, at ease, perceptive, relaxed, considerate

  15. Programa mãe-canguru e a relação mãe-bebê: pesquisa qualitativa na rede pública de Betim El programa madre-canguro y la relación madre-bebé: pesquisa cualitativade en la red pública de Betim Kangaroo mother program and the relationship mother-baby: qualitative research in a public maternity of Betim city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline de Oliveira Moreira

    2009-09-01

    ás, que la madre, familiares, el equipo pueden crear un ambiente facilitador a partir del momento en que asumen una postura activa en la mediación de la relación del prematuro con el mundo.This text approaches the results of the qualitative research financed by FAPEMIG and PUC-MINAS and aims to investigate the effects of the kangaroo mother method in the relationship between the mother and the newborn baby. The field research had the data collected by semi structural interviews conducted with the mothers of newborn babies egressed from the Kangaroo program of Betim's Public Maternity named Maternidade Municipal Aidée Conroy Espejo. We utilized the content analyses with thematic categories on data assessment. The results showed the complexity of motherhood inside the prematurity, crossed by the trauma experience, by the fear of losing the baby and by the vision of the child's fragility. In this context, the Kangaroo-Mother Program facilitates the relationship between the mother and the premature baby, contributing to the dyadic's bound. We concluded that mother, family members, and staff can provide a facilitating environment as they take on an active attitude in the mediation between the premature relationship and the world.

  16. Tubuloglomerular feedback in Dahl rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, F M; Leyssac, P P; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1998-01-01

    in both Dahl-S and salt-resistant Dahl rats on high- and low-salt diets. TGF was investigated in the closed-loop mode with a videometric technique, in which the response in late proximal flow rate to perturbations in Henle flow rate was measured. All Dahl rats showed a similar compensatory response...

  17. Neutron radiography of osteopetrotic rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, B.; Renard, G.; Le Gall, J.; Laporte, A.

    1983-01-01

    The osteopetrotic disease is characterized by bone and cartilage tissue coexistence in the medullary space of long bones. The authors have studied ''congenital osteopetrosis'' of ''op'' rats. Comparing radiography, neutrography and histology, the evolution of the ''osteopetrotic disease'' and the healing of the ill rats by a single injection of bone marrow from normal animals is shown. (Auth.)

  18. The three-kidney rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provoost, A.P.; Van Aken, M.

    1984-01-01

    In contrast to the numerous research into the adaption of renal function when nephons are lost, much less attention has been paid to the effects of an extra kidney. Through the availability of inbred rat strains, techniques to transplant rat kidneys, and methods to measure total and individual kidney function repeatedly in the same animal, it became possible to study the renal function in rats with three kidneys. Adult male rats of a highly inbred Wistar strain were used. Nine recipients of a third kidney (3-K) were compared with 5 sham operated control (2-K) rats. The total GFR, as measured by the plasma clearance of Cr-5l EDTA, was taken 1,3,6,9, and 15 weeks after operation. The contribution of each kidney to the total renal function was determined by a Tc-99m DTPA scan performed at weeks 10 and 16. After transplantation the total GFR of 3-K rats was, in general, not different from the value before transplantation or from that of 2-K rats. The lack of increase of the GFR of 3-K rats was not the result of a non-functioning graft

  19. Triglyceride kinetics in fasted and fed E.coli septic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanza-Jacoby, S.; Tabares, A.

    1990-01-01

    The mechanism for the development of hypertriglyceridemia during gram-negative sepsis was studies by examining the liver production and clearance of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglyceride (TG). To assess the liver output and peripheral clearance the kinetics of VLDL-TG were determined by a constant intravenous infusion of [2- 3 H] glycerol-labeled VLDL in fasted control, fasted E. coli-treated, fed control, and fed E.coli-treated rats. Lewis inbred rats, 275-300 g, were made septic with 8 x 10 7 live E.coli colonies per 100 g body weight. Twenty-four hours following E.coli injection serum TG of fasted E.coli-treated rats was elevated by 170% which was attributed to a 67% decrease in the clearance rate of VLDL-TG in fasted E.coli-treated rats compared with their fasted controls. The secretion of VLDL-TG declined by 31% in the livers of the fasted E.coli-treated rats which was accompanied by a 2-fold increase in the composition of liver TG. In a second series of experiments control and E.coli-treated rats were fed intragastrically (IG) a balanced solution containing glucose plus fat as the sources of nonprotein calories. Serum TG were 26% lower in the fed E.coli-treated rats because the clearance rate increased by 86%. The secretion of TG in the fed septic rats increased by 40% but this difference was not significant. In the septic rat the ability to clear triglycerides from the plasma depends upon the nutritional state

  20. [Live style and risk of lifestyle diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kábrt, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome included obesity, diabetes mellitus type II, hypertension and disorder of lipid metabolism are serious complication affecting many people of economic advanced countries. Unhealthy live style with limited physical activity and overfeeding are the main cause of this disorder. Adjustment of the live style with regular physical activity has the better result compared with a diet intervention alone.

  1. Living arrangements of young adults in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwanitz, Katrin; Mulder, Clara H.

    2015-01-01

    Comparative research suggests that there are great cross-national and cross-temporal differences in living arrangements of young adults aged 18-34 in Europe. In this paper, we examine young adults’ living arrangements (1) across several European countries and different national contexts, and (2) by

  2. Ordinary Lives Illuminated: Writing Oral History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandesbery, Jean

    1990-01-01

    Describes how writing oral history can help students to feel that they are participating in a lively intellectual and cultural process that travels beyond the limits of the classroom. Says students claim that their obligations to the assignment are surpassed by their feelings of gratification in having created living works with lasting vitality.…

  3. Beauty in the Context of Particular Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautio, Pauliina

    2010-01-01

    This paper is based on empirical research by the author into the everyday lives of people living in a small village. Everyday life is approached as a subjective process in time and space, experienced by particular people in a particular environmental and social context. The data of this research has been collected through correspondence in which…

  4. Histological, histochemical and immunohistochemical assessment of the protective role of selenium against γ -radiation damage in rats salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.F.

    2008-01-01

    Ionizing radiation affects the biological tissues through either direct or indirect action. Both types of actions occur together when a charged particle passes through a cell and can cause cell damage by different mechanisms . Radiation protection is based on physical principles which aim at lowering the radiation exposure dose and subsequently the risk of radiation injury. As radiation injury to living cells is, to large extent, due to oxidative stresses, the present study was conducted in order to evaluate the radioprotective efficacy of selenium, a naturally occurring antoxidant nutrient, as a a free radical scavenger against γ- radiation damage in rats' salivary glands by histological, histochemical and immunohistochemical assessment. A total of 120 male albino rats were used in the present study. The rats were divided into 6 groups (20 rats each): Control group:- rats received neither radiation nor selenium. Group I :- rats were exposed to a single whole body γ -irradiation at dose of 4 gray(Gy). Group l l:- as group I, but with radiation dose of 6 Gy. Group lll:- rats were injected intraperitoneally by a daily dose of sodium selenite (15 μg./ kg.b.w. )for three weeks. Group IV:- rats were injected intraperitoneally by a daily dose of sodium selenite (15 μg./ kg.b.w.) for one week before exposure to gamma rays at dose of 4 Gy and two weeks after. Group V:- as group IV, but with radiation dose of 6 Gy.

  5. Study of non-thermal effects from laser radiation on live tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotta, M.A.

    1987-02-01

    The functional biological effects related to the irradiation of live tissues with low power lasers, called non-thermal effects were theoretical and experimentally studied. For the experimental part, a device which allows to: irradiation lesions artificially created on the back of rats by a He-Ne laser, or put a moving ground glass in front of the laser beam, by irradiation of this same laser with its coherence degree decreased. The relevance of the radiation coherence in the lesion cicatrization process was shown. The electrical field distribution and the intensity distribution on a surface with micro-roughness when irradiated by coherent light are theoretically studied. (M.C.K.) [pt

  6. Do rats have orgasms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaus, James G.; Scardochio, Tina; Parada, Mayte; Gerson, Christine; Quintana, Gonzalo R.; Coria-Avila, Genaro A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although humans experience orgasms with a degree of statistical regularity, they remain among the most enigmatic of sexual responses; difficult to define and even more difficult to study empirically. The question of whether animals experience orgasms is hampered by similar lack of definition and the additional necessity of making inferences from behavioral responses. Method Here we define three behavioral criteria, based on dimensions of the subjective experience of human orgasms described by Mah and Binik, to infer orgasm-like responses (OLRs) in other species: 1) physiological criteria that include pelvic floor and anal muscle contractions that stimulate seminal emission and/or ejaculation in the male, or that stimulate uterine and cervical contractions in the female; 2) short-term behavioral changes that reflect immediate awareness of a pleasurable hedonic reward state during copulation; and 3) long-term behavioral changes that depend on the reward state induced by the OLR, including sexual satiety, the strengthening of patterns of sexual arousal and desire in subsequent copulations, and the generation of conditioned place and partner preferences for contextual and partner-related cues associated with the reward state. We then examine whether physiological and behavioral data from observations of male and female rats during copulation, and in sexually-conditioned place- and partner-preference paradigms, are consistent with these criteria. Results Both male and female rats display behavioral patterns consistent with OLRs. Conclusions The ability to infer OLRs in rats offers new possibilities to study the phenomenon in neurobiological and molecular detail, and to provide both comparative and translational perspectives that would be useful for both basic and clinical research. PMID:27799081

  7. Do rats have orgasms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G. Pfaus

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although humans experience orgasms with a degree of statistical regularity, they remain among the most enigmatic of sexual responses; difficult to define and even more difficult to study empirically. The question of whether animals experience orgasms is hampered by similar lack of definition and the additional necessity of making inferences from behavioral responses. Method: Here we define three behavioral criteria, based on dimensions of the subjective experience of human orgasms described by Mah and Binik, to infer orgasm-like responses (OLRs in other species: 1 physiological criteria that include pelvic floor and anal muscle contractions that stimulate seminal emission and/or ejaculation in the male, or that stimulate uterine and cervical contractions in the female; 2 short-term behavioral changes that reflect immediate awareness of a pleasurable hedonic reward state during copulation; and 3 long-term behavioral changes that depend on the reward state induced by the OLR, including sexual satiety, the strengthening of patterns of sexual arousal and desire in subsequent copulations, and the generation of conditioned place and partner preferences for contextual and partner-related cues associated with the reward state. We then examine whether physiological and behavioral data from observations of male and female rats during copulation, and in sexually-conditioned place- and partner-preference paradigms, are consistent with these criteria. Results: Both male and female rats display behavioral patterns consistent with OLRs. Conclusions: The ability to infer OLRs in rats offers new possibilities to study the phenomenon in neurobiological and molecular detail, and to provide both comparative and translational perspectives that would be useful for both basic and clinical research.

  8. Financial considerations in living organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Cheryl; Thomas, Charlie

    2003-06-01

    The shortage of cadaveric organs and increased success of living donor transplantation support the use of living organ donors. Clinical social workers have the opportunity to explore a variety of donor-specific issues when performing psychosocial evaluations of living donors, including motivation, psychological stability, and personal and family consequences of donation, as well as the direct and indirect financial consequences faced by living donors. Although most donor-related medical costs are covered, other associated expenses are not reimbursable and may put donors at risk for financial hardship. Out-of-pocket expenses also serve as a disincentive to donate for some volunteers. During the evaluation process, healthcare professionals should openly discuss how surgery, recovery, and any potential complications might impact prospective donors' financial situation. Donors can then decide whether they are able to realistically handle the costs of donation. We present the financial dilemmas experienced by many living donors and highlight efforts that have been made to deal with them.

  9. The academic rat race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier; Andersen, Martin Marchman; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2012-01-01

    : an increased pressure to produce articles (in peer-reviewed journals) has created an unbalanced emphasis on the research criterion at the expense of the latter two. More fatally, this pressure has turned academia into a rat race, leading to a deep change in the fundamental structure of academic behaviour......, and entailing a self-defeating and hence counter-productive pattern, where more publications is always better and where it becomes increasingly difficult for researchers to keep up with the new research in their field. The article identifies the pressure to publish as a problem of collective action. It ends up...

  10. The metabolisme of tritiated water in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanmaire, Lucien; Vernois, Yvette; Bullier, Denise; Gros, Roger.

    1977-07-01

    The metabolism of tritiated water was studied in the rat during 580 days. The results on urinary and fecal excretion, total activity retention in 25 tissues or organs, cumulated activities from the 4th to the 582nd day are presented and discussed. They are in agreement with other similar studies, if compared over the same length of experimentation. The activity retained by the spinal cord is twice that retained in the brain considered as the organ whose long half-lived component is the most active. The use of such data for the study of tritium-labelled compounds is illustrated by two examples [fr

  11. In vivo deep brain imaging of rats using oral-cavity illuminated photoacoustic computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li; Xia, Jun; Wong, Terence T. W.; Zhang, Ruiying; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate, by means of internal light delivery, photoacoustic imaging of the deep brain of rats in vivo. With fiber illumination via the oral cavity, we delivered light directly into the bottom of the brain, much more than can be delivered by external illumination. The study was performed using a photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) system equipped with a 512-element full-ring transducer array, providing a full two-dimensional view aperture. Using internal illumination, the PACT system provided clear cross sectional photoacoustic images from the palate to the middle brain of live rats, revealing deep brain structures such as the hypothalamus, brain stem, and cerebral medulla.

  12. EFFECTS OF MALNUTRITION AND ENVIRONMENT ON THE ACQUISITION AND EXTICTION OF AVOIDANCE BEHAVIOR IN RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Luiz Marcellino de; Almeida, Sebastião de Sousa

    2016-01-01

    Twelve newborn rats were fed by mothers maintained on protein-deficient diet (12% casein, M) during lactation, and 12 rats fed by mothers maintained on a diet containing 25% casein were used as controls (C). After weaning, all animals were standard lab ration. Half of each group was housed individually (MI and CI), while the other half was allowed to live in pairs (MP and CP). When adult, all animals were trained to avoid footshocks by jumping onto a platform. Trainiing sessions consisted of ...

  13. Aggravated Cardiac Remodeling post Aortocaval Fistula in Unilateral Nephrectomized Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wu

    Full Text Available Aortocaval fistula (AV in rat is a unique model of volume-overload congestive heart failure and cardiac hypertrophy. Living donor kidney transplantation is regarded as beneficial to allograft recipients and not particularly detrimental to the donors. Impact of AV on animals with mild renal dysfunction is not fully understood. In this study, we explored the effects of AV in unilateral nephrectomized (UNX rats.Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were divided into Sham (n = 10, UNX (right kidney remove, n = 10, AV (AV established between the levels of renal arteries and iliac bifurcation, n = 18 and UNX+AV (AV at one week after UNX, n = 22, respectively. Renal outcome was measured by glomerular filtration rate, effective renal plasma flow, fractional excretion of sodium, albuminuria, plasma creatinine, and cystatin C. Focal glomerulosclerosis (FGS incidence was evaluated by renal histology. Cardiac function was measured by echocardiography and hemodynamic measurements.UNX alone induced compensatory left kidney enlargement, increased plasma creatinine and cystatin C levels, and slightly reduced glomerular filtration rate and increased FGS. AV induced significant cardiac enlargement and hypertrophy and reduced cardiac function and increased FGS, these changes were aggravated in UNX+AV rats.Although UNX only induces minor renal dysfunction, additional chronic volume overload placement during the adaptation phase of the remaining kidney is associated with aggravated cardiac dysfunction and remodeling in UNX rats, suggesting special medical care is required for UNX or congenital monokidney subjects in case of chronic volume overload as in the case of pregnancy and hyperthyroidism to prevent further adverse cardiorenal events in these individuals.

  14. Establishment of an induced rat model of malignant pleural mesothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Dan; Wu Beihai; Yang Hongsheng; Song Guangyi

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To establish a convenient and practical malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) model induced by crocidolite in Da Yao, which has a high induction rate and can be used for imaging and multiple experimental studies and is similar to human MPM. Methods 40 mg of crocidolite suspension was injected into the right chest cavity in 100 Wistar rats in the test group, while same amount of sterilized saline water was injected in 20 rats in the control group. The animals were observed daily , and weighted once a month. CT scanning was performed regularly. When the rats were dead or dying, they were dissected immediately and pathological changes were recorded after CT examination. The experiment lasted for 2 years. Results: The overall induction rate was 71.6%. The survival time of the first MPM rat was 285 days. The mean living span of rats with MPM was (469 ± 21) days. The pathological features of the induced MPMs were multiple morphologically and there were some CT features in different periods. CT imaging could show some MPM features and find the tumour earlier. Conclusion: The cause, positions, tissues and clinical condition of induced tumors were the same as humans. The model had a higher similarity with human MPM in differentiation degree and histological type, and the model can be used to study the mechanism of MPM, to discuss the measures of prevention, and to guide clinical diagnosis and treatment. Multi-morphology of the history from the induced tumors could make up the shortage, which was the difficulty in getting all periods of tissue samples in clinical research and being used in imaging and many kinds of researches. It was a valuable animal model to study MPM. (authors)

  15. Community Living Skills Guide: Additional Activities for Nutrition, Cooking, Homemaking, and Family Living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickovich, Marti; Kreps, Alice Roelofs

    These activities are intended to supplement materials for three courses available in the Community Living Skills Guide for the College for Living series: Cooking/Food Preparation (CE 024 475), Homemaking and Family Living (CE 024 477), and Nutrition (CE 024 484). These courses for developmentally disabled adults are intended to supplement…

  16. The Rat Race

    CERN Multimedia

    Stephen Haywood

    Dear Muriel, Being an animal, you are probably more familiar with rats than most of us. Yet it seems to me that our Community (not just ATLAS) is stuck in a huge "rat race". I am somewhat mystified as to how we have got ourselves into this and I wonder whether you or your readers could explain this - I give my own observations below. In HEP and ATLAS specifically, we are all working long hours and we are all becoming exhausted. There are people at Point 1 who are working day and night, every day of the week; there are people writing software who send emails round the clock, including weekends. It is one thing to have bursts of activity which require us to put in some longer hours, but in ATLAS, the bursts last months or years. I have been on ATLAS 14 years and it has felt like one endless rush. Why do we do this? We are all highly motivated, we love our work and want to succeed individually and collectively. We are parts of various teams, and we do not want to let the side down. We worked hard at school an...

  17. Modulation of Radiation Injury in Pregnant Rats by Bone Marrow Transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, E.M.; Abd Rabu, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    This Work aims to point out the influence of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) in protection of irradiated pregnant rats and suppression of oxidative stress. BMT was administered to rats, 1 h post gamma irradiation at the dose level of 2 Gy given at the 7th or 14th day of gestation. Rats were examined after 20 days from gestation to detect the physiological parameters of the mother and number of implantation sites and resorption as well as length of foetuses and tails. Pregnant rats irradiated at the 7th and 14th day of gestation showed reduction in live foetuses and length of foetuses and their tails and significant decrease in erythrocytes (RBCs), leucocytes (WBCs), haemoglobin content (Hb), and hematocrit percentage (Ht). Irradiation-induced an elevation in aldosterone and a drop in calcium (Ca). Glutathione levels showed significant decreases in blood while the content of serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) showed significant increases. Lipid profile exhibited an increase in the concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and low lipoproteins cholesterol (LDL-C) with a significant decrease in high lipoproteins cholesterol (HDL-C) in both groups. BMT to irradiated pregnant rats induced significant amelioration in radiation- induced changes. BMT was shown to be effective in reducing physiological disorders and oxidative stress in pregnant rats reflected on minimizing embryonic injuries

  18. A truncated conical beam model for analysis of the vibration of rat whiskers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wenyi; Kan, Qianhua; Kergrene, Kenan; Kang, Guozheng; Feng, Xi-Qiao; Rajan, Ramesh

    2013-08-09

    A truncated conical beam model is developed to study the vibration behaviour of a rat whisker. Translational and rotational springs are introduced to better represent the constraint conditions at the base of the whiskers in a living rat. Dimensional analysis shows that the natural frequency of a truncated conical beam with generic spring constraints at its ends is inversely proportional to the square root of the mass density. Under all the combinations of the classical free, pinned, sliding or fixed boundary conditions of a truncated conical beam, it is proved that the natural frequency can be expressed as f = α(rb/L(2))E/ρ and the frequency coefficient α only depends on the ratio of the radii at the two ends of the beam. The natural frequencies of a representative rat whisker are predicted for two typical situations: freely whisking in air and the tip touching an object. Our numerical results show that there exists a window where the natural frequencies of a rat whisker are very sensitive to the change of the rotational constraint at the base. This finding is also confirmed by the numerical results of 18 whiskers with their data available from literature. It can be concluded that the natural frequencies of a rat whisker can be adjusted within a wide range through manipulating the constraints of the follicle on the rat base by a behaving animal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Blunted neuronal calcium response to hypoxia in naked mole-rat hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany L Peterson

    Full Text Available Naked mole-rats are highly social and strictly subterranean rodents that live in large communal colonies in sealed and chronically oxygen-depleted burrows. Brain slices from naked mole-rats show extreme tolerance to hypoxia compared to slices from other mammals, as indicated by maintenance of synaptic transmission under more hypoxic conditions and three fold longer latency to anoxic depolarization. A key factor in determining whether or not the cellular response to hypoxia is reversible or leads to cell death may be the elevation of intracellular calcium concentration. In the present study, we used fluorescent imaging techniques to measure relative intracellular calcium changes in CA1 pyramidal cells of hippocampal slices during hypoxia. We found that calcium accumulation during hypoxia was significantly and substantially attenuated in slices from naked mole-rats compared to slices from laboratory mice. This was the case for both neonatal (postnatal day 6 and older (postnatal day 20 age groups. Furthermore, while both species demonstrated more calcium accumulation at older ages, the older naked mole-rats showed a smaller calcium accumulation response than even the younger mice. A blunted intracellular calcium response to hypoxia may contribute to the extreme hypoxia tolerance of naked mole-rat neurons. The results are discussed in terms of a general hypothesis that a very prolonged or arrested developmental process may allow adult naked mole-rat brain to retain the hypoxia tolerance normally only seen in neonatal mammals.

  20. Blunted neuronal calcium response to hypoxia in naked mole-rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Bethany L; Larson, John; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Park, Thomas J; Fall, Christopher P

    2012-01-01

    Naked mole-rats are highly social and strictly subterranean rodents that live in large communal colonies in sealed and chronically oxygen-depleted burrows. Brain slices from naked mole-rats show extreme tolerance to hypoxia compared to slices from other mammals, as indicated by maintenance of synaptic transmission under more hypoxic conditions and three fold longer latency to anoxic depolarization. A key factor in determining whether or not the cellular response to hypoxia is reversible or leads to cell death may be the elevation of intracellular calcium concentration. In the present study, we used fluorescent imaging techniques to measure relative intracellular calcium changes in CA1 pyramidal cells of hippocampal slices during hypoxia. We found that calcium accumulation during hypoxia was significantly and substantially attenuated in slices from naked mole-rats compared to slices from laboratory mice. This was the case for both neonatal (postnatal day 6) and older (postnatal day 20) age groups. Furthermore, while both species demonstrated more calcium accumulation at older ages, the older naked mole-rats showed a smaller calcium accumulation response than even the younger mice. A blunted intracellular calcium response to hypoxia may contribute to the extreme hypoxia tolerance of naked mole-rat neurons. The results are discussed in terms of a general hypothesis that a very prolonged or arrested developmental process may allow adult naked mole-rat brain to retain the hypoxia tolerance normally only seen in neonatal mammals.

  1. Designing Viable Business Models for Living Labs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard R. Katzy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Over 300 regions have integrated the concept of living labs into their economic development strategy since 2006, when the former Finnish Prime Minister Esko Aho launched the living lab innovation policy initiative during his term of European presidency. Despite motivating initial results, however, success cases of turning research into usable new products and services remain few and uncertainty remains on what living labs actually do and contribute. This practitioner-oriented article presents a business excellence model that shows processes of idea creation and team mobilization, new product development, user involvement, and entrepreneurship through which living labs deliver high-potential investment opportunities. Customers of living labs are identified as investors such as venture capitalists or industrial firms because living labs can generate revenue from them to create their own sustainable business model. The article concludes that living labs provide extensive support “lab” infrastructure and that it remains a formidable challenge to finance it, which calls for a more intensive debate.

  2. State of living PSA and further development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    In October 1985 OECD-Principal Working Group (PWG 5) - Risk Assessment has initiated the Task Force 7 'Use of PSA in Nuclear Power Plant Management' to explore and report on the principles, characteristics, requirements and status of PSA oriented safety management. During this study, it became apparent that the utilisation of PSA techniques in nuclear plant safety management requires the development of supporting programmes to ensure that PSA models are being updated to reflect plant changes, and to direct their use towards the evaluation and determination of plant changes. These requirements also influence the software and hardware characteristics necessary to support the programme. This overall process is known as Living PSA. In this context OECD-PWG 5 has arranged international workshops on Living PSA application to support this development, to facilitate exchange of international experience and to summarise the state-of-the-art of L-PSA methodology. These activities were accompanied by following Task Groups of OECD-PWG 5 and the work results were published in state-of-the-art reports. According to the increasing development of Living PSA in the international field and its capacity to support plant safety management in a broad sense, OECD PWG 5 continues its work in setting up the Task Group 96-1 'State of Living PSA and Further Development' to clarify specific aspects of Living PSA. This report summarises the state of Living PSA in the international field based on the four Living PSA Workshops from 1988 to 1994 (Chapter 2) and the state of Reliability Data Collection based on the results of Task Group 12 'Reliability Data Collection and Analysis to Support PSA' and the two Data-Workshops from 1995 and 1998 (Chapter 3). The specific items of further development of Living PSA application as mentioned above are treated in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 gives a summary of the current state of Living PSA as well as outlook and recommendations of further development

  3. Progression to surgery: online versus live seminar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miletics, Maureen; Claros, Leonardo; Stoltzfus, Jill; Davis, Terri; Chaar, Maher El

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate progression to surgery rates for live and online seminar and assess weight loss outcome comparisons at 1-year postoperation. University Hospital Network, Allentown, PA, USA. The entry point into our program was an information seminar where prospective patients are educated about obesity, bariatric surgery, indications and contraindications, risks and benefits, and our center's process. Between January of 2009 and November of 2011, only live information seminars were offered. In November of 2011, we started offering an online information seminar to reach those who are unable to attend a live seminar. Tracking of live versus online seminar attendance was documented in our database. Between November 1, 2011 and September 30, 2015, 3484 people completed an information seminar. Of those, 2744 attendees came to a live seminar while 740 completed the online seminar. A significantly higher number of live seminar attendees, 78.1% (2144/2744) progressed to an office visit compared with online seminar attendees 66.5% (492/740), Ponline attendees (Ponline seminar, P = .65) and initial body mass index (46.3 ± 7.4 for live seminar versus 45.3 ± 7.1 for online seminar, P = .09) were very similar between the groups. Online seminar attendees' age (42.7 ± 12.1) was younger than that of the live seminar attendees' (47.3 ± 12.3) (P<.0001) but has little clinical value. Our results demonstrated that live seminar attendees are more likely to progress to surgery and therefore should continue to be offered. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Validity of in vivo [123I]beta-CIT SPECT in detecting MDMA-induced neurotoxicity in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Win, Maartje M. L.; de Jeu, Rogier A. M.; de Bruin, Kora; Habraken, Jan B. A.; Reneman, Liesbeth; Booij, Jan; den Heeten, Gerard J.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the ability of a high-resolution pinhole single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system, with [(123)I]beta-CIT as a radiotracer, to detect 3,4-methelenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'Ecstasy')-induced loss of serotonin transporters (SERTs) in the living rat brain. In

  5. Who's in the business of saving lives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee Chang, Pepe

    2006-10-01

    There are individuals, including children, dying needlessly in poverty-stricken third world countries. Many of these deaths could be prevented if pharmaceutical companies provided the drugs needed to save their lives. Some believe that because pharmaceutical companies have the power to save lives, and because they can do so with little effort, they have a special obligation. I argue that there is no distinction, with respect to obligations and responsibilities, between pharmaceutical companies and other types of companies. As a result, to hold pharmaceutical companies especially responsible for saving lives in third world countries is unjustified.

  6. Serotonin metabolism in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schutte, H.H.

    1976-01-01

    The metabolism of serotonin in rat brain was studied by measuring specific activities of tryptophan in plasma and of serotonin, 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid and tryptophan in the brain after intravenous injection of tritiated tryptophan. For a detailed analysis of the specific activities, a computer simulation technique was used. It was found that only a minor part of serotonin in rat brain is synthesized from tryptophan rapidly transported from the blood. It is suggested that the brain tryptophan originates from brain proteins. It was also found that the serotonin in rat brain is divided into more than one metabolic compartment

  7. Dream Robber: Living with Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Dream Robber: Living with Parkinson's disease Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents ... effects of levodopa called dyskinesias. Additional Information on Parkinson's Web Links MedlinePlus: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/ ...

  8. Living with heart disease and angina

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood sugar at recommended levels. Living a Healthy Lifestyle Some controllable risk factors for heart disease are: ... and partially hydrogenated or hydrogenated fats. These are unhealthy fats that are often found in fried foods, ...

  9. Primary students' conceptions of living things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legaspi, Britt Anne

    Elementary school teachers are pressed for time throughout the instructional day to teach all curricular areas as expected by states and districts because of the current focus on reading and mathematics. Thus, foundational science concepts may be overlooked. For example, students' understandings of living and nonliving things may be overlooked by teachers, yet is useful in understanding the nature of living things. In this qualitative study, K-3 grade students were asked to sort objects as either living or nonliving and to give rationales for their choices. It was found that K-3 students readily used physical characteristics, such as having body parts, and physical abilities, such as being able to move, as criteria for living things. Students in grades 1 through 3 were able to articulate their reasons with more adult-like logic based on Jean Piaget' s research on developmental stages.

  10. Practical applications of short-lived radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1963-01-15

    The advantages of the use of short-lived radioisotopes in agriculture, food industry and medicine as well as some industrial uses are discussed. Methods for isotope production in small research reactors and laboratories are presented

  11. Storing data encoded DNA in living organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong,; Pak C. , Wong; Kwong K. , Foote; Harlan, P [Richland, WA

    2006-06-06

    Current technologies allow the generation of artificial DNA molecules and/or the ability to alter the DNA sequences of existing DNA molecules. With a careful coding scheme and arrangement, it is possible to encode important information as an artificial DNA strand and store it in a living host safely and permanently. This inventive technology can be used to identify origins and protect R&D investments. It can also be used in environmental research to track generations of organisms and observe the ecological impact of pollutants. Today, there are microorganisms that can survive under extreme conditions. As well, it is advantageous to consider multicellular organisms as hosts for stored information. These living organisms can provide as memory housing and protection for stored data or information. The present invention provides well for data storage in a living organism wherein at least one DNA sequence is encoded to represent data and incorporated into a living organism.

  12. CDC Vital Signs: HIV Care Saves Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov . Vital Signs Topics Covered Alcohol Antibiotic Resistance Cancer Cardiovascular Diseases Diseases & Conditions Food Safety Healthcare-associated Infections Healthy Living HIV / AIDS Injury, Violence & Safety Motor Vehicle Safety Obesity ...

  13. Quantification of nanowire uptake by live cells

    KAUST Repository

    Margineanu, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    attempts have been made at tagging and investigating their interaction with living cells. In this study, magnetic iron nanowires with an iron oxide layer are coated with (3-Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES), and subsequently labeled with a fluorogenic p

  14. Tailor-Made Live Kidney Donation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.W.J. Klop (Karel)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis describes several aspects of live kidney donation, such as surgical techniques, cost-effectivity, cosmetics en quality of life. Kidney transplantation offer several benefits when compared to dialysis. These benefits include better recipient and graft

  15. FORUM Paediatric living donor liver transplantation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    879 November 2012, Vol. 102, No. 11 SAMJ. REVIEW. Paediatric living donor liver transplantation ... been excellent after left lateral segmentectomy, with a usually quoted ... has led to the development of new surgical techniques to increase.

  16. Products to Aid in Daily Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by The Association, nor a guarantee of the reliability of the information or product. For further information ... Information ALS Insight Newsletter Living with ALS Resource Guides Families and ALS Resource Guide Familial ALS Resource ...

  17. Beta-endorphin in genetically hypoprolactinemic rat: IPL nude rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, H.; Sabbagh, I.; Abou-Samra, A.B.; Bertrand, J.

    1986-01-01

    Beta-endorphin has been reported to regulate not only stress- and suckling-induced but also basal prolactin secretion. In the aim to better evaluate the endogenous beta-endorphin-prolactin interrelation, the authors measured beta-endorphin levels in a new rat strain, genetically hypoprolactinemic and characterized by a total lack of lactation: IPL nude rat. Beta-endorphin was measured using a specific anti-h-β endorphin in plasma and extracts of anterior and neurointermediate lobes of the pituitary, hypothalamus and brain. Pituitary extracts were also chromatographed on Sephadex G50 column. Results obtained showed that in IPL nude females on diestrus and males, the beta-endorphin contents of the neurointermediate lobe was significantly lower than in normal rats, while the values found in the other organs and plasma were similar. However, elution pattern of the anterior pituitary extracts from male rats showed greater immunoactivity eluting as I 125 h-beta-endorphin than in normal rat; this was not the case for the female rat. These results are consistent with a differential regulation of beta-endorphin levels of anterior and neurointermediate lobe by catecholamines. Moreover they suggest that PRL secretion was more related to neurointermediate beta-endorphin. 40 references, 2 figures, 4 tables

  18. Beta-endorphin in genetically hypoprolactinemic rat: IPL nude rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, H.; Sabbagh, I.; Abou-Samra, A.B.; Bertrand, J.

    1986-01-20

    Beta-endorphin has been reported to regulate not only stress- and suckling-induced but also basal prolactin secretion. In the aim to better evaluate the endogenous beta-endorphin-prolactin interrelation, the authors measured beta-endorphin levels in a new rat strain, genetically hypoprolactinemic and characterized by a total lack of lactation: IPL nude rat. Beta-endorphin was measured using a specific anti-h-..beta.. endorphin in plasma and extracts of anterior and neurointermediate lobes of the pituitary, hypothalamus and brain. Pituitary extracts were also chromatographed on Sephadex G50 column. Results obtained showed that in IPL nude females on diestrus and males, the beta-endorphin contents of the neurointermediate lobe was significantly lower than in normal rats, while the values found in the other organs and plasma were similar. However, elution pattern of the anterior pituitary extracts from male rats showed greater immunoactivity eluting as I/sup 125/ h-beta-endorphin than in normal rat; this was not the case for the female rat. These results are consistent with a differential regulation of beta-endorphin levels of anterior and neurointermediate lobe by catecholamines. Moreover they suggest that PRL secretion was more related to neurointermediate beta-endorphin. 40 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  19. Complex Living Conditions Impair Behavioral Inhibition but Improve Attention in Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, Rixt; Kentrop, Jiska; van der Tas, Liza; Loi, Manila; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Joëls, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Rapid adaptation to changes, while maintaining a certain level of behavioral inhibition is an important feature in every day functioning. How environmental context and challenges in life can impact on the development of this quality is still unknown. In the present study, we examined the effect of a

  20. Nanomagnet-based removal of lead and digoxin from living rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Inge K.; Schlegel, Andrea; Graf, Rolf; Schumacher, Christoph M.; Senn, Nico; Hasler, Melanie; Gschwind, Sabrina; Hirt, Ann-Marie; Günther, Detlef; Clavien, Pierre-Alain; Stark, Wendelin J.; Beck-Schimmer, Beatrice

    2013-08-01

    In a number of clinical conditions such as intoxication, bacteraemia or autoimmune diseases the removal of the disease-causing factor from blood would be the most direct cure. However, physicochemical characteristics of the target compounds limit the applicability of classical filtration and diffusion-based processes. In this work, we present a first in vivo magnetic blood purification rodent animal model and demonstrate its ability to rapidly clear toxins from blood circulation using two model toxins with stable plasma levels (lead (Pb2+) and digoxin). Ultra-strong functionalized metal nanomagnets are employed to eliminate the toxin from whole blood in an extracorporeal circuit. In the present experimental demonstration over 40% of the toxin (i.e. lead or digoxin) was removed within the first 10 minutes and over 75% within 40 minutes. After capturing the target substance, a magnetic trap prevents the toxin-loaded nanoparticles from entering the blood circulation. Elemental analysis and magnetic hysteresis measurements confirm full particle recovery by simple magnetic separation (residual particle concentration below 1 μg mL-1 (detection limit)). We demonstrate that magnetic separation-based blood purification offers rapid blood cleaning from noxious agents, germs or other deleterious materials with relevance to a number of clinical conditions. Based on this new approach, current blood purification technologies can be extended to efficiently remove disease-causing factors, e.g. overdosed drugs, bacteria or cancer cells without being limited by filter cut-offs or column surface saturation.