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Sample records for kangaroo rat cell

  1. Characterization of a mutant rat kangaroo cell line with alterations in the cell cycle and DNA repair

    OpenAIRE

    Miyaji, E.N.; Johnson, R.T.; Downes, C.S.; Eveno, E.; Mezzina, M.; Sarasin, A.; Menck, C.F.M.

    2000-01-01

    Using a positive selection system for isolating DNA replication and repair related mutants, we isolated a clone from a rat kangaroo cell line (PtK2) that has increased sensitivity to UV light. Characterization of this clone indicated normal post-replication repair after UV irradiation, and normal removal rates of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and pyrimidine(6-4)pyrimidone photoproducts by excision repair. However, this cell line has decreased ability to make early incisions on damaged DNA, po...

  2. Characterization of a mutant rat kangaroo cell line with alterations in the cell cycle and DNA repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyaji E.N.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a positive selection system for isolating DNA replication and repair related mutants, we isolated a clone from a rat kangaroo cell line (PtK2 that has increased sensitivity to UV light. Characterization of this clone indicated normal post-replication repair after UV irradiation, and normal removal rates of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and pyrimidine(6-4pyrimidone photoproducts by excision repair. However, this cell line has decreased ability to make early incisions on damaged DNA, possibly indicating a defect in preferential repair of actively transcribed genes, and a slower cell proliferation rate, including a longer S-phase. This phenotype reinforces the present notion that control of key mechanisms in cell metabolism, such as cell cycle control, repair, transcription and cell death, can be linked.

  3. Kangaroo rats: intraspecific variation in Dipodomys spectabilis Merriam and Dipodomys deserti Stephens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nader, Iyad A

    1978-01-01

    Twenty morpholoigcl characters in addition to color were studied throughout the geographic range of two species of kangaroo rats, the banner-tailed kangaroo rat Dipodomys spectabilis and the desert...

  4. Locomotion energetics and gait characteristics of a rat-kangaroo, Bettongia penicillata, have some kangaroo-like features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, K N; Dawson, T J

    2003-09-01

    The locomotory characteristics of kangaroos and wallabies are unusual, with both energetic costs and gait parameters differing from those of quadrupedal running mammals. The kangaroos and wallabies have an evolutionary history of only around 5 million years; their closest relatives, the rat-kangaroos, have a fossil record of more than 26 million years. We examined the locomotory characteristics of a rat-kangaroo, Bettongia penicillata. Locomotory energetics and gait parameters were obtained from animals exercising on a motorised treadmill at speeds from 0.6 m s(-1) to 6.2 m s(-1). Aerobic metabolic costs increased as hopping speed increased, but were significantly different from the costs for a running quadruped; at the fastest speed, the cost of hopping was 50% of the cost of running. Therefore B. penicillata can travel much faster than quadrupedal runners at similar levels of aerobic output. The maximum aerobic output of B. penicillata was 17 times its basal metabolism. Increases in speed during hopping were achieved through increases in stride length, with stride frequency remaining constant. We suggest that these unusual locomotory characteristics are a conservative feature among the hopping marsupials, with an evolutionary history of 20-30 million years.

  5. Positive interactions between desert granivores: localized facilitation of harvester ants by kangaroo rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Edelman

    Full Text Available Facilitation, when one species enhances the environment or performance of another species, can be highly localized in space. While facilitation in plant communities has been intensely studied, the role of facilitation in shaping animal communities is less well understood. In the Chihuahuan Desert, both kangaroo rats and harvester ants depend on the abundant seeds of annual plants. Kangaroo rats, however, are hypothesized to facilitate harvester ants through soil disturbance and selective seed predation rather than competing with them. I used a spatially explicit approach to examine whether a positive or negative interaction exists between banner-tailed kangaroo rat (Dipodomys spectabilis mounds and rough harvester ant (Pogonomyrmex rugosus colonies. The presence of a scale-dependent interaction between mounds and colonies was tested by comparing fitted spatial point process models with and without interspecific effects. Also, the effect of proximity to a mound on colony mortality and spatial patterns of surviving colonies was examined. The spatial pattern of kangaroo rat mounds and harvester ant colonies was consistent with a positive interspecific interaction at small scales (<10 m. Mortality risk of vulnerable, recently founded harvester ant colonies was lower when located close to a kangaroo rat mound and proximity to a mound partly predicted the spatial pattern of surviving colonies. My findings support localized facilitation of harvester ants by kangaroo rats, likely mediated through ecosystem engineering and foraging effects on plant cover and composition. The scale-dependent effect of kangaroo rats on abiotic and biotic factors appears to result in greater founding and survivorship of young colonies near mounds. These results suggest that soil disturbance and foraging by rodents can have subtle impacts on the distribution and demography of other species.

  6. Influence of small-scale disturbances by kangaroo rats on Chihuahuan Desert ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. L. Schooley; B. T. Bestelmeyer; J. F. Kelly

    2000-01-01

    Banner-tailed kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spectabilis) are prominent ecosystem engineers that build large mounds that influence the spatial structuring of fungi, plants, and some ground-dwelling animals. Ants are diverse and functionally important components of arid ecosystems; some species are also ecosystem engineers. We investigated the effects of...

  7. Derivation of soil screening thresholds to protect chisel-toothed kangaroo rat from uranium mine waste in northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, Jo E.; Linder, Greg L.; Otton, James K.; Finger, Susan E.; Little, Edward E.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical data from soil and weathered waste material samples collected from five uranium mines north of the Grand Canyon (three reclaimed, one mined but not reclaimed, and one never mined) were used in a screening-level risk analysis for the Arizona chisel-toothed kangaroo rat (Dipodomys microps leucotis); risks from radiation exposure were not evaluated. Dietary toxicity reference values were used to estimate soil-screening thresholds presenting risk to kangaroo rats. Sensitivity analyses indicated that body weight critically affected outcomes of exposed-dose calculations; juvenile kangaroo rats were more sensitive to the inorganic constituent toxicities than adult kangaroo rats. Species-specific soil-screening thresholds were derived for arsenic (137 mg/kg), cadmium (16 mg/kg), copper (1,461 mg/kg), lead (1,143 mg/kg), nickel (771 mg/kg), thallium (1.3 mg/kg), uranium (1,513 mg/kg), and zinc (731 mg/kg) using toxicity reference values that incorporate expected chronic field exposures. Inorganic contaminants in soils within and near the mine areas generally posed minimal risk to kangaroo rats. Most exceedances of soil thresholds were for arsenic and thallium and were associated with weathered mine wastes.

  8. Plasma cholinesterase activity of rats, western grey kangaroos, alpacas, sheep, cattle, and horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayberry, Chris; Mawson, Peter; Maloney, Shane K

    2015-01-01

    Plasma cholinesterase activity levels of various species may be of interest to toxicologists or pathologists working with chemicals that interfere with the activity of plasma cholinesterase. We used a pH titration method to measure the plasma cholinesterase activity of six mammalian species. Plasma cholinesterase activity varied up to 50-fold between species: sheep (88 ± 45 nM acetylcholine degraded per ml of test plasma per minute), cattle (94 ± 35), western grey kangaroos (126 ± 92), alpaca (364 ± 70), rats (390 ± 118) and horses (4539 ± 721). We present a simple, effective technique for the assay of plasma cholinesterase activity levels from a range of species. Although labour-intensive, it requires only basic laboratory equipment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The effects of thyroxine on metabolism and water balance in a desert-dwelling rodent, Merriam's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys merriami).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, Marilyn R; Holcombe, Dale W

    2002-01-01

    Desert-dwelling mammals such as Merriam's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys merriani) need to conserve both energy and water to survive desert conditions characterized by aridity and low productivity. The thyroid hormone thyroxine increases both basal metabolic rate and urinary water loss in mammals. Increases in basal metabolism and urinary water loss are likely to be detrimental to D. merriami, therefore the regulation of this hormone may be important. To examine the effects of thyroxine in this species, we implanted adult kangaroo rats with pellets designed to release specific doses of thyroxine at a constant rate for 90 days or a placebo pellet. We measured plasma thyroxine concentration, basal metabolic rate, food consumption, urine concentration and water loss in all implanted animals. Thyroxine implants significantly increased both plasma thyroxine and basal metabolic rate in a relatively dose-dependent manner. In response to thyroxine. kangaroo rats increased food consumption only slightly, but this small increase was sufficient to compensate for their elevated metabolic rates. Neither urine concentration nor water loss varied among treatment groups. Thyroxine increased energy expenditure but not water loss in this species.

  10. The high aerobic capacity of a small, marsupial rat-kangaroo (Bettongia penicillata) is matched by the mitochondrial and capillary morphology of its skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Koa N; Dawson, Terence J

    2012-09-15

    We examined the structure-function relationships that underlie the aerobic capacities of marsupial mammals that hop. Marsupials have relatively low basal metabolic rates (BMR) and historically were seen as 'low energy' mammals. However, the red kangaroo, Macropus rufus (family Macropodidae), has aerobic capacities equivalent to athletic placentals. It has an extreme aerobic scope (fAS) and its large locomotor muscles feature high mitochondrial and capillary volumes. M. rufus belongs to a modern group of kangaroos and its high fAS is not general for marsupials. However, other hopping marsupials may have elevated aerobic capacities. Bettongia penicillata, a rat-kangaroo (family Potoroidae), is a small (1 kg), active hopper whose fAS is somewhat elevated. We examined the oxygen delivery system in its muscles to ascertain links with hopping. An elevated fAS of 23 provided a relatively high maximal aerobic oxygen consumption ( ) in B. penicillata; associated with this is a skeletal muscle mass of 44% of body mass. Ten muscles were sampled to estimate the total mitochondrial and capillary volume of the locomotor muscles. Values in B. penicillata were similar to those in M. rufus and in athletic placentals. This small hopper had high muscle mitochondrial volume densities (7.1-11.9%) and both a large total capillary volume (6 ml kg(-1) body mass) and total capillary erythrocyte volume (3.2 ml kg(-1)). Apparently, a considerable aerobic capacity is required to achieve the benefits of the extended stride in fast hopping. Of note, the ratio of to total muscle mitochondrial volume in B. penicillata was 4.9 ml O(2) min(-1) ml(-1). Similar values occur in M. rufus and also placental mammals generally, not only athletic species. If such relationships occur in other marsupials, a fundamental structure-function relationship for oxygen delivery to muscles likely originated with or before the earliest mammals.

  11. Polycyclic hydrocarbon biomarkers confirm selective incorporation of petroleum in soil and kangaroo rat liver samples near an oil well blowout site in the western San Joaquin Valley, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, I.; Lu, S.T.; Lee, R.P.; Warrick, G.

    1996-01-01

    Following an accidental oil well blow out at an oil field in the western part of the San Joaquin Valley, soil samples and specimens of Heermann's kangaroo rats (Dipodomys heermanni) were collected from two oil-impacted areas and one control area. Fingerprinting by GC-MS and quantitative evaluation of metabolized petroleum hydrocarbons was performed on oil, soil extracts, and rat livers. A liver from a domestically raised rabbit was used as an experimental control. The results show that there is no significant incorporation of PAHs or low molecular weight n-alkanes (C 13 --C 25 ) into the liver tissues. The C 25 --C 35 n-alkane range for all soil samples, kangaroo rat livers, and rabbit liver, is dominated by a high abundance of C 27 , C 29 , C 31 , and C 33 hydrocarbons typical of epicuticular plant waxes. In all liver tissue samples, squalene, the cholesterol precursor, is the dominant hydrocarbon. Although evidence is lacking for metabolism of PAHs and paraffinic petroleum hydrocarbons, very strong evidence is available for incorporation of a set of polycyclic hydrocarbons (biomarkers) belonging to the terpane, sterane, and monoaromatic and triaromatic sterane families, identified by ion monitoring at 191, 217, 253, and 231 m/z, respectively. Because these hydrocarbons are not known to exist in the biosphere, but are only synthesized during oil- and coal-forming processes, their presence in the liver samples constitutes proof for crude oil incorporation into tissues. This conclusion is further substantiated by the selective incorporation of only the 20S enantiomer of C 28 and C 29 steranes and aromatic steranes into the livers, with the exclusion of the 20R enantiomer. The results from the study conclusively demonstrate that polycyclic hydrocarbon biomarkers provide excellent indices for proof of petroleum exposure and metabolism in some terrestrial herbivores

  12. Camels, Cormorants, and Kangaroo Rats: Integration and Synthesis in Organismal Biology After World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Joel B

    2015-01-01

    During the decades following World War II diverse groups of American biologists established a variety of distinctive approaches to organismal biology. Rhetorically, organismal biology could be used defensively to distinguish established research traditions from perceived threats from newly emerging fields such as molecular biology. But, organismal biologists were also interested in integrating biological disciplines and using a focus on organisms to synthesize levels of organization from molecules and cells to populations and communities. Part of this broad movement was the development of an area of research variously referred to as physiological ecology, environmental physiology, or ecophysiology. This area of research was distinctive in its self-conscious blend of field and laboratory practices and its explicit integration with other areas of biology such as ecology, animal behavior, and evolution in order to study adaptation. Comparing the intersecting careers of Knut Schmidt-Nielsen and George Bartholomew highlights two strikingly different approaches to physiological ecology. These alternative approaches to studying the interactions of organisms and environments also differed in important ways from the organismal biology championed by leading figures in the modern synthesis.

  13. Effects of Simultaneous Radiofrequency Radiation and Chemical Exposure of Mammalian Cells. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    chromosome - - - - - - -I aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges (SCE). Yao (1982) exposed rat kangaroo RH5 and RH1l6 cells to 2.45 GHz radiation, and...control was reported in chromosome aberrations. Yac (1982) investigated the cytogenetic consequences of chronic microwave exposure on rat kangaroo RH5...was said to be 280C. The cells were exposed both as conidia, which are "rather inactive metabolically ," and also after DNA replication had been

  14. How Does a Hopping Kangaroo Breathe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliodori, Mauricio J.; Lujan, Heidi L.; Janbaih, Hussein; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    We developed a model to demonstrate how a hopping kangaroo breathes. Interestingly, a kangaroo uses less energy to breathe while hopping than while standing still. This occurs, in part, because rather than using muscle power to move air into and out of the lungs, air is pulled into (inspiration) and pushed out of (expiration) the lungs as the…

  15. Observations on kangaroo baby care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukasa, G K

    1992-01-01

    The author's visit to "kangaroo care" programs in Guatemala and Colombia has led Uganda's University of Kampala to consider the introduction of this innovation in its neonatal special care unit. Such programs, which place premature infants in direct contact with their mother's skin during breastfeeding, represents a simple, inexpensive strategy for infant survival in developing countries and eliminates the need for mechanical incubators. Research conducted at the Hospital Universitario de Valle in Cali, Colombia, found that falls in the infant's body temperature. In the Latin American programs, premature infants are entered into the breastfeeding program immediately after delivery.

  16. Kangaroo – A pattern-matching program for biological sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betel Doron

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biologists are often interested in performing a simple database search to identify proteins or genes that contain a well-defined sequence pattern. Many databases do not provide straightforward or readily available query tools to perform simple searches, such as identifying transcription binding sites, protein motifs, or repetitive DNA sequences. However, in many cases simple pattern-matching searches can reveal a wealth of information. We present in this paper a regular expression pattern-matching tool that was used to identify short repetitive DNA sequences in human coding regions for the purpose of identifying potential mutation sites in mismatch repair deficient cells. Results Kangaroo is a web-based regular expression pattern-matching program that can search for patterns in DNA, protein, or coding region sequences in ten different organisms. The program is implemented to facilitate a wide range of queries with no restriction on the length or complexity of the query expression. The program is accessible on the web at http://bioinfo.mshri.on.ca/kangaroo/ and the source code is freely distributed at http://sourceforge.net/projects/slritools/. Conclusion A low-level simple pattern-matching application can prove to be a useful tool in many research settings. For example, Kangaroo was used to identify potential genetic targets in a human colorectal cancer variant that is characterized by a high frequency of mutations in coding regions containing mononucleotide repeats.

  17. Cytochrome P450 CYP3A in marsupials: cloning and identification of the first CYP3A subfamily member, isoform 3A70 from Eastern gray kangaroo (Macropus giganteus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Merhibi, Adaweyah; Ngo, Suong N T; Marchant, Ceilidh L; Height, Tamara A; Stupans, Ieva; McKinnon, Ross A

    2012-09-15

    Australian marsupials are unique fauna that have evolved and adapted to unique environments and thus it is likely that their detoxification systems differ considerably from those of well-studied eutherian mammals. Knowledge of these processes in marsupials is therefore vital to understanding the consequences of exposure to xenobiotics. Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are critically important in the oxidative metabolism of a diverse array of both xenobiotics and endogenous substrates. In this study we have cloned and characterized CYP3A70, the first identified member of the CYP3A gene subfamily from Eastern gray kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). A 1665 base pair kangaroo hepatic CYP3A complete cDNA, designated CYP3A70, was cloned by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction approaches, which encodes a protein of 506 amino acids. The CYP3A70 cDNA shares approximately 71% nucleotide and 65% amino acid sequence homology to human CYP3A4 and displays high sequence similarity to other published mammalian CYP3As from human, monkey, cow, pig, dog, rat, rabbit, mouse, hamster, and guinea pig. Transfection of the CYP3A70 cDNAs into 293T cells resulted in stable cell lines expressing a CYP3A immuno-reactive protein that was recognized by a goat anti-human CYP3A4 polyclonal antibody. The anti-human CYP3A4 antibody also detected immunoreactive proteins in liver microsomes from all test marsupials, including the kangaroo, koala, wallaby, and wombat, with multiple CYP3A immunoreactive bands observed in kangaroo and wallaby tissues. Relatively, very low CYP catalytic activity was detected for the kangaroo CYP3A70 cDNA-expressed proteins (19.6 relative luminescent units/μg protein), which may be due to low protein expression levels. Collectively, this study provides primary molecular data regarding the Eastern kangaroo hepatic CYP3A70 gene and enables further functional analyses of CYP3A enzymes in marsupials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Unlike Kangaroo care, mechanically simulated Kangaroo care does not change heart rate variability in preterm neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kommers, Deedee; Joshi, Rohan; van Pul, Carola; Feijs, Loe; Oei, Guid; Oetomo, Sidarto Bambang; Andriessen, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Background: While numerous positive effects of Kangaroo care (KC) have been reported, the duration that parents can spend kangarooing is often limited. Aim: To investigate whether a mattress that aims to mimic breathing motion and the sounds of heartbeats (BabyBe GMBH, Stuttgart, Germany) can

  19. Ventilatory accommodation of oxygen demand and respiratory water loss in kangaroos from mesic and arid environments, the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus) and the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, T J; Munn, A J; Blaney, C E; Krockenberger, A; Maloney, S K

    2000-01-01

    We studied ventilation in kangaroos from mesic and arid environments, the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus) and the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus), respectively, within the range of ambient temperatures (T(a)) from -5 degrees to 45 degrees C. At thermoneutral temperatures (Ta=25 degrees C), there were no differences between the species in respiratory frequency, tidal volume, total ventilation, or oxygen extraction. The ventilatory patterns of the kangaroos were markedly different from those predicted from the allometric equation derived for placentals. The kangaroos had low respiratory frequencies and higher tidal volumes, even when adjustment was made for their lower basal metabolism. At Ta>25 degrees C, ventilation was increased in the kangaroos to facilitate respiratory water loss, with percent oxygen extraction being markedly lowered. Ventilation was via the nares; the mouth was closed. Differences in ventilation between the two species occurred at higher temperatures, and at 45 degrees C were associated with differences in respiratory evaporative heat loss, with that of M. giganteus being higher. Panting in kangaroos occurred as a graded increase in respiratory frequency, during which tidal volume was lowered. When panting, the desert red kangaroo had larger tidal volumes and lower respiratory frequencies at equivalent T(a) than the eastern grey kangaroo, which generally inhabits mesic forests. The inference made from this pattern is that the red kangaroo has the potential to increase respiratory evaporative heat loss to a greater level.

  20. Kangaroo Mother Care Management of a 750 Ggrammes Baby: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the successful management of 750 grammes low birth weight baby using kangaroo mother care in the hospital and at home. The baby had suffered a variety of morbidities associated with prematurity in the early neonatal period. Key words: Kangaroo mother care, low birth weight babies ...

  1. Parents\\' lived experience of providing kangaroo care to their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Premature and low birthweight infants pose particular challenges to health services in South Africa. While there is good evidence to demonstrate the benefits of kangaroo care in low birthweight infants, limited research has been conducted locally on the experiences of parents who provide kangaroo care to their preterm ...

  2. Kangaroo mother care: a systematic review of barriers and enablers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Grace J; Labar, Amy S; Wall, Stephen; Atun, Rifat

    2016-02-01

    To investigate factors influencing the adoption of kangaroo mother care in different contexts. We searched PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science and the World Health Organization's regional databases, for studies on "kangaroo mother care" or "kangaroo care" or "skin-to-skin care" from 1 January 1960 to 19 August 2015, without language restrictions. We included programmatic reports and hand-searched references of published reviews and articles. Two independent reviewers screened articles and extracted data on carers, health system characteristics and contextual factors. We developed a conceptual model to analyse the integration of kangaroo mother care in health systems. We screened 2875 studies and included 112 studies that contained qualitative data on implementation. Kangaroo mother care was applied in different ways in different contexts. The studies show that there are several barriers to implementing kangaroo mother care, including the need for time, social support, medical care and family acceptance. Barriers within health systems included organization, financing and service delivery. In the broad context, cultural norms influenced perceptions and the success of adoption. Kangaroo mother care is a complex intervention that is behaviour driven and includes multiple elements. Success of implementation requires high user engagement and stakeholder involvement. Future research includes designing and testing models of specific interventions to improve uptake.

  3. Regulation of Taurine transporter activity in cultured rat retinal ganglion cells and rat retinal Muller Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eissa, Laila A.; Smith, Sylvia B.; El-sherbeny, Amira A.

    2006-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is one of the most common complications of diabetes. The amino acid taurine is believed to play an antioxidant protective role in diabetic retinopathy through the scavenging of the reactive species. It is not well established whether taurine uptake is altered in retina cells during diabetic conditions. Thus, the present study was designed to investigate the changes in taurine transport in cultures of rat retinal Muller cells and rat retinal ganglion cells under conditions associated with diabetes. Taurine was abundantly taken up by retinal Muller cells and rat retinal ganglion cells under normal glycemic condition. Taurine was actively transported to rat Muller cells and rat retinal ganglion cells in a Na and Cl dependant manner. Taurine uptake further significantly elevated in both type of cells after the incubation with high glucose concentration. This effect could be attributed to the increase in osmolarity. Because Nitric Oxide (NO) is a molecule implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes, we also determined the activity of taurine transporter in cultured rat retinal Muller cells and rat retinal ganglion cells in the presence of the NO donors, SIN-1 and SNAP. Taurine uptake was elevated above control value after 24-h incubation with low concentration of NO donors. We finally investigated the ability of neurotoxic glutamate to change taurine transporter activity in both types of cells. Uptake of taurine was significantly increased in rat retinal ganglion cells when only incubated with high concentration of glutamate. Our data provide evidence that taurine transporter is present in cultured rat retinal ganglion and Muller cells and is regulated by hyperosmolarity. The data are relevant to disease such as diabetes and neuronal degeneration where retinal cell volume may dramatically change. (author)

  4. Establishment of cell lines with rat spermatogonial stem cell characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Pelt, Ans M. M.; Roepers-Gajadien, Hermien L.; Gademan, Iris S.; Creemers, Laura B.; de Rooij, Dirk G.; van Dissel-Emiliani, Federica M. F.

    2002-01-01

    Spermatogonial cell lines were established by transfecting a mixed population of purified rat A(s) (stem cells), A(pr) and A(al) spermatogonia with SV40 large T antigen. Two cell lines were characterized and found to express Hsp90alpha and oct-4, specific markers for germ cells and A spermatogonia,

  5. The Impact of Kangaroo Care on Premature Infant Weight Gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evereklian, Melvina; Posmontier, Bobbie

    Preterm births occur among 11.4% of all live infant births. Without steady weight gain, premature infants may experience lengthy hospitalizations, neurodevelopmental deficits and hospital readmissions, which can increase the financial burden on the health care system and their families. The total U.S. health-related costs linked to preterm infant deliveries are estimated at $4.33 billion. Kangaroo care is a feasible practice that can improve preterm infant weight gain. However, this intervention is utilized less often throughout the U.S. due to numerous barriers including a lack of consistent protocols, inadequate knowledge, and decreased level of confidence in demonstrating the proper kangarooing technique. An integrative review was conducted to evaluate the impact of kangaroo care on premature infant weight gain in order to educate nurses about its efficacy among preterm infants. A literature search was conducted using CINAHL, PubMed, Cochrane Reviews, ClinicalKey and Google Scholar. Large volume searches were restricted using appropriate filters and limiters. Most of the evaluated studies determined that weight gain was greater among the kangarooing premature infants. Kangaroo care is a low-tech low-cost modality that can facilitate improved preterm infant weight gain even in low-resource settings. Despite its current efficacy, kangaroo care is not widely utilized due to several barriers including an absence of standardized protocols and a lack of knowledge about its benefits. Kangaroo care can become a widespread formalized practice after nurses and parents learn about the technique and its numerous benefits for premature infants, including its association with improved weight gain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Kangaroo Care Education Effects on Nurses' Knowledge and Skills Confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almutairi, Wedad Matar; Ludington-Hoe, Susan M

    2016-11-01

    Less than 20% of the 996 NICUs in the United States routinely practice kangaroo care, due in part to the inadequate knowledge and skills confidence of nurses. Continuing education improves knowledge and skills acquisition, but the effects of a kangaroo care certification course on nurses' knowledge and skills confidence are unknown. A pretest-posttest quasi-experiment was conducted. The Kangaroo Care Knowledge and Skills Confidence Tool was administered to 68 RNs at a 2.5-day course about kangaroo care evidence and skills. Measures of central tendency, dispersion, and paired t tests were conducted on 57 questionnaires. The nurses' characteristics were varied. The mean posttest Knowledge score (M = 88.54, SD = 6.13) was significantly higher than the pretest score (M = 78.7, SD = 8.30), t [54] = -9.1, p = .000), as was the posttest Skills Confidence score (pretest M = 32.06, SD = 3.49; posttest M = 26.80, SD = 5.22), t [53] = -8.459, p = .000). The nurses' knowledge and skills confidence of kangaroo care improved following continuing education, suggesting a need for continuing education in this area. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2016;47(11):518-524. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Mechanism design and optimization of a bionic kangaroo jumping robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y. H.; Zheng, L.; Ge, W. J.; Zou, Z. H.

    2018-03-01

    Hopping robots have broad application prospects in the fields of military reconnaissance, field search or life rescue. However, current hopping robots still face the problems of weak jumping ability and load bearing. Inspired by the jumping of kangaroo, we design a Kangaroo hopping robot “Zbot”, which has two degrees of freedom and three joints. The geared five-bar mechanism is used to decouple the knee and ankle joints of the robot. In order to get a bionic performance, the coupling mechanism parameters are optimized. The simulation and experiments show that the robot has an excellent jumping ability and load capacity.

  8. Mast cells in lung of rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ivanova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a short review of scientific literature on lung mast cells in norm and pathology that shows the current state of this problem. Particular attention is paid to the quantity, location and arrangement of the mast cells. The mast cells are a part of immune system whom origin are myeloid stem cells. They are a kind of white blood cells. Many authors from the 19th century to the present day have traced and described the role of mast cells in the human body, their structure and changes depending on the functional state of the organism. Paul Ehrlich is the first author that described in his doctoral thesis the mast cells as effectors of allergy particularly in the beginning of reaction and in acute phase of the process. Research has continued through out the 20th century and researchers' efforts are primarily focused on clarifying the structure and function of mast cells and identifying their role in pathological responses in the human body. Mast cells are found in all organs, but they predominate in peripheral blood, spleen and bone marrow. There are cells in the rat skin that live for about 12 weeks, and more recent studies have found that proliferation of mature mast cells is caused by various factors.

  9. Comparative jaw muscle anatomy in kangaroos, wallabies, and rat-kangaroos (marsupialia: macropodoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Natalie Marina

    2009-06-01

    The jaw muscles were studied in seven genera of macropodoid marsupials with diets ranging from mainly fungi in Potorous to grass in Macropus. Relative size, attachments, and lamination within the jaw adductor muscles varied between macropodoid species. Among macropodine species, the jaw adductor muscle proportions vary with feeding type. The relative mass of the masseter is roughly consistent, but grazers and mixed-feeders (Macropus and Lagostrophus) had relatively larger medial pterygoids and smaller temporalis muscles than the browsers (Dendrolagus, Dorcopsulus, and Setonix). Grazing macropods show similar jaw muscle proportions to "ungulate-grinding" type placental mammals. The internal architecture of the jaw muscles also varies between grazing and browsing macropods, most significantly, the anatomy of the medial pterygoid muscle. Potoroines have distinctly different jaw muscle proportions to macropodines. The masseter muscle group, in particular, the superficial masseter is enlarged, while the temporalis group is relatively reduced. Lagostrophus fasciatus is anatomically distinct from other macropods with respect to its masticatory muscle anatomy, including enlarged superficial medial pterygoid and deep temporalis muscles, an anteriorly inflected masseteric process, and the shape of the mandibular condyle. The enlarged triangular pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone, in particular, is distinctive of Lagsotrophus. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Differentiation ability of rat postnatal dental pulp cells in vitro.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, W.; Walboomers, X.F.; Wolke, J.G.C.; Bian, Z.; Fan, M.W.; Jansen, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    The current rapid progression in stem cell research has enhanced our knowledge of dental tissue regeneration. In this study, rat dental pulp cells were isolated and their differentiation ability was evaluated. First, dental pulp cells were obtained from maxillary incisors of male Wistar rats.

  11. Morphological and morphometric characteristics of gastric mucosa in western grey kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Badran Shoeib

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to investigate the morphology and histomorphometry of stomach and gastric mucosa in western grey kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus. The stomach was composed of three indistinctive separate parts namely sacciform forestomach, tubiform forestomach, and hindstomach. The tubiform forestomach was the main tubular section of the organ. The stomach had a compound lining. The non-glandular mucosa occupied the medial blind sac (MBS of the sacciform forestomach; the layer covered about one-third of the tubiform forestomach (non-glandular region and the entire length of the gastric sulcus. The glandular part lined the parietal blind sac (PBS of sacciform forestomach and the cardiac gland region of tubiform forestomach as well as fundic and pyloric gland regions of the hindstomach. The cardiac mucosa had smooth and folded areas; these were filled with mixed glands. In the fundic glands, the parietal cells outnumbered the chief cells. The pyloric glands were of serous-like in characteristics. In conclusion, gross and histological structures of the stomach of western grey kangaroo are adaptive with its food habitat, which allows thorough mixing of highly fibrous grasses.

  12. Features of Heart Rate Variability Capture Regulatory Changes During Kangaroo Care in Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kommers, Deedee R; Joshi, Rohan; van Pul, Carola; Atallah, Louis; Feijs, Loe; Oei, Guid; Bambang Oetomo, Sidarto; Andriessen, Peter

    2017-03-01

    To determine whether heart rate variability (HRV) can serve as a surrogate measure to track regulatory changes during kangaroo care, a period of parental coregulation distinct from regulation within the incubator. Nurses annotated the starting and ending times of kangaroo care for 3 months. The pre-kangaroo care, during-kangaroo care, and post-kangaroo care data were retrieved in infants with at least 10 accurately annotated kangaroo care sessions. Eight HRV features (5 in the time domain and 3 in the frequency domain) were used to visually and statistically compare the pre-kangaroo care and during-kangaroo care periods. Two of these features, capturing the percentage of heart rate decelerations and the extent of heart rate decelerations, were newly developed for preterm infants. A total of 191 kangaroo care sessions were investigated in 11 preterm infants. Despite clinically irrelevant changes in vital signs, 6 of the 8 HRV features (SD of normal-to-normal intervals, root mean square of the SD, percentage of consecutive normal-to-normal intervals that differ by >50 ms, SD of heart rate decelerations, high-frequency power, and low-frequency/high-frequency ratio) showed a visible and statistically significant difference (P heart rate decelerations. HRV-based features may be clinically useful for capturing the dynamic changes in autonomic regulation in response to kangaroo care and other changes in environment and state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Energetics and biomechanics of locomotion by red kangaroos (Macropus rufus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kram, R; Dawson, T J

    1998-05-01

    As red kangaroos hop faster over level ground, their rate of oxygen consumption (indicating metabolic energy consumption) remains nearly the same. This phenomenon has been attributed to exceptional elastic energy storage and recovery via long compliant tendons in the legs. Alternatively, red kangaroos may have exceptionally efficient muscles. To estimate efficiency, we measured the metabolic cost of uphill hopping, where muscle fibers must perform mechanical work against gravity. We found that uphill hopping was much more expensive than level hopping. The maximal rate of oxygen consumption measured (3 ml O2 kg-1 s-1) exceeds all but a few vertebrate species. However, efficiency values were normal, approximately 30%. At faster level hopping speeds the effective mechanical advantage of the extensor muscles of the ankle joint remained the same. Thus, kangaroos generate the same muscular force at all speeds but do so more rapidly at faster hopping speeds. This contradicts a recent hypothesis for what sets the cost of locomotion. The cost of transport (J kg-1 m-1) decreases at faster hopping speeds, yet red kangaroos prefer to use relatively slow speeds that avoid high levels of tendon stress.

  14. Implementation of Kangaroo mother care by health workers in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-08-04

    Aug 4, 2016 ... thermia, hypoglycemia and nosocomial sepsis in neo- nates with birth weight ... for care for preterm babies with few neonatal care units, located often in .... Fig 2: Reasons for not practicing Kangaroo Mother Care in facilities of ...

  15. Kangaroo Care: Experiences and Needs of Parents in Neonatal Intensive Care: A Systematic Review ‘Parents’ Experience of Kangaroo Care’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gabriels, karlijn; Brouwer, AJ; maat, Jessica; van den Hoogen, Agnes

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This review is focusing on the experiences and needs of parents with infants within NICU regarding Kangaroo Care. Ten studies with qualitative designs were included. Kangaroo Care was overall experienced as positive; giving parents the opportunity to get to know their babies and (re-)

  16. Parathyroid hormone dependent T cell proliferation in uremic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewin, E; Ladefoged, Jens; Brandi, L

    1993-01-01

    Chronic renal failure (CRF) is combined with an impairment of the immune system. The T cell may be a target for the action of parathyroid hormone (PTH). Rats with CRF have high blood levels of PTH. Therefore, the present investigation examined some aspects of the T cell function in both normal...... and CRF rats before and after parathyroidectomy and after an isogenic kidney transplantation. The T cell proliferative response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) stimulation was significantly higher in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures obtained from CRF rats than from normal rats. After...... parathyroidectomy the T cells of normal as well as of uremic rats could still be significantly stimulated by PHA, but now no significant difference was seen. When CRF was reversed after an isogenic kidney transplantation and PTH reversed to levels in the normal range, the T cell proliferative response to PHA...

  17. Nuclear microscopy of rat colon epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, M.; Rajendran, Reshmi; Ng, Mary; Udalagama, Chammika; Rodrigues, Anna E.; Watt, Frank; Jenner, Andrew Michael

    2011-10-01

    Using Nuclear microscopy, we have investigated iron distributions in the colons of Sprague Dawley rats, in order to elucidate heme uptake. Four groups of five Sprague Dawley rats (mean weight 180 g) were fed different purified diets containing either heme diet (2.5% w/w hemoglobin), high fat diet (HFD) (18% w/w fat, 1% w/w cholesterol), 'western' diet (combination of hemoglobin 2.5% and 18% fat, 1% cholesterol) or control diet (7% w/w fat). After 4 weeks, animals were sacrificed by exsanguination after anaesthesia. Thin sections of frozen colon tissue were taken, freeze dried and scanned using nuclear microscopy utilising the techniques PIXE, RBS and STIM. The new data acquisition system (IonDaq) developed in CIBA was used to obtain high resolution images and line scans were used to map the iron distributions across the colon boundaries. The nuclear microscope results indicate that when HFD is given in addition to heme, the iron content of the epithelial cells that line the colon decreases, and the zinc in the smooth muscle wall increases. This implies that the level of heme and fat in diet has an important role in colon health, possibly by influencing epithelial cells directly or changing luminal composition such as bacterial flora or levels of metabolites and cytotoxins.

  18. Nuclear microscopy of rat colon epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, M.; Rajendran, Reshmi; Ng, Mary; Udalagama, Chammika; Rodrigues, Anna E.; Watt, Frank; Jenner, Andrew Michael

    2011-01-01

    Using Nuclear microscopy, we have investigated iron distributions in the colons of Sprague Dawley rats, in order to elucidate heme uptake. Four groups of five Sprague Dawley rats (mean weight 180 g) were fed different purified diets containing either heme diet (2.5% w/w hemoglobin), high fat diet (HFD) (18% w/w fat, 1% w/w cholesterol), 'western' diet (combination of hemoglobin 2.5% and 18% fat, 1% cholesterol) or control diet (7% w/w fat). After 4 weeks, animals were sacrificed by exsanguination after anaesthesia. Thin sections of frozen colon tissue were taken, freeze dried and scanned using nuclear microscopy utilising the techniques PIXE, RBS and STIM. The new data acquisition system (IonDaq) developed in CIBA was used to obtain high resolution images and line scans were used to map the iron distributions across the colon boundaries. The nuclear microscope results indicate that when HFD is given in addition to heme, the iron content of the epithelial cells that line the colon decreases, and the zinc in the smooth muscle wall increases. This implies that the level of heme and fat in diet has an important role in colon health, possibly by influencing epithelial cells directly or changing luminal composition such as bacterial flora or levels of metabolites and cytotoxins.

  19. Nuclear microscopy of rat colon epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, M., E-mail: phyrenmq@nus.edu.sg [Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Rajendran, Reshmi [Lab of Molecular Imaging, Singapore Bioimaging Consotium, 11 Biopolis Way, 02-02 Helios, Singapore 138667 (Singapore); Ng, Mary [Department of Pharmacology, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Udalagama, Chammika; Rodrigues, Anna E.; Watt, Frank [Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Jenner, Andrew Michael [Illawara Health and Medical Research Institute (IHMRI), University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia)

    2011-10-15

    Using Nuclear microscopy, we have investigated iron distributions in the colons of Sprague Dawley rats, in order to elucidate heme uptake. Four groups of five Sprague Dawley rats (mean weight 180 g) were fed different purified diets containing either heme diet (2.5% w/w hemoglobin), high fat diet (HFD) (18% w/w fat, 1% w/w cholesterol), 'western' diet (combination of hemoglobin 2.5% and 18% fat, 1% cholesterol) or control diet (7% w/w fat). After 4 weeks, animals were sacrificed by exsanguination after anaesthesia. Thin sections of frozen colon tissue were taken, freeze dried and scanned using nuclear microscopy utilising the techniques PIXE, RBS and STIM. The new data acquisition system (IonDaq) developed in CIBA was used to obtain high resolution images and line scans were used to map the iron distributions across the colon boundaries. The nuclear microscope results indicate that when HFD is given in addition to heme, the iron content of the epithelial cells that line the colon decreases, and the zinc in the smooth muscle wall increases. This implies that the level of heme and fat in diet has an important role in colon health, possibly by influencing epithelial cells directly or changing luminal composition such as bacterial flora or levels of metabolites and cytotoxins.

  20. Preganglionic innervation of the pancreas islet cells in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LUITEN, PGM; TERHORST, GJ; KOOPMANS, SJ; RIETBERG, M; STEFFENS, AB

    1984-01-01

    The position and number of preganglionic somata innervating the insulin-secreting β-cells of the endocrine pancreas were investigated in Wistar rats. This question was approached by comparing the innervation of the pancreas of normal rats with the innervation of the pancreas in alloxan-induced

  1. Features of heart rate variability capture regulatory changes during kangaroo care in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kommers, D.R.; Joshi, R.; van Pul, C.; Atallah, N.L.; Feijs, L.M.G.; Oei, S.G.; Bambang Oetomo, S.; Andriessen, P.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether heart rate variability (HRV) can serve as a surrogate measure to track regulatory changes during kangaroo care, a period of parental coregulation distinct from regulation within the incubator. Study design: Nurses annotated the starting and ending times of kangaroo

  2. Good short-term outcome of kangaroo mother care in low birth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Good short-term outcome of kangaroo mother care in low birth weight infants in a rural South African hospital. A N Rodriguez, M Nel, H Dippenaar, E A Prinsloo. Abstract. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the outcome of kangaroo mother care (KMC) in low birth weight infants at a community hospital. Methods ...

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in a red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) with otitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeson, Danelle M; Coke, Rob L; Kochunov, Peter; Davis, M Duff

    2008-12-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on an adult, male Red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) with a history of nonspecific neurologic signs and acute discharge from the left ear. MRI revealed findings consistent with otitis and possible osteomyelitis of the temporal and mastoid bones. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of otitis and MRI findings in a kangaroo.

  4. Impacts of visitor number on Kangaroos housed in free-range exhibits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwen, Sally L; Hemsworth, Paul H; Butler, Kym L; Fanson, Kerry V; Magrath, Michael J L

    2015-01-01

    Free range exhibits are becoming increasingly popular in zoos as a means to enhance interaction between visitors and animals. However very little research exists on the impacts of visitors on animal behaviour and stress in free range exhibits. We investigated the effects of visitor number on the behaviour and stress physiology of Kangaroo Island (KI) Kangaroos, Macropus fuliginosus fuliginosus, and Red Kangaroos, Macropus rufus, housed in two free range exhibits in Australian zoos. Behavioural observations were conducted on individual kangaroos at each site using instantaneous scan sampling to record activity (e.g., vigilance, foraging, resting) and distance from the visitor pathway. Individually identifiable faecal samples were collected at the end of each study day and analysed for faecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM) concentration. When visitor number increased, both KI Kangaroos and Red Kangaroos increased the time spent engaged in visitor-directed vigilance and KI Kangaroos also increased the time spent engaged in locomotion and decreased the time spent resting. There was no effect of visitor number on the distance kangaroos positioned themselves from the visitor pathway or FGM concentration in either species. While there are limitations in interpreting these results in terms of fear of visitors, there was no evidence of adverse effects animal welfare in these study groups based on avoidance behaviour or stress physiology under the range of visitor numbers that we studied. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Combination cell therapy with mesenchymal stem cells and neural stem cells for brain stroke in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Mojtaba; Farahmandnia, Mohammad; Razi, Zahra; Delavari, Somayeh; Shakibajahromi, Benafsheh; Sarvestani, Fatemeh Sabet; Kazemi, Sepehr; Semsar, Maryam

    2015-05-01

    Brain stroke is the second most important events that lead to disability and morbidity these days. Although, stroke is important, there is no treatment for curing this problem. Nowadays, cell therapy has opened a new window for treating central nervous system disease. In some previous studies the Mesenchymal stem cells and neural stem cells. In this study, we have designed an experiment to assess the combination cell therapy (Mesenchymal and Neural stem cells) effects on brain stroke. The Mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from adult rat bone marrow and the neural stem cells were isolated from ganglion eminence of rat embryo 14 days. The Mesenchymal stem cells were injected 1 day after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and the neural stem cells transplanted 7 day after MCAO. After 28 days, the neurological outcomes and brain lesion volumes were evaluated. Also, the activity of Caspase 3 was assessed in different groups. The group which received combination cell therapy had better neurological examination and less brain lesion. Also the combination cell therapy group had the least Caspase 3 activity among the groups. The combination cell therapy is more effective than Mesenchymal stem cell therapy and neural stem cell therapy separately in treating the brain stroke in rats.

  6. Turnover time of Leydig cells and other interstitial cells in testes of adult rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teerds, K. J.; de rooij, D. G.; Rommerts, F. F.; van der Tweel, I.; Wensing, C. J.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the turnover of Leydig cells and other interstitial cells in the adult rat testis. Normal adult rats received injections of [3H]thymidine at 9:00 and 21:00 for 2, 5, or 8 days. The percentage of labeled Leydig cells, which was initially low (0.8% +/- 0.2%),

  7. Rat Merkel cells are mechanoreceptors and osmoreceptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Boulais

    Full Text Available Merkel cells (MCs associated with nerve terminals constitute MC-neurite complexes, which are involved in slowly-adapting type I mechanoreception. Although MCs are known to express voltage-gated Ca2+ channels and hypotonic-induced membrane deformation is known to lead to Ca2+ transients, whether MCs initiate mechanotransduction is currently unknown. To answer to this question, rat MCs were transfected with a reporter vector, which enabled their identification.Their properties were investigated through electrophysiological studies. Voltage-gated K+, Ca2+ and Ca2+-activated K+ (KCachannels were identified, as previously described. Here, we also report the activation of Ca2+ channels by histamine and their inhibition by acetylcholine. As a major finding, we demonstrated that direct mechanical stimulations induced strong inward Ca2+ currents in MCs. Depolarizations were dependent on the strength and the length of the stimulation. Moreover, touch-evoked currents were inhibited by the stretch channel antagonist gadolinium. These data confirm the mechanotransduction capabilities of MCs. Furthermore, we found that activation of the osmoreceptor TRPV4 in FM1-43-labeled MCs provoked neurosecretory granule exocytosis. Since FM1-43 blocks mechanosensory channels, this suggests that hypo-osmolarity activates MCs in the absence of mechanotransduction. Thus, mechanotransduction and osmoreception are likely distinct pathways.

  8. Radioimmunoassay studies on repair of ultraviolet damaged DNA in cultured animal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatani, Ryuichi; Tohgo, Yukihiro; Kunishima, Nobuyoshi.

    1975-01-01

    UV (ultraviolet) damaged DNA and its repair of various cultured animal cells were observed by radioimmunoassay using anti-serum against the UV irradiation induced heat-degenerated DNA. There is some difference among the cells of used animals according to their DNA repairabilities. The cells were divided into four groups according to the existence or strength of their repairabilities. 1) excision repair type: cells of men and chimpanzees. 2) photoreactivation type: cells derived from Tachydromus tachydromoides and chicks. 3) photoreactivation with excision repair: cells of rats, kangaroos and mosquitos. 4) non-excision repair type: cells of mice, Meriones and rats. Animal cells have plural types of repair. Main types of repair will differ according to the kind of animals. (Ichikawa, K.)

  9. T-cell proliferative responses following sepsis in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallal, Ousama; Ravindranath, Thyyar M; Choudhry, Mashkoor A; Kohn, Annamarie; Muraskas, Jonathan K; Namak, Shahla Y; Alattar, Mohammad H; Sayeed, Mohammed M

    2003-01-01

    Both experimental and clinical evidence suggest a suppression of T-cell function in burn and sepsis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate splenocyte and purified T-cell proliferative response and IL-2 production in septic neonatal rats. We also examined if alterations in T-cell proliferation and IL-2 production in neonatal sepsis is due to elevation in PGE2. PGE2 is known to play a significant role in T-cell suppression during sepsis in adults. Sepsis was induced in 15-day-old neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats by implanting 0.1 cm3 of fecal pellet impregnated with Escherichia coli (50 CFU) and Bacteroides fragilis (10(3) CFU). Animals receiving fecal pellets without the bacteria were designated as sterile. A group of septic and sterile rats were treated with PGE2 synthesis inhibitors, NS398 and resveratrol. These treatments of animals allowed us to evaluate the role of PGE2 in T-cell suppression during neonatal sepsis. Splenocytes as well as purified T cells were prepared and then proliferative response and IL-2 productive capacities were measured. A significant suppression of splenocyte proliferation and IL-2 production was noticed in both sterile and septic animals compared to the T cells from unoperated control rats. In contrast, the proliferation and IL-2 production by nylon wool purified T cells in sterile rats was not significantly different from control rats, whereas, a significant suppression in Con A-mediated T-cell proliferation and IL-2 production noticed in septic rat T cells compared to the sterile and control rat T cells. Such decrease in T-cell proliferation and IL-2 production was accompanied with 20-25% deaths in neonates implanted with septic pellets. No mortality was noted in sterile-implanted neonates. Treatment of animals with COX-1 inhibitor had no effect on T-cell proliferation response in both septic and sterile groups, whereas COX-2 inhibitor abrogated the decrease in T-cell proliferative response in the septic group. The treatment

  10. Establishment of bipotent progenitor cell clone from rat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Yousuke; Yada, Erica; Nakano, Shin-ichi; Miyagoe-Suzuki, Yuko; Hosoyama, Tohru; Matsuwaki, Takashi; Yamanouchi, Keitaro; Nishihara, Masugi

    2011-12-01

    The present study describes the isolation, cloning and characterization of adipogenic progenitor cells from rat skeletal muscle. Among the obtained 10 clones, the most highly adipogenic progenitor, 2G11 cells, were further characterized. In addition to their adipogenicity, 2G11 cells retain myogenic potential as revealed by formation of multinucleated myotubes when co-cultured with myoblasts. 2G11 cells were resistant to an inhibitory effect of basic fibroblast growth factor on adipogenesis, while adipogenesis of widely used preadipogenic cell line, 3T3-L1 cells, was suppressed almost completely by the same treatment. In vivo transplantation experiments revealed that 2G11 cells are able to possess both adipogenicity and myogenicity in vivo. These results indicate the presence of bipotent progenitor cells in rat skeletal muscle, and suggest that such cells may contribute to ectopic fat formation in skeletal muscle. © 2011 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  11. Interactions of ozone and antineoplastic drugs on rat lung fibroblasts and Walker rat carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenzel, D.G.; Morgan, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    Cultured rat lung fibroblasts (F-cells) and Walker rat carcinoma cells (WRC-cells) labeled with 51 Cr were exposed to the following antitumor drugs alone or with O 3 : carmustine (BCNU), doxorubicin (Dox), cisplatin (CPt), mitomycin C (Mit C) or vitamin K 3 (Vit K). Release of 51 Cr (cell injury) was greater for F-cells than WRC-cells with any single treatment. Pretreatment with any drug (400 microM), except for Vit K with WRC-cells, did not significantly increase O 3 -induced loss of 51 Cr. Co-exposure of F-cells to drugs and O 3 resulted in a marked potentiation of O 3 -induced injury with Vit K, and an inhibition with Dox

  12. Generation and characterization of rat liver stem cell lines and their engraftment in a rat model of liver failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijk, Ewart W.; Rasmussen, Shauna; Blokzijl, Francis; Huch, Meritxell; Gehart, Helmuth; Toonen, Pim; Begthel, Harry; Clevers, Hans; Geurts, Aron M.; Cuppen, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    The rat is an important model for liver regeneration. However, there is no in vitro culture system that can capture the massive proliferation that can be observed after partial hepatectomy in rats. We here describe the generation of rat liver stem cell lines. Rat liver stem cells, which grow as cystic organoids, were characterized by high expression of the stem cell marker Lgr5, by the expression of liver progenitor and duct markers, and by low expression of hepatocyte markers, oval cell markers, and stellate cell markers. Prolonged cultures of rat liver organoids depended on high levels of WNT-signalling and the inhibition of BMP-signaling. Upon transplantation of clonal lines to a Fah−/− Il2rg−/− rat model of liver failure, the rat liver stem cells engrafted into the host liver where they differentiated into areas with FAH and Albumin positive hepatocytes. Rat liver stem cell lines hold potential as consistent reliable cell sources for pharmacological, toxicological or metabolic studies. In addition, rat liver stem cell lines may contribute to the development of regenerative medicine in liver disease. To our knowledge, the here described liver stem cell lines represent the first organoid culture system in the rat. PMID:26915950

  13. CLINICOPATHOLOGIC CORRELATES OF FASCIOLIASIS IN TWO EASTERN GREY KANGAROOS (MACROPUS GIGANTEUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portas, Timothy J; Taylor, David

    2015-12-01

    Infection with the introduced trematode Fasciola hepatica was associated with anemia, mild to moderate azotemia, hypoalbuminemia, and elevated liver enzymes and creatine kinase values in two free-ranging eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus). Both kangaroos were euthanized because of the severity of clinical signs associated with infection. Histopathologic changes included severe cholangiohepatitis, biliary hyperplasia, and fibrosis. Hepatic, splenic, and intestinal amyloidosis was present in one kangaroo and hepatic abscessation in the other; neither histologic change has been reported in macropodids with fascioliasis previously.

  14. Agnus castus extracts inhibit prolactin secretion of rat pituitary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliutz, G; Speiser, P; Schultz, A M; Spona, J; Zeillinger, R

    1993-05-01

    In our studies on prolactin inhibition by plant extracts we focused on the effects of extracts of Vitex agnus castus and its preparations on rat pituitary cells under basal and stimulated conditions in primary cell culture. Both extracts from Vitex agnus castus as well as synthetic dopamine agonists (Lisuride) significantly inhibit basal as well as TRH-stimulated prolactin secretion of rat pituitary cells in vitro and as a consequence inhibition of prolactin secretion could be blocked by adding a dopamine receptor blocker. Therefore because of its dopaminergic effect Agnus castus could be considered as an efficient alternative phytotherapeutic drug in the treatment of slight hyperprolactinaemia.

  15. Subretinally transplanted embryonic stem cells rescue photoreceptor cells from degeneration in the RCS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraermeyer, U; Thumann, G; Luther, T; Kociok, N; Armhold, S; Kruttwig, K; Andressen, C; Addicks, K; Bartz-Schmidt, K U

    2001-01-01

    The Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rat is an animal model for retinal degeneration such as the age-related macular degeneration. The RCS rat undergoes a progressive retinal degeneration during the early postnatal period. A potential treatment to prevent this retinal degeneration is the transplantation into the subretinal space of cells that would replace functions of the degenerating retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells or may form neurotrophic factors. In this study we have investigated the potential of subretinally transplanted embryonic stem cells to prevent the genetically determined photoreceptor cell degeneration in the RCS rat. Embryonic stem cells from the inner cell mass of the mouse blastocyst were allowed to differentiate to neural precursor cells in vitro and were then transplanted into the subretinal space of 20-day-old RCS rats. Transplanted and sham-operated rats were sacrificed 2 months following cell transplantation. The eyes were enucleated and photoreceptor degeneration was quantified by analyzing and determining the thickness of the outer nuclear layer by light and electron microscopy. In the eyes transplanted with embryonic cells up to 8 rows of photoreceptor cell nuclei were observed, whereas in nontreated control eyes the outer nuclear layer had degenerated completely. Transplantation of embryonic stem cells appears to delay photoreceptor cell degeneration in RCS rats.

  16. Formation of reactive oxygen species in rat epithelial cells upon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In our study, we investigated the influence of fly ash on the promotion of early inflammatory reactions like the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in rat lung epithelial cells (RLE-6TN). Furthermore, we determined the formation of nitric oxide (NO). The cells show a clear dose-response relationship concerning the ...

  17. Immunohistochemical localization of glucagon and pancreatic polypeptide on rat endocrine pancreas: coexistence in rat islet cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YH Huang

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available We used immunofluorescence double staining method to investigate the cellular localization of glucagon and pancreatic polypeptide (PP in rat pancreatic islets. The results showed that both A-cells (glucagon-secreting cells and PP-cells (PPsecreting cells were located in the periphery of the islets. However, A-cells and PP-cells had a different regional distribution. Most of A-cells were located in the splenic lobe but a few of them were in the duodenal lobe of the pancreas. In contrast, the majority of PP-cells were found in the duodenal lobe and a few of them were in the splenic lobe of the pancreas. Furthermore, we found that 67.74% A-cells had PP immunoreactivity, 70.92% PP-cells contained glucagon immunoreactivity with immunofluorescence double staining. Our data support the concept of a common precursor stem cell for pancreatic hormone-producing cells.

  18. Inferring kangaroo phylogeny from incongruent nuclear and mitochondrial genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Phillips

    Full Text Available The marsupial genus Macropus includes three subgenera, the familiar large grazing kangaroos and wallaroos of M. (Macropus and M. (Osphranter, as well as the smaller mixed grazing/browsing wallabies of M. (Notamacropus. A recent study of five concatenated nuclear genes recommended subsuming the predominantly browsing Wallabia bicolor (swamp wallaby into Macropus. To further examine this proposal we sequenced partial mitochondrial genomes for kangaroos and wallabies. These sequences strongly favour the morphological placement of W. bicolor as sister to Macropus, although place M. irma (black-gloved wallaby within M. (Osphranter rather than as expected, with M. (Notamacropus. Species tree estimation from separately analysed mitochondrial and nuclear genes favours retaining Macropus and Wallabia as separate genera. A simulation study finds that incomplete lineage sorting among nuclear genes is a plausible explanation for incongruence with the mitochondrial placement of W. bicolor, while mitochondrial introgression from a wallaroo into M. irma is the deepest such event identified in marsupials. Similar such coalescent simulations for interpreting gene tree conflicts will increase in both relevance and statistical power as species-level phylogenetics enters the genomic age. Ecological considerations in turn, hint at a role for selection in accelerating the fixation of introgressed or incompletely sorted loci. More generally the inclusion of the mitochondrial sequences substantially enhanced phylogenetic resolution. However, we caution that the evolutionary dynamics that enhance mitochondria as speciation indicators in the presence of incomplete lineage sorting may also render them especially susceptible to introgression.

  19. Mast cells in the sheep, hedgehog and rat forebrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    MICHALOUDI, HELEN C.; PAPADOPOULOS, GEORGIOS C.

    1999-01-01

    The study was designed to reveal the distribution of various mast cell types in the forebrain of the adult sheep, hedgehog and rat. Based on their histochemical and immunocytochemical characteristics, mast cells were categorised as (1) connective tissue-type mast cells, staining metachromatically purple with the toluidine blue method, or pale red with the Alcian blue/safranin method, (2) mucosal-type or immature mast cells staining blue with the Alcian blue/safranin method and (3) serotonin immunopositive mast cells. All 3 types of brain mast cells in all species studied were located in both white and grey matter, often associated with intraparenchymal blood vessels. Their distribution pattern exhibited interspecies differences, while their number varied considerably not only between species but also between individuals of each species. A distributional left-right asymmetry, with more cells present on the left side, was observed in all species studied but it was most prominent in the sheep brain. In the sheep, mast cells were abundantly distributed in forebrain areas, while in the hedgehog and the rat forebrain, mast cells were less widely distributed and were relatively or substantially fewer in number respectively. A limited number of brain mast cells, in all 3 species, but primarily in the rat, were found to react both immunocytochemically to 5-HT antibody and histochemically with Alcian blue/safranin staining. PMID:10634696

  20. β-Cell dedifferentiation, reduced duct cell plasticity, and impaired β-cell mass regeneration in middle-aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Téllez, Noèlia; Vilaseca, Marina; Martí, Yasmina; Pla, Arturo; Montanya, Eduard

    2016-09-01

    Limitations in β-cell regeneration potential in middle-aged animals could contribute to the increased risk to develop diabetes associated with aging. We investigated β-cell regeneration of middle-aged Wistar rats in response to two different regenerative stimuli: partial pancreatectomy (Px + V) and gastrin administration (Px + G). Pancreatic remnants were analyzed 3 and 14 days after surgery. β-Cell mass increased in young animals after Px and was further increased after gastrin treatment. In contrast, β-cell mass did not change after Px or after gastrin treatment in middle-aged rats. β-Cell replication and individual β-cell size were similarly increased after Px in young and middle-aged animals, and β-cell apoptosis was not modified. Nuclear immunolocalization of neurog3 or nkx6.1 in regenerative duct cells, markers of duct cell plasticity, was increased in young but not in middle-aged Px rats. The pancreatic progenitor-associated transcription factors neurog3 and sox9 were upregulated in islet β-cells of middle-aged rats and further increased after Px. The percentage of chromogranin A+/hormone islet cells was significantly increased in the pancreases of middle-aged Px rats. In summary, the potential for compensatory β-cell hyperplasia and hypertrophy was retained in middle-aged rats, but β-cell dedifferentiation and impaired duct cell plasticity limited β-cell regeneration. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  1. high doses of prolactin inhibit testosterone secretion in rat leydig cells

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femi Olaleye

    1 The effect of prolactin on dispersed rat Leydig cells was investigated. Leydig cells from adult rat testes of proven fertility were isolated via collagenase digestion and dispersion. About 100,000 Leydig .... Hormones, Drugs and Reagents.

  2. Toxoplasmosis in the Eastern Grey Kangaroo, Macropus giganteus and the Cape Hyrax, Procavis capensis in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Mohamed El-Dakhly1,4, Nagwan El-Habashi2, El-Shaymaa El-Nahass3,4, Hiroki Sakai4 and Tokuma Yanai4,*

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis was investigated in an eastern grey kangaroo, Macropus giganteus, and four cape hyraxes, Procavia capensis, in a Japanese zoo. Clinically, the kangaroo showed neurological signs, emaciation, diarrhea, elevated AST and CK, and subjected to coma before death. One young cape hyrax had severe anorexia, while the other three died without exhibiting clinical signs. Grossly, lungs of the kangaroo were dark red in color, while hyraxes, besides, showed hepatic multifocal white foci, and intestinal multifocal hemorrhages. Histologically, the kangaroo had frequent Toxoplasma gondii pseudocysts in brain, heart and skeletal muscles. All hyraxes had multifocal necrosis with cysts containing numerous bradyzoites in liver and spleen, along with necrotic gastroenteritis and intestinal hemorrhages. Immunohistochemically, cysts showed positive reaction to anti-T. gondii antibodies. These findings indicate possible outbreaks of toxoplasmosis in eastern grey kangaroos and cape hyraxes, zoo habitants; therefore, they could be susceptible intermediate hosts for T. gondii in terms of zoonosis. This is the first report of toxoplasmosis in eastern grey kangaroos and cape hyraxes in Japanese zoos.

  3. Separation of cells from the rat anterior pituitary gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, W. C.; Hatfield, J. Michael

    1984-01-01

    Data concerned with analyzing the cellular organization of the rat anterior pituitary gland are examined. The preparation of the cell suspensions and the methods used to separate pituitary cell types are described. Particular emphasis is given to velocity sedimentation at unit gravity, density gradient centrifugation, affinity methods, fluorescence activated cell sorting, and density gradient and continuous-flow electrophoresis. The difficulties encountered when attempting to compare data from different pituitary cell separation studies are discussed, and results from various experiments are presented. The functional capabilities of the separated cell populations can be tested in various culture systems.

  4. HIV-1 transgenic rats develop T cell abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, William; Abdelwahab, Sayed; Sadowska, Mariola; Huso, David; Neal, Ashley; Ahearn, Aaron; Bryant, Joseph; Gallo, Robert C.; Lewis, George K.; Reitz, Marvin

    2004-01-01

    HIV-1 infection leads to impaired antigen-specific T cell proliferation, increased susceptibility of T cells to apoptosis, progressive impairment of T-helper 1 (Th1) responses, and altered maturation of HIV-1-specific memory cells. We have identified similar impairments in HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) rats. Tg rats developed an absolute reduction in CD4 + and CD8 + T cells able to produce IFN-γ following activation and an increased susceptibility of T cells to activation-induced apoptosis. CD4 + and CD8 + effector/memory (CD45RC - CD62L - ) pools were significantly smaller in Tg rats compared to non-Tg controls, although the converse was true for the naieve (CD45RC + CD62L + ) T cell pool. Our interpretation is that the HIV transgene causes defects in the development of T cell effector function and generation of specific effector/memory T cell subsets, and that activation-induced apoptosis may be an essential factor in this process

  5. Effect of Kangaroo care combined with music on the mother–premature neonate attachment: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Vahdati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Premature birth may complicate the development and quality of the mother–infant attachment relationship. Music and kangaroo care are two common complementary cares performed in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. The present study investigated the effect of kangaroo care combined with music on the mother–premature neonate attachment. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, 64 mothers with premature neonates were selected and assigned to the control and study groups through random allocation. In the control group, kangaroo care, and in the study group, kangaroo care combined with music was adopted. The level of mother–premature neonate attachment was measured and compared before and after the intervention in both the groups using Avant's Maternal Attachment Assessment Scale. Results: There was a significant increase in the mean overall score of attachment in the kangaroo care combined with music group (70.72 (11.46 after the intervention compared to the kangaroo care without music group (53.61 (9.76. Conclusions: The mean overall score of mother–neonate attachment in the kangaroo care combined with music group was higher than the kangaroo care group. This difference can be related to the effectiveness of music combined with kangaroo care.

  6. Postirradiation recovery of lymphoid cells in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnsworth, A.; Wotherspoon, J.S.; Dorsch, S.E.

    1988-01-01

    Whole-body irradiation has been extensively used to remove immune responsiveness in rodent recipients in adoptive allograft assays. This study was undertaken to determine the relative radioresistance and the tempo of regeneration, following whole-body irradiation, of cells involved in the allograft response. Six distinct cell populations have been identified in the lymphoid tissues of rats subjected to sublethal whole-body irradiation. The relative representation of these subpopulations was significantly different from that in nonirradiated controls. NK cells, macrophages, and plasma cells, which are present in very low numbers in cell suspensions prepared from normal lymphoid tissues, made up a significant proportion of the residual/regenerating population in the tissues of rats recovering from whole-body irradiation. More significantly perhaps, the mature T cell populations showed a significant increase in the T cytotoxic/suppressor to T helper cell ratio. These observations support the suggestion that a number of the cell types within the mixed cell population observed in the rejecting indicator grafts of irradiated recipients in adoptive allograft assays are host derived. The finding that the T cytotoxic/suppressor population is apparently more radioresistant than the T helper population supports a conclusion that graft rejection in irradiated recipients, restored with pure populations of T helper cells, may not be directly mediated by the injected cells but may be the result of collaboration between these and host-derived cytotoxic cell populations

  7. Effect of methylmercury on histamine release from rat mast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graevskaya, Elizabeth E.; Rubin, Andrew B. [Moscow State University, Biological Faculty, Department of Biophysics, 119899, Vorobjovy Gory, Moscow (Russian Federation); Yasutake, Akira; Aramaki, Ryoji [National Institute for Minamata Disease, 4058-18 Hama, Minamata, Kumamoto 867-0008 (Japan)

    2003-01-01

    Methylmercury chloride (MeHgCl) is well known as a significant environmental hazard, particularly as a modulator of the immune system. As it is acknowledged that the critical effector cells in the host response participating in various biological responses are mast cells, we tried to define the possible contribution of mast cells in the development of methylmercury-evoked effects. We investigated the effects of methylmercury on the rat mast cell degranulation induced by non-immunological stimuli (the selective liberator of histamine, compound 48/80, and calcium ionophore A23187) both in vivo and in vitro. Using the cells prepared from methylmercury-intoxicated rats through a 5-day treatment of MeHgCl (10 mg/kg/day), we observed the suppression of calcium ionophore A23187- and 48/80-induced histamine release, which was enhanced with time after treatment. Similar suppression was observed in the ionophore-stimulated release, when cells were prepared from rat with a single treatment of MeHgCl (20 mg/kg). It should be noted that when cells from the control rat were pre-incubated with methylmercury in vitro at a 10{sup -8} M concentration for 10 min, A23187 and compound 48/80-stimulated histamine release was significantly enhanced. However, when the pre-incubation period was prolonged to 30 min, the release was suppressed. An increase in the methylmercury concentration to 10{sup -6} M also suppressed the histamine release. These results show that methylmercury treatment can modify mast cell function depending on concentration and time, and might provide an insight into the role of mast cells in the development of methylmercury-stimulated effects. (orig.)

  8. Characterization of three newly established rat sarcoma cell clones

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holubová, Monika; Leba, M.; Sedmíková, M.; Vannucci, Luca; Horák, Vratislav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 10 (2012), s. 610-618 ISSN 1071-2690 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B08063 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : sarcoma * cell clones * lewis rat Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 1.289, year: 2012

  9. Cell swelling and glycogen metabolism in hepatocytes from fasted rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gustafson, L. A.; Jumelle-Laclau, M. N.; van Woerkom, G. M.; van Kuilenburg, A. B.; Meijer, A. J.

    1997-01-01

    Cell swelling is known to increase net glycogen production from glucose in hepatocytes from fasted rats by activating glycogen synthase. Since both active glycogen synthase and phosphorylase are present in hepatocytes, suppression of flux through phosphorylase may also contribute to the net increase

  10. the response of muscle cells during compensatory growth in rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    selle het teen die hoogste tempo vermenigvuldig, maar die toename in spierselgroolte was laag. ... Today much is known of the interplay of the factors which determine rate and degree of recovery from under- nutrition. Again, a ~alth of information is available on ... fluence of nutrition on muscle cell growth in rats and dis·.

  11. Selective sparing of goblet cells and paneth cells in the intestine of methotrexate-treated rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Verburg (Melissa); I.B. Renes (Ingrid); H.P. Meijer; J.A. Taminiau; H.A. Büller (Hans); A.W.C. Einerhand (Sandra); J. Dekker (Jan)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractProliferation, differentiation, and cell death were studied in small intestinal and colonic epithelia of rats after treatment with methotrexate. Days 1-2 after treatment were characterized by decreased proliferation, increased apoptosis, and decreased numbers and depths

  12. Understanding kangaroo care and its benefits to preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell-Yeo ML

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Marsha L Campbell-Yeo,1–4 Timothy C Disher,1 Britney L Benoit,1 C Celeste Johnston,2,4,5 1School of Nursing, Dalhousie University, 2Department of Pediatrics, IWK Health Centre, 3Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Dalhousie University, 4Centre for Pediatric Pain Research, IWK Health Centre, Halifax, NS, 5Ingram School of Nursing, McGill University, Montréal, QC, Canada Abstract: The holding of an infant with ventral skin-to-skin contact typically in an upright position with the swaddled infant on the chest of the parent, is commonly referred to as kangaroo care (KC, due to its simulation of marsupial care. It is recommended that KC, as a feasible, natural, and cost-effective intervention, should be standard of care in the delivery of quality health care for all infants, regardless of geographic location or economic status. Numerous benefits of its use have been reported related to mortality, physiological (thermoregulation, cardiorespiratory stability, behavioral (sleep, breastfeeding duration, and degree of exclusivity domains, as an effective therapy to relieve procedural pain, and improved neurodevelopment. Yet despite these recommendations and a lack of negative research findings, adoption of KC as a routine clinical practice remains variable and underutilized. Furthermore, uncertainty remains as to whether continuous KC should be recommended in all settings or if there is a critical period of initiation, dose, or duration that is optimal. This review synthesizes current knowledge about the benefits of KC for infants born preterm, highlighting differences and similarities across low and higher resource countries and in a non-pain and pain context. Additionally, implementation considerations and unanswered questions for future research are addressed. Keywords: kangaroo care, skin-to-skin contact, infant, preterm, review

  13. Isolation, culture and intraportal transplantation of rat marrow stromal cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ping; Wang Jianhua; Yan Zhiping; Li Wentao; Lin Genlai; Hu Meiyu; Wang Yanhong

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To observe the tracing and evolution of marrow stromal cell (MSC) after intraportal transplantation into the liver of homogenous rats, and to provide experimental data for MSC differentiation to hepatocyte in vivo. Methods: The MSC was isolated from the leg bone marrow of adult SD rats, and purified by culture-expanded in vitro. Before transplantation, MSC was labeled with DAPI. Then 10 5 MSC were intraportally transplanted into the homogenous rat liver. Rats were killed at 2 hours and 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks after transplantation. The cryosection samples of liver and lung were observed under fluorescence microscopy. Results: MSC in vitro culture had high ability of proliferation. Except 4 rats were dead because of abdominal bleeding or infection, other recipients were healthy until sacrificed. The implantation cells were detected by identifying the DAPI labeled MSC in the host livers, but not in the host lungs. Conclusion: Intraportal transplanted MSC could immigrate and survive in the host livers at least for 4 weeks. They could immigrate from the small branches of portal veins to hepatic parenchyma

  14. Spatial requirements of free-ranging Huon tree kangaroos, Dendrolagus matschiei (Macropodidae, in upper montane forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Porolak

    Full Text Available Tree kangaroos (Macropodidae, Dendrolagus are some of Australasia's least known mammals. However, there is sufficient evidence of population decline and local extinctions that all New Guinea tree kangaroos are considered threatened. Understanding spatial requirements is important in conservation and management. Expectations from studies of Australian tree kangaroos and other rainforest macropodids suggest that tree kangaroos should have small discrete home ranges with the potential for high population densities, but there are no published estimates of spatial requirements of any New Guinea tree kangaroo species. Home ranges of 15 Huon tree kangaroos, Dendrolagus matschiei, were measured in upper montane forest on the Huon Peninsula, Papua New Guinea. The home range area was an average of 139.6±26.5 ha (100% MCP; n = 15 or 81.8±28.3 ha (90% harmonic mean; n = 15, and did not differ between males and females. Home ranges of D. matschiei were 40-100 times larger than those of Australian tree kangaroos or other rainforest macropods, possibly due to the impact of hunting reducing density, or low productivity of their high altitude habitat. Huon tree kangaroos had cores of activity within their range at 45% (20.9±4.1 ha and 70% (36.6±7.5 ha harmonic mean isopleths, with little overlap (4.8±2.9%; n = 15 pairs between neighbouring females at the 45% isopleth, but, unlike the Australian species, extensive overlap between females (20.8±5.5%; n = 15 pairs at the complete range (90% harmonic mean. Males overlapped each other and females to a greater extent than did pairs of females. From core areas and overlap, the density of female D. matschiei was one per 19.4 ha. Understanding the cause of this low density is crucial in gaining greater understanding of variations in density of tree kangaroos across the landscape. We consider the potential role of habitat fragmentation, productivity and hunting pressure in limiting tree kangaroo

  15. Isolation and Osteogenic Differentiation of Rat Periosteum-derived Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Declercq, Heidi Andrea; De Ridder, Leo Isabelle; Cornelissen, Maria Jozefa

    2005-01-01

    Selection of appropriate cultures having an osteogenic potential is a necessity if cell/biomaterial interactions are studied in long-term cultures. Osteoblastic cells derived from rat long bones or calvaria have the disadvantage of being in an advanced differentiation stage which results in terminal differentiation within 21 days. In this regard, less differentiated periosteum-derived osteoprogenitors could be more suitable.

  16. Derivation of corneal endothelial cell-like cells from rat neural crest cells in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengqun Ju

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of inducing rat neural crest cells (NCC to differentiate to functional corneal endothelial cell (CEC-like cells in vitro. Rat NCC were induced with adult CEC-derived conditioned medium. Immunofluorescence, flow cytometry and real time RT-PCR assay were used to detect expression of the corneal endothelium differentiation marker N-cadherin and transcription factors FoxC1 and Pitx2. CFDA SE-labeled CEC-like cells were transplanted to the corneal endothelium of a rat corneal endothelium deficiency model, and an eye-down position was maintained for 24 hours to allow cell attachment. The animals were observed for as long as 2 months after surgery and underwent clinical and histological examination. Spindle-like NCC turned to polygonal CEC-like after induction and expressed N-cadherin, FoxC1, Pitx2, zonula occludens-1 and sodium-potassium pump Na(+/K(+ ATPase. The corneas of the experimental group were much clearer than those of the control group and the mean corneal thickness in the experimental group was significantly less than in the control group7, 14, 21 and 28 days after surgery. Confocal microscopy through focusing and histological analysis confirmed that green fluorescence-positive CEC-like cells formed a monolayer covering the Descemet's membrane in the experimental group. In conclusion, CEC-like cells derived from NCCs displayed characters of native CEC, and the induction protocol provides guidance for future human CEC induction from NCC.

  17. Cholesterol metabolism in blood cells of irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novoselova, E.G.; Kulagina, T.P.; Potekhina, N.I.

    1985-01-01

    Cholesterol metabolism in blood erythrocytes and lymphocytes of irradiated rats has been investigated. It has been found that at all terms and doses of irradiation, a suppression of the synthesis of erythrocyte cholesterol is observed. The increase of cholesterol quantiy in erythrocytes upon total gamma irradiation in the 10 Gr dose possibly is the result of growth of cholesterol transfer from plasma into erythrocyte cells. The study of the cholesterol synthesis in suspension of lymphocytes elminated from peripheral blood of control and irradiated rats has shown that at irradiation doses of 4 and 10 Gr in an hour acivation of cholesterol synthesis in vitro takes places

  18. Kupffer cell blockade prevents rejection of human insulinoma cell xenograft in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazar, G. Jr.; Farkas, G.; Lazar, G.

    1998-01-01

    Alloantigens are recognized by T-cells in the context of both class I and class II antigen, but class II antigens predominate in the recognition of xenoantigens. Since class II molecules bind peptides derived from exogenous proteins that have been phagocytized and digested into small fragments by antigen presenting cells, in the present studies the effect of gadolinium chloride (GdCl 3 )-induced Kupffer cell blockade on the survival of discordant insulinoma cell xenografts was investigated. Insulinoma cells isolated by means of collagenase from human insulinoma and cultured were transplanted through the v. portae into the liver of streptozotocin-induced diabetic, male, CFY inbred rats. In the control, streptozotocin-treated rats, the decrease in blood glucose level was only transitory, in contrast with the GdCl 3 -pretreated diabetic rats, which remained normoglycaemic during the 2-week observation period. Histologically, in the liver and lung of rats pre-treated with GdCl 3 , large areas of extensively proliferating insulinoma cells were seen, whereas no insulinoma cells were seen in either the liver or the lung of diabetic-control rats, not-treated with GdCl 3 . These studies suggest that the Kupffer cells play significant roles in the recognition of xenoantigens and the induction of xenograft rejection. (orig.)

  19. Presence of stem/progenitor cells in the rat penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guiting; Alwaal, Amjad; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Jianwen; Wang, Lin; Li, Huixi; Wang, Guifang; Ning, Hongxiu; Lin, Ching-Shwun; Xin, Zhongcheng; Lue, Tom F

    2015-01-15

    Tissue resident stem cells are believed to exist in every organ, and their identification is commonly done using a combination of immunostaining for putative stem cell markers and label-retaining cell (LRC) strategy. In this study, we employed these approaches to identify potential stem cells in the penis. Newborn rats were intraperitoneally injected with thymidine analog, 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (EdU), and their penis was harvested at 7 h, 3 days, 1 week, and 4 weeks. It was processed for EdU stains and immunofluorescence staining for stem cell markers A2B5, PCNA, and c-kit. EdU-positive cells were counted for each time point and co-localized with each stem cell marker, then isolated and cultured in vitro followed by their characterization using flowcytometry and immunofluorescence. At 7 h post-EdU injection, 410 ± 105.3 penile corporal cells were labeled in each cross-section (∼28%). The number of EdU-positive cells at 3 days increased to 536 ± 115.6, while their percentage dropped to 25%. Progressively fewer EdU-positive cells were present in the sacrificed rat penis at longer time points (1 and 4 weeks). They were mainly distributed in the subtunic and perisinusoidal spaces, and defined as subtunic penile progenitor cells (STPCs) and perisinusoidal penile progenitor cells (PPCs). These cells expressed c-kit, A2B5, and PCNA. After culturing in vitro, only ∼0.324% corporal cells were EdU-labeled LRCs and expressed A2B5/PCNA. Therefore, labeling of penis cells by EdU occurred randomly, and label retaining was not associated with expression of c-kit, A2B5, or PCNA. The penile LRCs are mainly distributed within the subtunic and perisinusoidal space.

  20. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from normal rats stimulates DNA synthesis in rat alveolar type II cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leslie, C.C.; McCormick-Shannon, K.; Mason, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Proliferation of alveolar type II cells after lung injury is important for the restoration of the alveolar epithelium. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) may represent an important source of growth factors for alveolar type II cells. To test this possibility, BALF fluid was collected from normal rats, concentrated 10-fold by Amicon filtration, and tested for its ability to stimulate DNA synthesis in rat alveolar type II cells in primary culture. BALF induced a dose-dependent increase in type II cell DNA synthesis resulting in a 6-fold increase in [3H]thymidine incorporation. Similar doses also stimulated [3H]thymidine incorporation into rat lung fibroblasts by 6- to 8-fold. Removal of pulmonary surface active material by centrifugation did not significantly reduce the stimulatory activity of BALF for type II cells. The stimulation of type II cell DNA synthesis by BALF was reduced by 100% after heating at 100 degrees C for 10 min, and by approximately 80% after reduction with dithiothreitol, and after trypsin treatment. Dialysis of BALF against 1 N acetic acid resulted in a 27% reduction in stimulatory activity. The effect of BALF in promoting type II cell DNA synthesis was more pronounced when tested in the presence of serum, although serum itself has very little effect on type II cell DNA synthesis. When BALF was tested in combination with other substances that stimulate type II cell DNA synthesis (cholera toxin, insulin, epidermal growth factor, and acidic fibroblast growth factor), additive effects or greater were observed. When BALF was chromatographed over Sephadex G150, the activity eluted with an apparent molecular weight of 100 kDa

  1. Electrofusion of mesenchymal stem cells and islet cells for diabetes therapy: a rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goichi Yanai

    Full Text Available Islet transplantation is a minimally invasive treatment for severe diabetes. However, it often requires multiple donors to accomplish insulin-independence and the long-term results are not yet satisfying. Therefore, novel ways to overcome these problems have been explored. Isolated islets are fragile and susceptible to pro-apoptotic factors and poorly proliferative. In contrast, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are highly proliferative, anti-apoptotic and pluripotent to differentiate toward various cell types, promote angiogenesis and modulate inflammation, thereby studied as an enhancer of islet function and engraftment. Electrofusion is an efficient method of cell fusion and nuclear reprogramming occurs in hybrid cells between different cell types. Therefore, we hypothesized that electrofusion between MSC and islet cells may yield robust islet cells for diabetes therapy. We establish a method of electrofusion between dispersed islet cells and MSCs in rats. The fusion cells maintained glucose-responsive insulin release for 20 days in vitro. Renal subcapsular transplantation of fusion cells prepared from suboptimal islet mass (1,000 islets that did not correct hyperglycemia even if co-transplanted with MSCs, caused slow but consistent lowering of blood glucose with significant weight gain within the observation period in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In the fusion cells between rat islet cells and mouse MSCs, RT-PCR showed new expression of both rat MSC-related genes and mouse β-cell-related genes, indicating bidirectional reprogramming of both β-cell and MSCs nuclei. Moreover, decreased caspase3 expression and new expression of Ki-67 in the islet cell nuclei suggested alleviated apoptosis and gain of proliferative capability, respectively. These results show that electrofusion between MSCs and islet cells yield special cells with β-cell function and robustness of MSCs and seems feasible for novel therapeutic strategy for diabetes

  2. Adenosine formation in contracting primary rat skeletal muscle cells and endothelial cells in culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Frandsen, Ulrik

    1997-01-01

    1. The present study examined the capacity for adenosine formation, uptake and metabolism in contracting primary rat muscle cells and in microvascular endothelial cells in culture. 2. Strong and moderate electrical simulation of skeletal muscle cells led to a significantly greater increase....... 3. Addition of microvascular endothelial cells to the cultured skeletal muscle cells enhanced the contraction-induced accumulation of extracellular adenosine (P Skeletal muscle cells were...... in the extracellular adenosine concentration (421 +/- 91 and 235 +/- 30 nmol (g protein)-1, respectively; P muscle cells (161 +/- 20 nmol (g protein)-1). The ATP concentration was lower (18%; P contracted, but not in the moderately contracted muscle cells...

  3. Radiosensitivity and thermoresistance of rat RA-2 rhabdomyosarcoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorova, E.V.; Trusova, V.D.; Vakhtin, Yu.B.

    1990-01-01

    The data obtained show that clonogenic RA-2T cells are 2-3 times more thermoresistant than clonogenic cells of the original thermosensitive RA-2T strain as estimated by D 0 value upon heating up to 43-45 deg C. After X-irradiation of rat rhabdomyosarcoma, a decrease in the capacity of forming pulmonary colonies is more pronounced in cells of the thermosensitive RA-2 strain cells than in those of the thermoresistant strain RA-2T (D 0 =1.6 Gy and D 0 =2.4 Gy, respectively). In all appearance, within one and the same tumor cell population, the hereditarily thermoresistant cells are more radioresistant than the thermosensitive ones

  4. Dissemination of Walker 256 carcinoma cells to rat skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueoka, H.; Hayashi, K.; Namba, T.; Grob, D.

    1986-01-01

    After injection of 10 6 Walker 256 carcinoma cells labelled with 125 I-5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine into the tail vein, peak concentration in skeletal muscle was 46 cells/g at 60 minutes, which was lower than 169202, 1665, 555, 198 and 133 cells/g, respectively, at 30 or 60 minutes in lung, liver, spleen, kidney and heart. Because skeletal muscle constitutes 37.4% of body weight, the total number of tumor cells was 2323 cells, which was much greater than in spleen, kidney and heart with 238, 271, and 85 cells, respectively, and only less than in lung and liver, at 222857 and 11700 cells, respectively. The total number in skeletal muscle became greater than in liver at 4 hours and than in lung at 24 hours. Ten minutes after injection of 7.5 x 10 6 Walker 256 carcinoma cells into the abdominal aorta of rats, a mean of 31 colony-forming cells were recovered from the gastrocnemius, while 106 cells were recovered from the lung after injection into the tail vein. These results indicate that a large number of viable tumor cells can be arrested in skeletal muscle through circulation. The rare remote metastasis of malignancies into skeletal muscle despite constantly circulating tumor cells does not appear to be due to poor dissemination of tumor cells into muscle but due to unhospitable environment of skeletal muscle

  5. Edaravone combined with Schwann cell transplantation may repair spinal cord injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-quan Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Edaravone has been shown to delay neuronal apoptosis, thereby improving nerve function and the microenvironment after spinal cord injury. Edaravone can provide a favorable environment for the treatment of spinal cord injury using Schwann cell transplantation. This study used rat models of complete spinal cord transection at T 9. Six hours later, Schwann cells were transplanted in the head and tail ends of the injury site. Simultaneously, edaravone was injected through the caudal vein. Eight weeks later, the PKH-26-labeled Schwann cells had survived and migrated to the center of the spinal cord injury region in rats after combined treatment with edaravone and Schwann cells. Moreover, the number of PKH-26-labeled Schwann cells in the rat spinal cord was more than that in rats undergoing Schwann cell transplantation alone or rats without any treatment. Horseradish peroxidase retrograde tracing revealed that the number of horseradish peroxidase-positive nerve fibers was greater in rats treated with edaravone combined withSchwann cells than in rats with Schwann cell transplantation alone. The results demonstrated that lower extremity motor function and neurophysiological function were better in rats treated with edaravone and Schwann cells than in rats with Schwann cell transplantation only. These data confirmed that Schwann cell transplantation combined with edaravone injection promoted the regeneration of nerve fibers of rats with spinal cord injury and improved neurological function.

  6. Interpersonal relationships between professionals and mothers of premature from Kangaroo-Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Eliene de Oliveira Callou

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To understand the interpersonal relationships between professionals and mothers of premature newborns of the Kangaroo Unit. Methods: This was an exploratory study of qualitative approach. The interviews were conducted with 10 mothers and 7 professionals who joined in Kangaroo Program and then analyzed by the content analysis technique. The guiding questions used were related to feelings perceived in relation to the Kangaroo method, related to mother-child dyad and interpersonal relationships. Results: Mothers reported on their speeches: “safe to be with the baby in Kangaroo Method” and “sense of maternal feeling during breastfeeding”, while in the professionals’ discourses have emerged: “guidelines on caring for the babies”, “the embracement by the team” and “the importance of family support.” Conclusions: The interaction between professionals and mothers of Kangaroo Unit facilitates the permanence of the binomial in the method, therefore develops feelings of security, tranquility and confidence to take care of the baby. It is important that the team be aware of the difficulties, supporting them in the weakest moments and sharing their fears, doubts and concerns over the baby’s hospitalization.

  7. Kangaroo position: Immediate effects on the physiological variables of preterm and low birth weight newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Cesário Defilipo

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC method is a significant neonatal alternative that ensures better quality humanized care for preterm and low birth weight newborns. Objective: To analyze the immediate physiological effects of the kangaroo position in critically ill newborns. Methods: Open clinical trial with parallel interventions, involving preterm (up to 28 days old low or very low birth weight newborns (minimum weight of 1,250 grams of both sexes, that were clinically stable and undergoing enteral nutrition. The degree of respiratory distress was assessed and quantified using the Silverman-Anderson scoring system. Heart rate and peripheral oxygen saturation were collected using a pulse oximeter. Respiratory rate was determined by auscultation for one minute. The newborns were submitted to the kangaroo position once only, for 90 minutes. Results: Participants were 30 newborns, 56.7% of which were girls. Comparison of the variables before and after application of the kangaroo position using the Wilcoxon test showed a statistically significant reduction in respiratory rate (p = 0.02 and Silverman-Anderson score (p < 0.01. The remaining variables showed no significant differences: heart rate (p = 0.21, peripheral oxygen saturation (p = 0.26 and axillary temperature (p = 0.12. Conclusion: There was a decline in the respiratory rate and Silverman-Anderson score after application of the kangaroo position, while peripheral oxygen saturation, axillary temperature and heart rate remained stable.

  8. Diagnosis and treatment of mesenteric volvulus in a red kangaroo (Macropus rufus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knafo, S Emmanuelle; Rosenblatt, Alana J; Morrisey, James K; Flanders, James A; Thompson, Margret S; Knapp-Hoch, Heather M

    2014-04-01

    An 8-year-old male red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) was evaluated with a 2-week history of vomiting and anorexia. Four days prior, the patient became refractory to medical management. The kangaroo was admitted for diagnostic testing and treatment including whole body CT, blood work, and emergency laparotomy. CT findings of a severely enlarged stomach, splenic displacement, and a whirl sign were indicative of mesenteric volvulus with gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV). Contrast enhancement of abdominal viscera suggested intact arterial blood supply; however, compression of the caudal vena cava and portal vein indicated venous obstruction. Results of preoperative blood work suggested biliary stasis without evidence of inflammation. Additionally, a tooth root abscess was diagnosed on the basis of results of CT. Exploratory laparotomy confirmed the diagnosis of mesenteric volvulus and GDV. The volvuli were corrected by clockwise derotation, and a gastropexy was performed. Tissue samples were obtained from the spleen and liver for evaluation. The kangaroo recovered from surgery, and the abscessed tooth was extracted 6 days later. Eight days after initial evaluation, the kangaroo was discharged. In the present report, the CT whirl sign was used to diagnose volvulus of the abdominal viscera, which suggests that this diagnostic indicator has utility in veterinary patients. Mesenteric volvulus with GDV was successfully treated in a nondomestic species. The tooth root abscess, a common condition in macropods, may explain the historic episodes of anorexia reported by the owner and may have contributed to the development of mesenteric volvulus and GDV in this kangaroo.

  9. Decreasing methane yield with increasing food intake keeps daily methane emissions constant in two foregut fermenting marsupials, the western grey kangaroo and red kangaroo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendl, Catharina; Clauss, Marcus; Stewart, Mathew; Leggett, Keith; Hummel, Jürgen; Kreuzer, Michael; Munn, Adam

    2015-11-01

    Fundamental differences in methane (CH4) production between macropods (kangaroos) and ruminants have been suggested and linked to differences in the composition of the forestomach microbiome. Using six western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus) and four red kangaroos (Macropus rufus), we measured daily absolute CH4 production in vivo as well as CH4 yield (CH4 per unit of intake of dry matter, gross energy or digestible fibre) by open-circuit respirometry. Two food intake levels were tested using a chopped lucerne hay (alfalfa) diet. Body mass-specific absolute CH4 production resembled values previously reported in wallabies and non-ruminant herbivores such as horses, and did not differ with food intake level, although there was no concomitant proportionate decrease in fibre digestibility with higher food intake. In contrast, CH4 yield decreased with increasing intake, and was intermediate between values reported for ruminants and non-ruminant herbivores. These results correspond to those in ruminants and other non-ruminant species where increased intake (and hence a shorter digesta retention in the gut) leads to a lower CH4 yield. We hypothesize that rather than harbouring a fundamentally different microbiome in their foregut, the microbiome of macropods is in a particular metabolic state more tuned towards growth (i.e. biomass production) rather than CH4 production. This is due to the short digesta retention time in macropods and the known distinct 'digesta washing' in the gut of macropods, where fluids move faster than particles and hence most likely wash out microbes from the forestomach. Although our data suggest that kangaroos only produce about 27% of the body mass-specific volume of CH4 of ruminants, it remains to be modelled with species-specific growth rates and production conditions whether or not significantly lower CH4 amounts are emitted per kg of meat in kangaroo than in beef or mutton production. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Establishment and characterization of rat portal myofibroblast cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Fausther

    Full Text Available The major sources of scar-forming myofibroblasts during liver fibrosis are activated hepatic stellate cells (HSC and portal fibroblasts (PF. In contrast to well-characterized HSC, PF remain understudied and poorly defined. This is largely due to the facts that isolation of rodent PF for functional studies is technically challenging and that PF cell lines had not been established. To address this, we have generated two polyclonal portal myofibroblast cell lines, RGF and RGF-N2. RGF and RGF-N2 were established from primary PF isolated from adult rat livers that underwent culture activation and subsequent SV40-mediated immortalization. Specifically, Ntpdase2/Cd39l1-sorted primary PF were used to generate the RGF-N2 cell line. Both cell lines were functionally characterized by RT-PCR, immunofluorescence, immunoblot and bromodeoxyuridine-based proliferation assay. First, immortalized RGF and RGF-N2 cells are positive for phenotypic myofibroblast markers alpha smooth muscle actin, type I collagen alpha-1, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1, PF-specific markers elastin, type XV collagen alpha-1 and Ntpdase2/Cd39l1, and mesenchymal cell marker ecto-5'-nucleotidase/Cd73, while negative for HSC-specific markers desmin and lecithin retinol acyltransferase. Second, both RGF and RGF-N2 cell lines are readily transfectable using standard methods. Finally, RGF and RGF-N2 cells attenuate the growth of Mz-ChA-1 cholangiocarcinoma cells in co-culture, as previously demonstrated for primary PF. Immortalized rat portal myofibroblast RGF and RGF-N2 cell lines express typical markers of activated PF-derived myofibroblasts, are suitable for DNA transfection, and can effectively inhibit cholangiocyte proliferation. Both RGF and RGF-N2 cell lines represent novel in vitro cellular models for the functional studies of portal (myofibroblasts and their contribution to the progression of liver fibrosis.

  11. Rats, cats, and elephants, but still no unicorn: induced pluripotent stem cells from new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trounson, Alan

    2009-01-09

    Two independent studies in this issue of Cell Stem Cell (Liao et al., 2009; Li et al., 2009) derive rat induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). In one report, the method used results in rat and human iPSCs that exhibit phenotypic traits similar to mouse embryonic stem cells.

  12. Cancer of rat ovaries: Sertoli cell or granulosa-theca cell tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowles, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of X-radiation (0-1.25 Gy) given 24 hours after neonatal injections of the carcinogen ethyl nitrosourea (ENU) (0-10 mg/kg) in female rats were studied. Twelve out of 118 rats bore single ovarian tumours. A substantial excess of ovarian tumours occurred in the rats given 4 mg/kg ENU and 1.25 GY X-rays but not in others given ENU alone, radiation alone or 10 mg/kg ENU and 1.25 Gy. The tumours were all found in old rats (657-1085 days). In all of the tumours the presence of tubular formations suggested a diagnosis of ovarian Sertoli cell tumour. In two tumours, only a few tubular structures were seen and fibrous stromal tissue predominated, suggesting a diagnosis of granulosa-theca cell tumour. All other tumours were a mixture of both elements. (U.K.)

  13. Multi-proxy monitoring approaches at Kangaroo Island, South Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Bronwyn; Drysdale, Russell; Tyler, Jonathan; Goodwin, Ian

    2017-04-01

    Interpretations of geochemical signals preserved in young speleothems are greatly enhanced by comprehensive cave-site monitoring. In the light of this, a cave monitoring project is being conducted concurrently with the development of a new palaeoclimate record from Kelly Hill Cave (Kangaroo Island, South Australia). The site is strategically located because it is situated between longer-lived monitoring sites in southeastern and southwestern Australia, as well as being climatically 'upstream' from major population and agricultural centres. This study aims to understand possible controls on speleothem δ18O in Kelly Hill Cave through i. identification of local and regional δ18O drivers in precipitation; and ii. preservation and modification of climatic signals within the epikarst as indicated by dripwater δ18O. These aims are achieved through analysis of a five-year daily rainfall (amount and δ18O) dataset in conjunction with in-cave drip monitoring. Drivers of precipitation δ18O were identified through linear regression between δ18O values and local meteorological variables, air-parcel back trajectories, and synoptic-typing. Synoptically driven moisture sources were identified through the use of NCEP/NCAR climate reanalysis sea-level pressure, precipitable moisture, and outgoing longwave radiation data in order to trace moisture sources and travel mechanisms from surrounding ocean basins. Local controls on δ18O at Kelly Hill Cave are consistent with published interpretations of southern Australia sites, with oxygen isotopes primarily controlled by rainfall amount on both daily and monthly time scales. Back-trajectory analysis also supports previous observations that the Southern Ocean is the major source for moisture-bearing cold-front systems. However, synoptic typing of daily rainfall δ18O and amount extremes reveals a previously unreported tropical connection and moisture source. This tropical connection appears to be strongest in summer and autumn, but

  14. Diabetes increases susceptibility of primary cultures of rat proximal tubular cells to chemically induced injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Qing; Terlecky, Stanley R.; Lash, Lawrence H.

    2009-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is characterized by increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. In the present study, we prepared primary cultures of proximal tubular (PT) cells from diabetic rats 30 days after an ip injection of streptozotocin and compared their susceptibility to oxidants (tert-butyl hydroperoxide, methyl vinyl ketone) and a mitochondrial toxicant (antimycin A) with that of PT cells isolated from age-matched control rats, to test the hypothesis that PT cells from diabetic rats exhibit more cellular and mitochondrial injury than those from control rats when exposed to these toxicants. PT cells from diabetic rats exhibited higher basal levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and higher mitochondrial membrane potential, demonstrating that the PT cells maintain the diabetic phenotype in primary culture. Incubation with either the oxidants or mitochondrial toxicant resulted in greater necrotic and apoptotic cell death, greater evidence of morphological damage, greater increases in ROS, and greater decreases in mitochondrial membrane potential in PT cells from diabetic rats than in those from control rats. Pretreatment with either the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine or a catalase mimetic provided equivalent protection of PT cells from both diabetic and control rats. Despite the greater susceptibility to oxidative and mitochondrial injury, both cytoplasmic and mitochondrial glutathione concentrations were markedly higher in PT cells from diabetic rats, suggesting an upregulation of antioxidant processes in diabetic kidney. These results support the hypothesis that primary cultures of PT cells from diabetic rats are a valid model in which to study renal cellular function in the diabetic state.

  15. Ureter smooth muscle cell orientation in rat is predominantly longitudinal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spronck, Bart; Merken, Jort J; Reesink, Koen D; Kroon, Wilco; Delhaas, Tammo

    2014-01-01

    In ureter peristalsis, the orientation of the contracting smooth muscle cells is essential, yet current descriptions of orientation and composition of the smooth muscle layer in human as well as in rat ureter are inconsistent. The present study aims to improve quantification of smooth muscle orientation in rat ureters as a basis for mechanistic understanding of peristalsis. A crucial step in our approach is to use two-photon laser scanning microscopy and image analysis providing objective, quantitative data on smooth muscle cell orientation in intact ureters, avoiding the usual sectioning artifacts. In 36 rat ureter segments, originating from a proximal, middle or distal site and from a left or right ureter, we found close to the adventitia a well-defined longitudinal smooth muscle orientation. Towards the lamina propria, the orientation gradually became slightly more disperse, yet the main orientation remained longitudinal. We conclude that smooth muscle cell orientation in rat ureter is predominantly longitudinal, though the orientation gradually becomes more disperse towards the proprial side. These findings do not support identification of separate layers. The observed longitudinal orientation suggests that smooth muscle contraction would rather cause local shortening of the ureter, than cause luminal constriction. However, the net-like connective tissue of the ureter wall may translate local longitudinal shortening into co-local luminal constriction, facilitating peristalsis. Our quantitative, minimally invasive approach is a crucial step towards more mechanistic insight into ureter peristalsis, and may also be used to study smooth muscle cell orientation in other tube-like structures like gut and blood vessels.

  16. Ureter smooth muscle cell orientation in rat is predominantly longitudinal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Spronck

    Full Text Available In ureter peristalsis, the orientation of the contracting smooth muscle cells is essential, yet current descriptions of orientation and composition of the smooth muscle layer in human as well as in rat ureter are inconsistent. The present study aims to improve quantification of smooth muscle orientation in rat ureters as a basis for mechanistic understanding of peristalsis. A crucial step in our approach is to use two-photon laser scanning microscopy and image analysis providing objective, quantitative data on smooth muscle cell orientation in intact ureters, avoiding the usual sectioning artifacts. In 36 rat ureter segments, originating from a proximal, middle or distal site and from a left or right ureter, we found close to the adventitia a well-defined longitudinal smooth muscle orientation. Towards the lamina propria, the orientation gradually became slightly more disperse, yet the main orientation remained longitudinal. We conclude that smooth muscle cell orientation in rat ureter is predominantly longitudinal, though the orientation gradually becomes more disperse towards the proprial side. These findings do not support identification of separate layers. The observed longitudinal orientation suggests that smooth muscle contraction would rather cause local shortening of the ureter, than cause luminal constriction. However, the net-like connective tissue of the ureter wall may translate local longitudinal shortening into co-local luminal constriction, facilitating peristalsis. Our quantitative, minimally invasive approach is a crucial step towards more mechanistic insight into ureter peristalsis, and may also be used to study smooth muscle cell orientation in other tube-like structures like gut and blood vessels.

  17. Exercise reduces inflammation and cell proliferation in rat colon carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarzo, Marcelo Marcos Piva; Martins, Lisandra Vanessa; Fernandes, Cleverson Rodrigues; Herrero, Fábio Augusto; Perez, Sérgio Eduardo de Andrade; Turatti, Aline; Garcia, Sérgio Britto

    2008-04-01

    There is evidence that the risk of colon cancer is reduced by appropriate levels of physical exercise. Nevertheless, the mechanisms involved in this protective effect of exercise remain largely unknown. Inflammation is emerging as a unifying link between a range of environment exposures and neoplastic risk. The carcinogen dimethyl-hydrazine (DMH) induces an increase in epithelial cell proliferation and in the expression of the inflammation-related enzyme cyclooxigenase-2 (COX-2) in the colon of rats. Our aim was to verify whether these events could be attenuated by exercise. Four groups of eight Wistar rats were used in the experiment. The groups G1 and G3 were sedentary (controls), and the groups G2 and G4 were submitted to 8 wk of swimming training, 5 d.wk. The groups G3 and G4 were given subcutaneous injections of DMH immediately after the exercise protocols. Fifteen days after the neoplasic induction, the rats were sacrificed and the colon was processed for histological examination and immunohistochemistry staining of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and COX-2. We found a significant increase in the PCNA-labeling index in both DMH-treated groups of rats. However, this increase was significantly attenuated in the training group G4 (P < 0.01). Similar results were observed in relation to the COX-2 expression. From our findings, we conclude that exercise training exerts remarkable antiproliferative and antiinflammatory effects in the rat colonic mucosa, suggesting that this may be an important mechanism to explain how exercise protects against colonic cancer.

  18. Experimental rat lung tumor model with intrabronchial tumor cell implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes Neto, Antero; Simão, Antônio Felipe Leite; Miranda, Samuel de Paula; Mourão, Lívia Talita Cajaseiras; Bezerra, Nilfácio Prado; Almeida, Paulo Roberto Carvalho de; Ribeiro, Ronaldo de Albuquerque

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a rat lung tumor model for anticancer drug testing. Sixty-two female Wistar rats weighing 208 +/- 20 g were anesthetized intraperitoneally with 2.5% tribromoethanol (1 ml/100 g live weight), tracheotomized and intubated with an ultrafine catheter for inoculation with Walker's tumor cells. In the first step of the experiment, a technique was established for intrabronchial implantation of 10(5) to 5 x 10(5) tumor cells, and the tumor take rate was determined. The second stage consisted of determining tumor volume, correlating findings from high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) with findings from necropsia and determining time of survival. The tumor take rate was 94.7% for implants with 4 x 10(5) tumor cells, HRCT and necropsia findings matched closely (r=0.953; p<0.0001), the median time of survival was 11 days, and surgical mortality was 4.8%. The present rat lung tumor model was shown to be feasible: the take rate was high, surgical mortality was negligible and the procedure was simple to perform and easily reproduced. HRCT was found to be a highly accurate tool for tumor diagnosis, localization and measurement and may be recommended for monitoring tumor growth in this model.

  19. A Test of Kangaroo Care on Preterm Infant Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Kristin P.; Holditch-Davis, Diane; White-Traut, Rosemary C.; David, Richard; O’Shea, T. Michael; Geraldo, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test the effects of kangaroo care (KC) on breastfeeding outcomes in preterm infants compared to two control groups and to explore whether maternal-infant characteristics and the mother’s choice to use KC were related to breastfeeding measures. Design Secondary analysis of a multisite, stratified, and randomized 3-arm trial. The treatment groups used KC, auditory-tactile-visual-vestibular (ATVV) intervention, or preterm infant care information. Setting Neonatal intensive care units from 4 hospitals in the United States from 2006–2011. Participants Racially diverse mothers (N=231) and their preterm infants born weighing breastfeeding, and breastfeeding exclusivity after hospital discharge did not differ statistically among the treatment groups. Regardless of group assignment, married, older, and more educated women were more likely to feed at the breast during hospitalization. Mothers who practiced KC, regardless of randomly allocated group, were more likely to provide their milk than those who did not practice KC. Breastfeeding duration was greatest among more educated women. Conclusion As implemented in this study, assignment to KC did not appear to influence the measured breastfeeding outcomes. PMID:26815798

  20. Electrophoretic separation of cells and particles from rat pituitary and rat spleen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, Wesley C.

    1993-01-01

    There are 3 parts to the IML-2 TX-101 experiment. Part 1 is a pituitary cell culture experiment. Part 2 is a pituitary cell separation experiment using the Japanese free flow electrophoresis unit (FFEU). Part 3 is a pituitary secretory granule separation experiment using the FFEU. The objectives of this three part experiment are: (1) to determine the kinetics of production of biologically active growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) in rat pituitary GH and PRL cells in microgravity (micro-g); (2) to investigate three mechanisms by which a micro-g-induced lesion in hormone production may occur; and (3) to determine the quality of separations of pituitary cells and organelles by continuous flow electrophoresis (CFE) in micro-g under conditions where buoyancy-induced convection is eliminated.

  1. Tuning differentiation signals for efficient propagation and in vitro validation of rat embryonic stem cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Stephen; Sutherland, Linda; Burdon, Tom

    2015-01-01

    The rat is one of the most commonly used laboratory animals in biomedical research and the recent isolation of genuine pluripotent rat embryonic stem (ES) cell lines has provided new opportunities for applying contemporary genetic engineering techniques to the rat and enhancing the use of this rodent in scientific research. Technical refinements that improve the stability of the rat ES cell cultures will undoubtedly further strengthen and broaden the use of these stem cells in biomedical research. Here, we describe a relatively simple and robust protocol that supports the propagation of germ line competent rat ES cells, and outline how tuning stem cell signaling using small molecule inhibitors can be used to both stabilize self-renewal of rat ES cell cultures and aid evaluation of their differentiation potential in vitro.

  2. Communication between mast cells and rat submucosal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Anna; Althaus, Mike; Diener, Martin

    2015-08-01

    Histamine is a mast cell mediator released e.g. during food allergy. The aim of the project was to identify the effect of histamine on rat submucosal neurons and the mechanisms involved. Cultured submucosal neurons from rat colon express H1, H2 and H3 receptors as shown by immunocytochemical staining confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with messenger RNA (mRNA) isolated from submucosal homogenates as starting material. Histamine evoked a biphasic rise of the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration in cultured submucosal neurons, consisting in a release of intracellularly stored Ca(2+) followed by an influx from the extracellular space. Although agonists of all three receptor subtypes evoked an increase in the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration, experiments with antagonists revealed that mainly H1 (and to a lesser degree H2) receptors mediate the response to histamine. In coculture experiments with RBL-2H3 cells, a mast cell equivalent, compound 48/80, evoked an increase in the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration of neighbouring neurons. Like the response to native histamine, the neuronal response to the mast cell degranulator was strongly inhibited by the H1 receptor antagonist pyrilamine and reduced by the H2 receptor antagonist cimetidine. In rats sensitized against ovalbumin, exposure to the antigen induced a rise in short-circuit current (I sc) across colonic mucosa-submucosa preparations without a significant increase in paracellular fluorescein fluxes. Pyrilamine strongly inhibited the increase in I sc, a weaker inhibition was observed after blockade of protease receptors or 5-lipoxygenase. Consequently, H1 receptors on submucosal neurons seem to play a pivotal role in the communication between mast cells and the enteric nervous system.

  3. THE EFFECT OF KANGAROO METHOD APPLICATION TO BODY TEMPERATURE OF BABY WITH LOW BIRTH WEIGHT (LBW)

    OpenAIRE

    Kadek Ayu Erika, Kadek Ayu Erika

    2012-01-01

    - Background: Low Birth Weight (LBW) care in Indonesia is still prioritizing the use of incubators but its presence is still very limited. Kangaroo method is now starting to be used as an alternative to incubator that is economically efficient and effective. Purpose: This study aimed to determine the effect of the application of the kangaroo method to body temperature of baby with LBW. Method: This research was conducted at the Hospital Prof. DR. W.Z. Johannes Kupang with a sample of 25 lo...

  4. Feeding Frequency Affects Cultured Rat Pituitary Cells in Low Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, W. C.; Grindeland, R. E.; Salada, T.; Cenci, R.; Krishnan, K.; Mukai, C.; Nagaoka, S.

    1996-01-01

    In this report, we describe the results of a rat pituitary cell culture experiment done on STS-65 in which the effect of cell feeding on the release of the six anterior pituitary hormones was studied. We found complex microgravity related interactions between the frequency of cell feeding and the quantity and quality (i.e. biological activity) of some of the six hormones released in flight. Analyses of growth hormone (GH) released from cells into culture media on different mission days using gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography yielded qualitatively similar results between ground and flight samples. Lack of cell feeding resulted in extensive cell clumping in flight (but not ground) cultures. Vigorous fibroblast growth occurred in both ground and flight cultures fed 4 times. These results are interpreted within the context of autocrine and or paracrine feedback interactions. Finally the payload specialist successfully prepared a fresh trypsin solution in microgravity, detached the cells from their surface and reinserted them back into the culture chamber. These cells reattached and continued to release hormone in microgravity. In summary, this experiment shows that pituitary cells are microgravity sensitive and that coupled operations routinely associated with laboratory cel1 culture can also be accomplished in low gravity.

  5. Rapid development of Leydig cell tumors in a Wistar rat substrain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teerds, K. J.; de rooij, D. G.; de Jong, F. H.; Rommerts, F. F.

    1991-01-01

    In 78% of the Wistar rats (substrain U) studied, spontaneous Leydig cell tumors developed between the ages of 12 and 30 months. The first signs of tumor development, in the form of nodules of Leydig cells, were already apparent in 1-month-old U-rats. These nodules of Leydig cells were found in all

  6. Lovastatin enhances in vitro radiation-induced apoptosis of rat B-cell lymphoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozados, V.R.; Hinrichsen, L.I.; Scharovsky, O.G.; Rosario Univ., Rosario; McDonnel, J.

    2005-01-01

    Our previous demonstration of an antimetastatic effect of lovastatin, both in rat sarcoma and lymphoma tumor-models, as well as the fact that lovastatin and radiation are able to stop the cell cycle in different phases, suggested the feasibility of a combined treatment. We studied the effect of the in vitro combined treatment of a B-cell rat lymphoma (L-TACB) with lovastatin and irradiation. The results herein obtained provide new information about the role of statins as radiosensitizers. The antitumor effect of the combined treatment was higher than that elicited by either treatment alone. This effect could be a consequence, at least in part, of an enhanced apoptosis

  7. A method for isolating identifying and culturing of rat trachea-bronchia epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Fengmei; Su Shibiao; Nie Jihua; Li Bingyan; Tong Jian

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore a method for isolating identifying and culturing the rat trachea-bronchia epithelial cells. Methods: The rat trachea-bronchia epithelial cells were isolated by digestion with pronase and brushing with cell brush, identified using confocul and cultured in entire F12 media with no serum. Results: With this method, cells in high purity and high viability could be obtained, and about 10 6 cells per rat. The cells grow well in entire F12 media with no serum. Conclusion: The method is useful for isolating rate trachea-bronchia epithelial cells and the entire F12 media with no serum is effective for culturing. (authors)

  8. Adrenergic nerve fibres and mast cells: correlation in rat thymus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artico, Marco; Cavallotti, Carlo; Cavallotti, Daniela

    2002-10-21

    The interactions between adrenergic nerve fibres and mast cells (MCs) were studied in the thymus of adult and old rats by morphological methods and by quantitative analysis of images (QAIs). The whole thymus was drawn in adult (12 months old) rats: normal, sympathectomized or electrostimulated. Thymuses from the above-mentioned animals were weighed, measured and dissected. Thymic slices were stained with eosin orange for detection of microanatomical details and with Bodian's method for identification of the whole nerve fibres. Thymic MCs were stained with Astrablau. Histofluorescence microscopy was used for staining of adrenergic nerve fibres. Finally, all morphological results were submitted to the QAIs and statistical analysis of data. Our results suggest that after surgical sympathectomy, the greater part of adrenergic nerve fibres disappear while related MCs appear to show less evident fluorescence and few granules. On the contrary, electrostimulation of the cervical superior ganglion induced an increase in the fluorescence of adrenergic nerve fibres and of related MCs.

  9. Characterization of RNA interference in rat PC12 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thonberg, Håkan; Schéele, Camilla C; Dahlgren, Cecilia

    2004-01-01

    strand of the siRNA guides a multi-protein complex, RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), to cleave target mRNA. Although the exact function and composition of RISC is still unclear, it has been shown to include several proteins of the Argonaute protein family. Here we report of a robust system...... of the rat Golgi-ER protein 95 kDa (GERp95), an Argonaute family protein, by siRNA methodology. After GERp95-ablation, sequential knockdown of NPY by siRNA was shown to be impaired. Thus, we report that the GERp95 protein is functionally required for RNAi targeting NPY in rat PC12 cells....

  10. Copper uptake and retention in liver parenchymal cells isolated from nutritionally copper-deficient rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den G.J.; de Goeij, J.J.M.; Bock, I.; Gijbels, M.J.J.; Brouwer, A.; Lei, K.Y.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    1991-01-01

    Copper uptake and retention were studied in primary cultures of liver parenchymal cells isolated from copper-deficient rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a copper-deficient diet (<1 mg Cu/kg) for 10 wk. Copper-deficient rats were characterized by low copper concentrations in plasma and liver,

  11. Copper uptake and retention in liver parenchymal cells isolated from nutritionally copper-deficient rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, G.J. van den; Goeij, J.J.M. de; Bock, I.; Gijbels, M.J.J.; Brouwer, A.; Lei, K.Y.; Hendruiks, H.F.J.

    1991-01-01

    Copper uptake and retention were studied in primary cultures of liver parenchymal cells isolated from copper-deficient rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a copper-deficient diet (< 1 mg Cu/kg) for 10 wk. Copper-deficient rats were characterized by low copper concentrations in plasma and liver,

  12. The influence of sexual hormones on lipogenesis and lipolysis in rat fat cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Finn Mølgård; Fahmy, N; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    1980-01-01

    and prooestrus than in dioestrus. Oestradiol treatment of both female and male rats and testosterone treatment of male rats for three days lowered the fatty acid synthesis and increased the lipolysis. The metabolic oscillation disappeared in ovariectomized rats, and the fat cells from these animals showed...

  13. Effect of Light and Darkness on Packed Cell Volume in the Rat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study is to identify and characterize the circadian oscillation of Packed Cell Volume (PCV) within a 24-hour time frame in adult Sprague-Dawley rats. 56 adult Sprague-Dawley rats consists of 28 male and 28 female rats were used. Male animals weighed 150-170g while the females weighed 130140g.

  14. Frequency of polyploid cells in the bone marrow of rats fed irradiated wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, K.P.; Chaubey, R.C.; Sundaram, K.; Gopal-Ayengar, A.R.

    1976-01-01

    Diets containing different proportions of non-irradiated or irradiated wheat were fed to Wistar rats for 1 or 6 wk. Cytological analysis of the bone marrow showed no significant difference in the frequency of polyploid cells in the rats fed non-irradiated or irradiated wheat diets, even when the treated wheat was fed to the rats within 24 hr of irradiation. (author)

  15. Induction of plaque-forming cell response in adrenalectomized nude rats using Thymosin fraction 5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, B; Hougen, H P; Rygaard, J

    1982-01-01

    In adrenalectomized nude rats treated with Thymosin fraction 5 a plaque-forming cell (PFC) response comparable to that found in normal rats was obtained. The PFC response found after adrenalectomy alone or thymosin-treatment in unoperated animals was comparable to that of untreated nude rats....

  16. Transmural changes in mast cell density in rat heart after infarct induction in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, W.; Reiters, P. H.; Daemen, M. J.; Smits, J. F.; van der Vusse, G. J.

    1995-01-01

    The cardiac distribution of mast cells was investigated after the induction of acute myocardial infarction in the rat. The left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) was occluded by ligation in the infarct group, whereas in sham rats only a superficial ligature was placed beside the LAD. Rats of

  17. Programmed cell death and cell extrusion in rat duodenum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schauser, Kirsten; Larsson, Lars-Inge

    2005-01-01

    The small intestinal epithelium is continously renewed through a balance between cell division and cell loss. How this balance is achieved is uncertain. Thus, it is unknown to what extent programmed cell death (PCD) contributes to intestinal epithelial cell loss. We have used a battery...... of techniques detecting the events associated with PCD in order to better understand its role in the turnover of the intestinal epithelium, including modified double- and triple-staining techniques for simultaneously detecting multiple markers of PCD in individual cells. Only a partial correlation between TUNEL...... positivity for DNA fragmentation, c-jun phosphorylation on serine-63, positivity for activated caspase-3 and apoptotic morphology was observed. Our results show that DNA fragmentation does not invariable correlate to activation of caspase-3. Moreover, many cells were found to activate caspase-3 early...

  18. Canine tracheal epithelial cells are more sensitive than rat tracheal epithelial cells to transforming growth factor beta induced growth inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbs, A.F.; Hahn, F.F.; Kelly, G.; Thomassen, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) markedly inhibited growth of canine tracheal epithelial (CTE) cells. Reduced responsiveness to TGFβ-induced growth inhibition accompanied neoplastic progression of these cells from primary to transformed to neoplastic. This was similar to the relationship between neoplastic progression and increased resistance to TGFβ-induced growth inhibition seen for rat tracheal epithelial (RTE) cells. The canine cells were more sensitive than rat cells to TGFβ-induced growth inhibition at all stages in the neoplastic process. (author)

  19. Metabolism of 4-nitrobiphenyl (NBP) by cultured rat urothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaminathan, S.; Lang, D.B.; Reznikoff, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    The potential of rat urothelial cells to metabolize NBP was evaluated by incubating 4.3 x 10 7 viable cells with 20 μM [ 3 H]NBP in a serum free medium for 48 hours. The culture medium was examined for metabolites of NBP by extraction with ethyl acetate and subsequent chromatographic analysis. High pressure liquid chromatography of the solvent extract using a Whatman ODS-3, C-18 column in 70% methanol-water at a flow rate of 1 ml/min revealed two major peaks at retention times of approximately 8 and 13 min. Thin layer chromatography showed two regions of radioactivity at Rf values of 0.35 and 0.83, the latter corresponding with NBP. Based on the chromatographic data the metabolite with the retention time of 8.0 min in HPLC and an Rf of 0.35 in TLC has been tentatively identified as 4-acetylaminobiphenyl. Analysis of binding to proteins and nucleic acids following exposure to [ 3 H]NBP revealed a significant amount (0.03% of initially applied radioactivity) in the protein fractions. Control samples of NBP incubated in medium, without the urothelial cells revealed only the parent compound. These data suggest that rat bladder cells possess the metabolic capability to reduce NBP and to generate reactive metabolites that bind to cellular macromolecules

  20. Investigation of the microbial metabolism of carbon dioxide and hydrogen in the kangaroo foregut by stable isotope probing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, Scott; Kang, Alicia; Gulino, Lisa-Maree; Manefield, Mike; Gutierrez-Zamora, Maria-Luisa; Kienzle, Marco; Ouwerkerk, Diane; Dawson, Kerri; Klieve, Athol V

    2014-09-01

    Kangaroos ferment forage material in an enlarged forestomach analogous to the rumen, but in contrast to ruminants, they produce little or no methane. The objective of this study was to identify the dominant organisms and pathways involved in hydrogenotrophy in the kangaroo forestomach, with the broader aim of understanding how these processes are able to predominate over methanogenesis. Stable isotope analysis of fermentation end products and RNA stable isotope probing (RNA-SIP) were used to investigate the organisms and biochemical pathways involved in the metabolism of hydrogen and carbon dioxide in the kangaroo forestomach. Our results clearly demonstrate that the activity of bacterial reductive acetogens is a key factor in the reduced methane output of kangaroos. In in vitro fermentations, the microbial community of the kangaroo foregut produced very little methane, but produced a significantly greater proportion of acetate derived from carbon dioxide than the microbial community of the bovine rumen. A bacterial operational taxonomic unit closely related to the known reductive acetogen Blautia coccoides was found to be associated with carbon dioxide and hydrogen metabolism in the kangaroo foregut. Other bacterial taxa including members of the genera Prevotella, Oscillibacter and Streptococcus that have not previously been reported as containing hydrogenotrophic organisms were also significantly associated with metabolism of hydrogen and carbon dioxide in the kangaroo forestomach.

  1. Cell renewal of glomerular cell types in normal rats. An autoradiographic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pabst, R.; Sterzel, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    Normal adult Sprague-Dawley rats received either a single or repetitive injection of the DNA precursor 3 H-thymidine ( 3 H-TdR). For autoradiography semi-thin sections were prepared 2 hr to 14 days after labeling. The majority of labeled cells noted in glomerular tufts were endothelial cells. Mesangial cells had a lower production rate. Podocytes revealed no evidence of proliferation. Bowman's capsule cells showed a higher labeling index than tuft cells at all times. Neither the urinary nor the vascular pole was found to be a proliferative zone for Bowman's capsule cells. The flash and repetitive labeling experiments demonstrated a constant rate of cell renewal of about 1% per day, resulting in a long life span for endothelial and mesangial cells as well as Bowman's capsule cells. These data provide a basis for cell kinetic studies in models of glomerular diseases

  2. Changes in pituitary growth hormone cells prepared from rats flown on Spacelab 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindeland, R.; Hymer, W. C.; Farrington, M.; Fast, T.; Hayes, C.; Motter, K.; Patil, L.; Vasques, M.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of exposure to microgravity on pituitary gland was investigated by examining cells isolated from anterior pituitaries of rats flown on the 7-day Spacelab 3 mission and, subsequently, cultured for 6 days. Compared with ground controls, flight cells contained more intracellular growth hormone (GH); however, the flight cells released less GH over the 6-day culture period and after implantation into hypophysectomized rats than did the control cells. Compared with control rats, glands from large rats (400 g) contained more somatotrophs (44 percent compared with 37 percent in control rats); small rats (200 g) showed no difference. No major differences were found in the somatotroph ultrastructure (by TEM) or in the pattern of the immunoactive GH variants. However, high-performance liquid chromatography fractionation of culture media indicated that flight cells released much less of a biologically active high-molecular weight GH variant, suggesting that space flight may lead to secretory dysfunction.

  3. Function of oval cells in hepatocellular carcinoma in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Chi-Hua; Gong, Jia-Qing; Zhang, Wei

    2004-09-01

    To study oval cells' pathological characteristics and relationship with the occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); to observe the form and structural characteristics of oval cells; to explore the expression characteristics of C-kit, PCNA mRNA and c-myc gene during the occurrence and development of HCC and the effect of ulinastatin (UTI) on C-kit and PCNA expression. One hundred and twenty-five SD rats fed on 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) to construct HCC models were divided into control group, cancer-inducing group and UTI intervention group. In each group, rat liver samples were collected at weeks 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22 and 24 respectively to study pathological distribution characteristics of oval cells in the process of carcinogenesis under optical microscope. Oval cells were separated by the methods of improved density gradient centrifugation and their structural characteristics were observed under optical microscope and electronic microscope respectively; the oval cells expressing C-kit and PCNA in the collected samples were observed by the methods of immunohistochemistry and image analysis and the expression of c-myc mRNA was also detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Oval cells proliferated firstly in the portal area then gradually migrated into hepatic parenchyma in the inducing group and intervention group. The oval cells distributed inside and outside the carcinoma nodes. The oval cells presented the characteristics of undifferentiated cells: a high ratio of nucleolus and cellular plasm and obvious nucleoli, rare organelle in plasm. Only a few mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum and some villus-like apophysis on surface of cells could be seen. Cells stained with C-kit and PCNA antibody were mainly oval cells distributed in the portal area. The expression of c-myc mRNA increased with the progression of HCC. However, in the intervention group, UTI could retard its increase. Oval cells work throughout

  4. Heterogeneous response of isolated adult rat heart cells to insulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haworth, R.A.; Hunter, D.R.; Berkoff, H.A.

    1984-01-01

    3-O-Methylglucose uptake by Ca2+-resistant adult rat heart cells in suspension was measured, free of artifactual inhibitor-insensitive uptake, and with an accuracy of +/- 1.9% pellet water. (Ca2+-resistant cells are cells which retain their original rod-shaped morphology in the presence of physiological levels of Ca2+.) High levels of insulin (10(-6) M) stimulated the rate of 3-O-methylglucose uptake approximately 10-fold. In the presence of low levels of insulin (3 X 10(-11) M, 10(-10) M) uptake was biphasic; it could not be described by a single exponential function within experimental error, but required the sum of two exponentials. Deviation from a single exponential function was not so great with high levels of insulin (10(-6) M) or no insulin. Cell sugar uptake was also investigated using autoradiography of cells which had accumulated [2-14C]deoxyglucose under similar conditions. This showed considerable heterogeneity of 2-deoxyglucose uptake by cells treated with low levels of insulin, but significantly less heterogeneity of 2-deoxyglucose uptake by cells treated with high levels of insulin. It is concluded that the deviation of 3-O-methylglucose uptake from a single exponential observed at low insulin levels can be accounted for in terms of a heterogeneous response of cells to insulin

  5. Formation of Cell-To-Cell Connection between Bone Marrow Cells and Isolated Rat Cardiomyocytes in a Cocultivation Model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skopalík, J.; Pásek, Michal; Rychtárik, M.; Koristek, Z.; Gabrielová, E.; Sheer, P.; Matejovič, P.; Modrianský, M.; Klabusay, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 5 (2014), s. 1000185 ISSN 2157-7013 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : bone marrow * mononuclear cells * isolated cardiomyocytes * cocultivation Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics http://omicsonline.org/ open - access /formation-of-celltocell-connection-between-bone-marrow-cells- and -isolated-rat-cardiomyocytes-2157-7013.1000185.php?aid=33364

  6. Olfactory granule cell development in normal and hyperthyroid rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunjes, P C; Schwark, H D; Greenough, W T

    1982-10-01

    Dendritic development was examined in olfactory bulbs of both normal 7-, 14-, 21- and 60-day-old rats and littermates treated on postnatal days 1-4 with 1 microgram/g body weight of L-thyroxine sodium. Tissue was processed via the Golgi-Cox technique and subjected to quantitative analyses of mitral and internal layer granule cell development. These populations of granule cells were selected because their pattern of late proliferation suggested potentially greater susceptibility to postnatal hormonal alterations. Although neonatal hyperthyroidism induces widespread acceleration of maturation, including precocious chemosensitivity, granule cell development was unaffected relative to littermate controls. Both normal and hyperthyroid groups exhibited an inverted U-shaped pattern of cellular development, with rapid dendritic dendritic growth and expansion occurring during the earliest ages tested, but with loss of processes and dendritic field size occurring after day 21.

  7. Control of fibronectin synthesis by rat granulosa cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, M.K.; Dorrington, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    The secreted and cellular [ 35 S]methionine-radiolabeled proteins of cultured rat granulosa cells were separated by electrophoresis on sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gradient slab gels. From 24 to 72 h of culture FSH increased the intensity of labeling of most of the secreted proteins. A 220,000-dalton protein, however, increased in intensity only in control cultures and became the major secreted protein after 72 h, comprising 20% of the total radiolabeled proteins. This protein was identified as fibronectin by immunoprecipitation. There was no increase in the secreted or cellular fibronectin in FSH- or testosterone- and insulin-treated cultures. These studies indicate that a component of extracellular matrix is a major secretory product of unstimulated immature granulosa cells. As hormones induce the differentiated functions of granulosa cells in culture, the secretion of fibronectin is inhibited

  8. Rat visceral yolk sac cells: viability and expression of cell markers during maternal diabetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aires, M.B. [Departamento de Morfologia, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Santos, J.R.A. [Departamento de Enfermagem, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Souza, K.S.; Farias, P.S. [Departamento de Morfologia, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Santos, A.C.V. [Departamento de Enfermagem, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Fioretto, E.T. [Departamento de Morfologia, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Maria, D.A. [Laboratório de Bioquímica e Biofísica, Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-10

    The function of the visceral yolk sac (VYS) is critical for embryo organogenesis until final fetal development in rats, and can be affected by conditions such as diabetes. In view of the importance of diabetes during pregnancy for maternal and neonatal health, the objective of this study was to assess fetal weight, VYS cell markers, and viability in female Wistar rats (200-250 g) with induced diabetes (alloxan, 37 mg/kg) on the 8th gestational day (gd 8). At gd 15, rats from control (n=5) and diabetic (n=5) groups were anesthetized and laparotomized to remove the uterine horns for weighing of fetuses and collecting the VYS. Flow cytometry was used for characterizing VYS cells, and for determining mitochondrial activity, cell proliferation, DNA ploidy, cell cycle phases, and caspase-3 activity. Fetal weight was reduced in the diabetic group. Expression of the cell markers CD34, VEGFR1, CD115, CD117, CD14, CCR2, CD90, CD44, STRO-1, OCT3/4, and Nanog was detected in VYS cells in both groups. In the diabetic group, significantly decreased expression of CD34 (P<0.05), CCR2 (P<0.001), and OCT3/4 (P<0.01), and significantly increased expression of CD90 (P<0.05), CD117 (P<0.01), and CD14 (P<0.05) were observed. VYS cells with inactive mitochondria, activated caspase-3, and low proliferation were present in the rats with diabetes. Severe hyperglycemia caused by maternal diabetes had negative effects on pregnancy, VYS cell viability, and the expression of cell markers.

  9. Rat visceral yolk sac cells: viability and expression of cell markers during maternal diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aires, M.B.; Santos, J.R.A.; Souza, K.S.; Farias, P.S.; Santos, A.C.V.; Fioretto, E.T.; Maria, D.A.

    2015-01-01

    The function of the visceral yolk sac (VYS) is critical for embryo organogenesis until final fetal development in rats, and can be affected by conditions such as diabetes. In view of the importance of diabetes during pregnancy for maternal and neonatal health, the objective of this study was to assess fetal weight, VYS cell markers, and viability in female Wistar rats (200-250 g) with induced diabetes (alloxan, 37 mg/kg) on the 8th gestational day (gd 8). At gd 15, rats from control (n=5) and diabetic (n=5) groups were anesthetized and laparotomized to remove the uterine horns for weighing of fetuses and collecting the VYS. Flow cytometry was used for characterizing VYS cells, and for determining mitochondrial activity, cell proliferation, DNA ploidy, cell cycle phases, and caspase-3 activity. Fetal weight was reduced in the diabetic group. Expression of the cell markers CD34, VEGFR1, CD115, CD117, CD14, CCR2, CD90, CD44, STRO-1, OCT3/4, and Nanog was detected in VYS cells in both groups. In the diabetic group, significantly decreased expression of CD34 (P<0.05), CCR2 (P<0.001), and OCT3/4 (P<0.01), and significantly increased expression of CD90 (P<0.05), CD117 (P<0.01), and CD14 (P<0.05) were observed. VYS cells with inactive mitochondria, activated caspase-3, and low proliferation were present in the rats with diabetes. Severe hyperglycemia caused by maternal diabetes had negative effects on pregnancy, VYS cell viability, and the expression of cell markers

  10. [Assessing the impact of kangaroo care on preterm infant stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collados-Gómez, Laura; Aragonés-Corral, Belén; Contreras-Olivares, Inmaculada; García-Feced, Elena; Vila-Piqueras, Maria Encarnación

    2011-01-01

    To assess the efficacy of Kangaroo Care (KC) in decreasing stress in newborns of 29-34 weeks' post-menstrual age (PMA). Quasi-experimental pre-post without control group analytical study conducted in the Gregorio Marañón University Hospital Neonatal Unit. The inclusion criteria were: infants 29 to 34 weeks' PMA, in an incubator, did not have neurological pathology, were not post-surgical, and with a Spanish-speaking mother and/or father. The sample size was fifty-one premature infants. The study variables selected were: clinical variables (additional oxygen and pathology), socio-demographical variables (PMA, KC duration) and the outcome variable, premature infant stress, which consisted of two variables: the physiological stress signal and the behavioural stress response. The variables were collected at three different times: basal stress, during KC and after KC completion, making a comparison analysis between the basal stress and after KC. The response rate was 100%, without registering any loss. The stress variables that changed after the intervention (statistically significant) were: irregular breathing, trunk arching or hyperextension, very open fingers, contraction of the face muscles, apnea, irritability and exaggerated and sustained extension of arms and legs. O(2) saturation was 94.73%±3.05% before KC and 95.92%±2.97% after the intervention. The heart rate (HR) ranged from 158.14±17.48 bpm (beats per minute) before the KC to 151.47±4.47 bpm after it. KC is related to the decrease in the occurrence of neonatal variables of stress, helping to organize motor and physiological systems to achieve a state of tranquility. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  11. Water use and the thermoregulatory behaviour of kangaroos in arid regions: insights into the colonisation of arid rangelands in Australia by the Eastern Grey Kangaroo (Macropus giganteus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Terence J; McTavish, Kirsten J; Munn, Adam J; Holloway, Joanne

    2006-01-01

    The Eastern Grey Kangaroo (Macropus giganteus) occurs mostly in the wetter regions of eastern Australia. However, in the past 30-40 years it has moved into more arid regions (rainfall Kangaroo (Macropus rufus). An increased access to water (supplied for domestic stock) may explain this range extension, but changes in the availability of preferred feed could also be involved. The water use, drinking patterns and thermoregulatory behaviour of these two species of kangaroo have been examined in a semi-free range study, during summer at an arid rangeland site. Foraging was largely nocturnal in both species and during the day they behaved to reduce heat loads. This was especially so for M. giganteus, which showed greater shade seeking. However, it still used more water (72 +/- 2.6 mL kg(-1) day(-1), mean +/- SE) than M. rufus (56 +/- 7.6 mL kg(-1) day(-1)) and drank twice as frequently. Although M. giganteus produced a less concentrated urine (1422 +/- 36 mosmol kg(-1)) than M. rufus (1843 +/- 28 mosmol kg(-1)), kidney physiology did not explain all of the differences in water metabolism between the species. Water from the feed and faecal water retention also appear to be involved. Broadly, a better access to reliable water and the utilisation of mesic microhabitats has enabled M. giganteus to make inroads into the changing rangelands of eastern Australia. However, changes in the vegetation, due to stock grazing, have also favoured M. giganteus, which is a grass eating specialist.

  12. Nitric oxide-induced signalling in rat lacrimal acinar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Looms, Dagnia Karen; Tritsaris, K.; Dissing, S.

    2002-01-01

    -adrenergic stimulation and not by a rise in [Ca2+]i alone.   We show that in rat lacrimal acinar cells, NO and cGMP induce Ca2+ release from intracellular stores via G kinase activation. However, the changes in [Ca2+]i are relatively small, suggesting that this pathway plays a modulatory role in Ca2+ signalling, thus...... not by itself causing fast transient increases in [Ca2+]i. In addition, we suggest that endogenously produced NO activated by ß-adrenergic receptor stimulation, plays an important role in signalling to the surrounding tissue....

  13. Parental involvement and kangaroo care in European neonatal intensive care units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallás-Alonso, Carmen R; Losacco, Valentina; Maraschini, Alice

    2012-01-01

    To compare, in a large representative sample of European neonatal intensive care units, the policies and practices regarding parental involvement and holding babies in the kangaroo care position as well as differences in the tasks mothers and fathers are allowed to carry out....

  14. Phylogeography of Eastern Grey Kangaroos, Macropus giganteus, Suggests a Mesic Refugium in Eastern Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett A Coghlan

    Full Text Available Phylogeographic studies around the world have identified refugia where fauna were able to persist during unsuitable climatic periods, particularly during times of glaciation. In Australia the effects of Pleistocene climate oscillations on rainforest taxa have been well studied but less is known about the effects on mesic-habitat fauna, such as the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus. The eastern grey kangaroo is a large mammal that is common and widespread throughout eastern Australia, preferring dry mesic habitat, rather than rainforest. As pollen evidence suggests that the central-eastern part of Australia (southeast Queensland and northern New South Wales experienced cycles of expansion in mesic habitat with contraction in rainforests, and vice versa during glacial and interglacial periods, respectively, we hypothesise that the distribution of the eastern grey kangaroo was affected by these climate oscillations and may have contracted to mesic habitat refugia. From 375 mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from across the distribution of eastern grey kangaroos we obtained 108 unique haplotypes. Phylogenetic analysis identified two clades in Queensland, one of which is newly identified and restricted to a small coastal region in southern Queensland north of Brisbane, known as the Sunshine Coast. The relatively limited geographic range of this genetically isolated clade suggests the possibility of a mesic habitat refugium forming during rainforest expansion during wetter climate cycles. Other potential, although less likely, reasons for the genetic isolation of the highly distinct clade include geographic barriers, separate northward expansions, and strong local adaptation.

  15. To kill a kangaroo: understanding the decision to pursue high-risk/high-gain resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, James Holland; Bird, Rebecca Bliege; Bird, Douglas W

    2013-09-22

    In this paper, we attempt to understand hunter-gatherer foraging decisions about prey that vary in both the mean and variance of energy return using an expected utility framework. We show that for skewed distributions of energetic returns, the standard linear variance discounting (LVD) model for risk-sensitive foraging can produce quite misleading results. In addition to creating difficulties for the LVD model, the skewed distributions characteristic of hunting returns create challenges for estimating probability distribution functions required for expected utility. We present a solution using a two-component finite mixture model for foraging returns. We then use detailed foraging returns data based on focal follows of individual hunters in Western Australia hunting for high-risk/high-gain (hill kangaroo) and relatively low-risk/low-gain (sand monitor) prey. Using probability densities for the two resources estimated from the mixture models, combined with theoretically sensible utility curves characterized by diminishing marginal utility for the highest returns, we find that the expected utility of the sand monitors greatly exceeds that of kangaroos despite the fact that the mean energy return for kangaroos is nearly twice as large as that for sand monitors. We conclude that the decision to hunt hill kangaroos does not arise simply as part of an energetic utility-maximization strategy and that additional social, political or symbolic benefits must accrue to hunters of this highly variable prey.

  16. Phylogeography of Eastern Grey Kangaroos, Macropus giganteus, Suggests a Mesic Refugium in Eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coghlan, Brett A; Goldizen, Anne W; Thomson, Vicki A; Seddon, Jennifer M

    2015-01-01

    Phylogeographic studies around the world have identified refugia where fauna were able to persist during unsuitable climatic periods, particularly during times of glaciation. In Australia the effects of Pleistocene climate oscillations on rainforest taxa have been well studied but less is known about the effects on mesic-habitat fauna, such as the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). The eastern grey kangaroo is a large mammal that is common and widespread throughout eastern Australia, preferring dry mesic habitat, rather than rainforest. As pollen evidence suggests that the central-eastern part of Australia (southeast Queensland and northern New South Wales) experienced cycles of expansion in mesic habitat with contraction in rainforests, and vice versa during glacial and interglacial periods, respectively, we hypothesise that the distribution of the eastern grey kangaroo was affected by these climate oscillations and may have contracted to mesic habitat refugia. From 375 mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from across the distribution of eastern grey kangaroos we obtained 108 unique haplotypes. Phylogenetic analysis identified two clades in Queensland, one of which is newly identified and restricted to a small coastal region in southern Queensland north of Brisbane, known as the Sunshine Coast. The relatively limited geographic range of this genetically isolated clade suggests the possibility of a mesic habitat refugium forming during rainforest expansion during wetter climate cycles. Other potential, although less likely, reasons for the genetic isolation of the highly distinct clade include geographic barriers, separate northward expansions, and strong local adaptation.

  17. Rapid internalization of the insulin receptor in rat hepatoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backer, J.M.; White, M.F.; Kahn, C.R.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have studied the internalization of the insulin receptor (IR) in rat hepatoma cells (Fao). The cells were surface-iodinated at 4 0 C, stimulated with insulin at 37 0 C, and then cooled rapidly, trypsinized at 4 0 C and solubilized. The IR was immunoprecipitated with a specific antibody, and internalization of the IR was assessed by the appearance of trypsin-resistant bands on SDS-PAGE. Insulin induced the internalization of surface receptors with a t 1/2 of 9-10 mins; cells not exposed to insulin internalized less than 20% of the IR during 1 h at 37 0 C. Further experiments demonstrated that the accumulation of trypsin-resistant IR paralleled a loss of receptor from the cell surface. Insulin-stimulated cells were chilled and iodinated at 4 0 C, followed by solubilization, immunoprecipitation and SDS-PAGE; alternatively, insulin-stimulated cells were chilled, surface-bound ligand removed by washing the cells at pH 4.2, and specific [ 125 I]insulin binding measured at 4 0 C. Both techniques confirmed the disappearance of IR from the cell surface at rates comparable to the insulin-stimulated internalization described above. The total amount of phosphotyrosine-containing IR, as assessed by immunoprecipitation with an anti-phosphotyrosine antibody, remained constant during this time interval, suggesting that active kinase is translocated into the cell. In summary, the authors data indicate that insulin binding increases the rate of IR internalization of Fao cells. This relocation may facilitate the interaction of the activated tyrosine kinase in the IR with intracellular substrates, thus transmitting the insulin signal to metabolic pathways

  18. The Effects of Urethane on Rat Outer Hair Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyu Fu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cochlea converts sound vibration into electrical impulses and amplifies the low-level sound signal. Urethane, a widely used anesthetic in animal research, has been shown to reduce the neural responses to auditory stimuli. However, the effects of urethane on cochlea, especially on the function of outer hair cells, remain largely unknown. In the present study, we compared the cochlear microphonic responses between awake and urethane-anesthetized rats. The results revealed that the amplitude of the cochlear microphonic was decreased by urethane, resulting in an increase in the threshold at all of the sound frequencies examined. To deduce the possible mechanism underlying the urethane-induced decrease in cochlear sensitivity, we examined the electrical response properties of isolated outer hair cells using whole-cell patch-clamp recording. We found that urethane hyperpolarizes the outer hair cell membrane potential in a dose-dependent manner and elicits larger outward current. This urethane-induced outward current was blocked by strychnine, an antagonist of the α9 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Meanwhile, the function of the outer hair cell motor protein, prestin, was not affected. These results suggest that urethane anesthesia is expected to decrease the responses of outer hair cells, whereas the frequency selectivity of cochlea remains unchanged.

  19. Staurosporine induces different cell death forms in cultured rat astrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simenc, Janez; Lipnik-Stangelj, Metoda

    2012-01-01

    Astroglial cells are frequently involved in malignant transformation. Besides apoptosis, necroptosis, a different form of regulated cell death, seems to be related with glioblastoma genesis, proliferation, angiogenesis and invasion. In the present work we elucidated mechanisms of necroptosis in cultured astrocytes, and compared them with apoptosis, caused by staurosporine. Cultured rat cortical astrocytes were used for a cell death studies. Cell death was induced by different concentrations of staurosporine, and modified by inhibitors of apoptosis (z-vad-fmk) and necroptosis (nec-1). Different forms of a cell death were detected using flow cytometry. We showed that staurosporine, depending on concentration, induces both, apoptosis as well as necroptosis. Treatment with 10 −7 M staurosporine increased apoptosis of astrocytes after the regeneration in a staurosporine free medium. When caspases were inhibited, apoptosis was attenuated, while necroptosis was slightly increased. Treatment with 10 −6 M staurosporine induced necroptosis that occurred after the regeneration of astrocytes in a staurosporine free medium, as well as without regeneration period. Necroptosis was significantly attenuated by nec-1 which inhibits RIP1 kinase. On the other hand, the inhibition of caspases had no effect on necroptosis. Furthermore, staurosporine activated RIP1 kinase increased the production of reactive oxygen species, while an antioxidant BHA significantly attenuated necroptosis. Staurosporine can induce apoptosis and/or necroptosis in cultured astrocytes via different signalling pathways. Distinction between different forms of cell death is crucial in the studies of therapy-induced necroptosis

  20. Functional somatostatin receptors on a rat pancreatic acinar cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viguerie, N.; Tahiri-Jouti, N.; Esteve, J.P.; Clerc, P.; Logsdon, C.; Svoboda, M.; Susini, C.; Vaysse, N.; Ribet, A.

    1988-01-01

    Somatostatin receptors from a rat pancreatic acinar cell line, AR4-2J, were characterized biochemically, structurally, and functionally. Binding of 125 I-[Tyr 11 ]Somatostatin to AR4-2J cells was saturable, exhibiting a single class of high-affinity binding sites with a maximal binding capacity of 258 ± 20 fmol/10 6 cells. Somatostatin receptor structure was analyzed by covalently cross-linking 125 I-[Tyr 11 ]somatostatin to its plasma membrane receptors. Gel electrophoresis and autoradiography of cross-linked proteins revealed a peptide containing the somatostatin receptor. Somatostatin inhibited vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-stimulated adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) formation in a dose-dependent manner. The concentration of somatostatin that caused half-maximal inhibition of cAMP formation was close to the receptor affinity for somatostatin. Pertussis toxin pretreatment of AR4-2J cells prevented somatostatin inhibition of VIP-stimulated cAMP formation as well as somatostatin binding. The authors conclude that AR4-2J cells exhibit functional somatostatin receptors that retain both specificity and affinity of the pancreatic acinar cell somatostatin receptors and act via the pertussis toxin-sensitive guanine nucleotide-binding protein N i to inhibit adenylate cyclase

  1. Hopping Down the Main Street: Eastern Grey Kangaroos at Home in an Urban Matrix

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    Graeme Coulson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Most urban mammals are small. However, one of the largest marsupials, the Eastern Grey Kangaroo Macropus giganteus, occurs in some urban areas. In 2007, we embarked on a longitudinal study of this species in the seaside town of Anglesea in southern Victoria, Australia. We have captured and tagged 360 individuals to date, fitting each adult with a collar displaying its name. We have monitored survival, reproduction and movements by resighting, recapture and radio-tracking, augmented by citizen science reports of collared individuals. Kangaroos occurred throughout the town, but the golf course formed the nucleus of this urban population. The course supported a high density of kangaroos (2–5/ha, and approximately half of them were tagged. Total counts of kangaroos on the golf course were highest in summer, at the peak of the mating season, and lowest in winter, when many males but not females left the course. Almost all tagged adult females were sedentary, using only part of the golf course and adjacent native vegetation and residential blocks. In contrast, during the non-mating season (autumn and winter, many tagged adult males ranged widely across the town in a mix of native vegetation remnants, recreation reserves, vacant blocks, commercial properties and residential gardens. Annual fecundity of tagged females was generally high (≥70%, but survival of tagged juveniles was low (54%. We could not determine the cause of death of most juveniles. Vehicles were the major (47% cause of mortality of tagged adults. Road-kills were concentrated (74% in autumn and winter, and were heavily male biased: half of all tagged males died on roads compared with only 20% of tagged females. We predict that this novel and potent mortality factor will have profound, long-term impacts on the demography and behavior of the urban kangaroo population at Anglesea.

  2. Kangaroo care by fathers and mothers: comparison of physiological and stress responses in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinath, B K; Shah, J; Kumar, P; Shah, P S

    2016-05-01

    To compare physiological and biochemical responses in stable preterm neonates and their parents following kangaroo mother care (KMC) and kangaroo father care (KFC). We conducted a prospective cross-over design study of stable preterm neonates of KFC for 1 h on consecutive days in a random order. Heart rate, temperature, blood pressure, oxygen saturation and salivary cortisol in infants before and after kangaroo care and heart rate, temperature and salivary cortisol in parents before and after kangaroo care were measured. Pairwise comparisons of changes in these measures were analyzed. Twenty-six sets of neonates and their parents were studied for physiological parameters, of which 19 had adequate samples for salivary cortisol assessment. The infants had a mean birth weight of 1096 g (s.d.=217) and a mean postmenstrual age at study of 32 weeks (s.d.=2). There were no significant differences in the changes in mean heart rate (P=0.51), temperature (P=0.37), oxygen saturation (P=0.50), systolic blood pressure (P=0.32), mean blood pressure (0.10) and salivary cortisol (P=0.50) before and after KMC or KFC in the neonates. The changes in mean heart rate (P=0.62), temperature (P=0.28) and salivary cortisol (P=0.59) before and after kangaroo care were similar between mothers and fathers. No significant differences in physiological and stress responses were identified following KMC or KFC in preterm neonates. KFC may be as safe and as effective as KMC.

  3. Complete genomic characterisation of two novel poxviruses (WKPV and EKPV) from western and eastern grey kangaroos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Mark; Tu, Shin-Lin; Upton, Chris; McArtor, Cassie; Gillett, Amber; Laird, Tanya; O'Dea, Mark

    2017-10-15

    Poxviruses have previously been detected in macropods with cutaneous papillomatous lesions, however to date, no comprehensive analysis of a poxvirus from kangaroos has been performed. Here we report the genome sequences of a western grey kangaroo poxvirus (WKPV) and an eastern grey kangaroo poxvirus (EKPV), named for the host species from which they were isolated, western grey (Macropus fuliginosus) and eastern grey (Macropus giganteus) kangaroos. Poxvirus DNA from WKPV and EKPV was isolated and entire coding genome regions determined through Roche GS Junior and Illumina Miseq sequencing, respectively. Viral genomes were assembled using MIRA and SPAdes, and annotations performed using tools available from the Viral Bioinformatics Resource Centre. Histopathology and transmission electron microscopy analysis was also performed on WKPV and its associated lesions. The WKPV and EKPV genomes show 96% identity (nucleotide) to each other and phylogenetic analysis places them on a distinct branch between the established Molluscipoxvirus and Avipoxvirus genera. WKPV and EKPV are 170 kbp and 167 kbp long, containing 165 and 162 putative genes, respectively. Together, their genomes encode up to 47 novel unique hypothetical proteins, and possess virulence proteins including a major histocompatibility complex class II inhibitor, a semaphorin-like protein, a serpin, a 3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/δ 5→4 isomerase, and a CD200-like protein. These viruses also encode a large putative protein (WKPV-WA-039 and EKPV-SC-038) with a C-terminal domain that is structurally similar to the C-terminal domain of a cullin, suggestive of a role in the control of host ubiquitination. The relationship of these viruses to members of the Molluscipoxvirus and Avipoxvirus genera is discussed in terms of sequence similarity, gene content and nucleotide composition. A novel genus within subfamily Chordopoxvirinae is proposed to accommodate these two poxvirus species from kangaroos; we suggest

  4. Immunity to Schistosoma mansoni in congenitally athymic, irradiated and mast cell-depleted rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, M.J.; Bickle, Q.D.; Taylor, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    Immunity to Schistosoma mansoni was investigated in congenitally athymic (Nu/Nu) rats, irradiated rats and in mast cell-depleted rats. Nu/Nu rats failed to develop significant resistance following vaccination with irradiated cercariae, although Nu/Nu recipients of serum from vaccinated Fischer rats (VRS) manifested resistance comparable to heterozygous controls, suggesting that T-cells were required in the induction of resistance but were not involved in the efferent arm of antibody-dependent elimination. Radiosensitive cells (including eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes and mast cells) were apparently not essential for the antibody-dependent elimination of lung or post-lung stages since irradiated (700-750 rad.) recipients of VRS manifested comparable degrees of resistance to unirradiated controls in spite of a greater than 85% reduction in total blood leucocyte counts after irradiation. Depletion of 99% of tissue mast cells by treatment of rats with Compound 48/80 had no significant effect on the attrition of a challenge infection in rats rendered immune by vaccination with irradiated cercariae or by transfer of VRS. However, there was a significant increase in worm recovery in unimmunized and mast cell-depleted or irradiated rats, indicating that mast cells and perhaps other radio-isotope sensitive cells may be involved in innate resistance. (author)

  5. Immunity to Schistosoma mansoni in congenitally athymic, irradiated and mast cell-depleted rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, M.J.; Bickle, Q.D.; Taylor, M.G.

    1987-04-01

    Immunity to Schistosoma mansoni was investigated in congenitally athymic (Nu/Nu) rats, irradiated rats and in mast cell-depleted rats. Nu/Nu rats failed to develop significant resistance following vaccination with irradiated cercariae, although Nu/Nu recipients of serum from vaccinated Fischer rats (VRS) manifested resistance comparable to heterozygous controls, suggesting that T-cells were required in the induction of resistance but were not involved in the efferent arm of antibody-dependent elimination. Radiosensitive cells (including eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes and mast cells) were apparently not essential for the antibody-dependent elimination of lung or post-lung stages since irradiated (700-750 rad.) recipients of VRS manifested comparable degrees of resistance to unirradiated controls in spite of a greater than 85% reduction in total blood leucocyte counts after irradiation. Depletion of 99% of tissue mast cells by treatment of rats with Compound 48/80 had no significant effect on the attrition of a challenge infection in rats rendered immune by vaccination with irradiated cercariae or by transfer of VRS. However, there was a significant increase in worm recovery in unimmunized and mast cell-depleted or irradiated rats, indicating that mast cells and perhaps other radio-isotope sensitive cells may be involved in innate resistance.

  6. Endovascular transplantation of stem cells to the injured rat CNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundberg, Johan; Soederman, Mikael; Andersson, Tommy; Holmin, Staffan; Le Blanc, Katarina

    2009-01-01

    Transplantation procedures using intraparenchymal injection of stem cells result in tissue injury in addition to associated surgical risks. Intravenous injection of mesenchymal stem cells gives engraftment to lesions, but the method has low efficiency and specificity. In traumatic brain injuries (TBI), there is a transient breakdown of the blood-brain barrier and an inflammatory response, which increase migration of cells from blood to parenchyma. The aim of this investigation was to analyze the effect of intra-arterial administration on cellular engraftment. Experimental TBI was produced in a rat model. Endovascular technique was used to administer human mesenchymal stem cells in the ipsilateral internal carotid artery. Evaluation of engraftment and side effects were performed by immunohistochemical analysis of the brain and several other organs. The results were compared to intravenous administration of stem cells. Intra-arterial transplantion of mesenchymal stem cells resulted in central nervous system (CNS) engraftment without thromboembolic ischemia. We observed a significantly higher number of transplanted cells in the injured hemisphere after intra-arterial compared to intravenous administration both 1 day (p<0.01) and 5 days (p<0.05) after the transplantation. Some cells were also detected in the spleen but not in the other organs analyzed. Selective intra-arterial administration of mesenchymal stem cells to the injured CNS is a minimally invasive method for transplantation. The method is significantly more efficient than the intravenous route and causes no side effects in the current model. The technique can potentially be used for repeated transplantation to the CNS after TBI and in other diseases. (orig.)

  7. Endovascular transplantation of stem cells to the injured rat CNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, Johan; Soederman, Mikael; Andersson, Tommy; Holmin, Staffan [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Neuroradiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Le Blanc, Katarina [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Stem Cell Research, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Immunology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-10-15

    Transplantation procedures using intraparenchymal injection of stem cells result in tissue injury in addition to associated surgical risks. Intravenous injection of mesenchymal stem cells gives engraftment to lesions, but the method has low efficiency and specificity. In traumatic brain injuries (TBI), there is a transient breakdown of the blood-brain barrier and an inflammatory response, which increase migration of cells from blood to parenchyma. The aim of this investigation was to analyze the effect of intra-arterial administration on cellular engraftment. Experimental TBI was produced in a rat model. Endovascular technique was used to administer human mesenchymal stem cells in the ipsilateral internal carotid artery. Evaluation of engraftment and side effects were performed by immunohistochemical analysis of the brain and several other organs. The results were compared to intravenous administration of stem cells. Intra-arterial transplantion of mesenchymal stem cells resulted in central nervous system (CNS) engraftment without thromboembolic ischemia. We observed a significantly higher number of transplanted cells in the injured hemisphere after intra-arterial compared to intravenous administration both 1 day (p<0.01) and 5 days (p<0.05) after the transplantation. Some cells were also detected in the spleen but not in the other organs analyzed. Selective intra-arterial administration of mesenchymal stem cells to the injured CNS is a minimally invasive method for transplantation. The method is significantly more efficient than the intravenous route and causes no side effects in the current model. The technique can potentially be used for repeated transplantation to the CNS after TBI and in other diseases. (orig.)

  8. Age and radiation sensitivity of rat mammary clonogenic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Yoshiya; Yasukawa-Barnes, J.; Kim, R.Y.; Gould, M.N.; Clifton, K.H.

    1994-01-01

    The relative risk of breast cancer is very high among women who were exposed to ionizing radiation during or before puberty. In the current studies, the surviving fractions of clonogenic mammary cells of groups of virgin rats were estimated after single exposures to 137 Cs γ rays at intervals from 1 to 12 weeks after birth. The radiosensitivity of clonogens from prepubertal rats was high and changed with the onset of puberty at between 4 and 6 weeks of age. By this time, the increase in the size of the clonogenic cell subpopulation was slowing and differentiation of terminal mammary end buds and alveolar structures was occurring. Analysis of the relationship of clonogen survival and radiation dose according to the α/β model showed that the exponential αD term predominated at the second and fourth weeks of age. By the eighth week of age, the βD 2 term had come to predominate and the survival curve had a pronounced initial convex shoulder. Further experiments are required to determine whether there is an association between the high sensitivity of the prepubertal and pubertal mammary clonogens to radiation killing and a high susceptibility to radiogenic initiation of cancer. 24 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  9. PPARα agonists up-regulate organic cation transporters in rat liver cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luci, Sebastian; Geissler, Stefanie; Koenig, Bettina; Koch, Alexander; Stangl, Gabriele I.; Hirche, Frank; Eder, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    It has been shown that clofibrate treatment increases the carnitine concentration in the liver of rats. However, the molecular mechanism is still unknown. In this study, we observed for the first time that treatment of rats with the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-α agonist clofibrate increases hepatic mRNA concentrations of organic cation transporters (OCTNs)-1 and -2 which act as transporters of carnitine into the cell. In rat hepatoma (Fao) cells, treatment with WY-14,643 also increased the mRNA concentration of OCTN-2. mRNA concentrations of enzymes involved in carnitine biosynthesis were not altered by treatment with the PPARα agonists in livers of rats and in Fao cells. We conclude that PPARα agonists increase carnitine concentrations in livers of rats and cells by an increased uptake of carnitine into the cell but not by an increased carnitine biosynthesis

  10. Damage and repair in mammalian cells after exposure to non-ionizing radiations. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harm, H.

    1978-01-01

    Cornea cells of the rat kangaroo or 'potoroo' (Potorous tridactylus) were exposed to far-UV (254 or 302 nm) radiation, with or without subsequent illumination by near-UV or visible light. The DNA of these cells was extracted and tested for the presence of photoproducts binding yeast photoreactivating enzyme (PRE). The effects on repair kinetics of the transforming DNA indicate that in UV-irradiated potoroo cornea cells up to approximately 90% of photorepairable DNA damage can be photorepaired within 15 min. However, the extent of cellular photorepair depends appreciably on experimental parameters during photoreactivating treatment, including the spectral composition of photoreactivating light. Apparently superposition of damage by the photoreactivating treatment itself is the critical factor. This may explain experimental discrepancies existing in different laboratories studying photorepair in UV-irradiated cells of placental mammals. (Auth.)

  11. Inhibitory effect of tanshinone IIA on rat hepatic stellate cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Wei Liu

    Full Text Available Anti-inflammation via inhibition of NF-κB pathways in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs is one therapeutic approach to hepatic fibrosis. Tanshinone IIA (C19H18O3, Tan IIA is a lipophilic diterpene isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, with reported anti-inflammatory activity. We tested whether Tan IIA could inhibit HSC activation.The cell line of rat hepatic stellate cells (HSC-T6 was stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS (100 ng/ml. Cytotoxicity was assessed by MTT assay. HSC-T6 cells were pretreated with Tan IIA (1, 3 and 10 µM, then induced by LPS (100 ng/ml. NF-κB activity was evaluated by the luciferase reporter gene assay. Western blotting analysis was performed to measure NF-κB-p65, and phosphorylations of MAPKs (ERK, JNK, p38. Cell chemotaxis was assessed by both wound-healing assay and trans-well invasion assay. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to detect gene expression in HSC-T6 cells.All concentrations of drugs showed no cytotoxicity against HSC-T6 cells. LPS stimulated NF-κB luciferase activities, nuclear translocation of NF-κB-p65, and phosphorylations of ERK, JNK and p38, all of which were suppressed by Tan IIA. In addition, Tan IIA significantly inhibited LPS-induced HSCs chemotaxis, in both wound-healing and trans-well invasion assays. Moreover, Tan IIA attenuated LPS-induced mRNA expressions of CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, ICAM-1, iNOS, and α-SMA in HSC-T6 cells.Our results demonstrated that Tan IIA decreased LPS-induced HSC activation.

  12. Investigation of the microbial metabolism of carbon dioxide and hydrogen in the kangaroo foregut by stable isotope probing

    OpenAIRE

    Godwin, Scott; Kang, Alicia; Gulino, Lisa-Maree; Manefield, Mike; Gutierrez-Zamora, Maria-Luisa; Kienzle, Marco; Ouwerkerk, Diane; Dawson, Kerri; Klieve, Athol V

    2014-01-01

    Kangaroos ferment forage material in an enlarged forestomach analogous to the rumen, but in contrast to ruminants, they produce little or no methane. The objective of this study was to identify the dominant organisms and pathways involved in hydrogenotrophy in the kangaroo forestomach, with the broader aim of understanding how these processes are able to predominate over methanogenesis. Stable isotope analysis of fermentation end products and RNA stable isotope probing (RNA-SIP) were used to ...

  13. Molecular characterization and multi-locus genotypes of Enterocytozoon bieneusi from captive red kangaroos (Macropus Rufus in Jiangsu province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Zhong

    Full Text Available Enterocytozoon bieneusi is the most common pathogen of microsporidian species infecting humans worldwide. Although E. bieneusi has been found in a variety of animal hosts, information on the presence of E. bieneusi in captive kangaroos in China is limited. The present study was aimed at determining the occurrence and genetic diversity of E. bieneusi in captive kangaroos. A total of 61 fecal specimens (38 from red kangaroos and 23 from grey kangaroos were collected from Nanjing Hongshan Forest Zoo and Hongshan Kangaroo Breeding Research Base, Jiangsu province, China. Using the nested PCR amplification ITS gene of rRNA of E. bieneusi, totally 23.0% (14/61 of tested samples were PCR-positive with three genotypes (i.e. one known genotype, CHK1, and two novel genotypes, CSK1 and CSK2. Multi-locus sequence typing using three microsatellites (MS1, MS3, and MS7 and one minisatellite (MS4 revealed one, five, two, and one types at these four loci, respectively. In phylogenetic analysis, the two genotypes, CHK1 and CSK1, were clustered into a new group of unknown zoonotic potential, and the novel genotype CSK2 was clustered into a separate clade with PtEb and PtEbIX. To date, this is the first report on the presence of E. bieneusi in captive red kangaroos in Jiangsu province, China. Furthermore, a high degree of genetic diversity was observed in the E. bieneusi genotype and seven MLGs (MLG1-7 were found in red kangaroos. Our findings suggest that infected kangaroo may act as potential reservoirs of E. bieneusi and be source to transmit infections to other animal.

  14. Effects of voluntary wheel running on satellite cells in the rat plantaris muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosaka, Mitsutoshi; Naito, Hisashi; Ogura, Yuji; Kojima, Atsushi; Goto, Katsumasa; Katamoto, Shizuo

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of voluntary wheel running on satellite cells in the rat plantaris muscle. Seventeen 5-week-old male Wistar rats were assigned to a control (n = 5) or training (n = 12) group. Each rat in the training group ran voluntarily in a running-wheel cage for 8 weeks. After the training period, the animals were anesthetized, and the plantaris muscles were removed, weighed, and analyzed immunohistochemically and biochemically. Although there were no significant differences in muscle weight or fiber area between the groups, the numbers of satellite cells and myonuclei per muscle fiber, percentage of satellite cells, and citrate synthase activity were significantly higher in the training group compared with the control group (p run in the training group (r = 0.61, p running can induce an increase in the number of satellite cells without changing the mean fiber area in the rat plantaris muscle; this increase in satellite cell content is a function of distance run. Key pointsThere is no study about the effect of voluntary running on satellite cells in the rat plantaris muscle.Voluntary running training causes an increase of citrate synthase activity in the rat plantaris muscle but does not affect muscle weight and mean fiber area in the rat plantaris muscle.Voluntary running can induce an increase in the number of satellite cells without hypertrophy of the rat plantaris muscle.

  15. Antenatal taurine reduces cerebral cell apoptosis in fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Wang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Ying; Yang, Na; Xu, Jing; Ren, Xiaotun

    2013-08-15

    From pregnancy to parturition, Sprague-Dawley rats were daily administered a low protein diet to establish a model of intrauterine growth restriction. From the 12(th) day of pregnancy, 300 mg/kg rine was daily added to food until spontaneous delivery occurred. Brain tissues from normal neonatal rats at 6 hours after delivery, neonatal rats with intrauterine growth restriction, and neonatal rats with intrauterine growth restriction undergoing taurine supplement were obtained for further experiments. The terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated biotin-16-dUTP nick-end labeling assay revealed that the number of apoptotic cells in the brain tissue of neonatal rats with intrauterine growth restriction significantly increased. Taurine supplement in pregnant rats reduced cell apoptosis in brain tissue from neonatal rats with intrauterine growth restriction. nohistochemical staining revealed that taurine supplement increased glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor expression and decreased caspase-3 expression in the cerebral cortex of intrauterine growth-restricted fetal rats. These results indicate that taurine supplement reduces cell apoptosis through the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor-caspase-3 signaling pathway, resulting in a protective effect on the intrauterine growth-restricted fetal rat brain.

  16. Trial of Repeated Analgesia with Kangaroo Mother Care (TRAKC Trial)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Skin-to-skin contact (SSC) between mother and infant, commonly referred to as Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC), is recommended as an intervention for procedural pain. Evidence demonstrates its consistent efficacy in reducing pain for a single painful procedure. The purpose of this study is to examine the sustained efficacy of KMC, provided during all routine painful procedures for the duration of Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) hospitalization, in diminishing behavioral pain response in preterm neonates. The efficacy of KMC alone will be compared to standard care of 24% oral sucrose, as well as the combination of KMC and 24% oral sucrose. Methods/design Infants admitted to the NICU who are less than 36 6/7 weeks gestational age (according to early ultrasound), that are stable enough to be held in KMC, will be considered eligible (N = 258). Using a single-blinded randomized parallel group design, participants will be assigned to one of three possible interventions: 1) KMC, 2) combined KMC and sucrose, and 3) sucrose alone, when they undergo any routine painful procedure (heel lance, venipuncture, intravenous, oro/nasogastric insertion). The primary outcome is infant’s pain intensity, which will be assessed using the Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP). The secondary outcome will be maturity of neurobehavioral functioning, as measured by the Neurobehavioral Assessment of the Preterm Infant (NAPI). Gestational age, cumulative exposure to KMC provided during non-pain contexts, and maternal cortisol levels will be considered in the analysis. Clinical feasibility will be accounted for from nurse and maternal questionnaires. Discussion This will be the first study to examine the repeated use of KMC for managing procedural pain in preterm neonates. It is also the first to compare KMC to sucrose, or the interventions in combination, across time. Based on the theoretical framework of the brain opioid theory of attachment, it is expected that KMC will be a

  17. Antitumor Activity of Rat Mesenchymal Stem Cells during Direct or Indirect Co-Culturing with C6 Glioma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabashvili, A N; Baklaushev, V P; Grinenko, N F; Mel'nikov, P A; Cherepanov, S A; Levinsky, A B; Chehonin, V P

    2016-02-01

    The tumor-suppressive effect of rat mesenchymal stem cells against low-differentiated rat C6 glioma cells during their direct and indirect co-culturing and during culturing of C6 glioma cells in the medium conditioned by mesenchymal stem cells was studied in an in vitro experiment. The most pronounced antitumor activity of mesenchymal stem cells was observed during direct co-culturing with C6 glioma cells. The number of live C6 glioma cells during indirect co-culturing and during culturing in conditioned medium was slightly higher than during direct co-culturing, but significantly differed from the control (C6 glioma cells cultured in medium conditioned by C6 glioma cells). The cytotoxic effect of medium conditioned by mesenchymal stem cells was not related to medium depletion by glioma cells during their growth. The medium conditioned by other "non-stem" cells (rat astrocytes and fibroblasts) produced no tumor-suppressive effect. Rat mesenchymal stem cells, similar to rat C6 glioma cells express connexin 43, the main astroglial gap junction protein. During co-culturing, mesenchymal stem cells and glioma C6 cells formed functionally active gap junctions. Gap junction blockade with connexon inhibitor carbenoxolone attenuated the antitumor effect observed during direct co-culturing of C6 glioma cells and mesenchymal stem cells to the level produced by conditioned medium. Cell-cell signaling mediated by gap junctions can be a mechanism of the tumor-suppressive effect of mesenchymal stem cells against C6 glioma cells. This phenomenon can be used for the development of new methods of cell therapy for high-grade malignant gliomas.

  18. Rat primary embryo fibroblast cells suppress transformation by the E6 and E7 genes of human papillomavirus type 16 in somatic hybrid cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Miyasaka, M; Takami, Y; Inoue, H; Hakura, A

    1991-01-01

    The E6 and E7 genes of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) transform established lines of rat cells but not rat cells in primary culture irrespective of the expression of the two genes. The reason for this difference between the susceptibilities of cell lines and primary cells was examined by using hybrid cells obtained by somatic cell fusion of rat cell lines transformed by the E6 and E7 genes of HPV-16 and freshly isolated rat embryo fibroblast cells. In these hybrid cells, transformed ph...

  19. Palmitate attenuates osteoblast differentiation of fetal rat calvarial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Lee-Chuan C.; Ford, Jeffery J. [Department of Biochemistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); Lee, John C. [Department of Biochemistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); The Sam and Ann Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); Adamo, Martin L., E-mail: adamo@biochem.uthscsa.edu [Department of Biochemistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); The Sam and Ann Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Palmitate inhibits osteoblast differentiation. • Fatty acid synthase. • PPARγ. • Acetyl Co-A carboxylase inhibitor TOFA. • Fetal rat calvarial cell culture. - Abstract: Aging is associated with the accumulation of ectopic lipid resulting in the inhibition of normal organ function, a phenomenon known as lipotoxicity. Within the bone marrow microenvironment, elevation in fatty acid levels may produce an increase in osteoclast activity and a decrease in osteoblast number and function, thus contributing to age-related osteoporosis. However, little is known about lipotoxic mechanisms in intramembraneous bone. Previously we reported that the long chain saturated fatty acid palmitate inhibited the expression of the osteogenic markers RUNX2 and osteocalcin in fetal rat calvarial cell (FRC) cultures. Moreover, the acetyl CoA carboxylase inhibitor TOFA blocked the inhibitory effect of palmitate on expression of these two markers. In the current study we have extended these observations to show that palmitate inhibits spontaneous mineralized bone formation in FRC cultures in association with reduced mRNA expression of RUNX2, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and bone sialoprotein and reduced alkaline phosphatase activity. The effects of palmitate on osteogenic marker expression were inhibited by TOFA. Palmitate also inhibited the mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase and PPARγ in FRC cultures, and as with osteogenic markers, this effect was inhibited by TOFA. Palmitate had no effect on FRC cell proliferation or apoptosis, but inhibited BMP-7-induced alkaline phosphatase activity. We conclude that palmitate accumulation may lead to lipotoxic effects on osteoblast differentiation and mineralization and that increases in fatty acid oxidation may help to prevent these lipotoxic effects.

  20. Palmitate attenuates osteoblast differentiation of fetal rat calvarial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Lee-Chuan C.; Ford, Jeffery J.; Lee, John C.; Adamo, Martin L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Palmitate inhibits osteoblast differentiation. • Fatty acid synthase. • PPARγ. • Acetyl Co-A carboxylase inhibitor TOFA. • Fetal rat calvarial cell culture. - Abstract: Aging is associated with the accumulation of ectopic lipid resulting in the inhibition of normal organ function, a phenomenon known as lipotoxicity. Within the bone marrow microenvironment, elevation in fatty acid levels may produce an increase in osteoclast activity and a decrease in osteoblast number and function, thus contributing to age-related osteoporosis. However, little is known about lipotoxic mechanisms in intramembraneous bone. Previously we reported that the long chain saturated fatty acid palmitate inhibited the expression of the osteogenic markers RUNX2 and osteocalcin in fetal rat calvarial cell (FRC) cultures. Moreover, the acetyl CoA carboxylase inhibitor TOFA blocked the inhibitory effect of palmitate on expression of these two markers. In the current study we have extended these observations to show that palmitate inhibits spontaneous mineralized bone formation in FRC cultures in association with reduced mRNA expression of RUNX2, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and bone sialoprotein and reduced alkaline phosphatase activity. The effects of palmitate on osteogenic marker expression were inhibited by TOFA. Palmitate also inhibited the mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase and PPARγ in FRC cultures, and as with osteogenic markers, this effect was inhibited by TOFA. Palmitate had no effect on FRC cell proliferation or apoptosis, but inhibited BMP-7-induced alkaline phosphatase activity. We conclude that palmitate accumulation may lead to lipotoxic effects on osteoblast differentiation and mineralization and that increases in fatty acid oxidation may help to prevent these lipotoxic effects

  1. Comparative study of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors of human and rat cortical glial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demushkin, V.P.; Burbaeva, G.S.; Dzhaliashvili, T.A.; Plyashkevich, Y.G.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was a comparative studyof muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in human and rat glial cells. ( 3 H)Quinuclidinyl-benzylate (( 3 H)-QB), atropine, platiphylline, decamethonium, carbamylcholine, tubocurarine, and nicotine were used. The glial cell fraction was obtained from the cerebral cortex of rats weighing 130-140 g and from the frontal pole of the postmortem brain from men aged 60-70 years. The use of the method of radioimmune binding of ( 3 H)-QB with human and rat glial cell membranes demonstrated the presence of a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor in the glial cells

  2. [Effects of tributyltin chloride (TBT) and triphenyltin chloride (TPT) on rat testicular Leydig cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bao-an; Li, Ming; Mu, Yi-ming; Lu, Zhao-hui; Li, Jiang-yuan

    2006-06-01

    To investigate the effects of tributyltin chloride (TBT) and triphenyltin chloride (TPT) on rat testicular Leydig cells. The rat Leydig cells (LC-540) were incubated with 0 to 80 nmol/L TBT and TPT for 24 to approximately 96 h, and then the cell viability was determined by MTT. DNA fragmentation ladder formation of cell apoptosis was examined by agarose electrophoresis. Effects of chelator of intracellular Ca2+ (BAPTA) and the inhibitors of PKA, PKC and TPK on cell apoptosis induced by TBT were observed. Effects of TBT on testosterone production in primary cultured rat Leydig cells treated with or without hCG were detected. TBT and TPT suppressed Leydig cell survival in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The suppressive effects of TBT and TPT on the cell survival was caused by apoptosis which was determined by DNA ladder formation. The apoptotic effect of TBT was possibly mediated by the rise in intracellular Ca2+ because it could be blocked by BAPTA, the chelator of intracellular Ca2+; PKA, PKC and TPK inhibitors did not prevent the apoptotic effects induced by TBT. TBT markedly suppressed testosterone production of primary cultured rat Leydig cells with or without hCG stimulation. TBT and TPT induced apoptosis in rat testicular Leydig cells possibly through increasing intracellular Ca2+. TBT reduced the testosterone production of rat Leydig cells.

  3. Osteogenic Matrix Cell Sheets Facilitate Osteogenesis in Irradiated Rat Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinobu Uchihara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconstruction of large bone defects after resection of malignant musculoskeletal tumors is a significant challenge in orthopedic surgery. Extracorporeal autogenous irradiated bone grafting is a treatment option for bone reconstruction. However, nonunion often occurs because the osteogenic capacity is lost by irradiation. In the present study, we established an autogenous irradiated bone graft model in the rat femur to assess whether osteogenic matrix cell sheets improve osteogenesis of the irradiated bone. Osteogenic matrix cell sheets were prepared from bone marrow-derived stromal cells and co-transplanted with irradiated bone. X-ray images at 4 weeks after transplantation showed bridging callus formation around the irradiated bone. Micro-computed tomography images at 12 weeks postoperatively showed abundant callus formation in the whole circumference of the irradiated bone. Histology showed bone union between the irradiated bone and host femur. Mechanical testing showed that the failure force at the irradiated bone site was significantly higher than in the control group. Our study indicates that osteogenic matrix cell sheet transplantation might be a powerful method to facilitate osteogenesis in irradiated bones, which may become a treatment option for reconstruction of bone defects after resection of malignant musculoskeletal tumors.

  4. Moringa oleifera-rich diet and T cell calcium signaling in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attakpa, E S; Bertin, G A; Chabi, N W; Ategbo, J-M; Seri, B; Khan, N A

    2017-11-24

    Moringa oleifera is a plant whose fruits, roots and leaves have been advocated for traditional medicinal uses. The physicochemical analysis shows that Moringa oleifera contains more dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) than saturated fatty acids (SFA). The consumption of an experimental diet enriched with Moringa oleifera extracts lowered blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), but not in normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats as compared to rats fed an unsupplemented control diet. Anti-CD3-stimulated T cell proliferation was diminished in both strains of rats fed the Moringa oleifera. The experimental diet lowered secretion of interleukin-2 in SHR, but not in WKY rats compared with rats fed the control diet. Studies of platelets from patients with primary hypertension and from SHR support the notion that the concentration of intracellular free calcium [Ca(2+)](i) is modified in both clinical and experimental hypertension. We observed that the basal, [Ca(2+)](i) was lower in T cells of SHR than in those of WKY rats fed the control diet. Feeding the diet with Moringa oleifera extracts to WKY rats did not alter basal [Ca(2+)](i) in T cells but increased basal [Ca(2+)](i) in SHR. Our study clearly demonstrated that Moringa oleifera exerts antihypertensive effects by inhibiting the secretion of IL-2 and modulates T cell calcium signaling in hypertensive rats.

  5. Abnormal G1 arrest in the cell lines from LEC strain rats after X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, M.; Uehara, K.; Kirisawa, R.; Endoh, D.; Arai, S.; Okui, T.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of X-irradiation of cell lines from LEC and WKAH strain rats on a progression o cell cycle was investigated. When WKAH rat ells were exposed to 5 Gy of X-rays and their cell cycle distribution was determined by a flow cytometer, the proportion of S-phase cells decrease and that of G2/M-phase cells in creased at 8 hr post-irradiation. At 18 and 24 hr post-irradiation, approximately 80% of the cells appeared in the G1 phase. On the contrary, the proportion of S-phase cells increased and that of G1-phase cells decreased in LEC rats during 8-24 hr post-irradiation, compared with that at 0 hr post-irradiation. Thus, radiation-induced delay in the progression from the G1 phase to S phase (G1 arrest) was observed inWKAH rat cells but not in LEC rat cells. In the case of WKAH rat cells, the intensities of the bands of p53 protein increased at 1 and 2 hr after X-irradiation at 5 Gy, compared with those of un-irradiated cells and at 0 hr post-irradiation. In contrast, the intensities of the bands were faint and did not significantly increase in LEC rat ells during 0-6 hr incubation after X-irradiation. Present results suggested that the radioresistant DNA synthesis in LEC rat cells is thought to be due to the abnormal G1 arrest following X-irradiation

  6. The volume of Purkinje cells decreases in the cerebellum of acrylamide-intoxicated rats, but no cells are lost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jytte Overgaard; Tandrup, T; Braendgaard, H

    1994-01-01

    The effects of acrylamide intoxication on the numbers of granule and Purkinje cells and the volume of Purkinje cell perikarya have been evaluated with stereological methods. The analysis was carried out in the cerebella of rats that had received a dose of 33.3 mg/kg acrylamide, twice a week, for 7.......5 weeks. The total numbers of cerebellar granule and Purkinje cells were estimated using the optical fractionator and the mean volume of the Purkinje cell perikarya was estimated with the vertical rotator technique. The volumes of the molecular layer, the granular cell layer and the white matter were...... estimated using the Cavalieri principle. The mean weight of the cerebellum of the intoxicated rats was 7% lower than that of the control rats (2P = 0.001). The numbers of the Purkinje cells and granule cells were the same in both groups, but the mean volume of the perikarya of the Purkinje cells...

  7. Numeric and volumetric changes in Leydig cells during aging of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Bruno Vinicius Duarte; Lorenzini, Fernando; Veronez, Djanira; Miranda, Eduardo Pereira de; Neves, Gabriela Duarte; Fraga, Rogério de

    2017-10-01

    To analyze the effects of aging in rats on the nuclear volume, cytoplasmic volume, and total volume of Leydig cells, as well as their number. Seventy-two Wistar rats were divided into six subgroups of 12 rats, which underwent right orchiectomy at 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months of age. The weight and volume of the resected testicles were assessed. A stereological study of Leydig cells was conducted, which included measurements of cell number and nuclear, cytoplasmic, and total cell volumes. The weight and volume of the resected testicles showed reductions with age. Only the subgroup composed of 24-month old rats showed a decrease in the nuclear volume of Leydig cells. Significant reductions in the cytoplasmic volume and total volume of Leydig cells were observed in 18- and 24-month old rats. The number of Leydig cells did not vary significantly with age. Aging in rats resulted in reduction of the nuclear, cytoplasmic, and total cell volumes of Leydig cells. There was no change in the total number of these cells during aging.

  8. Formation of binucleated myocardial cells in the neonatal rat. An index for growth hypertrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clubb, F.J. Jr.; Bishop, S.P.

    1984-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to characterize myocardial cell growth in neonatal rats and investigate the mechanism of binucleation in myocardial cells. To test the hypothesis that binucleated myocardial cells result from karyokinesis without cytokinesis, experiments were designed to measure the rate of DNA synthesis and the percentage of binucleated myocardial cells in neonatal rats during growth. Estimates of myocardial cell nuclear divisions were obtained from rats pulsed with tritiated thymidine at 17 days of gestation. Autoradiograms were prepared from isolated myocardial cells of rats killed at various ages postpartum, and the number of developed silver halide grains over myocardial cell nuclei was calculated. This estimated the mitotic activity of nuclei. To determine myocardial cell DNA synthesis postpartum, another set of rats were injected at various time periods with 4 hourly doses of tritiated thymidine, and hearts were fixed by perfusion 1 hour later. Labeling index of myocardial cells was calculated (labeled/total myocardial cells) from autoradiograms. Results indicated that the growth of myocardial cells in period can be divided into three phases: (a) a hyperplastic phase, (b) a transitional phase, and (c) a hypertrophic phase. Binucleation of myocardial cells was not due to fusion of mononucleated cells

  9. Effects of chronic morphine and morphine withdrawal on gene expression in rat peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Desjardins , Stephane; Belkai , Emilie; Crete , Dominique; Cordonnier , Laurie; Scherrmann , Jean-Michel; Noble , Florence; Marie-Claire , Cynthia

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Chronic morphine treatment alters gene expression in brain structures. There are increasing evidences showing a correlation, in gene expression modulation, between blood cells and brain in psychological troubles. To test whether gene expression regulation in blood cells could be found in drug addiction, we investigated gene expression profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear (PBMC) cells of saline and morphine-treated rats. In rats chronically treated with morphine, th...

  10. Erythroid differentiation and commitment in rat erythroleukemia cells with hypertonic culture conditions.

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, Y; Kluge, N; Ostertag, W; Furusawa, M

    1981-01-01

    Cell cultures of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced rat erythroleukemia can be stimulated to synthesize hemoglobin when cultured in hypertonic media. During hypertonic treatment the intracellular osmotic conditions immediately readjust to those of the extracellular medium. None of the Friend virus-induced mouse erythroleukemia cell lines was inducible for differentiation with the same hypertonic culture conditions used for rat cells. Earliest commitment to erythroid terminal differentiati...

  11. Ouabain binding to cultured vascular smooth muscle cells of the spontaneously hypertensive rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopp, L.; Khalil, F.; Tamura, H.; Kino, M.; Searle, B.M.; Tokushige, A.; Aviv, A.

    1986-01-01

    The binding of ouabain and K + to the Na + pump were analyzed in serially passed cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) originating from spontaneously hypertensive (SH) Wistar-Kyoto (WKY), and American Wistar (W) rats. The techniques have utilized analyses of displacement of [ 3 H]ouabain by both unlabeled ouabain and K + from specific binding sites on the VSMCs. The authors have found that 1) each of the VSMC preparations from the three rat strains appeared to demonstrate one population of specific ouabain receptors (Na + pumps); 2) the number of Na + pump units of both the SH and WKY rats was significantly lower than the number of Na + pump units of W rat VSMCs; 3) the equilibrium dissociation constant values (μM) for ouabain in VSMCs of SH and WKY rats were similar but were significantly higher than that of VSMCs derived from W rats; and 4) among the VSMCs originating from the three rat strains, the apparent equilibrium dissociation constant value for K + (mM) was the lowest in those of the SH rat compared with VSMCs of the WKY rat and W rat. Previous studies have demonstrated increased passive Na + and K + transport rate constants of SH rat VSMCs compared with either W or WKY rat cells. These findings suggest the possibility of higher permeabilities of the SH cells. They propose that the combined effect of a low number of Na + pump units with higher permeabilities to Na + and K + predisposes VSMCs of the SH rat to disturbances in their cellular ionic regulation. These genetic defects, if they occur in vivo, may lead to an increase in the vascular tone

  12. Expression of rat class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) alloantigens and hepatocytes and hepatoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, J.M.; Desai, P.A.; Chakraborty, S.

    1986-01-01

    Altered expression of Class I MHC alloantigens has been reported for murine tumors, and may be associated with the tumorigenic phenotype of tumor cells. To characterize MHC Class I alloantigen expression on a chemically-induced transplantable rat hepatoma cell line, 17X, derived from a (WF x F344) F 1 rat, polyvalent anti-F344 and anti-WF rat alloantisera were first used to immunoprecipitate the rat RT1.A Class I MHC alloantigens expressed on primary (WF x F344) F 1 hepatocyptes in short-term monolayer cultures. Two-dimensional isoelectric focusing and SDS-PAGE of immunoprecipitates from 35 S-methionine-labeled (WF x F344) F 1 hepatocytes clearly resolved the RT1.A/sup u/ (WF) and RT1.A/sup LvI/ (F344) parental alloantigens. Identical radiolabeling and immunoprecipitation failed to detect either parental alloantigen on the 17X hepatoma cells. However, indirect immunofluorescence and immunoblot analyses demonstrated the presence of parental alloantigens on the 17X cells. Immunization of F344 rats but not of WF rats with 17X cells resulted in antibodies cytotoxic for normal (WF X F344) F 1 spleen cells in the presence of complement. These findings indicate that a combination of detection techniques will be necessary to characterize altered alloantigen expression on rat hepatoma cells

  13. Induced recovery from near- and far-UV damage in cultured marsupial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoy, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    Colony-forming ability of cultured rat kangaroo cells (Ptk-2) decreases with increasing exposure to light from a daylight fluorescent lamp. After reaching a minimum, survival increases with further exposure, forming a V-shaped survival curve. This increase is inhibited by low concentrations of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. The resulting V-shaped survival curve was characterized with respect to several experimental parameters; it appears to be due to an induced repair system dependent on protein synthesis. These results suggest that induced repair, dependent on protein synthesis, in response to fluorescent, near UV, and far UV light damage, is a major repair pathway in Ptk-2 cells, and provides a characterizable system that can elucidate induced repair mechanisms in other mammalian cells

  14. Ulinastatin Reduces T Cell Apoptosis in Rats with Severe Acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in rats with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and to elucidate its underlying molecular mechanism. Methods: Thirty .... on T lymphocytes apoptosis in SAP rat model and elucidated ..... oxygen radicals, the exhaustion of adenine nucleotide and ...

  15. Efficacy of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Suppression of Hepatocarcinorigenesis in Rats: Possible Role of Wnt Signaling

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Abdel Aziz, Mohamed T

    2011-05-05

    Abstract Background The present study was conducted to evaluate the tumor suppressive effects of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in an experimental hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) model in rats and to investigate the possible role of Wnt signaling in hepato-carcinogenesis. Methods Ninety rats were included in the study and were divided equally into: Control group, rats which received MSCs only, rats which received MSCs vehicle only, HCC group induced by diethylnitroseamine (DENA) and CCl 4 , rats which received MSCs after HCC induction, rats which received MSCs before HCC induction. Histopathological examination and gene expression of Wnt signaling target genes by real time, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in rat liver tissue, in addition to serum levels of ALT, AST and alpha fetoprotein were performed in all groups. Results Histopathological examination of liver tissue from animals which received DENA-CCl4 only, revealed the presence of anaplastic carcinoma cells and macro-regenerative nodules type II with foci of large and small cell dysplasia. Administration of MSCs into rats after induction of experimental HCC improved the histopathological picture which showed minimal liver cell damage, reversible changes, areas of cell drop out filled with stem cells. Gene expression in rat liver tissue demonstrated that MSCs downregulated β-catenin, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), cyclin D and survivin genes expression in liver tissues after HCC induction. Amelioration of the liver status after administration of MSCs has been inferred by the significant decrease of ALT, AST and Alpha fetoprotein serum levels. Administration of MSCs before HCC induction did not show any tumor suppressive or protective effect. Conclusions Administration of MSCs in chemically induced HCC has tumor suppressive effects as evidenced by down regulation of Wnt signaling target genes concerned with antiapoptosis, mitogenesis, cell proliferation

  16. Application of cell sheet technology to bone marrow stromal cell transplantation for rat brain infarct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Masaki; Shichinohe, Hideo; Houkin, Kiyohiro; Kuroda, Satoshi

    2017-02-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) transplantation enhances functional recovery after cerebral infarct, but the optimal delivery route is undetermined. This study was aimed to assess whether a novel cell-sheet technology non-invasively serves therapeutic benefits to ischemic stroke. First, the monolayered cell sheet was engineered by culturing rat BMSCs on a temperature-responsive dish. The cell sheet was analysed histologically and then transplanted onto the ipsilateral neocortex of rats subjected to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion at 7 days after the insult. Their behaviours and histology were compared with those in the animals treated with direct injection of BMSCs or vehicle over 4 weeks post-transplantation. The cell sheet was 27.9 ± 8.0 μm thick and was composed of 9.8 ± 2.4 × 10 5 cells. Cell sheet transplantation significantly improved motor function when compared with the vehicle-injected animals. Histological analysis revealed that the BMSCs were densely distributed to the neocortex adjacent to the cerebral infarct and expressed neuronal phenotype in the cell sheet-transplanted animals. These findings were almost equal to those for the animals treated with direct BMSC injection. The attachment of the BMSC sheet to the brain surface did not induce reactive astrocytes in the adjacent neocortex, although direct injection of BMSCs profoundly induced reactive astrocytes around the injection site. These findings suggest that the BMSCs in cell sheets preserve their biological capacity of migration and neural differentiation. Cell-sheet technology may enhance functional recovery after ischaemic stroke, using a less invasive method. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Differentiated cells derived from fetal neural stem cells improve motor deficits in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Wang; Hao Song; Aifang Shen; Chao Chen; Yanming Liu; Yabing Dong; Fabin Han

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Parkinson’s disease(PD), which is one of the most common neuro‐degenerative disorders, is characterized by the loss of dopamine(DA) neurons in the substantia nigra in the midbrain. Experimental and clinical studies have shown that fetal neural stem cells(NSCs) have therapeutic effects in neurological disorders. The aim of this study was to examine whether cells that were differentiated from NSCs had therapeutic effects in a rat model of PD. Methods: NSCs were isolated from 14‐week‐old embryos and induced to differentiate into neurons, DA neurons, and glial cells, and these cells were characterized by their expression of the following markers: βⅢ‐tubulin and microtubule‐associated protein 2(neurons), tyrosine hydroxylase(DA neurons), and glial fibrillary acidic protein(glial cells). After a 6‐hydroxydopamine(6‐OHDA)‐lesioned rat model of PD was generated, the differentiated cells were transplanted into the striata of the 6‐OHDA‐lesioned PD rats. Results: The motor behaviors of the PD rats were assessed by the number of apomorphine‐induced rotation turns. The results showed that the NSCs differentiated in vitro into neurons and DA neurons with high efficiencies. After transplantation into the striata of the PD rats, the differentiated cells significantly improved the motor deficits of the transplanted PD rats compared to those of the control nontransplanted PD rats by decreasing the apomorphine‐induced turn cycles as early as 4 weeks after transplantation. Immunofluorescence analyses showed that the differentiated DA neurons survived more than 16 weeks. Conclusions: Our results showed that cells that were differentiated from NSCs had therapeutic effects in a rat PD model, which suggests that differentiated cells may be an effective treatment for patients with PD.

  18. Postnatal treadmill exercise alleviates short-term memory impairment by enhancing cell proliferation and suppressing apoptosis in the hippocampus of rat pups born to diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Hoon; Sung, Yun-Hee; Lee, Hee-Hyuk; Ko, Il-Gyu; Kim, Sung-Eun; Shin, Mal-Soon; Kim, Bo-Kyun

    2014-08-01

    During pregnancy, diabetes mellitus exerts detrimental effects on the development of the fetus, especially the central nervous system. In the current study, we evaluated the effects of postnatal treadmill exercise on short-term memory in relation with cell proliferation and apoptosis in the hippocampus of rat pups born to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic maternal rats. Adult female rats were mated with male rats for 24 h. Two weeks after mating, the pregnant female rats were divided into two groups: control group and STZ injection group. The pregnant rats in the STZ injection group were administered 40 mg/kg of STZ intraperitoneally. After birth, the rat pups were divided into the following four groups: control group, control with postnatal exercise group, maternal STZ-injection group, and maternal STZ-injection with postnatal exercise group. The rat pups in the postnatal exercise groups were made to run on a treadmill for 30 min once a day, 5 times per week for 2 weeks beginning 4 weeks after birth. The rat pups born to diabetic rats were shown to have short-term memory impairment with suppressed cell proliferation and increased apoptosis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Postnatal treadmill exercise alleviated short-term memory impairment by increased cell proliferation and suppressed apoptosis in the rat pups born to diabetic rats. These findings indicate that postnatal treadmill exercise may be used as a valuable strategy to ameliorate neurodevelopmental problems in children born to diabetics.

  19. Effects of X-irradiation on glial cells in the developing rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrer, I.; Borras, D.

    1994-01-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats were given a single dose of 2Gy X-rays when 1 or 3 days of age. Dying cells in the germinal layer of the telencephalon reached peak values 6h after irradiation; dead cells were cleared 48h later. These effects were almost abolished with the injection of cyclohexamide (1 μg/g body weight) given at the time of irradiation. PCNA-immunoreactive cells (cells in late G 1 and S phases of the cell cycle) and PCNA-negative cells were sensitive to X-rays. Long-term effects on glial cell populations in the subcortical white matter of the cingulum were examined in irradiated rats, killed at postnatal day 30 (P30), by means of glial fibrillary acidic protein, vimentin and S-100 immunohistochemistry, as well as with anti-TGF-α (transformerly growth factor) antibodies that are used as putative oligodendrogial cell markers in the white matter of rat. (author)

  20. Degradation of high density lipoprotein in cultured rat luteal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan, V.P.; Menon, K.M.J.

    1986-01-01

    In rat ovary luteal cells, degradation of high density lipoprotein (HDL) to tricholoracetic acid (TCA)-soluble products accounts for only a fraction of the HDL-derived cholesterol used for steroidogenesis. In this study the authors have investigated the fate of 125 I]HDL bound to cultured luteal cells using pulse-chase technique. Luteal cell cultures were pulse labeled with [ 125 I]HDL 3 and reincubated in the absence of HDL. By 24 h about 50% of the initallay bound radioactivity was released into the medium, of which 60-65% could be precipitated with 10% TCA. Gel filtration of the chase incubation medium on 10% agarose showed that the amount of TCA-soluble radioactivity was nearly completely accounted for by a sharp peak in the low molecular weight region which was identified as 96% monoiodotyrosine by paper chromatography. The TCA-precipitable radioactivity was nearly completely accounted for by a sharp peak in the low molecular weight region which was identified as 96% monoiodotyrosine by paper chromatography. The TCA-precipitable radioactivity eluted over a wide range of molecular weights (15,000-80,000), and there was very little intact HDL present. Electrophoresis of the chase medium showed that component of the TCA-precipitable portion had mobility similar to apo AI. Lysosomal inhibitors of receptor-mediated endocytosis had no effect on the composition or quantity of radioactivity released during chase incubation. The results show that HDL 3 binding to luteal cells is followed by complete degradation of the lipoprotein, although the TCA-soluble part does not reflect the extent of degradation

  1. Transparency and communication can improve wildlife welfare outcomes: A case of kangaroos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simmons Peter

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available All countries manage human and wildlife coexistence. Where traditionally humans may have killed animals perceived to be a problem, this is often no longer legal or socially acceptable. Decision-makers tend to feel less strongly about coexistence issues than the people who attempt to influence them on behalf of human or wildlife interests. It has been argued that links between human interests and decisions affecting wildlife should be transparent, and that open decision making processes involving a range of local stakeholders will improve outcomes for humans and wildlife. This paper examines one case incident in an ongoing conflict between an international car racing track and kangaroos that have occasionally been found on the track during a race, causing danger to themselves and race participants. A secret local government report and plan to cull kangaroos was obtained using Freedom of Information legislation. When released to the media the subsequent public discussion showed a much greater concern for kangaroo stress, harm and right to live than the official report, and called for consideration of a range of alternatives to culling. This led to postponement of culling plans, and commitment to a more open community discussion of options. The case clearly supports claims that greater transparency and local stakeholder participation in management decision processes can improve welfare outcomes for non-human animals.

  2. Construction of rat beta defensin-2 eukaryotic expression vector and expression in the transfected rat corneal epithelial cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Dan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To construct a recombinant eukaryotic expression vector of rat beta defensin-2(rBD-2, transfect it into the rat corneal epithelial cells with lipofection, determine the expression of target gene in the transfected cells, and discuss the potentiality of recombinant plasmid expressed in corneal epithelial cells, hoping to provide an experimental foundation for further study on the antimicrobial activity of rBD-2 in vitro and in vivo and to assess the probability of defensins as a new application for infectious corneal diseases in the future. METHODS: The synthetic rBD-2 DNA fragment was inserted between the XhoI and BamHI restriction enzyme cutting sites of eukaryotic expression vector pIRES2-ZsGreen1 to construct the recombinant plasmid pIRES2-ZsGreen1-rBD-2, then transformed it into E.coli DH5α, positive clones were screened by kanamycin and identified with restriction endonucleases and sequencing analysis. Transfection into the rat corneal epithelial cells was performed by lipofection. Then the experiment was divided into three groups: rat corneal epithelial cell was transfected with the recombinant plasmid pIRES2- ZsGreen1-rBD-2, rat corneal epithelial cell was transfected with the empty plasmid pIRES2-ZsGreen1 and the non-transfected group. The inverted fluorescence microscope was used to observe the transfection process. At last, the level of rBD-2 mRNA expressed in the transfected cells and the control groups are compared by the real-time fluoresence relative quantitative PCR. RESULTS: The recombinant eukaryotic expression vector of pIRES2-ZsGreen1-rBD-2 was successfully constructed. The level of rBD-2 mRNA in transfected cells was significantly higher than that in control groups through the real-time fluorescence relative quantitative PCR. CONCLUSION: The recombinant eukaryotic expression vector pIRES2-ZsGreen1-rBD-2 could be transfected into rat corneal epithelial cells, and exogenous rBD-2 gene could be transcripted into mRNA in

  3. Induced DNA repair pathway in mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overberg, R.

    1985-01-01

    The survival of cultured rat kangaroo cells (PtK-2) and human xeroderma pigmentosum cells incubated with 5 μM cycloheximide subsequent to ultraviolet irradiation is lower than that of cells incubated without cycloheximide. The drop in survival is considerably larger than that produced by incubation of unirradiated cells with cycloheximide. The phenomenon was also observed when PtK-2 cells were incubated with emetine, another protein synthesis inhibitor, or with 5,6-dichloro-1-β-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole, a RNA synthesis inhibitor. PtK cells which received a preliminary UV treatment followed by an incubation period without cycloheximide and then a second irradiation and 24 hour incubation with cycloheximide, survived the effects of the second irradiation better than cells which were incubated in the presence of cycloheximide after the first and second UV irradiation. The application of cycloheximide for 24 hours after UV irradiation of PtK cells resulted in one-half as many 6-thioguanine resistant cells as compared to the number of 6-thioguanine resistant cells found when cycloheximide was not used. These experiments indicate that a UV-inducible cycloheximide-sensitive DNA repair pathway is present in PtK and xeroderma pigmentosum cells, which is error-prone in PtK cells

  4. Arthritis by autoreactive T cell lines obtained from rats after injection of intestinal bacterial cell wall fragments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Klasen (Ina); J. Kool (Jeanette); M.J. Melief (Marie-José); I. Loeve (I.); W.B. van den Berg (Wim); A.J. Severijnen; M.P.H. Hazenberg (Maarten)

    1992-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ T cell lines (B13, B19) were isolated from the lymph nodes of Lewis rats 12 days after an arthritogenic injection of cell wall fragments of Eubacterium aerofaciens (ECW), a major resident of the human intestinal flora. These cell wall fragments consist of

  5. Palmitate attenuates osteoblast differentiation of fetal rat calvarial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Lee-Chuan C; Ford, Jeffery J; Lee, John C; Adamo, Martin L

    2014-07-18

    Aging is associated with the accumulation of ectopic lipid resulting in the inhibition of normal organ function, a phenomenon known as lipotoxicity. Within the bone marrow microenvironment, elevation in fatty acid levels may produce an increase in osteoclast activity and a decrease in osteoblast number and function, thus contributing to age-related osteoporosis. However, little is known about lipotoxic mechanisms in intramembraneous bone. Previously we reported that the long chain saturated fatty acid palmitate inhibited the expression of the osteogenic markers RUNX2 and osteocalcin in fetal rat calvarial cell (FRC) cultures. Moreover, the acetyl CoA carboxylase inhibitor TOFA blocked the inhibitory effect of palmitate on expression of these two markers. In the current study we have extended these observations to show that palmitate inhibits spontaneous mineralized bone formation in FRC cultures in association with reduced mRNA expression of RUNX2, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and bone sialoprotein and reduced alkaline phosphatase activity. The effects of palmitate on osteogenic marker expression were inhibited by TOFA. Palmitate also inhibited the mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase and PPARγ in FRC cultures, and as with osteogenic markers, this effect was inhibited by TOFA. Palmitate had no effect on FRC cell proliferation or apoptosis, but inhibited BMP-7-induced alkaline phosphatase activity. We conclude that palmitate accumulation may lead to lipotoxic effects on osteoblast differentiation and mineralization and that increases in fatty acid oxidation may help to prevent these lipotoxic effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A comparative study of myosin and its subunits in adult and neonatal-rat hearts and in rat heart cells from young and old cultures.

    OpenAIRE

    Ghanbari, H A; McCarl, R L

    1980-01-01

    A possible explanation for the decrease in myosin Ca2+-dependent ATPase activity as rat heart cells age in culture is presented. The subunit structure and enzyme kinetics of myosin from adult and neonatal rat hearts and from rat heart cells of young and old cultures are compared. These studies indicate that the loss in Ca-ATPase activity of myosin from older cultures was an intrinsic property of the myosin itself. Myofibrillar fractions from the indicated four sources showed no qualitative or...

  7. [Red Blood Cells Raman Spectroscopy Comparison of Type Two Diabetes Patients and Rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Liu, Gui-dong; Mu, Xin; Xiao, Hong-bin; Qi, Chao; Zhang, Si-qi; Niu Wen-ying; Jiang, Guang-kun; Feng, Yue-nan; Bian, Jing-qi

    2015-10-01

    By using confocal Raman spectroscopy, Raman spectra were measured in normal rat red blood cells, normal human red blood cells, STZ induced diabetetic rats red blood cells, Alloxan induced diabetetic rats red blood cells and human type 2 diabetes red blood cells. Then principal component analysis (PCA) with support vector machine (SVM) classifier was used for data analysis, and then the distance between classes was used to judge the degree of close to two kinds of rat model with type 2 diabetes. The results found significant differences in the Raman spectra of red blood cell in diabetic and normal red blood cells. To diabetic red blood cells, the peak in the amide VI C=O deformation vibration band is obvious, and amide V N-H deformation vibration band spectral lines appear deviation. Belong to phospholipid fatty acyl C-C skeleton, the 1 130 cm(-1) spectral line is enhanced and the 1 088 cm(-1) spectral line is abated, which show diabetes red cell membrane permeability increased. Raman spectra of PCA combined with SVM can well separate 5 types of red blood cells. Classifier test results show that the classification accuracy is up to 100%. Through the class distance between the two induced method and human type 2 diabetes, it is found that STZ induced model is more close to human type 2 diabetes. In conclusion, Raman spectroscopy can be used for diagnosis of diabetes and rats STZ induced diabetes method is closer to human type 2 diabetes.

  8. Effects of sciatic-conditioned medium on neonatal rat retinal cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres P.M.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Schwann cells produce and release trophic factors that induce the regeneration and survival of neurons following lesions in the peripheral nerves. In the present study we examined the in vitro ability of developing rat retinal cells to respond to factors released from fragments of sciatic nerve. Treatment of neonatal rat retinal cells with sciatic-conditioned medium (SCM for 48 h induced an increase of 92.5 ± 8.8% (N = 7 for each group in the amount of total protein. SCM increased cell adhesion, neuronal survival and glial cell proliferation as evaluated by morphological criteria. This effect was completely blocked by 2.5 µM chelerythrine chloride, an inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC. These data indicate that PKC activation is involved in the effect of SCM on retinal cells and demonstrate that fragments of sciatic nerve release trophic factors having a remarkable effect on neonatal rat retinal cells in culture.

  9. Preservation of photoreceptors in dystrophic RCS rats following allo- and xenotransplantation of IPE cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumann, Gabriele; Salz, Anna Katharina; Walter, Peter; Johnen, Sandra

    2009-03-01

    To examine whether iris pigment epithelial (IPE) cells transplanted into the subretinal space of Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats have the ability to rescue photoreceptors. Rat IPE (rIPE) or human IPE (hIPE) cells were transplanted subretinally in 23-day-old RCS rats. Sham injection and transplantation of ARPE-19 cells served as controls. After 12 weeks, eyes were evaluated for photoreceptor survival by morphometric analysis and electron microscopy. Morphometric analysis showed photoreceptor rescue in all transplanted and sham-injected animals (number of photoreceptors/300 microm retina+/-sd: rIPE 41.67 +/- 28; hIPE 29.50 +/- 16; ARPE-19 36.12 +/- 21; sham 16.56 +/- 6) compared to age-matched, control rats (number of photoreceptors/300 microm retina+/-sd: 9.71 +/- 4). Photoreceptor rescue was prominent in IPE cell-transplanted rats and was significantly greater than sham-injected eyes (p = 0.02 for rIPE and p = 0.04 for hIPE). Since IPE cells transplanted into the subretinal space have the ability to rescue photoreceptors from degeneration in the RCS rat without any harmful effects, IPE cells may represent an ideal cell to genetically modify and thus carry essential genetic information for the repair of defects in the subretinal space.

  10. Profile of blood glucose and ultrastucture of beta cells pancreatic islet in alloxan compound induced rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Suarsana

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is marked by elevated levels of blood glucose, and progressive changes of the structure of pancreatic islet histopathology. The objective of this research was to analyse the glucose level and histophatological feature in pancreatic islet in alloxan compound induced rats. A total of ten male Spraque Dawley rats of 2 months old were used in this study. The rats were divided into two groups: (1 negative control group (K-, and (2 positif induced alloxan group (diabetic group =DM. The rats were induced by a single dose intraperitonial injection of alloxan compound 120 mg/kg of body weight. The treatment was conducted for 28 days. Blood glucose levels of rats were analysed at 0, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days following treatment. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Pancreas was collected for analysis of histopathological study by Immunohistochemical technique, and ultrastructural study using transmission electron microscope (TEM. The result showed that Langerhans islet of diabetic rat (rat of DM group showed a marked reduction of size, number of Langerhans islet of diabetic rat decrease, and characterized by hyperglycemic condition. By using TEM, beta cells of DM group showed the rupture of mitochondrial membrane, the lost of cisternal structure of inner membrane of mitocondria, reduction of insulin secretory granules, linkage between cells acinar with free Langerhans islet, and the caryopicnotic of nucleus.

  11. Characteristics of monolayer culture of bone marrow cells of rats bearing 239Pu-induced osteosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukhtoyarova, Z.M.; Lemberg, V.K.

    1984-01-01

    The report is concerned with a monolayer culture of bone marrow cells of rats in which optimal blastogenic dose (92.5 kBq/kg) induced osteosarcoma. The cell culture showed an enhanced rate of fibroblast-like cell proliferation (increased number of mitoses and symplasts and larger colonies of cells), apparent signs of radiation in ury (pathologic mitoses, chromosome aberrations and gaps) as well as an increase in ploidy. Diffusion chamber measurements demonstrated osteogenic precursor-cells in osteosarcoma-bearing rats to be highly capable of bone formation. This relatively high ability seems to occur outside bone marrow as well

  12. Dopaminergic differentiation of human neural stem cells mediated by co-cultured rat striatal brain slices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anwar, Mohammad Raffaqat; Andreasen, Christian Maaløv; Lippert, Solvej Kølvraa

    2008-01-01

    differentiation, we co-cultured cells from a human neural forebrain-derived stem cell line (hNS1) with rat striatal brain slices. In brief, coronal slices of neonatal rat striatum were cultured on semiporous membrane inserts placed in six-well trays overlying monolayers of hNS1 cells. After 12 days of co......Properly committed neural stem cells constitute a promising source of cells for transplantation in Parkinson's disease, but a protocol for controlled dopaminergic differentiation is not yet available. To establish a setting for identification of secreted neural compounds promoting dopaminergic...

  13. Inverse relationship of tumors and mononuclear cell leukemia infiltration in the lungs of F344 rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundgren, D.L.; Griffith, W.C.; Hahn, F.F.

    1995-12-01

    In 1970 and F344 rat, along with the B6C3F{sub 1} mouse, were selected as the standard rodents for the National Cancer Institute Carcinogenic Bioassay program for studies of potentially carcinogenic chemicals. The F344 rat has also been used in a variety of other carcinogenesis studies, including numerous studies at ITRI. A major concern to be considered in evaluating carcinogenic bioassay studies using the F344 rat is the relatively high background incidence of mononuclear cell leukemia (MCL) (also referred to as large granular lymphocytic leukemia, Fischer rat leukemia, or monocytic leukemia). Incidences of MCL ranging from 10 to 72% in male F344 rats to 6 to 31% in female F344 rats have been reported. Gaining the understanding of the mechanisms involved in the negative correlations noted should enhance our understanding of the mechanisms involved in the development of lung cancer.

  14. Human embryonic stem cell-derived cells rescue visual function in dystrophic RCS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Raymond D; Wang, Shaomei; Klimanskaya, Irina; Holmes, Toby; Ramos-Kelsey, Rebeca; Lu, Bin; Girman, Sergej; Bischoff, N; Sauvé, Yves; Lanza, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells promise to provide a well-characterized and reproducible source of replacement tissue for human clinical studies. An early potential application of this technology is the use of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) for the treatment of retinal degenerative diseases such as macular degeneration. Here we show the reproducible generation of RPE (67 passageable cultures established from 18 different hES cell lines); batches of RPE derived from NIH-approved hES cells (H9) were tested and shown capable of extensive photoreceptor rescue in an animal model of retinal disease, the Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rat, in which photoreceptor loss is caused by a defect in the adjacent retinal pigment epithelium. Improvement in visual performance was 100% over untreated controls (spatial acuity was approximately 70% that of normal nondystrophic rats) without evidence of untoward pathology. The use of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and/or the creation of banks of reduced complexity human leucocyte antigen (HLA) hES-RPE lines could minimize or eliminate the need for immunosuppressive drugs and/or immunomodulatory protocols.

  15. Could Cells from Your Nose Fix Your Heart? Transplantation of Olfactory Stem Cells in a Rat Model of Cardiac Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron McDonald

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the hypothesis that multipotent olfactory mucosal stem cells could provide a basis for the development of autologous cell transplant therapy for the treatment of heart attack. In humans, these cells are easily obtained by simple biopsy. Neural stem cells from the olfactory mucosa are multipotent, with the capacity to differentiate into developmental fates other than neurons and glia, with evidence of cardiomyocyte differentiation in vitro and after transplantation into the chick embryo. Olfactory stem cells were grown from rat olfactory mucosa. These cells are propagated as neurosphere cultures, similar to other neural stem cells. Olfactory neurospheres were grown in vitro, dissociated into single cell suspensions, and transplanted into the infarcted hearts of congeneic rats. Transplanted cells were genetically engineered to express green fluorescent protein (GFP in order to allow them to be identified after transplantation. Functional assessment was attempted using echocardiography in three groups of rats: control, unoperated; infarct only; infarcted and transplanted. Transplantation of neurosphere-derived cells from adult rat olfactory mucosa appeared to restore heart rate with other trends towards improvement in other measures of ventricular function indicated. Importantly, donor-derived cells engrafted in the transplanted cardiac ventricle and expressed cardiac contractile proteins.

  16. Characterization of Rat Hair Follicle Stem Cells Selected by Vario Magnetic Activated Cell Sorting System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Enyi; Lian, Xiaohua; Chen, Wei; Yang, Tian; Yang, Li

    2009-01-01

    Hair follicle stem cells (HfSCs) play crucial roles in hair follicle morphogenesis and hair cycling. These stem cells are self-renewable and have the multi-lineage potential to generate epidermis, sebaceous glands, and hair follicle. The separation and identification of hair follicle stem cells are important for further research in stem cell biology. In this study, we report on the successful enrichment of rat hair follicle stem cells through vario magnetic activated cell sorting (Vario MACS) and the biological characteristics of the stem cells. We chose the HfSCs positive surface markers CD34, α6-integrin and the negative marker CD71 to design four isolation strategies: positive selection with single marker of CD34, positive selection with single marker of α6-integrin, CD71 depletion followed by CD34 positive selection, and CD71 depletion followed by α6-integrin positive selection. The results of flow cytometry analysis showed that all four strategies had ideal effects. Specifically, we conducted a series of researches on HfSCs characterized by their high level of CD34, termed CD34 bri cells, and low to undetectable expression of CD34, termed CD34 dim cells. CD34 bri cells had greater proliferative potential and higher colony-forming ability than CD34 dim cells. Furthermore, CD34 bri cells had some typical characteristics as progenitor cells, such as large nucleus, obvious nucleolus, large nuclear:cytoplasmic ratio and few cytoplasmic organelles. Our findings clearly demonstrated that HfSCs with high purity and viability could be successfully enriched with Vario MACS

  17. Heterogeneity within the spleen colony-forming cell population in rat bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, A.C.; van Bekkum, D.W.; Hagenbeek, A.

    1986-01-01

    The pluripotent hemopoietic stem cell (HSC) of the rat can be enumerated in a spleen colony assay (SCA) in rats as well as mice. After injection of rat bone marrow into lethally irradiated mice, macroscopically visible spleen colonies (CFU-S) are found from day 6 through 14, but the number varies on consecutive days. In normal bone marrow a constant ratio of day-8 to day-12 colony numbers is observed. However, this ratio is changed after in vivo treatment of rats with cyclophosphamide, as well as after in vitro treatment of rat bone marrow with cyclophosphamide derivatives. This indicates that the CFU-S that form colonies on day 8 react differently to this treatment than the CFU-S that form colonies on day 12, and suggests heterogeneity among the CFU-S population. Posttreatment regrowth of day-8 and day-12 CFU-S is characterized by differences in population-doubling times (Td = 0.85 days vs 1.65 days). Another argument in support of the postulate of heterogeneity within the rat CFU-S population is derived from the fact that (in contrast to normal rat spleen) the spleen of leukemic rats contains high numbers of CFU-S that show a ratio of day-8 to day-12 CFU-S of 4.5, which is different than that observed for a CFU-S population in normal bone marrow (a ratio of 2.4). It is concluded that, in rat hemopoiesis, two populations of spleen colony-forming cells can be distinguished using the rat-to-mouse SCA. This indicates that mouse and rat hemopoiesis are comparable in this respect and that heterogeneity in the stem cell compartment is a general phenomenon

  18. Radiation-induced cell disintegrations in cultured rat hepatoma cells JTC 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakka, Masatoshi

    1979-01-01

    Disintegration of hepatoma cells of rat were recorded by time lapse cinemicrography for more than 5 days and about 1000 pedigrees were analyzed. Five generations were followed up in control and 2 or 3 generations in irradiated cells. Cells were attached on vessel wall spreading themselves in intermitotic phase while they stood up from the wall in mitotic phase taking a roun form. When a cell disintegrates in interphase the disintegration is called D sub( s) and one in mitotic period D sub( r). The frequency of D sub( s)S' is about 3 times as much as D sub( r)S'. An age of a disintegrated cell in generation 1 and 2 was measured as the previous mitosis was age 0. Generation times of the comparable generations of surviving sister branches of the same pedigrees were used as controls. Most disintegration took place at the same age with surviving sisters indicating a determined, not at random, age of cell death. A cell in an initial state flowed to any one of the following states with or without irradiation; surviving, disintegrated, end cell or escaping out of observation field. A single exposure of 400 to 900 R induced a typical reproductive death but effective extinction of clones was observed only in small pedigrees. Temporary hypothermia and hyperthermia immediately after exposure had no remarkable lethal effects on several early generations. (author)

  19. Efficient generation of rat induced pluripotent stem cells using a non-viral inducible vector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Merkl

    Full Text Available Current methods of generating rat induced pluripotent stem cells are based on viral transduction of pluripotency inducing genes (Oct4, Sox2, c-myc and Klf4 into somatic cells. These activate endogenous pluripotency genes and reprogram the identity of the cell to an undifferentiated state. Epigenetic silencing of exogenous genes has to occur to allow normal iPS cell differentiation. To gain more control over the expression of exogenous reprogramming factors, we used a novel doxycycline-inducible plasmid vector encoding Oct4, Sox2, c-Myc and Klf4. To ensure efficient and controlled generation of iPS cells by plasmid transfection we equipped the reprogramming vector with a bacteriophage φC31 attB site and used a φC31 integrase expression vector to enhance vector integration. A series of doxycycline-independent rat iPS cell lines were established. These were characterized by immunocytochemical detection of Oct4, SSEA1 and SSEA4, alkaline phosphatase staining, methylation analysis of the endogenous Oct4 promoter and RT-PCR analysis of endogenous rat pluripotency genes. We also determined the number of vector integrations and the extent to which reprogramming factor gene expression was controlled. Protocols were developed to generate embryoid bodies and rat iPS cells demonstrated as pluripotent by generating derivatives of all three embryonic germ layers in vitro, and teratoma formation in vivo. All data suggest that our rat iPS cells, generated by plasmid based reprogramming, are similar to rat ES cells. Methods of DNA transfection, protein transduction and feeder-free monolayer culture of rat iPS cells were established to enable future applications.

  20. Relations between fatty acid synthesis, pyruvate concentration and cell concentration of suspensions of isolated rat hepatocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beynen, A.C.; Geelen, M.J.H.

    1984-01-01

    1. 1. The cell concentration of suspensions of isolated rat hepatocytes affects both the rate of pyruvate accumulation in the incubation medium and the rate of fatty acid synthesis. 2. 2. At low cell concentrations pyruvate accumulation is directly related to the cell concentration but levels off

  1. Effect of TheraCyte-encapsulated parathyroid cells on lumbar fusion in a rat model

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Sung-Hsiung; Huang, Shun-Chen; Lui, Chun-Chung; Lin, Tzu-Ping; Chou, Fong-Fu; Ko, Jih-Yang

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Implantation of TheraCyte 4 × 106 live parathyroid cells can increase the bone marrow density of the spine of ovariectomized rats. There has been no published study examining the effect of such implantation on spinal fusion outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of TheraCyte-encapsulated parathyroid cells on posterolateral lumbar fusions in a rat model. Materials and methods Forty Sprague-Dawley rats underwent single-level, intertransverse process spinal fu...

  2. Effect of irradiation on the acinar cells of submandibular gland in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Hyun; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae

    2003-01-01

    To observe the histologic changes and clusterin expression in the acinar cells of the submandibular gland in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat following irradiation. Mature Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: control, diabetic, and diabetic-irradiated groups. Diabetes mellitus was induced in the Sprague-Dawley rats by injecting streptozotocin, while the control rats were injected with citrate buffer only. After 5 days, rats in diabetic-irradiated group were irradiated with single absorbed dose of 10 Gy to the head and neck region. The rats were killed at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after irradiation. The specimen including the submandibular gland were sectioned and observed using histologic and immunohistochemical methods. Morphologic change of acinar cells was remarkable in the diabetic group, but was not observed in the diabetic-irradiated group. Necrotic tissues were observed in the diabetic-irradiated group. Coloring of toluidine blue stain was most increased at 14 days in the diabetic group, however there were no significant change throughout the period of the experiment in the diabetic-irradiated group. Expression of clusterin was most significant at 14 days in the diabetic group, but gradually decreased with time after 7 days in the diabetic-irradiated group. Degeneration of clusterin was observed in the diabetic-irradiated group. This experiment suggests that the acinar cells of submandibular gland in rats are physiologically apoptosis by the induction of diabetes, but that the apoptosis is inhibited and the acinar cells necrotized after irradiation.

  3. Transplantation of rat embryonic stem cell-derived retinal progenitor cells preserves the retinal structure and function in rat retinal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zepeng; Guan, Yuan; Cui, Lu; Song, Jian; Gu, Junjie; Zhao, Hanzhi; Xu, Lei; Lu, Lixia; Jin, Ying; Xu, Guo-Tong

    2015-11-09

    Degenerative retinal diseases like age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are the leading cause of blindness. Cell transplantation showed promising therapeutic effect for such diseases, and embryonic stem cell (ESC) is one of the sources of such donor cells. Here, we aimed to generate retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) from rat ESCs (rESCs) and to test their therapeutic effects in rat model. The rESCs (DA8-16) were cultured in N2B27 medium with 2i, and differentiated to two types of RPCs following the SFEBq method with modifications. For rESC-RPC1, the cells were switched to adherent culture at D10, while for rESC-RPC2, the suspension culture was maintained to D14. Both RPCs were harvested at D16. Primary RPCs were obtained from P1 SD rats, and some of them were labeled with EGFP by infection with lentivirus. To generate Rax::EGFP knock-in rESC lines, TALENs were engineered to facilitate homologous recombination in rESCs, which were cotransfected with the targeting vector and TALEN vectors. The differentiated cells were analyzed with live image, immunofluorescence staining, flow cytometric analysis, gene expression microarray, etc. RCS rats were used to mimic the degeneration of retina and test the therapeutic effects of subretinally transplanted donor cells. The structure and function of retina were examined. We established two protocols through which two types of rESC-derived RPCs were obtained and both contained committed retina lineage cells and some neural progenitor cells (NPCs). These rESC-derived RPCs survived in the host retinas of RCS rats and protected the retinal structure and function in early stage following the transplantation. However, the glia enriched rESC-RPC1 obtained through early and longer adherent culture only increased the b-wave amplitude at 4 weeks, while the longer suspension culture gave rise to evidently neuronal differentiation in rESC-RPC2 which significantly improved the visual function of RCS rats. We have successfully differentiated

  4. Rhesus monkey neural stem cell transplantation promotes neural regeneration in rats with hippocampal lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-juan Ye

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhesus monkey neural stem cells are capable of differentiating into neurons and glial cells. Therefore, neural stem cell transplantation can be used to promote functional recovery of the nervous system. Rhesus monkey neural stem cells (1 × 105 cells/μL were injected into bilateral hippocampi of rats with hippocampal lesions. Confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated that green fluorescent protein-labeled transplanted cells survived and grew well. Transplanted cells were detected at the lesion site, but also in the nerve fiber-rich region of the cerebral cortex and corpus callosum. Some transplanted cells differentiated into neurons and glial cells clustering along the ventricular wall, and integrated into the recipient brain. Behavioral tests revealed that spatial learning and memory ability improved, indicating that rhesus monkey neural stem cells noticeably improve spatial learning and memory abilities in rats with hippocampal lesions.

  5. Isolation, separation, and characterization of epithelial and connective cells from rat palate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terranova, Victor Paul [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Epithelial and connective tissue cells were isolated from rat palate by sequential collagenase, hyaluronidase and trypsin digestion of the extracellular matrix. Differences between the two populations were noted with respect to total cell protein, total cell water, proline uptake and incorporation, percent collagen synthesized, effects of parathyroid hormone, metabolism of D-valine and cell density. Basal epithelial cells were subsequently separated from the heterogeneous epithelial cell population on shallow linear density gradients by velocity centrifugation. The type of collagen synthesized by the basal epithelial cells was compared to the type of collagen synthesized by the connective tissue cells by means of labeled amino acid incorporation ratios. Cells isolated from the epithelial and connective tissue were compared. From these studies it can be concluded that epithelial and connective tissue cells can be isolated from rat palate as viable and distinct populations with respect to the biochemical parameters examined. Furthermore, subpopulations can be separated and biochemically characterized.

  6. Autoradiographic studies on the kinetics of fetal supporting cells and wall cells in rats 19 days after conception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugani-Mehta, S.

    1980-01-01

    The duration of the S-phase of supporting cells and wall cells of rat fetuses aged 19 days was determined by the ''labelled mitosis'' method. The supporting cells are predecessors of the sertoli cells while the wall cells are predecessors of the boundary tissue and, possibly, of part of the peritubular Leydig cell system. The S-phase of the supporting cells was found to last 10.1 h while the S-phase of the wall cells lasted 9.2 h. The data were not in agreement with the data of other authors. (orig./MG) [de

  7. Myenteric denervation differentially reduces enteroendocrine serotonin cell population in rats during postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandes, Luzmarina; Fernandes, Marilda da Cruz; Pereira, Lucieni Cristina Marques da Silva; Freitas, Priscila de; Gama, Patrícia; Alvares, Eliana Parisi

    2006-05-01

    The enteric nervous and enteroendocrine systems regulate different processes in the small intestine. Ablation of myenteric plexus with benzalkonium chloride (BAC) stimulates epithelial cell proliferation, whereas endocrine serotonin cells may inhibit the process. To evaluate the connection between the systems and the influence of myenteric plexus on serotoninergic cells in rats during postnatal development, the ileal plexus was partially removed with BAC. Rats were treated at 13 or 21 days and sacrificed after 15 days. The cell bodies of myenteric neurons were stained by beta NADH-diaphorase to detect the extension of denervation. The number of enteroendocrine cells in the ileum was estimated in crypts and villi in paraffin sections immunostained for serotonin. The number of neurons was reduced by 27.6 and 45% in rats treated on the 13th and 21st days, respectively. We tried to establish a correlation of denervation and the serotonin population according to the age of treatment. We observed a reduction of immunolabelled cells in the crypts of rats treated at 13 days, whereas this effect was seen in the villi of rats denervated at 21 days. These results suggest that the enteric nervous system might control the enteroendocrine cell population and this complex mechanism could be correlated to changes in cell proliferation.

  8. Neuroprotective and behavioral efficacy of intravenous transplanted adipose stem cells in experimental Parkinsonian rat models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Nakhaeifard

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parkinson's disease is a deficiency of dopamine in the striatum, characterized by bradykinesis, rigidity and resting tremor. Adipose tissue-Derived Stem Cells (ADSCs have many advantages for cell therapy because of the easy availability and pluripotency without ethical problems. In this research, the effects of ADSCs transplantation on motor impairment of rat Parkinsonian models were evaluated. Materials and Methods: Parkinson model was constructed by the unilateral lesion of striatum of male Wistar rats using 20µg of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA as lesion group. Cell and α-MEM (α-minimal essential medium groups were lesioned animals that received intravenous injection of 3×106 cells suspended in medium and medium repectively. All rats were evaluated behaviorally with rotarod and apomorphine-induced rotation tests, at 4 and 8 weeks after cell transplantation. Results: Lesion and α-MEM groups showed increased contralateral turns while cell group significantly ameliorated both in rotarod and apomorphine-induced rotation tests. There was a significant difference of contralateral turns between cell and lesioned groups at 8 weeks after transplantation. Lesioned rats showed significant decrease of staying on the rod as compared to control, but in cell group there was a significant increase in comparision with the lesioned animals. Conclusion: ADSCs injected intravenously promote functional recovery in Parkinsonian rats.

  9. Positive effects of bFGF modified rat amniotic epithelial cells transplantation on transected rat optic nerve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Xin Xie

    Full Text Available Effective therapy for visual loss caused by optic nerve injury or diseases has not been achieved even though the optic nerve has the regeneration potential after injury. This study was designed to modify amniotic epithelial cells (AECs with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF gene, preliminarily investigating its effect on transected optic nerve.A human bFGF gene segment was delivered into rat AECs (AECs/hbFGF by lentiviral vector, and the gene expression was examined by RT-PCR and ELISA. The AECs/hbFGF and untransfected rat AECs were transplanted into the transected site of the rat optic nerve. At 28 days post transplantation, the survival and migration of the transplanted cells was observed by tracking labeled cells; meanwhile retinal ganglion cells (RGCs were observed and counted by employing biotin dextran amine (BDA and Nissl staining. Furthermore, the expression of growth associated protein 43 (GAP-43 within the injury site was examined with immunohistochemical staining.The AECs/hbFGF was proven to express bFGF gene and secrete bFGF peptide. Both AECs/hbFGF and AECs could survive and migrate after transplantation. RGCs counting implicated that RGCs numbers of the cell transplantation groups were significantly higher than that of the control group, and the AECs/hbFGF group was significantly higher than that of the AECs group. Moreover GAP-43 integral optical density value in the control group was significantly lower than that of the cell transplantation groups, and the value in the AECs/hbFGF group was significantly higher than that of the AECs group.AECs modified with bFGF could reduce RGCs loss and promote expression of GAP-43 in the rat optic nerve transected model, facilitating the process of neural restoration following injury.

  10. Cell proliferation and migration in the jejunum of suckling rats submitted to progressive fasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell proliferation and migration in the intestinal crypts, and cell migration in the villus are controlled by different mechanisms in adult rats. In the present study, weanling rats and fasting rats were used to quantitatively study the correlation of cell cycle parameters and epithelial cell migration in crypts and intestinal villi. Eighteen-day-old rats received a single injection of tritiated thymidine [3H]TdR (23:00 h; half of the pups were submitted to fasting 5 h earlier. Cell proliferation was determined in radioautographs of jejunal crypts, on the basis of the labeling indices (LI taken 1, 8, 13 and 19 h after [3H]TdR. The results showed that the labeling index did not differ 1 h or 19 h after [3H]TdR between the fed (38.7% or 48% and fasting groups (34.6% or 50.4%. The modified method of grain count halving indicated that cell cycle time did not differ between fed (16.5 h and fasting rats (17.8 h; the growth fraction, however, had lower values in fasting (59% than in fed rats (77%. Cell migration in the crypt, estimated by the LI obtained for each cell position, did not change with treatment. As for the villi, the cell migration rate was significantly retarded by 3 cell positions (8%. These results suggest that the cell migration in the villi of weanling pups does not depend directly on the cell proliferation and migration in the intestinal crypt, but is directly affected by the absence of food in the lumen

  11. Rat hepatic β2-adrenergic receptor: structural similarities to the rat fat cell β1-adrenergic receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graziano, M.P.

    1984-01-01

    The mammalian β 2 -adrenergic receptor from rat liver has been purified by sequential cycles of affinity chromatography followed by steric-exclusion high performance liquid chromatography. Electrophoresis of highly purified receptor preparations on polyacrylamide gels in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate under reducing conditions reveals a single peptide M/sub r/ = 67,000, as judged by silver staining. Purified β 2 -adrenergic receptor migrates on steric-exclusion high performance liquid chromatography in two peaks, with M/sub r/ = 140,000 and 67,000. Specific binding of the high affinity, β-adrenergic receptor antagonists (-)[ 3 H]dihydroalprenolol and (-)[ 125 I]iodocyanopindolol to purified rat liver β-adrenergic receptor preparations displays stereoselectivity for (-)isomers of agonists and a rank order of potencies for agonists characteristics of a β 2 -adrenergic receptor. Radioiodinated, β 1 -adrenergic receptors from rat fat cells and β 2 -adrenergic receptors from rat liver purified in the presence of protease inhibitors comigrate in electrophoretic separations on polyacrylamide gels in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate as 67,000-M/sub r/ peptides. Autoradiograms of two dimensional partial proteolytic digests of the purified, radioiodinated rat liver β 2 -adrenergic receptor, generated with α-chymotrypsin, S. aureus V8 protease and elastase reveal a pattern of peptide fragments essentially identical to those generated by partial proteolytic digests of the purified, radioiodinated β 1 -adrenergic receptor from rat fat cells, by these same proteases. These data indicate that a high degree of homology exists between these two pharmacologically distinct mammalian β-adrenergic receptor proteins

  12. Cell proliferation and apoptosis in rat mammary glands following combinational exposure to bisphenol A and genistein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jun; Jenkins, Sarah; Lamartiniere, Coral A

    2014-01-01

    Humans are exposed to an array of both harmful and beneficial hormonally active compounds in the environment and through diet. Two such chemicals are Bisphenol A (BPA), a plasticizer, and genistein, a component of soy. Prepubertal exposure to BPA increased mammary carcinogenesis, while genistein suppressed cancer in a chemically-induced model of rodent mammary cancer. The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of combinational exposure to genistein and BPA on cell proliferation, apoptosis, and associated proteins as markers of cancer in mammary glands of rats exposed prepubertally to these environmental chemicals. Prepubertal rats (postpartum days (PND) 2–20) were exposed through lactation via nursing dams treated orally with sesame oil (SO), BPA, genistein, or a combination of BPA and genistein (BPA + Gen). Cell proliferation, apoptosis and protein expressions were investigated for mechanistic studies in mammary glands of rats exposed to these environmental chemicals. Prepubertal exposure to genistein increased cell proliferation in mammary glands of PND21 rats, while BPA increased cell proliferation in adult (PND50) rats. Prepubertal combinational exposure to BPA + Gen increased cell proliferation and reduced apoptosis in PND21 rats, but reduced cell proliferation and increased apoptosis in PND50 rats. The altered mechanisms behind these cellular responses appear to be centered on differential protein expression of caspases, PARP, Bad, p21, Akts, PTEN, ER-β and SRCs 1–3, in the rat mammary gland. Prepubertal BPA exposure resulted in increased cell proliferation in mammary glands of PND50 rats, a process associated with increased risk of cancer development in a chemically-induced mammary cancer. On the other hand, genistein stimulated cell proliferation at PND21, a process that correlates with mammary gland maturation and chemoprevention. In contrast to single chemical exposure, combinational exposure to BPA + Gen performed most similarly to

  13. RPE cell surface proteins in normal and dystrophic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, V.M.; Hall, M.O.

    1986-01-01

    Membrane-bound proteins in plasma membrane enriched fractions from cultured rat RPE were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Membrane proteins were characterized on three increasingly specific levels. Total protein was visualized by silver staining. A maximum of 102 separate proteins were counted in silver-stained gels. Glycoproteins were labeled with 3H-glucosamine or 3H-fucose and detected by autoradiography. Thirty-eight fucose-labeled and 61-71 glucosamine-labeled proteins were identified. All of the fucose-labeled proteins were labeled with glucosamine-derived radioactivity. Proteins exposed at the cell surface were labeled by lactoperoxidase-catalyzed radioiodination prior to preparation of membranes for two-dimensional analysis. Forty separate 125I-labeled surface proteins were resolved by two-dimensional electrophoresis/autoradiography. Comparison with the glycoprotein map showed that a number of these surface labeled proteins were glycoproteins. Two-dimensional maps of total protein, fucose-labeled, and glucosamine-labeled glycoproteins, and 125I-labeled surface proteins of membranes from dystrophic (RCS rdy-p+) and normal (Long Evans or RCS rdy+p+) RPE were compared. No differences in the total protein or surface-labeled proteins were observed. However, the results suggest that a 183K glycoprotein is more heavily glycosylated with glucosamine and fucose in normal RPE membranes as compared to membranes from dystrophic RPE

  14. Heterogeneity in induced thermal resistance of rat tumor cell clones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasovic, S.P.; Rosenblatt, P.L.; Heitzman, D.

    1983-01-01

    Four 13762NF rat mammary adenocarcinoma clones were examined for their survival response to heating under conditions that induced transient thermal resistance (thermotolerance). Clones MTC and MTF7 were isolated from the subcutaneous locally growing tumor, whereas clones MTLn2 and MTLn3 were derived from spontaneous lung metastases. There was heterogeneity among these clones in thermotolerance induced by either fractionated 45 0 C or continuous 42 0 C heating, but the order of sensitivity was not necessarily the same. The clones developed thermal resistance at different rates and to different degrees within the same time intervals. There was heterogeneity between clones isolated from within either the primary site or metastatic lesions. However, clones derived from metastatic foci did not intrinsically acquire more or less thermotolerance to fractionated 45 0 C or continuous 42 0 C heating than did clones from the primary tumor. Further, there was no apparent relationship between any phenotypic properties that conferred more or less thermotolerance in vitro and any phenotypic properties that conferred enhanced metastatic success of these same clones by spontaneous (subcutaneous) or experimental (intravenous) routes in vivo. These tumor clones also differ in their karyotype, metastatic potential, cell surface features, sensitivity to x-irradiation and drugs, and ability to repair sublethal radiation damage. These results provide further credence to the concept that inherent heterogeneity within tumors may be as important in therapeutic success as other known modifiers of outcome such as site and treatment heterogeneity

  15. Effect of elevated temperatures on cell cycle kinetics of rat gliosarcoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross-Riveros, P.

    1978-07-01

    9L rat gliosarcoma cells were examined in vitro for survival response to hyperthermic temperatures ranging from 39.0 0 to 45.0 0 C for graded exposure times. At 43.0 0 C, the split exposure response was also studied. Changes in cell cycle kinetics resulting from hyperthermia were compared for isosurvival levels achieved by appropriate exposure time to either 42.5 0 C or 43.0 0 C. After heat treatment, cells were held at 37.0 0 C for varying recovery periods. Cells were then either prepared for flow microfluorometry (FMF), or exposed to tritiated thymidine ( 3 HTdR) for autoradiography. The survival studies indicated that the rate of change in cell killing for each increasing degree centigrade was greater for temperatures below 43.0 0 C than for temperatures above 43.0 0 C. The shoulder width of the survival curves was maximal at 42.5 0 C. The shoulder width represents an important parameter since it describes a threshold time after which significant cell killing occurs. Thus both 43.0 0 C, the temperature at which mortality kinetics changed, and 42.5 0 C, the temperature at which the shoulder width was maximum, represent critical temperatures for the 9L cells. When 9L cells were given an initial conditioning exposure to 43.0 0 C, then returned to 37 0 C for 3 hrs, followed by graded exposure intervals at 43.0 0 , the resulting survival curve indicated that cells required longer times for equal cell killing than for the single exposure condition, suggesting that the cells possess a capability to adapt to the higher temperature

  16. Cell apoptosis of taste buds in circumvallate papillae in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, B; Pan, S; Liu, X; Zhang, S; Sun, X

    2011-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus may result in taste disturbance. The present study has revealed that cell apoptosis of taste buds in circumvallate papillae may contribute to the taste disturbance in a rat model of type2 diabetes. Type2 diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by feeding them with a high-fat diet (30% fat), and a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (30 mg/kg). The increased cell apoptosis of taste buds in circumvallate papilla sections was detected by TUNEL staining in diabetic rats, and the ultrastructure was further examined by transmission electronic microscopy. Immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses revealed the downregulation of Bcl-2, upregulation of Bax, and increased activation of caspase-9 and -3, in diabetic rats, indicating that the apoptosis of taste bud cells may be mediated via the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway in diabetics. © J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Arginine vasopressin stimulates phosphoinositide turnover in an enriched rat Leydig cell preparation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J.R.; Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.

    1989-01-01

    An enriched rat Leydig cell preparation was preincubated with [C]arachidonic acid. Stimulation of the cells with arginine vasopressin (AVP) (1 µM) for 2 min caused a significant increase in labelled phosphatidic acid and a significant fall in radioactivity in phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidyl......An enriched rat Leydig cell preparation was preincubated with [C]arachidonic acid. Stimulation of the cells with arginine vasopressin (AVP) (1 µM) for 2 min caused a significant increase in labelled phosphatidic acid and a significant fall in radioactivity in phosphatidylinositol...

  18. Use of rat mature adipocyte-derived dedifferentiated fat cells as a cell source for periodontal tissue regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke eAkita

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Lipid-free fibroblast-like cells, known as dedifferentiated fat (DFAT cells, can be generated from mature adipocytes with a large single lipid droplet. DFAT cells can re-establish their active proliferation ability and can transdifferentiate into various cell types under appropriate culture conditions. The first objective of this study was to compare the multilineage differentiation potential of DFAT cells with that of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs on mesenchymal stem cellsWe obtained DFAT cells and ASCs from inbred rats and found that rat DFAT cells possess higher osteogenic differentiation potential than rat ASCs. On the other hand, DFAT cells show similar adipogenic differentiation, and chondrogenic differentiation potential in comparison with ASCs. The second objective of this study was to assess the regenerative potential of DFAT cells combined with novel solid scaffolds composed of PLGA (Poly d, l-lactic-co-glycolic acid on periodontal tissue, and to compare this with the regenerative potential of ASCs combined with PLGA scaffolds. Cultured DFAT cells and ASCs were seeded onto PLGA scaffolds (DFAT/PLGA and ASCs/PLGA and transplanted into periodontal fenestration defects in rat mandible. Micro computed tomography analysis revealed a significantly higher amount of bone regeneration in the DFAT/PLGA group compared with that of ASCs/PLGA and PLGA-alone groups at 2, 3 and 5 weeks after transplantation. Similarly, histomorphometric analysis showed that DFAT/PLGA groups had significantly greater width of cementum, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone than ASCs/PLGA and PLGA-alone groups. In addition, transplanted fluorescent-labeled DFAT cells were observed in the periodontal ligament beside the newly formed bone and cementum. These findings suggest that DFAT cells have a greater potential for enhancing periodontal tissue regeneration than ASCs. Therefore, DFAT cells are a promising cell source for periodontium regeneration.

  19. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidant mitoquinone deactivates human and rat hepatic stellate cells and reduces portal hypertension in cirrhotic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaseca, Marina; García-Calderó, Héctor; Lafoz, Erica; Ruart, Maria; López-Sanjurjo, Cristina Isabel; Murphy, Michael P; Deulofeu, Ramon; Bosch, Jaume; Hernández-Gea, Virginia; Gracia-Sancho, Jordi; García-Pagán, Juan Carlos

    2017-07-01

    In cirrhosis, activated hepatic stellate cells (HSC) play a major role in increasing intrahepatic vascular resistance and developing portal hypertension. We have shown that cirrhotic livers have increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), and that antioxidant therapy decreases portal pressure. Considering that mitochondria produce many of these ROS, our aim was to assess the effects of the oral mitochondria-targeted antioxidant mitoquinone on hepatic oxidative stress, HSC phenotype, liver fibrosis and portal hypertension. Ex vivo: Hepatic stellate cells phenotype was analysed in human precision-cut liver slices in response to mitoquinone or vehicle. In vitro: Mitochondrial oxidative stress was analysed in different cell type of livers from control and cirrhotic rats. HSC phenotype, proliferation and viability were assessed in LX2, and in primary human and rat HSC treated with mitoquinone or vehicle. In vivo: CCl 4 - and thioacetamide-cirrhotic rats were treated with mitoquinone (5 mg/kg/day) or the vehicle compound, DecylTPP, for 2 weeks, followed by measurement of oxidative stress, systemic and hepatic haemodynamic, liver fibrosis, HSC phenotype and liver inflammation. Mitoquinone deactivated human and rat HSC, decreased their proliferation but with no effects on viability. In CCl 4 -cirrhotic rats, mitoquinone decreased hepatic oxidative stress, improved HSC phenotype, reduced intrahepatic vascular resistance and diminished liver fibrosis. These effects were associated with a significant reduction in portal pressure without changes in arterial pressure. These results were further confirmed in the thioacetamide-cirrhotic model. We propose mitochondria-targeted antioxidants as a novel treatment approach against portal hypertension and cirrhosis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Sustained glucagon-like peptide 1 expression from encapsulated transduced cells to treat obese diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moralejo, Daniel; Yanay, Ofer; Kernan, Kelly; Bailey, Adam; Lernmark, Ake; Osborne, William

    2011-04-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are two prevalent chronic diseases that have become a major public health concern in industrialized countries. T2D is characterized by hyperglycemia and islet beta cell dysfunction. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) promotes β cell proliferation and neogenesis and has a potent insulinotropic effect. Leptin receptor deficient male rats are obese and diabetic and provide a model of T2D. We hypothesized that their treatment by sustained expression of GLP-1 using encapsulated cells may prevent or delay diabetes onset. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) retrovirally transduced to secrete GLP-1 were seeded into TheraCyte(TM) encapsulation devices, implanted subcutaneously and rats were monitored for diabetes. Rats that received cell implants showed mean plasma GLP-1 level of 119.3 ± 10.2pM that was significantly elevated over control values of 32.4 ± 2.9pM (P<0.001). GLP-1 treated rats had mean insulin levels of 45.9 ± 2.3ng/ml that were significantly increased over control levels of 7.3±1.5ng/ml (P<0.001). In rats treated before diabetes onset elevations in blood glucose were delayed and rats treated after onset became normoglycemic and showed improved glucose tolerance tests. Untreated diabetic rats possess abnormal islet structures characterized by enlarged islets with α-cell infiltration and multifocal vacuolization. GLP-1 treatment induced normalization of islet structures including a mantle of α-cells and increased islet mass. These data suggest that encapsulated transduced cells may offer a potential long term treatment of patients. Copyright © 2010 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Fraction from human and rat liver which is inhibitory for proliferation of liver cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T S; Ottenweller, J; Luke, A; Santos, S; Keeting, P; Cuy, R; Lea, M A

    1989-01-01

    A comparative study was undertaken with human and rat liver of a fraction reported to have growth inhibitory activity when prepared from rat liver. Fractions which were soluble in 70% ethanol and insoluble in 87% ethanol were prepared from liver cytosols. Electrophoretic analysis under denaturing conditions indicated that there were several quantitative or qualitative differences in the fractions from the two species. Fractions from both human and rat liver were found to be inhibitory for the incorporation of 3H-thymidine into DNA of foetal chick hepatocytes. Under conditions in which the rat fraction inhibited precursor incorporation into DNA of rat liver epithelial cells there was not a significant inhibitory effect with the fraction from human liver. DNA synthesis in a rat hepatoma cell line was not significantly inhibited by preparations from either species. The data suggested that corresponding fractions from both rat and human liver could have inhibitory effects on precursor incorporation into DNA but the magnitude of the effects and target cell specificity may differ.

  2. Effect of benazepril on the transdifferentiation of renal tubular epithelial cells from diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Tao; Wang, Jie; Zhen, Junhui; Hu, Zhao; Yang, Xiangdong

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of benazepril on the transdifferentiation of renal tubular epithelial cells from diabetic rats. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were included in the present study. Eight of the 30 rats were randomly selected and served as the normal control group (N group), while the remaining 22 rats, injected with streptozotocin (STZ), comprised the diabetic rat model. Rats with diabetes were randomly divided into the diabetic (DM group) and benazepril (B group) groups. The total course was conducted over 12 weeks. Blood glucose, body weight, kidney/body weight, 24-h urinary protein, serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen were measured at the start and end of the study. We observed the tubulointerstitial pathological changes, and applied immunohistochemistry and western blotting to detect the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in renal tissue. The levels of blood glucose, kidney/body weight, 24-h urinary protein, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and tubulointerstitial damage index (TII) in the DM group were significantly higher than that in the N group (pbenazepril significantly reduced the expression of α-SMA in renal tubular epithelial cells obtained from diabetic rats, inhibited the transdifferentiation of renal tubular epithelial cells and played an important role in kidney protection.

  3. Stimulation of DNA synthesis in cultured rat alveolar type II cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leslie, C.C.; McCormick-Shannon, K.; Robinson, P.C.; Mason, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    Restoration of the alveolar epithelium after injury is thought to be dependent on the proliferation of alveolar type II cells. To understand the factors that may be involved in promoting type II cell proliferation in vivo, we determined the effect of potential mitogens and culture substrata on DNA synthesis in rat alveolar type II cells in primary culture. Type II cells cultured in basal medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) exhibited essentially no DNA synthesis. Factors that stimulated 3 H-thymidine incorporation included cholera toxin, epidermal growth factor, and rat serum. The greatest degree of stimulation was achieved by plating type II cells on an extracellular matrix prepared from bovine corneal endothelial cells and then by culturing the pneumocytes in medium containing rat serum, cholera toxin, insulin, and epidermal growth factor. Under conditions of stimulation of 3 H-thymidine incorporation there was an increased DNA content per culture dish but no increase in cell number. The ability of various culture conditions to promote DNA synthesis in type II cells was verified by autoradiography. Type II cells were identified by the presence of cytoplasmic inclusions, which were visualized by tannic acid staining before autoradiography. These results demonstrate the importance of soluble factors and culture substratum in stimulating DNA synthesis in rat alveolar type II cells in primary culture

  4. Axotomy induces MHC class I antigen expression on rat nerve cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maehlen, J; Schröder, H D; Klareskog, L

    1988-01-01

    Immunomorphological staining demonstrates that class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-coded antigen expression can be selectively induced on otherwise class I-negative rat nerve cells by peripheral axotomy. Induction of class I as well as class II antigen expression was simultaneously seen...... on non-neural cells in the immediate vicinity of the injured nerve cells. As nerve regeneration after axotomy includes growth of new nerve cell processes and formation of new nerve cell contacts, the present findings raise the question of a role for MHC-coded molecules in cell-cell interactions during...... nerve cell growth....

  5. Biosynthesis of the D2 cell adhesion molecule: pulse-chase studies in cultured fetal rat neuronal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyles, J M; Norrild, B; Bock, E

    1984-01-01

    D2 is a membrane glycoprotein that is believed to function as a cell adhesion molecule (CAM) in neural cells. We have examined its biosynthesis in cultured fetal rat brain neurones. We found D2-CAM to be synthesized initially as two polypeptides: Mr 186,000 (A) and Mr 136,000 (B). With increasing...

  6. Ferritin expression in rat hepatocytes and Kupffer cells after lead nitrate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yang; Yamada, Toshiyuki; Shimizu, Takeshi; Nanashima, Naoki; Akita, Miki; Suto, Kohji; Tsuchida, Shigeki

    2009-02-01

    Lead nitrate induces hepatocyte proliferation and subsequent apoptosis in rat livers. Iron is a constituent of heme and is also required for cell proliferation. In this study, the expression of ferritin light-chain (FTL), the major iron storage protein, was investigated in rat livers after a single intravenous injection of lead nitrate. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry revealed that FTL was increased in hepatocytes around the central veins and strongly expressed in nonparenchymal cells. Some FTL-positive nonparenchymal cells were identified as Kupffer cells that were positive for CD68. FTL-positive Kupffer cells occupied about 60% of CD68-positive cells in the periportal and perivenous areas. The relationships between FTL expression and apoptosis induction or the engulfment of apoptotic cells were examined. TUNEL-positive cells were increased in the treatment group, and enhanced expression of milk fat globule EGF-like 8 was demonstrated in some Kupffer cells and hepatocytes, indicating enhanced apoptosis induction and phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. FTL-positive Kupffer cells were not detected without lead nitrate treatment or in rat livers treated with clofibrate, which induces hepatocyte proliferation but not apoptosis. These results suggest that FTL expression in Kupffer cells after lead treatment is dependent on phagocytosis of apoptotic cells.

  7. Experimental induction of ovarian Sertoli cell tumors in rats by N-nitrosoureas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, A; Onodera, H; Tanigawa, H; Furuta, K; Kanno, J; Ogiu, T; Hayashi, Y

    1987-01-01

    Spontaneous ovarian tumors are very rare in ACI, Wistar, F344 and Donryu rats; the few neoplasms found are of the granulosa/theca cell type. Ovarian tumors were also rare in these strains of rats when given high doses of N-alkyl-N-nitrosoureas continuously in the drinking water for their life-span; however, relatively high incidences of Sertoli cell tumors or Sertoli cell tumors mixed with granulosa cell tumors were induced in Donryu rats after administration of either a 400 ppm N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea solution in the drinking water for 4 weeks or as a single dose of 200 mg N-propyl-N-nitrosourea per kg body weight by stomach tube. Typical Sertoli cell tumors consisted of solid areas showing tubular formation. The tubules were lined by tall, columnar cells, with abundant, faintly eosinophilic, often vacuolated cytoplasm, and basally oriented, round nuclei, resembling seminiferous tubules in the testes. In some cases, Sertoli cell tumor elements were found mixed with areas of granulosa cells. The induction of ovarian Sertoli cell tumors in Donryu rats by low doses of nitrosoureas may provide a useful model for these tumors in man. Images PLATE 1. PLATE 2. PLATE 3. PLATE 4. PLATE 5. PLATE 6. PLATE 7. PLATE 8. PLATE 9. PLATE 10. PLATE 11. PLATE 12. PLATE 13. PLATE 14. PLATE 15. PLATE 16. PMID:3665856

  8. Total white blood cell counts and LPS-induced TNF alpha production by monocytes of pregnant, pseudopregnant and cyclic rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, MM; Moes, H; van der Schaaf, G; de Leij, LFMH; Heineman, MJ

    Pregnancy in the rat may be associated with an activated innate immune system. Therefore, we investigated monocyte function as well as total white blood cell (WBC) counts during the follicular phase of the ovarian cycle, pregnancy and pseudopregnancy in the rat. Rats were equipped with a permanent

  9. Total white blood cell counts and LPS-induced TNF alpha production by monocytes of pregnant, pseudopregnant and cyclic rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, M. M.; Moes, H.; van der Schaaf, G.; de Leij, L. F. M. H.; Heineman, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    Pregnancy in the rat may be associated with an activated innate immune system. Therefore, we investigated monocyte function as well as total white blood cell (WBC) counts during the follicular phase of the ovarian cycle, pregnancy and pseudopregnancy in the rat. Rats were equipped with a permanent

  10. Fibroblast-mediated in vivo and in vitro growth promotion of tumorigenic rat thyroid carcinoma cells but not normal Fisher rat thyroid follicular cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, Ohki; Mitsutake, Norisato; Nakayama, Toshiyuki; Nagayama, Yuji

    2009-07-01

    It is known that genetic abnormalities in oncogenes and/or tumor suppressor genes promote carcinogenesis. Numerous recent articles, however, have demonstrated that epithelial-stromal interaction also plays a critical role for initiation and progression of carcinoma cells. Furthermore, ionizing radiation induces alterations in the tissue microenvironments that promote carcinogenesis. There is little or no information on epithelial-stromal interaction in thyroid carcinoma cells. The objective of this study was to determine if epithelial-stromal interaction influenced the growth of thyroid carcinoma cells in vivo and in vitro and to determine if radiation had added or interacting effects. Normal Fisher rat thyroid follicular cells (FRTL5 cells) and tumorigenic rat thyroid carcinoma cells (FRTL-Tc cells) derived from FRTL5 cells were employed. The cells were injected into thyroids or subcutaneously into left flanks of rats alone or in combination with skin-derived fibroblasts. In groups of rats, fibroblasts were irradiated with 0.1 or 4 Gy x-ray 3 days before inoculation. In vitro growth of FRTL-Tc and FRTL-5 cells were evaluated using the fibroblast-conditioned medium and in a co-culture system with fibroblasts. The in vivo experiments demonstrated that FRTL-Tc cells injected intrathyroidally grew faster than those injected subcutaneously, and that admixed fibroblasts enhanced growth of subcutaneous FRTL-Tc tumors, indicating that the intrathyroidal milieu, particularly in the presence of fibroblasts, confer growth-promoting advantage to thyroid carcinoma cells. This in vivo growth-promoting effect of fibroblasts on FRTL-Tc cells was duplicated in the in vitro experiments using the fibroblast-conditioned medium. Thus, our data demonstrate that this effect is mediated by soluble factor(s), is reversible, and is comparable to that of 10% fetal bovine serum. However, normal FRTL5 cells did not respond to the fibroblast-conditioned medium. Furthermore, high- and low

  11. Mangosteen peel extract reduces formalin-induced liver cell death in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afiana Rohmani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Formalin is a xenobiotic that is now commonly used as a preservative in the food industry. The liver is an organ that has the highest metabolic capacity as compared to other organs. Mangosteen or Garcinia mangostana Linn (GML peel contains xanthones, which are a source of natural antioxidants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of mangosteen peel extract on formalin-induced liver cell mortality rate and p53 protein expression in Wistar rats. Methods Eighteen rats received formalin orally for 2 weeks, and were subsequently divided into 3 groups, consisting of the formalin-control group receiving a placebo and treatment groups 1 and 2, which were treated with mangosteen peel extract at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kgBW/day, respectively. The treatment was carried out for 1 week, and finally the rats were terminated. The differences in liver cell mortality rate and p53 protein expression were analyzed. Results One-way ANOVA analysis showed significant differences in liver cell mortality rate among the three groups (p=0.004. The liver cell mortality rate in the treatment group receiving 400 mg/kgBW/day extract was lower than that in the formalin-control group. There was no p53 expression in all groups. Conclusions Garcinia mangostana Linn peel extract reduced the mortality rate of liver cells in rats receiving oral formalin. Involvement of p53 expression in liver cell mortality in rats exposed to oral formalin is presumably negligible.

  12. GM-CSF-Producing Th Cells in Rats Sensitive and Resistant to Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojić-Vukanić, Zorica; Pilipović, Ivan; Vujnović, Ivana; Nacka-Aleksić, Mirjana; Petrović, Raisa; Arsenović-Ranin, Nevena; Dimitrijević, Mirjana; Leposavić, Gordana

    2016-01-01

    Given that granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is identified as the key factor to endow auto-reactive Th cells with the potential to induce neuroinflammation in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) models, the frequency and phenotype of GM-CSF-producing (GM-CSF+) Th cells in draining lymph nodes (dLNs) and spinal cord (SC) of Albino Oxford (AO) and Dark Agouti (DA) rats immunized for EAE were examined. The generation of neuroantigen-specific GM-CSF+ Th lymphocytes was impaired in dLNs of AO rats (relatively resistant to EAE induction) compared with their DA counterparts (susceptible to EAE) reflecting impaired CD4+ lymphocyte proliferation and less supportive of GM-CSF+ Th cell differentiation dLN cytokine microenvironment. Immunophenotyping of GM-CSF+ Th cells showed their phenotypic heterogeneity in both strains and revealed lower frequency of IL-17+IFN-γ+, IL-17+IFN-γ-, and IL-17-IFN-γ+ cells accompanied by higher frequency of IL-17-IFN-γ- cells among them in AO than in DA rats. Compared with DA, in AO rats was also found (i) slightly lower surface density of CCR2 (drives accumulation of highly pathogenic GM-CSF+IFN-γ+ Th17 cells in SC) on GM-CSF+IFN-γ+ Th17 lymphocytes from dLNs, and (ii) diminished CCL2 mRNA expression in SC tissue, suggesting their impaired migration into the SC. Moreover, dLN and SC cytokine environments in AO rats were shown to be less supportive of GM-CSF+IFN-γ+ Th17 cell differentiation (judging by lower expression of mRNAs for IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-23/p19). In accordance with the (i) lower frequency of GM-CSF+ Th cells in dLNs and SC of AO rats and their lower GM-CSF production, and (ii) impaired CCL2 expression in the SC tissue, the proportion of proinflammatory monocytes among peripheral blood cells and their progeny (CD45hi cells) among the SC CD11b+ cells were reduced in AO compared with DA rats. Collectively, the results indicate that the strain specificities in efficacy of several mechanisms

  13. Characterization of nonlymphoid cells in rat spleen, with special reference to strongly Ia-positive branched cells in T-cell areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijkstra, C.D.

    1982-01-01

    By use of a monoclonal antibody against Ia antigen in an immunoperoxidase method, strongly Ia-positive branched cells are found in the T-cell areas of the splenic white pulp of the rat. In order to further characterize these cells, enzyme histochemical characteristics, phagocytic capacity, and irradiation sensitivity have been studied. Evidence is presented that these strongly Ia-positive branched cells represent interdigitating cells. The influence of whole-body irradiation on interdigitating cells is discussed. Comparison with data from the literature on the in vitro dendritic cell isolated from spleen cell suspensions reveals many similarities between the described interdigitating cell in vivo and the dendritic cell in vitro

  14. Radioprotective effect of calorie restriction in Hela cells and SD rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yang; Chong Yu; Jiao Yang; Xu Jiaying; Fan Saijun

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of low calorie metabolism on the survival of HeLa cells exposed to X-rays, and the influence of starvation on the antioxidative factors in the blood of rats after irradiation. Methods: MTT method was used to evaluate the impact of different concentration glucose on the proliferation of HeLa cells. Colony formation assay was employed to detect the influence of glucose (1, 5, 10 and 25 mmol/L) on radiosensitivity of HeLa cells. Flow cytometry assay was used to analyze distribution of cell cycle and apoptosis. 60 male SD rats were randomly divided into 6 groups with 10 rats each. Rats in every two groups were fed ad libitum, fasted for 24 h and fasted for 48 h, respectively. Rats in one group of each approach were respectively exposed to whole-body X-rays at 11 Gy. At 2 h after irradiation,all of rats were sacrificed and their venous blood was collected. Elisa kits were used to detect superoxide dismutase (SOD) and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC). Results: An increased viability was observed in HeLa cells treated with the glucose at low concentration (<25 mmol/L), while HeLa cell growth was inhibited by glucose at doses of >25 mmol/L. Relevant to cells treated with 1 mmoL/L glucose, SERs (sensitive enhancement ratio) in cells exposed to 5, 10 and 25 mmol/L glucose were 1.07, 1.10 and 1.23,respectively. A reduction of G 2 /M and S arrests and apoptosis caused by 6 Gy X-ray irradiation were observed [(49.68 ±1.88)% and (35.54±1.45)% at G 2 /M phase, (16.88 ±1.22)% and (10.23 ±1.65)% at S phase, t=10.42, 5.61, P<0.05] and in the cells treated with 1 mmol/L glucose compared with cells treated with 25 mmol/L glucose [(25.50 ± 0.95)% and (7.56 ± 1.07)%, t=21.72, P<0.05].Without irradiation, calorie restriction exhibited a negligible influence on SOD and T-AOC in rats. However, after 11 Gy irradiation, compared with rats fed ad libitum, the levels of SOD and T-AOC were significantly increased in rats with calorie restriction (t=40

  15. Morphometry of Hilar Ectopic Granule Cells in the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Joseph P.; McCloskey, Daniel P.; Scharfman, Helen E.

    2014-01-01

    Granule cell (GC) neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) does not always proceed normally. After severe seizures (e.g., status epilepticus [SE]) and some other conditions, newborn GCs appear in the hilus. Hilar ectopic GCs (EGCs) can potentially provide insight into the effects of abnormal location and seizures on GC development. Additionally, hilar EGCs that develop after SE may contribute to epileptogenesis and cognitive impairments that follow SE. Thus, it is critical to understand how EGCs differ from normal GCs. Relatively little morphometric information is available on EGCs, especially those restricted to the hilus. This study quantitatively analyzed the structural morphology of hilar EGCs from adult male rats several months after pilocarpineinduced SE, when they are considered to have chronic epilepsy. Hilar EGCs were physiologically identified in slices, intracellularly labeled, processed for light microscopic reconstruction, and compared to GC layer GCs, from both the same post-SE tissue and the NeuroMorpho database (normal GCs). Consistently, hilar EGC and GC layer GCs had similar dendritic lengths and field sizes, and identifiable apical dendrites. However, hilar EGC dendrites were topologically more complex, with more branch points and tortuous dendritic paths. Three-dimensional analysis revealed that, remarkably, hilar EGC dendrites often extended along the longitudinal DG axis, suggesting increased capacity for septotemporal integration. Axonal reconstruction demonstrated that hilar EGCs contributed to mossy fiber sprouting. This combination of preserved and aberrant morphological features, potentially supporting convergent afferent input to EGCs and broad, divergent efferent output, could help explain why the hilar EGC population could impair DG function. PMID:21344409

  16. Increased DNA damage in blood cells of rat treated with lead as assessed by comet assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Arif

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence suggests that oxidative stress is the key player in the pathogenesis of lead-induced toxicity. The present study investigated lead induced oxidative DNA damage, if any in rat blood cells by alkaline comet assay. Lead was administered intraperitoneally to rats at doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight for 5 days consecutively. Blood collected on day six from sacrificed lead-treated rats was used to assess the extent of DNA damage by comet assay which entailed measurement of comet length, olive tail moment, tail DNA (% and tail length. The results showed that treatment with lead significantly increased DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, our data suggests that lead treatment is associated with oxidative stress-induced DNA damage in rat blood cells which could be used as an early bio-marker of lead-toxicity.

  17. Quantitative analysis of rat Ig (sub)classes binding to cell surface antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, R.; Brodin, T.; Sjoegren, H.-O.

    1982-01-01

    An indirect 125 I-labeled protein A assay for detection of cell surface-bound rat immunoglobulins is presented. The assay is quantitative and rapid and detects as little as 1 ng of cell surface-bound Ig. It discriminates between antibodies belonging to different IgG subclasses, IgM and IgA. The authors describe the production and specificity control of the reagents used and show that the test can be used for quantitative analysis. A large number of sera from untreated rats are tested to evaluate the frequency of falsely positive responses and variation due to age, sex and strain of rat. With this test it is relatively easy to quantitate the binding of classes and subclasses of rat immunoglobulins in a small volume (6 μl) of untreated serum. (Auth.)

  18. Effect of coffee drinking on cell proliferation in rat urinary bladder epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lina, B A; Rutten, A A; Woutersen, R A

    1993-12-01

    A possible effect of freshly brewed drip coffee on urinary bladder carcinogenesis was investigated in male Wistar rats using cell proliferation in urinary bladder epithelium as the indicator of tumour promotion. Male rats were given either undiluted coffee brew (100% coffee), coffee diluted 10 times (10% coffee) or tap water (controls), as their only source of drinking fluid for 2 or 6 wk. Uracil, known to induce cell proliferation in urinary bladder epithelium, was included in the study as a positive control. In rats receiving 100% coffee, body weights, liquid intake and urinary volume were decreased. Neither histopathological examination of urinary bladder tissue nor the bromodeoxyuridine labelling index revealed biologically significant differences between rats receiving coffee and the tap water controls. Uracil increased the labelling index and induced hyperplasia of the urinary bladder epithelium, as expected. It was concluded that these results produced no evidence that drinking coffee predisposes to tumour development in the urinary bladder.

  19. The Effect of Kangaroo Mother Care on Fuss and Crying Time in Colicky Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Akbarian Rad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Infantile colic is a common complaint in the first few weeks of life. On the other hand, because of its unknown etiology, there is not a specific therapy for this complaint, but various therapeutic options for reducing pain and restlessness of these infants are recommended. Skin to skin contact by Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC increases in pain threshold and it seems to be a suitable method for the care of these infants. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of KMC on infantile colic.Methods: This case- control study was performed between March 2012 and March 2013. Subjects were 55 infants with exclusive breast fed infant, aged 15-60 days with excessive fuss and crying, referred to Infant and Child Clinic in Ayatollah Rohani Hospital in Babol, north of Iran. Babies whose weights were less than 2500 Grams and with inheritance and clinical diseases excluded from the study. Infants were subjected to KMC at least 2 hours a day. Standard questionnaire and Barr Scale were filled by interview. Data was analyzed by SPSS v.11.5 and T-test, a P- value less than 0.05 considered being significant.Results:The fuss and crying time before the KMC was 2.21±1.54 hours per day and decreased to 1.16±1.3 hours per day after the implementation of KMC. (p=0.001Conclusions:Kangaroo mother care at home can be used as a simple and safe method for decreasing of cry and fussiness in colicky infants. Keywords: Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC, fussiness, Colicky Infants, colic

  20. A Reproductive Management Program for an Urban Population of Eastern Grey Kangaroos (Macropus giganteus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Tribe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, culling has been the expedient, most common, and in many cases, the only tool used to control free-ranging kangaroo populations. We applied a reproductive control program to a population of eastern grey kangaroos confined to a golf course in South East Queensland. The program aimed to reduce fecundity sufficiently for the population to decrease over time so that overgrazing of the fairways and the frequency of human–animal conflict situations were minimised. In 2003, 92% of the female kangaroos above 5 kg bodyweight were implanted with the GnRH agonist deslorelin after darting with a dissociative anaesthetic. In 2007, 86% of the females above 5 kg were implanted with deslorelin and also 87% of the males above 5 kg were sterilised by either orchidectomy or vasectomy. In 2005, 2008 and 2009, the population was censused to assess the effect of each treatment. The 2003 deslorelin program resulted in effective zero population growth for approximately 2.5 years. The combined deslorelin–surgery program in 2007 reduced the birth rate from 0.3 to 0.06%/year for 16 months, resulting in a 27% population reduction by November 2009. The results were consistent with implants conferring contraception to 100% of implanted females for at least 12 months. The iatrogenic mortality rates for each program were 10.5% and 4.9%, respectively, with 50% of all mortalities due to darting-related injuries, exertional myopathy/hyperthermia or recovery misadventure. The short term sexual and agonistic behaviour of the males was assessed for the 2007 program: no significant changes were seen in adult males given the vasectomy procedure, while sexual behaviours’ were decreased in adult males given the orchidectomy procedure. It is concluded that female reproduction was effectively controlled by implantation with deslorrelin and male reproductive behaviour was reduced by orchidectomy, which together achieved population control.

  1. The Effect of Kangaroo Mother Care on Fuss and Crying Time in Colicky Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Akbarian Rad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infantile colic is a common complaint in the first few weeks of life. On the other hand, because of its unknown etiology, there is not a specific therapy for this complaint, but various therapeutic options for reducing pain and restlessness of these infants are recommended. Skin to skin contact by Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC increases in pain threshold and it seems to be a suitable method for the care of these infants. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of KMC on infantile colic. Methods: This case- control study was performed between March 2012 and March 2013. Subjects were 55 infants with exclusive breast fed infant, aged 15-60 days with excessive fuss and crying, referred to Infant and Child Clinic in Ayatollah Rohani Hospital in Babol, north of Iran. Babies whose weights were less than 2500 Grams and with inheritance and clinical diseases excluded from the study. Infants were subjected to KMC at least 2 hours a day. Standard questionnaire and Barr Scale were filled by interview. Data was analyzed by SPSS v.11.5 and T-test, a P- value less than 0.05 considered being significant. Results: The fuss and crying time before the KMC was 2.21±1.54 hours per day and decreased to 1.16±1.3 hours per day after the implementation of KMC. (p=0.001 Conclusions: Kangaroo mother care at home can be used as a simple and safe method for decreasing of cry and fussiness in colicky infants. Keywords: Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC, fussiness, Colicky Infants, colic

  2. Effect of amiloride on arachidonic acid and histamine release from rat mast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnebjerg, H.; Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of a putative Na/H exchange inhibition on histamine and [C]arachidonic acid ([C]AA) release has been examined in rat peritoneal mast cells, using either addition of amiloride or removal of extracellular Na. The cells were stimulated by non-immunological agents, i.e. calcium ionophore A......23187, nerve growth factor (NGF), thapsigargin and compound 48/80. On the basis of the results obtained, a possible role for Na/H exchange in rat mast cell secretion is discussed....

  3. Repair effect of transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on liver injury in severe burned rats and its mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hao; Zhou Yubo; Zhang Ying; Qin Yonggang; Guo Li; Yin Fei; Meng Chunyang; Yang Xiaoyu

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the repair effect of transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on liver injury in severe burned rats, and to clarify its mechanism. Methods: The BMSCs of rats were isolated, cultured, amplified, identified, and labeled in vitro. 30 Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal control group (n=10), model group (n=10) and cell therapy group (n=10). The burned rat model was established. The BMSCs labeled by chlormethyl-benzamidodialkylcarbocyanine (CM-Dil) were transplanted into the rats in cell therapy group by retro-orbital intravenous injection and the saline was injected into the rats in model group. The general status of all rats were observed. The liver tissues of rats were obtained 2 weeks after transplantation, and the pathohistological changes were observed and the pathohistological scores were detected; the apoptotic rate of liver cells was detected by TUNEL method; the engraftment of BMSCs in liver tissues of the rats was observed under laser scanning confocal microscope. Results: 2 weeks after transplantation, the rats in model group were obviously malaise dispirited and the rats in cell therapy group showed obviously better, and the body weight of the rats in cell therapy group was higher than that in model group (P<0.05). The pathohistological results showed the normal liver lobules of the rats in model group disappeared, and the liver cords disordered, and some liver sinusoids dilated and congested, lymphocytes infiltrated with occasional focal aggregating, and cell edema was found, cytoplasm loose and steatosis were seen in liver tissue. However, the pathohistological changes of liver tissue of the rats in cell therapy group were significantly better than those in model group. The pathohistological score of the rats in cell therapy group was significantly lower than that in model group (P<0.05). The TUNEL staining results showed that there were lots of apoptotic liver cells in liver tissue of the rats in

  4. Histamine and TNF-α release by rat peritoneal mast cells stimulated with Trichomonas vaginalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Im S.J.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells have been reported to be predominant in the vaginal smears of patients infected with T. vaginalis. In this study, we investigated whether T. vaginalis could induce mast cells to migrate and to produce TNF-α and histamine. Rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMC, a primary mast cell, were used for the study. T. vaginalis induced an increase in chemotactic migration of the mast cells toward excretory and secretory product (ESP of T. vaginalis, and the mast cells activated with T. vaginalis showed an increased release of histamine and TNF-α. Therefore, mast cells may be involved in the inflammatory response caused by T. vaginalis.

  5. Proteinase activity in cell nuclei of rats exposed to γ-radiation and methyl nitrosourea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malakhova, L.V.; Surkenova, G.N.; Gaziev, A.I.

    1990-01-01

    Activity of nuclear proteinases in blood and liver cells of rats exposed to whole-body γ-irradiation (10 Gy) has been comparatively studied by the capacity of splitting the caseic substrate. Proteinase activity in nuclei of irradiated rat leukocytes was shown to increase by 2.5 times and to gradually decrease after 48 h reaching 150-160% as compared to the control. Two hours following a single injection of methyl nitrosourea the alteration in the activity of proteinases in nuclei of rat hepatocytes and leukocytes was different from the alteration of this index after γ-irradiation

  6. Effect of insulin on the mitotic activity of bone marrow cells after irradiation. [Gamma radiation, rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkalaya, A I

    1976-02-01

    A total of 236 white rats were given a whole-body gamma dose of 750 R. Part of the rats were given a subcutaneous insulin injection of 0.2 units/kg. After 10, 20, 30 min, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 10 and 12 hours the mitotic index was determined in both groups of rats in the bone marrow of the femur. The content of glucose and insulin in the blood was determined. The mitotic index was found to be higher on administering insulin. The use of insulin in radiation sickness intensifies the mitotic activity of bone marrow cells and stimulates the recovery of bone marrow hematopoiesis. 5 references.

  7. Phospholipid metabolism in lymphoid cells at delayed periods following sublethal γ-irradiation of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novoselova, E.G.

    1991-01-01

    Dynamics of phospholipid metabolism in rat thymocytes and bone marrow cells was studied 1-6 months after fractionated irradiation. The rate of total and individual lipid synthesis was shown to increase in the exposed cells. The rate of lipid synthesis increased 1 and 2 months after irradiation and was normalized 3 and 6 months after irradiation

  8. Impact of environmental chemicals on the thyroid hormone function in pituitary rat GH3 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghisari, Mandana; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva

    2005-01-01

    -nonylphenol, 4-octylphenol), pesticides (prochloraz, iprodion, chlorpyrifos), PCB metabolites (OH-PCB 106, OH-PCB 121, OH-PCB 69) and brominated flame-retardants (tetrabromobisphenol A). The ED potential of a chemical was determined by its effect on the cell proliferation of TH-dependent rat pituitary GH3 cell...

  9. Hard tissue formation of STRO-1-selected rat dental pulp stem cells in vivo.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, X.; Walboomers, X.F.; Beucken, J.J.J.P van den; Bian, Z.; Fan, M.; Jansen, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine hard tissue formation of STRO-1-selected rat dental pulp-derived stem cells, seeded into a calcium phosphate ceramic scaffold, and implanted subcutaneously in mice. Previously, STRO-1 selection was used to obtain a mesenchymal stem cell progenitor

  10. Maintenance of DNA repair capacity in differentiating rat muscle cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koval, T.M.; Kaufman, S.J.

    1981-01-01

    Unscheduled DNA synthesis was measured at several times during the differentiation of cultured rat skeletal muscle cells in response to exposures to 254 nm UV light. There was no change in the amount of repair DNA synthesis as the cells fuse and differentiate from postmitotic prefusion myoblasts to multinucleated contracting myotubes. (author)

  11. In vitro dynamics of supra-posomal structures in RSK4 rat sarcoma cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Veselý, Pavel; Blase, C.; Matoušková, Eva; Sukhorukov, V.; Bereiter-Hahn, J.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 1 (2005), s. 36 ISSN 0035-9017. [Cytokinematics 2004. International Symposium on Microscopy of Live Cells in the Post Genomics Era /8./. 05.09.2004-07.09.2004, Hradec Králové] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : RSK4 rat sarcoma cells * podosomes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  12. Propranolol inhibits the in vitro conversion of thyroxine into triiodothyronine by isolated rat liver parenchymal cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noorden, C. J.; Wiersinga, W. M.; Touber, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    A model for the in vitro study of the conversion of thyroxine into triiodothyronine using isolated rat liver parenchymal cells is described. Isolated liver cells (mean protein content 18 mg/ml) convert approximately 0.8% of 1.3 microM exogenously added T4 into T3 during thirty minutes incubation.

  13. Effect of Gsk3 inhibitor CHIR99021 on aneuploidy levels in rat embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Anagha S; Leigh, Nathan D; Bryda, Elizabeth C

    2014-06-01

    Germline competent embryonic stem (ES) cells can serve as a tool to create genetically engineered rat strains used to elucidate gene function or provide disease models. In optimum culture conditions, ES cells are able to retain their pluripotent state. The type of components present and their concentration in ES cell culture media greatly influences characteristics of ES cells including the ability to maintain the cells in a pluripotent state. We routinely use 2i media containing inhibitors CHIR99021 and PD0325901 to culture rat ES cells. CHIR99021 specifically inhibits the Gsk3β pathway. We have found that the vendor source of CHIR99021 has a measurable influence on the level of aneuploidy seen over time as rat ES cells are passaged. Karyotyping of three different rat ES cell lines passaged multiple times showed increased aneuploidy when CHIR99021 from source B was used. Mass spectrometry analysis of this inhibitor showed the presence of unexpected synthetic small molecules, which might directly or indirectly cause increases in chromosome instability. Identifying these molecules could further understanding of their influence on chromosome stability and indicate how to improve synthesis of this media component to prevent deleterious effects in culture.

  14. Estimation of the rate of energy production of rat mast cells in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Torben

    1983-01-01

    Rat mast cells were treated with glycolytic and respiratory inhibitors. The rate of adenosine triphosphate depletion of cells incubated with both types of inhibitors and the rate of lactate produced in presence of antimycin A and glucose were used to estimate the rate of oxidative and glycolytic...

  15. Effect of Kangaroo Mother Care on Growth and Morbidity Pattern in Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keerti Swarnkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC is dened as skin-to-skin contact between a mother and her newborn baby derived from practical similarities to marsupial care giving, proximately exclusive breastfeeding and early discharge from hospital. This concept was proposed as an alternative to conventional methods of care for low birth weight (LBW infants, and in replication to quandaries of earnest overcrowding in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs. KMC essentially utilizes the mother as a natural incubator Aim and Objectives: The aim was to assess the feasibility, acceptability and the effectiveness of KMC in LBW infants. It avoids agitation routinely experienced in busy ward. Material and Methods: A pilot open-labeled quasi-randomised clinical trial was conducted in Level III NICU of a teaching institution. 60 newborn infants <2500 g, meeting inclusion criteria were alternatively randomised into two groups: Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC and Conventional Methods of Care (CMC. Kangaroo mother care was practiced with minimum total period of eight hours a day intermittently for the intervention group while the controls remained in incubators or cots. Weight, head circumference, length, morbidity episodes, hospital stay, feeding patterns were monitored for all infants till postmenstrual age of 42 weeks in preterm babies or till a weight of 2500 g is achieved in term SGA babies. Results: The pilot study conrmed that trial processes were efcient, the intervention was acceptable (to mothers and nurses and that the outcome measures were appropriate; KMC babies achieved signicantly better growth at the end of the study (For preterm babies, weight, length and head circumference gain were signicantly higher in the KMC group (weight 19.28±2.9g/day, length 0.99±0.56cm/week and head circumference 0.72±0.07 cm/week than in the CMC group (P <0.001. A signicantly higher number of babies in the CMC group suffered from hypothermia, hypoglycemia, and

  16. The physics of articulated toys—a jumping and rotating kangaroo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Güémez, J; Fiolhais, M

    2014-01-01

    We describe the physics of an articulated toy with an internal source of energy provided by a spiral spring. The toy is a funny low cost kangaroo which jumps and rotates. The study consists of mechanical and thermodynamical analyses that make use of the Newton and centre of mass equations, the rotational equations and the first law of thermodynamics. This amazing toy provides a nice demonstrative example of how new physics insights can be brought about when links with thermodynamics are established in the study of mechanical systems. (papers)

  17. Using faecal DNA to determine consumption by kangaroos of plants considered palatable to sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, K W; Krebs, G L; McCafferty, P; van Wyngaarden, S P; Addison, J

    2010-02-01

    Disagreement exists within the scientific community with regards to the level of competition for feed between sheep and kangaroos in the Australian rangelands. The greatest challenge to solving this debate is finding effective means of determining the composition of the diets of these potential grazing competitors. An option is to adopt a non-invasive approach that combines faecal collection and molecular techniques that focus on faecal DNA as the primary source of dietary information. As proof-of-concept, we show that a DNA reference data bank on plant species can be established. This DNA reference data bank was then used as a library to identify plant species in kangaroo faeces collected in the southern rangelands of Western Australia. To enhance the method development and to begin the investigation of competitive grazing between sheep and kangaroos, 16 plant species known to be palatable to sheep were initially targeted for collection. To ensure that only plant sequences were studied, PCR amplification was performed using a universal primer pair previously shown to be specific to the chloroplast transfer RNA leucine (trnL) UAA gene intron. Overall, genus-specific, single and differently sized amplicons were reliably and reproducibly generated; enabling the differentiation of reference plants by PCR product length heterogeneity. However, there were a few plants that could not be clearly differentiated on the basis of size alone. This prompted the adoption of a post-PCR step that enabled further differentiation according to base sequence variation. Restriction endonucleases make sequence-specific cleavages on DNA to produce discrete and reproducible fragments having unique sizes and base compositions. Their availability, affordability and simplicity-of-use put restriction enzyme sequence (RES) profiling as a logical post-PCR step for confirming plant species identity. We demonstrate that PCR-RES profiling of plant and faecal matter is useful for the identification

  18. Kangaroo care for adoptive parents and their critically ill preterm infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Leslie; Anderson, Gene Cranston

    2002-01-01

    In this case study kangaroo care (KC) was facilitated for an adoptive mother and father who were planning to attend the birth of the infant they had arranged to adopt. Unexpectedly, the birth mother delivered at 27 weeks gestation. The infant was critically ill and required mechanical ventilation. However, in this neonatal intensive care unit where all adoptive parents and parents of mechanically ventilated infants are offered KC, these adoptive parents began KC on Day 3 while their infant daughter was still mechanically ventilated. She thrived thereafter and the entire experience was profoundly beneficial for this beginning family both at the hospital and after discharge home.

  19. Effect of TheraCyte-encapsulated parathyroid cells on lumbar fusion in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sung-Hsiung; Huang, Shun-Chen; Lui, Chun-Chung; Lin, Tzu-Ping; Chou, Fong-Fu; Ko, Jih-Yang

    2012-09-01

    Implantation of TheraCyte 4 × 10(6) live parathyroid cells can increase the bone marrow density of the spine of ovariectomized rats. There has been no published study examining the effect of such implantation on spinal fusion outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of TheraCyte-encapsulated parathyroid cells on posterolateral lumbar fusions in a rat model. Forty Sprague-Dawley rats underwent single-level, intertransverse process spinal fusions using iliac crest autograft. The rats were randomly assigned to two groups: Group 1 rats received sham operations on their necks (control; N = 20); Group 2 rats were implanted with TheraCyte-encapsulated 4 × 10(6) live parathyroid cells into the subcutis of their necks (TheraCyte; N = 20). Six weeks after surgery the rats were killed. Fusion was assessed by inspection, manual palpation, radiography, and histology. Blood was drawn to measure the serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH). Based on manual palpation, the control group had a fusion rate of 33 % (6/18) and the TheraCyte group had a fusion rate of 72 % (13/18) (P = 0.044). Histology confirmed the manual palpation results. Serum iPTH levels were significantly higher in the TheraCyte group compared with the control group (P TheraCyte-encapsulated 4 × 10(6) live parathyroid cells than in control rats without significant change in serum calcium or phosphorus concentrations. As with any animal study, the results may not extrapolate to a higher species. Further studies are needed to determine if these effects are clinically significant.

  20. Establishment of 9L/F344 rat intracerebral glioma model of brain tumor stem cells

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    Zong-yu XIAO

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To establish the 9L/F344 rat intracerebral glioma model of brain tumor stem cells.  Methods Rat 9L gliosarcoma stem-like cells were cultured in serum-free suspension. The expression of CD133 and nestin were tested by immunohistochemistry. A total of 48 inbredline male F344 rats were randomly divided into 2 groups, and 9L tumor sphere cells and 9L monolayer cells were respectively implanted into the right caudate nucleus of F344 rats in 2 groups. Survival time was observed and determined using the method of Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Fourteen days after implantation or when the rats were dying, their brains were perfused and sectioned for HE staining, and CD133 and nestin were detected by immunohistochemistry.  Results Rat 9L tumor spheres were formed with suspension culture in serum-free medium. The gliomas formed in both groups were invasive without obvious capsule. More new vessels, bleeding and necrosis could be detected in 9L tumor spheres group. The tumor cells in both groups were positive for CD133 and nestin. There was no significant difference in the expression of CD133 and nestin between 2 groups (P > 0.05, for all. According to the expression of nestin, the tumors formed by 9L tumor sphere cells were more invasive. The median survival time of the rats bearing 9L tumor sphere cells was 15 d (95%CI: 15.219-15.781, and the median survival time of the rats bearing 9L monolayer cells was 21 d (95%CI: 20.395-21.605. There was significant difference between 2 groups (χ2 = 12.800, P = 0.000.  Conclusions 9L/F344 rat intracerebral glioma model of brain tumor stem cells is successfully established, which provides a glioma model for the future research. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.04.012

  1. Experimental Modification of Rat Pituitary Growth Hormone Cell Function During and After Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, W. C.; Salada, T.; Nye, P.; Grossman, E. J.; Lane, P. K.; Grindeland, R. E.

    1996-01-01

    Space-flown rats show a number of flight-induced changes in the structure and function of pituitary Growth Hormone (GH) cells after in vitro postflight testing. To evaluate the possible effects of microgravity on GH cells themselves, freshly dispersed rat anterior pituitary gland cells were seeded into vials containing serum +/- 1 micron HydroCortisone (HC) before flight. Five different cell preparations were used: the entire mixed-cell population of various hormone-producing cell types, cells of density less than 1.071 g/sq cm (band 1), cells of density greater than 1.071 g/sq cm (band 2), and cells prepared from either the dorsal or ventral part of the gland. Relative to ground control samples, bioactive GH released from dense cells during flight was reduced in HC-free medium but was increased in HC-containing medium. Band I and mixed cells usually showed opposite HC-dependent responses. Release of bioactive GH from ventral flight cells was lower; postflight responses to GH-releasing hormone challenge were reduced, and the cytoplasmic area occupied by GH in the dense cells was greater. Collectively, the data show that the chemistry and cellular makeup of the culture system modifies the response of GH cells to microgravity. As such, these cells offer a system to identify gravisensing mechanisms in secretory cells in future microgravity research.

  2. Folliculostellate Cells Are Required for Laminin Release from Gonadotrophs in Rat Anterior Pituitary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukada, Takehiro; Fujiwara, Ken; Horiguchi, Kotaro; Azuma, Morio; Ramadhani, Dini; Tofrizal, Alimuddin; Batchuluun, Khongorzul; Maliza, Rita; Syaidah, Rahimi; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Yashiro, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    The anterior pituitary gland is organized tissue comprising hormone-producing cells and folliculostellate (FS) cells. FS cells interconnect to form a meshwork, and their cytoplasmic processes are anchored by a basement membrane containing laminin. Recently, we developed a three-dimensional (3D) cell culture that reproduces this FS cell architecture. In this study of the novel function of FS cells, we used transgenic rats that express green fluorescent protein in FS cells for the 3D culture. Anterior pituitary cells were cultured with different proportions of FS cells (0%, 5%, 10%, and 20%). Anterior pituitary cells containing 5–20% FS cells formed round/oval cell aggregates, whereas amorphous cell aggregates were formed in the absence of FS cells. Interestingly, immunohistochemistry showed laminin-immunopositive cells instead of extracellular laminin deposition in FS cell-deficient cell aggregates. Double-immunostaining revealed that these laminin-immunopositive cells were gonadotrophs. Laminin mRNA expression did not differ in relation to the presence or absence of FS cells. When anterior pituitary cells with no FS cells were cultured with FS cell-conditioned medium, the proportion of laminin-immunopositive cells was lower than in control. These results suggest that a humoral factor from FS cells is required for laminin release from gonadotrophs

  3. Sepsis-induced alteration in T-cell Ca(2+) signaling in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alattar, M H; Ravindranath, T M; Choudhry, M A; Muraskas, J K; Namak, S Y; Dallal, O; Sayeed, M M

    2001-01-01

    Sepsis-induced suppression in T-cell proliferation follows deranged Ca(2+) signaling in adult rats. In preliminary studies, we observed suppression in T-cell proliferation in septic neonatal rats as well. In this study, we assessed splenic T-cell cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration, [Ca(2+)](i), as its elevation plays an important role in T-cell proliferation. Also, we investigated the role of PGE(2) in sepsis-related changes in T-cell [Ca(2+)](i) in animals pretreated with cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) inhibitor (resveratrol) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor (NS-398). Sepsis was induced in 15-day-old rat pups by intraperitoneal implantation of fecal pellets containing Escherichia coli and Bacteroides fragilis. The sham group consisted of pups implanted with sterile fecal pellets. Septic and sham pups were sacrificed 24 h after implantation and their spleens were removed. The spleens from sham and septic pups, along with spleens from unoperated control pups, were processed for single cell suspensions, and T cells were isolated using nylon wool columns. Fura-2 fluorophotometry was employed for the measurement of [Ca(2+)](i) (in nM units) in T cells stimulated with concanavalin A (ConA). Our results show that ConA-mediated T-cell [Ca(2+)](i) response is significantly suppressed in septic neonatal rats. Pretreatment of pups with COX-2, but not COX-1 inhibitor, prevented the decrease in the [Ca(2+)](i) response. These findings suggest that PGE(2) might induce the attenuation in T-cell Ca(2+) signaling during sepsis in neonatal rats. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  4. Cell Injury and Repair Resulting from Sleep Loss and Sleep Recovery in Laboratory Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everson, Carol A.; Henchen, Christopher J.; Szabo, Aniko; Hogg, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Increased cell injury would provide the type of change in constitution that would underlie sleep disruption as a risk factor for multiple diseases. The current study was undertaken to investigate cell injury and altered cell fate as consequences of sleep deprivation, which were predicted from systemic clues. Design: Partial (35% sleep reduction) and total sleep deprivation were produced in rats for 10 days, which was tolerated and without overtly deteriorated health. Recovery rats were similarly sleep deprived for 10 days, then allowed undisturbed sleep for 2 days. The plasma, liver, lung, intestine, heart, and spleen were analyzed and compared to control values for damage to DNA, proteins, and lipids; apoptotic cell signaling and death; cell proliferation; and concentrations of glutathione peroxidase and catalase. Measurements and Results: Oxidative DNA damage in totally sleep deprived rats was 139% of control values, with organ-specific effects in the liver (247%), lung (166%), and small intestine (145%). Overall and organ-specific DNA damage was also increased in partially sleep deprived rats. In the intestinal epithelium, total sleep deprivation resulted in 5.3-fold increases in dying cells and 1.5-fold increases in proliferating cells, compared with control. Two days of recovery sleep restored the balance between DNA damage and repair, and resulted in normal or below-normal metabolic burdens and oxidative damage. Conclusions: These findings provide physical evidence that sleep loss causes cell damage, and in a manner expected to predispose to replication errors and metabolic abnormalities; thereby providing linkage between sleep loss and disease risk observed in epidemiological findings. Properties of recovery sleep include biochemical and molecular events that restore balance and decrease cell injury. Citation: Everson CA, Henchen CJ, Szabo A, Hogg N. Cell injury and repair resulting from sleep loss and sleep recovery in laboratory rats

  5. Protective Action of Carica papaya on β-Cells in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Osorio, Pedro H.; Castell-Rodríguez, Andrés E.; Vargas-Mancilla, Juan; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos A.; Ble-Castillo, Jorge L.; Aguilar-Domínguez, Dora E.; Juárez-Rojop, Isela E.; Díaz-Zagoya, Juan C.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of C. papaya L. leaf extract (CPLE) on pancreatic islets in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats, as well as on cultured normal pancreatic cells with STZ in the medium. CPLE (3–125 mg/Kg) was administered orally for 20 days, while a group of diabetic rats received 5 IU/Kg/day of insulin. At the end of the treatment the rats were sacrificed. Blood was obtained to assess glucose and insulin levels. The pancreas was dissected to evaluate β cells by immunohistochemistry. In addition, normal pancreatic cells were cultured in a medium that included CPLE (3–12 mg). One half of the cultured cells received simultaneously CPLE and STZ (6 mg), while the other half received CPLE and five days later the STZ. After three days of incubation, insulin was assayed in the incubation medium. The CPLE administered to diabetic rats improved the fasting glycemia and preserved the number and structure of pancreatic islets. However, when CPLE was added to pancreatic cells in culture along with STZ, the insulin concentration was higher in comparison with the cells that only received STZ. In conclusion, the CPLE preserves the integrity of pancreatic islets, improves the basal insulin secretion and protects cultured cells from the adverse effects of STZ. PMID:27128930

  6. Major salivary gland hypertrophy model in immature rats: morphometric and histochemical epithelial cell characteristics

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    Vera V. Ivanova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to estimate the functional state of epithelial cells of acini and ducts of major salivary glands with hypertrophy caused by repeated incisor amputations in immature rats.Materials and methods. The experiment was carried out on immature (20 days, white male rats, divided into 3 groups: intact, control and group of rats with repeated incisor amputations. Animals were taken out in 2d, 3d, 4th, 6th, 8th, 10th and 12th weeks after the first incisor amputation. Morphofunctional state of rat major salivary glands was assessed by histological (hematoxylin and eosin, histochemistrical (Alcian blue, PAS-reaction, Brachet method and morphometrical (acini area, intralobular ducts volume methods.Results. Repeated incisor amputations led to the increase of acini area and the decrease of intralobular duct volume in submandibular glands in 2nd–4th weeks of the experiment. Cytoplasm pyroninophilia of submandibular gland acinar cells was less pronounced and intensity of PAS-reaction was more pronounced than in intact animals in 3rd week of the experiment. Morphological and functional changes of parotid and sublingual gland epithelial cells were not observed after repeated amputations of incisors in immature rats.Conclusion. Repeated incisor amputations in immature male rats lead to submandibular gland acinar cell hypertrophy in the early stages of the experiment (2d–4th weeks with accumulation of glycoproteins and protein synthesis weakening in these cells. Hypertrophy of acinar cells are accompanied by retardation in the development of granular convoluted tubule cells which are the source of synthesis and secretion of the endocrine biologically active factors of submandibular glands.

  7. Fibrogenic response of hepatic stellate cells in ovariectomised rats exposed to ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobowiec, R; Wojcik, M; Jaworska-Adamu, J; Tusinska, E

    2013-02-01

    The discrepancy about the role of estrogens in hepatic fibrogenesis and lack of studies addressed of ketogenic diet (KD) on hepatic stellate cells (HSC), prompted us to investigate the activity of HSC in control, KD- and thioacetamide (TAA)-administrated rats with different plasma concentration of estradiol (E2). HSC were isolated by the collagenase perfusion methods and separated by the Percoll gradient centrifugation. After the 4(th) and 8(th) day of incubation, lysates of HSC and the media were collected for further analysis. The HSC derived from KD-rats released remarkably more transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 than cells obtained from animals fed with a standard diet. The ovariectomy of KD-rats markedly intensified the secretion of this fibrogenic cytokine on the 8(th) day of incubation (201.33 ±1 7.15 pg/ml). In HSC of rats exposed to E2, the TGF-β1 concentration did not exceed 157 ± 34.39 pg/ml. In respect to the collagen type I, the HSC obtained from ovariectomised KD-rats released an augmented amount of this ECM protein after the 8(th) day of culture (1.83 ± 0.14 U/ml). In the same time, higher quantities of ASMA appeared in the KD rats (1.41 ± 0.3 pg/mg protein). Exposition of rats to E2 did not markedly decrease the amount of ASMA. In summary, KD was able to induce morphological and functional changes in HSC, especially derived from rats deprived of ovarian estrogens. However, the preservation of E2 in ovariectomised rats didn't substantially alter the activation of HSC.

  8. Macrophage depletion and Schwann cell transplantation reduce cyst size after rat contusive spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yee-Shuan; Funk, Lucy H; Lee, Jae K; Bunge, Mary Bartlett

    2018-04-01

    Schwann cell transplantation is a promising therapy for the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI) and is currently in clinical trials. In our continuing efforts to improve Schwann cell transplantation strategies, we sought to determine the combined effects of Schwann cell transplantation with macrophage depletion. Since macrophages are major inflammatory contributors to the acute spinal cord injury, and are the major phagocytic cells, we hypothesized that transplanting Schwann cells after macrophage depletion will improve cell survival and integration with host tissue after SCI. To test this hypothesis, rat models of contusive SCI at thoracic level 8 were randomly subjected to macrophage depletion or not. In rat subjected to macrophage depletion, liposomes filled with clodronate were intraperitoneally injected at 1, 3, 6, 11, and 18 days post injury. Rats not subjected to macrophage depletion were intraperitoneally injected with liposomes filled with phosphate buffered saline. Schwann cells were transplanted 1 week post injury in all rats. Biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) was injected at thoracic level 5 to evalute axon regeneration. The Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan locomotor test, Gridwalk test, and sensory test using von Frey filaments were performed to assess functional recovery. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect glial fibrillary acidic protein, neurofilament, and green fluorescent protein (GFP), and also to visulize BDA-labelled axons. The GFP labeled Schwann cell and cyst and lesion volumes were quantified using stained slides. The numbers of BDA-positive axons were also quantified. At 8 weeks after Schwann cell transplantation, there was a significant reduction in cyst and lesion volumes in the combined treatment group compared to Schwann cell transplantation alone. These changes were not associated, however, with improved Schwann cell survival, axon growth, or locomotor recovery. Although combining Schwann cell transplantation with macrophage

  9. Macrophage depletion and Schwann cell transplantation reduce cyst size after rat contusive spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yee-Shuan; Funk, Lucy H.; Lee, Jae K.; Bunge, Mary Bartlett

    2018-01-01

    Schwann cell transplantation is a promising therapy for the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI) and is currently in clinical trials. In our continuing efforts to improve Schwann cell transplantation strategies, we sought to determine the combined effects of Schwann cell transplantation with macrophage depletion. Since macrophages are major inflammatory contributors to the acute spinal cord injury, and are the major phagocytic cells, we hypothesized that transplanting Schwann cells after macrophage depletion will improve cell survival and integration with host tissue after SCI. To test this hypothesis, rat models of contusive SCI at thoracic level 8 were randomly subjected to macrophage depletion or not. In rat subjected to macrophage depletion, liposomes filled with clodronate were intraperitoneally injected at 1, 3, 6, 11, and 18 days post injury. Rats not subjected to macrophage depletion were intraperitoneally injected with liposomes filled with phosphate buffered saline. Schwann cells were transplanted 1 week post injury in all rats. Biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) was injected at thoracic level 5 to evalute axon regeneration. The Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan locomotor test, Gridwalk test, and sensory test using von Frey filaments were performed to assess functional recovery. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect glial fibrillary acidic protein, neurofilament, and green fluorescent protein (GFP), and also to visulize BDA-labelled axons. The GFP labeled Schwann cell and cyst and lesion volumes were quantified using stained slides. The numbers of BDA-positive axons were also quantified. At 8 weeks after Schwann cell transplantation, there was a significant reduction in cyst and lesion volumes in the combined treatment group compared to Schwann cell transplantation alone. These changes were not associated, however, with improved Schwann cell survival, axon growth, or locomotor recovery. Although combining Schwann cell transplantation with macrophage

  10. Macrophage depletion and Schwann cell transplantation reduce cyst size after rat contusive spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee-Shuan Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Schwann cell transplantation is a promising therapy for the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI and is currently in clinical trials. In our continuing efforts to improve Schwann cell transplantation strategies, we sought to determine the combined effects of Schwann cell transplantation with macrophage depletion. Since macrophages are major inflammatory contributors to the acute spinal cord injury, and are the major phagocytic cells, we hypothesized that transplanting Schwann cells after macrophage depletion will improve cell survival and integration with host tissue after SCI. To test this hypothesis, rat models of contusive SCI at thoracic level 8 were randomly subjected to macrophage depletion or not. In rat subjected to macrophage depletion, liposomes filled with clodronate were intraperitoneally injected at 1, 3, 6, 11, and 18 days post injury. Rats not subjected to macrophage depletion were intraperitoneally injected with liposomes filled with phosphate buffered saline. Schwann cells were transplanted 1 week post injury in all rats. Biotinylated dextran amine (BDA was injected at thoracic level 5 to evalute axon regeneration. The Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan locomotor test, Gridwalk test, and sensory test using von Frey filaments were performed to assess functional recovery. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect glial fibrillary acidic protein, neurofilament, and green fluorescent protein (GFP, and also to visulize BDA-labelled axons. The GFP labeled Schwann cell and cyst and lesion volumes were quantified using stained slides. The numbers of BDA-positive axons were also quantified. At 8 weeks after Schwann cell transplantation, there was a significant reduction in cyst and lesion volumes in the combined treatment group compared to Schwann cell transplantation alone. These changes were not associated, however, with improved Schwann cell survival, axon growth, or locomotor recovery. Although combining Schwann cell transplantation with

  11. Changes of inflammatory cells in rat lungs exposed to diesel emissions; Diesel haiki bakuro ni yoru rat hai no ensho saibo no henka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, A. [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan); Kagawa, J. [Tokyo Women`s Medical College, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    Study was made on the effect of exposure to diesel emissions on inflammatory cells in a rat lungs. Four kinds of exposure gases with different contents of NO2 and particulate were prepared by diluting diesel emissions. Rats were exposed to diluted diesel emissions for 24 months, and inflammatory cells were detected morphologically in light microscopic and TEM specimens. As a result, particle-laden- alveolar macrophages increased dose- and time-dependently into the submucosa of intrapulmonary bronchioles, alveolar spaces and interstitume of alveolar walls, and bronchoassociated lymphatic tissues. Mast cells infiltrated into the interspaces of epithelial cells in airways. In the submucosa of the terminal bronchioles and the interstitume of alveolar walls, some sorts of inflammatory cells such as mast cells, plasma cells, neutrophils and lymphocytes infiltrated, and some cells showed cell-to-cell contacts. However, the airways were rarely injured by infiltration of inflammatory cells except for a fibrotic change. 2 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Separate effects of irradiation and of graft-versus-host reaction on rat mucosal mast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummins, A.G.; Munro, G.H.; Huntley, J.F.; Miller, H.R.P.; Ferguson, A.

    1989-01-01

    T cell mediated immune responses in the gut can produce enteropathy and malabsorption. The authors investigated the relevance of mucosal mast cells (MMC) to the mechanisms of this enteropathy by using graft-versus-host reaction (GvHR) in the rat as a model of mucosal delayed type hypersensitivity. x-irradiation, with or without GvHR, led to the virtual disappearance of jejunal MMC, undetectable jejunal rat mast cell protease (RMCPII) and very low levels of RMCPII in serum (all p<0.01 when compared with unirradiated controls). These experiments show that there is a modest expansion in jejunal MMC in unirradiated rats with semiallogeneic GvHR, whereas irradiation, alone or associated with GvHR, profoundly depletes MMC for at least two weeks. The enteropathy of GvHR can evolve in the virtual absence of MMC. (author)

  13. In vitro gamma irradiation Medical Center of leukemic cells in mice, rats, and guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, L.; Dreyfuss, Y.; Ehrenreich, T.; Feldman, D.; Limbert, L.M.

    1980-01-01

    In vitro gamma irradiation of virus-induced (Gross) mouse leukemia cells at doses of 350 to 1600 rads (1 rad = 0.01 gray) had no effect on their ability to induce leukemia, usually within 2 weeks, after transplantation into syngeneic mice. However, when cells irradiated at doses of 2000-20,000 rads were transplanted, they induced leukemia after a latency period exceeding 2.5 months, similar to the results observed in mice inoculated with filtered mouse leukemia extracts. Similar results were also obtained after irradiation of leukemic cells derived from rats in which leukemia had been induced by rat-adapted mouse leukemia virus. Apparently, gamma irradiation at a dose of, or exceeding, 2000 rads, inhibits the ability of mouse and rat leukemic cells to induce leukemia after transplantation into syngeneic hosts; however, it does not inactivate the virus carried by such cells nor prevent it from inducing leukemia. [In previous experiments, doses of more than 4,500,000 rads were needed to inactivate the passage A (Gross) leukemia virus carried in either mouse or rat leukemic cells.] In vitro gamma irradiation of L2C guinea pig leukemic cells at doses of 750 to 2500 rads had no apparent effect on their ability to induce leukemia after transplantation into strain 2 guinea pigs. However, irradiation at doses of 3250 to 20,000 rads inactivated their ability to do so. The morphology of mouse, rat, and guinea pig leukemic cells and the virus particles present in such cells was not affected by irradiation at doses of 20,000 rads

  14. Effect of retinoic acid on midkine gene expression in rat anterior pituitary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliza, Rita; Fujiwara, Ken; Azuma, Morio; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Yashiro, Takashi

    2017-06-29

    Retinoic acid (RA) is converted from retinal by retinaldehyde dehydrogenases (RALDHs) and is an essential signaling molecule in embryonic and adult tissue. We previously reported that RALDH1 was produced in the rat anterior pituitary gland and hypothesized that RA was generated in the gland. Midkine (MK) is an RA-inducible growth factor, and MK production in the rat anterior pituitary gland was recently reported. However, the mechanism that regulates gene expression of MK in the pituitary gland has not been determined. To investigate regulation of MK production in the anterior pituitary gland, we analyzed changes in MK mRNA in cultured rat anterior pituitary cells. We identified MK-expressing cells by double-staining with in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical techniques for RALDH1. MK mRNA was expressed in RALDH1-producing cells in the anterior pituitary gland. Using isolated anterior pituitary cells of rats, we examined the effect of RA on gene expression of MK. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that 72 h exposure to a concentration of 10 -6 M of retinal and all-trans retinoic acid increased MK mRNA levels by about 2-fold. Moreover, the stimulatory effect of all-trans retinoic acid was mimicked by the RA receptor agonist Am80. This is the first report to show that RA is important in regulating MK expression in rat anterior pituitary gland.

  15. Does injection of metanephric mesenchymal cells improve renal function in rats?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-qing Jiao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a massive global health-care problem. Cell therapy offers a potential treatment for CKD. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the administration of a population of stem cells could be used to treat adriamycin (ADR-induced glomerulopathy in rats, a form of CKD. We intravenously transplanted metanephric mesenchymal cells (MMCs into rats treated with ADR. We also induced MMC differentiation in vitro using a medium derived from serum and homogenates of ADR-induced glomerulopathy rats. We detected the induction of an early epithelial phenotype (cytokeratin-18 expression and a proximal tubule phenotype (vitamin D receptor expression in vitro, and MMC-derived epithelial cells corresponding to the proximal tubule and glomeruli in vivo. Transplantation of MMCs after induction of glomerulopathy significantly increased the creatinine clearance rate (Ccr, a marker for glomerular filtration rate, but had no significant effect on other parameters (24-hour urinary protein excretion, serum albumin, total cholesterol. In addition, there was no significant difference in blood urea nitrogen or serum creatinine levels in rats with and without ADR administration. Our results indicate that MMCs might survive, engraft and differentiate into renal epithelia in vivo when transplanted into ADR-treated rats. However, further studies are needed to determine whether MMC transplantation improves renal function and causes renal repair in this model.

  16. Immunomodulatory Effects of CP-25 on Splenic T Cells of Rats with Adjuvant Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Han, Chen-Chen; Cui, Dongqian; Luo, Ting-Ting; Li, Yifan; Zhang, Yuwen; Ma, Yang; Wei, Wei

    2018-06-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease in which T cells play an important role. Paeoniflorin-6-oxy-benzenesulfonate (CP-25) shows a strong anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effect in the joint of adjuvant arthritis (AA) rats, but the role of the spleen function is still unclear. The aim of this study was to research how CP-25 regulated spleen function of AA rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered with CP-25 (50 mg/kg) orally from day 17 to 29 after immunization. The spleen histopathological changes were analyzed by hematoxylin-eosin staining. G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) and prostaglandin receptor subtypes (EPs) were screened by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. The co-expression of GRK2 and EP2 as well as GRK2 and EP4 was measured by immunofluorescence and co-immunoprecipitation. The expression of GRK2 and EP4 in splenic T cells was further detected by immunofluorescence. CP-25 was found to relieve the secondary paw swelling, attenuate histopathologic changes, and downregulate GRK2, EP2 and EP4 expression in AA rats. Additionally, CP-25 not only downregulated the co-expression of GRK2 and EP4 but also downregulated GRK2, EP4 expression in splenic T cells of AA rats. From these results, we can infer that CP-25 play an anti-inflammatory and immune function by affecting the function of the splenic T cells.

  17. Quantitative analysis of rat adipose tissue cell recovery, and non-fat cell volume, in primary cell cultures

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    Floriana Rotondo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background White adipose tissue (WAT is a complex, diffuse, multifunctional organ which contains adipocytes, and a large proportion of fat, but also other cell types, active in defense, regeneration and signalling functions. Studies with adipocytes often require their isolation from WAT by breaking up the matrix of collagen fibres; however, it is unclear to what extent adipocyte number in primary cultures correlates with their number in intact WAT, since recovery and viability are often unknown. Experimental Design Epididymal WAT of four young adult rats was used to isolate adipocytes with collagenase. Careful recording of lipid content of tissue, and all fraction volumes and weights, allowed us to trace the amount of initial WAT fat remaining in the cell preparation. Functionality was estimated by incubation with glucose and measurement of glucose uptake and lactate, glycerol and NEFA excretion rates up to 48 h. Non-adipocyte cells were also recovered and their sizes (and those of adipocytes were measured. The presence of non-nucleated cells (erythrocytes was also estimated. Results Cell numbers and sizes were correlated from all fractions to intact WAT. Tracing the lipid content, the recovery of adipocytes in the final, metabolically active, preparation was in the range of 70–75%. Cells showed even higher metabolic activity in the second than in the first day of incubation. Adipocytes were 7%, erythrocytes 66% and other stromal (nucleated cells 27% of total WAT cells. However, their overall volumes were 90%, 0.05%, and 0.2% of WAT. Non-fat volume of adipocytes was 1.3% of WAT. Conclusions The methodology presented here allows for a direct quantitative reference to the original tissue of studies using isolated cells. We have also found that the “live cell mass” of adipose tissue is very small: about 13 µL/g for adipocytes and 2 µL/g stromal, plus about 1 µL/g blood (the rats were killed by exsanguination. These data translate (with

  18. Pulmonary tumors induced in the rat by the internal α irradiation; target cells and sensitive cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsch, P.; Masse, R.; Nolibe, D.; Metivier, H.; Morin, M.; Lafuma, J.

    1977-01-01

    Over, 500 rat pulmonary tumors induced by inhalation of various radionuclides have been examined by means of the usual histological methods and ultrastructurally for part of them. Tumor grafts were obtained and several lines have been preserved for several years. The malignity of some varieties: circumscribed epidermoid carcinoma, fibrosarcoma derived from stromareaction, bronchiolo alveolar carcinoma was thus established. It was not possible to establish any relation between the turnover per day and the incidence of pulmonary tumors whatever the correction factor applied taking account of the distribution of the delivered dose. The possibility of showing unapparent lesions of the target cells by grafts of immunodepressed animals suggested that local regulating mechanisms are of particular significance [fr

  19. Black seed oil ameliorates allergic airway inflammation by inhibiting T-cell proliferation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Muhammad; Yang, Xudong; Raza Asim, M B; Sun, Qingzhu; Han, Yan; Zhang, Fujun; Cao, Yongxiao; Lu, Shemin

    2009-02-01

    The black seeds, from the Ranunculaceae family, have been traditionally used by various cultures as a natural remedy for several ailments. In this study, we examined the effect of black seed oil as an immunomodulator in a rat model of allergic airway inflammation. Rats sensitized to ovalbumin and challenged intranasally with ovalbumin to induce an allergic inflammatory response were compared to ovalbumin-sensitized, intranasally ovalbumin-exposed rats pretreated with intraperitoneally administered black seed oil and to control rats. The levels of IgE, IgG1 and ova-specific T-cell proliferation in spleen were measured by ELISA. The pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-4, IL-5, IL-6 and TGF-beta1 mRNA expression levels were measured by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The intraperitoneal administration of black seed oil inhibited the Th2 type immune response in rats by preventing inflammatory cell infiltration and pathological lesions in the lungs. It significantly decreased the nitric oxide production in BALF, total serum IgE, IgG1 and OVA-specific IgG1 along with IL-4, IL-5, IL-6 and TGF-beta1 mRNA expression. Black seed oil treatment resulted in decreased T-cell response evident by lesser delayed type hypersensitivity and lower T-cell proliferation in spleen. In conclusion, black seed oil exhibited a significant reduction in all the markers of allergic inflammation mainly by inhibiting the delayed type hypersensitivity and T-cell proliferation. The data suggests that inhibition of T-cell response may be responsible for immunomodulatory effect of black seed oil in the rat model of allergic airway inflammation.

  20. Urtica Dioica Distillate Regenerates Pancreatic Beta Cells in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohari, Ali; Noorafshan, Ali; Akmali, Masoumeh; Zamani-Garmsiri, Fahimeh; Seghatoleslam, Atefeh

    2018-01-01

    Background Urtica dioica is known as an anti-hyperglycemic plant. Urtica dioica distillate (UD) is a traditional Iranian drink, locally known as “aragh gazaneh”. In spite of its widespread consumption in Iran, according to traditional Iranian medicine, there is no scientific report on the usefulness of UD for diabetic patients. This survey was designed to evaluate its protective effects for the recovery from diabetes by determining the serum insulin, blood glucose, volume of pancreatic islets, and the number and volume of β-cells in diabetic rats. Methods A total of 48 Sprague-Dawley male rats (200-250 g) were randomly distributed into 6 groups (n=8), including non-diabetic plus distilled water (DW), non-diabetic plus UD, diabetic plus DW, diabetic plus UD, diabetic plus insulin, and diabetic plus glibenclamide. DW, UD, and glibenclamide were administered via intragastric gavage and insulin was injected subcutaneously. After four weeks of experiments, blood samples were collected for serum insulin and blood glucose assay. Pancreas was also evaluated using stereological method. The SPSS software was used for statistical analysis. Kruskal-Wallis, repeated measurements, and Mann-Whitney U test were applied for comparisons between the groups. Results The treatment of diabetic rats with UD reduced the blood glucose dramatically (P<0.001) and increased serum insulin levels significantly (P=0.03) in comparison to the diabetic plus DW rats. Treatment with UD did not affect the mean β-cell volumes in the diabetic rats when compared to the diabetic plus DW rats, but the islet volumes and β-cell numbers were significantly recovered. Conclusion UD treatment in diabetic rats improves hyperglycemia by partially restoring plasma insulin levels. The data suggest that UD prevents islet atrophy and/or regenerate pancreatic β-cells. PMID:29749986

  1. Seasonal variation in kangaroo tooth enamel oxygen and carbon isotopes in southern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookman, Tom H.; Ambrose, Stanley H.

    2012-09-01

    Serial sampling of tooth enamel growth increments for carbon and oxygen isotopic analyses of Macropus (kangaroo) teeth was performed to assess the potential for reconstructing paleoseasonality. The carbon isotope composition of tooth enamel apatite carbonate reflects the proportional intake of C3 and C4 vegetation. The oxygen isotopic composition of enamel reflects that of ingested and metabolic water. Tooth enamel forms sequentially from the tip of the crown to the base, so dietary and environmental changes during the tooth's formation can be detected. δ13C and δ18O values were determined for a series of enamel samples drilled from the 3rd and 4th molars of kangaroos that were collected along a 900 km north-south transect in southern Australia. The serial sampling method did not yield pronounced seasonal isotopic variation patterns in Macropus enamel. The full extent of dietary isotopic variation may be obscured by attenuation of the isotopic signal during enamel mineralisation. Brachydont (low-crowned) Macropus teeth may be less sensitive to seasonal variation in isotopic composition due to time-averaging during mineralisation. However, geographic variations observed suggest that there may be potential for tracking latitudinal shifts in vegetation zones and seasonal environmental patterns in response to climate change.

  2. Studies on the in vitro cultivation of ciliate protozoa from the kangaroo forestomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehority, Burk A; Wright, André-Denis G

    2014-08-01

    The methods used for culturing rumen protozoa were found to be unsatisfactory for growth of ciliate protozoa from the kangaroo forestomach. Based on published measurements of physical parameters in the marsupial forestomach, several modifications were incorporated into the procedure, i.e., an increase in % hydrogen in the gas phase, adjustment of initial pH of the medium to 6.9-7.0 range, feed only forage as a substrate and incubate at a lower temperature (33-36 °C). Only incubation at the lower temperature increased survival time of the kangaroo protozoa. Two species of Bitricha were still viable after 28 d in culture. Cultures had to be terminated at that time. One of the species differed considerably in size and shape from previously described species and based on 18S rRNA data, may represent a new species of Bitricha. The second species, present in low numbers was identified as Bitricha oblata. In a separate trial, Macropodinium yalanbense survived for 11 d, at which time these cultures also had to be terminated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. EFFECTS OF VOLUNTARY WHEEL RUNNING ON SATELLITE CELLS IN THE RAT PLANTARIS MUSCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Kojima

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of voluntary wheel running on satellite cells in the rat plantaris muscle. Seventeen 5-week-old male Wistar rats were assigned to a control (n = 5 or training (n = 12 group. Each rat in the training group ran voluntarily in a running-wheel cage for 8 weeks. After the training period, the animals were anesthetized, and the plantaris muscles were removed, weighed, and analyzed immunohistochemically and biochemically. Although there were no significant differences in muscle weight or fiber area between the groups, the numbers of satellite cells and myonuclei per muscle fiber, percentage of satellite cells, and citrate synthase activity were significantly higher in the training group compared with the control group (p < 0.05. The percentage of satellite cells was also positively correlated with distance run in the training group (r = 0.61, p < 0.05. Voluntary running can induce an increase in the number of satellite cells without changing the mean fiber area in the rat plantaris muscle; this increase in satellite cell content is a function of distance run

  4. Effect of continuous low-dose γ-irradiation on rat Sertoli cell function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamtchouing, P.; Papadopoulos, V.; Drosdowsky, M.A.; Carreau, S.; Pinon-Lataillade, G.; Maas, J.; Guillaumin, J.M.; Bardos, P.; Perreau, C.; Hochereau de Reviers, M.T.

    1988-01-01

    Continuous low-dose γ-irradiation of mature rats induced a progressive degeneration of the germ cells. Blood FSH increased by 127, 176 and 214%, respectively, after 55, 70 and 85 days of treatment when compared to FSH levels in control rats (8.50 ± 0.60 ng/ml); conversely, serum LH and testosterone levels were unchanged. The Sertoli cell function was affected by the treatment from 70 days on, as attested by androgen binding protein (ABP) and transferrin secretions which diminished 35-40%. Serum ABP levels were not altered, whatever the duration of irradiation, even though epididymal ABP contents (as well as concentrations) diminished 34-60% when compared to those of the controls. Moreover, in purified Leydig cells, LH-stimulated intracellular cAMP levels, which were decreased by seminiferous tubule medium (STM) from control rats, were enhanced in presence of STM from treated animals. Testosterone output was stimulated 9-fold in presence of oLH and further increased (46-76%) from stages XIV-V by STM prepared from control and irradiated rats, respectively. After 85 days the STM effects on both cAMP and testosterone syntheses were zero. These results demonstrate a probable alteration of Sertoli cell function after irradiation, but also a role of the germ cells in the regulation of the synthesis of ABP, transferrin and Sertoli cell paracrine factors

  5. Immune cell distribution and immunoglobulin levels change following sciatic nerve injury in a rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yuan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: To investigate the systemic and local immune status of two surgical rat models of sciatic nerve injury, a crushed sciatic nerve, and a sciatic nerve transection Materials and Methods:Twenty-four adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham-operation (control group, sciatic nerve crush, and sciatic nerve transaction. Sciatic nerve surgery was performed. The percentage of CD4+ cells and the CD4+/CD8+ratio were determined by flow cytometry. Serum IgM and IgG levels were analyzed by ELISA. T-cells (CD3 and macrophages (CD68 in sciatic nerve tissue sections were identified through immunohistochemistry. Results: Compared to sham-operated controls, in rats that underwent nerve injury, the percentage of CD4+ cells and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio in the peripheral blood were significantly  decreased 7 days after surgery, serum IgM levels were increased 14 days after surgery, and serum IgG levels were increased 21 days after surgery. There were a large number of CD3+ cells and a small number of CD68+ cells in sciatic nerve tissue sections 21 days after surgery, indicating T-cell and macrophage activation and infiltration. Local IgG deposition was also detected at the nerve injury site 21 days after surgery. Conclusion: Rat humoral and cellular immune status changed following sciatic nerve injury, particularly with regard to the cellular immune response at the nerve injury site.

  6. The spleen can influence the metastasis of AH130 hepatoma cells in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyonaga, M; Hiraoka, T; Tanaka, H; Miyauchi, Y

    1993-06-01

    The effect of pathophysiological conditions due to disturbance of the spleen is still unclear. We studied the effects of splenectomy in normal and methylcellulose-induced hypersplenic rats on the development of pulmonary metastases created by intravenous injection of ascites containing AH130 hepatoma cells from male Hos-Donryu rats. Growth of metastatic lesions in the lung was not affected by splenectomy in normal rats, but was increased by splenectomy in hypersplenic rats. Overall, there were fewer pulmonary metastases in rats with hypersplenism, but after splenectomy rats with hypersplenism had a significantly greater number of metastases than did normal rats. The metastases rate correlated somewhat with changes in the blood coagulation and T lymphocyte profile. There is a relationship between the spleen and formation of metastases in cancer. Formation of metastases in the lung was affected most by splenectomy in hypersplenism. To elucidate the mechanism by which metastases are formed in the lung under these pathologic conditions, further studies on the exact role of the spleen are required.

  7. Asthma pregnancy alters postnatal development of chromaffin cells in the rat adrenal medulla.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Ming Wu

    Full Text Available Adrenal neuroendocrine plays an important role in asthma. The activity of the sympathoadrenal system could be altered by early life events. The effects of maternal asthma during pregnancy on the adrenal medulla of offspring remain unknown.This study aims to explore the influence of maternal asthma during pregnancy on the development and function of adrenal medulla in offspring from postnatal day 3 (P3 to postnatal day 60 (P60. Asthmatic pregnant rats (AP, nerve growth factor (NGF-treated pregnant rats (NP and NGF antibody-treated pregnant rats (ANP were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA; NP and ANP were treated with NGF and NGF antibody respectively. Offspring rats from the maternal group were divided into four groups: offspring from control pregnant rats (OCP, offspring from AP (OAP, offspring from NP (ONP, and offspring from ANP (OANP. The expressions of phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT protein in adrenal medulla were analyzed. The concentrations of epinephrine (EPI, corticosterone and NGF in serum were measured. Adrenal medulla chromaffin cells (AMCC were prone to differentiate into sympathetic nerve cells in OAP and ONP. Both EPI and PNMT were decreased in OAP from P3 to P14, and then reached normal level gradually from P30 to P60, which were lower from birth to adulthood in ONP. Corticosterone concentration increased significantly in OAP and ONP.Asthma pregnancy may promote AMCC to differentiate into sympathetic neurons in offspring rats and inhibit the synthesis of EPI, resulting in dysfunction of bronchial relaxation.

  8. Effect of Batroxobin on Expression of Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule in Temporal Infarction Rats and Spatial Learning and Memory Disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The effect of Batroxobin expression of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) in left temporal ischemic rats with spatial memory disorder was investigated by means of Morri's water maze and immunohistochemical methods. The results showed that the mean reaction time and distance of temporal ischemic rats for searching a goal were significantly longer than those of sham-operated rats and at the same time NCAM expression of left temporal ischemic region was significantly increased. However, the mean reaction time and distance of Batroxobin-treated rats were shorter and they used normal strategies more often and earlier than those of ischemic rats. The number of NCAM immune reactive cells of Batroxobin-treated rats was more than that of ischemic group. In conclusion, Batroxobin can improve spatial memory disorder of temporal ischemic rats and the regulation of the expression of NCAM is probably related to the neuroprotective mechanism.

  9. DNA lability induced by nimustine and ramustine in rat glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineura, K; Fushimi, S; Itoh, Y; Kowada, M

    1988-01-01

    The DNA labile sites induced by two nitrosoureas, nimustine (ACNU) and ramustine (MCNU) synthesised in Japan, have been examined in highly reiterated DNA sequences of rat glioma cells. Reiterated fragments of 167 and 203 base pairs (bp), obtained after Hind III and Hae III restriction endonuclease digestion of rat glioma cells DNA, were used as target DNA sequences to determine the labile sites. In vitro reaction with ACNU and MCNU resulted in scission products corresponding to the locations of guanine. Subsequent piperidine hydrolysis produced more frequent breaks of the phosphodiester bonds at guanine positions, thus forming alkali-labile sites. Images PMID:3236017

  10. Characterisation of a novel proteolytic enzyme localised to goblet cells in rat and man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1984-01-01

    A proteolytic enzyme, ingobsin , purified from rat duodenal extracts is shown to be localised to intestinal goblet cells of both man and rat. Enzyme positive cells decrease in number from duodenum to colon. The enzyme is a 33 000 Mr protein with an isoelectric point of 5.1. The pH optimum...... for enzymatic activity is 7.4-8.0. Based on substrate specificity for arg-x, lys-x and to a lesser degree tyr-x, on the effect of diisopropylphosphorofluoride , Trasylol and phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride and on proteolytic activity towards intact proteins, ingobsin is classified as a serine proteinase...

  11. Parents’ lived experience of providing kangaroo care to their preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Leonard

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Premature and low birthweight infants pose particular challenges to health services in South Africa. While there is good evidence to demonstrate the benefits of kangaroo care in low birthweight infants, limited research has been conducted locally on the experiences of parents who provide kangaroo care to their preterm infants. This phenomenological study explores the lived experience of parents who provided their preterm infants with kangaroo care at a tertiary-level maternity centre in the Western Cape. In-depth interviews were conducted with six parents: four mothers and two fathers. Data was analysed using an adaptation of the approaches described by Colaizzi (1978:48-71 and Hycner (1985:280-294. To ensure trustworthiness, the trustworthiness criteria described by Guba and Lincoln (1989:242-243 were applied. Kangaroo care is a phased process, each phase bringing a unique set of experiences. The eight themes that emerged are described: unforeseen, unprepared and uncertain - the experience of birth; anxiety and barriers; an intimate connection; adjustments, roles and responsibilities; measuring success; a network of encouragement and support; living-in challenges; and living with the infant outside of hospital. Challenges facing health care providers are described and recommendations for information about kangaroo care and support for parents are made. Opsomming Vroeggebore babas en babas met ’n lae geboortegewig stel besondere uitdagings vir Suid-Afrikaanse gesondhiedsdienste. Daar bestaan goeie bewyse dat die kangaroesorgmetode voordelig is vir babas met ’n laegeboortegewig, dog is minimale plaaslike navorsing gedoen oor die ondervindinge van ouers wat hierdie metode gebruik om vir hul vroeggebore babas te sorg. Hierdie fenomenologiese studie verken die geleefde ervaringe van ouers wat vir hulle vroeggebore babas deur middel van die kangaroesorgmetode in ’n tersiêre kraamsentrum in die Weskaap gesorg het. Data is ingesamel deur in

  12. Cell proliferation in rat nasal respiratory epithelium following three months exposure to formaldehyde gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monticello, T.M.; Morgan, K.T.

    1990-01-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO), a ubiquitous chemical and rat nasal carcinogen, enhances cell proliferation in rat, monkey, and xenotransplanted human respiratory epithelium following short-term exposure. The present studies were designed to evaluate cell proliferation in relation to tumor induction in rat nasal respiratory epithelium following subchronic HCHO exposure. Male F-344 rats were whole-body exposed to either 0, 0.7, 2, 6, 10, or 15 ppm HCHO, for wither 4 d (6hr/d), 6 wks (5d/wk) or 3 months. Animals were labeled with tritiated thymidine prior to euthanasia. Nasal sections were processed for autoradiography and cell proliferation data was expressed as unit length labeling indices (ULLI). HCHO-induced lesions and increases in cell proliferation occurred in specific regions of the nose, primarily the wall of the lateral meatus and nasal septum of the anterior nasal cavity. Following 4 d exposure, significant elevations in cell proliferation were observed only in the 6, 10 and 15 ppm groups (16-, 18-, and 20-fold increase over control, respectively). Increases in ULLI were also present in the 6, 10 and 15 ppm groups after 6 wks of exposure (12-, 35-, and 40-fold increase over control). However, after 3 months exposure, elevations in ULLI were present only in the 10 and 15 ppm groups (9- and 14-fold increase over controls). These results demonstrate that (1) low levels of HCHO (0.7 and 2 ppm) do not increase cell proliferation in rat nasal respiratory epithelium; (2) 6 ppm HCHO induces transient increases in cell proliferation; and (3) clearly carcinogenic concentrations of HCHO (10 and 15 ppm) cause sustained elevations in cell proliferation which may play an important role in HCHO-induced carcinogenesis

  13. Original article The effects of kangaroo mother care in a sample of preterm, preschool aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Chrzan-Dętkoś

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The research has shown that kangaroo mother care has a protective impact both on health and future cognitive skills of prematurely born babies. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between the early skin-to-skin contact and the cognitive and emotional-social functioning of preschool aged preterm babies. Participants and procedure The study group included 99 preterm babies. The children participated in a psychological examination conducted using the Columbia Mental Maturity Scale and the Terman-Merrill Test. The data concerning the skin-to-skin contact during the child’s hospitalisation were acquired during interviews with mothers. The emotional development was assessed on the basis of interviews with mothers, conducted using the Rescorla DSM-IV Orientation Scale (2005. Results The study showed no relation between kangaroo mother care and cognitive development. Nevertheless the early skin-to-skin contact turned out to be connected with the emotional functioning of the subjects. Preterm babies who used to experience kangaroo mother care experienced fewer anxiety and depressive disorders than those who did not. In addition it was revealed that the children who suffered from early damage to the brain in the forms of intraventricular and periventricular haemorrhages and experienced kangaroo mother care demonstrated less intense depressive symptoms than those who did not. Conclusions The obtained results, combined with the review of the foreign literature of the subject, indicate the usefulness of introducing kangaroo mother care to neonatal wards and encouraging parents to care about their prematurely born babies in such a way.

  14. Skin Mast Cell Promotion in Random Skin Flaps in Rats using Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Amniotic Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehelcheraghi, Farzaneh; Abbaszadeh, Abolfazl; Tavafi, Magid

    2018-03-06

    Skin flap procedures are employed in plastic surgery, but failure can lead to necrosis of the flap. Studies have used bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) to improve flap viability. BM-MSCs and acellular amniotic membrane (AAM) have been introduced as alternatives. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of BM-MSCs and AAM on mast cells of random skin flaps (RSF) in rats. RSFs (80 × 30 mm) were created on 40 rats that were randomly assigned to one of four groups, including (I) AAM, (II) BM-MSCs, (III) BM-MSCs/AAM, and (IV) saline (control). Transplantation was carried out during the procedure (zero day). Flap necrosis was observed on day 7, and skin samples were collected from the transition line of the flap to evaluate the total number and types of mast cells. The development and the total number of mast cells were related to the development of capillaries. The results of one-way ANOVA indicated that there was no statistically significant difference between the mean numbers of mast cell types for different study groups. However, the difference between the total number of mast cells in the study groups was statistically significant (p = 0.001). The present study suggests that the use of AAM/BM-MSCs can improve the total number of mast cells and accelerate the growth of capillaries at the transient site in RSFs in rats.

  15. Isoferritins in rat Kupffer cells, hepatocytes, and extrahepatic macrophages. Biosynthesis in cell suspensions and cultures in response to iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doolittle, R.L.; Richter, G.W.

    1981-01-01

    Cultures of Kupffer cells and of hepatocytes, prepared from single rat livers, synthesized ferritin protein equally efficiently. In culture but not in suspension, both sorts of cells responded significantly to stimulation with iron by increased ferritin synthesis. As determined by isoelectric focusing, the isoferritin profiles of newly synthesized 14 -labeled Kupffer cell and hepatocyte ferritin were identical, each having three bands. However, unlabeled ferritin, extracted from nonparenchymal liver cells (mainly Kupffer and endothelial cells) of iron-loaded rats, contained an acidic isoferritin that was not present in hepatocyte ferritin. Investigation of ferritin synthesis in cultured peritoneal and alveolar macrophages yielded similar results. The isofocusing profile of newly synthesized peritoneal macrophage ferritin was indistinguishable from the profile of fresh Kupffer cell or hepatocyte ferritin. Thus, the three isoferritins common to Kupffer cells, hepatocytes, and extrahepatic macrophages are neither cell- nor tissue-specific. However, modifications on intracellular storage may affect the isofocusing properties. The findings, although consistent with the LnH24-n subunit model of ferritin protein, indicate identical restrictive genomic control of the H:L ratios in these sorts of cells. Further, they make it probable that Kupffer cell ferritin iron, originating by endogenous synthesis, is the principal source of Kupffer cell hemosiderin iron

  16. Effects of neonatal. gamma. -ray irradiation on rat hippocampus: Pt. 1; Postnatal maturation of hippocampal cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Represa, A; Dessi, F; Beaudoin, M; Ben-Ari, Y [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), 75 - Paris (France)

    1991-01-01

    The axons of dentate granule cells, the mossy fibres, establish synaptic contacts with the thorny excrescences of the apical dendrite of CA3 pyramidal neurons. Dentate granule cells develop postnatally in rats, whereas the CA3 pyramidal cells are generated before birth. In the present studies, using unilateral neonatal {gamma}-ray irradiation to destroy the granule cells in one hemisphere, we have studied the effect of mossy fibre deprivation on the development of their targets. We show that such ''degranulation'' prevents the normal development of giant thorny excrescences, suggesting that the development of thorny excrescences in CA3 pyramidal neurons is under the control of mossy fibres. In contrast, irradiation of the hippocampus of the neonatal rat does not affect the development of the dendritic arborization of CA3 pyramidal cells and their non-mossy dendritic spines. (author).

  17. The cholinergic-inducing effect of BMP4 on rat's cerebral neural stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Yan; Xue Yilong; Luo Yun; Tian Lei; Pan Jingkun; Cui Xin

    2004-01-01

    The cholinergic-inducing effect of BMP4 on isolated and cultivated rat's cerebral neural stem cells (NSC) was examined. NSC isolated from two months old rat's brain region like hippocampus and striatum was cultivated in a DMEM/F12 medium containing EGF and bFGF, and was identified with morphological character and nestin immunocytochemistry test. After 24 hours, cultivating the NSC with the BMP4-added medium for 7-8 days, then the microscopical change were observed, ChAT and nestin double-labelling immunocytochemistry test was done. Results showed that about 34% NSC of neuron-like character was observed by microscope in the paper. That ChAT-positive cells coexist with nestin-positive cells was found by immunocytochemistry test. There were 28% ChAT-positive cells and 38% nestin-positive cells in the study. Cholinergic neurons differentiated from NSC could be induced by adding BMP4 to the medium

  18. Bone Marrow Cell Therapy on 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-Induced Colon Cancer in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khadragy, Manal F; Nabil, Heba M; Hassan, Basmaa N; Tohamy, Amany A; Waaer, Hanaa F; Yehia, Hany M; Alharbi, Afra M; Moneim, Ahmed Esmat Abdel

    2018-01-01

    Stem cell based therapies are being under focus due to their possible role in treatment of various tumors. Bone marrow stem cells believed to have anticancer potential and are preferred for their activities by stimulating the immune system, migration to the site of tumor and ability for inducting apoptosis in cancer cells. The current study was aimed to investigate the tumor suppressive effects of bone marrow cells (BMCs) in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon cancer in rats. The rats were randomly allocated into four groups: control, BMCs alone, DMH alone and BMCs with DMH. BMCs were injected intrarectally while DMH was injected subcutaneously at 20 mg/kg body weight once a week for 15 weeks. Histopathological examination and gene expression of survivin, β-catenin and multidrug resistance-1 (MDR-1) by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in rat colon tissues. This is in addition to oxidative stress markers in colon were performed across all groups. The presence of aberrant crypt foci was reordered once histopathological examination of colon tissue from rats which received DMH alone. Administration of BMCs into rats starting from zero-day of DMH injection improved the histopathological picture which showed a clear improvement in mucosal layer, few inflammatory cells infiltration periglandular and in the lamina propria. Gene expression in rat colon tissue demonstrated that BMCs down-regulated survivin, β-catenin, MDR-1 and cytokeratin 20 genes expression in colon tissues after colon cancer induction. Amelioration of the colon status after administration of MSCs has been evidenced by a major reduction of lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, and increasing of glutathione content and superoxide dismutase along with catalase activities. Our findings demonstrated that BMCs have tumor suppressive effects in DMH-induced colon cancer as evidenced by down-regulation of survivin, β-catenin, and MDR-1 genes and enhancing the antioxidant

  19. Testing stem cell therapy in a rat model of inflammatory bowel disease: role of bone marrow stem cells and stem cell factor in mucosal regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Bo; Xin, Guo-Rong; Zhao, Li-Xia; Xing, Hui; Lian, Li-Ying; Jiang, Hai-Yan; Tong, Jia-Zhao; Wang, Bei-Bei; Jin, Shi-Zhu

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) mucosal cells turnover regularly under physiological conditions, which may be stimulated in various pathological situations including inflammation. Local epithelial stem cells appear to play a major role in such mucosal renewal or pathological regeneration. Less is clear about the involvement of multipotent stem cells from blood in GI repair. We attempted to explore a role of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMMSCs) and soluble stem cell factor (SCF) in GI mucosa regeneration in a rat model of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). BMMSCs labelled with the fluorescent dye PKH26 from donor rats were transfused into rats suffering indomethacin-induced GI injury. Experimental effects by BMMSCs transplant and SCF were determined by morphometry of intestinal mucosa, double labeling of PKH26 positive BMMSCs with endogenous proliferative and intestinal cell markers, and western blot and PCR analyses of the above molecular markers in the recipient rats relative to controls. PKH26 positive BMMSCs were found in the recipient mucosa, partially colocalizing with the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), Lgr5, Musashi-1 and ephrin-B3. mRNA and protein levels of PCNA, Lgr5, Musashi-1 and ephrin-B3 were elevated in the intestine in BMMSCs-treated rats, most prominent in the BMMSCs-SCF co-treatment group. The mucosal layer and the crypt layer of the small intestine were thicker in BMMSCs-treated rats, more evident in the BMMSCs-SCF co-treatment group. BMMSCs and SCF participate in but may play a synergistic role in mucosal cell regeneration following experimentally induced intestinal injury. Bone marrow stem cell therapy and SCF administration may be of therapeutic value in IBD.

  20. Fluorescein transport properties across artificial lipid membranes, Caco-2 cell monolayers and rat jejunum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berginc, Katja; Zakelj, Simon; Levstik, Lea; Ursic, Darko; Kristl, Albin

    2007-05-01

    Membrane transport characteristics of a paracellular permeability marker fluorescein were evaluated using artificial membrane, Caco-2 cell monolayers and rat jejunum, all mounted in side-by-side diffusion cells. Modified Ringer buffers with varied pH values were applied as incubation salines on both sides of artificial membrane, cell culture monolayers or rat jejunum. Passive transport according to pH partition theory was determined using all three permeability models. In addition to that, active transport of fluorescein in the M-S (mucosal-to-serosal) direction through rat jejunum was observed. The highest M-S P(app) values regarding the active transport through the rat jejunum were observed in incubation saline with pH 6.5. Fluorescein transport through the rat jejunum was inhibited by DIDS (4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid) and alpha-CHC (alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid). Thus, we assume that two pH-dependent influx transporters could be involved in the fluorescein membrane transport through the intestinal (jejunal) epithelium. One is very likely an MCT (monocarboxylic acid cotransporter) isoform, inhibited by specific MCT inhibitor alpha-CHC, while the involvement of the second one with overlapping substrate/inhibitor specificities (most probably a member of the organic anion-transporting polypeptide family, inhibited at least partially by DIDS) could not be excluded.

  1. Synthesis of erythrocyte membrane proteins in dispersed cells from fetal rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Yasuo; Murakami, Akihiko; Sugimoto, Etsuro

    1984-01-01

    Protein synthesis in dispersed cells from fetal liver was studied by fluorography of SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of a [ 35 S] methionine labeled cell lysate. Synthesis of several proteins with molecular weights ranging from 45,000 to 220,000 was observed during erythropoiesis in fetal liver. Some of these proteins were demonstrated to be erythrocyte membrane proteins because they were immunoprecipitated with antiserum against rat red blood cells and the immunoprecipitation was competitive with non-radioactive proteins solubilized from erythrocyte ghosts. The same antiserum caused agglutination of dispered cells from fetal liver. This supported the possibility that these proteins are translocated onto plasma membranes of the dispersed cells. (author)

  2. Effects of glucocorticoid hormones on cell proliferation in dimethylhydrazine-induced tumours in rat colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1981-01-01

    Adrenocortical hormones have previously been shown to influence cell proliferation in many tissues. In this report, their influence on cell proliferation in the colonic crypt epithelium and in colonic adenocarcinomata is compared. Colonic tumour cell proliferation was found to be retarded following adrenalectomy and this retardation was reversible by administration of hydrocortisone, or by administration of synthetic steroids with predominantly glucocorticoid activity. Tumour cell proliferation in adrenalectomized rats was not promoted by the mineralocorticoid hormone aldosterone. Neither adrenalectomy, nor adrenocortical hormone treatment, significantly influenced colonic crypt cell proliferation.

  3. Differences in pyrimidine dimer removal between rat skin cells in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullaart, E.; Lohman, P.H.; Vijg, J.

    1988-01-01

    Pyrimidine dimers, the most abundant type of DNA lesions induced by ultraviolet light (UV), are rapidly repaired in human skin fibroblasts in vitro. In the same cell type from rats, however, there is hardly any removal of such dimers. To investigate whether this low capacity of rat skin cells to repair lesions in their DNA is an inherent characteristic of this species or an artifact due to cell culturing, we measured the removal of UV-induced pyrimidine dimers from rat epidermal keratinocytes both in vitro and in vivo. Epidermal keratinocytes in vitro were unable to remove any dimers over the first 3 h after UV-irradiation, while only about 20% was removed during a repair period of 24 h. In this respect, these cells were not different from cultured rat fibroblasts. In contrast to the results obtained with keratinocytes in vitro, we observed a rapid repair of pyrimidine dimers in UV-irradiated keratinocytes in vivo over the first 3 h; this rapid repair phase was followed by a much slower repair phase between 3 and 24 h. These results are discussed in terms of the possibility that mammalian cells are able to switch from one DNA repair pathway to another

  4. Involvement of p53 and Bcl-2 in sensory cell degeneration in aging rat cochleae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yang; Yang, Wei Ping; Hu, Bo Hua; Yang, Shiming; Henderson, Donald

    2017-06-01

    p53 and Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2) are involved in the process of sensory cell degeneration in aging cochleae. To determine molecular players in age-related hair cell degeneration, this study examined the changes in p53 and Bcl-2 expression at different stages of apoptotic and necrotic death of hair cells in aging rat cochleae. Young (3-4 months) and aging (23-24 months) Fisher 344/NHsd rats were used. The thresholds of the auditory brainstem response (ABR) were measured to determine the auditory function. Immunolabeling was performed to determine the expression of p53 and Bcl-2 proteins in the sensory epithelium. Propidium iodide staining was performed to determine the morphologic changes in hair cell nuclei. Aging rats exhibited a significant elevation in ABR thresholds at all tested frequencies (p aging hair cells showing the early signs of apoptotic changes in their nuclei. The Bcl-2 expression increase was also observed in hair cells displaying early signs of necrosis. As the hair cell degenerative process advanced, p53 and Bcl-2 immunoreactivity became reduced or absent. In the areas where no detectable nuclear staining was present, p53 and Bcl-2 immunoreactivity was absent.

  5. Birth of rats following nuclear exchange at the 2-cell stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Sangho; Guo, Jitong; Malakooti, Nakisa; Morrison, John R; Trounson, Alan O; Du, Zhong Tao

    2003-11-01

    We report full-term development of nuclear transfer embryos following nuclear exchange at the 2-cell stage. Nuclei from 2-cell rat embryos were transferred into enucleated 2-cell embryos and developed to term after transfer to recipients (NT2). Pronuclear exchange in zygotes was used for comparison (NT1). Zygotes and 2-cell embryos were harvested from 4-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats. Nuclear transfer was performed by transferring the pronuclei or karyoplasts into the perivitelline space of recipient embryos followed by electrofusion to reconstruct embryos. Fused couplets were cultured for 4 or 24 h before being transferred into day 1 pseudopregnant recipients (Hooded Wistar) at the 1- or 2-cell stage. In vitro culture was also carried out to check the developmental competence of the embryos. In vitro development to the blastocyst stage was not significantly different between the two groups (NT1, 34.3%; NT2, 45.0%). Two of three recipients from NT1 and two of five recipients from NT2 became pregnant. Six pups (3 from NT1, 3 from NT2) were delivered from the four foster mothers. Three female pups survived; 2 from NT1 and 1 from NT2. At 2 months of age these pups appeared healthy, and were mated with Sprague-Dawley males. One rat derived from NT1 delivered 15 pups (5 males, 10 females) as did the rat from NT2 (7 males, 8 females). Our results show that by using karyoplasts from 2-cell stage embryos as nuclear donors and reconstructing them with enucleated 2-cell embryos, healthy rats can be produced.

  6. Ghrelin modulates testicular germ cells apoptosis and proliferation in adult normal rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kheradmand, Arash; Dezfoulian, Omid; Alirezaei, Masoud; Rasoulian, Bahram

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Spermatogenesis is closely associated with the balance between germ cells proliferation and apoptosis. ► Numerous studies have documented the direct action of ghrelin in the modulation of apoptosis in different cell types. ► Ghrelin may be considered as a modulator of spermatogenesis in normal adult rats. ► Ghrelin may be potentially implicated for abnormal spermatogenesis in some testicular germ cell tumors. -- Abstract: Under normal condition in the most mammals, spermatogenesis is closely associated with the balance between germ cells proliferation and apoptosis. The present study was designed to determine the effects of ghrelin treatment on in vivo quality and quantity expression of apoptosis and proliferation specific indices in rat testicular germ cells. Twenty eight adult normal rats were subdivided into equal control and treatment groups. Treatment group received 3 nmol of ghrelin as subcutaneous injection for 30 consecutive days or vehicle to the control animals. The rats from each group (n = 7) were killed on days 10 and 30 and their testes were taken for immunocytochemical evaluation and caspase-3 assay. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that the accumulations of Bax and PCNA peptides are generally more prominent in spermatocytes and spermatogonia of both groups. Likewise, the mean percentage of immunoreactive spermatocytes against Bax increased (P 0.05). Upstream of Bax substance parallel to down-regulation of PCNA demonstrate that ghrelin may prevent massive accumulation of germ cells during normal spermatogenesis. These observations also indicate that ghrelin may be considered as a modulator of spermatogenesis in normal adult rats and could be potentially implicated for abnormal spermatogenesis in some testicular germ cell tumors.

  7. Effect of Allium cepa and Allium sativum on some immunological cells in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabeau, Tatfeng Y; Samson, Enitan S

    2012-01-01

    Extracts of some spices have been reported to play a contributory role in enhancing immune function. We evaluated and compared the effect(s) of single and combined oral administration of fresh aqueous onion (Allium cepa) and garlic (Allium sativum) extracts at different concentrations on some immunological determinants in rats. CD₄ cells of the rats were estimated using Partec flow cytometric technique, while total and differential white blood cell (WBC) counts were estimated using the Sysmsex® automated haematology analyzing technique. Our findings revealed that, CD4 and total WBC counts were significantly increased (P≤0.05) in a dose-dependent manner in both onion (250mg/Kg/d: 349±11cell/ul and 2.75±0.15X10³cell/l; 500mg/Kg/d: 389±10cells/µl and 3.05±0.05 X10³cell/l; 750mg/Kg/d: 600±11cell/µl and 3.25±0.05X10³cells/l) and garlic (250mg/Kg/d: 410±10cell/ul and 2.85±0.15X10³cell/l; 500mg/Kg/d: 494±32cells/µl and 3.30±0.10 X10³cell/l; 750mg/Kg/d: 684±11cell/µl and 3.55±0.05X10³cells/l) treated rats when compared to the zero control (200±11cells/µl and 1.55±0.05X10³cells/l, respectively). Extract of garlic at 750mg/Kg/d had significantly increased the CD4 cells and total white cell count when compared to other concentrations (P≤0.05). However, no significant effect was observed on these parameters when extracts were combined (250mg/Kg/d: 252±21cell/µl and 1.80±0.10X10³cells/l; 500mg/Kg/d: 315±21cells/ul and 2.10±0.10X10³cells/l; 750mg/Kg/d: 368±10cells/µl and 2.35±0.05X10³cells/l, respectively), the differential WBC count showed a significant increase in the proportion of cell types (lymphocytes, neutophils and monocytes) (P≤0.05). The results from this study revealed the immune boosting capabilities of Allium cepa and Allium sativum, but underscored their synergistic activities.

  8. The protective effect of fermented milk kefir on radiation-induced apoptosis in colonic crypt cells of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuu, Mutsumi; Shichijo, Kazuko; Okaichi, Kumio

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of fermented milk kefir on X-ray-induced apoptosis in the colon of rats, we examined the apoptotic index, the mean number of apoptotic cells detected by H and E staining per crypt in the colon, in control rats and kefir-pretreated rats drinking kefir for 12 days before irradiation. Apoptotic cells were confirmed by TUNEL staining, and active caspase-3 expression was studied by immunohistochemistry. The cell position of apoptotic cells and active caspase-3 positive cells were examined. The apoptotic index of kefir-treated rats was significantly (p<0.05) decreased 2 h after 1 Gy irradiation in comparison with control rats at crypt cell positions 1-3, 5-7, 13, and 15. Active caspase-3 expression in the kefir-treated rats was also significantly (p<0.05) reduced in comparison with control rats 2 h after 1 Gy irradiation at crypt cell positions 1-4, 13, and 15. This study indicated that kefir protects colonic crypt cells against radiation-induced apoptosis, which was most pronounced in the stem cell region of the crypt. The antiapoptotic effect of fermented milk kefir was due to the inhibition of caspase-3 activation. (author)

  9. Establishment of rat embryonic stem-like cells from the morula using a combination of feeder layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Chiaki; Matsumoto, Asako; Sato, Eimei; Fukui, Emiko; Yoshizawa, Midori; Matsumoto, Hiromichi

    2009-08-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are characterized by pluripotency, in particular the ability to form a germline on injection into blastocysts. Despite numerous attempts, ES cell lines derived from rat embryos have not yet been established. The reason for this is unclear, although certain intrinsic biological differences among species and/or strains have been reported. Herein, using Wistar-Imamichi rats, specific characteristics of preimplantation embryos are described. At the blastocyst stage, Oct4 (also called Pou5f1) was expressed in both the inner cell mass (ICM) and the trophectoderm (TE), whereas expression of Cdx2 was localized to the TE. In contrast, at an earlier stage, expression of Oct4 was detected in all the nuclei in the morula. These stages were examined using a combination of feeder layers (rat embryonic fibroblast [REF] for primary outgrowth and SIM mouse embryo-derived thioguanine- and ouabain-resistant [STO] cells for passaging) to establish rat ES-like cell lines. The rat ES-like cell lines obtained from the morula maintained expression of Oct4 over long-term culture, whereas cell lines derived from blastocysts lost pluripotency during early passage. The morula-derived ES-like cell lines showed Oct4 expression in a long-term culture, even after cryogenic preservation, thawing and EGFP transfection. These results indicate that rat ES-like cell lines with long-term Oct4 expression can be established from the morula of Wistar-Imamichi rats using a combination of feeder layers.

  10. Energy requirements of the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus): impacts of age, growth and body size in a large desert-dwelling herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, A J; Dawson, T J

    2003-09-01

    Generally, young growing mammals have resting metabolic rates (RMRs) that are proportionally greater than those of adult animals. This is seen in the red kangaroo ( Macropus rufus), a large (>20 kg) herbivorous marsupial common to arid and semi-arid inland Australia. Juvenile red kangaroos have RMRs 1.5-1.6 times those expected for adult marsupials of an equivalent body mass. When fed high-quality chopped lucerne hay, young-at-foot (YAF) kangaroos, which have permanently left the mother's pouch but are still sucking, and recently weaned red kangaroos had digestible energy intakes of 641+/-27 kJ kg(-0.75) day(-1) and 677+/-26 kJ kg(-0.75) day(-1), respectively, significantly higher than the 385+/-37 kJ kg(-0.75) day(-1) ingested by mature, non-lactating females. However, YAF and weaned red kangaroos had maintenance energy requirements (MERs) that were not significantly higher than those of mature, non-lactating females, the values ranging between 384 kJ kg(-0.75) day(-1) and 390 kJ kg(-0.75) day(-1) digestible energy. Importantly, the MER of mature female red kangaroos was 84% of that previously reported for similarly sized, but still growing, male red kangaroos. Growth was the main factor affecting the proportionally higher energy requirements of the juvenile red kangaroos relative to non-reproductive mature females. On a good quality diet, juvenile red kangaroos from permanent pouch exit until shortly after weaning (ca. 220-400 days) had average growth rates of 55 g body mass day(-1). At this level of growth, juveniles had total daily digestible energy requirements (i.e. MER plus growth energy requirements) that were 1.7-1.8 times the MER of mature, non-reproductive females. Our data suggest that the proportionally higher RMR of juvenile red kangaroos is largely explained by the additional energy needed for growth. Energy contents of the tissue gained by the YAF and weaned red kangaroos during growth were estimated to be 5.3 kJ g(-1), within the range found for

  11. Aggregation patterns of fetal rat brain cells following exposure to X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, R.; Suzuki, K.; Lee, I.P.

    1980-01-01

    In our search for a simplified in vitro test system to assess the teratogenic effects of physical factors, we studied the effects of total maternal body X-irradiation on aggregation patterns of enzymatically isolated fetal rat brain cells and on ultrastructural aggregate changes. The fetal brain cells were derived from day 14 gestation fetuses of pregnant Sprague-Dawley (CD strain) rats exposed to X-irradiation (25 - 200 R) one hour prior to sacrifice. Notable changes in the cell aggregates following X-irradiation included a reduction in cell aggregate size and an increase in number. The frequency of cell aggregates was higher in the treated than in the control group, and the mean diameter of cell aggregates was inversely related to increasing X-irradiation doses. Transmission electron microscopy revealed in isolated cells features of degenerative process which were similar to those found in intact fetal brain lesions caused by maternal X-irradiation. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy revealed that inhibition of cell aggregation following X-irradiation could probably be attributed to inhibition of membrane filopodia development and a consequent failure of cell aggregates to fuse into a greater cell aggregate mass. These results suggest that the membrane factors which influence cell aggregation may be a useful parameter to assess early effects of X-irradiation-induced brain deformity. Presently, the cell aggregation culture system is being further evaluated as a short term test system for environmental teratogens

  12. [In vitro generation of insulin-producing cells from the neonatal rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohu; Huang, Haiyan; Liu, Xirong; Xia, Hongxia; Li, Mincai

    2015-03-01

    To observe the differentiation of the neonatal rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into insulin-producing cells and detect the expressions of insulin, pancreatic duodenal homebox-1 (PDX-1) and nestin. MSCs were isolated from the neonatal rats and cultured in the modified medium composed of 10 μg/L human epidermal growth factor (EGF), 10 μg/L basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), 10 μg/L hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), 10 μg/L human B cell regulin, 20 mmol/L nicotinamide and 20 g/L B27. After the induction, the mRNA expressions of insulin, PDX-1 and nestin were examined by reverse transcription-PCR, and the insulin, PDX-1 and nestin protein levels were detected by immunocytochemistry. The insulin and PDX-1 mRNA expressions increased and the nestin mRNA expression decreased in the differentiation of the neonatal rat MSCs into insulin-producing cells. The nestin, PDX-1 and insulin proteins were co-expressed in insulin-producing cells. MSCs can be induced to differentiate into insulin-producing cells.

  13. Transdifferentiated rat pancreatic progenitor cells (AR42J-B13/H) respond to phenobarbital in a rat hepatocyte-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, M; Haltalli, M; Currie, R; Wright, J; Gooderham, N J

    2016-07-01

    Phenobarbital (PB) is known to produce species-specific effects in the rat and mouse, being carcinogenic in certain mouse strains, but only in rats if treated after a DNA damaging event. PB treatment in the rat and mouse also produces disparate effects on cell signalling and miRNA expression profiles. These responses are induced by short term and prolonged PB exposure, respectively, with the latter treatments being difficult to examine mechanistically in primary hepatocytes due to rapid loss of the original hepatic phenotype and limited sustainability in culture. Here we explore the rat hepatocyte-like B13/H cell line as a model for hepatic response to PB exposure in both short-term and longer duration treatments. We demonstrate that PB with Egf treatment in the B13/H cells resulted in a significant increase in Erk activation, as determined by the ratio of phospho-Erk to total Erk, compared to Egf alone. We also show that an extended treatment with PB in the B13/H cells produces a miRNA response similar to that seen in the rat in vivo, via the time-dependent induction of miR-182/96. Additionally, we confirm that B13/H cells respond to Car activators in a typical rat-specific manner. These data suggest that the B13/H cells produce temporal responses to PB that are comparable to those reported in short-term primary rat hepatocyte cultures and in the longer term are similar to those in the rat in vivo. Finally, we also show that Car-associated miR-122 expression is decreased by PB treatment in B13/H cells, a PB-induced response that is common to the rat, mouse and human. We conclude that the B13/H cell system produces a qualitative response comparable to the rat, which is different to the response in the mouse, and that this model could be a useful tool for exploring the functional consequences of PB-sensitive miRNA changes and resistance to PB-mediated tumours in the rat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ghrelin modulates testicular germ cells apoptosis and proliferation in adult normal rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kheradmand, Arash, E-mail: arashkheradmand@yahoo.com [Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Lorestan University, P.O. Box: 465, Khorram Abad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dezfoulian, Omid [Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Lorestan University, Khorram Abad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alirezaei, Masoud [Division of Biochemistry, School of Veterinary Medicine, Lorestan University, P.O. Box: 465, Khorram Abad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rasoulian, Bahram [Razi Herbal Medicine Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorram Abad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spermatogenesis is closely associated with the balance between germ cells proliferation and apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Numerous studies have documented the direct action of ghrelin in the modulation of apoptosis in different cell types. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ghrelin may be considered as a modulator of spermatogenesis in normal adult rats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ghrelin may be potentially implicated for abnormal spermatogenesis in some testicular germ cell tumors. -- Abstract: Under normal condition in the most mammals, spermatogenesis is closely associated with the balance between germ cells proliferation and apoptosis. The present study was designed to determine the effects of ghrelin treatment on in vivo quality and quantity expression of apoptosis and proliferation specific indices in rat testicular germ cells. Twenty eight adult normal rats were subdivided into equal control and treatment groups. Treatment group received 3 nmol of ghrelin as subcutaneous injection for 30 consecutive days or vehicle to the control animals. The rats from each group (n = 7) were killed on days 10 and 30 and their testes were taken for immunocytochemical evaluation and caspase-3 assay. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that the accumulations of Bax and PCNA peptides are generally more prominent in spermatocytes and spermatogonia of both groups. Likewise, the mean percentage of immunoreactive spermatocytes against Bax increased (P < 0.01) in the ghrelin-treated group on day 10, while despite of 30% increment in the Bax level of spermatocytes in the treated rats on day 30, however, it was not statistically significant. During the experimental period, only a few spermatogonia represented Bax expression and the changes of Bax immunolabling cells were negligible upon ghrelin treatment. Likewise, there were immunostaining cells against Bcl-2 in each germ cell neither in the control nor in the treated animals. In fact

  15. Energy, water and space use by free-living red kangaroos Macropus rufus and domestic sheep Ovis aries in an Australian rangeland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, A J; Dawson, T J; McLeod, S R; Dennis, T; Maloney, S K

    2013-08-01

    We used doubly labelled water to measure field metabolic rates (FMR) and water turnover rates (WTR) in one of Australia's largest native herbivores, the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) and one of Australia's dominant livestock species, the wool-breed Merino sheep, under free-living conditions in a typical Australian rangeland. Also, we used GPS technology to examine animal space use, along with the comparisons of urine concentration, diet, diet digestibility, and subsequent grazing pressures. We found smaller space-use patterns than previously reported for kangaroos, which were between 14 and 25 % those of sheep. The FMR of a 25-kg kangaroo was 30 % that of a 45-kg sheep, while WTR was 15 % and both were associated with smaller travel distances, lower salt intakes, and higher urine concentration in kangaroos than sheep. After accounting for differences in dry matter digestibility of food eaten by kangaroos (51 %) and sheep (58 %), the relative grazing pressure of a standard (mature, non-reproductive) 25-kg kangaroo was 35 % that of a 45-kg sheep. Even for animals of the same body mass (35 kg), the relative grazing pressure of the kangaroo was estimated to be only 44 % that of the sheep. After accounting for the energetic costs of wool growth by sheep, the FMRs of our sheep and kangaroos were 2-3 times their expected BMRs, which is typical for mammalian FMR:BMRs generally. Notably, data collected from our free-living animals were practically identical to those from animals confined to a semi-natural enclosure (collected in an earlier study under comparable environmental conditions), supporting the idea that FMRs are relatively constrained within species.

  16. Bone cell kinetics in the metaphysis of the growing long bone of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimmel, D.B.; Jee, W.S.

    1976-01-01

    The growing long bone metaphysis of rats was studied in a cell kinetic and morphometric analysis using tritiated thymidine as a tracer of cells. The results showed striking differences in the distribution and movements of osteoprogenitor and osteoblasts as compared to the osteoclasts. The results also showed a deficiency in cell production in the proliferating bone cells in the metaphysis. A new model of bone cell origin, proliferation, and movements in the metaphysis is proposed; osteoblasts and osteoprogenitor cells, the bone surface cells endemic to the metaphysis, are a continuum in adding bone forming cells and forming new bone on the calcified cartilage cores of the metaphysis. The osteoclasts, on the other hand, arise from mononuclear blood cells brought to the metaphysis through metaphyseal blood vessel spaces near the growth cartilage-metaphyseal junction

  17. Cellular location of rat muscle ferritins and their preferential loss during cell isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, M C; Roboz, M; McKown, M J; Pardridge, W M; Zak, R

    1984-04-10

    Heart and other muscles of the rat contain two forms of ferritin separable in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The cellular location of the fast- and slow-migrating ferritins was investigated using primary cultures of hindlimb skeletal muscle, and isolated myocardial cell populations. Muscle and non-muscle cells were isolated in good yield from hearts of adult rats pretreated with large doses of iron to increase their ferritin content. In virtually all cases, the isolated muscle cells contained traces only of the fast-migrating species and the non-muscle cells contained small amounts of the slow-migrating ferritin. During cell isolation, 90-100% of both ferritins was lost and could be recovered in the perfusates and solutions employed, while one third of the total tissue protein, and a larger percentage of creatine phosphokinase, was recovered in the isolated cells. Primary cultures of thigh muscle from adult rats which had differentiated into multi-nucleated myotubes, were incubated for 1-3 days with chelated iron. These cells contained substantial amounts of the electrophoretically fast migrating ferritin, with its characteristic larger Stokes' radius (determined by quantitative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis). None of the slow-migrating ferritin species was detected, although hindlimb muscle from iron-treated rats contained both forms. It is concluded that the fast-migrating ferritin of muscle, which is much larger and more asymmetric than other ferritins, is confined to the muscle cell population, while the other form is predominantly or exclusively in the non-muscle cells. Both ferritins are lost preferentially over other proteins during procedures which injure muscle tissue.

  18. Cell injury and repair resulting from sleep loss and sleep recovery in laboratory rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everson, Carol A; Henchen, Christopher J; Szabo, Aniko; Hogg, Neil

    2014-12-01

    Increased cell injury would provide the type of change in constitution that would underlie sleep disruption as a risk factor for multiple diseases. The current study was undertaken to investigate cell injury and altered cell fate as consequences of sleep deprivation, which were predicted from systemic clues. Partial (35% sleep reduction) and total sleep deprivation were produced in rats for 10 days, which was tolerated and without overtly deteriorated health. Recovery rats were similarly sleep deprived for 10 days, then allowed undisturbed sleep for 2 days. The plasma, liver, lung, intestine, heart, and spleen were analyzed and compared to control values for damage to DNA, proteins, and lipids; apoptotic cell signaling and death; cell proliferation; and concentrations of glutathione peroxidase and catalase. Oxidative DNA damage in totally sleep deprived rats was 139% of control values, with organ-specific effects in the liver (247%), lung (166%), and small intestine (145%). Overall and organ-specific DNA damage was also increased in partially sleep deprived rats. In the intestinal epithelium, total sleep deprivation resulted in 5.3-fold increases in dying cells and 1.5-fold increases in proliferating cells, compared with control. Recovery sleep restored the balance between DNA damage and repair, and resulted in normal or below-normal metabolic burdens and oxidative damage. These findings provide physical evidence that sleep loss causes cell damage, and in a manner expected to predispose to replication errors and metabolic abnormalities; thereby providing linkage between sleep loss and disease risk observed in epidemiological findings. Properties of recovery sleep include biochemical and molecular events that restore balance and decrease cell injury. © 2014 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  19. T cell dysfunction in the diabetes-prone BB rat. A role for thymic migrants that are not T cell precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiou, H.M.; Lagarde, A.C.; Bellgrau, D.

    1988-01-01

    Diabetes-prone BB (BB-DP) rats express several T cell dysfunctions which include poor proliferative and cytotoxic responses to alloantigen. The goal of this study was to determine the origin of these T cell dysfunctions. When BB-DP rats were thymectomized, T cell depleted, and transplanted with neonatal thymus tissue from diabetes-resistant and otherwise normal DA/BB F1 rats, the early restoration of T cell function proceeded normally on a cell-for-cell basis; i.e., peripheral T cells functioned like those from the thymus donor. Because the thymus in these experiments was subjected to gamma irradiation before transplantation and there was no evidence of F1 chimerism in the transplanted BB-DP rats, it appeared that the BB-DP T cell precursors could mature into normally functioning T cells if the maturation process occurred in a normal thymus. If the F1 thymus tissue was treated with dGua before transplantation, the T cells of these animals functioned poorly like those from untreated BB-DP rats. dGua poisons bone marrow-derived cells, including gamma radiation-resistant cells of the macrophage/dendritic cell lineages, while sparing the thymic epithelium. Therefore, the reversal of the T cell dysfunction depends on the presence in the F1 thymus of gamma radiation-resistant, dGua-sensitive F1 cells. Conversely, thymectomized and T cell-depleted F1 rats expressed T cell dysfunction when transplanted with gamma-irradiated BB thymus grafts. T cell responses were normal in animals transplanted with dGua-treated BB thymus grafts. With increasing time after thymus transplantation, T cells from all animals gradually expressed the functional phenotype of the bone marrow donor. Taken together these results suggest that BB-DP bone marrow-derived cells that are not T cell precursors influence the maturation environment in the thymus of otherwise normal BB-DP T cell precursors

  20. Laminin in the anterior pituitary gland of the rat. Laminin in the gonadotrophic cells correlates with their functional state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, S; Albrechtsen, R; Wewer, U M

    1987-01-01

    The distribution pattern of laminin in the rat anterior pituitary gland under physiological and hormonally altered conditions was studied immunohistochemically. Intense immunoreactivity of the capillaries and of the basement membranes surrounding parenchymal cells was found. Five to 10......% of the parenchymal cells of normal adult rat pituitary gland exhibited also intense positive cytoplasmic staining. These were identified as gonadotrophic cells on the basis of their topographic distribution and typical 700-nm light bodies. By immunoelectron microscopy it was shown that the light bodies contain...... laminin and the number of light bodies reflects the hormonal activity of the gonadotrophic cells of the rat pituitary gland....

  1. Elimination of acute muelogenous leukemic cells from marrow and tumor suspensions in the rat with 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharkis, S.J.; Santos, G.W.; Colvin, M.

    1980-01-01

    Cell suspensions of normal rat marrow mixed with rat acute myelogenous leukemic cells were prepared and incubated in vitro with graded doses of 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide (4HC). The cell suspensions were injected into rats prepared with a lethal dose of total body irradiation. Animals injected with these cells survived fatal irradiation induced aplasia. In a dose related manner 4HC was able to purge tumor cells from the cell mixtures. Thus, animals given cell suspensions incubated with the lower doses of 4HC showed prolonged survived before death from leukemia and animals given cell suspensions incubated with higher doses of 4HC survival lethal irradiation without the subsequent appearance of leukemia. These studies clearly establish that tumor cells may be eliminated from normal marrow suspensions without completely destroying the pluripotent stem cells

  2. Cancer resistance in the blind mole rat is mediated by concerted necrotic cell death mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunova, Vera; Hine, Christopher; Tian, Xiao; Ablaeva, Julia; Gudkov, Andrei V.; Nevo, Eviatar; Seluanov, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    Blind mole rats Spalax (BMR) are small subterranean rodents common in the Middle East. BMR is distinguished by its adaptations to life underground, remarkable longevity (with a maximum documented lifespan of 21 y), and resistance to cancer. Spontaneous tumors have never been observed in spalacids. To understand the mechanisms responsible for this resistance, we examined the growth of BMR fibroblasts in vitro of the species Spalax judaei and Spalax golani. BMR cells proliferated actively for 7–20 population doublings, after which the cells began secreting IFN-β, and the cultures underwent massive necrotic cell death within 3 d. The necrotic cell death phenomenon was independent of culture conditions or telomere shortening. Interestingly, this cell behavior was distinct from that observed in another long-lived and cancer-resistant African mole rat, Heterocephalus glaber, the naked mole rat in which cells display hypersensitivity to contact inhibition. Sequestration of p53 and Rb proteins using SV40 large T antigen completely rescued necrotic cell death. Our results suggest that cancer resistance of BMR is conferred by massive necrotic response to overproliferation mediated by p53 and Rb pathways, and triggered by the release of IFN-β. Thus, we have identified a unique mechanism that contributes to cancer resistance of this subterranean mammal extremely adapted to life underground. PMID:23129611

  3. Age-related changes in the endocytic capacity of rat liver Kupffer and endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouwer, A.; Barelds, R.J.; Knook, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    There are many indications that the functional capacity of the reticuloendothelial system (RES) declines with age. The aim of this study was to investigate the cellular basis of age-related changes in the clearance function of the RES. The experiments were focused mainly on Kupffer and endothelial cells of the liver which represent a major part of the RES and are primarily responsible for clearance of colloidal material from the circulation. The clearance capacity of the RES was tested clinically and experimentally by intravenous injection of colloids, such as radiolabeled heat-aggregated colloidal albumin. Age-related changes in the endocytosis of 125 I-labeled colloidal albumin (CA) in rats were determined by clearance and organ distribution of different doses of intravenously injected CA, uptake of CA by Kupffer and endothelial liver cells in vivo as determined after isolation of the cells from injected rats and kinetic studies on CA uptake by Kupffer cells in culture. The results show that, at a low dose, the clearance of CA is primarily determined by liver blood flow. At a higher saturating dose, plasma clearance and uptake by the liver are not significantly decreased with age. Endocytosis by endothelial cells, which accounts for about 60% of that of the whole liver, is also unchanged with age. In contrast, a significant decrease in endocytic capacity was observed for Kupffer cells in vivo. This age-related functional decline was also observed in Kupffer cells which were isolated from rats of different ages and maintained in culture

  4. Resveratrol Improves Cell Cycle Arrest in Chronic Prostatitis Rats, by C-kit/SCF Suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yi; Zeng, Huizhi; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Jiashu; Zeng, Xiaona; Gong, Fengtao; Liu, Qi; Yang, Bo

    2017-08-01

    Chronic prostatitis (CP) with complex pathogenesis is difficult for treatment. c-kit has been associated with the control of cell proliferation of prostate cells. This study aims to evaluate the role of resveratrol, an activator of Sirt1, in regulating the expression of c-kit in CP and investigate the consequent effects on cell cycle. Rat model of CP was established through subcutaneous injections of diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus vaccine and subsequently treated with resveratrol. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed to identify the histopathological changes in prostates. Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining examined the expression level of c-kit, stem cell factor (SCF), Sirt1, and cell cycle-associated proteins. The model group exhibited severe diffuse chronic inflammation, characterized by leukocyte infiltration and papillary frond protrusion into the gland cavities, and a notable increase in prostatic epithelial height. Gland lumen diameter was also significantly smaller; the activity of c-kit/SCF in the CP rats was increased significantly compared to the control group. Meanwhile, the cell cycle proteins are dysregulated significantly in CP rats. Resveratrol treatment significantly improved these factors by Sirt1 activation. Dysregulation of cell cycle was involved in the pathological processes of CP, which was improved after resveratrol treatment by the downregulation of c-kit/SCF by activating Sirt1.

  5. Survival of Peripheral Blood Neutrophil Following Treatment with Soluble Factors from Rat Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Hamounnavard

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mesenchymal stem cells have immunomodulatory properties and own extensive potentials to proliferate and differentiate into different cell lineages. Thus, this study was conducted to investigate the effect of supernatant of rat MSCs on the neutrophils viability. Methods: MSCs was isolated from femoral and tibial bone marrow of rat (6-8 weeks and was cultured in DMEM. After maturation of MSCs, its supernatant was incubated with neutrophils isolated from peripheral blood of rat at 37 ° C for 1 h. Neutrophil survival was measured at 6 and 24 h incubation with supernatant of MSCs by flow cytometric analysis using An/PI. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey test (P˂0.05. Results: 6-hour incubation of neutrophils with supernatant of MSCs significantly increased the healthy cells percentage and significantly decreased the amount of necrosis (P˂0.05, but no significant decrease was observed in regard with apoptosis compared to the controls (P˃0.05. The 24-hour incubation of neutrophils with cell supernatant significantly increased the percentage of healthy cells and apoptosis was significantly reduced compared to the control group (P˂0.05. Moreover, a reduction in cell necrosis was not significant in the treated groups compared to the control (P˃0.05. Conclusions: In addition to the clinical importance of MSCs, their biological aspects are of great potential for cell therapy, such as self-renewal, proliferation and immune modulatory effects.

  6. Three distinct subsets of thymic epithelial cells in rats and mice defined by novel antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Sawanobori

    Full Text Available Thymic epithelial cells (TECs are thought to play an essential role in T cell development and have been detected mainly in mice using lectin binding and antibodies to keratins. Our aim in the present study was to create a precise map of rat TECs using antibodies to putative markers and novel monoclonal antibodies (i.e., ED 18/19/21 and anti-CD205 antibodies and compare it with a map from mouse counterparts and that of rat thymic dendritic cells.Rat TECs were subdivided on the basis of phenotype into three subsets; ED18+ED19+/-keratin 5 (K5+K8+CD205+ class II MHC (MHCII+ cortical TECs (cTECs, ED18+ED21-K5-K8+Ulex europaeus lectin 1 (UEA-1+CD205- medullary TECs (mTEC1s, and ED18+ED21+K5+K8dullUEA-1-CD205- medullary TECs (mTEC2s. Thymic nurse cells were defined in cytosmears as an ED18+ED19+/-K5+K8+ subset of cTECs. mTEC1s preferentially expressed MHCII, claudin-3, claudin-4, and autoimmune regulator (AIRE. Use of ED18 and ED21 antibodies revealed three subsets of TECs in mice as well. We also detected two distinct TEC-free areas in the subcapsular cortex and in the medulla. Rat dendritic cells in the cortex were MHCII+CD103+ but negative for TEC markers, including CD205. Those in the medulla were MHCII+CD103+ and CD205+ cells were found only in the TEC-free area.Both rats and mice have three TEC subsets with similar phenotypes that can be identified using known markers and new monoclonal antibodies. These findings will facilitate further analysis of TEC subsets and DCs and help to define their roles in thymic selection and in pathological states such as autoimmune disorders.

  7. ACTH radioimmunocytochemistry (RICH) on rat anterior pituitary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rappay, G.; Karteszi, M.; Makara, G.B.

    1979-01-01

    Radioimmunocytochemistry (RICH) was applied to detect corticotrophs in adult rat pituitaries and 8-day-old anterior pituitary monolayers by incubating sections and cultures with 125 I-ACTH-anti ACTH immune complexes. After incubations autoradiography was made. In comparison, 'conventional' immunostaining was carried out on adjacent sections and parallel cultures. It has been established that RICH is suitable for detection of corticotrophs. (orig.) [de

  8. Preparation of rat islet B-cell-enriched fractions by light-scatter flow cytometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabinovitch, A.; Russell, T.; Shienvold, F.; Noel, J.; Files, N.; Patel, Y.; Ingram, M.

    1982-01-01

    Flow cytometry has been examined as a method to separate islet cells into homogeneous subpopulations. Collagenase-isolated rat islets were dissociated into single cells and these were analyzed and sorted according to their low forward angle light scattering properties by using automated flow cytometry. Light scatter histograms showed two peaks of viable cells. Radioimmunoassay of hormone content in cell fractions collected across the the two peaks showed that glucagon-containing cells were concentrated towards the left side of the left peak and somatostatin-containing cells were concentrated towards the right side of the left peak, whereas insulin-containing cells were clearly enriched in the right peak. The B-cell-enriched fraction (90% B cells, 3% A cells, 2% D cells) exhibited significant insulin secretory responses to glucose (16.7 mM), and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (0.1 mM), during a 24-h culture period, and these responses were slightly greater than those observed in the original mixed islet cell preparation (66% B cells, 14% A cells, and 4% D cells). These results indicate that flow cytometry can be applied to sort pancreatic islet cells into populations enriched in specific endocrine cell types for further study of the functions of individual cell types

  9. Effects of α-particle radiation on rat tracheal epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, J.R. Jr.

    1992-08-01

    By a combination of methods, which included flow cytometry and magnetic cell sorting, we have demonstrated that the cells of the rat tracheal epithelium which have the greatest proliferative capacity in culture and in vivo are the basal cells. Because of these findings it seems reasonable to suppose that the basal cells are the most likely target for the action of α-particle radiation in pseudostratified respiratory epithelium. This hypothesis is further supported by the finding that the basal cells are the cells which appear to respond to the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. The effects of 210 Po α-particles on the survival and oncogenic transformation of rat tracheal epithelial cells in suspension were investigated. Since these effects were assayed in culture, the results pertain to the reaction of only the basal cells to irradiation. The results indicate that α-particles are extremely cytotoxic in that a track segment of 4 μm, on average, is sufficient to cause the reproductive death of basal cells. This finding is supported by similar results obtained with two cell lines, Mv1Lu and CHO-K1 BH 4 . Production of proliferating epithelial foci by α-particles was not distinguishable from control and sham treatments. These results are in direct conflict with many of the results that have been obtained with C3H 1OT1/2 cells in similar transformation assays. Some possible reasons for these disparities are discussed and supporting evidence is provided

  10. Additive effect of mesenchymal stem cells and defibrotide in an arterial rat thrombosis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilli, Dilek; Kılıç, Emine; Yumuşak, Nihat; Beken, Serdar; Uçkan Çetinkaya, Duygu; Karabulut, Ramazan; Zenciroğlu, Ayşegu L

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the additive effect of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and defibrotide (DFT) in a rat model of femoral arterial thrombosis. Thirty Sprague Dawley rats were included. An arterial thrombosis model by ferric chloride (FeCl3) was developed in the left femoral artery. The rats were equally assigned to 5 groups: Group 1-Sham-operated (without arterial injury); Group 2-Phosphate buffered saline (PBS) injected; Group 3-MSC; Group 4-DFT; Group 5-MSC + DFT. All had two intraperitoneal injections of 0.5 ml: the 1st injection was 4 h after the procedure and the 2nd one 48 h after the 1st injection. The rats were sacrificed 7 days after the 2nd injection. Although the use of human bone marrow-derived (hBM) hBM-MSC or DFT alone enabled partial resolution of the thrombus, combining them resulted in near-complete resolution. Neovascularization was two-fold better in hBM-MSC + DFT treated rats (11.6 ± 2.4 channels) compared with the hBM-MSC (3.8 ± 2.7 channels) and DFT groups (5.5 ± 1.8 channels) (P < 0.0001 and P= 0.002, respectively). The combined use of hBM-MSC and DFT in a rat model of arterial thrombosis showed additive effect resulting in near-complete resolution of the thrombus.

  11. Formation of hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide in rat skeletal muscle cells during contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silveira, Leonardo R.; Pereira-Da-Silva, Lucia; Juel, Carsten

    2003-01-01

    We examined intra- and extracellular H(2)O(2) and NO formation during contractions in primary rat skeletal muscle cell culture. The fluorescent probes DCFH-DA/DCFH (2,7-dichlorofluorescein-diacetate/2,7-dichlorofluorescein) and DAF-2-DA/DAF-2 (4,5-diaminofluorescein-diacetate/4,5-diaminofluoresce...

  12. Uptake of thyroxine in cultured anterior pituitary cells of euthyroid rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. Everts (Maria); R. Docter (Roel); E.P.C.M. Moerings (Ellis); P.M. van Koetsveld (Peter); T.J. Visser (Theo); E.P. Krenning (Eric); G. Hennemann; M. de Jong (Marcel)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe uptake of [125I]T4 was investigated in cultured anterior pituitary cells isolated from adult fed Wistar rats and cultured for 3 days in medium containing 10% fetal calf serum. Experiments were performed with [125I]T4 (10(5) to 2 x 10(6) cpm; 0.35-7 nM)

  13. Retracted: Effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines on mineralization potential of rat dental pulp stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, X.; Walboomers, X.F.; Bian, Z.; Jansen, J.A.; Fan, M.

    2011-01-01

    The following article from the Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, 'Effects of Pro-inflammatory Cytokines on Mineralization Potential of Rat Dental Pulp Stem Cells' by Yang X, Walboomers XF, Bian Z, Jansen JA, Fan M, published online on 11 July 2011 in Wiley Online Library

  14. Multilineage potential of STRO-1+ rat dental pulp cells in vitro.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, X.; Zhang, W.; Dolder, J. van den; Walboomers, X.F.; Bian, Z.; Fan, M.; Jansen, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine whether STRO-1 selection is an effective approach for purifying rat dental pulp stem cells, and especially whether such selection is beneficial on the multilineage differentiation capacity, i.e. whether selection will account for a higher rate of

  15. Cell-swelling-induced taurine release from isolated perfused rat liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, H. S.; Meijer, A. J.; Gustafson, L. A.; Jörning, G. G.; Leegwater, A. C.; Maas, M. A.; Chamuleau, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    Astrocytes and lymphocytes are able to release significant amounts of taurine during periods of hypotonicity to reduce the increase in cell volume. To investigate this mechanism in the liver, we studied the release of free amino acids from isolated perfused rat liver during hypotonicity. The

  16. Arginine-vasopressin stimulates the formation of phosphatidic acid in rat Leydig cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J.R.; Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.

    1987-01-01

    Arginine-vasopressin (AVP) stimulated the formation of labelled phosphatidic acid (PA) in [C]arachidonic acid-prelabelled rat Leydig cells. After addition of 10 M AVP [C]arachidonoylphosphatidic acid reached a maximum within 2 min. The increase was dose-dependent (10-10 M). No change in labelling...

  17. Delta Cell Hyperplasia in Adult Goto-Kakizaki (GK/MolTac) Diabetic Rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alán, Lukáš; Olejár, Tomáš; Cahová, M.; Zelenka, Jaroslav; Berková, Z.; Smětáková, M.; Saudek, F.; Matěj, R.; Ježek, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2015, č. 2015 (2015), s. 385395 ISSN 2314-6745 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-06666S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Goto Kakizaki rats * diabetes * delta cell hyperplasia * somatostatin * pancreatic polypeptide deficiency Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 2.431, year: 2015

  18. The Optical Fractionator Technique to Estimate Cell Numbers in a Rat Model of Electroconvulsive Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mikkel Vestergaard; Needham, Esther Kjær; Pakkenberg, Bente

    2017-01-01

    present the optical fractionator in conjunction with BrdU immunohistochemistry to estimate the production and survival of newly-formed neurons in the granule cell layer (including the sub-granular zone) of the rat hippocampus following electroconvulsive stimulation, which is among the most potent...

  19. Rat brain sagittal organotypic slice cultures as an ex vivo dopamine cell loss system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughey-Chapman, Amy; Connor, Bronwen

    2017-02-01

    Organotypic brain slice cultures are a useful tool to study neurological function as they provide a more complex, 3-dimensional system than standard 2-dimensional in vitro cell cultures. Building on a previously developed mouse brain slice culture protocol, we have developed a rat sagittal brain slice culture system as an ex vivo model of dopamine cell loss. We show that rat brain organotypic slice cultures remain viable for up to 6 weeks in culture. Using Fluoro-Gold axonal tracing, we demonstrate that the slice 3-dimensional cytoarchitecture is maintained over a 4 week culturing period, with particular focus on the nigrostriatal pathway. Treatment of the cultures with 6-hydroxydopamine and desipramine induces a progressive loss of Fluoro-Gold-positive nigral cells with a sustained loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive nigral cells. This recapitulates the pattern of dopaminergic degeneration observed in the rat partial 6-hydroxydopamine lesion model and, most importantly, the progressive pathology of Parkinson's disease. Our slice culture platform provides an advance over other systems, as we demonstrate for the first time 3-dimensional cytoarchitecture maintenance of rat nigrostriatal sagittal slices for up to 6 weeks. Our ex vivo organotypic slice culture system provides a long term cellular platform to model Parkinson's disease, allowing for the elucidation of mechanisms involved in dopaminergic neuron degeneration and the capability to study cellular integration and plasticity ex vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of gamma-irradiation on the glycogen and lipid contents of the rat liver cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahed, R H.A.; Al-Zahaby, Al-Ahmmady, S.; Sanad, S M.K.; Roushdy, H M

    1986-01-01

    Histochemical changes in the glycogen and lipid contents of the rat liver cells were studied at different intervals following whole body gamma-irradiation at the exposure dose level of 600 rads. The glycogen and lipid contents were significantly altered, the changes were time-dependent.

  1. Generation of primary cultures of bovine brain endothelial cells and setup of cocultures with rat astrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Hans C; Brodin, Birger

    2014-01-01

    -brain barrier. The present protocol describes the setup of an in vitro coculture model based on primary cultures of endothelial cells from bovine brain microvessels and primary cultures of rat astrocytes. The model displays a high electrical tightness and expresses blood-brain barrier marker proteins....

  2. Stem Cell Therapy for Diabetic Erectile Dysfunction in Rats: A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingchao Li

    Full Text Available Stem cell therapy is a novel method for the treatment of diabetic erectile dysfunction (ED. Many relative animal studies have been done to evaluate the efficacy of this therapy in rats.This meta-analysis was performed to compare the efficacy of different stem cell therapies, to evaluate the influential factors and to determine the optimal stem cell therapeutic strategy for diabetic ED.We searched the studies analyzing the efficacy of stem cell therapy for diabetic ED in rats published before September 30, 2015 in PubMed, Web of Science and EBSCO. A random effects meta-analysis was conducted to assess the outcomes of stem cell therapy. Subgroup analysis was also performed by separating these studies based on their different characteristics. Changes in the ratio of intracavernous pressure (ICP to mean arterial pressure (MAP and in the structure of the cavernous body were compared.10 studies with 302 rats were enrolled in this meta-analysis. Pooled analysis of these studies showed a beneficial effect of stem cell therapy in improving erectile function of diabetic rats (SMD 4.03, 95% CI = 3.22 to 4.84, P< 0.001. In the stem cell therapy group, both the smooth muscle and endothelium content were much more than those in control group. There was also significant increase in the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS, the ratio of smooth muscle to collagen, as well as the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Besides, apoptotic cells were reduced by stem cell treatment. The subgroup analysis indicated that modified stem cells were more effective than those without modification.Our results confirmed that stem cell therapy could apparently improve the erectile function of diabetic rats. Some specific modification, especially the gene modification with growth factors, could improve the efficacy of stem cell therapy. Stem cell therapy has potential to be an effective therapeutic

  3. Regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression between gingival fibroblast cells from old and young rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Su-Jung; Chung, Yong-Koo; Chung, Tae-Wook; Kim, Jeong-Ran; Moon, Sung-Kwon; Kim, Cheorl-Ho; Park, Young-Guk

    2009-01-01

    Gingival fibroblast cells (rGF) from aged rats have an age-related decline in proliferative capacity compared with young rats. We investigated G1 phase cell cycle regulation and MMP-9 expression in both young and aged rGF. G1 cell cycle protein levels and activity were significantly reduced in response to interleukin-1β (IL-1β) stimulation with increasing in vitro age. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression was also decreased in aged rGF in comparison with young rGF. Mutational analysis and gel shift assays demonstrated that the lower MMP-9 expression in aged rGF is associated with lower activities of transcription factors NF-κB and AP-1. These results suggest that cell cycle dysregulation and down-regulation of MMP-9 expression in rGF may play a role in gingival remodeling during in vitro aging.

  4. Motor behavioral abnormalities and histopathological findings of Wistar rats inoculated with HTLV-1-infected MT2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C. Câmara

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to describe motor behavioral changes in association with histopathological and hematological findings in Wistar rats inoculated intravenously with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1-infected MT2 cells. Twenty-five 4-month-old male rats were inoculated with HTLV-1-infected MT2 cells and 13 control rats were inoculated with normal human lymphocytes. The behavior of the rats was observed before and 5, 10, 15, and 20 months after inoculation during a 30-min/rat testing time for 5 consecutive days. During each of 4 periods, a subset of rats was randomly chosen to be sacrificed in order to harvest the spinal cord for histopathological analysis and to obtain blood for serological and molecular studies. Behavioral analyses of the HTLV-1-inoculated rats showed a significant decrease of climbing, walking and freezing, and an increase of scratching, sniffing, biting, licking, and resting/sleeping. Two of the 25 HTLV-1-inoculated rats (8% developed spastic paraparesis as a major behavioral change. The histopathological changes were few and mild, but in some cases there was diffuse lymphocyte infiltration. The minor and major behavioral changes occurred after 10-20 months of evolution. The long-term observation of Wistar rats inoculated with HTLV-1-infected MT2 cells showed major (spastic paraparesis and minor motor abnormalities in association with the degree of HTLV-1-induced myelopathy.

  5. Reduction of acute rejection by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells during rat small bowel transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    Full Text Available Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs have shown immunosuppressive activity in transplantation. This study was designed to determine whether BMMSCs could improve outcomes of small bowel transplantation in rats.Heterotopic small bowel transplantation was performed from Brown Norway to Lewis rats, followed by infusion of BMMSCs through the superficial dorsal veins of the penis. Controls included rats infused with normal saline (allogeneic control, isogeneically transplanted rats (BN-BN and nontransplanted animals. The animals were sacrificed after 1, 5, 7 or 10 days. Small bowel histology and apoptosis, cytokine concentrations in serum and intestinal grafts, and numbers of T regulatory (Treg cells were assessed at each time point.Acute cellular rejection occurred soon after transplantation and became aggravated over time in the allogeneic control rats, with increase in apoptosis, inflammatory response, and T helper (Th1/Th2 and Th17/Treg-related cytokines. BMMSCs significantly attenuated acute cellular rejection, reduced apoptosis and suppressed the concentrations of interleukin (IL-2, IL-6, IL-17, IL-23, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, and interferon (IFN-γ while upregulating IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF-β expression and increasing Treg levels.BMMSCs improve the outcomes of allogeneic small bowel transplantation by attenuating the inflammatory response and acute cellular rejection. Treatment with BMMSCs may overcome acute cellular rejection in small bowel transplantation.

  6. Study on the mechanism of retinal ganglion cell apoptosis in early stage of diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Dong Gu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the mechanism of retinal ganglion cell apoptosis in early stage of streptozotocin(STZ-induced diabetic rats. METHODS: Sixty SD rats were randomly divided into two groups: control group(CONand diabetes mellitus group(DM. Diabetic rat model was produced by intraperitoneal injection of 1% STZ in 30 adult male SD rats. At 4, 8, 12wk,the rats were killed and eyeballs were enucleated for the HE staining, TUNEL staining, transmission electron microscopy detection respectively, and laser confocal microscope detection was used to detect the calcium ion concentration.RESULTS:At 8wk RGCs decreased gradually and appeared disordered arrangement and got worse at 12wk in DM group. In DM group, mitochondrial swelling was detected at 4wk., and became more obvious, more in number at 8wk with reduction in some cells' volume and the number of organelles decreased. In DM group, few TUNEL positive RGCs were seen at 4wk, and became more and more at 8 and 12wk. The apoptosis index was significantly higher in DM group compared with CON group in different time points(PPPCONCLUSION: The study suggested that RGCs apoptosis occurs in early stage of diabetes, the mechanism might be associated with increased intracellular calcium ion concentration.

  7. Tofacitinib attenuates arthritis manifestations and reduces the pathogenic CD4 T cells in adjuvant arthritis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertel, Smadar; Mahagna, Hussein; Karmon, Gidi; Watad, Abdulla; Amital, Howard

    2017-11-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by pronounced inflammation and leukocyte infiltration in affected joints. Tofacitinib is new agent, a selective inhibitor of Janus kinase (JAK) signaling pathways mediated by JAK1 and JAK3 and inhibits the key transcription factors STAT1 and STAT3. We investigated the action mechanisms of tofacitinib in rats with adjuvant-induced-arthritis (AIA). AIA-rats were treated orally with tofacitinib or with methotrexate. Arthritis severity and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were evaluated, splenic cells were examined by flow cytometry and cytokines were analyzed by real-time PCR. Tofacitinib markedly reduced the clinical status of treated rats in comparison to control group. Reduced joints inflammation and down-regulated serum CRP levels reflected the clinical manifestations of the treated rats. Tofacitinib down-regulated significantly the frequency of CD4 + IFN-γ + T cells and reduced IL-1β mRNA expression levels in the spleen of the treated rats. These results show that tofacitinib attenuated arthritis severity, modified splenic populations and cytokine imbalance. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Endothelin B receptors contribute to retinal ganglion cell loss in a rat model of glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Z Minton

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy, commonly associated with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP characterized by optic nerve degeneration, cupping of the optic disc, and loss of retinal ganglion cells which could lead to loss of vision. Endothelin-1 (ET-1 is a 21-amino acid vasoactive peptide that plays a key role in the pathogenesis of glaucoma; however, the receptors mediating these effects have not been defined. In the current study, endothelin B (ET(B receptor expression was assessed in vivo, in the Morrison's ocular hypertension model of glaucoma in rats. Elevation of IOP in Brown Norway rats produced increased expression of ET(B receptors in the retina, mainly in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs, nerve fiber layer (NFL, and also in the inner plexiform layer (IPL and inner nuclear layer (INL. To determine the role of ET(B receptors in neurodegeneration, Wistar-Kyoto wild type (WT and ET(B receptor-deficient (KO rats were subjected to retrograde labeling with Fluoro-Gold (FG, following which IOP was elevated in one eye while the contralateral eye served as control. IOP elevation for 4 weeks in WT rats caused an appreciable loss of RGCs, which was significantly attenuated in KO rats. In addition, degenerative changes in the optic nerve were greatly reduced in KO rats compared to those in WT rats. Taken together, elevated intraocular pressure mediated increase in ET(B receptor expression and its activation may contribute to a decrease in RGC survival as seen in glaucoma. These findings raise the possibility of using endothelin receptor antagonists as neuroprotective agents for the treatment of glaucoma.

  9. Effects of a simulated microgravity model on cell structure and function in rat testis and epididymis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Jill A.; Hall, Joseph C.; O'Brien, Ami; Ball, Richard

    1992-01-01

    The effect of simulated microgravity on the structure and function of the testis and epididymis cells was investigated in rats subjected to 7 days of tail suspension. Results of a histological examination revealed presence of disorganized seminiferous tubules and accumulation of large multinucleated cells and spermatids in the lumen of the epididymis. In addition, decreases in the content of testis protein and in testosterone levels in the testis, the interstitial fluid, and the epididymis were observed.

  10. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Reduce Left Ventricular Mass in Rats with Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiomyopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Haydardedeoglu, Ali Evren; Boztok Özgermen, Deva Basak; Yavuz, Orhan

    2018-01-01

    SUMMARY: Doxorubicin is a drug that used by a majority in the treatment of carcinomas. The most obvious known side effect is cardiomyopathy. Many studies have been carried out to eliminate side effects of the doxorubicin, and stem cell studies have been added in recent years. In this study, it was aimed to investigate fetal-derived mesenchymal stem cells (F-MSCs) treatment of doxorubicininduced cardiomyopathy by morphological methods. A total of 24 rats which were divided into three separate ...

  11. Activity of carbohydrate metabolism enzymes of bone marrow cells of rats affected by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhomlinov, B.F.; Grinyuk, Yu.S.; Sibirnaya, N.A.; Starikovich, L.S.; Khmil', M.V.

    1990-01-01

    The influence of ionizing radiation (154.8 mC/kg on activity of some carbohydrate metabolism dehydrogenases in cells of the whole and fractionated rat bone marrow has been investigated. Different glucose metabolism units differently responded to radiation, the highest radiation response being exhibited by pentosophosphate cycle processes. The pattern of changes in the enzyme activity of different myelocaryocyte populations was shown to depend directly on the functional specilization of cells and the energy exchange types predominated in them

  12. Complexity of the influence of gangliosides on histamine release from human basophils and rat mast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, C; Svendsen, U G; Thastrup, Ole

    1987-01-01

    The influence of exogenous addition of gangliosides on histamine release from human basophils and rat mast cells was examined in vitro. Gangliosides dose-dependently inhibited histamine release, and this inhibition was dependent on the ganglioside sialic acid content, since GT1b, having 3 sialic...... was reflected in the sensitivity of the cells to extracellular calcium, since inhibition of the release could be counteracted by increasing the extracellular concentration of calcium....

  13. Remarkable heterogeneity displayed by oval cells in rat and mouse models of stem cell-mediated liver regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelnes, Peter; Santoni-Rugiu, Eric; Rasmussen, Morten

    2007-01-01

    The experimental protocols used in the investigation of stem cell-mediated liver regeneration in rodents are characterized by activation of the hepatic stem cell compartment in the canals of Hering followed by transit amplification of oval cells and their subsequent differentiation along hepatic...... the molecular phenotypes of oval cells in several of the most commonly used protocols of stem cell-mediated liver regeneration-namely, treatment with 2-acetylaminofluorene and partial (70%) hepatectomy (AAF/PHx); a choline-deficient, ethionine-supplemented (CDE) diet; a 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydro...... remarkable phenotypic discrepancies exhibited by oval cells in stem cell-mediated liver regeneration between rats and mice and underline the importance of careful extrapolation between individual species....

  14. Induction of histamine release in vitro from rat peritoneal mast cells by extracts of grain dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, C P; Holford-Strevens, V

    1986-01-01

    The ability of extracts of grain dust and wheat to induce histamine release from rat peritoneal cells was investigated. Some grain dusts, with a high endotoxin content, were found to produce cytotoxic histamine release. Extract of wheat dust, with a low endotoxin release, produced noncytotoxic histamine release from peritoneal cells but not from purified mast cells. This reaction was dependent on the presence of phosphatidyl serine. The agent did not appear to be a lectin because histamine release was not enhanced by passive sensitization of mast cells with IgE. The activity occurred only over a narrow range of concentrations of the extract of wheat. The cause was unclear. PMID:2423321

  15. An in vitro clonogenic assay to assess radiation damage in rat CNS glial progenitor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maazen, R.W.M. van der; Verhagen, I.; Kogel, A.J. van der

    1990-01-01

    Normal glial progenitor cells can be isolated from the rat central nervous system (CNS) and cultured in vitro on a monolayer of type-1 astrocytes. These monolayers are able to support and stimulate explanted glial progenitor cells to proliferate. Employing these in vitro interactions of specific glial cell types, an in vivo-in vitro clonogenic assay has been developed. This method offers the possibility to study the intrinsic radiosensitivity, repair and regeneration of glial progenitor cells after in vitro or in vivo irradiation. (author)

  16. DNA measurements on cell nuclei of normal, proliferating and neoplastic thyroid tissues in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christov, K.; Thomas, C.; Sandritter, W.

    1975-01-01

    Nuclear DNA content was measured in 3 normal, 9 hyperplastic and 16 neoplastic rat thyroid glands. Thyroid hyperplasia and tumor growth were induced after treatment of the animals with X rays and methylthiouracil. In the control animals only diploid thyroid epithelial cells were observed. In stages of diffuse and nodular thyroid hyperplasia, the total DNA content per nucleus indicated that most chromosomes were diploid; only a few cells were hyperdiploid. In thyroid adenomas and carcinomas scattering of the diploid region and an increased number of hyperdiploid cells were found. Among the various types of thyroid tumors neither a difference in the number of hyperdiploid cells, nor the typical pattern of the distribution of these cells in a histogram was found. The increased number of hyperdiploid cells in hyperplastic and neoplastic thyroids only suggested an increase in the proportion of cells entering the cell cycle and not an appearance of a neoplastic strain. (author)

  17. DNA measurements on cell nuclei of normal, proliferating and neoplastic thyroid tissues in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christov, K [National Center of Oncology, Academy of Medicine, Sofia-56 (Bulgaria); Thomas, C; Sandritter, W [Freiburg Univ. (F.R. Germany). Pathologisches Inst.

    1975-01-01

    Nuclear DNA content was measured in 3 normal, 9 hyperplastic and 16 neoplastic rat thyroid glands. Thyroid hyperplasia and tumor growth were induced after treatment of the animals with X rays and methylthiouracil. In the control animals only diploid thyroid epithelial cells were observed. In stages of diffuse and nodular thyroid hyperplasia, the total DNA content per nucleus indicated that most chromosomes were diploid; only a few cells were hyperdiploid. In thyroid adenomas and carcinomas scattering of the diploid region and an increased number of hyperdiploid cells were found. Among the various types of thyroid tumors neither a difference in the number of hyperdiploid cells, nor the typical pattern of the distribution of these cells in a histogram was found. The increased number of hyperdiploid cells in hyperplastic and neoplastic thyroids only suggested an increase in the proportion of cells entering the cell cycle and not an appearance of a neoplastic strain.

  18. Effects of a fish oil-based emulsion on rat hepatoma cell invasion in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagi, Akifumi; Nakayama, Mitsuo; Miura, Yutaka; Yagasaki, Kazumi

    2007-01-01

    Total parenteral nutrition containing a lipid emulsion is often employed after surgical tumor resection. This study investigated the effects of a fish oil-based infusion on rat hepatoma cell invasion. Rat ascites hepatoma cell line AH109A was precultured with a fish oil-based or safflower oil-based emulsion for 48 h. Changes in membranous fatty acid composition were evaluated by gas chromatography. The invasiveness of hepatoma cells was assessed by coculturing with mesentery-derived mesothelial cells. To examine ex vivo effects of the fish oil-based infusion on hepatoma invasion, sera were prepared from rats infused with fish oil- or safflower oil-based emulsion and the effects of these sera were assessed. To clarify the mechanism of inhibition of invasion by the fish oil-based emulsion, the effects of prostaglandin (PG) E(2) and PGE(3) on invasion were examined. Pretreatment with the fish oil-based emulsion reduced invasiveness without affecting growth compared with the safflower oil-based emulsion. Pretreatment with the sera from rats infused with the fish oil-based emulsion also reduced invasiveness compared with the sera from rats infused with the safflower oil-based emulsion. The addition of PGE(2) eliminated the inhibitory effect of the fish oil-based emulsion, and the addition of PGE(3) reduced the invasiveness of hepatoma cells pretreated with the safflower oil-based emulsion. These results suggest that the fish oil-based emulsion may have anti-invasive effects. Changes in the membranous fatty acid composition and consequent changes in the prostaglandins produced may be involved in this inhibitory effect.

  19. ATP-containing vesicles in stria vascular marginal cell cytoplasms in neonatal rat cochlea are lysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Liu, Wenjing; Yang, Jun

    2016-02-11

    We confirmed that ATP is released from cochlear marginal cells in the stria vascular but the cell organelle in which ATP stores was not identified until now. Thus, we studied the ATP-containing cell organelles and suggest that these are lysosomes. Primary cultures of marginal cells of Sprague-Dawley rats aged 1-3 days was established. Vesicles within marginal cells stained with markers were identified under confocal laser scanning microscope and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Then ATP release from marginal cells was measured after glycyl-L-phenylalanine-ß- naphthylamide (GPN) treatment using a bioluminescent assay. Quinacrine-stained granules within marginal cells were labeled with LysoTracker, a lysosome tracer, and lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1(LAMP1), but not labeled with the mitochondrial tracer MitoTracker. Furthermore, LysoTracker-labelled puncta showed accumulation of Mant-ATP, an ATP analog. Treatment with 200 μM GPN quenched fluorescently labeled puncta after incubation with LysoTracker or quinacrine, but not MitoTracker. Quinacrine-labeled organelles observed by TEM were lysosomes, and an average 27.7 percent increase in ATP luminescence was observed in marginal cells extracellular fluid after GPN treatment. ATP-containing vesicles in cochlear marginal cells of the stria vascular from neonatal rats are likely lysosomes. ATP release from marginal cells may be via Ca(2+)-dependent lysosomal exocytosis.

  20. Exploration of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways in zearalenone-treated rat sertoli cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ming-Long; Hu, Jin; Guo, Bao-Ping; Niu, Ya-Ru; Xiao, Cheng; Xu, Yin-Xue

    2016-12-01

    Zearalenone (ZEA) is a nonsteroidal estrogenic mycotoxin produced mainly by Fusarium. ZEA causes reproductive disorders and is both cytotoxic and genotoxic in animals; however, little is known regarding the molecular mechanism(s) leading to ZEA toxicity. Sertoli cells are somatic cells that support the development of spermatogenic cells. The objective of this study was to explore the effects of ZEA on the proliferation, apoptosis, and necrosis of rat Sertoli cells to uncover signaling pathways underlying ZEA cytotoxicity. ZEA reduced the proliferation of rat Sertoli cells in a dose-dependent manner, as indicated by a CCK8 assay, while flow cytometry revealed that ZEA caused both apoptosis and necrosis. Immunoblotting revealed that ZEA treatment increased the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, as well as the expression of FasL and caspases-3, -8, and -9, in a dose-dependent manner. Collectively, these data suggest that ZEA induced apoptosis and necrosis in rat Sertoli cells via extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways. This study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms by which ZEA exhibits cytotoxicity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1731-1739, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. MRI evaluation of frequent complications after intra-arterial transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namestnikova, D.; Gubskiy, I.; Gabashvili, A.; Sukhinich, K.; Melnikov, P.; Vishnevskiy, D.; Soloveva, A.; Vitushev, E.; Chekhonin, V.; Gubsky, L.; Yarygin, K.

    2017-08-01

    Intra-arterial transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is an effective delivery route for treatment of ischemic brain injury. Despite significant therapeutic effects and targeted cells delivery to the brain infraction, serious adverse events such as cerebral embolism have been reported and may restrict potential clinical applications of this method. In current study, we evaluate potential complications of intra-arterial MSCs administration and determine the optimum parameters for cell transplantation. We injected SPIO-labeled human MSCs via internal carotid artery with different infusion parameters and cell dose in intact rats and in rats with the middle cerebral occlusion stroke model. Cerebrovascular complications and labeled cells were visualized in vivo using MRI. We have shown that the incidence of cerebral embolic events depends on such parameters as cell dose, infusion rate and maintenance of blood flow in the internal carotid artery (ICA). Optimal parameters were considered to be 5×105 hMSC in 1 ml of PBS by syringe pump with velocity 100 μ/min and maintenance of blood flow in the ICA. Obtained data should be considered before planning experiments in rats and, potentially, can help in planning clinical trials in stroke patients.

  2. Temperature dependence of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis in rat meiotic and postmeiotic spermatogenic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, E; Salas, K; Lagos, N; Benos, D J; Reyes, J G

    2001-10-01

    The hypothesis that intracellular [Ca2+] is a cell parameter responsive to extreme temperatures in rat meiotic and postmeiotic spermatogenic cells was tested using intracellular fluorescent probes for Ca2+ and pH. In agreement with this hypothesis, extreme temperatures induced a rapid increase of cytosolic [Ca2+] in rat pachytene spermatocytes and round spermatids. Oscillatory changes in temperature can induce oscillations in cytosolic [Ca2+] in these cells. Intracellular [Ca2+] homeostasis in round spermatids was more sensitive to high temperatures compared with pachytene spermatocytes. The calculated activation energies for SERCA ATPase-mediated fluxes in pachytene spermatocytes and round spermatids were 62 and 75 kJ mol(-1), respectively. The activation energies for leak fluxes from intracellular Ca2+ stores were 55 and 68 kJ mol(-1) for pachytene spermatocytes and round spermatids, respectively. Together with changes in cytosolic [Ca2+], round spermatids undergo a decrease in pH(i) at high temperatures. This temperature-induced decrease in pH(i) appears to be partially responsible for the increase in cytosolic [Ca2+] of round spermatids induced by high temperatures. This characteristic of rat meiotic and postmeiotic spermatogenic cells to undergo an increment in cytosolic Ca2+ at temperatures > 33 degrees C can be related to the induction of programmed cell death by high temperatures in these cells.

  3. Immunohistochemical localization of anterior pituitary hormones in S-100 protein-positive cells in the rat pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Motoshi; Yatabe, Megumi; Tando, Yukiko; Yashiro, Takashi

    2011-09-01

    In the anterior and intermediate lobes of the rat pituitary gland, non-hormone-producing cells that express S-100 protein coexist with various types of hormone-producing cells and are believed to function as phagocytes, supporting and paracrine-controlling cells of hormone-producing cells and stem cells, among other functions; however, their cytological characteristics are not yet fully understood. Using a transgenic rat that expresses green fluorescent protein under the promoter of the S100β protein gene, we immunohistochemically detected expression of the luteinizing hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, prolactin, growth hormone and proopiomelanocortin by S-100 protein-positive cells located between clusters of hormone-producing cells in the intermediate lobe. These findings lend support to the hypothesis that S-100 protein-positive cells are capable of differentiating into hormone-producing cells in the adult rat pituitary gland.

  4. Activated rat hepatic stellate cells influence Th1/Th2 profile in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Zhi-Zhi; Huang, Liu-Ye; Wu, Cheng-Rong; You, Hong; Ma, Hong; Jia, Ji-Dong

    2015-06-21

    To investigate the effects of activated rat hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) on rat Th1/Th2 profile in vitro. Growth and survival of activated HSCs and CD4(+) T lymphocytes cultured alone or together was assessed after 24 or 48 h. CD4(+) T lymphocytes were then cultured with or without activated HSCs for 24 or 48 h and the proportion of Th1 [interferon (IFN)-γ(+)] and Th2 [interleukin (IL)-4(+)] cells was assessed by flow cytometry. Th1 and Th2 cell apoptosis was assessed after 24 h of co-culture using a caspase-3 staining procedure. Differentiation rates of Th1 and Th2 cells from CD4(+) T lymphocytes that were positive for CD25 but did not express IFN-γ or IL-4 were also assessed after 48 h of co-culture with activated HSCs. Galectin-9 expression in HSCs was determined by immunofluorescence and Western blotting. ELISA was performed to assess galectin-9 secretion from activated HSCs. Co-culture of CD4(+) T lymphocytes with activated rat HSCs for 48 h significantly reduced the proportion of Th1 cells compared to culture-alone conditions (-1.73% ± 0.71%; P Th1/Th2 ratio was significantly decreased (-0.44 ± 0.13; P Th1 cells was decreased (-65.71 ± 9.67; P Th1 (12.27% ± 0.99%; P Th1 cell apoptosis rate was significantly higher than in Th2 cells (P Th1 and Th2 cells; however, the increase in the proportion of Th2 cells was significantly higher than that of Th1 cells (1.85% ± 0.48%; P Th1/Th2 profile, inhibiting the Th1 response and enhancing the Th2 response, and this may be a novel pathway for liver fibrogenesis.

  5. Establishment of a vascular endothelial cell-reactive type II NKT cell clone from a rat model of autoimmune vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iinuma, Chihiro; Waki, Masashi; Kawakami, Ai; Yamaguchi, Madoka; Tomaru, Utano; Sasaki, Naomi; Masuda, Sakiko; Matsui, Yuki; Iwasaki, Sari; Baba, Tomohisa; Kasahara, Masanori; Yoshiki, Takashi; Paletta, Daniel; Herrmann, Thomas; Ishizu, Akihiro

    2015-02-01

    We previously generated a rat model that spontaneously developed small vessel vasculitis (SVV). In this study, a T cell clone reactive with rat vascular endothelial cells (REC) was established and named VASC-1. Intravenous injection of VASC-1 induced SVV in normal recipients. VASC-1 was a TCRαβ/CD3-positive CD4/CD8 double-negative T cell clone with expression of NKG2D. The cytokine mRNA profile under unstimulated condition was positive for IL-4 and IFN-γ but negative for IL-2 and IL-10. After interaction with REC, the mRNA expression of IL-2, IL-5 and IL-6 was induced in VASC-1, which was inhibited by blocking of CD1d on the REC surface. Although the protein levels of these cytokines seemed to be lower than the detection limit in the culture medium, IFN-γ was detectable. The production of IFN-γ from the VASC-1 stimulated with LPS-pre-treated REC was inhibited by the CD1d blockade on the REC. These findings indicated VASC-1 as an NKT cell clone. The NKT cell pool includes two major subsets, namely types I and II. Type I NKT cells are characterized by expression of semi-invariant TCRs and the potential to bind to marine sponge-derived α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) loaded on CD1d; whereas, type II NKT cells do not manifest these characteristics. VASC-1 exhibited a usage of TCR other than the type I invariant TCR α chain and did not bind to α-GalCer-loaded CD1d; therefore, it was determined as a type II NKT cell clone. The collective evidence suggested that REC-reactive type II NKT cells could be involved in the pathogenesis of SVV in rats. © The Japanese Society for Immunology. 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Synergy among rat T cells in the proliferative response to alloantigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, P.W.; Loop, S.M.; Bernstein, I.D.

    1979-01-01

    A synergistic interaction in the proliferative response to alloantigen is described for mixtures of rat thymus and lymph node cells. The optimal conditions for synergy are quantitatively defined. Regression analysis of the slope of the dose-response curve has been utilized to estimate the degree of interaction in thymus--lymph node cell mixtures. The slope of the response of cell mixtures was noted to be significantly greater than the slope for the response of lympth node cells alone. Irradiation was shown to have a differential effect on the response of thymus and lymph node cells in mixtures. Irradiated thymus cells retained the capacity for synergy in mixtures, whereas irradiated lymph node cells did not. Additional studies have demonstrated that both de novo protein synthesis and specific antigen recognition by both responding cell populations in mixtures was required for maximal synergy. These studies demonstrate that synergy cannot be explained as an artifact of altered cell density in vitro. They establish that thymus cells and lymph node cells represent distinct subsets which manifest qualitatively different functions in the proliferative response to alloantigen. Thymus cells can respond directly to alloantigen by proliferation but also have the capacity to amplify the proliferative response of lymph node cells, a capacity which is resistant to X irradiation but requires recognition of alloantigen and de novo protein synthesis. Lymph node cells may similarly respond by proliferation to alloantigen but lack the amplifier activity of thymus cells. Synergy for rat lymphoidcells, like mouse lymphoid cells, has been shown to involve an interaction of thymus-derived lymphocytes

  7. Investigation of retinal ganglion cells and axons of normal rats using fluorogold retrograde labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Xiaolei; Ye Jian; Chen Chunlin

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) by means of fluorogold retrograde labeling, RGCs were labeled by injecting the fluorogold bilaterally into the superficial superior colliculus and lateral genicutate nucleus in six adult SD rats. One and two weeks (3 rats in each group) after injecting the fluorogold, RGCs FG-labeled were observed and the number of them were counted. The results showed that after a week mean density of fluorogold-labeled RGCs was 2210 ± 128/mm 2 , and it was 2164 ± 117/mm 2 after two weeks. Our conclusion is fluorogold retrograde labeling could be very useful in the research of RGCs. (authors)

  8. Competition among oxidizable substrates in brains of young and adult rats. Dissociated cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Roeder, L M; Tildon, J T; Holman, D C

    1984-01-01

    The rates of conversion of D-(-)-3-hydroxy[3-14C]butyrate, [3-14C]acetoacetate, [6-14C]glucose and [U-14C]glutamine into 14CO2 were measured in the presence and absence of alternative oxidizable substrates in intact dissociated cells from the brains of young and adult rats. When unlabelled glutamine was added to [6-14C]glucose or unlabelled glucose was added to [U-14C]glutamine, the rate of 14CO2 production was decreased in both young and adult rats. The rate of oxidation of 3-hydroxy[3-14C]b...

  9. Acquisition and Expansion of Adult Rat Bone Marrow Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šulla I.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was initiated in order to test a mini-invasive method of mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MS/PCs isolation from a rat bone marrow (BM, and subsequently their expansion, differentiation, and evaluation of their immunophenotypic characteristics; and later their preservation as donor cells in an optimal condition for potential autotransplantation. The study group comprised of 6 adult male Sprague-Dawley (S-D rats, weighing 480—690 g. The rats were anaesthetised by isoflurane with room air in a Plexiglas box and maintained by inhalation of a mixture of isoflurane and O2. Their femurs were surgically exposed and their diaphyses double-trephined. Then BM cells were flushed out by saline with heparin and aspirated into a syringe with a solution of DMEM (Dulbecco’s modified eagle’s medium and heparin. The mononuclear cells from the BM were isolated by centrifugation and expanded in a standard culture medium supplemented with ES-FBS (es-cell-qualified foetal bovine serum, L-glutamine and rh LIF (recombinant human leukemia inhibitory factor. Following 14 days of passaging cultures, the cells were split into 2 equal parts. The first culture continued with the original medium. The second culture received additional supplementation with a human FGFβ (fibroblast growth factor beta and EGF (epidermal growth factor. The populations of these cells were analysed by light-microscopy, then the mean fluorescence intensities (MFIs of CD90 and Nestin were evaluated by a tricolour flow cytometry using monoclonal antibodies. The type of general anaesthesia used proved to be appropriate for the surgical phase of the experiments. All rats survived the harvesting of the BM without complications. The total number of mononuclear cells was 1.5—4.0 × 106 per sample and the proportion of CD90/Nestin expressing cells was < 1 %. Following 14 days of expansion, the cells became larger, adherent, with fibrillary morphology; the proportion of cells expressing

  10. Effect of single-dose radiation on cell survival and growth hormone secretion by rat anterior pituitary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochberg, Z.; Kuten, A.; Hertz, P.; Tatcher, M.; Kedar, A.; Benderly, A.

    1983-01-01

    Cranial irradiation has been shown to impair growth hormone secretion in children. In this study a cell culture of dispersed rat anterior pituitary cells was exposed to single doses of radiation in the range of 100 to 1500 rad. Survival curves were obtained for the different anterior pituitary cell lines, and growth hormone secretion was measured in the tissue culture medium. Both survival and growth hormone secretion curves showed an initial shoulder in the range of 0 to 300 rad, followed by a decline between 300 to 750 rad. It is concluded that growth hormone secreting acidophilic pituicytes are sensitive to radiation at single doses greater than 300 rad

  11. The anti-apoptotic effect of fluid mechanics preconditioning by cells membrane and mitochondria in rats brain microvascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Shan; Zhu, Fengping; Hu, Ruiping; Tian, Song; Chen, Xingxing; Lou, Dan; Cao, Bing; Chen, Qiulei; Li, Bai; Li, Fang; Bai, Yulong; Wu, Yi; Zhu, Yulian

    2018-01-01

    Exercise preconditioning is a simple and effective way to prevent ischemia. This paper further provided the mechanism in hemodynamic aspects at the cellular level. To study the anti-apoptotic effects of fluid mechanics preconditioning, Cultured rats brain microvascular endothelial cells were given fluid intervention in a parallel plate flow chamber before oxygen glucose deprivation. It showed that fluid mechanics preconditioning could inhibit the apoptosis of endothelial cells, and this process might be mediated by the shear stress activation of Tie-2 on cells membrane surface and Bcl-2 on the mitochondria surface. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Changes in responsiveness of rat tracheal epithelial cells to growth factors during preneoplastic transformation in cell culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomassen, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    Preneoplastic rat tracheal epithelial (RTE) cell lines require fewer growth factors for clonal proliferation in culture than normal cells. Serum-free media missing various combinations of growth factors (e.g., cholera toxin, serum albumin, epidermal growth factor, hydrocortisone) required for proliferation of normal, but not preneoplastic, RTE cells can be used to select for carcinogen-induced preneoplastic variants having an increased proliferative potential in culture. These results suggest that reductions in growth factor requirements are primary events in the carcinogenic process. (author)

  13. The effect of low dose radiation on the neuronal cell proliferation in diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Doo Soon; Kang, Jin Oh; Hong, Seong Eon; Kim, Sang Ki; Lee, Taeck Hyun; Kim, Chang Ju

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the effect of low dose radiation on neuronal cell proliferation in diabetic rats. A group of rats (first group) were divided into three subgroups (nondiabetic control, nondiabetic 0.1 Gy and nondiabetic 10 Gy groups) to determine the effect of radiation on normal hippocampal neuronal cell proliferation. A further group of rats (second group) were divided into six subgroups (nondiabetic control, diabetic control, diabetic 0.01 Gy, diabetic 0.1 Gy, diabetic 1 Gy and diabetic 10 Gy groups) to determine the effect of radiation on hippocampal neuronal cell proliferation under diabetic conditions. Using immunohistochemistry for 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU), the number of neuronal cells in the dentate gyrus of all the groups was counted. The number of BrdU-positive cells in the dentate Gyrus of the nondiabetic control, nondiabetic 0.1 Gy and nondiabetic 10 Gy subgroups of the first group were 45.96 ± 3.42, 59.34 ± 5.20 and 19.26 ± 2.98/mm 2 , respectively. The number of BrdU-positive cells in the dentate gyrus of the diabetic control, diabetic 0.01 Gy, diabetic 0.1 Gy, diabetic 1 Gy and diabetic 10 Gy subgroups of the second group were 55.44 ± 8.57, 33.33 ±6.46, 67.75 ± 10.54, 66.63 ± 10.05, 23.59 ± 6.37 and 14.34± 7.22/mm 2 , respectively. Low dose radiation enhances cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of STZ-induced diabetic rats

  14. Isolation and characterization of dental epithelial cells derived from amelogenesis imperfecta rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiningrat, A; Tanimura, A; Miyoshi, K; Hagita, H; Yanuaryska, R D; Arinawati, D Y; Horiguchi, T; Noma, T

    2016-03-01

    Disruption of the third zinc finger domain of specificity protein 6 (SP6) presents an enamel-specific defect in a rat model of amelogenesis imperfecta (AMI rats). To understand the molecular basis of amelogenesis imperfecta caused by the Sp6 mutation, we established and characterized AMI-derived rat dental epithelial (ARE) cells. ARE cell clones were isolated from the mandibular incisors of AMI rats, and amelogenesis-related gene expression was analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Localization of wild-type SP6 (SP6WT) and mutant-type SP6 (SP6AMI) was analyzed by immunocytochemistry. SP6 transcriptional activity was monitored by rho-associated protein kinase 1 (Rock1) promoter activity with its specific binding to the promoter region in dental (G5 and ARE) and non-dental (COS-7) epithelial cells. Isolated ARE cells were varied in morphology and gene expression. Both SP6WT and SP6AMI were mainly detected in nuclei. The promoter analysis revealed that SP6WT and SP6AMI enhanced Rock1 promoter activity in G5 cells but that enhancement by SP6AMI was weaker, whereas no enhancement was observed in the ARE and COS-7 cells, even though SP6WT and SP6AMI bound to the promoter in all instances. ARE cell clones can provide a useful in vitro model to study the mechanism of SP6-mediated amelogenesis imperfecta. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Electrical Guidance of Human Stem Cells in the Rat Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Feng Feng

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Limited migration of neural stem cells in adult brain is a roadblock for the use of stem cell therapies to treat brain diseases and injuries. Here, we report a strategy that mobilizes and guides migration of stem cells in the brain in vivo. We developed a safe stimulation paradigm to deliver directional currents in the brain. Tracking cells expressing GFP demonstrated electrical mobilization and guidance of migration of human neural stem cells, even against co-existing intrinsic cues in the rostral migration stream. Transplanted cells were observed at 3 weeks and 4 months after stimulation in areas guided by the stimulation currents, and with indications of differentiation. Electrical stimulation thus may provide a potential approach to facilitate brain stem cell therapies.

  16. Functional characterization of apical transporters expressed in rat proximal tubular cells (PTCs) in primary culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Takeo; Fukushi, Akimasa; Sato, Masanobu; Yoshifuji, Mayuko; Gose, Tomoka; Shirasaka, Yoshiyuki; Ohe, Kazuyo; Kobayashi, Masato; Kawai, Keiichi; Tamai, Ikumi

    2011-12-05

    Since in vitro cell culture models often show altered apical transporter expression, they are not necessarily suitable for the analysis of renal transport processes. Therefore, we aimed here to investigate the usefulness of primary-cultured rat proximal tubular cells (PTCs) for this purpose. After isolation of renal cortical cells from rat kidneys, PTCs were enriched and the gene expression and function of apical transporters were analyzed by means of microarray, RT-PCR and uptake experiments. RT-PCR confirmed that the major apical transporters were expressed in rat PTCs. Na(+)-dependent uptake of α-methyl-d-glucopyranoside (αMG), ergothioneine and carnitine by the PTCs suggests functional expression of Sglts, Octn1 and Octn2, respectively. Inhibition of pH-dependent glycylsarcosine uptake by low concentration of cephalexin, which is a β-lactam antibiotics recognized by Pepts, indicates a predominant role of high affinity type Pept2, but not low affinity type Pept1, in the PTCs. Moreover, the permeability ratio of [(14)C]αMG (apical to basolateral/basolateral to apical) across PTCs was 4.3, suggesting that Sglt-mediated reabsorptive transport is characterized. In conclusion, our results indicate that rat PTCs in primary culture are found to be a promising in vitro model to evaluate reabsorption processes mediated at least by Sglts, Pept2, Octn1 and Octn2.

  17. Efficacy of Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells on Neonatal Bilirubin Encephalopathy in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Naser; Vousooghi, Nasim; Hadjighassem, Mahmoudreza; Bakhtiyari, Mehrdad; Mousavi, Neda; Safakheil, Hosein; Jafari, Leila; Sarveazad, Arash; Yari, Abazar; Ramezani, Sara; Faghihi, Faezeh; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi

    2016-05-01

    Kernicterus is a neurological syndrome associated with indirect bilirubin accumulation and damages to the basal ganglia, cerebellum and brain stem nuclei particularly the cochlear nucleus. To mimic haemolysis in a rat model such that it was similar to what is observed in a preterm human, we injected phenylhydrazine in 7-day-old rats to induce haemolysis and then infused sulfisoxazole into the same rats at day 9 to block bilirubin binding sites in the albumin. We have investigated the effectiveness of human adiposity-derived stem cells as a therapeutic paradigm for perinatal neuronal repair in a kernicterus animal model. The level of total bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, brain bilirubin and brain iron was significantly increased in the modelling group. There was a significant decreased in all severity levels of the auditory brainstem response test in the two modelling group. Akinesia, bradykinesia and slip were significantly declined in the experience group. Apoptosis in basal ganglia and cerebellum were significantly decreased in the stem cell-treated group in comparison to the vehicle group. All severity levels of the auditory brainstem response tests were significantly decreased in 2-month-old rats. Transplantation results in the substantial alleviation of walking impairment, apoptosis and auditory dysfunction. This study provides important information for the development of therapeutic strategies using human adiposity-derived stem cells in prenatal brain damage to reduce potential sensori motor deficit.

  18. Epithelial cell kinetics in mouse and rat skin irradiated with electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMaster-Schuyler, L.

    1984-02-01

    Experiments were performed to examine the kinetic responses of mouse and rat epidermal cells in vivo after single doses of ionizing radiation including responses of hair follicles at times after irradiation. The labeling indices in both species were reduced to 30 to 50% of control values immediately following irradiation at all the doses. In the rat, the labeling indices recovered and overshot control values within the first three days after 300 to 1200 rads. The mouse labeling indices continued to be suppressed for up to 10 days after 300 to 2400 rads. This indicated that rat G 1 phase epidermal cells recovered three times faster than those of the mouse with respect to the ability to maintain or increase control level cell proliferation after irradiation. After 1800 and 2400 rads, doses which produce skin ulceration, both species showed a reduction in their labeling indices for up to 7 days, indicating that a dose-dependent mechanism of recovery may be operable in the rat. 99 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs

  19. Impaired succinic dehydrogenase activity of rat Purkinje cell mitochondria during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattoretti, P; Bertoni-Freddari, C; Caselli, U; Paoloni, R; Meier-Ruge, W

    1998-03-16

    The perikaryal Purkinje cell mitochondria positive to the copper ferrocyanide histochemical reaction for succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) have been investigated by means of semiautomatic morphometric methods in rats of 3, 12 and 24 months of age. The number of organelles/microm3 of Purkinje cell cytoplasm (Numeric density: Nv), the average mitochondrial volume (V) and the mitochondrial volume fraction (Volume density: Vv) were the ultrastructural parameters taken into account. Nv was significantly higher at 12 than at 3 and 24 months of age. V was significantly decreased at 12 and 24 months of age, but no difference was envisaged between adult and old rats. Vv was significantly decreased in old animals vs. the other age groups. In young and old rats, the percentage of organelles larger than 0.32 microm3 was 13.5 and 11%, respectively, while these enlarged mitochondria accounted for less than 1% in the adult group. Since SDH activity is of critical importance when energy demand is high, the marked decrease of Vv supports an impaired capacity of the old Purkinje cells to match actual energy supply at sustained transmission of the nervous impulse. However, the high percentage of enlarged organelles found in old rats may witness a morphofunctional compensatory response.

  20. Effect of erythropoietin on the glucose transport of rat erythrocytes and bone marrow cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosal, J.; Chakraborty, M.; Biswas, T.; Ganguly, C.K.; Datta, A.G.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of Ep on radioactive glucose and methyl-alpha-D-glucoside transport by rat erythrocytes and bone marrow cells were studied. There is initial linearity followed by saturation kinetics of [ 14 C]glucose transport by the erythrocytes of starved and starved plus Ep-treated rats at different concentrations of glucose. Starvation caused slight inhibition of glucose transport which increased markedly on Ep administration to starved rats. Normal animals failed to show any significant change in glucose transport after Ep treatment. Methyl-alpha-D-glucoside inhibited the Ep-stimulated glucose transport significantly. Ep also stimulated the transport of radioactive methyl-alpha-D-glucoside which was competitively inhibited in presence of D-glucose. Glucose transport in erythrocytes was found to be sensitive to metabolic inhibitors like azide and DNP. A sulfhydryl reagent and ouabain also inhibited the transport process. Ep stimulated glucose and methyl-alpha-D-glucoside transport in the bone marrow cells of starved rats. The sugar analog competitively inhibited the glucose transport in bone marrow cells and vice versa

  1. The metabolism of L-phenylalanine and L-tyrosine by liver cells isolated from adrenalectomized rats and from streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Stanley, J C; Fisher, M J; Pogson, C I

    1985-01-01

    Flux through, and maximal activities of, key enzymes of phenylalanine and tyrosine degradation were measured in liver cells prepared from adrenalectomized rats and from streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Adrenalectomy decreased the phenylalanine hydroxylase flux/activity ratio; this was restored by steroid treatment in vivo. Changes in the phosphorylation state of the hydroxylase may mediate these effects; there was no significant change in the maximal activity of the hydroxylase. Tyrosine metabol...

  2. Long live the liver: immunohistochemical and stereological study of hepatocytes, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, Kupffer cells and hepatic stellate cells of male and female rats throughout ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, Ricardo; Correia-Gomes, Carla

    2016-12-01

    Male/female differences in enzyme activity and gene expression in the liver are known to be attenuated with ageing. Nevertheless, the effect of ageing on liver structure and quantitative cell morphology remains unknown. Male and female Wistar rats aged 2, 6, 12 and 18 months were examined by means of stereological techniques and immunohistochemical tagging of hepatocytes (HEP), liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC), Kupffer cells (KC) and hepatic stellate cells (HSC) in order to assess the total number and number per gram of these cells throughout life. The mean cell volume of HEP and HSC, the lobular position and the collagen content of the liver were also evaluated with stereological techniques. The number per gram of HSC was similar for both genders and was maintained throughout ageing. The mean volume of HSC was also conserved but differences in the cell body and lobular location were observed. Statistically significant gender differences in HEP were noted in young rats (females had smaller and more binucleated HEP) but were attenuated with ageing. The same occurred for KC and LSEC, since the higher number per gram in young females disappeared in older animals. Liver collagen increased with ageing but only in males. Thus, the numbers of these four cell types are related throughout ageing, with well-defined cell ratios. The shape and lobular position of HSC change with ageing in both males and females. Gender dimorphism in HEP, KC and LSEC of young rat liver disappears with ageing.

  3. Familiarity breeds contempt: kangaroos persistently avoid areas with experimentally deployed dingo scents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Michael H; Blumstein, Daniel T

    2010-05-05

    Whether or not animals habituate to repeated exposure to predator scents may depend upon whether there are predators associated with the cues. Understanding the contexts of habituation is theoretically important and has profound implication for the application of predator-based herbivore deterrents. We repeatedly exposed a mixed mob of macropod marsupials to olfactory scents (urine, feces) from a sympatric predator (Canis lupus dingo), along with a control (water). If these predator cues were alarming, we expected that over time, some red kangaroos (Macropus rufous), western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus) and agile wallabies (Macropus agilis) would elect to not participate in cafeteria trials because the scents provided information about the riskiness of the area. We evaluated the effects of urine and feces independently and expected that urine would elicit a stronger reaction because it contains a broader class of infochemicals (pheromones, kairomones). Finally, we scored non-invasive indicators (flight and alarm stomps) to determine whether fear or altered palatability was responsible for the response. Repeated exposure reduced macropodid foraging on food associated with 40 ml of dingo urine, X = 986.75+/-3.97 g food remained as compared to the tap water control, X = 209.0+/-107.0 g (P0.5). Macropodids did not habituate to repeated exposure to predator scents, rather they avoided the entire experimental area after 10 days of trials (R(2) = 83.8; P<0.001). Responses to urine and feces were indistinguishable; both elicited fear-based responses and deterred foraging. Despite repeated exposure to predator-related cues in the absence of a predator, macropodids persistently avoided an area of highly palatable food. Area avoidance is consistent with that observed from other species following repeated anti-predator conditioning, However, this is the first time this response has been experimentally observed among medium or large vertebrates - where a local response

  4. Familiarity breeds contempt: kangaroos persistently avoid areas with experimentally deployed dingo scents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H Parsons

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Whether or not animals habituate to repeated exposure to predator scents may depend upon whether there are predators associated with the cues. Understanding the contexts of habituation is theoretically important and has profound implication for the application of predator-based herbivore deterrents. We repeatedly exposed a mixed mob of macropod marsupials to olfactory scents (urine, feces from a sympatric predator (Canis lupus dingo, along with a control (water. If these predator cues were alarming, we expected that over time, some red kangaroos (Macropus rufous, western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus and agile wallabies (Macropus agilis would elect to not participate in cafeteria trials because the scents provided information about the riskiness of the area.We evaluated the effects of urine and feces independently and expected that urine would elicit a stronger reaction because it contains a broader class of infochemicals (pheromones, kairomones. Finally, we scored non-invasive indicators (flight and alarm stomps to determine whether fear or altered palatability was responsible for the response. Repeated exposure reduced macropodid foraging on food associated with 40 ml of dingo urine, X = 986.75+/-3.97 g food remained as compared to the tap water control, X = 209.0+/-107.0 g (P0.5. Macropodids did not habituate to repeated exposure to predator scents, rather they avoided the entire experimental area after 10 days of trials (R(2 = 83.8; P<0.001.Responses to urine and feces were indistinguishable; both elicited fear-based responses and deterred foraging. Despite repeated exposure to predator-related cues in the absence of a predator, macropodids persistently avoided an area of highly palatable food. Area avoidance is consistent with that observed from other species following repeated anti-predator conditioning, However, this is the first time this response has been experimentally observed among medium or large vertebrates - where a local

  5. Olopatadine Inhibits Exocytosis in Rat Peritoneal Mast Cells by Counteracting Membrane Surface Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuka Baba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgroud/Aims: Besides its anti-allergic properties as a histamine receptor antagonist, olopatadine stabilizes mast cells by inhibiting the release of chemokines. Since olopatadine bears amphiphilic features and is preferentially partitioned into the lipid bilayers of the plasma membrane, it would induce some morphological changes in mast cells and thus affect the process of exocytosis. Methods: Employing the standard patch-clamp whole-cell recording technique, we examined the effects of olopatadine and other anti-allergic drugs on the membrane capacitance (Cm in rat peritoneal mast cells during exocytosis. Using confocal imaging of a water-soluble fluorescent dye, lucifer yellow, we also examined their effects on the deformation of the plasma membrane. Results: Low concentrations of olopatadine (1 or 10 µM did not significantly affect the GTP-γ-S-induced increase in the Cm. However, 100 µM and 1 mM olopatadine almost totally suppressed the increase in the Cm. Additionally, these doses completely washed out the trapping of the dye on the cell surface, indicating that olopatadine counteracted the membrane surface deformation induced by exocytosis. As shown by electron microscopy, olopatadine generated inward membrane bending in mast cells. Conclusion: This study provides electrophysiological evidence for the first time that olopatadine dose-dependently inhibits the process of exocytosis in rat peritoneal mast cells. Such mast cell stabilizing properties of olopatadine may be attributed to its counteracting effects on the plasma membrane deformation in degranulating mast cells.

  6. 5-Aminolevulinic acid-mediated sonosensitization of rat RG2 glioma cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Bilmin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sonodynamic therapy (SDT is a promising technique based on the ability of certain substances, called sonosensitizers, to sensitize cancer cells to non-thermal effects of low-energy ultrasound waves, allowing their destruction. Sonosensitization is thought to induce cell death by direct physical effects such as cavitation and acoustical streaming as well as by complementary chemical reactions generating oxygen free radicals. One of the promising sonosensitizers is 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA which upon selective uptake by cancer cells is metabolized and accumulated as protoporphyrin IX. The objective of the study was to describe ALA-mediated sonodynamic effects in vitro on a rat RG2 glioma cell line. Glioma cells, seeded at the bottom of 96-well plates and incubated with ALA (10 µg/ml for 6 h, were exposed to the sinusoidal US pulses with a resonance frequency of 1 MHz, 1000 µs duration, 0.4 duty-cycle, and average acoustic power varying from 2 W to 6 W. Ultrasound waves were generated by a flat circular piezoelectric transducer with a diameter of 25 mm. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Structural cellular changes were visualized with a fluorescence microscope. Signs of cytotoxicity such as a decrease in cell viability, chromatin condensation and apoptosis were found. ALA-mediated SDT evokes cytotoxic effects of low intensity US on rat RG2 glioma cells in vitro . This cell line is indicated for further preclinical assessment of SDT in in vivo conditions.

  7. X-ray-induced cell death by apoptosis in the immature rat cerebellum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, B.V.; Allan, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    The cells of the external granular layer (EGL) of the developing cerebellum are known to be particularly sensitive to radiation. In the past, changes induced in this layer by irradiation have been referred to by non-specific terms such as pyknotic cells and the mode of cell death has been assumed to be necrosis. However, in published light micrographs of these dying cells, the appearance is suggestive of apoptosis, a distinctive mode of cell death which occurs spontaneously in normal adult and embryonic tissues and can also be triggered by certain pathological stimuli. This light and transmission electron microscopic study of control and irradiated (7 h post-irradiation) rat cerebellum from 18 day fetuses and 5 day-old neonates showed that the cell death was effected by apoptosis. The apoptosis was markedly enhanced by x-irradiation and quantification of the cell death in the EGL of 5 day-old rats exposed to 4, 8, 25, 100, and 400 cGy x-irradiation demonstrated that there was a positive dose response relationship. The extent of cell death by apoptosis which was 0.2% in control, ranged from 0.8% after 4 cGy to 62.3% after 400 cGy x-irradiation. The recognition that cell death by apoptosis can be a major component of x-irradiation damage has important implications for radiobiological studies

  8. Induction of Ski Protein Expression upon Luteinization in Rat Granulosa Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Kim

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ski protein is implicated in proliferation/differentiation in a variety of cells. We had previously reported that Ski protein is present in granulosa cells of atretic follicles, but not in preovulatory follicles, suggesting that Ski has a role in apoptosis of granulosa cells. The alternative fate of granulosa cells other than apoptosis is to differentiate to luteal cells; however, it is unknown whether Ski is expressed and has a role in granulosa cells undergoing luteinization. Thus, the aim of the present study was to locate Ski protein in the rat ovary during luteinizationto predict the possible role of Ski. In order to examine the expression pattern of Ski protein along with the progress of luteinization, follicular growth was induced by administration of equine chorionic gonadtropin to immature female rats, and luteinization was induced by human chorionic gonadtropin treatment to mimic luteinizing hormone (LH surge. While no Ski-positive granulosa cells were present in preovulatory follicle, Ski protein expression was induced in response to LH surge, and was maintained after the formation of the corpus luteum (CL. Though Ski protein is absent in granulosa cells of preovulatory follicle, its mRNA (c-Ski was expressed and the level was unchanged even after LH surge. Taken together, these results demonstrated that Ski protein expression is induced in granulosa cells upon luteinization, and suggests that its expression is regulated post-transcriptionally.

  9. Grafting of ARPE-19 and Schwann cells to the subretinal space in RCS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaomei; Lu, Bin; Wood, Patrick; Lund, Raymond D

    2005-07-01

    To study the distribution of the human retinal pigment epithelium (hRPE) cell line ARPE-19 and human Schwann (hSC) cells grafted to the subretinal space of the Royal College of Surgeon (RCS) rat and the relation of graft cell distribution to photoreceptor rescue. Cell suspensions of both donor types were injected into the subretinal space of 3-week-old dystrophic RCS rats through a transscleral approach, human fibroblast and medium were used as control grafts. All animals were maintained on oral cyclosporine. At 1, 2, 4, 6, 15, 28, and 36 weeks after grafting, animals were killed. Human cell-specific markers were used to localize donor cells. Both donor cell types, as revealed by antibodies survived for a substantial time. Their distribution was very different: hRPE cells formed a large clump early on and, with time, spread along the host RPE in a layer one to two cells deep, whereas hSCs formed many smaller clumps, mainly in the subretinal space. Both cells rescued photoreceptors beyond the area of donor cell distribution. The number of surviving cells declined with time. Both hRPE and hSC grafts can survive and rescue photoreceptors for a substantial time after grafting. The number of both donor cell types declined with time, which could be an immune-related problem and/or due to other factors intrinsic to the host RCS retina. The fact that rescue occurred beyond the area of donor cell distribution suggests that diffusible factors are involved, raising the possibility that the two cell types function in a similar manner to rescue photoreceptors.

  10. Density increment and decreased survival of rat red blood cells induced by cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunimoto, M.; Miura, T.

    1986-01-01

    Male Wistar rats were injected with CdCl 2 subcutaneously to examine in vivo effects of Cd on density and survival of red blood cells. During the 7 days after administration of 1.0 mg Cd/kg, the following sequence of events occurred: (1) a progressive increase in the amount of more dense red blood cells concomitant with a decrease in that of light red blood cells from the first to the third day; (2) an increase in the spleen weight at the third day; (3) a decrease in the hematocrit value and an increase in the amount of light red blood cells at the fifth day; and (4) a recovery of the hematocrit value at the seventh day. Five days after administration, the hematocrit value decreased in a dose-dependent mode and the decrease was significant at the 1% level at 1.0 and 1.5 mg Cd/kg. A highly significant splenomegaly was also observed at 0.5 to 1.5 mg Cd/kg. In order to label red blood cells in vivo, [ 3 H] diisopropylfluorophosphate ([ 3 H]DFP) was injected into rats. At Day 11, Cd at either 0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg was administered to [ 3 H]DFP-prelabeled animals. Cd administration accelerated 3 H-labeled red cell clearance from the blood. Six days after Cd administration, the radioactivity of red blood cells was 76 and 68% of the control at 0.5 and 1.0 mg Cd/kg, respectively. In vitro treatment of rat red density and accelerated in vivo clearance of red blood cells from the recipient circulation. These results show that Cd at low dose can cause anemia by increasing red cell density and by accelerating red cell sequestration, presumably in the spleen

  11. Application of rat mast cell incubates as a possible short-time test for sensitizing occupational chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diel, F.; Neidhart, B.; Opree, W.

    1981-08-01

    The direct action of sensitizing occupational chemicals (formaldehyde, phenol, phenylhydrazine, p-aminophenol) on rat mast cells was investigated by determination of histamine using HPLC separation and fluorimetric detection. It turned out that dispersed mast cells from immunized and non-immunized Wistar-rats are more sensitive than small-cut lung tissue slices. Passive cutaneous anaphylaxis was negative after a fortnight sensitizing experiment with the here described occupational chemicals. Short-time tests with rat mast cells reflect anaphylactoid response and are suitable for the screening of sensitizing chemicals.

  12. Committed T lymphocyte stem cells of rats. Characterization by surface W3/13 antigen and radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, M.J.; Hunt, S.V.

    1981-01-01

    The existence of stem cells committed to the T lymphoid lineage was deduced from studying how rat T and B stem cells differ in their expression of membrane W3/13 antigen and in their susceptibility in vivo to gamma irradiation. Stem cell activity of rat bone marrow and fetal liver was measured in long-term radiation chimeras using B and T cell alloantigenic surface markers to identify the progeny of donor cells. Monoclonal mouse anti-rat thymocyte antibody W3/13 labeled approximately 40% of fetal liver cells and 60-70% of young rat bone marrow cells (40% brightly, 25% dimly). Bright, dim, and negative cells were separated on a fluorescence-activated cell sorter. All B and T lymphoid stem cells in fetal liver were W3/13 bright, as were B lymphoid stem cells in bone marrow. W3/13 dim bone marrow had over half the T cell repopulating activity of unseparated marrow but gave virtually no B cell repopulation. In further experiments, the radiosensitivity of endogenous B and T lymphoid stem cells was determined by exposing host rats to between 4.5 and 10 Gy of gamma irradiation before repopulation with genetically marked marrow. The results depended on whether chimerism was assayed before day 50 or after day 100. At early times, a radioresistant T stem cell was indicated, whose activity waned later. Thus committed T stem cells of rats carry moderate amounts of W3/13 antigen and are more radioresistant but less permanently chimeragenic than the stem cells that regenerate B lymphocytes

  13. Improvement of Heart Failure by Human Amniotic Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Transplantation in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi Tousi, Seyed Mohammad Taghi; Faghihi, Mahdieh; Nobakht, Maliheh; Molazem, Mohammad; Kalantari, Elham; Darbandi Azar, Amir; Aboutaleb, Nahid

    2016-07-06

    Background: Recently, stem cells have been considered for the treatment of heart diseases, but no marked improvement has been recorded. This is the first study to examine the functional and histological effects of the transplantation of human amniotic mesenchymal stromal cells (hAMSCs) in rats with heart failure (HF). Methods: This study was conducted in the years 2014 and 2015. 35 male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into 5 equal experimental groups (7 rats each) as 1- Control 2- Heart Failure (HF) 3- Sham 4- Culture media 5- Stem Cell Transplantation (SCT). Heart failure was induced using 170 mg/kg/d of isoproterenol subcutaneously injection in 4 consecutive days. The failure confirmed by the rat cardiac echocardiography on day 28. In SCT group, 3×10 6 cells in 150 µl of culture media were transplanted to the myocardium. At the end, echocardiographic and hemodynamic parameters together with histological evaluation were done. Results: Echocardiography results showed that cardiac ejection fraction in HF group increased from 58/73 ± 9% to 81/25 ± 6/05% in SCT group (p value < 0.001). Fraction shortening in HF group was increased from 27/53 ± 8/58% into 45/55 ± 6/91% in SCT group (p value < 0.001). Furthermore, hAMSCs therapy significantly improved mean diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, left ventricular systolic pressure, rate pressure product, and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure compared to those in the HF group, with the values reaching the normal levels in the control group. A marked reduction in fibrosis tissue was also found in the SCT group (p value < 0.001) compared with the animals in the HF group. Conclusion: The transplantation of hAMSCs in rats with heart failure not only decreased the level of fibrosis but also conferred significant improvement in heart performance in terms of echocardiographic and hemodynamic parameters.

  14. Studies of rhodamine-123: effect on rat prostate cancer and human prostate cancer cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcadi, J A; Narayan, K S; Techy, G; Ng, C P; Saroufeem, R M; Jones, L W

    1995-06-01

    The effect of the lipophilic, cationic dye, Rhodamine-123 (Rh-123), on prostate cancer in rats, and on three tumor cell lines in vitro is reported here. The general toxicity of Rh-123 in mice has been found to be minimal. Lobund-Wistar (L-W) rats with the autochthonous prostate cancer of Pollard were treated for six doses with Rh-123 at a dose of 15 mg/kg subcutaneously every other day. Microscopic examination of the tumors revealed cellular and acinar destruction. The effectiveness of Rh-123 as a cytotoxic agent was tested by clonogenic and viability assays in vitro with three human prostate cancer cell lines. Severe (60-95%) growth inhibition was observed following Rh-123 exposure for 2-5 days at doses as low as 1.6 micrograms/ml in all three prostate cancer cell lines.

  15. Experimental treatment of diabetic mice with microencapsulated rat islet cells transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Yun; Xue Yilong; Li Yanling; Li Xinjian

    2006-01-01

    To observe treatment effects of diabetic mice with microcapsulated and non-microcapsulated rat islet cell transplantation, pancreas of SD rat was perfused with collagenase through cloledchus, and then the pancreatic tissues were isolated and digested. Histopaque-1077 was used to purify the digested pancreas. Islet cells were collected and implanted into the peritoneal cavity of diabetic mice. The isolated islets had a response upon glucose stimulation. When the microcapsulated islets and non- microcapsulated islets were transplanted into diabetic mices the high blood glucose level could be decreased to normal. The normal blood glucose level in the diabetic mice transpanted with microcapsulated islets could be maintained for over 30 days,but it could be mainlained only for 2-3 days in the diabetic mice transplanted with non-microcapsulated islets. Thus it is believed that microcapsulated islet cell transplantation exerts good effect on diabetic mice and the microcapsules possessed good immunoisolating function. (authors)

  16. Evaluation of castor oil-based polyurethane membranes in rat bone-marrow cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerejo, Sofia de Amorim; Rahal, Sheila Canevese; Lima Neto, João Ferreira de; Voorwald, Fabiana Azevedo; Alvarenga, Fernanda da Cruz Landim e

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate three methods to isolate rats MSCs and to analyze the potential of a castor oil polyurethane base membrane as a scaffold for MSCs. Four male Wistar rats, aged 20-30 days were used. Bone marrow aspirates from femur and tibia were harvested using DMEM high glucose and heparin. The cell culture was performed in three different ways: direct culture and two types of density gradients. After 15 days, was made the 1st passage and analyzed cell viability with markers Hoerscht 33342 and propidium iodide. The MSCs were characterized by surface markers with the aid of flow cytometry. After this, three types of castor oil polyurethane membranes associated with the MSCs were kept on the 6-well plate for 5 days and were analyzed by optical microscopy to confirm cell aggregation and growth. Separation procedures 1 and 2 allowed adequate isolation of MSCs and favored cell growth with the passage being carried out at 70% confluence after 15 days in culture. The cells could not be isolated using procedure 3. When the 3 castor oil polyurethane membrane types were compared it was possible to observe that the growth of MSCs was around 80% in membrane type 3, 20% in type 2, and 10% in type 1. Both Ficoll-Hypaque densities allow isolation of rat MSCs, and especially castor oil-based membrane type 3 may be used as a scaffold for MSCs.

  17. Radiosensitivity and ras oncogene expression in preneoplastic rat tracheal epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomassen, D.G.; Wuensch, S.A.; Kelly, G.

    1988-01-01

    The sensitivity of preneoplastic rat tracheal epithelial (RTE) cells to the cytotoxic effects of high- and low-LET radiation, and the modulating effect of the viral ras oncogene on this sensitivity were determined. Two lines of preneoplastic RTE cells have the same responsiveness to high-LET radiation, but differ in their responsiveness to a transfected ras oncogene and in their sensitivities to low-LET radiation. Cells that respond to ras by becoming neoplastic are more resistant to the cytotoxic effects of low-LET radiation than cells that are not transformable by ras. The radiosensitivity of ras-responsive cells was not altered by transfection with ras. However, transfection of ras-non responsive cells with ras decreased their sensitivity to low-LET radiation. These data suggest that the ability of cells to repair radiation damage changes as they progress to neoplasia. (author)

  18. Energy metabolism in rat mast cells in relation to histamine secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, T

    1987-01-01

    1. The relation between the energy metabolism and the secretory activity of rat peritoneal mast cells has been studied by determination of the cellular content of ATP and the rate of lactate production reflecting the rate of ATP synthesis under various experimental conditions. Secretion...... and the cellular ATP content at the time of cell activation was demonstrated. This may indicate a direct link between ATP and the secretory mechanism. 3. The possibility of an increased utilization of ATP during histamine secretion was explored in mast cells exposed to metabolic inhibitors. Incubation of mast...... cells with 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) decreased the ATP content of the cells, and a long-lasting and stable level of mast cell ATP was observed. This is explained by a small decrease in the rate of ATP-synthesis by 2-DG. In 2-DG-treated cells secretion of histamine in response to compound 48...

  19. Intraportal injection of insulin-producing cells generated from human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells decreases blood glucose level in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Pei-Jiun; Wang, Hwai-Shi; Lin, Chi-Hung; Weng, Zen-Chung; Chen, Tien-Hua; Shyu, Jia-Fwu

    2014-01-01

    We studied the process of trans-differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) into insulin-producing cells. Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rat model was used to study the effect of portal vein transplantation of these insulin-producing cells on blood sugar levels. The BM-MSCs were differentiated into insulin-producing cells under defined conditions. Real-time PCR, immunocytochemistry and glucose challenge were used to evaluate in vitro differentiation. Flow cytometry showed that hBM-MSCs were strongly positive for CD44, CD105 and CD73 and negative for hematopoietic markers CD34, CD38 and CD45. Differentiated cells expressed C-peptide as well as β-cells specific genes and hormones. Glucose stimulation increased C-peptide secretion in these cells. The insulin-producing, differentiated cells were transplanted into the portal vein of STZ-induced diabetic rats using a Port-A catheter. The insulin-producing cells were localized in the liver of the recipient rat and expressed human C-peptide. Blood glucose levels were reduced in diabetic rats transplanted with insulin-producing cells. We concluded that hBM-MSCs could be trans-differentiated into insulin-producing cells in vitro. Portal vein transplantation of insulin-producing cells alleviated hyperglycemia in diabetic rats.

  20. [Activity of glial cells in trigeminal nervous system in rats with experimental pulpitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Bin; Liu, Na; Liu, Hongchen

    2014-04-29

    To observe the activity change of astrocyte in related nucleus caused by acute pulpitis in rats. Rat acute pulpitis model was induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS). And, according to processing time, a total of 30 rats were divided into 5 groups of control, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot were employed to detect the dynamic expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in spinal nucleus of trigeminal nerve (Vc). The relative gray value of ipsilateral Vc GFAP expression in experimental groups was 153 ± 11 at 12 h. And it significantly increased versus the control group (100 ± 4)(P pulpitis model, activated glial cells are probably involved in the processes of pulpitis and hyperalgesia.

  1. Triptolide inhibits TGF-β1-induced cell proliferation in rat airway smooth muscle cells by suppressing Smad signaling

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    Chen, Ming; Lv, Zhiqiang; Huang, Linjie [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Institute for Respiratory disease of Sun Yat-sen University, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province 510120 (China); Zhang, Wei [Department of Geratology, the Second People' s Hospital of Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518000 (China); Lin, Xiaoling; Shi, Jianting; Zhang, Wei; Liang, Ruiyun [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Institute for Respiratory disease of Sun Yat-sen University, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province 510120 (China); Jiang, Shanping, E-mail: shanpingjiang@126.com [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Institute for Respiratory disease of Sun Yat-sen University, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province 510120 (China)

    2015-02-15

    Background: We have reported that triptolide can inhibit airway remodeling in a murine model of asthma via TGF-β1/Smad signaling. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect of triptolide on airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) proliferation and the possible mechanism. Methods: Rat airway smooth muscle cells were cultured and made synchronized, then pretreated with different concentration of triptolide before stimulated by TGF-β1. Cell proliferation was evaluated by MTT assay. Flow cytometry was used to study the influence of triptolide on cell cycle and apoptosis. Signal proteins (Smad2, Smad3 and Smad7) were detected by western blotting analysis. Results: Triptolide significantly inhibited TGF-β1-induced ASMC proliferation (P<0.05). The cell cycle was blocked at G1/S-interphase by triptolide dose dependently. No pro-apoptotic effects were detected under the concentration of triptolide we used. Western blotting analysis showed TGF-β1 induced Smad2 and Smad3 phosphorylation was inhibited by triptolide pretreatment, and the level of Smad7 was increased by triptolide pretreatment. Conclusions: Triptolide may function as an inhibitor of asthma airway remodeling by suppressing ASMCs proliferation via negative regulation of Smad signaling pathway. - Highlights: • In this study, rat airway smooth muscle cells were cultured and made synchronized. • Triptolide inhibited TGF-β1-induced airway smooth muscle cells proliferation. • Triptolide inhibited ASMCs proliferation via negative regulation of Smad signaling pathway.

  2. Maternal Rat Diabetes Mellitus Deleteriously Affects Insulin Sensitivity and Beta-Cell Function in the Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Baset M. Aref

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to assess the effect of maternal diabetes in rats on serum glucose and insulin concentrations, insulin resistance, histological architecture of pancreas and glycogen content in liver of offspring. The pregnant rat females were allocated into two main groups: normal control group and streptozotocin-induced diabetic group. After birth, the surviving offspring were subjected to biochemical and histological examination immediately after delivery and at the end of the 1st and 2nd postnatal weeks. In comparison with the offspring of normal control dams, the fasting serum glucose level of offspring of diabetic mothers was significantly increased at the end of the 1st and 2nd postnatal weeks. Serum insulin level of offspring of diabetic dams was significantly higher at birth and decreased significantly during the following 2 postnatal weeks, while in normal rat offspring, it was significantly increased with progress of time. HOMA Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR was significantly increased in the offspring of diabetic dams at birth and after 1 week than in normal rat offspring, while HOMA insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IS was significantly decreased. HOMA beta-cell function was significantly decreased at all-time intervals in offspring of diabetic dams. At birth, islets of Langerhans as well as beta cells in offspring of diabetic dams were hypertrophied. The cells constituting islets seemed to have a high division rate. However, beta-cells were degenerated during the following 2 post-natal weeks and smaller insulin secreting cells predominated. Vacuolation and necrosis of the islets of Langerhans were also observed throughout the experimental period. The carbohydrate content in liver of offspring of diabetic dams was at all-time intervals lower than that in control. The granule distribution was more random. Overall, the preexisting maternal diabetes leads to glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and impaired insulin sensitivity and β-cell

  3. Nifedipine-activated Ca(2+) permeability in newborn rat cortical collecting duct cells in primary culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, L; Bidet, M; Martial, S; Sanchez, E; Melendez, E; Tauc, M; Poujeol, C; Martin, D; Namorado, M D; Reyes, J L; Poujeol, P

    2001-05-01

    To characterize Ca(2+) transport in newborn rat cortical collecting duct (CCD) cells, we used nifedipine, which in adult rat distal tubules inhibits the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) increase in response to hormonal activation. We found that the dihydropyridine (DHP) nifedipine (20 microM) produced an increase in [Ca(2+)](i) from 87.6 +/- 3.3 nM to 389.9 +/- 29.0 nM in 65% of the cells. Similar effects of other DHP (BAY K 8644, isradipine) were also observed. Conversely, DHPs did not induce any increase in [Ca(2+)](i) in cells obtained from proximal convoluted tubule. In CCD cells, neither verapamil nor diltiazem induced any rise in [Ca(2+)](i). Experiments in the presence of EGTA showed that external Ca(2+) was required for the nifedipine effect, while lanthanum (20 microM), gadolinium (100 microM), and diltiazem (20 microM) inhibited the effect. Experiments done in the presence of valinomycin resulted in the same nifedipine effect, showing that K(+) channels were not involved in the nifedipine-induced [Ca(2+)](i) rise. H(2)O(2) also triggered [Ca(2+)](i) rise. However, nifedipine-induced [Ca(2+)](i) increase was not affected by protamine. In conclusion, the present results indicate that 1) primary cultures of cells from terminal nephron of newborn rats are a useful tool for investigating Ca(2+) transport mechanisms during growth, and 2) newborn rat CCD cells in primary culture exhibit a new apical nifedipine-activated Ca(2+) channel of capacitive type (either transient receptor potential or leak channel).

  4. Membrane potential and cation channels in rat juxtaglomerular cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, U G; Jørgensen, F; Andreasen, D

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between membrane potential and cation channels in juxtaglomerular (JG) cells is not well understood. Here we review electrophysiological and molecular studies of JG cells demonstrating the presence of large voltage-sensitive, calcium-activated potassium channels (BK(Ca)) of the Z......The relationship between membrane potential and cation channels in juxtaglomerular (JG) cells is not well understood. Here we review electrophysiological and molecular studies of JG cells demonstrating the presence of large voltage-sensitive, calcium-activated potassium channels (BK...

  5. Evaluation of rat liver apoptotic and necrotic cell death after cold storage using UW, HTK, and Celsior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straatsburg, Irene H.; Abrahamse, Salomon L.; Song, Shao W.; Hartman, Robin J.; van Gulik, Thomas M.

    2002-01-01

    Background. The benefit of Celsior in liver graft preservation is controversial. In the isolated perfused rat liver model, we compared the effects of Celsior, University of Wisconsin (UW), and histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate (HTK) preservation solutions on liver cell death. Methods. Rat livers

  6. Rat glomerular epithelial cells in culture. Parietal or visceral epithelial origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norgaard, J.O.

    1987-01-01

    Isolated glomeruli from rats were explanted under standard culture conditions and outgrowths were studied by light and electron microscopy in order to identify the cells. Rat glomerular samples contained 20 to 30% structurally well-preserved encapsulated glomeruli which had a large rate of attachment to the substrate and very constantly gave rise to cellular outgrowth. In order to label cells from which outgrowth originated the glomerular incorporation of [ 3 H]thymidine was studied in the preattachment phase. By light and electron microscope autoradiograph it was demonstrated that label was located only over visceral and parietal epithelial cells during the first 3 days of culture. Incorporation of [ 3 H]thymidine was seen in mesangial cells after 5 days, i.e., after the glomeruli had attached to the culture vessels and the initial outgrowth had appeared. Consequently the first cells to grow out were of epithelial origin. Glomeruli were then incubated with [ 3 H]thymidine for the first 2 1/2 days of culture in order to label the epithelial cells, then were allowed to attach to the substrate and induce cell outgrowth. By light microscope autoradiography performed with the outgrowths in situ two types of cells with labeled nuclei were seen: (a) a small, polyhedral ciliated cell which grew in colonies where the cells were joined by junctional complexes (type I), and (b) a second very large, often multinucleated cell (type II). Based on the structural resemblance with their counterparts in situ and on comparisons with positively identified visceral epithelial cells in outgrowths from other species it is suggested that type I cells are derived from the parietal epithelium of Bowman's capsule and type II cells from the visceral epithelium

  7. Hypothiocyanite produced by human and rat respiratory epithelial cells inactivates extracellular H1N2 influenza A virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, Aaron; Pang, Lan; Hanson, Jarod; Dlugolenski, Daniel; Streich, Rebecca; Lafontaine, Eric R; Nagy, Tamás; Tripp, Ralph A; Rada, Balázs

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to study whether an extracellular, oxidative antimicrobial mechanism inherent to tracheal epithelial cells is capable of inactivating influenza H1N2 virus. Epithelial cells were isolated from tracheas of male Sprague-Dawley rats. Both primary human and rat tracheobronchial epithelial cells were differentiated in air-liquid interface cultures. A/swine/Illinois/02860/09 (swH1N2) influenza A virions were added to the apical side of airway cells for 1 h in the presence or absence of lactoperoxidase or thiocyanate. Characterization of rat epithelial cells (morphology, Duox expression) occurred via western blotting, PCR, hydrogen peroxide production measurement and histology. The number of viable virions was determined by plaque assays. Statistical difference of the results was analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test. Our data show that rat tracheobronchial epithelial cells develop a differentiated, polarized monolayer with high transepithelial electrical resistance, mucin production and expression of dual oxidases. Influenza A virions are inactivated by human and rat epithelial cells via a dual oxidase-, lactoperoxidase- and thiocyanate-dependent mechanism. Differentiated air-liquid interface cultures of rat tracheal epithelial cells provide a novel model to study airway epithelium-influenza interactions. The dual oxidase/lactoperoxidase/thiocyanate extracellular oxidative system producing hypothiocyanite is a fast and potent anti-influenza mechanism inactivating H1N2 viruses prior to infection of the epithelium.

  8. Distribution profiles of transient receptor potential melastatin- and vanilloid-related channels in rat spermatogenic cells and sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shilin; Wang, Xinghuan; Ye, Haixia; Gao, Weicheng; Pu, Xiaoyong; Yang, Zhonghua

    2010-03-01

    In the present study, we aimed to investigate the expression and distribution of transient receptor potential melastatin (TRPM)- and vanilloid (TRPV)- related channels in rat spermatogenic cells and spermatozoa. Spermatogenic cells and spermatozoa were obtained from male Sprague-Dawley rats. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to detect the expression of all TRPM and TRPV channel members with specific primers. Western blot analysis was applied for detecting the expression of TRPM and TRPV channel proteins. Immunohistochemistry staining for TRPM4, TRPM7 and TRPV5 was also performed in rat testis. The mRNAs of TRPM3, TRPM4, TRPM7 and TRPV5 were detected in the spermatogenic cells and spermatozoa in rat. Western blot analysis verified the expression of TRPM4, TRPM7 and TRPV5 in the rat spermatogenic cells and spermatozoa. Immunocytochemistry staining for TRPM and TRPV channel families indicated that TRPM4 and TRPM7 proteins were highly expressed in different stages of spermatogenic cells and spermatozoa, while TRPV5 protein was lowly expressed in these cells. Our results demonstrate that mRNAs or proteins for TRPM3, TRPM4, TRPM7 and TRPV5 exist in rat spermatogenic cells and spermatozoa. These data presented here may assist in elucidating the possible physiological function of TRPM and TRPV channels in spermatogenic cells and spermatozoa.

  9. Reverse Transcriptase-Containing Particles Induced in Rous Sarcoma Virus-Transformed Rat Cells by Arginine Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Moshe; Weinberg, Eynat; Haspel, Osnat; Becker, Yechiel

    1972-01-01

    Incubation of rat cells transformed by Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) in an arginine-deficient medium resulted in accumulation of particles in the culture medium. Such particles did not appear when the transformed rat cells were incubated in a complete medium nor in the medium of primary rat cells which were incubated either in arginine-deficient or complete media. The particles which were released from the arginine-deprived transformed rat cells resemble C-type particles in their properties. These particles band in sucrose gradients at a density of 1.16 g/ml and contain 35S ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules and a reverse transcriptase activity. Analysis of the cytoplasm of transformed and primary rat cells, deprived and undeprived of arginine, revealed the presence of reverse transcriptase-containing particles which banded in sucrose gradients at a density of 1.14 g/ml. These particles differed from the particles released into the medium by the arginine-deprived RSV-transformed rat cells. The deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules synthesized in vitro by the reverse transcriptase present in the particles isolated from the medium of arginine-deprived cells hybridized to RSV RNA, whereas the DNA synthesized by the cell-bound enzyme had no homology to RSV RNA. PMID:4116137

  10. [Investigation the Inhibitory Effects of Kaempferol on Rat Renalmesangial Cells Proliferation under High Glucose Condition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ni; Han, Peng-Ding; Chen, Wen; Deng, Yan

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the protective effects of kaempferol on rat renal mesangial cells under high glucose condition and explore its mechanism. The HBZY-1 cells were divided into normal glucose group (5.5 mmol/L), high glucose group (25 mmol/L), 10 μmol/L kaempferol+high glucose group, and 30 μmol/L kaempferol+high glucose group. Cell proliferative ability was measured by MTT; cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry; mRNA and protein levels were determined by Real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively. Kaempferol had no effect on the proliferative ability of rat renal mesangial cells under normal glucose (5.5 mmol/L) condition. High glucose (25 mmol/L) enhanced the cell proliferative ability, and this effect was antagonized by kaempferol (10-30 μmol/L) treatment. High glucose reduced the cell population at G 0 /G 1 phase with an associated increase in S phase, and had no effect on G₂/M phase; and kaempferol treatment restored high glucose-induced changes in cell cycle. Kaempferol also prevented high glucose-induced increase in fibronectin and connective tissue growth factor mRNA and protein expression levels. Kaempferol also prevented high glucose-induced increase in fibronectin and connective tissue growth factor mRNA and protein expression levels. Further, high glucose caused an increase in protein level of phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38 MAPK), which was antagonized by kaempferol treatment. Our results suggest that kaempferol exerts its protective effect on rat renal mesangial cells under high glucose condition via p38 MAPK signaling pathway.

  11. Reproductive implications of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus ocydromus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayberry, Chris; Maloney, Shane K; Mitchell, Jeff; Mawson, Peter R; Bencini, Roberta

    2014-04-01

    Australian marsupials are thought to be particularly vulnerable to pathologic impacts of Toxoplasma gondii, and they may be similarly affected by Neospora caninum. Pathology due to either organism could be expressed as reduced female reproductive performance. We studied adult female western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus ocydromus) from suburban Perth, Western Australia, between May 2006 and October 2008. We used indirect fluorescent antibody tests to look for evidence of exposure to T. gondii and N. caninum in M. fuliginosus ocydromus and tested the association between their reproductive performance and a positive test result. Although 20% of plasma samples collected from 102 female kangaroos were positive for T. gondii and 18% were positive for N. caninum, we found no association between positive results and reproductive performance. Further study will be required to clarify if, and under what circumstances, T. gondii and N. caninum are pathogenic to macropod marsupials.

  12. CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS VAR. GRUBII-ASSOCIATED RENAL AMYLOIDOSIS CAUSING PROTEIN-LOSING NEPHROPATHY IN A RED KANGAROO (MACROPUS RUFUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Mary Irene; Gjeltema, Jenessa; Sheley, Matthew; Wack, Ray F

    2017-09-01

    A 10-year-old male castrated red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) presented with mandibular swelling. Examination findings included pitting edema with no dental disease evident on examination or radiographs. The results of blood work were moderate azotemia, hypoalbuminemia, and severely elevated urine protein:creatinine ratio (9.9). Radiographs showed an interstitial pattern of the caudal right lung, and an abdominal ultrasound demonstrated scant effusion. Symptomatic and empirical therapy with antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs, and an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor did not resolve clinical signs. Due to poor prognosis and declining quality of life, euthanasia was elected. Necropsy revealed chronic granulomatous pneumonia of the caudal right lung lobe with intralesional Cryptococcus, identified as C. neoformans var. grubii by DNA sequencing. Severe bilateral glomerular and tubulointerstitial amyloidosis induced protein-losing nephropathy, leading to tri-cavitary effusion, subcutaneous edema, and cachexia. The authors speculate that renal amyloidosis was associated with chronic cryptococcal pneumonia in this red kangaroo.

  13. Distribution of Interstitial Cells of Cajal in the Esophagus of Fetal Rats with Esophageal Atresia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caner Isbir

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Scarcity of the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC is related to motility disorders. In the study, we aimed to evaluate the number and density of ICCs in the fetal rat esophagus in the adriamycin - esophageal atresia (EA model. Material and Method: Rat fetuses were divided into three groups as a control, adriamycin group without EA and adriamycin group with EA. Four doses of adriamycin, 2 mg/kg each, were injected intraperitoneally to the adriamycin group rats between on 6 and 9 days of gestation. The presence of ICCs in the esophagus of the rat fetuses was determined by using an immunohistochemistry technique (c-kit, CD117. The average numbers of ICCs were calculated with microscopic evaluation by using a visual scoring system (range1 to 3. Results: Seven fetuses were included in each group. The ICCs score 3 distributions of fetuses were 5 (72% fetuses in the control group, 3 (43% fetuses in the adriamycin group without EA, 1 (14% fetus in the adriamycin group with EA. It have been found that there was a marked reduction of ICCs distribution in the adriamycin group with EA compared to control group (p 0.05. Discussion: ICCs density was significantly decreased in the rat fetuses with EA compared to the fetuses without EA. These findings support the idea that ICCs density may be congenitally abnormal in EA. This may be led to dismotility seen in the operated esophagus due to EA.

  14. Amlodipine Ameliorates Ischemia-Induced Neovascularization in Diabetic Rats through Endothelial Progenitor Cell Mobilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayin Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We investigated whether amlodipine could improve angiogenic responses in a diabetic rat model of acute myocardial infarction (AMI through improving bone marrow endothelial progenitor cell (EPC mobilization, in the same way as angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. Methods. After induction of AMI by coronary artery ligation, diabetic rats were randomly assigned to receive perindopril (2 mgkg−1 day−1, amlodipine (2.5 mgkg−1 day−1, or vehicle by gavage (n=20 per group. Circulating EPC counts before ligation and on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, and 28 after AMI were measured in each group. Microvessel density, cardiac function, and cardiac remodeling were assessed 4 weeks after treatment. The signaling pathway related to EPC mobilization was also measured. Results. Circulating EPC count in amlodipine- and perindopril-treated rats peaked at day 7, to an obvious higher level than the control group peak which was reached earlier (at day 5. Rats treated with amlodipine showed improved postischemia neovascularization and cardiac function, together with reduced cardiac remodeling, decreased interstitial fibrosis, and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Amlodipine treatment also increased cardiac SDF-1/CXCR4 expression and gave rise to activation of VEGF/Akt/eNOS signaling in bone marrow. Conclusions. Amlodipine promotes neovascularization by improving EPC mobilization from bone marrow in diabetic rats after AMI, and activation of VEGF/Akt/eNOS signaling may in part contribute to this.

  15. Pancreatic growth and cell turnover in the rat fed raw soya flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oates, P.S.; Morgan, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    Growth and differentiation of the pancreatic acinar cell was studied in rats fed raw soya flour (RSF) for up to a year. A second group of rats were fed a control diet. After 1 week of RSF feeding there was a 200% increase in tissue RNA and weight, indicating initial hypertrophy, which was maintained for the 1-year study period. By the second week and over the remainder of the period studied there was also a marked increase in total DNA, suggesting hyperplasia. Cell turnover, as measured by the rate of incorporation of 3H-thymidine into pancreatic DNA, was significantly higher in RSF-fed animals only from the second to fourth weeks; it then returned to control values. Autoradiography showed an 18-fold increase in duct cell labeling at the end of the first week and an 11-fold increase by the end of the second week. Acinar cell labeling doubled from the second to the twelfth week. These studies confirm previous reports that RSF produces pancreatic hypertrophy and hyperplasia. They furthermore show that there is initially marked stimulation of DNA synthesis in the duct cell compartment. The results suggest that cells with the morphologic characteristics of duct cells may be the precursors of acinar cells in hyperplastic pancreatic tissue

  16. Edaravone ameliorates compression-induced damage in rat nucleus pulposus cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Ma, Xuan; Wang, Bai-Chuan; Zhao, Lei; Liu, Jian-Xiang; Pu, Fei-Fei; Hu, Yi-Qiang; Hu, Hong-Zhi; Shao, Zeng-Wu

    2017-11-15

    Edaravone is a strong free radical scavenger most used for treating acute ischemic stroke. In this study we investigated the protective effects and underlying mechanisms of edaravone on compression-induced damage in rat nucleus pulposus (NP) cells. Cell viability was determined using MTT assay methods. NP cell apoptosis was measured by Hoechst 33,258 staining and Annexin V/PI double staining. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and intracellular calcium ([Ca 2+ ] i ) were determined by fluorescent probes DCFH-DA, JC-1 and Fluo-3/AM, respectively. Apoptosis-related proteins (cleaved caspase-3, cytosolic cytochrome c, Bax and Bcl-2) and extracellular matrix proteins (aggrecan and collagen II) were analyzed by western blot. Edaravone attenuated the compression-induced decrease in viability of NP cells in a dose-dependent manner. 33,258 and Annexin V/PI double staining showed that edaravone protected NP cells from compression-induced apoptosis. Further studies confirmed that edaravone protected NP cells against compression-induced mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis by inhibiting overproduction of ROS, collapse of MMP and overload of [Ca 2+ ] i . In addition, edaravone promoted the expression of aggrecan and collagen II in compression-treated NP cells. These results strongly indicate that edaravone ameliorates compression-induced damage in rat nucleus pulposus cells. Edaravone could be a potential new drug for treatment of IDD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of oxygen deprivation on metabolism of arachidonic acid by cultures of rat heart cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freyss-Beguin, M.; Millanvoye-van Brussel, E.; Duval, D.

    1989-01-01

    To investigate the mechanisms responsible for the impairment of phospholipid metabolism observed in ischemic cells, we have studied the effect of conditions simulating ischemia on the metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA) by muscle (M-) and nonmuscle (F-) cells isolated from newborn rat hearts and cultured separately. In muscle cells, oxygen deprivation induces a significant stimulation of the release of [ 14 C]AA from prelabeled cells associated with a preferential redistribution of [ 14 C]AA into cell triglycerides but not formation of radioactive prostaglandins. Moreover, the fatty acid content of phospholipids, as measured by capillary gas chromatography, appears markedly reduced in ischemic myocardial cells. This fact may be related to phospholipase stimulation during ischemia as suggested by the antagonistic effect of mepacrine or p-bromophenacyl bromide. In contrast, oxygen deprivation failed to induce any significant alteration of AA metabolism in fibroblast-like heart cells. Our results indicate that these cultures of newborn rat heart cells, which exhibit many of the features observed in intact organ during ischemia, may represent a useful experimental model to investigate the pharmacological control of the membrane phospholipid turnover

  18. Potential of human dental stem cells in repairing the complete transection of rat spinal cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Li, Xinghan; Sun, Liang; Guo, Weihua; Tian, Weidong

    2017-04-01

    Objective. The adult spinal cord of mammals contains a certain amount of neural precursor cells, but these endogenous cells have a limited capacity for replacement of lost cells after spinal cord injury. The exogenous stem cells transplantation has become a therapeutic strategy for spinal cord repairing because of their immunomodulatory and differentiation capacity. In addition, dental stem cells originating from the cranial neural crest might be candidate cell sources for neural engineering. Approach. Human dental follicle stem cells (DFSCs), stem cells from apical papilla (SCAPs) and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) were isolated and identified in vitro, then green GFP-labeled stem cells with pellets were transplanted into completely transected spinal cord. The functional recovery of rats and multiple neuro-regenerative mechanisms were explored. Main results. The dental stem cells, especially DFSCs, demonstrated the potential in repairing the completely transected spinal cord and promote functional recovery after injury. The major involved mechanisms were speculated below: First, dental stem cells inhibited the expression of interleukin-1β to reduce the inflammatory response; second, they inhibited the expression of ras homolog gene family member A (RhoA) to promote neurite regeneration; third, they inhibited the sulfonylurea receptor1 (SUR-1) expression to reduce progressive hemorrhagic necrosis; lastly, parts of the transplanted cells survived and differentiated into mature neurons and oligodendrocytes but not astrocyte, which is beneficial for promoting axons growth. Significance. Dental stem cells presented remarkable tissue regenerative capability after spinal cord injury through immunomodulatory, differentiation and protection capacity.

  19. Modulation of vesicular catecholamine release from rat PC12 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerink, R.H.S.

    2002-01-01

    Intercellular communication is of vital importance for the nervous system, since the nervous system is the main coordinating system in animals. Nerve cell communication is initiated by the release of chemical messengers, neurotransmitters, from the presynaptic nerve cell. The neurotransmitters, such

  20. Proliferation of sorted human and rat beta cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnaud, G; Bosco, D; Berney, T

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether purified beta cells can replicate in vitro and whether this is enhanced by extracellular matrix (ECM) and growth factors.......The aim of the study was to determine whether purified beta cells can replicate in vitro and whether this is enhanced by extracellular matrix (ECM) and growth factors....

  1. Lamotrigine increases the number of BrdU-labeled cells in the rat hippocampus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondziella, Daniel; Strandberg, Joakim; Lindquist, Catarina

    2011-01-01

    Antidepressant medication and electroconvulsive therapy stabilize mood symptoms and increase hippocampal neurogenesis. We examined whether lamotrigine, suggested to give rise to mood-stabilizing and antidepressant effects in addition to its antiepileptic properties, also increases the number of n...... in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus showed an increased number of newborn cells in rats receiving lamotrigine (42.6 ± 3.5 cells/slice) compared with valproate (31.6 ± 2.8) and controls (32.2 ± 3.1; P...

  2. Extracellular creatine regulates creatine transport in rat and human muscle cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Loike, J D; Zalutsky, D L; Kaback, E; Miranda, A F; Silverstein, S C

    1988-01-01

    Muscle cells do not synthesize creatine; they take up exogenous creatine by specific Na+-dependent plasma membrane transporters. We found that extracellular creatine regulates the level of expression of these creatine transporters in L6 rat muscle cells. L6 myoblasts maintained for 24 hr in medium containing 1 mM creatine exhibited 1/3rd of the creatine transport activity of cells maintained for 24 hr in medium without creatine. Down-regulation of creatine transport was partially reversed whe...

  3. Oncogene-induced progression of preneoplastic rat tracheal epithelial cells to neoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomassen, D.G.; Kelly, G.

    1988-01-01

    N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) induced preneoplastic variants of rat tracheal epithelial (RTE) cells can be neo plastically transformed following transfection with oncogenic DNA. Variants differ with respect to the oncogenes required for neoplastic conversion. Polyma virus DNA transformed each of four variants neo plastically, whereas viral ras DNA only transformed two of four variants. These data demonstrate that preneoplastic variants of RTE cells differ with respect to the changes needed for conversion to neoplastic cells and that the variants tested are either at different stages or on different pathways of progression to neoplasia. (author)

  4. The potential of cell sheet technique on the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in rat models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa T Alshareeda

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is considered the 3rd leading cause of death by cancer worldwide with the majority of patients were diagnosed in the late stages. Currently, there is no effective therapy. The selection of an animal model that mimics human cancer is essential for the identification of prognostic/predictive markers, candidate genes underlying cancer induction and the examination of factors that may influence the response of cancers to therapeutic agents and regimens. In this study, we developed a HCC nude rat models using cell sheet and examined the effect of human stromal cells (SCs on the development of the HCC model and on different liver parameters such as albumin and urea.Transplanted cell sheet for HCC rat models was fabricated using thermo-responsive culture dishes. The effect of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells (UC-MSCs and human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs on the developed tumour was tested. Furthermore, development of tumour and detection of the liver parameter was studied. Additionally, angiogenesis assay was performed using Matrigel.HepG2 cells requires five days to form a complete cell sheet while HepG2 co-cultured with UC-MSCs or BM-MSCs took only three days. The tumour developed within 4 weeks after transplantation of the HCC sheet on the liver of nude rats. Both UC-MSCs and BM-MSCs improved the secretion of liver parameters by increasing the secretion of albumin and urea. Comparatively, the UC-MSCs were more effective than BM-MSCs, but unlike BM-MSCs, UC-MSCs prevented liver tumour formation and the tube formation of HCC.Since this is a novel study to induce liver tumour in rats using hepatocellular carcinoma sheet and stromal cells, the data obtained suggest that cell sheet is a fast and easy technique to develop HCC models as well as UC-MSCs have therapeutic potential for liver diseases. Additionally, the data procured indicates that stromal cells enhanced the fabrication of HepG2

  5. Isolation of dendritic-cell-like S100β-positive cells in rat anterior pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Kotaro; Fujiwara, Ken; Yoshida, Saishu; Higuchi, Masashi; Tsukada, Takehiro; Kanno, Naoko; Yashiro, Takashi; Tateno, Kozue; Osako, Shunji; Kato, Takako; Kato, Yukio

    2014-07-01

    S100β-protein-positive cells in the anterior pituitary gland appear to possess multifunctional properties. Because of their pleiotropic features, S100β-positive cells are assumed to be of a heterogeneous or even a non-pituitary origin. The observation of various markers has allowed these cells to be classified into populations such as stem/progenitor cells, epithelial cells, astrocytes and dendritic cells. The isolation and characterization of each heterogeneous population is a prerequisite for clarifying the functional character and origin of the cells. We attempt to isolate two of the subpopulations of S100β-positive cells from the anterior lobe. First, from transgenic rats that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) driven by the S100β protein promoter, we fractionate GFP-positive cells with a cell sorter and culture them so that they can interact with laminin, a component of the extracellular matrix. We observe that one morphological type of GFP-positive cells possesses extended cytoplasmic processes and shows high adhesiveness to laminin (process type), whereas the other is round in shape and exhibits low adherence to laminin (round type). We successfully isolate cells of the round type from the cultured GFP-positive cells by taking advantage of their low affinity to laminin and then measure mRNA levels of the two cell types by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The resultant data show that the process type expresses vimentin (mesenchymal cell marker) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (astrocyte marker). The round type expresses dendritic cell markers, CD11b and interleukin-6. Thus, we found a method for isolating dendritic-cell-like S100β-positive cells by means of their property of adhering to laminin.

  6. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE USE OF KANGAROO POSITION ON PRETERM BABIES AND MOTHER-CHILD INTERACTION UPON DISCHARGE

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, Cynthia Ribeiro do Nascimento; Campos, Lu?s Gustavo; Lucena, Aline Moreira; Pereira, Janser Moura; da Costa, Patr?cia Rodrigues; de Lima, Fl?via Aparecida Felipe; Azevedo, Vivian Mara Gon?alves de Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the influence of the Kangaroo Position duration in the initial interactions between mothers and preterm infants. Methods: This is an exploratory prospective observational study that analyzed the mother-infant interaction during breastfeeding, before hospital discharge. All eligible newborns, with a gestational age of 28-32 weeks and a birth weight of 1,000-1,800 g from June 11 to September 31, 2014 were included. The films of the interaction were evaluated by th...

  7. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in folliculostellate cells of rat anterior pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilmiawati, Cimi; Horiguchi, Kotaro; Fujiwara, Ken; Yashiro, Takashi

    2012-03-01

    Folliculostellate (FS) cells of the anterior pituitary gland express a variety of regulatory molecules. Using transgenic rats that express green fluorescent protein specifically in FS cells, we recently demonstrated that FS cells in vitro showed marked changes in motility, proliferation, and that formation of cellular interconnections in the presence of laminin, a component of the extracellular matrix, closely resembled those observed in vivo. These findings suggested that FS cells express matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), which assists their function on laminin. In the present study, we investigate MMP-9 expression in rat anterior pituitary gland and examine its role in motility and proliferation of FS cells on laminin. Immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR, immunoblotting, and gelatin zymography were performed to assess MMP-9 expression in the anterior pituitary gland and cultured FS cells. Real-time RT-PCR was used to quantify MMP-9 expression in cultured FS cells under different conditions and treatments. MMP-9 expression was inhibited by pharmacological inhibitor or downregulated by siRNA and time-lapse images were acquired. A 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine assay was performed to analyze the proliferation of FS cells. Our results showed that MMP-9 was expressed in FS cells, that this expression was upregulated by laminin, and that laminin induced MMP-9 secretion by FS cells. MMP-9 inhibition and downregulation did not impair FS motility; however, it did impair the capacity of FS cells to form interconnections and it significantly inhibited proliferation of FS cells on laminin. We conclude that MMP-9 is necessary in FS cell interconnection and proliferation in the presence of laminin.

  8. Altered expression of glycosaminoglycans in metastatic 13762NF rat mammary adenocarcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steck, P.A.; Cheong, P.H.; Nakajima, M.; Yung, W.K.A.; Moser, R.P.; Nicolson, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    A difference in the expression and metabolism of [ 35 S]sulfated glycosaminoglycans between rat mammary tumor cells derived from a primary tumor and those from its metastatic lesions has been observed. Cells from the primary tumor possessed about equal quantities of chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate on their cell surfaces but released fourfold more chondroitin sulfate than heparan sulfate into their medium. In contrast, cells from distal metastatic lesions expressed approximately 5 times more heparan sulfate than chondroitin sulfate in both medium and cell surface fractions. This was observed to be the result of differential synthesis of the glycosaminoglycans and not of major structural alterations of the individual glycosaminoglycans. The degree of sulfation and size of heparan sulfate were similar for all cells examined. However, chondroitin sulfate, observed to be only chondroitin 4-sulfate, from the metastases-derived cells had a smaller average molecular weight on gel filtration chromatography and showed a decreased quantity of sulfated disaccharides upon degradation with chondroitin ABC lyase compared to the primary tumor derived cells. Major qualitative or quantitative alterations were not observed for hyaluronic acid among the various 13762NF cells. The metabolism of newly synthesized sulfated glycosaminoglycans was also different between cells from primary tumor and metastases. A pulse-chase kinetics study demonstrated that both heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate were degraded by the metastases-derived cells, whereas the primary tumor derived cells degraded only heparan sulfate and degraded it at a slower rate. These results suggested that altered glycosaminoglycan expression and metabolism may be associated with the metastatic process in 13762NF rat mammary tumor cells

  9. Sexual activity increases the number of newborn cells in the accessory olfactory bulb of male rats.

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    Wendy ePortillo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In rodents, sexual behavior depends on the adequate detection of sexually relevant stimuli. The olfactory bulb (OB is a region of the adult mammalian brain undergoing constant cell renewal by continuous integration of new granular and periglomerular neurons in the accessory (AOB and main (MOB olfactory bulbs. The proliferation, migration, survival, maturation, and integration of these new cells to the OB depend on the stimulus that the subjects received. We have previously shown that 15 days after females control (paced the sexual interaction an increase in the number of cells is observed in the AOB. No changes are observed in the number of cells when females are not allowed to control the sexual interaction. In the present study we investigated if in male rats sexual behavior increases the number of new cells in the OB. Male rats were divided in five groups: 1 males that did not receive any sexual stimulation, 2 males that were exposed to female odors, 3 males that mated for 1 h and could not pace their sexual interaction, 4 males that paced their sexual interaction and ejaculated 1 time and 5 males that paced their sexual interaction and ejaculated 3 times. All males received three injections of the DNA synthesis marker bromodeoxyuridine at 1h intervals, starting 1h before the beginning of the behavioral test. Fifteen days later, males were sacrificed and the brains were processed to identify new cells and to evaluate if they differentiated into neurons. The number of newborn cells increased in the granular cell layer (also known as the internal cell layer of the AOB in males that ejaculated one or three times controlling (paced the rate of the sexual interaction. Some of these new cells were identified as neurons. In contrast, no significant differences were found in the mitral cell layer (also known as the external cell layer and glomerular cell layer of the AOB. In addition, no significant differences were found between groups in the MOB in

  10. Electron microscopic observation of 137Cs-irradiated rat testis. Production of basal laminae for germ cells, despite their absence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, Hajime; Esaki, Michiyo

    2003-01-01

    Whole body γ-ray irradiation of rats with caesium-137 ( 137 Cs) at embryonic day 20 induced marked reduction of the weight of the testis. Body weight and other tissues, however, seemed to remain normal. By light microscopy, complete loss of germ cells was observed in the testis. Other components, such as Sertoli cells and interstitial cells, seemed to be normal. The testes from day 8 postpartum rats contained very few spermatogonia compared with newborn rats, indicating loss of germ cells between days 0 and 8. In the adult, 137 Cs-irradiated testes showed two conspicuous features other than the loss of germ cells: empty vacuolar spaces between Sertoli cells and multilayered seminiferous tubule basal laminae (lamina densa). The junctional structures (ectoplasmic specializations) between Sertoli cells, however, seemed normal. The thickness of each layer of multilayered basal laminae was the same as that of normal rats and electron-lucent layers similar to lamina lucida were interposed between them. Of the empty vacuolar spaces between Sertoli cells, basal laminae bridge the gap. The basal laminae contained laminin, type IV collagen and heparan sulphate proteoglycan evenly distributed among layers, suggesting a normal composition. Rough estimation of the amount of basal laminae deposited in 137 Cs-irradiated rats indicates that it is within a range similar to that in normal testis. These features imply that Sertoli cells are, in part, determined perinatally to produce basal laminae for germ-line cells. (author)

  11. Inhaled corticosteroids inhibit substance P receptor expression in asthmatic rat airway smooth muscle cells

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    Li Miao

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurokinins (NKs participate in asthmatic airway inflammation, but the effects of NKs on airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs and those of corticosteroids on NKs are unknown. Methods To investigate the effect of budesonide on substance P (NK-1 receptor (NK-1R expression in the lung and ASMCs, 45 Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, asthmatic, and budesonide treatment. Aerosolized ovalbumin was used to generate the asthmatic rat model, and budesonide was administered after ovalbumin inhalation. On day 21, bronchial responsiveness tests, bronchoalveolar lavage, and cell counting were conducted. NK-1R protein expression in the lung was investigated by immunohistochemistry and image analysis. Primary rat ASMC cultures were established, and purified ASMCs of the fourth passage were collected for mRNA and protein studies via real-time RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry, and image analysis. Results NK-1R mRNA and protein expression in the budesonide treatment group rat’s lung and ASMCs were less than that in the asthmatic group but greater than that in the control group. Conclusions NK-1R is involved in the pathogenesis of asthma and that budesonide may downregulate the expression of NK-1R in the ASMCs and airways of asthmatic rats, which may alleviate neurogenic airway inflammation.

  12. The effect of insulin on amino acid incorporation into exocrine pancreatic cells of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, M.F.; Poort, C.

    1975-01-01

    The rate of incorporation of radioactive leucine per cell in the acinar pancreatic cells of the rat increases by 50 per cent within one hour after subcutaneous administration of insulin, an effect that lasts for at least one more hour. The rate of incorporation has been measured by quantitative radioautography and by determination of the radioactivity per μg DNA in TCA-precipitable material from tissue homogenates. The capacity for amino acid (leucine and lysine) incorporation as measured by incubating pancreatic fragments in vitro is not enhanced by insulin treatment of the rat in vivo during one or more hours. Insulin was found to lower the serum concentration of most amino acids significantly, leucine by 50 per cent. The apparent effect of insulin on the incorporation of radioactive leucine in vivo can be explained by the difference in the specific radioactivity of the circulating amino acid in the treated rats as compared to the untreated ones. A change in amino acid concentration in the serum may likewise be the explanation of the decrease in amino acid incorporation rate in alloxan diabetic rats. (orig./GSE) [de

  13. Investigation of flurbiprofen genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in rat bone marrow cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timocin, Taygun; Ila, Hasan B

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate cytogenetic effects of NSAID flurbiprofen which was used as active ingredient in some analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory drugs. Genotoxic effect of flurbiprofen was investigated using in vivo chromosome aberration (CA) test and random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) test. Also, oxidative stress potential of flurbiprofen was determined by measuring total oxidant and antioxidant level which occurred with flurbiprofen treatment in rat peripheral blood. For these purposes, rats were treated with three concentrations of flurbiprofen (29.25, 58.50 and 117 mg/kg, body weight) in single dose at two different treatment periods (12 and 24 h). According to the results, flurbiprofen did not affect chromosome aberrations in rat bone marrow cells with CA test. In RAPD-PCR test, polymorphic bands were unaffected. Also, test substance did not change total oxidant and antioxidant status (except for 58.50 and 117 mg/kg, 12 h) and therefore it did not lead to significant increase on oxidative stress (again except 58.50 and 117 mg/kg, 12 h). However, flurbiprofen reduced to mitotic indexes and these reductions were dose-dependent for 12 h treatment. In summary, flurbiprofen did not show significant genotoxic effect. But it caused cytotoxicity in rat bone marrow cells.

  14. Human Neural Stem Cells Overexpressing Choline Acetyltransferase Restore Unconditioned Fear in Rats with Amygdala Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungha Shin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amygdala is involved in the fear memory that recognizes certain environmental cues predicting threatening events. Manipulation of neurotransmission within the amygdala affects the expression of conditioned and unconditioned emotional memories such as fear freezing behaviour. We previously demonstrated that F3.ChAT human neural stem cells (NSCs overexpressing choline acetyltransferase (ChAT improve cognitive function of Alzheimer’s disease model rats with hippocampal or cholinergic nerve injuries by increasing acetylcholine (ACh level. In the present study, we examined the effect of F3.ChAT cells on the deficit of unconditioned fear freezing. Rats given N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA in their amygdala 2 weeks prior to cat odor exposure displayed very short resting (freezing time compared to normal animals. NMDA induced neuronal degeneration in the amygdala, leading to a decreased ACh concentration in cerebrospinal fluid. However, intracerebroventricular transplantation of F3.ChAT cells attenuated amygdala lesions 4 weeks after transplantation. The transplanted cells were found in the NMDA-injury sites and produced ChAT protein. In addition, F3.ChAT-receiving rats recuperated freezing time staying remote from the cat odor source, according to the recovery of brain ACh concentration. The results indicate that human NSCs overexpressing ChAT may facilitate retrieval of unconditioned fear memory by increasing ACh level.

  15. Effect of pirfenidone on the proliferation of rat corneal stromal cells

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    Jun-Jie Chen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the effects of pirfenidone(PFDon the proliferation and transfomring growth factor-β1(TGF-β1expression in vitro culture rat corneal stromal cells. METHODS: Corneal stromal cells from 8 to 10wk SD rats were isolated, cultured and treated with different concentrations of PFD 0mg/mL(control group, 0.15mg/mL(experimental group Ⅰ, 0.3mg/mL(experimental group Ⅱ, 1mg/mL(experimental group Ⅲfor 48h. CCK-8 assay was performed to assess cell proliferation, while immunocytochemistry and Western Blot were used to detect the expression of ki-67 and TGF-β1 expression, respectively. RESULTS: Compared with control group, PFD significantly inhibited the proliferation in a dose-dependent manner(all P1 in a dose-dependent manner(PCONCLUSION: Pirfenidone can significantly inhibit the proliferation of rat corneal stromal cell by down regulating TGF-β1 expression, therefore, it has potential prospect in lightening the corneal wound healing reaction.

  16. Xenograft transplantation of human malignant astrocytoma cells into immunodeficient rats: an experimental model of glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Flávio Key; Alves, Maria Jose Ferreira; Rocha, Mussya Cisotto; da Silva, Roseli; Oba-Shinjo, Sueli Mieko; Marie, Suely Kazue Nagahashi

    2010-03-01

    Astrocytic gliomas are the most common intracranial central nervous system neoplasias, accounting for about 60% of all primary central nervous system tumors. Despite advances in the treatment of gliomas, no effective therapeutic approach is yet available; hence, the search for a more realistic model to generate more effective therapies is essential. To develop an experimental malignant astrocytoma model with the characteristics of the human tumor. Primary cells from subcutaneous xenograft tumors produced with malignant astrocytoma U87MG cells were inoculated intracerebrally by stereotaxis into immunosuppressed (athymic) Rowett rats. All four injected animals developed non-infiltrative tumors, although other glioblastoma characteristics, such as necrosis, pseudopalisading cells and intense mitotic activity, were observed. A malignant astrocytoma intracerebral xenograft model with poorly invasive behavior was achieved in athymic Rowett rats. Tumor invasiveness in an experimental animal model may depend on a combination of several factors, including the cell line used to induce tumor formation, the rat strains and the status of the animal's immune system.

  17. Prolonged mechanical ventilation induces cell cycle arrest in newborn rat lung.

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    Andreas A Kroon

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: The molecular mechanism(s by which mechanical ventilation disrupts alveolar development, a hallmark of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of 24 h of mechanical ventilation on lung cell cycle regulators, cell proliferation and alveolar formation in newborn rats. METHODS: Seven-day old rats were ventilated with room air for 8, 12 and 24 h using relatively moderate tidal volumes (8.5 mL.kg⁻¹. MEASUREMENT AND MAIN RESULTS: Ventilation for 24 h (h decreased the number of elastin-positive secondary crests and increased the mean linear intercept, indicating arrest of alveolar development. Proliferation (assessed by BrdU incorporation was halved after 12 h of ventilation and completely arrested after 24 h. Cyclin D1 and E1 mRNA and protein levels were decreased after 8-24 h of ventilation, while that of p27(Kip1 was significantly increased. Mechanical ventilation for 24 h also increased levels of p57(Kip2, decreased that of p16(INK4a, while the levels of p21(Waf/Cip1 and p15(INK4b were unchanged. Increased p27(Kip1 expression coincided with reduced phosphorylation of p27(Kip1 at Thr¹⁵⁷, Thr¹⁸⁷ and Thr¹⁹⁸ (p<0.05, thereby promoting its nuclear localization. Similar -but more rapid- changes in cell cycle regulators were noted when 7-day rats were ventilated with high tidal volume (40 mL.kg⁻¹ and when fetal lung epithelial cells were subjected to a continuous (17% elongation cyclic stretch. CONCLUSION: This is the first demonstration that prolonged (24 h of mechanical ventilation causes cell cycle arrest in newborn rat lungs; the arrest occurs in G₁ and is caused by increased expression and nuclear localization of Cdk inhibitor proteins (p27(Kip1, p57(Kip2 from the Kip family.

  18. BAG3 promotes the phenotypic transformation of primary rat vascular smooth muscle cells via TRAIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yao; Chang, Ye; Chen, Shuang; Li, Yuan; Chen, Yintao; Sun, Guozhe; Yu, Shasha; Ye, Ning; Li, Chao; Sun, Yingxian

    2018-05-01

    Under normal physiological condition, the mature vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) show differentiated phenotype. In response to various environmental stimuluses, VSMCs convert from the differentiated phenotype to dedifferentiated phenotype characterized by the increased ability of proliferation/migration and the reduction of contractile ability. The phenotypic transformation of VSMCs played an important role in atherosclerosis. Both Bcl-2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) and tumor necrosis factor-related apopt-osis inducing ligand (TRAIL) involved in apoptosis. The relationship between BAG3 and TRAIL and their effects the proliferation and migration in VSMCs are rarely reported. This study investigated the effects of BAG3 on the phenotypic modulation and the potential underlying mechanisms in primary rat VSMCs. Primary rat VSMCs were extracted and cultured in vitro. Cell proliferation was detected by cell counting, real-time cell analyzer (RTCA) and EdU incorporation. Cell migration was detected by wound healing, Transwell and RTCA. BAG3 and TRAIL were detected using real-time PCR and western blotting and the secreted proteins in the cultured media by dot blot. The expression of BAG3 increased with continued passages in cultured primary VSMCs. BAG3 promoted the proliferation and migration of primary rat VSMC in a time-dependent manner. BAG3 significantly increased the expression of TRAIL while had no effects on its receptors. TRAIL knockdown or blocking by neutralizing antibody inhibited the proliferation of VSMCs induced by BAG3. TRAIL knockdown exerted no obvious influence on the migration of VSMCs. Based on this study, we report for the first time that BAG3 was expressed in cultured primary rat VSMCs and the expression of BAG3 increased with continued passages. Furthermore, BAG3 promoted the proliferation of VSMCs via increasing the expression of TRAIL. In addition, we also demonstrated that BAG3 promoted the migration of VSMCs independent of TRAIL

  19. Protective Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Nasturtium officinale on Rat Blood Cells Exposed to Arsenic

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    Felor Zargari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Arsenic is one of the most toxic metalloids. Anemia and leukopenia are common results of poisoning with arsenic, which may happen due to a direct hemolytic or cytotoxic effect on blood cells. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Nasturtium officinale on blood cells and antioxidant enzymes in rats exposed to sodium (metaarsenite. Methods: 32 Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups; Group I (normal healthy rats, Group II (treated with 5.5mg/kg of body weight of NaAsO2, Group III (treated with 500mg/kg of body weight of hydro-alcoholic extract of N. officinale, and Group IV (treated with group II and III supplementations. Blood samples were collected and red blood cell, white blood cell, hematocrit, hemoglobin, platelet, total protein and albumin levels and total antioxidant capacity were measured. Data was analyzed with Mann-Whitney U test. Results: WBC, RBC and Hct were decreased in the rats exposed to NaAsO2 (p<0.05. A significant increase was seen in RBC and Hct after treatment with the plant extract (p<0.05. There was no significant decrease in serum albumin and total protein in the groups exposed to NaAsO2 compared to the group I, but NaAsO2 decreased the total antioxidant capacity, significantly. Conclusion: The Nasturtium officinale extract have protective effect on arsenic-induced damage of blood cells.

  20. Characterization of p75{sup +} ectomesenchymal stem cells from rat embryonic facial process tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Xiujie; Liu, Luchuan; Deng, Manjing; Zhang, Li; Liu, Rui; Xing, Yongjun; Zhou, Xia [Department of Stomatology, Daping Hospital and Research Institute of Surgery, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China); Nie, Xin, E-mail: dr.xinnie@gmail.com [Department of Stomatology, Daping Hospital and Research Institute of Surgery, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China)

    2012-10-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ectomesenchymal stem cells (EMSCs) were found to migrate to rat facial processes at E11.5. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We successfully sorted p75NTR positive EMSCs (p75{sup +} EMSCs). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p75{sup +} EMSCs up to nine passages showed relative stable proliferative activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined the in vitro multilineage potential of p75{sup +} EMSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p75{sup +}EMSCs provide an in vitro model for tooth morphogenesis. -- Abstract: Several populations of stem cells, including those from the dental pulp and periodontal ligament, have been isolated from different parts of the tooth and periodontium. The characteristics of such stem cells have been reported as well. However, as a common progenitor of these cells, ectomesenchymal stem cells (EMSCs), derived from the cranial neural crest have yet to be fully characterized. The aim of this study was to better understand the characteristics of EMSCs isolated from rat embryonic facial processes. Immunohistochemical staining showed that EMSCs had migrated to rat facial processes at E11.5, while the absence of epithelial invagination or tooth-like epithelium suggested that any epithelial-mesenchymal interactions were limited at this stage. The p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), a typical neural crest marker, was used to select p75NTR-positive EMSCs (p75{sup +} EMSCs), which were found to show a homogeneous fibroblast-like morphology and little change in the growth curve, proliferation capacity, and cell phenotype during cell passage. They also displayed the capacity to differentiate into diverse cell types under chemically defined conditions in vitro. p75{sup +} EMSCs proved to be homogeneous, stable in vitro and potentially capable of multiple lineages, suggesting their potential for application in dental or orofacial tissue engineering.

  1. Characterization of p75+ ectomesenchymal stem cells from rat embryonic facial process tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Xiujie; Liu, Luchuan; Deng, Manjing; Zhang, Li; Liu, Rui; Xing, Yongjun; Zhou, Xia; Nie, Xin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ectomesenchymal stem cells (EMSCs) were found to migrate to rat facial processes at E11.5. ► We successfully sorted p75NTR positive EMSCs (p75 + EMSCs). ► p75 + EMSCs up to nine passages showed relative stable proliferative activity. ► We examined the in vitro multilineage potential of p75 + EMSCs. ► p75 + EMSCs provide an in vitro model for tooth morphogenesis. -- Abstract: Several populations of stem cells, including those from the dental pulp and periodontal ligament, have been isolated from different parts of the tooth and periodontium. The characteristics of such stem cells have been reported as well. However, as a common progenitor of these cells, ectomesenchymal stem cells (EMSCs), derived from the cranial neural crest have yet to be fully characterized. The aim of this study was to better understand the characteristics of EMSCs isolated from rat embryonic facial processes. Immunohistochemical staining showed that EMSCs had migrated to rat facial processes at E11.5, while the absence of epithelial invagination or tooth-like epithelium suggested that any epithelial–mesenchymal interactions were limited at this stage. The p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), a typical neural crest marker, was used to select p75NTR-positive EMSCs (p75 + EMSCs), which were found to show a homogeneous fibroblast-like morphology and little change in the growth curve, proliferation capacity, and cell phenotype during cell passage. They also displayed the capacity to differentiate into diverse cell types under chemically defined conditions in vitro. p75 + EMSCs proved to be homogeneous, stable in vitro and potentially capable of multiple lineages, suggesting their potential for application in dental or orofacial tissue engineering.

  2. Monitoring embryonic stem cell transplantation into rat corpus cavernosum using optical imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Jung Joon; Moon, Sung Min; Le, Uyenchi N.; Park, Kwang Sung; Lee, Hyun Suk; Song, Ho Cheon; Bom, Hee Seung; Han, Ha Jae

    2005-01-01

    The conventional method for the analysis of stem cell transplantation depends on postmortem histology. Here, we have sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a longitudinal monitoring of transplanted cell survival in living animals, by employing optical imaging techniques. Mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC) were obtained from American Type Culture Collection (ES-E14TG2a). Mouse ES cells were cultured in the DMEM (Gibco-BRL, Gaithersburg, MD) supplemented with 3.7 g/L sodium bicarbonate, 1 % penicillin and streptomycin, 1.7 mM L-glutamine, 0.1mM β-mercaptoethanol 5 ng/mL mouse leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), and 15% fetal bovine serum (FBS) with or without a feeder layer and cultured for five days in standard medium plus LIF. ESCs were then transfected (MOI=100) overnight with Ad-CMV-Fluc. Our experimental Sprague-Dawley rats (n=7) were given with different numbers of ESCs 6) expressing Fluc into corpus cavernosum. In cell cultures, firefly luciferase activity correlated linearly with cell numbers from 10 5 to 5x10 6 (r2=0.95). In living animal imaging, imaging signal activity correlated linearly with cell numbers injected from 10 5 to 5x10 6 at each time point (r2=0.62 ∼ 0.98), In all three groups of rats, imaging signal was detected in rat genital area from the 2nd day to the 47th day after cellular injection. Adenovirus mediated transient expression of firefly luciferase reporter gene in ESCs was feasible to monitor cell survival over a month after transplantation. The locations, magnitude, and survival duration of the ESCs were noninvasively monitored with a bioluminescence optical imaging system

  3. Neoplastic progression of rat tracheal epithelial cells involves resistance to transforming growth factor beta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbs, A.F.; Hahn, F.F.; Thomassen, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    Primary, transformed, and tumor-derived rat tracheal epithelial (RTE) cells were grown in serum-free medium containing 0 to 300 pg/mL transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) markedly inhibited the growth of primary RTE cells with a 50% drop in the efficiency of colony formation seen at TGFβ concentrations between 10 and 30 pg/ mL. The effect of TGFβ on preneoplastic RTE cells was similar to the effect on normal primary RTE cells. Cell lines established from tumors produced by inoculation of transformed RTE cells into nude mice were relatively resistant to -TGFβ-induced growth inhibition. Resistance to TGFβ-induced growth inhibition, therefore, appears to be a late event in the development of neoplasia. (author)

  4. Malignant mast cell tumor of the thymus in an Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terayama, Yui; Matsuura, Tetsuro; Ozaki, Kiyokazu

    2017-01-01

    A 152-week-old male Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rat kept as a non-treated animal in a long-term animal study presented with a soft mass in the anterior mediastinum, which adhered to the pleura of the lung. Histopathologically, the mass mainly consisted of round to short spindle-shaped tumor cells that had infiltrated through the hyperplastic thymic tissue. The tumor cells were arranged in loose to dense sheets. Nuclei were moderate in size and round to spindle-shaped, with small nucleoli. Almost all tumor cells exhibited abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm, including eosinophilic granules of a range of sizes. The granules of tumor cells exhibited metachromasia with toluidine blue stain and were positive for c-kit and mast cell protease II. These findings indicate that the tumor described here represents a rare case of spontaneous malignant mast cell tumor with thymic epithelial hyperplasia.

  5. Antinociceptive effect of intrathecal microencapsulated human pheochromocytoma cell in a rat model of bone cancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao; Li, Guoqi; Wu, Shaoling; Zhang, Baiyu; Wan, Qing; Yu, Ding; Zhou, Ruijun; Ma, Chao

    2014-07-08

    Human pheochromocytoma cells, which are demonstrated to contain and release met-enkephalin and norepinephrine, may be a promising resource for cell therapy in cancer-induced intractable pain. Intrathecal injection of alginate-poly (l) lysine-alginate (APA) microencapsulated human pheochromocytoma cells leads to antinociceptive effect in a rat model of bone cancer pain, and this effect was blocked by opioid antagonist naloxone and alpha 2-adrenergic antagonist rauwolscine. Neurochemical changes of cerebrospinal fluid are in accordance with the analgesic responses. Taken together, these data support that human pheochromocytoma cell implant-induced antinociception was mediated by met-enkephalin and norepinephrine secreted from the cell implants and acting at spinal receptors. Spinal implantation of microencapsulated human pheochromocytoma cells may provide an alternative approach for the therapy of chronic intractable pain.

  6. Antinociceptive Effect of Intrathecal Microencapsulated Human Pheochromocytoma Cell in a Rat Model of Bone Cancer Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Li

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Human pheochromocytoma cells, which are demonstrated to contain and release met-enkephalin and norepinephrine, may be a promising resource for cell therapy in cancer-induced intractable pain. Intrathecal injection of alginate-poly (l lysine-alginate (APA microencapsulated human pheochromocytoma cells leads to antinociceptive effect in a rat model of bone cancer pain, and this effect was blocked by opioid antagonist naloxone and alpha 2-adrenergic antagonist rauwolscine. Neurochemical changes of cerebrospinal fluid are in accordance with the analgesic responses. Taken together, these data support that human pheochromocytoma cell implant-induced antinociception was mediated by met-enkephalin and norepinephrine secreted from the cell implants and acting at spinal receptors. Spinal implantation of microencapsulated human pheochromocytoma cells may provide an alternative approach for the therapy of chronic intractable pain.

  7. Na+ -K+ pump activity in rat peritoneal mast cells: inhibition by extracellular calcium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Torben; Johansen, Torben

    1989-01-01

    1. Pure populations of rat peritoneal mast cells were used to study cellular potassium uptake. The radioactive potassium analogue, 86rubidium, was used as a tracer for potassium for measurements of the activity of the cellular potassium uptake process. 2. The ouabain-sensitive and the ouabain......-resistant potassium (86rubidium) uptake of mast cells incubated in the presence of calcium, 1 mmol l-1, were very low, 52 and 147 pmol per 10(6) cells min-1. 3. Calcium-deprivation of the cells uncovered a large capacity ouabain-sensitive potassium (86rubidium) uptake mechanism. The activity of the uptake mechanism...... was decreased by reintroduction of calcium into the cell suspension, and it was dependent on cellular energy metabolism, temperature and pH. 4. The potassium (86rubidium) uptake of mast cells incubated in a calcium-free medium occurs through an active and ouabain-sensitive mechanism that has the nature...

  8. The Effect of Kangaroo Mother Care Immediately after Delivery on Mother-infant Attachment 3 Months after Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Zahra Karimi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background  The aim of this study was determine the effect of kangaroo mother care (KMC immediately after delivery on mother-infant attachment 3-month after delivery. Materials and Methods: In this RCT study, 72 mother-infant pairs were randomly divided in to kangaroo mother care and routine care groups.The intervention group received kangaroo mother care (KMC in the first two hours post birth. The control group just received routine hospital care. Mothers in the intervention group were encouraged to keep the baby in KMC as much as possible during the day and night throughout the neonatal period. Participants were followed up for three months after birth. The Main outcome measure was mother-infant attachment at 3 months postpartum and maternal anxiety about the baby at the same time. The data was collected by questionnaire (demographic information of parents and neonates and maternal attachment scale. Analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 14. Results: There was no significant difference between two groups regarding their baseline data. Mean maternal attachment score in the KMC group and in the routine care group at three months after delivery was 52.40±3.30 and 49.86±4.18 respectively, which was significantly higher in the KMC group (P

  9. Bringing compassion to the ethical dilemma in killing kangaroos for conservation: comment on "Conservation through sustainable use" by Rob Irvine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramp, Daniel

    2013-06-01

    Ethical debate on the killing of kangaroos has polarised conservation and animal welfare science, yet at the heart of these scientific disciplines is the unifying aim of reducing harm to non-human animals. This aim provides the foundation for common ground, culminating in the development of compassionate conservation principles that seek to provide mechanisms for achieving both conservation and welfare goals. However, environmental decision-making is not devoid of human interests, and conservation strategies are commonly employed that suit entrenched positions and commercial gain, rather than valuing the needs of the non-human animals in need of protection. The case study on the wild kangaroo harvest presents just such a dilemma, whereby a conservation strategy is put forward that can only be rationalised by ignoring difficulties in the potential for realising conservation benefits and the considerable welfare cost to kangaroos. Rather than an open debate on the ethics of killing game over livestock, in this response I argue that efforts to bring transparency and objectivity to the public debate have to date been obfuscated by those seeking to maintain entrenched interests. Only by putting aside these interests will debate about the exploitation of wildlife result in humane, compassionate, and substantive conservation benefits.

  10. Parental involvement and kangaroo care in European neonatal intensive care units: a policy survey in eight countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallás-Alonso, Carmen R; Losacco, Valentina; Maraschini, Alice; Greisen, Gorm; Pierrat, Veronique; Warren, Inga; Haumont, Dominique; Westrup, Björn; Smit, Bert J; Sizun, Jacques; Cuttini, Marina

    2012-09-01

    To compare, in a large representative sample of European neonatal intensive care units, the policies and practices regarding parental involvement and holding babies in the kangaroo care position as well as differences in the tasks mothers and fathers are allowed to carry out. Prospective multicenter survey. Neonatal intensive care units in eight European countries (Belgium, Denmark, France, Italy, The Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom). Patients were not involved in this study. None. A structured questionnaire was mailed to 362 units (response rate 78%); only units with ≥50 very-low-birth-weight annual admissions were considered for this study. Facilities for parents such as reclining chairs near the babies' cots, beds, and a dedicated room were common, but less so in Italy and Spain. All units in Sweden, Denmark, the United Kingdom, and Belgium reported encouraging parental participation in the care of the babies, whereas policies were more restrictive in Italy (80% of units), France (73%), and Spain (41%). Holding babies in the kangaroo care position was widespread. However, in the United Kingdom, France, Italy, and Spain, many units applied restrictions regarding its frequency (sometimes or on parents request only, rather than routinely), method (conventional rather than skin-to-skin), and clinical conditions (especially mechanical ventilation and presence of umbilical lines) that would prevent its practice. In these countries, fathers were routinely offered kangaroo care less frequently than mothers (p involvement as well as the role played by mothers and fathers varied within and between countries.

  11. Glucocorticoids induce autophagy in rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, L.; Fan, J.; Lin, Y. S.

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoidinduced osteoporosis (GIOP) is a widespread clinical complication following glucocorticoid therapy. This irreversible damage to boneforming and resorbing cells is essential in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Autophagy is a physiological process involved in the regulation of cells...... and their responses to diverse stimuli, however, the role of autophagy in glucocorticoidinduced damage to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) remains unclear. The current study confirmed that glucocorticoid administration impaired the proliferation of BMSCs. Transmission electron microscopy...... that in response to glucocorticoid administration, induced autophagy aids to maintain proliferation and prevent apoptosis of BMSCs. Thus, it is hypothesized that autophagy may be a novel target in the treatment or prevention of osteoporosis....

  12. Neuronal precursor cell proliferation in the hippocampus after transient cerebral ischemia: a comparative study of two rat strains using stereological tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelsen, Jesper; Larsen, Marianne; Sørensen, Jens Christian H.

    2010-01-01

    We are currently investigating microglial activation and neuronal precursor cell (NPC) proliferation after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo) in rats. This study aimed: (1) to investigate differences in hippocampal NPC proliferation in outbred male spontaneously hypertensive rats ...

  13. High levels of xanthine oxidoreductase in rat endothelial, epithelial and connective tissue cells. A relation between localization and function?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, A.; Bosch, K. S.; Frederiks, W. M.; van Noorden, C. J.

    1992-01-01

    The localization of xanthine oxidoreductase activity was investigated in unfixed cryostat sections of various rat tissues by an enzyme histochemical method which specifically demonstrates both the dehydrogenase and oxidase forms of xanthine oxidoreductase. High activity was found in epithelial cells

  14. Interaction of angiotensin II with dispersed cells from the anterior pituitary of the male rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paglin, S.; Stukenbrok, H.; Jamieson, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    Membranes from 6-week-old male rat anterior pituitaries possess saturable binding sites for angiotensin II (AII; Kd . approximately 2 X 10(-9) M). The binding is specific since it can be competed for with [Sar1,Leu8]AII and is unaffected by the presence of insulin or cholecystokinin octapeptide at nanomolar concentrations. To find out which cell types specifically interact with AII, rat anterior pituitaries were enzymatically dispersed and exposed to [ 125 I]iodo-AII (2 nM) in the absence or presence of [Sar1,Leu8]AII (400 nM). The cells were then washed free of unbound ligand and processed for light and electron microscopic autoradiography. Distribution of autoradiographic grains revealed that three cell types were specifically labeled with [ 125 I]iodo-AII, namely mammotrophs, corticotrophs, and presumptive thyrotrophs. These cells were all labeled in the presence of [ 125 I]iodo-AII alone (experimentals), whereas only 10-30% of them were labeled when 400 nM [Sar1,Leu8]AII was included in the binding reaction (controls). The number of grains over the labeled cells in the controls was 20% of that found in the experimental cells. These results may imply that AII can regulate anterior pituitary functions under physiological conditions by interacting directly with its secretory cells

  15. Isolated rat dental pulp cell culture and transplantation with an alginate scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Shiro; Kumabe, Shunji; Iwai, Yasutomo

    2006-05-01

    Many studies have been conducted on tissue stem cells in the field of regenerative medicine, and cultured dental pulp mesenchymal cells have been reported to secrete dentin matrix. In the present study we used alginate as a scaffold to transplant subcultured rat dental-pulp-derived cells subcutaneously into the back of nude mice. We found that when beta-glycerophosphate was added to the culture medium, the mRNA of the dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) gene coding dentin sialoprotein (DSP) and dentin phosphoprotein (DPP) was expressed, and an increase in alkaline phosphatase, an early marker of odontoblast differentiation, was also demonstrated. Six weeks after implantation, subcutaneous formation of radiopaque calcified bodies was observed in situ. Immunohistochemical and fine structure studies identified expression of type I collagen, type III collagen, and DSP in the mineralizing transplants, and isolated odontoblast-like cells began to form dentin-like hard tissue formation. Scattered autolyzing apoptotic cells were also observed in the transplants. The study showed that subcultured rat dental-pulp-derived cells actively differentiate into odontoblast-like cells and induce calcification in an alginate scaffold.

  16. Electron microscopic study of the spilt irradiation effects on the rat parotid ductal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Soo; Lee, Sang Rae

    1988-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of split irradiation on the salivary ductal cells, especially on the intercalated cells of the rat parotid glands. For this study, 24 Sprague-Dawley strain rats were irradiated on the head and neck region with two equal split doses of 9 Gy for a 4 hours interval by Co-60 teletherapy unit, Picker's mode l 4M 60. The conditions of irradiation were that field size, dose rate, SSD and depth were 12 X 5 cm, 222 cGy/min, 50 cm and 1 cm, respectively. The experimental animals were sacrificed 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, hours and 1, 3, 7, days after the irradiation and the changes of the irradiated intercalated cells of the parotid glands were examined under light and electron microscope. The results were as follows: 1. By the split irradiation, the degenerative changes of intercalated cells of the parotid glands appeared at 3 hours after irradiation and the most severe cellular degeneration observed at 6 hours after irradiation. The repair processes began from 12 hours after irradiation and have matured progressively. 2. Under electron microscope, loss of nuclear membrane, microvilli and secretory granules, derangement of chromosomes, degeneration of cytoplasm, atrophy or reduction of intracytoplasmic organelles were observed in the intercalated ductal cells after split irradiation. 3. Under light microscope, derangement of ductal cells, widening of cytoplasms and nuclei, hyperchromatism and proliferation of ductal cells were observed in intercalated ducts after split irradiation.

  17. Developmental changes of mast cell populations in the cerebral meninges of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaloudi, Helen; Batzios, Christos; Chiotelli, Maria; Papadopoulos, Georgios C

    2007-10-01

    It is known that both the dura and the pia mater attract and support the differentiation of mast cells. The present study shows that unevenly distributed mast cells in the cerebral meninges of the rat can be found in perivascular sites and vessel ramification points, but can also be unrelated to the meningeal vasculature. It also documents changes in the number, localization and staining preferences of the mast cells in the two meninges of the developing and mature rat brain. Quantitative examination of all types of histochemically differentiated meningeal mast cells reveals no major (although some exist) differences between right and left side subpopulations, but strongly suggests a different origin and fate of the dural and the pial mast cells. The number of dural mast cells, already high from postnatal day 0, although declining from postnatal day 21 onwards, remains conspicuous up to postnatal day 180. In contrast, pial mast cells are comparatively very few in the first day of the postnatal life, and despite a transient significant increase in the following two weeks, they reach almost zero levels from postnatal day 21.

  18. Age dependence of radiosensitivity of hemopoietic stem cells in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacek, A.; Bartonickova, A.; Rotkovska, D.

    1982-01-01

    Within one week to 120 days of life the number of pluripotent hemopoietic stem cells in the femur increased 50-fold while in the spleen CFU dropped almost 6-fold. In adult mice hemopoiesis prevails in the bone marrow in early age, after birth it is significant in the spleen. The radioresistance of hemopoietic stem cells in adult mice is higher than in young. (M.D.)

  19. Mast cell deficiency attenuates acupuncture analgesia for mechanical pain using c-kit gene mutant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiang; Liu, Kun; Xu, Dandan; Zhang, Youyou; He, Xun; Liu, Hao; Gao, Xinyan; Zhu, Bing

    2018-01-01

    Acupuncture therapy plays a pivotal role in pain relief, and increasing evidence demonstrates that mast cells (MCs) may mediate acupuncture analgesia. The present study aims to investigate the role of MCs in acupuncture analgesia using c-kit gene mutant-induced MC-deficient rats. WsRC-Ws/Ws rats and their wild-type (WT) littermates (WsRC-+/+) were used. The number of MCs in skin of ST36 area was compared in two rats after immunofluorescence labeling. Mechanical withdrawal latency (MWL), mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT), and thermal withdrawal latency (TWL) were measured on bilateral plantar for pain threshold evaluation before and after each stimulus. Acupuncture- and moxibustion-like stimuli (43°C, 46°C heat, 1 mA electroacupuncture [EA], 3 mA EA, and manual acupuncture [MA]) were applied randomly on different days. Fewer MCs were observed in the skin of ST36 in mutant rats compared to WT rats ( P 0.05). Bilateral MWL and MWT in WsRC-+/+ rats increased significantly after each stimulus compared to baseline ( P <0.01, P <0.001). In WsRC-Ws/Ws rats, only noxious stimuli could produce anti-nociceptive effects for mechanical pain (46°C, 3 mA EA, MA) ( P <0.01, P <0.001). Additionally, the net increases in MWL and MWT induced by most stimuli were greater in WT than in mutant rats ( P <0.05). For thermal nociception, either high- or low-intensity stimuli could significantly augment TWL in two rats ( P <0.001), and the net increases of TWL evoked by most stimuli were to the same extent in two genetic variants. MCs influence the basic mechanical but not thermal pain threshold. MCs participate in acupuncture analgesia in mechanical but not in thermal nociception, in that MC deficiency may attenuate the mechanical analgesia evoked by high-intensity stimuli and eliminate analgesia provoked by low-intensity stimuli.

  20. In vitro expansion and differentiation of rat pancreatic duct-derived stem cells into insulin secreting cells using a dynamicthree-dimensional cell culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X C; Liu, H; Li, H; Cheng, Y; Yang, L; Liu, Y F

    2016-06-27

    In this study, a dynamic three-dimensional cell culture technology was used to expand and differentiate rat pancreatic duct-derived stem cells (PDSCs) into islet-like cell clusters that can secrete insulin. PDSCs were isolated from rat pancreatic tissues by in situ collagenase digestion and density gradient centrifugation. Using a dynamic three-dimensional culture technique, the cells were expanded and differentiated into functional islet-like cell clusters, which were characterized by morphological and phenotype analyses. After maintaining 1 x 108 isolated rat PDSCs in a dynamic three-dimensional cell culture for 7 days, 1.5 x 109 cells could be harvested. Passaged PDSCs expressed markers of pancreatic endocrine progenitors, including CD29 (86.17%), CD73 (90.73%), CD90 (84.13%), CD105 (78.28%), and Pdx-1. Following 14 additional days of culture in serum-free medium with nicotinamide, keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), and b fibroblast growth factor (FGF), the cells were differentiated into islet-like cell clusters (ICCs). The ICC morphology reflected that of fused cell clusters. During the late stage of differentiation, representative clusters were non-adherent and expressed insulin indicated by dithizone (DTZ)-positive staining. Insulin was detected in the extracellular fluid and cytoplasm of ICCs after 14 days of differentiation. Additionally, insulin levels were significantly higher at this time compared with the levels exhibited by PDSCs before differentiation (P cell culture system, PDSCs can be expanded in vitro and can differentiate into functional islet-like cell clusters.

  1. Quantitative evaluation of CART-containing cells in urinary bladder of rats with renovascular hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Janiuk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent biological advances make it possible to discover new peptides associated with hypertension. The cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART is a known factor in appetite and feeding behaviour. Various lines of evidence suggest that this peptide participates not only in control of feeding behaviour but also in the regulation of the cardiovascular and sympathetic systems and blood pressure. The role of CART in blood pressure regulation led us to undertake a study aimed at analysing quantitative changes in CART-containing cells in urinary bladders (UB of rats with renovascular hypertension. We used the Goldblatt model of arterial hypertension (two-kidney, one clip to evaluate quantitative changes. This model provides researchers with a commonly used tool to analyse the renin-angiotensin system of blood pressure control and, eventually, to develop drugs for the treatment of chronic hypertension. The study was performed on sections of urinary bladders of rats after 3-, 14-, 28-, 42 and 91 days from hypertension induction. Immunohistochemical identification of CART cells was performed on paraffin for the UBs of all the study animals. CART was detected in the endocrine cells, especially numerous in the submucosa and muscularis layers, with a few found in the transitional epithelium and only occasionally in serosa. Hypertension significantly increased the number of CART-positive cells in the rat UBs. After 3 and 42 days following the procedure, statistically significantly higher numbers of CART-positive cells were identified in comparison with the control animals. The differences between the hypertensive rats and the control animals concerned not only the number density of CART-immunoreactive cells but also their localization. After a 6-week period, each of the rats subjected to the renal artery clipping procedure developed stable hypertension. CART appeared in numerous transitional epithelium cells. As this study provides novel findings

  2. Granule cell potentials in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus: coping behavior and stress ulcers in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, P G

    1990-01-01

    Evoked population potentials of the granule cells in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus were increased in stress-resistant rats and decreased in stress-susceptible rats, as indexed by restraint-induced gastric ulcers. Inescapable, uncontrollable shock stimulation also suppressed granule cell population spikes and interfered with subsequent coping responses when escape was possible, i.e. the so-called helplessness effect. The data were interpreted to indicate that the hippocampus is part of a coping system in stressful situations.

  3. Marrow stromal cells administrated intracisternally to rats after traumatic brain injury migrate into the brain and improve neurological function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡德志; 周良辅; 朱剑虹

    2004-01-01

    @@ Marrow stromal cells(MSCs) have been reported to transplant into injured brain via intravenous or intraarterial or direct intracerebral administration.1-3 In the present study, we observed that MSCs migrated into the brain, survived and diffeneriated into neural cells after they were injected into the cisterna magna of rats, and that the behavior of the rats after traumatic brain injury (TBI) was improved.

  4. The effect of ileal interposition surgery on enteroendocrine cell numbers in the UC Davis type 2 diabetes mellitus rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carl Frederik; Vassiliadis, Efstathios; Vrang, Niels

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the short-term effect of ileal interposition (IT) surgery on gut morphology and enteroendocrine cell numbers in the pre-diabetic UC Davis type 2 diabetes mellitus (UCD-T2DM) rat.......To investigate the short-term effect of ileal interposition (IT) surgery on gut morphology and enteroendocrine cell numbers in the pre-diabetic UC Davis type 2 diabetes mellitus (UCD-T2DM) rat....

  5. Effect of Schizonepeta tenuifolia extract on mast cell-mediated immediate-type hypersensitivity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, T Y; Jeong, H J; Jun, S M; Chae, H J; Kim, H R; Baek, S H; Kim, H M

    1999-11-01

    We investigated the effect of an aqueous extract of Schizonepeta tenuifolia (STAE) on mast cell-mediated immediate-type hypersensitivity. STAE inhibited systemic allergic reaction induced by compound 48/80 in rats dose-dependently. STAE also inhibited plasma histamine levels induced by compound 48/80. STAE inhibited local allergic reaction activated by anti-dinitrophenyl (DNP) IgE. In addition, STAE does-dependently inhibited histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMC) activated by compound 48/80 or anti-DNP IgE. However, STAE had a significant enhancing effect on anti-DNP IgE-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production from RPMC. These results indicate that STAE inhibits immediate-type hypersensitivity and suggest that STAE can selectively activate the TNF-alpha production from RPMC.

  6. A novel rat fibrosarcoma cell line from transformed bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells with maintained in vitro and in vivo stemness properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Meng-Yu; Nestvold, Janne; Rekdal, Øystein; Kvalheim, Gunnar; Fodstad, Øystein

    2017-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests a possible relationship between mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and sarcoma. MSCs are hypothesized to be the cells initiating sarcomagenesis, and cancer stem cells (CSCs) sharing features of MSCs have been identified in sarcomas. Here, we report on the characteristics of a bone marrow-derived rat mesenchymal stem cell line that spontaneously transformed in long-term culture. The rat transformed mesenchymal stem cells (rTMSCs) produced soft-tissue fibrosarcomas in immunocompromised mice and immunocompetent rats. In vitro, the rTMSCs displayed increased proliferation capacity compared to the untransformed cell line. The transformed MSCs maintained the mesenchymal phenotype by expression of the stem cell marker CD 90 and the lack of hematopoietic and endothelial markers. Cytogenetic analysis detected trisomy 6 in the rTMSCs. Side population (SP) isolation and tumorsphere cultivation of the transformed cells confirmed the presence of CSCs among the rTMSCs. Importantly, the rTMSCs retained their differentiation capacity towards osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. This transformed MSC-based cell line may be valuable in examining the balance in a mixed cell population between cancer stem cell properties and the ability to differentiate to specific non-transformed cell populations. Moreover, it may also be a useful tool to evaluate the efficacy of novel targeted immunotherapies in vivo. - Highlights: • Spontaneously transformed rat MSCs (rTMSCs) share characteristics with normal MSCs. • rTMSCs possess a side population, enriched with tumorigenic cells. • rTMSCs model fibrosarcoma in vivo.

  7. A novel rat fibrosarcoma cell line from transformed bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells with maintained in vitro and in vivo stemness properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Meng-Yu [Department of Cell Therapy, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Nestvold, Janne, E-mail: j.m.nestvold@medisin.uio.no [Department of Molecular Medicine, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo (Norway); Rekdal, Øystein [Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø (Norway); Kvalheim, Gunnar [Department of Cell Therapy, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Fodstad, Øystein [Department of Tumor Biology, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway)

    2017-03-15

    Increasing evidence suggests a possible relationship between mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and sarcoma. MSCs are hypothesized to be the cells initiating sarcomagenesis, and cancer stem cells (CSCs) sharing features of MSCs have been identified in sarcomas. Here, we report on the characteristics of a bone marrow-derived rat mesenchymal stem cell line that spontaneously transformed in long-term culture. The rat transformed mesenchymal stem cells (rTMSCs) produced soft-tissue fibrosarcomas in immunocompromised mice and immunocompetent rats. In vitro, the rTMSCs displayed increased proliferation capacity compared to the untransformed cell line. The transformed MSCs maintained the mesenchymal phenotype by expression of the stem cell marker CD 90 and the lack of hematopoietic and endothelial markers. Cytogenetic analysis detected trisomy 6 in the rTMSCs. Side population (SP) isolation and tumorsphere cultivation of the transformed cells confirmed the presence of CSCs among the rTMSCs. Importantly, the rTMSCs retained their differentiation capacity towards osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. This transformed MSC-based cell line may be valuable in examining the balance in a mixed cell population between cancer stem cell properties and the ability to differentiate to specific non-transformed cell populations. Moreover, it may also be a useful tool to evaluate the efficacy of novel targeted immunotherapies in vivo. - Highlights: • Spontaneously transformed rat MSCs (rTMSCs) share characteristics with normal MSCs. • rTMSCs possess a side population, enriched with tumorigenic cells. • rTMSCs model fibrosarcoma in vivo.

  8. Recipient bone marrow-derived stromal cells prolong graft survival in a rat hind limb allotransplantation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeguchi, Ryosuke; Kakinoki, Ryosuke; Ohta, Souichi; Oda, Hiroki; Yurie, Hirofumi; Kaizawa, Yukitoshi; Mitsui, Hiroto; Aoyama, Tomoki; Toguchida, Junya; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2017-09-01

    Recent studies have indicated that bone marrow-derived stromal cells (BMSCs) have immunomodulatory properties that suppress the T cell responses that cause graft rejection. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of recipient BMSCs intravenous infusion for immunomodulation in a rat vascularized composite allotransplantation model. A total of nine Wistar (WIS) rats and thirty Lewis (LEW) rats were used. BMSCs were harvested from three LEW rats. Twenty-four LEW rats were used as recipients and divided randomly into four groups: BMSC group, FK group, UT group, and Iso group. In the BMSC group, orthotopic rat hind limb transplantation was performed between WIS donor and LEW recipient rats. Recipient rats were injected intravenously with 2 × 10 6 recipient BMSCs on day 6, and with 0.2 mg/kg/day tacrolimus administered over 7 days (n = 6). In the FK group, recipient rats were treated with tacrolimus alone (n = 6). Rats in the UT group received no immunosuppressive treatment (n = 6). In the Iso group, transplantation was performed from three LEW donor rats to six LEW recipient rats without any immunosuppressive treatment (n = 6). Graft survival was assessed by daily inspection and histology. The immunological reactions of recipients were also evaluated. The graft survival of recipient rats in the BMSC group (24.5 days) was significantly prolonged in comparison with that of the FK group (18 days) (P Recipient rats in the BMSC group had significantly reduced serum IFN-γ cytokine levels (1.571 ± 0.779 pg/ml) in comparison with that of the FK group (7.059 ± 1.522 pg/ml) (P = .001). In in vitro study, BMSCs induce T cell hyporesponsiveness in a mixed lymphocyte reaction. BMSCs induce T cell hyporesponsiveness and prolong graft survival in the rat vascularized composite allotransplantation model. BMSCs exhibit immunomodulatory properties against acute rejection that can be realized without the need for significant recipient

  9. Magnetic labeling and in vitro MR imaging of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Jinhua; Feng Gansheng; Wu Hanping; Wang Xin; Li Chuan; Zhao Jiannong; Guo Daqin; Yu Guorong; Liu Guanxing; Wang Shiyi

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To label rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells with feridex combined with poly-l-lysine (PLL), and to determine the feasibility of detection of magnetically labeled stem cells with MR imaging. Methods: Feridex were incubated with PLL for 1 hour to obtain a complex of feridex-PLL. Mesenchymal stem cells isolated from the bone marrows of Wistar rats were cultured and expanded. By the 4th passage, cells were co-incubated overnight with the feridex-PLL complex. Prussian blue staining for demonstrating intracytoplastic nanoparticles and trypan-blue exclusion test for cell viability were performed respectively at 24 h, 1 w, 2 w, 3 w after labeling. MR imaging of cell suspensions was performed by using T 1 WI, T 2 WI and T 2 * WI sequences at a clinical 1.5 T MR system. Results: Numerous intracytoplastic iron particles were stained with Prussian blue. With division of stern cells, the stained particles were seen decreased gradually. Trypan bl