WorldWideScience

Sample records for kaner role alternatives

  1. Kaner biodiesel production through hybrid reactor and its performance testing on a CI engine at different compression ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Yadav

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with development of a hybrid reactor for biodiesel production based on the combined hydrodynamic cavitation and mechanical stirring processes. Biodiesel were produced using Kaner Seed Oil (KSO. The experimental results show that hybrid reactor produces 95% biodiesel yield within 45 min for 0.75% of catalyst and 6:1 M ratio which is significantly higher as compared to mechanical stirring or hydrodynamic cavitation alone. Thus biodiesel production process in hybrid reactor is cheap (high yield, efficient (time saving and environmentally friendly (lower% of catalyst. Performance study on engine shows that an increase in compression ratios (from 16 to 18 improves the engine performance using biodiesel blends as compared to petroleum diesel.

  2. The Role of Quantifier Alternations in Cut Elimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerhardy, Philipp

    2005-01-01

    Extending previous results on the complexity of cut elimination for the sequent calculus LK, we discuss the role of quantifier alternations and develop a measure to describe the complexity of cut elimination in terms of quantifier alternations in cut formulas and contractions on such formulas...

  3. Role of Alternative Therapies for Chronic Pain Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Donna-Ann; Maslin, Benjamin; Legler, Aron; Springer, Erin; Asgerally, Abbas; Vadivelu, Nalini

    2016-05-01

    There is increasing interest in the use of complimentary and alternative medicine (CAM) for the treatment of chronic pain. This review examines alternative and complimentary therapies, which can be incorporated as part of a biopsychosocial approach in the treatment of chronic pain syndromes. In the present investigation, literature from articles indexed on PubMed was evaluated including topics of alternative therapies, complimentary therapies, pain psychology, biofeedback therapy, physical exercise therapies, acupuncture, natural and herbal supplements, whole-body cryotherapy, and smartphone technologies in the treatment of chronic pain syndromes. This review highlights the key role of psychology in the treatment of chronic pain. Cognitive behavior therapy appears to be the most impactful while biofeedback therapy has also been shown to be effective for chronic pain. Exercise therapy has been shown to be effective in short-, intermediate-, and long-term pain states. When compared to that in sham controls, acupuncture has shown some benefit for neck pain immediately after the procedure and in the short term and improvement has also been demonstrated in the treatment of headaches. The role of smartphones and whole-body cryotherapy are new modalities and further studies are needed. Recent literature suggests that several alternate therapies could play a role in the treatment of chronic pain, supporting the biopsychosocial model in the treatment of pain states.

  4. Assessing Practitioner Attitudes Towards the Role of Pharmacists in Therapeutic Alternate and Pharmaceutical Alternate Substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    Orthopedics Pediatrics Ophthalmology Psychology _ Other (please specify) • 32. Please indicate the approximate percentage of your time spent in each...06 *O aLEVEL OF AGREEMENT ao Iwo .. 00 1. Permitting pharmacists to select THERA- PEUTIC ALTERNATES for prescribed drugs is appropriate: A. in

  5. Medical malpractice reform: the role of alternative dispute resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, David H; Bal, B Sonny

    2012-05-01

    Alternative dispute resolution (ADR) refers to techniques used to resolve conflicts without going to the courtroom. As healthcare and malpractice costs continue to rise, there is growing interest in tactics such as early apology, mediation, and arbitration in the medical arena. (1) Why is ADR needed? (2) Is ADR useful in health care? (3) What are the current legal and political developments favoring ADR? (4) What obstacles remain? We performed MEDLINE, PubMed, and Google Scholar searches with key words "medical malpractice", "ADR", and "alternative dispute resolution" to obtain public policy studies, law review articles, case analyses, ADR surveys, and healthcare review articles. Early apology and disclosure programs report 50% to 67% success in avoiding litigation as well as substantial reductions in the amount paid per claim. Mediation boasts 75% to 90% success in avoiding litigation, cost savings of $50,000 per claim, and 90% satisfaction rates among both plaintiffs and defendants. Arbitration is viewed as less satisfying and less efficient than mediation but still more time- and cost-effective than litigation. The current legal environment is favorable to ADR with recent court decisions upholding pretreatment arbitration clauses. The main obstacle to ADR is the mandatory reporting requirement of the National Practitioner Data Bank (NPDB). ADR has the potential to help reform the current tort system, reducing cost and increasing both parties' satisfaction. Easing the reporting requirements for the NPDB would lead to more widespread acceptance of ADR among physicians.

  6. Alternative therapy in glaucoma management: Is there any role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parikh Rajul

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. Various randomized controlled clinical trials have shown that lowering intraocular pressure (IOP does reduce progression of primary open-angle glaucoma. However, there is lots of interest in nonpharmacological options that includes lifestyle adjustment and alternative and complementary therapy (ACT. At least 5% glaucoma population uses ACT. Various lifestyle activities like exercise and alcohol can reduce IOP by 1 to 2 mm Hg but would have small effect on glaucoma. The psychological stress can increase IOP. Hypothetically and few studies do show neuroprotective effect (or effect on ocular blood flow of alcohol, Gingko biloba, bilberry, but the current evidence is weak for its routine use. We must also remember the side effects of ′medications′ (e.g., marijuana, alcohol before promoting as remedy for glaucoma. In current armamentarium of glaucoma management, ACT cannot substitute the conventional treatment available to lower IOP.

  7. The Role of Control in Entrepreneurial Growth: An alternative explanation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Jones, Sally; Ottsen, Christina Lundsgaard

    their implications for concrete behaviour. Methodology: We apply a critical realist ontology to develop a research framework for understanding the role of risk, control and self-efficacy in determining entrepreneurial growth. We will collect data through an online questionnaire, including both men and women from...... and boys are socialized in the family. Contribution: We develop a research framework for testing propositions concerning the role of power-control in the family and the spillover effects that PCT has on entrepreneurial growth. We extend PCT into the entrepreneurship domain and offer new insights...... as they are viewed as more vulnerable than boys. Given that PCT deals with how risk-taking/adverse behaviour originates, it may have an application value in entrepreneurship. The gender gap in risk-taking has been addressed from various perspectives in the past 30 years, however, little effort has been made...

  8. Alternative splicing: the pledge, the turn, and the prestige : The key role of alternative splicing in human biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Paez, L M; Bordone, M C; Leote, A C; Saraiva-Agostinho, N; Ascensão-Ferreira, M; Barbosa-Morais, N L

    2017-09-01

    Alternative pre-mRNA splicing is a tightly controlled process conducted by the spliceosome, with the assistance of several regulators, resulting in the expression of different transcript isoforms from the same gene and increasing both transcriptome and proteome complexity. The differences between alternative isoforms may be subtle but enough to change the function or localization of the translated proteins. A fine control of the isoform balance is, therefore, needed throughout developmental stages and adult tissues or physiological conditions and it does not come as a surprise that several diseases are caused by its deregulation. In this review, we aim to bring the splicing machinery on stage and raise the curtain on its mechanisms and regulation throughout several systems and tissues of the human body, from neurodevelopment to the interactions with the human microbiome. We discuss, on one hand, the essential role of alternative splicing in assuring tissue function, diversity, and swiftness of response in these systems or tissues, and on the other hand, what goes wrong when its regulatory mechanisms fail. We also focus on the possibilities that splicing modulation therapies open for the future of personalized medicine, along with the leading techniques in this field. The final act of the spliceosome, however, is yet to be fully revealed, as more knowledge is needed regarding the complex regulatory network that coordinates alternative splicing and how its dysfunction leads to disease.

  9. The role of complementary and alternative medicine in the treatment of eating disorders: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Sarah; Smith, Caroline A; Hay, Phillipa

    2016-04-01

    This systematic review critically appraises the role of complementary and alternative medicine in the treatment of those with an eating disorder. Sixteen studies were included in the review. The results of this review show that the role of complementary and alternative medicine in the treatment of those with an eating disorder is unclear and further studies should be conducted. A potential role was found for massage and bright light therapy for depression in those with Bulimia Nervosa and a potential role for acupuncture and relaxation therapy, in the treatment of State Anxiety, for those with an eating disorder. The role of these complementary therapies in treating eating disorders should only be provided as an adjunctive treatment only. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The role of alternative Polyadenylation in regulation of rhythmic gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptitsyna, Natalia; Boughorbel, Sabri; El Anbari, Mohammed; Ptitsyn, Andrey

    2017-08-04

    Alternative transcription is common in eukaryotic cells and plays important role in regulation of cellular processes. Alternative polyadenylation results from ambiguous PolyA signals in 3' untranslated region (UTR) of a gene. Such alternative transcripts share the same coding part, but differ by a stretch of UTR that may contain important functional sites. The methodoogy of this study is based on mathematical modeling, analytical solution, and subsequent validation by datamining in multiple independent experimental data from previously published studies. In this study we propose a mathematical model that describes the population dynamics of alternatively polyadenylated transcripts in conjunction with rhythmic expression such as transcription oscillation driven by circadian or metabolic oscillators. Analysis of the model shows that alternative transcripts with different turnover rates acquire a phase shift if the transcript decay rate is different. Difference in decay rate is one of the consequences of alternative polyadenylation. Phase shift can reach values equal to half the period of oscillation, which makes alternative transcripts oscillate in abundance in counter-phase to each other. Since counter-phased transcripts share the coding part, the rate of translation becomes constant. We have analyzed a few data sets collected in circadian timeline for the occurrence of transcript behavior that fits the mathematical model. Alternative transcripts with different turnover rate create the effect of rectifier. This "molecular diode" moderates or completely eliminates oscillation of individual transcripts and stabilizes overall protein production rate. In our observation this phenomenon is very common in different tissues in plants, mice, and humans. The occurrence of counter-phased alternative transcripts is also tissue-specific and affects functions of multiple biological pathways. Accounting for this mechanism is important for understanding the natural and engineering

  11. Alternative oxidase in the branched mitochondrial respiratory network: an overview on structure, function, regulation, and role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sluse F.E.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants and some other organisms including protists possess a complex branched respiratory network in their mitochondria. Some pathways of this network are not energy-conserving and allow sites of energy conservation to be bypassed, leading to a decrease of the energy yield in the cells. It is a challenge to understand the regulation of the partitioning of electrons between the various energy-dissipating and -conserving pathways. This review is focused on the oxidase side of the respiratory chain that presents a cyanide-resistant energy-dissipating alternative oxidase (AOX besides the cytochrome pathway. The known structural properties of AOX are described including transmembrane topology, dimerization, and active sites. Regulation of the alternative oxidase activity is presented in detail because of its complexity. The alternative oxidase activity is dependent on substrate availability: total ubiquinone concentration and its redox state in the membrane and O2 concentration in the cell. The alternative oxidase activity can be long-term regulated (gene expression or short-term (post-translational modification, allosteric activation regulated. Electron distribution (partitioning between the alternative and cytochrome pathways during steady-state respiration is a crucial measurement to quantitatively analyze the effects of the various levels of regulation of the alternative oxidase. Three approaches are described with their specific domain of application and limitations: kinetic approach, oxygen isotope differential discrimination, and ADP/O method (thermokinetic approach. Lastly, the role of the alternative oxidase in non-thermogenic tissues is discussed in relation to the energy metabolism balance of the cell (supply in reducing equivalents/demand in energy and carbon and with harmful reactive oxygen species formation.

  12. The role of utilities in enabling technology innovation: The BC hydro alternative & emerging energy strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, Alex; Leclair, Donna; Morrison, Allison

    2010-09-15

    In order for renewable energy to play a dominant role in the global electricity supply mix, emerging renewable energy technologies - such as wave, tidal, enhanced geothermal, and 3rd generation photovoltaic technologies - must prove their technical merits and achieve cost parity with conventional sources of supply. BC Hydro, a government-owned electric utility, launched an Alternative and Emerging Energy Strategy that describes its role as an enabler of technology innovation. This paper describes BC Hydro's goal, objectives and actions to accelerate the commercialization that will yield a diversity of supply options and a growing, local clean-tech cluster.

  13. Young Latinas and abortion: the role of cultural factors, reproductive behavior, and alternative roles to motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, C P; Erickson, P I; Stewart, S L; Crane, L A

    2001-01-01

    Latina women have often been portrayed as holding strong traditional family values leading to a greater propensity for rejection of contraception and abortion. Increasingly, the literature has consistently shown that Latina women use contraception effectively when available; however, much less is known about the prevalence of abortion and the factors related to its use in this population. In this article we examine Latinas' use of abortion and identify factors affecting its use among 1,207 ever-pregnant Latina women age 14-24 recruited at two federally-funded family planning clinics in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. Only a small proportion of the young women in our sample (7.5%) had ever had an induced abortion. In multivariate analysis the variables significantly associated with past abortion included less traditional attitudes about women's roles, higher gravidity, shorter periods of sexual activity, and a higher number of lifetime sexual partners. We conclude that use of abortion among Latinas is driven by role orientation and reproductive variables.

  14. Role of Alternative Polyadenylation during Adipogenic Differentiation: An In Silico Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangenberg, Lucía; Correa, Alejandro; Dallagiovanna, Bruno; Naya, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    Post-transcriptional regulation of stem cell differentiation is far from being completely understood. Changes in protein levels are not fully correlated with corresponding changes in mRNAs; the observed differences might be partially explained by post-transcriptional regulation mechanisms, such as alternative polyadenylation. This would involve changes in protein binding, transcript usage, miRNAs and other non-coding RNAs. In the present work we analyzed the distribution of alternative transcripts during adipogenic differentiation and the potential role of miRNAs in post-transcriptional regulation. Our in silico analysis suggests a modest, consistent, bias in 3′UTR lengths during differentiation enabling a fine-tuned transcript regulation via small non-coding RNAs. Including these effects in the analyses partially accounts for the observed discrepancies in relative abundance of protein and mRNA. PMID:24143171

  15. Primer on Motor Fuel Excise Taxes and the Role of Alternative Fuels and Energy Efficient Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Alex [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-26

    Motor fuel taxes were established to finance our nation’s transportation infrastructure, yet evolving economic, political, and technological influences are constraining this ability. At the federal level, the Highway Trust Fund (HTF), which is primarily funded by motor fuel taxes, has become increasingly dependent on general fund contributions and short-term reauthorizations to prevent insolvency. As a result, there are discussions at both the federal and state levels in which stakeholders are examining the future of motor fuel excise taxes as well as the role of electric and alternative fuel vehicles in that future. On July 1, 2015, six states increased their motor fuel tax rates.

  16. Super gene alternation of magnetite and pyrite and the role of their alternation products in the fixation of uranium from the circulating media. Vol. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Gemmizi, M A [Nuclear Materials Authority, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    In most of the Egyptian altered radioactive granites, highly magnetic heavy particles were found to be radioactive. They are a mixture of several iron oxide minerals which are products of super gene alternation of the preexisting hypo gene iron-bearing minerals especially magnetite and pyrite. The end products of this super gene alternation are mainly hydrated iron oxide minerals limonite and/or goethite. During the alternation, deformation and defects in the mineral structure took place, thereby promoting diffusion of the substitutional and interstitial ions (uranium) towards these sites. The mechanism of the alternation of the hypo gene iron-bearing minerals, magnetite and pyrite to form the secondary mineral hematite, limonite and goethite; and the role of these secondary minerals in fixing uranium from the circulating media, and as indicators to the radioactivity of the host rocks are discussed. 2 figs.

  17. Super gene alternation of magnetite and pyrite and the role of their alternation products in the fixation of uranium from the circulating media. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Gemmizi, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    In most of the Egyptian altered radioactive granites, highly magnetic heavy particles were found to be radioactive. They are a mixture of several iron oxide minerals which are products of super gene alternation of the preexisting hypo gene iron-bearing minerals especially magnetite and pyrite. The end products of this super gene alternation are mainly hydrated iron oxide minerals limonite and/or goethite. During the alternation, deformation and defects in the mineral structure took place, thereby promoting diffusion of the substitutional and interstitial ions (uranium) towards these sites. The mechanism of the alternation of the hypo gene iron-bearing minerals, magnetite and pyrite to form the secondary mineral hematite, limonite and goethite; and the role of these secondary minerals in fixing uranium from the circulating media, and as indicators to the radioactivity of the host rocks are discussed. 2 figs

  18. The role of alternative cyanide-insensitive respiration in plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raskin, Ilya

    1997-09-29

    This DOE funded research concentrated on the investigation of the role of respiration and oxidative stress in plant biology. Initially the authors concentrated on the possible role of cyanide-insensitive respiration in counteracting the deleterious effects of chilling stress. Although plants are considered to be poikilotherms, there are a few examples of thermogenesis, in which the tissue temperature increases well above ambient. They suggested that differences between thermogenic and non-thermogenic plants may be quantitative rather than qualitative, and that heat from increased respiration may have a local protective effect on the mitochondria, slowing or reducing the effects of chilling. They proposed that this is accomplished by a large increase in respiration, predominantly via the alternative pathway. They measured the increases in respiration, particularly via the alternative pathway, in response to chilling. They have also quantified the associated increases in heat evolution in response to chilling in a number of plant species using a microcalorimeter. For example, after 8 h exposure to 8 C, heat evolution in chilling-sensitive species increased 47--98%, compared to 7--22% for the chilling-resistant species. No increase in heat evolution was observed in the extremely chilling-sensitive ornamental Episcka cupreata (Hook). Increases in heat evolution were observed when plants were chilled in constant light or in the dark, but not when plants were chilled at high humidity. Heat evolution by mitochondria isolated from potato tuber slices were also measured. These values, together with measurements of the heat capacity of isolated mitochondria and counting of the mitochondria by flow cytometry, allow calculation of theoretical maximal rates of heating and the heat produced per mitochondrion. The obtained data was consistent with the protective role of respiratory heat production in cold-stressed plants.

  19. [Role of mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) pathway in photoprotection in Rumex K-1 leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiang-Long; Zhang, Li-Tao; Zhang, Zi-Shan; Gao, Hui-Yuan; Meng, Qing-Wei

    2012-07-01

    Taking Rumex K-1 leaves as test materials, this paper studied the role of mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) pathway in photoprotection under different light intensities. Under low light intensity (200 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1)), and after treated with salicylhydroxamic acid to inhibit the AOX pathway, the leaf actual photochemical efficiency of PS II, linear electron transport rate of photosynthesis, and photosynthetic O2 evolution rate all decreased significantly while the non-Q(B) reducing reaction center had a significant increase, indicating that under low light, the photoinhibition was aggravated while the scavenging enzymes of reactive oxygen species (ROS) increased, which avoided the over-accumulation of ROS and partially alleviated the photoinhibition of Rumex K-1 leaves. Under high light intensity (800 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1)), the inhibition of AOX pathway caused more severe photoinhibition, and the increased activities of ROS scavenging enzymes were insufficient to prevent the over-accumulation of ROS. This study demonstrated that AOX pathway played an important role in the photoprotection in Rumex K-1 leaves under both high and low light intensities, and the role of AOX pathway in photoprotection under high light could be irreplaceable by the other photoprotection pathways in chloroplast.

  20. The roles of WRN and BLM RecQ helicases in the Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez-Bermudez, Aaron; Hidalgo-Bravo, Alberto; Cotton, Victoria E; Gravani, Athanasia; Jeyapalan, Jennie N; Royle, Nicola J

    2012-11-01

    Approximately 10% of all cancers, but a higher proportion of sarcomas, use the recombination-based alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) to maintain telomeres. Two RecQ helicase genes, BLM and WRN, play important roles in homologous recombination repair and they have been implicated in telomeric recombination activity, but their precise roles in ALT are unclear. Using analysis of sequence variation present in human telomeres, we found that a WRN- ALT+ cell line lacks the class of complex telomere mutations attributed to inter-telomeric recombination in other ALT+ cell lines. This suggests that WRN facilitates inter-telomeric recombination when there are sequence differences between the donor and recipient molecules or that sister-telomere interactions are suppressed in the presence of WRN and this promotes inter-telomeric recombination. Depleting BLM in the WRN- ALT+ cell line increased the mutation frequency at telomeres and at the MS32 minisatellite, which is a marker of ALT. The absence of complex telomere mutations persisted in BLM-depleted clones, and there was a clear increase in sequence homogenization across the telomere and MS32 repeat arrays. These data indicate that BLM suppresses unequal sister chromatid interactions that result in excessive homogenization at MS32 and at telomeres in ALT+ cells.

  1. A discrete role for alternative oxidase under hypoxia to increase nitric oxide and drive energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwakarma, Abhaypratap; Kumari, Aprajita; Mur, Luis A J; Gupta, Kapuganti Jagadis

    2018-03-28

    Alternative oxidase (AOX) is an integral part of the mitochondrial electron transport and can prevent reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) production under non-stressed, normoxic conditions. Here we assessed the roles of AOX by imposing stress under normoxia in comparison to hypoxic conditions using AOX over expressing (AOX OE) and anti-sense (AOX AS) transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings and roots. Under normoxic conditions stress was induced with the defence elicitor flagellin (flg22). AOX OE reduced NO production whilst this was increased in AOX AS. Moreover AOX AS also exhibited an increase in superoxide and therefore peroxynitrite, tyrosine nitration suggesting that scavenging of NO by AOX can prevent toxic peroxynitrite formation under normoxia. In contrast, during hypoxia interestingly we found that AOX is a generator of NO. Thus, the NO produced during hypoxia, was enhanced in AOX OE and suppressed in AOX AS. Additionally, treatment of WT or AOX OE with the AOX inhibitor SHAM inhibited hypoxic NO production. The enhanced levels of NO correlated with expression of non-symbiotic haemoglobin, increased NR activity and ATP production. The ATP generation was suppressed in nia1,2 mutant and non symbiotic haemoglobin antisense line treated with SHAM. Taken together these results suggest that hypoxic NO generation mediated by AOX has a discrete role by feeding into the haemoglobin-NO cycle to drive energy efficiency under conditions of low oxygen tension. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. An Oncogenic Role for Alternative NF-κB Signaling in DLBCL Revealed upon Deregulated BCL6 Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baochun Zhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL is a complex disease comprising diverse subtypes and genetic profiles. Possibly because of the prevalence of genetic alterations activating canonical NF-κB activity, a role for oncogenic lesions that activate the alternative NF-κB pathway in DLBCL has remained elusive. Here, we show that deletion/mutation of TRAF3, a negative regulator of the alternative NF-κB pathway, occurs in ∼15% of DLBCLs and that it often coexists with BCL6 translocation, which prevents terminal B cell differentiation. Accordingly, in a mouse model constitutive activation of the alternative NF-κB pathway cooperates with BCL6 deregulation in DLBCL development. This work demonstrates a key oncogenic role for the alternative NF-κB pathway in DLBCL development.

  3. Roles and Responsibilities of Coordinators/Alternates in Managing IAEA Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otwoma, D.

    2009-01-01

    Indicates that, the responsibilities of the coordinators include, to collect lessons learned from past experiences of coordinators/alternates in implementation and to collect information from all stake holders who include, coordinators' and alternates' institutions, regulatory,operations, general public

  4. The role of augmentative and alternative communication for children with autism: current status and future trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iacono T

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Teresa Iacono,1 David Trembath,2 Shane Erickson3 1Living with Disability Research Centre, La Trobe University, Bendigo, VIC, Australia; 2Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD, Australia; 3Living with Disability Research Centre, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Background: Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC interventions are used for children with autism, often as stand-alone communication interventions for those who are minimally verbal. Our aim was to synthesize the evidence for AAC interventions for children (up to 21 years, and then consider the role of AAC within established, comprehensive, evidence-based autism interventions targeting learning across multiple developmental domains.Design: We completed a systematic search of three databases (OVID Medline, PsycINFO, ERIC as well as forward citation and hand searches to identify systematic reviews of AAC intervention efficacy research including children with autism, published between 2000 and March 2016 in peer-reviewed journals. Data pertaining to the quality indicators of included studies, effect sizes for intervention outcomes, and evidence for effectiveness were extracted for descriptive analysis.Results: The search yielded 17 systematic reviews. Most provided indicators of research quality for included studies, of which only relatively few provided conclusive results. Communication targets tended to be focused on teaching children to make requests. Still, effect size measures for included studies indicated that AAC was effective to highly effective.Conclusion: There is growing evidence for the potential benefits of AAC for children with autism, but there is a need for more well-designed studies and broader, targeted outcomes. Furthermore, a lack of evidence for the role of AAC within comprehensive intervention programs may account for a tendency by autism researchers and practitioners to neglect this intervention. Attempts to

  5. Transcriptomic analysis of human polarized macrophages: more than one role of alternative activation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Derlindati

    Full Text Available Macrophages are a heterogeneous cell population which in response to the cytokine milieu polarize in either classically activated macrophages (M1 or alternatively activated macrophages (M2. This plasticity makes macrophages essential in regulating inflammation, immune response and tissue remodeling and a novel therapeutic target in inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis. The aim of the study was to describe the transcriptomic profiles of differently polarized human macrophages to generate new hypotheses on the biological function of the different macrophage subtypes.Polarization of circulating monocytes/macrophages of blood donors was induced in vitro by IFN-γ and LPS (M1, by IL-4 (M2a, and by IL-10 (M2c. Unstimulated cells (RM served as time controls. Gene expression profile of M1, M2a, M2c and RM was assessed at 6, 12 and 24h after polarization with Whole Human Genome Agilent Microarray technique. When compared to RM, M1 significantly upregulated pathways involved in immunity and inflammation, whereas M2a did the opposite. Conversely, decreased and increased expression of mitochondrial metabolism, consistent with insulin resistant and insulin sensitive patterns, was seen in M1 and M2a, respectively. The time sequence in the expression of some pathways appeared to have some specific bearing on M1 function. Finally, canonical and non-canonical Wnt genes and gene groups, promoting inflammation and tissue remodeling, were upregulated in M2a compared to RM.Our data in in vitro polarized human macrophages: 1. confirm and extend known inflammatory and anti-inflammatory gene expression patterns; 2. demonstrate changes in mitochondrial metabolism associated to insulin resistance and insulin sensitivity in M1 and M2a, respectively; 3. highlight the potential relevance of gene expression timing in M1 function; 4. unveil enhanced expression of Wnt pathways in M2a suggesting a potential dual (pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory role of M2a in

  6. Does nurses' role, health or symptoms influence their personal use of ingestible complementary and alternative medicines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrelis, Sofia; Perry, Lin; Gallagher, Robyn; Duffield, Christine; Sibbritt, David; Nicholls, Rachel; Xu, Xiaoyue

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the influence of work-related characteristics, health, health behaviours and symptoms on ingestible biologically-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) use within the Australian nursing and midwifery workforce. CAM use is widespread worldwide, but there is little research into nurses' and midwives' personal use of ingestible CAM in Australia. An online survey in 2014-15 used validated instruments and items to examine use of ingestible biologically-based CAM (herbs, foods and vitamins, minerals, amino acids, enzymes and other supplements), and the health and work-related characteristics of 5041 nurses and midwives recruited through the New South Wales Nurses and Midwives Association and professional networks. A small proportion of nurses (6.8%) identified as personal CAM users. Most were female, older, worked in foundational roles (frontline Registered and Enrolled Nurses/Midwives) and used one CAM, most commonly a multivitamin, although Vitamin D, Fish Oil, Calcium and Glucosamine±Chondroitin were also common. In comparison to non-users, CAM users were less likely to take sick days or indulge in risky drinking, but more likely to be symptomatic (with stiff joints, bodily/joint pain, severe tiredness, allergies, indigestion/heartburn), diagnosed with osteoarthritis and to adhere to healthy diet recommendations. Findings showed a credible pattern of front line workers with physically demanding workloads that impact their physical health and are linked to frequent symptoms, using CAM treatments and achieving some success in being able to continue working and avoid sickness absence. Further investigation is warranted to protect and maintain the health of the nursing and midwifery workforce. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The actual role of alternative energies in electricity supply in Brazil in the nineties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado Junior, Fernando Amaral Almeida; Simoes, Nivaldo Silveira

    1993-01-01

    Starting in the seventies, deep changes have occurred in the electric sector, and alternative energy sources appeared as an option to hydraulic power. Presently, the effective contribution of alternative sources such as solar energy, cogeneration and energy conservation will not be predominant in the short run. Nevertheless, the study of these technologies is fundamental for the utilities' strategies. 4 refs., 5 figs

  8. Supplanting the Venom of Litigation with Alternative Dispute Resolution: The Role of Counsellors and Guidance Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udoh, Nsisong Anthony; Sanni, Kudirat Bimbo

    2015-01-01

    This literature review attempts to interface counselling with alternative legal practice. The authors proceed by contrasting the adversarial nature of litigation with the conciliatory nature of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) with a view to encouraging seekers of dispute resolution to opt for ADR in lieu of litigation. The paper discusses the…

  9. Sociocultural attitudes surrounding menstruation and alternative menstrual products: the explanatory role of self-objectification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grose, Rose Grace; Grabe, Shelly

    2014-01-01

    We extend objectification theory research to consider the relationship between self-objectification and attitudes toward an alternative menstrual product in a diverse sample of female undergraduates from the United States (N = 151). We use a survey design to investigate attitudes toward one's menstruation as a potential mechanism that may explain this relationship. Reactions to an alternative menstrual product were predominantly negative, supporting prior research on stigma and shame surrounding menstruation. Exploratory structural equation modeling revealed attitudes toward one's menstruation mediated the relationship between self-objectification and participants' reactions to an alternative menstrual product. Implications for women's health are discussed.

  10. Key role of alternative oxidase in lovastatin solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sánchez, Ailed; Uribe-Carvajal, Salvador; Cabrera-Orefice, Alfredo; Barrios-González, Javier

    2017-10-01

    Lovastatin is a commercially important secondary metabolite produced by Aspergillus terreus, either by solid-state fermentation or by submerged fermentation. In a previous work, we showed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in idiophase positively regulates lovastatin biosynthetic genes. In addition, it has been found that lovastatin-specific production decreases with aeration in solid-state fermentation (SSF). To study this phenomenon, we determined ROS accumulation during lovastatin SSF, under high and low aeration conditions. Paradoxically, high aeration caused lower ROS accumulation, and this was the underlying reason of the aeration effect on lovastatin production. Looking for a mechanism that is lowering ROS production under those conditions, we studied alternative respiration. The alternative oxidase provides an alternative route for electrons passing through the electron transport chain to reduce oxygen. Here, we showed that an alternative oxidase (AOX) is expressed in SSF, and only during idiophase. It was shown that higher aeration induces higher alternative respiration (AOX activity), and this is a mechanism that limits ROS generation and keeps them within healthy limits and adequate signaling limits for lovastatin production. Indeed, the aox gene was induced in idiophase, i.e., at the time of ROS accumulation. Moreover, exogenous ROS (H 2 O 2 ), added to lovastatin solid-state fermentation, induced higher AOX activity. This suggests that high O 2 availability in SSF generates dangerously high ROS, so alternative respiration is induced in SSF, indirectly favoring lovastatin production. Conversely, alternative respiration was not detected in lovastatin-submerged fermentation (SmF), although exogenous ROS also induced relatively low AOX activity in SmF.

  11. What should medical practitioners know about the role of alternative medicines in cardiovascular disease management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whayne, Thomas F

    2010-04-01

    Alternative medications as a term call up many different meanings, significance, and perceptions to various medical practitioners. Some are good; others are bad. A wide range of alternative medications with relevance or connection to cardiovascular (CV) disease have been considered. While many are worthless, others have definite benefit, and at least one, chelation therapy, is associated with definite harm, significant risk, no benefit, and enrichment of the practitioners who prescribe it. The issues concerning alternative therapies will likely never be studied with randomized clinical trials due to the lack of a profit motive on the part of pharmaceutical companies--only rarely do other institutions, such as the National Institutes of Health, support medicinal studies. Basic knowledge of alternative therapies is essential for the CV specialist and other practicing physicians and other practitioners, since at least a few of their patients will take these medications regardless of medical advice. The result is that a number of these alternative medications will then interact with conventional CV medications, many times unfavorably.

  12. The Unemployed Workers’ Perceptions of Stress and Employment Prospects in Macedonia: The Role of Alternative Adjustment Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoloski Dimitar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Depressed labour market conditions in Macedonia manifested by high and persistent unemployment rate, strong segmentation and prevailing long-term unemployment is considered as a heritage of more than two decades long period of transition. Unemployment has a number of negative consequences such a decreased income which is assumed to influence the subjective experience of unemployment. The negative macroeconomic shocks in Macedonia have been mitigated due to the strengthened role of alternative labour market adjustment mechanisms such as: employment in the informal sector, emigration and inactivity. However, their impact on the unemployed workers’ perceptions of stress and future labour market prospects is less clear-cut. In this paper we use results from a survey carried out on a sample of unemployed workers in Macedonia in order to identify the psychological implications of unemployment by assessing the perceived stress and employment prospects with particular reference to the role of alternative labour market adjustment mechanisms.

  13. The restructured fusion program and the role of alternative fusion concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, L.J.

    1996-01-01

    This testimony to the subcommittee on Energy and the Environment of the U.S. House of Representatives's Committee on Science pushes for about 25% of the fusion budget to go to alternative fusion concepts. These concepts are: low density magnetic confinement, inertial confinement fusion, high density magnetic confinement, and non- thermonuclear and miscellaneous programs. Various aspects of each of these concepts are outlined

  14. Examining the Job Search-Turnover Relationship: The Role of Embeddedness, Job Satisfaction, and Available Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swider, Brian W.; Boswell, Wendy R.; Zimmerman, Ryan D.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined factors that may help explain under what conditions employee job search effort may most strongly (or weakly) predict subsequent turnover. As predicted, the job search-turnover relationship was stronger when employees had lower levels of job embeddedness and job satisfaction and higher levels of available alternatives. These…

  15. Understanding Alternative Food Networks: Exploring the Role of Food Supply Chains in Rural Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renting, H.; Marsden, T.; Banks, J.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we explore the development and incidence of alternative food networks within a European-wide context. By developing a consistent definition of short food supply chains, we address both the morphology and the dynamics of these, and then examine empirical evidence concerning their

  16. Role of Alternative Donor Allogeneic Transplants in the Therapy of Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmariah, Hany; Pratz, Keith W

    2017-07-01

    Adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is often associated with a poor prognosis, with allogeneic transplantation representing the greatest chance of cure for eligible patients. Historically, the preferred donor source is a human leukocyte antigen-matched blood relative, although only approximately 30% of patients have access to such a donor. Alternative donor sources, including matched unrelated donors, umbilical cord blood, and haploidentical related donors, are available for almost every patient and are increasingly being used for patients without a matched related donor. Survival outcomes with these alternative donor sources now approximate those of matched related donor transplants. Given the safety and success of alternative donor transplants, comparative trials are needed to reassess the optimal donor source for patients with AML. This review summarizes the available data on these alternative donor transplants. Further investigation is needed to contemporize donor selection algorithms, but, in the current era, donor availability should no longer preclude a patient's eligibility for an allogeneic blood or marrow transplant. Copyright © 2017 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  17. The Role of Alternative Splicing in the Control of Immune Homeostasis and Cellular Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabas, Mehmet; Elliott, Hannah; Hoyne, Gerard F

    2015-12-22

    Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA helps to enhance the genetic diversity within mammalian cells by increasing the number of protein isoforms that can be generated from one gene product. This provides a great deal of flexibility to the host cell to alter protein function, but when dysregulation in splicing occurs this can have important impact on health and disease. Alternative splicing is widely used in the mammalian immune system to control the development and function of antigen specific lymphocytes. In this review we will examine the splicing of pre-mRNAs yielding key proteins in the immune system that regulate apoptosis, lymphocyte differentiation, activation and homeostasis, and discuss how defects in splicing can contribute to diseases. We will describe how disruption to trans-acting factors, such as heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs), can impact on cell survival and differentiation in the immune system.

  18. When passion makes the heart grow colder: the role of passion in alternative goal suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, Jocelyn J; Lafrenière, Marc-André K; Vallerand, Robert J; Kruglanski, Arie W

    2013-01-01

    Quality of goal engagement and alternative goal suppression were investigated in this research. Integrating the dualistic model of passion (Vallerand et al., 2003) with goal-systems theory (Kruglanski et al., 2002), we hypothesized that obsessive passion--associated with recurrent goal-conflicts--would predict greater alternative goal suppression (i.e., goal-shielding) than would harmonious passion--characterized by effective synthesis of the passionate activity with other life domains. Results from 5 laboratory studies supported these hypotheses. In Study 1, participants' dispositional measures of harmonious and obsessive passion were correlated with an implicit measure of goal-shielding. Obsessive (but not harmonious) passion predicted the suppression of alternative goals and the progressive inhibition of unfamiliar goals. In Study 2, we extended these findings by demonstrating the interrelation between quality of goal engagement and goal-commitment such that goal-shielding effects were enhanced, but only for goals in conflict with other life domains (vs. well-integrated goals). In Study 3, the causal influence of passion on goal-shielding was supported via an experimental manipulation of passion. In Study 4, we replicated and extended Studies 1 and 3 by experimentally demonstrating that obsessive (but not harmonious) passion is a mindset conducive to the development of inhibitory links with alternative goals. Study 5 explored the psychological costs associated with repeated unconscious goal suppression by examining its effects on the depletion of self-regulatory resources. Collectively, the present results suggest that the qualitative distinction between obsessive and harmonious passion has implications for the goal-shielding effect and for subsequent self-regulatory behavior.

  19. The Role of Alternative Testing Strategies in Environmental Risk Assessment of Engineered Nanomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Hjorth, Rune; Holden, Patricia; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Colman, Ben; Grieger, Khara; Hendren, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Within toxicology there is a pressure to find new test systems and organisms to replace, reduce and refine animal testing. In nanoecotoxicology the need for alternative testing strategies (ATS) is further emphasized as the validity of tests and risk assessment practices developed for dissolved chemicals are challenged. Nonetheless, standardized whole organism animal testing is still considered the gold standard for environmental risk assessment. Advancing risk analysis of engineered nanomater...

  20. Mitigating environmental pollution and impacts from fossil fuels: The role of alternative fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, L.; Cheng, S.Y.; Li, J.B.; Huang, Y.F. [Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    In order to meet the rising global demand for energy, rapid development of conventional fossil fuels (i.e., coal, oil, and natural gas) have been experienced by many nations, bringing dramatic economic benefit and prosperity to fossil-fuel industries as well as well being of human society. However, various fossil-fuel related activities emit huge quantities of gaseous, liquid, and solid waste materials, posing a variety of impacts, risks, and liabilities to the environment. Therefore, on the one hand, control measures are desired for effectively managing pollution issues; on the other hand, it becomes extremely critical to invest efforts in finding promising alternative energy sources as solutions to the possible energy shortage crisis in future. This article focuses on both aspects through: (1) a discussion of waste materials generated from fossil-fuel industries and waste management measures; and (2) an exploration of some well-recognized alternative fuels in terms of their nature, availability, production, handling, environmental performances, and current and future applications. The conclusion restates the urgency of finding replaceable long-term alternatives to the conventional fuels.

  1. Advancing alternatives analysis: The role of predictive toxicology in selecting safer chemical products and processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Timothy; Zaunbrecher, Virginia; Beryt, Elizabeth; Judson, Richard; Tice, Raymond; Allard, Patrick; Blake, Ann; Cote, Ila; Godwin, Hilary; Heine, Lauren; Kerzic, Patrick; Kostal, Jakub; Marchant, Gary; McPartland, Jennifer; Moran, Kelly; Nel, Andre; Ogunseitan, Oladele; Rossi, Mark; Thayer, Kristina; Tickner, Joel; Whittaker, Margaret; Zarker, Ken

    2017-09-01

    Alternatives analysis (AA) is a method used in regulation and product design to identify, assess, and evaluate the safety and viability of potential substitutes for hazardous chemicals. It requires toxicological data for the existing chemical and potential alternatives. Predictive toxicology uses in silico and in vitro approaches, computational models, and other tools to expedite toxicological data generation in a more cost-effective manner than traditional approaches. The present article briefly reviews the challenges associated with using predictive toxicology in regulatory AA, then presents 4 recommendations for its advancement. It recommends using case studies to advance the integration of predictive toxicology into AA, adopting a stepwise process to employing predictive toxicology in AA beginning with prioritization of chemicals of concern, leveraging existing resources to advance the integration of predictive toxicology into the practice of AA, and supporting transdisciplinary efforts. The further incorporation of predictive toxicology into AA would advance the ability of companies and regulators to select alternatives to harmful ingredients, and potentially increase the use of predictive toxicology in regulation more broadly. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:915-925. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  2. The role of propriospinal neuronal network in transmitting the alternating muscular activities of flexor and extensor in parkinsonian tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, M; He, X; Lan, N

    2012-01-01

    It has been shown that normal cyclic movement of human arm and resting limb tremor in Parkinson's disease (PD) are associated with the oscillatory neuronal activities in different cerebral networks, which are transmitted to the antagonistic muscles via the same spinal pathway. There are mono-synaptic and multi-synaptic corticospinal pathways for conveying motor commands. This study investigates the plausible role of propriospinal neuronal (PN) network in the C3-C4 levels in multi-synaptic transmission of cortical commands for oscillatory movements. A PN network model is constructed based on known neurophysiological connections, and is hypothesized to achieve the conversion of cortical oscillations into alternating antagonistic muscle bursts. Simulations performed with a virtual arm (VA) model indicate that without the PN network, the alternating bursts of antagonistic muscle EMG could not be reliably generated, whereas with the PN network, the alternating pattern of bursts were naturally displayed in the three pairs of antagonist muscles. Thus, it is suggested that oscillations in the primary motor cortex (M1) of single and double tremor frequencies are processed at the PN network to compute the alternating burst pattern in the flexor and extensor muscles.

  3. Immunolocalization of an alternative respiratory chain in Antonospora (Paranosema) locustae spores: mitosomes retain their role in microsporidial energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgikh, Viacheslav V; Senderskiy, Igor V; Pavlova, Olga A; Naumov, Anton M; Beznoussenko, Galina V

    2011-04-01

    Microsporidia are a group of fungus-related intracellular parasites with severely reduced metabolic machinery. They lack canonical mitochondria, a Krebs cycle, and a respiratory chain but possess genes encoding glycolysis enzymes, a glycerol phosphate shuttle, and ATP/ADP carriers to import host ATP. The recent finding of alternative oxidase genes in two clades suggests that microsporidial mitosomes may retain an alternative respiratory pathway. We expressed the fragments of mitochondrial chaperone Hsp70 (mitHsp70), mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (mitG3PDH), and alternative oxidase (AOX) from the microsporidium Antonospora (Paranosema) locustae in Escherichia coli. Immunoblotting with antibodies against recombinant polypeptides demonstrated specific accumulation of both metabolic enzymes in A. locustae spores. At the same time comparable amounts of mitochondrial Hsp70 were found in spores and in stages of intracellular development as well. Immunoelectron microscopy of ultrathin cryosections of spores confirmed mitosomal localization of the studied proteins. Small amounts of enzymes of an alternative respiratory chain in merogonial and early sporogonial stages, alongside their accumulation in mature spores, suggest conspicuous changes in components and functions of mitosomes during the life cycle of microsporidia and the important role of these organelles in parasite energy metabolism, at least at the final stages of sporogenesis.

  4. Nutrition metabolism plays an important role in the alternate bearing of the olive tree (Olea europaea L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Turktas

    Full Text Available The olive tree (Olea europaea L. is widely known for its strong tendency for alternate bearing, which severely affects the fruit yield from year to year. Microarray based gene expression analysis using RNA from olive samples (on-off years leaves and ripe-unripe fruits are particularly useful to understand the molecular mechanisms influencing the periodicity in the olive tree. Thus, we carried out genome wide transcriptome analyses involving different organs and temporal stages of the olive tree using the NimbleGen Array containing 136,628 oligonucleotide probe sets. Cluster analyses of the genes showed that cDNAs originated from different organs could be sorted into separate groups. The nutritional control had a particularly remarkable impact on the alternate bearing of olive, as shown by the differential expression of transcripts under different temporal phases and organs. Additionally, hormonal control and flowering processes also played important roles in this phenomenon. Our analyses provide further insights into the transcript changes between "on year" and "off year" leaves along with the changes from unrpipe to ripe fruits, which shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the olive tree alternate bearing. These findings have important implications for the breeding and agriculture of the olive tree and other crops showing periodicity. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the development and use of an olive array to document the gene expression profiling associated with the alternate bearing in olive tree.

  5. Nutrition Metabolism Plays an Important Role in the Alternate Bearing of the Olive Tree (Olea europaea L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turktas, Mine; Inal, Behcet; Okay, Sezer; Erkilic, Emine Gulden; Dundar, Ekrem; Hernandez, Pilar; Dorado, Gabriel; Unver, Turgay

    2013-01-01

    The olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is widely known for its strong tendency for alternate bearing, which severely affects the fruit yield from year to year. Microarray based gene expression analysis using RNA from olive samples (on-off years leaves and ripe-unripe fruits) are particularly useful to understand the molecular mechanisms influencing the periodicity in the olive tree. Thus, we carried out genome wide transcriptome analyses involving different organs and temporal stages of the olive tree using the NimbleGen Array containing 136,628 oligonucleotide probe sets. Cluster analyses of the genes showed that cDNAs originated from different organs could be sorted into separate groups. The nutritional control had a particularly remarkable impact on the alternate bearing of olive, as shown by the differential expression of transcripts under different temporal phases and organs. Additionally, hormonal control and flowering processes also played important roles in this phenomenon. Our analyses provide further insights into the transcript changes between ”on year” and “off year” leaves along with the changes from unrpipe to ripe fruits, which shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the olive tree alternate bearing. These findings have important implications for the breeding and agriculture of the olive tree and other crops showing periodicity. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the development and use of an olive array to document the gene expression profiling associated with the alternate bearing in olive tree. PMID:23555820

  6. The role of alternative (advanced) conscious sedation techniques in dentistry for adult patients: a series of cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, N

    2014-03-01

    The basic techniques of conscious sedation have been found to be safe and effective for the management of anxiety in adult dental patients requiring sedation to allow them to undergo dental treatment. There remains great debate within the profession as to the role of the so called advanced sedation techniques. This paper presents a series of nine patients who were managed with advanced sedation techniques where the basic techniques were either inappropriate or had previously failed to provide adequate relief of anxiety. In these cases, had there not been the availability of advanced sedation techniques, the most likely recourse would have been general anaesthesia--a treatment modality that current guidance indicates should not be used where there is an appropriate alternative. The sedation techniques used have provided that appropriate alternative management strategy.

  7. The role of information search in seeking alternative treatment for back pain: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClymont, Hoda; Gow, Jeff; Perry, Chad

    2014-01-01

    Health consumers have moved away from a reliance on medical practitioner advice to more independent decision processes and so their information search processes have subsequently widened. This study examined how persons with back pain searched for alternative treatment types and service providers. That is, what information do they seek and how; what sources do they use and why; and by what means do they search for it? 12 persons with back pain were interviewed. The method used was convergent interviewing. This involved a series of semi-structured questions to obtain open-ended answers. The interviewer analysed the responses and refined the questions after each interview, to converge on the dominant factors influencing decisions about treatment patterns. Persons with back pain mainly search their memories and use word of mouth (their doctor and friends) for information about potential treatments and service providers. Their search is generally limited due to personal, provider-related and information-supply reasons. However, they did want in-depth information about the alternative treatments and providers in an attempt to establish apriori their efficacy in treating their specific back problems. They searched different sources depending on the type of information they required. The findings differ from previous studies about the types of information health consumers require when searching for information about alternative or mainstream healthcare services. The results have identified for the first time that limited information availability was only one of three categories of reasons identified about why persons with back pain do not search for more information particularly from external non-personal sources.

  8. The role of health care ADR (alternative dispute resolution) in reducing legal fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, D M

    1995-11-01

    An increasingly complex health care system undergoing rapid changes is an ideal set-up for frequent conflicts among the numerous participants. While conflict is inevitable, the manner in which it is handled can markedly affect the outcome of the dispute and the future relationship of the parties, as well as the emotional and financial cost of the dispute. This article presents an overview of the principles and processes of alternative dispute resolution (ADR), and describes how these processes are currently being used to resolve health care disputes.

  9. The Ethanol Project: Exploring Alternative Energy with Role-Play and Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Julia

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a project that includes a two-week series of researching, essay writing, and speaking lessons exploring the broader implications of using ethanol as a fuel. The author, a chemistry teacher, describes how she uses a senate hearing discussion of ethanol fuel subsidies as the forum for a role-play. The four components of the…

  10. Alternative Conceptions of the Federal Role in Education: Thinking Anew about What to Aid, and How.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Chester E., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A critique of federal education policy discusses questionable purposes, flaws in aid-dispensing mechanisms, and undue regulatory burdens and other constraints. The proper federal role in education is described, involving information dissemination, educational improvement through federal programs, compensation, and financial assistance. (CJ)

  11. The role of alternating current in photo-assisted electrochemical porosification of GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainorkhilah, Mahmood; Naser, M. Ahmed; Yushamdan, Yusof; Kwong, Yam Fong; Zainuriah, Hassan; Tiginyanu, Ion; Siang, Chuah Lee

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we report the formation of porous GaN films under a novel alternating current (sine-wave a.c. (50 Hz)) photo-assisted electrochemical (ACPEC) etching conditions. The ACPEC formed porous GaN with excellent structural and surface morphology. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and high resolution X-ray diffraction (HR-XRD) phi-scan and rocking curves measurements evidenced important features of the pore morphology and nanostructures. According to the FESEM micrographs, the spatial nano architecture of the porous structures exhibits pores with perfect hexagonal shape. The AFM measurements revealed an increase in the surface roughness induced by porosification. X-ray diffraction phi-scan showed that porous GaN sample maintained the epitaxial. (authors)

  12. The Role of ATRX in the Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT Phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João P. Amorim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Telomeres are responsible for protecting chromosome ends in order to prevent the loss of coding DNA. Their maintenance is required for achieving immortality by neoplastic cells and can occur by upregulation of the telomerase enzyme or through a homologous recombination-associated process, the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT. The precise mechanisms that govern the activation of ALT or telomerase in tumor cells are not fully understood, although cellular origin may favor one of the other mechanisms that have been found thus far in mutual exclusivity. Specific mutational events influence ALT activation and maintenance: a unifying frequent feature of tumors that acquire this phenotype are the recurrent mutations of the Alpha Thalassemia/Mental Retardation Syndrome X-Linked (ATRX or Death-Domain Associated Protein (DAXX genes. This review summarizes the established criteria about this phenotype: its prevalence, theoretical molecular mechanisms and relation with ATRX, DAXX and other proteins (directly or indirectly interacting and resulting in the ALT phenotype.

  13. Role of an SNP in Alternative Splicing of Bovine NCF4 and Mastitis Susceptibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Ju

    Full Text Available Neutrophil cytosolic factor 4 (NCF4 is component of the nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate oxidase complex, a key factor in biochemical pathways and innate immune responses. In this study, splice variants and functional single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP of NCF4 were identified to determine the variability and association of the gene with susceptibility to bovine mastitis characterized by inflammation. A novel splice variant, designated as NCF4-TV and characterized by the retention of a 48 bp sequence in intron 9, was detected in the mammary gland tissues of infected cows. The expression of the NCF4-reference main transcript in the mastitic mammary tissues was higher than that in normal tissues. A novel SNP, g.18174 A>G, was also found in the retained 48 bp region of intron 9. To determine whether NCF4-TV could be due to the g.18174 A>G mutation, we constructed two mini-gene expression vectors with the wild-type or mutant NCF4 g.18174 A>G fragment. The vectors were then transiently transfected into 293T cells, and alternative splicing of NCF4 was analyzed by reverse transcription-PCR and sequencing. Mini-gene splicing assay demonstrated that the aberrantly spliced NCF4-TV with 48 bp retained fragment in intron 9 could be due to g.18174 A>G, which was associated with milk somatic count score and increased risk of mastitis infection in cows. NCF4 expression was also regulated by alternative splicing. This study proposes that NCF4 splice variants generated by functional SNP are important risk factors for mastitis susceptibility in dairy cows.

  14. Reducing legal fees in medical group practices. The role of health care alternative dispute resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, D M

    1995-01-01

    Conflict is a growth industry, particularly in an increasingly complex health care system. Litigation is the most common, and most costly, method of settling health care disputes. Highly adversarial, the process of litigation often generates as much, if not more, hostility than the original dispute. In addition, satisfaction with the outcome is very low. The challenge that has arisen is to manage the conflicts so that the underlying needs and interests of all the parties can best be met. Often the techniques and processes of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) can be successfully used in resolving these sorts of conflicts quickly, cheaply and with greater satisfaction for all parties. Various applications of ADR are currently being used or tested in a variety of health care disputes in the United States and Canada. Tremendous success has been achieved in mediating medical malpractice claims, medical staff disputes, economic credentialing conflicts, insurer relations issues and denial of coverage disputes. Professional relations and departmental staff disputes, partnership and employee conflicts, and organizational disputes within clinics, HMOs and large group practices have all been found particularly amenable to ADR. These are all situations in which everyone benefits from quick, non-hostile resolutions and on-going relationships can continue.

  15. The Role of Alternative Testing Strategies in Environmental Risk Assessment of Engineered Nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Rune; Holden, Patricia; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    2017-01-01

    ) workshop in Washington, D.C. and serves as the point of depature for this paper. Here we present the main outcomes by describing and defining the use of ATS for ENMs as well as discussing its future role in environmental risk science. We conclude that diversity in testing should be encouraged to avoid...... chemicals are challenged. Nonetheless, standardized whole organism animal testing is still considered the gold standard for environmental risk assessment. Advancing risk analysis of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) through ATS was discussed in September 2014 at an international Society for Risk Analysis (SRA...... be utilized to skip uncertain environmental extrapolations and give rise to more accurate risk analysis....

  16. New era / new solutions: The role of alternative tariff structures in water supply projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, F Silva; Marques, R Cunha

    2017-12-01

    Water utilities face different challenges that may force them to seek prioritized objectives. When doing so, particular projects may have to be developed, being important to understand their impact on water tariffs, and thus, on customers. Such consequences may bear an increased relevance in cases stressed with, e.g., resource scarcity, poverty, and the need for infrastructure investments. The resulting cost and revenue variability demand a comprehensive study. If the first may require a stochastic modeling (in major cost components) in order to consider its inherent uncertainty, the second needs to be modeled following context-specific objectives set by the relevant stakeholders. The solutions achieved will likely promote distinct revenue sources, as well as diversified water tariff structures. A multi-objective optimization model (i.e., a Framework for Suitable Prices) is built to deal with those diversified requirements (e.g., stochastic energy costs, affordability, cost recovery, or administrative simplicity). The model is solved through achievement scalarizing functions with several weighting coefficients for a reference point, so as to provide a significant perception of possible revenue options (and their impact) to the decision makers. The proposed method is applied to a case study, Boa Vista Island in Cabo Verde, in which the background characteristics, namely water sources availability (e.g., the adoption of desalination technologies), economic development and other contextual factors were considered. The key role of tariff structure selection is displayed, instead of assuming it a priori, giving important insights regarding project feasibility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Prognostic role of ‘prion-like propagation’ in SOD1-linked familial ALS: an alternative view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keizo eSugaya

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available ‘Prion-like propagation’ has recently been proposed for disease spread in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1-linked familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. Pathological SOD1 conformers are presumed to propagate via cell-to-cell transmission. In this model, the risk-based kinetics of neuronal cell loss over time appears to be represented by a sigmoidal function that reflects the kinetics of intercellular transmission. Here, we describe an alternative view of prion-like propagation in SOD1-linked ALS−its relation to disease prognosis under the protective-aggregation hypothesis. Nucleation-dependent polymerization has been widely accepted as the molecular mechanism of prion propagation. If toxic species of misfolded SOD1, as soluble oligomers, are formed as on-pathway intermediates of nucleation-dependent polymerization, further fibril extension via sequential addition of monomeric mutant SOD1 would be protective against neurodegeneration. This is because the concentration of unfolded mutant SOD1 monomers, which serve as precursor of nucleation and toxic species of mutant SOD1, would decline in proportion to the extent of aggregation. The nucleation process requires that native conformers exist in an unfolded state that may result from escaping the cellular protein quality control machinery. However, prion-like propagation−SOD1 aggregated form self-propagates by imposing its altered conformation on normal SOD1−appears to antagonize the protective role of aggregate growth. The cross-seeding reaction with normal SOD1 would lead to a failure to reduce the concentration of unfolded mutant SOD1 monomers, resulting in continuous nucleation and subsequent generation of toxic species, and influence disease prognosis. In this alternative view, the kinetics of neuronal loss appears to be represented by an exponential function, with decreasing risk reflecting the protective role of aggregate and the potential for cross-seeding reactions between

  18. The role of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM in Germany – A focus group study of GPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemann Thomas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a marked increase in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM in recent years worldwide. In Germany, apart from 'Heilpraktiker' (= state-licensed, non-medical CAM practitioners, some general practitioners (GPs provide CAM in their practices. This paper aims to explore the attitudes of GPs about the role of CAM in Germany, in relation to the healthcare system, quality of care, medical education and research. Furthermore, experiences of GPs integrating CAM in their daily practice were explored. Methods Using a qualitative methodological approach 3 focus groups with a convenience sample of 17 GPs were conducted. The discussions were transcribed verbatim and analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results The majority of the participating GPs had integrated one or more CAM therapies into their every-day practice. Four key themes were identified based on the topics covered in the focus groups: the role of CAM within the German healthcare system, quality of care, education and research. Within the theme 'role of CAM within the healthcare system' there were five categories: integration of CAM, CAM in the Statutory Health Insurance, modernisation of the Statutory Health Insurance Act, individual healthcare services and 'Heilpraktiker'. Regarding quality of care there were two broad groups of GPs: those who thought patients would benefit from standardizing CAM and those who feared that quality control would interfere with the individual approach of CAM. The main issues identified relating to research and education were the need for the development of alternative research strategies and the low quality of existing CAM education respectively. Conclusion The majority of the participating GPs considered CAM as a reasonable complementary approach within primary care. The study increased our understanding of GPs attitudes about the role of CAM within the German healthcare system and the use of

  19. Role for Artemis nuclease in the repair of radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks by alternative end joining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscariello, Mario; Wieloch, Radi; Kurosawa, Aya; Li, Fanghua; Adachi, Noritaka; Mladenov, Emil; Iliakis, George

    2015-07-01

    Exposure of cells to ionizing radiation or radiomimetic drugs generates DNA double-strand breaks that are processed either by homologous recombination repair (HRR), or by canonical, DNA-PKcs-dependent non-homologous end-joining (C-NHEJ). Chemical or genetic inactivation of factors involved in C-NHEJ or HRR, but also their local failure in repair proficient cells, promotes an alternative, error-prone end-joining pathway that serves as backup (A-EJ). There is evidence for the involvement of Artemis endonuclease, a protein deficient in a human radiosensitivity syndrome associated with severe immunodeficiency (RS-SCID), in the processing of subsets of DSBs by HRR or C-NHEJ. It is thought that within HRR or C-NHEJ Artemis processes DNA termini at complex DSBs. Whether Artemis has a role in A-EJ remains unknown. Here, we analyze using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and specialized reporter assays, DSB repair in wild-type pre-B NALM-6 lymphocytes, as well as in their Artemis(-/-), DNA ligase 4(-/-) (LIG4(-/-)), and LIG4(-/-)/Artemis(-/-) double mutant counterparts, under conditions allowing evaluation of A-EJ. Our results substantiate the suggested roles of Artemis in C-NHEJ and HRR, but also demonstrate a role for the protein in A-EJ that is confirmed in Artemis deficient normal human fibroblasts. We conclude that Artemis is a nuclease participating in DSB repair by all major repair pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Elastase-2, a Tissue Alternative Pathway for Angiotensin II Generation, Plays a Role in Circulatory Sympathovagal Balance in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becari, Christiane; Durand, Marina T; Guimaraes, Alessander O; Lataro, Renata M; Prado, Cibele M; de Oliveira, Mauro; Candido, Sarai C O; Pais, Paloma; Ribeiro, Mauricio S; Bader, Michael; Pesquero, Joao B; Salgado, Maria C O; Salgado, Helio C

    2017-01-01

    In vitro and ex vivo experiments indicate that elastase-2 (ELA-2), a chymotrypsin-serine protease elastase family member 2A, is an alternative pathway for angiotensin II (Ang II) generation. However, the role played by ELA-2 in vivo is unclear. We examined ELA-2 knockout (ELA-2KO) mice compared to wild-type (WT) mice and determined whether ELA-2 played a role in hemodynamics [arterial pressure (AP) and heart rate (HR)], cardiocirculatory sympathovagal balance and baroreflex sensitivity. The variability of systolic arterial pressure (SAP) and pulse interval (PI) for evaluating autonomic modulation was examined for time and frequency domains (spectral analysis), whereas a symbolic analysis was also used to evaluate PI variability. In addition, baroreflex sensitivity was examined using the sequence method. Cardiac function was evaluated echocardiographically under anesthesia. The AP was normal whereas the HR was reduced in ELA-2KO mice (425 ± 17 vs. 512 ± 13 bpm from WT). SAP variability and baroreflex sensitivity were similar in both strains. The LF power from the PI spectrum (33.6 ± 5 vs. 51.8 ± 4.8 nu from WT) and the LF/HF ratio (0.60 ± 0.1 vs. 1.45 ± 0.3 from WT) were reduced, whereas the HF power was increased (66.4 ± 5 vs. 48.2 ± 4.8 nu from WT) in ELA-2KO mice, indicating a shift toward parasympathetic modulation of HR. Echocardiographic examination showed normal fractional shortening and an ejection fraction in ELA-2KO mice; however, the cardiac output, stroke volume, and ventricular size were reduced. These findings provide the first evidence that ELA-2 acts on the sympathovagal balance of the heart, as expressed by the reduced sympathetic modulation of HR in ELA-2KO mice.

  1. Dynamic changes in neurexins' alternative splicing: role of Rho-associated protein kinases and relevance to memory formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Rozic

    Full Text Available The three neurexins genes (NRXN1/2/3 encode polymorphic synaptic membrane proteins that are involved in cognitive functioning. Neurexins' selectivity of function is presumably conferred through differential use of 2 promoters and 5 alternative splicing sites (SS#1/2/3/4/5. In day-old rat brain neurons grown in culture, activation (depolarization induces reversible, calcium dependent, repression of NRXN2α SS#3 insert. The effects of depolarization on NRXN1/2/3α splicing and biochemical pathways mediating them were further studied in these neurons. NRXN1/2/3α splicing in the course of memory formation in vivo was also explored, using fear conditioning paradigm in rats in which the animals were trained to associate an aversive stimulus (electrical shock with a neutral context (a tone, resulting in the expression of fear responses to the neutral context.In the cultured neurons depolarization induced, beside NRXN2α SS#3, repression of SS#3 and SS#4 exons in NRXN3α but not NRXN1α. The repressions were mediated by the calcium/protein kinase C/Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK pathway. Fear conditioning induced significant and transient repressions of the NRXN1/2/3α SS#4 exons in the rat hippocampus. ROCK inhibition prior to training attenuated the behavioral fear response, the NRXN1/2/3α splicing repressions and subsequent recovery and the levels of excitatory (PSD95 and inhibitory (gephyrin synaptic proteins in the hippocampus. No such effects were observed in the prefrontal cortex. Significant correlations existed between the fear response and hippocampal NRXN3α and NRXN2α SS#4 inserts as well as PSD95 protein levels. Hippocampal NRXN1α SS#4 insert and gephyrin levels did not correlate with the behavioral response but were negatively correlated with each other.These results show for the first time dynamic, experience related changes in NRXN1/2/3α alternative splicing in the rat brain and a role for ROCK in them. Specific neurexins

  2. The Role of Standardized Tests as a Means of Assessment of Young Children: A Review of Related Literature and Recommendations of Alternative Assessments for Administrators and Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Stacie; Karr-Kidwell, P. J.

    An extensive review of literature related to the role of standardized tests in the assessment of young children was conducted, and recommendations were made for alternative approaches more appropriate to the assessment of young children. The first section of the paper contains a literature review that provides a brief history of standardized tests…

  3. Role of collector alternating charged patches on transport of Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst in a patchwise charged heterogeneous micromodel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Changyong; Hu, Dehong; Kuhlenschmidt, Mark S.; Kuhlenschmidt, Theresa B.; Mylon, Steven E.; Kong, Rong; Bhargava, Rohit; Nguyen, Thanh H.

    2013-02-04

    The role of collector surface charge heterogeneity on transport of Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst and carboxylate microsphere in 2-dimensional micromodels was studied. The cylindrical silica collectors within the micromodels were coated with 0, 10, 20, 50 and 100% Fe2O3 patches. The experimental values of average single collector removal efficiencies (η) of the Fe2O3 patches and on the entire collectors were determined. In the presence of significant (>3500 kT) Derjaguin–Landau–Verwey–Overbeek (DLVO) energy barrier between the microspheres and the silica collectors at pH 5.8 and 8.1, the values of η determined for Fe2O3 patches were significantly less (p < 0.05, t-test) than that obtained for collectors coated entirely with Fe2O3. However, η on Fe2O3 patches for microspheres at pH 4.4 and for oocysts at pH 5.8 and 8.1, where the DLVO energy barrier was relatively small (ca. 200-360 kT), were significantly greater (p < 0.05, t-test) than that on the collectors coated entirely with Fe2O3. The dependence of η determined for Fe2O3 patches on the DLVO energy barrier indicated the importance of periodic favorable and unfavorable electrostatic interactions between colloids and collectors with alternating Fe2O3 and silica patches. Differences between experimentally determined η and that predicted by a patchwise geochemical heterogeneous model was observed, but can be explained by the model’s lack of consideration for the spatial distribution of charge heterogeneity on the collector surface and colloid migration on patchwise heterogeneous collectors.

  4. Teacher Shortages in Urban Schools: The Role of Traditional and Alternative Certification Routes in Filling the Voids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Jennifer C.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the impact of teacher recruitment approaches via university-based and alternative certification programs. Asserts that traditional and alternative certification efforts are by themselves limited in their potential to address the problem of teacher shortages in urban schools. Suggests that an organizational view of schools, which looks…

  5. US Spending On Complementary And Alternative Medicine During 2002–08 Plateaued, Suggesting Role In Reformed Health System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Matthew A.; Martin, Brook I.; Coulter, Ian D.; Weeks, William B.

    2013-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine services in the United States are an approximately $9 billion market each year, equal to 3 percent of national ambulatory health care expenditures. Unlike conventional allopathic health care, complementary and alternative medicine is primarily paid for out of pocket, although some services are covered by most health insurance. Examining trends in demand for complementary and alternative medicine services in the United States reported in the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey during 2002–08, we found that use of and spending on these services, previously on the rise, have largely plateaued. The higher proportion of out-of-pocket responsibility for payment for services may explain the lack of growth. Our findings suggest that any attempt to reduce national health care spending by eliminating coverage for complementary and alternative medicine would have little impact at best. Should some forms of complementary and alternative medicine—for example, chiropractic care for back pain—be proven more efficient than allopathic and specialty medicine, the inclusion of complementary and alternative medicine providers in new delivery systems such as accountable care organizations could help slow growth in national health care spending. PMID:23297270

  6. US spending on complementary and alternative medicine during 2002-08 plateaued, suggesting role in reformed health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Matthew A; Martin, Brook I; Coulter, Ian D; Weeks, William B

    2013-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine services in the United States are an approximately $9 billion market each year, equal to 3 percent of national ambulatory health care expenditures. Unlike conventional allopathic health care, complementary and alternative medicine is primarily paid for out of pocket, although some services are covered by most health insurance. Examining trends in demand for complementary and alternative medicine services in the United States reported in the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey during 2002-08, we found that use of and spending on these services, previously on the rise, have largely plateaued. The higher proportion of out-of-pocket responsibility for payment for services may explain the lack of growth. Our findings suggest that any attempt to reduce national health care spending by eliminating coverage for complementary and alternative medicine would have little impact at best. Should some forms of complementary and alternative medicine-for example, chiropractic care for back pain-be proven more efficient than allopathic and specialty medicine, the inclusion of complementary and alternative medicine providers in new delivery systems such as accountable care organizations could help slow growth in national health care spending.

  7. Catalysis for alternative energy generation

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Summarizes recent problems in using catalysts in alternative energy generation and proposes novel solutions  Reconsiders the role of catalysis in alternative energy generation  Contributors include catalysis and alternative energy experts from across the globe

  8. Abnormalities in alternative splicing of angiogenesis-related genes and their role in HIV-related cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mthembu NN

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nonkululeko N Mthembu,1 Zukile Mbita,2 Rodney Hull,1 Zodwa Dlamini1 1Research, Innovation and Engagements, Mangosuthu University of Technology, Durban, 2Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Biotechnology, University of Limpopo, Sovenga, South Africa Abstract: Alternative splicing of mRNA leads to an increase in proteome biodiversity by allowing the generation of multiple mRNAs, coding for multiple protein isoforms of various structural and functional properties from a single primary pre-mRNA transcript. The protein isoforms produced are tightly regulated in normal development but are mostly deregulated in various cancers. In HIV-infected individuals with AIDS, there is an increase in aberrant alternative splicing, resulting in an increase in HIV/AIDS-related cancers, such as Kaposi’s sarcoma, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and cervical cancer. This aberrant splicing leads to abnormal production of protein and is caused by mutations in cis-acting elements or trans-acting factors in angiogenesis-related genes. Restoring the normal regulation of alternative splicing of angiogenic genes would alter the expression of protein isoforms and may confer normal cell physiology in patients with these cancers. This review highlights the abnormalities in alternative splicing of angiogenesis-related genes and their implication in HIV/AIDS-related cancers. This allows us to gain an insight into the pathogenesis of HIV/AIDS-related cancer and in turn elucidate the therapeutic potential of alternatively spliced genes in HIV/AIDS-related malignancies. Keywords: vascular endothelial growth factor, oncogenic viruses, hypoxia induced factor 1, Kaposi’s sarcoma, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, therapies targeting alternative splicing

  9. Alternatively Activated Macrophages Play an Important Role in Vascular Remodeling and Hemorrhaging in Patients with Brain Arteriovenous Malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yukihiko; Sugita, Yasuo; Nakashima, Shinji; Okada, Yousuke; Yoshitomi, Munetake; Kimura, Yoshizou; Miyoshi, Hiroaki; Morioka, Motohiro; Ohshima, Koichi

    2016-03-01

    Angiogenic and immunoactive lesions in brain arteriovenous malformation (BAVM) contribute to hemorrhagic events and the growth of BAVMs. However, the detailed mechanism is unclear. Our objective is to clarify the relationship between hemorrhagic events of BAVM and alternatively activated macrophages in the perinidal dilated capillary network (PDCN). We examined microsurgical specimens of BVMs (n = 29) and focused on the PDCN area. Ten autopsied brains without intracranial disease were the controls. We performed immunostaining of the inflammatory and endothelial cell markers, macrophage markers (CD163 and CD68), and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A). We evaluated each cell's density and the vessel density in the PDCN and analyzed the relationship to hemorrhagic events of BAVM. The PDCN was involved in all the resected arteriovenous malformations, and these vessels showed a high rate of CD105 expression (72.0 ± 10.64%), indicating newly proliferating vessels. Alternatively activated macrophages were found, with a high rate (85.6%) for all macrophages (controls, 56.6%). In the hemorrhagic cases, the cell density was significantly higher than that in the nonhemorrhagic cases and controls (hemorrhagic group, 290 ± 44 cells/mm(2); nonhemorrhagic group, 180 ± 59 cells/mm(2); and control, 19 ± 8 cells/mm(2)). The cell density of alternatively activated macrophages showed a positive correlation with the vessel density of the PDCN. Double immunostaining showed that VEGF-A was secreted by alternatively activated macrophages. Our data suggest that alternatively activated macrophages may have some relationships with angiogenesis of PDCN and hemorrhagic event of BAVM. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The role of the temporal sequences in the Augmentative and Alternative Communication Systems for the Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saverio Fontani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Augmentative and Alternative Communication systems (AAC represent a promising integration for more effective models of special education specifically developed for the special educational needs of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. In this paper the historical foundations of the approach are presented, and its implications on the promotion of functional spontaneous communication skills based on the temporal sequences approach are discussed.  

  11. The role of alternative and natural agents, cryotherapy, and/or laser for management of alimentary mucositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliorati, Cesar A; Oberle-Edwards, Loree; Schubert, Mark

    2006-06-01

    To review the literature and update the current guidelines of alternative/natural agents, cryotherapy, and/or laser therapy in the management of alimentary mucositis (AM). The original guidelines developed by the Multinational Association for Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC)/International Society for Oral Oncology (ISOO) mucositis study group were the basis for this study. A medical librarian conducted an initial Medline search to identify research articles published between 2002 and 2005 in English language. A search term combination that included stomatitis, mucositis, mucous membrane, neoplasm, lasers, complimentary therapies, amino acids, antioxidants, vitamins, minerals, plant extracts, and cryotherapy was conducted. This initial search identified articles with a strong scientific methodology that included both preclinical and clinical research. Using standardized scoring forms, authors reviewed and scored individual articles. A consensus result of the review was achieved in a meeting of reviewers in June of 2005. The initial search identified a total of 167 new articles. Of these, 14 were selected and reviewed: alternative/natural therapy (one preclinical study); cryotherapy (four clinical studies); lasers (two clinical studies); and alternative/natural agents (seven clinical studies). A new guideline could be established for the use of cryotherapy in the management of AM in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) patients receiving melphalan in the conditioning phase. The rapid progress in the understanding of AM created a need for new prevention and management protocols. Frequent literature review is now necessary to identify agents and protocols being developed in this important area of supportive care in cancer.

  12. Alternative security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weston, B.H.

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: The Military and Alternative Security: New Missions for Stable Conventional Security; Technology and Alternative Security: A Cherished Myth Expires; Law and Alternative Security: Toward a Just World Peace; Politics and Alternative Security: Toward a More Democratic, Therefore More Peaceful, World; Economics and Alternative Security: Toward a Peacekeeping International Economy; Psychology and Alternative Security: Needs, Perceptions, and Misperceptions; Religion and Alternative Security: A Prophetic Vision; and Toward Post-Nuclear Global Security: An Overview

  13. Peak oil demand: the role of fuel efficiency and alternative fuels in a global oil production decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Adam R; Millard-Ball, Adam; Ganser, Matthew; Gorelick, Steven M

    2013-07-16

    Some argue that peak conventional oil production is imminent due to physical resource scarcity. We examine the alternative possibility of reduced oil use due to improved efficiency and oil substitution. Our model uses historical relationships to project future demand for (a) transport services, (b) all liquid fuels, and (c) substitution with alternative energy carriers, including electricity. Results show great increases in passenger and freight transport activity, but less reliance on oil. Demand for liquids inputs to refineries declines significantly after 2070. By 2100 transport energy demand rises >1000% in Asia, while flattening in North America (+23%) and Europe (-20%). Conventional oil demand declines after 2035, and cumulative oil production is 1900 Gbbl from 2010 to 2100 (close to the U.S. Geological Survey median estimate of remaining oil, which only includes projected discoveries through 2025). These results suggest that effort is better spent to determine and influence the trajectory of oil substitution and efficiency improvement rather than to focus on oil resource scarcity. The results also imply that policy makers should not rely on liquid fossil fuel scarcity to constrain damage from climate change. However, there is an unpredictable range of emissions impacts depending on which mix of substitutes for conventional oil gains dominance-oil sands, electricity, coal-to-liquids, or others.

  14. Advancing Risk Analysis for Nanoscale Materials: Report from an International Workshop on the Role of Alternative Testing Strategies for Advancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatkin, J A; Ong, Kimberly J; Beaudrie, Christian; Clippinger, Amy J; Hendren, Christine Ogilvie; Haber, Lynne T; Hill, Myriam; Holden, Patricia; Kennedy, Alan J; Kim, Baram; MacDonell, Margaret; Powers, Christina M; Sharma, Monita; Sheremeta, Lorraine; Stone, Vicki; Sultan, Yasir; Turley, Audrey; White, Ronald H

    2016-08-01

    The Society for Risk Analysis (SRA) has a history of bringing thought leadership to topics of emerging risk. In September 2014, the SRA Emerging Nanoscale Materials Specialty Group convened an international workshop to examine the use of alternative testing strategies (ATS) for manufactured nanomaterials (NM) from a risk analysis perspective. Experts in NM environmental health and safety, human health, ecotoxicology, regulatory compliance, risk analysis, and ATS evaluated and discussed the state of the science for in vitro and other alternatives to traditional toxicology testing for NM. Based on this review, experts recommended immediate and near-term actions that would advance ATS use in NM risk assessment. Three focal areas-human health, ecological health, and exposure considerations-shaped deliberations about information needs, priorities, and the next steps required to increase confidence in and use of ATS in NM risk assessment. The deliberations revealed that ATS are now being used for screening, and that, in the near term, ATS could be developed for use in read-across or categorization decision making within certain regulatory frameworks. Participants recognized that leadership is required from within the scientific community to address basic challenges, including standardizing materials, protocols, techniques and reporting, and designing experiments relevant to real-world conditions, as well as coordination and sharing of large-scale collaborations and data. Experts agreed that it will be critical to include experimental parameters that can support the development of adverse outcome pathways. Numerous other insightful ideas for investment in ATS emerged throughout the discussions and are further highlighted in this article. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. An alternative view on the role of the β-effect in the Rossby wave propagation mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyal Heifetz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The role of the β-effect in the Rossby wave propagation mechanism is examined in the linearised shallow water equations directly in momentum–height variables, without recourse to potential vorticity (PV. Rigorous asymptotic expansion of the equations, with respect to the small non-dimensionalised β parameter, reveals in detail how the Coriolis force acting on the small ageostrophic terms translates the geostrophic leading-order solution to propagate westward in concert. This information cannot be obtained directly from the conventional PV perspective on the propagation mechanism. Furthermore, a comparison between the β-effect in planetary Rossby waves and the sloping-bottom effect in promoting topographic Rossby waves shows that the ageostrophic terms play different roles in the two cases. This is despite the fact that from the PV viewpoint whether the advection of mean PV gradient is set up by changes in planetary vorticity or by mean depth is inconsequential.

  16. Roles of viral and cellular proteins in the expression of alternatively spliced HTLV-1 pX mRNAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Princler, Gerald L.; Julias, John G.; Hughes, Stephen H.; Derse, David

    2003-01-01

    The human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) genome contains a cluster of at least five open reading frames (ORFs) near the 3' terminus within the pX region. The pX ORFs are encoded by mono- or bicistronic mRNAs that are generated by alternative splicing. The various pX mRNAs result from skipping of the internal exon (2-exon versus 3-exon isofoms) or from the utilization of alternative splice acceptor sites in the terminal exon. The Rex and Tax proteins, encoded by ORFs X-III and X-IV, have been studied intensively and are encoded by the most abundant of the alternative 3-exon mRNAs. The protein products of the other pX ORFs have not been detected in HTLV-1-infected cell lines and the levels of the corresponding mRNAs have not been accurately established. We have used real-time RT-PCR with splice-site specific primers to accurately measure the levels of individual pX mRNA species in chronically infected T cell lines. We have asked whether virus regulatory proteins or ectopic expression of cellular factors influence pX mRNA splicing in cells that were transfected with HTLV-1 provirus clones. In chronically infected cell lines, the pX-tax/rex mRNA was present at 500- to 2500-fold higher levels than the pX-tax-orfII mRNA and at approximately 1000-fold higher levels than pX-rex-orfI mRNA. Chronically infected cell lines that contain numerous defective proviruses expressed 2-exon forms of pX mRNAs at significantly higher levels compared to cell lines that contain a single full-length provirus. Cells transfected with provirus expression plasmids expressed similar relative amounts of 3-exon pX mRNAs but lower levels of 2-exon mRNA forms compared to cells containing a single, full-length provirus. The pX mRNA expression patterns were nearly identical in cells transfected with wild-type, Tax-minus, or Rex-minus proviruses. Cotransfection of cells with HTLV-1 provirus in combination with SF2/ASF expression plasmid resulted in a relative increase in pX-tax/rex m

  17. The role of wave-exposure and human impacts in regulating the distribution of alternative habitats on NW Mediterranean rocky reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulleri, Fabio; Cucco, Andrea; Dal Bello, Martina; Maggi, Elena; Ravaglioli, Chiara; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro

    2018-02-01

    The global decline of canopy-forming macroalgae has stimulated research on the mechanism regulating shifts among alternative habitats on rocky reefs. The effects of sea urchin grazing and alterations of environmental conditions are now acknowledged as the main drivers of shifts between canopy-formers and encrusting coralline barrens and algal turfs, respectively. The conditions under which these mechanisms operate remains, however, somewhat elusive. This is mostly a consequence of the fact that our current understanding has been generated by envisioning habitat shifts as dichotomic, at odds with rocky reef landscapes being composed by mosaics of habitats and with evidence of strong interactions among the species that compose each of the alternative habitats. Using data from a long-term sampling program and path analysis, we investigated how wave-exposure and human-induced degradation of environmental conditions regulate the mechanisms maintaining algal canopies formed by Cystoseira crinita, barren habitats and algal turfs as alternative states on subtidal reefs in the NW Mediterranean. In the Tuscan Archipelago, wave-exposure had positive effects on sea urchins, which, likely due to their low mean density, had weak effects on each of the alternative habitats. Canopy-forming macroalgae resulted, instead, to exert strong negative effects on the abundance of algal turfs. Since data from the Tuscan Archipelago did not explain any of the variation in the abundance of C. crinita canopies, a further analysis was performed including data from the coast of Tuscany to assess the role of cumulative human impacts in regulating habitat shifts. This showed that degradation of environmental conditions is a direct cause of the decline of macroalgal canopies, indirectly favouring the dominance of algal turfs. Our study suggests that management of human impacts should be considered a priority for preserving subtidal canopies formed by Cystoseira in the NW Mediterranean and that

  18. Adapting to a changing world: unraveling the role of man-made habitats as alternative feeding areas for slender-billed gull (Chroicocephalus genei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ramírez

    Full Text Available Current rates of wildlife habitat loss have placed increasing demands on managers to develop, validate and implement tools aimed at improving our ability to evaluate such impacts on wildlife. Here, we present a case study conducted at the Natural Area of Doñana (SW Spain where remote sensing and stable isotope (δ(13C, δ(15N analyses of individuals were combined to unravel (1 the effect of variations in availability of natural food resources (i.e. from natural marshes on reproductive performance of a Slender-billed Gull (Chroicocephalus genei population, and (2 the role of two adjacent, artificial systems (a fish farm and saltmines as alternate anthropogenic feeding areas. Based on long-term (1983-2004 remote-sensing, we inferred the average extent of flooded area at the marshland (a proxy to natural resource availability annually. Estimated flooded areas (ranging from extreme drought [ca. 151 ha, 1995] to high moisture [15,049 ha, 2004] were positively related to reproductive success of gulls (estimated for the 1993-2004 period, and ranging from ca. 0 to 1.7 fledglings per breeding pairs, suggesting that habitat availability played a role in determining their reproductive performance. Based on blood δ(13C and δ(15N values of fledglings, 2001-2004, and a Bayesian isotopic mixing model, we conclude that saltmines acted as the main alternative foraging habitat for gulls, with relative contributions increasing as the extent of marshland decreased. Although adjacent, anthropogenic systems have been established as the preferred breeding sites for this gull population, dietary switches towards exploitation of alternative (anthropogenic food resources negatively affected the reproductive output of this species, thus challenging the perception that these man-made systems are necessarily a reliable buffer against loss of natural feeding habitats. The methodology and results derived from this study could be extended to a large suite of threatened

  19. Alternative additives; Alternative additiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-15

    In this project a number of industrial and agricultural waste products have been characterised and evaluated in terms of alkali-getter performance. The intended use is for biomass-fired power stations aiming at reducing corrosion or slagging related problems. The following products have been obtained, characterised and evaluated: 1) Brewery draff 2) Danish de-gassed manure 3) Paper sludge 4) Moulding sand 5) Spent bleaching earth 6) Anorthosite 7) Sand 8) Clay-sludge. Most of the above alternative additive candidates are deemed unsuitable due to insufficient chemical effect and/or expensive requirements for pre-treatment (such as drying and transportation). 3 products were selected for full-scale testing: de-gassed manure, spent bleaching earth and clay slugde. The full scale tests were undertaken at the biomass-fired power stations in Koege, Slagelse and Ensted. Spent bleaching earth (SBE) and clay sludge were the only tested additive candidates that had a proven ability to react with KCl, to thereby reduce Cl-concentrations in deposits, and reduce the deposit flux to superheater tubes. Their performance was shown to nearly as good as commercial additives. De-gassed manure, however, did not evaluate positively due to inhibiting effects of Ca in the manure. Furthermore, de-gassed manure has a high concentration of heavy metals, which imposes a financial burden with regard to proper disposal of the ash by-products. Clay-sludge is a wet clay slurring, and drying and transportation of this product entails substantial costs. Spent bleaching does not require much pre-treatment and is therefore the most promising alternative additive. On the other hand, bleaching earth contains residual plant oil which means that a range of legislation relating to waste combustion comes into play. Not least a waste combustion fee of 330 DKK/tonne. For all alternative (and commercial) additives disposal costs of the increase ash by-products represents a significant cost. This is

  20. Examining the role of implementation quality in school-based prevention using the PATHS curriculum. Promoting Alternative THinking Skills Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Chi-Ming; Greenberg, Mark T; Walls, Carla T

    2003-03-01

    In order for empirically validated school-based prevention programs to "go to scale," it is important to understand the processes underlying program dissemination. Data collected in effectiveness trials, especially those measuring the quality of program implementation and administrative support, are valuable in explicating important factors influencing implementation. This study describes findings regarding quality of implementation in a recent effectiveness trial conducted in a high-risk, American urban community. This delinquency prevention trial is a locally owned intervention, which used the Promoting Alternative THinking Skills Curriculum as its major program component. The intervention involved 350 first graders in 6 inner-city public schools. Three schools implemented the intervention and the other 3 were comparison schools from the same school district. Although intervention effects were not found for all the intervention schools, the intervention was effective in improving children's emotional competence and reducing their aggression in schools which effectively supported the intervention. This study, utilizing data from the 3 intervention schools (13 classrooms and 164 students), suggested that 2 factors contributed to the success of the intervention: (a) adequate support from school principals and (b) high degree of classroom implementation by teachers. These findings are discussed in light of the theory-driven models in program evaluation that emphasized the importance of the multiple factors influencing the implementation of school-based interventions.

  1. Alternative treatment strategies for neuropathic pain: Role of Indian medicinal plants and compounds of plant origin-A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Hasandeep; Bhushan, Sakshi; Arora, Rohit; Singh Buttar, Harpal; Arora, Saroj; Singh, Balbir

    2017-08-01

    Neuropathic pain is a complex, chronic pain state accompanied by tissue injury and nerve damage. This important health issue constitutes a challenge for the modern medicine worldwide. The management of neuropathic pain remains a major clinical challenge, pertaining to an inadequate understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms of neuropathic pain. Various classes of drugs have been reported effective for the management of neuropathic pain viz. opiates, tricyclic antidepressants, and antiepileptic agents. However, association of adverse effects with these drugs hinders their confident prescription in people with neuropathic pain. Recently, various medicinal plants have been reported effective for the management of neuropathic pain. So, it may be prudent to look beyond synthetic drugs pertaining to their unprecedented pharmacotherapeutic effects with lesser adverse effects. The extensive literature review has been carried out from databases such as Science direct, Scifinder, Wiley online library, PubMed, Research gate, Google scholar and Chemical Abstracts. The list of Traditional Indian Medicinal plants (TIMPs) and isolated compounds have been compiled which have been reported effective as an alternative therapy for the management of neuropathic pain. This helps the researchers to discover some novel therapeutic agents against neuropathic pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Role of the speech-language pathologist: augmentative and alternative communication for acute care patients with severe communication impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vento-Wilson, Margaret T; McGuire, Anthony; Ostergren, Jennifer A

    2015-01-01

    Severe communication deficits occur frequently in acute care. Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) may improve patient-nurse communication, yet it remains underutilized. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of training student nurses (SNs) in acute and critical care on the use of AAC with regard to confidence levels and likelihood of implementation of AAC by SNs in acute care. Training in AAC techniques was provided to SNs. A pretraining and posttraining assessment was completed along with follow-up surveys conducted after the SNs had an opportunity to use AAC. A 6-fold increase in confidence (P the SNs after AAC training, as was an approximately 3-fold increase in likelihood of use (P The reliable yes/no was the most reported AAC technique (34.7% of the students). Providing SNs with AAC tools accompanied by brief training increases their confidence in the use of AAC and the likelihood that they will use them. Inclusion of AAC education in nursing curricula and nursing orientations could be an important step in risk reduction among patients with severe communication disorders. Further study is needed of the relationship between training student nurses in the use of AAC as a way to change practice and improve communication outcomes.

  3. Major Roles for Pyrimidine Dimers, Nucleotide Excision Repair, and ATR in the Alternative Splicing Response to UV Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel J. Muñoz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We have previously found that UV irradiation promotes RNA polymerase II (RNAPII hyperphosphorylation and subsequent changes in alternative splicing (AS. We show now that UV-induced DNA damage is not only necessary but sufficient to trigger the AS response and that photolyase-mediated removal of the most abundant class of pyrimidine dimers (PDs abrogates the global response to UV. We demonstrate that, in keratinocytes, RNAPII is the target, but not a sensor, of the signaling cascade initiated by PDs. The UV effect is enhanced by inhibition of gap-filling DNA synthesis, the last step in the nucleotide excision repair pathway (NER, and reduced by the absence of XPE, the main NER sensor of PDs. The mechanism involves activation of the protein kinase ATR that mediates the UV-induced RNAPII hyperphosphorylation. Our results define the sequence UV-PDs-NER-ATR-RNAPII-AS as a pathway linking DNA damage repair to the control of both RNAPII phosphorylation and AS regulation.

  4. The crucial role of the micro caregiving environment: Factors associated with attachment styles in alternative care in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Quiroga, Manuela; Hamilton-Giachritsis, Catherine

    2017-08-01

    The distribution of attachment styles has been shown to differ between groups of children living with their parents and children placed in alternative care (AC), defined as residential or foster. However, this is the first study in Latin America to explore possible factors affecting the quality of attachment in children living in both residential and foster care. Two groups of children (N=57) were compared: one group living in Residential Homes (RC) and the other in Foster Care (FC) in Chile. Children's, caregivers' and structural factors (e.g., child: caregiver ratios) and their links with attachment styles were investigated. The micro caregiving environment (i.e., the specific individual child caregiver relationship), especially the caregivers' engagement, sensitivity, disciplinary control and affection, as well as some structural factors (i.e., child: caregiver ratios), were linked to attachment security in children. Specifically, better emotional caregiving and lower child-caregiver ratios were associated with higher rates of secure attachment. The association between quality of care (as measured by the HOME inventory) and attachment styles seems to be influenced by caregiver relationships (as measured by CCSERSS). Caregiver relationship factors (i.e., affection, engagement and sensitivity) directly impact the quality of the attachment children establish with them while living in AC. However, the relationships that caregivers establish with children under their care can be facilitated by good quality structural factors, particularly child-caregiver ratios. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Role for BLM in Double-Strand Break Repair Pathway Choice: Prevention of CtIP/Mre11-Mediated Alternative Nonhomologous End-Joining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grabarz, Anastazja; Guirouilh-Barbat, Josée; Barascu, Aurelia

    2013-01-01

    The choice of the appropriate double-strand break (DSB) repair pathway is essential for the maintenance of genomic stability. Here, we show that the Bloom syndrome gene product, BLM, counteracts CtIP/MRE11-dependent long-range deletions (>200 bp) generated by alternative end-joining (A-EJ). BLM...... represses A-EJ in an epistatic manner with 53BP1 and RIF1 and is required for ionizing-radiation-induced 53BP1 focus assembly. Conversely, in the absence of 53BP1 or RIF1, BLM promotes formation of A-EJ long deletions, consistent with a role for BLM in DSB end resection. These data highlight a dual role...... for BLM that influences the DSB repair pathway choice: (1) protection against CtIP/MRE11 long-range deletions associated with A-EJ and (2) promotion of DNA resection. These antagonist roles can be regulated, according to cell-cycle stage, by interacting partners such as 53BP1 and TopIII, to avoid...

  6. Between “identity politics” and “politics of influence”: the role of alternative media in the Greek protests in 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitra L. Milioni

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In December 2008 the killing of a teenager by a Greek policeman in central Athens set off the fiercest social unrest the country has witnessed in recent decades. For almost three weeks, thousands of angry youths participated in mass demonstrations, in many cases resulting in rioting, looting and violent clashes with the police. Although new media technologies were heavily used by protesters, their role in the December 2008 events has not been systematically studied. This paper explores how the “Greek Riots” in 2008 were reported in the alternative news network Indymedia Athens. A key question the study addresses is whether grassroots reporting in Indymedia Athens served activists’ need for communication and solidarity building (“politics of identity” or functioned also as an “out-group” communication channel that could counter negative mainstream reporting and communicate protesters’ messages to a wider population (“politics of inclusion”. The findings show that during the first eight crucial days of the protests, the alternative outlet functioned first and foremost as a tool for coordination and creation of identity, through the exchange of mobilization information and direct action news. A frame analysis of thematic posts shows that compelling counterframes are created by protesters’ narrations, but their potential to effectively challenge mainstream discourses and influence wider publics is unclear.

  7. The Role of Hand-Assisted Laparoscopic Technique in the Age of Single-Incision Laparoscopy: An Effective Alternative to Avoid Open Conversion in Colorectal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyung Uk; Yun, Seong Hyeon; Cho, Yong Beom; Kim, Hee Cheol; Lee, Woo Yong; Chun, Ho-Kyung

    2018-04-01

    Continuous efforts to reduce the numbers and size of incisions led to the emergence of a new technique, single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS). It has been rapidly accepted as the preferred surgical approach in the colorectal area. In the age of SILS, what is the role of hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery (HALS)? We introduce the way to take advantage of it, as an effective alternative to avoid open conversion. This is a retrospective review of prospectively collected data of SILS colectomies performed by a single surgeon in Samsung Medical Center between August 2009 and December 2012. Out of 631 cases of SILS colectomy, 47 cases needed some changes from the initial approach. Among these, five cases were converted to HALS. Four of them were completed successfully without the need for open conversion. One patient with rectosigmoid colon cancer invading bladder was finally opened to avoid vesical trigone injury. The mean operation time of the 4 patients was 265.0 minutes. The mean estimated blood loss was 587.5 mL. The postoperative complication rate associated with the operation was 25%. Conversion from SILS to HALS in colorectal surgery was feasible and effective. It seemed to add minimal morbidity while preserving advantages of minimally invasive surgery. It could be considered an alternative to open conversion in cases of SILS, especially when the conversion to conventional laparoscopy does not seem to be helpful.

  8. Alternative Remedies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home › Aging & Health A to Z › Alternative Remedies Font ... medical treatment prescribed by their healthcare provider. Using this type of alternative therapy along with traditional treatments is ...

  9. Alternative Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative fuels include gaseous fuels such as hydrogen, natural gas, and propane; alcohols such as ethanol, methanol, and butanol; vegetable and waste-derived oils; and electricity. Overview of alternative fuels is here.

  10. Alternating Hemiplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the symptoms of the disorder. View Full Definition Treatment Drug therapy including verapamil may help to reduce the ... the more serious form of alternating hemiplegia × ... Definition Alternating hemiplegia is a rare neurological disorder that ...

  11. Cancer as part of the journey: the role of spirituality in the decision to decline conventional prostate cancer treatment and to use complementary and alternative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Margaret; Verhoef, Marja

    2006-06-01

    The role of spirituality in patients' use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) approaches to cancer management has hardly been explored. To explore the role of spirituality in cancer management by men with prostate cancer who have declined conventional treatment and are using CAM. This qualitative analysis is part of a longitudinal study to assess decision making by men with prostate cancer who decline conventional treatment and use CAM. In-depth interviews were conducted at study entry (n = 29). Themes were presented to participants in focus groups to further explore and validate the interview results. For a subset of participants (n = 10), spirituality emerged as an important theme; therefore, we conducted a secondary analysis of the interview data of these men to explore the role of spirituality in cancer management and decision making. Spirituality appeared to influence all aspects of the cancer experience. Most participants intensified their use of spiritual practice after a diagnosis of prostate cancer. These practices included spiritual ceremonies, indigenous healing, prayer, meditation, and use of spiritual imagery. Themes related to the role of spirituality in cancer management include beliefs about Western medicine, the role of spiritual beliefs in treatment decision making, the use of spiritual imager y and metaphor in healing, and the impact of cancer on spirituality. The discussion of these themes draws on quotes and case examples, illustrating how spirituality influenced study participants' response to diagnosis, treatment decision making, and cancer care. Two case examples provide a more in-depth understanding of how some participants incorporated spiritual imagery and metaphor into treatment decision making and cancer care. Ways in which cancer influenced spirituality are also discussed. Having prostate cancer appeared to influence their spirituality by strengthening their links with a spiritual community, increasing feelings of gratitude

  12. The role of the Therapeutic Goods Administration and the Medicine and Medical Devices Safety Authority in evaluating complementary and alternative medicines in Australia and New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Dilip; Skinner, Margot; Ferguson, Lynnette R.

    2006-01-01

    Currently, the regulation of complementary and alternative medicines and related health claims in Australia and New Zealand is managed in a number of ways. Complementary medicines, including herbal, minerals, nutritional/dietary supplements, aromatherapy oils and homeopathic medicines are regulated under therapeutic goods/products legislation. The Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA), a division of the Commonwealth Department of Health and Ageing is responsible for administering the provisions of the legislation in Australia. The New Zealand Medicines and Medical Devices Safety Authority (Medsafe) administers the provision of legislation in New Zealand. In December 2003 the Australian and New Zealand governments signed a Treaty to establish a single, bi-national agency to regulate therapeutic products, including medical devices prescription, over-the-counter and complementary medicines. A single agency will replace the Australian TGA and the New Zealand Medsafe. The role of the new agency will be to safeguard public health through regulation of the quality, safety and efficacy or performance of therapeutic products in both Australia and New Zealand. The major activities of the new joint Australia New Zealand therapeutic products agency are in product licensing, specifying labelling standards and setting the advertising scheme, together with determining the risk classes of medicines and creating an expanded list of ingredients permitted in Class I medicines. A new, expanded definition of complementary medicines is proposed and this definition is currently under consultation. Related Australian and New Zealand legislation is being developed to implement the joint scheme. Once this legislation is passed, the Treaty will come into force and the new joint regulatory scheme will begin. The agency is expected to commence operation no later than 1 July 2006 and will result in a single agency to regulate complementary and alternative medicines

  13. Detecting bony infiltrates in patients with multiple myeloma – Is there a role for computered tomography (CT) as an alternative to the radiographic skeletal survey?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, L.J.; Clarke, R.

    2013-01-01

    Using 2 case studies, the aim of this article is to discuss if there is a role for the computed tomography (CT) skeletal survey in patients with multiple myeloma. CT has increased sensitivity and demonstrates an ability to characterise trabecular anatomy in difficult areas such as scapulae, ribs and sternum, compared with conventional radiography. It also allows differentiation between benign and pathological compression fractures, and is superior in estimating fracture risk. Other advantages of CT include demonstration of unsuspected associated pathology such as lung disease, soft tissue and visceral masses and identifying suitable biopsy sites, detection of small osteolytic lesions, multiplanar reconstructions, radiotherapy planning and surgical intervention, shorter examination time, no repositioning of the patient and therefore increased patient comfort. CT has previously been associated with increased radiation dose with careful selection of the exposure parameters the effective radiation dose can be comparable to that of conventional radiography. These case studies and examples of scanning techniques will demonstrate that whole body low dose multidetector CT is a viable alternative to the skeletal survey in patients with multiple myeloma and bone pain

  14. Alternative wastewatersystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyck-Madsen, Søren; Hoffmann, Birgitte; Gabriel, Søren

    1999-01-01

    The report:-  Communicates experiences from Swedish buildings from the establishment and running of alternative wastewater systems. Communicates pictures of alternative buildings and wastewater systems in Sweden. Gives a short evaluation of the performance and the sustainability of the systems....

  15. How alternative are alternative fuels?

    OpenAIRE

    Soffritti, Tiziana; Danielis, Romeo

    1998-01-01

    Could alternative fuel vehicles contribute to a substantial reduction of air pollution? Is there a market for alternative fuel vehicles? Could a market be created via a pollution tax? The article answers these questions on the basis of the available estimates.

  16. Alternative detox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, E

    2012-01-01

    The concept that alternative therapies can eliminate toxins and toxicants from the body, i.e. 'alternative detox' (AD) is popular. Selected textbooks and articles on the subject of AD. The principles of AD make no sense from a scientific perspective and there is no clinical evidence to support them. The promotion of AD treatments provides income for some entrepreneurs but has the potential to cause harm to patients and consumers. In alternative medicine, simplistic but incorrect concepts such as AD abound. AREAS TIMELY FOR RESEARCH: All therapeutic claims should be scientifically tested before being advertised-and AD cannot be an exception.

  17. Combined roles of human IgG subclass, alternative complement pathway activation, and epitope density in the bactericidal activity of antibodies to meningococcal factor h binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuntini, Serena; Reason, Donald C; Granoff, Dan M

    2012-01-01

    Meningococcal vaccines containing factor H binding protein (fHbp) are in clinical development. fHbp binds human fH, which enables the meningococcus to resist complement-mediated bacteriolysis. Previously, we found that chimeric human IgG1 mouse anti-fHbp monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) had human complement-mediated bactericidal activity only if the MAb inhibited fH binding. Since IgG subclasses differ in their ability to activate complement, we investigated the role of human IgG subclasses on antibody functional activity. We constructed chimeric MAbs in which three different murine fHbp-specific binding domains were each paired with human IgG1, IgG2, or IgG3. Against a wild-type group B isolate, all three IgG3 MAbs, irrespective of their ability to inhibit fH binding, had bactericidal activity that was >5-fold higher than the respective IgG1 MAbs, while the IgG2 MAbs had the least activity. Against a mutant with increased fHbp expression, the anti-fHbp MAbs elicited greater C4b deposition (classical pathway) and greater bactericidal activity than against the wild-type strain, and the IgG1 MAbs had similar or greater activity than the respective IgG3 MAbs. The bactericidal activity against both wild-type and mutant strains also was dependent, in part, on activation of the alternative complement pathway. Thus, at lower epitope density in the wild-type strain, the IgG3 anti-fHbp MAbs had the greatest bactericidal activity. At a higher epitope density in the mutant, the IgG1 MAbs had similar or greater bactericidal activity than the IgG3 MAbs, and the activity was less dependent on the inhibition of fH binding than at a lower epitope density.

  18. Alternatives to Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children Today, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Notes that our capacity to diffuse conflict rests in our ability to recognize and verbalize feelings, develop empathy, and think of alternatives to violence. Explores the influence of role models and culture on violence and how the media can use violent images effectively in helping us confront a culture of violence. (HTH)

  19. Decisions to use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) by male cancer patients: information-seeking roles and types of evidence used

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Maggie; Shaw, Alison; Thompson, Elizabeth A; Falk, Stephen; Turton, Pat; Thompson, Trevor; Sharp, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    Background Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is increasingly popular with cancer patients and yet information provision or discussion about CAM by health professionals remains low. Previous research suggests that patients may fear clinicians' 'disapproval' if they raise the subject of CAM, and turn to other sources to acquire information about CAM. However, little empirical research has been conducted into how cancer patients acquire, and, more importantly evaluate CAM information before deciding which CAM therapies to try. Methods Qualitative study, comprising semi-structured interviews with 43 male cancer patients of varying ages, cancer type and stage of illness, 34 of whom had used CAM. They were recruited from a range of NHS and non-NHS settings in Bristol, England. Results As a result of the lack of CAM information from health professionals, men in this study became either 'pro-active seekers' or 'passive recipients' of such information. Their main information resource was the 'lay referral' network of family, friends and acquaintances, especially females. 'Traditional' information sources, including books, magazines, leaflets and the media were popular, more so in fact than the internet. Views on the internet ranged from enthusiasm or healthy scepticism through to caution or disinterest. CAM information was generally regarded as 'empowering' as it broadened treatment and self-care options. A minority of participants were information averse fearing additional choices that might disrupt their fragile ability to cope. There was general consensus that CAM information should be available via the NHS, to give it a 'stamp of approval', which combined with guidance from informed health professionals, could help patients to make 'guided' choices. However, a small minority of these men valued the independence of CAM from the NHS and deliberately sought 'alternative' information sources and treatment options. Men were selective in identifying particular

  20. Cosmic alternatives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Ruth

    2009-04-01

    "Cosmologists are often in error but never in doubt." This pithy characterization by the Soviet physicist Lev Landau sums up the raison d'être of Facts and Speculations in Cosmology. Authors Jayant Narlikar and Geoffrey Burbidge are proponents of a "steady state" theory of cosmology, and they argue that the cosmological community has become fixated on a "Big Bang" dogma, suppressing alternative viewpoints. This book very much does what it says on the tin: it sets out what is known in cosmology, and puts forward the authors' point of view on an alternative to the Big Bang.

  1. Growing Alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Petersen, Mai Corlin

    2014-01-01

    From 2014, Anhui Province will pilot a reform of the residential land market in China, thus integrating rural Anhui in the national housing market. In contrast, artist and activist Ou Ning has proposed the Bishan time money currency, intending to establish an alternative economic circuit in Bishan...

  2. Alternative Veier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Tove Elisabeth; Salamonsen, Anita

    reflektioner omkring patienters brug af og erfaringer med alternativ behandling. Patientorganisationer, organisatoner for alternative behandlere og organisationer for læger og medicinstuderende har læst bogens patienthistorier og deres perspektiver lægges frem. Til slut i bogen diskuteres betydningen af de...

  3. Energy alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweet, C.

    1987-01-01

    The designated successor to fossil fuels is nuclear fission/fusion and that turns out to be problematic. Alternative Energy Systems have great potential but political forces seem to be hampering their development and introduction. The technologies are flexible in their use and scale of operation. The learning curve will not be short but neither will it be as long and as costly as nuclear power. It is time that this is recognised and some serious rethinking takes place in what presently passes for energy policies both in the industrialised countries and in the Third World. Alternative energy systems are defined and some of them which are relevant to the United Kingdom are discussed. (author)

  4. Alternative detente

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soper, K.; Ryle, M.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of the Chernobyl accident on the disarmament and anti-nuclear movements is discussed. The accident directed attention towards the areas in common rather than the areas of disagreement. It also demonstrated the environmental impact of radioactivity, strengthening the ecological case of the anti-nuclear movement. The issues are discussed for the Western and Eastern bloc countries and the relationship between the two. Sections focus on the Eco-protest, Green politics and economics and on the politics of minority protest and the Green alternative. (U.K.)

  5. Alternative crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreasen, L.M.; Boon, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    Surplus cereal production in the EEC and decreasing product prices, mainly for cereals, has prompted considerable interest for new earnings in arable farming. The objective was to examine whether suggested new crops (fibre, oil, medicinal and alternative grains crops) could be considered as real alternatives. Whether a specific crop can compete economically with cereals and whether there is a market demand for the crop is analyzed. The described possibilities will result in ca. 50,000 hectares of new crops. It is expected that they would not immediately provide increased earnings, but in the long run expected price developments are more positive than for cereals. The area for new crops will not solve the current surplus cereal problem as the area used for new crops is only 3% of that used for cereals. Preconditions for many new crops is further research activities and development work as well as the establishment of processing units and organizational initiatives. Presumably, it is stated, there will then be a basis for a profitable production of new crops for some farmers. (AB) (47 refs.)

  6. Alternative RNA splicing and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sali; Cheng, Chonghui

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing of pre-messenger RNA (mRNA) is a fundamental mechanism by which a gene can give rise to multiple distinct mRNA transcripts, yielding protein isoforms with different, even opposing, functions. With the recognition that alternative splicing occurs in nearly all human genes, its relationship with cancer-associated pathways has emerged as a rapidly growing field. In this review, we summarize recent findings that have implicated the critical role of alternative splicing in cancer and discuss current understandings of the mechanisms underlying dysregulated alternative splicing in cancer cells. PMID:23765697

  7. Dietary change – consumer preferences, marketing barriers and enablers, and the role of meat alternative choice(s) in achieving sustainable consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Apostolidis, Chrysostomos; McLeay, Fraser

    2012-01-01

    This research builds upon existing theories of consumer behaviour, sustainable and ethical consumption and social marketing. It aims to improve academic and practical understanding of the effect of socio-environmental attributes on consumer preferences regarding meat and meat alternative products and examine how more sustainable consumption patterns can be achieved. It is based upon the idea that marketing strategies can be used with the ultimate aim of changing behavior in order to benefit t...

  8. A helynevek szerepe az alternatív ideologikus gondolkodásban I. A Pilis-kultusz esete [The role of place names in an alternative ideological mindset I. The case of the Pilis Cult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imreh, Réka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the role of place names in defining and legitimizing the identity of a subculture through the example of a complex contemporary alternative social phenomenon known as the Pilis Cult. The Pilis Cult, which is also linked with some other alternative theories (Sumerian–Hungarian linguistic affinity, root linguistics, The Holy Crown Doctrine, claims that the Pilis Mountains as a spiritual space have a special role in Hungarian history. In the specific attitude to language and place names adopted by this subculture, one can recognize elements similar to those of ancient and medieval magical thinking. These can be observed in the interpretation of place names of the mountains, in which associations connected to the phonetic forms or the semantics of the place names may turn these toponyms into “telling names”, proving 120 Imreh Réka the antiquity and spirituality of the area. This etymological-associative narration is illustrated in the paper with the examples of the place names Pilis and Dobogó-kő. The interpretations of these names commingling with the alternative ideas connected to the denotata themselves (e.g. heart chakra theory; Proto-Buda Theories establish a unified argumentation framework. The paper argues that even a linguistically unorthodox subculture – alongside its specific ideology – may emphasize aspects of the study of place names through which our knowledge can be expanded with respect, for instance, to the functional logic behind place names.

  9. Energy alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    English. A special committe of the Canadian House of Commons was established on 23 May 1980 to investigate the use of alternative energy sources such as 'gasohol', liquified coal, solar energy, methanol, wind and tidal power, biomass, and propane. In its final report, the committee envisions an energy system for Canada based on hydrogen and electricity, using solar and geothermal energy for low-grade heat. The committe was not able to say which method of generating electricty would dominate in the next century, although it recommends that fossil fuels should not be used. The fission process is not specifically discussed, but the outlook for fusion was investigated, and continued governmental support of fusion research is recommended. The report proposes some improvements in governmental energy organizations and programs

  10. The intercrater plains of Mercury and the Moon: Their nature, origin and role in terrestrial planet evolution. Alternative thermal histories. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    Interpretations supporting a differentiated, once active Mercury are listed. Alternative scenarios of the planet's thermal history involve: different distributions of accreted materials, including uranium and thorium-rich materials; variations of early melting; and different modes of plains and scarp formation. Arguments are advanced which strongly favor plains formation by volcanism, lack of a primordial surface, and possible identification of remnant tensional features. Studies of remotely sensed data which strongly suggest a modestly homogeneous surface of silicates imply core separation. Reasons for accepting or rejecting various hypotheses for thermal histories of the planet are mentioned.

  11. Promotion of atomic hydrogen recombination as an alternative to electron trapping for the role of metals in the photocatalytic production of H2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Ji Bong; Dillon, Robert; Lee, Ilkeun; Yin, Yadong; Bardeen, Christopher J; Zaera, Francisco

    2014-06-03

    The production of hydrogen from water with semiconductor photocatalysts can be promoted by adding small amounts of metals to their surfaces. The resulting enhancement in photocatalytic activity is commonly attributed to a fast transfer of the excited electrons generated by photon absorption from the semiconductor to the metal, a step that prevents deexcitation back to the ground electronic state. Here we provide experimental evidence that suggests an alternative pathway that does not involve electron transfer to the metal but requires it to act as a catalyst for the recombination of the hydrogen atoms made via the reduction of protons on the surface of the semiconductor instead.

  12. Advancing Risk Analysis for Nanoscale Materials: Report from an International Workshop on the Role of Alternative Testing Strategies for Advancement: Advancing Risk Analysis for Nanoscale Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shatkin, J. A. [Vireo Advisors, Boston MA USA; Ong, Kimberly J. [Vireo Advisors, Boston MA USA; Beaudrie, Christian [Compass RM, Vancouver CA USA; Clippinger, Amy J. [PETA International Science Consortium Ltd, London UK; Hendren, Christine Ogilvie [Center for the Environmental Implications of NanoTechnology, Duke University, Durham NC USA; Haber, Lynne T. [TERA, Cincinnati OH USA; Hill, Myriam [Health Canada, Ottawa Canada; Holden, Patricia [UC Santa Barbara, Bren School of Environmental Science & Management, ERI, and UC CEIN, University of California, Santa Barbara CA USA; Kennedy, Alan J. [U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Environmental Laboratory, Vicksburg MS USA; Kim, Baram [Independent, Somerville MA USA; MacDonell, Margaret [Argonne National Laboratory, Environmental Science Division, Argonne IL USA; Powers, Christina M. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air and Radiation, Office of Transportation and Air Quality, Ann Arbor MI USA; Sharma, Monita [PETA International Science Consortium Ltd, London UK; Sheremeta, Lorraine [Alberta Ingenuity Labs, Edmonton Alberta Canada; Stone, Vicki [John Muir Building Gait 1 Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh Scotland UK; Sultan, Yasir [Environment Canada, Gatineau QC Canada; Turley, Audrey [ICF International, Durham NC USA; White, Ronald H. [RH White Consultants, Silver Spring MD USA

    2016-08-01

    The Society for Risk Analysis (SRA) has a history of bringing thought leadership to topics of emerging risk. In September 2014, the SRA Emerging Nanoscale Materials Specialty Group convened an international workshop to examine the use of alternative testing strategies (ATS) for manufactured nanomaterials (NM) from a risk analysis perspective. Experts in NM environmental health and safety, human health, ecotoxicology, regulatory compliance, risk analysis, and ATS evaluated and discussed the state of the science for in vitro and other alternatives to traditional toxicology testing for NM. Based on this review, experts recommended immediate and near-term actions that would advance ATS use in NM risk assessment. Three focal areas-human health, ecological health, and exposure considerations-shaped deliberations about information needs, priorities, and the next steps required to increase confidence in and use of ATS in NM risk assessment. The deliberations revealed that ATS are now being used for screening, and that, in the near term, ATS could be developed for use in read-across or categorization decision making within certain regulatory frameworks. Participants recognized that leadership is required from within the scientific community to address basic challenges, including standardizing materials, protocols, techniques and reporting, and designing experiments relevant to real-world conditions, as well as coordination and sharing of large-scale collaborations and data. Experts agreed that it will be critical to include experimental parameters that can support the development of adverse outcome pathways. Numerous other insightful ideas for investment in ATS emerged throughout the discussions and are further highlighted in this article.

  13. Contrasting responses of photosynthesis to salt stress in the glycophyte Arabidopsis and the halophyte thellungiella: role of the plastid terminal oxidase as an alternative electron sink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepien, Piotr; Johnson, Giles N

    2009-02-01

    The effects of short-term salt stress on gas exchange and the regulation of photosynthetic electron transport were examined in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and its salt-tolerant close relative Thellungiella (Thellungiella halophila). Plants cultivated on soil were challenged for 2 weeks with NaCl. Arabidopsis showed a much higher sensitivity to salt than Thellungiella; while Arabidopsis plants were unable to survive exposure to greater than 150 mM salt, Thellugiella could tolerate concentrations as high as 500 mM with only minimal effects on gas exchange. Exposure of Arabidopsis to sublethal salt concentrations resulted in stomatal closure and inhibition of CO2 fixation. This lead to an inhibition of electron transport though photosystem II (PSII), an increase in cyclic electron flow involving only PSI, and increased nonphotochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence. In contrast, in Thellungiella, although gas exchange was marginally inhibited by high salt and PSI was unaffected, there was a large increase in electron flow involving PSII. This additional electron transport activity is oxygen dependent and sensitive to the alternative oxidase inhibitor n-propyl gallate. PSII electron transport in Thellungiella showed a reduced sensitivity to 2'-iodo-6-isopropyl-3-methyl-2',4,4'-trinitrodiphenylether, an inhibitor of the cytochrome b6f complex. At the same time, we observed a substantial up-regulation of a protein reacting with antibodies raised against the plastid terminal oxidase. No such up-regulation was seen in Arabidopsis. We conclude that in salt-stressed Thellungiella, plastid terminal oxidase acts as an alternative electron sink, accounting for up to 30% of total PSII electron flow.

  14. The neurogenetics of alternative splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Celine K; Black, Douglas L; Zheng, Sika

    2016-05-01

    Alternative precursor-mRNA splicing is a key mechanism for regulating gene expression in mammals and is controlled by specialized RNA-binding proteins. The misregulation of splicing is implicated in multiple neurological disorders. We describe recent mouse genetic studies of alternative splicing that reveal its critical role in both neuronal development and the function of mature neurons. We discuss the challenges in understanding the extensive genetic programmes controlled by proteins that regulate splicing, both during development and in the adult brain.

  15. Why has the introduction of natural gas vehicles failed in Germany?—Lessons on the role of market failure in markets for alternative fuel vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters von Rosenstiel, Dirk; Heuermann, Daniel F.; Hüsig, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Despite private investments exceeding two billion Euros and tax incentives of more than 500 million Euros, the market share of natural gas vehicles (NGVs) in Germany has lagged far behind expectations and behind market developments in other countries. With total cost of ownership being on average lower for NGVs than for gasoline and diesel vehicles this raises the question of the existence of market failure in the German NGV-market. We use a case study approach where we combine quantitative data with insights from a multi-industry expert panel and in-depth interviews with experts from industry, government and civil society in order to examine whether and how different types of market failure contribute to the status quo in the German market for NGVs. We conclude that coordination failure in complementary markets, an artificially created monopoly of service stations at motorways, imperfect information, bounded consumer rationality, and principle-agent-problems are the most prominent market failures inhibiting the development of a functioning market for NGVs. Our results are instructive for the design of effective public policies and investor strategies aiming to create markets for alternative fuel vehicles. - Highlights: • We analyze market failure in the German market for natural gas vehicles. • Coordination failure is the most important reason for market failure to arise. • Minor factors: regulatory deficits, imperfect information, bounded rationality. • Policies encompass stabilizing expectations and supporting actor coordination. • Our results are instructive for policies and investor strategies in AFV-markets

  16. Alternative energy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, K.F.

    1983-01-01

    It is accepted that coal will continue to play the major role in the supply of energy to the country for the remainder of the century. In this paper, however, emphasis has been directed to those options which could supplement coal in an economic and technically sound manner. The general conclusion is that certain forms of solar energy hold the most promise and it is in this direction that research, development and implementation programmes should be directed. Tidal energy, fusion energy, geothermal energy, hydrogen energy and fuel cells are also discussed as alternative energy options

  17. Alternative Fuels Market and Policy Trends (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, A. N.

    2013-09-01

    Market forces and policies are increasing opportunities for alternative fuels. There is no one-size-fits-all, catch-all, silver-bullet fuel. States play a critical role in the alternative fuel market and are taking a leading role.

  18. The role of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) routines and rituals in men with cancer and their significant others (SOs): a qualitative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klafke, Nadja; Eliott, Jaklin A; Olver, Ian N; Wittert, Gary A

    2014-05-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is frequently used in cancer patients, often with contribution of the significant others (SOs), but without consultation of healthcare professionals. This research explored how cancer patients integrate and maintain CAM use in their everyday life, and how SOs are involved in it. In this qualitative study, male participants were selected from a preceding Australian survey on CAM use in men with cancer (94 % response rate and 86 % consent rate for follow-up interview). Semistructured interviews were conducted with 26 men and 24 SOs until data saturation was reached. Interview transcripts were coded and analyzed thematically, thereby paying close attention to participants' language in use. A major theme associated with high CAM use was "CAM routines and rituals," as it was identified that men with cancer practiced CAM as (1) functional routines, (2) meaningful rituals, and (3) mental/spiritual routines or/and rituals. Regular CAM use was associated with intrapersonal and interpersonal benefits: CAM routines provided men with certainty and control, and CAM rituals functioned for cancer patients and their SOs as a means to create meaning, thereby working to counter fear and uncertainty consequent upon a diagnosis of cancer. SOs contributed most to men's uptake and maintenance of dietary-based CAM in ritualistic form resulting in interpersonal bonding and enhanced closeness. CAM routines and rituals constitute key elements in cancer patients' regular and satisfied CAM use, and they promote familial strengthening. Clinicians and physicians can convey these benefits to patient consultations, further promoting the safe and effective use of CAM.

  19. Alternative U.S. biofuel mandates and global GHG emissions: The role of land use change, crop management and yield growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosnier, A.; Havlík, P.; Valin, H.; Baker, J.; Murray, B.; Feng, S.; Obersteiner, M.; McCarl, B.A.; Rose, S.K.; Schneider, U.A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the impacts of the U.S. renewable fuel standard (RFS2) and several alternative biofuel policy designs on global GHG emissions from land use change and agriculture over the 2010–2030 horizon. Analysis of the scenarios relies on GLOBIOM, a global, multi-sectoral economic model based on a detailed representation of land use. Our results reveal that RFS2 would substantially increase the portion of agricultural land needed for biofuel feedstock production. U.S. exports of most agricultural products would decrease as long as the biofuel target would increase leading to higher land conversion and nitrogen use globally. In fact, higher levels of the mandate mean lower net emissions within the U.S. but when the emissions from the rest of the world are considered, the US biofuel policy results in almost no change on GHG emissions for the RFS2 level and higher global GHG emissions for higher levels of the mandate or higher share of conventional corn-ethanol in the mandate. Finally, we show that if the projected crop productivity would be lower globally, the imbalance between domestic U.S. GHG savings and additional GHG emissions in the rest of the world would increase, thus deteriorating the net global impact of U.S. biofuel policies. - Highlights: ► We model the impact of the U.S. renewable fuel standard (RFS2). ► RFS2 would require more agricultural land and nitrogen globally. ► Increasing the mandates reduce GHG emissions within the U.S. ► Increasing the mandates increase GHG emissions in the rest of the world. ► Total GHG emissions increase with higher levels of mandate; higher share of corn-ethanol; lower productivity growth

  20. Expression profiling of FLOWERING LOCUS T-like gene in alternate bearing 'Hass' avocado trees suggests a role for PaFT in avocado flower induction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafna Ziv

    Full Text Available In many perennials, heavy fruit load on a shoot decreases the ability of the plant to undergo floral induction in the following spring, resulting in a pattern of crop production known as alternate bearing. Here, we studied the effects of fruit load on floral determination in 'Hass' avocado (Persea americana. De-fruiting experiments initially confirmed the negative effects of fruit load on return to flowering. Next, we isolated a FLOWERING LOCUS T-like gene, PaFT, hypothesized to act as a phloem-mobile florigen signal and examined its expression profile in shoot tissues of on (fully loaded and off (fruit-lacking trees. Expression analyses revealed a strong peak in PaFT transcript levels in leaves of off trees from the end of October through November, followed by a return to starting levels. Moreover and concomitant with inflorescence development, only off buds displayed up-regulation of the floral identity transcripts PaAP1 and PaLFY, with significant variation being detected from October and November, respectively. Furthermore, a parallel microscopic study of off apical buds revealed the presence of secondary inflorescence axis structures that only appeared towards the end of November. Finally, ectopic expression of PaFT in Arabidopsis resulted in early flowering transition. Together, our data suggests a link between increased PaFT expression observed during late autumn and avocado flower induction. Furthermore, our results also imply that, as in the case of other crop trees, fruit-load might affect flowering by repressing the expression of PaFT in the leaves. Possible mechanism(s by which fruit crop might repress PaFT expression, are discussed.

  1. Expression Profiling of FLOWERING LOCUS T-Like Gene in Alternate Bearing ‘Hass' Avocado Trees Suggests a Role for PaFT in Avocado Flower Induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Dafna; Zviran, Tali; Zezak, Oshrat; Samach, Alon; Irihimovitch, Vered

    2014-01-01

    In many perennials, heavy fruit load on a shoot decreases the ability of the plant to undergo floral induction in the following spring, resulting in a pattern of crop production known as alternate bearing. Here, we studied the effects of fruit load on floral determination in ‘Hass' avocado (Persea americana). De-fruiting experiments initially confirmed the negative effects of fruit load on return to flowering. Next, we isolated a FLOWERING LOCUS T-like gene, PaFT, hypothesized to act as a phloem-mobile florigen signal and examined its expression profile in shoot tissues of on (fully loaded) and off (fruit-lacking) trees. Expression analyses revealed a strong peak in PaFT transcript levels in leaves of off trees from the end of October through November, followed by a return to starting levels. Moreover and concomitant with inflorescence development, only off buds displayed up-regulation of the floral identity transcripts PaAP1 and PaLFY, with significant variation being detected from October and November, respectively. Furthermore, a parallel microscopic study of off apical buds revealed the presence of secondary inflorescence axis structures that only appeared towards the end of November. Finally, ectopic expression of PaFT in Arabidopsis resulted in early flowering transition. Together, our data suggests a link between increased PaFT expression observed during late autumn and avocado flower induction. Furthermore, our results also imply that, as in the case of other crop trees, fruit-load might affect flowering by repressing the expression of PaFT in the leaves. Possible mechanism(s) by which fruit crop might repress PaFT expression, are discussed. PMID:25330324

  2. Expression profiling of FLOWERING LOCUS T-like gene in alternate bearing 'Hass' avocado trees suggests a role for PaFT in avocado flower induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Dafna; Zviran, Tali; Zezak, Oshrat; Samach, Alon; Irihimovitch, Vered

    2014-01-01

    In many perennials, heavy fruit load on a shoot decreases the ability of the plant to undergo floral induction in the following spring, resulting in a pattern of crop production known as alternate bearing. Here, we studied the effects of fruit load on floral determination in 'Hass' avocado (Persea americana). De-fruiting experiments initially confirmed the negative effects of fruit load on return to flowering. Next, we isolated a FLOWERING LOCUS T-like gene, PaFT, hypothesized to act as a phloem-mobile florigen signal and examined its expression profile in shoot tissues of on (fully loaded) and off (fruit-lacking) trees. Expression analyses revealed a strong peak in PaFT transcript levels in leaves of off trees from the end of October through November, followed by a return to starting levels. Moreover and concomitant with inflorescence development, only off buds displayed up-regulation of the floral identity transcripts PaAP1 and PaLFY, with significant variation being detected from October and November, respectively. Furthermore, a parallel microscopic study of off apical buds revealed the presence of secondary inflorescence axis structures that only appeared towards the end of November. Finally, ectopic expression of PaFT in Arabidopsis resulted in early flowering transition. Together, our data suggests a link between increased PaFT expression observed during late autumn and avocado flower induction. Furthermore, our results also imply that, as in the case of other crop trees, fruit-load might affect flowering by repressing the expression of PaFT in the leaves. Possible mechanism(s) by which fruit crop might repress PaFT expression, are discussed.

  3. The Role of Participation Banking as Alternative Financing Channels to Substitute for Deposit Banks and its Growth in the Turkish Finance Market - Period: 2007-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhat Sayım

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Financial systems and companies have become the most important reasons in the weakness of world economic system. The formation and development process of the financial structure also constitute the infrastructure of the world economic system. The path of the financial system and development has led to discuss with the financial crisis in 2008-2011. One of the solutions in order to reduce problems caused by the conventional banking system is alternative financing systems. In Turkey, the corporations based on profit share system are named participation banks. These banks which settle on different principles in the risk distribution of the portfolio acquired are analyzed more nowadays. Participation based banks are placed in practically every regulation related to banking terms and get their legal infrastructure more steady in the banking legislation of Turkey. This study is a continuation of a series related to the situation of participation banking in Turkey. On the other hand, the literature and the history of participation banking have been given less attention in this study. Literature information on methods in participation banks has been described in previous work of the series. Two analyzes were conducted in this study. One analysis is interpretive analysis that expresses the situation of applications of participation banking against banking risks. The other is an analysis of the figures of participation banks in Turkey as a continuation of the series. This study is a 2007-2015 part of research series. The study tries to explore the place and the importance of participation based banking with the various sub-headings, especially in Turkey. For this reason, we examine the comparative review 2007-2015 data of participation banks which are composed of Total Assets, Equity Net Profit, Collected Funds and Bank Loan Funds. Then we compare the total figures with deposit banks for the same period in Turkey.

  4. Studies of transformational leadership in consumer service: market orientation behavior and alternative roles for the mediators and moderators of change commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-Feng

    2013-12-01

    The present paper evaluates the relation between transformational leadership and market orientation along with the mediating and moderating effects of change commitment for employees in customer centers in Taiwan. 327 questionnaires were returned by personnel at several customer centers in four different insurance companies. Inter-rater agreement was acceptable based on the multiple raters (i.e., the consumer-related employees from the division groups) of one individual (i.e., a manager)--indicating the aggregated measures were acceptable. The multi-source sample comprised data taken from the four division centers: phone services, customer representatives, financial specialists, and front-line salespeople. The relations were assessed using a multiple mediation procedure incorporating bootstrap techniques and PRODCLIN2 with structural equation modeling analysis. The results reflect a mediating role for change commitment.

  5. Alternative Energy Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Michaelides, Efstathios E (Stathis)

    2012-01-01

    Alternative Energy Sources is designed to give the reader, a clear view of the role each form of alternative energy may play in supplying the energy needs of the human society in the near and intermediate future (20-50 years).   The two first chapters on energy demand and supply and environmental effects, set the tone as to why the widespread use of alternative energy is essential for the future of human society. The third chapter exposes the reader to the laws of energy conversion processes, as well as the limitations of converting one energy form to another. The sections on exergy give a succinct, quantitative background on the capability/potential of each energy source to produce power on a global scale. The fourth, fifth and sixth chapters are expositions of fission and fusion nuclear energy. The following five chapters (seventh to eleventh) include detailed descriptions of the most common renewable energy sources – wind, solar, geothermal, biomass, hydroelectric – and some of the less common sources...

  6. Alternative routes to the leader male role in a multi-level society: follower vs. solitary male strategies and outcomes in hamadryas baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, Mathew; Saunders, Julian; Swedell, Larissa

    2011-07-01

    The nested one-male units (OMUs) of the hamadryas baboon are part of a complex social system in which "leader" males achieve near exclusive mating access by forcibly herding females into permanent consortships. Within this multi-level social system (troops, bands, clans and OMUs) are two types of prereproductive males--the follower and solitary male--whose different trajectories converge on the leader role. Here we compare OMU formation strategies of followers, who associate with a particular OMU and may have social access to females, with those of solitary males, who move freely within the band and do not associate regularly with OMUs. Data were derived from 42 OMU formations (16 by followers and 26 by solitary males) occurring over 8 years in a hamadryas baboon band at the Filoha site in Ethiopia. "Initial units" (IUs) with sexually immature females (IU strategy) were formed by 44% of followers and 46% of solitary males. The remaining followers took over mature females when their leader was deposed (challenge strategy) or disappeared (opportunistic strategy), or via a seemingly peaceful transfer (inheritance strategy). Solitary males took over mature females from other clans and bands, but mainly from old, injured or vanished leaders within their clan (via both the challenge and opportunistic strategies). Former followers of an OMU were more successful at taking over females from those OMUs than any other category of male. Despite this advantage enjoyed by ex-follower leaders, ex-solitary leaders were equally capable of increasing their OMU size at a comparable rate in their first 2 years as a leader. These results demonstrate the potential for males to employ both multiple roles (follower vs. solitary male) and multiple routes (IU, inheritance, challenge, opportunistic) to acquire females and become a leader male in a mating system characterized by female defense polygyny in a competitive arena. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Alternative fuels for vehicles; Alternative drivmidler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-02-15

    Up until 2020 and onwards the analysis indicates that especially electricity, biogas and natural gas as propellants is economically attractive compared to conventional gasoline and diesel while other fuels have the same or higher costs for petrol and diesel. Especially biogas and electricity will also offer significant reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions, but also hydrogen, methanol, DME and to a lesser extent the second generation bioethanol and most of the other alternative fuels reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Use of the traditional food-based first generation biofuels involves, at best, only modest climate benefits if land use changes are counted, and at worst, significant negative climate effects. Natural gas as a propellant involves a moderate climate gain, but may play a role for building infrastructure and market for gaseous fuels in large fleets, thereby contributing to the phasing in of biogas for transport. The electric-based automotive fuels are the most effective due to a high efficiency of the engine and an increasing proportion of wind energy in the electricity supply. The methanol track also has a relatively high efficiency. Among the others, the track based on diesel engines (biodiesel) is more effective than the track based on gasoline/Otto engines (gas and ethanol) as a result of the diesel engine's better efficiency. For the heavy vehicles all the selected alternative fuels to varying degrees reduce emissions of CO{sub 2}, particularly DME based on wood. The only exception to this is - as for passenger cars - the propellant synthetic diesel based on coal. (LN).

  8. Alternative Fuel Guidelines for Alternative Transportation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    The Volpe Center documented the increased use of alternative fuels on vehicles owned and operated by federal land management agencies. For each alternative fuel type, the Volpe Center documented the availability of vehicles, fueling mechanisms and pr...

  9. Analysis of the LIV system of Campylobacter jejuni reveals alternative roles for LivJ and LivK in commensalism beyond branched-chain amino acid transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribardo, Deborah A; Hendrixson, David R

    2011-11-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of diarrheal disease in humans and an intestinal commensal in poultry and other agriculturally important animals. These zoonotic infections result in significant amounts of C. jejuni present in the food supply to contribute to disease in humans. We previously found that a transposon insertion in Cjj81176_1038, encoding a homolog of the Escherichia coli LivJ periplasmic binding protein of the leucine, isoleucine, and valine (LIV) branched-chain amino acid transport system, reduced the commensal colonization capacity of C. jejuni 81-176 in chicks. Cjj81176_1038 is the first gene of a six-gene locus that encodes homologous components of the E. coli LIV system. By analyzing mutants with in-frame deletions of individual genes or pairs of genes, we found that this system constitutes a LIV transport system in C. jejuni responsible for a high level of leucine acquisition and, to a lesser extent, isoleucine and valine acquisition. Despite each LIV protein being required for branched-chain amino acid transport, only the LivJ and LivK periplasmic binding proteins were required for wild-type levels of commensal colonization of chicks. All LIV permease and ATPase components were dispensable for in vivo growth. These results suggest that the biological functions of LivJ and LivK for colonization are more complex than previously hypothesized and extend beyond a role for binding and acquiring branched-chain amino acids during commensalism. In contrast to other studies indicating a requirement and utilization of other specific amino acids for colonization, acquisition of branched-chain amino acids does not appear to be a determinant for C. jejuni during commensalism.

  10. Two novel exonic point mutations in HEXA identified in a juvenile Tay-Sachs patient: role of alternative splicing and nonsense-mediated mRNA decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levit, A; Nutman, D; Osher, E; Kamhi, E; Navon, R

    2010-06-01

    We have identified three mutations in the beta-hexoseaminidase A (HEXA) gene in a juvenile Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) patient, which exhibited a reduced level of HEXA mRNA. Two mutations are novel, c.814G>A (p.Gly272Arg) and c.1305C>T (p.=), located in exon 8 and in exon 11, respectively. The third mutation, c.1195A>G (p.Asn399Asp) in exon 11, has been previously characterized as a common polymorphism in African-Americans. Hex A activity measured in TSD Glial cells, transfected with HEXA cDNA constructs bearing these mutations, was unaltered from the activity level measured in normal HEXA cDNA. Analysis of RT-PCR products revealed three aberrant transcripts in the patient, one where exon 8 was absent, one where exon 11 was absent and a third lacking both exons 10 and 11. All three novel transcripts contain frameshifts resulting in premature termination codons (PTCs). Transfection of mini-gene constructs carrying the c.814G>A and c.1305C>T mutations proved that the two mutations result in exon skipping. mRNAs that harbor a PTC are detected and degraded by the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) pathway to prevent synthesis of abnormal proteins. However, although NMD is functional in the patient's fibroblasts, aberrant transcripts are still present. We suggest that the level of correctly spliced transcripts as well as the efficiency in which NMD degrade the PTC-containing transcripts, apparently plays an important role in the phenotype severity of the unique patient and thus should be considered as a potential target for drug therapy.

  11. Alternatives to nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrado, E.N.

    1981-01-01

    This article discusses several possibilities as alternatives to nuclear energy and their relevance to the Philippine case. The major present and future fuel alternatives to petroleum and nuclear energy are coal, geothermal heat, solar energy and hydrogen, the first two of which are being used. Different conversion technologies are also discussed for large scale electricity production namely solar thermal electric conversion (STC), photovoltaic electric power system (PEPS) and ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). Major environmental considerations affect the choice of energy sources and technologies. We have the problem of long term accumulation of radioactive waste in the case of nuclear energy; in geothermal and fossil-fuels carbon dioxide uranium and accumulation may cause disastrous consequences. With regard to Philippine option, the greatest considerations in selecting alternative energy options would be resources availability - both energy and financial and technology status. For the country's energy plan, coal and geothermal energy are expected to play a significant role. The country's coal resources are 1.4 billion metric tons. For geothermal energy, 25 volcanic centers were identified and has a potential equivalent to 2.5 x 10 6 million barrels of oil. Solar energy if harnessed, being in the sunbelt, averaging some 2000 hours a year could be an energy source. The present dilemma of the policy maker is whether national resources are better spent on large scale urban-based energy projects or whether those should be focused on small scale, rural oriented installations which produced benefits to the more numerous and poorer members of the population. (RTD)

  12. Alternate superior Julia sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Anju; Rani, Mamta

    2015-01-01

    Alternate Julia sets have been studied in Picard iterative procedures. The purpose of this paper is to study the quadratic and cubic maps using superior iterates to obtain Julia sets with different alternate structures. Analytically, graphically and computationally it has been shown that alternate superior Julia sets can be connected, disconnected and totally disconnected, and also fattier than the corresponding alternate Julia sets. A few examples have been studied by applying different type of alternate structures

  13. Alternative Certification Pathways: Filling a Gap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlow, Carlyn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the proliferation of alternative certification pathways through an analysis of the role and history of teacher certification and supply followed by a synthesis of national, regional, and state research studies on alternative routes to certification programs and a review of studies conducted on well-known…

  14. [Alternative medicine: faith or science?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletscher, A

    1990-04-21

    For the success of both alternative and scientific (conventional) medicine, factors such as the psychological influence of the doctor, loving care, human affection, the patient's belief in the treatment, the suggestive power of attractive (even unproven) theories, dogmas and chance events (e.g. spontaneous remissions) etc. play a major role. Some practices of alternative medicine have a particularly strong appeal to the non-rational side of the human being. Conventional medicine includes a component which is based on scientific and statistical methods. The possibility that in alternative medicine principles and effects exist which are not (yet) known to scientific medicine, but which match up to scientific criteria, cannot be excluded. However, up to now this has not been convincingly proven. The difficulties which arise in the elucidation of this problem are discussed in the light of examples from the literature and some experiments of our own.

  15. Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Complementary and Alternative Medicine KidsHealth / For Teens / Complementary and Alternative Medicine What's ... a replacement. How Is CAM Different From Conventional Medicine? Conventional medicine is based on scientific knowledge of ...

  16. Vowel quality alternation in Dinka verb derivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben

    2017-01-01

    In Dinka, a predominantly monosyllabic and highly fusional Western Nilotic language, vowel quality alternation in the root plays a major and systematic role in the morphology of verbs, together with alternations in vowel length, voice quality, and tone. Earlier work has shown that in the inflecti...... modifications. These include a different distribution of the vowel grades and interaction with a shift in voice quality, to breathy voice.......In Dinka, a predominantly monosyllabic and highly fusional Western Nilotic language, vowel quality alternation in the root plays a major and systematic role in the morphology of verbs, together with alternations in vowel length, voice quality, and tone. Earlier work has shown that in the inflection...... of simple, i. e., underived, transitive verbs, the vowel quality alternation conforms to a vowel height gradation system with three vowel grades. The present article shows that this vowel gradation system is also operative in the morphology of derived verbs with a transitive root, but with certain...

  17. Alternative way of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, C.

    1980-01-01

    The volume describes the reasons why more and more people seek alternative ways of life, the theoretical background and what alternative life means in practice as well as the sociological significance and history of the alternative movement. It also contains statements of persons who have 'got out' and advice on energy-saving. (HSCH) [de

  18. Depleted uranium management alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.

    1994-08-01

    This report evaluates two management alternatives for Department of Energy depleted uranium: continued storage as uranium hexafluoride, and conversion to uranium metal and fabrication to shielding for spent nuclear fuel containers. The results will be used to compare the costs with other alternatives, such as disposal. Cost estimates for the continued storage alternative are based on a life-cycle of 27 years through the year 2020. Cost estimates for the recycle alternative are based on existing conversion process costs and Capital costs for fabricating the containers. Additionally, the recycle alternative accounts for costs associated with intermediate product resale and secondary waste disposal for materials generated during the conversion process.

  19. Depleted uranium management alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.

    1994-08-01

    This report evaluates two management alternatives for Department of Energy depleted uranium: continued storage as uranium hexafluoride, and conversion to uranium metal and fabrication to shielding for spent nuclear fuel containers. The results will be used to compare the costs with other alternatives, such as disposal. Cost estimates for the continued storage alternative are based on a life-cycle of 27 years through the year 2020. Cost estimates for the recycle alternative are based on existing conversion process costs and Capital costs for fabricating the containers. Additionally, the recycle alternative accounts for costs associated with intermediate product resale and secondary waste disposal for materials generated during the conversion process

  20. Depolarization-mediated regulation of alternative splicing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok eSharma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing in eukaryotes plays an important role in regulating gene expression by selectively including alternative exons. A wealth of information has been accumulated that explains how alternative exons are selected in a developmental stage- or tissue-specific fashion. However, our knowledge of how cells respond to environmental changes to alter alternative splicing is very limited. For example, although a number of alternative exons have been shown to be regulated by calcium level alterations, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. As calcium signaling in neurons plays a crucial role in essential neuronal functions such as learning and memory formation, it is important to understand how this process is regulated at every level in gene expression. The significance of the dynamic control of alternative splicing in response to changes of calcium levels has been largely unappreciated. In this communication, we will summarize the recent advances in calcium signaling-mediated alternative splicing that have provided some insights into the important regulatory mechanisms. In addition to describing the cis-acting RNA elements on the pre-mRNA molecules that respond to changes of intracellular calcium levels, we will summarize how splicing regulators change and affect alternative splicing in this process. We will also discuss a novel mode of calcium-mediated splicing regulation at the level of chromatin structure and transcription.

  1. Alternative Auditing Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandt, Alicen J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-15

    This presentation for the 2017 Energy Exchange in Tampa, Florida, offers information about advanced auditing technologies and techniques including alternative auditing approaches and considerations and caveats.

  2. Brandmodstandsbidrag for alternative isoleringsmaterialer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2001-01-01

    Resume af rapport om alternative isoleringsmaterialers brandmodstandsbidrag, udarbejdet af Dansk Brandteknisk Institut under Energistyrelsens udviklingsprogram "Miljø- og arbejdsmiljøvenlig isolering"......Resume af rapport om alternative isoleringsmaterialers brandmodstandsbidrag, udarbejdet af Dansk Brandteknisk Institut under Energistyrelsens udviklingsprogram "Miljø- og arbejdsmiljøvenlig isolering"...

  3. Anvendelse af alternative isoleringsmaterialer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2003-01-01

    Resume af By og Byg Anvisning 207 om anvendelse af alternative isoleringsmaterialer, udarbejdet af Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut under udviklingsprogrammet "Miljø- og arbejdsmiljøvenlig isolering"......Resume af By og Byg Anvisning 207 om anvendelse af alternative isoleringsmaterialer, udarbejdet af Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut under udviklingsprogrammet "Miljø- og arbejdsmiljøvenlig isolering"...

  4. Acquisition of Voicing Alternations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhoff, Annemarie

    "Morpho-phonological alternations are central to phonological theory, but little is known about how they are acquired. Acquiring alternations amounts to dealing with variation in a morpheme’s shape depending on its morphological context. It is generally assumed that children start with an initial

  5. Alternative health insurance schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Hansen, Bodil O.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present a simple model of health insurance with asymmetric information, where we compare two alternative ways of organizing the insurance market. Either as a competitive insurance market, where some risks remain uninsured, or as a compulsory scheme, where however, the level...... competitive insurance; this situation turns out to be at least as good as either of the alternatives...

  6. HL-LHC alternatives

    CERN Document Server

    Tomás, R; White, S

    2014-01-01

    The HL-LHC parameters assume unexplored regimes for hadron colliders in various aspects of accelerator beam dynamics and technology. This paper reviews three alternatives that could potentially improve the LHC performance: (i) the alternative filling scheme 8b+4e, (ii) the use of a 200 MHz RF system in the LHC and (iii) the use of proton cooling methods to reduce the beam emittance (at top energy and at injection). The alternatives are assessed in terms of feasibility, pros and cons, risks versus benefits and the impact on beam availability.

  7. Alternative loop rings

    CERN Document Server

    Goodaire, EG; Polcino Milies, C

    1996-01-01

    For the past ten years, alternative loop rings have intrigued mathematicians from a wide cross-section of modern algebra. As a consequence, the theory of alternative loop rings has grown tremendously. One of the main developments is the complete characterization of loops which have an alternative but not associative, loop ring. Furthermore, there is a very close relationship between the algebraic structures of loop rings and of group rings over 2-groups. Another major topic of research is the study of the unit loop of the integral loop ring. Here the interaction between loop rings and group ri

  8. Alternative gravity theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francaviglia, M.

    1990-01-01

    Although general relativity is a well-established discipline the theory deserves efforts aimed at producing alternative or more general frameworks for investigating the classical properties of gravity. These are either devoted to producing alternative viewpoints or interpretations of standard general relativity, or at constructing, discussing and proposing experimental tests for alternative descriptions of the dynamics of the gravitational field and its interaction (or unification) with external matter fields. Classical alternative theories of gravitation can roughly classified as follows; theories based on a still 4-dimensional picture, under the assumption that the dynamics of the gravitational field is more complicated than Einstein's and theories based on higher-dimensional pictures. This leads to supergravity and strings which are not included here. Theories based on higher-dimensional pictures on the assumption that space-time is replaced by a higher-dimensional manifold. Papers on these classifications are reviewed. (author)

  9. Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... therapies are often lacking; therefore, the safety and effectiveness of many CAM therapies are uncertain. The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) is sponsoring research designed to fill this ...

  10. Alternative Menopause Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... menopausal symptoms. These include estrogen—still the most effective treatment for many menopausal symptoms—non-estrogen prescription drugs, and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). What is CAM? CAM refers to practices ...

  11. Seal design alternatives study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Sambeek, L.L.; Luo, D.D.; Lin, M.S.; Ostrowski, W.; Oyenuga, D.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results from a study of various sealing alternatives for the WIPP sealing system. Overall, the sealing system has the purpose of reducing to the extent possible the potential for fluids (either gas or liquid) from entering or leaving the repository. The sealing system is divided into three subsystems: drift and panel seals within the repository horizon, shaft seals in each of the four shafts, and borehole seals. Alternatives to the baseline configuration for the WIPP seal system design included evaluating different geometries and schedules for seal component installations and the use of different materials for seal components. Order-of-magnitude costs for the various alternatives were prepared as part of the study. Firm recommendations are not presented, but the advantages and disadvantages of the alternatives are discussed. Technical information deficiencies are identified and studies are outlined which can provide required information

  12. Bone Graft Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spine Treatment Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND A SPECIALIST Treatments Bone Graft Alternatives Patient Education Committee Patient Education Committee ... procedure such as spinal fusion. What Types of Bone Grafts are There? Bone grafts that are transplanted ...

  13. Alternative Assessment Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenthal, Barbara

    1988-01-01

    Maintaining the precision necessary for administering norm referenced tests can be a problem for the special education teacher who is trained to assist the student. Criterion-referenced tests, observations, and interviews are presented as effective alternative assessment techniques. (JDD)

  14. Evaluation of Expenditure Alternates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehlein, Gary W.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Illustrates a system of calculating dollar expenditures over periods of time in terms of present value. The system enables planners, school boards, and administrators to compare expenditure alternatives as a decisionmaking factor. (Author)

  15. Alternative fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penn, W.J.

    1979-05-01

    Uranium resource utilization and economic considerations provide incentives to study alternative fuel cycles as future options to the PHWR natural uranium cycle. Preliminary studies to define the most favourable alternatives and their possible introduction dates are discussed. The important and uncertain components which influence option selection are reviewed, including nuclear capacity growth, uranium availability and demand, economic potential, and required technological developments. Finally, a summary of Ontario Hydro's program to further assess cycle selection and define development needs is given. (auth)

  16. The alternative library

    OpenAIRE

    Collinson, Timothy; Williams, A.

    2004-01-01

    Much time and effort has been devoted to designing and developing library Web sites that are easy to navigate by both new students and experienced researchers. In a review of the Southampton Institute Library it was decided that in addition to updating the existing homepage an alternative would be offered. Drawing on theory relating to user interface design, learning styles and creative thinking, an Alternative Library navigation system was added to the more traditional library homepage. The ...

  17. Alternative drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, M E; Chenoweth, J; Albertson, T E

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of drug abuse with alternative agents is increasing. The term "alternative drugs of abuse" is a catch-all term for abused chemicals that do not fit into one of the classic categories of drugs of abuse. The most common age group abusing these agents range from 17 to 25 years old and are often associated with group settings. Due to their diverse pharmacological nature, legislative efforts to classify these chemicals as a schedule I drug have lagged behind the development of new alternative agents. The potential reason for abuse of these agents is their hallucinogenic, dissociative, stimulant, anti-muscarinic, or sedative properties. Some of these drugs are easily obtainable such as Datura stramonium (Jimson Weed) or Lophophora williamsii (Peyote) because they are natural plants indigenous to certain regions. The diverse pharmacology and clinical effects of these agents are so broad that they do not produce a universal constellation of signs and symptoms. Detailed physical exams are essential for identifying clues leading one to suspect an alternative drug of abuse. Testing for the presence of these agents is often limited, and even when available, the results do not return in a timely fashion. Intoxications from these agents pose unique challenges for health care providers. Physician knowledge of the physiological effects of these alternative agents and the local patterns of drug of abuse are important for the accurate diagnosis and optimal care of poisoned patients. This review summarizes the current knowledge of alternative drugs of abuse and highlights their clinical presentations.

  18. Alternative Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, M.; Duckers, L.; Lockett, P.; Loughridge, B.; Peatfield, T.; White, P.

    1984-01-01

    The Coventry (Lanchester) Polytechnic Wave Energy Group has been involved in the United Kingdom wave energy research programme since its inception in 1975. Whilst the work of the group is mainly concerned with wave energy, and currently is directed towards the design of a wave energy device tailored to the needs of isolated/island communities, it has some involvement with other aspects of the alternatives. This conference, dealing with alternative energy systems and their electrical integration and utilisation was engendered by the general interest which the Polytechnic group members have in the alternatives and their use. The scope for electrical integration and utilisation is very broad. Energy for family groups may be provided in a relatively unsophisticated way which is acceptable to them. Small population centres, for example island communities relying upon diesel equipment, can reap the benefits of the alternatives through their ability to accept novel integration schemes and a flexible approach to the use of the energy available. Consumers already enjoying the benefits of a 'firm' electricity grid supply can use energy from a variety of alternative systems, via the grid, without having to modify their energy consumption habits. In addition to the domestic and industrial applications and coastal possibilities, specialist applications in isolated environments have also emerged. The Proceedings detail practical, technical and economic aspects of the alternatives and their electrical integration and utilisation.

  19. on some properties of the alternating sylvester series and alternating

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    . (iii) above is known in literature as the alternating Sylvester series while (iv) is known as the alternating Engel expansion (Kalpazidou and Ganatsiou (1991)). We are interested in studying the properties of these alternating series. Theorem 2: ...

  20. Alternative Splicing in Neurogenesis and Brain Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chun-Hao; D, Dhananjaya; Tarn, Woan-Yuh

    2018-01-01

    Alternative splicing of precursor mRNA is an important mechanism that increases transcriptomic and proteomic diversity and also post-transcriptionally regulates mRNA levels. Alternative splicing occurs at high frequency in brain tissues and contributes to every step of nervous system development, including cell-fate decisions, neuronal migration, axon guidance, and synaptogenesis. Genetic manipulation and RNA sequencing have provided insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of alternative splicing in stem cell self-renewal and neuronal fate specification. Timely expression and perhaps post-translational modification of neuron-specific splicing regulators play important roles in neuronal development. Alternative splicing of many key transcription regulators or epigenetic factors reprograms the transcriptome and hence contributes to stem cell fate determination. During neuronal differentiation, alternative splicing also modulates signaling activity, centriolar dynamics, and metabolic pathways. Moreover, alternative splicing impacts cortical lamination and neuronal development and function. In this review, we focus on recent progress toward understanding the contributions of alternative splicing to neurogenesis and brain development, which has shed light on how splicing defects may cause brain disorders and diseases.

  1. Alternative Splicing in Neurogenesis and Brain Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Hao Su

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing of precursor mRNA is an important mechanism that increases transcriptomic and proteomic diversity and also post-transcriptionally regulates mRNA levels. Alternative splicing occurs at high frequency in brain tissues and contributes to every step of nervous system development, including cell-fate decisions, neuronal migration, axon guidance, and synaptogenesis. Genetic manipulation and RNA sequencing have provided insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of alternative splicing in stem cell self-renewal and neuronal fate specification. Timely expression and perhaps post-translational modification of neuron-specific splicing regulators play important roles in neuronal development. Alternative splicing of many key transcription regulators or epigenetic factors reprograms the transcriptome and hence contributes to stem cell fate determination. During neuronal differentiation, alternative splicing also modulates signaling activity, centriolar dynamics, and metabolic pathways. Moreover, alternative splicing impacts cortical lamination and neuronal development and function. In this review, we focus on recent progress toward understanding the contributions of alternative splicing to neurogenesis and brain development, which has shed light on how splicing defects may cause brain disorders and diseases.

  2. Traumatic and alternating delayed intracranial hematomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesoin, F.; Redford, H.; Jomin, M.; Viaud, C.; Pruvo, J.

    1984-11-01

    Repeat computed tomography has enabled us to confirm the concept of delayed hematomas. With this in mind we report two cases of alternating, post-traumatic intracranial hematomas; confirming also the role of tamponade after surgical removal of an intracranial hematoma.

  3. Traumatic and alternating delayed intracranial hematomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesoin, F.; Redford, H.; Jomin, M.; Viaud, C.; Pruvo, J.

    1984-01-01

    Repeat computed tomography has enabled us to confirm the concept of delayed hematomas. With this in mind we report two cases of alternating, post-traumatic intracranial hematomas; confirming also the role of tamponade after surgical removal of an intracranial hematoma. (orig.)

  4. Alternative pricing methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    With the increased interest in competitive market forces and growing recognition of the deficiencies in current practices, FERC and others are exploring alternatives to embedded cost pricing. A number of these alternatives are discussed in this chapter. Marketplace pricing, discussed briefly here, is the subject of the next chapter. Obviously, the pricing formula may combine several of these methodologies. One utility of which the authors are aware is seeking a price equal to the sum of embedded costs, opportunity costs, line losses, value of service, FERC's percentage adder formula and a contract service charge

  5. Flued head replacement alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smetters, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses flued head replacement options. Section 2 discusses complete flued head replacement with a design that eliminates the inaccessible welds. Section 3 discusses alternate flued head support designs that can drastically reduce flued head installation costs. Section 4 describes partial flued head replacement designs. Finally, Section 5 discusses flued head analysis methods. (orig./GL)

  6. Alternative inerting agents

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Final Project Report ALTERNATIVE INERTING AGENTS Author/s: J J L DU PLESSIS Research Agency: OSIR MINING TECHNOLOGY Project No: Date: 3 2 7 2 COL 443 APRIL 1999 N’ ) ( G~6~ I Title: 9 / The results show...

  7. Alternate energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens-Guille, P.D.

    1975-01-01

    The author highlights the interesting points made by the speeches during the conference on Energy and its Future in Southern Africa. He also draws attention to potential alternate energy sources such as power from tides, ocean waves, ocean temperature differences and geothermal power

  8. Phrasal alternation in Kerinci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ernanda, N.

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation is a descriptive study of a linguistic phenomenon known as phrasal alternation, focusing on the Pondok Tinggi (PT) dialect of Kerinci, spoken in Indonesia. In essence, almost every Kerinci word displays two forms, labeled absolute and oblique. These forms differ in the shape of

  9. Alternative Energy Busing

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFee, Scott

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, school districts have converted portions of their bus fleets to cleaner-burning, sometimes cheaper, alternative fossil fuels, such as compressed natural gas or propane. Others have adopted biodiesel, which combines regular diesel with fuel derived from organic sources, usually vegetable oils or animal fats. The number of biodiesel…

  10. Energy conversion alternatives study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shure, L. T.

    1979-01-01

    Comparison of coal based energy systems is given. Study identifies and compares various advanced energy conversion systems using coal or coal derived fuels for baselaoad electric power generation. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS) reports provede government, industry, and general public with technically consistent basis for comparison of system's options of interest for fossilfired electric-utility application.

  11. Alternatives in solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schueler, D. G.

    1978-01-01

    Although solar energy has the potential of providing a significant source of clean and renewable energy for a variety of applications, it is expected to penetrate the nation's energy economy very slowly. The alternative solar energy technologies which employ direct collection and conversion of solar radiation as briefly described.

  12. Alternative Work Schedules: Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of the College and University Personnel Association, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The term "alternative work schedules" encompasses any variation of the requirement that all permanent employees in an organization or one shift of employees adhere to the same five-day, seven-to-eight-hour schedule. This article defines staggered hours, flexible working hours (flexitour and gliding time), compressed work week, the task system, and…

  13. Alternatives to Traditional Notation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaare, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Provides a introduction and overview to alternative music notation systems. Describes guitar tablature, accordion tablature, klavarskribo (a keyboard notational system developed by Cornelius Pot, a Dutch engineer), and the digital piano roll. Briefly discusses the history of notation reform and current efforts. Includes examples from scores. (MJP)

  14. Compensated pulsed alternator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weldon, W.F.; Driga, M.D.; Woodson, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to an electromechanical energy converter with inertial energy storage. The device, a single phase, two or multi-pole alternator with stationary field coils, and a rotating armature is provided. The rotor itself may be of laminated steel for slower pulses or for faster pulses should be nonmagnetic and electrically nonconductive in order to allow rapid penetration of the field as the armature coil rotates. The armature coil comprises a plurality of power generating conductors mounted on the rotor. The alternator may also include a stationary or counterrotating compensating coil to increase the output voltage thereof and to reduce the internal impedance of the alternator at the moment of peak output. As the machine voltage rises sinusoidally, an external trigger switch is adapted to be closed at the appropriate time to create the desired output current from said alternator to an external load circuit, and as the output current passes through zero a self-commutating effect is provided to allow the switch to disconnect the generator from the external circuit

  15. TWTF design alternates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayers, A.L. Sr.

    1982-03-01

    The Transuranic Waste Treatment Facility (TWTF) will process transuranic (TRU) waste in retrievable storage at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The costs for a TWTF concept using a slagging pyrolysis incinerator were excessive. Alternate concepts using a slow speed shredder, a rotary kiln incinerator, and concrete immobilization should result in significant cost reductions. These will be included in future TWTF considerations

  16. Publishing: Alternatives and Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penchansky, Mimi; And Others

    The Library Association of the City University of New York presents an annotated bibliography on the subject of small and alternative publishing. In the first section directories, indexes, catalogs, and reviews are briefly described. Book distributors for small publishers are listed next. The major portion of the bibliography is a listing of books…

  17. The Alternative to Occupy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Emil; Hansen, Allan Dreyer

    2017-01-01

    the institutionalization of radical politics (as carried out by The Alternative) entails a move from universality towards particularity. This move, however, comes with the risk of cutting-off supporters who no longer feel represented by the project. We refer to this problem as ‘the problem of particularization...

  18. Alternative Energy Development and China's Energy Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David

    2011-06-15

    used to evaluate the energy and emission impact of two pathways of alternative energy development. The results show that China can only meets its 2015 and 2020 targets for non-fossil penetration if it successfully achieves all of its capacity targets for 2020 with continued expansion through 2030. To achieve this level of alternative generation, significant amounts of raw materials including 235 Mt of concrete, 54 Mt of steel, 5 Mt of copper along with 3 billion tons of water and 64 thousand square kilometers of land are needed. China’s alternative energy supply will likely have relatively high average energy output to fossil fuel input ratio of 42 declining to 26 over time, but this ratio is largely skewed by nuclear and hydropower capacity. With successful alternative energy development, 32% of China’s electricity and 21% of its total primary energy will be supplied by alternative energy by 2030. Compared to the counterfactual baseline in which alternative energy development stumbles and China does not meet its capacity targets until 2030, alternative energy development can displace 175 Mtce of coal inputs per year and 2080 Mtce cumulatively from power generation by 2030. In carbon terms, this translates into 5520 Mt of displaced CO2 emissions over the twenty year period, with more than half coming from expanded nuclear and wind power generation. These results illustrate the critical role that alternative energy development can play alongside energy efficiency in reducing China’s energy-related carbon emissions.

  19. Functional and evolutionary analysis of alternatively spliced genes is consistent with an early eukaryotic origin of alternative splicing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny David

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternative splicing has been reported in various eukaryotic groups including plants, apicomplexans, diatoms, amoebae, animals and fungi. However, whether widespread alternative splicing has evolved independently in the different eukaryotic groups or was inherited from their last common ancestor, and may therefore predate multicellularity, is still unknown. To better understand the origin and evolution of alternative splicing and its usage in diverse organisms, we studied alternative splicing in 12 eukaryotic species, comparing rates of alternative splicing across genes of different functional classes, cellular locations, intron/exon structures and evolutionary origins. Results For each species, we find that genes from most functional categories are alternatively spliced. Ancient genes (shared between animals, fungi and plants show high levels of alternative splicing. Genes with products expressed in the nucleus or plasma membrane are generally more alternatively spliced while those expressed in extracellular location show less alternative splicing. We find a clear correspondence between incidence of alternative splicing and intron number per gene both within and between genomes. In general, we find several similarities in patterns of alternative splicing across these diverse eukaryotes. Conclusion Along with previous studies indicating intron-rich genes with weak intron boundary consensus and complex spliceosomes in ancestral organisms, our results suggest that at least a simple form of alternative splicing may already have been present in the unicellular ancestor of plants, fungi and animals. A role for alternative splicing in the evolution of multicellularity then would largely have arisen by co-opting the preexisting process.

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center : Biodiesel to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel on

  1. Alternative types of roundabouts an informational guide

    CERN Document Server

    Tollazzi, Tomaž

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a history of roundabouts, an introduction to their design, calculations of their capacity and traffic-safety features. It describes the key features of standard roundabouts and their limitations. Alternative types of roundabouts are a fairly recent development and have only been implemented in a few countries to date. The book illustrates a broad variety of these recent alternative types of roundabouts, as well as proposed types still in the development phase, explaining for each the specific needs it meets, its advantages and drawbacks. In closing, the book offers an outlook on the role of roundabouts in future street traffic.

  2. Alternative Genres in Information Systems Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avital, Michel; Mathiassen, Lars; Schultze, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    discuss thenature of the academic article genre and the role of alternative ways of writing.We also introduce the six exemplars of alternative genres in the special issue,namely conversation, French new novel, meditation, memoir, allegory, andcrowdsourced research. We highlight key insights....... Furthermore, we wishto encourage Information Systems (IS) scholars to leverage a wider array ofalternative genres to present their research in order to develop new insights onsubject matters of interest to the IS discipline, as well as expand on howcontemporary and emergent phenomena of interest are conceived...... and contemplate theirimplications for current and future IS research....

  3. Alternative propulsion for automobiles

    CERN Document Server

    Stan, Cornel

    2017-01-01

    The book presents – based on the most recent research and development results worldwide - the perspectives of new propulsion concepts such as electric cars with batteries and fuel cells, and furthermore plug in hybrids with conventional and alternative fuels. The propulsion concepts are evaluated based on specific power, torque characteristic, acceleration behaviour, specific fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. The alternative fuels are discussed in terms of availability, production, technical complexity of the storage on board, costs, safety and infrastructure. The book presents summarized data about vehicles with electric and hybrid propulsion. The propulsion of future cars will be marked by diversity – from compact electric city cars and range extender vehicles for suburban and rural areas up to hybrid or plug in SUV´s, Pick up´s and luxury class automobiles.

  4. Alternative international currencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozhentsova Vladimirovna Elena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern international monetary system has a number of flaws and therefore needs cardinal change. Hence, economists from all over the world are suggesting alternative international currencies that would make the international monetary system more efficient. However, it is essential when approaching the creation of a new international currency to analyze and take into account the experience of all the past international currencies. Therefore this paper begins with an exploration of the drawbacks of each of the past and present international currencies. Drawing on this analysis a justification will be made for the necessity of introducing a new international currency, pointing to the requirements it should meet. Further on, this paper proposes an alternative theoretically possible variant of the international currency, with a fixed value relative to a commodity basket. An abstract example is used to demonstrate its composition and circulation mechanism.

  5. Radioactive waste management alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranowski, F.P.

    1976-01-01

    The information in the US ERDA ''Technical Alternatives Document'' is summarized. The first two points show that waste treatment, interim storage and transportation technologies for all wastes are currently available. Third, an assessment of integrated waste management systems is needed. One such assessment will be provided in our expanded waste management environmental statement currently planned for release in about one year. Fourth, geologies expected to be suitable for final geologic storage are known. Fifth, repository system assessment methods, that is a means to determine and assess the acceptability of a terminal storage facility for nonretrievable storage, must and will be prepared. Sixth, alternatives to geologic storage are not now available. Seventh, waste quantities and characteristics are sensitive to technologies and fuel-cycle modes, and therefore an assessment of these technologies and modes is important. Eighth, and most important, it is felt that the LWR fuel cycle can be closed with current technologies

  6. Alternative Immune Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Cadavid Gutierrez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The immune system in animals is a complex network of molecules, cells and tissues that coordinately maintain the physiological and genetic integrity of the organism. Traditionally, two classes of immunity have been considered, the innate immunity and the adaptive immunity. The former is ancestral, with limited variability and low discrimination. The latter is highly variable, specific and limited to jawed vertebrates. Adaptive immunity is based on antigen receptors that rearrange somatically to generate a nearly unlimited diversity of molecules. Likely, this mechanism of somatic recombination arose as a consequence of a horizontal transfer of transposons and transposases from bacterial genomes in the ancestor of jawed vertebrates. The recent discovery in jawless vertebrates and invertebrates of alternative adaptive immune mechanisms, suggests during evolution different animal groups have found alternative solutions to the problem of immune recognition.

  7. [Alternatives to animal testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Isabelle

    2009-11-01

    The use of alternative methods to animal testing are an integral part of the 3Rs concept (refine, reduce, replace) defined by Russel & Burch in 1959. These approaches include in silico methods (databases and computer models), in vitro physicochemical analysis, biological methods using bacteria or isolated cells, reconstructed enzyme systems, and reconstructed tissues. Emerging "omic" methods used in integrated approaches further help to reduce animal use, while stem cells offer promising approaches to toxicologic and pathophysiologic studies, along with organotypic cultures and bio-artificial organs. Only a few alternative methods can so far be used in stand-alone tests as substitutes for animal testing. The best way to use these methods is to integrate them in tiered testing strategies (ITS), in which animals are only used as a last resort.

  8. Alternative nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.

    1979-01-01

    This diffuse subject involves value judgments that are political as well as technical, and is best understood in that context. The four questions raised here, however, are mostly from the technical viewpoints: (1) what are alternative nuclear fuel cycles; (2) what generalizations are possible about their characteristics; (3) what are the major practical considerations; and (4) what is the present situation and what can be said about the outlook for the future

  9. Alternative REST Splicing Underappreciated

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Guo-Lin; Miller, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    As a major orchestrator of the cellular epigenome, the repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor (REST) can either repress or activate thousands of genes depending on cellular context, suggesting a highly context-dependent REST function tuned by environmental cues. While REST shows cell-type non-selective active transcription, an N-terminal REST4 isoform caused by alternative splicing - inclusion of an extra exon (N3c) which introduces a pre-mature stop codon - has been implicated in...

  10. The renewable alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses renewable energy sources as an alternative to a fossil fuel based economy. The topics discussed in the chapter include the historic aspects and current status of use of renewable energy, status of the renewable energy industry, market barriers to renewable energy, research and development and commercialization of renewable energy, the environmental and social costs associated with renewable energy, valuing future costs and benefits of energy use, and the potential market of renewable energy

  11. Metamaterials critique and alternatives

    CERN Document Server

    Munk, Ben A

    2009-01-01

    A Convincing and Controversial Alternative Explanation of Metamaterials with a Negative Index of Refraction In a book that will generate both support and controversy, one of the world's foremost authorities on periodic structures addresses several of the current fashions in antenna design-most specifically, the popular subject of double negative metamaterials. Professor Munk provides a comprehensive theoretical electromagnetic investigation of the issues and concludes that many of the phenomena claimed by researchers may be impossible. While denying the existence of negative refractio

  12. ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Irina IONESCU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Alternative dispute resolution (ADR includes dispute resolution processes and techniques that act as a means for disagreeing parties to come to an agreement short of litigation. It is a collective term for the ways that parties can settle disputes, with (or without the help of a third party. Despite historic resistance to ADR by many popular parties and their advocates, ADR has gained widespread acceptance among both the general public and the legal profession in recent years. In fact, some courts now require some parties to resort to ADR of some type, before permitting the parties' cases to be tried. The rising popularity of ADR can be explained by the increasing caseload of traditional courts, the perception that ADR imposes fewer costs than litigation, a preference for confidentiality, and the desire of some parties to have greater control over the selection of the individual or individuals who will decide their dispute. Directive 2013/11/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council on alternative dispute resolution for consumer disputes and amending Regulation (EC No 2006/2004 and Directive 2009/22/EC (hereinafter „Directive 2013/11/EU” aims to ensure a high level of consumer protection and the proper functioning of the internal market by ensuring that complaints against traders can be submitted by consumers on a voluntary basis, to entities of alternative disputes which are independent, impartial, transparent, effective, simple,quick and fair. Directive 2013/11/EU establishes harmonized quality requirements for entities applying alternative dispute resolution procedure (hereinafter "ADR entity" to provide the same protection and the same rights of consumers in all Member States. Besides this, the present study is trying to present broadly how are all this trasposed in the romanian legislation.

  13. Alternative energy review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    A review is presented of electricity generation technologies which are considered to be alternatives to more conventional technologies. The review is limited to those technologies which have application in Ontario, and provides descriptions, technical and economic assessments, environmental information, and forecasts of potential use of solar energy, wind energy, fuel cells, biomass energy, peat, and municipal solid wastes. Of these technologies, only municipal solid waste combustion is economically viable under current conditions, but government policies prohibit the implementation of new facilities. Certain photovoltaic and wind energy technologies are being found viable for remote sites unconnected to the power grid. Wood waste combustion is viable in the forest products industry. The total potential contribution of these six alternative technologies to Ontario's energy production is forecast at under 190 MW to a range of 685-1,465 MW by the year 2005, according to three different scenarios. The technologies showing the greatest future promise are fuel cells, photovoltaics, and biomass. Except for municipal waste combustion, cost continues to be a significant barrier to utility-scale application of alternative generation technologies in Ontario. However, private individuals and corporations (non-utility generators) may adopt some of these technologies in the absence of access to the power grid, in cogeneration applications, or for demonstration purposes. 120 refs., 79 figs., 93 tabs

  14. State alternative route designations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a ''state routing agency,'' defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective

  15. Urban Transportation Planning Short Course: Evaluation of Alternative Transportation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Highway Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This urban transportation pamphlet delves into the roles of policy groups and technical staffs in evaluating alternative transportation plans, evaluation criteria, systems to evaluate, and evaluation procedures. The introduction admits the importance of subjective, but informed, judgment as an effective tool in weighing alternative transportation…

  16. Quantitative regulation of alternative splicing in evolution and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irimia, Manuel; Rukov, Jakob L; Roy, Scott W

    2009-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) is a widespread mechanism with an important role in increasing transcriptome and proteome diversity by generating multiple different products from the same gene. Evolutionary studies of AS have focused primarily on the conservation of alternatively spliced sequences or o...

  17. 33 CFR 154.1026 - Qualified individual and alternate qualified individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... alternate must: (1) Be located in the United States; (2) Speak fluent English; (3) Be familiar with the... facility may designate an organization to fulfill the role of the qualified individual and the alternate...

  18. Energy and power alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messerle, H.K.

    1992-01-01

    Taking into consideration the need for a safe energy supply, rising demand for energy worldwide and limited oil reserves, alternative energy resources for bulk power are discussed. They are nuclear fuel, fluidized bed combustion of coal, coal gasification with combined cycle process, coal-oil mixture combustion and MHD power generation process. It is pointed out that the major environmental impact of fossil fuels is in accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and air pollution due to sulphur emission. (M.G.B.)

  19. Alternate fusion fuels workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    The workshop was organized to focus on a specific confinement scheme: the tokamak. The workshop was divided into two parts: systems and physics. The topics discussed in the systems session were narrowly focused on systems and engineering considerations in the tokamak geometry. The workshop participants reviewed the status of system studies, trade-offs between d-t and d-d based reactors and engineering problems associated with the design of a high-temperature, high-field reactor utilizing advanced fuels. In the physics session issues were discussed dealing with high-beta stability, synchrotron losses and transport in alternate fuel systems. The agenda for the workshop is attached

  20. Alternate fuels; Combustibles alternos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Paredes R, Hernando; Ambriz G, Juan Jose [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana. Iztapalapa (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    In the definition and description of alternate fuels we must center ourselves in those technological alternatives that allow to obtain compounds that differ from the traditional ones, in their forms to be obtained. In this article it is tried to give an overview of alternate fuels to the conventional derivatives of petroleum and that allow to have a clear idea on the tendencies of modern investigation and the technological developments that can be implemented in the short term. It is not pretended to include all the tendencies and developments of the present world, but those that can hit in a relatively short term, in accordance with agreed with the average life of conventional fuels. Nevertheless, most of the conversion principles are applicable to the spectrum of carbonaceous or cellulosic materials which are in nature, are cultivated or wastes of organic origin. Thus one will approach them in a successive way, the physical, chemical and biological conversions that can take place in a production process of an alternate fuel or the same direct use of the fuel such as burning the sweepings derived from the forests. [Spanish] En la definicion y descripcion de combustibles alternos nos debemos centrar en aquellas alternativas tecnologicas que permitan obtener compuestos que difieren de los tradicionales, al menos en sus formas de ser obtenidos. En este articulo se pretende dar un panorama de los combustibles alternos a los convencionales derivados del petroleo y que permita tener una idea clara sobre las tendencias de la investigacion moderna y los desarrollos tecnologicos que puedan ser implementados en el corto plazo. No se pretende abarcar todas las tendencias y desarrollos del mundo actual, sino aquellas que pueden impactar en un plazo relativamente corto, acordes con la vida media de los combustibles convencionales. Sin embargo, la mayor parte de los principios de conversion son aplicables al espectro de materiales carbonaceos o celulosicos los cuales se

  1. Alternatives to Seesaw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, Hitoshi

    2004-01-01

    The seesaw mechanism is attractive not only because it 'explains' small neutrino mass, but also because of its packaging with the SUSY-GUT, leptogenesis, Dark Matter, and electroweak symmetry breaking. However, this package has the flavor, CP, and gravitino problems. I discuss two alternatives to the seesaw mechanism. In one of them, the anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking solves these problems, while predicts naturally light Dirac neutrinos. In the other, the light Majorana neutrinos arise from supersymmetry breaking with right-handed neutrinos below TeV, and the Dark Matter and collider phenomenology are significantly different.

  2. Alternatives to OPEC oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.

    1981-01-01

    This paper starts from the assumption that, for various reasons, the supply of OPEC oil required to meet a rising world energy demand will continue to be limited. Its purpose is to present a synoptic look at the various sources of energy which are alternatives to OPEC oil, with an economic commentary on the prospects for each source. A wide variety of projects are going forward for the development of non-OPEC oil, gas, coal, and nuclear power, as well as renewable energy resources. Special attention is devoted to questions of energy pricing, investment costs, and sources of finance. (author)

  3. Niobium technological alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinatti, D.G.; Dainesi, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    The process-product matrix of Niobium is presented, through which the technological alternatives for Niobium are identified. It is shown that the three axes of Niobium application, steels, superalloys and metallic Niobium have a tendency to be economical by equivalent. The critical points where technological development of Niobium is needed are analyzed and results are presented on the following products: Nb 2 O 5 by volatilization, metalic Niobium, Niobium powder, bars and sheets, NbTi alloy, corrosion resistent Niobium alloys and superconductor cable and wires. (Author) [pt

  4. Alternative energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, P.

    1978-01-01

    It is suggested that the development of alternative energy sources has made them more attractive than nuclear power, due to their characteristics, such as small scale and short lead times, moderate costs and minimal environmental impact. The objectives of energy policy are discussed in relation to forecasts of energy demand. Tables show (a) projected useful energy demands UK; (b) patterns of end-use of energy; (c) costs of heating fuels; (d) net present value of gas purchases; (e) useful-energy by end-use analysis; and (f) primary fuel summary 2025. The contributions of hydro, nuclear, waves, solar, oil, gas and coal are estimated to 2025. (U.K.)

  5. Dounreay: an alternative development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, K.

    1990-01-01

    With the Government decision to phase out the Fast Reactor at Dounreay there is a need to find alternative employment in the area. Traditionally Caithness is an area of farming, fishing and tourism which could be damaged if Dounreay were to be made a nuclear waste repository. The suggestion is that Dounreay should become a centre for research, development and subsequent manufacture of renewable energy sources and devices to harness renewable energy. The Scottish coastline has potential for wind and wave power developments and this could lead to a whole industry in the future. (UK)

  6. Alternate cover materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-09-01

    As an effort to enhance compliance with the proposed US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater standards, several special studies are being performed by the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) to identify and evaluate various design features that may reduce groundwater-related releases from tailings piles. The objective of this special study is to assess the suitability of using alternate cover materials (other than geomembranes) as infiltration barriers in Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project piles to minimize leachate generation. The materials evaluated in this study include various types of asphalts, concretes, and a sodium bentonite clay/polypropylene liner system

  7. Alternative Therapies for PKU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Spécola MD

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenylalanine (PHE-restricted diet has improved in quality and diversity over time and has proven to be effective in all patients. Nevertheless, this treatment imposes a heavy social and economic burden to patient and family and impacts quality of life. Sustained adherence to PHE restriction is difficult to maintain. Moreover, even patients with phenylketonuria (PKU with normal intelligence quotient (IQ have lower IQ than matched individuals without PKU and can have deficits in multiple other aspects of neuropsychological function, including cognitive and executive function, working memory. They can also have behavior problems, depression, and low self-esteem. In recent years, alternative treatments for PKU have been developed and their use has been indicated for some patients who are candidates for options besides traditional treatment. Sapropterindihydrochloride, large neutral amino acids, and glycomacropeptide are alternative treatment options in use for selected patients. The aim of this article is to review the current knowledge of these new approaches to PKU treatment.

  8. Ignition experiment - alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knobloch, A.F.

    1979-10-01

    This report comprises three short papers on cost estimates, integral burn time and alternative versions of Tokamak ignition experiments. These papers were discussed at the ZEPHYR workshop with participants from IPP Garching, MIT Cambridge and PPPL Princeton (Garching July 30 - August 2 1979) (Chapters A, B, C). It is shown, that starting from a practical parameter independent minimum integral burn time of Tokamak ignition experiments (some 10 3 s) by adding a shield for protection of the magnet insulation (permitted neutron dose 10 9 rad) an integral burn time of some 10 4 s can be achieved for only about 30% more outlay. For a substantially longer integral burn time the outlay approaches rather quickly that for a Tokamak reactor. Some examples for alternatives to ZEPHYR are being given, including some with low or no compression. In a further chapter D some early results of evaluating an ignition experiment on the basis of the energy confinement scaling put forward by Coppi and Mazzucato are presented. As opposed to the case of the Alcator scaling used in chapters A through C the minimum integral burn time of Tokamak ignition experiments here depends on the plasma current. Provided neutral injectors up to about 160 keV are available compression boosting is not required with this scaling. The results presented have been obtained neglecting the effects of the toroidal field ripple. (orig.) 891 HT/orig. 892 RKD [de

  9. Alternative donor transplantation--"mixing and matching": the role of combined cord blood and haplo-identical donor transplantation (haplo-cord SCT) as a treatment strategy for patients lacking standard donors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongtao; van Besien, Koen

    2015-03-01

    In the past decade, haplo-cord stem cell transplantation (SCT) using myeloablative or reduced intensive conditioning regimens has been shown to result in reliable and fast engraftment of neutrophils and platelets comparable to HLA-matched donors and much faster than after cord stem cell transplant. Haplo-cord SCT also has a low incidence of early non-relapse mortality, low incidences of acute and chronic graft-vs-host disease (GVHD), and excellent graft-vs-leukemia (GVL) effects. Favorable long-term outcomes for high-risk patients with hematologic malignancies have been reported, including older patients. Haplo-cord SCT will likely overcome the limitations of cell dose during cord stem cell selection and might significantly expand the use of cord stem cell transplant in the adult population. The comparable survival outcomes of matched related donor (MRD), matched unrelated donor (MUD), and haplo-cord stem cell transplant strongly argue that haplo-cord SCT should be considered as effective alternative stem cell transplant for high-risk patients lacking standard donors. Further improvement in supportive care and incorporation of a better understanding of the human fetal immune development into the haplo-cord SCT are required to further improve this strategy.

  10. Alternative thermodynamic cycle for the Stirling machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanelli, Alejandro

    2017-12-01

    We develop an alternative thermodynamic cycle for the Stirling machine, where the polytropic process plays a central role. Analytical expressions for pressure and temperatures of the working gas are obtained as a function of the volume and the parameter that characterizes the polytropic process. This approach achieves closer agreement with the experimental pressure-volume diagram and can be adapted to any type of Stirling engine.

  11. Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A A Listen En Español Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines It is best to get vitamins and minerals ... this section Medication Other Treatments Herbs, Supplements, and Alternative Medicines Types of Dietary Supplements Side Effects and Drug ...

  12. Alternative splicing in cancers: From aberrant regulation to new therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaowei; Zeng, Zhenyu; Wei, Huanhuan; Wang, Zefeng

    2018-03-01

    Alternative splicing is one of the most common mechanisms for gene regulation in humans, and plays a vital role to increase the complexity of functional proteins. In this article, we seek to provide a general review on the relationships between alternative splicing and tumorigenesis. We briefly introduce the basic rules for regulation of alternative splicing, and discuss recent advances on dynamic regulation of alternative splicing in cancers by highlighting the roles of a variety of RNA splicing factors in tumorigenesis. We further discuss several important questions regarding the splicing of long noncoding RNAs and back-splicing of circular RNAs in cancers. Finally, we discuss the current technologies that can be used to manipulate alternative splicing and serve as potential cancer treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Alternatives in Pragmatic Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degen, Judith

    2013-01-01

    In the face of underspecified utterances, listeners routinely and without much apparent effort make the right kinds of pragmatic inferences about a speaker's intended meaning. This dissertation investigates the processing of scalar implicatures as a way of addressing how listeners perform this remarkable feat. In particular, the role of context in…

  14. ALTERNATIVE FUELS FOR DIESEL ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Caban

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development and genesis of the use of alternative fuels in internal combustion ignition engines. Based on the analysis of the literature, this article shows various alternative fuels used in Poland and all over the world. Furthermore, this article describes the research directions for alternative fuels use in road transport powered by diesel engines.

  15. Comparing solar energy alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, J R

    1984-01-01

    The paper outlines a computational procedure for comparing the merits of alternative processes to convert solar radiation to heat, electrical power, or chemical energy. The procedure uses the ratio of equipment investment to useful work as an index. Comparisons with conversion counterparts based on conventional fuels are also facilitated by examining this index. The procedure is illustrated by comparisons of (1) photovoltaic converters of differing efficiencies; (2) photovoltaic converters with and without focusing concentrators; (3) photovoltaic conversion plus electrolysis vs photocatalysis for the production of hydrogen; (4) photovoltaic conversion plus plasma arcs vs photocatalysis for nitrogen fixation. Estimates for conventionally-fuelled processes are included for comparison. The reasons why solar-based concepts fare poorly in such comparisons are traced to the low energy density of solar radiation and its low stream time factor resulting from the limited number of daylight hours available and clouds obscuring the sun.

  16. Comparing solar energy alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, J R

    1984-01-01

    This paper outlines a computational procedure for comparing the merits of alternative processes to convert solar radiation to heat, electrical power, or chemical energy. The procedure uses the ratio of equipment investment to useful work as an index. Comparisons with conversion counterparts based on conventional fuels are also facilitated by examining this index. The procedure is illustrated by comparisons of (1) photovoltaic converters of differing efficiencies; (2) photovoltaic converters with and without focusing concentrators; (3) photovoltaic conversion plus electrolysis vs photocatalysis for the production of hydrogen; (4) photovoltaic conversion plus plasma arcs vs photocatalysis for nitrogen fixation. Estimates for conventionally-fuelled processes are included for comparison. The reasons why solar-based concepts fare poorly in such comparisons are traced to the low energy density of solar radiation and its low stream time factor resulting from the limited number of daylight hours available and clouds obscuring the sun. 11 references.

  17. Alternative to BGO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.F.

    1982-01-01

    For some applications, the scintillating crystal RaF 2 may be preferable to BGO. When coupled to a liquid TMAE photocathode and wire chamber, RaF 2 offers the possibility of an order of magnitude better timing resolution, ease of operating in strong magnetic fields, greater flexibility of design, and more information. For BGO its main advantage is its radiation length and its disadvantages are cost, timing, and difficulty of use in a magnetic field. The main advantages of RaF 2 are its timing, the ease of working in a magnetic field with a wire chamber, the flexibility of design, and greater information out. Its disadvantages are cost and its radiation length. Although BaF 2 has its own shortcomings, coupled to a LPC it has some unique strengths that make it a viable alternative to BGO in some applications of calorimetry in high energy physics

  18. Alternatives to neoliberalism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warring, Niels; Ahrenkiel, Annegrethe; Nielsen, Birger Steen

    This paper will discuss the consequences of neoliberal governance in Danish day care centres, the social educators’ response, and the possible development of alternatives based on collective participation of social educators and union representatives. We will show how important and unnoticed...... professional competencies come under pressure, and how collective interest representation is challenged. We will discuss how concepts of “gestural knowledge”, “coherence” and “rhythm” open for a new understanding of professional competence. And we will conclude that the social educators and their unions have...... the possibility to contribute to the development of a new welfare paradigm. The paper is based on material from two research projects (Ahrenkiel et al. 2009, 2011) involving social educators and union representatives in day care institutions. We have observed everyday work activities in day care centres...

  19. Alternate laser fusion drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleasance, L.D.

    1979-11-01

    One objective of research on inertial confinement fusion is the development of a power generating system based on this concept. Realization of this goal will depend on the availability of a suitable laser or other system to drive the power plant. The primary laser systems used for laser fusion research, Nd 3+ : Glass and CO 2 , have characteristics which may preclude their use for this application. Glass lasers are presently perceived to be incapable of sufficiently high average power operation and the CO 2 laser may be limited by and issues associated with target coupling. These general perceptions have encouraged a search for alternatives to the present systems. The search for new lasers has been directed generally towards shorter wavelengths; most of the new lasers discovered in the past few years have been in the visible and ultraviolet region of the spectrum. Virtually all of them have been advocated as the most promising candidate for a fusion driver at one time or another

  20. The alternative energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitzley, H.

    1989-02-01

    The alternative energy future can be achieved only by making energy conservation programmes successful, and by fully committing to the utilization of soft energy sources. This is the perspective drawn by the author who in this book investigates the fundamentals of an ecologically and socially sound energy policy for the future. Looking at California, USA, where completely near concepts have been put to work in the energy sector since the mid-seventies, the author shows how it can be done, by rewarding energy conserving activities, using available energy sources more efficiently, developing the means for renewable energy exploitation wherever appropriate. A turn in energy policy is feasible also in West Germany, both in technical and political terms. Starting from the experience gained in the USA, the author presents an outline of options and potentials of a new energy strategy for the Federal Republic of Germany. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Ordering alternatives in MCDM problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Baets, B.

    1994-01-01

    A new approach to the study of a set of alternatives in a multi-criteria decision making problem is presented. Alternatives are described by means of fuzzy sets in the set of criteria, expressing the degrees to which they fulfill the different criteria. The concept of a fuzzy inclusion is introduced and is discussed from an axiomatic point of view. To each implication operator corresponds a fuzzy inclusion. The fuzzy inclusion corresponding to the Goedel operator is used to measure the degree to which the scores of one alternative are contained in the scores of another one. Repeating this for all couples of alternatives yields a fuzzy quasi-order relation in a set of alternatives. The cuts of this fuzzy relation are then classical quasi-order relations: they express orderings of the alternatives, allowing alternatives to be indifferent or incomparable, corresponding to different degrees of confidence

  2. Expert systems: an alternative paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, M.; Alty, J.

    1984-01-01

    There has recently been a significant effort by the AI community to interest industry in the potential of expert systems. However, this has resulted in far fewer substantial applications projects than might be expected. This article argues that this is because human experts are rarely required to perform the role that computer-based experts are programmed to adopt. Instead of being called in to answer well-defined problems, they are more often asked to assist other experts to extend and refine their understanding of a problem area at the junction of their two domains of knowledge. This more properly involves educational rather than problem-solving skills. An alternative approach to expert system design is proposed based upon guided discovery learning. The user is provided with a supportive environment for a particular class of problem, the system predominantly acting as an adviser rather than directing the interaction. The environment includes a database of domain knowledge, a set of procedures for its application to a concrete problem, and an intelligent machine-based adviser to judge the user's effectiveness and advise on strategy. The procedures focus upon the use of user generated explanations both to promote the application of domain knowledge and to expose understanding difficulties. Simple database PROLOG is being used as the subject material for the prototype system which is known as MINDPAD. 30 references.

  3. Functional and evolutionary analysis of alternatively spliced genes is consistent with an early eukaryotic origin of alternative splicing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irimia, Manuel; Rukov, Jakob Lewin; Penny, David

    2007-01-01

    , and may therefore predate multicellularity, is still unknown. To better understand the origin and evolution of alternative splicing and its usage in diverse organisms, we studied alternative splicing in 12 eukaryotic species, comparing rates of alternative splicing across genes of different functional......, we find several similarities in patterns of alternative splicing across these diverse eukaryotes. CONCLUSION: Along with previous studies indicating intron-rich genes with weak intron boundary consensus and complex spliceosomes in ancestral organisms, our results suggest that at least a simple form...... of alternative splicing may already have been present in the unicellular ancestor of plants, fungi and animals. A role for alternative splicing in the evolution of multicellularity then would largely have arisen by co-opting the preexisting process....

  4. Contesting asthma medication: patients' view of alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopnina, Helen

    2010-08-01

    There are few studies pertaining to asthma patients' views on complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The driving question behind the study is why some asthma patients choose noncompliance to conventional western medicine and resort to other modalities, often deemed as being 'alternative,' 'complementary,' or 'integrated.' Does the patients' emancipation movement lead to greater awareness of the benefits of alternative medicine? Does the patients' identity as asthma sufferers play a role in their decision? Case studies based on semistructured interviews were conducted between June 2009 and January 2010 with 19 asthma patients in The Netherlands who have chosen complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Patients were contacted through online forum of Dutch asthma patients' organization Astma Fonds. We have discovered that on the whole patients in the present study were well informed about risks and benefits of both prescribed and alternative medicines. We have argued that noncompliance to medical regime by some asthma patients can be explained by the rationality of their choice based on evidence of clinical trials of commonly assigned asthma medication as well as partial and anecdotal evidence of the benefits of CAM therapies. It is the patients themselves who, by invoking the same evidence-based dominant paradigm choose to address the conflict between protagonists of 'conventional,' western medicine and other modalities. The author argues that asthma patients' noncompliance with (Western) medical regime and choice for alternative medical treatment of asthma is a matter of rational choice informed by evidence-based awareness. This evidence-based rationality particularly refers here to the patients' awareness of the rather controversial results of clinical trials of commonly used asthma medicines, particularly those containing elements of budesonide (Pulmicort), an anti-inflammatory corticosteroid, and formoterol (Oxis, Foradil), a rapid-acting and long

  5. The nuclear power alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blix, H.

    1989-04-01

    The Director General of the IAEA stressed the need for energy policies and other measures which would help to slow and eventually halt the present build-up of carbon dioxide, methane and other so-called greenhouse gases, which are held to cause global warming. He urged that nuclear power and various other sources of energy, none of which contribute to global warming, should not be seen as alternatives, but should all be used to counteract the greenhouse effect. He pointed out that the commercially used renewable energies, apart from hydropower, currently represent only 0.3% of the world's energy consumption and, by contrast, the 5% of the world's energy consumption coming from nuclear power is not insignificant. Dr. Blix noted that opposition for nuclear power stems from fear of accidents and concern about the nuclear wastes. But no generation of electricity, whether by coal, hydro, gas or nuclear power, is without some risk. He emphasized that safety can never be a static concept, and that many new measures are being taken by governments and by the IAEA to further strengthen the safety of nuclear power

  6. Lightweight superconducting alternators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keim, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    One of the most efficient and most lightweight means of converting high-temperature heat energy to electricity is a turboalternator set. Turboalternators are potentially important components of burst-mode power systems, either chemical or nuclear powered. Also, they are probable key components in future electric propulsion systems. Existing examples of multimegawatt turbomachines have been optimized for a variety of aerospace uses, ranging from aircraft propulsion to rocket engine fuel pump drives. There is no corresponding history of multimegawatt alternators built to aerospace standards of mass, performance, and reliability. This paper discusses one of the few such development efforts presently in progress, and gives an indication of possible future potential. In large power ratings, superconducting generators offer substantial power density, specific weight, and efficiency advantages over competing technologies. A program at GE has led to the construction of a lightweight high-voltage 20-MW generator with a superconducting field winding. The first part of this paper describes the design of the generator. The second projects the capabilities of the generator to other ratings

  7. Alternative energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiter, J P [N. V. Kema te Arnhem, NL

    1975-01-01

    A review of alternative energy sources is presented. Solar energy may be used by collecting the heat for direct use or by converting it to electricity. Flat-plate and concentrating collectors are described. Wind energy is an indirect form of solar energy, and has been used for many years in the Netherlands. Calculations of the efficiency of windmills, and of the useful available wind energy along the Netherlands' coastline, are provided. The conversion of organic waste to useable energy is described, including techniques of pyrolysis, combustion, and biological conversion. Tidal energy and ocean-thermal-gradient power plants are briefly described. Geothermal energy is a particularly attractive resource. The average temperature gradient is about 30/sup 0/C/km, ranging from 10/sup 0/C/km in South Africa to 150/sup 0/C/km in Italy. In the Netherlands it ranges from 20-50/sup 0/C/km. The various types of geothermal systems (steam, water, geopressured) are reviewed, and presently operating geothermal power plants are described. A comparison is made of the costs of various energy sources, and 27 references are provided.

  8. Alternative cover design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-11-01

    The special study on Alternative Cover Designs is one of several studies initiated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in response to the proposed US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater standards. The objective of this study is to investigate the possibility of minimizing the infiltration of precipitation through stabilized tailings piles by altering the standard design of covers currently used on the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Prior. to the issuance of the proposed standards, UMTRA Project piles had common design elements to meet the required criteria, the most important of which were for radon diffusion, long-term stability, erosion protection, and groundwater protection. The standard pile covers consisted of three distinct layers. From top to bottom they were: rock for erosion protection; a sand bedding layer; and the radon barrier, usually consisting of a clayey sand material, which also functioned to limit infiltration into the tailings. The piles generally had topslopes from 2 to 4 percent and sideslopes of 20 percent

  9. Analysis of the LIV System of Campylobacter jejuni Reveals Alternative Roles for LivJ and LivK in Commensalism beyond Branched-Chain Amino Acid Transport ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribardo, Deborah A.; Hendrixson, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of diarrheal disease in humans and an intestinal commensal in poultry and other agriculturally important animals. These zoonotic infections result in significant amounts of C. jejuni present in the food supply to contribute to disease in humans. We previously found that a transposon insertion in Cjj81176_1038, encoding a homolog of the Escherichia coli LivJ periplasmic binding protein of the leucine, isoleucine, and valine (LIV) branched-chain amino acid transport system, reduced the commensal colonization capacity of C. jejuni 81-176 in chicks. Cjj81176_1038 is the first gene of a six-gene locus that encodes homologous components of the E. coli LIV system. By analyzing mutants with in-frame deletions of individual genes or pairs of genes, we found that this system constitutes a LIV transport system in C. jejuni responsible for a high level of leucine acquisition and, to a lesser extent, isoleucine and valine acquisition. Despite each LIV protein being required for branched-chain amino acid transport, only the LivJ and LivK periplasmic binding proteins were required for wild-type levels of commensal colonization of chicks. All LIV permease and ATPase components were dispensable for in vivo growth. These results suggest that the biological functions of LivJ and LivK for colonization are more complex than previously hypothesized and extend beyond a role for binding and acquiring branched-chain amino acids during commensalism. In contrast to other studies indicating a requirement and utilization of other specific amino acids for colonization, acquisition of branched-chain amino acids does not appear to be a determinant for C. jejuni during commensalism. PMID:21949065

  10. Alternative Polyadenylation: Methods, Findings, and Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Alternative polyadenylation (APA, a phenomenon that RNA molecules with different 3′ ends originate from distinct polyadenylation sites of a single gene, is emerging as a mechanism widely used to regulate gene expression. In the present review, we first summarized various methods prevalently adopted in APA study, mainly focused on the next-generation sequencing (NGS-based techniques specially designed for APA identification, the related bioinformatics methods, and the strategies for APA study in single cells. Then we summarized the main findings and advances so far based on these methods, including the preferences of alternative polyA (pA site, the biological processes involved, and the corresponding consequences. We especially categorized the APA changes discovered so far and discussed their potential functions under given conditions, along with the possible underlying molecular mechanisms. With more in-depth studies on extensive samples, more signatures and functions of APA will be revealed, and its diverse roles will gradually heave in sight. Keywords: Alternative polyadenylation, Next-generation sequencing, 3′UTR, Alternative splicing, Gene regulation

  11. Enhanced Design Alternative IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, N.E.

    1999-01-01

    This report evaluates Enhanced Design Alternative (EDA) IV as part of the second phase of the License Application Design Selection (LADS) effort. The EDA IV concept was compared to the VA reference design using criteria from the Design Input Request for LADS Phase II EDA Evaluations (CRWMS M and O 1999b) and (CRWMS M and O 1999f). Briefly, the EDA IV concept arranges the waste packages close together in an emplacement configuration known as line load. Continuous pre-closure ventilation keeps the waste packages from exceeding their 350 C cladding and 200 C (4.3.6) drift wall temperature limits. This EDA concept keeps relatively high, uniform emplacement drift temperatures (post-closure) to drive water away from the repository and thus dry out the pillars between emplacement drifts. The waste package is shielded to permit human access to emplacement drifts and includes an integral filler inside the package to reduce the amount of water that can contact the waste form. Closure of the repository is desired 50 years after first waste is emplaced. Both backfill and drip shields will be emplaced at closure to improve post-closure performance. The EDA IV concept includes more defense-in-depth layers than the VA reference design because of its backfill, drip shield, waste package shielding, and integral filler features. These features contribute to the low dose-rate to the public achieved during the first 10,000 years of repository life as shown in Figure 3. Investigation of the EDA IV concept has led to the following general conclusions: (1) The total life cycle cost for EDA IV is about $21.7 billion which equates to a $11.3 billion net present value (both figures rounded up). (2) The incidence of design basis events for EDA IV is similar to the VA reference design. (3) The emplacement of the waste packages in drifts will be similar to the VA reference design. However, heavier equipment may be required because the shielded waste package will be heavier. (4) The heavier

  12. Prospects for alternative Fusion Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glancy, J.

    1986-01-01

    The author has worked on three different magnetic confinement concepts for alternate fusion fueled reactors: tokamaks; tanden mirrors, and reversed field pinches. The focus of this article is on prospects for alternate fusion fuels as the author sees them relative to the other choices: increased numbers of coal plants, fission reactors, renewables, and D-T fusion. Discussion is limited on the consideration of alternate fusion fuels to the catalyzed deuterium-deuterium fuel cycle. Reasons for seeking an alternate energy source are cost, a more secure fuel supply, environmental impact and safety. The technical risks associated with development of fusion are examined briefly

  13. Alternative fuelds in urban fleets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, T.

    1994-12-31

    In this presentation the author addresses four main objectives. They are to: discuss programs that are driving the introduction of alternative fuels into fleet operations in urban areas around the country; define alternative fuels; quantify the present use and future projections on alternative fuel vehicles (AVFs) in the Chicago metropolitan statistical area; and discuss benefits of increased use of alternative fuels in urban areas. Factors which touch on these points include: present domestic dependence on petroleum for autos, with usage exceeding production; the large populations in urban areas which do not meet Clean Air Standards; recent legislative initiatives which give guidance and aid in the adoption of such strategies.

  14. Alternative fuelds in urban fleets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, T.

    1994-01-01

    In this presentation the author addresses four main objectives. They are to: discuss programs that are driving the introduction of alternative fuels into fleet operations in urban areas around the country; define alternative fuels; quantify the present use and future projections on alternative fuel vehicles (AVFs) in the Chicago metropolitan statistical area; and discuss benefits of increased use of alternative fuels in urban areas. Factors which touch on these points include: present domestic dependence on petroleum for autos, with usage exceeding production; the large populations in urban areas which do not meet Clean Air Standards; recent legislative initiatives which give guidance and aid in the adoption of such strategies

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Indiana Transportation Data for Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    (nameplate, MW) 1,430 Source: BioFuels Atlas from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Case Studies Video Alternative Fuels Save Money in Indy April 1, 2012 More Case Studies Videos Text Version More Indiana Videos on YouTube Video thumbnail for Indiana Beverage Company Invests in Alternative Fuels Indiana Beverage

  16. Verbal directionality and argument alternation in Dinka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    The derivational morphology of verbs in Dinka includes a distinction between direction towards the deictic center (centripetal) and a direction not towards the deictic center (centrifugal). A goal adverbial requires a directional verb, and an object of such a verb refers to something that moves t...... of a simple verb may correspond to, respectively, a goal adverbial and an object of the directional verb. Another type of argument alternation results from the possibility of expressing a goal as an object of an applicative verb with an intransitive or transitive base.......(wards) an explicit or implicit goal. The object of a directional verb may play another role in the event described by the sentence than the object of the corresponding simple (and non-directional) verb. This gives rise to so-called argument alternation, in that, for instance, an object and an instrumental adverbial...

  17. Intuitions in Epistemology: Towards a Naturalistic Alternative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Kristoffer

    2009-01-01

    The present paper revisits the main methodological problems with conceptual analysis and considers two attempts to rectify them in terms of prototypes and reflective equilibria, respectively. Finding both wanting for the purposes of epistemological analysis, a naturalistic alternative is then ske......The present paper revisits the main methodological problems with conceptual analysis and considers two attempts to rectify them in terms of prototypes and reflective equilibria, respectively. Finding both wanting for the purposes of epistemological analysis, a naturalistic alternative...... is then sketched that explores the positive implications of aforementioned problems for the demarcation of the respective roles of intuitions and empirical investigation within three epistemological domains, viz., the evaluation of epistemological hypotheses, the amelioration of epistemic practices...

  18. Alternative energy in Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, H.B.; Bhandari, K.P.

    2011-05-15

    Renewable energy Technology (RET) becomes the mainstream option for rural Nepal to access modern source of energy. It focuses on the trend of RET applications consisting of biogas technology, solar thermal, micro and Pico hydropower, biomass technology bio fuel technology, wind power technology etc. The RET's which provide both electricity based as well as non electricity based services, have been shown to most immediately meet the needs of a cleaner indoor environment, better quality lightning for education and income generating, activities, alternative cooking fuels and agro processing as well as rural industries. Improved cooking stoves and much more beneficial than other technologies. Wind energy utilization is still not popular. Solar thermal to generate thermal energy to cook, warm and dry, biogas for lighting and cooking services. Micro hydropower for electric as well as mechanical use and solar PV mainly for domestic lighting may become choice. The most important Renewable Energy Technology (RET's) in Nepal are related to Pico hydropower and micro-hydropower, biomass energy (biogas, briquettes, gasifies, improved cooking stoves, bio-fuels etc.) solar photovoltaic energy, solar PV water pumping, solar thermal energy (solar heater, solar dryers, solar cookers etc.) and wind energy (such as wind generators, wind mills etc.). One renowned Non-governmental organization has been established in the Jhapa and Mornag Bhutanese refugee camp. Two families from all the seven camps in Nepal received one solar cooker, one hay box and two cooking posts to each family. Under this programme, a total of 6,850 solar cookers, 12600 hay boxes and 25,200 cooking pots have been distributed 2009. The number of beneficiaries from this program has reached 85,000. Before the distribution of the cookers and the utensils, the instruction and orientation training for the maintenance and repair and operation method was improved. The refugees were divided in 315 groups of 40

  19. Normetex Pump Alternatives Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Elliot A.

    2013-01-01

    A mainstay pump for tritium systems, the Normetex scroll pump, is currently unavailable because the Normetex company went out of business. This pump was an all-metal scroll pump that served tritium processing facilities very well. Current tritium system operators are evaluating replacement pumps for the Normetex pump and for general used in tritium service. An all-metal equivalent alternative to the Normetex pump has not yet been identified. 1. The ideal replacement tritium pump would be hermetically sealed and contain no polymer components or oils. Polymers and oils degrade over time when they contact ionizing radiation. 2. Halogenated polymers (containing fluorine, chlorine, or both) and oils are commonly found in pumps. These materials have many properties that surpass those of hydrocarbon-based polymers and oils, including thermal stability (higher operating temperature) and better chemical resistance. Unfortunately, they are less resistant to degradation from ionizing radiation than hydrocarbon-based materials (in general). 3. Polymers and oils can form gaseous, condensable (HF, TF), liquid, and solid species when exposed to ionizing radiation. For example, halogenated polymers form HF and HCl, which are extremely corrosive upon reaction with water. If a pump containing polymers or oils must be used in a tritium system, the system must be designed to be able to process the unwanted by-products. Design features to mitigate degradation products include filters and chemical or physical traps (eg. cold traps, oil traps). 4. Polymer components can work in tritium systems, but must be replaced regularly. Polymer components performance should be monitored or be regularly tested, and regular replacement of components should be viewed as an expected normal event. A radioactive waste stream must be established to dispose of used polymer components and oil with an approved disposal plan developed based on the facility location and its regulators. Polymers have varying

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windstars; 14) and the use of alternative fuel vehicles at the Olympics. Alternative Fuels In Trucking, Vol and their economic and environmental benefits. This report is designed to share the experiences and National Academy of Engineering suggested that 'DOE might have its greatest impact by leading the private

  1. Catching lightning for alternative energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helman, D.S. [California State University, Long Beach, 1250 Bellflower Blvd., Long Beach, CA 90840 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    The article reviews the current literature related to lightning and makes a case for using lightning as an alternative source of energy. Objections to using lightning as an alternative source of energy are listed. Current literature is reviewed and articles are suggested as useful for building a tower, or using rockets or lasers to target a strike, or for quantifying a lightning strike. (author)

  2. Difficulties of Alternatively Certified Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, Irvin Sam; Feinman, Samantha J.

    2012-01-01

    This daily diary study followed, over a 2-week period, 252 beginning New York City public school teachers. Seventy percent were alternatively certified (New York City Teaching Fellows) and the rest, traditionally certified teachers. Alternatively certified teachers were more likely to experience stressors such as violent incidents and classroom…

  3. [Alternative approaches in thyroid surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, E; Wächter, S; Bartsch, D K

    2017-08-01

    In thyroid surgery multiple different cervical minimally invasive (partly endoscopically assisted) and extracervical endoscopic (partly robot-assisted) approaches have been developed in the last 20 years. The aim of all these alternative approaches to the thyroid gland is optimization of the cosmetic result. The indications for the use of alternative and conventional approaches are principally the same. Important requirements for the use of alternative methods are nevertheless a broad experience in conventional thyroid operations of the thyroid and adequate patient selection under consideration of the size of the thyroid and the underlying pathology. Contraindications for the use of alternative approaches are a large size of the thyroid gland including local symptoms, advanced carcinomas, reoperations and previous radiations of the anterior neck. The current article gives an overview of the clinically implemented alternative approaches for thyroid surgery. Of those the majority must still be considered as experimental. The alternative approaches to the thyroid gland can be divided in cervical minimally invasive, extracervical endosopic (robot-assisted) and transoral operations (natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery, NOTES). Since conventional thyroid operations are standardized procedures with low complication rates, alternative approaches to the thyroid gland are considered critically in Germany. The request for a perfect cosmetic result should not overweigh patients' safety. Only a few alternative approaches (e. g. MIVAT, RAT) can yet be considered as a safe addition in experienced hands in highly selected patients.

  4. Marital Alternatives and Marital Disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udry, J. Richard

    1981-01-01

    Explores the usefulness of "marital alternatives" as a dimension in explaining marital stability, using longitudinal data from a panel of married, White, urban couples from 16 urban areas. Results indicated the dimension of marital alternatives appeared to be a better predictor of marital disruption than marital satisfaction. (Author/RC)

  5. Alternative Genres of IS Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avital, Michel; Mathiassen, Lars; Crowston, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    The potential value of alternative genres in IS research is the core question that drives this panel discussion. The term “Alternative Genres” refers to unconventional forms of thinking, doing, and communicating scholarship and practice. It relates to innovation with respect to epistemological pe...

  6. Alternative mitochondrial functions in cell physiopathology: beyond ATP production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowaltowski A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that mitochondria are the main site for ATP generation within most tissues. However, mitochondria also participate in a surprising number of alternative activities, including intracellular Ca2+ regulation, thermogenesis and the control of apoptosis. In addition, mitochondria are the main cellular generators of reactive oxygen species, and may trigger necrotic cell death under conditions of oxidative stress. This review concentrates on these alternative mitochondrial functions, and their role in cell physiopathology.

  7. Alternative Fuels in Cement Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Boberg

    The substitution of alternative for fossil fuels in cement production has increased significantly in the last decade. Of these new alternative fuels, solid state fuels presently account for the largest part, and in particular, meat and bone meal, plastics and tyre derived fuels (TDF) accounted...... for the most significant alternative fuel energy contributors in the German cement industry. Solid alternative fuels are typically high in volatile content and they may differ significantly in physical and chemical properties compared to traditional solid fossil fuels. From the process point of view......, considering a modern kiln system for cement production, the use of alternative fuels mainly influences 1) kiln process stability (may accelerate build up of blockages preventing gas and/or solids flow), 2) cement clinker quality, 3) emissions, and 4) decreased production capacity. Kiln process stability...

  8. Verb aspect, alternations and quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetla Koeva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Verb aspect, alternations and quantification In this paper we are briefly discuss the nature of Bulgarian verb aspect and argue that the verb aspect pairs are different lexical units with different (although related meaning, different argument structure (reflecting categories, explicitness and referential status of arguments and different sets of semantic and syntactic alternations. The verb prefixes resulting in perfective verbs derivation in some cases can be interpreted as lexical quantifiers as well. Thus the Bulgarian verb aspect is related (in different way both with the potential for the generation of alternations and with the prefixal lexical quantification. It is shown that the scope of the lexical quantification by means of verbal prefixes is the quantified verb phrase and the scope remains constant in all derived alternations. The paper concerns the basic issues of these complex problems, while the detailed description of the conditions satisfying particular alternation or particular lexical quantification are subject of a more detailed study.

  9. Intuitions in Epistemology: Towards a Naturalistic Alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristoffer Ahlstrom

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper revisits the main methodological problems with conceptual analysis and considers two attempts to rectify them in terms of prototypes and reflective equilibria, respectively. Finding both wanting for the purposes of epistemological analysis, a naturalistic alternative is then sketched that explores the positive implications of aforementioned problems for the demarcation of the respective roles of intuitions and empirical investigation within three epistemological domains, viz., the evaluation of epistemological hypotheses, the amelioration of epistemic practices, and the construction of a theory of epistemic value.

  10. Pheromone based alternative route planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangbing Feng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we propose an improved alternative route calculation based on alternative figures, which is suitable for practical environments. The improvement is based on the fact that the main traffic route is the road network skeleton in a city. Our approach using nodes may generate a higher possibility of overlapping. We employ a bidirectional Dijkstra algorithm to search the route. To measure the quality of an Alternative Figures (AG, three quotas are proposed. The experiment results indicate that the improved algorithm proposed in this paper is more effective than others.

  11. Alternative trading systems in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Mosionek-Schweda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The first Polish alternative trading system – called NewConnect – was opened on 30 August 2007. It has the status of an organized market, but it is operated by the Warsaw Stock Exchange outside the regulated market. Two years later, on 30 September 2009, the WSE launched another market – Catalyst – which consists of four segments including: two regular markets and two alternative trading platforms. The present paper aims to describe fundamental rules of the Polish alternative trading platforms as well as to depict a short overview of their trading indicators and basic statistics.

  12. The emerging role of alternative splicing in senescence and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschênes, Mathieu; Chabot, Benoit

    2017-10-01

    Deregulation of precursor mRNA splicing is associated with many illnesses and has been linked to age-related chronic diseases. Here we review recent progress documenting how defects in the machinery that performs intron removal and controls splice site selection contribute to cellular senescence and organismal aging. We discuss the functional association linking p53, IGF-1, SIRT1, and ING-1 splice variants with senescence and aging, and review a selection of splicing defects occurring in accelerated aging (progeria), vascular aging, and Alzheimer's disease. Overall, it is becoming increasingly clear that changes in the activity of splicing factors and in the production of key splice variants can impact cellular senescence and the aging phenotype. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Energy Efficient Alternatives to Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1993-06-01

    An assessment of the state of the art in refrigeration and insulation technologies is carried out to evaluate the potential for efficient substitutes for CFCs and HCFCs to facilitate the transition to a CFC-free environment. Opportunities for improved efficiency in domestic refrigeration, building chillers, commercial refrigeration and industrial refrigeration are evaluated. Needs for alternate refrigerants, improved components, and/or alternate cycles are identified. A summary of on-going research is presented in each area, and the potential roles of industry and government are considered. The most promising approaches for refrigeration technology fall into these categories: (1) improved vapor compressor cycles with alternate fluids, (2) Stirling cycle development and (3) advances in absorption technology. A summary of on-going research into advanced insulation, focused on vacuum-based insulation technology refrigeration is developed. Insulation applications considered include appliances, transport refrigeration, and buildings. Specific recommendations for a long-term R&D agenda are presented. The potential benefits, research, general approach, and probability of success are addressed.

  14. Introducing linear functions: an alternative statistical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Caroline; Herbert, Sandra

    2015-12-01

    The introduction of linear functions is the turning point where many students decide if mathematics is useful or not. This means the role of parameters and variables in linear functions could be considered to be `threshold concepts'. There is recognition that linear functions can be taught in context through the exploration of linear modelling examples, but this has its limitations. Currently, statistical data is easily attainable, and graphics or computer algebra system (CAS) calculators are common in many classrooms. The use of this technology provides ease of access to different representations of linear functions as well as the ability to fit a least-squares line for real-life data. This means these calculators could support a possible alternative approach to the introduction of linear functions. This study compares the results of an end-of-topic test for two classes of Australian middle secondary students at a regional school to determine if such an alternative approach is feasible. In this study, test questions were grouped by concept and subjected to concept by concept analysis of the means of test results of the two classes. This analysis revealed that the students following the alternative approach demonstrated greater competence with non-standard questions.

  15. Disturbance maintains alternative biome states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Vinícius de L; Hirota, Marina; Oliveira, Rafael S; Pausas, Juli G

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms controlling the distribution of biomes remains a challenge. Although tropical biome distribution has traditionally been explained by climate and soil, contrasting vegetation types often occur as mosaics with sharp boundaries under very similar environmental conditions. While evidence suggests that these biomes are alternative states, empirical broad-scale support to this hypothesis is still lacking. Using community-level field data and a novel resource-niche overlap approach, we show that, for a wide range of environmental conditions, fire feedbacks maintain savannas and forests as alternative biome states in both the Neotropics and the Afrotropics. In addition, wooded grasslands and savannas occurred as alternative grassy states in the Afrotropics, depending on the relative importance of fire and herbivory feedbacks. These results are consistent with landscape scale evidence and suggest that disturbance is a general factor driving and maintaining alternative biome states and vegetation mosaics in the tropics. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  16. Alternative food safety intervention technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative nonthermal and thermal food safety interventions are gaining acceptance by the food processing industry and consumers. These technologies include high pressure processing, ultraviolet and pulsed light, ionizing radiation, pulsed and radiofrequency electric fields, cold atmospheric plasm...

  17. Alternative Hamiltonian representation for gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosas-RodrIguez, R [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apdo. Postal J-48, 72570, Puebla, Pue. (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    By using a Hamiltonian formalism for fields wider than the canonical one, we write the Einstein vacuum field equations in terms of alternative variables. This variables emerge from the Ashtekar's formalism for gravity.

  18. Alternative Hamiltonian representation for gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosas-RodrIguez, R

    2007-01-01

    By using a Hamiltonian formalism for fields wider than the canonical one, we write the Einstein vacuum field equations in terms of alternative variables. This variables emerge from the Ashtekar's formalism for gravity

  19. Alternative energies updates on progress

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Germán

    2013-01-01

    This book examines the key pillars of alternative energy, including biomass, hydrogen, solar and geothermal. It features life cycle assessment and thermoeconomic analysis as tools for evaluating and optimising environmental and cost subjects.

  20. Alternatives for radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, J.W.

    1975-10-01

    The safety aspects of waste management alternatives are emphasized. The options for waste management, their safety characteristics, and the methods that might be used to evaluate the options and their safety are outlined

  1. Alternative Medicine and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spirituality Affect Your Family's Health? Talking to Your Child's Doctor Medications: Using Them Safely Talking to the Pharmacist Complementary and Alternative Medicine View more About Us Contact Us Partners Editorial ...

  2. Commercial aviation alternative fuels initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    This presentation looks at alternative fuels to enhance environmental stability, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, air quality benefits (e.g., SOx and PM), fuel supply stability, and fuel price stability.

  3. An alternative plutonium disposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueppers, C.

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides a feasibility study on vitrification of plutonium with high active waste concentrate, and fabrication of MOX fuel rods for direct final disposal. These are potential alternatives to the direct use of MOX fuel in a reactor. (author)

  4. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed

  5. Alternative algebraic approaches in quantum chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezey, Paul G.

    2015-01-01

    Various algebraic approaches of quantum chemistry all follow a common principle: the fundamental properties and interrelations providing the most essential features of a quantum chemical representation of a molecule or a chemical process, such as a reaction, can always be described by algebraic methods. Whereas such algebraic methods often provide precise, even numerical answers, nevertheless their main role is to give a framework that can be elaborated and converted into computational methods by involving alternative mathematical techniques, subject to the constraints and directions provided by algebra. In general, algebra describes sets of interrelations, often phrased in terms of algebraic operations, without much concern with the actual entities exhibiting these interrelations. However, in many instances, the very realizations of two, seemingly unrelated algebraic structures by actual quantum chemical entities or properties play additional roles, and unexpected connections between different algebraic structures are often giving new insight. Here we shall be concerned with two alternative algebraic structures: the fundamental group of reaction mechanisms, based on the energy-dependent topology of potential energy surfaces, and the interrelations among point symmetry groups for various distorted nuclear arrangements of molecules. These two, distinct algebraic structures provide interesting interrelations, which can be exploited in actual studies of molecular conformational and reaction processes. Two relevant theorems will be discussed

  6. Alternative algebraic approaches in quantum chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezey, Paul G., E-mail: paul.mezey@gmail.com [Canada Research Chair in Scientific Modeling and Simulation, Department of Chemistry and Department of Physics and Physical Oceanography, Memorial University of Newfoundland, 283 Prince Philip Drive, St. John' s, NL A1B 3X7 (Canada)

    2015-01-22

    Various algebraic approaches of quantum chemistry all follow a common principle: the fundamental properties and interrelations providing the most essential features of a quantum chemical representation of a molecule or a chemical process, such as a reaction, can always be described by algebraic methods. Whereas such algebraic methods often provide precise, even numerical answers, nevertheless their main role is to give a framework that can be elaborated and converted into computational methods by involving alternative mathematical techniques, subject to the constraints and directions provided by algebra. In general, algebra describes sets of interrelations, often phrased in terms of algebraic operations, without much concern with the actual entities exhibiting these interrelations. However, in many instances, the very realizations of two, seemingly unrelated algebraic structures by actual quantum chemical entities or properties play additional roles, and unexpected connections between different algebraic structures are often giving new insight. Here we shall be concerned with two alternative algebraic structures: the fundamental group of reaction mechanisms, based on the energy-dependent topology of potential energy surfaces, and the interrelations among point symmetry groups for various distorted nuclear arrangements of molecules. These two, distinct algebraic structures provide interesting interrelations, which can be exploited in actual studies of molecular conformational and reaction processes. Two relevant theorems will be discussed.

  7. Necessary alternatives: patients’ views of asthma treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Kopnina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Helen Kopnina1, Joke Haafkens21Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Labor Studies, University of Amsterdam; 2Department of General Practice, Academic Medical Centre of the University of Amsterdam, The NetherlandsAbstract: This article is based on semistructured interviews and focus groups conducted with 27 asthma patients in The Netherlands who chose complementary and alternative medicine (CAM for treatment of their condition. All subjects were contacted through an online forum for asthma patients hosted by the Dutch Asthma Foundation. Nineteen subjects (12 women and seven men between the ages of 29 and 65 years participated in the interviews, held between June 2009 and January 2010. All of the participating subjects had experience with conventional medications, including anti-inflammatory corticosteroids and bronchodilators. For the focus group meeting, held in February 2010, the sample included seven subjects (four women and three men between the ages of 31 and 46 years, none of whom had ever used conventional medication and all of whom were using CAM. All subjects in the sample had been diagnosed with asthma by their physician or lung specialist. The study examined the causes of patient noncompliance with the prescribed medical regime. It is argued that evidence-based rationality on the part of subjects is an overlooked dimension of their experience of asthma. This study demonstrates the role that the patients’ social network, including medical practitioners, friends, and family, and other asthmatics, plays in the process of decision-making and choices about treating asthma. It also demonstrates the role of patients’ information-searching strategies. The author concludes that patient noncompliance with commonly prescribed medication and selection of alternative medical treatment is less a matter of denial of their diagnosis or the severity of their illness, but more a matter of choice informed by evidence-based rationality.Keywords: asthma

  8. Abnormalities in Alternative Splicing of Apoptotic Genes and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zodwa Dlamini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is required for normal heart development in the embryo, but has also been shown to be an important factor in the occurrence of heart disease. Alternative splicing of apoptotic genes is currently emerging as a diagnostic and therapeutic target for heart disease. This review addresses the involvement of abnormalities in alternative splicing of apoptotic genes in cardiac disorders including cardiomyopathy, myocardial ischemia and heart failure. Many pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family have alternatively spliced isoforms that lack important active domains. These isoforms can play a negative regulatory role by binding to and inhibiting the pro-apoptotic forms. Alternative splicing is observed to be increased in various cardiovascular diseases with the level of alternate transcripts increasing elevated in diseased hearts compared to healthy subjects. In many cases these isoforms appear to be the underlying cause of the disease, while in others they may be induced in response to cardiovascular pathologies. Regardless of this, the detection of alternate splicing events in the heart can serve as useful diagnostic or prognostic tools, while those splicing events that seem to play a causative role in cardiovascular disease make attractive future drug targets.

  9. Alternative promoter usage of the membrane glycoprotein CD36

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whatling Carl

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CD36 is a membrane glycoprotein involved in a variety of cellular processes such as lipid transport, immune regulation, hemostasis, adhesion, angiogenesis and atherosclerosis. It is expressed in many tissues and cell types, with a tissue specific expression pattern that is a result of a complex regulation for which the molecular mechanisms are not yet fully understood. There are several alternative mRNA isoforms described for the gene. We have investigated the expression patterns of five alternative first exons of the CD36 gene in several human tissues and cell types, to better understand the molecular details behind its regulation. Results We have identified one novel alternative first exon of the CD36 gene, and confirmed the expression of four previously known alternative first exons of the gene. The alternative transcripts are all expressed in more than one human tissue and their expression patterns vary highly in skeletal muscle, heart, liver, adipose tissue, placenta, spinal cord, cerebrum and monocytes. All alternative first exons are upregulated in THP-1 macrophages in response to oxidized low density lipoproteins. The alternative promoters lack TATA-boxes and CpG islands. The upstream region of exon 1b contains several features common for house keeping gene and monocyte specific gene promoters. Conclusion Tissue-specific expression patterns of the alternative first exons of CD36 suggest that the alternative first exons of the gene are regulated individually and tissue specifically. At the same time, the fact that all first exons are upregulated in THP-1 macrophages in response to oxidized low density lipoproteins may suggest that the alternative first exons are coregulated in this cell type and environmental condition. The molecular mechanisms regulating CD36 thus appear to be unusually complex, which might reflect the multifunctional role of the gene in different tissues and cellular conditions.

  10. Use of complementary and alternative medicines during the third trimester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallivalapila, Abdul Rouf; Stewart, Derek; Shetty, Ashalatha; Pande, Binita; Singh, Rajvir; McLay, James S

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence, indications, and associated factors for complementary and alternative medicine use during the last trimester of pregnancy. A questionnaire survey was conducted of women with a live birth (N=700) admitted to the postnatal unit at the Royal Aberdeen Maternity Hospital, northeast Scotland. Outcome measures included: complementary and alternative medicine used; vitamins and minerals used; reasons for complementary and alternative medicine use; independent associated factors for use; views; and experiences. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis was performed. The response rate was 79.6% of eligible women. Two thirds of respondents (61.4%) reported using complementary and alternative medicine, excluding vitamins and minerals, during the third trimester. Respondents reported using a total of 30 different complementary and alternative medicine modalities, of which oral herbal products were the most common (38% of respondents, 40 different products). The independent associated factors for complementary and alternative medicine use identified were: complementary and alternative medicine use before pregnancy (odds ratio [OR] 4.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.39-7.95, Palternative medicine use by family or friends (OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.61-3.47, Palternative medicines were safer than prescribed medicines (P=.006), less likely to be associated with side effects (P≤.001), and could interfere with conventional medicines (P≤.001). Despite the majority of respondents, and notably users, being uncertain about their safety and effectiveness, complementary and alternative medicine modalities and complementary and alternative medicine products are widely used during the third trimester of pregnancy in this study population. Although prior use was the most significant independent associated factor, the role of family and friends, rather than health professionals, in the decision to use complementary and alternative medicine may be of concern

  11. Integrating Complementary and Alternative Medicine Into Conventional Health Care System in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishra, Shiva Raj; Neupane, Dinesh; Kallestrup, Per

    2015-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine has been a part of human life and practices since the beginning of time. The role of complementary and alternative medicine for the health of humans is undisputed particularly in light of its role in health promotion and well-being. This article discusses wa...... through which complementary and alternative medicine can be promoted and sustained as an integrated element of health care in developing countries. We specifically present the exemplary of Amchi traditional doctors of Northern Himalayas......Complementary and alternative medicine has been a part of human life and practices since the beginning of time. The role of complementary and alternative medicine for the health of humans is undisputed particularly in light of its role in health promotion and well-being. This article discusses ways...

  12. Complementary, Alternative, or Integrative Health: What's In a Name?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information © Jupiter Images We’ve all seen the words “complementary,” “alternative,” and “ integrative ,” but what do they really mean? This fact sheet looks into these terms to help you understand them better and gives you a brief picture of NCCIH’s mission and role in this area ...

  13. Community Energy: A Social Architecture for an Alternative Energy Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Steven M.; High-Pippert, Angela

    2005-01-01

    Community energy based on a mix of distributed technologies offers a serious alternative to the current energy system. The nature of community energy and the role that such initiatives might play in the general fabric of civic life is not, however, well understood. Community energy initiatives might involve only those citizens who prefer to be…

  14. Expectation dynamics: Ups and downs of alternative fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konrad, Kornelia Elke

    2016-01-01

    The transport sector must undergo radical changes if it is to reduce its carbon emissions, calling for alternative vehicles and fuel types. Researchers now analyse the expectation cycles for different fuel technologies and draw lessons for the role of US policy in supporting them.

  15. ALTERNATIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUMBERTO ESCALANTE H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia, el procesamiento agroindustrial de fique genera aproximadamente 20 800 kg de residuos/ha sembrada que corresponden a. jugo y bagazo. Estos residuos son descartados al ambiente generando problemas de contaminación. El bagazo de fique tiene un valor calorífico de 3 297.91 kcal/kg, altas concentraciones de celulosa, hemicelulosa y una relación C/N favorable para tratar este residuo mediante conversión anaerobia. Sin embargo, la presencia de lignina en el bagazo hace que se requiera un consorcio microbiano específico para llevar a cabo la degradación. En este trabajo se estudio la producción de biogás a partir del bagazo de fique, empleando como inóculo una mezcla de líquido ruminal y lodo estiércol de cerdo. Se alcanzó una producción de metano de 0.35 m3CH4/kg Sólidos Volátiles (SV adicionados durante quince días de digestión, equivalente a 1.38 kWh/kg SV adicionado, indicando que el bagazo de fique es un residuo atractivo para ser usado como fuente de energía renovable.

  16. Alternative RNA splicing and gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Yuan, Yuan

    2017-07-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) linked to diseases, especially to tumors. Recently, more and more studies focused on the relationship between AS and gastric cancer (GC). This review surveyed the hot topic from four aspects: First, the common types of AS in cancer, including exon skipping, intron retention, mutually exclusive exon, alternative 5 ' or 3' splice site, alternative first or last exon and alternative 3' untranslated regions. Second, basic mechanisms of AS and its relationship with cancer. RNA splicing in eukaryotes follows the GT-AG rule by both cis-elements and trans-acting factors regulatory. Through RNA splicing, different proteins with different forms and functions can be produced and may be associated with carcinogenesis. Third, AS types of GC-related genes and their splicing variants. In this paper, we listed 10 common genes with AS and illustrated its possible molecular mechanisms owing to genetic variation (mutation and /or polymorphism). Fourth, the splicing variants of GC-associated genes and gastric carcinogenesis, invasion and metastasis. Many studies have found that the different splicing variants of the same gene are differentially expressed in GC and its precancerous diseases, suggesting AS has important implications in GC development. Taking together, this review highlighted the role of AS and splicing variants in the process of GC. We hope that this is not only beneficial to advances in the study field of GC, but also can provide valuable information to other similar tumor research.Although we already know some gene splicing and splicing variants play an important role in the development of GC, but many phenomena and mechanisms are still unknown. For example, how the tumor microenvironment and signal transduction pathway effect the forming and function of AS? Unfortunately, this review did not cover the contents because the current study is limited. It is no doubt that clarifying the phenomena and mechanisms of these unknown may help to reveal

  17. Advances in alternative cementitious binders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juenger, M.C.G.; Winnefeld, F.; Provis, J.L.; Ideker, J.H.

    2011-01-01

    There is a burgeoning interest in the development, characterization, and implementation of alternatives to Portland cement as a binder in concrete. The construction materials industry is under increasing pressure to reduce the energy used in production of Portland cement clinker and the associated greenhouse gas emissions. Further, Portland cement is not the ideal binder for all construction applications, as it suffers from durability problems in particularly aggressive environments. Several alternative binders have been available for almost as long as Portland cement, yet have not been extensively used, and new ones are being developed. In this paper, four promising binders available as alternatives to Portland cement are discussed, namely calcium aluminate cement, calcium sulfoaluminate cement, alkali-activated binders, and supersulfated cements. The history of the binders, their compositions and reaction mechanisms, benefits and drawbacks, unanswered questions, and primary challenges are described.

  18. DESIGN OF ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa Stefania

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available By energy sources we understand technologies and materials used to obtain various forms of energy necessary for the development of society. These sources must be in adequate quantities and be conveniently exploited in terms of technical, economic and sustainable perspective. Alternative energy uses the inherent power of natural sources like wind, tides, the sun. Alternative energy is a term used for some energy sources and energy storage technologies. Generally it indicates energies that are nontraditional and have low impact to the environment. The alternative energy term is used in contrast with the term fossil fuel according to some sources, while other sources use it with the meaning of renewable energy purposes.

  19. [Alternative treatment methods in ENT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friese, K H

    1997-08-01

    In this review, the most important complementary und alternative therapies are discussed, focusing particularly on their use in otorhinolaryngology. These therapies include balneology, Kneipp therapy, microbiological therapy, fasting, excretion therapy, different oxygen therapies, hydro-colon therapy, urine therapy, own-blood therapy, Bach therapy, orthomolecular therapy, order therapy, environmental medicine, phytotherapy, homeopathy, complex homeopathy, anthroposophy, neural therapy, electroaccupuncture according to Voll and similar therapies, nasal reflex therapy, reflex-zone massage, manual therapy, massage, lymph drainage, aroma therapy, thermotherapy, bioresonance, kinesiology, hopi candles, and dietetics. Some of these methods and regimens can be recommended, but others should be rejected. In universities, these methods are only represented to a minor extend, but are more accepted by otorhinolaryngologists in practice. This paper provides a guide to which alternative therapies are sensible and possible in otorhinolaryngology. The aim is to stimulate interest in these methods. It is necessary to discuss these alternative methods reasonably and credibly with patients.

  20. Revisiting the solar hydrogen alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomkiewicz, M. [Brooklyn College of CUNY, NY (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Research aimed at the development of technology to advance the solar-hydrogen alternative is per definition mission oriented. The priority that society puts on such research rise and fall with the priorities that we associate with the mission. The mission that we associate with the hydrogen economy is to provide a technological option for an indefinitely sustainable energy and material economies in which society is in equilibrium with its environment. In this paper we try to examine some global aspects of the hydrogen alternative and recommend formulation of a {open_quotes}rational{close_quotes} tax and regulatory system that is based on efforts needed to restore the ecological balance. Such a system, once entered into the price structure of the alternative energy schemes, will be used as a standard to compare energy systems that in turn will serve as a base for prioritization of publicly supported research and development.

  1. Alternatives to the Dirac equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girvin, S.M.; Brownstein, K.R.

    1975-01-01

    Recent work by Biedenharn, Han, and van Dam (BHvD) has questioned the uniqueness of the Dirac equation. BHvD have obtained a two-component equation as an alternate to the Dirac equation. Although they later show their alternative to be unitarily equivalent to the Dirac equation, certain physical differences were claimed. BHvD attribute the existence of this alternate equation to the fact that their factorizing matrices were position-dependent. To investigate this, we factor the Klein-Gordon equation in spherical coordinates allowing the factorizing matrices to depend arbitrarily upon theta and phi. It is shown that despite this additional freedom, and without involving any relativistic covariance, the conventional four-component Dirac equation is the only possibility

  2. Experiences in mainstreaming alternative energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabraal, A.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses efforts by the Asia Alternative Energy Unit (ASTAE) of the World Bank in supporting alternative energy source projects in Asia. Energy growth rates have been as high as 18% per year, with power capacity doubling each decade in the 1960`s, 70`s and 80`s. Much of this has come from fossil fuel projects coupled with major hydroelectric projects. One consequence is developing air pollution loads originating in Asia. ASTAE has been supporting pilot programs in applying alternative energy sources. The goal has been to mainstream renewable energy sources in World Bank operations, by working with managers from different countries to: include renewable energy in country assistance strategies and sectorial development plans; provide assistance to renewable energy initiatives; expand initiatives to new countries, sectors and technologies.

  3. FMDP reactor alternative summary report: Volume 4, Evolutionary LWR alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials [primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] have become surplus to national defense needs both in the United States and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety, and health (ES ampersand H) consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. The purpose of this report is to provide schedule, cost, and technical information that will be used to support the Record of Process (ROD). Following the screening process, DOE/MD via its national laboratories initiated a more detailed analysis activity to further evaluate each of the ten plutonium disposition alternatives that survived the screening process. Three ''Alternative Teams,'' chartered by DOE and comprised of technical experts from across the DOE national laboratory complex, conducted these analyses. One team was chartered for each of the major disposition classes (borehole, immobilization, and reactors). During the last year and a half, the Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP) Reactor Alternative Team (RxAT) has conducted extensive analyses of the cost, schedule, technical maturity, S ampersand S, and other characteristics of reactor-based plutonium disposition. The results of the RxAT's analyses of the existing LWR, CANDU, and partially complete LWR alternatives are documented in Volumes 1-3 of this report. This document (Volume 4) summarizes the results of these analyses for the ELWR-based plutonium disposition option

  4. FMDP reactor alternative summary report: Volume 4, Evolutionary LWR alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials [primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] have become surplus to national defense needs both in the United States and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. The purpose of this report is to provide schedule, cost, and technical information that will be used to support the Record of Process (ROD). Following the screening process, DOE/MD via its national laboratories initiated a more detailed analysis activity to further evaluate each of the ten plutonium disposition alternatives that survived the screening process. Three ``Alternative Teams,`` chartered by DOE and comprised of technical experts from across the DOE national laboratory complex, conducted these analyses. One team was chartered for each of the major disposition classes (borehole, immobilization, and reactors). During the last year and a half, the Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP) Reactor Alternative Team (RxAT) has conducted extensive analyses of the cost, schedule, technical maturity, S&S, and other characteristics of reactor-based plutonium disposition. The results of the RxAT`s analyses of the existing LWR, CANDU, and partially complete LWR alternatives are documented in Volumes 1-3 of this report. This document (Volume 4) summarizes the results of these analyses for the ELWR-based plutonium disposition option.

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vermont Transportation Data for Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    alternative fuels Fuel Public Private Biodiesel (B20 and above) 3 0 Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) 1 2 Electric Recycled Cooking Oil Powers Biodiesel Vehicles in Vermont Recycled Cooking Oil Powers Biodiesel Vehicles in sold per GGE Biodiesel (B20) $2.79/gallon $2.54/GGE $2.84/gallon $2.58/GGE Biodiesel (B99-B100) $2.47

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Transportation Data for Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    /2018 Biodiesel and Green Diesel Definitions updated 4/9/2018 Data Download Fueling Stations 706 stations in Virginia with alternative fuels Fuel Public Private Biodiesel (B20 and above) 1 9 Compressed unit sold per GGE per unit sold per GGE Biodiesel (B20) $2.47/gallon $2.25/GGE $2.84/gallon $2.58/GGE

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Missouri Transportation Data for Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    stations in Missouri with alternative fuels Fuel Public Private Biodiesel (B20 and above) 1 2 Compressed Students Get Hands-On Training With Biodiesel Missouri High School Students Get Hands-On Training With Biodiesel Feb. 5, 2016 https://youtube.com/embed/p4pVRgoWyZw Video thumbnail for AT&T Fleet Reaches

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maine Transportation Data for Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel-Blended Diesel Documentation Requirement Data Download Fueling Stations 149 stations in Maine with alternative fuels Fuel Public Private Biodiesel (B20 and above) 2 1 Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) 0 2 Electric ://www.youtube.com/embed/jHftlruFR40 Video thumbnail for Maine's Only Biodiesel Manufacturer Powers Fleets in the

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center: James Madison University Teaches Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative Fuels Sept. 16, 2017 Photo of a truck Phoenix Utility Fleet Drives Smarter with Biodiesel Aug. 26 Cooking Oil Powers Biodiesel Vehicles in Rhode Island July 14, 2017 Photo of a truck Idaho Transports Mail Home Runs on Biodiesel in North Carolina June 9, 2017 Photo of a bus New Hampshire Cleans up with

  10. Alternative transportation fuels: Financing issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squadron, W.F.; Ward, C.O.; Brown, M.H.

    1992-06-01

    A multitude of alternative fuels could reduce air pollution and the impact of oil price shocks. Only a few of these fuels are readily available and inexpensive enough to merit serious consideration over the coming five years. In New York City, safety regulations narrow the field still further by eliminating propane. As a result, this study focuses on the three alternative fuels readily available in New York City: compressed natural gas, methanol, and electricity. Each has significant environmental benefits and each has different cost characteristics. With the Clean Air Act and the National Energy Strategy highlighting the country's need to improve urban air quality and move away from dependence on imported fuels, fleets may soon have little choice but to convert to altemative fuels. Given the potential for large infrastructure and vehicle costs, these fleets may have difficulty finding the capital to make that conversion. Ultimately, then, it will be the involvement of the private sector that will determine the success of alternative fuels. Whether it be utilities, fuel distributors or suppliers, private financing partners or others, it is critical that altemative fuels programs be structured and planned to attract their involvement. This report examines financing methods that do not involve government subsidies. It also explores financing methods that are specific to alternative fuels. Bond issues and other mechanisms that are used for conventional vehicles are not touched upon in this report. This report explores ways to spread the high cost of alternative fuels among a number of parties within the private sector. The emphasis is on structuring partnerships that suit methanol, electric, or natural gas vehicle fleets. Through these partnerships, alternative fuels may ultimately compete effectively against conventional vehicle fuels

  11. Alternative Cancer Treatments: 10 Options to Consider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative cancer treatments: 10 options to consider Alternative cancer treatments can't cure your cancer, but they may provide some ... that may help them, including complementary and alternative cancer treatments. If cancer makes you feel as if you ...

  12. Alternative Fuel News, Vol. 6, No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-03-01

    Quarterly magazine with articles on Alternate Fuel Vehicles (AFVs) in India, alternative fuels for emergency preparedness, and testing of propane vehicles by UPS. Also an interview of author Jeremy Rifkin on how alternative fuels provide pathways to hydrogen.

  13. A remedial alternative prioritization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, S.A.; Travis, C.C.

    1987-01-01

    This study develops and tests a technique for evaluating and prioritizing alternative remedial actions for hazardous waste sites. The method is based on criteria involving risk, benefit and cost, and identifies the most cost-effective solution to a given remedial problem. Four sites on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) property in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, were used in a case study to develop and test the method. Results of the case study indicate that even if the cap providing in situ containment must be replaced every 10 years, it is a superior alternative to total excavation of the waste sites

  14. GLOBAL TRENDS OF ALTERNATIVE INVESTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan LUCHIAN

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available An alternative investment is an investment product other than the traditional investments of stocks, bonds, cash, or property. The term is a relatively loose one and includes tangible assets such as art, wine, antiques, coins, or stamps and some financial assets such as commodities, hedge funds, venture capital,and others. At the moment it was created a global industry opportunities for making investments in nontraditional form. The aim of this paper consists in demonstrating the possibilities of these investments. For this have been studied related main international markets, a fter then deducted world dominant trends. This article is concerned to present some details of alternative investments global market.

  15. Multipebble Simulations for Alternating Automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Lorenzo; Mayr, Richard

    We study generalized simulation relations for alternating Büchi automata (ABA), as well as alternating finite automata. Having multiple pebbles allows the Duplicator to "hedge her bets" and delay decisions in the simulation game, thus yielding a coarser simulation relation. We define (k 1,k 2)-simulations, with k 1/k 2 pebbles on the left/right, respectively. This generalizes previous work on ordinary simulation (i.e., (1,1)-simulation) for nondeterministic Büchi automata (NBA)[4] in and ABA in [5], and (1,k)-simulation for NBA in [3].

  16. Bell's inequality without alternative settings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabello, Adan

    2003-01-01

    A suitable generalized measurement described by a 4-element positive operator-valued measure (POVM) on each particle of a two-qubit system in the singlet state is, from the point of view of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen's (EPR's) criterion of elements of reality, equivalent to a random selection between two alternative projective measurements. It is shown that an EPR-experiment with a fixed POVM on each particle provides a violation of Bell's inequality without requiring local observers to choose between the alternatives. This approach could be useful for designing a loophole-free test of Bell's inequality

  17. Alternative general-aircraft engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomazic, W. A.

    1976-01-01

    The most promising alternative engine (or engines) for application to general aircraft in the post-1985 time period was defined, and the level of technology was cited to the point where confident development of a new engine can begin early in the 1980's. Low emissions, multifuel capability, and fuel economy were emphasized. Six alternative propulsion concepts were considered to be viable candidates for future general-aircraft application: the advanced spark-ignition piston, rotary combustion, two- and four-stroke diesel, Stirling, and gas turbine engines.

  18. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed. (ATT)

  19. Special Issue: Aviation Alternative Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of aviation alternative fuels has increased significantly in recent years in an effort to reduce the environment and climate impact by aviation industry. Special requirements have to be met for qualifying as a suitable aviation fuel. The fuel has to be high in energy content per unit of mass and volume, thermally stable and avoiding freezing at low temperatures. There are also many other special requirements on viscosity, ignition properties and compatibility with the typical aviation materials. There are quite a few contending alternative fuels which can be derived from coal, natural gas and biomass.[...

  20. Alternative Medicine on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muret, Marc

    2000-01-01

    If you go to a bookstore to look for information on a particular health problem you will have a choice between the "medicine" corner with scientific manuals for professionals and the "health" corner with all kinds of books about acupuncture, ayurveda, natural healing, homeopathy, nutrition, massage, and so on! How is it on the Net? Even a short tour will bring you a lot of "medical" information, but when you look for alternative approaches in the "health" corner you will be rather disappointed. Interesting sites are rare and the amount of information very sparse. In many cases the lists of therapists are seriously incomplete; professional therapists with long experience do not appear in them. Recommendations for alternative treatments are superficial and encourage the user to buy some specialties or some book. Many sites are inflated by just quoting other sites so that, in the end, the basic information is rather poor. As we know, "health" information is becoming increasingly important since patients want to take more responsibility for themselves. They look for alternative methods. Doctors too, as 46% of Swiss doctors use alternative methods in one way or another (Médecine et Hygiène, 1996). That is why we should not leave this part of the Internet in the hands of unqualified people. To some doctors, alternative medicine may seem a chaotic maelstrom of superstition and odd techniques. That is not so. Nearly every alternative therapy has a long tradition with its own rules and principles. All reliable therapists have undergone years of training and expect the same from their colleagues. Why should this search for quality not be present online? What is needed? Good quality information. The identity of the author must be clear (education, tradition, professional experience, training). As many schools claim to be "the only one", the user should be informed about the differences and conflicts between all the approaches. Ethical behavior must be encouraged: respect

  1. 77 FR 31756 - Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternative Rating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ...-AC46 Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternative Rating... regulations authorizing the use of alternative methods of determining energy efficiency or energy consumption... alternative methods of determining energy efficiency or energy consumption of various consumer products and...

  2. An Alternative to Ability Grouping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Carol Ann

    2006-01-01

    Ability grouping is a common approach to dealing with student variance in learning. In general, findings suggest that such an approach to dealing with student differences is disadvantageous to students who struggle in school and advantageous to advanced learners. The concept of differentiation suggests that there is another alternative to…

  3. "Partial Vision" in Alternative Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ron

    1997-01-01

    A comparison of the philosophies and pedagogies of Waldorf and Montessori schools points out that no single educational perspective can encompass all possibilities of human growth. Educators should attend to the "seed qualities" of alternative educational philosophies rather than their dogmas. A caring relationship between teachers and students is…

  4. DESIGN ALTERNATIVES ON THE LAMINATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökay Nemli

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Wood based panel manufacturers use increasing volumes of laminates. Laminates are resistant to the water, humidity, scratch, abrasion, burning and chemicals. These products consist of printed decor papers that have been saturated with thermosetting resin. In this study, laminate types, composition form and design alternatives were investigated.

  5. A Technique: Generating Alternative Thoughts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan AKKOYUNLU

    2013-04-01

    Conclusion: Generating alternative explanations and balanced thoughts are the end point and important part of therapy work on automatic thoughts. When applied properly and rehearsed as homework between sessions, these methods may lead to improvement in many mental disorders. [JCBPR 2013; 2(1.000: 53-59

  6. Wire chambers: Trends and alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regler, Meinhard

    1992-05-15

    The subtitle of this year's Vienna Wire Chamber Conference - 'Recent Trends and Alternative Techniques' - signalled that it covered a wide range of science and technology. While an opening Vienna talk by wire chamber pioneer Georges Charpak many years ago began 'Les funerailles des chambres a fils (the burial of wire chambers)', the contrary feeling this year was that wire chambers are very much alive!.

  7. Alternative instruments for the CAP?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvis, H.J.; Rijswick, van C.W.J.; Bont, de C.J.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    With parallel negotiations taking place on enlargement of the EU and a new WTO agreement, EU's Common Agricultural Policy is facing further reforms. This report addresses the issue of whether any alternatives can be found for the instruments of this policy, and looks at decoupled payments, a net

  8. Alternative energies. Updates on progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, German (ed.) [CIRCE - Centre of Research for Energy Resources and Consumption, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    Presents fundamental and applied research of alternative energies. Address key pillars in the alternative energy field, such as: biomass energy, hydrogen energy, solar energy, wind energy, hydroelectric power, geothermal energy and their environmental implications, with the most updated progress. Includes the life cycle assessment and thermoeconomic analysis as tools for evaluating and optimising environmental and cost subjects. This book presents nine chapters based on fundamental and applied research of alternative energies. At the present time, the challenge is that technology has to come up with solutions that can provide environmentally friendly energy supply options that are able to cover the current world energy demand. Experts around the world are working on these issues for providing new solutions that will break the existing technological barriers. This book aims to address key pillars in the alternative energy field, such as: biomass energy, hydrogen energy, solar energy, wind energy, hydroelectric power, geothermal energy and their environmental implications, with the most updated progress for each pillar. It also includes the life cycle assessment (LCA) and thermoeconomic analysis (TA) as tools for evaluating and optimising environmental and cost subjects. Chapters are organized into fundamental research, applied research and future trends; and written for engineers, academic researches and scientists.

  9. Evaluating Alternatives to Exclusive "He."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd-Mancillas, William R.

    A study was conducted to determine the effects on reading comprehension of the use of the exclusive pronoun "he" and more or less contrived alternatives. Subjects, 358 students enrolled in an introduction to human communication at a large northeastern university, read three different forms of the same essay. One essay form exclusively used "he,"…

  10. Alternatives to allogeneic platelet transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desborough, Michael J R; Smethurst, Peter A; Estcourt, Lise J; Stanworth, Simon J

    2016-11-01

    Allogeneic platelet transfusions are widely used for the prevention and treatment of bleeding in thrombocytopenia. Recent evidence suggests platelet transfusions have limited efficacy and are associated with uncertain immunomodulatory risks and concerns about viral or bacterial transmission. Alternatives to transfusion are a well-recognised tenet of Patient Blood Management, but there has been less focus on different strategies to reduce bleeding risk by comparison to platelet transfusion. Direct alternatives to platelet transfusion include agents to stimulate endogenous platelet production (thrombopoietin mimetics), optimising platelet adhesion to endothelium by treating anaemia or increasing von Willebrand factor levels (desmopressin), increasing formation of cross-linked fibrinogen (activated recombinant factor VII, fibrinogen concentrate or recombinant factor XIII), decreasing fibrinolysis (tranexamic acid or epsilon aminocaproic acid) or using artificial or modified platelets (cryopreserved platelets, lyophilised platelets, haemostatic particles, liposomes, engineered nanoparticles or infusible platelet membranes). The evidence base to support the use of these alternatives is variable, but an area of active research. Much of the current randomised controlled trial focus is on evaluation of the use of thrombopoietin mimetics and anti-fibrinolytics. It is also recognised that one alternative strategy to platelet transfusion is choosing not to transfuse at all. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Alternative energy sources: ECC report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renwick, Lord; Stoddart, Lord; Lauderdale, Earl of

    1988-01-01

    The European Communities Committee Report on Alternative Energy Resources was debated. Six alternative energy sources were first described - wind power, biomass, geothermal energy, solar energy, wave and tidal power. Combined heat and power was also mentioned. General questions concerning alternative energy sources were then considered. In particular, their potential contribution to the energy demand was assessed. The evidence presented to the committee suggested that they would only make a small contribution in the near future and could not be considered as a substitute for coal and nuclear power. However, by the year 2030 it would be possible for 18% of the national electricity demand to be met by alternative energy sources. The economic and environmental issues were assessed briefly and the report's conclusions were summarized. An independent review of wave power was called for in view of conflicting evidence presented to the committee. The debate which followed lasted three hours and is reported verbatim. Other issues raised included energy conservation, public attitudes to energy, the environment, government and private funding of research and development of nuclear power, including fusion. (U.K.)

  12. Not Just Another Alternative School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulson, Kalervo N.; Webb, P. Taylor

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we problematize the establishment of an Africentric Alternative School in Toronto, Canada. We argue that policy, and race and racializations cannot be understood outside of, or immune to, neoliberalism. We contend that policy is a form of racial biopolitics, and race is now produced through neoliberal markets, in conjunction with…

  13. Europe 2020: an alternative proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stagnaro, Carlo

    2008-01-01

    In order to achieve its greenhouse gas emissions reduction targets, the European Union is pursuing a strengthening of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme. However, serious doubts hold as far as this instrument's effectiveness and efficiency are concerned. It is urgent to consider alternative solutions, such as an EU-wide carbon tax [it

  14. Alternate Theory Formation by Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, R. Keith

    Video tapes of student teachers micro-teaching in a high school biology class were analyzed. Attention was focussed on students' interpretations of data and the teacher's responses to these interpretations. Examples are given of student explanations which teachers find unsatisfactory but which are valid alternatives based on the data available to…

  15. Alternative materials for sustainable transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    A shortage of asphalt and polymers is creating opportunities for engineers to utilize alternative pavement materials. Three types of bio oil, untreated bio oil (UTB), treated bio oil (TB) and polymer-modified bio oil (PMB) were studied in this resear...

  16. Alternative Fuel for Marine Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    The U.S. Maritime Administration (MARAD) is participating in the U.S. Navy's ongoing efforts to test alternative fuels for marine use by demonstrating their applicability on commercial vessels. In support of this effort, the Navy provided neat hydrot...

  17. Praktiske erfaringer med alternative isoleringsmaterialer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn; Hansen, Klavs Feilberg

    Borup Seniorby er et demonstrationsbyggeri hvori der både er anvendt alternative isoleringsmaterialer og mineraluld. Denne rapport introducerer byggeriet og redegør for byggeprocessen samt håndteringen af de valgte isoleringsprodukter. Ni forskellige produkter, enten i form af løsfyld eller...

  18. Language Alternation in University Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, T. A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the alternate use of Arabic and English in the context of a university classroom, where a policy to use the former language in place of the latter was being implemented. Analysis of a sample of recorded university lectures of English and Arabic medium classes in sciences and humanities reveals that teachers use code switching,…

  19. Evaluation of alternatives in EIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikonen, A. [Posiva Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2000-07-01

    According to the Finnish law, a 'Decision in Principle' is required for the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel. The decision is made by the government and it needs to be approved by the Parliament. Before the decision can be made an EIA report must be produced for the facility. Alternatives in the management of spent fuel were already described in EIA programme which was drafted in the scoping stage. In the programme arguments for the so-called 'base alternative' were presented. However, a more extensive evaluation of the alternatives was required by the contact authority based on the first hearing. This presentation shows how alternatives were evaluated in assessment phase and how people reacted to them during the second hearing. The presentation is based on the general summary of EIA report and the statements given on the report. In Finland the environmental impact assessment procedure has been finished and the Decision in Principle is expected to be taken in the near future. (author)

  20. Looking for alternative energy sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael

    2012-02-21

    With unrest in oil-exporting countries, backlashes against biofuels and photovoltaics, and a nuclear incident in Japan, the year 2011 rattled confidence in future energy supplies. The search for alternatives is all the more urgent, but some of the solutions investigated hark back to fossil fuels that we can't afford to burn.

  1. A two-matrix alternative

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rohn, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 26, 15 December (2013), s. 836-841 ISSN 1537-9582 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : two-matrix alternative * solution * algorithm Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.514, year: 2013 http://www.math.technion.ac.il/iic/ ela / ela -articles/articles/vol26_pp836-841.pdf

  2. Biotherapeutics as alternatives to antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing pressure to limit antibiotic use in agriculture is heightening the need for alternative methods to reduce the adverse effects of clinical and subclinical disease on livestock performance that are currently managed by in-feed antibiotic usage. Immunomodulators have long been sought as such...

  3. Alternative breeder and near-breeder systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Critoph, E.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear power reactor systems have been developed over the last three decades to the point where they are economically competitive, safe and reliable sources of electrical energy. However, with our present knowledge of fissile resources, there is no assurance that the commercially proven reactor systems, using their current fuel cycles, could play a major role in supplying the total world energy needs of the next, and subsequent, centuries. There is a wide consensus that such assurance requires development of reactor systems with very significantly improved fuel resource utilization. The best known of these, and the one currently receiving the lion's share of attention and effort, is the fast breeder reactor (FBR). This paper reviews the characteristics, development status and planned programmes for alternative concepts to the FBR that meet the requirement for large improvement in fuel resource utilization, i.e. alternative breeder and near-breeder systems. These include: heavy-water reactors operating on thorium fuel cycles, light-water high-conversion and breeder reactors, high-temperature gas-cooled reactors operating on thorium fuel cycles, molten salt reactors and heavy-water suspension reactors. Any attempt to make a logical choice for exploitation among these various alternatives involves a consideration of the interplay between reactor system characteristics on the one hand and a forecast of political and economic environments on the other. The reactor breeding (or conversion) ratio has received a great deal of emphasis, but an optimum choice depends also on a consideration of several other factors, including out- and in-reactor specific fuel inventories, fuel fabrication and reprocessing costs, reactor capital cost and load factor, fuel resources and demand growth rate of capacity. Possible variations in this optimum choice with time and regional location are discussed

  4. Assessment of alternative disposal concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Autio, J.; Saanio, T.; Tolppanen, P. [Saanio and Riekkola Consulting Engineers, Helsinki (Finland); Raiko, H.; Vieno, T. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Salo, J.P. [Posiva Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    Four alternative repository designs for the disposal of spent nuclear in the Finnish crystalline bedrock were assessed in the study. The alternatives were: (1) the basic KBS-3 design in which copper canisters are emplaced in vertical deposition holes bored in the floors of horizontal tunnels, (2) the KBS-3-2C design with two canisters in a deposition hole, (3) Short Horizontal Holes (SHH) in the side walls of the tunnels, and (4) the Medium Long Holes (MLH) concept in which approximately 25 canisters are emplaced in a horizontal deposition hole about 200 metres in length bored between central and side tunnels. In all the alternatives considered, the thickness of the layer of compacted bentonite between copper canister and bedrock is 35 cm. Two different copper canister designs were also assessed. Technical feasibility and flexibility, post-closure safety and repository cost were assessed for each of the alternative canister and repository designs. On the basis of this assessment it is recommended that further development and studies should focus on the vacuum- or inert gas-filled cast insert type copper canister and the basic KBS-3 type repository design with a single canister in a vertical deposition hole. The KBS-3 design is robust and flexible and provides excellent post-closure safety. The transfer, emplacement and sealing operations are technically uncomplicated. The alternative options assessed do not offer any significant benefits in safety or cost over the basic design, but they are technically more complex and also in some respects more vulnerable to malfunction during the emplacement of canisters and buffer, as well as common mode failures. (60 refs.).

  5. Assessment of alternative disposal concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autio, J.; Saanio, T.; Tolppanen, P.; Raiko, H.; Vieno, T.; Salo, J.P.

    1996-12-01

    Four alternative repository designs for the disposal of spent nuclear in the Finnish crystalline bedrock were assessed in the study. The alternatives were: (1) the basic KBS-3 design in which copper canisters are emplaced in vertical deposition holes bored in the floors of horizontal tunnels, (2) the KBS-3-2C design with two canisters in a deposition hole, (3) Short Horizontal Holes (SHH) in the side walls of the tunnels, and (4) the Medium Long Holes (MLH) concept in which approximately 25 canisters are emplaced in a horizontal deposition hole about 200 metres in length bored between central and side tunnels. In all the alternatives considered, the thickness of the layer of compacted bentonite between copper canister and bedrock is 35 cm. Two different copper canister designs were also assessed. Technical feasibility and flexibility, post-closure safety and repository cost were assessed for each of the alternative canister and repository designs. On the basis of this assessment it is recommended that further development and studies should focus on the vacuum- or inert gas-filled cast insert type copper canister and the basic KBS-3 type repository design with a single canister in a vertical deposition hole. The KBS-3 design is robust and flexible and provides excellent post-closure safety. The transfer, emplacement and sealing operations are technically uncomplicated. The alternative options assessed do not offer any significant benefits in safety or cost over the basic design, but they are technically more complex and also in some respects more vulnerable to malfunction during the emplacement of canisters and buffer, as well as common mode failures. (60 refs.)

  6. Hydrogen as alternative clean fuel: Economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coiante, D.

    1995-03-01

    In analogy to biofuel production from biomasses, the electrolytic conversion of other renewable energies into hydrogen as an alternative clean fuel is considered. This solution allows the intermittent renewable energy sources, as photovoltaics and wind energy, to enhance their development and enlarge the role into conventional fuel market. A rough economic analysis of hydrogen production line shows the costs, added by electrolysis and storage stages, can be recovered by properly accounting for social and environmental costs due to whole cycle of conventional fuels, from production to use. So, in a perspective of attaining the economic competitiveness of renewable energy, the hydrogen, arising from intermittent renewable energy sources, will be able to compete in the energy market with conventional fuels, making sure that their substitution will occur in a significant amount and the corresponding environment

  7. Hedge Funds As a Alternative Investment Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Falkowski

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Hedge fund which became a popular alternative investment is a collective term for different types of investment fund. A common feature of these funds is that they have absolute earnings targets, that is they set targets for earnings irrespective of developments on, for example, the stock exchange. The paper deals with the current problem of the financial crisis and the effect it made worldwide for many institutional and private investors. It discusses the role played by hedge funds in developments on the financial markets, and to what extent they are affected by the effects of the crisis, as a recurring feature of every financial crisis. It also shows a wind range of strategies used by hedge funds to achieve their goal.

  8. Alternating Copolymers and Alternative Device Geometries for Organic Photovoltaics

    OpenAIRE

    Inganäs, Olle; Zhang, Fengling; Andersson, Mats R.

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency of conversion of light to electrical energy with the help of conjugated polymers and molecules is rapidly improving. The optical absorption properties of these materials can be designed, and implemented via molecular engineering. Full coverage of the solar spectrum is thus feasible. Narrow absorption spectra allow construction of tandem solar cells. The poor transport properties of these materials require thin devices, which limits optical absorption. Alternative device geometr...

  9. Reframing the concept of alternative livelihoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Juliet H; Hill, Nicholas A O; Roe, Dilys; Rowcliffe, J Marcus; Kümpel, Noëlle F; Day, Mike; Booker, Francesca; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2016-02-01

    Alternative livelihood project (ALP) is a widely used term for interventions that aim to reduce the prevalence of activities deemed to be environmentally damaging by substituting them with lower impact livelihood activities that provide at least equivalent benefits. ALPs are widely implemented in conservation, but in 2012, an International Union for Conservation of Nature resolution called for a critical review of such projects based on concern that their effectiveness was unproven. We focused on the conceptual design of ALPs by considering their underlying assumptions. We placed ALPs within a broad category of livelihood-focused interventions to better understand their role in conservation and their intended impacts. We dissected 3 flawed assumptions about ALPs based on the notions of substitution, the homogenous community, and impact scalability. Interventions based on flawed assumptions about people's needs, aspirations, and the factors that influence livelihood choice are unlikely to achieve conservation objectives. We therefore recommend use of a sustainable livelihoods approach to understand the role and function of environmentally damaging behaviors within livelihood strategies; differentiate between households in a community that have the greatest environmental impact and those most vulnerable to resource access restrictions to improve intervention targeting; and learn more about the social-ecological system within which household livelihood strategies are embedded. Rather than using livelihood-focused interventions as a direct behavior-change tool, it may be more appropriate to focus on either enhancing the existing livelihood strategies of those most vulnerable to conservation-imposed resource access restrictions or on use of livelihood-focused interventions that establish a clear link to conservation as a means of building good community relations. However, we recommend that the term ALP be replaced by the broader term livelihood-focused intervention

  10. Alternative pathways for angiotensin II generation in the cardiovascular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Becari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The classical renin-angiotensin system (RAS consists of enzymes and peptides that regulate blood pressure and electrolyte and fluid homeostasis. Angiotensin II (Ang II is one of the most important and extensively studied components of the RAS. The beneficial effects of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors in the treatment of hypertension and heart failure, among other diseases, are well known. However, it has been reported that patients chronically treated with effective doses of these inhibitors do not show suppression of Ang II formation, suggesting the involvement of pathways alternative to ACE in the generation of Ang II. Moreover, the finding that the concentration of Ang II is preserved in the kidney, heart and lungs of mice with an ACE deletion indicates the important role of alternative pathways under basal conditions to maintain the levels of Ang II. Our group has characterized the serine protease elastase-2 as an alternative pathway for Ang II generation from Ang I in rats. A role for elastase-2 in the cardiovascular system was suggested by studies performed in heart and conductance and resistance vessels of normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats. This mini-review will highlight the pharmacological aspects of the RAS, emphasizing the role of elastase-2, an alternative pathway for Ang II generation.

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Equipment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Equipment Options to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Equipment Options on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Equipment Options on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Equipment Options on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural Gas Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center : Natural Gas Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural Gas Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center : Natural Gas to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas on

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benefits to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Benefits on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Benefits on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Benefits on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas

  15. The determinants of alternative RNA splicing in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanouskaya, Tatsiana V; Grinev, Vasily V

    2017-12-01

    Alternative splicing represents an important level of the regulation of gene function in eukaryotic organisms. It plays a critical role in virtually every biological process within an organism, including regulation of cell division and cell death, differentiation of tissues in the embryo and the adult organism, as well as in cellular response to diverse environmental factors. In turn, studies of the last decade have shown that alternative splicing itself is controlled by different mechanisms. Unfortunately, there is no clear understanding of how these diverse mechanisms, or determinants, regulate and constrain the set of alternative RNA species produced from any particular gene in every cell of the human body. Here, we provide a consolidated overview of alternative splicing determinants including RNA-protein interactions, epigenetic regulation via chromatin remodeling, coupling of transcription-to-alternative splicing, effect of secondary structures in pre-RNA, and function of the RNA quality control systems. We also extensively and critically discuss some mechanistic insights on coordinated inclusion/exclusion of exons during the formation of mature RNA molecules. We conclude that the final structure of RNA is pre-determined by a complex interplay between cis- and trans-acting factors. Altogether, currently available empirical data significantly expand our understanding of the functioning of the alternative splicing machinery of cells in normal and pathological conditions. On the other hand, there are still many blind spots that require further deep investigations.

  16. Constructing Chains of Enablers for Alternative Economic Futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer

    2016-01-01

    economies. This article illustrates a way of researching alternative economic futures by identifying chains of enablers in Denmark and other Nordic countries by which society and business can co-develop and capture capabilities to take on new roles in globalization. Focus is on institutional enablers.......). Being generally inclusive of social movements, welfare states has also helped identify new needs on the "demand side" such as child- and eldercare, environmental protection, alternative energy and energy-saving, health, and city planning. This is illustrated by a number of firms that supply products...

  17. Alternative fuels: how real? how soon?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tertzakian, P.

    2003-01-01

    Nations of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) are looking for politically stable sources of oil in response to the ever growing demand for fuel. World oil consumption has reached 76.5 MMB/d and demand is expected to be 80 MMB/d by 2005. More restrictive environmental policies are resulting in improved conversion efficiency of oil dependent supply chains and the switching to alternative fuels. The adoption of new fuels however, depends on many factors such as the economic advantage, technological superiority, and convenience. The dominant electrical supply chains at the moment are nuclear, coal, hydropower, hydrocarbons, and renewable energy alternatives such as wind, solar and hydrogen fuels. The paper presented graphs illustrating adoption patterns for various fuels over the past century and presented a potential adoption pattern for fuel cell vehicles. Also included in this presentation were graphs depicting how price can drive supply chain demand and allow other fuels to gain market share. The impact of fuel substitution, efficiency and price effects was mentioned along with the impact of recent policy changes on vehicle fuel efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions. The role of government incentives to promote alternative fuel sales was also discussed along with a broad assessment of renewable supply chains. It was noted that most new fuels are linked to hydrocarbons. For example, hydrogen generation through water electrolysis requires petroleum generated electricity or the steam reforming of natural gas. Ethanol processes also require hydrocarbon consumption indirectly. It was noted that the average efficiencies of coal and natural gas plants has increased in the past decade and the incumbent price trends in electricity in the United States have decreased for fuels such as oil, gas, coal and nuclear energy. With ongoing innovation in the internal combustion engine in the past 30 years, the incumbents have also improved with

  18. Alternatives to shallow land burial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuck, P.H.; Wacks, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    The paper discusses disposal alternatives that suggest there is a great diversity of man-made and natural spaces that should be considered as alternative sites for LLW disposal. Dry caverns outside of karst regions with integrated subsurface drainage might be given further consideration. The excavation of new space in tectonically and chemically stable rock formations also shows considerable promise. The principal problems in using either existing or new space involve hydrology, rock mechanics, chemical stability of the wall-rock minerals, and socio-political interactions. The chemical, physical and radiological properties of the wastes will also enter into the evaluation. All seven of these aspects will have to be examined in detail before a solution to the problem of minimizing radionuclide transport into the biosphere can be outlined

  19. An alternative dimensional reduction prescription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelstein, J.D.; Giambiagi, J.J.; Nunez, C.; Schaposnik, F.A.

    1995-08-01

    We propose an alternative dimensional reduction prescription which in respect with Green functions corresponds to drop the extra spatial coordinate. From this, we construct the dimensionally reduced Lagrangians both for scalars and fermions, discussing bosonization and supersymmetry in the particular 2-dimensional case. We argue that our proposal is in some situations more physical in the sense that it maintains the form of the interactions between particles thus preserving the dynamics corresponding to the higher dimensional space. (author). 12 refs

  20. Implications of alternative fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The United States is re-examining alternative fuel cycles and nuclear power strategies, and doubtful attempts are being made to justify the economics of the 'throw-away' fuel cycle. At an international forum on 'An acceptable nuclear energy future for the world' at Fort Lauderdale, Karl Cohen of General Electric and a leading authority on this topic put the implications into perspective. Extracts from his address are presented

  1. Wire chambers: Trends and alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regler, Meinhard

    1992-01-01

    The subtitle of this year's Vienna Wire Chamber Conference - 'Recent Trends and Alternative Techniques' - signalled that it covered a wide range of science and technology. While an opening Vienna talk by wire chamber pioneer Georges Charpak many years ago began 'Les funerailles des chambres a fils (the burial of wire chambers)', the contrary feeling this year was that wire chambers are very much alive!

  2. Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Kurt R.

    2016-01-01

    Corrosion is an extensive problem that affects the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and European Space Agency (ESA). The deleterious effects of corrosion result in steep costs, asset downtime affecting mission readiness, and safety risks to personnel. It is vital to reduce corrosion costs and risks in a sustainable manner. The primary objective of this effort is to qualify citric acid as an environmentally-preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys.

  3. Alternative right ventricular pacing sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łuciuk, Dariusz; Łuciuk, Marek; Gajek, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    The main adverse effect of chronic stimulation is stimulation-induced heart failure in case of ventricular contraction dyssynchrony. Because of this fact, new techniques of stimulation should be considered to optimize electrotherapy. One of these methods is pacing from alternative right ventricular sites. The purpose of this article is to review currently accumulated data about alternative sites of cardiac pacing. Medline and PubMed bases were used to search English and Polish reports published recently. Recent studies report a deleterious effect of long term apical pacing. It is suggested that permanent apical stimulation, by omitting physiological conduction pattern with His-Purkinie network, may lead to electrical and mechanical dyssynchrony of heart muscle contraction. In the long term this pathological situation can lead to severe heart failure and death. Because of this, scientists began to search for some alternative sites of cardiac pacing to reduce the deleterious effect of stimulation. Based on current accumulated data, it is suggested that the right ventricular outflow tract, right ventricular septum, direct His-bundle or biventricular pacing are better alternatives due to more physiological electrical impulse propagation within the heart and the reduction of the dyssynchrony effect. These methods should preserve a better left ventricular function and prevent the development of heart failure in permanent paced patients. As there is still not enough, long-term, randomized, prospective, cross-over and multicenter studies, further research is required to validate the benefits of using this kind of therapy. The article should pay attention to new sites of cardiac stimulation as a better and safer method of treatment.

  4. Alternatives to the atomic state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, J.

    1979-01-01

    The booklet gives in many original articles a general view at the opinions in the total alternative movement. For example, it describes the points of view of the Ecology Movement and compiles the arguments against nuclear power plants. It does not intend to give uniform ideological guiding lines for the practical work but is rather meant as a contribution to improve the communication and connection among the initiatives. (HSCH) [de

  5. Alternative Medicine on the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Muret, Marc

    2000-01-01

    If you go to a bookstore to look for information on a particular health problem you will have a choice between the "medicine" corner with scientific manuals for professionals and the "health" corner with all kinds of books about acupuncture, ayurveda, natural healing, homeopathy, nutrition, massage, and so on! How is it on the Net? Even a short tour will bring you a lot of "medical" information, but when you look for alternative approaches in the "health" corner you will be rather disappointe...

  6. Alternative bufferlayers for CIGS solarcells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beleanu, A.; Gruhn, T.; Blum, C.G.F.; Balke, B.; Felser, C. [Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg - University, Mainz (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Cadmium sulfide is a highly efficient buffer layer material in Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se2)[CIGS] solar devices, but for environmental reasons and possible gains in efficiency there is a great interest in replacing CdS by a cadmium-free alternative buffer layer. Using standard density functional theory (DFT) methods possible candidates like LiZnP and LiCuS have been proposed as alternative buffer layers. The experimental verification of the DFT results was quite challenging due to the fact that LiCuS was an unknow and completely new material. In a first step, we tried to synthesize LiCuS through solid state reactions in a corund crucible. After optimizing the parameters and successfully synthesizing the material its properties were investigated. In a second step, huge amounts of LiCuS and LiZnP were synthesized and pressed using Spark Plasma Sintering as 3 inch targets. LiCuS and LiZnP films were grown by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering from these target and their properties as an alternative buffer layer in CIGS solar cells were investigated. The 1:1:1 stoichiometry of the films was delivered from in-situ XPS measurements. Absorption measurements show a band gap of {approx}2.0 eV which is in good agreement with the theoretical estimates.

  7. ALTERNATIVE FUNDING THECNIQUES. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Mihaela ILIESCU

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper isto highlight the dynamics, diversity and especially the availability of an alternative financial market, developed outside of the traditional banking system, on online trading platforms, a market that can constitute an efficient solution, at the expense of entities open to fast funding, wide raging, with limited guaranties and minimum procedural and legislative formalities. For this purpose, we shall analyze briefly the main alternative financing methods, both empirically and qualitatively, in terms of similarities and differences between the two of them, inclusively of the amount that can be employed in this process through different methods. The current paper aims to be a practical guide meant to support those facing difficulties in obtaining financing for start-ups, implementing or/and developing business and entrepreneurship initiatives, and also a guide for those who want to be informed regarding the latest funding techniques. Another aspect to be considered is the legal framework in which this process takes place, because the regulation for these levers remains constantly behind the development process of new methods. The classic financiers should also consider reviewing the lending policy as the amounts attracted and accessed through these alternative methods increase exponentially from one year to the other, the volume of sums involved surpassing each time the forecasts, making thus possible the transformations of these paradigms from the financial sector into preponderant financial funding’s.

  8. Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Hudgins, C. H.; Plant, J. V.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E. L.; Ziemba, L. D.; Howard, R.; Corporan, E.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; hide

    2011-01-01

    The rising cost of oil coupled with the need to reduce pollution and dependence on foreign suppliers has spurred great interest and activity in developing alternative aviation fuels. Although a variety of fuels have been produced that have similar properties to standard Jet A, detailed studies are required to ascertain the exact impacts of the fuels on engine operation and exhaust composition. In response to this need, NASA acquired and burned a variety of alternative aviation fuel mixtures in the Dryden Flight Research Center DC-8 to assess changes in the aircraft s CFM-56 engine performance and emission parameters relative to operation with standard JP-8. This Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment, or AAFEX, was conducted at NASA Dryden s Aircraft Operations Facility (DAOF) in Palmdale, California, from January 19 to February 3, 2009 and specifically sought to establish fuel matrix effects on: 1) engine and exhaust gas temperatures and compressor speeds; 2) engine and auxiliary power unit (APU) gas phase and particle emissions and characteristics; and 3) volatile aerosol formation in aging exhaust plumes

  9. Alternating copolymers and alternative device geometries for organic photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inganäs, Olle; Zhang, Fengling; Andersson, Mats R

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency of conversion of light to electrical energy with the help of conjugated polymers and molecules is rapidly improving. The optical absorption properties of these materials can be designed, and implemented via molecular engineering. Full coverage of the solar spectrum is thus feasible. Narrow absorption spectra allow construction of tandem solar cells. The poor transport properties of these materials require thin devices, which limits optical absorption. Alternative device geometries for these flexible materials compensate for the optical absorption by light trapping, and allow tandem cells.

  10. FMDP reactor alternative summary report. Volume 1 - existing LWR alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, S.R.; Bevard, B.B.

    1996-01-01

    Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials [primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] are becoming surplus to national defense needs in both the United States and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety, and health (ES ampersand H) consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. This document summarizes the results of analysis concerned with existing light water reactor plutonium disposition alternatives

  11. FMDP reactor alternative summary report. Volume 1 - existing LWR alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, S.R.; Bevard, B.B. [and others

    1996-10-07

    Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials [primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] are becoming surplus to national defense needs in both the United States and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. This document summarizes the results of analysis concerned with existing light water reactor plutonium disposition alternatives.

  12. 33 CFR 155.1026 - Qualified individual and alternate qualified individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... familiar with the implementation of the vessel response plan; and (4) Be trained in the responsibilities of... vessel may designate an organization to fulfill the role of the qualified individual and alternate...

  13. Redefining the transcriptional regulatory dynamics of classically and alternatively activated macrophages by deepCAGE transcriptomics

    KAUST Repository

    Roy, S.; Schmeier, S.; Arner, E.; Alam, Tanvir; Parihar, S. P.; Ozturk, M.; Tamgue, O.; Kawaji, H.; de Hoon, M. J. L.; Itoh, M.; Lassmann, T.; Carninci, P.; Hayashizaki, Y.; Forrest, A. R. R.; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Guler, R.; Consortium, F.; Brombacher, F.; Suzuki, H.

    2015-01-01

    Classically or alternatively activated macrophages (M1 and M2, respectively) play distinct and important roles for microbiocidal activity, regulation of inflammation and tissue homeostasis. Despite this, their transcriptional regulatory dynamics

  14. Thyroid Disease and Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alternative Medicine in Thyroid Disease Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Thyroid Disease (CAM) WHAT IS COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE (CAM)? Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is defined ...

  15. [Alternative medicine: really an alternative to academic medicine?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happle, R

    2000-06-01

    Numerous courses on alternative medicine are regularly advertised in Deutsches Arzteblatt, the organ of the German Medical Association. The present German legislation likewise supports this form of medicine, and this explains why Iscador, an extract of the mistletoe, is found in the Rote Liste, a directory of commercially available medical drugs, under the heading "cytostatic and antimetastatic drugs" although such beneficial effect is unproven. To give another example, a German health insurance fund was sentenced to pay for acupuncture as a treatment for hepatic failure. This judgement is characteristic of the present German judicial system and represents a victory of "oracling irrationalism" (Popper). The astonishing popularity of alternative medicine can be explained by a revival of romanticism. An intellectually fair opposite position has been delineated by Karl Popper in the form of critical rationalism. It is important to realize, however, that our decision to adhere to rational thinking is made in the innermost depth of our heart but not on the basis of rational arguing. Rather, the decision in favor of reason has a moral dimension.

  16. Analysis of the Reliability of the "Alternator- Alternator Belt" System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Mavrin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Before starting and also during the exploitation of va1ioussystems, it is vety imp011ant to know how the system and itsparts will behave during operation regarding breakdowns, i.e.failures. It is possible to predict the service behaviour of a systemby determining the functions of reliability, as well as frequencyand intensity of failures.The paper considers the theoretical basics of the functionsof reliability, frequency and intensity of failures for the twomain approaches. One includes 6 equal intetvals and the other13 unequal intetvals for the concrete case taken from practice.The reliability of the "alternator- alternator belt" system installedin the buses, has been analysed, according to the empiricaldata on failures.The empitical data on failures provide empirical functionsof reliability and frequency and intensity of failures, that arepresented in tables and graphically. The first analysis perfO!med by dividing the mean time between failures into 6 equaltime intervals has given the forms of empirical functions of fa ilurefrequency and intensity that approximately cotTespond totypical functions. By dividing the failure phase into 13 unequalintetvals with two failures in each interval, these functions indicateexplicit transitions from early failure inte1val into the randomfailure interval, i.e. into the ageing intetval. Functions thusobtained are more accurate and represent a better solution forthe given case.In order to estimate reliability of these systems with greateraccuracy, a greater number of failures needs to be analysed.

  17. Alternative energy and environmental concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The New Brunswick Market Design Committee will address environmental concerns within the context of the new energy policy and market rules for the newly restructured electric power industry. The new rules that come with power restructuring will in some ways facilitate environmental protection but they can also complicate it. With open access markets, it will be possible to coordinate evolving energy frameworks with current environmental objectives. Restructuring provides an opportunity to create incentives and guidelines to operate in an environmentally sustainable manner, as suggested in the New Brunswick Energy Policy, White Paper which outlines green pricing, the development of a provincial Climate Change Action Plan, and promotion of alternative energy. The Market Design Committee examined the environmental concerns listed within the White Paper that pertain to the generation and transmission of electricity. These include the integration of energy and environmental policy. Other issues addressed in this report were trans-boundary and global air emissions, the development of a provincial climate change action plan, and a federal-provincial climate change framework agreement. New Brunswick will encourage the development of pilot studies that demonstrate the benefits of renewable and alternative technologies and that help promote the market to manufacture, sell and maintain renewable and alternative technologies in small-scale on-site power generation. This report also discussed the 4 key air pollutants for which specific treatment has been defined, including sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, mercury and carbon dioxide. Recommendations for reducing these emissions include the use of renewable energy sources, the use of lower carbon fuels, increased efficiency of power transmission/generation/distribution systems, reducing power demand by the industrial sector, and promoting energy efficient building codes. 34 refs., 1 tab

  18. Alternatives to quintessence model building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avelino, P.P.; Beca, L.M.G.; Pinto, P.; Carvalho, J.P.M. de; Martins, C.J.A.P.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the issue of toy model building for the dark energy component of the universe. Specifically, we consider two generic toy models recently proposed as alternatives to quintessence models, respectively known as Cardassian expansion and the Chaplygin gas. We show that the former is entirely equivalent to a class of quintessence models. We determine the observational constraints on the latter, coming from recent supernovae results and from the shape of the matter power spectrum. As expected, these restrict the model to a behavior that closely matches that of a standard cosmological constant Λ

  19. The Development of Nonstructural Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-05-01

    particular appeal and benefits for those concerned with environmental issues. However, on reflection it is clear that, almost by definition, easily...peculiar to nonstructural alternatives (that is, the social costs are borne primaqrilv by th,, )ent ficiaries) makes them appealing from the national...Costs Of prId-nt ! loo41p l jotve iopment lie basically in the costs of elevated 111’Z ’’l’i. Pie 1land reqat reti c,- snob dovelIopmeot is loss

  20. Alternative dipole magnets for ISABELLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C.; Althaus, R.; Caspi, S.; Gilbert, W.; Hassenzahl, W. V.; Meuser, R.; Rechen, J.; Warren, R.

    1982-05-01

    A dipole magnet, intended as a possible alternative for the ISABELLE main ring magnet, was designed. Three layers of FNAL Doubler/Saver conductor were used. Two 1.3-m-long models were built and tested, both with and without an iron core, and in both helium I and helium II. The training behavior, cyclic energy loss, point of quench initiation, and quench velocity were determined. A central field of 6.5 tesla was obtained in He I (4.4 K), and 7.6 tesla in He II (1.8K).

  1. Erythrocytes in alternating electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morariu, V.V.; Chifu, A.; Simplaceanu, T.; Frangopol, P.T.

    1983-02-01

    The elastic and inelastic deformation of erythrocytes induced by alternating fields and the suggestion that moderate field intensities (1.2 kV/cm) when continuously applied can cause lysis by a different mechanism compared to the action of short intense field pulses is presented. The different experimental conditions can be used to approach various properties of the membrane such as those related to the dielectric polarization of the membrane or to the interfacial polarization, leading to the inelastic deformation of the cells. (authors)

  2. Alternating current for the West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    In the framework of the reactor EPR construction in the Manche, the authors wonder on the pertinence of this energy choice for the economy and the environment of the West France. They show that there is an alternative to this choice. In a first part a state of the situation concerning the electricity supply and demand in the region is detailed. Then from the local potential of renewable electric power production and the electricity conservation, they propose many concrete actions. (A.L.B.)

  3. The difference between alternative averages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Vaupel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Demographers have long been interested in how compositional change, e.g., change in age structure, affects population averages. OBJECTIVE We want to deepen understanding of how compositional change affects population averages. RESULTS The difference between two averages of a variable, calculated using alternative weighting functions, equals the covariance between the variable and the ratio of the weighting functions, divided by the average of the ratio. We compare weighted and unweighted averages and also provide examples of use of the relationship in analyses of fertility and mortality. COMMENTS Other uses of covariances in formal demography are worth exploring.

  4. Bayesian Alternation During Tactile Augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caspar Mathias Goeke

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A large number of studies suggest that the integration of multisensory signals by humans is well described by Bayesian principles. However, there are very few reports about cue combination between a native and an augmented sense. In particular, we asked the question whether adult participants are able to integrate an augmented sensory cue with existing native sensory information. Hence for the purpose of this study we build a tactile augmentation device. Consequently, we compared different hypotheses of how untrained adult participants combine information from a native and an augmented sense. In a two-interval forced choice (2 IFC task, while subjects were blindfolded and seated on a rotating platform, our sensory augmentation device translated information on whole body yaw rotation to tactile stimulation. Three conditions were realized: tactile stimulation only (augmented condition, rotation only (native condition, and both augmented and native information (bimodal condition. Participants had to choose one out of two consecutive rotations with higher angular rotation. For the analysis, we fitted the participants’ responses with a probit model and calculated the just notable difference (JND. Then we compared several models for predicting bimodal from unimodal responses. An objective Bayesian alternation model yielded a better prediction (χred2 = 1.67 than the Bayesian integration model (χred2= 4.34. Slightly higher accuracy showed a non-Bayesian winner takes all model (χred2= 1.64, which either used only native or only augmented values per subject for prediction. However the performance of the Bayesian alternation model could be substantially improved (χred2= 1.09 utilizing subjective weights obtained by a questionnaire. As a result, the subjective Bayesian alternation model predicted bimodal performance most accurately among all tested models. These results suggest that information from augmented and existing sensory modalities in

  5. MR pelvimetry - a practical alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, A.R.; English, P.T.; Cameron, H.M.; Wilsdon, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    Pelvimetry remains a useful technique as part of the assessment of the term breech pregnancy where vaginal delivery is planned. MR pelvimetry is accurate, well tolerated and shows soft-tissue structures as well as bone. It avoids the potentially carcinogenic effects of ionising radiation and is thought to be completely safe for mother and fetus. A technique of MR pelvimetry is described which uses gradient-echo sequences. This quick, practical method makes minimal in roads into valuable scanning time, and may therefore be considered a potentially cost-effective alternative to conventional pelvimetry. (orig.)

  6. Alternate Energy for National Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Bhakta

    2010-02-01

    Recent price fluctuations at the gas pump have brought our attention to the phenomenal increase of global energy consumption in recent years. It is now evident that we have almost reached a peak in global oil production. Several projections indicate that total world consumption of oil will rise by nearly 60 per cent between 1999 and 2020. In 1999 consumption was equivalent to 86 million barrels of oil per day, which has reached a peak of production extracted from most known oil reserves. These projections, if accurate, will present an unprecedented crisis to the global economy and industry. As an example, in the US, nearly 40 per cent of energy usage is provided by petroleum, of which nearly a third is used in transportation. The US Department of Defense (DOD) is the single largest buyer of fuel, amounting to, on the average, 13 million gallons per day. Additionally, these fuels have to meet different requirements that prevent use of ethanol additives and biodiesel. An aggressive search for alternate energy sources, both renewable and nonrenewable, is vital. The presentation will review national and DOD perspectives on the exploration of alternate energy with a focus on energy derivable from the ocean. )

  7. Alternate approaches to nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, A.T.

    1985-01-01

    For the US nuclear power industry to expand, a greatly increased portion of the public must come to share the industry's confidence in reactor safety. Major obstacles to establishing this confidence are frequent incidents with potential safety implications and a lack of incontrovertible proof that the risk of a major accident is very low. The most important step toward overcoming these obstacles would be for each utility to operate, maintain, and evaluate its reactors according to far higher standards. With improvements in reliability and safety margins, existing plants would be a stimulus for building new ones rather than an impediment. If changes to the operation of existing plants and improvements to the design of future ones were inadequate, the only hope for a revival of the nuclear industry would be an alternative reactor so obviously safe that risk would no longer be an issue. Three possible concepts are the modular high-temperature gas reactor, the process inherent ultimate safety reactor, and the liquid-metal fast reactor. All three have inherent safety features that should make a meltdown essentially impossible. They cannot know just how great the advantage of these alternate reactors would be, but the benefits of developing one or more of the concepts appear great

  8. [Alternative nutrition and glutathione levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Simoncic, R; Béderová, A; Brtková, A; Magálová, T; Barteková, S

    1999-08-30

    Low protein quality and quantity is reported to be a possible risk of alternative nutrition. Pulses contain 18-41% of methionine in relation to reference protein, moreover, its content in cereals is by one half lower. Therefore vegetarians and vegans may have an insufficient intake of sulphur-containing amino acids that may subsequently affect glutathione values (precursors of its synthesis). In groups of adults on an alternative diet--lactoovovegetarians (n = 47) and vegans (n = 44) aged 19-62 years with average duration on a vegetarian or vegan diet of 7.6 and 4.9 years, respectively, glutathione levels (GSH) were measured in erythrocytes (spectrophotometrically), as well as the activity of GSH-dependent enzymes. As nutritional control (n = 42) served an average sample of omnivores selected from a group of 489 examined, apparently healthy subjects of the same age range living in the same region. One to low protein intake (56% of RDA) exclusively of plant origin significantly lower levels of total proteins were observed in vegans with a 16% frequency of hypoproteinaemia (vs 0% in omnivores). In comparison to omnivores a significantly lower glutathione level was found (4.28 +/- 0.12 vs 4.84 +/- 0.14 mumol/g Hb, P vegan diet also in adult age.

  9. Alternative fuels: a Brazilian outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, J.R.; Serra, G.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper focuses on studies and information related to the use of alternative fuels in Brazil. The first part of this paper deals with the economics of different biomass technologies. The analysis consists of a careful costing of all operations involved. The study deals with wood, sugar cane and cassava, since these crops are exploited for commercial purposes in Brazil. Corn, although a useful raw material for producing ethanol in the United States, is not used for this purpose in Brazil. The second part deals with the industrial technologies used to convert biomass into energy. We consider several forms of energy derived from biomass and evaluate the economics of the processes. When opportune, we compare costs with those of the North American market. Market analysis and displacement of conventional energy are the subject of the third part of the paper. While the cost of each product is evaluated in most cases; in others the current market price is used. Finally, we raise the issues of institutional problems and planning and offer some conclusions on the future of biomass as an alternative energy source. The technological discussion in this paper is based on the Brazilian experience in producing ethanol and other fuels from biomass. It is possible to extrapolate the Brazilian experience to other developing countries. The observations made in this chapter are based on the conditions prevalent in the Brazilian south-central agricultural region, specifically the state of Sao Paulo. (author). 91 refs., 16 figs., 11 tabs

  10. Alternate Double Single Track Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraga Contreras, P.; Grande Andrade, Z.; Castillo Ron, E.

    2016-07-01

    The paper discusses the advantages and shortcomings of alternate double single track (ADST) lines with respect to double track lines for high speed lines. ADST lines consists of sequences of double and single track segments optimally selected in order to reduce the construction and maintenance costs of railway lines and to optimize the timetables used to satisfy a given demand. The single tracks are selected to coincide with expensive segments (tunnels and viaducts) and the double tracks are chosen to coincide with flat areas and only where they are necessary. At the same time, departure times are adjusted for trains to cross at the cheap double track segments. This alternative can be used for new lines and also for existing conventional lines where some new tracks are to be constructed to reduce travel time (increase speed). The ADST proposal is illustrated with some examples of both types (new lines and where conventional lines exist), including the Palencia-Santander, the Santiago-Valparaíso-Viña del Mar and the Dublin-Belfast lines, where very important reductions (90 %) are obtained, especially where a railway infrastructure already exist. (Author)

  11. Alternatives for nuclear fuel disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez S, J. R.; Badillo A, V.; Palacios H, J.; Celis del Angel, L.

    2010-10-01

    The spent fuel is one of the most important issues in the nuclear industry, currently spent fuel management is been cause of great amount of research, investments in the construction of repositories or constructing the necessary facilities to reprocess the fuel, and later to recycle the plutonium recovered in thermal reactors. What is the best solution? or, What is the best technology for a specific solution? Many countries have deferred the decision on selecting an option, while other works actively constructing repositories and others implementing the reprocessing facilities to recycle the plutonium obtained from nuclear spent fuel. In Mexico the nuclear power is limited to two reactors BWR type and medium size. So the nuclear spent fuel discharged has been accommodated at reactor's spent fuel pools. Originally these pools have enough capacity to accommodate spent fuel for the 40 years of designed plant operation. However, currently is under process an extended power up rate to 20% of their original power and also there are plans to extend operational life for 20 more years. Under these conditions there will not be enough room for spent fuel in the pools. So this work describes some different alternatives that have been studied in Mexico to define which will be the best alternative to follow. (Author)

  12. Alternative approaches to providing engineering expertise on shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, J.; Schreiber, R.E.; Melber, B.D.

    1984-05-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a project studying the role of engineering expertise on shift in nuclear power plants. Using the present shift technical advisor (STA) position as the base case, several alternatives are analyzed. On-shift alternatives included the STA, the SS (shift supervisor), and the SE (shift engineer). The SE is degreed, experienced, trained, and licensed as a Senior Reactor Operator. Some non-shift alternatives were also studied. These included a cadre of on-call engineers and specialists within continual contact and easy reach of the plant; a technical system of phone and data lines linking the plant with a facility similar to an on-site technical support center; and finally, an SPDS (safety parameter display system) to agument technical upgrading of operator aids presently available. Potential problems considered in the analysis of implementation of these alternatives included job content constraints, problems of crew acceptance, and problems of labor supply and retention. Of the considered alternatives, the SE and SS options appear superior to the current STA approach. The SE approach appears the easiest to implement and the most effective under varied plant conditions. The SE may also serve as liaison to off-site support facilities

  13. Connecting the dots: chromatin and alternative splicing in EMT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warns, Jessica A; Davie, James R; Dhasarathy, Archana

    2016-02-01

    Nature has devised sophisticated cellular machinery to process mRNA transcripts produced by RNA Polymerase II, removing intronic regions and connecting exons together, to produce mature RNAs. This process, known as splicing, is very closely linked to transcription. Alternative splicing, or the ability to produce different combinations of exons that are spliced together from the same genomic template, is a fundamental means of regulating protein complexity. Similar to transcription, both constitutive and alternative splicing can be regulated by chromatin and its associated factors in response to various signal transduction pathways activated by external stimuli. This regulation can vary between different cell types, and interference with these pathways can lead to changes in splicing, often resulting in aberrant cellular states and disease. The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), which leads to cancer metastasis, is influenced by alternative splicing events of chromatin remodelers and epigenetic factors such as DNA methylation and non-coding RNAs. In this review, we will discuss the role of epigenetic factors including chromatin, chromatin remodelers, DNA methyltransferases, and microRNAs in the context of alternative splicing, and discuss their potential involvement in alternative splicing during the EMT process.

  14. Alternative approaches to food: Community supported agriculture in urban China

    OpenAIRE

    Krul, K.; Ho, P.P.S.

    2017-01-01

    One of the most remarkable features of China's development path is its large-scale and fast-paced urbanization. As cities already accommodate more than half of China's population, new challenges to urban food systems have emerged concurrently. Concerns over environmental degradation and food safety have provoked growing dissatisfaction with China's food regime. Amidst these concerns, the aim of this paper is to study the role of new and alternative approaches to food, focusing in on the quest...

  15. Advanced Technology and Alternative Fuel Vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuttle, J.

    2001-01-01

    This fact sheet provides a basic overview of today's alternative fuel choices--including biofuels, biodiesel, electricity, and hydrogen--alternative fuel vehicles, and advanced vehicle technology, such as hybrid electric vehicles, fuel cells and advanced drive trains

  16. Alternative Fuel News, Volume 4, Number 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ficker, C.

    2000-11-14

    This issue of Alternative Fuel News focuses on transit buses and refuse haulers. Many transit agencies and waste management companies are investigating alternatives to traditional diesel buses and refuse haulers.

  17. Alternative Fuel News, Vol. 3 No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-23

    This special issue of Alternative Fuel News highlights the Fifth National Clean Cities Conference held in Louisville, Kentucky. The momentum for the program is stronger than ever and the coalitions are working to propel the alternative fuel industry forward.

  18. EJSCREEN Version 1, EJ Index Alternatives

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map service displays alternative environmental justice (EJ) indexes used in EJSCREEN. The alternative EJ indexes combine each of the 12 environmental indicators...

  19. Office of Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C Research. Information. Outreach. The Office of Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine (OCCAM) was established in October 1998 to coordinate ... National Cancer Institute (NCI) in the arena of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). More about us. CAM at the NCI ...

  20. Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    This action proposes to allow for an additional alternative test method for olefins in gasoline, ASTM D6550-05. The allowance of this additional alternative test method will provide more flexibility to the regulated industry.

  1. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines: Advanced Search. Journal Home > African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines: Advanced Search. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  2. Alternative futures for the Department of Energy National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    This Task Force was asked to propose alternate futures for the Department of Energy laboratories noted in the report. The authors` intensive ten months` study revealed multiple missions and sub-missions--traditional missions and new missions--programs and projects--each with factors of merit. They respectively suggest that the essence of what the Department, and particularly the laboratories, should and do stand for: the energy agenda. Under the overarching energy agenda--the labs serving the energy opportunities--they comment on their national security role, the all important energy role, all related environmental roles, the science and engineering underpinning for all the above, a focused economic role, and conclude with governance/organization change recommendations.

  3. Comparison of spent nuclear fuel management alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beebe, C.L.; Caldwell, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports the process an results of a trade study of spent nuclear fuel (SNF)management alternatives. The purpose of the trade study was to provide: (1) a summary of various SNF management alternatives, (2) an objective comparison of the various alternatives to facilitate the decision making process, and (3) documentation of trade study rational and the basis for decisions

  4. 20 CFR 404.230 - Guaranteed alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guaranteed alternative. 404.230 Section 404... INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Guaranteed Alternative for People Reaching Age 62 After 1978 But Before 1984 § 404.230 Guaranteed alternative. (a) General. If you reach age 62 after 1978...

  5. 77 FR 59346 - Payday-Alternative Loans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 701 RIN 3133-AE08 Payday-Alternative Loans AGENCY...: The NCUA Board (Board) is currently reviewing its regulation governing payday-alternative loans (PAL... to offer PAL loans, previously referred to as short- term, small amount loans, as an alternative to...

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    , and transport. Maps & Data U.S. Biodiesel Production, Exports, and Consumption U.S. Biodiesel Benefits to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Benefits on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Benefits on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data

  7. Nuclear power and its alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendee, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    For nuclear power to contribute significantly to the alleviation of demands for increased electricity by the year 2000, a further obstacle must be overcome, namely the present nuclear phobia of the American public. This phobia can be addressed only through public education leading to a balanced perspective of the benefits and hazards of nuclear power compared with those of alternate sources of energy and to the risks associated with an insufficient supply of energy in a few years. Also to be considered in a public education effort should be the precarious and capricious nature of this country's continued reliance on energy sources imported from politically unstable countries, as well as the risk this importation poses for the nation's economic, social and military security

  8. Alternative Design of Boat Fenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banke, Lars

    1996-01-01

    for the installation of the fender and perhaps for removing it if new oil-risers are to be initialled. The use of crane boats is expensive and weather-dependent.With these effect sin mind, a study of the energy absorption in the fender system, i.e. the fender itself and the frame, is needed for further development......On offshore platforms the purpose of fenders is to protect the oil-risers against minor accidental collisions with supply vessels. Normally, the fender is designed by use of thin-walled tubes. However, the tube itself is not capable of resisting the impact load of the boat. Therefore, alternative...... designs are searched for the fender.Today, an often used improvement of the fender is to fill it with grout or concrete. However, this improvement is not optimal since the fillings increase the weight of the fender beyond the crane capacity of the platform. Thus, crane boats are needed...

  9. Alternative cask maintenance facility concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attaway, C.R.; Pope, R.B.; Wiliamson, A.C.; Medley, L.G.; Shappert, L.B.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the results of three trade-off studies of alternative concepts for performing cask maintenance for Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System casks are presented. An earlier study resulted in a recommendation that a submerged pool concept for cask internal component removal be used in the design of a Cask Maintenance Facility. The first trade-off study resulted in confirming the previous recommendation that a submerged pool concept be used rather than an isolation cell; the basis for this continued recommendation is discussed. The second study provides an evaluation of the previously proposed facility for the capability of handling an increased quantity of OCRWM casks. The third study provides a preliminary concept for adding the capability to repaint the exterior cylindrical portions of casks

  10. Technological alternatives for plutonium transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-12-01

    This paper considers alternative transport modes (air, sea, road, rail) for moving (1) plutonium from a reprocessing plant to a store or a fuel fabrication facility, and (2) MOX fuel from the latter to a reactor. These transport modes and differing forms of plutonium are considered in terms of: their proliferation resistance and safeguards; environmental and safety aspects; and economic aspects. It is tentatively proposed that the transport of plutonium could continue by air or sea where long distances are involved and by road or rail over shorter distances; this would be acceptable from the non-proliferation, environmental impact and economic aspects - there may be advantages in protection if plutonium is transported in the form of mixed oxide

  11. Towards an alternative evolution model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Waesberghe, H

    1982-01-01

    Lamarck and Darwin agreed on the inconstancy of species and on the exclusive gradualism of evolution (nature does not jump). Darwinism, revived as neo-Darwinism, was almost generally accepted from about 1930 till 1960. In the sixties the evolutionary importance of selection has been called in question by the neutralists. The traditional conception of the gene is disarranged by recent molecular-biological findings. Owing to the increasing confusion about the concept of genotype, this concept is reconsidered. The idea of the genotype as a cluster of genes is replaced by a cybernetical interpretation of the genotype. As nature does jump, exclusive gradualism is dismissed. Saltatory evolution is a natural phenomenon, provided by a sudden collapse of the thresholds which resist against evolution. The fossil record and the taxonomic system call for a macromutational interpretation. As Lamarck and Darwin overlooked the resistance of evolutionary thresholds, an alternative evolution model is needed, the first to be constructed on a palaeontological and taxonomic basis.

  12. Alternator control for battery charging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunstetter, Craig A.; Jaye, John R.; Tallarek, Glen E.; Adams, Joseph B.

    2015-07-14

    In accordance with an aspect of the present disclosure, an electrical system for an automotive vehicle has an electrical generating machine and a battery. A set point voltage, which sets an output voltage of the electrical generating machine, is set by an electronic control unit (ECU). The ECU selects one of a plurality of control modes for controlling the alternator based on an operating state of the vehicle as determined from vehicle operating parameters. The ECU selects a range for the set point voltage based on the selected control mode and then sets the set point voltage within the range based on feedback parameters for that control mode. In an aspect, the control modes include a trickle charge mode and battery charge current is the feedback parameter and the ECU controls the set point voltage within the range to maintain a predetermined battery charge current.

  13. [Alternatives to allogenous blood transfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernea, Daniela; Vlădoianu, Alice; Stoica, Maria; Novac, M; Berteanu, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Blood transfusion is usually meant to lower morbidity and mortality rates. Allogenous blood transfusion implies certain risks that can be avoided by autologous blood transfusions techniques including: preoperatory autologous blood donation, acute normovolemic hemodilution, intraoperatory and postoperatory blood salvage. Preoperatory blood donation and acute normovolemic hemodilution are used for planned interventions with an estimated blood loss higher than 20% of blood volume. These methods imply Erythropoietin and iron treatment. Intraoperatory and postoperatory blood salvage is performed by personnel trained in blood donation, handling and storage. Autologous blood transfusions are used for certain surgical procedures that commonly require transfusions: orthopedic surgery, radical prostatectomy, cardiovascular surgery, organ transplantation. An alternative to allogenous blood transfusion is the use of artificial oxygen transporters: human or animal hemoglobin solutions or pefluorocarbonate solutions. These solutions do not require cross reactions, do not carry diseases and are generally well tolerated and easily stored in the operating room, ambulance and other transport means. They have however a slight degree of toxicity.

  14. Alternative Diesel from Waste Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Bezergianni

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The long term ambition of energy security and solidarity, coupled with the environmental concerns of problematic waste accumulation, is addressed via the proposed waste-to-fuel technology. Plastic waste is converted into automotive diesel fuel via a two-step thermochemical process based on pyrolysis and hydrotreatment. Plastic waste was pyrolyzed in a South East Asia plant rendering pyrolysis oil, which mostly consisted of middle-distillate (naphtha and diesel hydrocarbons. The diesel fraction (170–370 °C was fractionated, and its further upgrade was assessed in a hydroprocessing pilot plant at the Centre for Research and Technology Hellas (CERTH in Greece. The final fuel was evaluated with respect to the diesel fuel quality specifications EN 590, which characterized it as a promising alternative diesel pool component with excellent ignition quality characteristics and low back end volatility.

  15. The rural energy alternatives project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffstatter, L.; Panetti, C.; DeWein, M.

    1993-01-01

    A cooperative survey by the New York State Energy Office (SEO) and Office of Rural Affairs (ORA) identified hundreds of residences without utility electric power due to excessive line extension costs. SEO selected several of these residences for feasibility studies which compared site specific options for electricity generation, including existing fossil fuel generator(s), generator/battery sets, photovoltaic (PV) hybrid and micro-hydroelectric systems as well as utility provided electric service. Comprehensive reports included examination of a range of energy conservation measures. Alternatives to present fossil fuel systems were assessed for domestic hot water, refrigeration, and water pumping. Results included electric load data, solar and hydroelectric potential, life cycle cost estimates for electricity, and estimated system sizing information based on energy cost considerations. In addition to providing useful information to individual homeowners, these studies served as the basis for cooperative efforts to install and monitor stand-alone prototype PV hybrid systems

  16. Nuclear energy: a sensible alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, K.O.; Spinrad, B.I.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents information on energy futures; energy demand, energy supplies; exclusive paths and difficult choices--hard, soft, and moderate energy paths; an energy-deficient society; energy shortages; economics of light-water reactors; fast breeder reactor economics; international cooperation in the nuclear field; nuclear recycling; alternative fuels, fuel cycles, and reactors; the nuclear weapons proliferation issue; paths to a world with more reliable nuclear safeguards; the homemade bomb issue; LWR risk assessment; accident analysis and risk assessment; the waste disposal risk; radon problems; risks in our society; health effects of low-level radiation; routine releases of radioactivity from the nuclear industry; low-level radioactivity and infant mortality; the myth of plutonium toxicity; myths about high-level radioactive waste; the aging reactor myth; the police state myth; insurance and nuclear power--the Price-Anderson Act; and solar and nuclear power as partners

  17. Alternative pathways to antimatter containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rejcek, J.M.; Browder, M.K.; Fry, J.L.; Koymen, A.; Weiss, A.H.

    2003-01-01

    Antimatter containment is a gateway technology for future advancements in many areas. Immediate applications in propulsion, medicine, and instrumentation have already been envisioned and many others are yet to be considered. Key to this technological advance is identifying one or more pathways to achieve safe reliable containment of antimatter in sufficient quantities to be useful on an engineering and industrial scale. The goal of this paper is to review current approaches and discuss possible alternative pathways to antimatter containment. Specifically, this paper will address the possibility of designing a solid-state containment system that will safely hold antimatter in quantities dense enough to be of any engineering utility. A discussion of the current research, the needed engineering requirements, and a survey of current research is presented

  18. Alternative Crops and Biofuel Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenkel, Philip [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Holcomb, Rodney B. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)

    2013-03-01

    In order for the biofuel industry to meet the RFS benchmarks for biofuels, new feedstock sources and production systems will have to be identified and evaluated. The Southern Plains has the potential to produce over a billion gallons of biofuels from regionally produced alternative crops, agricultural residues, and animal fats. While information on biofuel conversion processes is available, it is difficult for entrepreneurs, community planners and other interested individuals to determine the feasibility of biofuel processes or to match production alternatives with feed stock availability and community infrastructure. This project facilitates the development of biofuel production from these regionally available feed stocks. Project activities are concentrated in five major areas. The first component focused on demonstrating the supply of biofuel feedstocks. This involves modeling the yield and cost of production of dedicated energy crops at the county level. In 1991 the DOE selected switchgrass as a renewable source to produce transportation fuel after extensive evaluations of many plant species in multiple location (Caddel et al,. 2010). However, data on the yield and cost of production of switchgrass are limited. This deficiency in demonstrating the supply of biofuel feedstocks was addressed by modeling the potential supply and geographic variability of switchgrass yields based on relationship of available switchgrass yields to the yields of other forage crops. This model made it possible to create a database of projected switchgrass yields for five different soil types at the county level. A major advantage of this methodology is that the supply projections can be easily updated as improved varieties of switchgrass are developed and additional yield data becomes available. The modeling techniques are illustrated using the geographic area of Oklahoma. A summary of the regional supply is then provided.

  19. Alternative calcination development status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, R.D.

    1997-12-01

    The Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel and (INEEL) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision, dated June 1, 1995, specifies that high-level waste stored in the underground tanks at the ICPP continue to be calcined while other options to treat the waste are studied. Therefore, the High-Level Waste Program has funded a program to develop new flowsheets to increase the liquid waste processing rate. Simultaneously, a radionuclide separation process, as well as other options, are also being developed, which will be compared to the calcination treatment option. Two alternatives emerged as viable candidates; (1) elevated temperature calcination (also referred to as high temperature calcination), and (2) sugar-additive calcination. Both alternatives were determined to be viable through testing performed in a lab-scale calcination mockup. Subsequently, 10-cm Calciner Pilot Plant scoping tests were successfully completed for both flowsheets. The results were compared to the standard 500 C, high-ANN flow sheet (baseline flowsheet). The product and effluent streams were characterized to help elucidate the process chemistry and to investigate potential environmental permitting issues. Several supplementary tests were conducted to gain a better understanding of fine-particles generation, calcine hydration, scrub foaming, feed makeup procedures, sugar/organic elimination, and safety-related issues. Many of the experiments are only considered to be scoping tests, and follow-up experiments will be required to establish a more definitive understanding of the flowsheets. However, the combined results support the general conclusion that flowsheet improvements for the NWCF are technically viable

  20. ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF ENERGY - ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF POLLUTION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius-Razvan SURUGIU

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In many countries of the world investments are made for obtaining energy efficiency, pursuing to increase the generation of non-polluting fuels due to the fact that energy is vital for any economy. The increase in non-polluting fuels and in renewable energy generation might lead to diminishing the dependence of countries less endowed with conventional energy resources on oil and natural gas from Russia or from Arab countries. Nevertheless, environmental issues represent serious questions facing the mankind, requiring the identification, prevention, and why not, their total solving.European Union countries depend on imports of energy, especially on oil imports. At the same time, the European Union countries record a high volume of greenhouse gas emissions, substances adding to global warming. The transport sector is the main consumer of fossil fuels and generator of greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, diversifying the energy supply used in the transport sector with less polluting sources is an essential objective of the European Union policy in the transport, energy and environment sector. Road transports’ is the sector recording the highest consumption of energy and the highest volume of greenhouse gas emissions.The use of ecologic fuels in the transport sector is an important factor for achieving the objectives of European policies in the field. It is yet to be seen to what extent alternative energy sources are damaging to the environment, as it is a known fact that even for them is recorded a certain level of negative externalities.

  1. Autoignition Studies of Diesel Alternative Biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weijing

    illustrates the importance of the long alkyl chain in controlling the overall reactivity of methyl ester biodiesel compounds and the subtle role the ester group has on inhibiting low-temperature reactivity as well as the influence of branching on reactivity for lightly branched alkanes. This thesis work provides a rich database of kinetic information for biofuel-related compounds at conditions relevant to real engine operations, offering quantitative kinetic targets for the development and evaluation of future kinetic models for important alternative fuel compounds. The results quantify the reactivity variability of biodiesel alternatives and illustrate that at temperature greater than 900 to 1000 K fuel structure has little influence on reactivity, as fuel fragmentation results in an intermediate pool that is largely the same for the fuels studied. On the other hand at temperature lower than 900 K, where fuel-specific low-temperature chemistry plays a role, different fuel structures can result in vast differences in reactivity, up to factors of three or more in ignition delay.

  2. Attitudes toward and education about complementary and alternative medicine among adult patients with depression in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Mei-Chi; Moyle, Wendy; Creedy, Debra; Venturato, Lorraine; Ouyang, Wen-Chen; Sun, Gwo-Ching

    2010-04-01

    concerns patients may have about complementary and alternative medicine and treatment options. This study highlights the potential role of patient education about complementary and alternative medicine as an effective way of adjusting patients' attitudes toward complementary and alternative medicine and to link both patients' preferences for complementary and alternative medicine and health professionals' concerns about the proper use of complementary and alternative medicine for depression management and adverse drug interactions.

  3. Mycotic aneurysms : radiological diagnosis and therapeutic alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbano, J.; Arjonilla, M. A.

    2002-01-01

    To review mycotic aneurysms, their radiological diagnosis and therapeutic alternatives. Five men and a woman between 69 and 84 years old were diagnosed during the last 4 years with mycotic aneurysms. Three were in the aorta, one in the thoracic and two in the abdominal region; one was affecting the left primitive iliac artery, another the left popliteal artery and, in the last case, the medial cerebral artery. Hemo cultures were done on all patients. The surgical specimen was cultivated in 4. CAT was done on 5 patients, angiography on another five and Doppler ultrasound scan on two. Five patients showed positive hemo cultures and in two the surgical specimen culture was positive. The findings of the CAT were decisive in being able to suspect that the lesions were mycotic in nature. Three patients had to undergo emergency, expiring either in surgery or in postoperative care. One case was treated by means of aortic endo prosthesis, and one year later the patient remains asymptomatic. The cerebral aneurysm was embolized with metal coils and the patient remains asymptomatic three years later. The popliteal aneurysm underwent surgical intervention using an established protocol with good results. CAT is decisive in the diagnosis of mycotic aneurysms. Once detected, they must be treated without delay as their natural evolution is one of rapid expansion and rupture. Angiographies help in planning the treatment. Radiological intervention plays an important role in the treatment. (Author) 13 refs

  4. EBV Latency Types Adopt Alternative Chromatin Conformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempera, Italo; Klichinsky, Michael; Lieberman, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) can establish latent infections with distinct gene expression patterns referred to as latency types. These different latency types are epigenetically stable and correspond to different promoter utilization. Here we explore the three-dimensional conformations of the EBV genome in different latency types. We employed Chromosome Conformation Capture (3C) assay to investigate chromatin loop formation between the OriP enhancer and the promoters that determine type I (Qp) or type III (Cp) gene expression. We show that OriP is in close physical proximity to Qp in type I latency, and to Cp in type III latency. The cellular chromatin insulator and boundary factor CTCF was implicated in EBV chromatin loop formation. Combining 3C and ChIP assays we found that CTCF is physically associated with OriP-Qp loop formation in type I and OriP-Cp loop formation in type III latency. Mutations in the CTCF binding site located at Qp disrupt loop formation between Qp and OriP, and lead to the activation of Cp transcription. Mutation of the CTCF binding site at Cp, as well as siRNA depletion of CTCF eliminates both OriP-associated loops, indicating that CTCF plays an integral role in loop formation. These data indicate that epigenetically stable EBV latency types adopt distinct chromatin architectures that depend on CTCF and mediate alternative promoter targeting by the OriP enhancer. PMID:21829357

  5. EBV latency types adopt alternative chromatin conformations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italo Tempera

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV can establish latent infections with distinct gene expression patterns referred to as latency types. These different latency types are epigenetically stable and correspond to different promoter utilization. Here we explore the three-dimensional conformations of the EBV genome in different latency types. We employed Chromosome Conformation Capture (3C assay to investigate chromatin loop formation between the OriP enhancer and the promoters that determine type I (Qp or type III (Cp gene expression. We show that OriP is in close physical proximity to Qp in type I latency, and to Cp in type III latency. The cellular chromatin insulator and boundary factor CTCF was implicated in EBV chromatin loop formation. Combining 3C and ChIP assays we found that CTCF is physically associated with OriP-Qp loop formation in type I and OriP-Cp loop formation in type III latency. Mutations in the CTCF binding site located at Qp disrupt loop formation between Qp and OriP, and lead to the activation of Cp transcription. Mutation of the CTCF binding site at Cp, as well as siRNA depletion of CTCF eliminates both OriP-associated loops, indicating that CTCF plays an integral role in loop formation. These data indicate that epigenetically stable EBV latency types adopt distinct chromatin architectures that depend on CTCF and mediate alternative promoter targeting by the OriP enhancer.

  6. Alternative Modernities for Colonial Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sunyoung Park. The Proletarian Wave: Literature and Leftist Culture in Colonial Korea, 1910–1945. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2015. 348 pp. $50 (cloth. Vladimir Tikhonov. Modern Korea and Its Others: Perceptions of the Neighbouring Countries and Korean Modernity. London: Routledge, 2016. 218 pp. $160 (cloth. It has become a global scholarly undertaking: how to rethink modernity so as to decouple it from Westernization (Chakrabarty 2000. Strategies have included foregrounding the plurality of history to disrupt linear progress; positing non-Western centers of modernity in, say, Moscow or Shanghai; and tracing anticolonial circuits connecting Asia to Africa to Latin America. The two recent books under review here add colonial-era Korea to such far-reaching discussions by situating the country across national boundaries. Interestingly, one connecting thread here is the alternative world system provided by the interwar, Soviet-oriented Left. The result is an unsettling of binaries that subsequently became entrenched during the Cold War: for example, north-south, socialist-nationalist, and, for literature, realist-modernist. But more broadly, pervading both books is the sense that history could have turned out differently—that revisiting northeast Asia’s porous borders in the early twentieth century reveals the Korean peninsula’s lost, internationalist potential...

  7. Alternative careers in the geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, Peter S.; Smith, Guy M.

    The Earth sciences continue to produce substantial numbers of Ph.D.s. However, many subdisciplines of solid-Earth geophysics are experiencing a lack of growth, or an actual contraction, in the number of permanent positions available in traditional academia, government, and industry settings. The alternative of indefinite-term soft money positions is growing increasingly scarce as research funds continue to get tighter. Furthermore, even those in permanent research positions are finding it harder and harder to obtain funding for their projects.The relative scarcity of traditional permanent employment and the continuing changes in the research funding environment cause an increasing number of Ph.D.-trained geoscientists to explore the possibility of employment outside the traditional geophysical research areas. Unfortunately, information about “nontraditional” career paths is hard to come by. For the most part, Ph.D. programs are designed to prepare students for the research job market only. Those who have chosen other options usually no longer attend scientific meetings and thus are not able to communicate their experience to others contemplating a similar departure.

  8. Alternative Water Processor Test Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Karen D.; Mitchell, Julie; Vega, Leticia; Adam, Niklas; Flynn, Michael; Wjee (er. Rau); Lunn, Griffin; Jackson, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The Next Generation Life Support Project is developing an Alternative Water Processor (AWP) as a candidate water recovery system for long duration exploration missions. The AWP consists of biological water processor (BWP) integrated with a forward osmosis secondary treatment system (FOST). The basis of the BWP is a membrane aerated biological reactor (MABR), developed in concert with Texas Tech University. Bacteria located within the MABR metabolize organic material in wastewater, converting approximately 90% of the total organic carbon to carbon dioxide. In addition, bacteria convert a portion of the ammonia-nitrogen present in the wastewater to nitrogen gas, through a combination of nitrogen and denitrification. The effluent from the BWP system is low in organic contaminants, but high in total dissolved solids. The FOST system, integrated downstream of the BWP, removes dissolved solids through a combination of concentration-driven forward osmosis and pressure driven reverse osmosis. The integrated system is expected to produce water with a total organic carbon less than 50 mg/l and dissolved solids that meet potable water requirements for spaceflight. This paper describes the test definition, the design of the BWP and FOST subsystems, and plans for integrated testing.

  9. Live chat alternative security protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, J. P. R.; Nugraha, E.; Febriany, A.

    2018-05-01

    Indonesia is one of the largest e-commerce markets in Southeast Asia, as many as 5 million people do transactions in e-commerce, therefore more and more people use live chat service to communicate with customer service. In live chat, the customer service often asks customers’ data such as, full name, address, e-mail, transaction id, which aims to verify the purchase of the product. One of the risks that will happen is sniffing which will lead to the theft of confidential information that will cause huge losses to the customer. The anticipation that will be done is build an alternative security protocol for user interaction in live chat by using a cryptographic algorithm that is useful for protecting confidential messages. Live chat requires confidentiality and data integration with encryption and hash functions. The used algorithm are Rijndael 256 bits, RSA, and SHA256. To increase the complexity, the Rijndael algorithm will be modified in the S-box and ShiftRow sections based on the shannon principle rule, the results show that all pass the Randomness test, but the modification in Shiftrow indicates a better avalanche effect. Therefore the message will be difficult to be stolen or changed.

  10. Economics of alternative energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryle, M.

    1977-01-01

    It is stated that an important part of the oil and natural gas at present consumed in the UK is used for the heating of buildings, a demand which shows large diurnal, day-to-day and annual fluctuations. The replacement of this energy by nuclear-generated electricity, as at present envisaged, would require the construction of some 250 GW of additional capacity by the end of the century, a programme which does not seem feasible. By incorporating relatively cheap short term storage in the form of low-grade heat, the generating capacity required to fulfil peak demand could be reduced by more than 50%. As soon as such storage is provided, however, other sources of energy should become viable and attractive alternatives, and the UK is well situated to make use of wind, wave, and tidal power. It seems likely that the value of North Sea oil/gas reserves as feedstock to the chemical industry will rise sufficiently to make an early reduction in their consumption as fuel of great economic importance. (author)

  11. Economics of alternative energy sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryle, M

    1977-05-12

    An important part of the oil and natural gas at present consumed in the UK is used for the heating of buildings, a demand which shows large diurnal, day-to-day and annual fluctuations. The replacement of this energy by nuclear-generated electricity, as at present envisaged, would require the construction of some 250 GW of additional capacity by the end of the century, a progamme which does not seem feasible. By incorporating relatively cheap, short term storage in the form of low-grade heat, the generating capacity required to fulfil peak demand could be reduced by more than 50%. As soon as such storage is provided, however, other sources of energy become viable and attractive alternatives, and the UK is well situated to make use of wind, wave, and tidal power. It seems likely that the value of North Sea oil/gas reserves as feedstock to the chemical industry will rise sufficiently to make an early reduction in their consumption as fuel of great economic importance.

  12. British Columbia : an alternative design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostergaard, P.

    2003-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation outlined the British Columbia Ministry of Energy and Mines' approach to the electricity market. A brief overview of the electric system in the province was provided, examining capacity (primarily hydro based) and the utility sector with its public ownership. In British Columbia, 80 per cent of the electricity is generated by British Columbia Hydro (BC Hydro). The rates are based on cost of service. British Columbia's market is western North America. A comparison of monthly bills for several large cities, both Canadian and American, was displayed. The market reviews conducted in 1995, 1998, and 2002 were reviewed and the major recommendations discussed. The author identified the opportunities in the province, discussing natural gas and coal for electricity production, resource potential, demand, and private sector capacity. The challenges facing the province are: cost effective development of resources to meet energy demand; aging infrastructure, high reliability requirements and economic growth; evolving electricity market structure in the United States; and, monopoly. The transmission system was reviewed with reference to trade with the Pacific Northwest, flexibility and storage. The energy plan objectives for the future were presented, including low rates and public ownership, secure and reliable supply, more private sector opportunities, and environmental responsibility. The alternative market structure includes regulated market characteristics, access to trade, and customer focus. figs

  13. HFIR spent fuel management alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begovich, J.M.; Green, V.M.; Shappert, L.B.; Lotts, A.L.

    1992-01-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Martin Marietta Energy Systems' Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been unable to ship its spent fuel to Savannah River Site (SRS) for reprocessing since 1985. The HFIR storage pools are expected to fill up in the February 1994 to February 1995 time frame. If a management altemative to existing HFIR pool storage is not identified and implemented before the HFIR pools are full, the HFIR will be forced to shut down. This study investigated several alternatives for managing the HFIR spent fuel, attempting to identify options that could be implemented before the HFIR pools are full. The options investigated were: installing a dedicated dry cask storage facility at ORNL, increasing HFIR pool storage capacity by clearing the HFIR pools of debris and either close-packing or stacking the spent fuel elements, storing the spent fuel at another ORNL pool, storing the spent fuel in one or more hot cells at ORNL, and shipping the spent fuel offsite for reprocessing or storage elsewhere

  14. Alternative to domain wall fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuberger, H.

    2002-01-01

    An alternative to commonly used domain wall fermions is presented. Some rigorous bounds on the condition number of the associated linear problem are derived. On the basis of these bounds and some experimentation it is argued that domain wall fermions will in general be associated with a condition number that is of the same order of magnitude as the product of the condition number of the linear problem in the physical dimensions by the inverse bare quark mass. Thus, the computational cost of implementing true domain wall fermions using a single conjugate gradient algorithm is of the same order of magnitude as that of implementing the overlap Dirac operator directly using two nested conjugate gradient algorithms. At a cost of about a factor of two in operation count it is possible to make the memory usage of direct implementations of the overlap Dirac operator independent of the accuracy of the approximation to the sign function and of the same order as that of standard Wilson fermions

  15. Alternative Energy for Higher Education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Cherney, PhD

    2012-02-22

    This project provides educational opportunities creating both a teaching facility and center for public outreach. The facility is the largest solar array in Nebraska. It was designed to allow students to experience a variety of technologies and provide the public with opportunities for exposure to the implementation of an alternative energy installation designed for an urban setting. The project integrates products from 5 panel manufacturers (including monocrystalline, polycrystalline and thin film technologies) mounted on both fixed and tracking structures. The facility uses both micro and high power inverters. The majority of the system was constructed to serve as an outdoor classroom where panels can be monitored, tested, removed and replaced by students. As an educational facility it primarily serves students in the Creighton University and Metropolitan Community College, but it also provides broader educational opportunities. The project includes a real-time dashboard and a historical database of the output of individual inverters and the corresponding meteorological data for researcher and student use. This allows the evaluation of both panel types and the feasibility of installation types in a region of the country subject to significant temperature, wind and precipitation variation.

  16. Alternative systematic approaches to training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    This handbook is approved for use by all DOE Components and contractors. The handbook was prepared primarily for DOE nuclear facilities, but the information can be effectively used by any other type of facility. DOE nuclear, DOE non-nuclear, commercial nuclear reactor, fuel fabrication, chemical processing, or other types of facilities may also apply the principles of this approach and find it useful and applicable to local needs. The handbook provides DOE and contractor operating organizations with concepts and guidance regarding the use of alternative techniques to implement a systematic approach to training (SAT). The techniques described in this handbook are endorsed by DOE and use of the guidance in this handbook is appropriate for establishment of technical training programs at DOE nuclear facilities. The use of guidance on selection and implementation of appropriate training approaches after consideration of job complexity, the consequences of error based on risk/hazard potential, and available training media should result in effective and efficient training programs. The information presented in this handbook can be used to grade the level of effort and formality used in developing training programs.

  17. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This report presents the first compilation by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of information on alternatives to gasoline and diesel fuel. The purpose of the report is: (1) to provide background information on alternative transportation fuels and replacement fuels compared with gasoline and diesel fuel, and (2) to furnish preliminary estimates of alternative transportation fuels and alternative fueled vehicles as required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), Title V, Section 503, ``Replacement Fuel Demand Estimates and Supply Information.`` Specifically, Section 503 requires the EIA to report annually on: (1) the number and type of alternative fueled vehicles in existence the previous year and expected to be in use the following year, (2) the geographic distribution of these vehicles, (3) the amounts and types of replacement fuels consumed, and (4) the greenhouse gas emissions likely to result from replacement fuel use. Alternative fueled vehicles are defined in this report as motorized vehicles licensed for on-road use, which may consume alternative transportation fuels. (Alternative fueled vehicles may use either an alternative transportation fuel or a replacement fuel.) The intended audience for the first section of this report includes the Secretary of Energy, the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the automobile manufacturing industry, the transportation fuel manufacturing and distribution industries, and the general public. The second section is designed primarily for persons desiring a more technical explanation of and background for the issues surrounding alternative transportation fuels.

  18. "I'm not strong enough; I'm not good enough. I can't do this, I'm failing"- A qualitative study of low-socioeconomic status smokers' experiences with accesssing cessation support and the role for alternative technology-based support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Veronica C; Mattick, Richard P; McRobbie, Hayden; Siahpush, Mohammad; Courtney, Ryan J

    2017-11-13

    The social gradient in smoking rates persist with an overrepresentation of smoking and its associated harms concentrated within lower socioeconomic status (SES) populations. Low-SES smokers are motivated to quit but face multiple barriers when engaging a quit attempt. An understanding of the current treatment service model from the perspectives of treatment-seeking low-SES smokers is needed to inform the design of alternative smoking cessation support services tailored to the needs of low-SES populations. This qualitative study aimed to: i) explore low-SES smokers' recent quitting experiences; ii) assess factors that impact treatment engagement; and iii) determine the acceptability and feasibility of alternative approaches to smoking cessation. Low-SES participants (n = 24) previously enrolled in a smoking cessation RCT participated in either a semi-structured focus group or in-depth telephone interview. Data was obtained and analysed using thematic analysis from October 2015 to June 2016. Analysis was deductive from the interview guide and supplemented inductively. Participants expressed feelings of guilt and shame around their smoking behaviour and experienced stigmatisation for their smoking. Guilt, shame, and stigmatisation negatively impacted treatment seeking behaviours with most avoiding current quit services. Costs of pharmacotherapy and treatment adherence were commonly cited barriers to treatment success. Electronic-cigarettes were perceived to be unsafe due to uncertainty on their legal status and regulatory restrictions. Technology-based text-messaging quit support was endorsed as a more favourable alternative compared to existing behavioural treatment services. Stigmatisation was commonly endorsed and acted as an impediment to current treatment utilisation. Electronic-cigarettes may present a viable harm reduction alternative, but their likely uptake in socioeconomically disadvantaged groups in Australia is limited by smokers' uncertainty about their

  19. Why prove it again? alternative proofs in mathematical practice

    CERN Document Server

    Dawson, Jr , John W

    2015-01-01

    This monograph considers several well-known mathematical theorems and asks the question, “Why prove it again?” while examining alternative proofs.   It  explores the different rationales mathematicians may have for pursuing and presenting new proofs of previously established results, as well as how they judge whether two proofs of a given result are different.  While a number of books have examined alternative proofs of individual theorems, this is the first that presents comparative case studies of other methods for a variety of different theorems. The author begins by laying out the criteria for distinguishing among proofs and enumerates reasons why new proofs have, for so long, played a prominent role in mathematical practice.  He then outlines various purposes that alternative proofs may serve.  Each chapter that follows provides a detailed case study of alternative proofs for particular theorems, including the Pythagorean Theorem, the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic, Desargues’ Theorem, the...

  20. Alternative literacy training for business and industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justus C. Roux

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Because there is an enomwus need for literacy training in a developing country like South Africa, various organisations, including government departments, have embarked upon devising and presenting courses to meet this demand. Despite the useful and meritorious work done across the country, a certain measure of doubt is cast upon the effectiveness of these courses by questions raised about the basic approaches regarding the role of the instructor, the learner and the course material. It is argued that a literacy course, widely used in business and industry, is not conducive to optima/learning. This conviction is strengthened by examining the nature and contents of the teaching material and the proposed method of instruction. An alternative literacy programme based on a suggestopedic!SALT method, currently in the process of being applied in a mining environment, is presented as a possible viable alternative. However, the application of this approach presupposes the adequate training of instructors. While it has become practice that any literate person may in principle qualify as a literacy instructor, it is suggested that effective literacy training can take place only when administered by suitably qualified instructors and not merely by willing individuals. Omdat daar 'n geweldige behoefte is aan geletterdheidsopleiding in 'n ontwikkelende land soos Suid Afrika, het verskeie organisasies, insluitende regeringsdepartemente, onderneem om kursusse te ontwerp en aan te bied om in hierdie behoefte te voorsien. Ten spyte van nuttige en verdienstelike werkwat deurdie land gedoen is, is daar 'n mate van twyfel oordie effektiwiteit daarvan a$ gevolg van vrae wat ontstaan het oor basiese benaderings ten opsigte van die rol van die instrukteur, die leerder en die kursus-materiaal. Daar word geredeneer dat 'n geletterdheidskursus wat algemeen gebruik word, onder andere in die sake- en industriele wereld, nie bevorderlik is vir optimale leer nie. Hierdie

  1. Alternate fusion -- continuous inertial confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, D.C.; Turner, L.; Nebel, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    The authors argue that alternate approaches to large tokamak confinement are appropriate for fusion applications if: (1) They do not require magnetic confinement of a much higher quality than demonstrated in tokamaks; (2) Their physics basis may be succinctly stated and experimentally tested; (3) They offer near-term applications to important technical problems; and (4) Their cost to proof-of-principle is low enough to be consistent with current budget realities. An approach satisfying all of these criteria is presented. Fusion systems based on continuous inertial confinement are described. In these approaches, the inertia of a nonequilibrium plasma is used to produce local concentrations of plasma density in space and/or time. One implementation (inertial electrostatic confinement) which has been investigated both experimentally and theoretically uses a system of electrostatic grids to accelerate plasma ions toward a spherical focus. This system produced a steady 2 x 10 10 D-T neutrons/second with an overall fusion gain of 10 -5 in a sphere of about 9 cm radius. Recent theoretical developments show how to raise the fusion gain to order unity or greater by replacing the internal grids by a combination of applied magnetic and electrostatic fields. In these approaches, useful thermonuclear conditions may be produced in a system as small as a few mm radius. Confinement is that of a nonneutralized plasma. A pure electron plasma with a radial beam velocity distribution is absolutely confined by an applied Penning trap field. Spherical convergence of the confined electrons forms a deep virtual cathode near r = 0, in which thermonuclear ions are absolutely confined at useful densities. The authors have examined the equilibrium, stability, and classical relaxation of such systems, and obtained many positive physics results. Equilibria exist for both pure electron and partially charge-neutralized systems with arbitrarily high core-plasma densities

  2. Display Sharing: An Alternative Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    The current Johnson Space Center (JSC) Mission Control Center (MCC) Video Transport System (VTS) provides flight controllers and management the ability to meld raw video from various sources with telemetry to improve situational awareness. However, maintaining a separate infrastructure for video delivery and integration of video content with data adds significant complexity and cost to the system. When considering alternative architectures for a VTS, the current system's ability to share specific computer displays in their entirety to other locations, such as large projector systems, flight control rooms, and back supporting rooms throughout the facilities and centers must be incorporated into any new architecture. Internet Protocol (IP)-based systems also support video delivery and integration. IP-based systems generally have an advantage in terms of cost and maintainability. Although IP-based systems are versatile, the task of sharing a computer display from one workstation to another can be time consuming for an end-user and inconvenient to administer at a system level. The objective of this paper is to present a prototype display sharing enterprise solution. Display sharing is a system which delivers image sharing across the LAN while simultaneously managing bandwidth, supporting encryption, enabling recovery and resynchronization following a loss of signal, and, minimizing latency. Additional critical elements will include image scaling support, multi -sharing, ease of initial integration and configuration, integration with desktop window managers, collaboration tools, host and recipient controls. This goal of this paper is to summarize the various elements of an IP-based display sharing system that can be used in today's control center environment.

  3. SplicingTypesAnno: annotating and quantifying alternative splicing events for RNA-Seq data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoyong; Zuo, Fenghua; Ru, Yuanbin; Guo, Jiqiang; Yan, Xiaoyan; Sablok, Gaurav

    2015-04-01

    Alternative splicing plays a key role in the regulation of the central dogma. Four major types of alternative splicing have been classified as intron retention, exon skipping, alternative 5 splice sites or alternative donor sites, and alternative 3 splice sites or alternative acceptor sites. A few algorithms have been developed to detect splice junctions from RNA-Seq reads. However, there are few tools targeting at the major alternative splicing types at the exon/intron level. This type of analysis may reveal subtle, yet important events of alternative splicing, and thus help gain deeper understanding of the mechanism of alternative splicing. This paper describes a user-friendly R package, extracting, annotating and analyzing alternative splicing types for sequence alignment files from RNA-Seq. SplicingTypesAnno can: (1) provide annotation for major alternative splicing at exon/intron level. By comparing the annotation from GTF/GFF file, it identifies the novel alternative splicing sites; (2) offer a convenient two-level analysis: genome-scale annotation for users with high performance computing environment, and gene-scale annotation for users with personal computers; (3) generate a user-friendly web report and additional BED files for IGV visualization. SplicingTypesAnno is a user-friendly R package for extracting, annotating and analyzing alternative splicing types at exon/intron level for sequence alignment files from RNA-Seq. It is publically available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/splicingtypes/files/ or http://genome.sdau.edu.cn/research/software/SplicingTypesAnno.html. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. NRC inspection alternatives. A study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conver, S.K.; Legasey, E.E.; LeDoux, J.C.; Rehfuss, C.

    1977-04-01

    IE's efforts in pursuing various resident inspection concepts are consistent with the stated interests of the new Administration in improving federal oversight of the nuclear industry. Four alternative resident inspection concepts are described and evaluated vis-a-vis the current program. The concept of full-time onsite inspectors as a preferred alternative is discussed. The tasks necessary to implement this preferred alternative are described

  5. Modeling the Effects of Harvest Alternatives on Mitigating Oak Decline in a Central Hardwood Forest Landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen J Wang

    Full Text Available Oak decline is a process induced by complex interactions of predisposing factors, inciting factors, and contributing factors operating at tree, stand, and landscape scales. It has greatly altered species composition and stand structure in affected areas. Thinning, clearcutting, and group selection are widely adopted harvest alternatives for reducing forest vulnerability to oak decline by removing susceptible species and declining trees. However, the long-term, landscape-scale effects of these different harvest alternatives are not well studied because of the limited availability of experimental data. In this study, we applied a forest landscape model in combination with field studies to evaluate the effects of the three harvest alternatives on mitigating oak decline in a Central Hardwood Forest landscape. Results showed that the potential oak decline in high risk sites decreased strongly in the next five decades irrespective of harvest alternatives. This is because oak decline is a natural process and forest succession (e.g., high tree mortality resulting from intense competition would eventually lead to the decrease in oak decline in this area. However, forest harvesting did play a role in mitigating oak decline and the effectiveness varied among the three harvest alternatives. The group selection and clearcutting alternatives were most effective in mitigating oak decline in the short and medium terms, respectively. The long-term effects of the three harvest alternatives on mitigating oak decline became less discernible as the role of succession increased. The thinning alternative had the highest biomass retention over time, followed by the group selection and clearcutting alternatives. The group selection alternative that balanced treatment effects and retaining biomass was the most viable alternative for managing oak decline. Insights from this study may be useful in developing effective and informed forest harvesting plans for managing oak

  6. Non-Gasoline Alternative Fueling Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Through a nationwide network of local coalitions, Clean Citiesprovides project assistance to help stakeholders in the public and private sectors deploy alternative...

  7. Proposed alternatives for international plutonium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Montmollin, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    The IAEA Director General convened an Expert Group in December 1978, to study proposals for implementing some form of IPS. The Group labored for three years, developing details of a single proposed concept. In early 1982 a group of developing countries proposed a different and less-restrictive scheme, which was labeled Alternative B. In response, three other countries proposed a scheme more restrictive than the original Alternative A. The Expert Group forwarded all three alternatives to the Board of Governors, without recommendation, in its final report. In this paper the features that distinguish each of the alternatives are described

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Related Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    marketing zero-emission proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells for transportation and power generation production and use. Energy Management Institute The Energy Management Institute publishes the Alternative

  9. Alternative Fuel News, Vol. 2, No. 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NREL

    1999-05-20

    What's in store for alternative Fuels and advanced technology vehicles in the new millennium? The Clean Cities Coalitions now operate more than 240,000 alternative fuel vehicles in both public and private sectors and have access to more than 4,000 alternative refueling stations. DOE recently announced the selection of 15 proposals that will receive just under $1.7 million in financial assistance to help expand DOE's information dissemination and public outreach efforts for alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies.

  10. Complementary and Alternative Therapies in ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedlack, Richard S.; Joyce, Nanette; Carter, Gregory T.; Pagononi, Sabrina; Karam, Chafic

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Given the severity of their illness and lack of effective disease modifying agents, it is not surprising that most patients with ALS consider trying complementary and alternative therapies. Some of the most commonly considered alternative therapies include special diets, nutritional supplements, cannabis, acupuncture, chelation and energy healing. This chapter reviews these in detail. We also describe 3 models by which physicians may frame discussions about alternative therapies: paternalism, autonomy and shared decision making. Finally, we review a program called ALSUntangled which using shared shared decision making to review alternative therapies for ALS. PMID:26515629

  11. Energy: the solar hydrogen alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocheris, J O.M.

    1977-01-01

    The author argues that nuclear and solar energy should begin replacing conventional fossil sources as soon as possible because oil, gas and even coal supplies will be depleted within decades. A hydrogen economy would introduce major technical problems but its chief benefits are that it permits energy storage in a post fossil fuel era when electricity is expected to play a major role. It can be converted to electricity, cleanly and efficiently with fuel cells and in liquid form can be burnt as jet fuel. Hydrogen can also be burnt in internal combustion engines although less efficiently in fuel cells. However, although hydrogen is clean and efficient, technical development is still needed to reduce its cost and to cope with safety problems. The book contains a wealth of technical information and is a valuable reference on a topic of growing importance.

  12. The significance test controversy revisited the fiducial Bayesian alternative

    CERN Document Server

    Lecoutre, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this book is not only to revisit the “significance test controversy,”but also to provide a conceptually sounder alternative. As such, it presents a Bayesian framework for a new approach to analyzing and interpreting experimental data. It also prepares students and researchers for reporting on experimental results. Normative aspects: The main views of statistical tests are revisited and the philosophies of Fisher, Neyman-Pearson and Jeffrey are discussed in detail. Descriptive aspects: The misuses of Null Hypothesis Significance Tests are reconsidered in light of Jeffreys’ Bayesian conceptions concerning the role of statistical inference in experimental investigations. Prescriptive aspects: The current effect size and confidence interval reporting practices are presented and seriously questioned. Methodological aspects are carefully discussed and fiducial Bayesian methods are proposed as a more suitable alternative for reporting on experimental results. In closing, basic routine procedures...

  13. Alternatives of financing for new nuclear reactors in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, A.; Palacios, J.C.; Ramirez, J.R.; Longoria, L.C.; Valle, E. del

    2009-01-01

    Financing plays a very important role for the deployment of new nuclear reactors units in any country. Two financing alternatives can be used to support such project: the first one is that the utility provide from its own resources the capital for the investment; and the second one through international and national credits to support the nuclear project. To be a loan candidate the viability of the nuclear project must be demonstrated, it implies among other things to have a qualified national infrastructure. Also, the utility must have an international credit record in good status by the international qualifying companies. Both things are met by the Mexican Utility 'Comision Federal de Electricidad', therefore exist the possibility to build new nuclear reactors in Mexico. Here we assess both alternatives financing and own resources projects

  14. Alternatives to animal experimentation in basic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Franz P; Hartung, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    increasingly into developing those for basic research. A financial incentive is necessary to change procedures in basic research to animal free procedures. Ethical considerations alone will bring little movement or change. It is unacceptable that, while numbers of animal tests decrease in development and notification of drugs and chemicals, they are increasing in basic research. Due to the central role of publishing scientific results, the key options for control are the respective rules of journals for the acceptance of articles. By demanding certain standards in the instructions for authors, e.g. of quality (GCCP), relevance and in case of animal experiments proof that no alternative is available, pressure could be dramatically increased. It is suggested to hold a consensus conference of journals in the life sciences on this topic.

  15. Vitamin D and alternative splicing of RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Rui; Chun, Rene F; Lisse, Thomas S; Garcia, Alejandro J; Xu, Jianzhong; Adams, John S; Hewison, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The active form of vitamin D (1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, 1,25(OH)2D) exerts its genomic effects via binding to a nuclear high-affinity vitamin D receptor (VDR). Recent deep sequencing analysis of VDR binding locations across the complete genome has significantly expanded our understanding of the actions of vitamin D and VDR on gene transcription. However, these studies have also promoted appreciation of the extra-transcriptional impact of vitamin D on gene expression. It is now clear that vitamin D interacts with the epigenome via effects on DNA methylation, histone acetylation, and microRNA generation to maintain normal biological functions. There is also increasing evidence that vitamin D can influence pre-mRNA constitutive splicing and alternative splicing, although the mechanism for this remains unclear. Pre-mRNA splicing has long been thought to be a post-transcription RNA processing event, but current data indicate that this occurs co-transcriptionally. Several steroid hormones have been recognized to coordinately control gene transcription and pre-mRNA splicing through the recruitment of nuclear receptor co-regulators that can both control gene transcription and splicing. The current review will discuss this concept with specific reference to vitamin D, and the potential role of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein C (hnRNPC), a nuclear factor with an established function in RNA splicing. hnRNPC, has been shown to be involved in the VDR transcriptional complex as a vitamin D-response element-binding protein (VDRE-BP), and may act as a coupling factor linking VDR-directed gene transcription with RNA splicing. In this way hnRNPC may provide an additional mechanism for the fine-tuning of vitamin D-regulated target gene expression. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '17th Vitamin D Workshop'. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Dairy donkey: an alternative building layout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Bibbiani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, donkey dairies are growing in popularity to produce an alternative milk source for human infants. The use of donkey milk is not limited to the paediatric field, being used in geriatric nutrition and in the cosmetic industry. In 2010, the Department of Veterinary Science, University of Pisa, was involved in a project supported by the Tuscany Region Rural Development Fund 2007- 2013 dealing with the creation of a donkey milk productive chain. The project has as its main partner the Bandite di Scarlino, an agro-forestry complex of considerable size. It covers approximately 9000 hectares, which fall in Scarlino, Castiglione della Pescaia, Follonica and Gavorrano municipalities, under Tuscany regional control. The so-called FILAMI project (Filiera Latte Asino Amiatino, acronym of the goal of the project in Italian had among its goals helping preserve an indigenous breed of donkeys called Amiatina. Salimei (2011 assessed that the presence of the foal during milking does not affect milk ejection in jennies (the female donkey adapted to the milking procedure, but when foals are not present the milking routine is more manageable for the animals and for optimal milk harvest; in accordance, in the present farming system the jenny has been kept separately from the foal during the milking session. To this purpose, the stable, the milking parlour and the paddocks must be well organised with a proper milking routine. Milking facilities must be designed for the milk treatment and storage at low temperature or for freezing. Currently, the milk undergoes a pasteurisation cycle for human consumption, or directed to the cosmetic industry. Moreover, the milking facilities should fulfil the creation of a milk collection centre in order to play an important role between the dairy donkey farms and the dairy industry. In this paper, the technical and technological aspects of the donkey stable, paddocks, milking parlour, mobile milking unit, and processing

  17. Are behaviors at one alternative in concurrent schedules independent of contingencies at the other alternative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonall, James S

    2017-09-01

    Some have reported changing the schedule at one alternative of a concurrent schedule changed responding at the other alternative (Catania, 1969), which seems odd because no contingencies were changed there. When concurrent schedules are programmed using two schedules, one associated with each alternative that operate continuously, changing the schedule at one alternative also changes the switch schedule at the other alternative. Thus, changes in responding at the constant alternative could be due to the change in the switch schedule. To assess this possibility, six rats were exposed to a series of conditions that alternated between pairs of interval schedules at both alternatives and a pair of interval schedules at one, constant, alternative and a pair of extinction schedules at the other alternative. Comparing run lengths, visit durations and response rates at the constant alternative in the alternating conditions did not show consistent increases and decreases when a strict criterion for changes was used. Using a less stringent definition (any change in mean values) showed changes. The stay/switch analysis suggests it may be inaccurate to apply behavioral contrast to procedures that change from concurrent variable-interval variable-interval schedules to concurrent variable-interval extinction schedules because the contingencies in neither alternative are constant. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  18. Diversification of the muscle proteome through alternative splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakka, Kiran; Ghigna, Claudia; Gabellini, Davide; Dilworth, F Jeffrey

    2018-03-06

    Skeletal muscles express a highly specialized proteome that allows the metabolism of energy sources to mediate myofiber contraction. This muscle-specific proteome is partially derived through the muscle-specific transcription of a subset of genes. Surprisingly, RNA sequencing technologies have also revealed a significant role for muscle-specific alternative splicing in generating protein isoforms that give specialized function to the muscle proteome. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge with respect to the mechanisms that allow pre-mRNA transcripts to undergo muscle-specific alternative splicing while identifying some of the key trans-acting splicing factors essential to the process. The importance of specific splicing events to specialized muscle function is presented along with examples in which dysregulated splicing contributes to myopathies. Though there is now an appreciation that alternative splicing is a major contributor to proteome diversification, the emergence of improved "targeted" proteomic methodologies for detection of specific protein isoforms will soon allow us to better appreciate the extent to which alternative splicing modifies the activity of proteins (and their ability to interact with other proteins) in the skeletal muscle. In addition, we highlight a continued need to better explore the signaling pathways that contribute to the temporal control of trans-acting splicing factor activity to ensure specific protein isoforms are expressed in the proper cellular context. An understanding of the signal-dependent and signal-independent events driving muscle-specific alternative splicing has the potential to provide us with novel therapeutic strategies to treat different myopathies.

  19. Alternative approaches to transmission investment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thon, S. [AltaLink Management Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    AltaLink is Canada's first stand-alone power transmission company, serving all major centres in Alberta and 85 per cent of Alberta's population. It has more than $1 billion in assets, 11,500 km of transmission lines and 300 substations. It was noted that there has not been any significant investment in power transmission in Alberta for the past 20 years, partly because transmission assets have a very long lifespan. The new role of the power grid is to ensure reliability, safety, efficiency, market effectiveness and supply diversity. The benefits and costs of AltaLink's 500 kV North-South upgrade project were outlined. It was noted that a healthy transmission system is the basis for economic growth throughout the province and for the development of Alberta's resource base. The transmission policy in Alberta endorses that all consumers pay postage stamp tariffs. It also promotes a proactive plan for transmission projects, the time to maximum rate (TMR) in limited cases only, a congestion-free grid under normal conditions, the financial commitment of generators, specific time limits on permitting processes, and regional interconnections to benefit all customers. tabs., figs.

  20. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    Interest in alternative transportation fuels (ATF`s) has increased in recent years due to the drives for cleaner air and less dependence upon foreign oil. This report, Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels 1996, provides information on ATFs, as well as the vehicles that consume them.

  1. Alternative Strategies for Pricing Home Work Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zick, Cathleen D.; Bryant, W. Keith

    1983-01-01

    Discusses techniques for measuring the value of home work time. Estimates obtained using the reservation wage technique are contrasted with market alternative estimates derived with the same data set. Findings suggest that the market alternative cost method understates the true value of a woman's home time to the household. (JOW)

  2. An alternative for the LF model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, R.N.J.

    1996-01-01

    An alternative for the Liljencrants-Fant (LF) glottal-pulse model is presented. This alternative is derived from the Rosenberg model, so we have caned it the Rosenberg++ model. It is described by the same set of Tor R parameters as the LF model but has the advantage over the LF model that it is

  3. Mental disorders frequency alternative and complementary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension (HT) are chronic disorders with which mental disorders may coexist and for which patients may resort to alternative medicine use. Alternative and complementary medicine is a treatment option that patients tend to use. This study is to determine the prevalence of mental ...

  4. Alternative Learning Environments in the Elementary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Eugene D.

    This paper outlines a program utilized in the Countryside School which offers alternative learning environments in the elementary school. The program includes (1) semi-departmentalization; (2) team teaching; and (3) an open-alternatives program. Each of these areas is outlined and fully discussed in terms of student and parent needs. (YRJ)

  5. Alternative binder for copper concentrate briquetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Łabaj

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, results of investigations on the use of new, alternative binder, based on technical grade glycerine and higher alcohols, for copper matte briquetting are presented. The use of alternative binder yields briquettes that show better drop and compressive strength properties compared with briquettes produced using traditional, sulphite lye binding material.

  6. Contingent and Alternative Work Arrangements, Defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polivka, Anne E.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the definitions of contingent workers and alternative work arrangements used by the Bureau of Labor Statistics to analyze data, and presents aggregate estimates of the number of workers in each group. Discusses the overlap between contingent workers and workers in alternative arrangements. (Author/JOW)

  7. Alternative Natural Energy Sources in Building Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Albert J.; Schubert, Robert P.

    This publication provides a discussion of various energy conserving building systems and design alternatives. The information presented here covers alternative space and water heating systems, and energy conserving building designs incorporating these systems and other energy conserving techniques. Besides water, wind, solar, and bio conversion…

  8. Prevalence and Correlates of Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The rate of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among cancer patients is on the increase worldwide. This is due to the innate urge among humans to try new and alternative ways of medicine, especially where conventional medicine failed to provide satisfactory solution such as in sickle cell ...

  9. Alternative Middle School Models: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Stacy Kay

    2018-01-01

    A Midwestern state allocated grant funding to encourage more accessible alternative programming at the middle level. Seventeen schools were approved for this grant and used the funds to supplement the operation of a new or existing program. This study provides policymakers and educators with an overview of the various types of alternative middle…

  10. 28 CFR 42.734 - Alternative funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternative funding. 42.734 Section 42.734 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NONDISCRIMINATION; EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY...; Implementation of the Age Discrimination Act of 1975 Compliance Procedures § 42.734 Alternative funding. When...

  11. Use of alternative treatment in pediatric oncology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootenhuis, M. A.; Last, B. F.; de Graaf-Nijkerk, J. H.; van der Wel, M.

    1998-01-01

    The use of alternative treatment along with conventional cancer therapy is very popular. However, little is known about the use of alternative treatment in pediatric oncology. A study to determine which medical and demographic characteristics distinguish users from nonusers was conducted in a

  12. An Alternative Starting Point for Fraction Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, José Luis; Višnovská, Jana; Zúñiga, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the results of a study conducted for the purpose of assessing the viability of an alternative starting point for teaching fractions. The alternative is based on Freudenthal's insights about fraction as comparison. It involves portraying the entities that unit fractions quantify as always being apart from the reference unit, instead of…

  13. Alternative Education Completers: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Becky L.; Holt, Carleton R.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the elements of the alternative education experience significant to successful completion of the program. This phenomenological paradigm provided the framework for all aspects of the qualitative study. Students, parents, administrators, and staff members of two alternative programs in the southeast Kansas…

  14. Matrix Management: An Organizational Alternative for Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Peggy

    1990-01-01

    Describes various organizational structures and models, presents matrix management as an alternative to traditional hierarchical structures, and suggests matrix management as an appropriate organizational alternative for academic libraries. Benefits that are discussed include increased flexibility, a higher level of professional independence, and…

  15. Short Communication - Alternating Hemiplegia in a Child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Alternating hemiplegia of children is a rare neurological disorder that in its characteristic form has few differential diagnosis. The diagnosis of intractable seizures is difficult to avoid for physicians not aware of the disease. Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics of Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood ...

  16. Starskuddet til det postfaktuelle demokrati: "Alternative kendsgerninger"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella

    2017-01-01

    Et nyt begreb har set dagens lys efter Donald Trumps tiltrædelse som USA’s 45. præsident – ”alternative kendsgerninger”.......Et nyt begreb har set dagens lys efter Donald Trumps tiltrædelse som USA’s 45. præsident – ”alternative kendsgerninger”....

  17. Decommissioning alternatives, process and work activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The following outlines the topics discussed under Decommissioning Alternatives, Process and Work Activities: (1) decommissioning alternatives, (2) work activities for prompt removal/dismantling, (3) work activities for entombment with delayed dismantling, and (4) work activities for mothballing with delayed dismantling

  18. Alternative Fuel News, Vol. 2, No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, K.; Riley, C.; Raye, M.

    1998-11-30

    This issue of Alternative Fuel News highlights the accomplishments of the Clean Cities coalitions during the past 5 years. Now Clean Cities advocates in city after city across the US are building stations and driving alternative fuel vehicles, in addition to enhancing public awareness.

  19. BWR Steam Dryer Alternating Stress Assessment Procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morante, R. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hambric, S. A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ziada, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This report presents an overview of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) steam dryer design; the fatigue cracking failures that occurred at the Quad Cities (QC) plants and their root causes; a history of BWR Extended Power Uprates (EPUs) in the USA; and a discussion of steam dryer modifications/replacements, alternating stress mechanisms on steam dryers, and structural integrity evaluations (static and alternating stress).

  20. Salivary Creatinine Estimation as an Alternative to Serum Creatinine in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatapathy, Ramesh; Govindarajan, Vasupradha; Oza, Nirima; Parameswaran, Sreejith; Pennagaram Dhanasekaran, Balamurali; Prashad, Karthikshree V.

    2014-01-01

    Context. Sampling blood for serum analysis is an invasive procedure. A noninvasive alternative would be beneficial to patients and health care professionals. Aim. To correlate serum and salivary creatinine levels and evaluate the role of saliva as a noninvasive alternative to serum for creatinine estimation in chronic kidney disease patients. Study Design. Case-control study. Methods. Blood and saliva samples were collected from 37 healthy individuals and 105 chronic kidney disease patients...

  1. Alternative Energy Lessons in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Julie

    2010-05-01

    In Scotland the new science curriculum for pupils aged 12 to 15 shall include the following outcomes: "Using my knowledge and understanding, I can express an informed view on a national or global environmental issue;" "I have participated in constructing a model to harness a renewable source of energy and can investigate how to optimise the output;" and "I can discuss why it is important to me and to the future of the world that alternatives to fossil fuels are developed." There will be an emphasis on creating lessons that will nurture responsible citizens, improve pupil engagement and allow students to develop their team working skills. To help teachers plan lessons to address this, the Scottish Schools Equipment Research Centre and Edinburgh University made teaching materials on four renewable energy resources. This poster describes how their suggested activities on solar cells, wind turbines, hydroelectric power stations and wave power were used in science lessons with twelve year old students. After an initial class discussion based on issues related to climate change and diminishing fossil fuel supplies, a workshop activity was carried out in three stages. The students were issued with a fact sheet about one of four imaginary islands (Skisdale, Cloudy Island, Surfsville and Sun City) and they were asked to work in teams to choose the most suitable method of generating electricity for their island. Issues such as costs, where it will be sited and environmental implications were considered. They were then asked to conduct practical activities by constructing and testing models for these forms of renewable energy. To conclude, they presented their proposal to the rest of the class with reasoned explanations. The kits used in the lessons can be purchased from Anderson Scientific (sales@andersonscientific.co.uk). The solar cells were simply connected to a voltmeter. The wind and hydroelectric groups used the same basic equipment. This was made using a small water

  2. Alternative Substrate Metabolism in Yarrowia lipolytica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Spagnuolo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in genetic engineering capabilities have enabled the development of oleochemical producing strains of Yarrowia lipolytica. Much of the metabolic engineering effort has focused on pathway engineering of the product using glucose as the feedstock; however, alternative substrates, including various other hexose and pentose sugars, glycerol, lipids, acetate, and less-refined carbon feedstocks, have not received the same attention. In this review, we discuss recent work leading to better utilization of alternative substrates. This review aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the current state of knowledge for alternative substrate utilization, suggest potential pathways identified through homology in the absence of prior characterization, discuss recent work that either identifies, endogenous or cryptic metabolism, and describe metabolic engineering to improve alternative substrate utilization. Finally, we describe the critical questions and challenges that remain for engineering Y. lipolytica for better alternative substrate utilization.

  3. Alternative Dispute Resolution – Justice without Trial?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Roşu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This research is proposed to analyze the alternative means of dispute resolution, as an alternativeof justice, or as a justice alternative, after studying both European critical literature and national one. Thephrase „alternative dispute resolution” means any alternative way of dispute resolution method whereby two ormore people try using a third party to reach a solution to the problem that precludes them, whether it ismediation, conciliation, assisted negotiation. In this research, we proposed to use the observation as a commonmethod. We concluded that the main reason of the alternative means for dispute resolution results from thepossibility to avoid the judicial system that makes it available for the litigants. It was also shown that users ofalternative means for dispute resolution not seek to resolve the dispute outside a court as an amicablesettlement, negotiated, consensual of their dispute.

  4. Assateague Island National Seashore alternative transportation systems planning study and business plan for alternative transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    The purpose of this study was to (1) study the potential expansion of existing alternative transportation systems (bicycle facilities) and development of new alternative transportation systems in and around the Maryland District of Assateague Island ...

  5. Special Section: Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM):Quiz on Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Special Section CAM Quiz on Complementary and Alternative Medicine Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... low back pain. True False Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) includes: Meditation Chiropractic Use of natural products, ...

  6. The Case for Alternative Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W. Gehl

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available What are “alternative social media”? How can we distinguish alternative social media from mainstream social media? Why are social media alternatives important? How do they work? Why do people make them? What do they tell us about contemporary corporate social media and its related phenomena: surveillance, privacy, power, self-expression, and sociality? This essay answers these questions by theorizing alternative social media. The empirical data for this alternative social media theory are drawn from previous work on alternative sites such as Diaspora, rstat.us, Twister, GNU social, and the Dark Web Social Network. These cases are used to build a generalized conceptual framework. However, this article does not solely theorize from these examples, but rather seeks to contextualize and historicize alternative social media theory within larger bodies of work. In addition to generalization from examples, the theory is informed by two threads. The first thread is the work of alternative media scholars such as Nick Couldry, Chris Atton, and Clemencia Rodriguez, who have done the historical and theoretical work to define alternative media. The second thread is a synthesis of works exploring the technical side of contemporary media, coming from new fields such as software studies. The threads and empirical analyses of sites such as Diaspora, Quitter, and rstat.us are combined into a theoretical matrix that can account for the processes and technical infrastructures that comprise social media alternatives and explain why they are distinct from sites such as Facebook, Twitter, and Google, as well as why they are important.

  7. Diverse alternative back-splicing and alternative splicing landscape of circular RNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Ou; Dong, Rui; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Jia-Lin; Luo, Zheng; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Ling-Ling; Yang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Circular RNAs (circRNAs) derived from back-spliced exons have been widely identified as being co-expressed with their linear counterparts. A single gene locus can produce multiple circRNAs through alternative back-splice site selection and/or alternative splice site selection; however, a detailed map of alternative back-splicing/splicing in circRNAs is lacking. Here, with the upgraded CIRCexplorer2 pipeline, we systematically annotated different types of alternative back-splicing and alternative splicing events in circRNAs from various cell lines. Compared with their linear cognate RNAs, circRNAs exhibited distinct patterns of alternative back-splicing and alternative splicing. Alternative back-splice site selection was correlated with the competition of putative RNA pairs across introns that bracket alternative back-splice sites. In addition, all four basic types of alternative splicing that have been identified in the (linear) mRNA process were found within circRNAs, and many exons were predominantly spliced in circRNAs. Unexpectedly, thousands of previously unannotated exons were detected in circRNAs from the examined cell lines. Although these novel exons had similar splice site strength, they were much less conserved than known exons in sequences. Finally, both alternative back-splicing and circRNA-predominant alternative splicing were highly diverse among the examined cell lines. All of the identified alternative back-splicing and alternative splicing in circRNAs are available in the CIRCpedia database (http://www.picb.ac.cn/rnomics/circpedia). Collectively, the annotation of alternative back-splicing and alternative splicing in circRNAs provides a valuable resource for depicting the complexity of circRNA biogenesis and for studying the potential functions of circRNAs in different cells. PMID:27365365

  8. Human factors in design modifications: panel alternative stop in Almaraz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, Y.; Bote, J.

    2015-01-01

    Human Factors Engineering has acquired a crucial role in the development of any design modification (DM), where every aspect relative to any interaction with the human user has to be taken into account at any stage thereof. Considering this, during the last years, Almaraz Nuclear Powe Plants has developed a program of Human Factors Engineering in order to reach the internationally recognized standards or systematic collected on NUREG 0711 Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model (NRC). One of the most important projects of this program at Almaraz Nuclear Power Plant has been the implementation of the Alternative Stop Panel and their corresponding Transfer Panels. (Author)

  9. 76 FR 21673 - Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternate Rating Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ... EERE-2011-BP-TP-00024] RIN 1904-AC46 Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternate Rating Methods AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of... and data related to the use of computer simulations, mathematical methods, and other alternative...

  10. Advancing practice relating to SEA alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González, Ainhoa; Thérivel, Riki; Fry, John; Foley, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Developing and assessing alternatives is a key and central stage to Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). However, research has repeatedly reported this stage as one of the most poorly undertaken aspects of the SEA process. Current practice limitations include belated consideration of reasonable alternatives, narrow scope of alternatives that often include unrealistic or retrofitted options, limited stakeholder and public involvement in their identification, assessment and selection, lack of systematic approaches to their assessment and comparison, and inadequate reporting of the ‘storyline’ on how they were identified, what the potential impacts are and why the preferred alternative was selected. These issues have resulted in objections and judicial reviews. On the positive side, a number of good practice case studies enable extraction of key lessons and formulation of a set of general recommendations to advance practice in SEA alternatives. In this paper, practical guidance on the identification and development of alternatives, their assessment and comparison, selection of the preferred option, and documentation of the process and the reasons for selection is provided and discussed to frame good practice approaches. - Highlights: • Alternatives are one of the most poorly completed aspects of Strategic Environmental Assessment. • Current practice limitations need to be addressed to enhance SEA effectiveness. • A set of recommendations are extracted from good practice case studies. • These recommendations can be applied across jurisdictions and sectors and tailored as necessary

  11. Advancing practice relating to SEA alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González, Ainhoa, E-mail: agonzal@tcd.ie [School of Natural Sciences, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Thérivel, Riki, E-mail: levett-therivel@phonecoop.coop [Levett-Therivel Sustainability Consultants (United Kingdom); Fry, John, E-mail: john.fry@ucd.ie [School of Agriculture and Food Science, University College Dublin, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Foley, Walter, E-mail: walterfoley@gmail.com [School of Geography, Planning and Environmental Policy, University College Dublin, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2015-07-15

    Developing and assessing alternatives is a key and central stage to Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). However, research has repeatedly reported this stage as one of the most poorly undertaken aspects of the SEA process. Current practice limitations include belated consideration of reasonable alternatives, narrow scope of alternatives that often include unrealistic or retrofitted options, limited stakeholder and public involvement in their identification, assessment and selection, lack of systematic approaches to their assessment and comparison, and inadequate reporting of the ‘storyline’ on how they were identified, what the potential impacts are and why the preferred alternative was selected. These issues have resulted in objections and judicial reviews. On the positive side, a number of good practice case studies enable extraction of key lessons and formulation of a set of general recommendations to advance practice in SEA alternatives. In this paper, practical guidance on the identification and development of alternatives, their assessment and comparison, selection of the preferred option, and documentation of the process and the reasons for selection is provided and discussed to frame good practice approaches. - Highlights: • Alternatives are one of the most poorly completed aspects of Strategic Environmental Assessment. • Current practice limitations need to be addressed to enhance SEA effectiveness. • A set of recommendations are extracted from good practice case studies. • These recommendations can be applied across jurisdictions and sectors and tailored as necessary.

  12. The Architecture of Chemical Alternatives Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiser, Kenneth; Tickner, Joel; Edwards, Sally; Rossi, Mark

    2015-12-01

    Chemical alternatives assessment is a method rapidly developing for use by businesses, governments, and nongovernment organizations seeking to substitute chemicals of concern in production processes and products. Chemical alternatives assessment is defined as a process for identifying, comparing, and selecting safer alternatives to chemicals of concern (including those in materials, processes, or technologies) on the basis of their hazards, performance, and economic viability. The process is intended to provide guidance for assuring that chemicals of concern are replaced with safer alternatives that are not likely to be later regretted. Conceptually, the assessment methods are developed from a set of three foundational pillars and five common principles. Based on a number of emerging alternatives assessment initiatives, in this commentary, we outline a chemical alternatives assessment blueprint structured around three broad steps: Scope, Assessment, and Selection and Implementation. Specific tasks and tools are identified for each of these three steps. While it is recognized that on-going practice will further refine and develop the method and tools, it is important that the structure of the assessment process remain flexible, adaptive, and focused on the substitution of chemicals of concern with safer alternatives. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  13. Advancing Alternative Analysis: Integration of Decision Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Timothy F; Zaunbrecher, Virginia M; Batteate, Christina M; Blake, Ann; Carroll, William F; Corbett, Charles J; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Lempert, Robert J; Linkov, Igor; McFadden, Roger; Moran, Kelly D; Olivetti, Elsa; Ostrom, Nancy K; Romero, Michelle; Schoenung, Julie M; Seager, Thomas P; Sinsheimer, Peter; Thayer, Kristina A

    2017-06-13

    Decision analysis-a systematic approach to solving complex problems-offers tools and frameworks to support decision making that are increasingly being applied to environmental challenges. Alternatives analysis is a method used in regulation and product design to identify, compare, and evaluate the safety and viability of potential substitutes for hazardous chemicals. We assessed whether decision science may assist the alternatives analysis decision maker in comparing alternatives across a range of metrics. A workshop was convened that included representatives from government, academia, business, and civil society and included experts in toxicology, decision science, alternatives assessment, engineering, and law and policy. Participants were divided into two groups and were prompted with targeted questions. Throughout the workshop, the groups periodically came together in plenary sessions to reflect on other groups' findings. We concluded that the further incorporation of decision science into alternatives analysis would advance the ability of companies and regulators to select alternatives to harmful ingredients and would also advance the science of decision analysis. We advance four recommendations: a ) engaging the systematic development and evaluation of decision approaches and tools; b ) using case studies to advance the integration of decision analysis into alternatives analysis; c ) supporting transdisciplinary research; and d ) supporting education and outreach efforts. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP483.

  14. Characterization of alternative FBR development strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boegel, A.J.; Clausen, M.J.

    1981-08-01

    Near-term decisions regarding the nature and place of the FBR development program must be made. This study is part of a larger program designed to provide the Department of Energy (DOE) with imformation that can be used to make strategic programmatic decisions. The focus of this report is the description of alternative approaches for developing the FBR and the quantification of the duration and cost of each alternative. The time frames of the alternative approaches are investigated in companion reports (White 1981 and Fraley 1981). The results of these analyses will be described in a summary report

  15. Potential of renewable and alternative energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalov, V.; Pogharnitskaya, O.; Rostovshchikova, A.; Matveenko, I.

    2015-11-01

    The article deals with application potential of clean alternative renewable energy sources. By means of system analysis the forecast for consumption of electrical energy in Tomsk Oblast as well as main energy sources of existing energy system have been studied up to 2018. Engineering potential of renewable and alternative energy sources is evaluated. Besides, ranking in the order of their efficiency descending is performed. It is concluded that Tomsk Oblast has high potential of alternative and renewable energy sources, among which the most promising development perspective is implementation of gasification stations to save fuel consumed by diesel power stations as well as building wind-power plants.

  16. Tapping the potential of alternative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Puma, J; Eiler, G

    1998-04-01

    Interest in alternative medicine is growing among healthcare consumers. Health plans and healthcare organizations may be able to improve clinical outcomes and benefit financially by providing patients with access to alternative services. Organizations that can assess their communities' particular needs, draw on interested professional staff to help develop alternative medicine programs and protocols, and study quality outcomes will stand a better chance of making such programs successful. Educating medical staff, designing a credible program, and forging strategic alliances with respected partners can help organizations create a sharply focused brand identity in the community.

  17. An alternative form of the Darcy equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awad Mohamed M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an alternative form of the Darcy equation. This alternative form will be presented with the use of Bejan number (Be in the Left Hand Side (LHS of the equation. The main advantage in this alternative form of the Darcy equation is presenting both the Left Hand Side (LHS and the Right Hand Side (RHS as dimensionless quantities. For instance, this is similar to the relation of Fanning friction factor with Reynolds number for Hagen-Poiseuille flow (fully developed laminar flow in a circular pipe.

  18. Can scientific medicine incorporate alternative medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federspil, G; Vettor, R

    2000-06-01

    The authors examine the problem of defining alternative medicine, and after a brief analysis conclude that a satisfactory unifying definition of the different practices is not possible. Scientific knowledge is a function of scientific method. In turn the principle of falsifiability proposed by Karl Popper is used as a demarcation line between science and pseudoscience. They assert that the various alternative modalities do not represent authentic scientific disciplines, as they lack many of the minimum requirements of scientific discourse and, above all, because they violate the principle of falsifiability. Until they overcome these methodological shortcomings, alternative medical practices cannot become authentic scientific disciplines.

  19. Alternative Fuel News, Vol. 3 No. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clean Cities Program at DOE

    1999-10-29

    The alternative fuel industry is heating up. It is a very exciting time to be in the energy business, especially when it comes to transportation. Celebrating of the milestone 75th Clean Cities coalition and kick off of the new Federal Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) USER Program is occurring in cities across the country. Clean Energy for the 21st Century and the events that are happening during Energy Awareness Month are covered in this issue. Spotlighted are niche markets; several airports across the country are successfully incorporating alternative fuels into their daily routines.

  20. Innovative and Alternative Technology Assessment Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-02-01

    This four chapter, six appendix manual presents the procedures and methodology as well as the baseline costs and energy information necessary for the analysis and evaluation of innovative and alternative technology applications submitted for federal grant assistance under the innovative and alternative technology provisions of the Clean Water Act of 1977. The manual clarifies and interprets the intent of Congress and the Environmental Protection Agency in carrying out the mandates of the innovative and alternative provisions of the Clean Water Act of 1977. [DJE 2005

  1. Alternative energy companies : a financier's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitken, J.

    2002-01-01

    The Canadian energy technology sector can be divided into 2 categories: (1) alternative energy generators which include small hydro, wind, biomass, solar energy and fuel cells, and (2) energy technology services. This presentation focused on publicly traded entities and how financing alternatives are limited to project finance, and venture capital. This situation may change as the long term winners emerge and various segments are recognized as not requiring special regulatory and price incentives. Case studies were presented of financing renewable energy projects and the commitment of the Royal Bank of Canada's (RBC) Financial Group to provide financing for alternative energy projects that impact the transportation sector. 15 figs

  2. Effective Microorganisms As An Alternative To Antibiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HEGAZY, E.S.R.

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays the production of safe and healthy food becomes a continuous and growing demand from the professional public and consumers. Therefore new additives have been increased for positively affecting meat production and quality with no adverse effect on human health. Since decades antibiotics have been used in poultry production as therapeutic agents to treat bacterial infection that decrease performance and caused diseases. However, due to negative effects of using antibiotics on animal's health and production such as residue in the final products, development of bacterial resistance, accumulation in poultry excretion with consequent environmental pollution (Edens,2003)an increasing interest in finding alternatives to antibiotics becomes necessity. Probiotics are live microbial feed supplement which have beneficial influence on: intestinal microflora balance (Kabir et al., 2005); immune response (Nayebpor et al., 2007 and Apata, 2008); serum total cholesterol and triglycerides (Ignatova et al., 2009) in addition to fat and cholesterol content of the chicken meat and yolk (Mansoup, 2011).On the other hand proved that probiotics improved economic efficiency and performance index (Awad et al.,2009). Poultry required fat in the diet as a source of essential fatty 1 acids to improve the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, increases the palatability of the rations, and increase the efficiency of the consumed energy. Furthermore, it reduces the passage rate of the digesta in the gastrointestinal tract which allows a better absorption of all nutrients present in the diet (Baiao and Lara, 2005). The recent increment in the prices of oils as well as their wide use to raise the energy levels in poultry diet (El-Gendy, 1993) forced us to search for new cheap alternatives with high energy value not used for human feeding. Use of oxidized oil (Anjume et al., 2004 and Karamouz et al., 2009), sun flower oil production wastes (Alizadeh et al., 2012) or semi-refined oils

  3. Lower growth temperature increases alternative pathway capacity and alternative oxidase protein in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanlerberghe, G C; McIntosh, L

    1992-09-01

    Suspension cells of NT1 tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv bright yellow) have been used to study the effect of growth temperature on the CN-resistant, salicylhydroxamic acid-sensitive alternative pathway of respiration. Mitochondria isolated from cells maintained at 30 degrees C had a low capacity to oxidize succinate via the alternative pathway, whereas mitochondria isolated from cells 24 h after transfer to 18 degrees C displayed, on average, a 5-fold increase in this capacity (from 7 to 32 nanoatoms oxygen per milligram protein per minute). This represented an increase in alternative pathway capacity from 18 to 45% of the total capacity of electron transport. This increased capacity was lost upon transfer of cells back to 30 degrees C. A monoclonal antibody to the terminal oxidase of the alternative pathway (the alternative oxidase) from Sauromatum guttatum (T.E. Elthon, R.L. Nickels, L. McIntosh [1989] Plant Physiology 89: 1311-1317) recognized a 35-kilodalton mitochondrial protein in tobacco. There was an excellent correlation between the capacity of the alternative path in isolated tobacco mitochondria and the levels of this 35-kilodalton alternative oxidase protein. Cycloheximide could inhibit both the increased level of the 35-kilodalton alternative oxidase protein and the increased alternative pathway capacity normally seen upon transfer to 18 degrees C. We conclude that transfer of tobacco cells to the lower temperature increases the capacity of the alternative pathway due, at least in part, to de novo synthesis of the 35-kilodalton alternative oxidase protein.

  4. A pluralist challenge to "integrative medicine": Feyerabend and Popper on the cognitive value of alternative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Ian James

    2013-09-01

    This paper is a critique of 'integrative medicine' as an ideal of medical progress on the grounds that it fails to realise the cognitive value of alternative medicine. After a brief account of the cognitive value of alternative medicine, I outline the form of 'integrative medicine' defended by the late Stephen Straus, former director of the US National Centre for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Straus' account is then considered in the light of Zuzana Parusnikova's recent criticism of 'integrative medicine' and her distinction between 'cognitive' and 'opportunistic' engagement with alternative medicine. Parusnikova warns that the medical establishment is guilty of 'dogmatism' and proposes that one can usefully invoke Karl Popper's 'critical rationalism' as an antidote. Using the example of Straus, I argue that an appeal to Popper is insufficient, on the grounds that 'integrative medicine' can class as a form of cognitively-productive, critical engagement. I suggest that Parusnikova's appeal to Popper should be augmented with Paul Feyerabend's emphasis upon the role of 'radical alternatives' in maximising criticism. 'Integrative medicine' fails to maximise criticism because it 'translates' alternative medicine into the theories and terminology of allopathic medicine and so erodes its capacity to provide cognitively-valuable 'radical alternatives'. These claims are then illustrated with a discussion of 'traditional' and 'medical' acupuncture. I conclude that 'integrative medicine' fails to exploit the cognitive value of alternative medicine and so should be rejected as an ideal of medical progress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. What does spatial alternation tell us about retrosplenial cortex function?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew John Dudley Nelson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The retrosplenial cortex supports navigation, but there are good reasons to suppose that the retrosplenial cortex has a very different role in spatial memory from that of the hippocampus and anterior thalamic nuclei. For example, retrosplenial lesions appear to have little or no effect on standard tests of spatial alternation. To examine these differences, the current study sought to determine whether the retrosplenial cortex is important for just one spatial cue type (e.g. allocentric, directional or intra-maze cues or whether the retrosplenial cortex helps the animal switch between competing spatial strategies or competing cue types. Using T-maze alternation, retrosplenial lesion rats were challenged with situations in which the available spatial information between the sample and test phases was changed, so taxing the interaction between different cue types. Clear lesion deficits emerged when intra- and extra-maze cues were placed in conflict (by rotating the maze between the sample and choice phases, or when the animals were tested in the dark in a double-maze. Finally, temporary inactivation of the retrosplenial cortex by muscimol infusions resulted in a striking deficit on standard T-maze alternation, indicating that, over time, other sites may be able to compensate for the loss of the retrosplenial cortex. This pattern of results is consistent with the impoverished use of both allocentric and directional information, exacerbated by an impaired ability to switch between different cue types.

  6. Antitumorigenic potential of STAT3 alternative splicing modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zammarchi, Francesca; de Stanchina, Elisa; Bournazou, Eirini; Supakorndej, Teerawit; Martires, Kathryn; Riedel, Elyn; Corben, Adriana D; Bromberg, Jacqueline F; Cartegni, Luca

    2011-10-25

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) plays a central role in the activation of multiple oncogenic pathways. Splicing variant STAT3β uses an alternative acceptor site within exon 23 that leads to a truncated isoform lacking the C-terminal transactivation domain. Depending on the context, STAT3β can act as a dominant-negative regulator of transcription and promote apoptosis. We show that modified antisense oligonucleotides targeted to a splicing enhancer that regulates STAT3 exon 23 alternative splicing specifically promote a shift of expression from STAT3α to STAT3β. Induction of endogenous STAT3β leads to apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest in cell lines with persistent STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation compared with total STAT3 knockdown obtained by forced splicing-dependent nonsense-mediated decay (FSD-NMD). Comparison of the molecular effects of splicing redirection to STAT3 knockdown reveals a unique STAT3β signature, with a down-regulation of specific targets (including lens epithelium-derived growth factor, p300/CBP-associated factor, CyclinC, peroxisomal biogenesis factor 1, and STAT1β) distinct from canonical STAT3 targets typically associated with total STAT3 knockdown. Furthermore, similar in vivo redirection of STAT3 alternative splicing leads to tumor regression in a xenograft cancer model, demonstrating how pharmacological manipulation of a single key splicing event can manifest powerful antitumorigenic properties and validating endogenous splicing reprogramming as an effective cancer therapeutic approach.

  7. Second interim report of the Interagency Commission on Alternative Motor Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    This report describes progress the commission and government agencies have made in implementing the provisions of the Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988, assessing the role of alternative motor fuels in the US transportation sector, and developing policies to promote the use of alternative fuels. The alternative motor-fuels policies proposed in the National Energy Strategy (NES) are described and shows how they compose an effective long-term plan to encourage the widespread use of alternative motor fuels. The progress to date of the Department of Energy (DOE) and other agencies in implementing the programs required by the AMFA is reported. A detailed scenario of future alternative-fuel use that displaces 2.5 million barrels per day (MMBD) of petroleum and a feasible path of vehicle production and fuel supply leading to that goal is described. An analytical tool for exploring and quantifying the energy market impacts of alternative fuels, the Alternative Fuels Trade Model (AFTM), is described. The AFTM provides a means of investigating the impacts of alternative fuels in interrelated world energy markets for petroleum and natural gas. Several major initiatives have recently been enacted that have important ramifications for alternative-fuels policy. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 contain provisions mandating the use of nonpetroleum oxygenates in reformulated gasoline. Other provisions for much more stringent emissions standards may affect the ability of manufacturers to make and sell conventional-fuel vehicles or, at the very least, affect their cost-effectiveness in comparison to cleaner alternative-fuel vehicles (AFV's). Finally, the key areas in which technological advances could substantially improve the competitiveness of AFV technologies in the marketplace are reviewed

  8. Alternate Propellant Thermal Rocket, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Alternate Propellant Thermal Rocket (APTR) is a novel concept for propulsion of space exploration or orbit transfer vehicles. APTR propulsion is provided by...

  9. Consolidating Research on Alternative Livelihoods to Tobacco ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... health and socioeconomic impacts, making alternative crops desirable from a ... as Argentina, Bangladesh, Brazil, India, Kenya, Lebanon, Malawi and Viet Nam. ... se concentreront sur les nouvelles frontières de la recherche sur le cancer.

  10. Alternative Work Schedules Increase Employee Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, John R.; Cohen, Stanley L.

    1983-01-01

    Facets of alternative work schedules (AWS) are discussed: importance of employee control, possible negative consequences, AWS handbook, time monitoring systems, and treatment of exceptions. AWS' effect on productivity and motivation is examined. (SK)

  11. Alternative fossil-based transportation fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    "Alternative fuels derived from oil sands and from coal liquefaction can cost-effectively diversify fuel supplies, but neither type significantly reduces U.S. carbon-dioxide emissions enough to arrest long-term climate change".

  12. Alternative institutional arrangements for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussard, D.

    1980-08-01

    This paper investigates how alternative organizations of nuclear power generation would effect the regulatory environment for nuclear power production, how it would effect financial constraints on new construction, and what governmental barriers to such reorganization exist

  13. Efficient waste reduction algorithms based on alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alternative heuristic functions are investigated and applied to the modified Wang ... ∗Department of Computer Science and Information Systems, North-West ... rectangles have types ri (i = 1,...,n), where each type has a demand constraint of.

  14. Immigration detention: looking at the alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Amaral

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Endangering the health and well-being of people by detaining them is unnecessary; governments can instead use community-based alternatives that are more dignified for migrants and more cost-effective for states.

  15. Questions over alternatives to detention programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie J Silverman

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Alternative to detention programmes may be less restrictive and less expensive than formal detention but they may still have drawbacks. The provision of competent legal advice appears to be key to low rates of absconding.

  16. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines. ... and Ficus thonningii blume (moraceae), two plants used in traditional medicine in the ... The effective method for investigation meridian tropism theory in rats · EMAIL ...

  17. Economic analysis of alternative LLW disposal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foutes, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has evaluated the costs and benefits of alternative disposal technologies as part of its program to develop generally applicable environmental standards for the land disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). Costs, population health effects and Critical Population Group (CPG) exposures resulting from alternative waste treatment and disposal methods were developed and input into the analysis. The cost-effectiveness analysis took into account a number of waste streams, hydrogeologic and climatic region settings, and waste treatment and disposal methods. Total costs of each level of a standard included costs for packaging, processing, transportation, and burial of waste. Benefits are defined in terms of reductions in the general population health risk (expected fatal cancers and genetic effects) evaluated over 10,000 years. A cost-effectiveness ratio, was calculated for each alternative standard. This paper describes the alternatives considered and preliminary results of the cost-effectiveness analysis

  18. Hopewell Furnace NHS : alternative transportation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-31

    This study assesses the potential for an alternative transportation system (ATS) at Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site (NHS). The Volpe Center investigated internal circulation and potential partnerships with local historic, cultural, and recrea...

  19. Community Perspective of Alternative Methods of keeping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UNIBEN

    methods of keeping childhood immunization records based on community's .... An alternative home-based record keeping ... coded before computer entry. Data was managed using the Statistical ..... encounter and also work to ensure accurate.

  20. 75 FR 56015 - Vessel Inspection Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 46 CFR Part 8 Vessel Inspection Alternatives CFR... Certificate; (ii) International Tonnage Certificate; (iii) Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate; (iv) Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Certificate; and (v) International Oil Pollution Prevention Certificate; and...