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Sample records for kanawha valley wv

  1. 27 CFR 9.111 - Kanawha River Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...., dated 1958; (12) Sissonville, W. Va., dated 1958; (13) Romance, W. Va.,—Ky., dated 1957; (14) Kentuck, W... Johns Branch and Sugar Creek in the town of Romance, in Jackson County, WV. (Romance quadrangle) (8) The...

  2. COHORT OF WOMEN LIVING IN OR NEAR A HIGHLY INDUSTRIALIZED AREA OF KANAWHA RIVER VALLEY IN WEST VIRGINIA: ENDOMETRIOSIS AND BLOOD LEVELS OF DIOXIN AND DIOXIN-LIKE CHEMICALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction Historical releases of dioxin and dioxin-like chemicals with subsequent impacts to environmental media in the Kanawha River Valley (KRV) of West Virginia have been well documented.' The bulk of dioxin found in this area appears to be derived from the production of 2,...

  3. ENDOMETRIOSIS IN A COHORT OF WOMEN LIVING IN THE KANAWHA RIVER VALLEY IN WEST VIRGINIA: BLOOD LEVELS OF NON-DIOXIN-LIKE PCBs AND RELATIONSHIP WITH BMI AND AGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Industrial activities, specifically from petroleum and chemical manufacturing facilities, in the Kanawha River Valley (KRV) of West Virginia have resulted in releases of dioxin and dioxin-like chemicals (DLCs). I Most of the dioxin found in this region has resulted from the produ...

  4. COHORT OF WOMEN LIVING IN OR NEAR A HIGHLY INDUSTRIALIZED AREA OF KANAWHA RIVER VALLEY IN WEST VIRGINIA: ENDOMETRIOSIS AND BLOOD LEVELS OF DIOXIN AND DIOXIN-LIKE CHEMICALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction Historical releases of dioxin and dioxin-like chemicals with subsequent impacts to environmental media in the Kanawha River Valley (KRV) of West Virginia have been well documented.' The bulk of dioxin found in this area appears to be derived from the production of 2,...

  5. ENDOMETRIOSIS IN A COHORT OF WOMEN LIVING IN THE KANAWHA RIVER VALLEY IN WEST VIRGINIA: BLOOD LEVELS OF NON-DIOXIN-LIKE PCBs AND RELATIONSHIP WITH BMI AND AGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Industrial activities, specifically from petroleum and chemical manufacturing facilities, in the Kanawha River Valley (KRV) of West Virginia have resulted in releases of dioxin and dioxin-like chemicals (DLCs). I Most of the dioxin found in this region has resulted from the produ...

  6. 76 FR 28312 - Safety Zones; Fireworks Display Kanawha River, WV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... West Virginia Special Olympics Fireworks Display, is located between mile 57.9 and 58.9 in Charleston... of Energy Effects under Executive Order 13211. Technical Standards The National Technology...

  7. Analysis of Hydrodynamic Interaction Between HMCS FREDERICTON and USNS KANAWHA

    Science.gov (United States)

    HMCS FREDERICTON collided with USNS KANAWHA on 18 November 2010 while FREDERICTON was approaching KANAWHA for replenishment at sea. The ships were in...in causing a collision between FREDERICTON and KANAWHA. In the present report, the non-dimensional lateral separation is defined as the lateral...separation distance divided by the beam of the larger ship. FREDERICTON and KANAWHA had a non-dimensional lateral separation of 3.0 when FREDERICTON

  8. A History of the Kanawha County Textbook Controversy, April 1974-April 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candor, Catherine Ann

    The background of the Kanawha County, language arts textbook controversy is described, and several factors are examined as possible precipitating elements in the controversy. The major actions, reactions, and occurrences in Kanawha County from April 1974 to April 1975 are reported, and various sources are used to document positions taken by…

  9. A comparative ecological study of selected cancers in Kanawha County, West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, R.; Talbott, E.O.; Marsh, G.M.; Case, B.W. (Department of Biostatistics, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States))

    1992-01-01

    This study compares mortality rates for selected causes of death in Kanawha County, West Virginia, to rates reported in a number of geographically defined populations for 1950-1984. Specific conditions selected for study included cancers of the biliary passages and liver, the bladder and other urinary organs, and the central nervous system (CNS), as well as leukemia and aleukemia, lymphosarcoma and reticulosarcoma, Hodgkin's disease, and cancer of all other lymphopoietic tissue. The analysis made use of several techniques for the investigation of ecological data, including the modeling of rates using Poission regression. The primary findings of this study concern two subgroups of cancers of the lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue: (1) leukemia and aleukemia, and (2) lymphosarcoma and reticulosarcoma. For both subgroups of cancers, white male residents of Kanawha County show evidence of significantly elevated mortality rates over the 35-year period of this study.

  10. Review of De Young,"Life & Death of a Rural American High School: Farewell Little Kanawha"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Howley

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available lan DeYoung's story of the circumstances surrounding the birth, growth, and death of a high school in rural West Virginia is an intellectual contribution of the first order. And Farewell Little Kanawha is certainly one of the best stories to be told by an educational researcher in recent decades. Its strength derives in large measure from DeYoung's deftness in crossing disciplinary borders. The interplay of economics, sociology, history (both oral and documentary, anthropology, and biography render this story far more compelling than most educational research. DeYoung bases his narrative, in fact, on C. Wright Mills' precept that social science worth doing must interpret the intersection of biography and history. Mills was the wisest and best American sociologist and DeYoung is among a very small contingent of scholars concerned with rural education to embrace his advice.

  11. 76 FR 80230 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Huntington, WV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ..., WV (76 FR 64295) Docket No. FAA-2011-1057. Interested parties were invited to participate in this... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does... FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14 CFR...

  12. Physical heterogeneity and aquatic community function in river networks: A case study from the Kanawha River Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, M. C.; Delong, M. D.; Flotemersch, J. E.; Collins, S. E.

    2017-08-01

    The geomorphological character of a river network provides the template upon which evolution acts to create unique biological communities. Deciphering commonly observed patterns and processes within riverine landscapes resulting from the interplay between physical and biological components is a central tenet for the interdisciplinary field of river science. Relationships between the physical heterogeneity and food web character of functional process zones (FPZs) - large tracts of river with a similar geomorphic character -in the Kanawha River (West Virginia, USA) are examined in this study. Food web character was measured as food chain length (FCL), which reflects ecological community structure and ecosystem function. Our results show that the same basal resources were present throughout the Kanawha River but that their assimilation into the aquatic food web by primary consumers differed between FPZs. Differences in the trophic position of higher consumers (fish) were also recorded between FPZs. Overall, the morphological heterogeneity and heterogeneity of the river bed sediment of FPZs were significantly correlated with FCL. Specifically, FCL increases with greater FPZ physical heterogeneity. The result of this study does not support the current paradigm that ecosystem size is the primary determinant of food web character in river ecosystems.

  13. Establishment Report for Permanent Vegetation Monitoring Plots Inside and Outside Deer Exclosures in Canaan Valley, Tucker County, West Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Two deer exclosures were built in Canaan Valley, Tucker County, WV in the fall of 2001 to protect young balsam fir (Abies balsamea) and to study and demonstrate the...

  14. 75 FR 55612 - TRG Insurance Solutions, LLC; Beckley, WV; Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration TRG Insurance Solutions, LLC; Beckley, WV; Notice of Affirmative... Solutions, LLC, Beckley, West Virginia (subject firm). The negative determination was issued on July...

  15. 76 FR 7584 - Matthews International Corporation, Bronze Division, Kingwood, WV; Notice of Affirmative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-10

    ... Employment and Training Administration Matthews International Corporation, Bronze Division, Kingwood, WV... workers and former workers of Matthews International Corporation, Bronze Division, Kingwood, West Virginia... activities related to the production of bronze burial markers and memorial products. In the request...

  16. Valley Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valley Fever is a disease caused by a fungus (or mold) called Coccidioides. The fungi live in the soil ... from person to person. Anyone can get Valley Fever. But it's most common among older adults, especially ...

  17. Spatial unmixing for environmental impact monitoring of mining using UAS and WV-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delalieux, S.; Livens, S.; Goossens, M.; Reusen, I.; Tote, C.

    2012-04-01

    The three principal activities of the mineral resources mining industry - mining, mineral processing and metallurgical extraction - all produce waste. The environmental impact of these activities depends on many factors, in particular, the type of mining and the size of the operation. The effects of the mining (extraction) stage tend to be mainly local, associated with surface disturbance, the production of large amounts of solid waste material, and the spread of chemically reactive particulate matter to the atmosphere and hydrosphere. Many studies have shown the potential of remote sensing for environmental impact monitoring, e.g., [1]. However, its applicability has been limited due to the inherent spatial-spectral and temporal trade-off of most sensors. More recently, miniaturization of sensors makes it possible to capture color images from unmanned aerial systems (UAS) with a very high spatial resolution. In addition, the UAS can be deployed in a very flexible manner, allowing high temporal resolution imaging. More detailed spectral information is available from multispectral images, albeit at lower spatial resolution. Combining both types of images using image fusion can help to overcome the spatial-spectral trade-off and provide a new tool for more detailed monitoring of environmental impacts. Within the framework of the ImpactMin project, funded by the Framework Programme 7 of the European Commission, the objective of this study is to implement and apply the spatial unmixing algorithm, as proposed by [2], on images of the 'Vihovici Coal Mine' area, located in the Mostar Valley, Bosnia and Herzegovina. A WorldView2 (WV2) satellite image will be employed, which provides 8-band multispectral data at a spatial resolution of 2m. High spatial resolution images, obtained by a SmartPlanes UAS, will provide RGB data with 0.05m spatial resolution. The spatial unmixing technique is based on the idea that a linear mixing model can be used to perform the downscaling of

  18. Grassland bird abundance, diversity, richness and nest fate in Canaan Valley, WV: Results from the summers of 1999 and 2000.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In the northeast, grassland and shrubland birds have been identified as habitat community groups showing the most widespread and persistent declines in abundance ....

  19. Grassland Bird Abundance and Nest Success in Canaan Valley, WV: Preliminary Results From the Summer of 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In the northeast, grassland and shrubland birds have been identified as habitat community groups showing the most widespread and persistent declines in abundance ....

  20. Exploring Climate Science with WV Educators: A Regional Model for Teacher Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruberg, L. F.; Calinger, M.

    2014-12-01

    The National Research Council Framework for K-12 Science Literacy reports that children reared in rural agricultural communities, who experience regular interactions with plants and animals, develop more sophisticated understanding of ecology and biological systems than do urban and suburban children of the same age. West Virginia (WV) is a rural state. The majority of its residents live in communities of fewer than 2,500 people. Based on the features of the population being served and their unique strengths, this presentation focuses on a regional model for teacher professional development that addresses agricultural and energy vulnerabilities and adaptations to climate change in WV. The professional development model outlined shows how to guide teachers to use a problem-based learning approach to introduce climate data and analysis techniques within a scenario context that is locally meaningful. This strategy engages student interest by focusing on regional and community concerns. Climate science standards are emphasized in the Next Generation Science Standards, but WV has not provided its teachers with appropriate instructional resources to meet those standards. The authors addressed this need by offering a series of climate science education workshops followed by online webinars offered to WV science educators free of charge with funding by the West Virginia Space Grant Consortium. The authors report on findings from this series of professional development workshops conducted in partnership with the West Virginia Science Teachers Association. The goal was to enhance grades 5-12 teaching and learning about climate change through problem-based learning. Prior to offering the climate workshops, all WV science educators were asked to complete a short questionnaire. As Figure 1 shows, over 40% of the teacher respondents reported being confident in teaching climate science content. For comparison post workshops surveys measure teacher confidence in climate science

  1. (21238) 1995 WV7: A New Basaltic Asteroid Outside the 3:1 Mean Motion Resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Hammergren, M; Puckett, A; Hammergren, Mark; Gyuk, Geza; Puckett, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    We report visible to near-infrared spectroscopy and spectrophotometry of asteroid (21238) 1995 WV7 that reveal the presence of deep absorption bands indicating a V taxonomic type with an apparently basaltic surface composition. Since this asteroid is on the other side of the 3:1 mean motion resonance from Vesta, and because the required ejection velocity from Vesta is in excess of 1.6 km s-1, we conclude that 21238 represents a sample of a differentiated body dynamically unrelated to Vesta.

  2. Creep-rupture behavior of 3Cr-3W-V bainitic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klueh, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN 37831-6138 (United States)]. E-mail: kluehrl@ornl.gov; Evans, N.D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN 37831-6138 (United States); Maziasz, P.J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN 37831-6138 (United States); Sikka, V.K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN 37831-6138 (United States)

    2007-01-15

    A nominally Fe-3.0Cr-3.0W-0.25 V (3Cr-3WV) steel and this composition with 0.07% Ta (3Cr-3WVTa) were developed for elevated-temperature service in the power-generation and petrochemical industries. Creep-rupture strengths of the new steels to 600 deg. C exceeded those of the two advanced commercial 2.25Cr steels T23 (Fe-2.25Cr-1.6W-0.25V-0.05Nb-0.07C) and T24 (Fe-2.25Cr-1.0Mo-0.25V-0.07Ti-0.005B-0.07C). Moreover, the strength of 3Cr-3WVTa approached that of modified 9Cr-1Mo (T91) at 650 deg. C. Elevated-temperature strength in the new steels is obtained from a bainitic microstructure with a high number density of fine needle-like MX precipitates in the matrix. The presence of tantalum promotes a finer MX precipitate in the 3Cr-3WVTa than in the 3Cr-3WV, and it suppresses the coarsening of these fine precipitates during creep.

  3. Installation and Implementation of a Comprehensive Groundwater Monitoring Program for the Indian Wells Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Community Services District, Kern County Water Agency, Naval Air Weapons Station/China Lake, Searles Valley Minerals, the City of Ridgecrest, Quist ...MINERALS ( .~.~ INDIAN ~S V ALLEY AIRPORT ~ ൓ ~twWv ~ QUIST FARMS By: JAN 31 2006 Chairman, Board of Supervisors APPROVED AS TO CONTENT

  4. Effectiveness of disinfection with alcohol 70% (w/v of contaminated surfaces not previously cleaned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Uchikawa Graziano

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the disinfectant effectiveness of alcohol 70% (w/v using friction, without previous cleaning, on work surfaces, as a concurrent disinfecting procedure in Health Services. METHOD: An experimental, randomized and single-blinded laboratory study was undertaken. The samples were enamelled surfaces, intentionally contaminated with Serratia marcescens microorganisms ATCC 14756 106 CFU/mL with 10% of human saliva added, and were submitted to the procedure of disinfection WITHOUT previous cleaning. The results were compared to disinfection preceded by cleaning. RESULTS: There was a reduction of six logarithms of the initial microbial population, equal in the groups WITH and WITHOUT previous cleaning (p=0.440 and a residual microbial load ≤ 102 CFU. CONCLUSION: The research demonstrated the acceptability of the practice evaluated, bringing an important response to the area of health, in particular to Nursing, which most undertakes procedures of concurrent cleaning /disinfecting of these work surfaces.

  5. Quantitative relationship between Meteosat WV data and positive potential vorticity anomalies: a case study over the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Christo G.

    1999-06-01

    The correlation between Meteosat water vapour (WV) data and positive anomalies of potential vorticity (PV) is investigated using a case study involving cyclogenesis in the Alpine region and a north-west African depression. Correlation analyses are performed at different isobaric surfaces in the middle and upper troposphere for two latitudinal belts (25 35° N ‘southern’, and 35 52.5°N ‘northern’). A significant correlation is obtained at 500 hPa (correlation coefficient range: 0.58 0.64). Linear regression models are fitted to the samples from the northern and southern belts. On the basis of these results, the use of WV data as a tool for detection of errors in model-derived PV fields is discussed. It is concluded that, though some of the discrepancies between PV fields and WV images could be due to errors in the model analysis or prognosis, some mismatches are possibly due to the variable sensitivity of the WV channel because of the changes in pressure over the commonly used PV fields. It is suggested that the comparison of WV data with the field of positive PV anomalies at 500 hPa might be another approach to help solve the problem of verifying and validating numerical output.

  6. Enhanced Reconstitution of Human Erythropoiesis and Thrombopoiesis in an Immunodeficient Mouse Model with KitWv Mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayano Yurino

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In human-to-mouse xenograft models, reconstitution of human hematopoiesis is usually B-lymphoid dominant. Here we show that the introduction of homozygous KitWv mutations into C57BL/6.Rag2nullIl2rgnull mice with NOD-Sirpa (BRGS strongly promoted human multi-lineage reconstitution. After xenotransplantation of human CD34+CD38− cord blood cells, these newly generated C57BL/6.Rag2nullIl2rgnullNOD-Sirpa KitWv/Wv (BRGSKWv/Wv mice showed significantly higher levels of human cell chimerism and long-term multi-lineage reconstitution compared with BRGS mice. Strikingly, this mouse displayed a robust reconstitution of human erythropoiesis and thrombopoiesis with terminal maturation in the bone marrow. Furthermore, depletion of host macrophages by clodronate administration resulted in the presence of human erythrocytes and platelets in the circulation. Thus, attenuation of mouse KIT signaling greatly enhances the multi-lineage differentiation of human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs in mouse bone marrow, presumably by outcompeting mouse HSPCs to occupy suitable microenvironments. The BRGSKWv/Wv mouse model is a useful tool to study human multi-lineage hematopoiesis.

  7. La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-reinforced W and W-V alloys produced by hot isostatic pressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, A., E-mail: angel.munoz@uc3m.es [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Spain); Monge, M.A., E-mail: mmonge@fis.uc3m.es [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Spain); Savoini, B., E-mail: bsavoi@fis.uc3m.es [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Spain); Rabanal, M.E., E-mail: eugenia@ing.uc3m.es [Departamento de Ciencia e Ingenieria de Materiales e Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Spain); Garces, G., E-mail: ggarces@cenim.csic.es [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Melaturgicas, CENIM, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Pareja, R., E-mail: rpp@fis.uc3m.es [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Spain)

    2011-10-01

    W and W-V alloys reinforced with La{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles have been produced by MA and subsequent HIP at 1573 K and 195 MPa. The microstructure of the consolidated alloys has been characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy analyses and X-ray diffraction. The mechanical properties were studied by nanoindentation measurements. The results show that practically full dense billets of W-V, W-V-La{sub 2}O{sub 3} and W-La{sub 2}O{sub 3} alloys can be produced. The microstructure analysis has shown that islands of V are present in W-V and W-V-1La{sub 2}O{sub 3} alloys. In W-1La{sub 2}O{sub 3} islands of La{sub 2}O{sub 3} are also present. The nanohardness of the W matrix increases with the addition of V, while decreases with the addition of La{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  8. Valley precession and valley polarization in graphene with inter-valley coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qing-Ping; Liu, Zheng-Fang; Chen, Ai-Xi; Xiao, Xian-Bo; Zhang, Heng; Miao, Guo-Xing

    2017-10-01

    We theoretically investigate the valley precession and valley polarization in graphene under inter-valley coupling. Our results show that the inter-valley coupling can induce valley polarization in graphene and also precess valleys in real space in a manner similar to the Rashba spin-orbit interaction rotating spins. Moreover, using strain modulation, we can achieve high valley polarization with large valley-polarized currents. These findings provide a new way to create and manipulate valley polarization in graphene.

  9. Energy valley in transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwayen, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    The Energy Valley foundation was born in 2004. It functions as a catalyst and platform for private and public organisations. It has a supporting and facilitating role in realising projects on energy conservation and sustainable energy. The Energy Valley a

  10. Kanawha River Basin Sediment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data set contains sediment size data collected at research sites using a Wolman Pebble Count method. This dataset is associated with the following publication:...

  11. Haemoragisk Rift Valley Fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, Christian; Thybo, Søren

    2007-01-01

    A case of fatal hemorrhagic Rift Valley fever during an epidemic in Kenya's North Eastern Province in January 2007 is described.......A case of fatal hemorrhagic Rift Valley fever during an epidemic in Kenya's North Eastern Province in January 2007 is described....

  12. Rift Valley Fever Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-transmitted virus or arbovirus that is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. In the last decade, Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks have resulted in loss of human and animal life, as well as had significant economic impact. The disease in livestock is primarily a...

  13. Silicon Valley Ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph Leu

    2005-01-01

    @@ It is unlikely that any industrial region of the world has received as much scrutiny and study as Silicon Valley. Despite the recent crash of Internet and telecommunications stocks,Silicon Valley remains the world's engine of growth for numerous high-technology sectors.

  14. GA/WV application in tumor gene expression profiling mining as a feature selection algorithm%癌症基因表达谱挖掘中的特征基因选择算法GA/WV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申伟科; 钟理; 葛昆; 张波; 王建飞; 张小刚; 秦向东

    2010-01-01

    鉴定癌症表达谱的特征基因集合可以促进癌症类型分类的研究,这也可能使病人获得更好的临床诊断?虽然一些方法在基因表达谱分析上取得了成功,但是用基因表达谱数据进行癌症分类研究依然是一个巨大的挑战,其主要原因在于缺少通用而可靠的基因重要性评估方法.GA/WV是一种新的用复杂的生物表达数据评估基因分类重要性的方法,通过联合遗传算法(GA)和加权投票分类算法(WV)得到的特征基因集合不但适用于WV分类器,也适用于其它分类器?将GA/WV方法用癌症基因表达谱数据集的验证,结果表明本方法是一种成功可靠的特征基因选择方法.

  15. Prospective evaluation of 2% (w/v alcoholic chlorhexidine gluconate as an antiseptic agent for blood donor arm preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweta Shah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A prospective study was undertaken to evaluate the use of 2% (w/v alcoholic chlorhexidine gluconate (2% AlcCHG in donor arm preparation, to monitor the contamination rate of blood products after the collection and to find incidence of transfusion associated bacteremia. Settings and Design: Optimal skin antisepsis of the phlebotomy site is essential to minimize the risk of contamination. Food and Drug Administration (FDA in India has recommended antisepsis with three-step regimen of spirit-10% povidone iodine-spirit for donor arm antisepsis, but not with chlorhexidine, which is recommended by many other authors. Material and Methods: A total of 795 donors were studied from July 2011 to January 2012. Spirit-10% povidone iodine-spirit was used for 398 donors and 2% AlcCHG was used for 397 donors with the two-step method for arm antisepsis. Swabs were collected before and after use of antiseptic agents for all the donors. All the blood products collected from donors with growth in post-antisepsis swabs were cultured. A total of 123 various blood products were cultured irrespective of the method and result of antisepsis was observed. A total of seven patients had mild transfusion reaction. The transfused blood products, blood and urine specimen of the patients who had transfusion reaction were also cultured. Results: Seven donors out of 398 donors had growth in post-antisepsis swab with spirit-10% povidone iodine-spirit protocol and three donors out of 397 donors had growth in post-antisepsis swab with 2% AlcCHG protocol. All blood products collected from donors who had growth in post-antisepsis swabs when cultured had no growth. There was no contamination of blood products. Conclusions: Two percent (w/v alcoholic chlorhexidine gluconate with two-step protocol can be used as an antiseptic agent for donor arm preparation without considerable cost difference. It is at par with spirit 10% povidone iodine spirit protocol as suggested by FDA in India

  16. Geometry of Valley Growth

    CERN Document Server

    Petroff, Alexander P; Abrams, Daniel M; Lobkovsky, Alexander E; Kudrolli, Arshad; Rothman, Daniel H

    2011-01-01

    Although amphitheater-shaped valley heads can be cut by groundwater flows emerging from springs, recent geological evidence suggests that other processes may also produce similar features, thus confounding the interpretations of such valley heads on Earth and Mars. To better understand the origin of this topographic form we combine field observations, laboratory experiments, analysis of a high-resolution topographic map, and mathematical theory to quantitatively characterize a class of physical phenomena that produce amphitheater-shaped heads. The resulting geometric growth equation accurately predicts the shape of decimeter-wide channels in laboratory experiments, 100-meter wide valleys in Florida and Idaho, and kilometer wide valleys on Mars. We find that whenever the processes shaping a landscape favor the growth of sharply protruding features, channels develop amphitheater-shaped heads with an aspect ratio of pi.

  17. Purge at West Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Warren

    1977-01-01

    Tells how the adviser of the student newspaper at West Valley College (Saratoga, California) was dismissed after the newspaper published stories based on investigations into alleged wrongdoings by administration members. (GW)

  18. Valley-contrasting orbital angular momentum in photonic valley crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xiaodong; Dong, Jianwen

    2016-01-01

    Valley, as a degree of freedom, has been exploited to realize valley-selective Hall transport and circular dichroism in two-dimensional layered materials. On the other hand, orbital angular momentum of light with helical phase distribution has attracted great attention for its unprecedented opportunity to optical communicagtions, atom trapping, and even nontrivial topology engineering. Here, we reveal valley-contrasting orbital angular momentum in all-dielectric photonic valley crystals. Selective excitation of valley chiral bulk states is realized by sources carrying orbital angular momentum with proper chirality. Valley dependent edge states, predictable by nonzero valley Chern number, enable to suppress the inter-valley scattering along zigzag boundary, leading to broadband robust transmission in Z-shape bend without corner morphological optimization. Our work may open up a new door towards the discovery of novel quantum states and the manipulation of spin-orbit interaction of light in nanophotonics.

  19. Silicon Valley's Turnaround

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph Leu

    2006-01-01

    @@ During Silicon Valley's dramatic economic growth fueled by the Internet boom and business investment in information technology, employment in the region's high-tech sec tor tripled between 1995 and 2000. The economic boom gave rise to many new firms,drawing em ployees into high-tech jobs from other regions and other industries.

  20. Breathing Valley Fever

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-02-04

    Dr. Duc Vugia, chief of the Infectious Diseases Branch in the California Department of Public Health, discusses Valley Fever.  Created: 2/4/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/5/2014.

  1. Boyne Valley Tombs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Frank

    The passage tombs of the Boyne Valley exhibit the greatest level of development of the megalithic tomb building tradition in Ireland in terms of their morphology, embellishment, burial tradition, grave goods, clustering, and landscape siting. This section examines these characteristics and gives a summary archaeoastronomical appraisal of their orientation and detected astronomical alignment.

  2. Red (Planet) River Valleys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈淑娴

    1995-01-01

    Mars today is a frozen desert,but the photos sent back by the Mariner and Viking probes in the 1970s indicate its past was less bleak and more Earth-like. The images showed sinuous channels and valleys that were al-

  3. Bringing Silicon Valley inside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, G

    1999-01-01

    In 1998, Silicon Valley companies produced 41 IPOs, which by January 1999 had a combined market capitalization of $27 billion--that works out to $54,000 in new wealth creation per worker in a single year. Multiply the number of employees in your company by $54,000. Did your business create that much new wealth last year? Half that amount? It's not a group of geniuses generating such riches. It's a business model. In Silicon Valley, ideas, capital, and talent circulate freely, gathering into whatever combinations are most likely to generate innovation and wealth. Unlike most traditional companies, which spend their energy in resource allocation--a system designed to avoid failure--the Valley operates through resource attraction--a system that nurtures innovation. In a traditional company, people with innovative ideas must go hat in hand to the guardians of the old ideas for funding and for staff. But in Silicon Valley, a slew of venture capitalists vie to attract the best new ideas, infusing relatively small amounts of capital into a portfolio of ventures. And talent is free to go to the companies offering the most exhilarating work and the greatest potential rewards. It should actually be easier for large, traditional companies to set up similar markets for capital, ideas, and talent internally. After all, big companies often already have extensive capital, marketing, and distribution resources, and a first crack at the talent in their own ranks. And some of them are doing it. The choice is yours--you can do your best to make sure you never put a dollar of capital at risk, or you can tap into the kind of wealth that's being created every day in Silicon Valley.

  4. Refuge in Belen Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Arias-Caballero, Diego Andres

    2013-01-01

    A story about love and desire to imagine architecture in a peruvian landscape. On one hand, 'Refuge in Belen Valley' is a thesis about discovering the ideal conditions that architecture should meet in a landscape, conditions that approach the idea of an offering of man rather than a conditioning for man. On the other, it is a thesis about thinking architecture as a composition derived out of material properties, emotional intentions, inhabiting possibilities and counterpoint, the arrangement ...

  5. Building China's Silicon Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Ellis Rahhal and Andrew Schorr sit across from each other in the minimalist office of their tech startup,all clean lines and white linoleum floors.A pair of toothbrushes hint at many a late night hunched over their computers.Outside the window,the sun is slowly setting behind jagged mountains.The scene is classic Silicon Valley.But Rahhal and Schorr aren't in California.They're in suburban Beijing.

  6. Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinecke, K.J.; Kaminski, R.M.; Moorhead, D.J.; Hodges, J.D.; Nasser, J.R.; Smith, L.M.; Pederson, R.L.; Kaminski, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    Available data are summarized according to the following major topics: (1) characteristics of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV); (2) waterfowl populations associated with the MAV; (3) habitat requirements of migrating and wintering waterfowl in the MAV; (4) current habitat management practices in the MAV, including croplands, moist-soil impoundments, and forested wetlands; (5) status and classification of winter habitat in the MAV; and (6) research and management information needs.

  7. Green valley galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The “green valley” is a wide region separating the blue and the red peaks in the ultraviolet-optical color magnitude diagram, first revealed using GALEX UV photometry. The term was coined by Christopher Martin (Caltech, in 2005. Green valley highlights the discriminating power of UV to very low relative levels of ongoing star formation, to which the optical colors, including u−r, are insensitive. It corresponds to massive galaxies below the star-forming, “main” sequence, and therefore represents a critical tool for the study of the quenching of star formation and its possible resurgence in otherwise quiescent galaxies. This article reviews the results pertaining to (predominantly disk morphology, structure, environment, dust content and gas properties of green valley galaxies in the local universe. Their relationship to AGN is also discussed. Attention is given to biases emerging from defining the “green valley” using optical colors. We review various evolutionary scenarios and we present evidence for a new one, the quasi-static view of the green valley, in which the majority (but not all of galaxies currently in the green valley were only partially quenched in the distant past and now participate in a slow cosmic decline of star formation, which also drives down the activity on the main sequence, presumably as a result of the dwindling accretion/cooling onto galaxy disks. This emerging synthetic picture is based on the findings from Fang et al. (2012, Salim et al. (2012 and Martin et al. (2007, as well as other results.

  8. Optical manipulation of valley pseudospin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ziliang; Sun, Dezheng; Heinz, Tony F.

    2017-01-01

    The coherent manipulation of spin and pseudospin underlies existing and emerging quantum technologies, including quantum communication and quantum computation. Valley polarization, associated with the occupancy of degenerate, but quantum mechanically distinct valleys in momentum space, closely resembles spin polarization and has been proposed as a pseudospin carrier for the future quantum electronics. Valley exciton polarization has been created in the transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers using excitation by circularly polarized light and has been detected both optically and electrically. In addition, the existence of coherence in the valley pseudospin has been identified experimentally. The manipulation of such valley coherence has, however, remained out of reach. Here we demonstrate all-optical control of the valley coherence by means of the pseudomagnetic field associated with the optical Stark effect. Using below-bandgap circularly polarized light, we rotate the valley exciton pseudospin in monolayer WSe2 on the femtosecond timescale. Both the direction and speed of the rotation can be manipulated optically by tuning the dynamic phase of excitons in opposite valleys. This study unveils the possibility of generation, manipulation, and detection of the valley pseudospin by coupling to photons.

  9. Session: Long Valley Exploratory Well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Finger, John T.; Eichelberger, John C.; Hickox, Charles E.

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of four presentations: ''Long Valley Exploratory Well - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''The Long Valley Well - Phase II Operations'' by John T. Finger; ''Geologic results from the Long Valley Exploratory Well'' by John C. Eichelberger; and ''A Model for Large-Scale Thermal Convection in the Long Valley Geothermal Region'' by Charles E. Hickox.

  10. Social Networks in Silicon Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph Leu

    2006-01-01

    @@ Social network is a dominant, distinguishing characteristic of Silicon Valley. Because innovation entails coping with a high degree of uncertainty,such innovation is particularly dependent on networks.

  11. Synthetic River Valleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R.; Pasternack, G. B.

    2011-12-01

    The description of fluvial form has evolved from anecdotal descriptions to artistic renderings to 2D plots of cross section or longitudinal profiles and more recently 3D digital models. Synthetic river valleys, artificial 3D topographic models of river topography, have a plethora of potential applications in fluvial geomorphology, and the earth sciences in general, as well as in computer science and ecology. Synthetic river channels have existed implicitly since approximately the 1970s and can be simulated from a variety of approaches spanning the artistic and numerical. An objective method of synthesizing 3D stream topography based on reach scale attributes would be valuable for sizing 3D flumes in the physical and numerical realms, as initial input topography for morphodynamic models, stream restoration design, historical reconstruction, and mechanistic testing of interactions of channel geometric elements. Quite simply - simulation of synthetic channel geometry of prescribed conditions can allow systematic evaluation of the dominant relationships between river flow and geometry. A new model, the control curve method, is presented that uses hierarchically scaled parametric curves in over-lapping 2D planes to create synthetic river valleys. The approach is able to simulate 3D stream geometry from paired 2D descriptions and can allow experimental insight into form-process relationships in addition to visualizing past measurements of channel form that are limited to two dimension descriptions. Results are presented that illustrate the models ability to simulate fluvial topography representative of real world rivers as well as how channel geometric elements can be adjusted. The testing of synthetic river valleys would open up a wealth of knowledge as to why some 3D attributes of river channels are more prevalent than others as well as bridging the gap between the 2D descriptions that have dominated fluvial geomorphology the past century and modern, more complete, 3D

  12. Silicon Valley Lifestyle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph Leu

    2005-01-01

    @@ As we embrace the rapid developments of the new media age,competitiveness in the field of internet and computer technology is an increasingly crucial factor in stimulating new business,jobs and new industry in the region.Accelerating advancements in new media,internet,software and computer technologies offer new commercial opportunities and sources of economic revenue. Silicon Valley has been a model of the new age since its existence.While the dream place not only has a unique business model,but also has a very special lifestyle.

  13. 27 CFR 9.82 - Potter Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potter Valley. 9.82... Potter Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Potter Valley.” (b) Approved map. The approved maps for the Potter Valley viticultural area are the U.S.G.S....

  14. CRIA Sians A areement with Rubber Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The signing ceremony of establishing strategic partnership between China Rubber Industry Association and Rubber Valley Co., Ltd. was held in Rubber Valley on September 13. Leaders such as Xu Wenying, Deputy Secretary-General of CRIA, repre-senting CRIA, and Zhang Yan, Deputy Director of Rubber Valley Management Committee and General Manager of Rubber Valley Co., Ltd., representing Rubber Valley, signed on the cooperation agreement. Fan Rende, President of CRIA, Cai Quanji,

  15. Accelerating optimization by tracing valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing-Xiao; He, Rong-Qiang; Lu, Zhong-Yi

    2016-06-01

    We propose an algorithm to accelerate optimization when an objective function locally resembles a long narrow valley. In such a case, a conventional optimization algorithm usually wanders with too many tiny steps in the valley. The new algorithm approximates the valley bottom locally by a parabola that is obtained by fitting a set of successive points generated recently by a conventional optimization method. Then large steps are taken along the parabola, accompanied by fine adjustment to trace the valley bottom. The effectiveness of the new algorithm has been demonstrated by accelerating the Newton trust-region minimization method and the Levenberg-Marquardt method on the nonlinear fitting problem in exact diagonalization dynamical mean-field theory and on the classic minimization problem of the Rosenbrock's function. Many times speedup has been achieved for both problems, showing the high efficiency of the new algorithm.

  16. Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the extent of the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer in the states of Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas, Mississippi, and...

  17. The History of Silicon Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph Leu

    2005-01-01

    @@ Just as Manchester was once the center for indus trial progress, the microelectronics industry also has a heartland. Silicon Valley is located in a thirty by ten miles strip between San Francisco and San Jose,California.

  18. RailroadValleySpringfish_CH

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify the areas where final critical habitat for the Railroad Valley springfish (Crenichthys nevadae) occur. The irrigation ditch that is on the north...

  19. Social Networks in Silicon Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph; Leu

    2006-01-01

      Social network is a dominant, distinguishing characteristic of Silicon Valley. Because innovation entails coping with a high degree of uncertainty,such innovation is particularly dependent on networks.……

  20. Aquatic habitats of Canaan Valley, West Virginia: Diversity and environmental threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, C.D.; Young, J.A.; Stout, B. M.

    2006-01-01

    We conducted surveys of aquatic habitats during the spring and summer of 1995 in Canaan Valley, WV, to describe the diversity of aquatic habitats in the valley and identify issues that may threaten the viability of aquatic species. We assessed physical habitat and water chemistry of 126 ponds and 82 stream sites, and related habitat characteristics to landscape variables such as geology and terrain. Based on our analyses, we found two issues likely to affect the viability of aquatic populations in the valley. The first issue was acid rain and the extent to which it potentially limits the distribution of aquatic and semi-aquatic species, particularly in headwater portions of the watershed. We estimate that nearly 46%, or 56 kilometers of stream, had pH levels that would not support survival and reproduction of Salvelinuw fontinalis (brook trout), one of the most acid-tolerant fishes in the eastern US. The second issue was the influence of Castor canadensis (beaver) activity. In the Canaan Valley State Park portion of the valley, beaver have transformed 4.7 kilometers of stream (approximately 17% of the total) to pond habitat through their dam building. This has resulted in an increase in pond habitat, a decrease in stream habitat, and a fragmented stream network (i.e., beaver ponds dispersed among stream reaches). In addition, beaver have eliminated an undetermined amount of forested riparian area through their foraging activities. Depending on the perspective, beaver-mediated changes can be viewed as positive or negative. Increases in pond habitat may increase habitat heterogeneity with consequent increases in biological diversity. In contrast, flooding associated with beaver activity may eliminate lowland wetlands and associated species, create barriers to fish dispersal, and possibly contribute to low dissolved oxygen levels in the Blackwater River. We recommend that future management strategies for the wildlife refuge be viewed in the context of these two issues

  1. Valley blockade quantum switching in Silicon nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prati, Enrico

    2011-10-01

    In analogy to the Coulomb and the Pauli spin blockade, based on the electrostatic repulsion and the Pauli exclusion principle respectively, the concept of valley blockade in Silicon nanostructures is explored. The valley parity operator is defined. Valley blockade is determined by the parity conservation of valley composition eigenvectors in quantum transport. A Silicon quantum changeover switch based on a triple of donor quantum dots capable to separate electrons having opposite valley parity by virtue of the valley parity conservation is proposed. The quantum changeover switch represents a novel kind of hybrid quantum based classical logic device.

  2. ORTHOIMAGERY, CLAY COUNTY, WV, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — NAIP is a program to acquire peak growing season ?leaf on? imagery, and deliver this imagery to USDA County Service Centers, in order to maintain the common land...

  3. Treatment of Neotrombicula species infestation in cats using a 10% (w/v) fipronil topical spot-on formulation: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadiergues, Marie C; Navarro, Christelle; Castilla-Castaño, Eloy; Lecru, Line A; Pressanti, Charline

    2017-06-01

    Objectives Few data are available concerning therapeutic aspects of feline trombiculiasis. This study evaluated the efficacy of a 10% w/v fipronil-based spot-on solution in 15 cats with natural Neotrombicula species infestation. Methods Ten cats received 1 drop per affected site on day (D)0 and D14, with the rest of the 0.5 ml pipette applied on the skin between the shoulders. Five cats served as non-treated controls. Parasite score (0 = absent; 3 = severe, >10 parasites/zone) was assessed on D0, D14 and D28 on all animals. Skin lesions (SCORing Feline Allergic Dermatitis lesion severity scale [SCORFAD]) and investigator pruritus scale (IPS; 0 = cat comfortable, grooming like any normal cat; 4 = cat uncomfortable, pruritic all the time) were assessed on treated cats on the same days. Global assessment of efficacy, tolerance and ease of use (GAS; 1 = very poor; 5 = excellent) was assessed on D28. Results All the cats completed the study. Parasite scores of the control cats were maintained throughout the trial (mean ± SD: D0 4 ± 0.7, D14 3.2 ± 1.1 and D28 3.2 ± 0.4). In treated cats, SCORFAD (D0 3.2 ± 5.4, D14 1.1 ± 2.1 [ P <0.002] and D28 0.5 ± 1.3 [ P <0.002]), parasite (D0 3.9 ± 1.3, D14 1.2 ± 0.8 [ P <0.005] and D28 0.4 ± 0.5 [ P <0.005]) and IPS (D0 1 ± 1.2, D14 0.5 ± 1.1 [ P <0.05] and D28 0.3 ± 0.7 [ P <0.05]) scores significantly decreased throughout the trial. On D28, the GAS was 4.2 ± 0.9. There were no adverse effects from treatment. Conclusions and relevance The 10% w/v fipronil preparation appeared to be effective, safe and practical in the treatment of localised Neotrombicula species infestation in these cats.

  4. Modelling photochemistry in alpine valleys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Brulfert

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic is a serious problem in the Chamonix Valley, France: traffic, noise and above all air pollution worry the inhabitants. The big fire in the Mont-Blanc tunnel made it possible, in the framework of the POVA project (POllution in Alpine Valleys, to undertake measurement campaigns with and without heavy-vehicle traffic through the Chamonix and Maurienne valleys, towards Italy (before and after the tunnel re-opening. Modelling is one of the aspects of POVA and should make it possible to explain the processes leading to episodes of atmospheric pollution, both in summer and in winter. Atmospheric prediction model ARPS 4.5.2 (Advanced Regional Prediction System, developed at the CAPS (Center for Analysis and Prediction of Storms of the University of Oklahoma, enables to resolve the dynamics above a complex terrain. This model is coupled to the TAPOM 1.5.2 atmospheric chemistry (Transport and Air POllution Model code developed at the Air and Soil Pollution Laboratory of the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne. The numerical codes MM5 and CHIMERE are used to compute large scale boundary forcing. This paper focuses on modelling Chamonix valley using 300-m grid cells to calculate the dynamics and the reactive chemistry which makes possible to accurately represent the dynamics in the Chamonix valley (slope and valley winds and to process chemistry at fine scale. The summer 2003 intensive campaign was used to validate the model and to study chemistry. NOy according to O3 reduction demonstrates a VOC controlled regime, different from the NOx controlled regime expected and observed in the nearby city of Grenoble.

  5. Modelling photochemistry in alpine valleys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Brulfert

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic is a serious problem in the Chamonix Valley, France: traffic, noise and above all air pollution worry the inhabitants. The big fire in the Mont-Blanc tunnel made it possible, in the framework of the POVA project (POllution in Alpine Valleys, to undertake measurement campaigns with and without heavy-vehicle traffic through the valley, towards Italy (before and after the tunnel re-opening. Modelling in POVA should make it possible to explain the processes leading to episodes of atmospheric pollution, both in summer and in winter.

    Atmospheric prediction model ARPS 4.5.2 (Advanced Regional Prediction System, developed at the CAPS (Center for Analysis and Prediction of Storms of the University of Oklahoma, enables to resolve the dynamics above a complex terrain.

    This model is coupled to the TAPOM 1.5.2 atmospheric chemistry (Transport and Air POllution Model code developed at the Air and Soil Pollution Laboratory of the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne.

    The numerical codes MM5 and CHIMERE are used to compute large scale boundary forcing.

    Using 300-m grid cells to calculate the dynamics and the reactive chemistry makes possible to accurately represent the dynamics in the valley (slope and valley winds and to process chemistry at fine scale.

    Validation of campaign days allows to study chemistry indicators in the valley. NOy according to O3 reduction demonstrates a VOC controlled regime, different from the NOx controlled regime expected and observed in the nearby city of Grenoble.

  6. Small Glaciofluvial Valleys on Amazonian Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassett, C.; Dickson, J.; Head, J. W.; Levy, J. S.; Marchant, D. R.

    2009-12-01

    We present new observations of small valleys associated with glacial features in the Martian mid-latitudes, based on a survey of images from the Context Camera (CTX) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. These valleys are small (~50-400 m wide) and short (mechanism most likely to explain their origin is top-down melting of these cold-based glaciers. Some valleys have associated sedimentary deposits (small fans) (e.g., Fig. 1). Both stratigraphic relations and crater counting constrain most such valleys to the Amazonian period. The observed glaciofluvial valleys are typically on slopes of P16_007256_1383). The valley begins in a small alcove, where remnant glacial materials are now ~1 km from the valley head. The valley is ~5.5 km long, has an average slope of 5°, and terminates in an elongate fan.

  7. EPA Region 1 - Valley Depth in Meters

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Raster of the Depth in meters of EPA-delimited Valleys in Region 1. Valleys (areas that are lower than their neighbors) were extracted from a Digital Elevation Model...

  8. Valley evolution by meandering rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaye, Ajay Brian Sanjay

    Fluvial systems form landscapes and sedimentary deposits with a rich hierarchy of structures that extend from grain- to valley scale. Large-scale pattern formation in fluvial systems is commonly attributed to forcing by external factors, including climate change, tectonic uplift, and sea-level change. Yet over geologic timescales, rivers may also develop large-scale erosional and depositional patterns that do not bear on environmental history. This dissertation uses a combination of numerical modeling and topographic analysis to identify and quantify patterns in river valleys that form as a consequence of river meandering alone, under constant external forcing. Chapter 2 identifies a numerical artifact in existing, grid-based models that represent the co-evolution of river channel migration and bank strength over geologic timescales. A new, vector-based technique for bank-material tracking is shown to improve predictions for the evolution of meander belts, floodplains, sedimentary deposits formed by aggrading channels, and bedrock river valleys, particularly when spatial contrasts in bank strength are strong. Chapters 3 and 4 apply this numerical technique to establishing valley topography formed by a vertically incising, meandering river subject to constant external forcing---which should serve as the null hypothesis for valley evolution. In Chapter 3, this scenario is shown to explain a variety of common bedrock river valley types and smaller-scale features within them---including entrenched channels, long-wavelength, arcuate scars in valley walls, and bedrock-cored river terraces. Chapter 4 describes the age and geometric statistics of river terraces formed by meandering with constant external forcing, and compares them to terraces in natural river valleys. The frequency of intrinsic terrace formation by meandering is shown to reflect a characteristic relief-generation timescale, and terrace length is identified as a key criterion for distinguishing these

  9. Category and perceptual interference in second-language phoneme learning: an examination of English /w/-/v/ learning by Sinhala, German, and Dutch speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Paul; Ekanayake, Dulika; Hamann, Silke; Sennema, Anke; Evans, Bronwen G

    2008-10-01

    The present study investigated the perception and production of English /w/ and /v/ by native speakers of Sinhala, German, and Dutch, with the aim of examining how their native language phonetic processing affected the acquisition of these phonemes. Subjects performed a battery of tests that assessed their identification accuracy for natural recordings, their degree of spoken accent, their relative use of place and manner cues, the assimilation of these phonemes into native-language categories, and their perceptual maps (i.e., multidimensional scaling solutions) for these phonemes. Most Sinhala speakers had near-chance identification accuracy, Germans ranged from chance to 100% correct, and Dutch speakers had uniformly high accuracy. The results suggest that these learning differences were caused more by perceptual interference than by category assimilation; Sinhala and German speakers both have a single native-language phoneme that is similar to English /w/ and /v/, but the auditory sensitivities of Sinhala speakers make it harder for them to discern the acoustic cues that are critical to /w/-/v/ categorization.

  10. 27 CFR 9.57 - Green Valley of Russian River Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Green Valley of Russian River Valley. 9.57 Section 9.57 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Areas § 9.57 Green Valley of Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area...

  11. 27 CFR 9.154 - Chiles Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chiles Valley. 9.154... Chiles Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Chiles Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Chiles...

  12. 27 CFR 9.23 - Napa Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Napa Valley. 9.23 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.23 Napa Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Napa Valley.”...

  13. Valley Singularities and Baryon Number Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Provero, P

    1994-01-01

    We consider the valley--method computation of the inclusive cross section of baryon number violating processes in the Standard Model. We show that any physically correct model of the valley action should present a singularity in the saddle point valley parameters as functions of the energy of the process. This singularity prevents the saddle point configuration from collapsing into the perturbative vacuum.

  14. The Future of Silicon Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph Leu

    2006-01-01

    @@ By the end of 1984, Silicon Valley was going through the down cycle fol lowing the PC boom. A hundred PC companies wanted just 10 percent of the market, wanting to strike it rich, as rich as the Apple IPO (Initial Public Of fering) -the Google celebrity IPO of its day.

  15. Atmospheric turbidity over Kathmandu valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkota, Balkrishna; Dhaubhadel, Rajan

    The atmosphere of Kathmandu Valley has been investigated by using Sunphotometer and Nephelometer during the pre-monsoon period of 1999. The atmospheric turbidity parameters (extinction coefficient for 500 nm wavelength τAG and Angstrom coefficient β) are found high in the morning and show decreasing trends from morning to late afternoon on average. Vertical dispersion of pollutants and increasing pollutant flushing rate by increasing wind speed from morning to late afternoon is the cause for this decreasing trend of turbidity over the valley. Being surrounded by high hills all around the valley, horizontal exit of pollutants without vertical dispersion is not possible. The scattering coefficient bscat of aerosols in ground level troposphere is also found high in the morning, which decreases and becomes minimum during afternoon. During late afternoon, bscat again shows a slightly increasing trend. The reason is the increasing vehicular emission during late afternoon rush period. The average values of Angstrom exponent α, β, τAG and bscat are found to be 0.624±0.023, 0.299±0.009, 0.602±0.022 and 0.353±0.014 km -1, respectively. About 76.8% of the observed values of β lie above 0.2 indicating heavy particulate pollution in the valley. A comparison of observed values of turbidity parameters with other major cities of the world shows that Kathmandu is as polluted as cities like Jakarta, Kansas, Beijing, Vienna, etc.

  16. The Central Valley Hydrologic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunt, C.; Belitz, K.; Hanson, R. T.

    2009-12-01

    Historically, California’s Central Valley has been one of the most productive agricultural regions in the world. The Central Valley also is rapidly becoming an important area for California’s expanding urban population. In response to this competition for water, a number of water-related issues have gained prominence: conjunctive use, artificial recharge, hydrologic implications of land-use change, subsidence, and effects of climate variability. To provide information to stakeholders addressing these issues, the USGS made a detailed assessment of the Central Valley aquifer system that includes the present status of water resources and how these resources have changed over time. The principal product of this assessment is a tool, referred to as the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM), that simulates surface-water flows, groundwater flows, and land subsidence in response to stresses from human uses and from climate variability throughout the entire Central Valley. The CVHM utilizes MODFLOW combined with a new tool called “Farm Process” to simulate groundwater and surface-water flow, irrigated agriculture, land subsidence, and other key processes in the Central Valley on a monthly basis. This model was discretized horizontally into 20,000 1-mi2 cells and vertically into 10 layers ranging in thickness from 50 feet at the land surface to 750 feet at depth. A texture model constructed by using data from more than 8,500 drillers’ logs was used to estimate hydraulic properties. Unmetered pumpage and surface-water deliveries for 21 water-balance regions were simulated with the Farm Process. Model results indicate that human activities, predominately surface-water deliveries and groundwater pumping for irrigated agriculture, have dramatically influenced the hydrology of the Central Valley. These human activities have increased flow though the aquifer system by about a factor of six compared to pre-development conditions. The simulated hydrology reflects spatial

  17. Upscaling the impact of convective overshooting (COV) through BRAMS: a continental and wet-season scale study of the water vapour (WV) budget in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Abhinna; Rivière, Emmanuel; Marécal, Virginie; Rysman, Jean-François; Claud, Chantal; Burgalat, Jérémie

    2017-04-01

    The stratospheric water vapour (WV) has a conceding impact on the radiative and chemical budget of Earth's atmosphere. The convective overshooting (COV) at the tropics is well admitted for playing a role in transporting directly WV to the stratosphere. Nonetheless, its impact on the lower stratosphere is yet to be determined at global scale, as the satellite and other air-borne measurements are not of having fine enough resolution to quantify this impact at large scale. Therefore, efforts have been made to quantify the influence of COV over the WV budget in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) through modelling. Our approach is to build two synthetic tropical wet-seasons; where one would be having only deep convection (DC) but no COV at all, and the second one would be having the COV, and in both cases the WV budget in the TTL would be estimated. Before that, a French-Brazilian TRO-pico campaign was carried out at Bauru, Brazil in order to understand the influence of COV on the WV budget in the TTL. The radio-sounding, and the small balloon-borne WV measurements from the campaign are being utilized to validate the model simulation. Brazilian version of Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (BRAMS) is used with a single grid system to simulate a WV variability in a wet-season. Grell's convective parameterization with ensemble closure, microphysics with double moment scheme and 7 types of hydrometeors are incorporated to simulate the WV variability for a wet-season at the tropics. The grid size of simulation is chosen to be 20 km x 20 km horizontally and from surface to 30 km altitude, so that there cannot be COV at all, only DC due to such a relatively coarse resolution. The European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) operational analyses data are used every 6 hours for grid initialization and boundary conditions, and grid center nudging. The simulation is carried out for a full wet-season (Nov 2012 - Mar 2013) at Brazilian scale, so that it would

  18. Mechanically and optically controlled graphene valley filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Fenghua; Jin, Guojun, E-mail: gjin@nju.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-05-07

    We theoretically investigate the valley-dependent electronic transport through a graphene monolayer modulated simultaneously by a uniform uniaxial strain and linearly polarized light. Within the Floquet formalism, we calculate the transmission probabilities and conductances of the two valleys. It is found that valley polarization can appear only if the two modulations coexist. Under a proper stretching of the sample, the ratio of the light intensity and the light frequency squared is important. If this quantity is small, the electron transport is mainly contributed by the valley-symmetric central band and the conductance is valley unpolarized; but when this quantity is large, the valley-asymmetric sidebands also take part in the transport and the valley polarization of the conductance appears. Furthermore, the degree of the polarization can be tuned by the strain strength, light intensity, and light frequency. It is proposed that the detection of the valley polarization can be realized utilizing the valley beam splitting. Thus, a graphene monolayer can be used as a mechanically and optically controlled valley filter.

  19. Zhongguan Village, China's Silicon Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xinwen

    2008-01-01

    @@ In 1999,driven by the dream of using technology to change people's lives,Li Yanhong,returned to Zhongguancun(Zhongguan Village in Chinese),Beijing from Silicon Valley in the U.S.to create Baidu.com.Over the years,Baidu has become the most frequently hitted website in China as well as the largest Chinesc search engine and Chinese language website in the world.

  20. Spin-Valley Beam Splitter in Graphene

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Yu; Shi, Zhi-Gui; Li, Shun; Zhang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The fourfold spin-valley degenerate degrees of freedom in bulk graphene can support rich physics and novel applications associated with multicomponent quantum Hall effects and linear conductance filtering. In this work, we study how to break the spin-valley degeneracy of electron beams spatially. We propose a spin-valley beam splitter in a gated ferromagnetic/pristine/strained graphene structure. We demonstrate that, in a full resonant tunneling regime for all spin-valley beam components, the formation of quasi-standing waves can lead four giant lateral Goos-H\\"{a}nchen shifts as large as the transverse beam width, while the interplay of the two modulated regions can lead difference of resonant angles or energies for the four spin-valley flavors, manifesting an effective spin-valley beam splitting effect. The beam splitting effect is found to be controllable by the gating and strain.

  1. First records of Nocomis biguttatus (Hornyhead Chub) from West Virginia discovered in museum voucher specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Stuart; Cincotta, Daniel A.; Starnes, Wayne C.

    2013-01-01

    Specimens of Nocomis biguttatus (Hornyhead Chub) from South Fork Hughes River (Little Kanawha River drainage, WV) were discovered in two museum lots at the North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences. These accessions, collected in 1960 and 1966, represent an addition to the state fauna and are the first distribution records for this species from the Appalachian Plateau, WV

  2. California's restless giant: the Long Valley Caldera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David P.; Bailey, Roy A.; Hendley, James W.; Stauffer, Peter H.; Marcaida, Mae

    2014-01-01

    Scientists have monitored geologic unrest in the Long Valley, California, area since 1980. In that year, following a swarm of strong earthquakes, they discovered that the central part of the Long Valley Caldera had begun actively rising. Unrest in the area persists today. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) continues to provide the public and civil authorities with current information on the volcanic hazard at Long Valley and is prepared to give timely warnings of any impending eruption.

  3. Polyfluoroalkyl substance exposure in the Mid-Ohio River Valley, 1991-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, Robert L; Buckholz, Jeanette; Biro, Frank M; Calafat, Antonia M; Ye, Xiaoyun; Xie, Changchun; Pinney, Susan M

    2017-09-01

    Industrial discharges of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) to the Ohio River, contaminating water systems near Parkersburg, WV, were previously associated with nearby residents' serum PFOA concentrations above US general population medians. Ohio River PFOA concentrations downstream are elevated, suggesting Mid-Ohio River Valley residents are exposed through drinking water. Quantify PFOA and 10 other per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in Mid-Ohio River Valley resident sera collected between 1991 and 2013 and determine whether the Ohio River and Ohio River Aquifer are exposure sources. We measured eleven PFAS in 1608 sera from 931 participants. Serum PFOA concentration and water source associations were assessed using linear mixed-effects models. We estimated between-sample serum PFOA using one-compartment pharmacokinetics for participants with multiple samples. In serum samples collected as early as 1991, PFOA (median = 7.6 ng/mL) was detected in 99.9% of sera; 47% had concentrations greater than US population 95th percentiles. Five other PFAS were detected in greater than 82% of samples; median other PFAS concentrations were similar to the US general population. Serum PFOA was significantly associated with water source, sampling year, age at sampling, tap water consumption, pregnancy, gravidity and breastfeeding. Serum PFOA was 40-60% lower with granular activated carbon (GAC) use. Repeated measurements and pharmacokinetics suggest serum PFOA peaked 2000-2006 for participants using water without GAC treatment; where GAC was used, serum PFOA concentrations decreased from 1991 to 2012. Mid-Ohio River Valley residents appear to have PFOA, but not other PFAS, serum concentrations above US population levels. Drinking water from the Ohio River and Ohio River Aquifer, primarily contaminated by industrial discharges 209-666 km upstream, is likely the primary exposure source. GAC treatment of drinking water mitigates, but does not eliminate, PFOA exposure. Copyright

  4. Intrinsic valley Hall effect in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mou; Zhang, Wen-Lian; Liu, Hai; Bai, Yan-Kui

    2017-04-01

    If electrons are incident from an armchair graphene ribbon into the bulk graphene region, the electronic diffraction occurs. Because of the different triangular wrapping of the energy dispersion between valleys K and K ‧ , the electrons of valley K tend to be diffracted to one side and those of valley K ‧ to the other side. When the current is injected from the armchair ribbon of a four-terminal graphene device, the major portion of the incident current of valley K flows through one side arm and the minor portion through the other side arm. The ratio between them is derived to be 1 + 4 E / 3 in the low energy limit, where E is the energy in units of hopping parameter. The major arm for valley K is the minor arm for valley K ‧ . This results in the rise of the valley Hall effect, which is an intrinsic property of graphene stemming from the different electronic structure of the two valleys. The valley Hall conductance is calculated to be (2 E / 3)G0 with G0 being the conductance supported by the injection ribbon.

  5. Trion valley coherence in monolayer semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Kai; Xu, Lixiang; Wu, Fengcheng; Nagler, Philipp; Tran, Kha; Ma, Xin; Schüller, Christian; Korn, Tobias; MacDonald, Allan H.; Moody, Galan; Li, Xiaoqin

    2017-06-01

    The emerging field of valleytronics aims to exploit the valley pseudospin of electrons residing near Bloch band extrema as an information carrier. Recent experiments demonstrating optical generation and manipulation of exciton valley coherence (the superposition of electron-hole pairs at opposite valleys) in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) provide a critical step towards control of this quantum degree of freedom. The charged exciton (trion) in TMDs is an intriguing alternative to the neutral exciton for control of valley pseudospin because of its long spontaneous recombination lifetime, its robust valley polarization, and its coupling to residual electronic spin. Trion valley coherence has however been unexplored due to experimental challenges in accessing it spectroscopically. In this work, we employ ultrafast 2D coherent spectroscopy to resonantly generate and detect trion valley coherence in monolayer MoSe2 demonstrating that it persists for a few-hundred femtoseconds. We conclude that the underlying mechanisms limiting trion valley coherence are fundamentally different from those applicable to exciton valley coherence.

  6. Precision Mapping of Valley Networks in Margaritifer Sinus, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepinski, T. F.; Luo, W.; Qi, Y.

    2007-03-01

    Valley networks in Margaritifer Sinus quadrangle are mapped using a computer algorithm. The new map reveals wider existence of valleys than has been inferred from older maps. This suggests runoff as the primary mechanism for origin of the valleys.

  7. Work through the valley: plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Loretta; Meade, Barbara; Koegel, Paul; Lucas-Wright, Aziza; Young-Brinn, Angela; Terry, Chrystene; Norris, Keith

    2009-01-01

    This first of three chapters on the Valley stage, or main work of a Community-Partnered Participatory Research (CPPR) initiative, concerns the planning phase of the work cycle. The main goal of this phase is to develop an action plan, which clarifies the goals, methods, responsible individuals, and timeline for doing the work. Further, this chapter reviews approaches, such as creativity and use of humor, that help level the playing field and assure community co-leadership with academic partners in developing effective action plans.

  8. Vernal Pool Distribution - Central Valley, 2005 [ds650

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — "Great Valley Vernal Pool Distribution", originally mapped by Bob Holland, 2005. This dataset contains vernal pool areas mapped over Califorina's Central Valley,...

  9. Rift Valley fever outbreak, southern Mauritania, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sow, Abdourahmane; Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Yamar; Ba, Hampathé; Diallo, Diawo; Faye, Oumar; Loucoubar, Cheikh; Boushab, Mohamed; Barry, Yahya; Diallo, Mawlouth; Sall, Amadou Alpha

    2014-02-01

    After a period of heavy rainfall, an outbreak of Rift Valley fever occurred in southern Mauritania during September-November 2012. A total of 41 human cases were confirmed, including 13 deaths, and 12 Rift Valley fever virus strains were isolated. Moudjeria and Temchecket Departments were the most affected areas.

  10. Valley Fever (Coccidioidomycosis) Risk and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fungal spores. The following are some common-sense methods that may be helpful to avoid getting Valley fever. It’s important to know that although these steps are recommended, they haven’t been proven to prevent Valley fever. ... information about respirators. Stay inside during dust storms and ...

  11. Enjoy Samba Carnival in Happy Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    On July3,the Yanjing Beer 2009 Beijing Happy Valley Mayan Carnival was grandly opened.The carnival will last for almost two months until August 30.With support from Yanjing Beer,Happy Valley is able to provide an authentic Brazilian festival including hot music and dancing,

  12. Valley Pearl’ table grape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valley Pearl’ is an early to mid-season, white seedless table grape (Vitis vinifera L.) suitable for commercial table grape production where V. vinifera can be grown. Significant characteristics of ‘Valley Pearl’ are its high and consistent fruit production on spur pruned vines and large round berr...

  13. Transforming the "Valley of Death" into a "Valley of Opportunity"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Merceret, Francis J.; O'Brien, T. P.; Roeder, William P.; Huddleston, Lisa L.; Bauman, William H., III

    2014-01-01

    Transitioning technology from research to operations (23 R2O) is difficult. The problem's importance is exemplified in the literature and in every failed attempt to do so. Although the R2O gap is often called the "valley of death", a recent a Space Weather editorial called it a "Valley of Opportunity". There are significant opportunities for space weather organizations to learn from the terrestrial experience. Dedicated R2O organizations like those of the various NOAA testbeds and collaborative "proving ground" projects take common approaches to improving terrestrial weather forecasting through the early transition of research capabilities into the operational environment. Here we present experience-proven principles for the establishment and operation of similar space weather organizations, public or private. These principles were developed and currently being demonstrated by NASA at the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) and the Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center. The AMU was established in 1991 jointly by NASA, the U.S. Air Force (USAF) and the National Weather Service (NWS) to provide tools and techniques for improving weather support to the Space Shuttle Program (Madura et al., 2011). The primary customers were the USAF 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) and the NWS Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG who provided the weather observing and forecast support for Shuttle operations). SPoRT was established in 2002 to transition NASA satellite and remote-sensing technology to the NWS. The continuing success of these organizations suggests the common principles guiding them may be valuable for similar endeavors in the space weather arena.

  14. Automatic mapping of valley networks on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, I.; Stepinski, T. F.

    2007-06-01

    Martian valley networks bear some resemblance to terrestrial drainage systems, but their precise origin remains an active research topic. A limited number of valley networks have been manually mapped from images, but the vast majority remains unmapped because standard drainage mapping algorithms are inapplicable to valleys that are poorly organized and lack spatial integration. In this paper, we present a novel drainage delineation algorithm specially designed for mapping the valley networks from digital elevation data. It first identifies landforms characterized by convex tangential curvature, and then uses a series of image processing operations to separate valleys from other features having a convex form. The final map is produced by reconnecting all valley segments along drainage directions. Eight test sites on Mars are selected and manually mapped for valley networks. The algorithm is applied to the test sites and delineated networks are compared to mapped networks using a series of quantitative quality factors. We have found a good agreement between delineated and mapped networks. In the process of comparing manual and delineated networks some shortcomings of manual mapping became apparent. We argue that delineated networks are indeed of better quality than the networks manually mapped from images. Although the algorithm has been developed to study Martian surface, it may also be relevant to terrestrial geomorphology.

  15. Visible Effects of Invisible Hidden Valley Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Carloni, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Assuming there is a new gauge group in a Hidden Valley, and a new type of radiation, can we observe it through its effect on the kinematic distributions of recoiling visible particles? Specifically, what are the collider signatures of radiation in a hidden sector? We address these questions using a generic SU(N)-like Hidden Valley model that we implement in Pythia. We find that in both the e+e- and the LHC cases the kinematic distributions of the visible particles can be significantly affected by the valley radiation. Without a proper understanding of such effects, inferred masses of "communicators" and of invisible particles can be substantially off.

  16. 76 FR 22746 - Conecuh Valley Railway, LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Conecuh Valley Railroad Co., Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Conecuh Valley Railway, LLC--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Conecuh Valley Railroad Co., Inc. Conecuh Valley Railway, LLC (CVR), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to acquire from Conecuh Valley Railroad Co., Inc. (COEH), and to operate...

  17. Valley-filtered edge states and quantum valley Hall effect in gated bilayer graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu-Long; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Jun

    2017-05-10

    Electron edge states in gated bilayer graphene in the quantum valley Hall (QVH) effect regime can carry both charge and valley currents. We show that an interlayer potential splits the zero-energy level and opens a bulk gap, yielding counter-propagating edge modes with different valleys. A rich variety of valley current states can be obtained by tuning the applied boundary potential and lead to the QVH effect, as well as to the unbalanced QVH effect. A method to individually manipulate the edge states by the boundary potentials is proposed.

  18. Valley-protected backscattering suppression in silicon photonic graphene

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xiao-Dong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study valley degree of freedom in all dielectric silicon photonic graphene. Photonic band gap opening physics under inversion symmetry breaking is revisited by the viewpoint of nonzero valley Chern number. Bulk valley modes with opposite orbital angular momentum are unveiled by inspecting time-varying electric fields. Topological transition is well illustrated through photonic Dirac Hamiltonian. Valley dependent edge states and the associated valley-protected backscattering suppression around Z-shape bend waveguide have been demonstrated.

  19. Hydrothermal system of Long Valley caldera, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorey, M.L.; Lewis, R.E.; Olmsted, F.H.

    1978-01-01

    The geologic and hydrologic setting of the hydrothermal system are described. The geochemical and thermal characteristics of the system are presented. A mathematical model of the Long Valley caldera is analyzed. (MHR)

  20. Burrowing Owl - Palo Verde Valley [ds197

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — These burrowing owl observations were collected during the spring and early summer of 1976 in the Palo Verde Valley, eastern Riverside County, California. This is an...

  1. Woodcock "Roundup" 2001 at Canaan Valley NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In an effort to make a more complete census of breeding American woodcock in the Canaan Valley, a volunteer survey was performed in April. The idea was to coordinate...

  2. Alluvial Boundary of California's Central Valley

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset defines the extent of the alluvial deposits in the Central Valley of California and encompasses the contiguous Sacramento, San Joaquin, and...

  3. Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibe, Mary; MacLaren, Dave

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) project as a way of teaching astronomy concepts to middle school students. The project provides students opportunities to work with professional scientists. (SOE)

  4. Woodcock "Roundup" 2004 at Canaan Valley NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — On April 24, 2004 the refuge sponsored the fourth annual ''woodcock round up", a volunteer event to perform a woodcock survey in Canaan Valley. The event was started...

  5. Woodcock "Roundup" 2002 at Canaan Valley NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — On April 20, 2002 an annual Woodcock Roundup survey was conducted to document American woodcock presence in Canaan Valley. The Annual Woodcock roundup began in April...

  6. Vegetation - San Felipe Valley [ds172

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This Vegetation Map of the San Felipe Valley Wildlife Area in San Diego County, California is based on vegetation samples collected in the field in 2002 and 2005 and...

  7. Meie mees Silicon Valleys / Kertu Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Kertu, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 5. dets. lk. 4. Peaminister Andrus Ansip avas Eesti Ettevõtluse Sihtasutuse esinduse Silicon Valley pealinnas San Joses. Vt. samas: Ränioru kliima on tehnoloogiasõbralik; Andrus Viirg

  8. Meie ingel Silicon Valleys / Raigo Neudorf

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Neudorf, Raigo

    2008-01-01

    Ettevõtluse Arendamise Sihtasutuse esinduse töölepanekust USAs Silicon Valleys räägib esinduse juht Andrus Viirg. Vt. ka: Eestlasi leidub San Franciscos omajagu; Muljetavaldav karjäär; USAga ammune tuttav

  9. Death Valley%死亡山谷

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suasan Spano; 文迪

    2003-01-01

    @@ Late-afternoon light tints the mountains as two hikers trek1 across Stovepipe Wells sand dunes2 in Death Valley, Calif. Dunes near Scotty's Castle and Zabriskie Point are also popular tourist sights.

  10. Meie ingel Silicon Valleys / Raigo Neudorf

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Neudorf, Raigo

    2008-01-01

    Ettevõtluse Arendamise Sihtasutuse esinduse töölepanekust USAs Silicon Valleys räägib esinduse juht Andrus Viirg. Vt. ka: Eestlasi leidub San Franciscos omajagu; Muljetavaldav karjäär; USAga ammune tuttav

  11. Meie mees Silicon Valleys / Kertu Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Kertu, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 5. dets. lk. 4. Peaminister Andrus Ansip avas Eesti Ettevõtluse Sihtasutuse esinduse Silicon Valley pealinnas San Joses. Vt. samas: Ränioru kliima on tehnoloogiasõbralik; Andrus Viirg

  12. Land Protection Plan: Swan Valley Conservation Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Land Protection Plan for Swan Valley Conservation Area provides a description of the project, a description of the area and its resources, threats to the...

  13. Christmas Valley Renewable Energy Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Mar, Robert [Oregon Department of Energy, Salem, OR (United States)

    2017-05-22

    In partnership with the Oregon Military Department, the Department of Energy used the award to assess and evaluate renewable resources in a 2,622-acre location in Lake County, central Oregon, leading to future development of up to 200 MW of solar electricity. In partnership with the Oregon Military Department, the Department of Energy used the award to assess and evaluate renewable resources in a 2,622-acre location in Lake County, central Oregon, leading to future development of up to 200 MW of solar electricity. The Oregon Military Department (Military) acquired a large parcel of land located in south central Oregon. The land was previously owned by the US Air Force and developed for an Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Transmitter Facility, located about 10 miles east of the town of Christmas Valley. The Military is investigating a number of uses for the site, including Research and Development (R&D) laboratory, emergency response, military operations, developing renewable energy and related educational programs. One of the key potential uses would be for a large scale solar photovoltaic power plant. This is an attractive use because the site has excellent solar exposure; an existing strong electrical interconnection to the power grid; and a secure location at a moderate cost per acre. The project objectives include: 1. Site evaluation 2. Research and Development (R&D) facility analysis 3. Utility interconnection studies and agreements 4. Additional on-site renewable energy resources analysis 5. Community education, outreach and mitigation 6. Renewable energy and emergency readiness training program for veterans

  14. Valley polarization in Si(100) at zero magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashina, K; Ono, Y; Fujiwara, A; Takahashi, Y; Hirayama, Y

    2006-06-16

    The valley splitting, which lifts the degeneracy of the lowest two valley states in a SiO(2)/Si(100)/SiO(2) quantum well, is examined through transport measurements. We demonstrate that the valley splitting can be observed directly as a step in the conductance defining a boundary between valley-unpolarized and -polarized regions. This persists to well above liquid helium temperature and shows no dependence on magnetic field, indicating that single-particle valley splitting and valley polarization exist in (100) silicon even at zero magnetic field.

  15. Graphene Nanobubbles as Valley Filters and Beam Splitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Settnes, Mikkel; Power, Stephen; Brandbyge, Mads

    2016-01-01

    The energy band structure of graphene has two inequivalent valleys at the K and K' points of the Brillouin zone. The possibility to manipulate this valley degree of freedom defines the field of valleytronics, the valley analogue of spintronics. A key requirement for valleytronic devices is the ab......The energy band structure of graphene has two inequivalent valleys at the K and K' points of the Brillouin zone. The possibility to manipulate this valley degree of freedom defines the field of valleytronics, the valley analogue of spintronics. A key requirement for valleytronic devices...

  16. Controllable valley splitting in silicon quantum devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Srijit; Slinker, K. A.; Friesen, Mark; McGuire, L. M.; Truitt, J. L.; Tahan, Charles; Klein, L. J.; Chu, J. O.; Mooney, P. M.; van der Weide, D. W.; Joynt, Robert; Coppersmith, S. N.; Eriksson, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    Silicon has many attractive properties for quantum computing, and the quantum-dot architecture is appealing because of its controllability and scalability. However, the multiple valleys in the silicon conduction band are potentially a serious source of decoherence for spin-based quantum-dot qubits. Only when a large energy splits these valleys do we obtain well-defined and long-lived spin states appropriate for quantum computing. Here, we show that the small valley splittings observed in previous experiments on Si-SiGe heterostructures result from atomic steps at the quantum-well interface. Lateral confinement in a quantum point contact limits the electron wavefunctions to several steps, and enhances the valley splitting substantially, up to 1.5meV. The combination of electrostatic and magnetic confinement produces a valley splitting larger than the spin splitting, which is controllable over a wide range. These results improve the outlook for realizing spin qubits with long coherence times in silicon-based devices.

  17. Castro Valley High School's Solar Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, A.; Ham, S.; Shin, Y.; Yang, W.; Lam, J.

    2014-12-01

    Solar panels are photovoltaic cells that are designed to convert the sun's kinetic energy to generate usable energy in the form of electricity. Castro Valley High School has tried to offset the cost of electricity by installing solar panels, costing the district approximately 3.29 million dollars, but have been installed incorrectly and are not operating at peak efficency. By using trigonometry we deduced that Castro Valley High School's south facing solar panels were at an incline of 10o and that the east and west facing solar panels are at an incline of 5o. By taking the averages of the optimum angles for the months of September through May, roughly when school is in session, we found that the optimum angle for south facing solar panels should be roughly 46o. This shows that Castro Valley High School has not used it's budget to its full potential due to the fact that the solar panels were haphazardly installed.

  18. Stably Stratified Flow in a Shallow Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrt, L.

    2017-01-01

    Stratified nocturnal flow above and within a small valley of approximately 12-m depth and a few hundred metres width is examined as a case study, based on a network of 20 sonic anemometers and a central 20-m tower with eight levels of sonic anemometers. Several regimes of stratified flow over gentle topography are conceptually defined for organizing the data analysis and comparing with the existing literature. In our case study, a marginal cold pool forms within the shallow valley in the early evening but yields to larger ambient wind speeds after a few hours, corresponding to stratified terrain-following flow where the flow outside the valley descends to the valley floor. The terrain-following flow lasts about 10 h and then undergoes transition to an intermittent marginal cold pool towards the end of the night when the larger-scale flow collapses. During this 10-h period, the stratified terrain-following flow is characterized by a three-layer structure, consisting of a thin surface boundary layer of a few metres depth on the valley floor, a deeper boundary layer corresponding to the larger-scale flow, and an intermediate transition layer with significant wind-directional shear and possible advection of lee turbulence that is generated even for the gentle topography of our study. The flow in the valley is often modulated by oscillations with a typical period of 10 min. Cold events with smaller turbulent intensity and duration of tens of minutes move through the observational domain throughout the terrain-following period. One of these events is examined in detail.

  19. Restoring Hetch Hetchy Valley: The Role of Modeling in Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Null, Sarah E.; Lund, Jay R.

    2006-10-01

    In 1923, following years of opposition and debate, the City of San Francisco, Calif., completed the O'Shaughnessy Dam, which flooded Hetch Hetchy Valley in California's Yosemite National Park. Today, the future of Hetch Hetchy Valley is still debated.

  20. Evapotranspiration Input Data for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset contains monthly reference evapotranspiration (ETo) data for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM). The Central Valley encompasses an...

  1. Measured compaction for 24 extensometers in the Central Valley

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset contains the compaction data for 24 extensometers used for observations in the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM). The Central Valley...

  2. Measured compaction for 24 extensometers in the Central Valley

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset contains the compaction data for 24 extensometers used for observations in the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM). The Central Valley...

  3. Mechanical control over valley magnetotransport in strained graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ning, E-mail: maning@stu.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, MOE Key Laboratory of Advanced Transducers and Intelligent Control System, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Department of Applied Physics, MOE Key Laboratory for Nonequilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Zhang, Shengli, E-mail: zhangsl@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, MOE Key Laboratory for Nonequilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Liu, Daqing, E-mail: liudq@cczu.edu.cn [School of Mathematics and Physics, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China)

    2016-05-06

    Recent experiments report that the graphene exhibits Landau levels (LLs) that form in the presence of a uniform strain pseudomagnetic field with magnitudes up to hundreds of tesla. We further reveal that the strain removes the valley degeneracy in LLs, and leads to a significant valley polarization with inversion symmetry broken. This accordingly gives rise to the well separated valley Hall plateaus and Shubnikov–de Haas oscillations. These effects are absent in strainless graphene, and can be used to generate and detect valley polarization by mechanical means, forming the basis for the new paradigm “valleytronics” applications. - Highlights: • We explore the mechanical strain effects on the valley magnetotransport in graphene. • We analytically derive the dc collisional and Hall conductivities under strain. • The strain removes the valley degeneracy in Landau levels. • The strain causes a significant valley polarization with inversion symmetry broken. • The strain leads to the well separated valley Hall and Shubnikov–de Haas effects.

  4. Molecular epidemiology of Rift Valley fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobbelaar, Antoinette A; Weyer, Jacqueline; Leman, Patricia A; Kemp, Alan; Paweska, Janusz T; Swanepoel, Robert

    2011-12-01

    Phylogenetic relationships were examined for 198 Rift Valley fever virus isolates and 5 derived strains obtained from various sources in Saudi Arabia and 16 countries in Africa during a 67-year period (1944-2010). A maximum-likelihood tree prepared with sequence data for a 490-nt section of the Gn glycoprotein gene showed that 95 unique sequences sorted into 15 lineages. A 2010 isolate from a patient in South Africa potentially exposed to co-infection with live animal vaccine and wild virus was a reassortant. The potential influence of large-scale use of live animal vaccine on evolution of Rift Valley fever virus is discussed.

  5. Slope and valley flows at the Cerdanya valley in the Pyrenees

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Villagrasa, Daniel; Conangla Triviño, Laura; Tabarelli, Davidde; Jiménez, Maria Antònia; Miró, Josep Ramon; Zardi, Dino; Cuxart Rodamillans, Joan

    2015-01-01

    The Pyrenees are a mountain range running in the east-west direction. Most of their valleys are oriented in the north-south direction on both sides of the range. A significant exception is the Cerdanya valley, in Catalonia, which is a graben with NE-SW orientation , roughly 35 km long and 15 km wide with the bottom about 1000 m asl, surrounded by the main axis of the Pyrenees at the north (peaks above 2900 m asl) and by the Cadi range at the south (maximum high 2648 m asl). The valley bottom ...

  6. 27 CFR 9.124 - Wild Horse Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wild Horse Valley. 9.124... Horse Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Wild Horse Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the “Wild Horse...

  7. 27 CFR 9.126 - Santa Clara Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Santa Clara Valley. 9.126... Santa Clara Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Santa Clara Valley.” (b) Approved Maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the...

  8. Diagnostic approaches for Rift Valley Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disease outbreaks caused by arthropod-borne animal viruses (arboviruses) resulting in significant livestock and economic losses world-wide appear to be increasing. Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus (RVFV) is an important arbovirus that causes lethal disease in cattle, camels, sheep and goats in Sub-Saha...

  9. Unexpected Rift Valley fever outbreak, northern Mauritania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mamy, Ahmed B O; Baba, Mohamed Ould; Barry, Yahya; Isselmou, Katia; Dia, Mamadou L; El Kory, Mohamed O B; Diop, Mariam; Lo, Modou Moustapha; Thiongane, Yaya; Bengoumi, Mohammed; Puech, Lilian; Plee, Ludovic; Claes, Filip; de La Rocque, Stephane; Doumbia, Baba

    2011-10-01

    During September-October 2010, an unprecedented outbreak of Rift Valley fever was reported in the northern Sahelian region of Mauritania after exceptionally heavy rainfall. Camels probably played a central role in the local amplification of the virus. We describe the main clinical signs (hemorrhagic fever, icterus, and nervous symptoms) observed during the outbreak.

  10. Reemergence of Rift Valley fever, Mauritania, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Hampathé; Ba, Yamar; Freire, Caio C M; Faye, Oumar; Ndiaye, Oumar; Elgady, Isselmou O; Zanotto, Paolo M A; Diallo, Mawlouth; Sall, Amadou A

    2014-02-01

    A Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreak in humans and animals occurred in Mauritania in 2010. Thirty cases of RVF in humans and 3 deaths were identified. RVFV isolates were recovered from humans, camels, sheep, goats, and Culex antennatus mosquitoes. Phylogenetic analysis of isolates indicated a virus origin from western Africa.

  11. Pumpernickel Valley Geothermal Project Thermal Gradient Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Z. Adam Szybinski

    2006-01-01

    The Pumpernickel Valley geothermal project area is located near the eastern edge of the Sonoma Range and is positioned within the structurally complex Winnemucca fold and thrust belt of north-central Nevada. A series of approximately north-northeast-striking faults related to the Basin and Range tectonics are superimposed on the earlier structures within the project area, and are responsible for the final overall geometry and distribution of the pre-existing structural features on the property. Two of these faults, the Pumpernickel Valley fault and Edna Mountain fault, are range-bounding and display numerous characteristics typical of strike-slip fault systems. These characteristics, when combined with geophysical data from Shore (2005), indicate the presence of a pull-apart basin, formed within the releasing bend of the Pumpernickel Valley – Edna Mountain fault system. A substantial body of evidence exists, in the form of available geothermal, geological and geophysical information, to suggest that the property and the pull-apart basin host a structurally controlled, extensive geothermal field. The most evident manifestations of the geothermal activity in the valley are two areas with hot springs, seepages, and wet ground/vegetation anomalies near the Pumpernickel Valley fault, which indicate that the fault focuses the fluid up-flow. There has not been any geothermal production from the Pumpernickel Valley area, but it was the focus of a limited exploration effort by Magma Power Company. In 1974, the company drilled one exploration/temperature gradient borehole east of the Pumpernickel Valley fault and recorded a thermal gradient of 160oC/km. The 1982 temperature data from five unrelated mineral exploration holes to the north of the Magma well indicated geothermal gradients in a range from 66 to 249oC/km for wells west of the fault, and ~283oC/km in a well next to the fault. In 2005, Nevada Geothermal Power Company drilled four geothermal gradient wells, PVTG-1

  12. Babesiosis in Lower Hudson Valley, New York

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-05-12

    This podcast discusses a study about an increase in babesiosis in the Lower Hudson Valley of New York state. Dr. Julie Joseph, Assistant Professor of Medicine at New York Medical College, shares details of this study.  Created: 5/12/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/23/2011.

  13. Groundwater links between Kenyan Rift Valley lakes

    OpenAIRE

    Becht, Robert; Mwango, Fred; Muno, Fred Amstrong

    2006-01-01

    The series of lakes in the bottom of the Kenyan Rift valley are fed by rivers and springs. Based on the water balance, the relative positions determining the regional groundwater flow systems and the analysis of natural isotopes it can be shown that groundwater flows from lake Naivasha to lake Magadi, Elementeita, Nakuru and Bogoria.

  14. Rift Valley fever: A neglected zoonotic disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a serious viral disease of animals and humans in Africa and the Middle East that is transmitted by mosquitoes. First isolated in Kenya during an outbreak in 1930, subsequent outbreaks have had a significant impact on animal and human health, as well as national economies. ...

  15. Substance Abuse in the Rio Grande Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavaleta, Anthony N.

    1979-01-01

    In the Mexican American barrios of Texas' Lower Rio Grande Valley, existence is complicated by the interactive forces of culture, society, and economy. These three factors act in unison to create an etiology of alcohol and drug use and abuse which is poorly understood by persons outside the barrio's grasp. (Author/NQ)

  16. Native grasses for rehabilitating Hunter Valley minesites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huxtable, C. [NSW Department of Land and Water Conservation, NSW (Australia)

    1998-04-01

    Introduced plant species, particularly grasses, have long been used to rehabilitate mined land in Australia. Interest in using native species spawned a research project in the Hunter Valley which has demonstrated the suitability of certain native species for rehabilitation and put forward guidelines to enhance the chance of their successful establishment. 4 photos., 1 tab.

  17. 76 FR 39261 - Tennessee Valley Authority Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ...). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Tennessee Valley Authority is amending its regulations which currently.... 1301.63 Senior agency official. 1301.64 Original classification authority. 1301.65 Derivative... authority. Sec. 1301.65 Derivative classification. (a) In accordance with Part 2 of Executive Order...

  18. 27 CFR 9.210 - Lehigh Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 9.210 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT...), Pennsylvania, 1979; (4) Carbon County, Pennsylvania, 1991; (5) Monroe County, Pennsylvania, 1980; (6... Valley viticultural area is located in portions of Lehigh, Northampton, Berks, Schuylkill, Carbon,...

  19. Potential hydrologic characterization wells in Amargosa Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyles, B.; Mihevc, T.

    1994-09-01

    More than 500 domestic, agricultural, and monitoring wells were identified in the Amargosa Valley. From this list, 80 wells were identified as potential hydrologic characterization wells, in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Underground Test Area/Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study (UGTA/RIFS). Previous hydrogeologic studies have shown that groundwater flow in the basin is complex and that aquifers may have little lateral continuity. Wells located more than 10 km or so from the Nevada Test Site (NTS) boundary may yield data that are difficult to correlate to sources from the NTS. Also, monitoring well locations should be chosen within the guidelines of a hydrologic conceptual model and monitoring plan. Since these do not exist at this time, recompletion recommendations will be restricted to wells relatively close (approximately 20 km) to the NTS boundary. Recompletion recommendations were made for two abandoned agricultural irrigation wells near the town of Amargosa Valley (previously Lathrop Wells), for two abandoned wildcat oil wells about 10 km southwest of Amargosa Valley, and for Test Well 5 (TW-5), about 10 km east of Amargosa Valley.

  20. Off-grid in the Nemiah Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swingler, Andrew [Xantrex Technology Inc., Vancouver (Canada); Colgate, George [Xeni Gwet' in Enterprise, Nemia Valley, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    The people of the Xeni Gwet'in First National community of British Columbia's remote Nemiah Valley are pioneers of small off-grid photovoltaic power stations in Canada. Since 2006 the energy-progressive community has been testing two innovative PV-based technology applications. (orig.)

  1. Biogeochemical stoichiometry of Antarctic Dry Valley ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, J. E.; Virginia, R. A.; Lyons, W. B.; McKnight, D. M.; Priscu, J. C.; Doran, P. T.; Fountain, A. G.; Wall, D. H.; Moorhead, D. L.

    2007-03-01

    Among aquatic and terrestrial landscapes of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, ecosystem stoichiometry ranges from values near the Redfield ratios for C:N:P to nutrient concentrations in proportions far above or below ratios necessary to support balanced microbial growth. This polar desert provides an opportunity to evaluate stoichiometric approaches to understand nutrient cycling in an ecosystem where biological diversity and activity are low, and controls over the movement and mass balances of nutrients operate over 10-106 years. The simple organisms (microbial and metazoan) comprising dry valley foodwebs adhere to strict biochemical requirements in the composition of their biomass, and when activated by availability of liquid water, they influence the chemical composition of their environment according to these ratios. Nitrogen and phosphorus varied significantly in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems occurring on landscape surfaces across a wide range of exposure ages, indicating strong influences of landscape development and geochemistry on nutrient availability. Biota control the elemental ratio of stream waters, while geochemical stoichiometry (e.g., weathering, atmospheric deposition) evidently limits the distribution of soil invertebrates. We present a conceptual model describing transformations across dry valley landscapes facilitated by exchanges of liquid water and biotic processing of dissolved nutrients. We conclude that contemporary ecosystem stoichiometry of Antarctic Dry Valley soils, glaciers, streams, and lakes results from a combination of extant biological processes superimposed on a legacy of landscape processes and previous climates.

  2. Sign Plan : Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Minnesota Valley NWR Sign Plan explains how signs are used on the Refuge to help guide and educate visitors. An inventory of current signs is given as well as a...

  3. Business plan Hatchery Facility Zambezi Valley, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernooij, A.G.; Wilschut, S.

    2015-01-01

    This business plan focuses on the establishment of a hatchery, one of the essential elements of a sustainable and profitable poultry meat value chain. There is a growing demand for poultry meat in the Zambezi Valley, and currently a large part of the consumed broilers comes from other parts of the c

  4. Treasure Valley Health Manpower and Education Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callen, John; And Others

    The profile is a concise description of the demographic and economic characteristics, existing health manpower employed, and health education programs for the Treasure Valley area of Idaho, one of seven surveyed in the Mountain States region (Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, and Nevada). The first section of the profile provides general population…

  5. Groundwater Quality in Mura Valley (Slovenia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajc Benda, T.; Souvent, P.; Bračič Železnik, B.; Čenčur Curk, B.

    2012-04-01

    Groundwater quality is one of the most important parameters in drinking water supply management. For safe drinking water supply, the quality of groundwater in the water wells on the recharge area has to be controlled. Groundwater quality data will be presented for one test area in the SEE project CC-WaterS (Climate Change and Impacts on Water Supply) Mura valley, which lies in the northeastern part of Slovenia. The Mura valley is a part of the Pannonian basin tectonic unit, which is filled with Tertiary and Quaternary gravel and sand sediments. The porous aquifer is 17 m thick in average and recharges from precipitation (70 %) and from surface waters (30 %). The aquifer is the main source of drinking water in the area for almost 53.000 inhabitants. Most of the aquifer lies beneath the agricultural area what represents the risk of groundwater quality. The major groundwater pollutants in the Mura valley are nitrates, atrazine, desethyl-atrazine, trichloroethane and tetrachloroethene. National groundwater quality monitoring is carried out twice a year, so some polluting events could be missed. The nitrate concentrations in the past were up to 140 mg/l. Concentration trends are decreasing and are now below 60 mg/l. Concentrations of atrazine and desethyl-atrazine, are decreasing as well and are below 0,1 µg/l. Trichloroethene and tetrachloroethene were detected downstream of main city in Mura valley, in the maximum concentrations of 280 μg/l in June 2005 (trichloroethene) and 880 μg/l in October 1997 (tetrachloroethene). So, it can be summarized that the trends for most pollutants in the Mura valley are decreasing, what is a good prediction for the future. Input estimation of the total nitrogen (N) (mineral and organic fertilizers) in the Mura valley shows, that the risk of leaching is enlarged in the areas, where the N input is larger than 250 kg/ha, this is at 6,3 % of all agricultural areas. Prediction for the period 2021-2050 indicates that the leaching of N

  6. Erosion of steepland valleys by debris flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, J.D.; Dietrich, W.E.

    2006-01-01

    Episodic debris flows scour the rock beds of many steepland valleys. Along recent debris-flow runout paths in the western United States, we have observed evidence for bedrock lowering, primarily by the impact of large particles entrained in debris flows. This evidence may persist to the point at which debris-flow deposition occurs, commonly at slopes of less than ???0.03-0.10. We find that debris-flow-scoured valleys have a topographic signature that is fundamentally different from that predicted by bedrock river-incision models. Much of this difference results from the fact that local valley slope shows a tendency to decrease abruptly downstream of tributaries that contribute throughgoing debris flows. The degree of weathering of valley floor bedrock may also decrease abruptly downstream of such junctions. On the basis of these observations, we hypothesize that valley slope is adjusted to the long-term frequency of debris flows, and that valleys scoured by debris flows should not be modeled using conventional bedrock river-incision laws. We use field observations to justify one possible debris-flow incision model, whose lowering rate is proportional to the integral of solid inertial normal stresses from particle impacts along the flow and the number of upvalley debris-flow sources. The model predicts that increases in incision rate caused by increases in flow event frequency and length (as flows gain material) downvalley are balanced by rate reductions from reduced inertial normal stress at lower slopes, and stronger, less weathered bedrock. These adjustments lead to a spatially uniform lowering rate. Although the proposed expression leads to equilibrium long-profiles with the correct topographic signature, the crudeness with which the debris-flow dynamics are parameterized reveals that we are far from a validated debris-flow incision law. However, the vast extent of steepland valley networks above slopes of ???0.03-0.10 illustrates the need to understand debris

  7. Valley-dependent beam manipulators based on photonic graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Fu-Sheng; Sun, Yong; Dong, Li-Juan; Liu, Yan-Hong; Shi, Yun-Long

    2017-02-01

    Trigonal warping distortion in energy band lifts the degeneracy of two valleys (K and K' points) of graphene. In this situation, electron transport becomes valley dependent, which can be used to design the valley beam splitter, collimator, or guiding device. Here, valley-dependent beam manipulators are designed based on artificial photonic graphene. In this scheme, the finite-size artificial photonic graphene is intentionally designed to realize the novel device functionalities. This kind of valley-dependent beam manipulators can work at an arbitrary range of electromagnetic waves from microwave to visible light. It potentially paves the way for the application of photonic graphene in future integrated photonic devices.

  8. ORTHOIMAGERY, BOONE COUNTY,WV, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — NAIP is a program to acquire peak growing season ?leaf on? imagery, and deliver this imagery to USDA County Service Centers, in order to maintain the common land...

  9. ORTHOIMAGERY, Pleasants COUNTY,WV, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — An orthoimage is remotely sensed image data in which displacement of features in the image caused by terrain relief and sensor orientation has been mathematically...

  10. 49 CFR 372.215 - Ravenswood, WV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...)(1) includes and is comprised of all points as follows: (a) The municipality of Ravenswood, W. Va... section, and which are north of U.S. Highway 33; (d) All of any municipality any part of which is within... municipality wholly surrounded, or so surrounded except for a water boundary, by the municipality of...

  11. Graphene Nanobubbles as Valley Filters and Beam Splitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settnes, Mikkel; Power, Stephen R.; Brandbyge, Mads; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2016-12-01

    The energy band structure of graphene has two inequivalent valleys at the K and K' points of the Brillouin zone. The possibility to manipulate this valley degree of freedom defines the field of valleytronics, the valley analogue of spintronics. A key requirement for valleytronic devices is the ability to break the valley degeneracy by filtering and spatially splitting valleys to generate valley polarized currents. Here, we suggest a way to obtain valley polarization using strain-induced inhomogeneous pseudomagnetic fields (PMFs) that act oppositely on the two valleys. Notably, the suggested method does not involve external magnetic fields, or magnetic materials, unlike previous proposals. In our proposal the strain is due to experimentally feasible nanobubbles, whose associated PMFs lead to different real space trajectories for K and K' electrons, thus allowing the two valleys to be addressed individually. In this way, graphene nanobubbles can be exploited in both valley filtering and valley splitting devices, and our simulations reveal that a number of different functionalities are possible depending on the deformation field.

  12. Spatial valley separation in strained graphene pn junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, HongYu; Wang, Jun

    2017-09-01

    Valleytronics in analogy to spintronics aims to use the electron valley degree of freedom to carry and manipulate information, and one of urgent tasks in this field is to generate valley-polarized electrons. In this work, we propose using the electron focusing effect in a strained graphene pn junction to separate valleys spatially through a beam of valley-unpolarized electrons, since the strain-induced pseudo-gauge potentials are opposite for K and K^\\prime valleys and severely affect the trajectories of K and K^\\prime electron propagation. We numerically simulate this valley-separated Veselago lens effect in a lattice model and demonstrate that pseudo-gauge potentials can efficiently control valley separation patterns.

  13. Buried Quaternary Valleys In NW Europe - Aquifers and Drilling Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huuse, M.; Lykke-Andersen, H.; Piotrowski, J.

    Buried Quaternary valleys are extremely widespread in the formerly glaciated, low- land areas of NW Europe (Huuse &Lykke-Andersen 2000, Fig. 4). The valleys may be several hundred metres deep, some kilometres across and few to several tens of kilometres long. Most of the deep valleys have irregular length profiles with sills and basins, unlike standard subaerial river systems. We interpret these as overdeepened valleys, formed mainly by subglacial meltwater erosion. Buried valleys located on- shore often provide sheltered reservoirs of clean groundwater, and much attention is presently focused on locating onshore valleys and quantifying their potential as groundwater aquifers. In nearshore areas, buried valleys may be a risk factor by pro- viding pathways of salt-water intrusion of onshore groundwater aquifers. Far offshore, buried valleys are located in the shallow subsurface above the prolific oil and gas fields of the central North Sea. Here, the valleys pose a risk for drilling operations by hosting shallow gas and potentially unstable sediments. The central North Sea is now largely covered by 3D seismic data, which often image the buried valleys in a level of de- tail much greater than that available onshore. Hence offshore valleys imaged by 3D seismic data may be used as analogues for groundwater reservoirs onshore NW Eu- rope. Here, we present examples of buried valleys from onshore, nearshore and far offshore locations, to illustrate how genetically and morphologically identical valleys may benefit or hamper the exploitation of subsurface accummulations of groundwater and hydrocarbons. Huuse, M. &Lykke-Andersen, H. 2000. Buried Quaternary valleys in the eastern Dan- ish North Sea: morphology and origin. Quaternary Science Reviews 19, 1233-1253.

  14. Mapping the Under Water Habitat Related to their Bathymetry using Worldview-2 (wv-2 Coastal, Yellow, Rededge, Nir-2 Satellite Imagery in Gulf of Mannar to Conserve the Marine Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Uma Maheswari

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve is the first of its kind in India and also in South East Asia. It extends from Rameswaram to Tuticorin in the South. The Gulf of Mannar encompasses 21 small islands located from 0.5 to 4.0 km2 in area and except a few others are uninhabited. The area is endowed with a combination of ecosystem including mangroves, seagrass, seaweeds and coral reef. The Gulf of Mannar with 3600 species of plants and animals is one of the biologically rich coastal regions in India. Proper planning and effective management of ecosystem can be achieved by collecting data on these ecosystems by the application of Remote Sensing techniques. The combined use of Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System provides a powerful multidisciplinary tool for evaluation of natural resources, both renewable and non-renewable with speed, accuracy and economy. During the present study an attempt is made to explore the advantage of newly added bands [coastal, yellow, red edge and NIR-2] in WV-2 satellite data in mapping the various ocean related parameters such as coral reef, seagrass related to their Bathymetry.

  15. Eco-Hydrological Modelling of Stream Valleys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Ole

    Predicting the effects of hydrological alterations on terrestrial stream valley ecosystems requires multidisciplinary approaches involving both engineers and ecologists. Groundwater discharge in stream valleys and other lowland areas support a number of species rich ecosystems, and their protection...... is prioritised worldwide. Protection requires improved knowledge on the functioning of these ecosystems and especially the linkages between vegetation, groundwater discharge and water level conditions are crucial for management applications. Groundwater abstraction affects catchment hydrology and thereby also...... groundwater discharge. Numerical hydrological modelling has been widely used for evaluation of sustainable groundwater resources and effects of abstraction, however, the importance of local scale heterogeneity becomes increasingly important in the assessment of local damage to these groundwater dependent...

  16. Reconnaissance geology of placer deposits containing radioactive minerals in the Bear Valley district, Valley County, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackin, J. Hoover; Schmidt, Dwight Lyman

    1953-01-01

    A reconnaissance of the Bear Valley district was undertaken to provide a geologic interpretation of placer deposits drilled by the U.S. Bureau of Mines. The placer minerals are monazite and a group of uranium bearing rare earth columbates and tantalates here referred to loosely as radioactive blacks. The monazite is an accessory mineral in the granitic country rock; the radioactive blacks occur in pegmatite dikes. The supply of these minerals to the placers was controlled (1) by the geography of their occurrence in the parent rock, and (2) by the distribution of alpine glaciers during two late Pleistocene glacial stages. By reason of a favorable combination of these factors, the richest placer deposits of the district are in Big Meadow, a valley fill formed as a result of the blocking of Bear Creek by a glacier from a tributary valley during the Illinoian (?) stage. The Big Meadow fill consists of intertonguing depositional units formed by Bear Creek and its tributaries, including both normal alluvium and glacial outwash, and ranging from rich to barren. The richest phase that has been blocked out by drilling was derived from the drainage basin of Casner Creek, an east tributary of Bear Creek. The geologic relations suggest that a neighboring stream, Howard Creek, should have supplied equally rich material, but the part of the valley fill formed by Howard Creek has not been tested. The Howard Creek deposits and shallow alluvium in the upper valleys of Casner and Howard Creeks may considerably increase the reserves of the district.

  17. Spin-valley lifetimes in a silicon quantum dot with tunable valley splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C H; Rossi, A; Ruskov, R; Lai, N S; Mohiyaddin, F A; Lee, S; Tahan, C; Klimeck, G; Morello, A; Dzurak, A S

    2013-01-01

    Although silicon is a promising material for quantum computation, the degeneracy of the conduction band minima (valleys) must be lifted with a splitting sufficient to ensure the formation of well-defined and long-lived spin qubits. Here we demonstrate that valley separation can be accurately tuned via electrostatic gate control in a metal-oxide-semiconductor quantum dot, providing splittings spanning 0.3-0.8 meV. The splitting varies linearly with applied electric field, with a ratio in agreement with atomistic tight-binding predictions. We demonstrate single-shot spin read-out and measure the spin relaxation for different valley configurations and dot occupancies, finding one-electron lifetimes exceeding 2 s. Spin relaxation occurs via phonon emission due to spin-orbit coupling between the valley states, a process not previously anticipated for silicon quantum dots. An analytical theory describes the magnetic field dependence of the relaxation rate, including the presence of a dramatic rate enhancement (or hot-spot) when Zeeman and valley splittings coincide.

  18. 27 CFR 9.191 - Ramona Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... miles to the 822-meter (2,697-foot) peak of Iron Mountain, T14S, R1W (El Cajon map); and (7) Proceed...-meter (2,894-foot) peak of Woodson Mountain, T13S, R1W, proceed straight north-northwest approximately 3.25 miles to the 652-meter (2,140-foot) peak of Starvation Mountain, T13S, R1W (Borrego Valley map...

  19. FERGHANA VALLEY: PROBLEMS OF MAINTAINING ECONOMIC STABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The Central Asia region, which is located in the very heart of the vast Eurasian continent at the crossroads where four of the largest civilizations (Russian, Chinese, Indian, and Islamic) meet, has a long and profuse history teeming with difficulties and conflicts. The Ferghana Valley is a territory where all the problems of the Central Asia region (border conflicts, poverty, shortage of fertile land and water resources, unemployment, ethnic disputes, and so on) are concentrated and come tog...

  20. Stable Hydrogen and Oxygen Isotope Ratios for Selected Sites of the U.S. Geological Survey’s NASQAN and Benchmark Surface-Water Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    274 Ohio 03159510 Hocking River Below Athens .................................................................................275...369 12039300 North Fork Quinault River Near Amanda Park...Kanawha River At Palestine WV 54 N 39.05972 81.3903 1515 05030203 585.51 03159510 Hocking River Below Athens OH 39 N 39.32749 82.0050 957 05030204

  1. Streptomyces alkaliphilus sp. nov., isolated from sediments of Lake Elmenteita in the Kenyan Rift Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhwale, Juliah Khayeli; Göker, Markus; Rohde, Manfred; Spröer, Cathrin; Schumann, Peter; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Boga, Hamadi Iddi

    2015-05-01

    A novel strain, designated No. 7(T), was isolated from a sediment sample collected from the alkaline, saline Lake Elmenteita located in the Kenyan Rift Valley. The optimal growth for the strain was found to be at temperature 30-35 °C, at pH 8.0-12.0 in the presence of 7.0-10.0 % (w/v) NaCl. The strain was observed to form a light green beige abundant aerial mycelium on Horikoshi 1 agar and to have morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics typical of members of the genus Streptomyces. The peptidoglycan was found to contain LL-diaminopimelic acid as the diamino acid, with no diagnostic sugars identified. The predominant menaquinone was identified as MK-9(H6). The main polar lipids were identified as diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and an unknown phospholipid. Cellular fatty acids were found to consist of saturated branched-chain acids with iso-C(15:0), anteiso-C(15:0), iso-C(16:0) and anteiso-C(17:0) acids predominating. The type strain had a genomic DNA G+C content of 72.8 mol% and formed a distinct phyletic line within the genus Streptomyces. Based on the chemotaxonomic results, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and the low DNA-DNA hybridization value with the type strain of Streptomyces calidiresistens, it is proposed that strain No. 7(T) (= DSM 42118 = CECT 8549) represents a novel species, Streptomyces alkaliphilus. The INSDC accession number for the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain No. 7(T) is KF976730.

  2. Virgin Valley opal district, Humboldt County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staatz, Mortimer Hay; Bauer, Herman L.

    1951-01-01

    The Virgin Valley opal district, Humboldt County, Nevada, is near the Oregon-Nevada border in the Sheldon Game Refuge. Nineteen claims owned by Jack and Toni Crane were examined, sampled, and tested radiometrically for uranium. Numerous discontinuous layers of opal are interbedded with a gently-dipping series of vitric tuff and ash which is at least 300 ft thick. The tuff and ash are capped by a dark, vesicular basalt in the eastern part of the area and by a thin layer of terrace qravels in the area along the west side of Virgin Valley. Silicification of the ash and tuff has produced a rock that ranges from partly opalized rock that resembles silicified shale to completely altered rock that is entirely translucent, and consists of massive, brown and pale-green opal. Carnotite, the only identified uranium mineral, occurs as fracture coatings or fine layers in the opal; in places, no uranium minerals are visible in the radioactive opal. The opal layers are irregular in extent and thickness. The exposed length of the layers ranges from 8 to 1, 200 ft or more, and the thickness of the layers ranges from 0. 1 to 3. 9 ft. The uranium content of each opal layer, and of different parts of the same layer, differs widely. On the east side of Virgin Valley four of the seven observed opal layers, nos. 3, 4, 5, and 7, are more radioactive than the average; and the uranium content ranges from 0. 002 to 0. 12 percent. Two samples, taken 5 ft apart across opal layer no. 7, contained 0. 003 and 0. -049 percent uranium. On the west side of the valley only four of the fifteen observed opal layers, nos; 9, , 10, 14, and 15, are more radioactive than the average; and the uranium content ranges from 0. 004 to 0. 047 percent. Material of the highest grade was found in a small discontinuous layer of pale-green opal (no. 4) on the east side of Virgin Valley. The grade of this layer ranged from 0. 027 to 0. 12 percent uranium.

  3. System metabolism in the Kanawha River basin: comparing two models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resource managers and regulatory agencies typically monitor aquatic ecosystem condition using a combination of measures that describe stream structure (e.g. physical habitat variables, species richness metrics) and physiochemical properties (e.g., pH, DO, turbidity). Recently, me...

  4. Marmet Locks and Dam, Kanawha River, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    than 16.4 million tons of commerce locked through Marmet, including 15.4 million tons of coal , which is used mostly for power generation. The...acwc.sdp.sirsi.net/client/search/ asset /1000592 Headquarters, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (HQUSACE). 1997. Engineering and design; Monitoring Completed...Vicksburg, MS: U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center. http://acwc.sdp.sirsi.net/client/search/ asset /1042406 Patev, R. C. 2000. Probabilistic

  5. Collimation and splitting of valley electron diffraction in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mou; Bai, Yan-Kui; Zhang, Wen-Lian; Wang, Rui-Qiang

    2016-08-01

    We reported the collimation and splitting effects of the diffraction of valley electrons in graphene. When the incident energy increases from the neutral point, the diffraction tends to be collimated for one valley and split for the other valley. The difference in the diffraction between valleys results in valley-dependent transport. We investigated the left-right conductance of a four-terminal graphene device. The conductance ratio between the two valleys was derived to be 1 -(8 /3 )E , where E is the incident energy in units of the atom-atom hopping. The ratio is independent of the device dimensions and reflects the intrinsic properties of the electronic structure of graphene.

  6. Landslide Buries Valley of the Geysers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Geysers are a rare natural phenomena found only in a few places, such as New Zealand, Iceland, the United States (Yellowstone National Park), and on Russia's far eastern Kamchatka Peninsula. On June 3, 2007, one of these rare geyser fields was severely damaged when a landslide rolled through Russia's Valley of the Geysers. The landslide--a mix of mud, melting snow, trees, and boulders--tore a scar on the land and buried a number of geysers, thermal pools, and waterfalls in the valley. It also blocked the Geyser River, causing a new thermal lake to pool upstream. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this infrared-enhanced image on June 11, 2007, a week after the slide. The image shows the valley, the landslide, and the new thermal lake. Even in mid-June, just days from the start of summer, the landscape is generally covered in snow, though the geologically heated valley is relatively snow free. The tree-covered hills are red (the color of vegetation in this false-color treatment), providing a strong contrast to the aquamarine water and the gray-brown slide. According to the Russian News and Information Agency (RIA) [English language], the slide left a path roughly a kilometer and a half (one mile) long and 200 meters (600 feet) wide. Within hours of the landslide, the water in the new lake inundated a number of additional geysers. The geysers directly buried under the landslide now lie under as much as 60 meters (180 feet) of material, according to RIA reports. It is unlikely that the geysers will be able to force a new opening through this thick layer, adds RIA. Among those directly buried is Pervenets (Firstborn), the first geyser found in the valley, in 1941. Other geysers, such as the Bolshoi (Greater) and Maly (Lesser) Geysers, were silenced when buried by water building up behind the new natural dam. According to Vladimir and Andrei Leonov of the Russian Federation Institute of

  7. TDRS satellite over African Rift Valley, Kenya, Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    This post deploy view of a TDRS satellite shows a segment of the African Rift Valley near Lake Baringo, Kenya, Africa (3.0S, 36.0E). The African Rift Valley system is a geologic fault having its origins in southern Turkey, through the near east forming the bed of the Jordan River, Gulf of Aqaba, the Red Sea and down through east Africa. The line of lakes and valleys of east Africa are the result of the faulting activity.

  8. Mechanical control over valley magnetotransport in strained graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Zhang, Shengli; Liu, Daqing

    2016-05-01

    Recent experiments report that the graphene exhibits Landau levels (LLs) that form in the presence of a uniform strain pseudomagnetic field with magnitudes up to hundreds of tesla. We further reveal that the strain removes the valley degeneracy in LLs, and leads to a significant valley polarization with inversion symmetry broken. This accordingly gives rise to the well separated valley Hall plateaus and Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations. These effects are absent in strainless graphene, and can be used to generate and detect valley polarization by mechanical means, forming the basis for the new paradigm "valleytronics" applications.

  9. Disorder-dependent valley properties in monolayer WSe2

    KAUST Repository

    Tran, Kha

    2017-07-19

    We investigate the effect of disorder on exciton valley polarization and valley coherence in monolayer WSe2. By analyzing the polarization properties of photoluminescence, the valley coherence (VC) and valley polarization (VP) are quantified across the inhomogeneously broadened exciton resonance. We find that disorder plays a critical role in the exciton VC, while affecting VP less. For different monolayer samples with disorder characterized by their Stokes shift (SS), VC decreases in samples with higher SS while VP does not follow a simple trend. These two methods consistently demonstrate that VC as defined by the degree of linearly polarized photoluminescence is more sensitive to disorder, motivating further theoretical studies.

  10. Extraction of Martian valley networks from digital topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepinski, T. F.; Collier, M. L.

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a novel method for delineating valley networks on Mars. The valleys are inferred from digital topography by an autonomous computer algorithm as drainage networks, instead of being manually mapped from images. Individual drainage basins are precisely defined and reconstructed to restore flow continuity disrupted by craters. Drainage networks are extracted from their underlying basins using the contributing area threshold method. We demonstrate that such drainage networks coincide with mapped valley networks verifying that valley networks are indeed drainage systems. Our procedure is capable of delineating and analyzing valley networks with unparalleled speed and consistency. We have applied this method to 28 Noachian locations on Mars exhibiting prominent valley networks. All extracted networks have a planar morphology similar to that of terrestrial river networks. They are characterized by a drainage density of approx.0.1/km, low in comparison to the drainage density of terrestrial river networks. Slopes of "streams" in Martian valley networks decrease downstream at a slower rate than slopes of streams in terrestrial river networks. This analysis, based on a sizable data set of valley networks, reveals that although valley networks have some features pointing to their origin by precipitation-fed runoff erosion, their quantitative characteristics suggest that precipitation intensity and/or longevity of past pluvial climate were inadequate to develop mature drainage basins on Mars.

  11. Impact of valley polarization on the resistivity in two dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashina, K; Niida, Y; Renard, V T; Fujiwara, A; Fujisawa, T; Muraki, K; Hirayama, Y

    2011-05-13

    We examine the temperature dependence of resistivity in a two-dimensional electron system formed in a silicon-on-insulator quantum well. The device allows us to tune the valley splitting continuously in addition to the electron density. Our data provide a global picture of how the resistivity and its temperature dependence change with valley polarization. At the boundary between valley-polarized and partially polarized regions, we demonstrate that there is an insulating contribution from spin-degenerate electrons occupying the upper valley-subband edge.

  12. Spatially resolving valley quantum interference of a donor in silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salfi, J; Mol, J A; Rahman, R; Klimeck, G; Simmons, M Y; Hollenberg, L C L; Rogge, S

    2014-06-01

    Electron and nuclear spins of donor ensembles in isotopically pure silicon experience a vacuum-like environment, giving them extraordinary coherence. However, in contrast to a real vacuum, electrons in silicon occupy quantum superpositions of valleys in momentum space. Addressable single-qubit and two-qubit operations in silicon require that qubits are placed near interfaces, modifying the valley degrees of freedom associated with these quantum superpositions and strongly influencing qubit relaxation and exchange processes. Yet to date, spectroscopic measurements have only probed wavefunctions indirectly, preventing direct experimental access to valley population, donor position and environment. Here we directly probe the probability density of single quantum states of individual subsurface donors, in real space and reciprocal space, using scanning tunnelling spectroscopy. We directly observe quantum mechanical valley interference patterns associated with linear superpositions of valleys in the donor ground state. The valley population is found to be within 5% of a bulk donor when 2.85 ± 0.45 nm from the interface, indicating that valley-perturbation-induced enhancement of spin relaxation will be negligible for depths greater than 3 nm. The observed valley interference will render two-qubit exchange gates sensitive to atomic-scale variations in positions of subsurface donors. Moreover, these results will also be of interest for emerging schemes proposing to encode information directly in valley polarization.

  13. The Lower Tagus Valley (LTV) Fault System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besana-Ostman, G. M.; Fereira, H.; Pinheiro, A.; Falcao Flor, A. P.; Nemser, E.; Villanova, S. P.; Fonseca, J. D.

    2010-05-01

    The LTV fault and its associated historical seismic activity have been the focus of several scientific studies in Portugal. There are at least three historical earthquakes associated with the LTV fault, in 1344, 1531, and 1909. Magnitude estimates for these earthquakes range from 6.5 to 7.0. They caused widespread damage throughout the Lower Tagus Valley region with intensities ranging from VIII to X from Lisbon to Entroncamento. During the great 1755 earthquake, the LTV fault was likewise proposed to have ruptured coseismically. The Azambuja fault or the Vila Franca de Xira fault are suggested origins of the 1909 earthquake. Trenching activities together with borehole data analyses, geophysical investigations, and seismic hazard assessments were undertaken in the LTV in the recent years. Complex trench features along the excavated sections were argued to be either fault- or erosion-related phenomena. Borehole data and seismic profiles indicate subsurface structures within the Lower Tagus Valley and adjacent areas. Furthermore, recent attempts to improve seismic hazard assessment indicate that the highest values in Portugal for 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years correspond with the greater Lisbon area, with the LTV fault as the most probable source. Considering the above, efforts are being made to acquire more information about the location of the LTV seismic source taking into account the presence of extensive erosion and/or deposition processes within the valley, densely populated urban areas, heavily forested regions, and flooded sections such as the Tagus estuary. Results from recent mapping along the LTV reveal surface faulting that left-laterally displaced numerous geomorphic landforms within the Lower Tagus River valley. The mapped trace shows clear evidence of left-lateral displacement and deformation within the valley transecting the river, its tributaries, and innumerable young terraces. The trace has been mapped by analyzing topographic maps

  14. The impact of weak synoptic forcing on the valley-wind circulation in the Alpine Inn Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zängl, Günther

    2009-09-01

    This paper investigates the impact of weak synoptic-scale forcing on the thermally induced valley-wind circulation in the Alpine Inn Valley and one of its largest tributaries, the Wipp Valley. To this end, high-resolution numerical simulations with realistic topography but idealized large-scale atmospheric conditions are performed. The large-scale flow has a speed increasing linearly from 5 m s-1 at sea level to 12.5 m s-1 at tropopause level, but its direction is varied between each experiment. For reference, an experiment without large-scale winds is conducted as well. The results indicate that the sensitivity to ambient flow forcing differs substantially between the Inn Valley and the Wipp Valley. The valley-wind circulation of the Inn Valley is found to be fairly robust against weak ambient forcing, changing by a much smaller amount than the along-valley component of the imposed large-scale flow. The valley wind tends to be intensified (weakened) when the ambient flow is aligned with (opposite to) the local valley orientation. However, the flow response is complicated by larger-scale interactions of the ambient flow with the Alpine massif. Most notably, northerly and northwesterly flow is deflected around the Alps, leading to the formation of a low-level jet along the northern edge of the Alps which in turn affects the valley-wind circulation in the lower Inn Valley. For the Wipp Valley, which is oriented approximately normal to the Alpine crest line and constitutes a deep gap in the Alpine crest, two distinctly different flow regimes are found depending on whether the large-scale flow has a significant southerly component or not. In the absence of a southerly flow component, the valley-wind circulation is similarly robust against ambient forcing as in the Inn Valley, with a fairly weak response of the local wind speeds. However, southerly ambient flow tends to force continuous downvalley (southerly) wind in the Wipp Valley. The flow dynamics can then be

  15. 77 FR 33237 - Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Death Valley National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... Environmental Policy Act of 1969, the National Park Service (NPS) is initiating the conservation planning and... different approaches for managing the Saline Valley Warm Springs area to determine the potential impacts on... Assessment that will provide a framework for managing lands and resources surrounding Warm Springs. The...

  16. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Monument Valley Site, Monument Valley, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevalated the Monument Valley site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Monument Valley, Arizona. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposure of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.1 million tons of tailings at the Monument Valley site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through IV). Cost estimates for the four options range from about $6,600,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $15,900,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for reprocessing the Monument Valley tailings were examined: heap leaching; Treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovery is economically unattractive.

  17. Surface slip during large Owens Valley earthquakes

    KAUST Repository

    Haddon, E. K.

    2016-01-10

    The 1872 Owens Valley earthquake is the third largest known historical earthquake in California. Relatively sparse field data and a complex rupture trace, however, inhibited attempts to fully resolve the slip distribution and reconcile the total moment release. We present a new, comprehensive record of surface slip based on lidar and field investigation, documenting 162 new measurements of laterally and vertically displaced landforms for 1872 and prehistoric Owens Valley earthquakes. Our lidar analysis uses a newly developed analytical tool to measure fault slip based on cross-correlation of sublinear topographic features and to produce a uniquely shaped probability density function (PDF) for each measurement. Stacking PDFs along strike to form cumulative offset probability distribution plots (COPDs) highlights common values corresponding to single and multiple-event displacements. Lateral offsets for 1872 vary systematically from approximate to 1.0 to 6.0 m and average 3.31.1 m (2 sigma). Vertical offsets are predominantly east-down between approximate to 0.1 and 2.4 m, with a mean of 0.80.5 m. The average lateral-to-vertical ratio compiled at specific sites is approximate to 6:1. Summing displacements across subparallel, overlapping rupture traces implies a maximum of 7-11 m and net average of 4.41.5 m, corresponding to a geologic M-w approximate to 7.5 for the 1872 event. We attribute progressively higher-offset lateral COPD peaks at 7.12.0 m, 12.8 +/- 1.5 m, and 16.6 +/- 1.4 m to three earlier large surface ruptures. Evaluating cumulative displacements in context with previously dated landforms in Owens Valley suggests relatively modest rates of fault slip, averaging between approximate to 0.6 and 1.6 mm/yr (1 sigma) over the late Quaternary.

  18. The uncanny valley in games and animation

    CERN Document Server

    Tinwell, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Advances in technology have enabled animators and video game designers to design increasingly realistic, human-like characters in animation and games. Although it was intended that this increased realism would allow viewers to appreciate the emotional state of characters, research has shown that audiences often have a negative reaction as the human likeness of a character increases. This phenomenon, known as the Uncanny Valley, has become a benchmark for measuring if a character is believably realistic and authentically human like. This book is an essential guide on how to overcome the Uncanny

  19. The Environment Dependence of the Green Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coenda, V.; Martínez, H. J.; Muriel, H.

    2017-07-01

    To shed light on the impact of internal and external quenching mechanisms upon galaxies, in this paper we compare properties of star forming, passive and transition galaxies in three discrete environments: field, groups as representative of intermediate mass systems, and the most massive virialised systems in the Universe, X-ray clusters. We classify galaxies into three sequences: passive (PS), green valley (GV) and star forming (SFS), by means of their UV-optical colour 0.1(NUV-r). We study a number of galaxy properties: UV-optical colour, stellar mass, morphology, specific star formation rate and the history of star formation.

  20. Biogeochemistry of Kenyan Rift Valley Lake Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewe, Sina; Kallmeyer, Jens

    2013-04-01

    The numerous lakes in the Kenyan Rift Valley show strong hydrochemical differences due to their varying geologic settings. There are freshwater lakes with a low alkalinity like Lake Naivasha on the one hand and very salt-rich lakes with high pH values like Lake Logipi on the other. It is known that the underlying lake sediments are influenced by the lake chemistry and by the microorganisms in the sediment. The aim of this work is to provide a biogeochemical characterization of the lake sediments and to use these data to identify the mechanisms that control lake chemistry and to reconstruct the biogeochemical evolution of each lake. The examined rift lakes were Lakes Logipi and Eight in the Suguta Valley, Lakes Baringo and Bogoria south of the valley, as well as Lakes Naivasha, Oloiden, and Sonachi on the Kenyan Dome. The porewater was analysed for different ions and hydrogen sulphide. Additionally, alkalinity and salinity of the lake water were determined as well as the cell numbers in the sediment, using fluorescent microscopy. The results of the porewater analysis show that the overall chemistry differs considerably between the lakes. In some lakes, concentrations of fluoride, chloride, sulphate, and/or hydrogen sulphide show strong concentration gradients with depth, whereas in other lakes the concentrations show only minor variations. Fluoride is present in all lakes; the lowest concentration is found in Lake Oloiden (60 - 90 mg/l), the highest one in Lake Bogoria (1,025 - 1,930 mg/l). The lakes show also large differences in sulphate concentrations. The values vary between 2 mg/l in Lake Baringo and 15,250 mg/l in Lake Eight. In all cores, sulphate concentration does not change significantly with depth; however, there is a distinct peak in each core, raising the question of synchronicity. As expected, chloride concentrations correlate with total salinity. There is no hydrogen sulphide present in the porewater of Lakes Naivasha, Baringo, and Oloiden, whereas in

  1. Water Supply of Indian Wells Valley, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    finite. Water pumipage and consuniptive water use exceeds (he natura rehre to the idale ’s griund-water supplN. In 1984 28.000 acre feet of’ water was...XEROPHY’TES ARTEMISiA PHREATOPHYTES SALTBRUSH PICKLEWEED WATER TABLE 𔃻A 60 ~50 SALTGRASS, ALKALI SACATONE, SAITBAUSH ~40 C-. z cc PASTURE ...limit on the amount of useful water stored in the Valley (Photo 12). MAIN GATE NWC B ONTI 2500 / MODERN ALLUVIUM "-, ~GOO’’- -0.S.5 -300 PPM _ Lu 2000

  2. Surface Deformation in Quetta Valley, Balochistan, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J.; Shuhab, K.; Wulamu, A.; Crupa, W.; Khan, A. S.; Kakar, D. M.; Kasi, A.

    2015-12-01

    In February 2011, several ground fissures up to ~1.8 km in length appeared in the Quetta Valley, Balochsitan, Pakistan. It is not clear what caused the sudden occurrence of these fissures. The region is tectonically active and bounded to the west by several regional strike-slip faults including the north-south striking left-lateral Chaman fault system that slips at ~10 mm per year. Several large earthquakes have occurred recently in this area, one fatal 6.4 magnitude (Mw) earthquake occurred on October 28th, 2008. Some parts of Quetta Valley are subsiding; GPS data from two stations in Quetta that span mid-2006 - 2009 recorded subsidence rates of ~10 cm per year. Although subsidence in urban areas is generally attributed to groundwater depletion, it is not clear whether ground fissures are caused by water withdrawal or related to tectonics of the region. This study is designed to quantify and assess the source of surface deformation in Quetta Valley using InSAR, GPS, seismic and earthquake centroid moment tensor data. To detect and map the spatial-temporal features of the processes that led to the surface deformation, we used two time series, i.e., 15 European Remote Sensing (ERS-1/2) satellite images from 1992 - 1999 and 27 ENVISAT images spanning 2003 - 2010. A Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) technique was used to investigate surface deformation. Eleven continuous-GPS stations within the InSAR antenna footprint were compared with the InSAR time series for quality control. Preliminary InSAR results revealed that the areas in and around the fissures are subsiding at 5 cm per year. Five seismic lines totaling ~60 km, acquired in 2003, were used to interpret faults beneath Holocene alluvium in the Quetta Valley. One of the blind faults is a north-south striking thrust fault mapped north into the Takatu range. However, a focal mechanism for the 2008 earthquake in this region indicated northwest

  3. Valley Interfaith Child Care Center CMS

    OpenAIRE

    Kramolisch, Andrew; Mack, Nate

    2012-01-01

    Included files: viccc.zip, viccc2.zip, viccc3.zip, viccc_final_paper.doc. The project consisted of revamping Valley Interfaith Child Care Center's website to be more modern and feature media. The goal was to cater to two diverse audiences: the families that needed their services and the investors who helped them keep running. This system is the result of efforts to do that. To run this software locally requires: Ruby 1.9.2 or newer, the bundler gem and either SQLite or PostgreSQL. The ...

  4. Volume of Valley Networks on Mars and Its Hydrologic Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, W.; Cang, X.; Howard, A. D.; Heo, J.

    2015-12-01

    Valley networks on Mars are river-like features that offer the best evidence for water activities in its geologic past. Previous studies have extracted valley network lines automatically from digital elevation model (DEM) data and manually from remotely sensed images. The volume of material removed by valley networks is an important parameter that could help us infer the amount of water needed to carve the valleys. A progressive black top hat (PBTH) transformation algorithm has been adapted from image processing to extract valley volume and successfully applied to simulated landform and Ma'adim Valles, Mars. However, the volume of valley network excavation on Mars has not been estimated on a global scale. In this study, the PBTH method was applied to the whole Mars to estimate this important parameter. The process was automated with Python in ArcGIS. Polygons delineating the valley associated depressions were generated by using a multi-flow direction growth method, which started with selected high point seeds on a depth grid (essentially an inverted valley) created by PBTH transformation and grew outward following multi-flow direction on the depth grid. Two published versions of valley network lines were integrated to automatically select depression polygons that represent the valleys. Some crater depressions that are connected with valleys and thus selected in the previous step were removed by using information from a crater database. Because of large distortion associated with global dataset in projected maps, the volume of each cell within a valley was calculated using the depth of the cell multiplied by the spherical area of the cell. The volumes of all the valley cells were then summed to produce the estimate of global valley excavation volume. Our initial result of this estimate was ~2.4×1014 m3. Assuming a sediment density of 2900 kg/m3, a porosity of 0.35, and a sediment load of 1.5 kg/m3, the global volume of water needed to carve the valleys was

  5. Imperial Valley College 2+2+2 Project Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Ralph

    This handbook of the Imperial Valley College (IVC) 2+2+2 Project provides an overview of the development of an articulated education program for business and law enforcement careers, involving six local high schools and San Diego State University, Imperial Valley Campus. Following a brief introduction to the 2+2+2 project in section I, section II…

  6. Evidence of late glacial runoff in the lower Mississippi Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucier, Roger T.

    Thousands of cubic kilometers of massive coarse-grained glacial outwash underlie the alluvial plain of the Lower Mississippi Valley between Cairo, Illinois, and the Gulf of Mexico. However, valley trains deposited by braided streams characterize less than one-third of the valley area, and those attributable to runoff from the Laurentide Ice Sheet cover less than 15,000 km2, mostly in the St. Francis Basin segment of the valley. There they form a series of subdued terraces that reflect episodes of meltwater release and possibly catastrophic flood events. Radiocarbon-dated sediment cores establish that the initial runoff entered the basin about 16.3 ka BP and continued without a significant lull for about 5000 years. The distribution of archeological sites tends to support an effective brief cessation of runoff to the valley about 11.0 ka BP when meltwater is thought to have been diverted from the Mississippi River Valley to the St. Lawrence Valley. Both radiocarbon dates and archeological evidence document a final pulse of outwash to the (Lower) Mississippi Valley about 10.0 ka BP when the Mississippi River occupied Thebes Gap near Cairo and created the Charleston Fan. All outwash deposition ended, and the river adopted a meandering regime not later than 9.8 ka BP.

  7. Epidemiology of the neural tube defects in Kashmir Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Ahmed Laharwal

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The incidence rates of NTDs is very high for Kashmir Valley. Geographical distribution of NTDs at this place confirms a relationship between the socioeconomic status, educational status, maternal too young or advanced age, and environmental factors for the development of a NTD. The results of this study point to the importance establishing a health policy to prevent NTD in Kashmir Valley.

  8. Revisiting Sustainable Development of Dry Valleys in Hengduan Mountains Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Ya; XIE Jiasui; SUN Hui

    2004-01-01

    Dry valleys are a striking geographic landscape in Hengduan Mountains Region and are characterized by low rainfall, desert type of vegetation and fragile environment. Past efforts and resources have been concentrated mainly on rehabilitation of degraded ecosystem and fragile environment,particularly reforestation, while socio-economic development has been largely overlooked. Despite successes in pocket areas, the overall trend of unsustainability and environmental deterioration are continuing. It is important to understand that uplift of the Tibetan Plateau is the root cause of development of dry valleys, and development and formation of dry valleys is a natural process. Human intervention has played a secondary role in development of dry valleys and degradation of dry valleys though human intervention in many cases has speeded up environmental degradation of the dry valleys. It is important to understand that dry valleys are climatic enclaves and an integrated approach that combines rehabilitation of degraded ecosystems and socio-economic development should be adopted if the overall goal of sustainable development of dry valleys is to be achieved. Promotion of niche-based cash crops, rural energy including hydropower, solar energy, biogas and fuelwood plantation is recommended as the priority activities.

  9. 27 CFR 9.27 - Lime Kiln Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lime Kiln Valley. 9.27... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.27 Lime Kiln Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Lime Kiln...

  10. 27 CFR 9.44 - Solano County Green Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Solano County Green Valley. 9.44 Section 9.44 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Solano County Green Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section...

  11. Enhanced Valley Splitting for Quantum Electronics in Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Andre

    2014-03-01

    Silicon is a placid environment for quantum degrees of freedom with long spin and valley coherence times. A natural drawback is that the same features that protect the quantum state from its environment also hamper its control with external fields. Indeed, engineered nanostructures typically lead to sub-meV splittings between valley states, hindering the implementation of both spin and valley based quantum devices. We will discuss the microscopic theory of valley splitting, presenting three schemes to control valleys on a scale higher than 1 meV: a) in a quantum well, the adoption of a barrier constituted of a layered heterostructure might lead to constructive reflection if the layer thicknesses match the electron wavelength, in analogy with a Bragg mirror; b) the disparity between the high valley splitting in a impurity donor potential and the low splitting in a Si/Insulator interface may be harnessed controlling the tunneling between these two states, so that the valley splitting may be controlled digitally; c) intrinsic Tamm/Shockley interface states might strongly hybridize with conduction states, leading to a much enhanced valley splitting, and its contribution to the 2DEG ground state may be experimentally identified. We argue that this effect is responsible for the enhanced splitting in Si/BOX interfaces.

  12. Groundwater recharge on east side soils of the Salinas Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    After four years of drought, groundwater levels in the Salinas Valley are at historically low levels which threaten to adversely affect farming in the Salinas Valley. Given the prospect of a strong El Niño this coming winter, it seems prudent to plan to capture as much of the rainfall as possible to...

  13. Agro-ecological characterization of inland valleys in West Arica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriesse, W.; Windmeijer, P.N.; Duivenbooden, van N.

    1996-01-01

    Conceptual issues related to inland valleys, their morphology, hydrology and agro-ecosystems are discussed, as well as a method for their step-wise characterization at different levels of detail. A definition of inland valleys is given, including the description of the main landscape elements (uplan

  14. Technology Finds Its Place in Silicon Valley Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundley, Paula; Scigliano, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Technology today is poised to usher in the best of times. Exploring what other districts do highlights the common themes as well as the unique challenges. Three very different districts in Silicon Valley--Portola Valley School District, Campbell Union School District and San Jose Unified School District--explain the strategies they use to enhance…

  15. Geddes, Zoos and the Valley Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Thompson

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of Edinburgh Zoological Garden was a pioneering example of the modern approach to animal display, placing animals in naturalistic settings that demanded innovative landscape design. The concept for Edinburgh Zoo, opened in 1913, was devised by Patrick Geddes and developed in collaboration with Frank C Mears and Geddes's daughter, Norah. This paper draws on Welter's (2002 important study of Geddes's vision of the city and on Geddes biographies, as well as on original archive material, to explore aspects of Geddes's vision for landscape architecture in the early twentieth century. The paper discusses Geddes's contribution to contemporary design and planning theory through the concept of the valley section, which comes to an understanding of the global through the local and in turn inspires a vision of the universal. Geddes was influenced by Hagenbeck's design for his zoo, near Hamburg, and by the New York Zoological Park, in developing displays for Edinburgh zoo that attempted to show animal behaviour as it would be in its natural habitat. The work of the German evolutionary biologist, Ernst Haeckel, further inspired Geddes to conceptualise the design as one where, just as ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny, so human civilisation might be recapitulated. He developed a three-dimensional expression of his hypothetical 'valley section' as a model for interaction between life and the environment. The zoo 'within' a city becomes a model for the ideal city, a city 'within' its region, reflecting the highest attainment of human development, yet still linked to the most primitive of origins.

  16. Hoopa Valley Small Scale Hydroelectric Feasibility Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis Miller

    2009-03-22

    This study considered assessing the feasibility of developing small scale hydro-electric power from seven major tributaries within the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation of Northern California (http://www.hoopa-nsn.gov/). This study pursued the assessment of seven major tributaries of the Reservation that flow into the Trinity River. The feasibility of hydropower on the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation has real potential for development and many alternative options for project locations, designs, operations and financing. In order to realize this opportunity further will require at least 2-3 years of intense data collection focusing on stream flow measurements at multiple locations in order to quantify real power potential. This also includes on the ground stream gradient surveys, road access planning and grid connectivity to PG&E for sale of electricity. Imperative to this effort is the need for negotiations between the Hoopa Tribal Council and PG&E to take place in order to finalize the power rate the Tribe will receive through any wholesale agreement that utilizes the alternative energy generated on the Reservation.

  17. Groundwater quality in the Santa Clara River Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Carmen A.; Landon, Matthew K.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    The Santa Clara River Valley (SCRV) study unit is located in Los Angeles and Ventura Counties, California, and is bounded by the Santa Monica, San Gabriel, Topatopa, and Santa Ynez Mountains, and the Pacific Ocean. The 460-square-mile study unit includes eight groundwater basins: Ojai Valley, Upper Ojai Valley, Ventura River Valley, Santa Clara River Valley, Pleasant Valley, Arroyo Santa Rosa Valley, Las Posas Valley, and Simi Valley (California Department of Water Resources, 2003; Montrella and Belitz, 2009). The SCRV study unit has hot, dry summers and cool, moist winters. Average annual rainfall ranges from 12 to 28 inches. The study unit is drained by the Ventura and Santa Clara Rivers, and Calleguas Creek. The primary aquifer system in the Ventura River Valley, Ojai Valley, Upper Ojai Valley, and Simi Valley basins is largely unconfined alluvium. The primary aquifer system in the remaining groundwater basins mainly consists of unconfined sands and gravels in the upper portion and partially confined marine and nonmarine deposits in the lower portion. The primary aquifer system in the SCRV study unit is defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. Public-supply wells typically are completed in the primary aquifer system to depths of 200 to 1,100 feet below land surface (bls). The wells contain solid casing reaching from the land surface to a depth of about 60-700 feet, and are perforated below the solid casing to allow water into the well. Water quality in the primary aquifer system may differ from the water in the shallower and deeper parts of the aquifer. Land use in the study unit is approximately 40 percent (%) natural (primarily shrubs, grassland, and wetlands), 37% agricultural, and 23% urban. The primary crops are citrus, avocados, alfalfa, pasture, strawberries, and dry beans. The largest urban areas in the study unit are the cities of

  18. Geology and water resources of Owens Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollett, Kenneth J.; Danskin, Wesley R.; McCaffrey, William F.; Walti, Caryl L.

    1991-01-01

    Owens Valley, a long, narrow valley located along the east flank of the Sierra Nevada in east-central California, is the main source of water for the city of Los Angeles. The city diverts most of the surface water in the valley into the Owens River-Los Angeles Aqueduct system, which transports the water more than 200 miles south to areas of distribution and use. Additionally, ground water is pumped or flows from wells to supplement the surface-water diversions to the river-aqueduct system. Pumpage from wells needed to supplement water export has increased since 1970, when a second aqueduct was put into service, and local concerns have been expressed that the increased pumpage may have had a detrimental effect on the environment and the indigenous alkaline scrub and meadow plant communities in the valley. The scrub and meadow communities depend on soil moisture derived from precipitation and the unconfined part of a multilayered aquifer system. This report, which describes the hydrogeology of the aquifer system and the water resources of the valley, is one in a series designed to (1) evaluate the effects that groundwater pumping has on scrub and meadow communities and (2) appraise alternative strategies to mitigate any adverse effects caused by, pumping. Two principal topographic features are the surface expression of the geologic framework--the high, prominent mountains on the east and west sides of the valley and the long, narrow intermountain valley floor. The mountains are composed of sedimentary, granitic, and metamorphic rocks, mantled in part by volcanic rocks as well as by glacial, talus, and fluvial deposits. The valley floor is underlain by valley fill that consists of unconsolidated to moderately consolidated alluvial fan, transition-zone, glacial and talus, and fluvial and lacustrine deposits. The valley fill also includes interlayered recent volcanic flows and pyroclastic rocks. The bedrock surface beneath the valley fill is a narrow, steep-sided graben

  19. Aggregate Resources Study, Cave and Steptoe Valleys, Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-25

    Quartzite Creek Range 8 CV-AS Bgan Range Do Dolomite 9 CV-A9 Cave Valley Ls Limestone 10 Cv-Xf0- Egan Range Qtz Quartzite 11 CV-All Egan Range LS...Limestone 12 CV-A12 Cave Valley Aaf a Sandy Gravel G-GM 13 CV-A13 Bgan Range Vii Quartz Latite 14 CV-A14 Cave Valley Ls Limestone 7r 7 FIELD OBSERVATIONS...SO-A2 Bgan Range Vu Dacitic Ash-flow Tuff 25 SO-A3 Steptoe Aalf Sandy Gravel GP-GM Valley 26 SO-A4 Steptoe Aafs Sandy Gravel GE-GM Valley 27 S0-A5

  20. Valleytronics. The valley Hall effect in MoS₂ transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, K F; McGill, K L; Park, J; McEuen, P L

    2014-06-27

    Electrons in two-dimensional crystals with a honeycomb lattice structure possess a valley degree of freedom (DOF) in addition to charge and spin. These systems are predicted to exhibit an anomalous Hall effect whose sign depends on the valley index. Here, we report the observation of this so-called valley Hall effect (VHE). Monolayer MoS2 transistors are illuminated with circularly polarized light, which preferentially excites electrons into a specific valley, causing a finite anomalous Hall voltage whose sign is controlled by the helicity of the light. No anomalous Hall effect is observed in bilayer devices, which have crystal inversion symmetry. Our observation of the VHE opens up new possibilities for using the valley DOF as an information carrier in next-generation electronics and optoelectronics.

  1. Four newly recorded species of Dryopteridaceae from Kashmir valley, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAKOOR AHMAD MIR

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mir SA, Mishra AK, Reshi ZA, Sharma MP. 2014. Four newly recorded species of Dryopteridaceae from Kashmir valley, India. Biodiversitas 15: 6-11. Habitat diversity, elevation, cloud cover, rainfall, seasonal and temperature variations have created many ideal sites for the luxuriant growth of pteridophytes in the Kashmir valley, yet all the regions of the valley have not been surveyed. In Kashmir valley the family Dryopteridaceae is represented by 31 species. During the recent extensive field surveys of Shopian district four more species viz., Dryopteris caroli-hopei Fraser-Jenkins, Dryopteris blanfordii subsp. nigrosquamosa (Ching Fraser-Jenkins, Dryopteris pulvinulifera (Bedd. Kuntze and Polystichum Nepalense (Spreng C. Chr. have been recorded for the first time from the valley. The taxonomic description, synonyms, distribution and photographs of each species are given in this article.

  2. Fracture controls on valley persistence: the Cairngorm Granite pluton, Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, A. M.; Gillespie, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    Valleys are remarkably persistent features in many different tectonic settings, but the reasons for this persistence are rarely explored. Here, we examine the structural controls on valleys in the Cairngorms Mountains, Scotland, part of the passive margin of the eastern North Atlantic. We consider valleys at three scales: straths, glens and headwater valleys. The structural controls on valleys in and around the Cairngorm Granite pluton were examined on satellite and aerial photographs and by field survey. Topographic lineaments, including valleys, show no consistent orientation with joint sets or with sheets of microgranite and pegmatitic granite. In this granite landscape, jointing is not a first-order control on valley development. Instead, glens and headwater valleys align closely to quartz veins and linear alteration zones (LAZs). LAZs are zones of weakness in the granite pluton in which late-stage hydrothermal alteration and hydro-fracturing have greatly reduced rock mass strength and increased permeability. LAZs, which can be kilometres long and >700 m deep, are the dominant controls on the orientation of valleys in the Cairngorms. LAZs formed in the roof zone of the granite intrusion. Although the Cairngorm pluton was unroofed soon after emplacement, the presence of Old Red Sandstone (ORS) outliers in the terrain to the north and east indicates that the lower relief of the sub-ORS basement surface has been lowered by 1 km of vertical erosion and for 400 Myr. This valley persistence is a combined product of regionally low rates of basement exhumation and of the existence of LAZs in the Cairngorm pluton and sub-parallel Caledonide fractures in the surrounding terrain with depths that exceed 1 km.

  3. Napa Valley Community College District and Napa Valley College Faculty Association/CTA/NEA 1988-89 Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napa Valley Community Coll. District, Napa, CA.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the Board of Trustees of the Napa Valley Community College District and the Napa Valley College Faculty Association/California Teachers Association/National Education Association is presented. This contract, in effect from June 1988 through July 1989, deals with the following topics: bargaining agent…

  4. Water resources of Parowan Valley, Iron County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Thomas M.

    2017-08-29

    Parowan Valley, in Iron County, Utah, covers about 160 square miles west of the Red Cliffs and includes the towns of Parowan, Paragonah, and Summit. The valley is a structural depression formed by northwest-trending faults and is, essentially, a closed surface-water basin although a small part of the valley at the southwestern end drains into the adjacent Cedar Valley. Groundwater occurs in and has been developed mainly from the unconsolidated basin-fill aquifer. Long-term downward trends in groundwater levels have been documented by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since the mid-1950s. The water resources of Parowan Valley were assessed during 2012 to 2014 with an emphasis on refining the understanding of the groundwater and surface-water systems and updating the groundwater budget.Surface-water discharge of five perennial mountain streams that enter Parowan Valley was measured from 2013 to 2014. The total annual surface-water discharge of the five streams during 2013 to 2014 was about 18,000 acre-feet (acre-ft) compared to the average annual streamflow of about 22,000 acre-ft from USGS streamgages operated on the three largest of these streams from the 1940s to the 1980s. The largest stream, Parowan Creek, contributes more than 50 percent of the annual surface-water discharge to the valley, with smaller amounts contributed by Red, Summit, Little, and Cottonwood Creeks.Average annual recharge to the Parowan Valley groundwater system was estimated to be about 25,000 acre-ft from 1994 to 2013. Nearly all recharge occurs as direct infiltration of snowmelt and rainfall on the Markagunt Plateau east of the valley. Smaller amounts of recharge occur as infiltration of streamflow and unconsumed irrigation water near the east side of the valley on alluvial fans associated with mountain streams at the foot of the Red Cliffs. Subsurface flow from the mountain block to the east of the valley is a significant source of groundwater recharge to the basin-fill aquifer

  5. The Valley Bottom Extraction Tool (V-BET): A GIS tool for delineating valley bottoms across entire drainage networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jordan T.; Macfarlane, William W.; Wheaton, Joseph M.

    2016-12-01

    The shape, size and extent of a valley bottom dictates the form and function of the associated river or stream. Consequently, accurate, watershed-wide delineation of valley bottoms is increasingly recognized as a necessary component of watershed management. While many valley bottom delineation approaches exist, methods that can be effectively applied across entire drainage networks to produce reasonably accurate results are lacking. Most existing tools are designed to work using high resolution topography data (i.e. > 2 m resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM)) and can only be applied over relatively short reach lengths due to computational or data availability limitations. When these precise mapping approaches are applied throughout drainage networks (i.e. 102-104 km), the computational techniques often either do not scale, or the algorithms perform inconsistently. Other tools that produce outputs at broader scale extents generally utilize coarser input topographic data to produce more poorly resolved valley bottom approximations. To fill this methodology gap and produce relatively accurate valley bottoms over large areas, we developed an algorithm that accepts terrain data from one to 10 m with slope and valley width parameters that scale based on drainage area, allowing for watershed-scale valley bottom delineation. We packaged this algorithm in the Valley Bottom Extraction Tool (V-BET) as an open-source ArcGIS toolbox for ease of use. To illustrate V-BET's scalability and test the tool's robustness across different physiographic settings, we delineated valley bottoms for the entire perennial drainage network of Utah as well as twelve watersheds across the interior Columbia River Basin (totaling 55,400 km) using 10 m DEMs. We found that even when driven with relatively coarse data (10 m DEMs), V-BET produced a relatively accurate approximation of valley bottoms across the entire watersheds of these diverse physiographic regions.

  6. Rift Valley fever: the Nigerian story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewale A. Adeyeye

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever (RVF is an arthropod-borne zoonotic disease of livestock. It is characterised by fever, salivation, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, mucopurulent to bloody nasal discharge, abortion, rapid decrease in milk production and death in animals. Infected humans experience an influenza-like illness that is characterised by fever, malaise, headaches, nausea and epigastric pain followed by recovery, although mortality can occur. RVF was thought to be a disease of sub-Saharan Africa but with the outbreaks in Egypt and the Arabian Peninsula, it may be extending its range further afield. Virological and serological evidence indicates that the virus exists in Nigeria and, with the warning signal sent by international organisations to countries in Africa about an impending outbreak, co-ordinated research between veterinarians and physicians in Nigeria is advocated.

  7. Elk Valley Coal innovation paving the way

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.; Ednie, H.; Weldon, H.

    2006-09-15

    Elk Valley Coal maintains performance optimization across its six metallurgical coal operations. Performance, personnel issues, and training are discussed. Programmes at Fording River, Greenhills, and Coal Mountain are described. Fording River is implementing new computer systems and high-speed wireless networks. The pit control system and the equipment maintenance and remote maintenance programmes are being improved. The Glider Kit program to rebuild major equipment is described. Safety and productivity measures at Greenhills include testing and evaluation of innovations such as the Drilling and Blasting System (DABS), a payload monitor on a shovel, and two GPS-based systems. Blasting methods, a timing study that examines wall stability, fragmentation simulation, and the Six Mine structure at Coal Mountain are described. 5 photos.

  8. An epidemiological model of Rift Valley fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole P. Leahy

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available We present and explore a novel mathematical model of the epidemiology of Rift Valley Fever (RVF. RVF is an Old World, mosquito-borne disease affecting both livestock and humans. The model is an ordinary differential equation model for two populations of mosquito species, those that can transmit vertically and those that cannot, and for one livestock population. We analyze the model to find the stability of the disease-free equlibrium and test which model parameters affect this stability most significantly. This model is the basis for future research into the predication of future outbreaks in the Old World and the assessment of the threat of introduction into the New World.

  9. Characterization of chasmoendolithic community in Miers Valley, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Charmaine C M; Chan, Yuki; Lacap, Donnabella C; Pérez-Ortega, Sergio; de Los Rios-Murillo, Asuncion; Lee, Charles K; Cary, S Craig; Pointing, Stephen B

    2014-08-01

    The Antarctic Dry Valleys are unable to support higher plant and animal life and so microbial communities dominate biotic ecosystem processes. Soil communities are well characterized, but rocky surfaces have also emerged as a significant microbial habitat. Here, we identify extensive colonization of weathered granite on a landscape scale by chasmoendolithic microbial communities. A transect across north-facing and south-facing slopes plus valley floor moraines revealed 30-100 % of available substrate was colonized up to an altitude of 800 m. Communities were assessed at a multidomain level and were clearly distinct from those in surrounding soils and other rock-inhabiting cryptoendolithic and hypolithic communities. All colonized rocks were dominated by the cyanobacterial genus Leptolyngbya (Oscillatoriales), with heterotrophic bacteria, archaea, algae, and fungi also identified. Striking patterns in community distribution were evident with regard to microclimate as determined by aspect. Notably, a shift in cyanobacterial assemblages from Chroococcidiopsis-like phylotypes (Pleurocapsales) on colder-drier slopes, to Synechococcus-like phylotypes (Chroococcales) on warmer-wetter slopes. Greater relative abundance of known desiccation-tolerant bacterial taxa occurred on colder-drier slopes. Archaeal phylotypes indicated halotolerant taxa and also taxa possibly derived from nearby volcanic sources. Among the eukaryotes, the lichen photobiont Trebouxia (Chlorophyta) was ubiquitous, but known lichen-forming fungi were not recovered. Instead, fungal assemblages were dominated by ascomycetous yeasts. We conclude that chasmoendoliths likely constitute a significant geobiological phenomenon at lower elevations in granite-dominated Antarctic Dry Valley systems.

  10. Direct measurement of exciton valley coherence in monolayer WSe2

    KAUST Repository

    Hao, Kai

    2016-02-29

    In crystals, energy band extrema in momentum space can be identified by a valley index. The internal quantum degree of freedom associated with valley pseudospin indices can act as a useful information carrier, analogous to electronic charge or spin. Interest in valleytronics has been revived in recent years following the discovery of atomically thin materials such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides. However, the valley coherence time—a crucial quantity for valley pseudospin manipulation—is difficult to directly probe. In this work, we use two-dimensional coherent spectroscopy to resonantly generate and detect valley coherence of excitons (Coulomb-bound electron–hole pairs) in monolayer WSe2 (refs ,). The imposed valley coherence persists for approximately one hundred femtoseconds. We propose that the electron–hole exchange interaction provides an important decoherence mechanism in addition to exciton population recombination. This work provides critical insight into the requirements and strategies for optical manipulation of the valley pseudospin for future valleytronics applications.

  11. Geothermal hydrology of Warner Valley, Oregon: a reconnaissance study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sammel, E.A.; Craig, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    Warner Valley and its southern extension, Coleman Valley, are two of several high-desert valleys in the Basin and Range province of south-central Oregon that contain thermal waters. At least 20 thermal springs, defined as having temperatures of 20/sup 0/C or more, issue from Tertiary basaltic flows and tuffs in and near the valleys. Many shallow wells also produce thermal waters. The highest measured temperature is 127/sup 0/C, reported from a well known as Crump geyser, at a depth of 200 meters. The hottest spring, located near Crump geyser, has a surface temperature of 78/sup 0/C. The occurrence of these thermal waters is closely related to faults and fault intersections in the graben and horst structure of the valleys. Chemical analyses show that the thermal waters are of two types: sodium chloride and sodium bicarbonate waters. Chemical indicators show that the geothermal system is a hot-water rather than a vapor-dominated system. Conductive heat flow in areas of the valley unaffected by hydrothermal convection is probably about 75 milliwatts per square meter. The normal thermal gradient in valley-fill dpeosits in these areas may be about 40/sup 0/C per kilometer. Geothermometers and mixing models indicate that temperatures of equilibration are at least 170/sup 0/C for the thermal components of the hotter waters. The size and location of geothermal reservoirs are unknown.

  12. Functional ecology of an Antarctic Dry Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yuki; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Zhou, Jizhong; Pointing, Stephen B.

    2013-01-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys are the largest ice-free region in Antarctica and are critically at risk from climate change. The terrestrial landscape is dominated by oligotrophic mineral soils and extensive exposed rocky surfaces where biota are largely restricted to microbial communities, although their ability to perform the majority of geobiological processes has remained largely uncharacterized. Here, we identified functional traits that drive microbial survival and community assembly, using a metagenomic approach with GeoChip-based functional gene arrays to establish metabolic capabilities in communities inhabiting soil and rock surface niches in McKelvey Valley. Major pathways in primary metabolism were identified, indicating significant plasticity in autotrophic, heterotrophic, and diazotrophic strategies supporting microbial communities. This represents a major advance beyond biodiversity surveys in that we have now identified how putative functional ecology drives microbial community assembly. Significant differences were apparent between open soil, hypolithic, chasmoendolithic, and cryptoendolithic communities. A suite of previously unappreciated Antarctic microbial stress response pathways, thermal, osmotic, and nutrient limitation responses were identified and related to environmental stressors, offering tangible clues to the mechanisms behind the enduring success of microorganisms in this seemingly inhospitable terrain. Rocky substrates exposed to larger fluctuations in environmental stress supported greater functional diversity in stress-response pathways than soils. Soils comprised a unique reservoir of genes involved in transformation of organic hydrocarbons and lignin-like degradative pathways. This has major implications for the evolutionary origin of the organisms, turnover of recalcitrant substrates in Antarctic soils, and predicting future responses to anthropogenic pollution. PMID:23671121

  13. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes by saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in human liver microsomes, characterization of enzyme kinetics in the presence of bovine serum albumin (0.1 and 1.0% w/v) and in vitro - in vivo extrapolation of hepatic clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacharla, Raghava Choudary; Uthukam, Venkatesham; Manoharan, Arunkumar; Ponnamaneni, Ranjith Kumar; Padala, Nagasurya Prakash; Boggavarapu, Rajesh Kumar; Bhyrapuneni, Gopinadh; Ajjala, Devender Reddy; Nirogi, Ramakrishna

    2017-04-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of fatty acids on CYP enzymes and the effect of BSA on intrinsic clearance of probe substrates. The inhibitory effect of thirteen fatty acids including saturated, mono-unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids on CYP enzymes, kinetic parameters and intrinsic clearance values of nine CYP marker probe substrate reactions in the absence and presence of BSA (0.1 and 1.0% w/v) were characterized in human liver microsomes. The results demonstrate that most of the unsaturated fatty acids showed marked inhibition towards CYP2C8 mediated amodiaquine N-deethylation followed by inhibition of CYP2C9 and CYP2B6 mediated activities. The addition of 0.1% BSA in the incubation markedly improved the unbound intrinsic clearance values of probe substrates by reducing the Km values with little or no effect on maximal velocity. The addition of BSA (0.1 and 1.0% w/v) did not influence the unbound intrinsic clearance of marker reactions for CYP2A6, and CYP3A4 enzymes. The addition of 0.1% w/v BSA is sufficient to determine the intrinsic clearance of marker probe reactions by metabolite formation approach. The predicted hepatic clearance values for the substrates using the well-stirred model, in the presence of BSA (0.1% BSA), are comparable to the in vivo hepatic clearance values.

  14. Oscillating Nocturnal Slope Flow in a Coastal Valley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Larsen, Søren Ejling; Mahrt, Larry

    1985-01-01

    Observations of slope flows in a coastal valley are analyzed. The diurnal variation of upslope and downslope flows depends on season in a systematic way which appears to be related to the high latitude of the observational site and the presence of a nearby layer of marine air. Summer nocturnal flow...... over the sloping valley floor was studied during a special observing campaign. A downslope gravity flow interacts with even colder surface air at the valley floor. The latter originates as cold marine air or previous drainage of cold air. Regular oscillations which appear to be trapped, terrain...

  15. Oscillating Nocturnal Slope Flow in a Coastal Valley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Larsen, Søren Ejling; Mahrt, Larry

    1985-01-01

    Observations of slope flows in a coastal valley are analyzed. The diurnal variation of upslope and downslope flows depends on season in a systematic way which appears to be related to the high latitude of the observational site and the presence of a nearby layer of marine air. Summer nocturnal flow...... over the sloping valley floor was studied during a special observing campaign. A downslope gravity flow interacts with even colder surface air at the valley floor. The latter originates as cold marine air or previous drainage of cold air. Regular oscillations which appear to be trapped, terrain...

  16. 78 FR 27071 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Alaska: Mendenhall Valley...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ...: Mendenhall Valley Nonattainment Area PM Limited Maintenance Plan and Redesignation Request AGENCY... Mendenhall Valley nonattainment area (Mendenhall Valley NAA), and to concurrently redesignate the area to... Ambient Air Quality Standards B. Mendenhall Valley Nonattainment Area and Planning Background C. PM 10...

  17. California's Central Valley Groundwater Study: A Powerful New Tool to Assess Water Resources in California's Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunt, Claudia C.; Hanson, Randall T.; Belitz, Kenneth; Rogers, Laurel

    2009-01-01

    Competition for water resources is growing throughout California, particularly in the Central Valley. Since 1980, the Central Valley's population has nearly doubled to 3.8 million people. It is expected to increase to 6 million by 2020. Statewide population growth, anticipated reductions in Colorado River water deliveries, drought, and the ecological crisis in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta have created an intense demand for water. Tools and information can be used to help manage the Central Valley aquifer system, an important State and national resource.

  18. Fire Management Plan Rappahannock River Valley National Wildlife Refuge 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan for the Rappahannock River Valley National Wildlife Refuge will provide guidance on a wide range of fire management activities including preparedness,...

  19. Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge annual narrative: Fiscal year 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2002 fiscal year. The report begins with an...

  20. Hydrogeology and water resources of Ruby Valley northeastern Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This water-resources evaluation of Ruby Valley was divided into two 3-year phases. Phase 1 was designed to quantify annual evapotranspiration (ET) from the Ruby Lake...

  1. Moraine Valley College: A School With a Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, Byron E.

    1974-01-01

    In the architecture and arrangement of the physical plant, in the organization of its programs, and in the activities of its faculty and staff Moraine Valley Community College embodies a distinctive philosophy of education. (Author/RK)

  2. Mapping the Kathmandu Valley With Aerial Photographs by Erwin Schneider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urmi Sengupta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: Mapping the Kathmandu Valley With Aerial Photographs by Erwin Schneider By Neils Gutschow and Hermann Kreutzmann. Kathmandu, Nepal: Himal Books, 2013. 216 pp. US $ 48.00. ISBN 978-9937-597-06-7.

  3. Amphibian and reptile diversity of the Lahontan Valley

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is about a survey that was done to assess the amphibian and reptile diversity of the Lahontan Valley in Nevada. The work contained in this summary can be...

  4. Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge annual narrative: Fiscal year 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2004 fiscal year. The report begins with an...

  5. Stillwater Marsh and Lahontan Valley Wetlands Literature Review

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A review of known literature on Lahontan Valley marshlands was made by The Nature Conservancy in preparation for the Stillwater Water Management Analysis Scoping...

  6. Anuran Call Survey Summary 2002 Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Anuran call surveys were conducted at the Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge for the first time in 2000 so this report summarizes the results of the refuge’s...

  7. Water Resources Inventory and Assessment: Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment report for Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge describes current hydrologic information, provides an assessment of...

  8. Valley Forge National Historical Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an ESRI polygon shapefile of tracts for Valley Forge NHP (VAFO). Tracts shown on inset maps A, B, and C were spatially adjusted (i.e., rubbersheeted) to...

  9. Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge: Master Plan Amendment No. 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Master Plan developed for Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge proposed that a refuge administration office and maintenance facility be located on an upland...

  10. Interim Trapping Plan: Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Minnesota Valley NWR trapping plan outlines trapping areas, species, regulations, equipment, and seasons. This plan will allow harvest of a renewable natural...

  11. Bird Use of Imperial Valley Crops [ds427

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Agriculture crops in the Imperial Valley of California provide valuable habitat for many resident and migratory birds and are a very important component of the...

  12. Comparison of access to medicines between Klang Valley and East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and East Coast of peninsular Malaysia for children living in poor households ... Keywords: Aaccess to medicine, Poor populations, Children, Klang Valley, Peninsular Malaysia. Tropical ... Access to medicines is a fundamental human right.

  13. Willamette Valley - Invasive Species Management with Volunteers 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Volunteers worked with staff to survey for and treat 17 different invasive species within the Willamette Valley Refuges (Ankeny, Baskett Slough and William L....

  14. Willamette Valley - Invasive Species Management with Volunteers 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Volunteers worked with refuge staff to survey for and treat invasive species on the Willamette Valley Refuges (Ankeny, Baskett Slough and WL Finley NWR). Scotch...

  15. Willamette Valley - Invasive Species Management with Volunteers 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Volunteers worked with refuge staff to survey for and treat invasive species on the Willamette Valley Refuges (Ankeny, Baskett Slough and WL Finley NWR). False brome...

  16. Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge annual narrative: Calendar year 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1996 calendar year. The report begins with an...

  17. Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge annual narrative: Fiscal year 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2003 fiscal year. The report begins with an...

  18. Avian botulism in the southern San Joaquin valley 1970

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A joint effort of the Department of Fish and' Game and the U. S. Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife contained botulism losses in the southern San Joaquin Valley...

  19. Rappahannock River Valley National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Rappahannock River Valley NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge...

  20. Ground-water monitoring sites for Carson Valley, Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set contains the monitoring sites where water levels were collected and used to develop a spatial ground-water data base in Carson Valley, west-central...

  1. Disease Control and Prevention Chapter: Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Disease Contingency Plan for Minnesota Valley NWR provides background information on disease surveillance; an inventory of Refuge personnel, equipment, and...

  2. Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge Common Dragonflies and Damselflies

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Canaan Valley NWR is cooperating with the West Virginia Division of Natural Resources, Natural Heritage Program to inventory dragonflies and damselflies in an...

  3. Fire Management Plan : Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan considers fire on Minnesota Valley NWR as a tool for management and as a potential problem to be dealt with. This document discusses environmental impacts...

  4. Estimating Incision Depth in Martian Valleys: Comparing Two Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, W.; Howard, A. D.; Trischan, J.

    2011-03-01

    Regional variation of valley network (VN) depths may be informative of past climatic variation across Mars. Both black top hat transformation and search radius approach provide reasonable estimates of VN depths, but require careful interpretation.

  5. Law Enforcement Plan: Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Minnesota Valley NWR Law Enforcement Plan clarifies U.S. Fish and Wildlife enforcement policies as they apply to the Refuge. It provides information about...

  6. Fire Management Plan Rappahannock River Valley National Wildlife Refuge 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan for Rappahannock River Valley National Wildlife Refuge will provide guidance on a wide range of fire management activities including preparedness,...

  7. Spin-valley splitting of electron beam in graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Song

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We study spatial separation of the four degenerate spin-valley components of an electron beam in a EuO-induced and top-gated ferromagnetic/pristine/strained graphene structure. We show that, in a full resonant tunneling regime for all beam components, the formation of standing waves can lead sudden phase jumps ∼−π and giant lateral Goos-Hänchen shifts as large as the transverse beam width, while the interplay of the spin and valley imaginary wave vectors in the modulated regions can lead differences of resonant angles for the four spin-valley flavors, manifesting a spin-valley beam splitting effect. The splitting effect is found to be controllable by the gating and strain.

  8. Anuran Call Survey Summary 2006 Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Anuran call surveys were conducted at Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge in April-June 2006 using the protocol developed by the North American Amphibian...

  9. Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge annual narrative: Fiscal year 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2001 fiscal year. The report begins with an...

  10. Anuran Call Survey Summary 2000 Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Anuran call surveys were conducted at the Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge for the first time in 2000. Surveys for anurans are conducted in conjunction with...

  11. Vernal Pool Complexes - Central Valley, 1989-1998 [ds36

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This Arc/Info coverage is a polygon layer of vernal pool complexes greater than 40 acres in size for 29 counties throughout the greater Central Valley, and some...

  12. The Trail Inventory of Rappahannock River Valley NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Rappahannock River Valley National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this...

  13. Rappahannock River Valley National Wildlife Refuge [Land Status Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Rappahannock River Valley National Wildlife Refuge. It was generated from rectified...

  14. Groundwater discharge area for Diamond Valley, Central Nevada, 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset represents "phreatophyte areas" mapped as part of an analysis of irrigation pumping in Diamond Valley, Nevada published in 1968. The data were digitized...

  15. Chinook Critical Habitat, Central Valley - NOAA [ds125

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This layer depicts areas designated for Chinook Critical Habitat as well as habitat type and quality in the Central Valley Spring-run Evolutionary Significant Unit...

  16. Wildlife Inventory Plan: Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goals for this Wildlife Inventory Plan for Minnesota Valley NWR are: (1) to provide as good a survey method as possible to estimate population levels of key...

  17. Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge annual narrative: Fiscal year 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1998 fiscal year. The report begins with an...

  18. Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge annual narrative: Fiscal year 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2000 fiscal year. The report begins with an...

  19. Willamette Valley - Invasive Species Management with Volunteers 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Volunteers worked with staff to map and control invasive species within the Willamette Valley National Wildlife Refuge Complex refuges (William L. Finley, Ankeny,...

  20. Defect enhanced spin and valley polarizations in silicene superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Lu, Wei-Tao; Li, Yun-Fang; Han, Hai-Hua

    2017-04-01

    We studied the effect of a defect of superlattice on the spin and valley dependent transport properties in silicene, where there is an abnormal barrier in height. It is found that the transmission resonance is greatly suppressed, because the symmetry of superlattice structure is destroyed by the defect. The spin-up and spin-down electrons near the K and K ‧ valleys are dominated by different effective superlattices and defects. Therefore, the conductances are strongly dependent on the spin and valley of electron. By adjusting the defect strength properly, the spin and valley polarizations could be dramatically enhanced in a wide energy region. Furthermore, the result suggests an application of the structure as a defect-controlled switch.

  1. San Joaquin Valley Aerosol Health Effects Research Center (SAHERC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At the San Joaquin Valley Aerosol Health Effects Center, located at the University of California-Davis, researchers will investigate the properties of particles that...

  2. Global, Computer-generated Map of Valley Networks on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, W.; Stepinski, T. F.

    2009-03-01

    The new, global map of valley networks on Mars has been created entirely by a computer algorithm parsing topographic data. Dependencies between dissection density and its potential controlling factors are derived and discussed.

  3. Channels and valley networks. [of planet Mars surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Victor R.; Carr, Michael H.; Gulick, Virginia C.; Williams, Cameron R.; Marley, Mark S.

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to Martian channels and valley networks, since they have become a principal element of evidence to the effect that the Martian atmosphere evolved from an early volatile-rich state to its present condition. The outflow channels are relatively young, later Hesperian or Amazonian in age. They formed by immense outbursts of fluid from subsurface sources. Complexity in outflow-channel morphology was generated by varying amounts of sediment and ice in the aqueous-fluid flow systems. The overall cataclysmic-flood morphology may thus be locally transitional to morphologies generated by ice and debris flowage. Although local areas of valley networks, such as on Alba Patera, formed coevally with outflow channel activity, regionally extensive networks dominate in the heavily cratered terrains. The morphology of many valleys suggests genesis by ground-water sapping; for some valleys, surface runoff may have been more important.

  4. Sutter Buttes-the lone volcano in California's Great Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausback, Brain P.; Muffler, L.J. Patrick; Clynne, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    The volcanic spires of the Sutter Buttes tower 2,000 feet above the farms and fields of California's Great Valley, just 50 miles north-northwest of Sacramento and 11 miles northwest of Yuba City. The only volcano within the valley, the Buttes consist of a central core of volcanic domes surrounded by a large apron of fragmental volcanic debris. Eruptions at the Sutter Buttes occurred in early Pleistocene time, 1.6 to 1.4 million years ago. The Sutter Buttes are not part of the Cascade Range of volcanoes to the north, but instead are related to the volcanoes in the Coast Ranges to the west in the vicinity of Clear Lake, Napa Valley, and Sonoma Valley.

  5. Biological Profile for Rappahannock River Valley National Wildlife Refuge 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of the Rappahannock River Valley National Wildlife Refuge are: to preserve and enhance the refuge's lands and water in a manner that will conserve the...

  6. Stakeholder Evaluation for Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge : Completion Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report provides a summary of results for the stakeholder evaluation conducted for Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge in winter 2006–2007. The purpose of...

  7. Fishery Management Plan: Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) contains a limited fishery resource. Hogback Ponds, Round Lake, Bituminous Pond, and Blick Estate Stream have fishery...

  8. Technology push, market pull, and the Valley of Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Gregory W.

    2005-09-01

    The Valley of Death is the gap between fundamental research and product development, where apparently promising technologies can stall or disappear. Fundamental researchers may hope for potential applications of their work, and they try to push technology based on their research. Businesses may hope that new technology might serve their market needs, and they try to find promising new technologies that can be pulled toward practical use. The valley between the researchers and the businesses can be surprisingly twisted and thorny, despite government attempts to build roads across it. The histories of cryogenic engineering in the late 20th century and of thermoacoustics work at Los Alamos offer examples of both useful and misguided strategies in this valley. Although global thermoacoustics R&D has not (yet?) been as successful as cryogenic engineering, thermoacoustics has thus far avoided some of the worst pitfalls in the valley.

  9. San Joaquin Valley Aerosol Health Effects Research Center (SAHERC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At the San Joaquin Valley Aerosol Health Effects Center, located at the University of California-Davis, researchers will investigate the properties of particles that...

  10. The Corporate Illiterates: The Hidden Illiterates of Silicon Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Sharon

    1991-01-01

    Describes the writing and business communication problems of college-educated workers in Silicon Valley. Discusses hidden illiterates in the universities and in the workplace. Offers solutions for professors and managers faced with the problem of hidden illiterates. (PRA)

  11. Geophysical Characterization for a CO2 Sequestration Potential in the Ohio River Valley Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, N.; Jagucki, P.; Meggyesy, D.; Janosy, R.; Sminchak, J.; Ramakrishan, T.; Boyd, A.

    2003-12-01

    A site at the American Electric Power's (AEP) Mountaineer Power Plant, WV in the Ohio River Valley in the Midwestern U.S., a region with the economy heavily dependent on fossil fuels, such as coal, oil, and gas, is being evaluated to determine the potential for geologic sequestration. The project is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Battelle, AEP, BP, The Ohio Air Quality Development Office, and Schlumberger. The major objective of the current phase is to characterize the reservoir at the plant site. Future decisions with regard to CO2 injection will be subject to the evaluated reservoir properties. The effort includes acquisition of 2-dimensional seismic data, assessment of regional geology, drilling to PreCambrian rocks and formation analysis and testing in a 2,800 meters deep well, reservoir simulations, risk assessment, and stakeholder outreach. The test well reached total depth in summer 2003. Wireline logging and reservoir testing was performed for each section of the borehole, including extensive tests in the lowermost 885 meters to estimate formation properties and pressure gradients. The logs included gamma-ray, neutron and density, and array resistivity, magnetic resonance relaxation for permeability information, elemental composition via capture spectroscopy, and resistivity based formation image. The seismic survey was conducted over approximately 11 miles along 2 lines: one along strike and one along dip. The results of the geophysical surveys combined with the field observations provide an integrated assessment of the major injection parameters for the two main injection reservoirs of interest, the Rose Run Formation and the Lower Maryville formation. In addition, the properties of the potential caprock formations overlying the candidate injection zones were also determined. The results of this characterization will be presented with emphasis on geophysical testing and seismic survey. These results are also being used to conduct reservoir

  12. The hydrothermal system in southern Grass Valley, Pershing County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Alan H.; Sorey, M.L.; Olmsted, F.H.

    1981-01-01

    Southern Grass Valley is typical extensional basin in the Basin and Range province. Leach Hot Springs, in the southern part of the valley, represents the discharge end of an active hydrothermal flow system with an estimated deep aquifer temperature of 163-173C. This report discusses results of geologic, hydrologic, geophysical and geochemical investigations used in an attempt to construct an internally consistent model of the system. (USGS)

  13. Hydrothermal system in Southern Grass Valley, Pershing County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, A.H.; Sorey, M.L.; Olmsted, F.H.

    1981-01-01

    Southern Grass Valley is a fairly typical extensional basin in the Basin and Range province. Leach Hot Springs, in the southern part of the valley, represents the discharge end of an active hydrothermal flow system with an estimated deep aquifer temperature of 163 to 176/sup 0/C. Results of geologic, hydrologic, geophysical and geochemical investigations are discussed in an attempt to construct an internally consistent model of the system.

  14. The Ferghana Valley as a factor of instability

    OpenAIRE

    Sydykov, Aslan

    2000-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Political Science and Public Administration of Bilkent University, 2000. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2000. Includes bibliographical references. After the collapse of the Soviet Union the huge territory of Central Asia turned to be one of the most conflict-ridden 1nd unstable areas in thr world. Several bloody uprisings have occurred and are occurring in the region, including some in the Ferghana Valley. This valley plays a crucial role...

  15. Lithologic controls on valley width and strath terrace formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanz, Sarah A.; Montgomery, David R.

    2016-04-01

    Valley width and the degree of bedrock river terrace development vary with lithology in the Willapa and Nehalem river basins, Pacific Northwest, USA. Here, we present field-based evidence for the mechanisms by which lithology controls floodplain width and bedrock terrace formation in erosion-resistant and easily friable lithologies. We mapped valley surfaces in both basins, dated straths using radiocarbon, compared valley width versus drainage area for basalt and sedimentary bedrock valleys, and constructed slope-area plots. In the friable sedimentary bedrock, valleys are 2 to 3 times wider, host flights of strath terraces, and have concavity values near 1; whereas the erosion-resistant basalt bedrock forms narrow valleys with poorly developed, localized, or no bedrock terraces and a channel steepness index half that of the friable bedrock and an average channel concavity of about 0.5. The oldest dated strath terrace on the Willapa River, T2, was active for nearly 10,000 years, from 11,265 to 2862 calibrated years before present (cal YBP), whereas the youngest terrace, T1, is Anthropocene in age and recently abandoned. Incision rates derived from terrace ages average 0.32 mm y- 1 for T2 and 11.47 mm y- 1 for T1. Our results indicate bedrock weathering properties influence valley width through the creation of a dense fracture network in the friable bedrock that results in high rates of lateral erosion of exposed bedrock banks. Conversely, the erosion-resistant bedrock has concavity values more typical of detachment-limited streams, exhibits a sparse fracture network, and displays evidence for infrequent episodic block erosion and plucking. Lithology thereby plays a direct role on the rates of lateral erosion, influencing valley width and the potential for strath terrace planation and preservation.

  16. Seismicity related to geothermal development in Dixie Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryall, A.S.; Vetter, U.R.

    1982-07-08

    A ten-station seismic network was operated in and around the Dixie Valley area from January 1980 to November 1981; three of these stations are still in operation. Data from the Dixie Valley network were analyzed through 30 Jun 1981, and results of analysis were compared with analysis of somewhat larger events for the period 1970-1979. The seismic cycle in the Western Great Basic, the geologic structural setting, and the instrumentation are also described.

  17. Why do European companies have Innovation Hubs in Silicon Valley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Andreas; Brem, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Innovation hubs are gaining high attention in recent years, especially from European companies. Silicon Valley has been deemed as one of the most attractive and successful environments for establishing innovation hubs. This article highlights examples of companies from Europe that made the step t...... to California—namely, Volkswagen, Swisscom, BMW, Axel Springer, Munich Re, and Innogy SE (RWE Group). Based on these companies’ experiences, recommendations are given on how companies might approach a setup in Silicon Valley for long-term success....

  18. Geyser Valley on the Kamchatka Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    On June 2, a devastating mudslide in the world-renowned Geyser Valley on the Kamchatka Peninsula virtually obliterated the natural wonder, forcing the emergency evacuation of visitors and national park personnel. The site, which is the Kamchatka Peninsula's main tourist attraction, consists of some 200 thermal pools created by the area's intense volcanic activity, including about 90 geysers covering an area of four square kilometers (2.5 square miles). It is one of only five sites in the world where the impressive eruptions of steam and boiling-hot water can be found. According to witnesses, a powerful mudslide 1.5 kilometers (one mile) long and 200 meters (600 feet) wide buried more than two-thirds of the valley beneath tens of meters of snow, dirt, trees and boulders (right image), and created a temporary lake submerging more geysers. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra spacecraft. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet

  19. Quantum state transfer between valley and photon qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming-Jay; Peng, Han-Ying; Na, Neil; Wu, Yu-Shu

    2017-02-01

    The electron-photon interaction in two-dimensional materials obeys the rule of "electron valley-photon polarization" correspondence. At the quantum level, such correspondence can be utilized to entangle valleys and polarizations and attain the transfer of quantum states (or information) between valley and photon qubits. Our paper presents a theoretical study of the interaction between the two types of qubits and the resultant quantum state transfer. A generic setup is introduced, which involves optical cavities enhancing the electron-photon interaction as well as facilitating both the entanglement and unentanglement between valleys and polarizations required by the transfer. The quantum system considered consists of electrons, optically excited trions, and cavity photons, with photons moving in and out of the system. A wave equation based analysis is performed, and analytical expressions are derived for the two important figures of merits that characterize the transfer, namely, yield and fidelity, allowing for the investigation of their dependences on various qubit and cavity parameters. A numerical study of the yield and fidelity has also been carried out. Overall, this paper shows promising characteristics in the valley-photon state transfer, with the conclusion that the valley-polarization correspondence can be exploited to achieve the transfer with good yield and high fidelity.

  20. Geothermal resource assessment of western San Luis Valley, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacharakis, Ted G.; Pearl, Richard Howard; Ringrose, Charles D.

    1983-01-01

    The Colorado Geological Survey initiated and carried out a fully integrated assessment program of the geothermal resource potential of the western San Luis Valley during 1979 and 1980. The San Luis Valley is a large intermontane basin located in southcentral Colorado. While thermal springs and wells are found throughout the Valley, the only thermal waters found along the western part of the Valley are found at Shaw Warm Springs which is a relatively unused spring located approximately 6 miles (9.66 km) north of Del Norte, Colorado. The waters at Shaws Warm Spring have a temperature of 86 F (30 C), a discharge of 40 gallons per minute and contain approximately 408 mg/l of total dissolved solids. The assessment program carried out din the western San Luis Valley consisted of: soil mercury geochemical surveys; geothermal gradient drilling; and dipole-dipole electrical resistivity traverses, Schlumberger soundings, Audio-magnetotelluric surveys, telluric surveys, and time-domain electro-magnetic soundings and seismic surveys. Shaw Warm Springs appears to be the only source of thermal waters along the western side of the Valley. From the various investigations conducted the springs appear to be fault controlled and is very limited in extent. Based on best evidence presently available estimates are presented on the size and extent of Shaw Warm Springs thermal system. It is estimated that this could have an areal extent of 0.63 sq. miles (1.62 sq. km) and contain 0.0148 Q's of heat energy.

  1. Climate controls on valley fever incidence in Kern County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zender, Charles S.; Talamantes, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    Coccidiodomycosis (valley fever) is a systemic infection caused by inhalation of airborne spores from Coccidioides immitis, a soil-dwelling fungus found in the southwestern United States, parts of Mexico, and Central and South America. Dust storms help disperse C. immitis so risk factors for valley fever include conditions favorable for fungal growth (moist, warm soil) and for aeolian soil erosion (dry soil and strong winds). Here, we analyze and inter-compare the seasonal and inter-annual behavior of valley fever incidence and climate risk factors for the period 1980-2002 in Kern County, California, the US county with highest reported incidence. We find weak but statistically significant links between disease incidence and antecedent climate conditions. Precipitation anomalies 8 and 20 months antecedent explain only up to 4% of monthly variability in subsequent valley fever incidence during the 23 year period tested. This is consistent with previous studies suggesting that C. immitis tolerates hot, dry periods better than competing soil organisms and, as a result, thrives during wet periods following droughts. Furthermore, the relatively small correlation with climate suggests that the causes of valley fever in Kern County could be largely anthropogenic. Seasonal climate predictors of valley fever in Kern County are similar to, but much weaker than, those in Arizona, where previous studies find precipitation explains up to 75% of incidence. Causes for this discrepancy are not yet understood. Higher resolution temporal and spatial monitoring of soil conditions could improve our understanding of climatic antecedents of severe epidemics.

  2. Spin-valley caloritronics in silicene near room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Xuechao; Gao, Wenwen; Cai, Xinlong; Fan, Ding; Yang, Zhihong; Meng, Lan

    2016-12-01

    Two-dimensional silicene, with an observable intrinsic spin-orbit coupling, has a great potential to perform fascinating physics and new types of applications in spintronics and valleytronics. By introducing an electromotive force from a temperature difference in ferromagnetic silicene, we discover that a longitudinal spin Seebeck effect can be driven even near room temperature, with spin-up and spin-down currents flowing in opposite directions, originating from the asymmetric electron-hole spin band structures. We further propose a silicene field-effect transistor constructed of two ferromagnetic electrodes and a central dual-gated region, and find that a valley Seebeck effect appears, with currents from two different valleys flowing in opposite directions. The forbidden transport channels are determined by either spin-valley dependent band gaps or spin mismatch. By tuning the electric field in the central region, the transport gaps depending on spin and valley vary correspondingly, and a transition from valley Seebeck effect to spin Seebeck effect is observed. These spin-valley caloritronic results near room temperature are robust against many real perturbations, and thus suggest silicene to be an excellent candidate for future energy-saving technologies and bidirectional information processing in solid-state circuits.

  3. In the Valleys: Las Mujeres Muralistas del Valle and Chicana Art in the San Joaquin Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Carissa Garcia

    2016-01-01

    Three years ago I found my mother’s name in a book about muralism throughout California. Not knowing my mother as a “public” artist, I pursued an intimate investigation on Chicana artists in public vs. alternative spaces. This thesis explores the process of making a short documentary film, that focused on two artists Cecilia Aranaydo and Silvia Figueroa Garcia (my mother) from an early Chicana art collective in the San Joaquin Valley called Las Mujeres Muralistas del Valle (1978). As we dig ...

  4. Geochemical evolution of Mexicali Valley groundwaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makdisi, R.S.; Truesdell, A.H.; Thompson, J.M.; Coplen, T.B.; Sanchez R., J.

    1982-08-10

    Isotopic and chemical compositions of Mexicali Valley groundwaters vary widely. Observed variations reflect different water origins, mineral-water reactions, lateral variations of delta facies as well as evaporation. Regional treatment of the groundwater data shows that northern and central regions are a mixture of old and new Colorado River water. Variations in water chemistry result from different groundwaters origins and the effects of lateral delta facies changes. Dissolution of gypsum and precipitation of carbonates, silicates, and phosphates are suggested. The eastern Mesa de San Luis and southern region water originates primarily from the Gila River catchment area. This water is undersaturated with respect to gypsum and carbonates and is oversaturated with respect to silicates. Most of the western groundwaters are a mixture of Colorado River and geothermal waters in the proximity of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field. Recharge to the geothermal aquifer is from the west as well as the north and east. Calcite is being precipitated out as the groundwater temperatures rise in response to the geothermal anomaly. Other western groundwaters reflect a dominant mixture of Colorado River water and evaporated lake water. Some Western groundwater samples suggest dilution by local rainwater and/or irrigation water.

  5. Fungal Biodiversity in the Alpine Tarfala Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Coleine

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Biological soil crusts (BSCs are distributed worldwide in all semiarid and arid lands, where they play a determinant role in element cycling and soil development. Although much work has concentrated on BSC microbial communities, free-living fungi have been hitherto largely overlooked. The aim of this study was to examine the fungal biodiversity, by cultural-dependent and cultural-independent approaches, in thirteen samples of Arctic BSCs collected at different sites in the Alpine Tarfala Valley, located on the slopes of Kebnekaise, the highest mountain in northern Scandinavia. Isolated fungi were identified by both microscopic observation and molecular approaches. Data revealed that the fungal assemblage composition was homogeneous among the BSCs analyzed, with low biodiversity and the presence of a few dominant species; the majority of fungi isolated belonged to the Ascomycota, and Cryptococcus gilvescens and Pezoloma ericae were the most frequently-recorded species. Ecological considerations for the species involved and the implication of our findings for future fungal research in BSCs are put forward.

  6. Fungal Biodiversity in the Alpine Tarfala Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleine, Claudia; Selbmann, Laura; Ventura, Stefano; D'Acqui, Luigi Paolo; Onofri, Silvano; Zucconi, Laura

    2015-10-10

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are distributed worldwide in all semiarid and arid lands, where they play a determinant role in element cycling and soil development. Although much work has concentrated on BSC microbial communities, free-living fungi have been hitherto largely overlooked. The aim of this study was to examine the fungal biodiversity, by cultural-dependent and cultural-independent approaches, in thirteen samples of Arctic BSCs collected at different sites in the Alpine Tarfala Valley, located on the slopes of Kebnekaise, the highest mountain in northern Scandinavia. Isolated fungi were identified by both microscopic observation and molecular approaches. Data revealed that the fungal assemblage composition was homogeneous among the BSCs analyzed, with low biodiversity and the presence of a few dominant species; the majority of fungi isolated belonged to the Ascomycota, and Cryptococcus gilvescens and Pezoloma ericae were the most frequently-recorded species. Ecological considerations for the species involved and the implication of our findings for future fungal research in BSCs are put forward.

  7. Soil formation in the Tsauchab Valley, Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eden, Marie; Bens, Oliver; Ramisch, Arne; Schwindt, Daniel; Völkel, Jörg

    2016-04-01

    The BMBF-funded project GeoArchives (Spaces) investigates soils and sediments in Southern Africa. A focus area lies on the Tsauchab Valley (Namibia), South of the Naukluft mountain range (24°26'40'' S, 16°10'40'' E). On a gently sloping alluvial fan facing East towards the river, the surface is characterized by a desert pavement covering soils used as farmland. The landscape units were mapped and the area at the lower slope of a hill was divided into three units: a rinsing surface and a gravel plain, separated by a channel. On these surfaces soil profiles were excavated. Profile description followed the German system (Bodenkundliche Kartieranleitung KA 5) and disturbed samples were taken at various depths and analysed in the lab. Undisturbed soil cores with a volume of 100 cm³ were taken just below the surface at a depth of ~1-6 cm. Lab analyses included texture and gravel content, colour, pH, electrical conductivity, carbonates, CNS, cation exchange capacity, pedogenic oxides, main and trace elements (XRF), and clay mineral distribution (XRD). Undisturbed samples were used to determine soil water retention curve, air permeability and bulk density. The profiles revealed moderately developed cambic soils rich in clay minerals and with total carbon contents ranging up to 1.8 %, bearing shrubs and after episodic rainfall a dense grass vegetation. Their genesis is discussed and interpreted in the context of the landscape and climate history of this semi-desert environment.

  8. Vegetation aspects in the Lapus Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica MARIAN

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation aspects in the Lăpuş Valey vegetation. The Lăpuş Valey belong the Maramureş county. It’s situated in North of Transilvania and his territory covers few geomorphological units like: Rodna Mountains, the Maramureş Mountains, the Gutâi Mountains. The longest river wich crossed the county is Lăpuş. The climat is formed under the influence of dominantly western and north-western atmospheric flow and sheltered by the nerby mountains. The Lăpuş Mountins far from having impressing heights, are very fragmentated, with deep valleys and steep slopes, the river Lăpuş forming true quays. Near the Lăpuş Valey the peaks are covered with forest consist in special in beech forests with a few oak trees and small meadows of Nardus stricta and Agrostis stolonifera. Near the river they are also low forest edificated by Salix alba and Alnus glutinosa.

  9. Tennessee Valley Region: a year 2000 profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the potential radiological implications of nuclear facilities in the combined watersheds of the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers, an area covering portions of 7 states of varied topography. The regional population in 1970 was about 4.6 million and is expected to increase to about 7 million by the year 2000. A 1973 projection estimated the installed electric generating capacity of the region to increase from a 1970 value of 45,000 megawatts to a total of 222,000 megawatts by the year 2000. In that year, about 144,000 megawatts were projected to be nuclear plants. The profile of the Tennessee Valley Region in the year 2000, as drawn from this report, contains the essential data for calculation of the radiological dose from operation of nuclear facilities in that year. Those calculations are reported in the companion document, DOE/ET-0064/2. Specifically, Volume I establishes the parameters describing where the people live, what they eat, the activities in which they engage, and the environmental surroundings that enable an evaluation of the potential radiation dose to the population. Airborne radionuclides from nuclear facilities in this zone may enter the study area and be deposited on the ground, on growing food, and on water surfaces. Consideration was not given to waterborne radionuclides external to the study region. 17 references. (MCW)

  10. Higgs portal valleys, stability and inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Ballesteros, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    The measured values of the Higgs and top quark masses imply that the Standard Model potential is very likely to be unstable at large Higgs values. This is particularly problematic during inflation, which sources large perturbations of the Higgs. The instability could be cured by a threshold effect induced by a scalar with a large vacuum expectation value and directly connected to the Standard Model through a Higgs portal coupling. However, we find that in a minimal model in which the scalar generates inflation, this mechanism does not stabilize the potential because the mass required for inflation is beyond the instability scale. This conclusion does not change if the Higgs has a direct weak coupling to the scalar curvature. On the other hand, if the potential is absolutely stable, successful inflation in agreement with current CMB data can occur along a valley of the potential with a Mexican hat profile. We revisit the stability conditions, independently of inflation, and clarify that the threshold effect ca...

  11. The Long Valley Well: Phase II operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finger, J.T.

    1992-01-01

    Phase II of the Long Valley Exploratory Well was completed to a depth of 7588 feet in November 1991. The drilling comprised two sub-phases: (1) drilling 17-1/2 inch hole from the Phase I casing shoe at 2558 feet to a depth of 7130 feet, plugging back to 6826 feet, and setting 13-3/8 inch casing at 6825 feet, all during August--September 1991; and (2) returning in November to drill a 3.85-inch core hole deviated out of the previous wellbore at 6868 feet and extending to 7588 feet. Ultimate depth of the well is planned to be 20,000 feet, or at a bottomhole temperature of 500{degrees}C, whichever comes first. Total cost of this drilling phase was approximately $2.3 million, and funding was shared about equally between the California Energy Commission and the Department of Energy. Phase II scientific work will commence in July 1992 and will be supported by DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, DOE Geothermal Division, and other funding sources.

  12. The Long Valley Well - Phase II Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finger, John T.

    1992-03-24

    Phase II of the Long Valley Exploratory Well was completed to a depth of 7588 feet in November 1991. The drilling comprised two sub-phases: (1) drilling 17-1/2 inch hole from the Phase I casing shoe at 2558 feet to a depth of 7130 feet, plugging back to 6826 feet, and setting 13-3/8 inch casing at 6825 feet, all during August-September 1991; and (2) returning in November to drill a 3.85-inch core hole deviated out of the previous wellbore at 6808 feet and extending to 7588 feet. Ultimate depth of the well is planned to be 20,000 feet, or at a bottomhole temperature of 500 C, whichever comes first. Total cost of this drilling phase was approximately $2.3 million, and funding was shared about equally between the California Energy Commission and the Department of Energy. Phase II scientific work will commence in July 1992 and will be supported by DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, DOE Geothermal Division, and other funding sources.

  13. Magnetotelluric Data, Southern San Luis Valley, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jackie M.; Rodriguez, Brian D.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The population of the San Luis Valley region is growing rapidly. The shallow unconfined and the deeper confined Santa Fe Group aquifer in the San Luis Basin is the main sources of municipal water for the region. Water shortfalls could have serious consequences. Future growth and land management in the region depend on accurate assessment and protection of the region's ground-water resources. An important issue in managing the ground-water resources is a better understanding of the hydrogeology of the Santa Fe Group and the nature of the sedimentary deposits that fill the Rio Grande rift, which contain the principal ground-water aquifers. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a series of multidisciplinary studies of the San Luis Basin located in southern Colorado. Detailed geologic mapping, high-resolution airborne magnetic surveys, gravity surveys, an electromagnetic survey, called magnetotellurics (MT), and hydrologic and lithologic data are being used to better understand the aquifer systems. The primary goal of the MT survey is to map changes in electrical resistivity with depth that are related to differences in rock type. These various rock types help control the properties of aquifers in the region. This report does not include any interpretation of the data. Its purpose is to release the MT data acquired at the 22 stations shown in figure 1.

  14. Magnetotelluric Data, San Luis Valley, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Brian D.; Williams, Jackie M.

    2008-01-01

    The San Luis Valley region population is growing. Water shortfalls could have serious consequences. Future growth and land management in the region depend on accurate assessment and protection of the region?s ground-water resources. An important issue in managing the ground-water resources is a better understanding of the hydrogeology of the Santa Fe Group and the nature of the sedimentary deposits that fill the Rio Grande rift, which contain the principal ground-water aquifers. The shallow unconfined aquifer and the deeper confined Santa Fe Group aquifer in the San Luis Basin are the main sources of municipal water for the region. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a series of multidisciplinary studies of the San Luis Basin located in southern Colorado. Detailed geologic mapping, high-resolution airborne magnetic surveys, gravity surveys, an electromagnetic survey (called magnetotellurics, or MT), and hydrologic and lithologic data are being used to better understand the aquifers. The MT survey primary goal is to map changes in electrical resistivity with depth that are related to differences in rock types. These various rock types help control the properties of aquifers. This report does not include any data interpretation. Its purpose is to release the MT data acquired at 24 stations. Two of the stations were collected near Santa Fe, New Mexico, near deep wildcat wells. Well logs from those wells will help tie future interpretations of this data with geologic units from the Santa Fe Group sediments to Precambrian basement.

  15. 77 FR 47921 - Pecos Valley Permian Railroad, L.L.C. d/b/a Pecos Valley Southern Railway Company-Lease Exemption...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... Company--Lease Exemption--Pecos Valley Southern Railway Company Pecos Valley Permian Railroad, L.L.C. d/b... exemption pursuant to 49 CFR 1150.31 to lease from the Pecos Valley Southern Railway Company (PVS) and... states that the lease agreement between PVS and PVR will not contain any interchange commitments....

  16. THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY CO2 STORAGE PROJECT - PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF DEEP SALINE RESERVOIRS AND COAL SEAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael J. Mudd; Howard Johnson; Charles Christopher; T.S. Ramakrishnan, Ph.D.

    2003-08-01

    This report describes the geologic setting for the Deep Saline Reservoirs and Coal Seams in the Ohio River Valley CO{sub 2} Storage Project area. The object of the current project is to site and design a CO{sub 2} injection facility. A location near New Haven, WV, has been selected for the project. To assess geologic storage reservoirs at the site, regional and site-specific geology were reviewed. Geologic reports, deep well logs, hydraulic tests, and geologic maps were reviewed for the area. Only one well within 25 miles of the site penetrates the deeper sedimentary rocks, so there is a large amount of uncertainty regarding the deep geology at the site. New Haven is located along the Ohio River on the border of West Virginia and Ohio. Topography in the area is flat in the river valley but rugged away from the Ohio River floodplain. The Ohio River Valley incises 50-100 ft into bedrock in the area. The area of interest lies within the Appalachian Plateau, on the western edge of the Appalachian Mountain chain. Within the Appalachian Basin, sedimentary rocks are 3,000 to 20,000 ft deep and slope toward the southeast. The rock formations consist of alternating layers of shale, limestone, dolomite, and sandstone overlying dense metamorphic continental shield rocks. The Rome Trough is the major structural feature in the area, and there may be some faults associated with the trough in the Ohio-West Virginia Hinge Zone. The area has a low earthquake hazard with few historical earthquakes. Target injection reservoirs include the basal sandstone/Lower Maryville and the Rose Run Sandstone. The basal sandstone is an informal name for sandstones that overlie metamorphic shield rock. Regional geology indicates that the unit is at a depth of approximately 9,100 ft below the surface at the project site and associated with the Maryville Formation. Overall thickness appears to be 50-100 ft. The Rose Run Sandstone is another potential reservoir. The unit is located approximately 1

  17. The Role of Source Material in Basin Sedimentation, as Illustrated within Eureka Valley, Death Valley National Park, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, M. J.; Yin, A.; Rhodes, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    Steep landscapes are known to provide sediment to sink regions, but often petrological factors can dominate basin sedimentation. Within Eureka Valley, in northwestern Death Valley National Park, normal faulting has exposed a steep cliff face on the western margin of the Last Chance range with four kilometers of vertical relief from the valley floor and an angle of repose of nearly 38 degrees. The cliff face is composed of Cambrian limestone and dolomite, including the Bonanza King, Carrara and Wood Canyon formations. Interacting with local normal faulting, these units preferentially break off the cliff face in coherent blocks, which result in landslide deposits rather than as finer grained material found within the basin. The valley is well known for a large sand dune, which derives its sediment from distal sources to the north, instead of from the adjacent Last Chance Range cliff face. During the Holocene, sediment is sourced primary from the northerly Willow Wash and Cucomungo canyon, a relatively small drainage (less than 80 km2) within the Sylvan Mountains. Within this drainage, the Jurassic quartz monzonite of Beer Creek is heavily fractured due to motion of the Fish Valley Lake - Death Valley fault zone. Thus, the quartz monzonite is more easily eroded than the well-consolidated limestone and dolomite that forms the Last Change Range cliff face. As well, the resultant eroded material is smaller grained, and thus more easily transported than the limestone. Consequently, this work highlights an excellent example of the strong influence that source material can have on basin sedimentation.

  18. Agricultural Development, Land Change, and Livelihoods in Tanzania's Kilombero Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, John Patrick

    The Kilombero Valley lies at the intersection of a network of protected areas that cross Tanzania. The wetlands and woodlands of the Valley, as well as the forest of surrounding mountains are abundant in biodiversity and are considered to be critical areas for conservation. This area, however, is also the home to more than a half million people, primarily poor smallholder farmers. In an effort to support the livelihoods and food security of these farmers and the larger Tanzanian population, the country has recently targeted a series of programs to increase agricultural production in the Kilombero Valley and elsewhere in the country. Bridging concepts and methods from land change science, political ecology, and sustainable livelihoods, I present an integrated assessment of the linkages between development and conservation efforts in the Kilombero Valley and the implications for food security. This dissertation uses three empirical studies to understand the process of development in the Kilombero Valley and to link the priorities and perceptions of conservation and development efforts to the material outcomes in food security and land change. The first paper of this dissertation examines the changes in land use in the Kilombero Valley between 1997 and 2014 following the privatization of agriculture and the expansion of Tanzania's Kilimo Kwanza program. Remote sensing analysis reveals a two-fold increase in agricultural area during this short time, largely at the expense of forest. Protected areas in some parts of the Valley appear to be deterring deforestation, but rapid agricultural growth, particularly surrounding a commercial rice plantation, has led to loss of extant forest and sustained habitat fragmentation. The second paper focuses examines livelihood strategies in the Valley and claims regarding the role of agrobiodiversity in food security. The results of household survey reveal no difference or lower food security among households that diversify their

  19. Topographic evolution of Yosemite Valley from Low Temperature Thermochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy-Lang, A.; Shuster, D. L.; Cuffey, K. M.; Fox, M.

    2014-12-01

    In this contribution, we interrogate the timing of km-scale topography development in the region around Yosemite Valley, California. Our goal is to determine when this spectacular glacial valley was carved, and how this might help address controversy surrounding the topographic evolution of the Sierra Nevada. At the scale of the range, two rival hypotheses are each supported by different datasets. Low-temperature thermochronology supports the idea that the range has been high-standing since the Cretaceous, whereas geomorphic evidence suggests that much of the elevation of the Sierra Nevada was attained during the Pliocene. Recent work by McPhillips and Brandon (2012) suggests instead that both ideas are valid, with the range losing much elevation during the Cenozoic, but regaining it during Miocene surface uplift.At the local scale, the classic study of Matthes (1930) determined that most of Yosemite Valley was excavated by the Sherwin-age glaciation that ended ~1 Ma. The consensus view is in agreement, although some argue that nearby comparable valleys comparable were carved long ago (e.g., House et al., 1998). If the Quaternary and younger glaciations were responsible for the bulk of the valley's >1 km depth, we might expect apatite (U-Th)/He ages at the valley floor to be Portal yields an age of ~74 Ma. Valley rim samples yield ages of ca. 60 Ma. To further constrain the timing of valley carving, we have conducted apatite 4He/3He thermochronometry from samples along both the valley floor and rim. By restricting the permissible thermal histories at these locations, these data constrain patterns of valley topography development through time. We also supplement these data with zircon 4He/3He thermochronometry, which is a newly developed method that provides information on continuous cooling paths through ~120-220 °C. We will present both the apatite and zircon 4He/3He data and, in conjunction with thermo-kinematic modeling, discuss the ability and limitations of

  20. The valley filter efficiency of monolayer graphene and bilayer graphene line defect model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shu-guang; Zhou, Jiaojiao; Jiang, Hua; Sun, Qing-Feng

    2016-10-01

    In addition to electron charge and spin, novel materials host another degree of freedom, the valley. For a junction composed of valley filter sandwiched by two normal terminals, we focus on the valley efficiency under disorder with two valley filter models based on monolayer and bilayer graphene. Applying the transfer matrix method, valley resolved transmission coefficients are obtained. We find that: (i) under weak disorder, when the line defect length is over about 15 {nm}, it functions as a perfect channel (quantized conductance) and valley filter (totally polarized); (ii) in the diffusive regime, combination effects of backscattering and bulk states assisted intervalley transmission enhance the conductance and suppress the valley polarization; (iii) for very long line defect, though the conductance is small, polarization is indifferent to length. Under perpendicular magnetics field, the characters of charge and valley transport are only slightly affected. Finally we discuss the efficiency of transport valley polarized current in a hybrid system.

  1. Source regions and water release mechanisms of Martian Valley Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaumann, R.; Reiss, D.; Sander, T.; Gwinner, K.; Roatsch, T.; Matz, K.-D.; Hauber, E.; Mertens, V.; Hoffmann, H.; Neukum, G.; HRSC Co-Investigator Team

    Martian valley networks have been cited as the best evidence that Mars maintained flow of liquid water across the surface. Although internal structures associated with a fluvial origin within valleys like inner channels, terraces, slip-off and undercut slopes are extremely rare on Mars (Carr and Malin, 2000) such features can be identified in high-resolution imagery (e.g. Malin and Edgett, 2001; Jaumann et al., 2005). However, besides internal features the source regions are an important indicator for the flow processes in Martian valleys because they define the drainage area and thus constrain the amount of available water for eroding the valley network. Furthermore, the morphology of the source regions and their topographic characteristics provide information about the origin of the water. On Mars valley networks are thought to be formed by retreating erosion where the water is supplied from the sub-surface. However, the mechanisms that are responsible for the release of ground water are poorly understood. The three dimensional highly resolved data of the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) on the Mars Express Mission (Neukum et al., 2004) allow the detailed examination of valley network source regions. A valley network in the western Lybia Montes region valley between 1.4°N to 3.5°N and 81.6°E to 82.5°E originates at a highland mountain region and drains down to Isidis Planitia over a distance of 400 km. Most of its distance the valley exhibits an interior channel that allows to constraint discharge and erosion budgets (Jaumann, et al., 2005). The valley was formed in the Noachian/Hesperian between 3.7 and 3.3 billion years. However, discharge and erosion budgets restrict the erosion time to a few million years in total, indicating single events rather than continuous flow over long periods. The source region of the valley is covered by a series of lava flows. Even the upstream part of the valley is covered by lava flows that cover the interior channel

  2. Land Subsidence Caused by Groundwater Exploitation in Quetta Valley, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najeebullah Kakar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Land subsidence is affecting several metropolitan cities in developing as well as developed countries around the world such as Nagoya (Japan, Shanghai (China, Venice (Italy and San Joaquin valley (United States. This phenomenon is attributed to natural as well as anthropogenic activities that include extensive groundwater withdrawals. Quetta is the largest city of Balochistan province in Pakistan. This valley is mostly dry and ground water is the major source for domestic and agricultural consumption. The unplanned use of ground water resources has led to the deterioration of water quality and quantity in the Quetta valley. Water shortage in the region was further aggravated by the drought during (1998-2004 that hit the area forcing people to migrate from rural to urban areas. Refugees from the war torn neighboring Afghanistan also contributed to rapid increase in population of Quetta valley that has increased from 0.26 million in 1975 to 3.0 million in 2016. The objective of this study was to measure the land subsidence in Quetta valley and identify the effects of groundwater withdrawals on land subsidence. To achieve this goal, data from five Global Positioning System (GPS stations were acquired and processed. Furthermore the groundwater decline data from 41 observation wells during 2010 to 2015 were calculated and compared with the land deformation. The results of this study revealed that the land of Quetta valley is subsiding from 30mm/y on the flanks to 120 mm/y in the central part. 1.5-5.0 m/y of groundwater level drop was recorded in the area where the rate of subsidence is highest. So the extensive groundwater withdrawals in Quetta valley is considered to be the driving force behind land subsidence.

  3. Interactions Between the Nighttime Valley-Wind System and a Developing Cold-Air Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arduini, Gabriele; Staquet, Chantal; Chemel, Charles

    2016-10-01

    The Weather Research and Forecast numerical model is used to characterize the influence of a thermally-driven down-valley flow on a developing cold-air pool in an idealized alpine valley decoupled from the atmosphere above. Results for a three-dimensional (3D) valley, which allows for the formation of a down-valley flow, and for a two-dimensional (2D) valley, where the formation of a down-valley flow is inhibited, are analyzed and compared. A key result is that advection leads to a net cooling in the 2D valley and to a warming in the 3D valley, once the down-valley flow is fully developed. This difference stems from the suppression of the slope-flow induced upward motions over the valley centre in the 3D valley. As a result, the downslope flows develop a cross-valley circulation within the cold-air pool, the growth of the cold-air pool is reduced and the valley atmosphere is generally warmer than in the 2D valley. A quasi-steady state is reached for which the divergence of the down-valley flow along the valley is balanced by the convergence of the downslope flows at the top of the cold-air pool, with no net contribution of subsiding motions far from the slope layer. More precisely, the inflow of air at the top of the cold-air pool is found to be driven by an interplay between the return flow from the plain region and subsidence over the plateaux. Finally, the mechanisms that control the structure of the cold-air pool and its evolution are found to be independent of the valley length as soon as the quasi-steady state is reached and the down-valley flow is fully developed.

  4. Lung cancer in the Kashmir valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koul Parvaiz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lung cancer has been found to be the second commonest cancer according to a hospital-based data from Kashmir, India. However, no incidence studies are available. Objective: To ascertain the incidence of lung cancer in Kashmir. Materials and Methods: All newly histologically diagnosed cases of lung cancer seen in various hospital and private laboratories of the Kashmir valley were registered over a period of two years (January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2005. Also included were patients attending the various oncological service areas of the institute and those diagnosed from any other laboratory outside the state. The incidence rate was calculated using the January 2005 population as the reference population estimated using the census-based projected populations. Results: Four hundred and sixty-two incident cases of lung cancer were seen during the study period. The crude incidence rate, age standardized (world and truncated age adjusted (40-69 years, world incidence rates for lung cancer per 100 000 population were 4.01, 6.48 and 15.28 respectively (males 6.55, 10.09 and 23.94 respectively and females 1.19, 2.14 and 4.65. The age adjusted rates for males in district Srinagar was 19.34 per 100 000. One hundred and fifty nine (69.8% of the 221 had a history of Hukkah smoking. Conclusions: Even though Kashmir as a whole is a low incidence area for lung cancer (ASR of < 15, Srinagar district has the highest incidence of lung cancer among the males in Kashmir. The data presented is assumed to be the closest approximation to a population-based data registry and the geographical incidence maps of ICMR need appropriate updating

  5. Ground-water resources of Pavant Valley, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mower, R.W.

    1965-01-01

    Pavant Valley, in eastern Millard County in west-central Utah, is in the Great Basin section of the Basin and Range province. The area of investigation is 34 miles long from north to south and 9 miles wide from east to west and comprises about 300 square miles. Agriculture, tourist trade, and mining are the principal industries. The population of the valley is about 3,500, of which about half live in Fillmore, the county seat of Millard County. The climate is semiarid and temperatures are moderate. Average normal annual precipitation in the lowlands is estimated to range from 10 to 14 inches. Precipitation is heaviest during the late winter and spring, January through May. The average monthly temperature at Fillmore ranges from 29?F in January to 76?F in July; the average annual temperature is 52?F. Because of the aridity, most crops cannot be grown successfully without irrigation. Irrigation requirements were satisfied for about 60 years after the valley was settled by diverting streams tributary to the valley. Artesian water was discovered near Flowell in 1915. By 1920 flowing artesian wells supplied about 10 percent of the irrigation water used in the valley, not including water from the Central Utah Canal. The Central Utah Canal was constructed in 1916 to convey water to the Pavant Valley from the Sevier River. Especially since 1916, the quantity of surface water available each year for irrigation has changed with the vagaries of nature. The total percentage of irrigation water contributed by ground water, on the other hand, gradually increased to about 15 percent in 1945 and then increased rapidly to 45 percent in 1960; it will probably stabilize at about 50 percent. Sand and gravel deposits of Recent and Pleistocene age are the principal aquifers in Pavant Valley. These deposits are coarser, more extensive, and more permeable near the mountains and become progressively finer .and less .permeable westward away from the mountains. As ground water moves westward

  6. Stochastic analysis of particle trajectories through river valleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmon, D. V.; Dunne, T.; Reneau, S. L.

    2008-12-01

    The movement of sediment through fluvial systems includes short episodes of transport separated by long periods of particle storage in fluvial sediment storage reservoirs such as floodplains. The trajectory of a particle through a valley floor containing sediment storage reservoirs can be modeled as a random process, consisting of a series of mobilization, transport, and deposition events. The probabilities of these events are determined by the rates of sediment transport and exchange in the valley floor, and by the masses of well- mixed storage reservoirs (i.e., the sediment budget). We developed and formalized a probabilistic theory of particle trajectories through alluvial valley floors by casting the movement of a particle as a finite Markov chain, a stochastic process in which the movement from one state to the next is determined by the transition probabilities among storage states. Transition probabilities for a valley floor in steady state with respect to sediment storage can be directly computed from the sediment budget using a simple set of equations. The transition probability matrix can be used to compute probability distributions of sediment residence times within valley floor storage elements, and to predict the fate of sediment-bound constituents such as pollutants, nutrients, and tracers. The theory was tested by modeling the redistribution and radioactive decay of particle-bound 137Cs in a small alluvial valley downstream of Los Alamos, New Mexico, and comparing the modeled distribution in 1997 with an independent map of 137Cs storage in that year. The study area is a sand-dominated valley with an ephemeral channel and a narrow floodplain, which is approximately in steady-state with respect to sediment storage over several decades. The results show that this approach can be used to route particle-bound tracers through alluvial valleys with temporary sediment storage reservoirs, analyze the impacts of upstream mitigation on downstream sediment and

  7. Contrasts of Atmospheric Circulation and Associated Tropical Convection between Huaihe River Valley and Yangtze River Valley Mei-yu Flooding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG Jieli; LIU Yimin

    2012-01-01

    The significant differences of atmospheric circulation between flooding in the Huaihe and Yangtze River valleys during early mei-yu (i.e.,the East Asian rainy season in June) and the related tropical convection were investigated.During the both flooding cases,although the geopotential height anomalies always exhibit equivalent barotropic structures in middle to high latitudes at middle and upper troposphere,the phase of the Rossby wave train is different over Eurasian continent.During flooding in the Huaihe River valley,only one single blocking anticyclone is located over Baikal Lake.In contrast,during flooding in the Yangtze River valley,there are two blocking anticyclones.One is over the Ural Mountains and the other is over Northeast Asia.In the lower troposphere a positive geopotential height anomaly is located at the western ridge of subtropical anticyclone over Western Pacific (SAWP) in both flooding cases,but the location of the height anomaly is much farther north and west during the Huaihe River mei-yu flooding.Furthermore,abnormal rainfall in the Huaihe River valley and the regions north of it in China is closely linked with the latent heating anomaly over the Arabian Sea and Indian peninsula.However,the rainfall in the Yangtze River valley and the regions to its south in China is strongly related to the convection over the western tropical Pacific.Numerical experiments demonstrated that the enhanced latent heating over the Arabian Sea and Indian peninsula causes water vapor convergence in the region south of Tibetan Plateau and in the Huaihe River valley extending to Japan Sea with enhanced precipitation; and vapor divergence over the Yangtze River valley and the regions to its south with deficient precipitation.While the weakened convection in the tropical West Pacific results in moisture converging over the Yangtze River and the region to its south,along with abundant rainfall.

  8. Concepts of ferrovalley material and anomalous valley Hall effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Wen-Yi; Gong, Shi-Jing; Wan, Xiangang; Duan, Chun-Gang

    2016-12-01

    Valleytronics rooted in the valley degree of freedom is of both theoretical and technological importance as it offers additional opportunities for information storage, as well as electronic, magnetic and optical switches. In analogy to ferroelectric materials with spontaneous charge polarization, or ferromagnetic materials with spontaneous spin polarization, here we introduce a new member of ferroic family, that is, a ferrovalley material with spontaneous valley polarization. Combining a two-band k.p model with first-principles calculations, we show that 2H-VSe2 monolayer, where the spin-orbit coupling coexists with the intrinsic exchange interaction of transition-metal d electrons, is such a room-temperature ferrovalley material. We further predict that such system could demonstrate many distinctive properties, for example, chirality-dependent optical band gap and, more interestingly, anomalous valley Hall effect. On account of the latter, functional devices based on ferrovalley materials, such as valley-based nonvolatile random access memory and valley filter, are contemplated for valleytronic applications.

  9. Concepts of ferrovalley material and anomalous valley Hall effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Wen-Yi; Gong, Shi-Jing; Wan, Xiangang; Duan, Chun-Gang

    2016-12-16

    Valleytronics rooted in the valley degree of freedom is of both theoretical and technological importance as it offers additional opportunities for information storage, as well as electronic, magnetic and optical switches. In analogy to ferroelectric materials with spontaneous charge polarization, or ferromagnetic materials with spontaneous spin polarization, here we introduce a new member of ferroic family, that is, a ferrovalley material with spontaneous valley polarization. Combining a two-band k·p model with first-principles calculations, we show that 2H-VSe2 monolayer, where the spin-orbit coupling coexists with the intrinsic exchange interaction of transition-metal d electrons, is such a room-temperature ferrovalley material. We further predict that such system could demonstrate many distinctive properties, for example, chirality-dependent optical band gap and, more interestingly, anomalous valley Hall effect. On account of the latter, functional devices based on ferrovalley materials, such as valley-based nonvolatile random access memory and valley filter, are contemplated for valleytronic applications.

  10. Ward Valley status report: Science versus politics. Which will win?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasternak, A.D. [California Radioactive Materials Management Forum, Lafayette, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The State of California has issued a license to US Ecology, Inc. to construct and operate a disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) at the remote, arid Ward Valley site in the Mojave Desert. The license and certification of the associated environmental documentation have been upheld by the California courts. The Ward Valley license is the first and, so far, only license to be issued for a new LLRW disposal facility pursuant to the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act enacted in 1980 and amended in 1985. However, the dates of construction and operation of the disposal facility are uncertain because the federal government has refused to sell land in Ward Valley to the State of California for the site of the Southwestern Compact`s regional disposal facility. The Clinton Administration`s repeated excuses for delaying the land transfer, and the circumstances of these delays, indicate that prospects for success of the Ward Valley project, and perhaps the Policy Act itself, depend on the outcome of a battle between science and politics. In view of these delays by the administration, Congressional action to Transfer the Ward Valley lands to California will serve both state and federal goals for safe disposal of LLRW.

  11. Structural superposition in fault systems bounding Santa Clara Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graymer, Russell W.; Stanley, Richard G.; Ponce, David A.; Jachens, Robert C.; Simpson, Robert W.; Wentworth, Carl M.

    2015-01-01

    Santa Clara Valley is bounded on the southwest and northeast by active strike-slip and reverse-oblique faults of the San Andreas fault system. On both sides of the valley, these faults are superposed on older normal and/or right-lateral normal oblique faults. The older faults comprised early components of the San Andreas fault system as it formed in the wake of the northward passage of the Mendocino Triple Junction. On the east side of the valley, the great majority of fault displacement was accommodated by the older faults, which were almost entirely abandoned when the presently active faults became active after ca. 2.5 Ma. On the west side of the valley, the older faults were abandoned earlier, before ca. 8 Ma and probably accumulated only a small amount, if any, of the total right-lateral offset accommodated by the fault zone as a whole. Apparent contradictions in observations of fault offset and the relation of the gravity field to the distribution of dense rocks at the surface are explained by recognition of superposed structures in the Santa Clara Valley region.

  12. Mollusca, Hirudinea, and Amphibia biogeography and paleobiology in Tule Valley and adjacent regions of Bonneville Basin, western USA [draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Mollusk, leeches (Hirudinea), and amphibian distribution are described for Tule Valley and adjacent Snake Valley and Fish Springs Flat, Tule Valley aquatic resources...

  13. Preliminary hydrogeologic assessment near the boundary of the Antelope Valley and El Mirage Valley groundwater basins, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamos, Christina L.; Christensen, Allen H.; Langenheim, Victoria

    2017-07-19

    The increasing demands on groundwater for water supply in desert areas in California and the western United States have resulted in the need to better understand groundwater sources, availability, and sustainability. This is true for a 650-square-mile area that encompasses the Antelope Valley, El Mirage Valley, and Upper Mojave River Valley groundwater basins, about 50 miles northeast of Los Angeles, California, in the western part of the Mojave Desert. These basins have been adjudicated to ensure that groundwater rights are allocated according to legal judgments. In an effort to assess if the boundary between the Antelope Valley and El Mirage Valley groundwater basins could be better defined, the U.S. Geological Survey began a cooperative study in 2014 with the Mojave Water Agency to better understand the hydrogeology in the area and investigate potential controls on groundwater flow and availability, including basement topography.Recharge is sporadic and primarily from small ephemeral washes and streams that originate in the San Gabriel Mountains to the south; estimates range from about 400 to 1,940 acre-feet per year. Lateral underflow from adjacent basins has been considered minor in previous studies; underflow from the Antelope Valley to the El Mirage Valley groundwater basin has been estimated to be between 100 and 1,900 acre-feet per year. Groundwater discharge is primarily from pumping, mostly by municipal supply wells. Between October 2013 and September 2014, the municipal pumpage in the Antelope Valley and El Mirage Valley groundwater basins was reported to be about 800 and 2,080 acre-feet, respectively.This study was motivated by the results from a previously completed regional gravity study, which suggested a northeast-trending subsurface basement ridge and saddle approximately 3.5 miles west of the boundary between the Antelope Valley and El Mirage Valley groundwater basins that might influence groundwater flow. To better define potential basement

  14. Systematization of river valleys in different morphostructural areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opekunova, Marina

    2014-05-01

    The aim of our research was to identify the features of development of river valleys within the south of Eastern Siberia. One of the objectives to achieve this aim was the typing of river valleys, which was based on the principle of the location of a river valley or its part within different morphostructural areas, determining the morphology and individual (general or specific) development features that make it possible to specify the pattern of development of river valleys at different topological levels. Within the study area the following major morphostructures are distinguished: Altai-Sayan and Baikal mountain-folded regions, the Baikal rift zone, and the Siberian platform, within which morphostructures of the lower order are identified. Thus, a large variability in types of interaction and interpenetration of different areas provides for the development of various types of river valleys, depending on their location in the morphostructural areas. This approach was the basis for the typing of river valleys, i.e. idenifying their typological characteristics, depending on their location within a particular morphostructural area, geological and geomorphological conditions, and the history of development. The basic principles for the typing of river valleys are: 1) their location with respect to morphostructural areas, and 2) a set of characteristics of valleys of different morphostructural areas. Based on the above mentioned approach, and using GIS (MapInfo software), a map of river valleys typing was compiled, which included the database of the hydrographic network with space-time characteristics, tabulated for each streamflow. The procedure for determining the types of river valleys within each morphostructure was as follows. Boundaries of morphostructures of different orders were identified according to cartographic and literature data and allocated in the GIS space (MapInfo software). In the database, each distinguished morphostructure has the following

  15. The Uncanny Valley and Nonverbal Communication in Virtual Characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinwell, Angela; Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Abdel Nabi, Debbie

    2014-01-01

    empirical evidence to test the Uncanny Valley phenomenon in the domain of animated video game characters with speech, as opposed to just still, unresponsive images, as used in previous studies. Based on the results of these experiments, a conceptual framework of the Uncanny Valley in virtual characters has......This chapter provides an overview of a current research project investigating the Uncanny Valley phenomenon in realistic, human-like virtual characters. !e research methods used in this Work include a retrospective of both empirical studies and philosophical writings on the Uncanny. No other...... research has explored the notion that realistic, human-like, virtual characters are regarded less favorably due to a perceived diminished degree of responsiveness in facial expression, specifically, nonverbal communication (NVC) in the upper face region. So far, this research project has provided the first...

  16. Rod consolidation at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, W.J.

    1986-12-01

    A rod consolidation demonstration with irradiated pressurized water reactor fuel was recently conducted by personnel from Nuclear Assurance Corporation and West Valley Nuclear Services Company at the West Valley Demonstration Project in West Valley, New York. The rod consolidation demonstration involved pulling all of the fuel rods from six fuel Assemblies. In general, the rod pulling proceeded smoothly. The highest compaction ratio attained was 1:8:1. Among the total of 1074 fuel rods were some known degraded rods (they had collapsed cladding, a result of in-reactor fuel densification), but no rods were broken or dropped during the demonstration. One aim was to gather information on the effect of rod consolidation operations on the integrity of the fuel rods during subsequent handling and storage. Another goal was to collect information on the condition and handling of intact, damaged, and failed fuel that has been in storage for an extended period. 9 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Hydrology of the San Luis Valley, south-central Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, P.A.; Boettcher, A.J.; Snipes, R.J.; Mcintyre, H.J.

    1969-01-01

    An investigation of the water resources of the Colorado part of the San Luis Valley was begun in 1966 by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Water Conservation Board. (See index map, fig. 1). The purpose of the investigation is to provide information for planning and implementing improved water-development and management practices. The major water problems in the San Luis Valley include (1) waterlogging, (2) waste of water by nonbeneficial evapotranspiration, (3) deterioration of ground-water chemical quality, and (4) failure of Colorado to deliver water to New Mexico and Texas in accordance with the Rio Grande Compact. This report describes the hydrologic environment, extent of water-resource development, and some of the problems related to that development. Information presented is based on data collected from 1966 to 1968 and on previous studies. Subsequent reports are planned as the investigation progresses. The San Luis Valley extends about 100 miles from Poncha Pass near the northeast corner of Saguache County, Colo., to a point about 16 miles south of the Colorado-New Mexico State line. The total area is 3,125 square miles, of which about 3,000 are in Colorado. The valley is nearly flat except for the San Luis Hills and a few other small areas. The Colorado part of the San Luis Valley, which is described in this report, has an average altitude of about 7,700 feet. Bounding the valley on the west are the San Juan Mountains and on the east the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. Most of the valley floor is bordered by alluvial fans deposited by streams originating in the mountains, the most extensive being the Rio Grande fan (see block diagram, fig. 2 in pocket). Most of the streamflow is derived from snowmelt from 4,700 square miles of watershed in the surrounding mountains. The northern half of the San Luis Valley is internally drained and is referred to as the closed basin. The lowest part of this area is known locally as the "sump." The

  18. Estimating Vehicular Emission in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Prasad Ghimire

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study estimate, the vehicular emission load for CO, CO2 , HCs, NOX, SO2, Dioxin/Furans, Particulate Matters (PM10, PM2.5, Black carbon and Organic Carbon by using emission factors and Global Warming Potentials (GWPs of the pollutants (CO2, NOX, BC and OC. For this purpose, data were collected through the video tape record (in 30 sites, questionnaire survey, field visit, and literatures review. The total estimated emission of Kathmandu Valley (KV was 7231053.12 ton/year. Of the total emission, CO2 emission was highest i.e., 91.01% followed by CO 5.03%, HC 0.96%, NOX 0.60%, PM10 0.18% and SO2 0.10%. Annually 529353.36 μg Toxic Equivalent (TEQ of Dioxin/Furan produced and directly disperse to the ambient environment. The total estimated PM2.5, BC and OC emission were 9649.40 ton/year, 1640.4 ton/year and 2894.82 ton/year. The total carbon equivalence of the combined emissions (CO2, NOX and BC for 100-years standard time horizon is 10579763.6 ton CO2-eq i.e., 2885390.07 ton carbon.CO2 alone will be responsible, for about 62% of the impacts for the next century from current emissions of CO2, NOX and BC. Of the total emission Heavy Duty Vehicles (HDV emits 50%, Light Duty Vehicles (LDV emits, 27%, 2-Wheelers emits 22% and 3-Wheeler (Tempo emits 1%. The total emission of all pollutants combined per vehicle together was estimated to be 5.46 ton/year which was estimated as 23.63, 10.35, 1.83 and 5.58 ton/year for HDV, LDV, 2-Wheelers and 3-Wheeler respectively. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i4.11742      International Journal of EnvironmentVolume-3, Issue-4, Sep-Nov 2014Page: 133-146 

  19. Rivers and valleys of Pennsylvania, revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisawa, Marie

    1989-09-01

    The 1889 paper by William Morris Davis on the "Rivers and Valleys of Pennsylvania" is a landmark in the history of geomorphology. It was in this manuscript that he set forth what came to be known as the Davisian system of landscape. It is important to understand that Davis' interpretation of landforms was restricted by the geologic paradigms of his day. Uniformitarianism was strongly entrenched and Darwin's theory of evolution had become popularly accepted. The concept of the landmass Appalachia and then current theories on mountain building affected the approach that Davis took in hypothesizing the origin and development of the Folded Appalachian drainage. All of these geologic precepts influenced the formulation and explanation of his theories. In his exposition he adapted, synthesized and embellished on ideas he derived from fellow geologists such as Gilbert, Dutton, Powell, and McGee. A number of the concepts he proposed in the 1889 paper quickly became the bases for geomorphic studies by others: the cycles of river erosion and landscape evolution and the peneplain (here called base level erosion). The cycle of erosion became the model for subsequent geomorphic analyses, and peneplain hunting became a popular sport for geomorphologists. Davis' hypothesis of the origin and development of Pennsylvanian drainage stimulated subsequent discussion and further hypotheses by others. In fact, many of the later theories were refinements and/or elaborations of ideas mentioned in this paper of Davis. He proposed the origin of the drainage as consequent streams, then antecedence, superposition, headward extension of divides by piracy, erosion along lines of weaknesses (faults, easily erodible beds) through resistant ridges and normal fluvial erosion. Thus, the hypotheses of regional superposition (Johnson), extended consequents (Ruedemann), consequents and local superposition (Meyerhoff and Olmstead), the utilization of structural weaknesses in development of transverse

  20. Technical Analysis of In-Valley Drainage Management Strategies for the Western San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, Theresa S.; Schwarzbach, Steven E.

    2008-01-01

    The western San Joaquin Valley is one of the most productive farming areas in the United States, but salt-buildup in soils and shallow groundwater aquifers threatens this area?s productivity. Elevated selenium concentrations in soils and groundwater complicate drainage management and salt disposal. In this document, we evaluate constraints on drainage management and implications of various approaches to management considered in: *the San Luis Drainage Feature Re-Evaluation (SLDFRE) Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) (about 5,000 pages of documentation, including supporting technical reports and appendices); *recent conceptual plans put forward by the San Luis Unit (SLU) contractors (i.e., the SLU Plans) (about 6 pages of documentation); *approaches recommended by the San Joaquin Valley Drainage Program (SJVDP) (1990a); and *other U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) models and analysis relevant to the western San Joaquin Valley. The alternatives developed in the SLDFRE EIS and other recently proposed drainage plans (refer to appendix A for details) differ from the strategies proposed by the San Joaquin Valley Drainage Program (1990a). The Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) in March 2007 signed a record of decision for an in-valley disposal option that would retire 194,000 acres of land, build 1,900 acres of evaporation ponds, and develop a treatment system to remove salt and selenium from drainwater. The recently proposed SLU Plans emphasize pumping drainage to the surface, storing approximately 33% in agricultural water re-use areas, treating selenium through biotechnology, enhancing the evaporation of water to concentrate salt, and identifying ultimate storage facilities for the remaining approximately 67% of waste selenium and salt. The treatment sequence of reuse, reverse osmosis, selenium bio-treatment, and enhanced solar evaporation is unprecedented and untested at the scale needed to meet plan requirements. All drainage management strategies that have been proposed

  1. Fitness-valley crossing with generalized parent-offspring transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmond, Matthew M; Otto, Sarah P

    2015-11-01

    Simple and ubiquitous gene interactions create rugged fitness landscapes composed of coadapted gene complexes separated by "valleys" of low fitness. Crossing such fitness valleys allows a population to escape suboptimal local fitness peaks to become better adapted. This is the premise of Sewall Wright's shifting balance process. Here we generalize the theory of fitness-valley crossing in the two-locus, bi-allelic case by allowing bias in parent-offspring transmission. This generalization extends the existing mathematical framework to genetic systems with segregation distortion and uniparental inheritance. Our results are also flexible enough to provide insight into shifts between alternate stable states in cultural systems with "transmission valleys". Using a semi-deterministic analysis and a stochastic diffusion approximation, we focus on the limiting step in valley crossing: the first appearance of the genotype on the new fitness peak whose lineage will eventually fix. We then apply our results to specific cases of segregation distortion, uniparental inheritance, and cultural transmission. Segregation distortion favouring mutant alleles facilitates crossing most when recombination and mutation are rare, i.e., scenarios where crossing is otherwise unlikely. Interactions with more mutable genes (e.g., uniparental inherited cytoplasmic elements) substantially reduce crossing times. Despite component traits being passed on poorly in the previous cultural background, small advantages in the transmission of a new combination of cultural traits can greatly facilitate a cultural transition. While peak shifts are unlikely under many of the common assumptions of population genetic theory, relaxing some of these assumptions can promote fitness-valley crossing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Increased body mass of ducks wintering in California's Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleskes, Joseph P.; Yee, Julie L.; Yarris, Gregory S.; Loughman, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    Waterfowl managers lack the information needed to fully evaluate the biological effects of their habitat conservation programs. We studied body condition of dabbling ducks shot by hunters at public hunting areas throughout the Central Valley of California during 2006–2008 compared with condition of ducks from 1979 to 1993. These time periods coincide with habitat increases due to Central Valley Joint Venture conservation programs and changing agricultural practices; we modeled to ascertain whether body condition differed among waterfowl during these periods. Three dataset comparisons indicate that dabbling duck body mass was greater in 2006–2008 than earlier years and the increase was greater in the Sacramento Valley and Suisun Marsh than in the San Joaquin Valley, differed among species (mallard [Anas platyrhynchos], northern pintail [Anas acuta], America wigeon [Anas americana], green-winged teal [Anas crecca], and northern shoveler [Anas clypeata]), and was greater in ducks harvested late in the season. Change in body mass also varied by age–sex cohort and month for all 5 species and by September–January rainfall for all except green-winged teal. The random effect of year nested in period, and sometimes interacting with other factors, improved models in many cases. Results indicate that improved habitat conditions in the Central Valley have resulted in increased winter body mass of dabbling ducks, especially those that feed primarily on seeds, and this increase was greater in regions where area of post-harvest flooding of rice and other crops, and wetland area, has increased. Conservation programs that continue to promote post-harvest flooding and other agricultural practices that benefit wintering waterfowl and continue to restore and conserve wetlands would likely help maintain body condition of wintering dabbling ducks in the Central Valley of California.

  3. EPA Region 1 - Map Layers for Valley ID Tool (Hosted Feature Service)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Valley Service Feature Layer hosts spatial data for EPA Region 1's Valley Identification Tool. These layers contain attribute information added by EPA R1 GIS...

  4. Location of 24 extensometers used to measure compaction in the Central Valley

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset describes the location of 21 extensometers used for observations of subsidence in the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM). The Central Valley...

  5. Streamflow-gain- and streamflow-loss data for streamgages in the Central Valley Hydrologic Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset contains 61 sets of annual streamflow gains and losses between 1961 and 1977 along Central Valley surface-water network for the Central Valley...

  6. 76 FR 41745 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule... Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP... Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) Rule 4682, Polystyrene, Polyethylene, and...

  7. Monthly Precipitation Input Data for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset contains the monthly precipitation for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM). The Central Valley encompasses an approximate 50,000...

  8. Virtual wells used for pumpage for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Abstract: This digital dataset contains the virtual wells used for pumpage for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM). The Central Valley encompasses an...

  9. Farm Process (FMP) Parameters used in the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset defines the farm-process parameters used in the transient hydrologic model of the Central Valley flow system. The Central Valley encompasses an...

  10. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West Valley Nuclear Services Company (WVNSCO) and URS Group, Inc.

    2005-09-30

    Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2004. The report summarizes the environmental protection program at the West Valley Demonstration Project for CY 2004.

  11. Monthly Diversions from the Surface-Water Network of the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset contains the monthly diversions from the surface-water network for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM). The Central Valley encompasses an...

  12. Grid cells used for Surface-Water Network for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset contains the segment and reaches for the surface-water network by model cell for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM). The Central Valley...

  13. Monthly inflows to the surface-water network for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset contains the monthly inflows to the surface-water network for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM). The Central Valley encompasses an...

  14. Surface-Water Network for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset contains the surface-water network for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM). The Central Valley encompasses an approximate...

  15. Inflow Locations and Magnitude Input Files to the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset contains the name and location for the inflows to the surface-water network for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM). The Central Valley...

  16. 77 FR 66548 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is approving revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District's Rule 4352,...

  17. Mineral chemistry of some agates from Gurasada (Mures Valley, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu Iancu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the study of some agates from the Gurasada area (Mures Valley, West Romania and their igneous host rocks. Agates occur in the vesicles of strongly altered pyroclastic rocks (“banatites”, such as basaltic andesites, trachyandesites, trachytes and dacites or in the alluvial sediments along the Gurasada valley. The age of host-rocks is Late Cretaceous-Early Paleogene. Agates consist mainly of various types of α-quartz such as: chalcedony, quartzine and microquartz, associated with moganite. The genesis of agates is related with the hydrothermal solutions which altered the host-rocks.

  18. Vitrification facility at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DesCamp, V.A.; McMahon, C.L.

    1996-07-01

    This report is a description of the West Valley Demonstration Project`s vitrification facilities from the establishment of the West Valley, NY site as a federal and state cooperative project to the completion of all activities necessary to begin solidification of radioactive waste into glass by vitrification. Topics discussed in this report include the Project`s background, high-level radioactive waste consolidation, vitrification process and component testing, facilities design and construction, waste/glass recipe development, integrated facility testing, and readiness activities for radioactive waste processing.

  19. Valley Filtering and Electronic Optics Using Polycrystalline Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, V. Hung; Dechamps, S.; Dollfus, P.; Charlier, J.-C.

    2016-12-01

    In this Letter, both the manipulation of valley-polarized currents and the optical-like behaviors of Dirac fermions are theoretically explored in polycrystalline graphene. When strain is applied, the misorientation between two graphene domains separated by a grain boundary can result in a mismatch of their electronic structures. Such a discrepancy manifests itself in a strong breaking of the inversion symmetry, leading to perfect valley polarization in a wide range of transmission directions. In addition, these graphene domains act as different media for electron waves, offering the possibility to modulate and obtain negative refraction indexes.

  20. Inca expansion and parasitism in the Lluta Valley: preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santoro Calogero

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the impact of cultural change on parasitism has been a central goal in archaeoparasitology. The influence of civilization and the development of empires on parasitism has not been evaluated. Presented here is a preliminary analysis of the change in human parasitism associated with the Inca conquest of the Lluta Valley in Northern Chile. Changes in parasite prevalence are described. It can be seen that the change in life imposed on the inhabitants of the Lluta Valley by the Incas caused an increase in parasitism.

  1. The Central San Joaquin Valley Area Health Education Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosinski, Edwin F.

    1978-01-01

    With federal financial support, an area health education center was established in the central San Joaquin Valley of California. The center is a cooperative health sciences education and health care program organized by the University of California and some of the educational and health care institutions of the valley. The center's goals include providing and improving primary health care education, and improving the distribution of health personnel. These goals are achieved through the cooperative development of a number of independent and interdependent activities. An extensive evaluation of the Area Health Education Center has shown that it is a highly effective program. PMID:664636

  2. Simulation of channel sandstone architecture in an incised valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frykman, P.; Johannessen, P.; Andsbjerg, J.

    1998-12-31

    The present report describes a geostatistical modelling study that is aimed at reflecting the architecture of the channel sandstones in an incised valley fill. The example used for this study is a part of the Middle Jurassic sandy succession of the Bryne Formation in the Danish central Graben. The succession consists mainly of fluvial sediments in the lower part, overlain by tidal influenced sediments, which again is overlain by shallow marine sediments. The modelling study has been performed on a sequence of incised valley sediments in the upper part of the Bryne Formation overlying fluvial sediments. (au) EFP-96. 19 refs.

  3. All-Si Valley-Hall Photonic Topological Insulator

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Tzuhsuan

    2016-01-01

    An all-Si photonic structure emulating the quantum-valley-Hall effect is proposed. We show that it acts as a photonic topological insulator (PTI), and that an interface between two such PTIs can support edge states that are free from scattering. The conservation of the valley degree of freedom enables efficient in- and out-coupling of light between the free space and the photonic structure. The topological protection of the edge waves can be utilized for designing arrays of resonant time- delay photonic cavities that do not suffer from reflections and cross-talk.

  4. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report, calendar year 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None Available

    2000-06-01

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1999 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP.

  5. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report, calendar year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-06-01

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1997 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP.

  6. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report calendar year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1998 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP.

  7. The Uncanny Valley and Nonverbal Communication in Virtual Characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinwell, Angela; Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Abdel Nabi, Debbie

    2014-01-01

    research has explored the notion that realistic, human-like, virtual characters are regarded less favorably due to a perceived diminished degree of responsiveness in facial expression, specifically, nonverbal communication (NVC) in the upper face region. So far, this research project has provided the first...... empirical evidence to test the Uncanny Valley phenomenon in the domain of animated video game characters with speech, as opposed to just still, unresponsive images, as used in previous studies. Based on the results of these experiments, a conceptual framework of the Uncanny Valley in virtual characters has...... of psychology, social psychology, game studies, animation and graphics, and human computer interaction....

  8. Welding and rheomorphism reappraised: valley-confined ignimbrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branney, M. J.; Barry, T. L.

    2003-04-01

    Some pyroclastic density currents are so hot that the pyroclasts weld rapidly to form a layer of agglutinate that continues to flow in a ductile manner, a process known as rheomorphism. Previous studies of rheomorphic ignimbrites have inferred that folds are orientated with axes perpendicular to the direction of rheomorphic transport. For example, in a seminal study of the Wall Mountain Tuff in Gribbles Run palaeovalley, Colorado, Chapin and Lowell (1979) interpreted an apparently complex pattern of rheomorphic deformation structures as the product of two phases of deformation: (1) pyroclastic flow along the valley caused "primary" welding and folding, with fold axes perpendicular to the valley axis; and (2) already deposited ignimbrite underwent "secondary mass flowage" down local valley sides, producing "secondary" folds with axes parallel to the valley axis. A new structural analysis of the welding fabrics in the Wall Mountain Tuff has revealed the presence of abundant sheath folds, a structure hitherto little reported from pyroclastic rocks. The majority of sheathfold axes lie sub-parallel to the palaeovalley, and sub-parallel to a pervasive valley-parallel elongation lineation. There is no evidence of a second phase of deformation; valley-normal lineations are absent and folds with axes at high angles to the valley axis are markedly curvilinear. We interpret the latter as having developed within the same shearing system as the valley-parallel folds, but they nucleated slightly later and so were less transposed and attenuated. We conclude that the ignimbrite underwent only one deformation event. We then re-visited 10 classic examples of rheomorphic ignimbrites in the USA, Canary Islands and Italy. All exhibited abundant sheath folds. Structural analysis reveals a common pattern of progressive ductile deformation. Folds initiate at various angles to the flow direction and to the elongation lineations, such as prolate fiamme and stretched vesicles. Axial planes

  9. Summary Robert Noyce and the invention of Silicon Valley

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This work offers a summary of the book "THE MAN BEHIND THE MICROCHIP: Robert Noyce and the Invention of Silicon Valley""by Leslie Berlin.The Man behind the Microchip is Leslie Berlin's first book. This author is project historian for the Silicon Valley Archives, a division of the Stanford University Department of Special Collections. This book tells the story of a giant of the high-tech industry: the multimillionaire Bob Noyce. This co-founder of Fairchild Semiconductor and Intel co-invented the integrated circuit which became the electronic heart of every modern computer, automobile, advance

  10. Decontamination systems information and research programs. Quarterly report, July 1--August 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The US contains numerous hazardous waste sites. Many sites are on private land near operating units of various companies. An effort is being made to determine the conditions under which such sites can be remediated voluntarily. The objective of the project will be to first assess the interest and willingness of industry in the Kanawha River Valley, WV to participate in discussions that would lead toward voluntary cleanup activities. The second will be to implement the activities agreed upon by the interested parties. The project will first involve individual discussions with the industrial, government, and other organized groups in the area. These discussions will help determine the feasibility of organizing voluntary efforts. If the discussions indicate that conditions may be favorable for developing individual or group voluntary cleanup projects, a working group will be convened to establish the environmental goals of the project as well as the technical approach for achieving those goals. The projects for the 1996 WVU Cooperative Agreement are categorized into three task focus areas: Task 1.0 Contaminant Plume Containment and Remediation, Task 2.0 Cross Cutting Innovative Technologies, and Task 3.0 Small Business Support Program. Summaries of the accomplishments for the subtasks reporting under these categories during the third quarter, 1 July 96 through 30 September 96, are presented.

  11. A didactical geological path in Val Rosandra valley (Trieste - Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godini, E.

    2012-04-01

    Introduction: the presented field work is aimed to involve a group of 15-17 years old students in building a simplified geomorphological and geological model of Val Rosandra valley, by means of guided observations and data collection. The didactical path may be changed according to age, skills or particular needs of students and meteorological conditions; at best, 4-5 hours are needed for the complete field trip. Some ideas about sedimentary rocks, folding and faulting, and the principle of superposition could be useful as pre-concepts, but "could" also be learnt during the experience. Organization: students will be divided into small groups (3-4 students each), possibly with different roles within the group (topographer, photographer, draftsman, geologist, geomorphologist,…). Needed materials for each group: notebook, paper, pencil, rubber, photo camera, ruler, compass, scale 10.000 topographic map, stratigraphic chart, altimeter, diluted hydrochloric acid. Observation points: 1. Bagnoli spring, marl outcrop 2. Bagnoli village, towards the "heart-shaped quarry" 3. By the river, in the lower part of the valley 4. Moccò lookout 5. Marl outcrop, from Moccò to the old railway 6. From the old railway, above the valley 7. By the river, in the upper part of the valley The field work: at first, students will be guided to observe and take notes of the main morphological characteristics, so that the different "observation points" will be drawn on the map, with the help of compass. An easily recognizable system of faults cuts the valley; a "V" profile is visible in the lower part of the valley (a small amount of sediment is present), while a calcareous gorge is evident in the upper valley, where there are no sediments (observation points 3, 4, 6 and 7). The morphology is asymmetric, due to the different arrangement of strata in the left and right side of the valley: right side shows big "steps" (horizontal arrangement of strata), left side is rich in slopes (tilted

  12. Titan's fluvial valleys: Morphology, distribution, and spectral properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhans, M.H.; Jaumann, R.; Stephan, K.; Brown, R.H.; Buratti, B.J.; Clark, R.N.; Baines, K.H.; Nicholson, P.D.; Lorenz, R.D.; Soderblom, L.A.; Soderblom, J.M.; Sotin, C.; Barnes, J.W.; Nelson, R.

    2012-01-01

    Titan's fluvial channels have been investigated based on data obtained by the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) instrument and the Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) onboard the Cassini spacecraft. In this paper, a database of fluvial features is created based on radar-SAR data aiming to unveil the distribution and the morphologic and spectral characteristics of valleys on Titan on a global scale. It will also study the spatial relations between fluvial valleys and Titan's geologic units and spectral surface units which have become accessible thanks to Cassini-VIMS data. Several distinct morphologic types of fluvial valleys can be discerned by SAR-images. Dendritic valley networks appear to have much in common with terrestrial dendritic systems owing to a hierarchical and tree-shaped arrangement of the tributaries which is indicative of an origin from precipitation. Dry valleys constitute another class of valleys resembling terrestrial wadis, an indication of episodic and strong flow events. Other valley types, such as putative canyons, cannot be correlated with rainfall based on their morphology alone, since it cannot be ruled out that they may have originated from volcanic/tectonic action or groundwater sapping. Highly developed and complex fluvial networks with channel lengths of up to 1200 km and widths of up to 10 km are concentrated only at a few locations whereas single valleys are scattered over all latitudes. Fluvial valleys are frequently found in mountainous areas. Some terrains, such as equatorial dune fields and undifferentiated plains at mid-latitudes, are almost entirely free of valleys. Spectrally, fluvial terrains are often characterized by a high reflectance in each of Titan's atmospheric windows, as most of them are located on Titan's bright 'continents'. Nevertheless, valleys are spatially associated with a surface unit appearing blue due to its higher reflection at 1.3??m in a VIMS false color RGB composite with R: 1.59/1.27??m, G: 2

  13. 77 FR 68783 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Veterinary Vaccines for Rift Valley Fever Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ...: Veterinary Vaccines for Rift Valley Fever Virus AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC... Rift Valley Fever Virus Utilizing Reverse Genetics,'' US Provisional Application 61/ ] 042,987, filed 4/7/2008, entitled ``Recombinant Rift Valley Fever (RVF) Viruses and Method of Use,'' PCT...

  14. 40 CFR 81.163 - Sacramento Valley Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.163 Sacramento Valley Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Sacramento Valley Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (California) consists of the territorial area... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sacramento Valley Intrastate...

  15. 40 CFR 81.129 - Hudson Valley Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.129 Hudson Valley Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Hudson Valley Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (New York) consists of the territorial area encompassed by the... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hudson Valley Intrastate Air...

  16. 76 FR 38572 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District... Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD) and submitted by the California Air Resources Board (CARB... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air...

  17. 78 FR 45114 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... proposing to approve revisions to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD) portion of... Rule 431.1 was actually for the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD). The Antelope... Antelope Valley amended or rescinded the rule. On January 1, 2002, Antelope Valley Air Quality...

  18. 78 FR 59840 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... of plan. * * * * * (c) * * * (428) * * * (i) * * * (B) Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...) * * * (i) * * * (B) Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District. (1) Rule 431.1, ``Sulfur Content of... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air...

  19. 77 FR 74182 - Magic Valley Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Magic Valley Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval Take notice that on November 30, 2012, Magic Valley Pipeline, L.P. (Magic Valley) filed a petition for rate...

  20. 77 FR 70432 - Magic Valley Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Magic Valley Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Filing Take notice that on November 15, 2012, Magic Valley Pipeline, L.P. (Magic Valley) filed to revise its Statement of Operating...

  1. 76 FR 2711 - Cinram Distribution, LLC, a Subsidiary of Cinram International, Simi Valley Distribution Center...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... Remedy Staffing Services, Simi Valley, CA; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for... Cinram International, Simi Valley Distribution Center, include on-site leased workers from Labor Ready Southwest, Inc., and Select Remedy Staffing Services, Simi Valley, California. The notice was published...

  2. 77 FR 2496 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD) and Imperial County Air Pollution Control District... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District and Imperial Valley Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection...

  3. 77 FR 2469 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD) and Imperial County Air Pollution.... * * * * * (G) Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District. (1) Rule 1134, ``Stationary Gas Turbines... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality...

  4. 78 FR 27168 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Alaska: Mendenhall Valley PM10...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ...: Mendenhall Valley PM Nonattainment Area Limited Maintenance Plan and Redesignation Request AGENCY... nominal 10 micrometers (PM 10 ) submitted by the State of Alaska on May 8, 2009 for the Mendenhall Valley nonattainment area (Mendenhall Valley NAA), and the State's request to redesignate the area to attainment for...

  5. 33 CFR 208.82 - Hetch Hetchy, Cherry Valley, and Don Pedro Dams and Reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hetch Hetchy, Cherry Valley, and..., Cherry Valley, and Don Pedro Dams and Reservoirs. The Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation..., shall operate Hetch Hetchy Dam and Reservoir and Cherry Valley Dam and Reservoir in the interest...

  6. 77 FR 41048 - Safety Zone; Hudson Valley Triathlon, Ulster Landing, Hudson River, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Hudson Valley Triathlon, Ulster Landing... Landing, NY for the 16th Annual Hudson Valley Triathlon swim event. This temporary safety zone is.... Regulatory History and Information The Hudson Valley Triathlon swim is an annual recurring event that has...

  7. 78 FR 34127 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Coachella Valley History Museum, Indio, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Coachella Valley History Museum, Indio, CA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Coachella Valley History Museum has completed... funerary objects should submit a written request to the Coachella Valley History Museum. If no...

  8. CRYOGENESIS AND GEODYNAMICS OF ICING VALLEYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Alekseyev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to local groundwater seeping and freezing in layers that accumulate over each other and create large ice clusters on the ground surface, specific conditions of energy and mass transfer are created in the atmosphere–soil–lithosphere system. In winter, the vertical temperature distribution curve is significantly deformed due to heat emission from the water layer above the ice cover during its freezing, and a thermocline is thus formed. Deformation of the temperature curve is gradually decreasing in size downward the profile and decays at the interface of frozen and thaw rocks. Values and numbers of temperature deviations from a 'normal' value depend on heat reserves of aufeis water and the number of water seeps/discharges at a given location. The production of the thermocline alters freezing conditions for underlying ground layers and changes the mechanism of ice saturation, thus leading to formation of two-layer ice-ground complexes (IGC. IGCs are drastically different from cryogenic formations in the neighbouring sections of the river valley. Based on genetic characteristics and the ratios of components in the surface and subsurface layers, seven types of aufeis IGCs are distinguished: massive-segregation, cement-basal, layered-segregation, basal-segregation, vacuum-filtration, pressure-injection, and fissure-vein. Annual processes of surface and subsurface icing and ice ablation are accompanied by highly hazardous geodynamic phenomena, such as winter flooding, layered water freezing, soil heaving/pingo, thermokarst and thermal erosion. Combined, these processes lead to rapid and often incidental reconfigurations of the surface and subsurface runoff channels, abrupt uplifting and subsiding of the ground surface, decompaction and 'shaking-up' of seasonally freezing/thawing rocks, thereby producing exceptionally unfavourable conditions for construction and operation of engineering structures.Formation and development of river networks are

  9. Subsurface and petroleum geology of the southwestern Santa Clara Valley ("Silicon Valley"), California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Richard G.; Jachens, Robert C.; Lillis, Paul G.; McLaughlin, Robert J.; Kvenvolden, Keith A.; Hostettler, Frances D.; McDougall, Kristin A.; Magoon, Leslie B.

    2002-01-01

    Gravity anomalies, historical records of exploratory oil wells and oil seeps, new organic-geochemical results, and new stratigraphic and structural data indicate the presence of a concealed, oil-bearing sedimentary basin beneath a highly urbanized part of the Santa Clara Valley, Calif. A conspicuous isostatic-gravity low that extends about 35 km from Palo Alto southeastward to near Los Gatos reflects an asymmetric, northwest-trending sedimentary basin comprising low-density strata, principally of Miocene age, that rest on higher-density rocks of Mesozoic and Paleogene(?) age. Both gravity and well data show that the low-density rocks thin gradually to the northeast over a distance of about 10 km. The thickest (approx 4 km thick) accumulation of low-density material occurs along the basin's steep southwestern margin, which may be controlled by buried, northeast-dipping normal faults that were active during the Miocene. Movement along these hypothetical normal faults may been contemporaneous (approx 17–14 Ma) with sedimentation and local dacitic and basaltic volcanism, possibly in response to crustal extension related to passage of the northwestward-migrating Mendocino triple junction. During the Pliocene and Quaternary, the normal faults and Miocene strata were overridden by Mesozoic rocks, including the Franciscan Complex, along northeastward-vergent reverse and thrust faults of the Berrocal, Shannon, and Monte Vista Fault zones. Movement along these fault zones was accompanied by folding and tilting of strata as young as Quaternary and by uplift of the modern Santa Cruz Mountains; the fault zones remain seismically active. We attribute the Pliocene and Quaternary reverse and thrust faulting, folding, and uplift to compression caused by local San Andreas Fault tectonics and regional transpression along the Pacific-North American Plate boundary. Near the southwestern margin of the Santa Clara Valley, as many as 20 exploratory oil wells were drilled between 1891

  10. English in Wales and a "Welsh Valleys" Accent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, J. Roderick

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on Welsh English, providing a brief historical account of the growth of English in Wales, which has only recently supplanted Welsh as the dominant language. Describes an accent in the industrialized "Valleys" area of South Wales, where less than 10% of the population speaks Welsh. Examines its phonology to see what the defining…

  11. Development of a sheep challenge model for Rift Valley fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonotic disease that causes severe epizootic disease in ruminants, characterized by mass abortion and high mortality rates in younger animals. The development of a reliable challenge model is an important prerequisite for evaluation of existing and novel vaccines. A stu...

  12. Feasibility of target communities in a Dutch brook valley system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, AH; Bekker, RM

    As a reaction to the ongoing deterioration of nature conservation interest in The Netherlands, an offensive nature strategy was formulated in the 1990 Nature Policy Plan. In this Plan, target communities and target plant species are mentioned. For the 'Drentse A brook valley system', target

  13. Pathways to High-tech Valleys and Research Triangles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsink, W.; Dons, H.

    2008-01-01

    Silicon Valley and the industrial districts of Italy, where shared identity, superior skills, regional specialization and trust-based networking among local firms have produced dynamic and flexible ecosystems, are inspiring examples of the successful promotion of thriving technology and business clu

  14. An Instructional Guide for Ethnic Studies at Evergreen Valley College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Mauro

    Guidelines and conceptual parameters are presented for ethnic studies courses at Evergreen Valley College (EVC). Introductory material discusses the requirement that all associate degree students complete three units of ethnic studies; presents general guidelines for ethnic studies; defines "ethnic-racial minority"; and suggests criteria for…

  15. A Student Government Guidebook for Evergreen Valley College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Mauro

    Designed to help develop informed and capable student leadership in student affairs at Evergreen Valley College (EVC), this student government guide and text for Government 91 focuses on the major leadership needs and objectives of student government within a participatory framework. After an explanation of course objectives and requirements,…

  16. Debating land degradation: strategy development for Bolivian mountain valleys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessler, A.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2010-01-01

    A debate on response strategies to rural poverty and land degradation has relevance for the core business of this journal. Based on extensive fieldwork in the mountain valleys of Chuquisaca, Bolivia, this paper discusses farming and migration in the region, and elaborates on the required components

  17. A Successor of Tepexpan Man in the Valley of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE Terra, H

    1959-02-27

    A preceramic site at San Vicente Chicoloapan, in the Valley of Mexico, disclosed a human burial associated with stone-lined hearths and artifacts. The prevalence of primitive grinding stones suggests a collecting economy of the "Chalco culture," now for the first time recognized as such, and belonging to a long-headed people that succeeded Tepexpan Man some 8000 to 6000 years ago.

  18. Feasibility of target communities in a Dutch brook valley system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, AH; Bekker, RM

    1998-01-01

    As a reaction to the ongoing deterioration of nature conservation interest in The Netherlands, an offensive nature strategy was formulated in the 1990 Nature Policy Plan. In this Plan, target communities and target plant species are mentioned. For the 'Drentse A brook valley system', target communit

  19. Impact of Air Pollution on California Central Valley Fog Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, E.; Baldocchi, D. D.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2015-12-01

    Throughout the 20th century, trends in California Central Valley fog frequency have changed dramatically without explanation. While episodes of dense radiation fog, known regionally as Tule Fog, increased steadily from 1930-1970, analysis from both ground and remote sensing measurements confirm a 46-50% reduction in fog days in the last 30 years (Baldocchi and Waller, 2014, Herkes et al., 2014). The dominant hypotheses suggest that the recent decline in radiation fog can be explained by the rising temperatures associated with climate change or urban heat island effect. This assertion fails to explain the significant increase in Central Valley fog midcentury. Here we instead assert that changes in air pollution, rather than climate, better support this upward then downward temporal trend. Automobile use greatly increased emissions of nitrogen oxide (NOx) midcentury, followed by a large decrease in vehicle emissions due to statewide regulation from 1980 to present. In the Central Valley, NOx from automobile emissions contributes to the formation ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3), the dominant hygroscopic aerosol in the valley's wintertime boundary layer that can act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) necessary for fog droplet formation. Thus, changes in air pollution not only affect the number of CCN, but may also impact the density and persistence of fog episodes. Using NOAA meteorological records throughout the twentieth century, we will show the correlation between fog frequency, air pollution, and climatic drivers. We conclude that fog trends are closely correlated with changes in air pollution, rather than solely climate change.

  20. 27 CFR 9.49 - Central Delaware Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Central Delaware Valley. 9.49 Section 9.49 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU.... (ix) From there northward along Covered Bridge Road to Green Sergeant Covered Bridge. (x) From...

  1. Grass Valley Venom FlashPak录像机

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Thomson新推出的Grass Valley Venom FIashPak录像机,可配合草谷VIPER Film Stream数字电影摄像机使用。Venom FlashPak是一款灵巧可靠的台式系统,可以记录VIPER摄影机输出的未压缩视频。

  2. The Literacy Line! Napa Valley Adult School: Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napa Valley Unified School District, Napa, CA.

    This report is an evaluation of an adult workplace literacy and English-as-a-Second-Language program for Napa Valley (California) vineyard workers of limited English proficiency. Many of the classes were held at the worksite. The first section of the report details the project's stated objectives and measures of accomplishment, anecdotal success…

  3. One health approach to Rift Valley fever vaccine development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortekaas, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Since its discovery in the 1930s, Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) spread across the African continent and invaded the Arabian Peninsula and several islands off the coast of Southeast Africa. The virus causes recurrent outbreaks in these regions, and its continued spread is of global concern. Next-gen

  4. PAMPATHERIIDAE (XENARTHRA, CINGULATA FROM TARIJA VALLEY, BOLIVIA: A TAXONOMIC UPDATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANTIAGO RODRIGUEZ-BUALÓ

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Pampatheriidae (Middle Miocene-late Pleistocene constitutes an extinct clade of Cingulata widely dispersed in South America, entering in Central and North America during the Great American Biotic Interchange. In the Pleistocene of South America, two genera are recorded: Pampatherium (with three species and Holmesina (with six species. In the Pleistocene palaeofauna of Tarija Valley (Bolivia one of the most conspicuous recorded taxa are the Cingulata, including Pampatheriidae. Until this contribution, all the remains were classified as P. typum and Pampatherium sp. Here we present a modern taxonomic revision of the Pampatheriidae of the Tarija Valley, based on previous collected and published material together with new materials obtained from fieldwork carried out during 2011-2013. The evidence indicates that a single species of Pampatheriidae is present in the Tarija Valley ( Pampatherium humboldtii , whereas the presence of P.  typum in discarded. From a chrono-stratigraphic point of view, the biochron of this species is restricted to the late Pleistocene. This supports previous hypothesis on the age of the sediments of Tarija Valley (Tolomosa Formation.

  5. West Valley transfer cart control system design description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, E.C.; Crutcher, R.I.; Halliwell, J.W.; Hileman, M.S.; Moore, M.R.; Nodine, R.N.; Ruppel, F.R.; Vandermolen, R.I.

    1993-01-01

    Detail design of the control system for the West Valley Nuclear Services Vitrification Facility transfer cart has been completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This report documents the requirements and describes the detail design of that equipment and control software. Copies of significant design documents including analysis and testing reports and design drawings are included in the Appendixes.

  6. 27 CFR 9.66 - Russian River Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... medium-duty road (known locally as Bodega Road, section 12, T6N, R10W, on the Valley Ford map). (9) Proceed 0.9 mile northeast on Bodega Road to its intersection, at BM 486, with Jonvive Road to the...

  7. Workshop on geophysical modeling of the Long Valley caldera: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, N.E. (ed.)

    1984-07-01

    Rapporteur's summary reports are given the following workshop sessions: geological background and overview of the Long Valley hydrothermal-magnetic system and processes, concepts and models based on seismological data, electrical and electromagnetic models, and deformation and gravity. 31 references, 36 figures. (MHR)

  8. Holocene flooding history of the Lower Tagus Valley (Portugal)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, G.-J.; Bohncke, S.J.P.; Schneider, H.; Kasse, C.; Coenraads-Nederveen, S.; Zuurbier, K.; Rozema, J.

    2010-01-01

    The present paper aims to reconstruct the Lower Tagus Valley flooding history for the last ca. 6500 a, to explore the suitability of pollen-based local vegetation development in supporting the reconstruction of flooding history, and to explain fluvial activity changes in terms of allogenic (climate,

  9. Rift Valley fever Entomology, Ecology, and Outbreak Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease of domestic ruminants and humans in Africa. The disease is most severe in cattle, sheep, and goats, and it causes high mortality in young animals and abortion in adults. Exotic aanimal breeds from areas where RVF is not endemic tend to be ...

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of Rift Valley Fever Virus Strain Lunyo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumley, Sarah; Horton, Daniel L; Marston, Denise A; Johnson, Nicholas; Ellis, Richard J; Fooks, Anthony R; Hewson, Roger

    2016-04-14

    Using next-generation sequencing technologies, the first complete genome sequence of Rift Valley fever virus strain Lunyo is reported here. Originally reported as an attenuated antigenic variant strain from Uganda, genomic sequence analysis shows that Lunyo clusters together with other Ugandan isolates.

  11. A DECADE FROM THE MAJOR LAYOFFS IN THE JIU VALLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOAN VALENTIN FULGER

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay is an overview of how the population of the largest coalfield of Romania Jiu Valley, the perceived major staff cuts in the mining industry, the solutions required for economic rehabilitation of the area and difficulties of everyday faced by residents of the region.

  12. Summertime wind climate in Yerevan: valley wind systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevorgyan, Artur

    2017-03-01

    1992-2014 wind climatology analysis in Yerevan is presented with particular focus given to the summertime thermally induced valley wind systems. Persistence high winds are observed in Yerevan during July-August months when the study region is strongly affected by a heat-driven plain-plateau circulation. The local valley winds arrive in Yerevan in the evening hours, generally, from 1500 to 1800 UTC, leading to rapid enhancement of wind speeds and dramatic changes in wind direction. Valley-winds significantly impact the local climate of Yerevan, which is a densely populated city. These winds moderate evening temperatures after hot and dry weather conditions observed during summertime afternoons. On the other hand, valley winds result in significantly higher nocturnal temperatures and more frequent occurrence of warm nights (tn90p) in Yerevan due to stronger turbulent mixing of boundary layer preventing strong surface cooling and temperature drop in nighttime and morning hours. The applied WRF-ARW limited area model is able to simulate the key features of the observed spatial pattern of surface winds in Armenia associated with significant terrain channeling, wind curls, etc. By contrast, ECMWF EPS global model fails to capture mesoscale and local wind systems over Armenia. However, the results of statistical verification of surface winds in Yerevan showed that substantial biases are present in WRF 18-h wind forecasts, as well as, the temporal variability of observed surface winds is not reproduced adequately in WRF-ARW model.

  13. Something about California’s Silicon Valley Today

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪俊

    2001-01-01

    Today is National Day, July 4,2001. The usual morning commute in the SiliconValley, which often takes a couple of hours, is estimated by the agency overseeingthe state’s freeways to be only a 30-minute jaunt. Huge parking lots that are

  14. MX Siting Investigation. Gravity Survey - Southern White River Valley, Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-22

    included gravity surveys in ten valleys in Arizona (five), Nevada (two), New Mexico (two), and California (one). The gravity data were obtained for...Verification Sites, Nevada-Utah Siting Region, FN-TR-36. , 1980, Active Faults and Eartquake Hazards in the FY 79 Verification sites, Nevada-Utah Siting

  15. Sound propagation from a ridge wind turbine across a valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Renterghem, Timothy

    2017-04-01

    Sound propagation outdoors can be strongly affected by ground topography. The existence of hills and valleys between a source and receiver can lead to the shielding or focusing of sound waves. Such effects can result in significant variations in received sound levels. In addition, wind speed and air temperature gradients in the atmospheric boundary layer also play an important role. All of the foregoing factors can become especially important for the case of wind turbines located on a ridge overlooking a valley. Ridges are often selected for wind turbines in order to increase their energy capture potential through the wind speed-up effects often experienced in such locations. In this paper, a hybrid calculation method is presented to model such a case, relying on an analytical solution for sound diffraction around an impedance cylinder and the conformal mapping (CM) Green's function parabolic equation (GFPE) technique. The various aspects of the model have been successfully validated against alternative prediction methods. Example calculations with this hybrid analytical-CM-GFPE model show the complex sound pressure level distribution across the valley and the effect of valley ground type. The proposed method has the potential to include the effect of refraction through the inclusion of complex wind and temperature fields, although this aspect has been highly simplified in the current simulations. This article is part of the themed issue 'Wind energy in complex terrains'.

  16. Emerging Rift Valley fever in China: What should be known?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever is an important viral infection that is rarely reported in Asia. The recent emergence of this infection in China is a big global interest. In this short article, the author reviewed and presented important information on this disease.

  17. Imperial Contradictions: Is the Valley a Watershed, Region, or Cyborg?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudy, Alan P.

    2005-01-01

    Is California's Imperial Valley a watershed? If so, at what level and by what topographic logic? Is it a region? If so, at what level and by what geographic logic? Are its boundaries natural, political, or multivalent on different scales? In short, this essay looks at the special (re)production of environmental conditions within a cyborg world.…

  18. Gravity survey in the San Luis Valley area, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaca, J. Robert; Karig, Daniel E.

    1965-01-01

    During the summers of 1963 and 1964, a regional gravity survey covering 6,000 square miles of the San Luis Valley and surrounding areas was made to determine subsurface basement configurations and to guide future crustal studies. The San Luis Valley, a large intermontane basin, is a segment of the Rio Grande trough, a reef system characterized by volcanism, normal faulting, and tilted fault blocks. The gravity data, accurate to about 0.5 mgal, were reduced to complete-Bouguer anomaly values. The Bouguer-anomaly gravity map delineates a series of en-echelon gravity highs in the central and western San Luis Valley. These gravity highs are interpreted as horsts of Precambrian rock buried by basin fill. A series of en-echelon gravity lows along the eastern edge of the Valley is interpreted as a graben filled with sedimentary and igneous rock estimated to be up to 30,000 ft thick. The relatively high regional gravity over the Sangre de Cristo Mountains suggests that these mountains are locally uncompensated. A subcircular gravity low in the Bonanza area is interpreted as an indication of low-density volcanic rocks within a caldera structure.

  19. Business plan Tilapia Pond Farming in the Zambezi Valley, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Herman; Meer, van der Magnus

    2015-01-01

    This business plan has been prepared for local entrepreneurs who would like to expand their business portfolio or to start a value chain business in the aquaculture sector in the Zambezi Valley, Mozambique.

    Freshwater aquaculture in Mozambique consists mainly of small-scale tilapia producti

  20. Debating land degradation: strategy development for Bolivian mountain valleys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessler, A.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2010-01-01

    A debate on response strategies to rural poverty and land degradation has relevance for the core business of this journal. Based on extensive fieldwork in the mountain valleys of Chuquisaca, Bolivia, this paper discusses farming and migration in the region, and elaborates on the required components

  1. Parking Space Occupancy at Rail Stations in Klang Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Phooi Wai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of Klang Valley Integrated Rapid Transit system in Klang Valley, Malaysia has been quickly gaining momentum during the recent years. There will be two new MRT lines (MRT Line 1 and MRT Line 2 and one new LRT line (LRT Line 3 extended from the current integrated rail transit system by year 2020 with more than 90 new rail stations. With the substantial addition of potential rail passengers, there are doubts whether the existing Park and Ride facilities in Klang Valley are able to accommodate the future parking space demand at rail stations. This research studies the parking occupancy at various Park and Ride facilities in Klang Valley namely Taman Jaya, Asia Jaya, Taman Paramount, Taman Bahagia and Kelana Jaya by applying the non-conventional method utilizing Google Earth imageries. Results showed that the parking occupancy rate at these LRT stations were 100% or more before the commencement of LRT extension (Kelana Jaya and Ampang Lines in 2016 and in the range of 36% to 100% after the commencement of LRT extension due to the additionally built car parks and changes in parking pattern with dispersed passenger traffic.

  2. La Tierra Amarilla: The People of the Chama Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano, Anselmo F., Ed.

    The 1977-1978 ethnic heritage project of the Chama Valley (New Mexico) Public Schools involved teachers and students in a search for and recognition of the contributions of Indo-Hispanos of the area to the history of New Mexico and the culture and society of America. The resulting collection of historical, cultural, and folklore materials presents…

  3. Rio Grande Valley State Park maintenance, improvements, and developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony Barron

    1996-01-01

    Managing the Rio Grande Valley State Park as a valued riparian-wetland area is very important as it encourages conditions for the growth of vegetation. This growth supports a riparian community consisting of various insects, animals, birds, and fish, as well as other wildlife. Human activity in riparian areas has led to historic use patterns causing erosion, re-...

  4. Appendix C: The sources of Copan Valley obsidian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbottle, G. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Neff, H.; Bishop, R.L. [Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC (United States). Conservation Analytical Lab.

    1995-05-01

    One hundred thirty-nine obsidian samples from the Copan Valley were subjected to neutron activation analysis at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Obsidian sources from Mesoamerica have been characterized by a number of different laboratories using several techniques. Over 1,800 samples from Mesoamerica have been analyzed by neutron activation at BNL. These data are now housed both at BNL and in the Smithsonian Archaeometric Research Collections and Records (SARCAR) data base. Previous statistical analysis of the Mesoamerican obsidian artifacts and source samples has produced reference groups representing many of the sources, including Ixtepeque, San Martin Jilotepeque, and El Chayal, the three sources closest to the Copan Valley and therefore most likely to be represented in the analyzed sample. As anticipated, the overwhelming majority of obsidian recovered in the Copan Valley comes from the closest source, Ixtepeque. Of the seven El Chayal specimens, four pertain to CV-43 and three pertain to CV-20. These data provide no evidence of a difference between the two localities in external obsidian exchange relations. Thus, the authors find no grounds for questioning the assumption that the minor quantities of El Chayal obsidian that reached the Copan Valley were distributed through the same channels responsible for distribution of the more common Ixtepeque obsidian.

  5. One health approach to Rift Valley fever vaccine development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortekaas, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Since its discovery in the 1930s, Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) spread across the African continent and invaded the Arabian Peninsula and several islands off the coast of Southeast Africa. The virus causes recurrent outbreaks in these regions, and its continued spread is of global concern.

  6. Wat kunnen we in Nederland leren van Silicon Valley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ester, P.

    2016-01-01

    De aantrekkingskracht van de hightech innovatieregio Silicon Valley, in de strook van pakweg 90 kilometer tussen San Francisco en San Jose, is groot. Een regio met de meeste startups ter wereld. En ook ons land wil de borst vooruit steken. Of dat gaat lukken is geen kwestie van copy & paste, maar ha

  7. What Communication Skills Do Employers Want? Silicon Valley Recruiters Respond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Betsy

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the satisfaction levels of Silicon Valley employers with the communication skills of newly hired college graduates. Employers reported that oral and written communication skills needed improvement in several areas, including the use of vocabulary and self-expression. College graduates' skills are not always…

  8. Analysis of crater valleys, Noachis Terra, Mars: Evidence of fluvial and glacial processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, S. W.; Clarke, J. D. A.; Paull, D. J.

    2016-05-01

    The precise mechanism for the formation and evolution of crater valley networks in the Martian southern highlands remains under debate, with precipitation, groundwater flow, and melting induced by impact being suggested. We studied valley networks within four craters of the Noachis Terra highlands that were representative of similar features in Noachis Terra and where orbital data existed for analysis in order to characterise their morphology and infer possible processes involved in their formation and evolution. We found evidence for valleys carved by liquid water and ice-related processes. This included strong evidence of liquid water-based valley formation through melting of ice-rich deposits throughout our study area, suggesting an alternative to previously suggested rainfall or groundwater-based scenarios. The location of these valleys on steeply sloping crater walls, as opposed to the shallow slopes of the highlands where Martian valleys are typically found, suggested that our 'fluvial' valleys had not evolved a more structured fluvial morphology as valley networks found on the Martian plains. Our studied valleys' association with ice-rich material and abundant evidence for erosion caused by downslope flow of ice-rich material are consistent with a cold, wet Mars hypothesis where accumulation, flow, and melting of ice have been dominant factors in eroding crater valleys. Additionally, analysis of valley morphology with slope and aspect suggested a greater dependence on local geology and presence of volatiles than larger valley networks, though ice-related valleys were consistently wider for their length than valleys assessed as fluvial carved. We assessed that local conditions such as climate, geology, and availability of ice-rich material played a major role in the erosion of crater valleys at our study site.

  9. Birds of the St. Croix River valley: Minnesota and Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faanes, Craig A.

    1981-01-01

    The St. Croix River Valley encompasses nearly 11,550 km2 in east-central Minnesota and northwestern Wisconsin. A wide range of habitats are available for birds including upland oak, lowland deciduous, maple-basswood, lowland and upland coniferous forests, natural basin wetlands, and grasslands. Situated in the north-central region of the United States, the valley is a biological 'crossroads' for many species. Because of the mixed affinities of plant communities, the valley includes the northern and southern range limits for a number of species. Also, because the valley lies near the forest-prairie transition zone, many typical western breeding species (e.g. pintail, western meadowlark, yellow-headed blackbird) breed in proximity to typical eastern species such as tufted titmouse, eastern meadowlark, and cardinal. From 1966 to 1980, I conducted extensive surveys of avian distribution and abundance in the St. Croix River Valley. I have supplemented the results of these surveys with published and unpublished observations contributed by many ornithologists. These additional data include compilations from Christmas Bird Counts sponsored by the National Audubon Society and from the Breeding Bird Survey coordinated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Three hundred fourteen species have been recorded in the study area; data are presented on the migration period, nesting season distribution, winter distribution, relative abundance, and habitat use of each species. Recognizing the uniqueness of the area, and its importance not only to wildlife but also to man, the U.S. Congress designated the St. Croix a National Scenic Riverway. This action provided a considerable degree of protection to lands along and directly adjacent to the river. Unfortunately, no similar legal measure exists to protect lands away from the river. With the exception of the northern quarter of the St. Croix River Valley, agricultural interests have made significant inroads into the habitat base. The

  10. Geomorphic legacy of medieval Himalayan earthquakes in the Pokhara Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Bernhardt, Anne; Stolle, Amelie; Hoelzmann, Philipp; Adhikari, Basanta R.; Andermann, Christoff; Tofelde, Stefanie; Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg; Fort, Monique; Korup, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    The Himalayas and their foreland belong to the world's most earthquake-prone regions. With millions of people at risk from severe ground shaking and associated damages, reliable data on the spatial and temporal occurrence of past major earthquakes is urgently needed to inform seismic risk analysis. Beyond the instrumental record such information has been largely based on historical accounts and trench studies. Written records provide evidence for damages and fatalities, yet are difficult to interpret when derived from the far-field. Trench studies, in turn, offer information on rupture histories, lengths and displacements along faults but involve high chronological uncertainties and fail to record earthquakes that do not rupture the surface. Thus, additional and independent information is required for developing reliable earthquake histories. Here, we present exceptionally well-dated evidence of catastrophic valley infill in the Pokhara Valley, Nepal. Bayesian calibration of radiocarbon dates from peat beds, plant macrofossils, and humic silts in fine-grained tributary sediments yields a robust age distribution that matches the timing of nearby M>8 earthquakes in ~1100, 1255, and 1344 AD. The upstream dip of tributary valley fills and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry of their provenance rule out local sediment sources. Instead, geomorphic and sedimentary evidence is consistent with catastrophic fluvial aggradation and debris flows that had plugged several tributaries with tens of meters of calcareous sediment from the Annapurna Massif >60 km away. The landscape-changing consequences of past large Himalayan earthquakes have so far been elusive. Catastrophic aggradation in the wake of two historically documented medieval earthquakes and one inferred from trench studies underscores that Himalayan valley fills should be considered as potential archives of past earthquakes. Such valley fills are pervasive in the Lesser Himalaya though high erosion rates reduce

  11. Theoretical Variation of Solar Radiation in a Tropical Mountain Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flórez Botero, L. Z.; Ochoa, A.; Jiménez, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Solar radiation over the earth's surface varies in response to global factors such as the atmosphere and the relative movement of Earth around the sun, and local factors related to the earth's surface features and topography. The aim of this study is to know the effect of local factors in spatial and temporal variability of solar radiation in a tropical mountain valley in Colombia. We estimated the potential solar radiation on simplified schemes of valleys by the means of theoretical exercises with different slopes and aspects for further analysis. Despite the closeness of the studied area to the line of Ecuador where the annual variation of radiation is almost zero we detected some differences. Changes were found in solar radiation on different valley schemes in terms of hours of sunshine and total energy that reaches the surface depending on the slope, the orientation of the slopes and the diurnal variation of the solar altitude angle. Results suggest that different aspects lead changes in the annual insolation up to 4 MJ / m2 on June and a lag of about two hours in the diurnal cycle of insolation in the southeast (135°) and northwest (315°) facing peaks with the highest radiation around 8 hours after sunrise. The annual variation cycle, related to the slope, does not show major changes, but the diurnal cycle of the cells with the major slope has the lower insolation with a maximum of about one hour before the other cells. Finally, a better understanding of the real dynamics of sunshine in the Valley of Aburrá - Colombia is possible knowing the variation of the annual cycle and the diurnal cycle of insolation in a synthetic valley reliant on the different aspects and slopes allows. This represents an opportunity to improve urban planning and rural productive activities that depends directly on the availability of energy.

  12. Hydrology of modern and late Holocene lakes, Death Valley, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasso, D.N.

    1996-07-01

    Above-normal precipitation and surface-water runoff, which have been generally related to the cyclic recurrence of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation, have produced modern ephemeral lakes in the closed-basin Death Valley watershed. This study evaluates the regional hydroclimatic relations between precipitation, runoff, and lake transgressions in the Death Valley watershed. Recorded precipitation, runoff, and spring discharge data for the region are used in conjunction with a closed-basin, lake-water-budget equation to assess the relative contributions of water from these sources to modern lakes in Death Valley and to identify the requisite hydroclimatic changes for a late Holocene perennial lake in the valley. As part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Program, an evaluation of the Quaternary regional paleoflood hydrology of the potential nuclear-waste repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was planned. The objectives of the evaluation were (1) to identify the locations and investigate the hydraulic characteristics of paleofloods and compare these with the locations and characteristics of modern floods, and (2) to evaluate the character and severity of past floods and debris flows to ascertain the potential future hazards to the potential repository during the pre-closure period (US Department of Energy, 1988). This study addresses the first of these objectives, and the second in part, by assessing and comparing the sizes, locations, and recurrence rates of modern, recorded (1962--83) floods and late Holocene paleofloods for the 8,533-mi{sup 2}, closed-basin, Death Valley watershed with its contributing drainage basins in the Yucca Mountain site area.

  13. Hydrogeologic and geochemical characterization of groundwater resources in Rush Valley, Tooele County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Philip M.; Kirby, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The water resources of Rush Valley were assessed during 2008-2010 with an emphasis on refining the understanding of the groundwater-flow system and updating the groundwater budget. Surface-water resources within Rush Valley are limited and are generally used for agriculture. Groundwater is the principal water source for most other uses including supplementing irrigation. Most groundwater withdrawal in Rush Valley is from the unconsolidated basin-fill aquifer where conditions are generally unconfined near the mountain front and confined at lower altitudes near the valley center. Productive aquifers also occur in fractured bedrock along the valley margins and beneath the basin-fill deposits in some areas.

  14. Valley-polarized quantum transport generated by gauge fields in graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Settnes, Mikkel; Garcia, Jose H; Roche, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    We report on the possibility to simultaneously generate in graphene a bulk valley-polarized dissipative transport and a quantum valley Hall effect by combining strain-induced gauge fields and real magnetic fields. Such unique phenomenon results from a ‘resonance/anti-resonance’ effect driven...... by the superposition/cancellation of superimposed gauge fields which differently affect time reversal symmetry. The onset of a valley-polarized Hall current concomitant to a dissipative valley-polarized current flow in the opposite valley is revealed by a Hall conductivity plateau. We employ efficient linear scaling...

  15. DIOXINS AND ENDOMETRIOSIS: COHORT STUDY OF WOMEN IN WEST VIRGINIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanawha Valley of West Virginia has a history of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin contamination (dioxin, TCDD). The bulk of the dioxin found in this area appears to be derived from the production of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) and the disposal of associated wa...

  16. A review of empirical evidence on different uncanny valley hypotheses: support for perceptual mismatch as one road to the valley of eeriness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jari eKätsyri

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The uncanny valley hypothesis, proposed already in the 1970s, suggests that almost but not fully humanlike artificial characters will trigger a profound sense of unease. This hypothesis has become widely acknowledged both in the popular media and scientific research. Surprisingly, empirical evidence for the hypothesis has remained inconsistent. In the present article, we reinterpret the original uncanny valley hypothesis and review empirical evidence for different theoretically motivated uncanny valley hypotheses. The uncanny valley could be understood as the naïve claim that any kind of human-likeness manipulation will lead to experienced negative affinity at close-to-realistic levels. More recent hypotheses have suggested that the uncanny valley would be caused by artificial–human categorization difficulty or by a perceptual mismatch between artificial and human features. Original formulation also suggested that movement would modulate the uncanny valley. The reviewed empirical literature failed to provide consistent support for the naïve uncanny valley hypothesis or the modulatory effects of movement. Results on the categorization difficulty hypothesis were still too scarce to allow drawing firm conclusions. In contrast, good support was found for the perceptual mismatch hypothesis. Taken together, the present review findings suggest that the uncanny valley exists only under specific conditions. More research is still needed to pinpoint the exact conditions under which the uncanny valley phenomenon manifests itself.

  17. A recombinant Rift Valley fever virus glycoprotein subunit vaccine confers full protection against Rift Valley fever challenge in sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic pathogen causing disease outbreaks in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. The virus has great potential for transboundary spread due to the presence of competent vectors in non-endemic areas. There is currently no fully licensed vaccine suita...

  18. Valley Density Evaluation and Typical Development Pattern in Mountainous Areas of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU Song-lin; ZHANG Yi-feng; WANG Kai-yong; TANG Cheng-cai; WANG Ling-en; LIU Yu

    2012-01-01

    Based on geographical differences and space differentiation, valley economy is a new pattern and new perspective for the development of mountainous areas, integrating ecological protection, industrial nurture, and village integration. On the basis of natural and geographical differentiation of valley, we give an overview of the spatial distribution of valley in mountainous areas of Beijing and spatial difference in valley density, and sum up the typical development pattern of valley economy, using DEM data. The results show that the spatial distribution of valley presents an asymmetric shape of inverted V or branch; Miyun, Yanqing, and Changping have high valley density, while Pinggu, Fangshan and Mentougou have low valley density; there is a significant positive relationship between valley density and the spatial distribution of river and reservoir. The development pattern of valley economy is divided into five types: leisure and high-end upgrade-based pattern, ecological development and transition demonstration-based pattern, folk culture and creation-driven pattern, scenic spots-driven and valley-linked pattern and leisure agriculture and specialty-led pattern.

  19. Valley-polarized quantum transport generated by gauge fields in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settnes, Mikkel; Garcia, Jose H.; Roche, Stephan

    2017-09-01

    We report on the possibility to simultaneously generate in graphene a bulk valley-polarized dissipative transport and a quantum valley Hall effect by combining strain-induced gauge fields and real magnetic fields. Such unique phenomenon results from a ‘resonance/anti-resonance’ effect driven by the superposition/cancellation of superimposed gauge fields which differently affect time reversal symmetry. The onset of a valley-polarized Hall current concomitant to a dissipative valley-polarized current flow in the opposite valley is revealed by a {{e}2}/h Hall conductivity plateau. We employ efficient linear scaling Kubo transport methods combined with a valley projection scheme to access valley-dependent conductivities and show that the results are robust against disorder.

  20. Second harmonic spectroscopy to optically detect valley polarization in 2D materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipolito, F.; Pereira, Vitor M.

    2017-06-01

    Valley polarization (VP), an induced imbalance in the populations of a multi-valley electronic system, allows emission of second harmonic (SH) light even in centrosymmetric crystals such as graphene. Whereas in systems such as MoS{{}2} or BN this adds to their intrinsic quadratic response, SH generation in a multi-valley inversion-symmetric crystal can provide a direct measure of valley polarization. By computing the nonlinear response and characterizing theoretically the respective SH as a function of polarization, temperature, electron density, and degree of VP, we demonstrate the possibility of disentangling and individually quantifying the intrinsic and valley contributions to the SH. A specific experimental setup is proposed to obtain direct quantitative information about the degree of VP and allow its remote mapping. This approach could prove useful for direct, contactless, real-space monitoring of valley injection and other applications of valley transport and valleytronics.

  1. Valley Polarization by Spin Injection in a Light-Emitting van der Waals Heterojunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Oriol Lopez; Ovchinnikov, Dmitry; Misra, Shikhar; Allain, Adrien; Kis, Andras

    2016-09-14

    The band structure of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) with valence band edges at different locations in the momentum space could be harnessed to build devices that operate relying on the valley degree of freedom. To realize such valleytronic devices, it is necessary to control and manipulate the charge density in these valleys, resulting in valley polarization. While this has been demonstrated using optical excitation, generation of valley polarization in electronic devices without optical excitation remains difficult. Here, we demonstrate spin injection from a ferromagnetic electrode into a heterojunction based on monolayers of WSe2 and MoS2 and lateral transport of spin-polarized holes within the WSe2 layer. The resulting valley polarization leads to circularly polarized light emission that can be tuned using an external magnetic field. This demonstration of spin injection and magnetoelectronic control over valley polarization provides a new opportunity for realizing combined spin and valleytronic devices based on spin-valley locking in semiconducting TMDCs.

  2. Origin and development of theater-headed valleys in the Atacama Desert, northern Chile: Morphological analogs to martian valley networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Rossman P.; Tooth, Stephen; Craddock, Robert A.; Howard, Alan D.; de Latour, Ana Baptista

    2014-11-01

    Understanding planetary landforms, including the theater-headed valleys (box canyons) of Mars, usually depends on interpreting geological processes from remote-sensing data without ground-based corroboration. Here we investigate the origin and development of two Mars-analog theater-headed valleys in the hyperarid Atacama Desert of northern Chile. Previous workers attributed these valleys to groundwater sapping based on remote imaging, topography, and publications on the local geology. We evaluate groundwater sapping and alternative hypotheses using field observations of characteristic features, strength measurements of strata exposed in headscarps, and estimates of ephemeral flood discharges within the valleys. The headscarps lack evidence of recent or active seepage weathering, such as spring discharge, salt weathering, alcoves, or vegetation. Their welded tuff caprocks have compressive strengths multiple times those of the underlying epiclastic strata. Flood discharge estimates of cubic meters to tens of cubic meters per second, derived using the Manning equation, are consistent with the size of transported clasts and show that the ephemeral streams are geomorphically effective, even in the modern hyperarid climate. We interpret that headscarp retreat in the Quebrada de Quisma is due to ephemeral flood erosion of weak Miocene epiclastic strata beneath a strong welded tuff, with erosion of the tuff facilitated by vertical jointing. The Quebrada de Humayani headscarp is interpreted as the scar of a giant landslide, maintained against substantial later degradation by similar strong-over-weak stratigraphy. This work suggests that theater-headed valleys on Earth and Mars should not be attributed by default to groundwater sapping, as other processes with lithologic and structural influences can form theater headscarps.

  3. Yellowstone and Long Valley - A Comparison of Two Restless Calderas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, D. P.; Smith, R. B.

    2007-12-01

    Three large, silicic calderas in the conterminous United States have explosively erupted volumes > 300 km3 within in the last 2 million years -- Yellowstone caldera (Wyoming) Long Valley caldera (California) and the Vallez caldera (New Mexico) all located in extensional tectonic environments. All have shown varying levels of historic unrest. Pronounced unrest episodes at Yellowstone and Long Valley calderas over the past three decades stimulated extensive research on these two closely monitored calderas, and we explore some emerging similarities and differences. Yellowstone caldera is underlain by a long-lived (> 17 my) upper-mantle hot-spot that has fed a series of caldera-forming, extending to the southwest across southern Idaho to central Oregon including three caldera-forming eruptions from the Yellowstone caldera system in the last 2 my, the most recent at 600,000 ybp. It is marked by relatively low density and low seismic velocities extending to depths of at least 400 km and a regional topographic swell with elevations exceeding 2000 m. The extensive Yellowstone hydrothermal system has a thermal output of 5 GW. The most recent magmatic eruption dated at 70,000 ybp. By comparison, Long Valley caldera is underlain by a relatively modest "hot-spot", the locus of which appears to be influenced by a dilatational jog between the dextral Eastern California Shear Zone and the Walker Lane and westward delamination of the dense lithospheric root of the adjacent Sierra Nevada. The Long Valley system has fed multiple eruptions of over the past 4 my and a single caldera-forming eruption at 760,000 ybp. It is marked by a limited topographic swell but with the elevation of the caldera floor and adjacent basins comparable to the 2000-plus m elevation of the Yellowstone swell. Long Valley caldera hydrothermal system has a thermal output of 0.3 GW (including a 40 MW geothermal power plant). The most recent eruptions from the Long Valley Caldera- Mono Domes volcanic field

  4. Future Groundwater Use in Ljubljana Field and Mura Valley (Slovenia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajc Benda, T.; Bračič Železnik, B.; Souvent, P.; Čenčur Curk, B.

    2012-04-01

    Ljubljana field is a part of Ljubljana basin in the central part of the country. Mura valley, in the north eastern part of the country, belongs to Mura basin. Both are important "storages" of groundwater and main source of drinking water for more than 380.000 inhabitants. In an unconfined porous Ljubljana field aquifer the thickness exceeds 100 m, the groundwater is recharging from rainfall (50 %) and from the river Sava (50 %). The three quarters of the aquifer lie beneath the urbanised and agricultural area. The Mura valley porous aquifer is shallower, the average thickness is 17 m, the groundwater is recharging mainly from precipitation and most of the aquifer lies beneath the agricultural area. Ljubljana field and Mura valley were chosen as test areas in the project Climate Change and Impacts on Water Supply (CC-WaterS) . The aim of the project is to estimate the impact of climate change on drinking water supply in the Alpine region, middle and lower Danube and Adriatic sea coastal areas. In Slovenia two test areas were chosen because different land uses require different anthropogenic activities which modify the entire aquifer areas, impact the hydrological balance, reduce the aquifer recharge, influence the groundwater flow characteristics, change the water source availability and restoration and influence the quality of groundwater. For the two test areas, climate change scenarios were made on the basis of the SRES A1B emissions scenario on which three different models were used: ALADIN, RegCM3 and PROMES. Temperature and precipitation were modeled and ETP was calculated for the future periods 2021-2050 and 2071-2100. Water use data were obtained from the local public companies for drinking water supply and for other water use from the water permits, since, especially in Mura valley, many people pump drinking water from private wells and therefore public companie's data are not sufficient. Data sets from the public companie's vary a lot, as for Ljubljana

  5. Groundwater Temperature in the Limmat Valley Aquifer, Zurich

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Martin; Rivera, Jaime; Blum, Philipp; Bayer, Peter

    2014-05-01

    In metropolitan areas, the thermal environment is strongly influenced by the effects of urbanization. Urban climate is often described by Urban Heat Islands (UHIs), which are also observed in the shallow subsurface. On the one hand, these temperature anomalies may put sustainable development of urban ground at a risk, but on the other hand, enhanced ground temperatures represent potential energy reservoirs. In this contribution, we focus on the role of hydrogeological conditions for the development subsurface UHIs. As a study case, the Limmat valley forming the city center of Zurich is chosen. The Limmat valley is filled with widely heterogeneous, high-conductive moraine deposits, which host groundwater reaching close to the urban surface. By rigorous temperature-depth metering of the Limmat valley aquifer since the summer of 2013, and by compiling previously measured data, the intensity of Zurich's subsurface UHI is examined. This is done with respect to its special hydrogeology, which is dominated by large-scale infiltrations from the rivers Limmat and Sihl. These generate seasonal temperature variations in the groundwater, with increasing amplitudes in the vicinity of the rivers. The seasonal groundwater temperature changes in the Limmat valley are assessed by complementing measurements from summer and winter. The measurements reveal that groundwater temperatures in Zurich are generally high. Across the Limmat valley, values of beyond 13°C are regionally observed, which is around 4 K higher than annual surface air temperature and around 3 K higher than groundwater temperature in the rural surrounding. Though, urbanization is interpreted as a secondary factor (1-1.5K), as the river infiltration naturally causes high groundwater temperatures in the Limmat valley. In the permeable gravel, the temperature-depth-profiles measured in city wells often show little fluctuation. This may be due to horizontal and vertical mixing of the groundwater, and reflects the

  6. How Silicon Valley Journalists Talk about: Independence in Innovation Coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten; Nordfors, David

    2010-01-01

    Silicon Valley has become known for innovations that have led to substantial changes for citizens around the world. In 1960s’-80s’ the innovation had to do with computers and electronics, 1990s-00s’ it was on Internet and Web services. Since the later part of the 00’s, clean tech has emerged......-structured interviews with journalists who cover the innovation economy in Silicon Valley, the paper seeks to understand the professional challenges the network structure create for journalists and the strategies they apply. Comparing the results with previous research in journalism norms, this study suggests...... that as access to powerful sources becomes scarce and controlled journalists tend to be more innovative and diverse in shaping professional norms to balance access to sources with their readers’ mandate. The continued development of this diversity of norms, and its impact on society needs to be further explored....

  7. Combinatorial vector fields and the valley structure of fitness landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Bärbel M R; Stadler, Peter F

    2010-12-01

    Adaptive (downhill) walks are a computationally convenient way of analyzing the geometric structure of fitness landscapes. Their inherently stochastic nature has limited their mathematical analysis, however. Here we develop a framework that interprets adaptive walks as deterministic trajectories in combinatorial vector fields and in return associate these combinatorial vector fields with weights that measure their steepness across the landscape. We show that the combinatorial vector fields and their weights have a product structure that is governed by the neutrality of the landscape. This product structure makes practical computations feasible. The framework presented here also provides an alternative, and mathematically more convenient, way of defining notions of valleys, saddle points, and barriers in landscape. As an application, we propose a refined approximation for transition rates between macrostates that are associated with the valleys of the landscape.

  8. The Virtual Museum of the Tiber Valley Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Arnoldus Huyzendveld

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the Virtual Museum of the Tiber Valley project is the creation of an integrated digital system for the knowledge, valorisation and communication of the cultural landscape, archaeological and naturalistic sites along the Tiber Valley, in the Sabina area between Monte Soratte and the ancient city of Lucus Feroniae (Capena. Virtual reality applications, multimedia contents, together with a web site, are under construction and they will be accessed inside the museums of the territory and in a central museum in Rome. The different stages of work will cover the building of a geo-spatial archaeological database, the reconstruction of the ancient potential landscape and the creation of virtual models of the major archaeological sites. This paper will focus on the methodologies used and on present and future results.

  9. Ambient Radon-222 Monitoring in Amargosa Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.H. Karr; J.J. Tappen; D. Shafer; K.J. Gray

    2008-06-05

    As part of a program to characterize and baseline selected environmental parameters in the region around the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, ambient radon-222 monitoring was conducted in the rural community of Amargosa Valley, the community closest to the proposed repository site. Passive integrating radon monitors and a continuous radon monitoring instrument were deployed adjacent to the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) (http://www.cemp.dri.edu/index.html) station located in the Amargosa Valley Community Center near the library. The CEMP station provided real-time ambient gamma exposure and meteorological data used to correct the integrated radon measurements as well as verify meteorological data collected by the continuous radon monitoring instrument. Additionally, different types of environmental enclosures that housed the monitors and instrument were used to determine if particular designs influenced the ambient radon measurements.

  10. Views on the Anisotropic Nature of Ilva Valley Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA-ALINA MUREŞAN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are two concepts important for the authors of this article: anisotropic region and anisotropic space. Anisotropic region is defined by A. Dauphiné, the geographer (-mathematician, as a territorial unit whose structure results from the organisation of space along one or more axes. From the point of view of a territorial system, this type of region has some characteristics which differentiate it both from the homogeneous region and from the polarised one. These specificities have been analysed for Ilva Valley. The region of Ilva Valley is formed along the morphological axis represented by the Ilva River. The aim is to identify these specificities or their absence within this region. In this way we can determine whether this region is an anisotropic one or just an anisotropic space, namely whether it can be considered as evolving towards an anisotropic region, not yet complying with all characteristics of anisotropic regions.

  11. Monkey visual behavior falls into the uncanny valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckenfinger, Shawn A; Ghazanfar, Asif A

    2009-10-27

    Very realistic human-looking robots or computer avatars tend to elicit negative feelings in human observers. This phenomenon is known as the "uncanny valley" response. It is hypothesized that this uncanny feeling is because the realistic synthetic characters elicit the concept of "human," but fail to live up to it. That is, this failure generates feelings of unease due to character traits falling outside the expected spectrum of everyday social experience. These unsettling emotions are thought to have an evolutionary origin, but tests of this hypothesis have not been forthcoming. To bridge this gap, we presented monkeys with unrealistic and realistic synthetic monkey faces, as well as real monkey faces, and measured whether they preferred looking at one type versus the others (using looking time as a measure of preference). To our surprise, monkey visual behavior fell into the uncanny valley: They looked longer at real faces and unrealistic synthetic faces than at realistic synthetic faces.

  12. Geological literature on the San Joaquin Valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, J.C.; Trollman, W.M.; Denman, J.M.

    1973-01-01

    The following list of references includes most of the geological literature on the San Joaquin Valley and vicinity in central California (see figure 1) published prior to January 1, 1973. The San Joaquin Valley comprises all or parts of 11 counties -- Alameda, Calaveras, Contra Costa, Fresno, Kern, Kings, Madera, Merced, San Joaquin, Stanislaus, and Tulare (figure 2). As a matter of convenient geographical classification the boundaries of the report area have been drawn along county lines, and to include San Benito and Santa Clara Counties on the west and Mariposa and Tuolumne Counties on the east. Therefore, this list of geological literature includes some publications on the Diablo and Temblor Ranges on the west, the Tehachapi Mountains and Mojave Desert on the south, and the Sierra Nevada Foothills and Mountains on the east.

  13. Daytime wind valleys adjacent to the Great Salt Lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, G.L. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Hoard, D.E. (Amparo Corp., Santa Fe, NM (USA))

    1990-01-01

    In 1986 Los Alamos National Laboratory was engaged by the US Army to study the meteorological aspects of emergency preparedness at several sites where toxic materials are stored and handled. The project included a series of tracer and meteorological field experiments in the vicinity of the Tooele Army Depot. These experiments generated a large data set for validating numerical simulations and for empirical analyses of the local meteorology. This paper discusses the main characteristics of the daytime, up-valley flow at the Utah site, including frequency of occurrence, horizontal and vertical structure, and temporal evolution. Some parameters controlling the variability in onset time for up-valley flow are identified, and an empirical forecasting scheme is discussed. 16 refs., 7 figs.

  14. Babesiosis in Lower Hudson Valley, New York, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sumith S.; Shams, Navid; Visintainer, Paul; Nadelman, Robert B.; Hosur, Srilatha; Nelson, John; Wormser, Gary P.

    2011-01-01

    Although Lyme disease has been endemic to parts of the Lower Hudson Valley of New York, United States, for >2 decades, babesiosis has emerged there only since 2001. The number of Lower Hudson Valley residents in whom babesiosis was diagnosed increased 20-fold, from 6 to 119 cases per year during 2001–2008, compared with an ≈1.6-fold increase for the rest of New York. During 2002–2009, a total of 19 patients with babesiosis were hospitalized on 22 occasions at the regional tertiary care center. Concurrent conditions included advanced age, malignancies, splenectomy, and AIDS. Two patients acquired the infection from blood transfusions and 1 from perinatal exposure, rather than from a tick bite. One patient died. Clinicians should consider babesiosis in persons with fever and hemolytic anemia who have had tick exposure or have received blood products. PMID:21529393

  15. Case histories of West Valley spent fuel shipments: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    In 1983, NRC/FC initiated a study on institutional issues related to spent fuel shipments originating at the former spent fuel processing facility in West Valley, New York. FC staff viewed the shipment campaigns as a one-time opportunity to document the institutional issues that may arise with a substantial increase in spent fuel shipping activity. NRC subsequently contracted with the Aerospace Corporation for the West Valley Study. This report contains a detailed description of the events which took place prior to and during the spent fuel shipments. The report also contains a discussion of the shipment issues that arose, and presents general findings. Most of the institutional issues discussed in the report do not fall under NRC's transportation authority. The case histories provide a reference to agencies and other institutions that may be involved in future spent fuel shipping campaigns. 130 refs., 7 figs., 19 tabs.

  16. Hydrogeologic framework of the Santa Clara Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Randall T.

    2015-01-01

    The hydrologic framework of the Santa Clara Valley in northern California was redefined on the basis of new data and a new hydrologic model. The regional groundwater flow systems can be subdivided into upper-aquifer and lower-aquifer systems that form a convergent flow system within a basin bounded by mountains and hills on three sides and discharge to pumping wells and the southern San Francisco Bay. Faults also control the flow of groundwater within the Santa Clara Valley and subdivide the aquifer system into three subregions.After decades of development and groundwater depletion that resulted in substantial land subsidence, Santa Clara Valley Water District (SCVWD) and the local water purveyors have refilled the basin through conservation and importation of water for direct use and artificial recharge. The natural flow system has been altered by extensive development with flow paths toward major well fields. Climate has not only affected the cycles of sedimentation during the glacial periods over the past million years, but interannual to interdecadal climate cycles also have affected the supply and demand components of the natural and anthropogenic inflows and outflows of water in the valley. Streamflow has been affected by development of the aquifer system and regulated flow from reservoirs, as well as conjunctive use of groundwater and surface water. Interaquifer flow through water-supply wells screened across multiple aquifers is an important component to the flow of groundwater and recapture of artificial recharge in the Santa Clara Valley. Wellbore flow and depth-dependent chemical and isotopic data indicate that flow into wells from multiple aquifers, as well as capture of artificial recharge by pumping of water-supply wells, predominantly is occurring in the upper 500 ft (152 m) of the aquifer system. Artificial recharge represents about one-half of the inflow of water into the valley for the period 1970–1999. Most subsidence is occurring below 250 ft

  17. Segetal flora of the Middle Vistula River Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ługowska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to describe the segetal flora of the Middle Vistula River Valley. A total of 367 species were recorded in spring and winter cereals, tuber crops, and stubble fields. Such floristic abundance may be due to the fact that the study area is located in the proximity of a river where semi-natural communities interact directly with communities inhabiting cultivated fields and that fields are fragmented and characterised by different habitats. There were more apophytes (62% than anthropophytes (38% in the flora studied. Meadow apophytes were the dominant native species (35% and archeophytes were the dominant anthropophytes (69%. The analysis of the life spectrum revealed that there were more therophytes (50% than hemicryptophytes (39%. What is more, non-perennial species constituted 56% and perennials 44% of the segetal flora established in the Middle Vistula River Valley. The large proportion of archeophytes (26% may indicate that traditional farming predominated in the study area.

  18. Optically initialized robust valley-polarized holes in monolayer WSe2

    KAUST Repository

    Hsu, Wei-Ting

    2015-11-25

    A robust valley polarization is a key prerequisite for exploiting valley pseudospin to carry information in next-generation electronics and optoelectronics. Although monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides with inherent spin–valley coupling offer a unique platform to develop such valleytronic devices, the anticipated long-lived valley pseudospin has not been observed yet. Here we demonstrate that robust valley-polarized holes in monolayer WSe2 can be initialized by optical pumping. Using time-resolved Kerr rotation spectroscopy, we observe a long-lived valley polarization for positive trion with a lifetime approaching 1 ns at low temperatures, which is much longer than the trion recombination lifetime (~10–20 ps). The long-lived valley polarization arises from the transfer of valley pseudospin from photocarriers to resident holes in a specific valley. The optically initialized valley pseudospin of holes remains robust even at room temperature, which opens up the possibility to realize room-temperature valleytronics based on transition metal dichalcogenides.

  19. DYNAMICS OF A KIND OF RIFT VALLEY FEVER MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A novel mathematical model of the epidemiology of Rift Valley fever (RVF) is studied, which is an ordinary differential equation model for a population of mosquito species and the hosts. A disease-free equilibrium is discussed as well as its local stability. The prevalence of disease is proved under some conditions. Finally the vertical transmission is considered in a model for such a mosquito population.

  20. Re-Emergence of Rift Valley Fever in Madagascar

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-27

    This podcast describes the re-emergence of Rift Valley Fever in Madagascar during two rainy seasons in 2008 and 2009. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Pierre Rollin discusses what researchers learned about the outbreak and about infections in the larger population in Madagascar.  Created: 5/27/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/27/2010.

  1. ADVERTISING AND AN ACCIDENTAL CLASSIC: ILLUSTRATED SKETCHES OF DFATH VALLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Steeples

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Illustrated Sketches of Death Valley (1891 originated as a hastily-written series of journalistic sketches of our Western borax deserts. They were written on commission to supplement their authors income. Conceived as a means subtly to promote the borax industry the Sketches in time won unintended recognition as a classic source for their subject. They also assumed unforeseen importance as an illustration of the role of advertising in America’s changing economy.

  2. Overseas Tech Firms Ramp Up Hiring In Silicon Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Fpr years, U.S.high-tech executives have fretted about the loss of technology jobs to countries such as China and India.But there is a countervailing force: Foreign companies are leaning heavily on engineers they hire in Silicon Valley. Companies from Europe and Asia increasingly are using high-tech teams in the Bay Area to conduct long-range research and help design cutting-edge products for global markets.

  3. Groundwater quality in the western San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.

    2017-06-09

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Western San Joaquin Valley is one of the study units being evaluated. 

  4. Hammer Down: The Battle for the Watapur Valley, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Kala bringing earth-filled HESCO barriers and told local elders that he intended to build a COP in the valley. The news spread like wildfire and soon...recently abandoned logging campsites and directed his squads to travel using bounding movements in case they made contact with enemy elements he now...against the mountainside. Several Soldiers, including Bedoy and Sergeant First Class William Smith, lost consciousness upon impact . Other

  5. A novel cause of chronic viral meningoencephalitis: Cache Valley virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael R; Suan, Dan; Duggins, Andrew; Schubert, Ryan D; Khan, Lillian M; Sample, Hannah A; Zorn, Kelsey C; Rodrigues Hoffman, Aline; Blick, Anna; Shingde, Meena; DeRisi, Joseph L

    2017-07-01

    Immunodeficient patients are particularly vulnerable to neuroinvasive infections that can be challenging to diagnose. Metagenomic next generation sequencing can identify unusual or novel microbes and is therefore well suited for investigating the etiology of chronic meningoencephalitis in immunodeficient patients. We present the case of a 34-year-old man with X-linked agammaglobulinemia from Australia suffering from 3 years of meningoencephalitis that defied an etiologic diagnosis despite extensive conventional testing, including a brain biopsy. Metagenomic next generation sequencing of his cerebrospinal fluid and brain biopsy tissue was performed to identify a causative pathogen. Sequences aligning to multiple Cache Valley virus genes were identified via metagenomic next generation sequencing. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry subsequently confirmed the presence of Cache Valley virus in the brain biopsy tissue. Cache Valley virus, a mosquito-borne orthobunyavirus, has only been identified in 3 immunocompetent North American patients with acute neuroinvasive disease. The reported severity ranges from a self-limiting meningitis to a rapidly fatal meningoencephalitis with multiorgan failure. The virus has never been known to cause a chronic systemic or neurologic infection in humans. Cache Valley virus has also never previously been detected on the Australian continent. Our research subject traveled to North and South Carolina and Michigan in the weeks prior to the onset of his illness. This report demonstrates that metagenomic next generation sequencing allows for unbiased pathogen identification, the early detection of emerging viruses as they spread to new locales, and the discovery of novel disease phenotypes. Ann Neurol 2017;82:105-114. © 2017 The Authors Annals of Neurology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Neurological Association.

  6. Product consistency testing of West Valley Compositional Variation Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, K.M.; Marschman, S.C.; Piepel, G.F.; Whiting, G.K.

    1994-11-01

    Nuclear waste glass produced by the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) must meet the requirements of the Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specification (WAPS) as developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE). To assist WVDP in complying with WAPS, the Materials Characterization Center (MCC) at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) used the Product Consistency Test (PCT) to evaluate 44 West Valley glasses that had previously been tested in FY 1987 and FY 1988. This report summarizes the results of the PCTs. The glasses tested, which were fabricated as sets of Compositional Variation Glasses for studies performed by the West Valley Support Task (WVST) at PNL during FY 1987 and FY 1988, were doped with Th and U and were variations of West Valley reference glasses. In addition, Approved Reference Material-1 (ARM-1) was used as a test standard (ARM-1 is supplied by the MCC). The PCT was originated at Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) by C. M. Jantzen and N. R. Bibler (Jantzen and Bibler 1989). The test is a seven-day modified MCC-3 test that uses crushed glass in the size range -100 +200 mesh with deionized water in a Teflon container. There is no agitation during the PCT, and no attempt to include CO{sub 2} from the test environment. Based on B and Li release, the glasses performed about the same as in previous modified MCC-3 testing performed in FY 1987 and FY 1988 (Reimus et al. 1988). The modified MCC-3 tests performed by Reimus et al. were similar to the PCT containers and the exclusion of CO{sub 2} from the tests.

  7. Shallow Seismic Reflection Survey at Garner Valley Digital Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Z. S.; Brackman, T. B.; Bodin, P.; Stephenson, W. J.; Steidl, J. H.; Gomberg, J.

    2004-12-01

    The Garner Valley Digital Array (GVDA) site is a NEES-sponsored facility in a small, sediment-filled, intermountain valley in Southern California, established for the purpose of investigating ground motion site response and soil-structure interaction, in situ. The site has been well-characterized geotechnically, and is thoroughly instrumented with both surface and downhole instrumentation of various types. Nevertheless, a borehole recently drilled into lake bed sediments and deeply weathered granitic rocks that comprise the valley fill at GVDA encountered hard, unweathered bedrock at an unexpected depth, suggesting an apparent 38 meter offset in the unweathered bedrock between two wells 40 meters apart. The apparent offset can be most easily explained either by faulting, or as a buried erosional surface. The Hot Springs fault, a strand of the San Jacinto fault zone, runs through Garner Valley, although its inferred location is several hundred meters east of GVDA. To better characterize the subsurface strata, particularly the existence and configuration of faulting that may disturb them; we conducted a 120-meter long, 12-fold shallow seismic reflection common midpoint (CMP) survey at GVDA using a 24-channel seismograph, vertical 4.5 Hz geophones at 2-meter intervals and a sledgehammer seismic source. Preliminary processing reveals strong refractors and surface waves that may mask reflections, although reflections are visible in some raw shot records. Semi-continuous reflections seen in the CMP section from a shallow reflector may coincide with the water table. There are also deeper, discontinuous reflectors obscured by bands of coherent noise. We plan to present a fully migrated and interpreted CMP record section.

  8. Preliminary evaluation of the hydrogeologic system in Owens Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danskin, W.R.

    1988-01-01

    A preliminary, two-layer, steady-state, groundwater flow model was used to evaluate present data and hydrologic concepts of Owens Valley, California. Simulations of the groundwater system indicate that areas where water levels are most affected by changes in recharge and discharge are near toes of alluvial fans and along the edge of permeable volcanic deposits. Sensitivity analysis for each model parameter shows that steady state simulations are most sensitive to uncertainties in evapotranspiration rates. Tungsten Hills, Poverty Hills, and Alabama Hills were found to act as virtually impermeable barriers to groundwater flow. Accurate simulation of the groundwater system between Bishop and Lone Pine appears to be possible without simulating the groundwater system in Round Valley, near Owens Lake, or in aquifer materials more than 1,000 ft below land surface. Although vast amounts of geologic and hydrologic data have been collected for Owens Valley, many parts of the hydrogeologic system have not been defined with sufficient detail to answer present water management questions. Location and extent of geologic materials that impede the vertical movement of water are poorly documented. The likely range of aquifer characteristics, except vertical hydraulic conductivity, is well known, but spatial distribution of these characteristics is not well documented. A set of consistent water budgets is needed, including one for surface water, groundwater, and the entire valley. The largest component of previous water budgets (evapotranspiration) is largely unverified. More definitive estimates of local gains and losses for Owens River are needed. Although groundwater pumpage from each well is measured, the quantity of withdrawal from different zones of permeable material has not been defined. (USGS)

  9. Climate change and agricultural transformation in the Oaxaca Valley, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilley, F.B.

    1993-01-01

    The Valley of Oaxaca, a semi-arid region in the central highlands of southern Mexico, provides a case study through which to develop a methodology for climate change impact assessment. The causes and impacts of climate change originate in dialectic processes within a nexus of inter-dependent social, technical, environmental, cultural and academic production relations. Agriculture is the most important economic activity in the Valley, and rain-fed maize the most important crop. Harvest failures from droughts occur one year in four. Annual rainfall varies with large-scale convection of water vapor transported from the Pacific and Gulf of Mexico during summer, upper-air disturbances caused by hurricanes and El Ninos. Variations in maize yields and losses have roughly moisture availability during August. Yields and losses can be predicted using precipitation during this time, or directly from atmospheric circulation. Contemporary agriculture in the Valley of Oaxaca has both traditional and modern sectors, of which both may appear within individual communities and households. The traditional sector consists of semi-autonomous rural communities using traditional technology for subsistence farming. The modern sector uses tractors, irrigation pumps, agricultural chemicals and hybrid seeds to produce cash crops and dairy products. The evidence for climate change in the Valley is ambiguous and contradictory. Under wet or dry scenarios, climate change affects the rate and pathway of the absorption of Oaxaca's traditional rural communities into the wage labor market of the larger capitalist system. Increased moisture availability would raise land productivity, promoting cash cropping and development of the modern market-oriented agricultural sector and leading to land consolidation and rural-to-urban migration. Decreased moisture availability would inhibit cash-cropping but also lead to rural-to-urban migration due to decreased land productivity.

  10. Land use and water use in the Antelope Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templin, W.E.; Phillips, S.P.; Cherry, D.E.; DeBortoli, M.L.; Haltom, T.C.; McPherson, K.R.; Mrozek, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Urban land use and water use in the Antelope Valley, California, have increased greatly since the devel- opment of the valley began in the late 1800's. Ground water always has been a major source of supply in this area because of limited local surface-water resources. Ground-water pumpage reportedly increased from about 29,000 acre-feet in 1919 to about 400,000 acre-feet in the 1950's. Declines in ground-water levels and increased costs of electrical power in the 1970's resulted in a reduction in the quantity of ground-water pumped annually for irrigation uses. Ground-water pumpage was further reduced in the 1970's following the completion of the California Aqueduct, which conveys water from northern California. Total annual reported ground-water pumpage decreased to a low of about 53,200 acre-feet in 1983 and increased again to about 91,700 acre-feet in 1991. Rapid urban development and the 1987-92 drought renewed concern about a possible return to extensive ground-water- storage depletion and increased land subsidence. Water-demand forecasts in 1980 for the Antelope Valley indicated that total annual demand by the year 2020 was expected to be about 250,000 acre- feet per year, with agricultural uses to be about 65 percent of this total demand. In 1990, total demand. In 1993, preliminary forecasts for total demand for 2010 ranged from about 127,000 to 329,000 acre-feet with urban water uses accounting for all but a few percent of the total anticipated demand. This history of forecasts indicates that expectations change with time. Factors that affect water demand change and different forecasting methods are used. Water-conservation options may be adopted to employ best-management practices that would further influence future water demands in the Antelope Valley.

  11. Mapping Ecosystem Services in the Jordan Valley, Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Ana; Marques, Ana; Ribeiro, Inês; Alho, Maria; Catarina Afonso, Ana; Almeida, Erika; Branquinho, Cristina; Talozi, Samer; Pinho, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    In the last decade researchers started using ecosystem services as a new framework to understand the relationships between environment and society. Habitat quality and water quality are related with ecosystem services regulation and maintenance, or even provision. According to the Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES) both habitat quality and water quality are associated with lifecycle maintenance, habitat and gene pool protection, and water conditions, among others. As there is increased pressure on habitats and rivers especially for agricultural development, mapping and evaluating habitat and water quality has important implications for resource management and conservation, as well as for rural development. Here, we model and map habitat and water quality in the Jordan Valley, Jordan. In this study, we aim to identify and analyse ecosystem services both through 1) habitat quality and 2) water quality modelling using InVest, an integrated valuation of ecosystem services and tradeoffs. The data used in this study mainly includes the LULC, Jordan River watershed and main threats and pollutants in the study area, such as agriculture, industry, fish farms and urbanization. Results suggest a higher pressure on natural habitats in the Northern region of the Jordan Valley, where industry is dominant. Agriculture is present along the Jordan Valley and limits the few natural forested areas. Further, water pollution is mainly concentrated in disposal sites due to the low flow of the Jordan River. Our results can help to identify areas where natural resources and water resource management is most needed in the Jordan Valley. Acknowledgements: Transbasin FP7 project

  12. Quaternary fossil fauna from the Luangwa Valley, Zambia.

    OpenAIRE

    Bishop, LC; Barham, LS; Ditchfield, P.; Elton, S; Harcourt-Smith, WH; Dawkins, P

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a large collection of Quaternary fossil fauna from the Luangwa rift valley, Zambia. Stone Age artefacts have been recovered from stratified fluvial contexts, but no in situ fossil fauna have yet been recovered. We report on 500 fossil specimens collected from the surface of point bars exposed seasonally along the banks of the main Luangwa river channel. We used non-destructive x-ray fluorescence analysis of the fossils' chemical signatures to determine whether they derive...

  13. Controls on Valley Width in Mountainous Landscapes: The Role of Landsliding and Implications for Salmonid Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, C. L.; Roering, J. J.; Eaton, L. S.; Burnett, K.

    2012-12-01

    A fundamental yet unresolved question in fluvial geomorphology is what controls the width of valleys in mountainous terrain. Establishing a predictive relation for valley width is critical for realizing linkages between aquatic ecology and geomorphology because the most productive riverine habitats often occur in low gradient streams with broad floodplains. Working in the Oregon Coast Range, we used 1m resolution airborne lidar to explore controls on valley width and couple these findings with previously published models of salmon habitat potential. We defined how valley floor width varies with drainage area in a catchment that exhibits relatively uniform ridge-and-valley topography sculpted primarily by shallow landslides and debris flows. Above drainage areas of 0.1 km2, valley width increases as a power-law function of drainage area with an exponent of ~0.6. As a result, valley width increases more rapidly downstream than channel width (exponent ~0.4), as defined by local hydraulic geometry. At low drainage areas, valley width is relatively constant, reflecting the signature of debris flows. We used this 'baseline' valley width-drainage area function to determine how ancient deep-seated landslides in a nearby catchment influence valley width. Anomalously wide valleys tend to occur upstream of and adjacent to large landslides while downstream valley segments are narrower than predicted from our baseline relation. According to coho salmon habitat potential models, broad valley segments associated with deep-seated landsliding resulted in a greater proportion of the channel network hosting productive habitat. Because large landslides in this area are structurally controlled, our findings suggest a strong link between geologic properties and aquatic habitat realized by geomorphic processes.

  14. NNSS Soils Monitoring: Plutonium Valley (CAU 366) FY2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolich, George [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Mizell, Steve [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); McCurdy, Greg [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Campbell, Scott [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Miller, Julianne J. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Desert Research Institute (DRI) is conducting a field assessment of the potential for contaminated soil transport from the Plutonium Valley Contamination Area (CA) as a result of wind transport and storm runoff in support of National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) efforts to complete regulatory closure of the contamination areas. The DRI work is intended to confirm the likely mechanism(s) of transport and determine the meteorological conditions that might cause movement of contaminated soils. The emphasis of the work is on collecting sediment transported by channelized storm runoff at the Plutonium Valley investigation sites. These data will inform closure plans that are being developed, which will facilitate the appropriate closure design and post-closure monitoring. In 2011, DRI installed two meteorological monitoring stations south (station #1) and north (station #2) of the Plutonium Valley CA and a runoff sediment sampling station within the CA. Temperature, wind speed, wind direction, relative humidity, precipitation, solar radiation, barometric pressure, soil temperature, and airborne particulate concentration are collected at both meteorological stations. The maximum, minimum, and average or total (as appropriate) for each of these parameters are recorded for each 10-minute interval. The sediment sampling station includes an automatically activated ISCO sampling pump with collection bottles for suspended sediment, which is activated when sufficient flow is present in the channel, and passive traps for bedload material that is transported down the channel during runoff events. This report presents data collected from these stations during fiscal year (FY) 2015.

  15. Geologic evaluation of the Oasis Valley basin, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridrich, C.J.; Minor, S.A.; and Mankinen, E.A.

    2000-01-13

    This report documents the results of a geologic study of the area between the underground-nuclear-explosion testing areas on Pahute Mesa, in the northwesternmost part of the Nevada Test Site, and the springs in Oasis Valley, to the west of the Test Site. The new field data described in this report are also presented in a geologic map that is a companion product(Fridrich and others, 1999) and that covers nine 7.5-minute quadrangles centered on Thirsty Canyon SW, the quadrangle in which most of the Oasis Valley springs are located. At the beginning of this study, published detailed maps were available for 3 of the 9 quadrangles of the study area: namely Thirsty Canyon (O'Connor and others, 1966); Beatty (Maldonado and Hausback, 1990); and Thirsty Canyon SE (Lipman and others, 1966). Maps of the last two of these quadrangles, however, required extensive updating owing to recent advances in understanding of the regional structure and stratigraphy. The new map data are integrated in this re port with new geophysical data for the Oasis Valley area, include gravity, aeromagnetic, and paleomagnetic data (Grauch and others, 1997; written comm., 1999; Mankinen and others, 1999; Hildenbrand and others, 1999; Hudson and others, 1994; Hudson, unpub. data).

  16. Landscape pattern change in the upper valley of Min River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yong-hua; HE Xing-yuan; HU Yuan-man; CHANG Yu

    2005-01-01

    The upper valley of Min River (102° 59′ -104° 14′ E, 31° 26′ - 33° 16′ N), which is consisted of the counties Wenchuan, Maoxian, Lixian, Heishui, and Songpan, refers to the part up to Dujiangyan City, and locates on the transition zone from the Tibetan Plateau to the Sichuan Basin. It is one of the most important forest areas in China, especially in Sichuan Province. Over past two decades, the landscape changed remarkably in the region. The 3S techniques (Remote Sensing (RS), Geographic Information System (GIS) and Global Position System (GPS)) were used to classify the images and analyze the landscape change. The remotely sensed data of Landsat TM 1986 and Landsat ETM+ 2000 were used to analyze the landscape change of the region. The landscape were classified into 10 types of cropland, forest, shrub land, economic forest, grassland, build up land, river, lake, swamp, and unused land. The results showed that: 1) the woodland and grassland were dominating landscape types in the upper valley of Min River, which is more than 91% of the study area; 2) the alteration of the landscape was mainly happened among forest, shrub land, grassland, economic forest, cropland, and build up land, where forest decreased from 51.17% to 47.56%; 3) the landscape fragmentation in the upper valley of Min River was aggravated from 1986 to 2000.

  17. Conference report: 2nd Medicon Valley Inhalation Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastow, Orest

    2014-02-01

    2nd Medicon Valley Inhalation Symposium 16 October 2013, Lund, Sweden The 2nd Medicon Valley Inhalation Symposium was arranged by the Medicon Valley Inhalation Consortium. It was held at the Medicon Village, which is the former AstraZeneca site in Lund, Sweden. It was a 1 day symposium focused on inhaled drug delivery and inhalation product development. 120 delegates listened to 11 speakers. The program was organized to follow the value chain of an inhalation product development. This year there was a focus on inhaled biomolecules. The inhaled delivery of insulin was covered by two presentations and a panel discussion. The future of inhaled drug delivery was discussed together with an overview of the current market situation. Two of the inhalation platforms, capsule inhalers and metered-dose inhalers, were discussed in terms of the present situation and the future opportunities. Much focus was on the regulatory and intellectual aspects of developing inhalation products. The manufacturing of a dry powder inhaler requires precision filling of powder, and the various techniques were presented. The benefits of nebulization and nasal delivery were illustrated with some case studies and examples. The eternal challenge of poor compliance was addressed from an industrial design perspective and some new approaches were introduced.

  18. Winter habitat associations of diurnal raptors in Californias Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolrno, E.R.; Herzog, M.P.; Hooper, S.L.; Smith, Z.

    2011-01-01

    The wintering raptors of California's Central Valley are abundant and diverse. Despite this, little information exists on the habitats used by these birds in winter. We recorded diurnal raptors along 19 roadside survey routes throughout the Central Valley for three consecutive winters between 2007 and 2010. We obtained data sufficient to determine significant positive and negative habitat associations for the White-tailed Kite (Elanus leucurus), Bald Eagle {Haliaeetus leucocephalus), Northern Harrier (Circus cyaneus), Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis), Rough-legged Hawk (Buteo lagopus), American Kestrel (Falco sparverius), and Prairie Falcon (Falco mexicanus). The Prairie Falcon and Ferruginous and Rough-legged hawks showed expected strong positive associations with grasslands. The Bald Eagle and Northern Harrier were positively associated not only with wetlands but also with rice. The strongest positive association for the White-tailed Kite was with wetlands. The Red-tailed Hawk was positively associated with a variety of habitat types but most strongly with wetlands and rice. The American Kestrel, Northern Harrier, and White-tailed Kite were positively associated with alfalfa. Nearly all species were negatively associated with urbanized landscapes, orchards, and other intensive forms of agriculture. The White-tailed Kite, Northern Harrier, Redtailed Hawk, Ferruginous Hawk, and American Kestrel showed significant negative associations with oak savanna. Given the rapid conversion of the Central Valley to urban and intensive agricultural uses over the past few decades, these results have important implications for conservation of these wintering raptors in this region.

  19. Ground water quality in the Kathmandu valley of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Bhoj Raj

    2011-07-01

    A study was undertaken to assess the quality of groundwaters in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. The groundwater samples were randomly collected from shallow well, tube well, and deep-tube wells located at different places of Kathmandu, Lalitpur, and Bhaktapur districts in the Kathmandu valley. Physical, chemical, and microbiological parameters of the samples were evaluated to estimate the groundwater quality for drinking water. It was found that the groundwater in the valley is vulnerable to drink due to presence of iron and coliform bacteria. Iron was estimated to be much higher then the acceptable limit of World Health Organization (WHO) drinking-water quality guidelines (1.9 mg/L). Total coliform bacteria enumerated in groundwaters significantly exceeded the drinking-water quality standard and observed maximum coliform (267 CFU/100 mL) in shallow wells. The electrical conductivity and turbidity were found to be 875 μS/cm and 55 NTU, respectively, which are above the WHO recommendations for drinking water guidelines. However, pH value was measured within the acceptable limit. Arsenic, chloride, fluoride, and hardness concentrations were found to be in agreement with the recommendations of WHO drinking-water quality guidelines.

  20. Mapping Evapotranspiration over Agricultural Land in the California Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, F. S.; Huntington, J. L.; Guzman, A.; Johnson, L.; Morton, C.; Nemani, R. R.; Post, K. M.; Rosevelt, C.; Shupe, J. W.; Spellenberg, R.; Vitale, A.

    2015-12-01

    Recent advances in satellite mapping of evapotranspiration (ET) have made it possible to largely automate the process of mapping ET over large areas at the field-scale. This development coincides with recent drought events across the western U.S. which have intensified interest in mapping of ET and consumptive use to address a range of water management challenges, including resolving disputes over water rights, improving irrigation management, and developing sustainable management plans for groundwater resources. We present a case study for California that leverages two automated ET mapping capabilities to estimate ET at the field scale over agricultural areas in the California Central Valley. We utilized the NASA Earth Exchange and applied a python-based implementation of the METRIC surface energy balance model and the Satellite Irrigation Management Support (SIMS) system, which uses a surface reflectance-based approach, to map ET over agricultural areas in the Central Valley. We present estimates from 2014 from both approaches and results from a comparison of the estimates. Though theoretically and computationally quite different from each other, initial results from both approaches show good agreement overall on seasonal ET totals for 2014. We also present results from comparisons against ET measurements collected on commercial farms in the Central Valley and discuss implications for accuracy of the two different approaches. The objective of this analysis is to provide data that can inform planning for the development of sustainable groundwater management plans, and assist water managers and growers in evaluating irrigation demand during drought events.

  1. Quaternary Glaciations in the Rio Mendoza Valley, Argentine Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espizua, Lydia E.

    1993-09-01

    In the Rio Mendoza valley, five Pleistocene drifts and one Holocene drift are distinguished by multiple relative-age criteria, including surface-rock weathering, development of rock varnish, moraine morphology, soil-profile development, and stratigraphic relationships. Several absolute ages suggest a preliminary chronology. During the oldest (Uspallata) glaciation, a system of valley glaciers flowed 110 km from the Andean drainage divide and 80 km from Cerro Aconcagua to terminate at 1850 m. Drift of this ice advance is older than a widespread tephra dated by fission-track at 360,000 ± 36,000 yr. During the Punta de Vacas advance, ice terminated at 2350 m, while during the subsequent Penitentes advance, the glacier system ended at 2500 m. A travertine layer overlying Penitentes Drift has U-series age of 24,200 ± 2000 yr B.P. The distribution of Horcones Drift, which is inferred to represent the last glacial maximum, delimits an independent ice stream that flowed 22 km down Horcones valley to 2750 m. A later readvance (Almacenes) reached 3250 m. Confluencia Drift is considered to be Neoglacial in age and extends downvalley to 3300 m. The moraine sequence is compared with those studied by Caviedes (1972) along Rio Aconcagua on the Chilean flank of the Andes.

  2. Valley splitting in a silicon quantum device platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Jill A; Warschkow, Oliver; Carter, Damien J; Marks, Nigel A; Mazzola, Federico; Simmons, Michelle Y; Wells, Justin W

    2014-03-12

    By suppressing an undesirable surface Umklapp process, it is possible to resolve the two most occupied states (1Γ and 2Γ) in a buried two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in silicon. The 2DEG exists because of an atomically sharp profile of phosphorus dopants which have been formed beneath the Si(001) surface (a δ-layer). The energy separation, or valley splitting, of the two most occupied bands has critical implications for the properties of δ-layer derived devices, yet until now, has not been directly measurable. Density functional theory (DFT) allows the 2DEG band structure to be calculated, but without experimental verification the size of the valley splitting has been unclear. Using a combination of direct spectroscopic measurements and DFT we show that the measured band structure is in good qualitative agreement with calculations and reveal a valley splitting of 132 ± 5 meV. We also report the effective mass and occupation of the 2DEG states and compare the dispersions and Fermi surface with DFT.

  3. Valley dependent g-factor anisotropy in Silicon quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdous, Rifat; Kawakami, Erika; Scarlino, Pasquale; Nowak, Michal; Klimeck, Gerhard; Friesen, Mark; Coppersmith, Susan N.; Eriksson, Mark A.; Vandersypen, Lieven M. K.; Rahman, Rajib

    Silicon (Si) quantum dots (QD) provide a promising platform for a spin based quantum computer, because of the exceptionally long spin coherence times in Si and the existing industrial infrastructure. Due to the presence of an interface and a vertical electric field, the two lowest energy states of a Si QD are primarily composed of two conduction band valleys. Confinement by the interface and the E-field not only affect the charge properties of these states, but also their spin properties through the spin-orbit interaction (SO), which differs significantly from the SO in bulk Si. Recent experiments have found that the g-factors of these states are different and dependent on the direction of the B-field. Using an atomistic tight-binding model, we investigate the electric and magnetic field dependence of the electron g-factor of the valley states in a Si QD. We find that the g-factors are valley dependent and show 180-degree periodicity as a function of an in-plane magnetic field orientation. However, atomic scale roughness can strongly affect the anisotropic g-factors. Our study helps to reconcile disparate experimental observations and to achieve better external control over electron spins in Si QD, by electric and magnetic fields.

  4. Geology of the Greenwater Range, and the dawn of Death Valley, California—Field guide for the Death Valley Natural History Conference, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzia, J.P.; Rämö, O.T.; Jachens, Robert; Smith, Eugene; Knott, Jeffrey

    2016-05-02

    Much has been written about the age and formation of Death Valley, but that is one—if not the last—chapter in the fascinating geologic history of this area. Igneous and sedimentary rocks in the Greenwater Range, one mountain range east of Death Valley, tell an earlier story that overlaps with the formation of Death Valley proper. This early story has been told by scientists who have studied these rocks for many years and continue to do so. This field guide was prepared for the first Death Valley Natural History Conference and provides an overview of the geology of the Greenwater Range and the early history (10–0 Ma) of Death Valley.

  5. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Monument Valley Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Cane Valley, Arizona. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site in Cane Valley near Monument Valley, Arizona. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has relocated and stabilized this site`s tailings and other contaminated material in a disposal cell at Mexican Hat, Utah. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Ground Water Project that evaluates potential health and environmental risks. It will help determine the approach required to address contaminated ground water at the site.

  6. The Silicon Valley Eco System. High-energetic in many ways; Het Silicon Valley Eco Systeem: hoogenergetisch in vele opzichten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Heuvel, J.

    2012-04-15

    The highly commended Silicon Valley Eco System is bubbling with energy with regard to the subjects that are focused upon, including sustainable energy, or the widely available expertise that is needed for the developments, good ideas, capital and optimism, fed by frequent examples of extraordinarily successful companies. The sheer endlessness of network opportunities joins all these elements frequently. This article addresses several noteworthy interactions in the field of sustainable energy over the last period. [Dutch] Het veel geroemde Silicon Valley eco systeem bruist van energie in de vorm van de onderwerpen waar men zich op richt, waaronder duurzame energie, of de ruim aanwezige expertise die nodig is voor de ontwikkelingen, goede ideeen, kapitaal, en optimisme, gevoed door regelmatige voorbeelden van buitensporig succesvolle bedrijven. De schier oneindige netwerkmogelijkheden brengen al deze elementen met grote regelmaat bij elkaar. In dit artikel volgen enkele vermeldenswaardige interacties op het vlak van duurzame energie uit de afgelopen periode.

  7. Hyperfine-induced valley mixing and the spin-valley blockade in carbon-based quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palyi, Andras; Burkard, Guido [Department of Physics, University Konstanz (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Hyperfine interaction (HFI) in carbon nanotube and graphene quantum dots is due to the presence of {sup 13}C atoms. We theoretically show that in these structures the short-range nature of the HFI gives rise to a coupling between the valley degree of freedom of the electron and the nuclear spin, in addition to the usual electron spin-nuclear spin coupling. We predict that this property of the HFI affects the Pauli blockade transport in carbon-based double quantum dots. In particular, we show that transport is blocked only if both the spin and the valley degeneracies of the quantum dot levels are lifted, e.g., by an appropriately oriented magnetic field. The blockade is caused by four ''supertriplet'' states in the (1,1) charge configuration.

  8. Lateral groundwater inflows into alluvial aquifers of main alpine valleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    In alpine regions the topography is mainly characterised by deep incised valleys, mountain slopes and ridges. Usually the main valleys contain aquifers in alluvial soft rock. Lateral these aquifers are confined by mountainous hard rock slopes covered by heterogeneous sediments with different thickness. The slopes can be incised by lateral valleys. Numerical models for the main alluvial aquifers ask for lateral hydrogeological boundaries. Usually no flow boundaries or Constant head Boundaries are used, even if the lateral inflows to the main aquifers are rarely known. In this example a data set for a detailed investigated and monitored area is studied to give an answer on the location and the quantification of these lateral subsurface inflows. The study area is a typical main alpine valley with a thick alluvial aquifer (appr. 120m thick), lateral confined by granite, covered at the base of the steep slopes by quaternary sediments (Burger at al. 2012). The study consists of several steps 1.) Analytical calculation of the inflows on the base of investigated and monitored 2d profiles along fault zones (Perello et al 2013) which pinch out in the main valley 2.) Analytical models along typical W-dipping slopes with monitored slope springs 3.) Evaluating temperature and electrical conductivity profiles measured in approx. 30 groundwater wells in the alluvial aquifers and along the slopes to locate main lateral subsurface inflows 4.) Output of a regional model used for the hydrogeological back analyses of the excavation of a tunnel (Baietto et al. 2014) 5.) Output of a local numerical model calibrated with a monitoring dataset and results of a pumping test of big scale (450l/s for 10days) Results of these analyses are shown to locate and quantify the lateral groundwater inflows in the main alluvial aquifer. References Baietto A., Burger U., Perello P. (2014): Hydrogeological modelling applications in tunnel excavations: examples from tunnel excavations in granitic rocks

  9. Sediment budget in a Himalayan Valley (Middle Kali Gandaki, Nepal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, M.; Cossart, E.

    2012-04-01

    Active mountains supply the largest sediment fluxes experienced on earth. At mountain range scale, sediment budgets are controlled by rock uplift and climate, hence by a wide range of erosion processes (detachment, transport and deposition), all operating within drainage basin units, with time and spatial patterns that indeed are quite complex at local scale. In the Himalayas, the sediment cascade is particularly efficient, as favoured by high, glaciated peaks, together with narrow valleys and steep hillslopes, in a monsoon-contrasted, climatic context. We focus on the Kali Gandaki valley, along the gorge section across Higher Himalaya (e.g. from Jomosom down to Tatopani). Along this reach, we identify sediment sources, sediment stores and sinks, and specifically consider hillslope interactions with valley floor at short and longer time scales, and their impact on sediment budgets and fluxes. We present a detailed sediment budget, constrained by available dates and/or relative chronology. Studied sites include rock-avalanches (Jomosom, Dhumpu), Pairothapla-Talbagar and Tatopani landslides, Ghatte khola debris fan, and terraces systems preserved at confluence sites along the lower slopes of the valley. On the basis of geomorphic surveys and mapping, and thanks to DEM facilities, we estimate the volume of each sedimentary unit, including lacustrine sediments trapped upstream of landslide and/or glacial dams. Debris volume eroded and/or deposited during the last decades is also calculated. Alternation of alluviation events and incision stages are then reconstructed, and their relation with sismo-tectonic and/or climatic triggering events suggested, according to the time scale considered. From our results it appears that if large landslides contribute significantly to the denudation history of active mountain range, more frequent, medium to small scales landslides are in fact of primary concern for Himalayan population. This conclusion suggests that in this very

  10. Taxonomic and Functional Diversity of Soil and Hypolithic Microbial Communities in Miers Valley, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Sean T. S.; Lacap-Bugler, Donnabella C.; Lau, Maggie C. Y.; Caruso, Tancredi; Rao, Subramanya; de los Rios, Asunción; Archer, Stephen K.; Chiu, Jill M. Y.; Higgins, Colleen; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Zhou, Jizhong; Hopkins, David W.; Pointing, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica are an extreme polar desert. Mineral soils support subsurface microbial communities and translucent rocks support development of hypolithic communities on ventral surfaces in soil contact. Despite significant research attention, relatively little is known about taxonomic and functional diversity or their inter-relationships. Here we report a combined diversity and functional interrogation for soil and hypoliths of the Miers Valley in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica. The study employed 16S rRNA fingerprinting and high throughput sequencing combined with the GeoChip functional microarray. The soil community was revealed as a highly diverse reservoir of bacterial diversity dominated by actinobacteria. Hypolithic communities were less diverse and dominated by cyanobacteria. Major differences in putative functionality were that soil communities displayed greater diversity in stress tolerance and recalcitrant substrate utilization pathways, whilst hypolithic communities supported greater diversity of nutrient limitation adaptation pathways. A relatively high level of functional redundancy in both soil and hypoliths may indicate adaptation of these communities to fluctuating environmental conditions. PMID:27812351

  11. Taxonomic and functional diversity of soil and hypolithic microbial communities in Miers Valley, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Wei

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica are an extreme polar desert. Mineral soils support subsurface microbial communities and translucent rocks support development of hypolithic communities on ventral surfaces in soil contact. Despite significant research attention relatively little is known about taxonomic and functional diversity or their inter-relationships. Here we report a combined diversity and functional interrogation for soil and hypoliths of the Miers Valley in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica. The study employed 16S rRNA fingerprinting and high throughput sequencing combined with the GeoChip functional microarray. The soil community was revealed as a highly diverse reservoir of bacterial diversity dominated by actinobacteria. Hypolithic communities were less diverse and dominated by cyanobacteria. Major differences in putative functionality were that soil communities displayed greater diversity in stress tolerance and recalcitrant substrate utilization pathways, whilst hypolithic communities supported greater diversity of nutrient limitation adaptation pathways. A relatively high level of functional redundancy in both soil and hypoliths may indicate adaptation of these communities to fluctuating environmental conditions.

  12. Structural Evolution of the East Sierra Valley System (Owens Valley and Vicinity, California: A Geologic and Geophysical Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Blakely

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The tectonically active East Sierra Valley System (ESVS, which comprises the westernmost part of the Walker Lane-Eastern California Shear Zone, marks the boundary between the highly extended Basin and Range Province and the largely coherent Sierra Nevada-Great Valley microplate (SN-GVm, which is moving relatively NW. The recent history of the ESVS is characterized by oblique extension partitioned between NNW-striking normal and strike-slip faults oriented at an angle to the more northwesterly relative motion of the SN-GVm. Spatially variable extension and right-lateral shear have resulted in a longitudinally segmented valley system composed of diverse geomorphic and structural elements, including a discontinuous series of deep basins detected through analysis of isostatic gravity anomalies. Extension in the ESVS probably began in the middle Miocene in response to initial westward movement of the SN-GVm relative to the Colorado Plateau. At ca. 3–3.5 Ma, the SN-GVm became structurally separated from blocks directly to the east, resulting in significant basin-forming deformation in the ESVS. We propose a structural model that links high-angle normal faulting in the ESVS with coeval low-angle detachment faulting in adjacent areas to the east.

  13. Controllable spin and valley polarized current through a superlattice of normal/ferromagnetic/normal silicene junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidian, Z.; Hajati, Y.; Rezaeipour, S.; Baher, S.

    2017-02-01

    The spin and valley transports in a superlattice of normal/ferromagnetic/normal silicene junction are studied theoretically. Transport properties in particular valley-resolved conductance, spin and valley polarization have been computed by the Landauer Buttiker formula. We achieve fully valley and spin polarized current in the superlattice N/F/N structure. Our findings also imply that by increasing the number of ferromagnetic barriers, the onset of fully spin and valley polarized current always occur for lower values of staggered potential(Δz/E) and length of the ferromagnetic region (Kf L) in the silicene supelattice structure as compared with N/F/N silicene junction. Fully spin and valley polarizations make silicene superlattice a suitable candidate for spin-valleytronics applications.

  14. Electrically controllable sudden reversals in spin and valley polarization in silicene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingtian; Chan, K. S.; Li, Jingbo

    2016-09-01

    We study the spin and valley dependent transport in a silicene superlattice under the influence of a magnetic exchange field, a perpendicular electric field and a voltage potential. It is found that a gate-voltage-controllable fully spin and valley polarized current can be obtained in the proposed device, and the spin and valley polarizations are sensitive oscillatory functions of the voltage potential. In properly designed superlattice structure, the spin and valley polarizations can be reversed from ‑100% to 100% by a slight change in the external voltage potential. The energy dispersion relations of the superlattice structure are also investigated, which helps us to understand the effects of the superlattice structure. The switching of the spin direction and the valley of the tunneling electrons by a gate voltage enables new possibilities for spin or valley control in silicene-based spintronics and valleytronics.

  15. Ancient buried valleys in the city of Tallinn and adjacent area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaher, Rein

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The distribution, morphology, fillings, and origin of buried valleys are discussed. The direction of the valleys varies from NW to NE. Within the Viru-Harju Plateau the valleys have a more or less symmetric profile, but asymmetric profiles are dominating in the pre-klint area. They are mainly filled with glacial (till, glaciofluvial (sand, gravel, and pebbles, glacio­lacustrine (varved clay, and marine (fine-grained sand deposits. The Tallinn valley with its tributary valleys (Saku and Sausti and fore-klint branches (Harku, Lilleküla, and Kadriorg looks like a river system. The fore-klint branches extend over 20 km in the Gulf of Finland. They are probably tributaries of the ancient river Pra-Neva. Most likely, the formation of valleys was continuous, starting from pre-Quaternary river erosion, and was sculptured by variable processes during the ice ages and influenced by flowing water during the interglacial periods.

  16. Ultrafast generation of pseudo-magnetic field for valley excitons in WSe2 monolayers

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, J.

    2014-12-04

    The valley pseudospin is a degree of freedom that emerges in atomically thin two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (MX2). The capability to manipulate it, in analogy to the control of spin in spintronics, can open up exciting opportunities. Here, we demonstrate that an ultrafast and ultrahigh valley pseudo-magnetic field can be generated by using circularly polarized femtosecond pulses to selectively control the valley degree of freedom in monolayer MX2. Using ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy, we observed a pure and valley-selective optical Stark effect in WSe2 monolayers from the nonresonant pump, resulting in an energy splitting of more than 10 milli-electron volts between the K and K′ valley exciton transitions. Our study opens up the possibility to coherently manipulate the valley polarization for quantum information applications.

  17. Groundwater-flow and land-subsidence model of Antelope Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siade, Adam J.; Nishikawa, Tracy; Rewis, Diane L.; Martin, Peter; Phillips, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    Antelope Valley, California, is a topographically closed basin in the western part of the Mojave Desert, about 50 miles northeast of Los Angeles. The Antelope Valley groundwater basin is about 940 square miles and is separated from the northern part of Antelope Valley by faults and low-lying hills. Prior to 1972, groundwater provided more than 90 percent of the total water supply in the valley; since 1972, it has provided between 50 and 90 percent. Most groundwater pumping in the valley occurs in the Antelope Valley groundwater basin, which includes the rapidly growing cities of Lancaster and Palmdale. Groundwater-level declines of more than 270 feet in some parts of the groundwater basin have resulted in an increase in pumping lifts, reduced well efficiency, and land subsidence of more than 6 feet in some areas. Future urban growth and limits on the supply of imported water may increase reliance on groundwater.

  18. Dispersive readout of valley splittings in cavity-coupled silicon quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkard, Guido; Petta, J. R.

    2016-11-01

    The band structure of bulk silicon has a sixfold valley degeneracy. Strain in the Si/SiGe quantum well system partially lifts the valley degeneracy, but the materials factors that set the splitting of the two lowest lying valleys are still under intense investigation. Using cavity input-output theory, we propose a method for accurately determining the valley splitting in Si/SiGe double quantum dots embedded in a superconducting microwave resonator. We show that low lying valley states in the double quantum dot energy level spectrum lead to readily observable features in the cavity transmission. These features generate a "fingerprint" of the microscopic energy level structure of a semiconductor double quantum dot, providing useful information on valley splittings and intervalley coupling rates.

  19. Analysis of measurements of the Bora wind in Vipava valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mole, Maruška; Bergant, Klemen; Honzak, Luka; Rakovec, Jože; Skok, Gregor; Stanič, Samo; Žabkar, Rahela; Škraba, Primož

    2014-05-01

    Bora wind is a phenomenon observed on the lee side of mountain chains, where the cold air-masses flowing over the barrier cause strong downslope winds. The relief profile of the SW Slovenia, which within 30 km of the coastal line first rises to a Karst plateau (300 m above sea level), then falls into the Vipava valley (100 m a.s.l.) and rises again to a mountainous barrier with maximum altitudes of about 1500 m a.s.l., creates an ideal setting for the occurrence of downslope winds in the Vipava valley. The occurrence of strong winds is correlated to the presence of cold NE air-flows in the higher, stably stratified layer, flowing over the SW-oriented orographic barrier, and warmer air on the lee side of the mountain range. These conditions lead to the flow of cold air from behind the barrier sinking into the valley bellow, generating very gusty and strong winds. Our data sample includes wind and gust speed measurements in the period from 27 January to 24 April 2012, which was selected due to strong Bora wind outbursts at that time. Wind speeds were measured using 15 wind sensors, out of which 5 were dedicated cup anemometers, positioned 4 meters above the ground and arranged in a two lines perpendicular to the barrier, line A consisting of 3 and line B of 2 instruments. The remaining wind sensors were ultrasonic, positioned at various heights above the ground at 10 different locations along the Vipava valley. The obtained gust speed measurements were analyzed in order to evaluate the frequency distribution of the wind gusts. In order to eliminate longer time intervals with light- or no wind, which can not be characterized as Bora and do not add any information to the gust frequency analysis, Fourier transform of the data was made for short time periods, taking into account single Bora wind outbursts only. Wind speed measurements were studied separately for each instrument line. In the line A, the first instrument was positioned in an elevated up-wind location on

  20. Soluble Salt Accumulations in Taylor Valley, Antarctica: Implications for Paleolakes and Ross Sea Ice Sheet Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toner, J. D.; Sletten, R. S.; Prentice, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    Soluble salt accumulations in Taylor Valley, Antarctica, provide a history of paleolakes and the advance of the Ross Sea Ice Sheet (RSIS). We measured soluble salts in 89 soils throughout Taylor Valley in soil-water extractions. In western Taylor Valley, soluble salt accumulations are relatively high and are comprised primarily of Na, Ca, Cl, and SO4. In eastern Taylor Valley, soluble salt accumulations are much lower and are comprised primarily of Na and HCO3. Salt compositions measured in soil-water extractions are highly influenced by the dissolution of sparingly soluble salts (e.g. calcite and gypsum) and cation exchange reactions. Furthermore, during soil-water extractions, Ca from calcite or gypsum dissolution exchanges with exchangeable Na, K, and Mg. These processes can strongly influence both the total salt content measured in soils and ionic ratios. Thus, it is important to consider the effects of these reactions when interpreting soluble salt accumulations measured in soil-water extractions. Calcite dissolution and cation exchange reactions also appear to have a widespread natural occurrence, resulting in the Na-HCO3 compositions of soils, streams, and lakes in eastern Taylor Valley. The soluble salt data supports the hypotheses that a lobe of the RSIS expanded into eastern Taylor Valley and dammed proglacial paleolakes. However, in contrast to previous studies, our findings indicate that the RSIS advanced deeper into Taylor Valley and that paleolakes were less extensive. By comparing soluble salt distributions across Taylor Valley, we conclude that a lobe of the RSIS filled all of eastern Taylor Valley and dammed paleolakes in western Taylor Valley up to 300 m elevation. Following ice retreat, smaller paleolakes formed in both western and eastern Taylor Valley up to about 120 m, with a prominent still stands at 80 m that was controlled by the elevation of a major valley threshold.

  1. DIVERSITY OF PTERIDOPHYTES IN THE PROTECTED AREA OF VÂLSAN VALLEY

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Cristina Soare; Codruţa-Mihaela Dobrescu; Monica Neblea

    2012-01-01

    In the Vâlsan Valley there are two categories of regions that have been declared protected areas: The Natural Reserve Vâlsan Valley, code 2125 and The protected natural area of community interest Vâlsan Valley, code ROSCI0268. The aim of the research was to identify the species of pteridophytes in the protected areas, a necessary step for the conservation of their diversity. Within the area researched 26 species of pteridophytes were determined. Specific diversity across the genera identified...

  2. The vertical structure of the circulation and dynamics in Hudson Shelf Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, Steven J.; Butman, Bradford; Harris, Courtney K.

    2014-01-01

    Hudson Shelf Valley is a 20–30 m deep, 5–10 km wide v-shaped submarine valley that extends across the Middle Atlantic Bight continental shelf. The valley provides a conduit for cross-shelf exchange via along-valley currents of 0.5 m s−1 or more. Current profile, pressure, and density observations collected during the winter of 1999–2000 are used to examine the vertical structure and dynamics of the flow. Near-bottom along-valley currents having times scales of a few days are driven by cross-shelf pressure gradients setup by wind stresses, with eastward (westward) winds driving onshore (offshore) flow within the valley. The along-valley momentum balance in the bottom boundary layer is predominantly between the pressure gradient and bottom stress because the valley bathymetry limits current veering. Above the bottom boundary layer, the flow veers toward an along-shelf (cross-valley) orientation and a geostrophic balance with some contribution from the wind stress (surface Ekman layer). The vertical structure and strength of the along-valley current depends on the magnitude and direction of the wind stress. During offshore flows driven by westward winds, the near-bottom stratification within the valley increases resulting in a thinner bottom boundary layer and weaker offshore currents. Conversely, during onshore flows driven by eastward winds the near-bottom stratification decreases resulting in a thicker bottom boundary layer and stronger onshore currents. Consequently, for wind stress magnitudes exceeding 0.1 N m−2, onshore along-valley transport associated with eastward wind stress exceeds the offshore transport associated with westward wind stress of the same magnitude.

  3. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, RALEIGH COUNTY, WV, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  4. Argus Energy WV, LLC wins 2007 Wetlands West Virginia Award

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-15

    Argus Energy's Kiah Creek Operation has received the 2007 Wetlands West Virginia Award presented by the West Virginian Coal Association. The operation was originally a 1267 acre underground mine in the Coalburg seam. Underground mining commenced in 2000 until the end of 2003 with more than two million tons of coal being produced. The creation of the wetlands was achieved during the operations. 8 photos.

  5. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, RANDOLPH COUNTY, WV, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  6. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, MINERAL COUNTY, WV, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  7. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, LINCOLN COUNTY, WV, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  8. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, Upshur County, WV, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  9. Bipolar spin-valley diode effect in a silicene magnetic junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Xuechao; Zhang, Sihao; Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Yang, Zhihong

    2016-09-01

    Silicene has attracted much attention recently due to the electrons' multiple degrees of freedom, specifically for spin and valley. We here demonstrate that a bipolar spin-valley diode effect can be driven and controlled by applying longitudinal biases through a silicene ferromagnetic-field/interlayer-electric-field junction. This effect indicates that only one-spin (the other spin) electrons from one valley (the other valley) contribute to the conductance under positive (negative) biases, originating from the specific band-matching tunneling mechanism. All the forbidden channels are induced by either spin-mismatch or spin-valley dependent bandgaps. It is also found that, by reversing the direction of interlayer electric field, the conductive valley can be switched to the other while the spin orientation is reserved. Furthermore, all the possible spin-valley configurations of conductance, contributed by single spin and single valley, can be completely turned "on" or "off" only by tuning the bias and the electric field. These results suggest that silicene can be a good candidate for future quantum information processing in spin-valley logic circuits.

  10. Engineering single-valley forward transport in strained graphene by magnetic-electric modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu

    2013-08-01

    Based on the distinct response of valley transport in graphene under the uniform strain, magnetic barrier, and electrostatic barrier manipulation, completely single-valley forward transport has been theoretically demonstrated by aligning deliberately the field profile of magnetic barrier and strain field. Further imposing electrostatic engineering, the receiving single-valley transport can be flexibly tuned to adapt much realistic field modulation, improve its ability to resist the temperature-induced thermal smooth, and even turn on or off this single-valley transport mode, displaying the appealing features for valleytronic device application.

  11. Hybrid spin and valley quantum computing with singlet-triplet qubits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohling, Niklas; Russ, Maximilian; Burkard, Guido

    2014-10-24

    The valley degree of freedom in the electronic band structure of silicon, graphene, and other materials is often considered to be an obstacle for quantum computing (QC) based on electron spins in quantum dots. Here we show that control over the valley state opens new possibilities for quantum information processing. Combining qubits encoded in the singlet-triplet subspace of spin and valley states allows for universal QC using a universal two-qubit gate directly provided by the exchange interaction. We show how spin and valley qubits can be separated in order to allow for single-qubit rotations.

  12. Gate-tunable valley-spin filtering in silicene with magnetic barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, X. Q., E-mail: xianqiangzhe@126.com [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Meng, H. [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, Shanxi University of Technology, Hanzhong 723001 (China)

    2015-05-28

    We theoretically study the valley- and spin-resolved scattering through magnetic barrier in a one layer thick silicene, using the mode-matching method for the Dirac equation. We show that the spin-valley filtering effect can be achieved and can also be tuned completely through both a top and bottom gate. Moreover, when reversing the sign of the staggered potential, we find the direction of the valley polarization is switched while the direction of spin polarization is unchanged. These results can provide some meaningful information to design valley valve residing on silicene.

  13. All-strain based valley filter in graphene nanoribbons using snake states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, L. S.; Chaves, A.; da Costa, D. R.; Farias, G. A.; Peeters, F. M.

    2016-08-01

    A pseudomagnetic field kink can be realized along a graphene nanoribbon using strain engineering. Electron transport along this kink is governed by snake states that are characterized by a single propagation direction. Those pseudomagnetic fields point towards opposite directions in the K and K' valleys, leading to valley polarized snake states. In a graphene nanoribbon with armchair edges this effect results in a valley filter that is based only on strain engineering. We discuss how to maximize this valley filtering by adjusting the parameters that define the stress distribution along the graphene ribbon.

  14. Valley-dependent Brewster angles and Goos-Hänchen effect in strained graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhenhua; Zhai, F; Peeters, F M; Xu, H Q; Chang, Kai

    2011-04-29

    We demonstrate theoretically how local strains in graphene can be tailored to generate a valley-polarized current. By suitable engineering of local strain profiles, we find that electrons in opposite valleys (K or K') show different Brewster-like angles and Goos-Hänchen shifts, exhibiting a close analogy with light propagating behavior. In a strain-induced waveguide, electrons in K and K' valleys have different group velocities, which can be used to construct a valley filter in graphene without the need for any external fields.

  15. Electrical control of the valley Hall effect in bilayer MoS2 transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jieun; Mak, Kin Fai; Shan, Jie

    2016-05-01

    The valley degree of freedom of electrons in solids has been proposed as a new type of information carrier, beyond the electron charge and spin. The potential of two-dimensional semiconductor transition metal dichalcogenides in valley-based electronic and optoelectronic applications has recently been illustrated through experimental demonstrations of the optical orientation of the valley polarization and of the valley Hall effect in monolayer MoS2. However, the valley Hall conductivity in monolayer MoS2, a non-centrosymmetric crystal, cannot be easily tuned, which presents a challenge for the development of valley-based applications. Here, we show that the valley Hall effect in bilayer MoS2 transistors can be controlled with a gate voltage. The gate applies an electric field perpendicular to the plane of the material, breaking the inversion symmetry present in bilayer MoS2. The valley polarization induced by the longitudinal electrical current was imaged with Kerr rotation microscopy. The polarization was found to be present only near the edges of the device channel with opposite sign for the two edges, and was out-of-plane and strongly dependent on the gate voltage. Our observations are consistent with symmetry-dependent Berry curvature and valley Hall conductivity in bilayer MoS2.

  16. Electrical control of the anomalous valley Hall effect in antiferrovalley bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Wen-Yi; Duan, Chun-Gang

    2017-08-01

    In analogy to all-electric spintronics, all-electric valleytronics, i.e., valley manipulation via electric means, becomes an exciting new frontier as it may bring revolutions in the field of data storage with ultra-high speed and ultra-low power consumption. The existence of the anomalous valley Hall effect in ferrovalley materials demonstrates the possibility of electrical detection for valley polarization. However, in previously proposed valley-polarized monolayers, the anomalous valley Hall effect is controlled by external magnetic fields. Here, through elaborate structural design, we propose the antiferrovally bilayer as an ideal candidate for realizing all-electric valleytronic devices. Using the minimal k.p model, we show that the energy degeneracy between valley indexes in such system can be lifted by electric approaches. Subsequently, the anomalous valley Hall effect strongly depends on the electric field as well. Taking the bilayer VSe2 as an example, all-electric tuning and detecting of anomalous valley Hall effect is confirmed by density-functional theory calculations, indicating that the valley information in such antiferrovalley bilayer can be reversed by an electric field perpendicular to the plane of the system and easily probed through the sign of the Hall voltage.

  17. Diversity and ecological ranges of plant species from dry inter-Andean valleys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintana, Catalina

    of Ecuadorian dry inter-Andean valleys vegetation, including information related to the physical settings as well as to the vegetation and flora of the valleys. 2) This chapter unveils the influence of disturbance, water availability and low temperature in shaping species composition and occurrence. We found...... found on steep slopes and in ravines. These areas of original dry valley vegetation preserve many wild relatives of cultivated plants on the one hand and old lineages of other wild plant groups. Dry inter-Andean valleys (DIAVs) in Ecuador therefore makeup a biodiversity hot spot for both plants...

  18. On the avifauna of the upper Patía Valley, Southwestern Colombia On the avifauna of the upper Patía Valley, Southwestern Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Haffer Jürgen

    1986-01-01

    The bird fauna of the isolated arid Andean valley of the upper río Patia, southwestern Colombia, resembles that of the Cauca Valley to the north.  The most prominent faunal element are widely distributed nonforest birds of the Tropical Zone which entered the Andean valleys of Colombia from the Caribbean lowlands to the north. The relations between the upper Patía fauna and the nonforest fauna of western Ecuador to the south are very restricted (e.g. Veniliornis callonotus). Montane species of...

  19. Spermatogonial stem cells derived from infertile Wv/Wv mice self-renew in vitro and generate progeny following transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Hiroshi; Avarbock, Mary R; Schmidt, Jonathan A; Brinster, Ralph L

    2009-08-01

    Loss-of-function mutation of the Kit gene causes a severe defect in spermatogenesis that results in infertility due to the inability of its cognate ligand, KIT ligand (KITL), to stimulate spermatogonial proliferation and differentiation. Although self-renewal of mouse spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) depends on glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), there is no unequivocal evidence that SSCs with a KIT deficiency can self-renew in vivo or in vitro. In the testis of W(v)/W(v) mice, in which the KIT tyrosine kinase activity is impaired, spermatogonia with SSC phenotype were identified. When W(v)/W(v) spermatogonia were cultured in an SSC culture system supplemented with GDNF in a 10% O(2) atmosphere, they formed clumps and proliferated continuously. An atmosphere of 10% O(2) was better than 21% O(2) to support SSC self-renewal. When W(v)/W(v) clump-forming germ cells were transplanted into testes of infertile wild-type busulfan-treated mice, they colonized the seminiferous tubules but did not differentiate. However, when transplanted into the testes of infertile W/W(v) pups, they restored spermatogenesis and produced spermatozoa, and progeny were generated using microinsemination. These results clearly show that SSCs exist in W(v)/W(v) testes and that they proliferate in vitro similar to wild-type SSCs, indicating that a functional KIT protein is not required for SSC self-renewal. Furthermore, the results indicate that a defect of KIT/KITL signaling of W(v)/W(v) SSCs does not prevent spermatogonial differentiation and spermatogenesis in some recipient strains.

  20. Modelling the Crust beneath the Kashmir valley in Northwestern Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, R. R.; Parvez, I. A.; Gaur, V. K.; A.; Chandra, R.; Romshoo, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the crustal structure beneath five broadband seismic stations in the NW-SE trendingoval shaped Kashmir valley sandwiched between the Zanskar and the Pir Panjal ranges of thenorthwestern Himalaya. Three of these sites were located along the southwestern edge of the valley andthe other two adjoined the southeastern. Receiver Functions (RFs) at these sites were calculated usingthe iterative time domain deconvolution method and jointly inverted with surface wave dispersiondata to estimate the shear wave velocity structure beneath each station. To further test the results ofinversion, we applied forward modelling by dividing the crust beneath each station into 4-6homogeneous, isotropic layers. Moho depths were separately calculated at different piercing pointsfrom the inversion of only a few stacked receiver functions of high quality around each piercing point.These uncertainties were further reduced to ±2 km by trial forward modelling as Moho depths werevaried over a range of ±6 km in steps of 2 km and the synthetic receiver functions matched with theinverted ones. The final values were also found to be close to those independently estimated using theH-K stacks. The Moho depths on the eastern edge of the valley and at piercing points in itssouthwestern half are close to 55 km, but increase to about 58 km on the eastern edge, suggesting thathere, as in the central and Nepal Himalaya, the Indian plate dips northeastwards beneath the Himalaya.We also calculated the Vp/Vs ratio beneath these 5 stations which were found to lie between 1.7 and1.76, yielding a Poisson's ratio of ~0.25 which is characteristic of a felsic composition.